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1

Overexpression of sorcin in multidrug-resistant human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Sorcin is a soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein, which is expressed in normal mammalian tissues, such as the liver, lungs and heart. It has been observed to be elevated in a number of cancer types, including colorectal, gastric and breast cancer. Its upregulation is usually associated with the development of chemotherapeutic drug resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sorcin expression levels in human serum samples of breast cancer subjects at various stages, and subsequently compare the outcome of neoadjuvant chemotherapy when the sorcin levels fluctuated. In total, 50 subjects were recruited from patients who were admitted to Yantai Yuhunagding Hospital (Yantai, China) and diagnosed with breast cancer. Blood samples prior to and following chemotherapy were assessed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and western blot analysis. The 2-DE analysis of the serum samples revealed that sorcin was upregulated in six out of 29 neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC)-sensitive patients and, in those who developed multidrug resistance, sorcin was upregulated in 15 out of 21 patients (P<0.01). The differential expression levels of sorcin were confirmed by western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. In conclusion, sorcin expression in the human serum of breast cancer patients who are resistant to NAC was elevated when compared with that of NAC-sensitive patients. PMID:25364401

GONG, ZHAOHUA; SUN, PING; CHU, HONGJIN; ZHU, HUA; SUN, DENGJUN; CHEN, JIAN

2014-01-01

2

Androgen Receptor Overexpression Induces Tamoxifen Resistance in Human Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Although the androgen receptor (AR) is a known clinical target in prostate cancer, little is known about its possible role in breast cancer. We have investigated the role of AR expression in human breast cancer in response to treatment with the antiestrogen tamoxifen. Resistance to tamoxifen is a major problem in treating women with breast cancer. By gene expression profiling, we found elevated AR, and reduced estrogen receptor (ER) ? mRNA in tamoxifen-resistant tumors. Exogenous overexpression of AR rendered ER?-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells resistant to the growth-inhibitory effects of tamoxifen in anchorage-independent growth assays, and in xenograft studies in athymic nude mice. AR-overexpressing cells remained sensitive to growth stimulation with dihydrotestosterone. Treatment with the AR antagonist Casodex™ (bicalutamide) reversed this resistance, demonstrating the involvement of AR signaling in tamoxifen resistance. In AR-overexpressing cells, tamoxifen induced transcriptional activation by ER? that could be blocked by Casodex, suggesting that AR overexpression enhances tamoxifen’s agonistic properties. Our data suggest a role for AR overexpression as a novel mechanism of hormone resistance, so that AR may offer a new clinical therapeutic target in human breast cancers. PMID:19533338

De Amicis, Francesca; Thirugnansampanthan, Janagi; Cui, Yukun; Selever, Jennifer; Beyer, Amanda; Parra, Irma; Weigel, Nancy L.; Herynk, Matthew H.; Tsimelzon, Anna; Lewis, Michael T.; Chamness, Gary C.; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Ando, Sebastiano; Fuqua, Suzanne A. W.

2010-01-01

3

Androgen receptor overexpression induces tamoxifen resistance in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Although the androgen receptor (AR) is a known clinical target in prostate cancer, little is known about its possible role in breast cancer. We have investigated the role of AR expression in human breast cancer in response to treatment with the antiestrogen tamoxifen. Resistance to tamoxifen is a major problem in treating women with breast cancer. By gene expression profiling, we found elevated AR and reduced estrogen receptor (ER) alpha mRNA in tamoxifen-resistant tumors. Exogenous overexpression of AR rendered ERalpha-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells resistant to the growth-inhibitory effects of tamoxifen in anchorage-independent growth assays and in xenograft studies in athymic nude mice. AR-overexpressing cells remained sensitive to growth stimulation with dihydrotestosterone. Treatment with the AR antagonist Casodex (bicalutamide) reversed this resistance, demonstrating the involvement of AR signaling in tamoxifen resistance. In AR-overexpressing cells, tamoxifen induced transcriptional activation by ERalpha that could be blocked by Casodex, suggesting that AR overexpression enhances tamoxifen's agonistic properties. Our data suggest a role for AR overexpression as a novel mechanism of hormone resistance, so that AR may offer a new clinical therapeutic target in human breast cancers. PMID:19533338

De Amicis, Francesca; Thirugnansampanthan, Janagi; Cui, Yukun; Selever, Jennifer; Beyer, Amanda; Parra, Irma; Weigel, Nancy L; Herynk, Matthew H; Tsimelzon, Anna; Lewis, Michael T; Chamness, Gary C; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Andò, Sebastiano; Fuqua, Suzanne A W

2010-05-01

4

Antitumor efficacy of piperine in the treatment of human HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Piperine is a bioactive component of black pepper, Piper nigrum Linn, commonly used for daily consumption and in traditional medicine. Here, the molecular mechanisms by which piperine exerts antitumor effects in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells was investigated. The results showed that piperine strongly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Furthermore, piperine inhibited HER2 gene expression at the transcriptional level. Blockade of ERK1/2 signaling by piperine significantly reduced SREBP-1 and FAS expression. Piperine strongly suppressed EGF-induced MMP-9 expression through inhibition of AP-1 and NF-?B activation by interfering with ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and Akt signaling pathways resulting in a reduction in migration. Finally, piperine pretreatment enhanced sensitization to paclitaxel killing in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Our findings suggest that piperine may be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of human breast cancer with HER2 overexpression. PMID:23870999

Do, Minh Truong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Choi, Jae Ho; Khanal, Tilak; Park, Bong Hwan; Tran, Thu Phuong; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

2013-12-01

5

Cell type-dependent pathogenic functions of overexpressed human cathepsin B in murine breast cancer progression  

PubMed Central

The cysteine protease cathepsin B (CTSB) is frequently overexpressed in human breast cancer and correlated with a poor prognosis. Genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of CTSB attenuates tumor growth, invasion and metastasis in mouse models of human cancers. CTSB is expressed in both cancer cells and cells of the tumor stroma, in particular in tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). In order to evaluate the impact of tumor- or stromal cell-derived CTSB on Polyoma Middle T (PyMT)-induced breast cancer progression, we used in vivo and in vitro approaches to induce human CTSB overexpression in PyMT cancer cells or stromal cells alone or in combination. Orthotopic transplantation experiments revealed that CTSB overexpression in cancer cells rather than in the stroma affects PyMT tumor progression. In 3D cultures, primary PyMT tumor cells showed higher extracellular matrix proteolysis and enhanced collective cell invasion when CTSB was overexpressed and proteolytically active. Coculture of PyMT cells with bone marrow-derived macrophages induced a TAM-like macrophage phenotype in vitro, and the presence of such M2-polarized macrophages in 3D cultures enhanced sprouting of tumor spheroids. We employed a doxycycline (DOX)-inducible CTSB expression system to selectively overexpress human CTSB either in cancer cells or in macrophages in 3D cocultures. Tumor spheroid invasiveness was only enhanced when CTSB was overexpressed in cancer cells, whereas CTSB expression in macrophages alone did not further promote invasiveness of tumor spheroids. We conclude that CTSB overexpression in the PyMT mouse model promotes tumor progression not by a stromal effect, but by a direct, cancer cell-inherent mode of action: CTSB overexpression renders the PyMT cancers more invasive by increasing proteolytic extracellular matrix protein degradation fostering collective cell invasion into adjacent tissue. PMID:24077280

Bengsch, F; Buck, A; Gunther, SC; Seiz, JR; Tacke, M; Pfeifer, D; von Elverfeldt, D; Sevenich, L; Hillebrand, LE; Kern, U; Sameni, M; Peters, C; Sloane, BF; Reinheckel, T

2014-01-01

6

RIP3 overexpression sensitizes human breast cancer cells to parthenolide in vitro via intracellular ROS accumulation  

PubMed Central

Aim: Receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3) is involved in tumor necrosis factor receptor signaling, and results in NF-?B-mediated prosurvival signaling and programmed cell death. The aim of this study was to determine whether overexpression of the RIP3 gene could sensitize human breast cancer cells to parthenolide in vitro. Methods: The expression of RIP3 mRNA in human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435 and T47D) was detected using RT-PCR. Both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells were transfected with RIP3 expression or blank vectors via lentivirus. Cell viability was measured with MTT assay; intracellular ROS level and cell apoptosis were analyzed using flow cytometry. Results: RIP3 mRNA expression was not detected in the four human breast cancer cell lines tested. However, the transfection induced higher levels of RIP3 protein in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of RIP3 decreased the IC50 values of parthenolide from 17.6 to 12.6 ?mol/L in MCF-7 cells, and from 16.6 to 9.9 ?mol/L in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, overexpression of RIP3 significantly increased parthenolide-induced apoptosis and ROS accumulation in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-cysteine abrogated the increased sensitivity of RIP3-transfected MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells to parthenolide. Conclusion: Overexpression of RIP3 sensitizes MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to parthenolide in vitro via intracellular ROS accumulation. PMID:24909514

Lu, Can; Zhou, Li-yan; Xu, Hui-jun; Chen, Xing-yu; Tong, Zhong-sheng; Liu, Xiao-dong; Jia, Yong-sheng; Chen, Yue

2014-01-01

7

DNMT3b overexpression contributes to a hypermethylator phenotype in human breast cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background DNA hypermethylation events and other epimutations occur in many neoplasms, producing gene expression changes that contribute to neoplastic transformation, tumorigenesis, and tumor behavior. Some human cancers exhibit a hypermethylator phenotype, characterized by concurrent DNA methylation-dependent silencing of multiple genes. To determine if a hypermethylation defect occurs in breast cancer, the expression profile and promoter methylation status of methylation-sensitive genes were evaluated among breast cancer cell lines. Results The relationship between gene expression (assessed by RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR), promoter methylation (assessed by methylation-specific PCR, bisulfite sequencing, and 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine treatment), and the DNA methyltransferase machinery (total DNMT activity and expression of DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b proteins) were examined in 12 breast cancer cell lines. Unsupervised cluster analysis of the expression of 64 methylation-sensitive genes revealed two groups of cell lines that possess distinct methylation signatures: (i) hypermethylator cell lines, and (ii) low-frequency methylator cell lines. The hypermethylator cell lines are characterized by high rates of concurrent methylation of six genes (CDH1, CEACAM6, CST6, ESR1, LCN2, SCNN1A), whereas the low-frequency methylator cell lines do not methylate these genes. Hypermethylator cell lines coordinately overexpress total DNMT activity and DNMT3b protein levels compared to normal breast epithelial cells. In contrast, most low-frequency methylator cell lines possess DNMT activity and protein levels that are indistinguishable from normal. Microarray data mining identified a strong cluster of primary breast tumors that express the hypermethylation signature defined by CDH1, CEACAM6, CST6, ESR1, LCN2, and SCNN1A. This subset of breast cancers represents 18/88 (20%) tumors in the dataset analyzed, and 100% of these tumors were classified as basal-like, suggesting that the hypermethylator defect cosegregates with poor prognosis breast cancers. Conclusion These observations combine to strongly suggest that: (a) a subset of breast cancer cell lines express a hypermethylator phenotype, (b) the hypermethylation defect in these breast cancer cell lines is related to aberrant overexpression of DNMT activity, (c) overexpression of DNMT3b protein significantly contributes to the elevated DNMT activity observed in tumor cells expressing this phenotype, and (d) the six-gene hypermethylator signature characterized in breast cancer cell lines defines a distinct cluster of primary basal-like breast cancers. PMID:18221536

Roll, J Devon; Rivenbark, Ashley G; Jones, Wendell D; Coleman, William B

2008-01-01

8

The effect of HER2\\/neu overexpression on chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity in human breast and ovarian cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that oncogenes may be involved in determining the sensitivity of human cancers to chemotherapeutic agents. To define the effect of HER-2\\/neu oncogene overexpression on sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs, a full-length, human HER-2\\/neu cDNA was introduced into human breast and ovarian cancer cells. In vitro dose-response curves following exposure to 7 different classes of chemotherapeutic agents were compared

Mark D Pegram; Richard S Finn; Karo Arzoo; Malgorzata Beryt; Richard J Pietras; Dennis J Slamon

1997-01-01

9

Monoclonal Antibody to HER2\\/neuReceptor Modulates Repair of Radiation induced DNA Damage and Enhances Radiosensitivity of Human Breast Cancer Cells Overexpressing This Oncogene1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of human breast cancer frequently includes radiation therapy as an important intervention, and improvement in the clinical efficacy of radiation is desirable. Overexpression of the HER-2 growth factor receptor occurs in 25-30% of human breast cancers and correlates with poor clinical outcome, including earlier local relapse following con- servative surgery accompanied by radiation therapy. In breast cancer cells

Richard J. Pietras; Joseph C. Poen; David Gallardo; P. Nancy Wongvipat; H. Julie Lee; Dennis J. Slamon

1999-01-01

10

HER-2 overexpression differentially alters transforming growth factor-? responses in luminal versus mesenchymal human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction Amplification of the HER-2 receptor tyrosine kinase has been implicated in the pathogenesis and aggressive behavior of approximately 25% of invasive human breast cancers. Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that aberrant HER-2 signaling contributes to tumor initiation and disease progression. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) is the dominant factor opposing growth stimulatory factors and early oncogene activation in many tissues, including the mammary gland. Thus, to better understand the mechanisms by which HER-2 overexpression promotes the early stages of breast cancer, we directly assayed the cellular and molecular effects of TGF-?1 on breast cancer cells in the presence or absence of overexpressed HER-2. Methods Cell proliferation assays were used to determine the effect of TGF-? on the growth of breast cancer cells with normal or high level expression of HER-2. Affymetrix microarrays combined with Northern and western blot analysis were used to monitor the transcriptional responses to exogenous TGF-?1 in luminal and mesenchymal-like breast cancer cells. The activity of the core TGF-? signaling pathway was assessed using TGF-?1 binding assays, phospho-specific Smad antibodies, immunofluorescent staining of Smad and Smad DNA binding assays. Results We demonstrate that cells engineered to over-express HER-2 are resistant to the anti-proliferative effect of TGF-?1. HER-2 overexpression profoundly diminishes the transcriptional responses induced by TGF-? in the luminal MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and prevents target gene induction by a novel mechanism that does not involve the abrogation of Smad nuclear accumulation, DNA binding or changes in c-myc repression. Conversely, HER-2 overexpression in the context of the mesenchymal MDA-MB-231 breast cell line potentiated the TGF-? induced pro-invasive and pro-metastatic gene signature. Conclusion HER-2 overexpression promotes the growth and malignancy of mammary epithelial cells, in part, by conferring resistance to the growth inhibitory effects of TGF-?. In contrast, HER-2 and TGF-? signaling pathways can cooperate to promote especially aggressive disease behavior in the context of a highly invasive breast tumor model. PMID:16457687

Wilson, Cindy A; Cajulis, Elaina E; Green, Jennifer L; Olsen, Taylor M; Chung, Young Ah; Damore, Michael A; Dering, Judy; Calzone, Frank J; Slamon, Dennis J

2005-01-01

11

Transient adenoviral N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase overexpression imparts chemotherapeutic sensitivity to human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

In an effort to improve the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy by intervening into the cellular responses to chemotherapeutic change, we have used adenoviral overexpression of N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG or ANPG/AAG) in breast cancer cells to study its ability to imbalance base excision repair (BER) and sensitize cancer cells to alkylating agents. Our results show that MPG-overexpressing cells are significantly more sensitive to the alkylating agents methyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, methylnitrosourea, dimethyl sulfate, and the clinical chemotherapeutic temozolomide. Sensitivity is further increased through coadministration of the BER inhibitor methoxyamine, which covalently binds abasic or apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites and makes them refractory to subsequent repair. Methoxyamine reduction of cell survival is significantly greater in cells overexpressing MPG than in control cells, suggesting a heightened production of AP sites that, if made persistent, results in increased cellular toxicity. We further explored the mechanism of MPG-induced sensitivity and found that sensitivity was associated with a significant increase in the number of AP sites and/or single-strand breaks in overexpressing cells, confirming a MPG-driven accumulation of toxic BER intermediates. These data establish transient MPG overexpression as a potential therapeutic approach for increasing cellular sensitivity to alkylating agent chemotherapy. PMID:15299078

Rinne, Mikael; Caldwell, David; Kelley, Mark R

2004-08-01

12

Protein O-glucosyltransferase 1 overexpression downregulates p16 in BT474 human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Protein O-glucosyltransferase 1 (POGLUT1) is a novel gene that was initially isolated and identified from the bone marrow cells of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia. Previous findings have suggested that POGLUT1 promotes the proliferation of U937 human tissue lymphoma cells. Furthermore, POGLUT1 has been identified in other tissues, including the mammary glands, lymph nodes, intestine, liver and spleen. In the present study, in order to investigate the function and target of POGLUT1 in BT474 breast cancer cells, the effect of POGLUT1 on cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and key proteins in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 signaling pathway was investigated in BT474 cells. The overexpression of POGLUT1 in the presence of TGF-?1 was found to significantly enhance cell viability. Flow cytometric and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that POGLUT1 had an effect on the cell cycle and inhibited the TGF-?1-induced transcriptional upregulation of p16, a major cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI). Furthermore, phosphorylated (p)-Smad3, which has a key role in mediating the TGF-? antiproliferative response, was greatly inhibited by exogenous POGLUT1, suggesting a role for POGLUT1 in the TGF-?1-mediated signaling pathway in the BT474 cell cycle. However, no significant changes were observed in the expression of other CDKIs or in cell apoptosis. The findings of the present study show that the increase in BT474 cell viabilty induced by POGLUT1 is associated with POGLUT1-induced inhibition of the transcriptional upregulation of p16 by TGF-?1, which may be a result of the inhibition of p-Smad3. PMID:25009645

JIN, GANG; CAO, ZHIGANG; SUN, XILIN; WANG, KAI; HUANG, TAO; SHEN, BAOZHONG

2014-01-01

13

Radiation and the Apo2L\\/TRAIL Apoptotic Pathway Preferentially Inhibit the Colonization of Premalignant Human Breast Cells Overexpressing Cyclin D1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of cyclin D1 overexpression in human breast premalignancy was investigated using immortal, nontumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Previ- ous work documented that cyclin D1 overexpression promoted in vitro anchorage-independent colonization. We now report that the colonization of MCF-10A cyclin D1 transfectants was preferentially inhibited by g- radiation and specific classes of apoptosis inducers (Apo-2 ligand (Apo- 2L), but not tumor

Qun Zhou; Paula Fukushima; William DeGraff; James B. Mitchell; Maryalice Stetler-Stevenson; Avi Ashkenazi; Patricia S. Steeg

14

Overexpression of MDM2 oncoprotein correlates with possession of estrogen receptor alpha and lack of MDM2 mRNA splice variants in human breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the significance of murine double minute 2 (MDM2) oncoprotein in human breast cancer as a nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling protein, an estrogen receptor (ER) alpha regulator, and a prognostic marker and to study how MDM2 is overexpressed, we investigated its status in tissue samples and examined the correlation between overexpression and MDM2 gene abnormalities, status, and clinicopathological parameters. We detected

Masao Hori; Jiro Shimazaki; Satoshi Inagawa; Masayuki Itabashi; Mitsuo Hori

2002-01-01

15

Securin is overexpressed in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Securin regulates sister chromatid separation during mitosis, induces bFGF-mediated angiogenesis, and securin overexpression causes in vitro transformation and in vivo tumor formation in nude mice. As estrogen administration to oophorectomized rats increased pituitary securin expression, we used immunohistochemistry to examine securin and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-?) expression in 90 breast tumors and 18 normal breast tissues. Breast tumor securin and

Selam Ogbagabriel; Manory Fernando; Frederic M Waldman; Shikha Bose; Anthony P Heaney

2005-01-01

16

Establishment of recombinant lentiviral vector with ABCG2 overexpression and effects of the recombinant on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells' biological characteristics  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study ATP-binding cassette super family G2 (ABCG2) is recognized as the key point of the cancer cells’ resistance to chemotherapy drugs. But there have been rare reports about the relationship between ABCG2 and the invasion, migration and animal tumor formation abilities of cancer cells. We want to establish a recombinant lentiviral vector with ABCG2 overexpression, and study the vector's effect on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells’ biological abilities above to improve our understanding about ABCG2. Material and methods The recombinant lentiviral vector with ABCG2 overexpression was transfected into human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The cells’ abilities of migration and invasion were tested by wound healing assay, and transwell invasive assay. The MCF-7 cells infected were injected in the left back of the nude mice. In the meantime the MCF-7 cells without anything were injected in the right back of same nude mice as the control group. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of ABCG2 in MCF-7 cells infected, the transplantation tumor tissue and the control group MCF-7 cells. Results The recombinant lentiviral vector with ABCG2 overexpression infected human breast cancer MCF-7 cells successfully, and the transfection efficiency was 95.4 ±2.8%. The wound line of MCF-7 cells infected healed after 48 hours, but the line of control group MCF-7 cells still existed. The number of the cells going through the membrane in infected MCF-7 cells was 78.34 ±0.25, and the number in control group MCF-7 cells was 15.28 ±0.12, p < 0.05. A much bigger transplantation tumor appeared in the MCF-7 cell infected nude mice. The expression of ABCG2 in infected MCF-7 cells and the transplantation tumor tissue was significantly higher than that in control group MCF-7 cells, p < 0.05. Conclusions We obtained ABCG2 overexpression in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells which showed the increasing migration, invasion and animal tumor formation abilities. Therefore, the results revealed that there might be a relationship between overexpression of ABCG2 and MCF-7 cells with increasing invasion, migration and animal tumor abilities. PMID:24596532

Fan, Yuanming

2013-01-01

17

HER2 overexpression differentially alters transforming growth factor-? responses in luminal versus mesenchymal human breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Amplification of the HER-2 receptor tyrosine kinase has been implicated in the pathogenesis and aggressive behavior of approximately 25% of invasive human breast cancers. Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that aberrant HER-2 signaling contributes to tumor initiation and disease progression. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) is the dominant factor opposing growth stimulatory factors and early oncogene activation in many

Cindy A Wilson; Elaina E Cajulis; Jennifer L Green; Taylor M Olsen; Young Ah Chung; Michael A Damore; Judy Dering; Frank J Calzone; Dennis J Slamon

2005-01-01

18

Amplification and over-expression of MAP3K3 gene in human breast cancer promotes formation and survival of breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Gene amplifications in the 17q chromosomal region are observed frequently in breast cancers. An integrative bioinformatics analysis of this region nominated the MAP3K3 gene as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. This gene encodes mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MAP3K3/MEKK3), which has not yet been reported to be associated with cancer-causing genetic aberrations. We found that MAP3K3 was amplified in approximately 8-20% of breast cancers. Knockdown of MAP3K3 expression significantly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in MAP3K3-amplified breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-361 but not in MAP3K3 non-amplified breast cancer cells. Knockdown of MAP3K3 expression in MAP3K3-amplified breast cancer cells sensitized breast cancer cells to apoptotic induction by TNF? and TRAIL, as well as doxorubicin, VP-16 and fluorouracil, three commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs for treating breast cancer. In addition, ectopic expression of MAP3K3, in collaboration with Ras, induced colony formation in both primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts and immortalized human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). Combined, these results suggest that MAP3K3 contributes to breast carcinogenesis and may endow resistance of breast cancer cells to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Therefore, MAP3K3 may be a valuable therapeutic target in patients with MAP3K3-amplified breast cancers, and blocking MAP3K3 kinase activity with a small molecule inhibitor may sensitize MAP3K3-amplified breast cancer cells to chemotherapy. PMID:24122835

Fan, Yihui; Ge, Ningling; Wang, Xiaosong; Sun, Wenjing; Mao, Renfang; Bu, Wen; Creighton, Chad J; Zheng, Pingju; Vasudevan, Sanjeev; An, Lei; Yang, Jinshu; Zhao, Yi-Jue; Zhang, Huiyuan; Li, Xiao-Nan; Rao, Pulivarthi H; Leung, Eastwood; Lu, Yong-Jie; Gray, Joe W; Schiff, Rachel; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Osborne, C Kent; Yang, Jianhua; Zhang, Hong

2014-01-01

19

Toll-Like Receptor 4 Prompts Human Breast Cancer Cells Invasiveness via Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation and Is Overexpressed in Patients with Lymph Node Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated signaling has been implicated in tumor cell invasion, survival, and metastasis in a variety of cancers. This study investigated the expression and biological role of TLR4 in human breast cancer metastasis. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 are human breast cancer cell lines with low and high metastatic potential, respectively. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to stimulate MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, expression of TLR4 mRNA and protein increased compared with that in control cells. TLR4 activation notably up-regulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) mRNA and their secretion in the supernatants of both cell lines. LPS enhanced invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells by transwell assay and MCF-7 cells by wound healing assay. LPS triggered increased expression of TLR4 downstream signaling pathway protein myeloid differentiation factor 88(MyD88) and resulted in interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 higher production by human breast cancer cells. Stimulation of TLR4 with LPS promoted tumorigenesis and formed metastatic lesions in liver of nude mice. Moreover, expression of TLR4 and MyD88 as well as invasiveness and migration of the cells could be blocked by TLR4 antagonist. Combined with clinicopathological parameters, TLR4 was overexpressed in human breast cancer tissue and correlated with lymph node metastasis. These findings indicated that TLR4 may participate in the progression and metastasis of human breast cancer and provide a new therapeutic target. PMID:25299052

Xu, Longjiang; He, Chunyan; Wen, Huiyan; Yan, Jie; Su, Honghong; Zhu, Xueming

2014-01-01

20

A Novel Function for the nm23-Hl Gene: Overexpression in Human Breast Carcinoma Cells Leads to the Formation of Basement Membrane and Growth Arrest  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a culture system using reconstituted basement membrane components in which normal human mammary epithelial cells exhibit several aspects of the development and differentiation process, including formation of acinar-like structures, production and basal deposition of basement membrane components, and production and apical secretion of sialomucins. Cell lines and cultures from human breast carcinomas failed to recapitulate this process. The data indicate the importance of cellular interactions with the basement membrane in the regulation of normal breast differentiation and, potentially, its loss in neoplasia. Our purpose was to use this assay to investigate the role of the putative metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 in mammary development and differentiation. The metastatic human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, clones transfected with a control pCMVBamneo vector, and clones transfected with pCMVBamneo vector containing nm23-H1 complementary DNA (the latter of which exhibited a substantial reduction in spontaneous metastatic potential in vivo) were cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane. Clones were examined for formation of acinus-like spheres, deposition of basement membrane components, production of sialomucin, polarization, and growth arrest. In contrast to the parental cell line and control transfectants, MDA-MB-435 breast carcinoma cells overexpressing Nm23-H1 protein regained several aspects of the normal phenotype within reconstituted basement membrane. Nm23-H1 protein-positive cells formed organized acinus-like spheres, deposited the basement membrane components type IV collagen and, to some extent, laminin to the outside of the spheres, expressed sialomucin, and growth arrested. Growth arrest of Nm23-H1 protein-positive cells was preceded by and correlated with formation of a basement membrane, suggesting a causal relationship. The data indicate a previously unidentified cause-and-effect relationship between nm23-H1 gene expression and morphological-biosynthetic-growth aspects of breast differentiation in this model system. While the basement membrane microenvironment is capable of directing the differentiation of normal human breast cells, neoplastic transformation abrogates this relationship, suggesting that intrinsic cellular events are also critical to this process. The data identify nm23-H1 gene expression as one of these events, suggesting an important role in the modulation of cellular responsiveness to the microenvironment. The data also identify previously unknown growth inhibitory effects of nm23-H1 gene overexpression.

Howlett, Anthony R; Petersen, Ole W; Steeg, Patricia S; Bissell, Mina J

1994-01-01

21

Immunoliposome encapsulation increases cytotoxic activity and selectivity of curcumin and resveratrol against HER2 overexpressing human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Natural compounds have been studied as a source of countless bioactive compounds with diverse activities. Among them, many dietary phytochemicals have been thoroughly studied for their cytotoxic or apoptotic effects in several cellular models in order to explain their anticancer capacity. Curcumin and resveratrol are two natural compounds with a large body of evidence showing their cytotoxic activity against a wide variety of cancer cells; however, their poor absorption, bioavailability, and low selectivity have limited their clinical use. With the aim of improving bioavailability and selectivity, the antiproliferative effects of free-, liposomed-, and immunoliposomed-curcumin and/or resveratrol formulations have been compared in two human breast cancer cell lines with different HER2 expression levels. The results demonstrate that when HER2-targeted immunoliposomes are coupled to trastuzumab there is a dramatic increase in the antiproliferative effects of curcumin and resveratrol in HER2 positive human breast cancer cells in comparison to regular liposomed or free forms, indicating an increase of its therapeutic effect. The enhancement of the cytotoxic effects was also correlated to the uptake of curcumin at intracellular level, as shown by using ImageStream technique. The striking efficacy of the immunoliposomed formulation containing both resveratrol and curcumin suggests a multitargeted mechanism of action that deserves further study. These findings show the potential of HER2-targeted nanovesicles to develop new drug delivery systems for cancer therapy based on these compounds and justify further preclinical trials. PMID:23959397

Catania, Angela; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Nicolosi, Silvia; Cicirata, Federico; Micol, Vicente

2013-08-01

22

A Novel Subset of Human Tumors That Simultaneously Overexpress Multiple E2F-responsive Genes Found in Breast, Ovarian, and Prostate Cancers  

PubMed Central

Reasoning that overexpression of multiple E2F-responsive genes might be a useful marker for RB1 dysfunction, we compiled a list of E2F-responsive genes from the literature and evaluated their expression in publicly available gene expression microarray data of patients with breast cancer, serous ovarian cancer, and prostate cancer. In breast cancer, a group of tumors was identified, each of which simultaneously overexpressed multiple E2F-responsive genes. Seventy percent of these genes were concerned with cell cycle progression, DNA repair, or mitosis. These E2F-responsive gene overexpressing (ERGO) tumors frequently exhibited additional evidence of Rb/E2F axis dysfunction, were mostly triple negative, and preferentially overexpressed multiple basal cytokeratins, suggesting that they overlapped substantially with the basal-like tumor subset. ERGO tumors were also identified in serous ovarian cancer and prostate cancer. In these cancer types, there was no evidence for a tumor subset comparable to the breast cancer basal-like subset. A core group of about 30 E2F-responsive genes were overexpressed in all three cancer types. Thus, it appears that disorders of the Rb/E2F axis can arise at multiple organ sites and produce tumors that simultaneously overexpress multiple E2F-responsive genes. PMID:25392696

Shackney, Stanley E; Chowdhury, Salim Akhter; Schwartz, Russell

2014-01-01

23

A Novel Human Ghrelin Variant (In1-Ghrelin) and Ghrelin-O-Acyltransferase Are Overexpressed in Breast Cancer: Potential Pathophysiological Relevance  

PubMed Central

The human ghrelin gene, which encodes the ghrelin and obestatin peptides, contains 5 exons (Ex), with Ex1-Ex4 encoding a 117 amino-acid (aa) preproprotein that is known to be processed to yield a 28-aa (ghrelin) and/or a 23-aa (obestatin) mature peptides, which possess biological activities in multiple tissues. However, the ghrelin gene also encodes additional peptides through alternative splicing or post-translational modifications. Indeed, we previously identified a spliced mRNA ghrelin variant in mouse (In2-ghrelin-variant), which is regulated in a tissue-dependent manner by metabolic status and may thus be of biological relevance. Here, we have characterized a new human ghrelin variant that contains Ex0-1, intron (In) 1, and Ex2 and lacks Ex3-4. This human In1-ghrelin variant would encode a new prepropeptide that conserves the first 12aa of native-ghrelin (including the Ser3-potential octanoylation site) but has a different C-terminal tail. Expression of In1-variant was detected in 22 human tissues and its levels were positively correlated with those of ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT; p?=?0.0001) but not with native-ghrelin expression, suggesting that In1-ghrelin could be a primary substrate for GOAT in human tissues. Interestingly, levels of In1-ghrelin variant expression in breast cancer samples were 8-times higher than those of normal mammary tissue, and showed a strong correlation in breast tumors with GOAT (p?=?0.0001), ghrelin receptor-type 1b (GHSR1b; p?=?0.049) and cyclin-D3 (a cell-cycle inducer/proliferation marker; p?=?0.009), but not with native-ghrelin or GHSR1a expression. Interestingly, In1-ghrelin variant overexpression increased basal proliferation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Taken together, our results provide evidence that In1-ghrelin is a novel element of the ghrelin family with a potential pathophysiological role in breast cancer. PMID:21829727

Gahete, Manuel D.; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Hergueta-Redondo, Marta; Martinez-Fuentes, Antonio J.; Kineman, Rhonda D.; Moreno-Bueno, Gema

2011-01-01

24

Identification and characterization of a novel class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase overexpressed in a human breast adenocarcinoma cell line exhibiting oxazaphosphorine-specific acquired resistance.  

PubMed

Associated with the oxazaphosphorine-specific acquired resistance exhibited by a human breast adenocarcinoma subline growing in monolayer culture, viz. MCF-7/OAP, was the overexpression (> 100-fold as compared with the very small amount expressed in the oxazaphosphorine-sensitive parent line) of a class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase, viz. ALDH-3, judged to be so because it is a polymorphic enzyme (pI values ca. 6.0) present in the cytosol that is heat labile, is insensitive to inhibition by disulfiram (25 microM), much prefers benzaldehyde to acetaldehyde as a substrate and, at concentrations of 4 mM, prefers NADP to NAD as a cofactor. No other aldehyde dehydrogenases were found in these cells. As compared with those of the prototypical class 3 human ALDH-3, viz. constitutive human stomach mucosa ALDH-3, the physical and catalytic properties of the MCF-7/OAP enzyme differed somewhat with regard to pI values, native M(r), subunit M(r), recognition of the subunit by anti-stomach ALDH-3 IgY, pH stability, cofactor influence on catalytic activity, and the ability to catalyze, albeit poorly, the oxidation of an oxazaphosphorine, viz. aldophosphamide. Hence, the MCF-7/OAP ALDH-3 was judged to be a novel class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase. Small amounts of a seemingly identical enzyme are also present in normal pre- and post-menopausal breast tissue. None could be detected in human liver, kidney or placenta, suggesting that it may be a tissue-specific enzyme. PMID:8328987

Sreerama, L; Sladek, N E

1993-06-22

25

[Establishment of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line stably over-expressing human TOX high mobility group box family member 3].  

PubMed

Objective To construct the lentiviral expression vector of human TOX high mobility group box family member 3 (TOX3) gene and the MDA-MB-231 cell line which stably over-expresses TOX3 gene. Methods TOX3 gene was synthesized by the gene synthesis method and amplified by PCR, and then cloned into pLVEF-1a/GFP-Puro vector to construct pLVEF-1a/GFP-Puro-TOX3 lentiviral vector. After restriction enzyme analysis and sequence identification, the lentiviral vector was packaged and the titer was detected. The human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with the recombinant lentiviral vector and cultured selectively by puromycin to acquire stably transfected cells. MDA-MB-231 cells which expressed GFP were observed by fluorescence microcopy. And the expression levels of TOX3 mRNA and protein in transfected MDA-MB-231 cells were detected by real-time quantitative PCR(qRT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. Results Restriction enzyme digestion and sequence analysis demonstrated that the lentiviral expression vectors of pLVEF-1a/GFP-Puro and pLVEF-1a/GFP-Puro-TOX3 were successfully constructed, and the viral titers were respectively 2×10(8) TU/mL and 1×10(8) TU/mL after lentiviral packaging. And after being transfected, more than 95% cells expressed GFP under a fluorescence microscope. The results of qRT-PCR and Western blotting showed that, when compared with the MDA-MB-231-NC negative control group, the expression of TOX3 mRNA and protein significantly increased in the MDA-MB-231-TOX3 group. Conclusion The study successfully constructed lentiviral expression vector of TOX3 gene and obtained MDA-MB-231 cell line stably over-expressing TOX3 gene by transfection with the recombinant vector. PMID:25374079

Han, Cuicui; Yue, Liling; Yang, Ying; Jian, Baiyu; Ma, Liwei; Liu, Jicheng

2014-11-01

26

Cyclin E2 overexpression is associated with endocrine resistance but not insensitivity to CDK2 inhibition in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Cyclin E2, but not cyclin E1, is included in several gene signatures that predict disease progression in either tamoxifen-resistant or metastatic breast cancer. We therefore examined the role of cyclin E2 in antiestrogen resistance in vitro and its potential for therapeutic targeting through cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibition. High expression of CCNE2, but not CCNE1, was characteristic of the luminal B and HER2 subtypes of breast cancer and was strongly predictive of shorter distant metastasis-free survival following endocrine therapy. After antiestrogen treatment of MCF-7 breast cancer cells, cyclin E2 mRNA and protein were downregulated and cyclin E2-CDK2 activity decreased. However, this regulation was lost in tamoxifen-resistant (MCF-7 TAMR) cells, which overexpressed cyclin E2. Expression of either cyclin E1 or E2 in T-47D breast cancer cells conferred acute antiestrogen resistance, suggesting that cyclin E overexpression contributes to the antiestrogen resistance of tamoxifen-resistant cells. Ectopic expression of cyclin E1 or E2 also reduced sensitivity to CDK4, but not CDK2, inhibition. Proliferation of tamoxifen-resistant cells was inhibited by RNAi-mediated knockdown of cyclin E1, cyclin E2, or CDK2. Furthermore, CDK2 inhibition of E-cyclin overexpressing cells and tamoxifen-resistant cells restored sensitivity to tamoxifen or CDK4 inhibition. Cyclin E2 overexpression is therefore a potential mechanism of resistance to both endocrine therapy and CDK4 inhibition. CDK2 inhibitors hold promise as a component of combination therapies in endocrine-resistant disease as they effectively inhibit cyclin E1 and E2 overexpressing cells and enhance the efficacy of other therapeutics. PMID:22564725

Caldon, C Elizabeth; Sergio, C Marcelo; Kang, Jian; Muthukaruppan, Anita; Boersma, Marijke N; Stone, Andrew; Barraclough, Jane; Lee, Christine S; Black, Michael A; Miller, Lance D; Gee, Julia M; Nicholson, Rob I; Sutherland, Robert L; Print, Cristin G; Musgrove, Elizabeth A

2012-07-01

27

Presence of CHD1L Over-Expression Is Associated with Aggressive Tumor Biology and Is a Novel Prognostic Biomarker for Patient Survival in Human Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The chromodomain helicase/adenosine triphosphatase DNA binding protein 1–like gene (CHD1L) is a recently identified oncogene localized at 1q21. CHD1L protein over-expression in primary hepatocellular carcinoma is correlated with enhanced apoptosis inhibition, reduced chemosensitivity and shortened patient survival. However, CHD1L protein status or mRNA expression in breast cancer and its clinical significance remain obscure. Material and Methods In this study, immunohistochemical staining for CHD1L expression was performed on tissue microarrays containing 179 primary invasive breast cancers and 65 matched normal breast tissue specimens. Clinico-pathological features were collected and compared between different CHD1L statuses. Kaplan-Meier curves were applied to estimate disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Cox regression was used to identify independent prognostic factors. Also, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) was employed to evaluate the mRNA level expression of CHD1L in six breast cancer cell lines. Results Presence of CHD1L over-expression was observed in 87 of the 179 patients (48.6%), which associated with a younger age (P?=?0.011), higher grade (P?=?0.004), higher Ki-67 index (P?=?0.018) and HER2 over-expression/amplification (P?=?0.037). After a median follow-up of 55 months, patients with presence of CHD1L over-expression had significantly poorer DFS (82.6% Vs 76.3%, P?=?0.035), but not OS (87.0% Vs 94.9%, P?=?0.439). In multivariate analysis, CHD1L status (HR?=?2.169, [95%CI, 1.029–4.573], P?=?0.042), triple negative subtype (HR?=?2.809, [95%CI 1.086–7.264], P?=?0.033) and HER2 positive subtype (HR?=?5.221, [95%CI 1.788–15.240], P?=?0.002) were identified as independent prognostic factors for DFS. In vitro study indicated that relative mRNA expression level of CHD1L was higher in breast cancer cell lines, especially in MDA-MB-231 and LM2-4175, when compared to normal breast epithelial cell line. Conclusions Presence of CHD1L over-expression is probably associated with aggressive tumor biology in breast cancer. CHD1L status might be a novel prognostic biomarker for patients with breast cancer. PMID:25153161

Fei, Xiaochun; Chen, Xiaosong; Huang, Ou; He, Jianrong; Chen, Weiguo; Li, Yafen; Shen, Kunwei; Zhu, Li

2014-01-01

28

18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (18FDG-PET) marks MYC-overexpressing human basal-like breast cancers  

PubMed Central

In contrast to normal cells, cancer cells avidly take up glucose and metabolize it to lactate even when oxygen is abundant, a phenomenon referred to as the Warburg effect. This fundamental alteration in glucose metabolism in cancer cells enables their specific detection by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) following intravenous injection of the glucose analogue 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose (18FDG). However, this useful imaging technique is limited by the fact that not all cancers avidly take up FDG. To identify molecular determinants of 18FDG-retention, we interogated the transcriptomes of human cancer cell lines and primary tumors for metabolic pathways associated with 18FDG radiotracer uptake. From 95 metabolic pathways that were interrogated, the glycolysis and several glycolysis-related pathways (pentose-phosphate, carbon fixation, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, one-carbon-pool by folate) showed the greatest transcriptional enrichment. This “FDG signature” predicted FDG-uptake in breast cancer cell lines and overlapped with established gene expression signatures for the “basal-like” breast cancer subtype and MYC-induced tumorigenesis in mice. Human breast cancers with nuclear MYC staining and high RNA expression of MYC target genes showed high 18FDG-PET uptake (p < 0.005). Presence of the FDG signature was similarly associated with MYC gene copy gain, increased MYC transcript levels, and elevated expression of metabolic MYC target genes in a human breast cancer genomic dataset. Together, our findings link clinical observations of glucose uptake with a pathologic and molecular subtype of human breast cancer. Further, they suggest related approaches to derive molecular determinants of radiotracer retention for other PET-imaging probes. PMID:21646475

Palaskas, Nicolaos; Larson, Steven M.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Komisopoulou, Evangelia; Wong, Justin; Rohle, Dan; Campos, Carl; Yannuzzi, Nicolas; Osborne, Joseph R.; Linkov, Irina; Kastenhuber, Edward R.; Taschereau, Richard; Plaisier, Seema B.; Tran, Chris; Heguy, Adriana; Wu, Hong; Sander, Chris; Phelps, Michael E.; Brennan, Cameron; Port, Elisa; Huse, Jason T.; Graeber, Thomas G.; Mellinghoff, Ingo K.

2011-01-01

29

Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein Gene Overexpression and Reduced Drug Sensitivity of Topoisomerase II in a Human Breast Carcinoma MCF7 Cell Line Selected for Etoposide Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human breast cancer cell line (MCF7\\/WT) was selected for resistance to etoposide (VP-16) by stepwise exposure to 2-fold increasing concentra- tions of this agent. The resulting cell line (MCF7\\/VP) was 28-, 21-, and 9-fold resistant to VP-16, VM-26, and doxorubicin, respectively. MCF7\\/VP cells also exhibited low-level cross-resistance to 4'-(9-acridinylamino)- methanesulfon-m-anisidide, mitoxantrone, and vincristine and no cross- resistance to genistein

Erasmus Schneider; Julie K. Horton; Chih-Hsin Yang; Masayuki Nakagawa; Kenneth H. Cowan

1994-01-01

30

Loss of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog or Phosphoinositol-3 Kinase Activation and Response to Trastuzumab or Lapatinib in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Overexpressing Locally Advanced Breast Cancers  

PubMed Central

Purpose Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss or activating mutations of phosphoinositol-3 (PI3) kinase (PIK3CA) may be associated with trastuzumab resistance. Trastuzumab, the humanized human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody, and lapatinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, are both established treatments for HER2-overexpressing breast cancers. Understanding of the cellular response to HER2-targeted therapies is needed to tailor treatments and to identify patients less likely to benefit. Methods We evaluated the effect of trastuzumab or lapatinib in three HER2-overexpressing cell lines. We confirmed the in vitro observations in two neoadjuvant clinical trials in patients with HER2 overexpression; 35 patients received trastuzumab as a single agent for the first 3 weeks, then docetaxel every 3 weeks for 12 weeks (trastuzumab regimen), whereas 49 patients received lapatinib as a single agent for 6 weeks, followed by trastuzumab/docetaxel for 12 weeks before primary surgery (lapatinib regimen). Apoptosis, Ki67, p-MAPK, p-AKT, and PTEN were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Genomic DNA was sequenced for PIK3CA mutations. Results Under low PTEN conditions, in vitro data indicate that lapatinib alone and in combination with trastuzumab was effective in decreasing p-MAPK and p-AKT levels, whereas trastuzumab was ineffective. In the clinical trials, we confirmed that low PTEN or activating mutation in PIK3CA conferred resistance to the trastuzumab regimen (P = .015), whereas low PTEN tumors were associated with a high pathologic complete response rate (P = .007). Conclusion Activation of PI3 kinase pathway is associated with trastuzumab resistance, whereas low PTEN predicted for response to lapatinib. These observations support clinical trials with the combination of both agents. PMID:21135276

Dave, Bhuvanesh; Migliaccio, Ilenia; Gutierrez, M. Carolina; Wu, Meng-Fen; Chamness, Gary C.; Wong, Helen; Narasanna, Archana; Chakrabarty, Anindita; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Huang, Jian; Rimawi, Mothaffar; Schiff, Rachel; Arteaga, Carlos; Osborne, C. Kent; Chang, Jenny C.

2011-01-01

31

Overexpression of extracellular superoxide dismutase attenuates heparanase expression and inhibits breast carcinoma cell growth and invasion  

PubMed Central

Increased expression of heparanase stimulates the progression of various human cancers including breast cancer. Therefore a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in regulating heparanase is critical in developing effective treatments for heparanase overexpressing cancers. In this study, we investigated the potential use of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EcSOD) to enhance the inhibitory effects of heparin/LMWH in breast cancer cells. EcSOD binds to cell surfaces and the ECM through its Heparin Binding Domain (HBD). Deleting this HBD rendered the protein a more potent inhibitor of breast cancer growth, survival, and invasion. Amongst the treatment combinations examined, EcSOD?HBD plus LMWH provided the best tumor suppressive effects in inhibiting breast cancer growth and invasion in vitro. We have further shown that overexpression of EcSOD decreased accumulation of VEGF in the culture medium and increased the level of intact cell surface-associated heparan sulfate (HS), thus implicating inhibition of heparanase expression as a potential mechanism. Overexpression of EcSOD inhibited steady state heparanase mRNA levels by more than 50% as determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Moreover, heparanase promoter activation was suppressed by EcSOD as indicated by a luciferase reporter assay. These findings provide a molecular pathway showing that regulation of heparanase transcription can be mediated by oxidative stress which was previously unrecognized. Our study implies that overexpression of EcSOD is a promising strategy to enhance the efficacy of heparin/LMWH by inhibiting heparanase as a novel treatment for breast cancer. PMID:19602586

Teoh, Melissa L. T.; Fitzgerald, Matthew P.; Oberley, Larry W.; Domann, Frederick E.

2009-01-01

32

Metaplastic breast carcinomas exhibit EGFR, but not HER2, gene amplification and overexpression: immunohistochemical and chromogenic in situ hybridization analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Metaplastic breast carcinomas constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, accounting for less than 1% of all invasive mammary carcinomas. Approximately 70–80% of metaplastic breast carcinomas overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)2 and EGFR have attracted much attention in the medical literature over the past few years owing to the fact that humanized monoclonal antibodies against HER2 and therapies directed against the extracellular ligand-binding domain or the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR have proven successful in treating certain types of human cancer. We investigated whether HER2 and EGFR overexpression was present and evaluated gene amplification in a series of metaplastic breast carcinomas. Method Twenty-five metaplastic breast carcinomas were immunohistochemically analyzed using a monoclonal antibody (31G7) for EGFR and two antibodies for HER2 (Herceptest and CB11) and scored using the Herceptest scoring system. Gene amplification was evaluated by chromogenic in situ hybridization using Zymed Spot-Light EGFR and HER2 amplification probe. The results were evaluated by bright field microscopy under 40× and 63× objective lenses. Results Nineteen (76%) metaplastic breast carcinomas exhibited EGFR ovexpression, and among these EGFR amplification (defined either by large gene clusters or >5 signals/nucleus in >50% of neoplastic cells) was detected in seven cases (37%): three carcinomas with squamous differentiation and four spindle cell carcinomas. One case exhibited HER2 overexpression of grade 2+ (>10% of cells with weak to moderate complete membrane staining), but HER2 gene amplification was not detected. Conclusion Metaplastic breast carcinomas frequently overexpressed EGFR, which was associated with EGFR gene amplification in one-third of cases. Our findings suggest that some patients with metaplastic breast carcinomas might benefit from novel therapies targeting EGFR. Because most metaplastic breast carcinomas overexpress EGFR without gene amplification, further studies to evaluate EGFR activating mutations are warranted. PMID:16280056

Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Milanezi, Fernanda; Carvalho, Silvia; Simpson, Pete T; Steele, Dawn; Savage, Kay; Lambros, Maryou BK; Pereira, Emilio M; Nesland, Jahn M; Lakhani, Sunil R; Schmitt, Fernando C

2005-01-01

33

Analysis of the promoter of the MUC1 gene overexpressed in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MUC1 gene encodes a mucin glycoprotein and is overexpressed in breast cancer. Knowledge of the mechanisms leading to MUC1 overexpression may help in the development of molecular approaches for breast cancer therapy. In order to study the regulation of the MUC1 gene transcription, we analyzed functional activities of various deletion mutants of the MUC1 promoter. We established that transcriptional

Joseph Z. Zaretsky; Ronit Sarid; Yael Aylon; Leonid A. Mittelman; Daniel H. Wreschner; Iafa Keydar

1999-01-01

34

The Human Cell Surfaceome of Breast Tumors  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Cell surface proteins are ideal targets for cancer therapy and diagnosis. We have identified a set of more than 3700 genes that code for transmembrane proteins believed to be at human cell surface. Methods. We used a high-throuput qPCR system for the analysis of 573 cell surface protein-coding genes in 12 primary breast tumors, 8 breast cell lines, and 21 normal human tissues including breast. To better understand the role of these genes in breast tumors, we used a series of bioinformatics strategies to integrates different type, of the datasets, such as KEGG, protein-protein interaction databases, ONCOMINE, and data from, literature. Results. We found that at least 77 genes are overexpressed in breast primary tumors while at least 2 of them have also a restricted expression pattern in normal tissues. We found common signaling pathways that may be regulated in breast tumors through the overexpression of these cell surface protein-coding genes. Furthermore, a comparison was made between the genes found in this report and other genes associated with features clinically relevant for breast tumorigenesis. Conclusions. The expression profiling generated in this study, together with an integrative bioinformatics analysis, allowed us to identify putative targets for breast tumors. PMID:24195083

da Cunha, Julia Pinheiro Chagas; Galante, Pedro Alexandre Favoretto; de Souza, Jorge Estefano Santana; Pieprzyk, Martin; Carraro, Dirce Maria; Old, Lloyd J.; Camargo, Anamaria Aranha; de Souza, Sandro Jose

2013-01-01

35

SNEV overexpression extends the life span of human endothelial cells  

SciTech Connect

In a recent screening for genes downregulated in replicatively senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we have isolated the novel protein SNEV. Since then SNEV has proven as a multifaceted protein playing a role in pre-mRNA splicing, DNA repair, and the ubiquitin/proteosome system. Here, we report that SNEV mRNA decreases in various cell types during replicative senescence, and that it is increased in various immortalized cell lines, as well as in breast tumors, where SNEV transcript levels also correlate with the survival of breast cancer patients. Since these mRNA profiles suggested a role of SNEV in the regulation of cell proliferation, the effect of its overexpression was tested. Thereby, a significant extension of the cellular life span was observed, which was not caused by altered telomerase activity or telomere dynamics but rather by enhanced stress resistance. When SNEV overexpressing cells were treated with bleomycin or bleomycin combined with BSO, inducing DNA damage as well as reactive oxygen species, a significantly lower fraction of apoptotic cells was found in comparison to vector control cells. These data suggest that high levels of SNEV might extend the cellular life span by increasing the resistance to stress or by improving the DNA repair capacity of the cells.

Voglauer, Regina [Institute of Applied Microbiology, Department of Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Chang, Martina Wei-Fen [Institute of Applied Microbiology, Department of Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Dampier, Brigitta [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Wieser, Matthias [Institute of Applied Microbiology, Department of Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Baumann, Kristin [Institute of Applied Microbiology, Department of Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Sterovsky, Thomas [Institute of Applied Microbiology, Department of Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Schreiber, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Katinger, Hermann [Institute of Applied Microbiology, Department of Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Grillari, Johannes [Institute of Applied Microbiology, Department of Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria) and BMT Research Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: j.grillari@iam.boku.ac.at

2006-04-01

36

EPIDEMIOLOGY Body mass index and HER-2 overexpression in breast cancer  

E-print Network

EPIDEMIOLOGY Body mass index and HER-2 overexpression in breast cancer patients over 50 years Purpose In breast cancer, in vitro as well as in vivo experiments have shown an inverse relationship, operable breast cancer were evaluated the evening prior to surgery for body weight, height, abdominal

37

Over-expression of metallothionein predicts chemoresistance in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Metallothionein (MT) plays a role in fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. We examined MT expression in women with invasive breast ductal carcinoma who underwent mastectomy/lumpectomy without neo-adjuvant treatment. We showed that MT was over-expressed in 87.9% of breast cancer tissues examined, with the mean percentage of positive cells at 30%. There were two patterns of MT expression: predominantly cytoplasmic in 75.9% and nuclear in 24.1% of MT-positive cases. Higher MT scores were associated with poorer histological grade (p = 0.009) but were independent of age, tumour size and oestrogen receptor status. For patients who were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide/methotrexate/5 fluorouracil- or doxorubicin-based regimes), those with high MT expression had a significantly lower recurrence-free survival (p = 0.048), suggesting a role of MT in predicting disease recurrence. Down-regulation of MT in MCF-7 cells by silencing the MT-2A gene (the most abundantly expressed of the 10 known functional MT isoforms) increased chemosensitivity of the cells to doxorubicin. To examine the mechanisms underlying these clinical data, we used siRNAs to decrease MT-2A mRNA expression and protein expression. In MT down-regulated cells challenged with the IC(50) concentration of doxorubicin, we observed a significant reduction in cell viability. Cell cycle analysis also revealed a corresponding increase in apoptosis in the MT down-regulated cells following doxorubicin exposure, showing that down-regulation of MT increased susceptibility to doxorubicin cytotoxicity. The data suggest that MT could be a potential marker of chemoresistance and a molecular therapeutic target. PMID:19116991

Yap, Xinli; Tan, Hong-Yong; Huang, Jingxiang; Lai, Yiyang; Yip, George Wai-Cheong; Tan, Puay-Hoon; Bay, Boon-Huat

2009-03-01

38

The clinical significance between activation of nuclear factor kappa B transcription factor and overexpression of HER2\\/neu oncoprotein in Taiwanese patients with breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study investigated the role of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activity in human breast cancer with overexpression of HER-2\\/neu oncoprotein, as well as its role on expression of different histological grades of cancer cells taken from Taiwanese breast cancer patients. Materials and methods: Specimens were collected from 82 female breast cancer patients. The HER-2\\/neu oncoprotein was measured by immunohistochemistry.

Ming-Feng Hou; Shwu-Bin Lin; Shyng-Shiou F. Yuan; Shih-Meng Tsai; Szu-Hua Wu; Fu Ou-Yang; Jan-Shih Hsieh; Kun-Bow Tsai; Tsung-Jen Huang; Li-Yu Tsai

2003-01-01

39

Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) in Cancers: Overexpression and Therapeutic Implications  

PubMed Central

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family having tyrosine kinase activity. Dimerization of the receptor results in the autophosphorylation of tyrosine residues within the cytoplasmic domain of the receptors and initiates a variety of signaling pathways leading to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Amplification or overexpression of HER2 occurs in approximately 15–30% of breast cancers and 10–30% of gastric/gastroesophageal cancers and serves as a prognostic and predictive biomarker. HER2 overexpression has also been seen in other cancers like ovary, endometrium, bladder, lung, colon, and head and neck. The introduction of HER2 directed therapies has dramatically influenced the outcome of patients with HER2 positive breast and gastric/gastroesophageal cancers; however, the results have been proved disappointing in other HER2 overexpressing cancers. This review discusses the role of HER2 in various cancers and therapeutic modalities available targeting HER2. PMID:25276427

Iqbal, Nida; Iqbal, Naveed

2014-01-01

40

A novel H19 antisense RNA overexpressed in breast cancer contributes to paternal IGF2 expression.  

PubMed

The H19/IGFf2 locus belongs to a large imprinted domain located on human chromosome 11p15.5 (homologue to mouse distal chromosome 7). The H19 gene is expressed from the maternal allele, while IGF2 is paternally expressed. Natural antisense transcripts and intergenic transcription have been involved in many aspects of eukaryotic gene expression, including genomic imprinting and RNA interference. However, apart from the identification of some IGF2 antisense transcripts, few data are available on that topic at the H19/IGF2 locus. We identify here a novel transcriptional activity at both the human and the mouse H19/IGF2 imprinted loci. This activity occurs antisense to the H19 gene and has the potential to produce a single 120-kb transcript that we called the 91H RNA. This nuclear and short-lived RNA is not imprinted in mouse but is expressed predominantly from the maternal allele in both mice and humans within the H19 gene region. Moreover, the transcript is stabilized in breast cancer cells and overexpressed in human breast tumors. Finally, knockdown experiments showed that, in humans, 91H, rather than affecting H19 expression, regulates IGF2 expression in trans. PMID:18794369

Berteaux, Nathalie; Aptel, Nathalie; Cathala, Guy; Genton, Céline; Coll, Jean; Daccache, Anthony; Spruyt, Nathalie; Hondermarck, Hubert; Dugimont, Thierry; Curgy, Jean-Jacques; Forné, Thierry; Adriaenssens, Eric

2008-11-01

41

A Novel H19 Antisense RNA Overexpressed in Breast Cancer Contributes to Paternal IGF2 Expression? †  

PubMed Central

The H19/IGFf2 locus belongs to a large imprinted domain located on human chromosome 11p15.5 (homologue to mouse distal chromosome 7). The H19 gene is expressed from the maternal allele, while IGF2 is paternally expressed. Natural antisense transcripts and intergenic transcription have been involved in many aspects of eukaryotic gene expression, including genomic imprinting and RNA interference. However, apart from the identification of some IGF2 antisense transcripts, few data are available on that topic at the H19/IGF2 locus. We identify here a novel transcriptional activity at both the human and the mouse H19/IGF2 imprinted loci. This activity occurs antisense to the H19 gene and has the potential to produce a single 120-kb transcript that we called the 91H RNA. This nuclear and short-lived RNA is not imprinted in mouse but is expressed predominantly from the maternal allele in both mice and humans within the H19 gene region. Moreover, the transcript is stabilized in breast cancer cells and overexpressed in human breast tumors. Finally, knockdown experiments showed that, in humans, 91H, rather than affecting H19 expression, regulates IGF2 expression in trans. PMID:18794369

Berteaux, Nathalie; Aptel, Nathalie; Cathala, Guy; Genton, Celine; Coll, Jean; Daccache, Anthony; Spruyt, Nathalie; Hondermarck, Hubert; Dugimont, Thierry; Curgy, Jean-Jacques; Forne, Thierry; Adriaenssens, Eric

2008-01-01

42

HOXB7, a Homeodomain Protein, Is Overexpressed in Breast Cancer and Confers Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is increasingly rec- ognized as a mechanism whereby cells in primary noninvasive tumors acquire properties essential for migration and inva- sion. Microarray analyses of microdissected epithelial cells from bone metastasis revealed a HOXB7 overexpression that was 3-fold higher than in primary breast carcinomas and 18- fold higher compared with normal breast. This led us to investigate the

Xinyan Wu; Belinda Parker; Ethel Rubin; Tao Zhu; Ji Shin Lee; Pedram Argani; Saraswati Sukumar

43

Aluminium and human breast diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human breast is exposed to aluminium from many sources including diet and personal care products, but dermal application of aluminium-based antiperspirant salts provides a local long-term source of exposure. Recent measurements have shown that aluminium is present in both tissue and fat of the human breast but at levels which vary both between breasts and between tissue samples from

P. D. Darbre; D. Pugazhendhi; F. Mannello

44

Overexpression of Oct4 suppresses the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells via Rnd1 downregulation.  

PubMed

Although Oct4 is known as a critical transcription factor involved in maintaining "stemness", its role in tumor metastasis is still controversial. Herein, we overexpressed and silenced Oct4 expression in two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and 4T1, separately. Our data showed that ectopic overexpression of Oct4 suppressed cell migration and invasion in vitro and the formation of metastatic lung nodules in vivo. Conversely, Oct4 downregulation increased the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we identified Rnd1 as the downstream target of Oct4 by ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis, which was significantly downregulated upon Oct4 overexpression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed the binding of Oct4 to the promoter region of Rnd1 by ectopic overexpression of Oct4. Dual luciferase assays indicated that Oct4 overexpression suppressed transcriptional activity of the Rnd1 promoter. Moreover, overexpression of Rnd1 partially rescued the inhibitory effects of Oct4 on the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Overexpression of Rnd1 counteracted the influence of Oct4 on the formation of cell adhesion and lamellipodia, which implied a potential underlying mechanism involving Rnd1. In addition, we also found that overexpression of Oct4 led to an elevation of E-cadherin expression, even in 4T1 cells that possess a relatively high basal level of E-cadherin. Rnd1 overexpression impaired the promoting effects of Oct4 on E-cadherin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. These results suggest that Oct4 affects the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells through Rnd1-mediated effects that influence cell motility and E-cadherin expression. PMID:25068817

Shen, Long; Qin, Kunhua; Wang, Dekun; Zhang, Yan; Bai, Nan; Yang, Shengyong; Luo, Yunping; Xiang, Rong; Tan, Xiaoyue

2014-11-01

45

Amplification and overexpression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor binding protein (PBP/PPARBP) gene in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor binding protein (PBP), a nuclear receptor coactivator, interacts with estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) in the absence of estrogen. This interaction was enhanced in the presence of estrogen but was reduced in the presence of antiestrogen, tamoxifen. Transfection of PBP in CV-1 cells resulted in enhancement of estrogen-dependent transcription, indicating that PBP serves as a coactivator in ER signaling. To examine whether overexpression of PBP plays a role in breast cancer because of its coactivator function in ER signaling, we determined the levels of PBP expression in breast tumors. High levels of PBP expression were detected in approximately 50% of primary breast cancers and breast cancer cell lines by ribonuclease protection analysis, in situ hybridization, and immunoperoxidase staining. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of human chromosomes revealed that the PBP gene is located on chromosome 17q12, a region that is amplified in some breast cancers. We found PBP gene amplification in approximately 24% (6/25) of breast tumors and approximately 30% (2/6) of breast cancer cell lines, implying that PBP gene overexpression can occur independent of gene amplification. This gene comprises 17 exons that, together, span >37 kilobases. The 5'-flanking region of 2.5 kilobase pairs inserted into a luciferase reporter vector revealed that the promoter activity in CV-1 cells increased by deletion of nucleotides from -2,500 to -273. The -273 to +1 region, which exhibited high promoter activity, contains a typical CCAT box and multiple cis-elements such as C/EBPbeta, YY1, c-Ets-1, AP1, AP2, and NFkappaB binding sites. These observations, in particular PBP gene amplification, suggest that PBP, by its ability to function as ERalpha coactivator, might play a role in mammary epithelial differentiation and in breast carcinogenesis. PMID:10485914

Zhu, Y; Qi, C; Jain, S; Le Beau, M M; Espinosa, R; Atkins, G B; Lazar, M A; Yeldandi, A V; Rao, M S; Reddy, J K

1999-09-14

46

Therapeutic strategies and mechanisms of tumorigenesis of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer  

PubMed Central

1. Abstract The receptor tyrosine kinase HER2 is overexpressed in approximately 25% of breast cancers. HER2 acts as a signal amplifier for its siblings, namely three different transmembrane receptors that collectively bind with 11 distinct growth factors of the EGF family. Thus, overexpression of HER2 confers aggressive invasive growth in preclinical models and in patients. Specific therapies targeting HER2 include monoclonal antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, as well as heat shock protein and sheddase inhibitors. Two of these drugs have shown impressive – yet mostly transient – efficacy in patients with HER2 overexpressing breast cancer. We highlight the biological roles of HER2 in breast cancer progression, and overview the available therapeutic armamentarium directed against this receptor-kinase molecule. Focusing on the mechanisms that confer resistance to individual HER2 targeting agents, we envisage therapeutic approaches to delay or overcome the evolvement of resistance in patients. PMID:20951604

Emde, Anna; Kostler, Wolfgang J.; Yarden, Yosef

2010-01-01

47

Effects of Humoral Immunity and Calreticulin Overexpression on Postoperative Course in Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to investigate whether the humoral immunity and overexpression of calreticulin in tumor tissue determined before\\u000a surgery, correlate with incidence of metastases in breast cancer patients within two years after operation. Before operation,\\u000a their humoral immunity and overexpression of caleticulin and Her-2\\/neu in tumor tissue were analyzed by immunohystochemistry.\\u000a In 23 patients with metastases in regionally lymph nodes,

Aleksandra Eri?; Zorica Jurani?; Zorka Milovanovi?; Ivan Markovi?; Mom?ilo Ini?; Nevenka Stanojevi?-Baki?; Vesna Vojinovi?-Golubovi?

2009-01-01

48

Development of the Human Breast  

PubMed Central

Mammalia are so named based on the presence of the mammary gland in the breast. The mammary gland is an epidermal appendage, derived from the apocrine glands. The human breast consists of the parenchyma and stroma, originating from ectodermal and mesodermal elements, respectively. Development of the human breast is distinctive for several reasons. The human breast houses the mammary gland that produces and delivers milk through development of an extensive tree-like network of branched ducts. It is also characterized by cellular plasticity, with extensive remodeling in adulthood, a factor that increases its susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Also, breast development occurs in distinct stages via complex epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, orchestrated by signaling pathways under the regulation of systemic hormones. Congenital and acquired disorders of the breast often have a basis in development, making its study essential to understanding breast pathology. PMID:24872732

Javed, Asma; Lteif, Aida

2013-01-01

49

Overexpression of c-erbB2 is an independent marker of resistance to endocrine therapy in advanced breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the interaction between c-erbB2 overexpression and the response to first-line endocrine therapy in patients with advanced breast cancer. The primary tumours of 241 patients who were treated at first relapse with endocrine therapy were assessed for overexpression of c-erbB2 by immunohistochemistry. c-erbB2 was overexpressed in 76 (32%) of primary breast cancers and did not correlate with

S J Houston; T A Plunkett; D M Barnes; P Smith; R D Rubens; D W Miles

1999-01-01

50

Overexpression of Calreticulin in Malignant and Benign Breast Tumors: Relationship with Humoral Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Calreticulin is a multicompartmental protein which regulates many important cellular responses. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether the intensity and location of calreticulin overexpression in tumor cells are related to the elevated humoral immunity to calreticulin in patients with benign or malignant breast disease. Methods: This study involved 27 patients with benign and 58 patients with

Daniel Sánchez; Aneta Pekáriková; Marko Buta

2012-01-01

51

Dicer-Mediated Upregulation of BCRP Confers Tamoxifen Resistance in Human Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose Tamoxifen (Tam) is the most prescribed hormonal agent for treatment of estrogen receptor ?-positive breast cancer patients. Using microarray analysis, we observed that metastatic breast tumors resistant to Tam therapy had elevated levels of Dicer. Experimental Design We overexpressed Dicer in ER?-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and observed a concomitant increase in expression of the breast cancer resistance protein BCRP. We thus hypothesized that Tam resistance associated with Dicer overexpression in ER?-positive breast cancer cells may involve BCRP. We analyzed BCRP function in Dicer-overexpressing cells using growth in soft agar and mammosphere formation, and evaluated intracellular Tam efflux. Results In the presence of Tam, Dicer-overexpressing cells formed resistant colonies in soft agar, and treatment with BCRP inhibitors restored Tam sensitivity. Tumor xenograft studies confirmed that Dicer-overexpressing cells were resistant to Tam in vivo. Tumors and distant metastases could be initiated with as few as 5 mammosphere cells from both vector and Dicer-overexpressing cells, indicating that the mammosphere assay selected for cells with enhanced tumor initiating and metastatic capacity. Dicer-overexpressing cells with elevated levels of BCRP, effluxed Tam more efficiently than control cells, and BCRP inhibitors were able to inhibit efflux. Conclusion Dicer-overexpressing breast cancer cells enriched for cells with enhanced BCRP function. We hypothesize that it is this population which may be involved in the emergence of Tam-resistant growth. BCRP may be a novel clinical target to restore Tam sensitivity. PMID:21878538

Selever, Jennifer; Gu, Guowei; Lewis, Michael T.; Beyer, Amanda; Herynk, Matthew H.; Covington, Kyle R.; Tsimelzon, Anna; Dontu, Gabriela; Provost, Patrick; Di Pietro, Attilio; Boumendjel, Ahcene; Albain, Kathy; Miele, Lucio; Weiss, Heidi; Barone, Ines; Ando, Sebastiano; Fuqua, Suzanne A. W.

2012-01-01

52

Multicenter Phase II Study of Neoadjuvant Lapatinib and Trastuzumab With Hormonal Therapy and Without Chemotherapy in Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer: TBCRC 006  

PubMed Central

Purpose We previously reported the eradication of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)– amplified human xenografts in mice by inhibition of the HER2 pathway with lapatinib and trastuzumab to block all homo- and heterodimer signaling as well as by blockade of estrogen receptor (ER) when expressed. In this clinical trial, we sought to translate these findings to patients using targeted therapy without chemotherapy. Patients and Methods Women with stages II to III HER2-positive breast cancers were eligible. They received trastuzumab once per week (4 mg/kg loading, then 2 mg/kg) and lapatinib 1000 mg once per day for 12 weeks. Women with ER-positive tumors also received letrozole (plus a luteinizing hormone–releasing hormone [LHRH] agonist if premenopausal). Pathologic response was assessed by ER status. Biopsies were obtained at baseline, weeks 2 and 8, and time of surgery. Results Sixty-six patients were enrolled, and 64 were eligible and evaluable for response. Median tumor size was 6 cm (range, 1.5 to 30 cm). Adverse events were mainly grades 1 to 2 (GI, 63%; skin, 46%). Grade 3 metabolic, GI, and liver (18%; 12 patients) and grade 4 liver toxicities (one patient) were also observed. Overall, in-breast pathologic complete response (pCR; ypT0-is) was 27% (ER positive, 21%; ER negative, 36%). The rate of low-volume residual disease (ypT1a-b) was 22% (ER positive, 33%; ER negative, 4%). Conclusion In patients with locally advanced HER2-positive breast cancer, our approach of targeted therapy only resulted in a high pCR rate without chemotherapy. Our data support the hypothesis that selected patients with HER2-positive tumors may not need chemotherapy, and more-complete blockade of HER receptors and ER is an effective strategy worthy of further study. PMID:23569315

Rimawi, Mothaffar F.; Mayer, Ingrid A.; Forero, Andres; Nanda, Rita; Goetz, Matthew P.; Rodriguez, Angel A.; Pavlick, Anne C.; Wang, Tao; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Gutierrez, Carolina; Schiff, Rachel; Osborne, C. Kent; Chang, Jenny C.

2013-01-01

53

The bacterial protein azurin impairs invasion and FAK/Src signaling in P-cadherin-overexpressing breast cancer cell models.  

PubMed

P-cadherin overexpression occurs in about 30% of all breast carcinomas, being a poor prognostic factor for breast cancer patients. In a cellular background of wild-type E-cadherin, we have previously shown that its expression promotes invasion, motility and migration of breast cancer cells due to the induced secretion of metalloproteases (MMPs) to the extracellular medium and to the concomitant shedding of a pro-invasive soluble form of this protein (sP-cad). Azurin is secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and induces in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity after its preferential penetration in human cancer cells relative to normal cells. Three different breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7/AZ.Mock, MCF-7/AZ.Pcad and SUM149 were treated with sub-killing doses of azurin. Invasion of these cells was measured using Matrigel Invasion Assays and MTT assays were performed to determine cell viability upon treatment and the effects on cadherins expression was determined by Western blot and Immunofluorescence. Gelatin Zymography was used to determine activity of MMP2 in the conditioned media of azurin treated and untreated cells and the phosphorylation levels of intracellular signaling proteins were determined by Western blot. The invasive phenotype of these breast cancer cells was significantly reduced by azurin. Azurin (50-100 µM) also caused a specific decrease on P-cadherin protein levels from 30-50% in MCF-7/AZ.Pcad and SUM149 breast cancer cell lines, but the levels of E-cadherin remain unaltered. More, the levels of sP-cad and the activity of MMP2 were reduced in the extracellular media of azurin treated cells and we also observed a decrease in the phosphorylation levels of both FAK and Src proteins. Our data show that azurin specifically targets P-cadherin, not E-cadherin, abrogating P-cadherin-mediated invasive effects and signaling. Therefore, azurin could possibly be considered a therapeutic tool to treat poor-prognosis breast carcinomas overexpressing P-cadherin in a wild type E-cadherin context. PMID:23894398

Bernardes, Nuno; Ribeiro, Ana Sofia; Abreu, Sofia; Mota, Bruna; Matos, Rute G; Arraiano, Cecilia M; Seruca, Raquel; Paredes, Joana; Fialho, Arsenio M

2013-01-01

54

Overexpression of POLQ Confers a Poor Prognosis in Early Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Depletion of POLQ (DNA polymerase theta) has recently been shown to render tumour cells more sensitive to radiotherapy whilst having little or no effect on normal tissues. This finding led us to investigate whether tumours that overexpress POLQ are associated with an adverse outcome. We therefore correlated the clinical outcomes of two retrospective series of patients with early breast cancer with the expression levels of POLQ, as determined by microarray gene expression analysis. We found that a significant number of tumours overexpressed POLQ and that overexpression was correlated with ER negative disease (p=0.047) and high tumour grade (p=0.004), both of which are associated with poor clinical outcomes. POLQ overexpression was associated with poor relapse free survival rates on both univariate (HR 5.80; 95% CI, 2.220 to 15.159; p<0.001) and multivariate analysis (HR 8.086; 95% CI 2.340 to 27.948 p=0.001). Analysis of other published clinical series confirmed that POLQ overexpression is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The poor prognosis associated with POLQ is independent of other clinical or pathological features. The mechanism that causes this adverse outcome remains to be elucidated but may in part arise from resistance to adjuvant treatment. These findings, combined with the limited normal tissue expression of POLQ, make it a very appealing target for possible clinical exploitation. PMID:20700469

Higgins, Geoff S; Harris, Adrian L; Prevo, Remko; Helleday, Thomas

2010-01-01

55

CHL1 is involved in human breast tumorigenesis and progression  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •CHL1 is down-regulation in breast cancer tissues. •Down-regulation of CHL1 is related to high grade. •Overexpression of CHL1 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. •CHL1 deficiency induces breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Neural cell adhesion molecules (CAM) play important roles in the development and regeneration of the nervous system. The L1 family of CAMs is comprised of L1, Close Homolog of L1 (CHL1, L1CAM2), NrCAM, and Neurofascin, which are structurally related trans-membrane proteins in vertebrates. Although the L1CAM has been demonstrated play important role in carcinogenesis and progression, the function of CHL1 in human breast cancer is limited. Here, we found that CHL1 is down-regulated in human breast cancer and related to lower grade. Furthermore, overexpression of CHL1 suppresses proliferation and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells and knockdown of CHL1 expression results in increased proliferation and invasion in MCF7 cells in vitro. Finally, CHL1 deficiency promotes tumor formation in vivo. Our results may provide a strategy for blocking breast carcinogenesis and progression.

He, Li-Hong [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China) [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Ma, Qin [Department of Oncology, The General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin (China)] [Department of Oncology, The General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin (China); Shi, Ye-Hui [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China) [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Ge, Jie; Zhao, Hong-Meng [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China) [Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Breast Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Li, Shu-Fen [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China) [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Tong, Zhong-Sheng, E-mail: 83352162@qq.com [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China) [Medical Department of Breast Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin (China)

2013-08-23

56

Mitotic perturbations induced by Nek2 overexpression require interaction with TRF1 in breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

NIMA-related kinase 2 (Nek2), a serine-threonine protein kinase, plays a major role in mitotic progression, including timing of mitotic entry, chromatin condensation, spindle organization, and cytokinesis. Nek2 overexpression results in premature centrosome separation, while kinase death Nek2 mutant expression or Nek2-depleted cells lead to centrosome separation failure. In addition, it has been revealed that telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1) interacts directly with Nek2. TRF1 not only regulates telomere length, but is also associated with cell cycle regulation. However, the interactions and correlations between Nek2 and TRF1 are far from clear. Here, we show that mitotic aberrations through Nek2 overexpression are likely to require TRF1. Our results demonstrate that Nek2 directly binds and phosphorylates TRF1 through multiple sites on TRF1. Nek2 overexpression in breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MCF7, results in increased numbers of centrosomes and multinucleated cells, which leads to cytokinetic failure and aneuploidization. Additionally, TRF1 depletion by siRNA prevents the phenomenon of unaligned chromosomes by Nek2 overexpression during metaphase. Concurrent Nek2 overexpression and TRF1-depleted cells demonstrated ? 2 centrosomes per cell, similar to mock plasmid and negative control siRNA-transfected cells. Interestingly, when exogenous TRF1 was added back in Nek2-overexpressed cells with endogenous TRF1 depletion, cells had re-induced cytokinetic failure. Therefore, we propose that TRF1 is required for overexpressed Nek2 to trigger abnormal mitosis and chromosomal instability. PMID:24091727

Lee, Jaehyung; Gollahon, Lauren

2013-12-01

57

BRCA1/p220 loss triggers BRCA1-IRIS overexpression via mRNA stabilization in breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

BRCA1/p220-assocaited and triple negative/basal-like (TN/BL) tumors are aggressive and incurable breast cancer diseases that share among other features the no/low BRCA1/p220 expression. Here we show that BRCA1/p220 silencing in normal human mammary epithelial (HME) cells reduces expression of two RNA-destabilizing proteins, namely AUF1 and pCBP2, both proteins bind and destabilize BRCA1-IRIS mRNA. BRCA1-IRIS overexpression in HME cells triggers expression of several TN/BL markers, e.g., cytokeratins 5 and 17, p-cadherin, EGFR and cyclin E as well as expression and activation of the pro-survival proteins; AKT and survivin. BRCA1-IRIS silencing in the TN/BL cell line, SUM149 or restoration of BRCA1/p220 expression in the mutant cell line, HCC1937 reduced expression of TN/BL markers, AKT and survivin and induced cell death. Collectively, we propose that BRCA1/p220 loss of expression or function triggers BRCA1-IRIS overexpression through a post-transcriptional mechanism, which in turn promotes formation of aggressive and invasive breast tumors by inducing expression of TN/BL and survival proteins. PMID:22431556

Shimizu, Yoshiko; Mullins, Nicole; Blanchard, Zannel; Elshamy, Wael M

2012-03-01

58

Geminin overexpression promotes imatinib sensitive breast cancer: a novel treatment approach for aggressive breast cancers, including a subset of triple negative.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype that affects 10-25% mostly African American women. TNBC has the poorest prognosis of all subtypes with rapid progression leading to mortality in younger patients. So far, there is no targeted treatment for TNBC. To that end, here we show that c-Abl is one of several tyrosine kinases that phosphorylate and activate geminin's ability to promote TNBC. Analysis of >800 breast tumor samples showed that geminin is overexpressed in ?50% of all tumors. Although c-Abl is overexpressed in ?90% of all tumors, it is only nuclear in geminin overexpressing tumors. In geminin-negative tumors, c-Abl is only cytoplasmic. Inhibiting c-Abl expression or activity (using imatinib or nilotinib) prevented geminin Y150 phosphorylation, inactivated the protein, and most importantly converted overexpressed geminin from an oncogene to an apoptosis inducer. In pre-clinical orthotopic breast tumor models, geminin-overexpressing cells developed aneuploid and invasive tumors, which were suppressed when c-Abl expression was blocked. Moreover, established geminin overexpressing orthotopic tumors regressed when treated with imatinib or nilotinib. Our studies support imatinib/nilotonib as a novel treatment option for patients with aggressive breast cancer (including a subset of TNBCs)-overexpressing geminin and nuclear c-Abl. PMID:24789045

Blanchard, Zannel; Mullins, Nicole; Ellipeddi, Pavani; Lage, Janice M; McKinney, Shawn; El-Etriby, Rana; Zhang, Xu; Isokpehi, Raphael; Hernandez, Brenda; Elshamy, Wael M

2014-01-01

59

Overexpressed ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 in breast cancer promotes cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53.  

PubMed

Ubiquitin ligase Cullin7 has been identified as an oncogene in some malignant diseases such as choriocarcinoma and neuroblastoma. However, the role of Cullin7 in breast cancer carcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we compared Cullin7 protein levels in breast cancer tissues with normal breast tissues and identified significantly higher expression of Cullin7 protein in breast cancer specimens. By overexpressing Cullin7 in breast cancer cells HCC1937, we found that Cullin7 could promote cell growth and invasion in vitro. In contrast, the cell growth and invasion was inhibited by silencing Cullin7 in breast cancer cell BT474. Moreover, we demonstrated that Cullin7 promoted breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion via down-regulating p53 expression. Thus, our study provided evidence that Cullin7 functions as a novel oncogene in breast cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer management. PMID:25003318

Guo, Hongsheng; Wu, Fenping; Wang, Yan; Yan, Chong; Su, Wenmei

2014-08-01

60

Correlation of breast cancer risk factors with HER2\\/neu protein overexpression according to menopausal and estrogen receptor status  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several researchers have claimed that classification of tumours on the basis of HER-2\\/neu overexpression or amplification may define a subset of breast cancer in which the net effect of a risk factor could be rather more obvious and its impact on breast cancer development more clear. We decided to investigate, in a group of patients from a geographical area

Nikos Tsakountakis; Elias Sanidas; Efstathios Stathopoulos; Maria Kafousi; Nektaria Anogiannaki; Vasilis Georgoulias; Dimitris D Tsiftsis

2005-01-01

61

Overexpression of 14-3-3? promotes tumor metastasis and indicates poor prognosis in breast carcinoma  

PubMed Central

An isoform of the 14-3-3 protein family, 14-3-3? has been linked with tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, the role of 14-3-3? in the progression of breast cancer remains unknown. Here, we report that 14-3-3? plays a critical role in breast cancer metastasis and prognosis. The expression of 14-3-3? was markedly higher in breast cancer tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues. A hospital-based study cohort of 216 breast cancer patients was evaluated in this study. The level of 14-3-3? expression was determined and correlated based upon tumor clinicopathological features, disease-free survival, and overall survival. We found that overexpression of 14-3-3? was correlated with advanced TNM stage (P < 0.05), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05), and ER negative status (P < 0.05). Breast cancer patients with high 14-3-3? expression had a shorter overall survival and a higher rate of recurrence than those with low 14-3-3? expression. Additionally, knockdown of 14-3-3? expression in breast cancer cells inhibited metastasis in vitro. Similarly, an in vivo assay showed that 14-3-3? knockdown dramatically suppressed the growth of breast cancer xenografts and inhibited tumor cell metastasis in a lung metastasis model. Thus, this study provided the first evidence that 14-3-3? is a novel tumor suppressor and may serve as a candidate prognostic biomarker and target for new therapies in metastatic breast cancer. PMID:24371149

Fan, Jing; Tong, Chao; Yang, Jixin; Wei, Hongliang; Yi, Jun; Ling, Rui

2014-01-01

62

Jadomycins are cytotoxic to ABCB1-, ABCC1-, and ABCG2-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance remains a major obstacle in the effective treatment of metastatic breast cancer. One mechanism by which multidrug resistance is conferred is the decreased intracellular drug accumulation due to the upregulation of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. We have previously demonstrated that jadomycins, polyketide-derived natural products produced by Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230, inhibit the growth of the human breast ductal carcinoma cell lines T47D and MDA-MB-435. To expand our understanding of jadomycin pharmacology, the goal of the present study was to determine whether the function of ABC efflux transporters affects the anticancer activity of jadomycins to MCF7 breast cancer cells. Seven jadomycin analogs (DNV, B, L, SPhG, F, S, and T) effectively reduced the viability of MCF7 control and ABCB1-, ABCC1-, or ABCG2-overexpressing drug-resistant MCF7 breast cancer cells as measured by methyltetrazolium cell viability assays and lactate dehydrogenase cytotoxicity assays. The inhibition of ABCB1, ABCC1, or ABCG2 with verapamil, MK-571, or Ko-143, respectively, did not augment the cytotoxicity of jadomycins DNV, B, L, SPhG, F, S, or T in drug-resistant MCF7 cells. Furthermore, jadomycins B, L, SPhG, F, S, and T did not increase the intracellular accumulation of ABCB1, ABCC1, or ABCG2 fluorescent substrates in HEK-293 cells stably transfected with ABCB1, ABCC1, or ABCG2. We conclude that jadomycins B, L, SPhG, F, S, and T are effective agents in the eradication of MCF7 breast cancer cells grown in culture, and that their cytotoxicities are minimally affected by ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2 efflux transporter function. PMID:24231527

Issa, Mark E; Hall, Steven R; Dupuis, Stephanie N; Graham, Cathy L; Jakeman, David L; Goralski, Kerry B

2014-03-01

63

Protein Profiling of Human Breast Tumor Cells Identifies Novel Biomarkers Associated with Molecular Subtypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular subtypes of breast cancer with relevant bio- logical and clinical features have been defined recently, notably ERBB2-overexpressing, basal-like, and luminal- like subtypes. To investigate the ability of mass spec- trometry-based proteomics technologies to analyze the molecular complexity of human breast cancer, we per- formed a SELDI-TOF MS-based protein profiling of hu- man breast cell lines (BCLs). Triton-soluble proteins from

Anthony Goncalves; Emmanuelle Charafe-Jauffret; Francois Bertucci; Stephane Audebert; Yves Toiron; Benjamin Esterni; Florence Monville; Carole Tarpin; Jocelyne Jacquemier; Gilles Houvenaeghel; Christian Chabannon; Jean-Marc Extra; Patrice Viens; Jean-Paul Borg; D. Birnbaum

2008-01-01

64

Trastuzumab induces gastrointestinal side effects in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Purpose: To characterise the gastrointestinal toxicities associated with Trastuzumab administration in HER2-overexpressing breast\\u000a cancer patients. Methods: All patients (n?=?46) who received Trastuzumab as a single agent or in conjunction with conventional anti-cancer treatment within the Royal\\u000a Adelaide Hospital Cancer Centre from 2002–2007 were included in this study. A retrospective analysis of case-notes was conducted\\u000a to investigate the toxicities associated

Noor Al-Dasooqi; Joanne M. Bowen; Rachel J. Gibson; Thomas Sullivan; Jude Lees; Dorothy M. Keefe

2009-01-01

65

Chemokine CXCL13 is overexpressed in the tumour tissue and in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abilities of chemokines in orchestrating cellular migration are utilised by different (patho-)biological networks including malignancies. However, except for CXCR4\\/CXCL12, little is known about the relation between tumour-related chemokine expression and the development and progression of solid tumours like breast cancer. In this study, microarray analyses revealed the overexpression of chemokine CXCL13 in breast cancer specimens. This finding was confirmed

J Panse; K Friedrichs; A Marx; Y Hildebrandt; T Luetkens; K Bartels; C Horn; T Stahl; Y Cao; K Milde-Langosch; A Niendorf; N Kröger; S Wenzel; R Leuwer; C Bokemeyer; S Hegewisch-Becker; D Atanackovic

2008-01-01

66

HER2/ErbB2 activates HSF1 and thereby controls HSP90 clients including MIF in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer.  

PubMed

Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) in breast cancer strongly correlates with aggressive tumors and poor prognosis. Recently, a positive correlation between HER2 and MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor, a tumor-promoting protein and heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) client) protein levels was shown in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanistic link remained unknown. Here we show that overexpressed HER2 constitutively activates heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1), the master transcriptional regulator of the inducible proteotoxic stress response of heat-shock chaperones, including HSP90, and a crucial factor in initiation and maintenance of the malignant state. Inhibiting HER2 pharmacologically by Lapatinib (a dual HER2/epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) or CP724.714 (a specific HER2 inhibitor), or by knockdown via siRNA leads to inhibition of phosphoactivated Ser326 HSF1, and subsequently blocks the activity of the HSP90 chaperone machinery in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer lines. Consequently, HSP90 clients, including MIF, AKT, mutant p53 and HSF1 itself, become destabilized, which in turn inhibits tumor proliferation. Mechanistically, HER2 signals via the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT- mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis to induce activated pSer326 HSF1. Heat-shock stress experiments confirm this functional link between HER2 and HSF1, as HER2 (and PI3K) inhibition attenuate the HSF1-mediated heat-shock response. Importantly, we confirmed this axis in vivo. In the mouse model of HER2-driven breast cancer, ErbB2 inhibition by Lapatinib strongly suppresses tumor progression, and this is associated with inactivation of the HSF1 pathway. Moreover, ErbB2-overexpressing cancer cells derived from a primary mouse ErbB2 tumor also show HSF1 inactivation and HSP90 client destabilization in response to ErbB2 inhibition. Furthermore, in HER2-positive human breast cancers HER2 levels strongly correlate with pSer326 HSF1 activity. Our results show for the first time that HER2/ErbB2 overexpression controls HSF1 activity, with subsequent stabilization of numerous tumor-promoting HSP90 clients such as MIF, AKT and HSF1 itself, thereby causing a robust promotion in tumor growth in HER2-positive breast cancer. PMID:24384723

Schulz, R; Streller, F; Scheel, A H; Rüschoff, J; Reinert, M-C; Dobbelstein, M; Marchenko, N D; Moll, U M

2014-01-01

67

HER2/ErbB2 activates HSF1 and thereby controls HSP90 clients including MIF in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) in breast cancer strongly correlates with aggressive tumors and poor prognosis. Recently, a positive correlation between HER2 and MIF (macrophage migration inhibitory factor, a tumor-promoting protein and heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) client) protein levels was shown in cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanistic link remained unknown. Here we show that overexpressed HER2 constitutively activates heat-shock factor 1 (HSF1), the master transcriptional regulator of the inducible proteotoxic stress response of heat-shock chaperones, including HSP90, and a crucial factor in initiation and maintenance of the malignant state. Inhibiting HER2 pharmacologically by Lapatinib (a dual HER2/epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) or CP724.714 (a specific HER2 inhibitor), or by knockdown via siRNA leads to inhibition of phosphoactivated Ser326 HSF1, and subsequently blocks the activity of the HSP90 chaperone machinery in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer lines. Consequently, HSP90 clients, including MIF, AKT, mutant p53 and HSF1 itself, become destabilized, which in turn inhibits tumor proliferation. Mechanistically, HER2 signals via the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)–AKT– mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis to induce activated pSer326 HSF1. Heat-shock stress experiments confirm this functional link between HER2 and HSF1, as HER2 (and PI3K) inhibition attenuate the HSF1-mediated heat-shock response. Importantly, we confirmed this axis in vivo. In the mouse model of HER2-driven breast cancer, ErbB2 inhibition by Lapatinib strongly suppresses tumor progression, and this is associated with inactivation of the HSF1 pathway. Moreover, ErbB2-overexpressing cancer cells derived from a primary mouse ErbB2 tumor also show HSF1 inactivation and HSP90 client destabilization in response to ErbB2 inhibition. Furthermore, in HER2-positive human breast cancers HER2 levels strongly correlate with pSer326 HSF1 activity. Our results show for the first time that HER2/ErbB2 overexpression controls HSF1 activity, with subsequent stabilization of numerous tumor-promoting HSP90 clients such as MIF, AKT and HSF1 itself, thereby causing a robust promotion in tumor growth in HER2-positive breast cancer. PMID:24384723

Schulz, R; Streller, F; Scheel, A H; Ruschoff, J; Reinert, M-C; Dobbelstein, M; Marchenko, N D; Moll, U M

2014-01-01

68

Agonists and antagonists of GnRH-I and -II reduce metastasis formation by triple-negative human breast cancer cells in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metastasis to bone is a frequent problem of advanced breast cancer. Particularly breast cancers, which do not express estrogen\\u000a and progesterone receptors and which have no overexpression\\/amplification of the HER2-neu gene, so called triple-negative\\u000a breast cancers, are considered as very aggressive and possess a bad prognosis. About 60% of all human breast cancers and about\\u000a 74% of triple-negative breast cancers

Antje Schubert; Thomas Hawighorst; Günter Emons; Carsten Gründker

69

Overexpression of cyclinD1 predicts for poor prognosis in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients.  

PubMed

CyclinD1 plays a critical role in regulating cell cycle progression. CyclinD1 mRNA and protein are overexpressed in approximately 50% of primary breast cancer cases. However, its clinical significance as a predictive factor remains unclear. One hundred and seventy-three female patients diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma who had undergone a mastectomy (161 patients) or breast-conserving surgery (12 patients) were followed up for 6-119 months (median 86 months) postoperatively. Immunoreactivity for monoclonal anti-cyclinD1 antibody (clone DCS-6) with paraffin-embedded carcinoma tissues was investigated using a labeled streptavidin-biotin method. Overexpression of cyclinD1 was found in 42% (73 of 173), and strongly correlated with estrogen receptor (ER) expression (p < 0.000001). Univariate analysis revealed no association between overexpression of cyclinD1 and overall survival or relapse-free survival in all patient groups. However, in the ER-negative subgroup (n = 75), overexpression of cyclinD1 was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival (p = 0.018) and relapse-free survival (p = 0.014) as well as the lymph node status and tumor size. In contrast, there were no significant associations between overexpression of cyclinD1 and clinical outcome in the ER-positive subgroup. According to Cox's multivariate analysis in the ER-negative subgroup, overexpression of cyclinD1 had the most significant effect on overall survival (p = 0.02) and relapse-free survival (p = 0.0058), followed by nodal status and histologic grade. These findings suggest that overexpression of cyclinD1 is an independent prognostic indicator in ER-negative breast cancer patients. PMID:11920593

Umekita, Yoshihisa; Ohi, Yasuyo; Sagara, Yoshiatsu; Yoshida, Hiroki

2002-03-20

70

Overexpression of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pichiapastoris expression system was utilized to produce functionally active human bone alkaline phosphatase in gram quantities. Bone alkaline phosphatase is a key enzyme in bone formation and biomineralization, yet important questions about its structural chemistry and interactions with other cellular enzymes in mineralizing tissues remain unanswered. A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase was constructed by deletion of the 25 amino acid hydrophobic C-terminal region of the encoding cDNA and inserted into the X-33 Pichiapastoris strain. An overexpression system was developed in shake flasks and converted to large-scale fermentation. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mgAL when cultured in shake flasks. Enzyme activity was 12U/mg measured by a spectrophotometric assay. Fermentation yielded 880mgAL with enzymatic activity of 968U/mg. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicates that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation is alkaline phosphatase. A purification scheme has been developed using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. We are currently screening crystallization conditions of the purified recombinant protein for subsequent X-ray diffraction analyses. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

Karr, Laurel; Malone, Christine, C.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

71

Cyclooxygenase2 Expression in Human Breast Cancers and Adjacent Ductal Carcinoma in Situ1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme that converts arachi- donic acid to prostaglandins. Overexpression of the COX-2 gene in mam- mary glands of transgenic mice was sufficient to induce tumorigenesis. We analyzed COX-2 expression in human breast cancers (and breast cancer cell lines) and adjacent ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) as well as its association with HER2\\/neu and clinicopathological variables.

Elizabeth Half; Xi Ming Tang; Karin Gwyn; Aysegul Sahin; Kyle Wathen; Frank A. Sinicrope

2002-01-01

72

HER2 Overexpression Attenuates the Antiproliferative Effect of Aromatase Inhibitor in MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells Stably Expressing Aromatase  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of HER2 overexpression on resistance to aromatase inhibitor letrozole in MCF-7 breast cancer cells\\u000a stably expressing cellular aromatase (MCF-7\\/CA). Forced expression of HER2 in MCF-7\\/CA cells by infection with retroviral\\u000a vector showed increased Akt and MAPK phosphorylation and phosphorylation of estrogen receptor (ER) a. on Ser118 and Serl67.\\u000a MCF-7\\/CA cells overexpressing HER2 (MCF-7\\/CA pBMN- HER2) showed

Incheol Shin; Todd Miller; E. Shizen Wang; Carlos L. Arteaga

73

Ectopic Production of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin by Human Breast Tumours  

PubMed Central

The incidence of tumours ectopically producing the human chorionic gonadotrophins was studied in patients with breast cancer. Specific radioimmunoassay of subunits of HCG was utilized. Nine out of 65 patients with carcinoma of breast showed the presence of circulating HCG. Patients with other pathological conditions of breast tissue did not show any evidence of circulating HCG. PMID:4374964

Sheth, N. A.; Saruiya, J. N.; Ranadive, K. J.; Sheth, A. R.

1974-01-01

74

Cadmium Malignantly Transforms Normal Human Breast Epithelial Cells into a Basal-like Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer has recently been linked to cadmium exposure. Although not uniformly supported, it is hypothesized that cadmium acts as a metalloestrogenic carcinogen via the estrogen receptor (ER). Thus, we studied the effects of chronic exposure to cadmium on the normal human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A, which is ER-negative but can convert to ER-positive during malignant transformation. Methods Cells were continuously exposed to low-level cadmium (2.5 ?M) and checked in vitro and by xenograft study for signs of malignant transformation. Transformant cells were molecularly characterized by protein and transcript analysis of key genes in breast cancer. Results Over 40 weeks of cadmium exposure, cells showed increasing secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9, loss of contact inhibition, increased colony formation, and increasing invasion, all typical for cancer cells. Inoculation of cadmium-treated cells into mice produced invasive, metastatic anaplastic carcinoma with myoepithelial components. These cadmium-transformed breast epithelial (CTBE) cells displayed characteristics of basal-like breast carcinoma, including ER-? negativity and HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) negativity, reduced expression of BRCA1 (breast cancer susceptibility gene 1), and increased CK5 (cytokeratin 5) and p63 expression. CK5 and p63, both breast stem cell markers, were prominently overexpressed in CTBE cell mounds, indicative of persistent proliferation. CTBE cells showed global DNA hypomethylation and c-myc and k-ras overexpression, typical in aggressive breast cancers. CTBE cell xenograft tumors were also ER-? negative. Conclusions Cadmium malignantly transforms normal human breast epithelial cells—through a mechanism not requiring ER-?—into a basal-like cancer phenotype. Direct cadmium induction of a malignant phenotype in human breast epithelial cells strongly fortifies a potential role in breast cancer. PMID:20049202

Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Tokar, Erik J.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Dill, Anna L.; Coppin, Jean-Francois; Waalkes, Michael P.

2009-01-01

75

Microbiota of human breast tissue.  

PubMed

In recent years, a greater appreciation for the microbes inhabiting human body sites has emerged. In the female mammary gland, milk has been shown to contain bacterial species, ostensibly reaching the ducts from the skin. We decided to investigate whether there is a microbiome within the mammary tissue. Using 16S rRNA sequencing and culture, we analyzed breast tissue from 81 women with and without cancer in Canada and Ireland. A diverse population of bacteria was detected within tissue collected from sites all around the breast in women aged 18 to 90, not all of whom had a history of lactation. The principal phylum was Proteobacteria. The most abundant taxa in the Canadian samples were Bacillus (11.4%), Acinetobacter (10.0%), Enterobacteriaceae (8.3%), Pseudomonas (6.5%), Staphylococcus (6.5%), Propionibacterium (5.8%), Comamonadaceae (5.7%), Gammaproteobacteria (5.0%), and Prevotella (5.0%). In the Irish samples the most abundant taxa were Enterobacteriaceae (30.8%), Staphylococcus (12.7%), Listeria welshimeri (12.1%), Propionibacterium (10.1%), and Pseudomonas (5.3%). None of the subjects had signs or symptoms of infection, but the presence of viable bacteria was confirmed in some samples by culture. The extent to which these organisms play a role in health or disease remains to be determined. PMID:24610844

Urbaniak, Camilla; Cummins, Joanne; Brackstone, Muriel; Macklaim, Jean M; Gloor, Gregory B; Baban, Chwanrow K; Scott, Leslie; O'Hanlon, Deidre M; Burton, Jeremy P; Francis, Kevin P; Tangney, Mark; Reid, Gregor

2014-05-01

76

Overexpression of COX-2 in human osteosarcoma cells decreases proliferation and increases apoptosis.  

PubMed

Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is generally considered to promote tumorigenesis. To investigate a potential role of COX-2 in osteosarcoma, we overexpressed COX-2 in human osteosarcoma cells. Saos-2 cells deficient in COX-2 expression were retrovirally transduced or stably transfected with murine COX-2 cDNA. Functional expression of COX-2 was confirmed by Northern and Western analyses and prostaglandin production. Overexpression of COX-2 reduced cell numbers by 50% to 70% compared with controls. Decreased proliferation in COX-2-overexpressing cells was associated with cell cycle prolongation in G(2)-M. Apoptosis, measured by both Annexin V binding assay and terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining, was increased in cells overexpressing COX-2, and the increase was not reversed by treatment with NS-398, indicating that the effects were not mediated by prostaglandins. Retroviral COX-2 overexpression in two other human osteosarcoma cell lines, U2OS and TE85, also decreased cell viability. However, in the human colon carcinoma HCT-116 cell line, which is deficient in COX-2, retroviral overexpression of COX-2, at similar efficiency as in Saos-2 cells, increased resistance to apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), measured by flow cytometry, were increased by COX-2 overexpression in Saos-2 cells but not in HCT-116 cells. Inhibition of peroxidase activity, but not of COX activity, blocked the ROS increase. Antioxidants blocked the increase in ROS and the increase in apoptosis due to COX-2 overexpression in Saos-2 cells. Our results suggest that (a) COX-2 overexpression in osteosarcoma cells may increase resistance to tumorigenesis by increasing ROS to levels that decrease cell viability and (b) the effects of COX-2 overexpression are cell type/tissue dependent. PMID:16818639

Xu, Zheng; Choudhary, Shilpa; Voznesensky, Olga; Mehrotra, Meenal; Woodard, Monica; Hansen, Marc; Herschman, Harvey; Pilbeam, Carol

2006-07-01

77

Claudin-20 promotes an aggressive phenotype in human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Claudin-20 is a member of the Claudin family of transmembrane proteins located in the tight junction (TJ) of cells of epithelial origin. Due to the increasing evidence supporting the role of TJ proteins in preventing tumor cell metastatic behavior, this study sought to evaluate the distribution of Claudin-20 in human breast cancer and the effect of Claudin-20 overexpression in human breast cancer cells. Q-PCR data from breast cancer primary tumors (n = 114) and matched background tissue (n = 30) showed that high claudin-20 expression was correlated with poor survival of patients with breast cancer (p = 0.022). Following transformation of the breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 with a Claudin-20 expression construct functional assays were performed to ascertain changes in cell behavior. Claudin-20 transformed cells showed significantly increased invasion (p < 0.005) and were significantly less adhesive than wild type cells (p < 0.05). There was no effect on growth (either in vitro or in vivo) for either cell line. Overexpression of Claudin-20 resulted in reduced transepithelial resistance (induced by the motogen HGF at 25 ng/ml, p = 0.0007). Interestingly, this was not mirrored by paracellular permeability, as overexpression of Claudin-20 caused a decrease in permeability. The introduction of Claudin-20 into human breast cancer cells resulted in breast cancer cells with an aggressive phenotype and reduced trans-epithelial resistance. There was no corresponding decrease in paracellular permeability, indicating that this Claudin has a differential function in epithelial TJ. This provides further insight into the importance of correctly functioning TJ in preventing the progression of human breast cancer. PMID:24665404

Martin, Tracey A; Lane, Jane; Ozupek, Hulya; Jiang, Wen G

2013-01-01

78

Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) overexpression in human colorectal cancer  

PubMed Central

The alteration of the choline metabolite profile is a well-established characteristic of cancer cells. In colorectal cancer (CRC), phosphatidylcholine is the most prominent phospholipid. In the present study, we report that lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1; NM_024830.3), the enzyme that converts lysophosphatidylcholine into phosphatidylcholine, was highly overexpressed in colorectal adenocarcinomas when compared to normal mucosas. Our microarray transcription profiling study showed a significant (p<10?8) transcript overexpression in 168 colorectal adenocarcinomas when compared to ten normal mucosas. Immunohistochemical analysis of colon tumors with a polyclonal antibody to LPCAT1 confirmed the upregulation of the LPCAT1 protein. Overexpression of LPCAT1 in COS7 cells localized the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria and increased LPCAT1 specific activity 38-fold. In cultured cells, overexpressed LPCAT1 enhanced the incorporation of [14C]palmitate into phosphatidylcholine. COS7 cells transfected with LPCAT1 showed no growth rate alteration, in contrast to the colon cancer cell line SW480, which significantly (p<10?5) increased its growth rate by 17%. We conclude that LPCAT1 may contribute to total choline metabolite accumulation via phosphatidylcholine remodeling, thereby altering the CRC lipid profile, a characteristic of malignancy. PMID:18974965

da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Wang, Shuli; Kruh?ffer, Mogens; Lewin, Tal M.; ?rntoft, Torben F.; Coleman, Rosalind A.; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin

2008-01-01

79

Establishment of human pancreatic cancer gemcitabine?resistant cell line with ribonucleotide reductase overexpression.  

PubMed

A gemcitabine (GEM)-resistant human pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1RG7) was established in vitro by gradually increasing GEM concentrations and cloning cell cultures to develop a cellular model of acquired drug resistance studies. We found that PANC-1RG7 cells exhibited significantly different morphological characteristics from parental cells. PANC-1RG7 cells grew slowly (p<0.05), yet the cell cycle remained unchanged (p>0.05). PANC-1RG7, with a resistance index to GEM of 39.9, showed cross-resistance characteristics to methotrexate, gefitinib, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. The proliferation inhibition of GEM was significantly reduced in vivo (p<0.05). The known resistance-associated genes and proteins we detected remained unchanged, with the exception of cytidine deaminase, multidrug resistance-related protein and breast cancer resistance protein genes, which decreased; by contrast, 5'-nucleotidase, ribonucleotide reductase (RRM) 1 and RRM2 proteins increased (p<0.05). Therefore, a cell line with acquired GEM resistance was established successfully. Resistance was acquired by overexpressing RRM1 and RRM2 proteins. PMID:25394408

Wang, Congfei; Zhang, Weiwei; Fu, Mingjuan; Yang, Aiqin; Huang, Heguang; Xie, Jieming

2015-01-01

80

Association of autotaxin and lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3 with aggressiveness of human breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

In vitro and in vivo experimental studies have demonstrated the role of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling in tumor proliferation, invasiveness, and metastasis. Among LPA receptors, the overexpression of LPA receptor 3 (LPAR3) in transgenic mice has resulted in the highest rate of breast cancer metastasis. Our goal is to evaluate the LPA-producing enzyme autotaxin and LPAR3 as potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer patients. The expression of autotaxin and LPAR3 was examined by immunohistochemical analysis of 87 invasive human breast carcinomas. Carcinomas were more frequently positive for autotaxin and LPAR3 (24.4 and 43 %, respectively) compared to adjacent normal breast tissue (6.1 and 2.9 %, respectively). Increased stromal autotaxin expression was found in 16.3 % of the tumors. LPAR3 overexpression was associated with less differentiated tumors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression, and absence of progesterone receptors. The luminal type A carcinomas showed the lowest frequency of autotaxin and LPAR3 expression. Strong desmoplastic stromal reaction was more frequent among the carcinomas with autotaxin-positive tumor cells or autotaxin-positive stroma. Patients with carcinomas overexpressing LPAR3 in epithelial cells or autotaxin in stromal cells were more likely to have larger tumors, nodal involvement, and higher stage disease. Autotaxin overexpression in tumor cells also correlated with tumor size and clinical stage. Our data indicate that the increased expression of LPAR3 and autotaxin in human breast cancer is associated with tumor aggressiveness. They also suggest that LPA mediates tumor metastatic ability and peritumoral desmoplastic reaction through autocrine-paracrine mechanisms. A substantial portion of breast cancer patients might benefit from autotoxin/LPA receptor-targeted therapies. PMID:22922883

Popnikolov, Nikolay K; Dalwadi, Bela H; Thomas, Jeff D; Johannes, Gregg J; Imagawa, Walter T

2012-12-01

81

Stable Overexpression of Smad7 in Human Melanoma Cells Impairs Bone Metastasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melanoma has a propensity to metastasize to bone, where it is exposed to high concentrations of transforming growth factor-B (TGF-B). Because TGF-B promotes bone metastases from other solid tumors, such as breast cancer, we tested the role of TGF-B in melanoma metastases to bone. 1205Lu melanoma cells, stably transfected to overexpress the natural TGF-B\\/Smad signaling inhibitor Smad7, were studied in

Delphine Javelaud; Khalid S. Mohammad; Christopher R. McKenna; Pierrick Fournier; Flavie Luciani; Maryla Niewolna; Jocelyne André; Véronique Delmas; Lionel Larue; Theresa A. Guise; Alain Mauviel

82

Estrogen Receptor Alpha in Human Breast Cancer: Occurrence and Significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogens have long been recognized as being important for stimulating the growth of a large proportion of breast cancers. Now it is recognized that estrogen action is mediated by two receptors, and the presence of estrogen receptor a (ERa)3 correlates with better prognosis and the likelihood of response to hormonal therapy. Over half of all breast cancers overexpress ERa and

Simak Ali; R. Charles Coombes

2000-01-01

83

Skp2 Regulates Subcellular Localization of PPAR? by MEK Signaling Pathways in Human Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Nuclear hormone receptor family member PPAR? plays an important role in mammary gland tumorigenesis. Previous studies have shown PPAR? has cytoplasmic activities upon tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) stimulation. However, the clinical pathological significance of cytoplasmic PPAR? is not completely understood in human breast cancer. Skp2 is oncogenic, and its frequent amplification and overexpression correlated with the grade of malignancy. In this study, the role of cytoplasmic PPAR? and Skp2 expression was investigated in human breast cancer progression. Therefore, immunohistochemical analysis was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin sections of 70 specimens. Furthermore, Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy analysis were used to study the relationship between expression of cytoplasmic PPAR? and Skp2 expression in human breast cancer cells in vitro. Results showed that the expression of cytoplasmic PPAR? was positively correlated with Skp2 expression (p < 0.05), and correlated significantly with estrogen receptor (p = 0.026) and pathological grade (p = 0.029), respectively. In addition, Skp2 overexpression can provoke cytoplasmic localization of PPAR? upon MEK1-dependent mechanisms in human breast cancer cells by nuclear-cytosolic fractionation technology and immunofluorescence microscopy analysis. Using RNA interference technology, we also found that down-regulated Skp2 reduced the phosphorylation level of MEK1 and significantly reversed TPA-induced nuclear export of PPAR? in MDA-MB-231 cells. The changes in the subcellular localization of PPAR? may represent a novel target for selective interference in patients with breast cancer. PMID:23939428

Cheng, Hongge; Meng, Jie; Wang, Guisheng; Meng, Yuming; Li, Yu; Wei, Dong; Fu, Chunyun; Deng, Kaifeng; Shen, Aiguo; Wang, Huimin; Dai, Shengming

2013-01-01

84

Targeted hepatic overexpression of human IRS-1: postnatal effects in the developing mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is an intracellular docking protein involved in insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling. The present studies examine postnatal liver development in transgenic mice with targeted hepatic overexpression of human insulin receptor substrate-1 (hIRS-1). In mature animals, hIRS-1 overexpression augments liver growth. Based on our previous studies that have shown markedly attenuated insulin signaling in the

Peter J. Giannone; Barham K. Abu Dayyeh; Theresa C. Bienieki; Jack R. Wands; Philip A. Gruppuso

2004-01-01

85

FOXM1 promotes the epithelial to mesenchymal transition by stimulating the transcription of Slug in human breast cancer.  

PubMed

The Forkhead Box M1 (FOXM1) transcription factor is involved in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in multiple human carcinomas. In this study, we found that FOXM1 promoted the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human breast cancer. We observed a strong correlation between the expression levels of FOXM1 and the mesenchymal phenotype. Knockdown of FOXM1 inhibited the mesenchymal phenotype, whereas stable overexpression of FOXM1 induced EMT in breast cancer cells. FOXM1 was found to endogenously bind to and stimulate the promoter of Slug that is crucial for EMT progression. The knockdown of Slug abolished the EMT-inducing function of FOXM1. The stable overexpression of FOXM1 promoted metastasis of breast cancer cells in vivo. This study confirmed that FOXM1 promoted EMT in breast cancer cells by stimulating the transcription of EMT-related genes such as Slug. PMID:23856032

Yang, Chao; Chen, Hui; Tan, Guixiang; Gao, Wei; Cheng, Liang; Jiang, Xia; Yu, Li; Tan, Yongjun

2013-10-28

86

CD59 is overexpressed in human lung cancer and regulates apoptosis of human lung cancer cells.  

PubMed

CD59, belonging to membrane complement regulatory proteins (mCRPs), inhibits the cytolytic activity of complement and is overexpressed in many types of solid cancers. The aim of the present study was to detect the expression of CD59 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to investigate the relationship between decreased CD59 expression and tumorigenesis of NSCLC by transfecting recombinant retrovirus encoding shRNA targeting human CD59 into the human NSCLC cell line NCI-H157. CD59 expression in NSCLC was detected by immunocytochemistry (IHC). In the human NSCLC cell line NCI-H157, CD59 mRNA and protein expression suppressed with lentivirus-mediated RNAi was confirmed by using RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. The proliferation and apoptosis of NCI-H157 cells was measured by using MTT assay and FACS. The resistance to complement cracking ability was detected by LDH assay. Caspase-3 expression in cells was assessed by IHC. Bcl-2 and Fas protein was determined by western blotting both in vitro and in vivo. CD59 is overexpressed in human NLCLC cancer. In NCI-H157 cells, lentivirus-mediated RNAi significantly reduced both CD59 mRNA and protein expression, which resulted in suppressing cell proliferation and increasing cell apoptosis. When incubated with fresh normal human serum (8%, v/v) for 1 h at 37?C, the cell viability was decreased and cell apoptosis was increased in siCD59-infected NCI-H157 cells compared to siCD59-C-infected cells. Reduced CD59 expression led to increased expression of caspase-3 and Fas and decreased expression of Bcl-2. Furthermore, the nude mouse tumor graft weight was significantly decreased and survival rate was significantly increased in the siCD59 group. CD59 is overexpressed in human NLCLC. CD59 silencing in NSCLC cancer cells via retrovirus-mediated RNAi can enhance complement-mediated cell apoptosis, inhibiting the growth of NSCLC. CD59 may serve as a potential target for gene therapy in NSCLC. PMID:23835643

Li, Baijun; Lin, Hui; Fan, Jian; Lan, Jiao; Zhong, Yonglong; Yang, Yong; Li, Hui; Wang, Zhiwei

2013-09-01

87

Three different stable human breast adenocarcinoma sublines that overexpress ALDH3A1 and certain other enzymes, apparently as a consequence of constitutively upregulated gene transcription mediated by transactivated EpREs (electrophile responsive elements) present in the 5?-upstream regions of these genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALDH3A1 catalyzes the detoxification of cyclophosphamide, mafosfamide, 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide and other oxazaphosphorines. Constitutive ALDH3A1 levels, as well as those of certain other drug-metabolizing enzymes, e.g. NQO1 and CYP1A1, are relatively low in cultured, relatively oxazaphosphorine-sensitive, human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. However, transient cellular insensitivity to the oxazaphosphorines can be brought about in these cells by transiently elevating ALDH3A1 levels in them

Lakshmaiah Sreerama; Norman E Sládek

2001-01-01

88

Overexpression of copper zinc superoxide dismutase impairs human trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation  

E-print Network

Overexpression of copper zinc superoxide dismutase impairs human trophoblast cell fusion investigated the role of the key antioxidant enzyme copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), encoded transcript levels was observed in SOD-1 transfected cells . We then examined SOD-1 expression and activity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

89

Overexpressing Human Membrane Proteins in Stably Transfected and Clonal Human Embryonic Kidney 293S Cells  

PubMed Central

X-ray crystal structures of human membrane proteins, while potentially being of extremely high impact, are highly underrepresented relative to those of prokaryotic membrane proteins. One key reason for this is that human membrane proteins can be difficult to express at a level, and at a quality, suitable for structural studies. This protocol describes the methods that we utilize to overexpress human membrane proteins from clonal HEK293S GnTI- cells, and was recently used in our 2.1 Å X-ray crystal structure determination of human RhCG. Upon identification of highly expressing cell lines, suspension cell cultures are scaled-up in a facile manner either using spinner flasks or cellbag bioreactors, resulting in a final purified yield of ~0.5 mg of membrane protein per liter of medium. The protocol described here is reliable and cost-effective, can be used to express proteins that would otherwise be toxic to mammalian cells, and can be completed in 8–10 weeks. PMID:22322218

Chaudhary, Sarika; Pak, John E.; Gruswitz, Franz; Sharma, Vinay

2013-01-01

90

A canine model of Alzheimer's disease generated by overexpressing a mutated human amyloid precursor protein.  

PubMed

Canines are considered the most authentic model for studying multifactorial human diseases, as these animals typically share a common environment with man. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology along with genetic engineering of nuclear donor cells provides a unique opportunity for examining human diseases using transgenic canines. In the present study, we generated transgenic canines that overexpressed the human amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene containing well-characterized familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) mutations. We successfully obtained five out of six live puppies by SCNT. This was confirmed by observing the expression of green fluorescence protein in the body as a visual transgenic marker and the overexpression of the mutated APP gene in the brain. The transgenic canines developed AD-like symptoms, such as enlarged ventricles, an atrophied hippocampus, and ?-amyloid plaques in the brain. Thus, the transgenic canines we created can serve as a novel animal model for studying human AD. PMID:24481173

Lee, Geun-Shik; Jeong, Yeon Woo; Kim, Joung Joo; Park, Sun Woo; Ko, Kyeong Hee; Kang, Mina; Kim, Yu Kyung; Jung, Eui-Man; Moon, Changjong; Hyun, Sang Hwan; Hwang, Kyu-Chan; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Shin, Taeyoung; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Hwang, Woo Suk

2014-04-01

91

Co-Overexpression of GEP100 and AMAP1 Proteins Correlates with Rapid Local Recurrence after Breast Conservative Therapy  

PubMed Central

A major problem of current cancer research and therapy is prediction of tumor recurrence after initial treatment, rather than the simple biological characterization of the malignancy and proliferative properties of tumors. Breast conservation therapy (BCT) is a well-approved, standard treatment for patients with early stages of breast cancer, which consists of lumpectomy and whole-breast irradiation. In spite of extensive studies, only 'age' and 'Ki-67 positivity' have been identified to be well correlated with local recurrence after BCT. An Arf6 pathway, activated by GEP100 under receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and employs AMAP1 as its effector, is crucial for invasion and metastasis of some breast cancer cells. This pathway activates ?1 integrins and perturbs E-cadherin-based adhesions, hence appears to be integral for epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT). We here show that expression of the Arf6 pathway components statistically correlates with rapid local recurrence after BCT. We retrospectively analyzed four hundred seventy-nine patients who received BCT in Hokkaido University Hospital, and found 20 patients had local recurrence. We then analyzed pathological samples of patients who experienced local recurrence by use of Kaplan-Meier analysis, Stepwise regression analysis and the t-test, coupled with immunostaining, and found that co-overexpression of GEP100 and AMAP1 correlates with rapidity of the local recurrence. Their margin-status, node-positivity, and estrogen receptor (ER)- or progesterone receptor (PgR)-positivity did not correlated with the rapidity. This study is the first to show that expression of a certain set of proteins correlates with the rapidity of local recurrence. Our results are useful not only for prediction, but highlight the possibility of developing novel strategies to block local recurrence. We also discuss why mRNAs encoding these proteins have not been identified to correlate with local recurrence by previous conventional gene expression profiling analyses. PMID:24116160

Kinoshita, Rumiko; Nam, Jin-Min; Ito, Yoichi M.; Hatanaka, Kanako C.; Hashimoto, Ari; Handa, Haruka; Otsuka, Yutaro; Hashimoto, Shigeru; Onodera, Yasuhito; Hosoda, Mitsuchika; Onodera, Shunsuke; Shimizu, Shinichi; Tanaka, Shinya; Shirato, Hiroki; Tanino, Mishie; Sabe, Hisataka

2013-01-01

92

Over-Expression, Purification and Crystallization of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dehydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3; dihydrolipoan-tide:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.8.1.4) is a common catalytic component found in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and branched-chain cc-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. E3 is also a component (referred to as L protein) of the glycine cleavage system in bacterial metabolism (2). Active E3 forms a homodimer with four distinctive subdomain structures (FAD binding, NAD+ binding, central and interface domains) with non-covalently but tightly bound FAD in the holoenzyme. Deduced amino acids from cloned full-length human E3 gene showed a total of 509 amino acids with a leader sequence (N-terminal 35 amino acids) that is excised (mature form) during transportation of expressed E3 into mitochondria membrane. So far, three-dimensional structure of human E3 has not been reported. Our effort to achieve the elucidation of the X-ray crystal structure of human E3 will be presented. Recombinant pPROEX-1 expression vector (from GIBCO BRL Life Technologies) having the human E3 gene without leader sequence was constructed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and subsequent ligation, and cloned in E.coli XL1-Blue by transformation. Since pPROEX-1 vector has an internal His-tag (six histidine peptide) located at the upstream region of a multicloning site, one-step affinity purification of E3 using nickelnitriloacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose resin, which has a strong affinity to His-tag, was feasible. Also a seven-amino-acid spacer peptide and a recombinant tobacco etch virus protease recognition site (seven amino acids peptide) found between His-tag and first amino acid of expressed E3 facilitated the cleavage of His-tag from E3 after the affinity purification. By IPTG induction, ca. 15 mg of human E3 (mature form) was obtained from 1L LB culture with overnight incubation at 25C. Over 98% of purity of E3 from one-step Ni-NTA agarose affinity purification was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. For crystallization, E3 samples were prepared with and without His-tag. To minimize the aggregation of E3, apo- and holo- forms of E3s were tested, as well as a mutated E3. Dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that the E3 preparations without His-tag and substrate are highly monodispersive with regard to homodimers. Consequent crystallization trials of this E3 preparation led to single crystals of E3 grown by the vapor diffusion method. Crystals were obtained within a few days from solution containing poly (ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether 5000 as a precipitant. Autoindexing and integration of the X-ray diffraction data showed that E3 crystals belong to an orthorhombic system with unit cell parameters a-- 123. 1, b= 165.3 and c=214.3A. Further optimization of protein preparation and crystallization experiments for the structural determination will be discussed.

Hong, Y. S.; Ciszak, Ewa; Patel, Mulchand

2000-01-01

93

Lynch Syndrome-Associated Breast Cancers Do Not Overexpress Chromosome 11 Encoded Mucins  

PubMed Central

Mismatch repair (MMR) deficient breast cancers may be identified in Lynch syndrome mutation carriers, and have clinicopathological features in common with MMR deficient colorectal and endometrial cancers such as tumour infiltrating lymphocytes and poor differentiation. MMR deficient colorectal cancers frequently show mucinous differentiation associated with upregulation of chromosome 11 mucins. The aim of this study was to compare the protein expression of these mucins in MMR deficient and MMR proficient breast cancers. Cases of breast cancer (n = 100) were identified from families where 1) both breast and colon cancer co-occurred, 2) families met either modified Amsterdam criteria, or had at least one early onset (<50 years) colorectal cancer, and 3) biospecimens were available for MMR protein expression, microsatellite instability (MSI) status, and MMR gene mutation testing. Tumour sections were stained for the epithelial mucins MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC6, and the homeobox protein CDX2, a regulator of MUC2 expression. Sixteen MMR deficient Lynch syndrome breast cancers and 84 non-Lynch breast cancers were assessed for altered mucin expression. No significant difference in the expression of MUC2, MUC5AC or MUC6 was observed between the MMR deficient and MMR proficient breast cancers, however, there was a trend for MMR deficient tumours to express high levels of MUC5B less frequently (p = 0.07, OR = 0.2 [0.0 – 1.0]. Co-expression of two or more gel-forming mucins was common. Ectopic expression of CDX2 was associated with expression of MUC2 (p = 0.035, OR = 8.7 [1.3 – 58.4]). MMR deficient breast cancers do not show differential expression of the mucins genes on chromosome 11 when compared to MMR proficient breast cancers, contrasting with MMR deficient colorectal and endometrial cancers which frequently have increased mucin protein expression when compared to their MMR proficient counterparts. In addition, ectopic CDX2 expression is positively associated with de novo MUC2 expression. PMID:23370770

Walsh, Michael D; Cummings, Margaret C; Pearson, Sally-Ann; Clendenning, Mark; Walters, Rhiannon J; Nagler, Belinda; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A; Suthers, Graeme K; Goldblatt, Jack; Tucker, Kathy; Gattas, Michael R; Arnold, Julie; Parry, Susan; Macrae, Finlay A; McGuckin, Michael A; Young, Joanne P; Buchanan, Daniel D

2014-01-01

94

Lynch syndrome-associated breast cancers do not overexpress chromosome 11-encoded mucins.  

PubMed

Mismatch repair-deficient breast cancers may be identified in Lynch syndrome mutation carriers, and have clinicopathological features in common with mismatch repair-deficient colorectal and endometrial cancers such as tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and poor differentiation. Mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancers frequently show mucinous differentiation associated with upregulation of chromosome 11 mucins. The aim of this study was to compare the protein expression of these mucins in mismatch repair-deficient and -proficient breast cancers. Cases of breast cancer (n=100) were identified from families where (1) both breast and colon cancer co-occurred and (2) families met either modified Amsterdam criteria or had at least one early-onset (<50 years) colorectal cancer. Tumour sections were stained for the epithelial mucins, MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B and MUC6, and the homeobox protein CDX2, a regulator of MUC2 expression. In all, 16 mismatch repair-deficient Lynch syndrome breast cancers and 84 non-Lynch breast cancers were assessed for altered mucin expression. No significant difference in the expression of MUC2, MUC5AC or MUC6 was observed between the mismatch repair-deficient and mismatch repair-proficient breast cancers; however, there was a trend for mismatch repair-deficient tumours to express high levels of MUC5B less frequently (P=0.07, OR=0.2 (0.0-1.0)). Co-expression of two or more gel-forming mucins was common. Ectopic expression of CDX2 was associated with expression of MUC2 (P=0.035, OR=8.7 (1.3-58.4)). Mismatch repair-deficient breast cancers do not show differential expression of the mucins genes on chromosome 11 when compared with mismatch repair-proficient breast cancers, in contrast with mismatch repair-deficient colorectal and endometrial cancers, which frequently have increased mucin protein expression when compared with their mismatch repair-proficient counterparts. In addition, ectopic CDX2 expression is positively associated with de novo MUC2 expression. PMID:23370770

Walsh, Michael D; Cummings, Margaret C; Pearson, Sally-Ann; Clendenning, Mark; Walters, Rhiannon J; Nagler, Belinda; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A; Suthers, Graeme K; Goldblatt, Jack; Tucker, Kathy; Gattas, Michael R; Arnold, Julie L; Parry, Susan; Macrae, Finlay A; McGuckin, Michael A; Young, Joanne P; Buchanan, Daniel D

2013-07-01

95

Systems consequences of amplicon formation in human breast cancer  

E-print Network

Chromosomal structural variations play an important role in determining the transcriptional landscape of human breast cancers. To assess the nature of these structural variations, we analyzed eight breast tumor samples ...

Inaki, Koichiro

96

The molecular landscape of the normal human breast - defining normal  

PubMed Central

A key approach in understanding how breast cancer can occur is to determine the regulatory pathways at play in the normal breast and to identify precisely the normal developmental mechanisms subverted during early breast cancer progression. Using normal human breast tissue samples, Pardo and colleagues have identified the gene targets and pathways displaying fluctuating expression as a consequence of the menstrual cycle. Detailed characterization of how the human breast functions in its normal state, and how this may be perturbed at its earliest point, will provide a critical step toward the prevention of breast cancer.

2014-01-01

97

Chemical Biomarkers of Human Breast Milk Pollution  

PubMed Central

Human milk is, without question, the best source of nutrition for infants containing the optimal balance of fats, carbohydrates and proteins for developing babies. Breastfeeding provides a range of benefits for growth, immunity and development building a powerful bond between mother and her child. Recognition of the manifold benefits of breast milk has led to the adoption of breast-feeding policies by numerous health and professional organizations such as the World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics. In industrially developed as well as in developing nations, human milk contamination by toxic chemicals such as heavy metals, dioxins and organohalogen compounds, however, is widespread and is the consequence of decades of inadequately controlled pollution. Through breastfeeding, the mother may transfer to the suckling infant potentially toxic chemicals to which the mother has previously been exposed. In the present review, environmental exposure, acquisition and current levels of old and emerging classes of breast milk pollutants are systematically presented. Although scientific evidences indicated that the advantages of breast-feeding outweigh any risks from contaminants, it is important to identify contaminant trends, to locate disproportionately exposed populations, and to take public health measures to improve chemical BM pollution as possible. PMID:19578503

Massart, Francesco; Gherarducci, Giulia; Marchi, Benedetta; Saggese, Giuseppe

2008-01-01

98

Deoxycytidine kinase is overexpressed in poor outcome breast cancer and determines responsiveness to nucleoside analogs.  

PubMed

Only a minority of breast cancer patients responds to chemotherapy and we lack predictive biomarkers that help to select a patient-tailored therapy that takes into consideration the molecular heterogeneity of the cancer type. Responsiveness to the clinically important nucleoside analogs gemcitabine and decitabine may be critically determined by Deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) expression as this enzyme is required to convert the inactive prodrugs into their pharmacologically active forms. Here, we examined whether DCK is differentially expressed in breast cancer and evaluated whether DCK expression levels control responsiveness to these nucleoside analogs in vitro by experimentally modulating DCK expression levels. We examined DCK expression in gene expression data sets of breast tumors including the series of 295 consecutive patients that have been classified into low or high risk for recurrence using the MammaPrint 70 gene profile. We found that DCK is expressed at higher levels in patients having poor clinical outcome as judged by the MammaPrint assay. As such, patients that have a poor prognosis may thus be susceptible to treatment with nucleoside analogs. In support of this, we found a causal relationship between DCK levels and sensitivity to these nucleoside analogs in breast cancer cell lines. The data indicate that breast cancers that are at high risk of recurrence express higher levels of DCK, which we find to be strongly correlated to a favorable response to nucleoside analogs. The data suggest that DCK expression in breast cancer could be exploited to select patients that are likely to respond to treatment with nucleoside analogs. PMID:21465168

Geutjes, Ernst-Jan; Tian, Sun; Roepman, Paul; Bernards, René

2012-02-01

99

Trastuzumab enhances the anti-tumor effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate on a HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cell line.  

PubMed

Trastuzumab has efficacy to improve the effect of cytotoxic drugs, such as paclitaxel and anthracyclin, against HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Sodium butyrate (NaB), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, is known to have antitumoral properties. However, whether and how trastuzumab possesses the potential to synergize the anti-tumor effect of NaB on breast cancer cells is still equivocal. To elucidate whether combined treatment with NaB and trastuzumab exerts anti-tumor effects on a HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cell line, SKBR3 cells were treated with NaB alone or in combination with trastuzumab, and the effects on proliferation and cell cycle progression were analyzed. Combinatory treatment with NaB (4 mmol/l) and trastuzumab (20 µg/ml) significantly increased the growth-inhibitory effect on SKBR3 breast cancer cells, in comparison to NaB or trastuzumab treatment alone. The growth-inhibitory effect of the combination of NaB and trastuzumab was accompanied by elevated mRNA and protein levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1. In contrast, this effect was absent in HER2-negative HCC1937 cells. In conclusion, trastuzumab significantly improved the antitumor effect of NaB on HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cell line in vitro. PMID:21887460

Chen, Weiwei; Wei, Feng; Xu, Jing; Wang, Yucai; Chen, Longbang; Wang, Jinghua; Guan, Xiaoxiang

2011-12-01

100

Overexpression of PGC-1? Increases Fatty Acid Oxidative Capacity of Human Skeletal Muscle Cells  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effects of PGC-1? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1?) overexpression on the oxidative capacity of human skeletal muscle cells ex vivo. PGC-1? overexpression increased the oxidation rate of palmitic acid and mRNA expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and function in human myotubes. Basal and insulin-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake were decreased, possibly due to upregulation of PDK4 mRNA. Expression of fast fiber-type gene marker (MHCIIa) was decreased. Compared to skeletal muscle in vivo, PGC-1? overexpression increased expression of several genes, which were downregulated during the process of cell isolation and culturing. In conclusion, PGC-1? overexpression increased oxidative capacity of cultured myotubes by improving lipid metabolism, increasing expression of genes involved in regulation of mitochondrial function and biogenesis, and decreasing expression of MHCIIa. These results suggest that therapies aimed at increasing PGC-1? expression may have utility in treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PMID:21904680

Nikolic, Natasa; Rhedin, Magdalena; Rustan, Arild C.; Storlien, Len; Thoresen, G. Hege; Stromstedt, Maria

2012-01-01

101

Over-expression in Escherichia coli and characterization of two recombinant isoforms of human FAD synthetase  

SciTech Connect

FAD synthetase (FADS) (EC 2.7.7.2) is a key enzyme in the metabolic pathway that converts riboflavin into the redox cofactor FAD. Two hypothetical human FADSs, which are the products of FLAD1 gene, were over-expressed in Escherichia coli and identified by ESI-MS/MS. Isoform 1 was over-expressed as a T7-tagged protein which had a molecular mass of 63 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Isoform 2 was over-expressed as a 6-His-tagged fusion protein, carrying an extra 84 amino acids at the N-terminal with an apparent molecular mass of 60 kDa on SDS-PAGE. It was purified near to homogeneity from the soluble cell fraction by one-step affinity chromatography. Both isoforms possessed FADS activity and had a strict requirement for MgCl{sub 2}, as demonstrated using both spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. The purified recombinant isoform 2 showed a specific activity of 6.8 {+-} 1.3 nmol of FAD synthesized/min/mg protein and exhibited a K {sub M} value for FMN of 1.5 {+-} 0.3 {mu}M. This is First report on characterization of human FADS, and First cloning and over-expression of FADS from an organism higher than yeast.

Brizio, Carmen [Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare 'Ernesto Quagliariello', Universita degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Galluccio, Michele [Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 4c, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Wait, Robin [Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology Division, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, 1 Aspenlea Road, Hammersmith, London W6 8LH (United Kingdom); Torchetti, Enza Maria [Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare 'Ernesto Quagliariello', Universita degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bafunno, Valeria [Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare 'Ernesto Quagliariello', Universita degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Accardi, Rosita [Infections and Cancer Biology Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon (France); Gianazza, Elisabetta [Gruppo di Studio per la Proteomica e la Struttura delle Proteine, Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Balzaretti 9, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Indiveri, Cesare [Dipartimento di Biologia Cellulare, Universita della Calabria, Via P. Bucci 4c, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Barile, Maria [Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biologia Molecolare 'Ernesto Quagliariello', Universita degli Studi di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70126 Bari (Italy) and Istituto di Biomembrane e Bioenergetica, C.N.R., Via Amendola 165/A, I-70126 Bari (Italy)]. E-mail: m.barile@biologia.uniba.it

2006-06-09

102

Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human breast cancers and adjacent ductal carcinoma in situ.  

PubMed

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. Overexpression of the COX-2 gene in mammary glands of transgenic mice was sufficient to induce tumorigenesis. We analyzed COX-2 expression in human breast cancers (and breast cancer cell lines) and adjacent ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) as well as its association with HER2/neu and clinicopathological variables. Archival primary breast carcinomas (n = 57), adjacent DCIS (n = 14) and DCIS alone (n = 2) were analyzed for COX-2 and HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry using specific monoclonal antibodies. An immunohistochemical scoring system was used. HER2 gene amplification had been analyzed previously by fluorescence in situ hybridization (n = 20). Histology of carcinomas included infiltrating ductal (n = 44), lobular (n = 2), and other (n = 7). Frozen breast cancers and adjacent normal tissue pairs (n = 9) were analyzed for COX-2 mRNA by reverse transcription-PCR. COX-2 and HER2 expression were also analyzed in human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MCF-7/HER2, SK-BR-3, and MDA-MB-231) by immunoblotting. Cytoplasmic COX-2 expression was detected at an intermediate or high level in epithelial cells in 18 of 42 (43%) invasive breast cancers and in 10 of 16 (63%) cases of DCIS. Normal-appearing breast epithelia adjacent to cancer expressed COX-2 in 81% of cases and was generally focal and of similar or decreased intensity relative to adjacent neoplastic epithelia. COX-2 mRNA was detected in all samples analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR and was increased in eight of nine breast cancers relative to paired normal tissue. In archival tumors, no significant correlation was found between COX-2 and HER2 expression/amplification and clinicopathological variables. COX-2 expression was induced in MCF-7 cells stably transfected with HER2, in contrast to parental MCF-7 cells, and was detected in MDA-MB-231, but not SK-BR-3 cells. COX-2 is frequently overexpressed in invasive breast cancers and in adjacent DCIS and, thus, may be an early event in mammary tumorigenesis. Forced HER2 expression in MCF-7 cells was shown to up-regulate COX-2, although no association was found in human tumors. Our results suggest that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective COX-2 inhibitors may be useful in the chemoprevention and therapy of human breast cancer. PMID:11912139

Half, Elizabeth; Tang, Xi Ming; Gwyn, Karin; Sahin, Aysegul; Wathen, Kyle; Sinicrope, Frank A

2002-03-15

103

Hepatoma upregulated protein expression is involved in the pathogenesis of human breast carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, the overexpression of hepatoma upregulated protein (HURP) has been reported in hepatocellular carcinoma, adrenocortical tumors and urogenital carcinoma. However, the role of HURP in breast cancer remains unknown. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis was performed to examine the HURP expression level in 43 breast cancer tumor samples and paired adjacent normal tissues. The correlation between the HURP expression level and the clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated. The role of HURP in breast cancer was investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis and cell proliferation assays. HURP expression was found to be significantly increased in the breast cancer samples. The HURP expression level was higher in the tumors with advanced-grade metastasis and was strongly associated with tumor-node-metastasis staging (P=0.003). Transfection and cell proliferation assays suggested that the suppression of HURP expression or the interference in HURP activity in the breast cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation significantly. These data suggest that HURP is associated with the degree of malignancy and the proliferation of breast cancer. HURP could be a tumor biomarker for prognosis and a potential therapeutic drug target for human breast cancer. PMID:25364424

CHEN, JIN; LIU, QIU-JUN; WANG, DA; ZHOU, XIAN-YAO; XIONG, DING; LI, HONG-JIANG; LI, CHANG-LONG

2014-01-01

104

The Cooperation between hMena Overexpression and HER2 Signalling in Breast Cancer  

E-print Network

hMena and the epithelial specific isoform hMena11a are actin cytoskeleton regulatory proteins belonging to the Ena/VASP family. EGF treatment of breast cancer cell lines upregulates hMena/hMena11a expression and phosphorylates ...

Di Modugno, Francesca

105

Induction of cell death in antiestrogen resistant human breast cancer cells by the protein kinase CK2 inhibitor DMAT.  

PubMed

Protein kinase CK2 is involved in cell proliferation and survival, and found overexpressed in virtually all types of human cancer, including breast cancer. We demonstrate that inhibition of CK2 with 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-benzimidazole (DMAT), a potent and specific CK2 inhibitor, results in caspase-mediated killing of human breast cancer cells with acquired resistance to antiestrogens, while DMAT fails to kill parental MCF-7 cells. The antiestrogen resistant breast cancer cells express reduced levels of Bcl-2 compared to MCF-7 cells. Reduced Bcl-2 protein level is also found in a tamoxifen resistant human breast tumor grown as a xenograft. We show that re-expression of Bcl-2 partially rescues antiestrogen resistant MCF-7 sublines from DMAT-induced cell death. In summary, our data suggest a novel role of CK2 in antiestrogen resistance. PMID:17629615

Yde, Christina Westmose; Frogne, Thomas; Lykkesfeldt, Anne E; Fichtner, Iduna; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Stenvang, Jan

2007-10-28

106

Expression of Human Endogenous Retrovirus Type K Envelope Protein is a Novel Candidate Prognostic Marker for Human Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

We previously observed that the HERV type K (HERV-K) envelope (env) protein was expressed in the majority of human breast tumors from a U.S. cohort of women from Texas. We also made the preliminary observation that the expression of HERV-K env transcripts was associated with markers of disease progression. In this follow-up study, env protein expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in an additional 195 paraffin-embedded breast tumors from a second U.S. patient cohort (Baltimore, Maryland) and in 110 tumors from Chinese patients. Moreover, we compared env transcript expression between fresh-frozen normal and cancerous breast tissues. We observed that while env mRNA and protein expression was undetectable in normal breast tissue and in a subset of uninvolved normal-appearing tissue adjacent to the tumor epithelium, it was overexpressed in most tumors. Furthermore, env expression was associated with breast cancer progression. In Baltimore cohort women, HERV-K tumor positivity was significantly associated with disease stage and lymph node metastasis. In Chinese women, HERV-K env positivity was significantly associated with tumor size, TNM stage, and lymph node metastases, which is consistent with the observations in the U.S. cohort. We also found that Chinese breast cancer patients with a high expression of HERV-K had a decreased overall survival compared with patients who had either a moderate or low HERV-K expression in their tumors (P = 0.049, ?2 log rank test). In conclusion, the HERV-K env gene is expressed in the majority of breast cancers from U.S. or Chinese women but not in normal breast tissue. High expression of HERV-K env protein in breast cancer patients is associated with markers of disease progression and poor disease outcome, indicating that HERV-K env protein is a novel candidate prognostic marker for breast cancer. PMID:22593804

Zhao, Jing; Rycaj, Kiera; Geng, Shanshan; Li, Ming; Plummer, Joshua B.; Yin, Bingnan; Liu, Hong; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Yinchun; Yan, Yanfang; Glynn, Sharon A.; Dorsey, Tiffany H.; Ambs, Stefan; Johanning, Gary L.; Gu, Lin

2011-01-01

107

Immunoreactive opioid peptides in human breast cancer.  

PubMed Central

Opioid peptides have a variety of actions on inter alia pituitary hormone secretion and the immune system. Release of endogenous opioids has been found to stimulate growth of experimental breast cancers and opiate receptor blockers have reduced the growth of chemically induced rat breast tumors. Opioid peptides may therefore play a role in human breast cancer. Invasive ductal carcinomas from 61 premenopausal women were immunocytochemically analyzed for the presence of opioid peptide immunoreactivity. Positive staining was unambiguously identified in 34 of the tumors (56%). In addition, a medullary carcinoma was positive. In a smaller series of tumors, opioid peptide immunoreactive cells were detected in both primary tumors and metastases. Positive tumor cells were usually few and scattered. Therefore, underestimates of their true frequency of occurrence are likely to have occurred, making accurate correlations with clinical behavior and estrogen receptor status difficult. No correlations with estrogen receptors were established for the unambiguously opioid peptide-positive tumors. Many of the positive tumors also stained with antibodies to gamma-endorphin and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, suggesting the presence of proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides in them. However, peptides derived from other opioid precursors also may be present in breast cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:2464945

Scopsi, L.; Balslev, E.; Brunner, N.; Poulsen, H. S.; Andersen, J.; Rank, F.; Larsson, L. I.

1989-01-01

108

Scanning electrochemical microscopy of living cells: Different redox activities of nonmetastatic and metastatic human breast cells  

PubMed Central

Electrochemical methods have been widely used to monitor physiologically important molecules in biological systems. This report describes the first application of the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) to probe the redox activity of individual living cells. The possibilities of measuring the rate and investigating the pathway of transmembrane charge transfer are demonstrated. By this approach, significant differences are detected in the redox responses given by nonmotile, nontransformed human breast epithelial cells, breast cells with a high level of motility (engendered by overexpression of protein kinase C?), and highly metastatic breast cancer cells. SECM analysis of the three cell lines reveals reproducible differences with respect to the kinetics of charge transfer by several redox mediators. PMID:10963658

Liu, Biao; Rotenberg, Susan A.; Mirkin, Michael V.

2000-01-01

109

Overexpression of OLC1 Promotes Tumorigenesis of Human Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose OLC1 was recently identified to be a potential oncogene. However, the role of OLC1 in human esophageal cell carcinoma (ESCC) is unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the expression of OLC1 in human ESCC from normal, premalignant, and malignant lesions, and to clarify the mechanisms by which OLC1 contributes to the progression of ESCC. Experimental Design Two hundred and fourteen paired ESCC specimens, and an independent set from 28 ESCC patients, were used to analyze the correlation between OLC1 expression and the pathological characteristics of tumors using immunohistochemistry. Stable OLC1-overexpressing and OLC1-interfering esophageal cancer cells were established and a series of experimental methods were used to investigate the biological functions and mechanisms of action of OLC1. Results We showed that OLC1 was overexpressed in 145 of 214 (67.8%) of human ESCC specimens, compared with in only 59 of 214 (27.57%) paired adjacent normal tissues (P<0.001). OLC1 overexpression occurred at a rate of 35% (10/28) at the stage of mild/moderate dysplasia, but was significantly upregulated to 66% (22/33) at the stages of severe dysplasia and in situ carcinoma, while 71% positive staining (22/28) was observed in invasive carcinoma tissues compared with normal tissues (P<0.05). We also provided evidence that OLC1 abnormalities significantly altered the cell proliferation and apoptosis induced by cytotoxic agents. OLC1 overexpression suppressed apoptosis, and was associated with attenuated caspase-3 activation and increased Bcl-2 stability. Conclusion Our study provides strong evidence suggesting OLC1 abnormalities may contribute to the development of human ESCC and have some important clinical significance. PMID:24608342

Shao, Shujuan; Xue, Liyan; Chen, Wei; Dong, Lijia; Shi, Ji; Fu, Ming; Lu, Ning; Zhan, Qimin; Tong, Tong

2014-01-01

110

Resistance to chemotherapy via Stat3-dependent overexpression of Bcl2 in metastatic breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disruption of apoptosis may allow metastatic cell survival and confer resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. We have analysed the molecular pathways that activate these survival genes in specific sites of metastasis. Estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB435 and two metastatic sublines derived from lung (435L) and brain (435B) were analysed for the expression of members of the Bcl-2 family of

Pedro J Real; Angels Sierra; Ana de Juan; Jose C Segovia; Jose M Lopez-Vega; Jose L Fernandez-Luna

2002-01-01

111

Deoxycytidine kinase is overexpressed in poor outcome breast cancer and determines responsiveness to nucleoside analogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only a minority of breast cancer patients responds to chemotherapy and we lack predictive biomarkers that help to select a\\u000a patient-tailored therapy that takes into consideration the molecular heterogeneity of the cancer type. Responsiveness to the\\u000a clinically important nucleoside analogs gemcitabine and decitabine may be critically determined by Deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) expression as this enzyme is required to convert the

Ernst-Jan Geutjes; Sun Tian; Paul Roepman; René Bernards

112

Association of HER2 Overexpression and Prognosis in Small (T1N0) Primary Breast Cancers  

PubMed Central

Summary Background There is some controversy regarding the precise role and need for adjuvant therapy in patients with pT1a/pT1bN0 breast cancer, although studies have indicated that a HER2-positive status is one of the most powerful poor prognostic factors. Patients and Methods We retrospectively evaluated disease-free survival (DFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS), and overall survival (OS) among 960 patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2008 with T1N0 primary breast cancer treated at 3 German centers, and determined prognostic risk factors. Univariate analysis was used to determine associations with potential risk factors. Results With a median follow-up of 23 months, DFS was 94.8%, DDFS 96.3%, and OS 97.5%. Risk factors for decreased 1-year DFS were: peritumoral lymphatic invasion (L1) (p = 0.031), negative hormone receptor status (p = 0.003), non-use of hormonal therapy (p = 0.001), and a positive HER2 status (p = 0.003). Amongst the HER2-positive patients only 2.7% (n = 1/37) of those treated with trastuzumab had a DFS event compared with 20% (n = 10/50) without trastuzumab. Conclusion Patients with HER2-positive T1 breast cancer should be considered for inclusion in prospective trials of trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy to determine the risk-to-benefit ratio and association with other prognostic factors. PMID:24415972

Rom, Joachim; Schumacher, Claudia; Gluz, Oleg; Hofler, Josef; Eidt, Sebastian; Domschke, Christoph; Marme, Frederik; Nitz, Ulrike; Sohn, Christof; Schneeweiss, Andreas

2013-01-01

113

Survivin family proteins as novel molecular determinants of doxorubicin resistance in organotypic human breast tumors  

PubMed Central

Introduction The molecular determinants of breast cancer resistance to first-line anthracycline-containing chemotherapy are unknown. Methods We examined the response to doxorubicin of organotypic cultures of primary human breast tumors ex vivo with respect to cell proliferation, DNA damage and modulation of apoptosis. Samples were analyzed for genome-wide modulation of cell death pathways, differential activation of p53, and the role of survivin family molecules in drug resistance. Rational drug combination regimens were explored by high-throughput screening, and validated in model breast cancer cell types. Results Doxorubicin treatment segregated organotypic human breast tumors into distinct Responder or Non Responder groups, characterized by differential proliferative index, stabilization of p53, and induction of apoptosis. Conversely, tumor histotype, hormone receptor or human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status did not influence chemotherapy sensitivity. Global analysis of cell death pathways identified survivin and its alternatively spliced form, survivin-?Ex3 as uniquely overexpressed in Non Responder breast tumors. Forced expression of survivin-?Ex3 preserved cell viability and prevented doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cell types. High-throughput pharmacologic targeting of survivin family proteins with a small-molecule survivin suppressant currently in the clinic (YM155) selectively potentiated the effect of doxorubicin, but not other chemotherapeutics in breast cancer cell types, and induced tumor cell apoptosis. Conclusions Survivin family proteins are novel effectors of doxorubicin resistance in chemotherapy-naive breast cancer. The incorporation of survivin antagonist(s) in anthracycline-containing regimens may have improved clinical activity in these patients. PMID:24886669

2014-01-01

114

Activity of the Dual Kinase Inhibitor Lapatinib (GW572016) against HER2-Overexpressing and Trastuzumab-Treated Breast Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lapatinib(GW572016)isaselectiveinhibitorof bothepidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER-2 tyrosine kinases. Here, we explore the therapeutic potential of lapatinib by testing its effect on tumor cell growth in a panel of 31 characterized human breast cancer cell lines, including trastuzumab-conditioned HER-2-positive cell lines. We further characterize its activity in combination with trastuzumab and analyze whether EGFR and HER-2 expression or changes

Gottfried E. Konecny; Mark D. Pegram; Natarajan Venkatesan; Richard Finn; Guorong Yang; Martina Rahmeh; Michael Untch; David W. Rusnak; Glenn Spehar; Robert J. Mullin; Barry R. Keith; Tona M. Gilmer; Mark Berger; Karl C. Podratz; Dennis J. Slamon

2006-01-01

115

Dickkopf-1 mediated tumor suppression in human breast carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) is a secreted inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway. We previously identified DKK-1 as a candidate tumor suppressor and demonstrated that ectopic expression of the DKK-1 suppressed the tumorigenicity of HeLa cells in vitro and in vivo. Since suppression of tumorigenicity of HeLa cells by DKK-1 overexpression was not mediated by effects on beta-catenin dependent transcription, we hypothesized that DKK-1 might also inhibit tumorigenicity of breast carcinoma cell lines lacking an activated canonical Wnt pathway. In the present study we show that ectopic expression of DKK-1 in various breast cancer cell lines resulted in a change in the cell phenotype, increased sensitivity to apoptosis, inhibition of anchorage independent growth in vitro, and suppression of tumorigenicity in vivo. Consistent with known effects of DKK-1 on the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, ectopic expression of DKK-1 in breast carcinoma cells was associated with increased phosphorylation and degradation of beta-catenin. However, none of the breast tumor cells used in this study showed detectable levels of beta-catenin dependent activation of TCF/Lef promoter activity measured by reporter constructs. Consistent with the results of these transient transfection assays, we were unable to demonstrate the expected beta-catenin dependent, TCF/Lef mediated inhibition of cyclin D1 and c-myc gene transcription in breast cells overexpressing DKK-1. However, we found that cells with DKK-1 overexpression have increased activity of CamKII pathway. Overexpression of the constitutively active form of CamKII (T286D) resulted in inhibition of breast cancer cell tumorigenicity. Thus, our study supports the hypothesis that DKK-1 mediated tumor suppressor effect is independent of beta-catenin dependent transcription and identified the CamKII pathway that contributes into DKK-1 signaling. PMID:18157634

Mikheev, Andrei M; Mikheeva, Svetlana A; Maxwell, John-Patrick; Rivo, Julia V; Rostomily, Robert; Swisshelm, Karen; Zarbl, Helmut

2008-11-01

116

Anti-HER2 immunoliposomes for selective delivery of electron paramagnetic resonance imaging probes to HER2-overexpressing breast tumor cells  

PubMed Central

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging is an emerging modality that can detect and localize paramagnetic molecular probes (so-called spin probes) in vivo. We previously demonstrated that nitroxide spin probes can be encapsulated in liposomes at concentrations exceeding 100 mM, at which nitroxides exhibit a concentration-dependent quenching of their EPR signal that is analogous to the self-quenching of fluorescent molecules. Therefore, intact liposomes encapsulating high concentrations of nitroxides exhibit greatly attenuated EPR spectral signals, and endocytosis of such liposomes represents a cell-activated contrast-generating mechanism. After endocytosis, the encapsulated nitroxide is liberated and becomes greatly diluted in the intracellular milieu. This dequenches the nitroxides to generate a robust intracellular EPR signal. It is therefore possible to deliver a high concentration of nitroxides to cells while minimizing background signal from unendocytosed liposomes. We report here that intracellular EPR signal can be selectively generated in a specific cell type by exploiting its expression of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2). When targeted by anti-HER2 immunoliposomes encapsulating quenched nitroxides, Hc7 cells, which are novel HER2-overexpressing cells derived from the MCF7 breast tumor cell line, endocytose the liposomes copiously, in contrast to the parent MCF7 cells or control CV1 cells, which do not express HER2. HER2-dependent liposomal delivery enables Hc7 cells to accumulate 750 ?M nitroxide intracellularly. Through the use of phantom models, we verify that this concentration of nitroxides is more than sufficient for EPR imaging, thus laying the foundation for using EPR imaging to visualize HER2-overexpressing Hc7 tumors in animals. PMID:20066490

Burks, Scott R.; Macedo, Luciana F.; Barth, Eugene D.; Tkaczuk, Katherine H.; Martin, Stuart S.; Rosen, Gerald M.; Halpern, Howard J.; Brodie, Angela M.

2014-01-01

117

HER2 overexpression a major risk factor for recurrence in pT1a-bN0M0 breast cancer: results from a French regional cohort  

PubMed Central

The management of pT1a-bN0M0 breast cancer remains an area of controversy. Data from 714 patients classified as having pT1a-bN0M0 breast cancer and treated, from 1999 to 2004 in the Languedoc-Roussillon France, were analyzed. The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status analyses were centralized. The objective of this study was to describe the prognosis of pT1a-bN0M0 breast cancer according to HER2 distribution and hormonal status. The median follow-up was 6.4?years. Ten-year overall survival was 94%. HER2 overexpression was observed in 6.1% of the patients. The 10-year prognosis of patients with HER2-positive tumors was worse than that of those with HER2-negative (disease-free survival 73% vs. 89%, P?breast cancers, HER2 amplification or overexpression is a risk factor for recurrence. In HER2-positive breast cancers, HR expression is associated with a poor prognosis despite the hormone therapy. For this population, a personalized management may be required. PMID:24407937

Rouanet, Philippe; Roger, Pascal; Rousseau, Emilie; Thibault, Severine; Romieu, Gilles; Mathieu, Andre; Cretin, Jacques; Barneon, Gilbert; Granier, Mireille; Maran-Gonzalez, Aurelie; Daures, Jean P; Boissiere, Florence; Bibeau, Frederic

2014-01-01

118

Gene Amplification and Overexpression of CDK4 in Sporadic Breast Carcinomas Is Associated with High Tumor Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Amplification of the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) gene, located at 12q13-q14, has been found as an alternative genetic alteration to CDKN2A inactivation in various human tumors including malignant gliomas and sarcomas. In the present study, we have evaluated the frequency of the CDK4 gene amplification in sporadic breast cancer by applying a nonradioactive quantitative differential polymerase chain reaction based on fluorescent DNA technology. Fluorescent-labeled polymerase chain reaction products were analyzed with an automated DNA sequencer. Amplification of CDK4 gene was detected in 15 (15.8%) of 95 breast cancers. All tumors with CDK4 gene amplification showed high CDK4 protein expression determined by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, the mean Ki-67 labeling index in tumors with CDK4 gene amplification was significantly higher than in those without CDK4 gene amplification. No significant associations were observed between CDK4 gene amplification and any specific histopathological parameter. The findings of this study provide the first evidence of CDK4 gene amplification in breast cancer and suggest that CDK4 gene amplification appears to be of importance in the pathogenesis of a subset of sporadic breast cancer. PMID:9916925

An, Han-Xiang; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Reifenberger, Guido; Bender, Hans G.; Niederacher, Dieter

1999-01-01

119

Human Breast Progenitor Cell Numbers Are Regulated by WNT and TBX3  

PubMed Central

Background Although human breast development is mediated by hormonal and non-hormonal means, the mechanisms that regulate breast progenitor cell activity remain to be clarified. This limited understanding of breast progenitor cells has been due in part to the lack of appropriate model systems to detect and characterize their properties. Methods To examine the effects of WNT signaling and TBX3 expression on progenitor activity in the breast, primary human mammary epithelial cells (MEC) were isolated from reduction mammoplasty tissues and transduced with lentivirus to overexpress WNT1 or TBX3 or reduce expression of their cognate receptors using shRNA. Changes in progenitor activity were quantified using characterized assays. We identified WNT family members expressed by cell populations within the epithelium and assessed alterations in expression of WNT family ligands by MECs in response to TBX3 overexpression and treatment with estrogen and progesterone. Results Growth of MECs on collagen gels resulted in the formation of distinct luminal acinar and basal ductal colonies. Overexpression of TBX3 in MECs resulted in increased ductal colonies, while shTBX3 expression diminished both colony types. Increased WNT1 expression led to enhanced acinar colony formation, shLRP6 decreased both types of colonies. Estrogen stimulated the formation of acinar colonies in control MEC, but not shLRP6 MEC. Formation of ductal colonies was enhanced in response to progesterone. However, while shLRP6 decreased MEC responsiveness to progesterone, shTBX3 expression did not alter this response. Conclusions We identified two phenotypically distinguishable lineage-committed progenitor cells that contribute to different structural elements and are regulated via hormonal and non-hormonal mechanisms. WNT signaling regulates both types of progenitor activity. Progesterone favors the expansion of ductal progenitor cells, while estrogen stimulates the expansion of acinar progenitor cells. Paracrine WNT signaling is stimulated by estrogen and progesterone, while autocrine WNT signaling is induced by the embryonic T-box transcription factor TBX3. PMID:25350852

Arendt, Lisa M.; St. Laurent, Jessica; Wronski, Ania; Caballero, Silvia; Lyle, Stephen R.; Naber, Stephen P.; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

2014-01-01

120

Overexpression of human genes in Drosophila melanogaster by using GAL4 UAS system.  

PubMed

Many human genes determined by genomic sequencing have only few information about their functions. To fill this knowledge gap, the powerful Drosophila genetics was set as a model to elucidate human gene functions effectively. By using germline transformation together with GAL4-UAS system, we studied the possibility of expressing and functionally characterization of human genes in Drosophila. Fifty-four transgenic fly lines corresponding to 10 human genes have been established. When expressed individually by crossing to an array of 6 different GAL4 driver lines, one of these genes, the translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 (EF1 alpha-1), resulted in abnormal notum and rough eye phenotypes. This study implies the feasibility of systematically screening human gene functions by overexpression in Drosophila. PMID:12883627

Ma, Xi-Zhi; Cai, Li-Jun; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Zhao, Shou-Yuan; Li, Chang-Ben; Deng, Ke-Jing

2003-07-01

121

Dystonia, facial dysmorphism, intellectual disability and breast cancer associated with a chromosome 13q34 duplication and overexpression of TFDP1: case report  

PubMed Central

Background Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary sustained muscle contractions causing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures. Some cases of primary and neurodegenerative dystonia have been associated with mutations in individual genes critical to the G1-S checkpoint pathway (THAP1, ATM, CIZ1 and TAF1). Secondary dystonia is also a relatively common clinical sign in many neurogenetic disorders. However, the contribution of structural variation in the genome to the etiopathogenesis of dystonia remains largely unexplored. Case presentation Cytogenetic analyses with the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 identified a chromosome 13q34 duplication in a 36 year-old female with global developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, tall stature, breast cancer and dystonia, and her neurologically-normal father. Dystonia improved with bilateral globus pallidus interna (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS). Genomic breakpoint analysis, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and leukocyte gene expression were used to characterize the structural variant. The 218,345 bp duplication was found to include ADPRHL1, DCUN1D2, and TMCO3, and a 69 bp fragment from a long terminal repeat (LTR) located within Intron 3 of TFDP1. The 3' breakpoint was located within Exon 1 of a TFDP1 long non-coding RNA (NR_026580.1). In the affected subject and her father, gene expression was higher for all three genes located within the duplication. However, in comparison to her father, mother and neurologically-normal controls, the affected subject also showed marked overexpression (2×) of the transcription factor TFDP1 (NM_007111.4). Whole-exome sequencing identified an SGCE variant (c.1295G?>?A, p.Ser432His) that could possibly have contributed to the development of dystonia in the proband. No pathogenic mutations were identified in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Conclusion Overexpression of TFDP1 has been associated with breast cancer and may also be linked to the tall stature, dysmorphism and dystonia seen in our patient. PMID:23849371

2013-01-01

122

Noncoding human Y RNAs are overexpressed in tumours and required for cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

Noncoding Y RNAs have recently been identified as essential factors for chromosomal DNA replication in human cell nuclei. Here, we investigate the expression of human Y RNAs in tumours and test their requirement for cell proliferation. Relative expression levels of all four human Y RNAs (hY1, hY3, hY4 and hY5 RNA) were determined by quantitative RT–PCR in extracts from human solid tumours, corresponding nonmalignant normal tissues and derived cultured cells. On average, all four hY RNAs are significantly overexpressed in solid tumours between 4- and 13-fold, compared to the corresponding normal tissues. In particular, hY1 and hY3 RNAs are overexpressed in carcinomas (and adenocarcinomas) of the bladder, cervix, colon, kidney, lung and prostate with extremely high statistical significance (ANOVA, between groups, P<10e-22). A functional requirement of all four hY RNAs for cell proliferation was investigated in a systematic survey for loss-of-function by RNA interference (RNAi). Degradation of hY1 and hY3 RNAs in human cell lines resulted in a significant cytostatic inhibition of cell proliferation. We conclude that noncoding hY RNAs have potential both as new cancer biomarkers and as molecular targets for anti-proliferative intervention. PMID:18283318

Christov, C P; Trivier, E; Krude, T

2008-01-01

123

The over-expression of ERbeta modifies estradiol effects on mitochondrial dynamics in breast cancer cell line.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial biogenesis and function are under the control of 17?-estradiol, which acts through two distinct estrogen receptors (alpha or beta), and the estrogen receptors ratio can determine the final effect of 17?-estradiol on mitochondria. Our aim was to study the effects of 17?-estradiol on mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and function in breast cancer cell lines with different estrogen receptors ratios. Mitochondrial biogenesis was increased in MDA-MB-231 (with only estrogen receptor beta expression), T47D (normal estrogen receptors ratio) and MCF-7 (highest estrogen receptors ratio) breast cancer cell lines, in response to different mitochondrial and cellular status. In fact, mitochondria of the MDA-MB-231 and T47D cell lines maintained their functionality, although, the MCF-7 cell line did suffer an important decrease in mitochondrial function. Thus, mitochondrial biogenesis increased in MCF-7 with the aim of mitigating these defective mitochondria. In normal conditions, mitophagic processes remove defective mitochondria to refresh the mitochondrial pool. Mitochondrial dynamics were also under control by 17?-estradiol, and showed modifications in the fusion/fission processes and the modulation of mitochondrial removal. In fact, cells with only estrogen receptor beta or with a low estrogen receptors ratio, such as MDA-MB-231 and T47D, showed an increase in fusion processes. However, the MCF-7 cell line, with more estrogen receptor alpha, also showed an increase in fusion processes, even though the fission processes were diminished and led to an accumulation of unfunctional mitochondria. Finally, the importance of estrogen receptor beta in mitochondrial biogenesis, function, as well as in mitochondrial dynamics was examined. Using the T47D-estrogen receptor beta tetracycline-inducible cell line, the results confirmed that when the overexpression of estrogen receptor beta was inhibited, there was an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis, although these mitochondria were less functional, and with fewer fission events, although there was an increase in fusion processes. PMID:23618876

Sastre-Serra, Jorge; Nadal-Serrano, Mercedes; Pons, Daniel Gabriel; Roca, Pilar; Oliver, Jordi

2013-07-01

124

Arsenic-induced cancer cell phenotype in human breast epithelia is estrogen receptor-independent but involves aromatase activation.  

PubMed

Accumulating data suggest arsenic may be an endocrine disruptor and tentatively linked to breast cancer by some studies. Therefore, we tested the effects of chronic inorganic arsenic exposure on the normal estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10A. Cells were chronically exposed to a low-level arsenite (500 nM) for up to 24 weeks. Markers of cancer cell phenotype and the expression of critical genes relevant to breast cancer or stem cells (SCs) were examined. After 24 weeks, chronic arsenic-exposed breast epithelial (CABE) cells showed increases in secreted MMP activity, colony formation, invasion, and proliferation rate, indicating an acquired cancer cell phenotype. These CABE cells presented with basal-like breast cancer characteristics, including ER-?, HER-2, and progesterone receptor negativity, and overexpression of K5 and p63. Putative CD44(+)/CD24(-/low) breast SCs were increased to 80 % over control in CABE cells. CABE cells also formed multilayer cell mounds, indicative of loss of contact inhibition. These mounds showed high levels of K5 and p63, indicating the potential presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition occurred during arsenic exposure. Overexpression of aromatase, a key rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen synthesis, occurred with arsenic starting early on in exposure. Levels of 17?-estradiol increased in CABE cells and their conditioned medium. The aromatase inhibitor letrozole abolished arsenic-induced increases in 17?-estradiol production and reversed cancer cell phenotype. Thus, chronic arsenic exposure drives human breast epithelia into a cancer cell phenotype with an apparent overabundance of putative CSCs. Arsenic appears to transform breast epithelia through overexpression of aromatase, thereby activating oncogenic processes independent of ER. PMID:24068038

Xu, Yuanyuan; Tokar, Erik J; Waalkes, Michael P

2014-02-01

125

The Polycomb group protein RING1B is overexpressed in ductal breast carcinoma and is required to sustain FAK steady state levels in breast cancer epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

In early stages of metastasis malignant cells must acquire phenotypic changes to enhance their migratory behavior and their ability to breach the matrix surrounding tumors and blood vessel walls. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression allows the acquisition of these features that, once tumoral cells have escape from the primary tumor, can be reverted. Here we report that the expression of the Polycomb epigenetic repressor Ring1B is enhanced in tumoral cells that invade the stroma in human ductal breast carcinoma and its expression is coincident with that of Fak in these tumors. Ring1B knockdown in breast cancer cell lines revealed that Ring1B is required to sustain Fak expression in basal conditions as well as in Tgf?-treated cells. Functionally, endogenous Ring1B is required for cell migration and invasion in vitro and for in vivo invasion of the mammary fat pad by tumoral cells. Finally we identify p63 as a target of Ring1B to regulate Fak expression: Ring1B depletion results in enhanced p63 expression, which in turns represses Fak expression. Importantly, Fak downregulation upon Ring1B depletion is dependent on p63 expression. Our findings provide new insights in the biology of the breast carcinoma and open new avenues for breast cancer prognosis and therapy. PMID:24742605

Bosch, Almudena; Panoutsopoulou, Konstantina; Corominas, Josep Maria; Gimeno, Ramon; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Martin-Caballero, Juan; Morales, Saleta; Lobato, Tania; Martinez-Romero, Carles; Farias, Eduardo F.; Mayol, Xavier; Cano, Amparo; Hernandez-Muaoz, Inmaculada

2014-01-01

126

Oestrogen Metabolism in Cultured Human Breast Tumours  

PubMed Central

The interconversion of tritium labelled oestrone and oestradiol-17? has been investigated in human breast tumours maintained in organ culture for 3 days. Benign tumours were significantly different from scirrhous carcinomata both in the concentration of radioactivity taken up by the tissue and in the ratios of oestradiol-17?/oestrone achieved. The fact that malignant tumours were able to convert oestrone to oestradiol-17? is of interest in view of the relatively high plasma levels of oestrone in post-menopausal women. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4345953

Willcox, P. A.; Thomas, G. H.

1972-01-01

127

Overexpression of c-erbB-2 and p21 oncoproteins in human radiation-induced skin ulcers  

SciTech Connect

We studied the overexpression of c-erbB-2 and p21 oncoproteins in human radiation-induced skin ulcers using immunohistochemistry. We found that the positive rate of overexpression of c-erbB-2 and p21 oncoproteins was 92.0 and 92.9%, respectively. The overexpression of c-erbB-2 oncoprotein was observed mainly in the cell membrane of squamous epithelial cells and in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, leiomyocytes in the media, and in fibrocytes of the adventitia of mesenchymal arterioles. The location of the p21 oncoprotein overexpression was mostly similar to that of c-erbB-2 with stronger staining in the cytoplasm of squamous epithelial cells and weaker staining in mesenchymal arteriolar walls. The overexpression of c-erbB-2 and p21 oncoproteins may be corresponding to the cancer transformation and poor healing of radiation-induced skin ulcers. 6 refs., 2 figs.

Zhao Po, Yang Zhixiang, Wang De-wen [Inst. of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China)] [and others

1995-12-31

128

Secretion of immunoreactive calcitonin by human breast carcinomas.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-three out of 28 patients with metastatic breast carcinoma and one out of 13 patients with localised disease had raised levels of plasma immunoreactive calcitonin. Monolayer cultures of breast carcinomas maintained for up to 10 weeks released immunoreactive calcitonin, and a primary breast carcinoma passaged in "nude" mice for over a year contained material immunologically and chromatographically resembling the monomeric form of human calcitonin. These studies indicate that breast carcinomas can produce calcitonin and that plasma calcitonin measurements may be useful in staging patients with breast carcinomas. PMID:1191996

Coombes, R C; Easty, G C; Detre, S I; Hillyard, C J; Stevens, U; Girgis, S I; Galante, L S; Heywood, L; Macintyre, I; Neville, A M

1975-01-01

129

Overexpression of CD99 Increases the Migration and Invasiveness of Human Malignant Glioma Cells  

PubMed Central

The malignant glioma is the most common primary human brain tumor, and its migration and invasiveness away from the primary tumor mass are considered a leading cause of tumor recurrence and treatment failure. Recently, gene expression profiling revealed that the transmembrane glycoprotein CD99 is more highly expressed in malignant glioma than in normal brain. Although its function is not completely understood, CD99 is implicated in cell adhesion and migration in a variety of different cell types. CD99 has wild-type and splice variant isoforms. Previous studies have shown that wild-type CD99 may be an oncosuppressor in some tumors, distinct from the role of the splice variant isoform. In this study, our data reveal that only wild-type CD99 is expressed in human glioma cells and tissues. Using a tissue microarray, we validated that gliomas demonstrate higher expression of CD99 compared with nonneoplastic brain. To assess the role of CD99 in glioma migration and invasion, we inhibited CD99 expression by siRNA and demonstrated decreased glioma migration and invasion. In contrast, when CD99 was overexpressed in glioma cells, we observed enhancement of cell migration and invasiveness. An orthotopic brain tumor model demonstrates that CD99 overexpression significantly increases invasiveness and decreases survival rate. Interestingly, Rac activity was decreased and Rho activity was increased in CD99 overexpressing glioma cells, and the proportion of amoeboid cells to mesenchymal cells was significantly increased. Taken together, our findings suggest that CD99 may play an important role in the migration and invasion of human gliomas independent of Akt, ERK, or JNK signaling pathways. Moreover, CD99 might be involved in amoeboid-mesenchymal transition in glioma migration. CD99 may be an important future target to inhibit migration and invasion, especially in CD99-expressing gliomas. PMID:23486730

Seol, Ho Jun; Chang, Jong Hee; Yamamoto, Junkoh; Romagnuolo, Rocco; Suh, Youngchul; Weeks, Adrienne; Agnihotri, Sameer; Smith, Christian A.

2012-01-01

130

Cyclopamine and jervine induce COX-2 overexpression in human erythroleukemia cells but only cyclopamine has a pro-apoptotic effect  

SciTech Connect

Erythroleukemia is generally associated with a very poor response and survival to current available therapeutic agents. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been described to play a crucial role in the proliferation and differentiation of leukemia cells, this enzyme seems to play an important role in chemoresistance in different cancer types. Previously, we demonstrated that diosgenin, a plant steroid, induced apoptosis in HEL cells with concomitant COX-2 overexpression. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of cyclopamine and jervine, two steroidal alkaloids with similar structures, on HEL and TF1a human erythroleukemia cell lines and, for the first time, their effect on COX-2 expression. Cyclopamine, but not jervine, inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in these cells. Both compounds induced COX-2 overexpression which was responsible for apoptosis resistance. In jervine-treated cells, COX-2 overexpression was NF-?B dependent. Inhibition of NF-?B reduced COX-2 overexpression and induced apoptosis. In addition, cyclopamine induced apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression via PKC activation. Inhibition of the PKC pathway reduced both apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression in both cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the p38/COX-2 pathway was involved in resistance to cyclopamine-induced apoptosis since p38 inhibition reduced COX-2 overexpression and increased apoptosis in both cell lines. - Highlights: ? Cyclopamine alone but not jervine induces apoptosis in human erythroleukemia cells. ? Cyclopamine and jervine induce COX-2 overexpression. ? COX-2 overexpression is implicated in resistance to cyclopamine-induced apoptosis. ? Apoptotic potential of jervine is restrained by NF-?B pathway activation. ? PKC is involved in cyclopamine-induced apoptosis and COX-2 overexpression.

Ghezali, Lamia; Leger, David Yannick; Limami, Youness [Université de Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, EA 1069 “Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Naturelles”, GDR CNRS 3049, Faculté de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire, 2 rue du Docteur Marcland, 87025 Limoges Cedex (France); Cook-Moreau, Jeanne [Université de Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, UMR CNRS 7276 “Contrôle de la réponse immune B et lymphoproliférations”, Faculté de Médecine, 2 rue du Docteur Marcland, 87025 Limoges Cedex (France); Beneytout, Jean-Louis [Université de Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, EA 1069 “Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Naturelles”, GDR CNRS 3049, Faculté de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire, 2 rue du Docteur Marcland, 87025 Limoges Cedex (France); Liagre, Bertrand, E-mail: bertrand.liagre@unilim.fr [Université de Limoges, FR 3503 GEIST, EA 1069 “Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Naturelles”, GDR CNRS 3049, Faculté de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire, 2 rue du Docteur Marcland, 87025 Limoges Cedex (France)

2013-04-15

131

A Novel H19 Antisense RNA Overexpressed in Breast Cancer Contributes to Paternal IGF2 Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H19\\/IGFf2 locus belongs to a large imprinted domain located on human chromosome 11p15.5 (homo- logue to mouse distal chromosome 7). The H19 gene is expressed from the maternal allele, while IGF2 is paternally expressed. Natural antisense transcripts and intergenic transcription have been involved in many aspects of eukaryotic gene expression, including genomic imprinting and RNA interference. However, apart from

Nathalie Berteaux; Nathalie Aptel; Guy Cathala; Celine Genton; Jean Coll; Anthony Daccache; Nathalie Spruyt; Hubert Hondermarck; Thierry Dugimont; Jean-Jacques Curgy; Thierry Forne; Eric Adriaenssens

2008-01-01

132

Human chromosome 21-derived miRNAs are overexpressed in down syndrome brains and hearts.  

PubMed

Down syndrome (DS), or Trisomy 21, is the most common genetic cause of cognitive impairment and congenital heart defects in the human population. To date, the contribution of microRNAs (miRNAs) in DS has not been investigated. Bioinformatic analyses demonstrate that human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) harbors five miRNA genes; miR-99a, let-7c, miR-125b-2, miR-155, and miR-802. MiRNA expression profiling, miRNA RT-PCR, and miRNA in situ hybridization experiments demonstrate that these miRNAs are overexpressed in fetal brain and heart specimens from individuals with DS when compared with age- and sex-matched controls. We hypothesize that trisomic 21 gene dosage overexpression of Hsa21-derived miRNAs results in the decreased expression of specific target proteins and contribute, in part, to features of the neuronal and cardiac DS phenotype. Importantly, Hsa21-derived miRNAs may provide novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of individuals with DS. PMID:18387358

Kuhn, Donald E; Nuovo, Gerard J; Martin, Mickey M; Malana, Geraldine E; Pleister, Adam P; Jiang, Jinmai; Schmittgen, Thomas D; Terry, Alvin V; Gardiner, Katheleen; Head, Elizabeth; Feldman, David S; Elton, Terry S

2008-06-01

133

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma overexpression suppresses proliferation of human colon cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the correlation between PPAR{gamma} expression and cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} overexpression reduces cell viability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show the synergistic effect of cell growth inhibition by a PPAR{gamma} agonist. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) plays an important role in the differentiation of intestinal cells and tissues. Our previous reports indicate that PPAR{gamma} is expressed at considerable levels in human colon cancer cells. This suggests that PPAR{gamma} expression may be an important factor for cell growth regulation in colon cancer. In this study, we investigated PPAR{gamma} expression in 4 human colon cancer cell lines, HT-29, LOVO, DLD-1, and Caco-2. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis revealed that the relative levels of PPAR{gamma} mRNA and protein in these cells were in the order HT-29 > LOVO > Caco-2 > DLD-1. We also found that PPAR{gamma} overexpression promoted cell growth inhibition in PPAR{gamma} lower-expressing cell lines (Caco-2 and DLD-1), but not in higher-expressing cells (HT-29 and LOVO). We observed a correlation between the level of PPAR{gamma} expression and the cells' sensitivity for proliferation.

Tsukahara, Tamotsu, E-mail: ttamotsu@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Department of Integrative Physiology and Bio-System Control, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)] [Department of Integrative Physiology and Bio-System Control, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Haniu, Hisao [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)] [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

2012-08-03

134

Establishment of a canine model of human type 2 diabetes mellitus by overexpressing phosphoenolypyruvate carboxykinase.  

PubMed

Dogs are useful models for studying human metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus due to similarities in physiology, anatomy and life styles with humans. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) facilitates the production of transgenic dogs. In this study, we generated transgenic dogs expressing the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene, which is closely involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, we assessed the cloning efficiency associated with adult or fetal (cloned or natural mating) fibroblasts as a nuclear source. Cloning efficiency was determined by the fusion, pregnancy and cloning rates. The fusion rates were significantly high for fibroblasts from cloned fetuses, but the pregnancy and cloning rates were relatively high for cells from normal fetuses. Based on these data, fetal fibroblasts were selected as the nuclear donor for SCNT and genetically engineered to overexpress the PEPCK gene and dual selection marker genes controlled by the PEPCK promoter. The transgenic cells were introduced into oocytes and transferred into five recipient dogs, resulting in two pregnancies. Finally, three puppies were born and confirmed by microsatellite analysis to be genetically identical to the donor. One puppy successfully overexpressed PEPCK mRNA and protein in the liver. This canine disease model may be useful for studying the pathogenesis and/or therapeutic targets of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22580743

Jeong, Yeon Woo; Lee, Geun-Shik; Kim, Joung Joo; Park, Sun Woo; Ko, Kyeong Hee; Kang, Mina; Kim, Yu Kyung; Jung, Eui-Man; Hyun, Sang Hwan; Shin, Taeyoung; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Hwang, Woo Suk

2012-08-01

135

Targeting uPAR with Antagonistic Recombinant Human Antibodies in Aggressive Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Components of the plasminogen activation system (PAS) which are overexpressed in aggressive breast cancer subtypes offer appealing targets for development of new diagnostics and therapeutics. By comparing gene expression data in patient populations and cultured cell lines, we identified elevated levels of the urokinase plasminogen activation receptor (uPAR, PLAUR) in highly aggressive breast cancer subtypes and cell lines. Recombinant human anti-uPAR antagonistic antibodies exhibited potent binding in vitro to the surface of cancer cells expressing uPAR. In vivo these antibodies detected uPAR expression in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumor xenografts using near infrared (NIR) imaging and 111In single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Antibody-based uPAR imaging probes accurately detected small disseminated lesions in a tumor metastasis model, complementing the current clinical imaging standard 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) at detecting non-glucose-avid metastatic lesions. A monotherapy study using the antagonistic antibodies resulted in a significant decrease in tumor growth in a TNBC xenograft model. Additionally, a radioimmunotherapy (RIT) study, using the anti-uPAR antibodies conjugated to the therapeutic radioisotope 177Lu, found that they were effective at reducing tumor burden in vivo. Taken together, our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for uPAR targeting as a strategy for breast cancer diagnosis and therapy using this novel human antibody technology. PMID:23400595

LeBeau, Aaron M.; Duriseti, Sai; Murphy, Stephanie T.; Pepin, Francois; Hann, Byron; Gray, Joe W.; VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Craik, Charles S.

2013-01-01

136

Prolactin Synthesis and Secretion by Human Breast Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possible autocrine function of prolactin (Prl) in human breast cancer was explored by the addition of a panel of anti-human Prl inAlis to T47Dco and MCF7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, inAb 631 and niAh 390 inhibited cell growth by 86 and 68%, respectively, in the estrogen receptor-negative T47Dco cells and by 20 and 71%, respectively, in the estrogen receptor-positive

Erika Ginsburg; Barbara K. Vonderhaar

137

Glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase domain containing 5 (GDPD5) expression correlates with malignant choline phospholipid metabolite profiles in human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Altered choline phospholipid metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, leading to malignant choline metabolite profiles consisting of low glycerophosphocholine (GPC) and high phosphocholine (PC) in human breast cancers. Glycerophosphocholine phosphodiesterase (GPC-PDE) catalyzes the degradation of GPC to free choline and glycerol-3-phosphate. The gene(s) encoding for the GPC-PDE(s) responsible for GPC degradation in breast cancers have not yet been identified. Here we have demonstrated for the first time that the GPC-PDE encoded by glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase domain containing 5 (GDPD5) is associated with breast cancer malignancy. Two human breast cancer cell lines (n=8 and 10) and primary human breast tumor samples (n=19) were studied with combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and qRT-PCR to investigate several isoforms of GDPD expression with respect to choline phospholipid metabolite levels. Out of five GDPDs tested, GDPD5 was found to be significantly overexpressed in highly malignant estrogen receptor negative (ER?) compared to weakly malignant estrogen receptor positive (ER+) human breast cancer cells (P=0.027) and breast tumors from patients (P=0.015). GDPD5 showed significantly positive correlations with PC (P<0.001), total choline (tCho) (P=0.007) and PC/GPC (P<0.001) levels in human breast tumors. GDPD5 showed a trend towards negative correlation with GPC levels (P=0.130). Human breast cancers with malignant choline metabolite profiles consisting of low GPC and high PC levels highly co-expressed GDPD5, choline kinase alpha (CHKA), and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase D1 (PLD1), while cancers containing high GPC and relatively low PC levels displayed low co-expression of GDPD5, CHKA, and PLD1. GDPD5, CHKA and PLD1 were significantly overexpressed in highly malignant ER? tumors in our patient cohort. Our study identified GDPD5 as a GPC-PDE that likely participates in regulating choline phospholipid metabolism in breast cancer, which possibly occurs in cooperation with CHKA and PLD1. PMID:22279038

Cao, Maria D.; Dopkens, Mailin; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Vesuna, Farhad; Gadiya, Mayur M.; Loenning, Per E.; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Gribbestad, Ingrid S.; Glunde, Kristine

2012-01-01

138

SKP2 overexpression is associated with increased serine 10 phosphorylation of p27 (pSer10p27) in triple-negative breast cancer.  

PubMed

S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) is an important cell cycle regulator, targeting the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27 for degradation, and is frequently overexpressed in breast cancer. p27 regulates G1 /S transition by abrogating the activity of cyclin/CDK complexes. p27 can undergo phosphorylation at serine 10 (pSer10p27). This phosphorylation event is associated with increased cell proliferation and poor prognosis in patients with glioma. The relationship between SKP2 and pSer10p27 in breast cancer has not been previously investigated. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of SKP2, p27, pSer10p27, and other genes involved in this pathway, was analyzed in 188 breast tumors and 50 benign reduction mammoplasty samples. IHC showed SKP2 to be more highly expressed in estrogen receptor ? (ER?)-negative breast cancers and demonstrated that triple-negative tumors were more likely to have high expression of SKP2 than were non-triple negative, ER?-negative tumors. A significant positive relationship was discovered for SKP2 and pSer10p27. High levels of SKP2 and pSer10p27 were observed significantly more often in ER?-negative and triple-negative than in ER?-positive breast cancers. Use of the triple-negative TMX2-28 breast cancer cell line to address the role of SKP2 in cell cycle progression confirmed that SKP2 contributes to a more rapid cell cycle progression and may regulates pSer10p27 levels. Together, the results indicate that presence of high SKP2 plus high pSer10p27 levels in triple-negative breast cancers is associated with aggressive growth, and highlight the validity of using SKP2 inhibitors as a therapeutic approach for treating this subset of breast cancers. PMID:24443386

Fagan-Solis, Katerina D; Pentecost, Brian T; Gozgit, Joseph M; Bentley, Brooke A; Marconi, Sharon M; Otis, Christopher N; Anderton, Douglas L; Schneider, Sallie Smith; Arcaro, Kathleen F

2014-09-01

139

Her-2/neu gene amplification compared with HER-2/neu protein overexpression on ultrasound guided core-needle biopsy specimens of breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

Genomic amplification and oncoprotein overexpression of Her-2/neu was studied on ultrasound core needle biopsy specimens of the infiltrative ductal carcinomas of the breast. We performed two colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for Her-2/neu and chromosome 17 and compared the FISH results with the immunohistochemical overexpression of Her-2/neu protein by 2 antibodies (DAKO HercepTest and the BioGenex monoclonal antibody AM 134-5M). Furthermore, following radical mastectomy with axillary dissection, Her-2/neu status of the patients were compared with the well known histopathological prognostic factors such as histologic grade, tumor stage, lympho/ vascular invasion, surgical margin status and Paget s disease. Amplification was demonstrated 27% of the cases. Her-2/neu protein overexpression was detected in 47% and 80% of the cases with CB11 and HercepTest respectively. We revealed statistically significant association between the tumor, oncoprotein expression and oncogene amplification (p<0.05). The results of our study showed that combination of IHC and FISH methods enhances the evaluation of tumor genetics at both gene and protein level for the analysis of Her-2/neu in breast carcinoma. PMID:11882907

Kaya, H; Ragazzini, T; Aribal, E; Güney, I; Kotiloglu, E

2001-01-01

140

Microbial Dysbiosis Is Associated with Human Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer affects one in eight women in their lifetime. Though diet, age and genetic predisposition are established risk factors, the majority of breast cancers have unknown etiology. The human microbiota refers to the collection of microbes inhabiting the human body. Imbalance in microbial communities, or microbial dysbiosis, has been implicated in various human diseases including obesity, diabetes, and colon cancer. Therefore, we investigated the potential role of microbiota in breast cancer by next-generation sequencing using breast tumor tissue and paired normal adjacent tissue from the same patient. In a qualitative survey of the breast microbiota DNA, we found that the bacterium Methylobacterium radiotolerans is relatively enriched in tumor tissue, while the bacterium Sphingomonas yanoikuyae is relatively enriched in paired normal tissue. The relative abundances of these two bacterial species were inversely correlated in paired normal breast tissue but not in tumor tissue, indicating that dysbiosis is associated with breast cancer. Furthermore, the total bacterial DNA load was reduced in tumor versus paired normal and healthy breast tissue as determined by quantitative PCR. Interestingly, bacterial DNA load correlated inversely with advanced disease, a finding that could have broad implications in diagnosis and staging of breast cancer. Lastly, we observed lower basal levels of antibacterial response gene expression in tumor versus healthy breast tissue. Taken together, these data indicate that microbial DNA is present in the breast and that bacteria or their components may influence the local immune microenvironment. Our findings suggest a previously unrecognized link between dysbiosis and breast cancer which has potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:24421902

Xuan, Caiyun; Shamonki, Jaime M.; Chung, Alice; DiNome, Maggie L.; Chung, Maureen; Sieling, Peter A.; Lee, Delphine J.

2014-01-01

141

Overexpression of Human Arginine Decarboxylase Rescues Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells against H2O2 Toxicity through Cell Survival Protein Activation  

PubMed Central

In this study, we explored the potentiality of human arginine decarboxylase (ADC) to enhance the survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) against unfavorable milieu of host tissues as the low survival of MSCs is the issue in cell transplantation therapy. To address this, human MSCs overexpressing human ADC were treated with H2O2 and the resultant intracellular events were examined. First, we examined whether human ADC is overexpressed in human MSCs. Then, we investigated cell survival or death related events. We found that the overexpression of human ADC increases formazan production and reduces caspase 3 activation and the numbers of FITC, hoechst, or propidium iodide positive cells in human MSCs exposed to H2O2. To elucidate the factors underlying these phenomena, AKT, CREB, and BDNF were examined. We found that the overexpression of human ADC phosphorylates AKT and CREB and increases BDNF level in human MSCs exposed to H2O2. The changes of these proteins are possibly relevant to the elevation of agmatine. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the overexpression of human ADC stimulates pro-survival factors to protect human MSCs against H2O2 toxicity. In conclusion, the present findings support that ADC can enhance the survival of MSCs against hostile environment of host tissues. PMID:23487582

Seo, Su Kyoung; Yang, Wonsuk; Park, Yu Mi; Lee, Won Taek; Park, Kyung Ah

2013-01-01

142

Gene dosage and Down's syndrome: metabolic and enzymatic changes in PC12 cells overexpressing transfected human liver-type phosphofructokinase.  

PubMed

Down's syndrome (DS) is a human genetic disease caused by triplication of the distal third of chromosome 21 and overexpression of an unknown number of genes residing in it. The gene for the liver-type subunit of phosphofructokinase (PFKL), a key glycolytic enzyme, maps to this region and the product is overproduced in DS erythrocytes and fibroblasts. These facts, together with abnormalities which occur in DS glycolysis, make PFKL overexpression a candidate for causing some aspects of the DS phenotype. A cellular model for examining the consequences of PFKL overexpression in DS was constructed by transfecting rat PC12 cells with the human PFKL cDNA. Phosphofructokinase (PFK) isolated from PFKL-overexpressing clones was more inhibited by ATP and citrate and less activated by fructose-6-phosphate than control PFK; similar results were obtained when PFK preparations from DS and control fibroblasts were compared. In vivo NMR measurements determined that cells overexpressing PFKL performed glycolysis 40% faster than controls. These results show that overexpression of PFKL is the cause for altered biochemical regulatory characteristics of PFK in DS fibroblasts and can result in enhancement of glycolysis rates. It is also shown that increased gene dosage can exert its influence not merely by enhancing the amounts of gene products but also by altering their biochemical nature. PMID:1533471

Elson, A; Bernstein, Y; Degani, H; Levanon, D; Ben-Hur, H; Groner, Y

1992-03-01

143

Beta-adrenergic and arachidonic acid-mediated growth regulation of human breast cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland is the leading type of cancer in women. Among these breast cancers those that are estrogen-responsive respond well to existing therapeutic regimens while estrogen non-responsive cancers metastasize widely, demonstrate a high relapse rate, and respond poorly to therapy. Over-expression of the arachidonic acid-metabolizing enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 and lypoxygenases is frequently observed in breast cancer, particularly the non-estrogen-responsive type, suggesting a role of the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade in the growth regulation of these malignancies. Adenocarcinomas of the lungs, pancreas and colon also frequently over-express AA-metabolizing enzymes, and recent evidence suggests that the growth-regulating AA-cascade in these malignancies is under beta-adrenergic control. Our current experiments have therefore tested the hypothesis that in analogy to these findings adenocarcinomas of the breast are also regulated by beta-adrenergic receptors via stimulation of the AA-cascade. Analysis of DNA synthesis by [3H]-thymidine incorporation assays in three estrogen-responsive and three estrogen non-responsive cell lines derived from human breast cancers demonstrated a significant reduction in DNA synthesis by beta-blockers and inhibitors of cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenases in all cell lines. Analysis of AA-release in one of the most responsive cell lines demonstrated a time-dependent increase in AA-release in response to the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Analysis by RT-PCR revealed expression of beta2-adrenergic receptors in all cell lines whereas beta1-adrenergic receptors were not found in two of the estrogen non-responsive cell lines. Our data suggest that a significant subset of human breast cancers is under control of beta-adrenergic receptors via stimulation of the AA-cascade. These findings open up novel avenues for the prevention and clinical management of breast cancer, particularly the non-estrogen-responsive types. Moreover, our findings suggest that cardiovascular disease and adenocarcinomas in a variety of organ systems, including the breast may share common risk factors and benefit from similar preventive and treatment strategies. PMID:12063562

Cakir, Y; Plummer, H K; Tithof, P K; Schuller, H M

2002-07-01

144

Nuclear MYC Protein Overexpression is an Early Alteration in Human Prostate Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

The MYC onco-protein is a transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation, metabolism, protein synthesis, mitochondrial function and stem cell renewal. A region on chromosome 8q24 encompassing the MYC locus is amplified in prostate cancer, but this occurs mostly in advanced disease suggesting that MYC alterations occur late in prostate cancer. By contrast, MYC mRNA is elevated in most prostate cancers, even those of relatively low stage and grade (e.g. Gleason score 6) suggesting that MYC plays a role in initiation. However, since MYC protein levels are tightly regulated, elevated MYC mRNA does not necessarily imply elevated MYC protein. Thus, it is critical to determine whether MYC protein is elevated in human prostate cancer, and if so, at what stage of the disease this elevation occurs. Prior studies of MYC protein localization have been hampered by lack of suitable antibodies and controls. We utilized a new anti-MYC antibody coupled with genetically-defined control experiments to localize MYC protein within human tissue microarrays consisting of normal, atrophy, PIN, primary adenocarcinoma, and metastatic adenocarcinoma. Nuclear overexpression of MYC protein occurred frequently in luminal cells of PIN, as well as in most primary carcinomas and metastatic disease. MYC protein did not correlate with gain of 8q24, suggesting alternative mechanisms for MYC overexpression. These results provide evidence that upregulation of nuclear MYC protein expression is a highly prevalent and early change in prostate cancer and suggest that increased nuclear MYC may be a critical oncogenic event driving human prostate cancer initiation and progression. PMID:18567993

Gurel, Bora; Iwata, Tsuyoshi; Koh, Cheryl; Jenkins, Robert B.; Lan, Fusheng; Van Dang, Chi; Hicks, Jessica L.; Morgan, James; Cornish, Toby C.; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Isaacs, William B.; Luo, Jun; De Marzo, Angelo M.

2011-01-01

145

Plasma Membrane Proteomics of Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines Identifies Potential Targets for Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment  

PubMed Central

The use of broad spectrum chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer results in substantial and debilitating side effects, necessitating the development of targeted therapies to limit tumor proliferation and prevent metastasis. In recent years, the list of approved targeted therapies has expanded, and it includes both monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors that interfere with key proteins involved in the uncontrolled growth and migration of cancer cells. The targeting of plasma membrane proteins has been most successful to date, and this is reflected in the large representation of these proteins as targets of newer therapies. In view of these facts, experiments were designed to investigate the plasma membrane proteome of a variety of human breast cancer cell lines representing hormone-responsive, ErbB2 over-expressing and triple negative cell types, as well as a benign control. Plasma membranes were isolated by using an aqueous two-phase system, and the resulting proteins were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Overall, each of the cell lines expressed some unique proteins, and a number of proteins were expressed in multiple cell lines, but in patterns that did not always follow traditional clinical definitions of breast cancer type. From our data, it can be deduced that most cancer cells possess multiple strategies to promote uncontrolled growth, reflected in aberrant expression of tyrosine kinases, cellular adhesion molecules, and structural proteins. Our data set provides a very rich and complex picture of plasma membrane proteins present on breast cancer cells, and the sorting and categorizing of this data provides interesting insights into the biology, classification, and potential treatment of this prevalent and debilitating disease. PMID:25029196

Ziegler, Yvonne S.; Moresco, James J.; Tu, Patricia G.; Yates, John R.; Nardulli, Ann M.

2014-01-01

146

The overexpressed human 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor mediates endocytosis and sorting of beta-glucuronidase.  

PubMed Central

We studied the function of the human small (46-kDa) mannose 6-phosphate receptor (SMPR) in transfected mouse L cells that do not express the larger insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Cells overexpressing human SMPR were studied for enzyme binding to cell surface receptors, for binding to intracellular receptors in permeabilized cells, and for receptor-mediated endocytosis of recombinant human beta-glucuronidase. Specific binding to human SMPR in permeabilized cells showed a pH optimum between pH 6.0 and pH 6.5. Binding was significant in the presence of EDTA but was enhanced by added divalent cations. Up to 2.3% of the total functional receptor could be detected on the cell surface by enzyme binding. We present experiments showing that at very high levels of overexpression, and at pH 6.5, human SMPR mediated the endocytosis of beta-glucuronidase. At pH 7.5, the rate of endocytosis was only 14% the rate seen at pH 6.5. Cells overexpressing human SMPR also showed reduced secretion of newly synthesized beta-glucuronidase when compared to cells transfected with vector only, suggesting that overexpressed human SMPR can participate in sorting of newly synthesized beta-glucuronidase and partially correct the sorting defect in mouse L cells that do not express the insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Images PMID:2172972

Watanabe, H; Grubb, J H; Sly, W S

1990-01-01

147

The overexpressed human 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor mediates endocytosis and sorting of. beta. -glucuronidase  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied the function of the human small (46-kDa) mannose 6-phosphate receptor (SMPR) in transfected mouse L cells that do not express the larger insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Cells overexpressing human SMPR were studied for enzyme binding to cell surface receptors, for binding to intracellular receptors in permeabilized cells, and for receptor-mediated endocytosis of recombinant human {beta}-glucuronidase. Specific binding to human SMPR in permeabilized cells showed a pH optimum between pH 6.0 and pH 6.5. Binding was significant in the present of EDTA but was enhanced by added divalent cations. Up to 2.3{percent} of the total functional receptor could be detected on the cell surface by enzyme binding. They present experiments showing that at very high levels of overexpression, and at pH 6.5, human SMPR mediated the endocytosis of {beta}-glucuronidase. At pH 7.5, the rate of endocytosis was only 14{percent} the rate seen at pH 6.5. Cells overexpressing human SMPR also showed reduced secretion of newly synthesized {beta}-glucuronidase when compared to cells transfected with vector only, suggesting that overexpressed human SMPR can participate in sorting of newly synthesized {beta}-glucuronidase and partially correct the sorting defect in mouse L cells that do not express the insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor.

Watanabe, H.; Grubb, J.H.; Sly, W.S. (Saint Louis Univ. School of Medicine, MO (USA))

1990-10-01

148

Overexpression of human sperm protein 17 increases migration and decreases the chemosensitivity of human epithelial ovarian cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Most deaths from ovarian cancer are due to metastases that are resistant to conventional therapies. But the factors that regulate the metastatic process and chemoresistance of ovarian cancer are poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the aberrant expression of human sperm protein 17 (HSp17) in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells and tried to analyze its influences on the cell behaviors like migration and chemoresistance. Methods Immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry were used to identify HSp17 in paraffin embedded ovarian malignant tumor specimens and peritoneal metastatic malignant cells. Then we examined the effect of HSp17 overexpression on the proliferation, migration, and chemoresistance of ovarian cancer cells to carboplatin and cisplatin in a human ovarian carcinoma cell line, HO8910. Results We found that HSp17 was aberrantly expressed in 43% (30/70) of the patients with primary epithelial ovarian carcinomas, and in all of the metastatic cancer cells of ascites from 8 patients. The Sp17 expression was also detected in the metastatic lesions the same as in ovarian lesions. None of the 7 non-epithelial tumors primarily developed in the ovaries was immunopositive for HSp17. Overexpression of HSp17 increased the migration but decreased the chemosensitivity of ovarian carcinoma cells to carboplatin and cisplatin. Conclusion HSp17 is aberrantly expressed in a significant proportion of epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Our results strongly suggest that HSp17 plays a role in metastatic disease and resistance of epithelial ovarian carcinoma to chemotherapy. PMID:19744347

2009-01-01

149

Human Breast Milk Provides Better Antioxidant Capacity than Infant Formula  

PubMed Central

Human milk contains all of the constituents that are required for the optimal growth and development of a neonate. It supports the development of brain, immune, and physiological systems. This study aimed to consider the significance of breast milk in preventing oxidative stress by comparing total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in breast and formula milk for premature infants, demonstrating the relationship between TAC in breast milk and postnatal age in days. The Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) method was used to spectophotometrically measure of TAC in breast and formula milk. One hundred and fourty (n = 140) lactating mothers agreed to participate in the study. TAC was also measured in two brands of formula milk (n = 80). The Range of TAC in human breast milk was 234.27-1442.31 ?M and in two formula was 160.04-630.92 ?M. The average TAC was significantly higher in breast milk (642.94 ± 241.23 ?M) compared to formula milk (280.986 ± 100.34 ?M) p < 0.0001. The TAC of breast milk was increased with some nutritional parameter such as increased consumption of cheese, vegetables, fruits, bread and nuts. Infants’ height at the birthday was directly correlated with antioxidant capacity of breast milk, whilst a reversed correlation was observed between TAC in breast milk and infant age. Based on our results, it is concluded that the TAC of breast milk is varied and affected by nutrition. It is alo observed that TAC is significantly higher in breast milk than formula, which means that breast milk provides better antioxidant potency than infant formula. PMID:24381611

Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Naficeh; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abd-ol-Azim; Jannat, Forouzandeh; MokhtariNasab, Fariba

2010-01-01

150

Growth inhibitory activity of extracts and compounds from Cimicifuga species on human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this report is to explore the growth inhibitory effect of extracts and compounds from black cohosh and related Cimicifuga species on human breast cancer cells and to determine the nature of the active components. Black cohosh fractions enriched for triterpene glycosides and purified components from black cohosh and related Asian species were tested for growth inhibition of the ER? Her2 overexpressing human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-453. Growth inhibitory activity was assayed using the Coulter Counter, MTT and colony formation assays. Results suggested that the growth inhibitory activity of black cohosh extracts appears to be related to their triterpene glycoside composition. The most potent Cimicifuga component tested was 25-acetyl-7,8-didehydrocimigenol 3-O-?-D-xylopyranoside, which has an acetyl group at position C-25. It had an IC50 of 3.2 µg/ml (5 µM) compared to7.2 µg/ml (12.1 µM) for the parent compound 7,8-didehydrocimigenol 3-O-?-D-xylopyranoside. Thus, the acetyl group at position C-25 enhances growth inhibitory activity. The purified triterpene glycoside actein (?-D-xylopyranoside), with an IC50 equal to 5.7 µg/ml (8.4 µM), exhibited activity comparable to cimigenol 3-O-?-D-xyloside. MCF7 (ER+Her2 low) cells transfected for Her2 are more sensitive than the parental MCF7 cells to the growth inhibitory effects of actein from black cohosh, indicating that Her2 plays a role in the action of actein. The effect of actein on Her2 overexpressing MDA-MB-453 and MCF7 (ER+Her2 low) human breast cancer cells was examined by fluorescent microscopy. Treatment with actein altered the distribution of actin filaments and induced apoptosis in these cells. These findings, coupled with our previous evidence that treatment with the triterpene glycoside actein induced a stress response and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, suggest that compounds from Cimicifuga species may be useful in the prevention and treatment of human breast cancer. PMID:17980565

Einbond, Linda Saxe; Wen-Cai, Ye; He, Kan; Wu, Hsan-au; Cruz, Erica; Roller, Marc; Kronenberg, Fredi

2008-01-01

151

T-bet expression in intratumoral lymphoid structures after neoadjuvant trastuzumab plus docetaxel for HER2-overexpressing breast carcinoma predicts survival  

PubMed Central

Background: In HER2-overexpressing breast cancer, accumulating preclinical evidences suggest that some chemotherapies, like trastuzumab, but also taxanes, are able to trigger a T helper 1 (Th1) anticancer immune response that contribute to treatment success. T helper 1 immune response is characterised by the expression of the transcription factor T-bet in CD4 T lymphocytes. We hypothesised that the presence of such T cells in the tumour immune infiltrates following neoadjuvant chemotherapy would predict patient survival. Methods: In a series of 102 consecutive HER2-overexpressing breast cancer patients treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy incorporating antracyclines or taxane and trastuzumab, we studied by immunohistochemistry the peritumoral lymphoid infiltration by T-bet+ lymphocytes before and after chemotherapy in both treatment groups. Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox modelling were used to assess relapse-free survival (RFS). Results: Fifty-eight patients have been treated with trastuzumab–taxane and 44 patients with anthracyclines-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The presence of T-bet+ lymphocytes in peritumoral lymphoid structures after chemotherapy was significantly more frequent in patients treated with trastuzumab–taxane (P=0.0008). After a median follow-up of 40 months, the presence of T-bet+ lymphocytes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy confers significantly better RFS (log-rank test P=0.011) only in patients treated with trastuzumab–taxane. In this population, multivariate Cox regression model showed that only the presence of T-bet+ lymphocytes in peritumoral lymphoid structures after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was independently associated with improved RFS (P=0.04). Conclusion: These findings indicate that the tumour infiltration by T-bet+ Th1 lymphocytes following neoadjuvant trastuzumab–taxane may represent a new independent prognostic factor of improved outcome in HER2-overexpressing breast carcinoma. PMID:21750556

Ladoire, S; Arnould, L; Mignot, G; Apetoh, L; Rebe, C; Martin, F; Fumoleau, P; Coudert, B; Ghiringhelli, F

2011-01-01

152

Possible DNA Viral Factors of Human Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Viruses are considered to be one of the high-risk factors closely related to human breast cancer. However, different studies of viruses in breast cancer present conflicting results and some of these works remain in dispute. DNA viruses, such as specific types of human papillomaviruses (HPV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and human herpes virus type 8 (HHV-8), have emerged as causal factors of some human cancers. These respective exogenous viruses and the possibility of multiple viral factors are discussed in this review. PMID:24281079

Hsu, Chun-Ru; Lu, Tsong-Ming; Chin, Lengsu William; Yang, Chi-Chiang

2010-01-01

153

Colony-stimulating factor-1 antibody reverses chemoresistance in human MCF-7 breast cancer xenografts.  

PubMed

Overexpression of colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and its receptor in breast cancer is correlated with poor prognosis. Based on the hypothesis that blockade of CSF-1 would be beneficial in breast cancer treatment, we developed a murinized, polyethylene glycol-linked antigen-binding fragment (Fab) against mouse (host) CSF-1 (anti-CSF-1 Fab). Mice bearing human, chemoresistant MCF-7 breast cancer xenografts were treated with combination chemotherapy (CMF: cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil; cycled twice i.p.), anti-CSF-1 Fab (i.p., cycled every 3 days for 14 days), combined CMF and anti-CSF-1 Fab, or with Ringer's solution as a control. Anti-CSF-1 Fab alone suppressed tissue CSF-1 and retarded tumor growth by 40%. Importantly, in combination with CMF, anti-CSF-1 Fab reversed chemoresistance of MCF-7 xenografts, suppressing tumor development by 56%, down-regulating expression of the chemoresistance genes breast cancer-related protein, multidrug resistance gene 1, and glucosylceramide synthase, and prolonging survival significantly. Combined treatment also reduced angiogenesis and macrophage recruitment and down-regulated tumor matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-12 expression. These studies support the paradigm of CSF-1 blockade in the treatment of solid tumors and show that anti-CSF-1 antibodies are potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of mammary cancer. PMID:16618760

Paulus, Patrick; Stanley, E Richard; Schäfer, Romana; Abraham, Dietmar; Aharinejad, Seyedhossein

2006-04-15

154

Calmodulin modulates Akt activity in human breast cancer cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth factor-induced activation of Akt occurs in the majority of human breast cancer cell lines resulting in a variety of\\u000a cellular outcomes, including suppression of apoptosis and enhanced survival. We demonstrate that epidermal growth factor (EGF)-initiated\\u000a activation of Akt is mediated by the ubiquitous calcium sensing molecule, calmodulin, in the majority of human breast cancer\\u000a cell lines. Specifically, in estrogen

Christine M. Coticchia; Chetana M. Revankar; Tushar B. Deb; Robert B. Dickson; Michael D. Johnson

2009-01-01

155

Flotillin depletion affects ErbB protein levels in different human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

The ErbB3 receptor is an important regulator of cell growth and carcinogenesis. Among breast cancer patients, up to 50-70% have ErbB3 overexpression and 20-30% show overexpressed or amplified ErbB2. ErbB3 has also been implicated in the development of resistance to several drugs used against cancers driven by ErbB1 or ErbB2. One of the main challenges in ErbB-targeting therapy is to inactivate signaling mediated by ErbB2-ErbB3 oncogenic receptor complexes. We analyzed the regulatory role of flotillins on ErbB3 levels and ErbB2-ErbB3 complexes in SKBR3, MCF7 and MDA-MB-134-VI human breast cancer cells. Recently, we described a mechanism for interfering with ErbB2 signaling in breast cancer and demonstrated a molecular complex of flotillin scaffolding proteins with ErbB2 and Hsp90. In the present study, flotillins were found to be in a molecular complex with ErbB3, even in cells without the presence of ErbB2 or other ErbB receptors. Depletion of either flotillin-1 or flotillin-2 resulted in downregulation of ErbB3 and a selective reduction of ErbB2-ErbB3 receptor complexes. Moreover, flotillin-2 depletion resulted in reduced activation of Akt and MAPK signaling cascades, and as a functional consequence of flotillin depletion, breast cancer cells showed an impaired cell migration. Altogether, we provide data demonstrating a novel and functional role of flotillins in the regulation of ErbB protein levels and stabilization of ErbB2-ErbB3 receptor complexes. Thus, flotillins are crucial regulators for oncogenic ErbB function and potential targets for cancer treatment. PMID:24747692

Asp, Nagham; Pust, Sascha; Sandvig, Kirsten

2014-09-01

156

Geminin overexpression induces mammary tumors via suppressing cytokinesis  

PubMed Central

Aneuploidy plays an important role in the development of cancer. Here, we uncovered an oncogenic role for geminin in mitotic cells. In addition to chromatin, tyrosine phosphorylated geminin also localizes to centrosome, spindle, cleavage furrow and midbody during mitosis. Geminin binding to Aurora B prevents its binding to INCENP, and thus activation leading to lack of histone H3-(serine 10) phosphorylation, chromosome condensation failure, aborted cytokinesis and the formation of aneuploid, drug resistance cells. Geminin overexpressing human mammary epithelial cells form aneuploid, aggressive tumors in SCID mice. Geminin is overexpressed in more than half of all breast cancers analyzed. The current study reveals that geminin is a genuine oncogene that promotes cytokinesis failure and production of aneuploid, aggressive breast tumors when overexpressed and thus a worthy therapeutic target (oncotarget) for aggressive breast cancer. PMID:22184288

Mullins, Nicole; Maric, Christine; Luk, Hugh; Horio, David; Hernandez, Brenda; Killeen, Jeffrey; ElShamy, Wael M.

2011-01-01

157

Bovine Leukemia Virus DNA in Human Breast Tissue  

PubMed Central

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a deltaretrovirus, causes B-cell leukemia/lymphoma in cattle and is prevalent in herds globally. A previous finding of antibodies against BLV in humans led us to examine the possibility of human infection with BLV. We focused on breast tissue because, in cattle, BLV DNA and protein have been found to be more abundant in mammary epithelium than in lymphocytes. In human breast tissue specimens, we identified BLV DNA by using nested liquid-phase PCR and DNA sequencing. Variations from the bovine reference sequence were infrequent and limited to base substitutions. In situ PCR and immunohistochemical testing localized BLV to the secretory epithelium of the breast. Our finding of BLV in human tissues indicates a risk for the acquisition and proliferation of this virus in humans. Further research is needed to determine whether BLV may play a direct role in human disease. PMID:24750974

Shen, Hua Min; Jensen, Hanne M.; Choi, K. Yeon; Sun, Dejun; Nuovo, Gerard

2014-01-01

158

Studies of human breast cancer metastasis using nude mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athymic nude mice have been used in recent years to study the biology of human tumors and to assess therapeutic responses in vivo rather than just in vitro. Some human tumors metastasize in nude mice, providing model systems for analyzing various aspects of the metastatic phenotype of human neoplasms. For breast carcinomas, however, the tumor-take rate of surgical specimens is

Janet E. Price; Ruo Dan Zhang

1990-01-01

159

Human HMGA2 protein overexpressed in mice induces precursor T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia  

PubMed Central

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a neoplasia of thymocytes characterized by the rapid accumulation of the precursors of T lymphocytes. HMGA2 (high-mobility group AT-hook 2) gene expression is extremely low in normal adult tissues, but it is overexpressed in many tumors. To identify the biological function of HMGA2, we generated transgenic mice carrying the human HMGA2 gene under control of the VH promoter/E? enhancer. Approximately 90% of E?-HMGA2 transgenic mice became visibly sick between 4 and 8 months due to the onset and progression of a T-ALL-like disease. Characteristic features included severe alopecia (30% of mice); enlarged lymph nodes and spleen; and profound immunological abnormalities (altered cytokine levels, hypoimmunoglobulinemia) leading to reduced immune responsiveness. Immunophenotyping showed accumulation of CD5+CD4+, CD5+CD8+ or CD5+CD8+CD4+ T-cell populations in the spleens and bone marrow of sick animals. These findings show that HMGA2-driven leukemia in mice closely resembles spontaneous human T-ALL, indicating that HMGA2 transgenic mice should serve as an important model for investigating basic mechanisms and potential new therapies of relevance to human T-ALL. PMID:25014774

Efanov, A; Zanesi, N; Coppola, V; Nuovo, G; Bolon, B; Wernicle-Jameson, D; Lagana, A; Hansjuerg, A; Pichiorri, F; Croce, C M

2014-01-01

160

Lipids status in human breast cyst fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benign mammary gross cystic disease is the most common breast lesion; women with apocrine changes of epithelium lining the cysts are at higher risk for developing breast cancer than the normal population. Total cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoproteins fractions, triglycerides and phospholipids, lipase activity and total lipid concentrations were measured in cyst fluids and sera from 89 women affected by

F. Mannello; G. D. Bocchiotti; F. Pignatti Morano; L. M. Fratepietro; G. Gazzanelli

1996-01-01

161

Overexpression of Wip1 Is Associated with Biologic Behavior in Human Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Wild-type p53-induced phosphatase (Wip1 or PPM1D) has been reported to be aberrantly expressed in various cancers and correlated with the malignant behavior of cancer cells. However, the function of Wip1 in RCC remains unclear. The present study investigated its abnormal expression and dysfunctions in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) in vitro. With the combination of immunohistochemistry, western blotting, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR, and cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays, we found that levels of Wip1 mRNA and protein were dramatically increased in human ccRCC tissues (P<0.001 for both), and upregulation of Wip1 was significantly associated with depth of invasion (P<0.001), Distant metastasis (P?=?0.001), lymph node status (P<0.001) and Fuhrman grade (P<0.001). Wip1 knockdown inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of 786-O and RLC-310 cells, whereas Wip1 overexpression promoted the growth and aggressive phenotype of 786-O and RLC-310 cells in vitro. The uni- and multivariate analyses indicated that expression of Wip1 was an independent predictor for survival of ccRCC patients (P?=?0.003, P?=?0.027 respectively). Wip1- negative patients had a higher tumor-free/overall survival rate than patients with high Wip1 expression (P?=?0.001, P?=?0.002 respectively). Overexpression of Wip1 is useful in the prediction of survival in ccRCC patients. PMID:25334029

Liu, Sulai; Qi, Lin; Han, Weqing; Wan, Xinxing; Jiang, Shusuan; Li, Yuan; Xie, Yu; Liu, Longfei; Zeng, Fuhua; Liu, Zhizhong; Zu, Xiongbing

2014-01-01

162

Chaperones Ameliorate Beta Cell Dysfunction Associated with Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Overexpression  

PubMed Central

In type 2 diabetes, beta-cell dysfunction is thought to be due to several causes, one being the formation of toxic protein aggregates called islet amyloid, formed by accumulations of misfolded human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP). The process of hIAPP misfolding and aggregation is one of the factors that may activate the unfolded protein response (UPR), perturbing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. Molecular chaperones have been described to be important in regulating ER response to ER stress. In the present work, we evaluate the role of chaperones in a stressed cellular model of hIAPP overexpression. A rat pancreatic beta-cell line expressing hIAPP exposed to thapsigargin or treated with high glucose and palmitic acid, both of which are known ER stress inducers, showed an increase in ER stress genes when compared to INS1E cells expressing rat IAPP or INS1E control cells. Treatment with molecular chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa (GRP78, also known as BiP) or protein disulfite isomerase (PDI), and chemical chaperones taurine-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) or 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA), alleviated ER stress and increased insulin secretion in hIAPP-expressing cells. Our results suggest that the overexpression of hIAPP induces a stronger response of ER stress markers. Moreover, endogenous and chemical chaperones are able to ameliorate induced ER stress and increase insulin secretion, suggesting that improving chaperone capacity can play an important role in improving beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes. PMID:25010593

Alcarraz-Vizan, Gema; Visa, Montse; Vidal-Fabrega, Laia; Servitja, Joan-Marc; Novials, Anna

2014-01-01

163

Chronic wasting disease prions are not transmissible to transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.  

PubMed

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease that affects free-ranging and captive cervids, including mule deer, white-tailed deer, Rocky Mountain elk and moose. CWD-infected cervids have been reported in 14 USA states, two Canadian provinces and in South Korea. The possibility of a zoonotic transmission of CWD prions via diet is of particular concern in North America where hunting of cervids is a popular sport. To investigate the potential public health risks posed by CWD prions, we have investigated whether intracerebral inoculation of brain and spinal cord from CWD-infected mule deer transmits prion infection to transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein with methionine or valine at polymorphic residue 129. These transgenic mice have been utilized in extensive transmission studies of human and animal prion disease and are susceptible to BSE and vCJD prions, allowing comparison with CWD. Here, we show that these mice proved entirely resistant to infection with mule deer CWD prions arguing that the transmission barrier associated with this prion strain/host combination is greater than that observed with classical BSE prions. However, it is possible that CWD may be caused by multiple prion strains. Further studies will be required to evaluate the transmission properties of distinct cervid prion strains as they are characterized. PMID:20610667

Sandberg, Malin K; Al-Doujaily, Huda; Sigurdson, Christina J; Glatzel, Markus; O'Malley, Catherine; Powell, Caroline; Asante, Emmanuel A; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Brandner, Sebastian; Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Collinge, John

2010-10-01

164

Increased expression of CYP4Z1 promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4Z1, a novel CYP4 family member, is over-expressed in human mammary carcinoma and associated with high-grade tumors and poor prognosis. However, the precise role of CYP4Z1 in tumor progression is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CYP4Z1 overexpression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer. Stable expression of CYP4Z1 in T47D and BT-474 human breast cancer cells significantly increased mRNA expression and production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and decreased mRNA levels and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), without affecting cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth in vitro. Notably, the conditioned medium from CYP4Z1-expressing cells enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and promoted angiogenesis in the zebrafish embryo and chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo. In addition, there were lower levels of myristic acid and lauric acid, and higher contents of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in CYP4Z1-expressing T47D cells compared with vector control. CYP4Z1 overexpression significantly increased tumor weight and microvessel density by 2.6-fold and 1.9-fold in human tumor xenograft models, respectively. Moreover, CYP4Z1 transfection increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt, while PI3K or ERK inhibitors and siRNA silencing reversed CYP4Z1-mediated changes in VEGF-A and TIMP-2 expression. Conversely, HET0016, an inhibitor of the CYP4 family, potently inhibited the tumor-induced angiogenesis with associated changes in the intracellular levels of myristic acid, lauric acid and 20-HETE. Collectively, these data suggest that increased CYP4Z1 expression promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth in breast cancer partly via PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 activation. PMID:22841774

Yu, Wei; Chai, Hongyan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Haixia; Xie, Xianfei; Zheng, Hao; Wang, Chenlong; Wang, Xue; Yang, Guifang; Cai, Xiaojun; Falck, John R.; Yang, Jing

2012-01-01

165

Enhancement of vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated angiogenesis in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells: role of Pin1 overexpression.  

PubMed

Acquired resistance to tamoxifen (TAM) is a serious therapeutic problem in breast cancer patients. Here, we found that TAM-resistant MCF-7 cells (TAMR-MCF-7 cells) produced higher levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) than control MCF-7 cells. Molecular analyses using reporter genes and Western blots supported the involvement of c-Jun/activator protein-1 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha in enhanced VEGF transcription in TAMR-MCF-7 cells. Pin1, a peptidyl prolyl isomerase, was consistently overexpressed in TAMR-MCF-7 cells, and c-Jun/activator protein-1-dependent VEGF transcription in TAMR-MCF-7 cells was almost completely inhibited by Pin1 siRNA and by the Pin1 inhibitor juglone. Chick chorioallantoic membrane assays confirmed that the increased angiogenic intensity of TAMR-MCF-7 cells was significantly suppressed by Pin1 inhibition. These results show that Pin1 overexpression is closely associated with VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and suggest that Pin1 is a potential therapeutic target of excessive angiogenesis in TAM-resistant breast cancer cases. PMID:19671742

Kim, Mi Ra; Choi, Hong Seok; Yang, Jin Won; Park, Byung Chul; Kim, Jung-Ae; Kang, Keon Wook

2009-08-01

166

Vascular endothelium-specific overexpression of human catalase in cloned pigs  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to develop transgenic Yucatan minipigs that overexpress human catalase (hCat) in an endothelial-specific manner. Catalase metabolizes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an important regulator of vascular tone that contributes to diseases such as atherosclerosis and preeclampsia. A large animal model to study reduced endothelium-derived H2O2 would therefore generate valuable translational data on vascular regulation in health and disease. Yucatan minipig fetal fibroblasts stably co-transfected with human catalase (Tie2-hCat) and eGFP expression constructs were isolated into single-cell populations. The presence of the Tie2-hCat transgene in individual colonies of fibroblasts was determined by PCR. Transgenic fibroblasts were used for nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes by electrofusion. A minimum of 140 cloned embryos were transferred per surrogate sow (n = 4). All four surrogates maintained pregnancies and piglets were delivered by cesarean section. Nine male piglets from three of the four litters carried the Tie2-hCat transgene. Expression of human catalase mRNA and overall elevated catalase protein in isolated umbilical endothelial cells from transgenic piglets were verified by RT–PCR and western blot, respectively, and endothelial localization was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Increased enzymatic activity of catalase in transgenic versus wild-type endothelial cells was inferred based on significantly reduced levels of H2O2 in culture. The similarities in swine and human cardiovascular anatomy and physiology will make this pig model a valuable source of information on the putative role of endothelium-derived H2O2 in vasodilation and in the mechanisms underlying vascular health and disease. PMID:21170678

Samuel, M.; Mahan, E.; Padilla, J.; Simmons, G. H.; Arce-Esquivel, A. A.; Bender, S. B.; Whitworth, K. M.; Hao, Y. H.; Murphy, C. N.; Walters, E. M.; Prather, R. S.; Laughlin, M. H.

2012-01-01

167

Vascular endothelium-specific overexpression of human catalase in cloned pigs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop transgenic Yucatan minipigs that overexpress human catalase (hCat) in an endothelial-specific manner. Catalase metabolizes hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), an important regulator of vascular tone that contributes to diseases such as atherosclerosis and preeclampsia. A large animal model to study reduced endothelium-derived H(2)O(2) would therefore generate valuable translational data on vascular regulation in health and disease. Yucatan minipig fetal fibroblasts stably co-transfected with human catalase (Tie2-hCat) and eGFP expression constructs were isolated into single-cell populations. The presence of the Tie2-hCat transgene in individual colonies of fibroblasts was determined by PCR. Transgenic fibroblasts were used for nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes by electrofusion. A minimum of 140 cloned embryos were transferred per surrogate sow (n = 4). All four surrogates maintained pregnancies and piglets were delivered by cesarean section. Nine male piglets from three of the four litters carried the Tie2-hCat transgene. Expression of human catalase mRNA and overall elevated catalase protein in isolated umbilical endothelial cells from transgenic piglets were verified by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively, and endothelial localization was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Increased enzymatic activity of catalase in transgenic versus wild-type endothelial cells was inferred based on significantly reduced levels of H(2)O(2) in culture. The similarities in swine and human cardiovascular anatomy and physiology will make this pig model a valuable source of information on the putative role of endothelium-derived H(2)O(2) in vasodilation and in the mechanisms underlying vascular health and disease. PMID:21170678

Whyte, J J; Samuel, M; Mahan, E; Padilla, J; Simmons, G H; Arce-Esquivel, A A; Bender, S B; Whitworth, K M; Hao, Y H; Murphy, C N; Walters, E M; Prather, R S; Laughlin, M H

2011-10-01

168

Human breast duct anatomy, the ‘sick lobe’ hypothesis and intraductal approaches to breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryIntroduction  Information about central and peripheral duct anatomy is a requirement for developing intraductal approaches to human breast cancer, but remains sparse. This study looks at the acquisition and digital modelling of data describing breast duct branching from thick (‘subgross’) sections using data structures from the neurosciences, and at high-throughput imaging of duct anatomy in the nipple.Methods  The branching of a large

James J. Going; Timothy J. Mohun

2006-01-01

169

Upregulation of Mucin4 in ER-positive/HER2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer Xenografts with Acquired Resistance to Endocrine and HER2-Targeted Therapies  

PubMed Central

Background We studied resistance to endocrine and HER2-targeted therapies using a xenograft model of estrogen receptor positive (ER)/HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Here, we report a novel phenotype of drug resistance in this model. Methods MCF7/HER2-18 xenografts were treated with endocrine therapy alone or in combination with lapatinib and trastuzumab (LT) to inhibit HER2. Archival tumor tissues were stained with hematoxylin & eosin and mucicarmine. RNA extracted from tumors at early time points and late after acquired resistance were analyzed for mucin4 (MUC4) expression by microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. Protein expression of the MUC4, ER and HER2 signaling pathways was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results The combination of the potent anti-HER2 regimen LT with either tamoxifen (Tam+LT) or estrogen deprivation (ED+LT) can cause complete eradication of ER-positive/HER2-overexpressing tumors in mice. Tumors developing resistance to this combination, as well as those acquiring resistance to endocrine therapy alone, exhibited a distinct histological and molecular phenotype—a striking increase in mucin-filled vacuoles and upregulation of several mucins including MUC4. At the onset of resistance, MUC4 mRNA and protein were increased. These tumors also showed upregulation and reactivation of HER2 signaling, while losing ER protein and the estrogen-regulated gene, progesterone receptor. Conclusions Mucins are upregulated in a preclinical model of ER-positive/HER2-overexpressing breast cancer as resistance develops to the combination of endocrine and anti-HER2 therapy. These mucin-rich tumors reactivate the HER2 pathway and shift their molecular phenotype to become more ER-negative/HER2-positive. PMID:22644656

Chen, Albert C.; Migliaccio, Ilenia; Rimawi, Mothaffar; Lopez-Tarruella, Sara; Creighton, Chad J.; Massarweh, Suleiman; Huang, Catherine; Wang, Yen-Chao; Batra, Surinder K.; Gutierrez, M. Carolina; Osborne, C. Kent; Schiff, Rachel

2012-01-01

170

Three different stable human breast adenocarcinoma sublines that overexpress ALDH3A1 and certain other enzymes, apparently as a consequence of constitutively upregulated gene transcription mediated by transactivated EpREs (electrophile responsive elements) present in the 5'-upstream regions of these genes.  

PubMed

ALDH3A1 catalyzes the detoxification of cyclophosphamide, mafosfamide, 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide and other oxazaphosphorines. Constitutive ALDH3A1 levels, as well as those of certain other drug-metabolizing enzymes, e.g. NQO1 and CYP1A1, are relatively low in cultured, relatively oxazaphosphorine-sensitive, human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. However, transient cellular insensitivity to the oxazaphosphorines can be brought about in these cells by transiently elevating ALDH3A1 levels in them as a consequence of transient exposure to: (1) electrophiles such as catechol that induce the transcription of a battery of genes, e.g. ALDH3A1 and NQO1, having in common an electrophile responsive element (EpRE) in their 5'-upstream regions; or (2) Ah-receptor agonists, e.g. indole-3-carbinol and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as 3-methylcholanthrene, that induce the transcription of a battery of genes, e.g. ALDH3A1, NQO1 and CYP1A1, having in common a xenobiotic responsive element (XRE) in their 5'-upstream regions. Further, MCF-7 sublines that are constitutively, i.e. when grown in the absence of the original selecting pressure, relatively oxazaphosphorine-insensitive as a consequence of constitutively relatively elevated cellular ALDH3A1 levels evolved when MCF-7 cells were: (1) continuously exposed for several months to gradually increasing concentrations of 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide or benz(a)pyrene; or (2) briefly exposed (once for 30 min) to a high concentration (1 mM) of mafosfamide. Each of these three stable sublines is constitutively relatively cross-insensitive to benz(a)pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cellular levels of NQO1, but not of CYP1A1, are also constitutively relatively elevated in each of the three sublines. RT-PCR-based experiments established that ALDH3A1 mRNA levels are constitutively elevated ( approximately 5- to 8-fold) in each of the three sublines. The elevated ALDH3A1 mRNA levels are not the consequence of gene amplification, hypomethylation of a relevant regulatory element, or ALDH3A1 mRNA stabilization. Collectively, these observations suggest that constitutively elevated levels of ALDH3A1 and certain other enzymes in the three stable sublines are probably the consequence of a constitutive change in the cellular concentration of a key component of the EpRE signaling pathway, such that the cellular concentration of the relevant ultimate transactivating factor is constitutively elevated, i.e. gene transcription promoted by transactivated EpREs is constitutively upregulated. Further, constitutively upregulated gene transcription mediated by transactivated EpREs can be relatively easily induced, whereas that mediated by transactivated XREs cannot, at least in MCF-7 cells. Still further, the three sublines may facilitate study of the signaling pathway that leads to transactivation of the EpREs present in the 5'-upstream regions of ALDH3A1, NQO1 and other gene loci. PMID:11306049

Sreerama, L; Sládek, N E

2001-01-30

171

Digitoxin activates EGR1 and synergizes with paclitaxel on human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background: Numerous studies have suggested that digitalis derivatives promise to be superior to existing adjuvant therapy for breast cancer as to effects and side-effects. In the present study, we have used gene expression analysis to determine the molecular action of digitoxin on breast cancer cells and assessed digitoxin’s ability to synergize with the chemotherapy agent paclitaxel with respect to inhibition of cell proliferation Materials and Methods: We treated (Her2 overexpressing, ER low) MDA-MB-453 human breast cancer cells with digitoxin at four doses {20 ng/ml (26 nM) to 1 ?g/ml} and collected RNA at 6 h and 24 h for gene expression analysis. To examine the effects on ER positive cells, we treated MCF7 cells with digitoxin at 1 ?g/ml and collected RNA for RT-PCR analysis. In addition, we assayed the growth inhibitory effect of low doses of digitoxin combined with paclitaxel and determined combination index values. Results: To reveal primary effects, we examined digitoxin’s effect 6 h post-treatment with the highest dose, 1?g/ml, and found upregulation of the stress response genes EGR-1 and NAB2, lipid biosynthetic genes and the tumor suppressor gene p21, and downregulation of the mitotic cell cycle gene CDC16 and the replication gene PolR3B. RT-PCR analysis validated effects on stress response, apoptotic and cell cycle genes on MDA-MB-453 and MCF7 cells. Western blot analysis confirmed induction of EGR1 protein at 1 h and ATF3 at 24 h. Paclitaxel, as well as digitoxin, inhibited the in vitro activity of the purified Na+-K+-ATPase; digitoxin enhanced the growth inhibitory effects of paclitaxel on Her2 overexpressing breast cancer cells. Conclusions: Our studies show the potential of digitoxin to prevent and treat breast cancer and indicate that the combination of digitoxin and paclitaxel is a promising treatment for ER negative breast cancer. These findings are the first to alert physicians to the possible dangers to patients who take a combination of digitoxin and paclitaxel. The potential dangers ensuing when paclitaxel and digitoxin are combined are dependent on the dose of digitoxin. PMID:21139994

Einbond, Linda Saxe; Wu, Hsan-au; Su, Tao; Chang, Tangel; Panjikaran, Maya; Wang, Xiaomei; Goldsberry, Sarah

2010-01-01

172

Localization of BRCA1 Protein in Human Breast Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is still an ongoing debate concerning the cellular localization of BRCA1 protein in breast cancer. To address this question, we compared the localization of BRCA1 protein using several monoclonal (Ab-1) or polyclonal (C20, D20, I20) antibodies under different technical conditions on human breast cancer cell lines. We worked on the fixation and permeabilization conditions in order to preserve the

Monique Chambon; Philippe Nirdé; Michel Gleizes; Pascal Roger; Françoise Vignon

2003-01-01

173

Siah1 proteins enhance radiosensitivity of human breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Siah proteins play an important role in cancer progression. We evaluated the effect of Siah1, its splice variants Siah1L and the Siah1 mutant with the RING finger deleted (Siah1?R) on radiosensitization of human breast cancer cells. METHODS: The status of Siah1 and Siah1L was analysed in five breast cancer cell lines. To establish stable cells, SKBR3 cells were transfected

Hai-Tao He; Emmanouil Fokas; An You; Rita Engenhart-Cabillic; Han-Xiang An

2010-01-01

174

The combination of gefitinib and RAD001 inhibits growth of HER2 overexpressing breast cancer cells and tumors irrespective of trastuzumab sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Background HER2-positive breast cancers exhibit high rates of innate and acquired resistance to trastuzumab (TZ), a HER2-directed antibody used as a first line treatment for this disease. TZ resistance may in part be mediated by frequent co-expression of EGFR and by sustained activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Here, we assessed feasibility of combining the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (RAD001) for treating HER2 overexpressing breast cancers with different sensitivity to TZ. Methods The gefitinib and RAD001 combination was broadly evaluated in TZ sensitive (SKBR3 and MCF7-HER2) and TZ resistant (JIMT-1) breast cancer models. The effects on cell growth were measured in cell based assays using the fixed molar ratio design and the median effect principle. In vivo studies were performed in Rag2M mice bearing established tumors. Analysis of cell cycle, changes in targeted signaling pathways and tumor characteristics were conducted to assess gefitinib and RAD001 interactions. Results The gefitinib and RAD001 combination inhibited cell growth in vitro in a synergistic fashion as defined by the Chou and Talalay median effect principle and increased tumor xenograft growth delay. The improvement in therapeutic efficacy by the combination was associated in vitro with cell line dependent increases in cytotoxicity and cytostasis while treatment in vivo promoted cytostasis. The most striking and consistent therapeutic effect of the combination was increased inhibition of the mTOR pathway (in vitro and in vivo) and EGFR signaling in vivo relative to the single drugs. Conclusions The gefitinib and RAD001 combination provides effective control over growth of HER2 overexpressing cells and tumors irrespective of the TZ sensitivity status. PMID:21961653

2011-01-01

175

Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumours.  

PubMed

We analysed primary breast cancers by genomic DNA copy number arrays, DNA methylation, exome sequencing, messenger RNA arrays, microRNA sequencing and reverse-phase protein arrays. Our ability to integrate information across platforms provided key insights into previously defined gene expression subtypes and demonstrated the existence of four main breast cancer classes when combining data from five platforms, each of which shows significant molecular heterogeneity. Somatic mutations in only three genes (TP53, PIK3CA and GATA3) occurred at >10% incidence across all breast cancers; however, there were numerous subtype-associated and novel gene mutations including the enrichment of specific mutations in GATA3, PIK3CA and MAP3K1 with the luminal A subtype. We identified two novel protein-expression-defined subgroups, possibly produced by stromal/microenvironmental elements, and integrated analyses identified specific signalling pathways dominant in each molecular subtype including a HER2/phosphorylated HER2/EGFR/phosphorylated EGFR signature within the HER2-enriched expression subtype. Comparison of basal-like breast tumours with high-grade serous ovarian tumours showed many molecular commonalities, indicating a related aetiology and similar therapeutic opportunities. The biological finding of the four main breast cancer subtypes caused by different subsets of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities raises the hypothesis that much of the clinically observable plasticity and heterogeneity occurs within, and not across, these major biological subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:23000897

2012-10-01

176

Expression of transcripts of interleukin-6 and related cytokines by human breast tumors, breast cancer cells, and adipose stromal cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of transcripts of cytokines of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family has been examined in human breast tumors, breast cancer cell lines, and adipose stromal cells, by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplification. Of the six breast tumor samples examined, all expressed transcripts encoding IL-6 and Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF). Four of the samples also expressed transcripts for

Miranda B Crichton; John E Nichols; Ying Zhao; Serdar E Bulun; Evan R Simpson

1996-01-01

177

Neuropeptide Y receptors in primary human brain tumors: overexpression in high-grade tumors.  

PubMed

Peptide receptors are often overexpressed in tumors, and they may be targeted in vivo. We evaluated neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor expression in 131 primary human brain tumors, including gliomas, embryonal tumors, meningiomas, and pituitary adenomas, by in vitro receptor autoradiography using the 125I-labeled NPY receptor ligand peptide YY in competition with NPY receptor subtype-selective analogs. Receptor functionality was investigated in selected cases using [35S]GTPgammaS-binding autoradiography. World Health Organization Grade IV glioblastomas showed a remarkably high expression of the NPY receptor subtype Y2 with respect to both incidence (83%) and density (mean, 4,886 dpm/mg tissue); astrocytomas World Health Organization Grades I to III and oligodendrogliomas also exhibited high Y2 incidences but low Y2 densities. In glioblastomas, Y2 agonists specifically stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding, suggesting that tumoral Y2 receptors were functional. Furthermore, nonneoplastic nerve fibers containing NPY peptide were identified in glioblastomas by immunohistochemistry. Medulloblastomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the CNS, and meningiomas expressed Y1 and Y2 receptor subtypes in moderate incidence and density. In conclusion, Y2 receptors in glioblastomas that are activated by NPY originating from intratumoral nerve fibers might mediate functional effects on the tumor cells. Moreover, identification of the high expression of NPY receptors in high-grade gliomas and embryonal brain tumors provides the basis for in vivo targeting. PMID:18648328

Körner, Meike; Reubi, Jean Claude

2008-08-01

178

Prodigiosin down-regulates survivin to facilitate paclitaxel sensitization in human breast carcinoma cell lines  

SciTech Connect

Prodigiosin is a bacterial metabolite with potent anticancer activity, which is attributed to its proapoptotic effect selectively active in malignant cells. Still, the molecular mechanisms whereby prodigiosin induces apoptosis remain largely unknown. In particular, the role of survivin, a vital inhibitor of apoptosis, in prodigiosin-induced apoptosis has never been addressed before and hence was the primary goal of this study. Our results showed that prodigiosin dose-dependently induced down-regulation of survivin in multiple breast carcinoma cell lines, including MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231. This down-regulation is mainly regulated at the level of transcription, as prodigiosin reduced the levels of both survivin mRNA and survivin promoter activity but failed to rescue survivin expression when proteasome-mediated degradation is abolished. Importantly, overexpression of survivin rendered cells more resistant to prodigiosin, indicating an essential role of survivin down-regulation in prodigiosin-induced apoptosis. In addition, we found that prodigiosin synergistically enhanced cell death induced by paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug known to up-regulate survivin that in turn confers its own resistance. This paclitaxel sensitization effect of prodigiosin is ascribed to the lowering of survivin expression, because prodigiosin was shown to counteract survivin induction by paclitaxel and, notably, the sensitization effect was severely abrogated in cells that overexpress survivin. Taken together, our results argue that down-regulation of survivin is an integral component mediating prodigiosin-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, and further suggest the potential of prodigiosin to sensitize anticancer drugs, including paclitaxel, in the treatment of breast cancer.

Ho, T.-F. [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Peng, Y.-T.; Chuang, S.-M.; Lin, S.-C.; Feng, B.-L. [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lu, C.-H. [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yu, W.-J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, J.-S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: changjs@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Chang, C.-C. [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chia_che@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

2009-03-01

179

Overexpression of Rsf-1 correlates with pathological type, p53 status and survival in primary breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Aim: The incidence of breast cancer in developing countries still increasing, to identify novel molecular markers associated with carcinogenesis and prognosis of breast cancer still being implemented. The largest subunit of Remodeling and spacing factor (RSF), Rsf-1, mediates ATPase-dependent chromatin remodeling. Its oncogenic properties have been demonstrated in certain carcinomas. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic value of Rsf-1 in patients with primary breast carcinoma. Methods: A total of 537 patients with primary breast cancer, and 54 with benign breast hyperplasia, were performed resection surgery in the same period were enrolled. Rsf-1 immunoexpression was retrospectively assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). As well as, it relationship with clinicopathological factors and patient survival (LRFS, DFS and OS) was investigated. Results: Compared with benign breast hyperplasia tissues, higher percentage of Rsf-1 positive expression was detected in malignant breast carcinomas. Based on IHC staining extent × intensity scores and ROC analysis, 278 of 526 cancers (52.9%) had high-expression (cut-off values 2.5) of Rsf-1, which correlated significantly to pathologic subtypes of breast cancer (DCIS vs. IDC, P < 0.001; ILC vs. IDC, P = 0.036), bigger tumor size (P = 0.030), higher TNM stage (P = 0.044), and p53-positive expression. In addition, there was a trend that high-expression of Rsf-1 associated with younger age (P = 0.053). We further prove that combined positive-expression of Rsf-1 and p53 (Rsf-1 (+)/p53 (+)) was correlated with the bigger tumor size (P = 0.018), and higher TNM stage (P = 0.024). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that Rsf-1 high-expression and combined positive-expression of Rsf-1 and p53 (Rsf-1 (+)/p53 (+)) exhibited a significant correlation with poor overall survival of patients with primary breast cancer, and no association has been identified in relation to LRFS or DFS. Especially, Univariate and multivariate survival analysis demonstrated Rsf-1 expression is an independent prognostic parameter for the overall survival of patients with breast cancer. Conclusions: High-expression of Rsf-1 is associated with pathologic subtypes of breast cancer, aggressive phenotype, p53 positive and poor clinical outcome, which confers tumor aggressiveness through chromatin remodeling, and targeting Rsf-1 gene and the pathway it related may provide new therapeutic avenues for treating breast cancer. PMID:25337201

Ren, Jie; Chen, Qiu-Chen; Jin, Feng; Wu, Hui-Zhe; He, Miao; Zhao, Lin; Yu, Zhao-Jin; Yao, Wei-Fan; Mi, Xiao-Yi; Wang, En-Hua; Wei, Min-Jie

2014-01-01

180

Increased Expression of Prolactin Receptor Gene Assessed by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction in Human Breast Tumors Versus Normal Breast Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of PRL in human breast tumorigenesis is not well under- stood. One of the limitations is the difficulty of accurately measuring PRL receptors (PRLR) in human tissues. We established a quanti- tative PCR method (Q-PCR) in T-47D human breast cancer cells and applied it to 29 patients, 25 of whom presented with either cancer or fibroadenoma. Four patients

PHILIPPE TOURAINE; JEAN-FRANCOIS MARTINI; BRIGITTE ZAFRANI; JEAN-CLAUDE DURAND; FRANCOISE LABAILLE; CATHERINE MALET; CHRISTINE TRIVIN; MARIE-CATHERINE POSTEL-VINAY; FREDERIQUE KUTTENN; PAUL A. KELLY

2009-01-01

181

Fulvestrant treatment alters MDM2 protein turnover and sensitivity of human breast carcinoma cells to chemotherapeutic drugs.  

PubMed

The human homologue of mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) is overexpressed in tumors and contributes to tumorigenesis through inhibition of p53 activity. We investigated the effect of the anti-estrogen fulvestrant on MDM2 expression and sensitivity of estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer cell lines to chemotherapeutics. Fulvestrant down-regulated MDM2 through increased protein turnover. Fulvestrant blocked estrogen-dependent up-regulation of MDM2 and decreased basal expression of MDM2 in the absence of estradiol. As combinations of fulvestrant with doxorubicin, etoposide or paclitaxel were synergistic, altering cell cycle distribution and increasing cell death, this provides rationale for testing combinatorial chemotherapy with fulvestrant as a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with advanced breast cancer. PMID:24747123

Dolfi, Sonia C; Jäger, Adriana V; Medina, Daniel J; Haffty, Bruce G; Yang, Jin-Ming; Hirshfield, Kim M

2014-08-01

182

Transforming properties of 8p11-12 amplified genes in human breast cancer.  

PubMed

Amplification of the 8p11-12 region has been found in about 15% of human breast cancers and is associated with poor prognosis. Earlier, we used genomic analysis of copy number and gene expression to perform a detailed analysis of the 8p11-12 amplicon to identify candidate oncogenes in breast cancer. We identified 21 candidate genes and provided evidence that three genes, namely, LSM-1, TC-1, and BAG4, have transforming properties when overexpressed. In the present study, we systematically investigated the transforming properties of 13 newly identified 8p11-12 candidate oncogenes in vitro. WHSC1L1, DDHD2, and ERLIN2 were most potently transforming oncogenes based on the number of altered phenotypes expressed by the cells. WHSC1L1 contains a PWWP-domain that is a methyl-lysine recognition motif involved in histone code modification and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Knockdown of WHSC1L1 in 8p11-12-amplified breast cancer cells resulted in profound loss of growth and survival of these cells. Further, we identified several WHSC1L1 target genes, one of which is iroquois homeobox 3 gene (IRX3), a member of the Iroquois homeobox transcription factor family. PMID:20940404

Yang, Zeng-Quan; Liu, Gang; Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia; Giroux, Craig N; Ethier, Stephen P

2010-11-01

183

The Oncogenic Potential of Human Cytomegalovirus and Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the leading causes of cancer-related death among women. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gland. Numerous articles indicate that breast tumors exhibit diverse phenotypes depending on their distinct physiopathological signatures, clinical courses, and therapeutic possibilities. The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a multifaceted highly host specific betaherpesvirus that is regarded as asymptomatic or mildly pathogenic virus in immunocompetent host. HCMV may cause serious in utero infections as well as acute and chronic complications in immunocompromised individual. The involvement of HCMV in late inflammatory complications underscores its possible role in inflammatory diseases and cancer. HCMV targets a variety of cell types in vivo, including macrophages, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, stromal cells, neuronal cells, smooth muscle cells, and hepatocytes. HCMV can be detected in the milk after delivery and thereby HCMV could spread to adjacent mammary epithelial cells. HCMV also infects macrophages and induces an atypical M1/M2 phenotype, close to the tumor-associated macrophage phenotype, which is associated with the release of cytokines involved in cancer initiation or promotion and breast cancer of poor prognosis. HCMV antigens and DNA have been detected in tissue biopsies of breast cancers and elevation in serum HCMV IgG antibody levels has been reported to precede the development of breast cancer in some women. In this review, we will discuss the potential role of HCMV in the initiation and progression of breast cancer.

Herbein, Georges; Kumar, Amit

2014-01-01

184

Olive oil's bitter principle reverses acquired autoresistance to trastuzumab (Herceptin™) in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A low incidence of breast cancer in the Mediterranean basin suggests that a high consumption of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) might confer this benefit. While the anti-HER2 oncogene effects of the main ?-9 fatty acid present in EVOO triacylglycerols (i.e., oleic acid) have been recently described, the anti-breast cancer activities of EVOO non-glyceridic constituents -which consist of at

Javier A Menendez; Alejandro Vazquez-Martin; Ramon Colomer; Joan Brunet; Alegria Carrasco-Pancorbo; Rocio Garcia-Villalba; Alberto Fernandez-Gutierrez; Antonio Segura-Carretero

2007-01-01

185

Amplification units and translocation at chromosome 17q and c- erb B2 overexpression in the pathogenesis of breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperplasia without and with atypia is considered to be a precursor lesion for certain breast carcinomas. The cytogenetic\\u000a events and the molecular pathology involved in the multistep process from normal to invasive carcinoma are unknown. To characterise\\u000a the sequence of early genetic abnormalities of chromosome 17q and their biological consequences in the pathogenesis of breast\\u000a cancer, we performed immunohistochemistry on

Elisabeth D. Coene; Vera Schelfhout; Rosita A. Winkler; Anne-Marie Schelfhout; Nadine Van Roy; Madeleine Grooteclaes; Frank Speleman; Christian R. De Potter

1997-01-01

186

Epidermal growth factor receptor coexpression modulates susceptibility to Herceptin in HER2/neu overexpressing breast cancer cells via specific erbB-receptor interaction and activation  

SciTech Connect

Background: Growth factors and Herceptin specifically and differentially modulate cell proliferation of tumor cells. However, the mechanism of action on erbB-receptor level is incompletely understood. We evaluated Herceptin's capacity to modulate erbB-receptor activation and interaction on the cell surface level and thereby potentially impair cell proliferation of HER2/neu (c-erbB2) overexpressing breast cancer cells, both in the presence and absence of relevant growth factors. Methods: BT474 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines were treated with Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Heregulin, and with Herceptin in different combinations. Kinetics of cell proliferation were evaluated flow cytometrically based on BrdU-labeling. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, ELISAs and phosphorylation site specific Western Blotting was performed to investigate erbB-receptor interaction and activation. Results: EGF induced EGFR/EGFR and EGFR/c-erbB2 interactions correlate with stimulation of cell proliferation in BT474 cells. Both homo- and heterodimerization are considerably less pronounced in SK-BR-3 cells and heterointeraction is additionally reduced by EGF treatment, causing inhibition of cell proliferation. Heregulin stimulates cell proliferation extensively in both cell lines. Herceptin drives BT474 cells more efficiently into quiescence than it does with SK-BR-3 cells and thereby blocks cell cycle progress. In SK-BR-3 Herceptin treatment causes c-erbB2 phosphorylation of Y877 and Y1248, EGF induces Y877 and Y1112 phosphorylation. The Y1112 phosphorylation site, activated by EGF in SK-BR-3 cell, is bypassed in BT474. In addition the inhibitory capacity of Herceptin on BT474 and SK-BR-3 cell proliferation depends on the presence and absence of growth factors to a various extent. Conclusion: The growth inhibitory effect of Herceptin on c-erbB2 overexpressing breast cancer cells is considerably modulated by EGFR coexpression and consequently EGFR/c-erbB2 homo- and heterointeractions, as well as the presence or absence of growth factors. C-erbB2 overexpression alone is insufficient to predict the impact of growth factors and antibodies on cell proliferation. The optimization and specification of therapeutic approaches based on erbB-receptor targeting requires to account for EGFR coexpression as well as the potential presence of erbB-receptor relevant growth factors.

Diermeier, Simone [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Horvath, Gabor [Department of Biophysics and Cell Biology, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen (Hungary); Knuechel-Clarke, Ruth [Institute of Pathology, University of Aachen (Germany); Hofstaedter, Ferdinand [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Szoellosi, Janos [Department of Biophysics and Cell Biology, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen (Hungary); Cell Biophysical Research Group of Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen (Hungary); Brockhoff, Gero [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)]. E-mail: Gero.Brockhoff@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

2005-04-01

187

Stearate Preferentially Induces Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Stearic acid (stearate) is an 18-carbon saturated fatty acid that has been shown to inhibit invasion and proliferation and induce apoptosis in various human cell types. The specificity of stearate-induced apoptosis for cancerous versus non-cancerous breast cells has not been examined and the mechanism underlying stearate-induced apoptosis is unknown. Morphological analysis, cell viability and caspase-3 activity assays demonstrated that stearate activated apoptosis preferentially in cancerous breast cells in a time and dose dependent manner. Inhibition of de novo diacylgycerol synthesis or protein kinase C (PKC) blocked stearate-induced caspase-3 activity, indicating the involvement of a novel or classical PKC isozyme. To our knowledge this is the first study showing that stearate induces apoptosis preferentially in breast cancer cells and implicates protein kinase C in the signaling cascade. These results raise the possibility of dietary stearate having a beneficial role in the prevention or treatment of breast cancer. PMID:19838949

Evans, Lynda M.; Cowey, Stephanie L.; Siegal, Gene P.; Hardy, Robert W.

2010-01-01

188

TRIP-Br2 promotes oncogenesis in nude mice and is frequently overexpressed in multiple human tumors  

PubMed Central

Background Members of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD family of mammalian transcriptional coregulators have recently been implicated in E2F-mediated cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. We, herein, focus on the detailed functional characterization of the least understood member of the TRIP-Br/SERTAD protein family, TRIP-Br2 (SERTAD2). Methods Oncogenic potential of TRIP-Br2 was demonstrated by (1) inoculation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, which were engineered to stably overexpress ectopic TRIP-Br2, into athymic nude mice for tumor induction and (2) comprehensive immunohistochemical high-throughput screening of TRIP-Br2 protein expression in multiple human tumor cell lines and human tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs). Clinicopathologic analysis was conducted to assess the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker of human cancer. RNA interference of TRIP-Br2 expression in HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells was performed to determine the potential of TRIP-Br2 as a novel chemotherapeutic drug target. Results Overexpression of TRIP-Br2 is sufficient to transform murine fibroblasts and promotes tumorigenesis in nude mice. The transformed phenotype is characterized by deregulation of the E2F/DP-transcriptional pathway through upregulation of the key E2F-responsive genes CYCLIN E, CYCLIN A2, CDC6 and DHFR. TRIP-Br2 is frequently overexpressed in both cancer cell lines and multiple human tumors. Clinicopathologic correlation indicates that overexpression of TRIP-Br2 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with a worse clinical outcome by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Small interfering RNA-mediated (siRNA) knockdown of TRIP-Br2 was sufficient to inhibit cell-autonomous growth of HCT-116 cells in vitro. Conclusion This study identifies TRIP-Br2 as a bona-fide protooncogene and supports the potential for TRIP-Br2 as a novel prognostic marker and a chemotherapeutic drug target in human cancer. PMID:19152710

Cheong, Jit Kong; Gunaratnam, Lakshman; Zang, Zhi Jiang; Yang, Christopher M; Sun, Xiaoming; Nasr, Susan L; Sim, Khe Guan; Peh, Bee Keow; Rashid, Suhaimi Bin Abdul; Bonventre, Joseph V; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Hsu, Stephen I

2009-01-01

189

Human neural stem cell tropism to metastatic breast cancer.  

PubMed

Metastasis to multiple organs is the primary cause of mortality in breast cancer patients. The poor prognosis for patients with metastatic breast cancer and toxic side effects of currently available treatments necessitate the development of effective tumor-selective therapies. Neural stem cells (NSCs) possess inherent tumor tropic properties that enable them to overcome many obstacles of drug delivery that limit effective chemotherapy strategies for breast cancer. We report that increased NSC tropism to breast tumor cell lines is strongly correlated with the invasiveness of cancer cells. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) was identified as a major cytokine mediating NSC tropism to invasive breast cancer cells. We show for the first time in a preclinical mouse model of metastatic human breast cancer that NSCs preferentially target tumor metastases in multiple organs, including liver, lung, lymph nodes, and femur, versus the primary intramammary fat pad tumor. For proof-of-concept of stem cell-mediated breast cancer therapy, NSCs were genetically modified to secrete rabbit carboxylesterase (rCE), an enzyme that activates the CPT-11 prodrug to SN-38, a potent topoisomerase I inhibitor, to effect tumor-localized chemotherapy. In vitro data demonstrate that exposure of breast cancer cells to conditioned media from rCE-secreting NSCs (NSC.rCE) increased their sensitivity to CPT-11 by 200-fold. In vivo, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with NSC.rCE cells in combination with CPT-11 resulted in reduction of metastatic tumor burden in lung and lymph nodes. These data suggest that NSC-mediated enzyme/prodrug therapy may be more effective and less toxic than currently available chemotherapy strategies for breast cancer metastases. PMID:22084033

Zhao, Donghong; Najbauer, Joseph; Annala, Alexander J; Garcia, Elizabeth; Metz, Marianne Z; Gutova, Margarita; Polewski, Monika D; Gilchrist, Megan; Glackin, Carlotta A; Kim, Seung U; Aboody, Karen S

2012-02-01

190

Stable over-expression of PPAR?/? and PPAR? to examine receptor signaling in human HaCaT keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?/? (PPAR?/?) function and receptor cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including PPAR? and retinoic acid receptors (RARs), was examined using stable human HaCaT keratinocyte cell lines over-expressing PPAR?/? or PPAR?. Enhanced ligand-induced expression of two known PPAR target genes, adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP) and angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4), was found in HaCaT keratinocytes over-expressing PPAR?/? or PPAR?. Over-expression of PPAR?/? did not modulate the effect of a PPAR? agonist on up-regulation of ADRP or ANGPTL4 mRNA in HaCaT keratinocytes. All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) increased expression of a known RAR target gene, yet despite a high ratio of fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5) to cellular retinoic acid binding protein II, did not increase expression of ANGPTL4 or 3-phosphoinositide-dependent-protein kinase 1 (PDPK1), even in HaCaT keratinocytes expressing markedly higher levels of PPAR?/?. While PPAR?/?-dependent attenuation of staurosporine- or UVB-induced poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage was not observed, PPAR?/?- and PPAR?-dependent repression of UVB-induced expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines was found in HaCaT keratinocytes over-expressing PPAR?/? or PPAR?. These studies suggest that FABP5 does not transport atRA or GW0742 to PPAR?/? and promote anti-apoptotic activity by increasing expression of PDPK1, or that PPAR?/? interferes with PPAR? transcriptional activity. However, these studies demonstrate that stable over-expression of PPAR?/? or PPAR? significantly increases the efficacy of ligand activation and represses UVB-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?), interleukin 6 (IL6), or IL8 in HaCaT keratinocytes, thereby establishing an excellent model to study the functional role of these receptors in human keratinocytes. PMID:21843636

Borland, Michael G.; Khozoie, Combiz; Albrecht, Prajakta P.; Zhu, Bokai; Lee, Christina; Lahoti, Tejas S.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Peters, Jeffrey M.

2011-01-01

191

Cyanidin-3-Glucoside inhibits ethanol-induced invasion of breast cancer cells overexpressing ErbB2  

PubMed Central

Background Ethanol is a tumor promoter. Both epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that ethanol may enhance the metastasis of breast cancer cells. We have previously demonstrated that ethanol increased the migration/invasion of breast cancer cells expressing high levels of ErbB2. Amplification of ErbB2 is found in 20-30% of breast cancer patients and is associated with poor prognosis. We sought to identify agents that can prevent or ameliorate ethanol-induced invasion of breast cancer cells. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), an anthocyanin present in many vegetables and fruits, is a potent natural antioxidant. Ethanol exposure causes the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study evaluated the effect of C3G on ethanol-induced breast cancer cell migration/invasion. Results C3G attenuated ethanol-induced migration/invasion of breast cancer cells expressing high levels of ErbB2 (BT474, MDA-MB231 and MCF7ErbB2) in a concentration dependent manner. C3G decreased ethanol-mediated cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as the amount of focal adhesions and the formation of lamellipodial protrusion. It inhibited ethanol-stimulated phosphorylation of ErbB2, cSrc, FAK and p130Cas, as well as interactions among these proteins. C3G abolished ethanol-mediated p130Cas/JNK interaction. Conclusions C3G blocks ethanol-induced activation of the ErbB2/cSrc/FAK pathway which is necessary for cell migration/invasion. C3G may be beneficial in preventing/reducing ethanol-induced breast cancer metastasis. PMID:21034468

2010-01-01

192

Transgenic rats overexpressing the human MrgX3 gene show cataracts and an abnormal skin phenotype  

SciTech Connect

The human MrgX3 gene, belonging to the mrgs/SNSRs (mass related genes/sensory neuron specific receptors) family, was overexpressed in transgenic rats using the actin promoter. Two animal lines showed cataracts with liquification/degeneration and swelling of the lens fiber cells. The transient epidermal desquamation was observed in line with higher gene expression. Histopathology of the transgenic rats showed acanthosis and focal parakeratosis. In the epidermis, there was an increase in cellular keratin 14, keratin 10, and loricrin, as well as PGP 9.5 in innervating nerve fibers. These phenotypes accompanied an increase in the number of proliferating cells. These results suggest that overexpression of the human MrgX3 gene causes a disturbance of the normal cell-differentiation process.

Kaisho, Yoshihiko [Pharmacology Research Laboratories I, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Osaka (Japan)]. E-mail: Kaisho_Yoshihiko@takeda.co.jp; Watanabe, Takuya [Strategic Research Planning, Research Management Department, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Osaka (Japan); Nakata, Mitsugu [Pharmacology Research Laboratories I, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Osaka (Japan); Yano, Takashi [Pharmacology Research Laboratories I, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Osaka (Japan); Yasuhara, Yoshitaka [Pharmacology Research Laboratories I, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Osaka (Japan); Shimakawa, Kozo [Takeda RABICS Limited, Osaka (Japan); Mori, Ikuo [Development Research Center, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Osaka (Japan); Sakura, Yasufumi [Takeda RABICS Limited, Osaka (Japan); Terao, Yasuko [Pharmacology Research Laboratories I, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Osaka (Japan); Matsui, Hideki [Discovery Research Center, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Osaka (Japan); Taketomi, Shigehisa [Pharmacology Research Laboratories I, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Osaka (Japan)

2005-05-13

193

A tissue-engineered humanized xenograft model of human breast cancer metastasis to bone  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The skeleton is a preferred homing site for breast cancer metastasis. To date, treatment options for patients with bone metastases are mostly palliative and the disease is still incurable. Indeed, key mechanisms involved in breast cancer osteotropism are still only partially understood due to the lack of suitable animal models to mimic metastasis of human tumor cells to a human bone microenvironment. In the presented study, we investigate the use of a human tissue-engineered bone construct to develop a humanized xenograft model of breast cancer-induced bone metastasis in a murine host. Primary human osteoblastic cell-seeded melt electrospun scaffolds in combination with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 7 were implanted subcutaneously in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. The tissue-engineered constructs led to the formation of a morphologically intact ‘organ’ bone incorporating a high amount of mineralized tissue, live osteocytes and bone marrow spaces. The newly formed bone was largely humanized, as indicated by the incorporation of human bone cells and human-derived matrix proteins. After intracardiac injection, the dissemination of luciferase-expressing human breast cancer cell lines to the humanized bone ossicles was detected by bioluminescent imaging. Histological analysis revealed the presence of metastases with clear osteolysis in the newly formed bone. Thus, human tissue-engineered bone constructs can be applied efficiently as a target tissue for human breast cancer cells injected into the blood circulation and replicate the osteolytic phenotype associated with breast cancer-induced bone lesions. In conclusion, we have developed an appropriate model for investigation of species-specific mechanisms of human breast cancer-related bone metastasis in vivo. PMID:24713276

Thibaudeau, Laure; Taubenberger, Anna V.; Holzapfel, Boris M.; Quent, Verena M.; Fuehrmann, Tobias; Hesami, Parisa; Brown, Toby D.; Dalton, Paul D.; Power, Carl A.; Hollier, Brett G.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.

2014-01-01

194

Ultrastructural characterization and biochemical profile of human gross cystic breast disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human gross cystic breast disease is a benign condition affecting about 7–10% of adult women occurring with the highest incidence in the premenopausal decade. Although breast cysts do not represent a preneoplastic condition per se, several studies indicate an increased breast cancer risk in women affected by this pathology. In this report we study 115 breast cystic fluid samples obtained

Manuela Malatesta; Ferdinando Mannello; Maurizio Sebastiani; Antonella Cardinali; Francesco Marcheggiani; Giancarlo Gazzanelli

1998-01-01

195

Overexpression of LASP-1 mediates migration and proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells and influences zyxin localisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

LIM and SH3 protein 1 (LASP-1), initially identified from human breast cancer, is a specific focal adhesion protein involved in cell proliferation and migration. In the present work, we analysed the effect of LASP-1 on biology and function of human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3 using small interfering RNA technique (siRNA). Transfection with LASP-1-specific siRNA resulted in a reduced protein

T G P Grunewald; U Kammerer; C Winkler; D Schindler; A Sickmann; A Honig; E Butt

2007-01-01

196

Molecular characterization of human breast tumor vascular cells.  

PubMed

A detailed understanding of the assortment of genes that are expressed in breast tumor vessels is needed to facilitate the development of novel, molecularly targeted anti-angiogenic agents for breast cancer therapies. Rapid immunohistochemistry using factor VIII-related antibodies was performed on sections of frozen human luminal-A breast tumors (n = 5) and normal breast (n = 5), followed by laser capture microdissection of vascular cells. RNA was extracted and amplified, and fluorescently labeled cDNA was synthesized and hybridized to 44,000-element long-oligonucleotide DNA microarrays. Statistical analysis of microarray was used to compare differences in gene expression between tumor and normal vascular cells, and Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer was used to determine enrichment of gene ontology categories. Protein expression of select genes was confirmed using immunohistochemistry. Of the 1176 genes that were differentially expressed between tumor and normal vascular cells, 55 had a greater than fourfold increase in expression level. The extracellular matrix gene ontology category was increased while the ribosome gene ontology category was decreased. Fibroblast activation protein, secreted frizzled-related protein 2, Janus kinase 3, and neutral sphingomyelinase 2 proteins localized to breast tumor endothelium as assessed by immunohistochemistry, showing significantly greater staining compared with normal tissue. These tumor endothelial marker proteins also exhibited increased expression in breast tumor vessels compared with that in normal tissues. Therefore, these genetic markers may serve as potential targets for the development of angiogenesis inhibitors. PMID:18403594

Bhati, Rajendra; Patterson, Cam; Livasy, Chad A; Fan, Cheng; Ketelsen, David; Hu, Zhiyuan; Reynolds, Evangeline; Tanner, Catherine; Moore, Dominic T; Gabrielli, Franco; Perou, Charles M; Klauber-DeMore, Nancy

2008-05-01

197

Imaging the redox states of human breast cancer core biopsies.  

PubMed

Currently, the gold standard to establish benign vs. malignant breast tissue diagnosis requires an invasive biopsy followed by tissue fixation for subsequent histopathological examination. This process takes at least 24 h resulting in tissues that are less suitable for molecular, functional, or metabolic analysis. We have recently conducted redox scanning (cryogenic NADH/flavoprotein fluorescence imaging) on snap-frozen breast tissue biopsy samples obtained from human breast cancer patients at the time of their breast cancer surgery. The redox state was readily determined by the redox scanner at liquid nitrogen temperature with extraordinary sensitivity, giving oxidized flavoproteins (Fp) an up to tenfold discrimination of cancer to non-cancer of breast in our preliminary data. Our finding suggests that the identified metabolic parameters could discriminate between cancer and non-cancer breast tissues without subjecting tissues to fixatives. The remainder of the frozen tissue is available for additional analysis such as molecular analysis and conventional histopathology. We propose that this novel redox scanning procedure may assist in tissue diagnosis in ex vivo tissues. PMID:22879054

Xu, H N; Tchou, J; Chance, B; Li, L Z

2013-01-01

198

The immunomodulatory protein B7-H4 is overexpressed in breast and ovarian cancers and promotes epithelial cell transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

B7-H4 protein is expressed on the surface of a variety of immune cells and functions as a negative regulator of T cell responses. We independently identified B7-H4 (DD-O110) through a genomic effort to discover genes upregulated in tumors and here we describe a new functional role for B7-H4 protein in cancer. We show that B7-H4 mRNA and protein are overexpressed

Susana Salceda; Tenny Tang; Muriel Kmet; Andrei Munteanu; Malavika Ghosh; Roberto Macina; Wenhui Liu; Glenn Pilkington; Jackie Papkoff

2005-01-01

199

Immunotherapeutic Potential of Anti-Human Endogenous Retrovirus-K Envelope Protein Antibodies in Targeting Breast Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background The envelope (env) protein of the human endogenous retrovirus type K (HERV-K) family is commonly expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells. We assessed whether HERV-K env is a potential target for antibody-based immunotherapy of breast cancer. Methods We examined the expression of HERV-K env protein in various malignant (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, SKBR3, MDA-MB-453, T47D, and ZR-75-1) and nonmalignant (MCF-10A and MCF-10AT) human breast cell lines by immunoblot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence staining, and flow cytometry. Anti-HERV-K env monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; 6H5, 4D1, 4E11, 6E11, and 4E6) were used to target expression of HERV-K, and antitumor effects were assessed by quantifying growth and apoptosis of breast cancer cells in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo in mice (n = 5 per group) bearing xenograft tumors. The mechanisms responsible for 6H5 mAb–mediated effects were investigated by microarray assays, flow cytometry, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence staining. The expression of HERV-K env protein was assessed in primary breast tumors (n = 223) by immunohistochemistry. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The expression of HERV-K env protein in malignant breast cancer cell lines was substantially higher than nonmalignant breast cells. Anti–HERV-K-specific mAbs inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells in vitro. Mice treated with 6H5 mAb showed statistically significantly reduced growth of xenograft tumors compared with mice treated with control immunoglobulin (control [mIgG] vs 6H5 mAb, for tumors originating from MDA-MB-231 cells, mean size = 1448.33 vs 475.44 mm3; difference = 972.89 mm3, 95% CI = 470.17 to 1475.61 mm3; P < .001). Several proteins involved in the apoptotic signaling pathways were overexpressed in vitro in 6H5 mAb–treated malignant breast cells compared with mIgG-treated control. HERV-K expression was detected in 148 (66%) of 223 primary breast tumors, and a higher rate of lymph node metastasis was associated with HERV-K-positive compared with HERV-K-negative tumors (43% vs 23%, P = .003). Conclusion Monoclonal antibodies against HERV-K env protein show potential as novel immunotherapeutic agents for breast cancer therapy. PMID:22247020

Rycaj, Kiera; Plummer, Joshua B.; Li, Ming; Yin, Bingnan; Frerich, Katherine; Garza, Jeremy G.; Shen, Jianjun; Lin, Kevin; Yan, Peisha; Glynn, Sharon A.; Dorsey, Tiffany H.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Ambs, Stefan; Johanning, Gary L.

2012-01-01

200

The significance of heregulin in breast cancer tumor progression and drug resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary TheerbB-2 receptor plays an important role in the prognosis of breast cancer and is expressed at high levels in nearly 30% of tumors in breast cancer patients. While evidence accumulates to support the relationship betweenerbB-2 overexpression and poor overall survival in human breast cancer, understanding of the biological consequence(s) oferbB-2 overexpression remains elusive. The discovery ofheregulin has allowed us

R. Lupu; M. Cardillo; C. Cho; L. Harris; M. Hijazi; C. Perez; K. Rosenberg; D. Yang; C. Tang

1996-01-01

201

Characterization of an In Vitro Human Breast Epithelial Organoid System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have characterized organoids formed by two types of normal human breast epithelial cells (HBEC) on Matrigel. The results show that mammary gland- like structures can be formed in one day after inoculation of right number and ratio of Type I and Type II...

C. Chang

1998-01-01

202

Molecular Mechanisms of Metastasis Suppression in Human Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major cause of cancer deaths can be attributed to metastasis. Our goal was to identify metastasis-controlling genes for human breast cancer. This research is based upon our finding that microcell-mediated transfer of chromosome 11 into MDA-MB-435 resu...

D. R. Welch

1999-01-01

203

Systems consequences of amplicon formation in human breast cancer.  

PubMed

Chromosomal structural variations play an important role in determining the transcriptional landscape of human breast cancers. To assess the nature of these structural variations, we analyzed eight breast tumor samples with a focus on regions of gene amplification using mate-pair sequencing of long-insert genomic DNA with matched transcriptome profiling. We found that tandem duplications appear to be early events in tumor evolution, especially in the genesis of amplicons. In a detailed reconstruction of events on chromosome 17, we found large unpaired inversions and deletions connect a tandemly duplicated ERBB2 with neighboring 17q21.3 amplicons while simultaneously deleting the intervening BRCA1 tumor suppressor locus. This series of events appeared to be unusually common when examined in larger genomic data sets of breast cancers albeit using approaches with lesser resolution. Using siRNAs in breast cancer cell lines, we showed that the 17q21.3 amplicon harbored a significant number of weak oncogenes that appeared consistently coamplified in primary tumors. Down-regulation of BRCA1 expression augmented the cell proliferation in ERBB2-transfected human normal mammary epithelial cells. Coamplification of other functionally tested oncogenic elements in other breast tumors examined, such as RIPK2 and MYC on chromosome 8, also parallel these findings. Our analyses suggest that structural variations efficiently orchestrate the gain and loss of cancer gene cassettes that engage many oncogenic pathways simultaneously and that such oncogenic cassettes are favored during the evolution of a cancer. PMID:25186909

Inaki, Koichiro; Menghi, Francesca; Woo, Xing Yi; Wagner, Joel P; Jacques, Pierre-Étienne; Lee, Yi Fang; Shreckengast, Phung Trang; Soon, Wendy WeiJia; Malhotra, Ankit; Teo, Audrey S M; Hillmer, Axel M; Khng, Alexis Jiaying; Ruan, Xiaoan; Ong, Swee Hoe; Bertrand, Denis; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Karuturi, R Krishna Murthy; Hidalgo Miranda, Alfredo; Liu, Edison T

2014-10-01

204

Systems consequences of amplicon formation in human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal structural variations play an important role in determining the transcriptional landscape of human breast cancers. To assess the nature of these structural variations, we analyzed eight breast tumor samples with a focus on regions of gene amplification using mate-pair sequencing of long-insert genomic DNA with matched transcriptome profiling. We found that tandem duplications appear to be early events in tumor evolution, especially in the genesis of amplicons. In a detailed reconstruction of events on chromosome 17, we found large unpaired inversions and deletions connect a tandemly duplicated ERBB2 with neighboring 17q21.3 amplicons while simultaneously deleting the intervening BRCA1 tumor suppressor locus. This series of events appeared to be unusually common when examined in larger genomic data sets of breast cancers albeit using approaches with lesser resolution. Using siRNAs in breast cancer cell lines, we showed that the 17q21.3 amplicon harbored a significant number of weak oncogenes that appeared consistently coamplified in primary tumors. Down-regulation of BRCA1 expression augmented the cell proliferation in ERBB2-transfected human normal mammary epithelial cells. Coamplification of other functionally tested oncogenic elements in other breast tumors examined, such as RIPK2 and MYC on chromosome 8, also parallel these findings. Our analyses suggest that structural variations efficiently orchestrate the gain and loss of cancer gene cassettes that engage many oncogenic pathways simultaneously and that such oncogenic cassettes are favored during the evolution of a cancer. PMID:25186909

Inaki, Koichiro; Menghi, Francesca; Woo, Xing Yi; Wagner, Joel P.; Jacques, Pierre-Etienne; Lee, Yi Fang; Shreckengast, Phung Trang; Soon, Wendy WeiJia; Malhotra, Ankit; Teo, Audrey S.M.; Hillmer, Axel M.; Khng, Alexis Jiaying; Ruan, Xiaoan; Ong, Swee Hoe; Bertrand, Denis; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Hidalgo Miranda, Alfredo

2014-01-01

205

Nuclear loss of protein arginine N-methyltransferase 2 in breast carcinoma is associated with tumor grade and overexpression of cyclin D1 protein.  

PubMed

Human protein arginine N-methyltransferase 2 (PRMT2, HRMT1L1) is a protein that belongs to the arginine methyltransferase family, and it has diverse roles in transcriptional regulation through different mechanisms depending on its binding partners. In this study, we provide evidences for the negative effect of PRMT2 on breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Morever, cyclin D1, one of the key modulators of cell cycle, was found to be downregulated by PRMT2, and PRMT2 was further shown to suppress the estrogen receptor ?-binding affinity to the activator protein-1 (AP-1) site in cyclin D1 promoter through indirect binding with AP-1 site, resulting in the inhibition of cyclin D1 promoter activity in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, a positive correlation between the expression of PRMT2 and cyclin D1 was confirmed in the breast cancer tissues by using tissue microarray assay. In addition, PRMT2 was found to show a high absent percentage in breast caner cell nuclei and the nuclear loss ratio of PRMT2 was demonstrated to positively correlate with cyclin D1 expression and the increasing tumor grade of invasive ductal carcinoma. Those results offer an essential insight into the effect of PRMT2 on breast carcinogenesis, and PRMT2 nuclear loss might be an important biological marker for the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:24292672

Zhong, J; Cao, R-X; Liu, J-H; Liu, Y-B; Wang, J; Liu, L-P; Chen, Y-J; Yang, J; Zhang, Q-H; Wu, Y; Ding, W-J; Hong, T; Xiao, X-H; Zu, X-Y; Wen, G-B

2014-11-27

206

Stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers are frequently overexpressed in circulating tumor cells of metastatic breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The persistence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in breast cancer patients might be associated with stem cell like tumor cells which have been suggested to be the active source of metastatic spread in primary tumors. Furthermore, these cells also may undergo phenotypic changes, known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which allows them to travel to the site of metastasis formation

Bahriye Aktas; Mitra Tewes; Tanja Fehm; Siegfried Hauch; Rainer Kimmig; Sabine Kasimir-Bauer

2009-01-01

207

Identification of Structural Domains of ESX Required for Breast Cell Transformation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ESX encodes an Ets family transcription factor gene that is potentially important in breast cancer because the ESX genomic region (chromosome 1q32.l) is amplified in 50% of early breast cancers and ESX mRNA is over-expressed in human breast ductal carcino...

A. Gutierrez-Hartmann

2002-01-01

208

Identification of Structural Domains of ESX Required for Breast Cell Transformation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ESX encodes an Ets family transcription factor gene that is potentially important in breast cancer because the ESX genomic region (chromosome lq32.l) is amplified in 50% of early breast cancers and ESX mRNA is over-expressed in human breast ductal carcino...

A. Gutierrez-Hartmann

2004-01-01

209

Prognostic and clinicopathological significance of microRNA-21 overexpression in breast cancer: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have highlighted the role of microRNA-21 (miR-21) as a prognostic biomarker of breast cancer. However, controversy still remains. The present study aimed to summarize available evidences and obtain a more precise estimation of a prognostic role of miR-21 in breast cancer patients. All eligible studies were searched from PubMed and EMBASE through multiple search strategies. Data were extracted from studies comparing survival in breast cancer patients having higher miR-21 expression with those having lower expression. A meta-analysis was performed to clarify prognostic role of miR-21 in patients with breast cancer. Subgroup analysis was also performed according to patients’ ethnicity. A total of 6 eligible articles comprising 951 cases were selected for this meta-analysis. The combined hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for overall survival (OS) were 2.11 (1.09-4.08) and for disease free survival (DFS) was 1.6 (1.30-1.96). Subgroup analysis indicated high miR-21 expression was significantly associated with worse OS in Asian patients (HR = 4.39, 95% CI: 2.47-7.80) but not in non-Asian patients (HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.81-1.70). Sensitivity analysis revealed results of this meta-analysis were robust. Odds ratios (ORs) showed that miR-21 expression was closely associated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), lymph node metastasis, histological grade, Her2/neu. The pooled ORs and 95% CIs were 0.53 (0.35-0.80), 0.49 (0.32-0.74), 2.32 (1.54-3.50), 2.44 (1.58-3.75), 4.29 (2.34-7.85), respectively. Our results indicated that elevated miR-21 expression could potentially predict poor survival in patients with breast cancer. PMID:25337203

Pan, Fei; Mao, Hui; Deng, Ling; Li, Guangchao; Geng, Peiliang

2014-01-01

210

The Consensus Coding Sequences of Human Breast and Colorectal Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elucidation of the human genome sequence has made it possible to identify genetic alterations in cancers in unprecedented detail. To begin a systematic analysis of such alterations, we determined the sequence of well-annotated human protein-coding genes in two common tumor types. Analysis of 13,023 genes in 11 breast and 11 colorectal cancers revealed that individual tumors accumulate an average

Tobias Sjöblom; Siân Jones; Laura D. Wood; D. Williams Parsons; Jimmy Lin; Thomas D. Barber; Diana Mandelker; Rebecca J. Leary; Janine Ptak; Natalie Silliman; Steve Szabo; Phillip Buckhaults; Christopher Farrell; Paul Meeh; Sanford D. Markowitz; Joseph Willis; Dawn Dawson; James K. V. Willson; Adi F. Gazdar; James Hartigan; Leo Wu; Changsheng Liu; Giovanni Parmigiani; Ben Ho Park; Kurtis E. Bachman; Nickolas Papadopoulos; Bert Vogelstein; Kenneth W. Kinzler; Victor E. Velculescu

2006-01-01

211

Periostin contributes to the acquisition of multipotent stem cell-like properties in human mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Periostin (POSTN), a recently characterised matricellular protein, is frequently dysregulated in various malignant cancers and promotes tumor metastatic growth. POSTN plays a critical role in the crosstalk between murine breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their niche to permit metastatic colonization. However, whether pro-metastatic capability of POSTN is associated with multipotent potentials of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has not been documented. Here we demonstrate that POSTN promotes a stem cell-like trait and a mesenchymal phenotype in human mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells. Interestingly, ectopic overexpression of POSTN or recombinant POSTN treatment can induce human mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells differentiation into multiple cell lineages that recapitulate part of the multilineage differentiation potentials of MSCs. Moreover, POSTN is highly expressed in bone marrow-derived MSCs and their derived adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts in vitro. Furthermore, POSTN promotes the growth of xenograft tumors in vivo. POSTN-overexpressing human mammary epithelial cells enhance breast tumor growth and metastasis. These data thus provide evidence of a new role for POSTN in mammary epithelial neoplasia and metastasis, suggesting that epithelial cancer cells might acquire CSC-like traits and a mesenchymal phenotype, as well as the multipotent potentials of MSCs to promote tumorigenesis and metastasis. Therefore, targeting POSTN and other extracellular matrix components of tumor microenvironment may help to develop new therapeutical strategies to inhibit tumor metastasis. PMID:24009721

Wang, Xiaowei; Liu, Jia; Wang, Zhe; Huang, Yangmei; Liu, Weiping; Zhu, Xiao; Cai, Yao; Fang, Xiaoguang; Lin, Shuyong; Yuan, Li; Ouyang, Gaoliang

2013-01-01

212

Selective growth inhibition of human breast cancer cells by graviola fruit extract in vitro and in vivo involving downregulation of EGFR expression.  

PubMed

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an oncogene frequently overexpressed in breast cancer (BC), and its overexpression has been associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance. EGFR is therefore a rational target for BC therapy development. This study demonstrated that a graviola fruit extract (GFE) significantly downregulated EGFR gene expression and inhibited the growth of BC cells and xenografts. GFE selectively inhibited the growth of EGFR-overexpressing human BC (MDA-MB-468) cells (IC(50) = 4.8 ?g/ml) but had no effect on nontumorigenic human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). GFE significantly downregulated EGFR mRNA expression, arrested cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, and induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 cells. In the mouse xenograft model, a 5-wk dietary treatment of GFE (200 mg/kg diet) significantly reduced the protein expression of EGFR, p-EGFR, and p-ERK in MDA-MB-468 tumors by 56%, 54%, and 32.5%, respectively. Overall, dietary GFE inhibited tumor growth, as measured by wet weight, by 32% (P < 0.01). These data showed that dietary GFE induced significant growth inhibition of MDA-MB-468 cells in vitro and in vivo through a mechanism involving the EGFR/ERK signaling pathway, suggesting that GFE may have a protective effect for women against EGFR-overexpressing BC. PMID:21767082

Dai, Yumin; Hogan, Shelly; Schmelz, Eva M; Ju, Young H; Canning, Corene; Zhou, Kequan

2011-01-01

213

Ocular input for human melatonin regulation: relevance to breast cancer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of breast cancer on women across the world has been extensive and severe. As prevalence of breast cancer is greatest in industrialized regions, exposure to light at night has been proposed as a potential risk factor. This theory is supported by the epidemiological observations of decreased breast cancer in blind women and increased breast cancer in women who do shift-work. In addition, human, animal and in vitro studies which have investigated the melatonin-cancer dynamic indicate an apparent relationship between light, melatonin and cancer, albeit complex. Recent developments in understanding melatonin regulation by light in humans are examined, with particular attention to factors that contribute to the sensitivity of the light-induced melatonin suppression response. Specifically, the role of spectral characteristics of light is addressed, and recent relevant action spectrum studies in humans and other mammalian species are discussed. Across five action spectra for circadian and other non-visual responses, a peak sensitivity between 446-484 nm was identified. Under highly controlled exposure circumstances, less than 1 lux of monochromatic light elicited a significant suppression of nocturnal melatonin. In view of the possible link between light exposure, melatonin suppression and cancer risk, it is important to continue to identify the basic related ocular physiology. Visual performance, rather than circadian function, has been the primary focus of architectural lighting systems. It is now necessary to reevaluate lighting strategies, with consideration of circadian influences, in an effort to maximize physiological homeostasis and health.

Glickman, Gena; Levin, Robert; Brainard, George C.

2002-01-01

214

Micro-resonance Raman study of optically trapped Escherichia coli cells overexpressing human neuroglobin  

E-print Network

coli E. coli overexpressing wild type wt neuroglobin NGB and its E7Leu mutant, respectively. NGB and anaerobic conditions. E. coli cells overex- pressing wt NGB are stable, and the reversible oxygenation of an enzymatic system in the bac- teria reducing the ferric form NGB. The study of E. coli cells overex- pressing

Wenseleers, Wim

215

An early history of human breast cancer: West meets East  

PubMed Central

Cancer has been increasingly recognized as a global issue. This is especially true in countries like China, where cancer incidence has increased likely because of changes in environment and lifestyle. However, cancer is not a modern disease; early cases have been recorded in ancient medical books in the West and in China. Here, we provide a brief history of cancer, focusing on cancer of the breast, and review the etymology of ai, the Chinese character for cancer. Notable findings from both Western and Chinese traditional medicine are presented to give an overview of the most important, early contributors to our evolving understanding of human breast cancer. We also discuss the earliest historical documents to record patients with breast cancer. PMID:23958056

Yan, Shou-He

2013-01-01

216

PI3K inhibition results in enhanced HER signaling and acquired ERK dependency in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a strong rationale to therapeutically target the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase\\/protein kinase B\\/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K\\/AKT\\/mTOR) pathway in breast cancer since it is highly deregulated in this disease and it also mediates resistance to anti-HER2 therapies. However, initial studies with rapalogs, allosteric inhibitors of mTORC1, have resulted in limited clinical efficacy probably due to the release of a negative

V Serra; M Scaltriti; L Prudkin; P J A Eichhorn; Y H Ibrahim; S Chandarlapaty; B Markman; O Rodriguez; M Guzman; S Rodriguez; M Gili; M Russillo; J L Parra; S Singh; J Arribas; N Rosen; J Baselga

2011-01-01

217

Enhanced chemosensitization in multidrug-resistant human breast cancer cells by inhibition of IL-6 and IL-8 production.  

PubMed

Drug resistance remains a major hurdle to successful cancer treatment. Many mechanisms such as overexpression of multidrug-resistance related proteins, increased drug metabolism, decreased apoptosis, and impairment of signal transduction pathway can contribute multidrug resistance (MDR). Recent studies strongly suggest a close link between cytokines and drug resistance. To identify new targets involved in drug resistance, we established a multidrug-resistant human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/R and examined the cytokine profile using cytokine antibody array technology. Among 120 cytokines/chemokines screened, IL-6, IL-8, and 13 other proteins were found to be markedly increased in drug-resistant MCF-7/R cell line as compared to sensitive MCF-7/S cell line, while 7 proteins were specifically reduced in drug-resistant MCF-7/R cells. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-6 and IL-8 partially reversed the drug resistance of MCF-7/R to paclitaxel and doxorubicin, while a neutralizing antibody against MCP-1 had no significant effect. Inhibition of endogenous IL-6 or IL-8 by siRNA technology significantly enhanced drug sensitivity of MCF-7/R cells. Furthermore, overexpression of IL-6 or IL-8 expression by transfection increased the ADM resistance in MCF-7/S cells. Our data suggest that increased expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 may contribute to MDR in human breast cancer cells. PMID:22923236

Shi, Zhi; Yang, Wei-Min; Chen, Li-Pai; Yang, Dong-Hua; Zhou, Qi; Zhu, Jin; Chen, Jun-Jiang; Huang, Ruo-Chun; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Huang, Ruo-Pan

2012-10-01

218

A Genome-Wide Over-Expression Screen Identifies Genes Involved in Phagocytosis in the Human Protozoan Parasite, Entamoeba histolytica  

PubMed Central

Functional genomics and forward genetics seek to assign function to all known genes in a genome. Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite for which forward genetics approaches have not been extensively applied. It is the causative agent of amoebic dysentery and liver abscess, and infection is prevalent in developing countries that cannot prevent its fecal-oral spread. It is responsible for considerable global morbidity and mortality. Given that the E. histolytica genome has been sequenced, it should be possible to apply genomic approaches to discover gene function. We used a genome-wide over-expression screen to uncover genes regulating an important virulence function of E. histolytica, namely phagocytosis. We developed an episomal E. histolytica cDNA over-expression library, transfected the collection of plasmids into trophozoites, and applied a high-throughput screen to identify phagocytosis mutants in the population of over-expressing cells. The screen was based on the phagocytic uptake of human red blood cells loaded with the metabolic toxin, tubercidin. Expression plasmids were isolated from trophozoites that survived exposure to tubercidin-charged erythrocytes (phagocytosis mutants), and the cDNAs were sequenced. We isolated the gene encoding profilin, a well-characterized cytoskeleton-regulating protein with a known role in phagocytosis. This supports the validity of our approach. Furthermore, we assigned a phagocytic role to several genes not previously known to function in this manner. To our knowledge, this is the first genome-wide forward genetics screen to be applied to this pathogen. The study demonstrates the power of forward genetics in revealing genes regulating virulence in E. histolytica. In addition, the study validates an E. histolytica cDNA over-expression library as a valuable tool for functional genomics. PMID:22905196

King, Ada V.; Welter, Brenda H.; Koushik, Amrita B.; Gordon, Lindsay N.; Temesvari, Lesly A.

2012-01-01

219

Fluopsin C induces oncosis of human breast adenocarcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Aim: Fluopsin C, an antibiotic isolated from Pseudomonas jinanesis, has shown antitumor effects on several cancer cell lines. In the current study, the oncotic cell death induced by fluopsin C was investigated in human breast adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. Methods: Human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MCF-7 and MD-MBA-231 were used. The cytotoxicity was evaluated using MTT assay. Time-lapse microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the morphological changes. Cell membrane integrity was assessed with propidium iodide (PI) uptake and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Flow cytometry was used to measure reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and mitochondrial membrane potential (??m). A multimode microplate reader was used to analyze the intracellular ATP level. The changes in cytoskeletal system were investigated with Western blotting and immunostaining. Results: Fluopsin C (0.5-8 ?mol/L) reduced the cell viability in dose- and time-dependent manners. Its IC50 values in MCF-7 and MD-MBA-231 cells at 24 h were 0.9 and 1.03 ?mol/L, respectively. Fluopsin C (2 ?mol/L) induced oncosis in both the breast adenocarcinoma cells characterized by membrane blebbing and swelling, which was blocked by pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk. In MCF-7 cells, fluopsin C caused PI uptake into the cells, significantly increased LDH release, induced cytoskeletal system degradation and ROS accumulation, decreased the intracellular ATP level and ??m. Noticeably, fluopsin C exerted comparable cytotoxicity against the normal human hepatocytes (HL7702) and human mammary epithelial cells with the IC50 values at 24 h of 2.7 and 2.4 ?mol/L, respectively. Conclusion: Oncotic cell death was involved in the anticancer effects of fluopsin C on human breast adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. The hepatoxicity of fluopsin C should not be ignored. PMID:23708552

Ma, Li-sha; Jiang, Chang-you; Cui, Min; Lu, Rong; Liu, Shan-shan; Zheng, Bei-bei; Li, Lin; Li, Xia

2013-01-01

220

Stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers are frequently overexpressed in circulating tumor cells of metastatic breast cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction The persistence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in breast cancer patients might be associated with stem cell like tumor cells which have been suggested to be the active source of metastatic spread in primary tumors. Furthermore, these cells also may undergo phenotypic changes, known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which allows them to travel to the site of metastasis formation without getting affected by conventional treatment. Here we evaluated 226 blood samples of 39 metastatic breast cancer patients during a follow-up of palliative chemo-, antibody – or hormonal therapy for the expression of the stem cell marker ALDH1 and markers for EMT and correlated these findings with the presence of CTC and response to therapy. Methods 2 × 5 ml blood was analyzed for CTC with the AdnaTest BreastCancer (AdnaGen AG) for the detection of EpCAM, MUC-1 and HER2 transcripts. The recovered c-DNA was additionally multiplex tested for three EMT markers [Twist1, Akt2, PI3K?] and separately for the tumor stem-cell markers ALDH1. The identification of EMT markers was considered positive if at least one marker was detected in the sample. Results 97% of 30 healthy donor samples investigated were negative for EMT and 95% for ALDH1 transcripts. CTC were detected in 69/226 (31%) cancer samples. In the CTC (+) group, 62% were positive for at least one of the EMT markers and 69% for ALDH1, respectively. In the CTC (-) group the percentages were 7% and 14%, respectively. In non-responders, EMT and ALDH1 expression was found in 62% and 44% of patients, in responders the rates were 10% and 5%, respectively. Conclusions Our data indicate that a major proportion of CTC of metastatic breast cancer patients shows EMT and tumor stem cell characteristics. Further studies are needed to prove whether these markers might serve as an indicator for therapy resistant tumor cell populations and, therefore, an inferior prognosis. PMID:19589136

Aktas, Bahriye; Tewes, Mitra; Fehm, Tanja; Hauch, Siegfried; Kimmig, Rainer; Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine

2009-01-01

221

Overexpression of MicroRNA-200c Predicts Poor Outcome in Patients with PR-Negative Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Micro-RNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. MiR-200c is a member of the miR-200 family; it is known to be dysregulated in invasive breast carcinoma. MiR-200c maintains the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and inhibits cell migration and invasion. Recent studies showed that miR-200c regulated steroid hormone receptors, estrogen receptors (ER), and progesterone receptors (PR). The present study aimed to detect miR-200c in 172 invasive breast carcinoma cases selected from a prospective cohort enrolled in Kuopio, Eastern Finland, between 1990 and 1995. MiR-200c expression was determined with relative q-PCR, and results were compared to clinicopathological variables and patient outcome. We found that PR status combined with miR-200c expression was a significant marker of outcome. High miR-200c expression was associated with reduced survival in PR-negative cases (n?=?68); low miR-200c expression indicated reduced survival in PR-positive cases (n?=?86) (Cox regression: P?=?0.002, OR?=?3.433; and P?=?0.004, OR?=?4.176, respectively). In PR-negative cases, high miR-200c expression was associated with shortened relapse-free survival (Cox regression: P?=?0.001, OR?=?3.613); increased local/distant recurrence (Logistic regression: P?=?0.006, OR?=?3.965); and more frequent distant metastasis (Logistic regression: P?=?0.015, OR?=?3.390). We also found that high grade and low stage tumors were positively correlated with high miR-200c expression (Logistic regression for high grade tumors: P?=?0.002, OR?=?2.791 and for high stage tumors: P?=?0.035, OR?=?0.285). Our results indicated that miR-200c may play a role in invasive breast carcinoma. Furthermore, miR-200c combined with PR status provided a refined predictor of outcome. In future, a larger study is required to confirm our results. This data may provide a basis for new research target–progesterone receptor–regulated microRNAs in breast cancer. PMID:25329395

Tuomarila, Marie; Luostari, Kaisa; Soini, Ylermi; Kataja, Vesa

2014-01-01

222

Overexpression of syntenin enhances hepatoma cell proliferation and invasion: Potential roles in human hepatoma.  

PubMed

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks as the third leading cause of tumor-related mortality worldwide. Recently, syntenin was found to be upregulated in several tumors and to exert pivotal roles in the development of cancer. However, its function and the underlying mechanism in HCC remain to be defined. In the present study, the elevated expression levels of syntenin mRNA and protein were detected in four HCC cell lines. Overexpression of syntenin in hepatoma HCCLM3 cells enhanced cell proliferation. Furthermore, syntenin upregulation increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression, which accounted for syntenin?induced cell proliferation as precondition with EGFR siRNA clearly attenuated cell proliferation in syntenin-transfected cells. At the same time, syntenin overexpression promoted cell invasion by MMP-2, as pretreatment with anti-MMP-2 antibody blocked syntenin-induced invading cell numbers. Additionally, syntenin upregulation induced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK contributing to the increase in MMP-2 expression, as treatment with the specific inhibitor for p38 MAPK (SB203580) clearly abrogated MMP-2 expression induced by syntenin. Collectively, our results suggest that syntenin overexpression plays a critical role in promoting the proliferation and invasion of hepatoma cells. Therefore, the present study provides new insight into how syntenin accelerates the development and progression of hepatoma, and suggests that syntenin may be a promising therapeutic agent against hepatoma. PMID:25242117

Liu, Xuemin; Zhang, Xufeng; Lv, Yi; Xiang, Junxi; Shi, Jianhua

2014-12-01

223

Ezrin phosphorylation on tyrosine 477 regulates invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells  

E-print Network

Background The membrane cytoskeletal crosslinker, ezrin, a member of the ERM family of proteins, is frequently over-expressed in human breast cancers, and is required for motility and invasion of epithelial cells. Our group ...

Mak, Hannah

224

Anticomplement activities of human breast-milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective and Design: It has long been observed that the human milk possesses significant anti-inflammatory properties, while simultaneously protecting the infant against many intestinal and respiratory pathogens. There is, however, a paucity of information on the degree and extent of this anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of different fractions of human milk on serum complement activity

M. O. Ogundele

1999-01-01

225

Targeted poly (L-?-glutamyl glutamine) nanoparticles of docetaxel against folate over-expressed breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

A novel folate (FA) conjugated poly(l-?-glutamyl glutamine) (PGG) nanoparticle loaded with docetaxel (DTX) was prepared to take advantage of both targeted drug delivery in breast cancer and reducing the overall side effects due to the adjuvant free formulation in comparison with Taxotere(®). Nanoprecipitation method was employed to prepare nanoparticles (NPs). The chemical structure of PGG synthesized polymers and PGG-FA conjugates and polymeric nanoparticles were characterized by H NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and laser scanning confocal microscopy. The average size of optimized nanoparticles with the aid of Box-Behnken experimental design was 131.96 ± 5.34(nm) with polydispersity of 0.089 ± 0.019, zeta potential of -25.8 ± 2.21(mV), and entrapment efficiency of 67.83 ± 3.29(%). In vitro cytotoxicity of the designed NPs was investigated by MTT assay against three chosen cell lines of MCF7, 4T1, and A549 based on their folate receptor expression capacity and was compared with Taxotere(®). Moreover, PGG-FOL NPs were loaded with 6-coumarin for cellular uptake investigation. In order to assess the antitumor efficacy and biodistribution of targeted NPs, 4T1 murine breast tumors were established on the balb/c mice and in vivo studies were performed. The obtained results showed that the novel designed system was highly effective against tumor cells and successfully localized in the tumor site. PMID:24680951

Tavassolian, Faranak; Kamalinia, Golnaz; Rouhani, Hasti; Amini, Mohsen; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Tehrani, Morteza Rafiee; Dinarvand, Rassoul

2014-06-01

226

[Effects and costs of adjuvant chemotherapy for operable lymph node positive breast cancer with HER2/neu overexpression].  

PubMed

Newer forms ofadjuvant chemotherapy can considerably improve the prognosis for breast cancer. The benefits that can be achieved are particularly high for young women (< 50 years) with an unfavourable risk profile (tumour-positive axilliary nodes). The recent application of taxans and trastuzumab has sharply increased the costs of an adjuvant treatment for high-risk mammary breast carcinoma. The cost increase can especially be attributed to trastuzumab. The additional costs of cytostatics (10,079 Euro per life-year gained) appear to be justified if the following is taken into account: women under the age of 50 years still have a life expectancy of approximately 33 years, many have socially relevant positions, and that cure also prevents such things as absence through illness and inability to work as well as expensive palliative care. The pharmaceutical industry spends approximately the same amount on research and innovation as it does on advertising. By reducing marketing costs, there will be more room to lessen the costs of new and socially relevant medications. Ultimately, the pressing question remains on why the Dutch government does not fully compensate hospitals in the Netherlands for the introduction of new, potentially life-saving medications. At present, a substantial percentage of the costs has to be paid by the hospitals themselves out of the regular hospital budget, which is not meant for this. This is happening at the expense of other care to an increasing extent. PMID:16649394

Vos, E J; Linn, S C; Rodenhuis, S

2006-04-01

227

GPER mediates estrogen-induced signaling and proliferation in human breast epithelial cells and normal and malignant breast.  

PubMed

17?-Estradiol (estrogen), through receptor binding and activation, is required for mammary gland development. Estrogen stimulates epithelial proliferation in the mammary gland, promoting ductal elongation and morphogenesis. In addition to a developmental role, estrogen promotes proliferation in tumorigenic settings, particularly breast cancer. The proliferative effects of estrogen in the normal breast and breast tumors are attributed to estrogen receptor ?. Although in vitro studies have demonstrated that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, previously called GPR30) can modulate proliferation in breast cancer cells both positively and negatively depending on cellular context, its role in proliferation in the intact normal or malignant breast remains unclear. Estrogen-induced GPER-dependent proliferation was assessed in the immortalized nontumorigenic human breast epithelial cell line, MCF10A, and an ex vivo organ culture model employing human breast tissue from reduction mammoplasty or tumor resections. Stimulation by estrogen and the GPER-selective agonist G-1 increased the mitotic index in MCF10A cells and proportion of cells in the cell cycle in human breast and breast cancer explants, suggesting increased proliferation. Inhibition of candidate signaling pathways that may link GPER activation to proliferation revealed a dependence on Src, epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation by heparin-bound EGF and subsequent ERK phosphorylation. Proliferation was not dependent on matrix metalloproteinase cleavage of membrane-bound pro-HB-EGF. The contribution of GPER to estrogen-induced proliferation in MCF10A cells and breast tissue was confirmed by the ability of GPER-selective antagonist G36 to abrogate estrogen- and G-1-induced proliferation, and the ability of siRNA knockdown of GPER to reduce estrogen- and G-1-induced proliferation in MCF10A cells. This is the first study to demonstrate GPER-dependent proliferation in primary normal and malignant human tissue, revealing a role for GPER in estrogen-induced breast physiology and pathology. PMID:24718936

Scaling, Allison L; Prossnitz, Eric R; Hathaway, Helen J

2014-06-01

228

Recommendations for Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Testing in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose To update the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing in breast cancer to improve the accuracy of HER2 testing and its utility as a predictive marker in invasive breast cancer. Methods ASCO/CAP convened an Update Committee that included coauthors of the 2007 guideline to conduct a systematic literature review and update recommendations for optimal HER2 testing. Results The Update Committee identified criteria and areas requiring clarification to improve the accuracy of HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or in situ hybridization (ISH). The guideline was reviewed and approved by both organizations. Recommendations The Update Committee recommends that HER2 status (HER2 negative or positive) be determined in all patients with invasive (early stage or recurrence) breast cancer on the basis of one or more HER2 test results (negative, equivocal, or positive). Testing criteria define HER2-positive status when (on observing within an area of tumor that amounts to >10% of contiguous and homogeneous tumor cells) there is evidence of protein overexpression (IHC) or gene amplification (HER2 copy number or HER2/CEP17 ratio by ISH based on counting at least 20 cells within the area). If results are equivocal (revised criteria), reflex testing should be performed using an alternative assay (IHC or ISH). Repeat testing should be considered if results seem discordant with other histopathologic findings. Laboratories should demonstrate high concordance with a validated HER2 test on a sufficiently large and representative set of specimens. Testing must be performed in a laboratory accredited by CAP or another accrediting entity. The Update Committee urges providers and health systems to cooperate to ensure the highest quality testing. PMID:24099077

Wolff, Antonio C.; Hammond, M. Elizabeth H.; Hicks, David G.; Dowsett, Mitch; McShane, Lisa M.; Allison, Kimberly H.; Allred, Donald C.; Bartlett, John M.S.; Bilous, Michael; Fitzgibbons, Patrick; Hanna, Wedad; Jenkins, Robert B.; Mangu, Pamela B.; Paik, Soonmyung; Perez, Edith A.; Press, Michael F.; Spears, Patricia A.; Vance, Gail H.; Viale, Giuseppe; Hayes, Daniel F.

2014-01-01

229

Augmented Release of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 by PKC Activation in Organotypic Cultures of Human Breast Cancer and Adjacent Normal Breast Tissue and Fibroadenoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organotypic culture technique and quantitative gelatin zymography were used to determine the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 in human breast cancer and adjacent normal breast tissue and fibroadenoma. MMP-9 and MMP2 were constitutively expressed in all cultures. The release of these two enzymes in breast cancer was higher than that in adjacent normal breast tissue and fibroadenoma.

Trang-Tiau Wu; Jen-Hsiang Tsai; Ju-Hsin Tsai; Shou-Jen Kuo; Shi-Yau Yu; Chih-Yang Huang; Hai-Yung Hsieh; Yih-Shou Hsieh; Jer-Yuh Liu

230

HER2-overexpressing breast cancer: FDG uptake after two cycles of chemotherapy predicts the outcome of neoadjuvant treatment  

PubMed Central

Background: Pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant treatment (NAT) is associated with improved survival of patients with HER2+ breast cancer. We investigated the ability of interim positron emission tomography (PET) regarding early prediction of pathology outcomes. Methods: During 61 months, consecutive patients with locally advanced or large HER2+ breast cancer patients without distant metastases were included. All patients received NAT with four cycles of epirubicin+cyclophosphamide, followed by four cycles of docetaxel+trastuzumab. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)-PET/computed tomography (CT) was performed at baseline (PET1) and after two cycles of chemotherapy (PET2). Maximum standardised uptake values were measured in the primary tumour as well as in the axillary lymph nodes. The correlation between pathologic response and SUV parameters (SUVmax at PET1, PET2 and ?SUVmax) was examined with the t-test. The predictive performance regarding the identification of non-responders was evaluated using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Results: Thirty women were prospectively included and 60 PET/CT examination performed. At baseline, 22 patients had PET+ axilla and in nine of them 18F-FDG uptake was higher than in the primary tumour. At surgery, 14 patients (47%) showed residual tumour (non-pCR), whereas 16 (53%) reached pCR. Best prediction was obtained when considering the absolute residual SUVmax value at PET2 (AUC=0.91) vs 0.67 for SUVmax at PET1 and 0.86 for ?SUVmax. The risk of non-pCR was 92.3% in patients with any site of residual uptake >3 at PET2, no matter whether in breast or axilla, vs 11.8% in patients with uptake ?3 (P=0.0001). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and overall accuracy of this cutoff were, respectively: 85.7%, 93.8%, 92.3%, 88.2% and 90%. Conclusion: The level of residual 18F-FDG uptake after two cycles of chemotherapy predicts residual disease at completion of NAT with chemotherapy+trastuzumab with high accuracy. Because many innovative therapeutic strategies are now available (e.g., addition of a second HER2-directed therapy or an antiangiogenic), early prediction of poor response is critical. PMID:23942075

Groheux, D; Giacchetti, S; Hatt, M; Marty, M; Vercellino, L; de Roquancourt, A; Cuvier, C; Coussy, F; Espie, M; Hindie, E

2013-01-01

231

FT-Raman spectroscopy study of human breast tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical spectroscopy has been extensively studied as a potential in vivo diagnostic tool to provide information about the chemical and morphologic structure of tissue. Raman Spectroscpy is an inelastic scattering process that can provide a wealth of spectral features that can be related to the specific molecular structure of the sample. This article reports results of an in vitro study of the FT-Raman human breast tissue spectra. An Nd:YAG laser at 1064nm was used as the excitation source in the FT-Raman Spectrometer. The neoplastic human breast samples, both Fibroadenoma and ICD, were obtained during therapeutical routine medical procedures required by the primary disease, and the non-diseased human tissue was obtained in plastic surgery. No sample preparation was needed for the FT-Raman spectra collection. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded from normal, benign (Fibroadenomas) and malignant (IDC-Intraductal Carcinoma) samples, adding up 51 different areas. The main spectral differences of a typical FT-Raman spectra of a Normal (Non-diseased), Fibroadenoma, and Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) breast tissue at the interval of 600 to 1800cm-1, which may differentiate diagnostically the sample, were found in the bands of 1230 to 1295cm-1, 1440 to 1460 cm-1 and 1650 to 1680 cm-1, assigned to the vibrational bands of the carbohydrate-amide III, proteins and lipids, and carbohydrate-amide I, respectively.

Bitar Carter, Renata A.; Martin, Airton A.; Netto, Mario M.; Soares, Fernando A.

2004-07-01

232

PHOSPHOLIPASE D (PLD) DRIVES CELL INVASION, TUMOR GROWTH AND METASTASIS IN A HUMAN BREAST CANCER XENOGRAPH MODEL  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in human females in the world. One protein that has elevated enzymatic lipase activity in breast cancers in vitro is phospholipase D (PLD), which is also involved in cell migration. We demonstrate that the PLD2 isoform, which was analyzed directly in the tumors, is crucial for cell invasion that contributes critically to the growth and development of breast tumors and lung metastases in vivo. We used three complementary strategies in a SCID mouse model and also addressed the underlying molecular mechanism. First, the PLD2 gene was silenced in highly metastatic, aggressive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) with lentivirus-based shRNA, which were xenotransplanted in SCID mice. The resulting mouse primary mammary tumors were reduced in size (65%, p<0.05) and their onset delayed when compared to control tumors. Second, we stably overexpressed PLD2 in low-invasive breast cancer cells (MCF-7) with a biscistronic MIEG retroviral vector and observed that these cells were converted into a highly aggressive phenotype, as primary tumors that formed following xenotransplantation were larger, grew faster and developed lung metastases more readily. Third, we implanted osmotic pumps into SCID xenotransplanted mice that delivered two different small-molecule inhibitors of PLD activity (FIPI and NOPT). These inhibitors led to significant (>70%, p<0.05) inhibition of primary tumor growth, metastatic axillary tumors and lung metastases. In order to define the underlying mechanism, we determined that the machinery of PLD-induced cell invasion is mediated by phosphatidic acid (PA), WASp, Grb2 and Rac2 signaling events that ultimately affect actin polymerization and cell invasion. In summary, this study shows that PLD has a central role in the development, metastasis and level of aggressiveness of breast cancer, raising the possibility that PLD2 could be used as a new therapeutic target. PMID:23752189

Henkels, Karen M.; Boivin, Gregory P.; Dudley, Emily S.; Berberich, Steven J.; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

2014-01-01

233

Human Breast Milk and Xenoestrogen Exposure: A Possible Impact on Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human milk is the best natural and optimal food for neonates with several immunologic, developmental and practical advantages throughout childhood. Although the World Health Organization strongly supports breastfeeding, it recognizes the potential health risks posed by the presence of environmental toxicants in breast milk. Contamination of human milk is widespread and due to decades of inadequately controlled pollution by toxicants,

Francesco Massart; Joshua Chuck Harrell; Giovanni Federico; Giuseppe Saggese

2005-01-01

234

Analyzing the regulation of metabolic pathways in human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Tumor therapy mainly attacks the metabolism to interfere the tumor's anabolism and signaling of proliferative second messengers. However, the metabolic demands of different cancers are very heterogeneous and depend on their origin of tissue, age, gender and other clinical parameters. We investigated tumor specific regulation in the metabolism of breast cancer. Methods For this, we mapped gene expression data from microarrays onto the corresponding enzymes and their metabolic reaction network. We used Haar Wavelet transforms on optimally arranged grid representations of metabolic pathways as a pattern recognition method to detect orchestrated regulation of neighboring enzymes in the network. Significant combined expression patterns were used to select metabolic pathways showing shifted regulation of the aggressive tumors. Results Besides up-regulation for energy production and nucleotide anabolism, we found an interesting cellular switch in the interplay of biosynthesis of steroids and bile acids. The biosynthesis of steroids was up-regulated for estrogen synthesis which is needed for proliferative signaling in breast cancer. In turn, the decomposition of steroid precursors was blocked by down-regulation of the bile acid pathway. Conclusion We applied an intelligent pattern recognition method for analyzing the regulation of metabolism and elucidated substantial regulation of human breast cancer at the interplay of cholesterol biosynthesis and bile acid metabolism pointing to specific breast cancer treatment. PMID:20831783

2010-01-01

235

Peroxiredoxin 6 overexpression attenuates cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells.  

PubMed

We examined the involvement of peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx 6) in providing chemoprotection against cisplatin cytotoxicity in SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells. Treatment of SKOV-3 cells with cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity that was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis mediated by proteolytically activated caspase 3 and 9. Overexpression of Prdx 6 protein or exposure to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reversed the apoptotic effect of cisplatin by reducing ROS levels and suppressing the caspase signaling pathway. These results indicate that targeting Prdx 6 may sensitize cancer cells to ROS-producing therapeutic treatments, such as anticancer drugs and radiation. PMID:21166495

Pak, Jhang Ho; Choi, Won Ho; Lee, Hye Mi; Joo, Won-Duk; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Kim, Young-Tak; Kim, Yong-Man; Nam, Joo-Hyun

2011-01-01

236

Overexpression of ERBB2 in human mammary epithelial cells signals inhibition of transcription of the E-cadherin gene.  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of the ERBB2 receptor in transfectants of a human mammary epithelial cell line (MTSV1-7) is associated with a reduced ability to undergo morphogenesis in vitro and with a decreased level of expression of the E-cadherin and alpha 2 integrin genes. The inhibition of expression of the adhesion molecules has been shown to be at the level of transcription by using nuclear run-on assays and by following transcription of a reporter gene fused to 5' sequences of the E-cadherin gene. To relate the effects on gene transcription to a functional ERBB2 protein, signaling from the receptor was inhibited by the antibody 4D5, which blocks phosphorylation of ERBB2 on tyrosine residues and association of the protein with the GRB2/Sem5 protein. After treatment with the antibody 4D5, the ERBB2 transfectants regain the ability to form three-dimensional structures in collagen gels and the rates of transcription of the genes encoding the E-cadherin and the alpha 2 integrin subunit are restored to the levels seen in MTSV1-7neo cells. These results demonstrate that the inhibition of morphogenesis and transcription of specific adhesion molecules in human mammary epithelial cells can be affected by signals generated by the ERBB2 receptor and suggest a role for ERBB2 overexpression in tumor progression and metastasis. Images PMID:7913748

D'souza, B; Taylor-Papadimitriou, J

1994-01-01

237

Influence of age and parity on the development of the human breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is heavily influenced by the reproductive history of the individual. Pregnancy has a protective effect which is attributed to differences in the degree of differentiation of the breast. The purpose of this work was to determine whether the quantity and the type of parenchymal structures present in the human breast were related to the age and parity history

J. Russo; R. Rivera; I. H. Russo

1992-01-01

238

Variations in amplification and expression of the ornithine decarboxylase gene in human breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polyamine biosynthetic pathway plays a critical role in the growth of human breast cancer cells. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. To understand the regulation of ODC activity and polyamine accumulation in breast cancer cells, we studied amplification and expression of the ODC gene in four breast cancer cell lines. ODC gene dosage was analyzed

Thresia Thomas; David T. Kiang; Olli A. Jfinne; T. J. Thomas

1991-01-01

239

Cell Type and Culture ConditionDependent Alternative Splicing in Human Breast Cancer Cells Revealed by  

E-print Network

lead to predisposition to breast cancer and ovarian cancer (2, 3). A G-to-T transversion mutation of breast and ovarian cancer within a family (4). This mutation leads to the skipping of exon 18 in the BRCACell Type and Culture Condition­Dependent Alternative Splicing in Human Breast Cancer Cells

Ares Jr., Manny

240

Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in mononuclear inflammatory cells in breast cancer correlates with metastasis-relapse  

PubMed Central

An immunohistochemical study was performed using tissue microarrays and specific antibodies against matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2, -7, -9, -11, -13 and –14, tissular inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, -2 and -3. More than 2600 determinations on cancer specimens from 131 patients with primary ductal invasive tumours of the breast were performed. To identify specific groups of tumours with distinct expression profiles the data were analysed by unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis by each cellular type. We did not find well-defined cluster of cases for tumour cells or fibroblastic cells. However, for mononuclear inflammatory cells the dendogram shows a first-order division of the tumours into two distinct MMP/TIMP molecular profiles, designated group 1 (n=89) and group 2 (n=42). Matrix metalloproteinase-7, -9, -11, -13 and -14, and TIMP-1 and -2, were identified as showing significant high expression in group 2 compared with group 1. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that clustering for mononuclear inflammatory cells was the most potent independent factor associated with distant relapse-free survival (group 2: 5.6 (3.5–9.6), P<0.001). We identify a phenotype of mononuclear inflammatory cells infiltrating tumours, which is associated with the development of distant metastasis. Therefore, this finding suggests that these host inflammatory cells could be a possible target for inhibition of metastasis. PMID:17848954

Gonzalez, L O; Pidal, I; Junquera, S; Corte, M D; Vazquez, J; Rodriguez, J C; Lamelas, M L; Merino, A M; Garcia-Muniz, J L; Vizoso, F J

2007-01-01

241

A comparative study of canine and human breast cancer.  

PubMed

The incidence of mammary tumours in the bitch is probably three times as great as in women. While many of these tumours are mixed mammary tumours about one-third are carcinomas which resemble human breast carcinomas. Allowing for differences in life span, the age at onset is similar in both species. The World Health Organization classification of tumours and dysplasias of the canine mammary gland follows as far as possible the WHO classification for human breast tumours. Clinical staging of canine mammary tumours has now been completed. Some prognostic factors are similar in both species but regional lymph node metastasis does not seem to be of major importance in the bitch; mitotic activity may also not be as important as in women. Metastatic spread is broadly similar in both species except that involvement of the liver and skeleton is not as common in the bitch as in women. In older normal Beagles hyperplastic and neoplastic nodules commonly appear in the mammary gland, and they occur earlier in animals receiving large doses of progestogens. This has produced problems for the drug industry when conducting long-term carcinogenicity tests on progestogens present in the human contraceptive pill. Despite considerable endocrinological differences between the two species, oophorectomy is sparing for breast cancer in both. As in women, oestrogen and progesterone receptors have been detected in mammary carcinomas in bitches. Canine tumours can be grown in tissue culture but cloned cell lines have not yet been obtained. Transplantation can be made into nude mice and immunosuppressed neonatal dogs. The prognosis following mastectomy for invasive tubular adenocarcinoma and invasive solid carcinoma in the bitch is poor and these histological types make the best models for breast cancer in women. International trials are planned using chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy following mastectomy and, as results can be obtained within 3 years of commencement, it is expected that canine mammary tumours will play an increasingly important role in research which may lead to improved methods of treatment in human breast cancer. PMID:396282

Owen, L N

1979-01-01

242

Quantification of prostate-specific antigen immunoreactivity in human breast cyst fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The frequency of gross cystic breast disease in premenopausal women and its possible association with in-creased breast cancer risk emphasises the importance of investigations relating to breast cyst fluid composition. In order to contribute to a better analysis of this medium, we have measured the presence of prostate-specific antigen immuno-reactivity in sixty-four human breast cyst fluids. Data analyses show

Ferdinando Mannello; GianDomenico Bocchiotti; Giuseppe Bianchi; Francesco Marcheggiani; Giancarlo Gazzanelli

1996-01-01

243

Role of human neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) overexpression in neoplastic colon polyps  

PubMed Central

To explore the role of Human neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) overexpression in neoplastic polyps and might used as a marker to separate those from non-noeplastic polyps. The study was performed on total 65 cases, 40% (n = 26) of them females and 60% (n = 39) of them males, in Haydarpasa Numune Education and Research Hospital between March 2012 and June 2012. The assessment of immunostained sections was performed by a random principle by one experinced pathologists to the clinico-pathological data. NGAL expression was based on the presence of cytoplasmic and membranous staining. The NGAL intensities of the cases show highly statistically significantly difference according to the pathological results (p < 0.01). The NGAL prevalences of the cases show highly statistically significantly difference according to the pathological results (p < 0.01). The NGAL ID scores of the cases show highly statistically significantly difference according to the pathological results (p < 0.01). We could hypothesize that NGAL and MMP-9 overexpression in neoplastic polyps might be used as a marker to separate those from non-noeplastic polyps. However, in this study, we determined that NGAL overexpression could not distinguish dysplasia from adenocancer. Finally, we suggest NGAL and MMP-9 as an immunohistochemical marker for colonic dysplasia. To determine dysplasia in early steps of colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence, it could help to determine new targets in preventive cancer therapy for colorectal cancer. We suggest development of standards for study method, introduction to routine practice by investigating in future studies including many patients.

Odabasi, Mehmet; Yesil, Atakan; Ozkara, Selvinaz; Paker, Nurcan; Ozkan, Sevil; Eris, Cengiz; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Abuoglu, Hac? Hasan; Gunay, Emre; Tekesin, Kemal

2014-01-01

244

Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries.  

PubMed

In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk. PMID:16949712

Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kunisue, Tatsuya

2007-03-01

245

Gene expression profiles of human breast cancer progression  

PubMed Central

Although distinct pathological stages of breast cancer have been described, the molecular differences among these stages are largely unknown. Here, through the combined use of laser capture microdissection and DNA microarrays, we have generated in situ gene expression profiles of the premalignant, preinvasive, and invasive stages of human breast cancer. Our data reveal extensive similarities at the transcriptome level among the distinct stages of progression and suggest that gene expression alterations conferring the potential for invasive growth are already present in the preinvasive stages. In contrast to tumor stage, different tumor grades are associated with distinct gene expression signatures. Furthermore, a subset of genes associated with high tumor grade is quantitatively correlated with the transition from preinvasive to invasive growth. PMID:12714683

Ma, Xiao-Jun; Salunga, Ranelle; Tuggle, J. Todd; Gaudet, Justin; Enright, Edward; McQuary, Philip; Payette, Terry; Pistone, Maria; Stecker, Kimberly; Zhang, Brian M.; Zhou, Yi-Xiong; Varnholt, Heike; Smith, Barbara; Gadd, Michelle; Chatfield, Erica; Kessler, Jessica; Baer, Thomas M.; Erlander, Mark G.; Sgroi, Dennis C.

2003-01-01

246

Overexpression of miR-146a in basal-like breast cancer cells confers enhanced tumorigenic potential in association with altered p53 status.  

PubMed

The tumor suppressor p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers, mutated in 25-30% of breast cancers. However, mutation rates differ according to breast cancer subtype, being more prevalent in aggressive estrogen receptor-negative tumors and basal-like and HER2-amplified subtypes. This heterogeneity suggests that p53 may function differently across breast cancer subtypes. We used RNAi-mediated p53 knockdown (KD) and antagomir-mediated KD of microRNAs to study how gene expression and cellular response to p53 loss differ in luminal versus basal-like breast cancer. As expected, p53 loss caused downregulation of established p53 targets (e.g. p21 and miR-34 family) and increased proliferation in both luminal and basal-like cell lines. However, some p53-dependent changes were subtype specific, including expression of miR-134, miR-146a and miR-181b. To study the cellular response to miR-146a upregulation in p53-impaired basal-like lines, antagomir KD of miR-146a was performed. KD of miR-146a caused decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis, effectively ablating the effects of p53 loss. Furthermore, we found that miR-146a upregulation decreased NF-?B expression and downregulated the NF-?B-dependent extrinsic apoptotic pathway (including tumor necrosis factor, FADD and TRADD) and antagomir-mediated miR-146a KD restored expression of these components, suggesting a plausible mechanism for miR-146a-dependent cellular responses. These findings are relevant to human basal-like tumor progression in vivo, since miR-146a is highly expressed in p53 mutant basal-like breast cancers. These findings suggest that targeting miR-146a expression may have value for altering the aggressiveness of p53 mutant basal-like tumors. PMID:25123132

Sandhu, Rupninder; Rein, Jessica; D'Arcy, Monica; Herschkowitz, Jason I; Hoadley, Katherine A; Troester, Melissa A

2014-11-01

247

Polymeric micelles as a diagnostic tool for image-guided drug delivery and radiotherapy of HER2 overexpressing breast cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Block copolymer micelles have emerged as a viable formulation strategy with several drugs relying on this technology in clinical evaluation. To date, information on the tumor penetration and intratumoral distribution of block copolymer micelles (BCM) has been quite limited. Thus, there is impetus to develop a radiolabeled formulation that can be used to gain invaluable insight into the intratumoral distribution of the BCMs. This information could then be used to direct formulation strategies as a means to optimize treatment outcomes. This thesis describes the synthesis and characterization of a targeted block copolymer micelle system based on poly(ethylene glycol)-block -poly(epsilon-caprolactone) labeled with the radionuclide Indium-111 (111In). The incorporation of the imageable component, 111In permits pursuit of image-guided drug delivery for real-time monitoring of tumor localization and intratumoral distribution. Intracellular trafficking of drugs and therapies such as Auger electron emitting radionuclides to perinuclear and nuclear regions of cells is critical to realizing their full therapeutic potential. HER2 specific antibodies (trastuzumab fab fragments) and nuclear localization signal peptides were conjugated to the surface of the BCMs to direct uptake in HER2 expressing cells and subsequent localization in the cell nucleus. Cell uptake was HER2 density dependent, confirming receptor-mediated internalization of the BCMs. Importantly, conjugation of NLS resulted in a significant increase in nuclear uptake of the radionuclide 111In. Successful nuclear targeting was shown to improve the antiproliferative effect of the Auger electrons. In addition, a significant radiation enhancement effect was observed by concurrent delivery of low-dose MTX and 111In in all breast cancer cell lines evaluated. Imaging enabled the accurate quantification of the specific tumor uptake of the micelles and visualization of their degree of tumor penetration in relation to microvessel density. Ultimately, the 111In-micelles could be used for such diverse applications as detection of malignancies, molecular characterization of tumors, improved therapy guidance and targeted anti-cancer treatment.

Hoang, Nu Bryan

248

Evaluation of gene delivery strategies to efficiently overexpress functional HLA-G on human bone marrow stromal cells  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) constitutively express low levels of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G), which has been shown to contribute to their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we hypothesized that overexpression of HLA-G on bone marrow-derived MSC would improve their immunomodulatory function, thus increasing their therapeutic potential. Therefore, we investigated which gene transfer system is best suited for delivering this molecule while maintaining its immuno-modulatory effects. We performed a side-by-side comparison between three nonviral plasmid-based platforms (pmax-HLA-G1; MC-HLA-G1; pEP-HLA-G1) and a viral system (Lv-HLA-G1) using gene transfer parameters that yielded similar levels of HLA-G1-expressing MSC. Natural killer (NK) cell-mediated lysis assays and T cell proliferation assays showed that MSC modified with the HLA-G1 expressing viral vector had significantly lower susceptibility to NK-lysis and significantly reduced T cell proliferation when compared to nonmodified cells or MSC modified with plasmid. We also show that, in plasmid-modified MSC, an increase in Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 expression is the mechanism responsible for the abrogation of HLA-G1’s immunomodulatory effect. Although MSC can be efficiently modified to overexpress HLA-G1 using viral and nonviral strategies, only viral-based delivery of HLA-G1 is suitable for improvement of MSC’s immunomodulatory properties. PMID:25279386

Boura, Joana S; Vance, Melisa; Yin, Weihong; Madeira, Catarina; Lobato da Silva, Claudia; Porada, Christopher D; Almeida-Porada, Graca

2014-01-01

249

DNA aptamers that target human glioblastoma multiforme cells overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor variant III in vitro  

PubMed Central

Aim: Aptamers are oligonucleic acid or peptide molecules that bind to a specific target molecule in cells, thus may act as effective vehicles for drug or siRNA delivery. In this study we investigated the DNA aptamers that target human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII), which was linked to radiation and chemotherapeutic resistance of this most aggressive brain tumor. Methods: A 73-mer ssDNA library containing molecules with 30 nt of random sequence flanked by two primer hybridization sites was chosen as the initial library. Cell systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (Cell-SELEX) method was used to select the DNA aptamers that target EGFRvIII. The binding affinity of the aptamers was measured using a cell-based biotin-avidin ELISA. Results: After 14 rounds of selection, four DNA aptamers (32, 41, 43, and 47) that specifically bound to the EGFRvIII-overexpressing human glioma U87? cells with Kd values of less than 100 nmol/L were discovered. These aptamers were able to distinguish the U87? cells from the negative control human glioma U87MG cells and HEK293 cells. Aptamer 32 specifically bound to the EGFRvIII protein with an affinity similar to the EGFR antibody (Kd values of aptamer 32 and the EGFR antibody were 0.62±0.04 and 0.32±0.01 nmol/L, respectively), and this aptamer was localized in the cell nucleus. Conclusion: The DNA aptamers are promising molecular probes for the diagnosis and treatment of GBM. PMID:24304919

Tan, Yan; Shi, Yu-sheng; Wu, Xi-dong; Liang, Hui-yu; Gao, Yu-bo; Li, Shu-ji; Zhang, Xing-mei; Wang, Fang; Gao, Tian-ming

2013-01-01

250

Suppression of Parkin enhances nigrostriatal and motor neuron lesion in mice over-expressing human-mutated tau protein.  

PubMed

Abnormal deposition of protein tau takes place in the brain of patients with several neurodegenerative diseases. Few of these patients present frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism and amyotrophy (FTDPA-17), an autosomal dominant tauopathy related to mutations of the gene that codes for protein tau, localized in chromosome 17. The great majority of patients with tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease, sporadic frontotemporal dementia or progressive supranuclear palsy do not show a Mendelian pattern of inheritance. We have occasionally seen tauopathies in patients with parkin mutations and, therefore, hypothesized that the protein tau interacts with parkin. We have tested that hypothesis in mice with combined genetic modifications of tau (over-expression of human tau with three mutations known to produce FTDPA-17) and parkin (deleted) proteins. Homozygote parkin null or over-expressing mutated-human tau mice have subtle behavioral and molecular abnormalities but do not express a clinical phenotype of neurodegenerative disease. Mice with combined homozygous mutations of these two genes show progressively abnormal walking already noticeable at 3 months of age, loss of dopamine and dopamine markers in striatum, nuclear tau immunoreactive deposits in motor neurons of the spinal cord, abnormal expression of glial markers and enhanced levels of pro-apoptotic proteins; findings that were absent or less pronounced in homozygote animals with deletions of parkin or over-expression of tau. The double transgenic mice do not express normal mechanisms of adaptation to stress such as increased levels of GSH and Hsp-70. In addition, they have reduced levels of CHIP-Hsc70, a complex known to attenuate aggregation of tau and to enhance ubiquitination of phosphorylated tau. We have found high levels of phosphorylated tau in parkin-/-+tau(VLW) mice and a relative decrease of the inactivated pSer9 to total GSK-3 levels. Our data reveal that there are interactions between tau and parkin that could be relevant for the pathogenesis and treatment of tauopathies. Similarly, we hope that the double transgenic parkin-/-+tau(VLW) mice could be useful for testing of compounds with putative therapeutic value in human tauopathies. PMID:16698879

Menéndez, J; Rodríguez-Navarro, J A; Solano, R M; Casarejos, M J; Rodal, I; Guerrero, R; Sánchez, M P; Avila, J; Mena, M A; de Yébenes, J G

2006-07-01

251

Marker evaluation of human breast and bladder cancers  

SciTech Connect

We are investigating multiple markers in human breast and bladder cancers. Our aim is to identify markers that are clinically relevant and that contribute to our understanding of the disease process in individual patients. Good markers accurately assess the malignant potential of a cancer in an individual patient. Thus, they help identify those cancers that will recur, and they may be used to predict more accurately time to recurrence, response to treatment, and overall prognosis. Therapy and patient management may then be optimized to the individual patient. Relevant markers reflect the underlying pathobiology of individual tumors. As a tissue undergoes transformation from benign to malignant, the cells lose their differentiated phenotype. As a generalization, the more the cellular phenotype, cellular proliferation and cellular genotype depart from normal, the more advanced is the tumor in its biological evolution and the more likely it is that the patient has a poor prognosis. We use three studies to illustrate our investigation of potential tumor markers. Breast cancers are labeled in vivo with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) to give a direct measure of the tumor labeling index. Bladder cancers are analyzed immunocytochemically using an antibody against proliferation. Finally, the techniques of molecular genetics are used to detect allelic loss in breast cancers. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Mayall, B.H.; Carroll, P.R.; Chen, Ling-Chun; Cohen, M.B.; Goodson, W.H. III; Smith, H.S.; Waldman, F.M. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (USA))

1990-11-02

252

Methylation?associated inactivation of LATS1 and its effect on demethylation or overexpression on YAP and cell biological function in human renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Large tumor suppressor 1 (LATS1) gene is one of the key factors in Hippo signaling pathway. Inactivation of LATS1 by promoter methylation was found in colorectal cancer (CRC), head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), astrocytoma, breast cancer and it was proved to be a tumor suppressor. However, its role is unclear in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this study, the expression of LATS1 was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT?PCR) and immunohistochemistry in 30 pairs of RCC tissues and matched normal kidney tissues and RCC cells. We found that the expression of LATS1 was markedly reduced in RCC tissues and cells, in the RCC tissue in 46.7% (14/30), while in the normal kidney tissues in 76.7% (23/30), and was associated with pathological grade and clinical stage of RCC. We detected methylation status of LATS1 by bisulfite sequence?PCR (BSP) in renal cancer cell line 786?O which lowers expression of LATS1, and we found it hypermethy-lated (in 97.5%). In addition, pharmacological demethylation using 5?Aza?2'?deoxycytidine (5?Aza) restored the expression of LATS1 mRNA and protein in 786?O cells, both LATS1 demethylation and overexpression of LATS1 downregulated the expression of Yes?associated protein (YAP), inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle G1 arrest in 786?O cells. Thus, this report for the first time demonstrates the inactivation of LATS1 by promoter methy-lation and it is a tumor suppressor in kidney cancer. LATS1 may serve as a biomarker for possible early diagnosis and as a potential therapeutic target for human RCC. PMID:25270913

Chen, Ke-Hong; He, Jiang; Wang, De-Lin; Cao, Jian-Jia; Li, Mei-Cai; Zhao, Xiu-Min; Sheng, Xia; Li, Wen-Bin; Liu, Wu-Jiang

2014-12-01

253

Progression and treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Approximately 20–30% of breast cancer tumors overexpress or amplify human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The role\\u000a of this receptor in the progression of HER2+ breast cancer and resistance to certain anticancer monotherapies was investigated.\\u000a The results of several pre-clinical and clinical trials, with the aim of determining the most safe and effective course of\\u000a treatment for HER2+ breast

April Davoli; Barbara A. Hocevar; Thomas L. Brown

2010-01-01

254

A mouse embryonic stem cell bank for inducible overexpression of human chromosome 21 genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Dosage imbalance is responsible for several genetic diseases, among which Down syndrome is caused by the trisomy of human\\u000a chromosome 21.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  To elucidate the extent to which the dosage imbalance of specific human chromosome 21 genes perturb distinct molecular pathways,\\u000a we developed the first mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell bank of human chromosome 21 genes. The human chromosome 21-mouse ES

Rossella De Cegli; Antonio Romito; Simona Iacobacci; Lei Mao; Mario Lauria; Anthony O Fedele; Joachim Klose; Christelle Borel; Patrick Descombes; Stylianos E Antonarakis; Diego di Bernardo; Sandro Banfi; Andrea Ballabio; Gilda Cobellis

2010-01-01

255

The Relevance of Mouse Models to Understanding the Development and Progression of Human Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse modeling of human breast cancer has developed tremendously over the past ten years. Human breast cancer is characterized\\u000a by enormous biological diversity and, collectively, the new models have come much closer to encompassing this diversity. They\\u000a have provided a deeper understanding of the fundamental events that mediate the initiation, development, and progression of\\u000a breast cancer, and they offer new

D. Craig Allred; Daniel Medina

2008-01-01

256

Overexpressed miRNA-137 Inhibits Human Glioma Cells Growth by Targeting Rac1  

PubMed Central

Abstract Previous studies have shown that miR-137 functions as a tumor suppressor in various cancers, but its role in the initiation and development of gliomas is still unknown. Currently, we found that miR-137 exhibited the most significant increase in normal brain tissues compared with glioma specimens, and the miR-137 expression was greatly decreased with the ascending of tumor pathological grades. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-137 in vitro by chemically synthesized miR-137 mimics suppressed the proliferation, inhibited cell cycle arrest in the G1/G0 phase, and induced cell apoptosis. The tumor-suppressive effects of miR-137 were indeed induced by Rac1, which was verified as a direct target of miR-137. These findings indicate that miR-137 inhibits the growth of gliomas cells by directly targeting Rac1, suggesting that miR-137 could be a new important therapeutic strategy for glioma treatment and warrants further investigation. PMID:25310349

Sun, Guan; Cao, Ying; Shi, Lei; Sun, Lihua; Wang, Yingyi; Chen, Chen; Wan, Zhengqiang; Fu, Linshan

2013-01-01

257

Overexpression of lactate dehydrogenase-A in human intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: its implication for treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) is strongly expressed in several malignancies, that LDH-A expression is associated with poor prognosis, and that LDH-A inhibition severely diminishes tumorigenicity. However, little is known about the implications of LDH-A expression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of LDH-A and to clarify its effect on intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Methods We studied the expression of LDH-A in tissue samples from patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (n?=?54) using the ultrasensitive surfactant protein (S-P) immunohistochemical method. We then inhibited LDH-A using small hairpin RNA (shRNA) in the cholangiocarcinoma cell line HuCCT-1 in vitro to study the role it plays in promoting growth and escaping apoptosis. Results We report that LDH-A was overexpressed in 52 of 54 (96%) paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples and 0 of 54 para-carcinoma tissue samples. Reduction of LDH-A by RNA interference (RNAi) inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in HuCCT-1 cells. This result correlated with the elevation of cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Conclusions LDH-A expression is closely correlated with histopathological variables of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, indicating that LDH-A may serve as a new treatment target. PMID:24679073

2014-01-01

258

Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 Dependent Overexpression of Sulfiredoxin and Peroxiredoxin III in Human Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Oxidative stress results in protein oxidation and is implicated in carcinogenesis. Sulfiredoxin (Srx) is responsible for the enzymatic reversal of inactivated peroxiredoxin (Prx). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) binds to antioxidant responsive elements and upregulates the expression of Srx and Prx during oxidative stress. We aimed to elucidate the biological functions and potential roles of Srx in lung cancer. Methods To study the roles of Srx and Prx III in lung cancer, we compared the protein levels of Nrf2, Prxs, thioredoxin, and Srx in 40 surgically resected human lung cancer tissues using immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses. Transforming growth factor-?1, tumor necrosis factor-?, and camptothecin treatment were used to examine Prx III inactivation in Mv1Lu mink lung epithelial cells and A549 lung cancer cells. Results Prx I and Prx III proteins were markedly overexpressed in lung cancer tissues. A significant increase in the oxidized form of a cysteine sulfhydryl at the catalytic site of Prxs was found in carcinogenic lung tissue compared to normal lung tissue. Densitometric analyses of immunoblot data revealed significant Srx expression, which was higher in squamous cell carcinoma tissue (60%, 12/20) than in adenocarcinoma (20%, 4/20). Also, Nrf2 was present in the nuclear compartment of cancer cells. Conclusions Srx and Prx III proteins were markedly overexpressed in human squamous cell carcinoma, suggesting that these proteins may play a protective role against oxidative injury and compensate for the high rate of mitochondrial metabolism in lung cancer. PMID:22016591

Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Hye Lim; Lee, Ki Bum; Park, Joo Hun; Chung, Wou Young; Lee, Keu Sung; Sheen, Seung Soo; Park, Kwang Joo

2011-01-01

259

Methylation of CpG islands of p16(INK4a) and cyclinD1 overexpression associated with progression of intraductal proliferative lesions of the breast.  

PubMed

P16(INK4a) is a tumor suppressor gene frequently inactivated by aberrant promoter hypermethylation. In this study, p16(INK4a) methylation was evaluated in intraductal proliferative lesions of the breast, using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (MethyLight) and methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry was performed to compare and validate the methylation analysis. P16(INK4a) methylation associated with oncogene cyclinD1 expression, detected through the use of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, was likewise characterized. P16(INK4a) methylation displayed varying significance among different types of intraductal proliferative lesions. Both the positive rate and the median quantitative methylation value increased with the evolution of intraductal proliferative lesions through the use of quantitative and qualitative assays. P16(INK4a) methylation was positively correlated to cyclinD1 overexpression. This study demonstrated that p16(INK4a) methylation served as the silencing mechanism of p16(INK4a) protein expression and played a crucial role in the intraductal proliferative lesions' progression. In the differential diagnosis of intraductal proliferative lesions, quantitative DNA methylation analysis of p16(INK4a) by MethyLight may be used as a surrogate, especially to distinguish atypical ductal hyperplasia from usual ductal hyperplasia and low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ. Furthermore, this study discovered that flat epithelial atypia do not share similar molecular profiles of p16(INK4a) epigenetic modification with atypical ductal hyperplasia and low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ. PMID:18657295

Liu, Tieju; Niu, Yun; Feng, Yumei; Niu, Ruifang; Yu, Yong; Lv, Ajuan; Yang, Yi

2008-11-01

260

Broccoli and watercress suppress matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and invasiveness of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

A high dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with a reduction in numerous human pathologies particularly cancer. In the current study, we examined the inhibitory effects of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) and watercress (Rorripa nasturtium aquaticum) extracts on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced cancer cell invasion and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity using human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Aberrant overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases, including metalloproteinase-9, is associated with increased invasive potential in cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrate that extracts of broccoli and Rorripa suppressed TPA-induced MMP-9 activity and invasiveness in a concentration dependant manner as determined by zymographic analysis. Furthermore, fractionation of individual extracts followed by liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy analysis (LC-MS) revealed that the inhibitory effects of each vegetable were associated with the presence of 4-methysulfinylbutyl (sulforaphane) and 7-methylsulphinylheptyl isothiocyanates. Taken together, our data indicate that isothiocyanates derived form broccoli and Rorripa inhibit metalloproteinase 9 activities and also suppress the invasive potential of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro. The inhibitory effects observed in the current study may contribute to the suppression of carcinogenesis by diets high in cruciferous vegetables.

Rose, Peter [Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597 (Singapore)]. E-mail: bchpcr@nus.edu.sg; Huang, Qing [Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, National University of Singapore, 16 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Ong, Choon Nam [Department of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, National University of Singapore, 16 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Whiteman, Matt [Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, 8 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597 (Singapore)

2005-12-01

261

Distinctive Gene Expression Patterns in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells and Breast Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

cDNA microarrays and a clustering algorithm were used to identify patterns of gene expression in human mammary epithelial cells growing in culture and in primary human breast tumors. Clusters of coexpressed genes identified through manipulations of mammary epithelial cells in vitro also showed consistent patterns of variation in expression among breast tumor samples. By using immunohistochemistry with antibodies against proteins

Charles M. Perou; Stefanie S. Jeffrey; Matt van de Rijn; Christian A. Rees; Michael B. Eisen; Douglas T. Ross; Alexander Pergamenschikov; Cheryl F. Williams; Shirley X. Zhu; Jeffrey C. F. Lee; Deval Lashkari; Dari Shalon; Patrick O. Brown; David Botstein

1999-01-01

262

Human mammaglobin in breast cancer: a brief review of its clinical utility  

PubMed Central

Human mammaglobin is a member of the uteroglobin proteins family that has recently been tested as a specific marker for breast cancer. While low levels may be seen in normal breast tissue, expression is increased dramatically in breast cancer and is correlated with higher grade. Detection in blood and body fluids is also correlated with cancer metastasis, and its levels with prognosis. This promises to be a useful screen for early detection of breast cancer, especially in high risk individuals. Mammoglobin has also been used for immunotherapeutic targeting of breast cancer cells. However, there are some controversies regarding its diagnostic efficacy and prognostic value, which warrant further study. PMID:25027076

Al Joudi, Fawwaz Shakir

2014-01-01

263

PTEN activity could be a predictive marker of trastuzumab efficacy in the treatment of ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Trastuzumab is the only HER2/neu-directed therapy to have received Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer. The efficacy of trastuzumab depends on the HER2/neu status of the tumour and the patient's prior treatment, but even when patients are selected on the basis of HER2/neu gene amplification, the single-agent response rate ranges from 12 to 30% and few patients respond to trastuzumab monotherapy. Here, we propose PTEN as a predictive biomarker for trastuzumab efficacy. Human breast cancer SKBR3 and drug-resistant SKBR3/R cells were investigated. We also examined clinical samples from patients who had been treated with trastuzumab and analysed the relationship between trastuzumab efficacy and PTEN level. The PI3K/Akt signalling pathway was observed to be highly active in the drug-resistant cells, and their level of PTEN was low. Delivery of antisense PTEN duplex siRNA significantly decreased the trastuzumab chemosensitivity of parental SKBR3 cells, and marked activation of Akt signalling pathway was also recognised. Moreover, immunohistochemical investigation revealed that trastuzumab treatment was remarkably successful in cells with elevated PTEN expression. Along with the immune-system-associated cytotoxic mechanism, several mechanisms have been proposed for the effect of trastuzumab. PTEN activity might play an important and major role in its HER2/PI3K/Akt-mediated antitumour effect, and could be a useful biomarker for predicting the efficacy of trastuzumab in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:16404430

Fujita, T; Doihara, H; Kawasaki, K; Takabatake, D; Takahashi, H; Washio, K; Tsukuda, K; Ogasawara, Y; Shimizu, N

2006-01-01

264

Defective renal water handling in transgenic mice over-expressing human CD39/NTPDase1  

PubMed Central

Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 hydrolyzes extracellular ATP and ADP to AMP. Previously, we showed that CD39 is expressed at several sites within the kidney and thus may impact the availability of type 2 purinergic receptor (P2-R) ligands. Because P2-Rs appear to regulate urinary concentrating ability, we have evaluated renal water handling in transgenic mice (TG) globally overexpressing hCD39. Under basal conditions, TG mice exhibited significantly impaired urinary concentration and decreased protein abundance of AQP2 in the kidney compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Urinary excretion of total nitrates/nitrites was significantly higher in TG mice, but the excretion of AVP or PGE2 was equivalent to control WT mice. There were no significant differences in electrolyte-free water clearance or fractional excretion of sodium. Under stable hydrated conditions (gelled diet feeding), the differences between the WT and TG mice were negated, but the decrease in urine osmolality persisted. When water deprived, TG mice failed to adequately concentrate urine and exhibited impaired AVP responses. However, the increases in urinary osmolalities in response to subacute dDAVP or chronic AVP treatment were similar in TG and WT mice. These observations suggest that TG mice have impaired urinary concentrating ability despite normal AVP levels. We also note impaired AVP release in response to water deprivation but that TG kidneys are responsive to exogenous dDAVP or AVP. We infer that heightened nucleotide scavenging by increased levels of CD39 altered the release of endogenous AVP in response to dehydration. We propose that ectonucleotidases and modulated purinergic signaling impact urinary concentration and indicate potential utility of targeted therapy for the treatment of water balance disorders. PMID:22622462

Zhang, Yue; Morris, Kaiya L.; Sparrow, Shannon K.; Dwyer, Karen M.; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Robson, Simon C.

2012-01-01

265

Reduced Dose and Intermittent Treatment with Lapatinib and Trastuzumab for Potent Blockade of the HER Pathway in HER-2/neu Overexpressing Breast Tumor Xenografts  

PubMed Central

Purpose We have shown that incomplete blockade of the Human Epidermal Growth Factor (HER) pathway is a mechanism of resistance to treatment with trastuzumab (T) in HER2-overexpressing tumor xenografts. We now investigate whether the addition of lapatinib (L), a dual HER1/2 kinase inhibitor, to T results in more potent inhibition of the pathway and therefore inhibition of tumor growth, and whether reduced dose and intermittent treatment with the combination is equally effective. Experimental Design Nude mice bearing HER2-overexpressing MCF7/HER2-18 or BT474 xenograft tumors were treated with L, T, alone or in various combinations with other HER inhibitors. L+T for short duration (14, 42 days), intermittent administration (14 days on/off), and reduced dosing (1/2 dose) was also investigated. Inhibition of tumor growth, downstream signaling, proliferation, and induction of apoptosis were assessed. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results L+T was the most effective regimen in both MCF7/HER2-18 and BT474 xenografts with complete tumor regression (CR) observed in all mice. Intermittent and reduced dose treatment (½ dose) resulted in high rates of CR and low rates of tumor recurrence that were comparable to full dose continuous treatment. L+T resulted in significantly reduced downstream signaling and proliferation, and increased apoptosis. Conclusions L+T is a potent and effective combination even when given in reduced dose or intermittent schedule potentially resulting in lower toxicity and reduced cost if translated to patients. These findings warrant timely clinical testing. PMID:21138857

Rimawi, Mothaffar F.; Wiechmann, Lisa S.; Wang, Yen-Chao; Huang, Catherine; Migliaccio, Ilenia; Wu, Meng-Fen; Gutierrez, Carolina; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Arpino, Grazia; Massarweh, Suleiman; Ward, Robin; Soliz, Robert; Osborne, C. Kent; Schiff, Rachel

2010-01-01

266

Clinical evidences of GM3 (NeuGc) ganglioside expression in human breast cancer using the 14F7 monoclonal antibody labelled with (99m)Tc.  

PubMed

The relevance of certain gangliosides in tumour growth and metastatic dissemination has been well documented, reasons for considering these molecules as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy and diagnosis. GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside is particularly interesting due to its restrictive expression in normal human tissues according to immunohistochemical studies, using either polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies. But both immunohistochemical and biochemical methods have strongly suggested its over-expression in human breast tumours. Nevertheless, the lack of a direct evidence of this antigenic display in human breast cancer has kept the subject controversial. For the first time, we described herein the "in vivo" detection of GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside in human breast primary tumours using a radioimmunoscintigraphic technique with 14F7, a highly specific anti-GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside monoclonal antibody, labelled with (99m)Tc. In an open, prospective Phase I/II clinical trial, including women diagnosed in stage II breast cancer, the 14F7 monoclonal antibody accumulation in tumours at doses of 0.3 (n=5), 1 (n=5) and 3 mg (n=4) was evaluated. Noteworthy, the immunoscintigraphic study showed antibody accumulation in 100% of patients' tumours for the 1 mg dose group. In turn, the radioimmunoconjugate injected at doses of 0.3 mg or 3 mg of the antibody, was uptaken by 60 and 33.3% of breast tumours, respectively. "In vivo" immune recognition of GM3(NeuGc) in breast tumours reinforces the value of this peculiar target for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:16322892

Oliva, Juan P; Valdés, Zodilina; Casacó, Angel; Pimentel, Gilmara; González, Joaquín; Alvarez, Irene; Osorio, Martha; Velazco, Milagros; Figueroa, Mariela; Ortiz, Rosa; Escobar, Xiomara; Orozco, Maiby; Cruz, Julia; Franco, Sonia; Díaz, Mirtha; Roque, Lourdes; Carr, Adriana; Vázquez, Ana M; Mateos, Cristina; Rubio, María C; Pérez, Rolando; Fernández, Luis E

2006-03-01

267

Overexpression of E2F3 promotes proliferation of functional human ? cells without induction of apoptosis  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms that control proliferation, or lack thereof, in adult human ? cells are poorly understood. Controlled induction of proliferation could dramatically expand the clinical application of islet cell transplantation and represents an important component of regenerative approaches to a functional cure of diabetes. Adult human ? cells are particularly resistant to common proliferative targets and often dedifferentiate during proliferation. Here we show that expression of the transcription factor E2F3 has a role in regulating ?-cell quiescence and proliferation. We found human islets have virtually no expression of the pro-proliferative G1/S transcription factors E2F1–3, but an abundance of inhibitory E2Fs 4–6. In proliferative human insulinomas, inhibitory E2Fs were absent, while E2F3 is expressed. Using this pattern as a “roadmap” for proliferation, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of nuclear E2F3 induced significant expansion of insulin-positive cells in both rat and human islets. These cells did not undergo apoptosis and retained their glucose-responsive insulin secretion, showing the ability to reverse diabetes in mice. Our results suggest that E2F4–6 may help maintain quiescence in human ? cells and identify E2F3 as a novel target to induce proliferation of functional ? cells. Refinement of this approach may increase the islets available for cell-based therapies and research and could provide important cues for understanding in vivo proliferation of ? cells. PMID:23907129

Rady, Brian; Chen, Yanmei; Vaca, Pilar; Wang, Qian; Wang, Yong; Salmon, Patrick; Oberholzer, Jose

2013-01-01

268

First MNKs degrading agents block phosphorylation of eIF4E, induce apoptosis, inhibit cell growth, migration and invasion in triple negative and Her2-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Some retinoic acid metabolism blocking agents (RAMBAs) are known to exhibit a wide range of anticancer activities by mechanisms that are still not completely resolved. This study investigated the anticancer efficacy and mechanism(s) of novel RAMBA retinamides (RRs) in triple negative and Her-2 overexpressing breast cancer cells. Specifically, we examined the possibility that RRs affect the translational machinery in these breast cancer (BC) cells. Recent findings suggest that overexpression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in breast cancers critically augments CAP-dependent mRNA translation and synthesis of proteins involved in cell growth, cell proliferation, invasion and apoptosis evasion. The oncogenic potential of eIF4E is strictly dependent on serine209 phosphorylation by upstream MAPK-interacting kinases (Mnks). Targeting Mnk/eIF4E pathway for blocking Mnk function and eIF4E phosphorylation is therefore a novel approach for treating BCs, particularly for Her2-positive and triple negative breast cancers that have no indications for endocrine therapy or effective treatment regimes. We report for the first time that the degradation of Mnk1 by RRs in BC cells blocks eIF4E phosphorylation and subsequently inhibits cell growth, colonization, invasion, and migration and induce apoptosis. Most importantly, the anticancer efficacy of RRs was mediated via degrading Mnk rather than inhibiting its kinase activity like Mnk inhibitors (cercosporamide and CGP57380). Furthermore, RRs potencies on peIF4E down-regulation and growth inhibition were superior to those of two clinically relevant retinoids and the Mnk inhibitors. Together our findings provide the first preclinical proof-of-concept of novel Mnk degrading agents for Mnk/eIF4E based therapeutic treatment of breast cancers. PMID:24504069

Ramalingam, Senthilmurugan; Gediya, Lalji; Kwegyir-Afful, Andrew K; Ramamurthy, Vidya P; Purushottamachar, Puranik; Mbatia, Hannah; Njar, Vincent C O

2014-01-30

269

Lentiviral vector-mediate ATG3 overexpression inhibits growth and promotes apoptosis of human SKM-1 cells.  

PubMed

Based on the nested case-control study cohort and gene expression profile, we have picked up a subset of six genes to distinguish the leukemia group and control group stably. ATG3 is the only down regulated gene. This research is to investigate the effect of ATG3 gene over expression by lentivirus on SKM-1 cell line and myelodysplastic syndrome to leukemic transformation. Human SKM-1 cells were transfected with ATG3-GFP recombinant lentiviral vectors and compared with cells transfected with GFP lentiviral vectors. Western blot was performed to detect the ATG3 protein. Cell proliferation was assessed by cell counting kit-8. Cell vitality was tested by Trypan Blue. Cell apoptosis was determined by Annexin V Apoptosis Detection Kit APC. Observe and compare the changes on growth curve, cell vitality and cell apoptosis. After 72 h of transfection, satisfactory transfection efficiency (> 90 %) was observed. SKM-1 cell line showed a statistically significant (P < 0.05) overexpression of ATG3, parallel to significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited cell proliferation. The cell vitality of ATG3 overexpression was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than negative control. Cell apoptosis analysis by flow cytometer demonstrated decreased proportion of early apoptosis and increased that of late apoptosis and death (P < 0.05). Over expressed ATG3 gene and protein, the SKM-1 cell line was inhibited in proliferation and cell vitality. It was promoted from early apoptosis to late apoptosis and death. The malignancy of SKM-1 cell line was decreased after transfection. ATG3 gene and its gene family may play an important role in transformation of myelodysplastic syndrome. PMID:24420857

Wang, Lin; Song, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Chen; Ma, Yan; Xu, Xiaoping

2014-04-01

270

Expression of keratinocyte growth factor and its receptor in human breast cancer.  

PubMed Central

The level of expression of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) mRNA has been measured in human breast cell lines, purified populations of epithelial cells, myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts from reduction mammoplasty tissue and a panel of 42 breast cancers and 30 non-malignant human breast tissues using a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) procedure. We found similar levels of KGF mRNA in malignant and non-malignant breast tissues. The study of the amount of KGF mRNA in breast cell lines and purified populations of cells revealed that fibroblasts are the predominant source of KGF with malignant and non-malignant epithelial cells containing very low levels of KGF mRNA. We have examined the distribution of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-2-IIIb, which is a high-affinity receptor for KGF and find that it is present on malignant and non-malignant epithelial cells. The level of FGFR-2-IIIb present on breast cancer cell lines was sufficient for KGF stimulation of breast cancer cell proliferation. Other members of the fibroblast growth factor family have been either not expressed in the human breast (FGF3, FGF4) or have been found at much reduced levels in breast cancer (FGF1, FGF2) and this is the first member of the family to potentially influence the progression of breast cancer through stimulation of cell division. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9184170

Bansal, G. S.; Cox, H. C.; Marsh, S.; Gomm, J. J.; Yiangou, C.; Luqmani, Y.; Coombes, R. C.; Johnston, C. L.

1997-01-01

271

Human chromosome 21-derived miRNAs are overexpressed in down syndrome brains and hearts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Down syndrome (DS), or Trisomy 21, is the most common genetic cause of cognitive impairment and congenital heart defects in the human population. To date, the contribution of microRNAs (miRNAs) in DS has not been investigated. Bioinformatic analyses demonstrate that human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) harbors five miRNA genes; miR-99a, let-7c, miR-125b-2, miR-155, and miR-802. MiRNA expression profiling, miRNA RT-PCR, and

Donald E. Kuhn; Gerard J. Nuovo; Mickey M. Martin; Geraldine E. Malana; Adam P. Pleister; Jinmai Jiang; Thomas D. Schmittgen; Alvin V. Terry; Katheleen Gardiner; Elizabeth Head; David S. Feldman; Terry S. Elton

2008-01-01

272

Overexpression of UCP3 in cultured human muscle lowers mitochondrial membrane potential, raises ATP\\/ADP ratio, and favors fatty acid versus glucose oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skeletal muscle mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) promotes substrate oxidation, but direct evidence for its metabolic role is lacking. Here, we show that UCP3 overexpression in cultured human muscle cells decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (?? m). Despite this, the ATP content was not significantly decreased compared with control cells, whereas ADP content was reduced and thus the ATP\\/ADP ratio raised.

C. Garcia-Martinez; Brigitte Sibille; Gemma Solanes; Christian Darimont; Katherine Macé; Francesc Villarroya; Anna M. Gómez-Foix

2001-01-01

273

Growth arrest-specific gene 6 expression in human breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6), identified in 1995, acts as the ligand to the Axl\\/Tyro3 family of tyrosine kinase receptors and exerts mitogenic activity when bound to these receptors. Overexpression of the Axl\\/Tyro3 receptor family has been found in breast, ovarian and lung tumours. Gas6 is upregulated 23-fold by progesterone acting through the progesterone receptor B (PRB). Recently, Gas6 has

O Mc Cormack; W Y Chung; P Fitzpatrick; F Cooke; B Flynn; M Harrison; E Fox; E Gallagher; A Mc Goldrick; P A Dervan; A Mc Cann; M J Kerin

2008-01-01

274

Nuclear factor-?B plays a critical role in both intrinsic and acquired resistance against endocrine therapy in human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Since more than 75% of breast cancers overexpress estrogen receptors (ER), endocrine therapy targeting ER has significantly improved the survival rate. Nonetheless, breast cancer still afflicts women worldwide and the major problem behind it is resistance to endocrine therapy. We have previously shown the involvement of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in neoplastic proliferation of human breast cancer cells; however, the association with the transformation of ER-positive cells remains unclear. In the current study, we focused on roles of NF-?B in the hormone dependency of breast cancers by means of ER-positive MCF-7 cells. Blocking of NF-?B signals in ER-negative cells stopped proliferation by downregulation of D-type cyclins. In contrast, the MCF-7 cells were resistant to NF-?B inhibition. Under estrogen-free conditions, the ER levels were reduced when compared with the original MCF-7 cells and the established cell subline exhibited tamoxifen resistance. Additionally, NF-?B participated in cell growth instead of the estrogen-ER axis in the subline and consequently, interfering with the NF-?B signals induced additive anticancer effects with tamoxifen. MMP-9 production responsible for cell migration, as well as the cell expansion in vivo, were suppressed by NF-?B inhibition. Therefore, we suggest that NF-?B is a master switch in both ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:24531845

Oida, Kumiko; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Xia, Yan; Jang, Hyosun; Amagai, Yosuke; Ahn, Ginnae; Nishikawa, Sho; Ishizaka, Saori; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akane

2014-01-01

275

Nuclear factor-?B plays a critical role in both intrinsic and acquired resistance against endocrine therapy in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Since more than 75% of breast cancers overexpress estrogen receptors (ER), endocrine therapy targeting ER has significantly improved the survival rate. Nonetheless, breast cancer still afflicts women worldwide and the major problem behind it is resistance to endocrine therapy. We have previously shown the involvement of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) in neoplastic proliferation of human breast cancer cells; however, the association with the transformation of ER-positive cells remains unclear. In the current study, we focused on roles of NF-?B in the hormone dependency of breast cancers by means of ER-positive MCF-7 cells. Blocking of NF-?B signals in ER-negative cells stopped proliferation by downregulation of D-type cyclins. In contrast, the MCF-7 cells were resistant to NF-?B inhibition. Under estrogen-free conditions, the ER levels were reduced when compared with the original MCF-7 cells and the established cell subline exhibited tamoxifen resistance. Additionally, NF-?B participated in cell growth instead of the estrogen-ER axis in the subline and consequently, interfering with the NF-?B signals induced additive anticancer effects with tamoxifen. MMP-9 production responsible for cell migration, as well as the cell expansion in vivo, were suppressed by NF-?B inhibition. Therefore, we suggest that NF-?B is a master switch in both ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:24531845

Oida, Kumiko; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Xia, Yan; Jang, Hyosun; Amagai, Yosuke; Ahn, Ginnae; Nishikawa, Sho; Ishizaka, Saori; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akane

2014-01-01

276

Alterations in Corticostriatal Synaptic Plasticity in Mice Over-Expressing Human ?-Synuclein  

PubMed Central

Most forms of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) are sporadic in nature, but some have genetic causes as first described for the ?-synuclein gene. The ?-synuclein protein also accumulates as insoluble aggregates in Lewy bodies in sporadic PD as well as in most inherited forms of PD. The focus of the present study is the modulation of synaptic plasticity in the corticostriatal pathway of transgenic (Tg) mice that over express the human ?-synuclein protein throughout the brain (ASOTg). Paired-pulse facilitation was detected in vitro by activation of corticostriatal afferents in ASOTg mice, consistent with a presynaptic effect of elevated human ?-synuclein. However basal synaptic transmission was unchanged in ASOTg, suggesting that human ?-synuclein could impact paired-pulse facilitation via a presynaptic mechanism not directly related to the probability of neurotransmitter release. Mice lacking ?-synuclein or those expressing normal and A53T human ?-synuclein in tyrosine hydroxylase-containing neurons showed, instead, paired-pulse depression. High-frequency stimulation induced a presynaptic form of long-term depression solely in ASOTg striatum. A presynaptic, NMDA receptor-independent form of chemical long-term potentiation induced by forskolin (FSK) was enhanced in ASOTg striatum, while FSK-induced cAMP levels were reduced in ASOTg synaptoneurosome fractions. Overall the results suggest that elevated human ?-synuclein alters presynaptic plasticity in the corticostriatal pathway, possibly reflecting a reduction in glutamate at corticostriatal synapses by modulation of adenylyl cyclase signaling pathways. ASOTg mice may recapitulate an early stage in PD during which over expressed ?-synuclein dampens corticostriatal synaptic transmission and reduces movement. PMID:19361478

Watson, J.B.; Hatami, A.; David, H.; Masliah, E.; Roberts, K.; Evans, C. E.; Levine, M.S.

2009-01-01

277

Selective small molecule Stat3 inhibitor reduces breast cancer tumor-initiating cells and improves recurrence free survival in a human-xenograft model.  

PubMed

Metastasis and disease relapse are hypothesized to result from tumor initiating cells (TICs). Previously, we have defined a CD44+/CD24-/low mammosphere-forming tumorigenic 493-gene signature in breast cancer. Stat3 was identified as a critical node in self-renewal based on an ongoing lentiviral shRNA screen being conducted in two breast cancer cell lines SUM159 and BT549. In corroborating work, targeting the SH2 domain of Stat3 with a novel small molecule decreased the percentage of cells expressing TIC markers (CD44+/CD24-/low and ALDH+) and mammosphere formation in p-Stat3 overexpressing human breast cancer xenografts in SCID-beige mice. Importantly, we observed a four-fold improvement in the 30-day recurrence-free survival relative to docetaxel alone with the addition of the Stat3 inhibitor in the chemoresistant tumor model. Thus, these findings provide a strong impetus for the development of selective Stat3 inhibitors in order to improve survival in patients with p-Stat3 overexpressing tumors. PMID:22879872

Dave, Bhuvanesh; Landis, Melissa D; Tweardy, David J; Chang, Jenny C; Dobrolecki, Lacey E; Wu, Meng-Fen; Zhang, Xiaomei; Westbrook, Thomas F; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Liu, Dan; Lewis, Michael T

2012-01-01

278

Selective Small Molecule Stat3 Inhibitor Reduces Breast Cancer Tumor-Initiating Cells and Improves Recurrence Free Survival in a Human-Xenograft Model  

PubMed Central

Metastasis and disease relapse are hypothesized to result from tumor initiating cells (TICs). Previously, we have defined a CD44+/CD24?/low mammosphere-forming tumorigenic 493-gene signature in breast cancer. Stat3 was identified as a critical node in self-renewal based on an ongoing lentiviral shRNA screen being conducted in two breast cancer cell lines SUM159 and BT549. In corroborating work, targeting the SH2 domain of Stat3 with a novel small molecule decreased the percentage of cells expressing TIC markers (CD44+/CD24?/low and ALDH+) and mammosphere formation in p-Stat3 overexpressing human breast cancer xenografts in SCID-beige mice. Importantly, we observed a four-fold improvement in the 30-day recurrence-free survival relative to docetaxel alone with the addition of the Stat3 inhibitor in the chemoresistant tumor model. Thus, these findings provide a strong impetus for the development of selective Stat3 inhibitors in order to improve survival in patients with p-Stat3 overexpressing tumors. PMID:22879872

Dave, Bhuvanesh; Landis, Melissa D.; Dobrolecki, Lacey E.; Wu, Meng-Fen; Zhang, Xiaomei; Westbrook, Thomas F.; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Liu, Dan; Lewis, Michael T.; Tweardy, David J.; Chang, Jenny C.

2012-01-01

279

Expression and prognostic role of SGTA in human breast carcinoma correlates with tumor cell proliferation.  

PubMed

Small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein alpha (SGTA) was reported to be implicated in various cellular processes and involved in control of cell cycle regulation and transcription. It may play a critical role in oncogenesis. In this study, to investigate the potential roles of SGTA in breast cancer, expression patterns, interaction and the correlation with clinical/prognostic factors of SGTA and Ki-67 were examined among patients with breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed for SGTA in 100 breast carcinoma samples. The data were correlated with clinicopathological features. The univariate and multivariate survival analyses were also performed to determine the prognostic significance. We found that SGTA was overexpressed in breast carcinoma compared with the adjacent normal tissues. High expression of SGTA was positively associated with histological grade (P = 0.002) and Ki-67 (P = 0.001). Univariate analysis showed that SGTA expression was associated with a poor prognosis (P = 0.002). Kaplan-Meier survival curves of the study population showed that high expression level of SGTA significantly correlated with short-term survival. While in vitro, SGTA depletion by small interfering RNA inhibited cell proliferation and cell cycle in breast cancer cell lines. Western blot analyses showed that SGTA depletion decreased cyclin A, cyclin B and CDK2, whereas increased p27 levels. Additionally, treatment of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 could arrest cells growth and diminish SGTA expression. These results suggested that SGTA overexpression was involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer which might serve as a future target for novel treatment in breast cancer. PMID:25027991

Zhu, Ting; Ji, Zhengxiang; Xu, Caixia; Peng, Zhiyang; Gu, Liang; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Yangchen

2014-12-01

280

Estrogen deprivation causes estradiol hypersensitivity in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Genetic and environmental factors can modulate the level of sensitivity to various hormones, including estrogens. Enhanced sensitivity to estradiol (E2) has been demonstrated in several biological conditions, such as in sheep during the nonbreeding season, in untreated patients with Turner's syndrome, and in the prepubertal state in normal girls. We postulated that secondary responses to hormonal therapy in patients with breast cancer could also result from enhanced E2 sensitivity, developing as an adaptive mechanism to E2 deprivation. The present study used the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line as a model system to test the concept that enhanced sensitivity to E2 may occur as a result of adaptation to low E2 levels. After depriving MCF-7 cells of estrogens in tissue culture medium for periods of 1-6 months, we established conditions under which replication could be stimulated maximally by 10(-14)-10(-15) mol/L E2. In contrast, wild-type cells not exposed to estrogen deprivation required 10(-10) mol/L E2 to grow at the same rate. Further, the concentration of the antiestrogen, ICI 164384, needed to inhibit growth by 50% in estrogen-deprived cells was much lower than that required in wild-type cells (i.e. 10(-15) vs. 10(-9) mol/L). Nude mice implanted with these estrogen-deprived cells demonstrated an earlier appearance of palpable tumors in response to E2 than animals bearing wild-type cells. Reexposure to 10(-10)-10(-9) mol/L E2, either in vivo or in vitro, returned these cells to the level of estrogen sensitivity observed in wild-type cells. Taken together, these observations suggest that breast cancer cells can adapt to low levels of estrogens by enhancing their sensitivity to E2. PMID:7559875

Masamura, S; Santner, S J; Heitjan, D F; Santen, R J

1995-10-01

281

Radiosensitization effects of berberine on human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Berberine, an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid, has recently been shown to have antitumor activity. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the concomitant administration of berberine and radiation on breast cancer. The effects of berberine on the radiosensitivity of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells were evaluated by using cell clonogenic assays. Cells pre-treated with berberine or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 24 h were irradiated using a Faxitron Cabinet X-ray System to deliver the indicated doses (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 Gy). Changes in cell cycle distribution were determined by flow cytometry. ?-H2AX foci were detected by immunofluorescence staining. The levels of Ku70, Ku86 and RAD51 proteins were evaluated by western blot analysis. We observed that berberine increased the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cell radiosensitivity with cell clonogenic assays. the radiation-induced G2/M cell cycle delay was reduced in the MCF-7 cells pre-teated with berberine. Berberine pre-treatment prolonged the persistence of DNA double-strand breaks in the MCF-7 cell line. In comparison with the control cells, the protein levels of RAD51 were decreased in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells treated with berberine, and in the cells pre-treated with 15 µM berberine for 24 h, the level of RAD51 protein decreased significantly at the indicated time-points (0, 2, 6 and 24 h) following X-ray exposure. In conclusion, berberine sensitizes human breast cancer cells to ionizing radiation by inducing cell cycle arrest and the downregulation of the homologous recombination repair protein, RAD51. Berberine may be a promising radiosensitizer for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:22895634

Wang, Jing; Liu, Qiao; Yang, Qifeng

2012-11-01

282

Defects in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Budding and Endosomal Sorting Induced by TSG101 Overexpression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrovirus budding is greatly stimulated by the presence of Gag sequences known as late or L domains. The L domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) maps to a highly conserved Pro-Thr-Ala-Pro (PTAP) sequence in the p6 domain of Gag. We and others recently observed that the p6 PTAP motif interacts with the cellular endosomal sorting protein TSG101. Consistent

Ritu Goila-Gaur; Dimiter G. Demirov; Jan M. Orenstein; Akira Ono; Eric O. Freed

2003-01-01

283

Overexpression of Human ?C-crystallin 5 bp Duplication Disrupts Lens Morphology in Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To delineate the molecular mechanisms underlying autosomal dominant congenital cataracts caused by a 5 bp duplication in human CRYGC. Methods. c.119_123dup (CRYGC5bpd) and wild-type human ?C-crystallin (CRYGC) were expressed in transgenic mouse lenses by the chicken ?B1-crystallin promoter. Lenses were characterized histologically, by real-time PCR, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot. pET and Tet-on expression systems were used to express human CRYGC and CRYGC5bpd proteins in Escherichia coliand HeLa cells, respectively. Results. Transgenic expression of CRYGC5bpd mutant ?C-crystallin results in nuclear cataracts in which lens fiber cells begin to show variable degrees of degeneration and vacuolization by postnatal day 21. By 6 weeks of age all CRYGC5bpd lenses exhibit abnormalities of varying severity, comprising large vacuoles in cortical fiber cells, swelling and disorganization of fiber cells, and defective fiber cell migration and elongation. Levels of CRYGC5bpd mRNA are 3.7- and 14.1-fold higher than endogenous Crygc mRNA in postnatal day 1 and 6-week CRYGC5bpd mice lens, respectively. Crygc, Crygb, Crybb2, and Crybb3 mRNA levels are decreased in CRYGC5bpd mice compared with wild-type and CRYGC mice. Both wild-type and mutant human ?C crystallin are uniformly distributed in the cytosol of HeLa cells, but CRYGC5bpd is degraded when expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). Conclusions. Transgenic expression of mutant CRYGC5bpd ?-crystallin at near-physiological levels causes lens opacities and fiber cell defects, confirming the pathogenicity of this mutation. These results further suggest that HCG5pbd ?-crystallin causes cataracts through a direct toxic or developmental effect on lens cells causing damaged microstructure rather than through formation of HMW aggregates with resultant light scattering. PMID:21436266

Ma, Zhiwei; Yao, Wenliang; Theendakara, Veena; Chan, Chi-Chao; Wawrousek, Eric

2011-01-01

284

PTEN Redundancy: Overexpressing lpten, a Homolog of Dictyostelium discoideum ptenA, the Ortholog of Human PTEN, Rescues All Behavioral Defects of the Mutant ptenA?  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene PTEN are associated with a significant proportion of human cancers. Because the human genome also contains several homologs of PTEN, we considered the hypothesis that if a homolog, functionally redundant with PTEN, can be overexpressed, it may rescue the defects of a PTEN mutant. We have performed an initial test of this hypothesis in the model system Dictyostelium discoideum, which contains an ortholog of human PTEN, ptenA. Deletion of ptenA results in defects in motility, chemotaxis, aggregation and multicellular morphogenesis. D. discoideum also contains lpten, a newly discovered homolog of ptenA. Overexpressing lpten completely rescues all developmental and behavioral defects of the D. discoideum mutant ptenA?. This hypothesis must now be tested in human cells. PMID:25247494

Lusche, Daniel F.; Wessels, Deborah; Richardson, Nicole A.; Russell, Kanoe B.; Hanson, Brett M.; Soll, Benjamin A.; Lin, Benjamin H.; Soll, David R.

2014-01-01

285

Overexpression of IRS2 in isolated pancreatic islets causes proliferation and protects human {beta}-cells from hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis  

SciTech Connect

Studies in vivo indicate that IRS2 plays an important role in maintaining functional {beta}-cell mass. To investigate if IRS2 autonomously affects {beta}-cells, we have studied proliferation, apoptosis, and {beta}-cell function in isolated rat and human islets after overexpression of IRS2 or IRS1. We found that {beta}-cell proliferation was significantly increased in rat islets overexpressing IRS2 while IRS1 was less effective. Moreover, proliferation of a {beta}-cell line, INS-1, was decreased after repression of Irs2 expression using RNA oligonucleotides. Overexpression of IRS2 in human islets significantly decreased apoptosis of {beta}-cells, induced by 33.3 mM D-glucose. However, IRS2 did not protect cultured rat islets against apoptosis in the presence of 0.5 mM palmitic acid. Overexpression of IRS2 in isolated rat islets significantly increased basal and D-glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as determined in perifusion experiments. Therefore, IRS2 is sufficient to induce proliferation in rat islets and to protect human {beta}-cells from D-glucose-induced apoptosis. In addition, IRS2 can improve {beta}-cell function. Our results indicate that IRS2 acts autonomously in {beta}-cells in maintenance and expansion of functional {beta}-cell mass in vivo.

Mohanty, S. [Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Hospital of Zurich, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Spinas, G.A. [Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Hospital of Zurich, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Maedler, K. [Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Hospital of Zurich, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Zuellig, R.A. [Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Hospital of Zurich, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Lehmann, R. [Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Hospital of Zurich, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Donath, M.Y. [Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Hospital of Zurich, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Trueb, T. [Universitaetsverwaltung, Stab fuer Sachmittel-Kredite, KUN110, Kuenstlergasse 15, 8001 Zurich (Switzerland); Niessen, M. [Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Hospital of Zurich, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: markus.niessen@usz.ch

2005-02-01

286

Comprehensive characterization of the DNA amplification at 13q34 in human breast cancer reveals TFDP1 and CUL4A as likely candidate target genes  

PubMed Central

Introduction Breast cancer subtypes exhibit different genomic aberration patterns with a tendency for high-level amplifications in distinct chromosomal regions. These genomic aberrations may drive carcinogenesis through the upregulation of proto-oncogenes. We have characterized DNA amplification at the human chromosomal region 13q34 in breast cancer. Methods A set of 414 familial and sporadic breast cancer cases was studied for amplification at region 13q34 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on tissue microarrays. Defining the minimal common region of amplification in those cases with amplification at 13q34 was carried out using an array-based comparative genomic hybridization platform. We performed a quantitative real-time - polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) gene expression analysis of 11 candidate genes located within the minimal common region of amplification. Protein expression levels of two of these genes (TFDP1 and CUL4A) were assessed by immunohistochemical assays on the same tissue microarrays used for FISH studies, and correlated with the expression of a panel of 33 antibodies previously analyzed. Results We have found 13q34 amplification in 4.5% of breast cancer samples, but the frequency increased to 8.1% in BRCA1-associated tumors and to 20% in basal-like tumors. Tumors with 13q34 amplification were associated with high grade, estrogen receptor negativity, and expression of EGFR, CCNE, CK5, and P-Cadherin, among other basal cell markers. We have defined a 1.83 megabases minimal common region of genomic amplification and carried out mRNA expression analyses of candidate genes located therein, identifying CUL4A and TFDP1 as the most likely target genes. Moreover, we have confirmed that tumors with 13q34 amplification significantly overexpress CUL4A and TFDP1 proteins. Tumors overexpressing either CUL4A or TFDP1 were associated with tumor proliferation and cell cycle progression markers. Conclusions We conclude that 13q34 amplification may be of relevance in tumor progression of basal-like breast cancers by inducing overexpression of CUL4A and TFDP1, which are both important in cell cycle regulation. Alternatively, as these genes were also overexpressed in non-basal-like tumor samples, they could play a wider role in cancer development by inducing tumor proliferation. PMID:19995430

2009-01-01

287

A novel antiestrogen agent Shikonin inhibits estrogen-dependent gene transcription in human breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shikonin (SK) has been isolated and identified as a key bioactive component in an herbal plant, Shikon (gromwell). In this\\u000a study, we investigated antiestrogen activity of SK in breast cancer cells. In human breast cancer cells, we observed that\\u000a treatment with SK inhibits tumor cell growth in estrogen receptor ? (ER?)-positive, but not ER?-negative breast cancer cells.\\u000a Estrogen-dependent cell growth

Yuan Yao; Qun Zhou

2010-01-01

288

Fulvestrant radiosensitizes human estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Fulvestrant radiosensitizes MCF-7 cells. ? Fulvestrant increases G1 arrest and decreases S phase in MCF-7 cells. ? Fulvestrant down-regulates DNA-PKcs and RAD51 in MCF-7 cells. -- Abstract: The optimal sequencing for hormonal therapy and radiation are yet to be determined. We utilized fulvestrant, which is showing promise as an alternative to other agents in the clinical setting of hormonal therapy, to assess the cellular effects of concomitant anti-estrogen therapy (fulvestrant) with radiation (F + RT). This study was conducted to assess the effects of fulvestrant alone vs. F + RT on hormone-receptor positive breast cancer to determine if any positive or negative combined effects exist. The effects of F + RT on human breast cancer cells were assessed using MCF-7 clonogenic and tetrazolium salt colorimetric (MTT) assays. The assays were irradiated with a dose of 0, 2, 4, 6 Gy ± fulvestrant. The effects of F + RT vs. single adjuvant treatment alone on cell-cycle distribution were assessed using flow cytometry; relative expression of repair proteins (Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, Rad51) was assessed using Western Blot analysis. Cell growth for radiation alone vs. F + RT was 0.885 ± 0.013 vs. 0.622 ± 0.029 @2 Gy, 0.599 ± 0.045 vs. 0.475 ± 0.054 @4 Gy, and 0.472 ± 0.021 vs. 0.380 ± 0.018 @6 Gy RT (p = 0.003). While irradiation alone induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, the combination of F + RT induced cell redistribution in the G1 phase and produced a significant decrease in the proportion of cells in G2 phase arrest and in the S phase in breast cancer cells (p < 0.01). Furthermore, levels of repair proteins DNA-PKcs and Rad51 were significantly decreased in the cells treated with F + RT compared with irradiation alone. F + RT leads to a decrease in the surviving fraction, increased cell cycle arrest, down regulating of nonhomologous repair protein DNA-PKcs and homologous recombination repair protein RAD51. Thus, our findings suggest that F + RT increases breast cancer cell radiosensitivity compared with radiation alone. These findings have salient implications for designing clinical trials using fulvestrant and radiation therapy.

Wang, Jing, E-mail: wangstella5@163.com [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univeristy, Wenhua Xi Road 107, Shandong Province (China) [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univeristy, Wenhua Xi Road 107, Shandong Province (China); Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Shandong Province (China); Yang, Qifeng, E-mail: qifengy@gmail.com [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univeristy, Wenhua Xi Road 107, Shandong Province (China)] [Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital, Shandong Univeristy, Wenhua Xi Road 107, Shandong Province (China); Haffty, Bruce G., E-mail: hafftybg@umdnj.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson School of Medicine, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, NB (United States); Li, Xiaoyan, E-mail: xiaoyanli1219@gmail.com [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Shandong Province (China)] [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Shandong Province (China); Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

2013-02-08

289

Molecular profiles of progesterone receptor loss in human breast tumors  

PubMed Central

Background Patient prognosis and response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer correlate with protein expression of both estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), with poorer outcome in patients with ER+/PR? compared to ER+/PR+ tumors. Methods To better understand the underlying biology of ER+/PR? tumors, we examined RNA expression (n > 1000 tumors) and DNA copy number profiles from five previously published studies of human breast cancers with clinically assigned hormone receptor status (ER+/PR+, ER+/PR?, and ER?/PR?). Results We identified an expression signature of genes with either elevated or diminished RNA levels specifically in ER+/PR+ compared to ER?/PR? and ER+/PR? tumors. We similarly identified a gene signature specific to ER?/PR? tumors. ER+/PR? tumors, on the other hand, were a mixture of three different subtypes: tumors manifesting the ER+/PR+ signature, tumors manifesting the ER?/PR? signature, and tumors not associating with ER+/PR+ or ER?/PR? tumors (which we considered “true” ER+/PR?). In analyses of both tamoxifen-treated and untreated patients, ER+/PR? breast cancers defined by RNA profiling were associated with poor patient outcome, worse than those with pure ER+/PR+ patterns; these differences were not observed when using clinical assays to assign ER and PR status. ER+/PR? tumors also showed twice as many DNA copy number gains or losses compared to ER+/PR+ and ER?PR? tumors. Targets of transcriptional up-regulation by specific oncogenic pathways, including PI3K/Akt/mTOR, were enriched in both ER+/PR? and ER?/PR? compared to ER+/PR+ tumors. Conclusion ER+/PR? tumors as defined by RNA profiling represent a distinct subset of breast cancer with aggressive features and poor outcome, despite being clinically ER+. Multigene assays derived from our gene signatures could conceivably provide an improved clinical assay for inferring PR status for prognostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:18425577

Creighton, Chad J.; Osborne, C. Kent; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Foekens, John A.; Klijn, Jan; Horlings, Hugo M.; Nuyten, Dimitry; Wang, Yixin; Zhang, Yi; Chamness, Gary C.; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Lee, Adrian V.; Schiff, Rachel

2008-01-01

290

cAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein-1 Is a Transcription Factor of Lysosomal-Associated Protein Transmembrane-4 beta in Human Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Lysosomal-associated protein transmembrane-4 beta (LAPTM4B) is a potential proto-oncogene, whose overexpression is involved in cancer occurrence and progression. Its transcript is up-regulated in various types of solid tumors including breast cancer. However, its transcriptional regulation mechanism is still unclear. To investigate the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of LAPTM4B in human breast cancer cells, a series of luciferase reporter constructs and construct with mutated binding site for cAMP responsive element binding protein-1 (CREB1) were generated by PCR amplification and transiently transfected into breast cancer cells to determine the transcriptional activities of different promoter regions. The +10?+292 promoter region was possessed the highest transcriptional activity. The ability of CREB1 to bind the LAPMT4B promoter was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, super-shift and RNA interference experiments. Our study identified the core promoter region responsible for constitutive expression of LAPTM4B and clarified that CREB1 played an important role in LAPTM4B transcriptional regulation in human breast cancer cells. PMID:23469012

Zhang, Meng; Xu, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Rou-Li; Zhang, Qing-Yun

2013-01-01

291

Altered serotonin physiology in human breast cancers favors paradoxical growth and cell survival  

PubMed Central

Introduction The breast microenvironment can either retard or accelerate the events associated with progression of latent cancers. However, the actions of local physiological mediators in the context of breast cancers are poorly understood. Serotonin (5-HT) is a critical local regulator of epithelial homeostasis in the breast and other organs. Herein, we report complex alterations in the intrinsic mammary gland serotonin system of human breast cancers. Methods Serotonin biosynthetic capacity was analyzed in human breast tumor tissue microarrays using immunohistochemistry for tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1). Serotonin receptors (5-HT1-7) were analyzed in human breast tumors using the Oncomine database. Serotonin receptor expression, signal transduction, and 5-HT effects on breast cancer cell phenotype were compared in non-transformed and transformed human breast cells. Results In the context of the normal mammary gland, 5-HT acts as a physiological regulator of lactation and involution, in part by favoring growth arrest and cell death. This tightly regulated 5-HT system is subverted in multiple ways in human breast cancers. Specifically, TPH1 expression undergoes a non-linear change during progression, with increased expression during malignant progression. Correspondingly, the tightly regulated pattern of 5-HT receptors becomes dysregulated in human breast cancer cells, resulting in both ectopic expression of some isoforms and suppression of others. The receptor expression change is accompanied by altered downstream signaling of 5-HT receptors in human breast cancer cells, resulting in resistance to 5-HT-induced apoptosis, and stimulated proliferation. Conclusions Our data constitutes the first report of direct involvement of 5-HT in human breast cancer. Increased 5-HT biosynthetic capacity accompanied by multiple changes in 5-HT receptor expression and signaling favor malignant progression of human breast cancer cells (for example, stimulated proliferation, inappropriate cell survival). This occurs through uncoupling of serotonin from the homeostatic regulatory mechanisms of the normal mammary epithelium. The findings open a new avenue for identification of diagnostic and prognostic markers, and valuable new therapeutic targets for managing breast cancer. PMID:19903352

2009-01-01

292

Human coronary artery perivascular adipocytes overexpress genes responsible for regulating vascular morphology, inflammation, and hemostasis  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory cross talk between perivascular adipose tissue and the blood vessel wall has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We previously reported that human perivascular (PV) adipocytes exhibit a proinflammatory phenotype and less adipogenic differentiation than do subcutaneous (SQ) adipocytes. To gain a global view of the genomic basis of biologic differences between PV and SQ adipocytes, we performed genome-wide expression analyses to identify differentially expressed genes between adipocytes derived from human SQ vs. PV adipose tissues. Although >90% of well-expressed genes were similarly regulated, we identified a signature of 307 differentially expressed genes that were highly enriched for functions associated with the regulation of angiogenesis, vascular morphology, inflammation, and blood clotting. Of the 156 PV upregulated genes, 59 associate with angiogenesis, vascular biology, or inflammation, noteworthy of which include TNFRSF11B (osteoprotegerin), PLAT, TGFB1, THBS2, HIF1A, GATA6, and SERPINE1. Of 166 PV downregulated genes, 21 associated with vascular biology and inflammation, including ANGPT1, ANGPTL1, and VEGFC. Consistent with the emergent hypothesis that PV adipocytes differentially regulate angiogenesis and inflammation, cell culture-derived adipocyte-conditioned media from PV adipocytes strongly enhanced endothelial cell tubulogenesis and monocyte migration compared with media from SQ adipocytes. These findings demonstrate that PV adipocytes have the potential to significantly modulate vascular inflammatory crosstalk in the setting of atherosclerosis by their ability to signal to both endothelial and inflammatory cells. PMID:23737535

Aronow, Bruce J.; Tong, Wilson S.; Manka, David; Tang, Yaoliang; Bogdanov, Vladimir Y.; Unruh, Dusten; Blomkalns, Andra L.; Piegore, Mark G.; Weintraub, Daniel S.; Rudich, Steven M.; Kuhel, David G.; Hui, David Y.; Weintraub, Neal L.

2013-01-01

293

Quality assurance\\/quality control procedures for chlorinated hydrocarbons in human breast adipose tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive literature exists supporting the accumulation of organochlorine pesticides such as DDT [2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane], and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human adipose tissue. Debate has surfaced concerning the link between these environmental contaminants and human breast cancer. Accurate residue analysis and proper analytical procedures are critical in determining the extent to which these compounds play a role in human breast cancer. Further,

S. Archibeque-Engle; J. D. Tessari; D. T. Winn

1996-01-01

294

Establishment of a human cell line stably overexpressing mouse Nip45 and characterization of Nip45 subcellular localization  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A human cell line expressing a mouse Nip45 has facilitated Nip45 analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nip45 does not effectively inhibit polySUMOylation in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nip45 interacts directly with SUMO and SUMO chains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nip45 accumulates at PML bodies in response to proteasome inhibition. -- Abstract: The nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin dependent 2 interacting protein, Nfatc2ip (Nip45), has been implicated as a crucial coordinator of the immune response and of cellular differentiation in humans and mice, and contains SUMO-like domains in its C-terminal region. However, the significance of its N-terminal region and its correlation to the SUMO modification pathway remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, a human cultured cell line was established, in which FLAG-tagged mouse Nip45 (FLAG-mNip45) was stably overexpressed. Under standard, non-stressful conditions, we detected FLAG-mNip45 diffusely distributed in the nucleus. Intriguingly, proteasome inhibition by MG132 caused FLAG-mNip45, together with SUMOylated proteins, to localize in nuclear domains associated with promyelocytic leukemia protein. Finally, using an in vitro binding assay, we showed interaction of the N-terminal region of mNip45 with both free SUMO-3 and SUMO-3 chains, indicating that Nip45 may, in part, exert its function via interaction with SUMO/SUMOylated proteins. Taken together, our study provides novel information on a poorly characterized mammalian protein and suggests that our newly established cell line will be useful for elucidating the physiological role of Nip45.

Hashiguchi, Kohtaro; Ozaki, Masumi [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)] [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Kuraoka, Isao [Biological Chemistry Group, Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)] [Biological Chemistry Group, Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Saitoh, Hisato, E-mail: hisa@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan) [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Department of New Frontier Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Global COE (Centers of Excellence) Program, Global Initiative Center for Pulsed Power Engineering, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

2013-01-04

295

Multiplexed ion beam imaging (MIBI) of human breast tumors  

PubMed Central

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a tool for visualizing protein expression employed as part of the diagnostic work-up for the majority of solid tissue malignancies. Existing IHC methods use antibodies tagged with fluorophores or enzyme reporters that generate colored pigments. Because these reporters exhibit spectral and spatial overlap when used simultaneously, multiplexed IHC is not routinely used in clinical settings. We have developed a method that uses secondary ion mass spectrometry to image antibodies tagged with isotopically pure elemental metal reporters. Multiplexed ion beam imaging (MIBI) is capable of analyzing up to 100 targets simultaneously over a five-log dynamic range. Here, we used MIBI to analyze formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human breast tumor tissue sections stained with ten labels simultaneously. The resulting data suggest that MIBI will provide new insights by integrating tissue microarchitecture with highly multiplexed protein expression patterns, and will be valuable for basic research, drug discovery and clinical diagnostics. PMID:24584119

Angelo, Michael; Bendall, Sean C.; Finck, Rachel; Hale, Matthew B.; Hitzman, Chuck; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Levenson, Richard M.; Lowe, John B.; Liu, Scot D.; Zhao, Shuchun; Natkunam, Yasodha; Nolan, Garry P.

2014-01-01

296

Overexpression of Shp2 tyrosine phosphatase is implicated in leukemogenesis in adult human leukemia  

PubMed Central

Shp2 tyrosine phosphatase plays a critical role in hematopoiesis, and dominant active mutations have been detected in the human gene PTPN11, encoding Shp2, in child leukemia patients. We report here that although no such mutations were detected in 44 adult leukemia patients screened, Shp2 expression levels were significantly elevated in primary leukemia cells and leukemia cell lines, as compared with normal hematopoietic progenitor cells. The Shp2 protein amounts correlated well with the hyperproliferative capacity but were inversely associated with the differentiation degree of leukemia cells. Suppression of Shp2 expression induced apoptosis and inhibition of leukemic cell clonogenic growth. Notably, the majority of Shp2 was preferentially localized to the plasma membrane and was constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine in leukemia cells, and also in normal hematopoietic cells following mitogenic stimulation. Based on these results, we propose that aberrantly increased expression of Shp2 may contribute, collaboratively with other factors, to leukemogenesis. PMID:16030196

Xu, Rongzhen; Yu, Yingzi; Zheng, Shu; Zhao, Xiaoying; Dong, Qinghua; He, Zhiwen; Liang, Yun; Lu, Qinghua; Fang, Yongmin; Gan, Xiaoxian; Xu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Suzhan; Dong, Qi; Zhang, Xiaohong; Feng, Gen-Sheng

2005-01-01

297

Overexpression, purification, and structural analysis of the hydrophobic E5 protein from human papillomavirus type 16.  

PubMed

The E5 proteins of human papillomavirus (HPV) are highly hydrophobic transmembrane proteins that display weak transforming activity. The HPV E5 proteins are localized largely to intracellular membranes, such as the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum, but also appear in the plasma membrane. Infection with HPV16 is the cause of over 90% of human cervical cancers. HPV E5 is known to interact with growth factor receptors and gap junction proteins and is believed to play a role during the initiation of neoplasia. The structure of HPV E5 and the mechanism of its interactions with growth factor receptors remain largely unknown. In the present studies, the E5 protein of HPV16 was cloned into the pBAD/TOPO vector fused to an N-terminal thioredoxin leader and a C-terminal His-tag, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The identity of the protein was confirmed by immunoblotting using antibodies against a V5-epitope tag engineered into the protein. Due to formation of high molecular mass superaggregates of the protein, two chromatography steps were employed for its purification: (1) gel filtration chromatography to separate the superaggregated protein from other soluble proteins and (2) Ni-chelate affinity chromatography in the presence of detergent. The superaggregates of the E5-fusion protein were broken down to monomers and various oligomers by sonication in the presence of 0.2% SDS. The purified E5-fusion protein was then reconstituted into lipid vesicles and initial structural analysis of the protein was performed using circular dichroism spectroscopy. PMID:12821315

Yang, Dan-Hui; Wildeman, Alan G; Sharom, Frances J

2003-07-01

298

Downregulation of COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling by isoliquiritigenin inhibits human breast cancer metastasis through preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion.  

PubMed

Flavonoids exert extensive in vitro anti-invasive and in vivo anti-metastatic activities. Anoikis resistance occurs at multiple key stages of the metastatic cascade. Here, we demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid from Glycyrrhiza glabra, inhibits human breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion through downregulating cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A signaling. ISL induced anoikis in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 human breast cancer cells as evidenced by flow cytometry and the detection of caspase cleavage. Moreover, ISL inhibited the mRNA expression of phospholipase A2, COX-2 and CYP 4A and decreased the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in detached MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, it decreased the levels of phospho-PI3K (Tyr(458)), phospho-PDK (Ser(241)) and phospho-Akt (Thr(308)). Conversely, the exogenous addition of PGE2, WIT003 (a 20-HETE analog) and an EP4 agonist (CAY10580) or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed ISL-induced anoikis. ISL exerted the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities, whereas the addition of PGE2, WIT003 and CAY10580 or overexpression of constitutively active Akt reversed the in vitro anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities of ISL in MDA-MB-231 cells. Notably, ISL inhibited the in vivo lung metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells, together with decreased intratumoral levels of PGE2, 20-HETE and phospho-Akt (Thr(308)). In conclusion, ISL inhibits breast cancer metastasis by preventing anoikis resistance, migration and invasion via downregulating COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling. It suggests that ISL could be a promising multi-target agent for preventing breast cancer metastasis, and anoikis could represent a novel mechanism through which flavonoids may exert the anti-metastatic activities. PMID:25094029

Zheng, Hao; Li, Ying; Wang, Yuzhong; Zhao, Haixia; Zhang, Jing; Chai, Hongyan; Tang, Tian; Yue, Jiang; Guo, Austin M; Yang, Jing

2014-10-01

299

The breast\\/nipple\\/areola complex and human sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The male or female breast\\/nipple\\/areola complex arises from a common mammary stem cell and develops similarly in the foetus and during infancy. At puberty the male's breasts remain rudimentary but the female's develop further, mainly through oestrogen and progesterone stimulation, and become more sensitive. Female breasts serve both nutritive and sexual functions, unlike other primates they develop at puberty before

Roy J. Levin

2006-01-01

300

Breast Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ... liver, or elsewhere. Continue Why Do People Get Breast Cancer? Any woman can get breast cancer, but doctors ...

301

Human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF): cloning, overexpression, purification and characterization  

PubMed Central

Background Biopharmaceutical drugs are mainly recombinant proteins produced by biotechnological tools. The patents of many biopharmaceuticals have expired, and biosimilars are thus currently being developed. Human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF) is a hematopoietic cytokine that acts on cells of the neutrophil lineage causing proliferation and differentiation of committed precursor cells and activation of mature neutrophils. Recombinant hG-CSF has been produced in genetically engineered Escherichia coli (Filgrastim) and successfully used to treat cancer patients suffering from chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Filgrastim is a 175 amino acid protein, containing an extra N-terminal methionine, which is needed for expression in E. coli. Here we describe a simple and low-cost process that is amenable to scaling-up for the production and purification of homogeneous and active recombinant hG-CSF expressed in E. coli cells. Results Here we describe cloning of the human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor coding DNA sequence, protein expression in E. coli BL21(DE3) host cells in the absence of isopropyl-?-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction, efficient isolation and solubilization of inclusion bodies by a multi-step washing procedure, and a purification protocol using a single cationic exchange column. Characterization of homogeneous rhG-CSF by size exclusion and reverse phase chromatography showed similar yields to the standard. The immunoassay and N-terminal sequencing confirmed the identity of rhG-CSF. The biological activity assay, in vivo, showed an equivalent biological effect (109.4%) to the standard reference rhG-CSF. The homogeneous rhG-CSF protein yield was 3.2 mg of bioactive protein per liter of cell culture. Conclusion The recombinant protein expression in the absence of IPTG induction is advantageous since cost is reduced, and the protein purification protocol using a single chromatographic step should reduce cost even further for large scale production. The physicochemical, immunological and biological analyses showed that this protocol can be useful to develop therapeutic bioproducts. In summary, the combination of different experimental strategies presented here allowed an efficient and cost-effective protocol for rhG-CSF production. These data may be of interest to biopharmaceutical companies interested in developing biosimilars and healthcare community. PMID:18394164

Vanz, Ana LS; Renard, Gaby; Palma, Mario S; Chies, Jocelei M; Dalmora, Sergio L; Basso, Luiz A; Santos, Diogenes S

2008-01-01

302

Reconstitution in liposomes of the functionally active human OCTN1 (SLC22A4) transporter overexpressed in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The hOCTN1 (human organic cation transporter 1) overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-chelating chromatography has been reconstituted in liposomes by detergent removal with a batch-wise procedure. The reconstitution was optimized with respect to the protein concentration, the detergent/phospholipid ratio and the time of incubation with Amberlite XAD-4 resin. Time-dependent [(14)C]tetraethylammonium, [(3)H]carnitine or [(3)H]ergothioneine uptake was measured in proteoliposomes with activities ratios of 8:1.3:1 respectively. Optimal activity was found at pH 8.0. The transport depended on intraliposomal ATP. [(14)C]tetraethylammonium transport was inhibited by several compounds. The most effective were acetyl-choline and ?-butyrobetaine, followed by acetylcarnitine and tetramethylammonium. Reagents such as pyridoxal 5-phosphate, MTSES [sodium (2-sulfonatoethyl) methanethiosulfonate] and mercurials strongly inhibited the transport. From kinetic analysis of tetraethylammonium transport a K(m) of 0.77 mM was calculated. Acetylcholine and ?-butyrobetaine behaved as competitive inhibitors of TEA (tetraethylammonium) transport with K(i) values of 0.44 and 0.63 mM respectively. PMID:21726197

Pochini, Lorena; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Amelio, Linda; Indiveri, Cesare

2011-10-15

303

Exploring the stem cell and non-stem cell constituents of human breast milk.  

PubMed

The immense potency of nutritional components of human breast milk and importance of breastfeeding is known worldwide. Recent researches had identified stem cells as integral component of human breast milk. Nevertheless, there is little proof of evidence on the stem cell constituents of breast milk. It is imperative to explore the cellular constituents of human breast milk, including of stem cells, to open new avenue in child's development and regeneration. Thus, we aimed at identifying the cellular constituents of human breast milk by phenotypic characterisation of diverse cell surface markers of hematopoietic stem cells (CD 34, CD 133, CD 117), mesenchymal stem cells (CD 90, CD 105, CD 73), myoepithelial cells (CD 29, CD 44), Immune cells (CD 209, CD 86, CD 83, CD 14, CD 13, HLADR, CD 45), as well as cell adhesion molecules (CD 31, CD 54, CD 166, CD 106, CD 49d), and other markers (ABCG2, CD140b) using flowcytometry. We found a lower expression of CD 34 (13.07 ± 2.0 %), CD 90 (7.79 ± 0.8 %) and CD 73 (2.19 ± 0.41 %), indicating scanty hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell population in human breast milk. On contrary, myoepithelial progenitors, cell adhesion molecules, immune cells and growth factors were identified as the major constituents of breast milk. Overall, this study illuminates the benefits of breast feeding as breast milk encompasses heterogeneous cellular components that benefits child's growth, immunity and development. However, further research on these constituents of human breast milk will widen their applicability in treatment of neonatal disorders. PMID:22940915

Indumathi, S; Dhanasekaran, M; Rajkumar, J S; Sudarsanam, D

2013-05-01

304

YB-1 transforms human mammary epithelial cells through chromatin remodeling leading to the development of basal-like breast cancer.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that cancer-initiation could result from epigenetic changes. Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is a transcription/translation factor that promotes the formation of tumors in transgenic mice; however, the underlying molecular events are not understood. To explore this in a human model system, YB-1 was expressed in mammary epithelial cells under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter. The induction of YB-1 promoted phenotypes associated with malignancy in three-dimensional breast acini cultures. This was attributed to YB-1 enhancing the expression and activity of the histone acetyltransferase p300 leading to chromatin remodeling. Specifically, this relaxation of chromatin allowed YB-1 to bind to the BMI1 promoter. The induction of BMI1 engaged the Polycomb complex resulting in histone H2A ubiquitylation and repression of the CDKN2A locus. These events manifested functionally as enhanced self-renewal capacity that occurred in a BMI1-dependent manner. Conversely, p300 inhibition with anacardic acid prevented YB-1 from binding to the BMI1 promoter and thereby subverted self-renewal. Despite these early changes, full malignant transformation was not achieved until RSK2 became overexpressed concomitant with elevated human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) activity. The YB-1/RSK2/hTERT expressing cells formed tumors in mice that were molecularly subtyped as basal-like breast cancer. We conclude that YB-1 cooperates with p300 to allow BMI1 to over-ride p16(INK4a) -mediated cell cycle arrest enabling self-renewal and the development of aggressive breast tumors. PMID:24648416

Davies, Alastair H; Reipas, Kristen M; Pambid, Mary Rose; Berns, Rachel; Stratford, Anna L; Fotovati, Abbas; Firmino, Natalie; Astanehe, Arezoo; Hu, Kaiji; Maxwell, Christopher; Mills, Gordon B; Dunn, Sandra E

2014-06-01

305

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing human basic fibroblast growth factor increase vasculogenesis in ischemic rats  

PubMed Central

Administration or expression of growth factors, as well as implantation of autologous bone marrow cells, promote in vivo angiogenesis. This study investigated the angiogenic potential of combining both approaches through the allogenic transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing human basic fibroblast growth factor (hbFGF). After establishing a hind limb ischemia model in Sprague Dawley rats, the animals were randomly divided into four treatment groups: MSCs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP-MSC), MSCs expressing hbFGF (hbFGF-MSC), MSC controls, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) controls. After 2 weeks, MSC survival and differentiation, hbFGF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and microvessel density of ischemic muscles were determined. Stable hbFGF expression was observed in the hbFGF-MSC group after 2 weeks. More hbFGF-MSCs than GFP-MSCs survived and differentiated into vascular endothelial cells (P<0.001); however, their differentiation rates were similar. Moreover, allogenic transplantation of hbFGF-MSCs increased VEGF expression (P=0.008) and microvessel density (P<0.001). Transplantation of hbFGF-expressing MSCs promoted angiogenesis in an in vivo hind limb ischemia model by increasing the survival of transplanted cells that subsequently differentiated into vascular endothelial cells. This study showed the therapeutic potential of combining cell-based therapy with gene therapy to treat ischemic disease. PMID:25118628

Zhang, J.C.; Zheng, G.F.; Wu, L.; Ou Yang, L.Y.; Li, W.X.

2014-01-01

306

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing human basic fibroblast growth factor increase vasculogenesis in ischemic rats.  

PubMed

Administration or expression of growth factors, as well as implantation of autologous bone marrow cells, promote in vivo angiogenesis. This study investigated the angiogenic potential of combining both approaches through the allogenic transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressing human basic fibroblast growth factor (hbFGF). After establishing a hind limb ischemia model in Sprague Dawley rats, the animals were randomly divided into four treatment groups: MSCs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP-MSC), MSCs expressing hbFGF (hbFGF-MSC), MSC controls, and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) controls. After 2 weeks, MSC survival and differentiation, hbFGF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and microvessel density of ischemic muscles were determined. Stable hbFGF expression was observed in the hbFGF-MSC group after 2 weeks. More hbFGF-MSCs than GFP-MSCs survived and differentiated into vascular endothelial cells (P<0.001); however, their differentiation rates were similar. Moreover, allogenic transplantation of hbFGF-MSCs increased VEGF expression (P=0.008) and microvessel density (P<0.001). Transplantation of hbFGF-expressing MSCs promoted angiogenesis in an in vivo hind limb ischemia model by increasing the survival of transplanted cells that subsequently differentiated into vascular endothelial cells. This study showed the therapeutic potential of combining cell-based therapy with gene therapy to treat ischemic disease. PMID:25118628

Zhang, J C; Zheng, G F; Wu, L; Ou Yang, L Y; Li, W X

2014-10-01

307

B-cell lymphoma 6 protein stimulates oncogenicity of human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) protein, an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger transcription factor, showed to be highly expressed in various human cancers in addition to malignancies in the lymphoid system. This study investigated the role of BCL6 expression in breast cancer and its clinical significance in breast cancer patients. Methods Expression of BCL6 protein was assessed using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in 127 breast cancer patients and 50 patients with breast benign disease as well as in breast cell lines. Expression of BCL6 was restored or knocked down in two breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and T47D) using BCL6 cDNA and siRNA, respectively. The phenotypic change of these breast cancer cell lines was assessed using cell viability MTT, Transwell invasion, colony formation, and flow cytometry assays and in a xenograft mice model. Luciferase reporter gene, immunoblot, and qRT-PCR were used to investigate the molecular events after manipulated BCL6 expression in breast cancer cells. Results BCL6 protein was highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines and tissue specimens and expression of BCL6 protein was associated with disease progression and poor survival of breast cancer patients. In vitro, the forced expression of BCL6 results in increased proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration, invasion and survival of breast cancer cell lines, whereas knockdown of BCL6 expression reduced these oncogenic properties of breast cancer cells. Moreover, forced expression of BCL6 increased tumor growth and invasiveness in a nude mouse xenograft model. At the gene level, BCL6 was a target gene of miR-339-5p. Expression of BCL6 induced expression of CXCR4 and cyclinD1 proteins. Conclusions The current study demonstrated the oncogenic property of BCL6 in breast cancer and further study could target BCL6 as a novel potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer. PMID:24917186

2014-01-01

308

Early Insights into the Function of KIAA1199, a Markedly Overexpressed Protein in Human Colorectal Tumors  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that the expression of KIAA1199 in human colorectal tumors (benign and malignant) is markedly higher than that in the normal colonic mucosa. In this study, we investigated the functions of the protein encoded by this gene, which are thus far unknown. Immunostaining studies were used to reveal its subcellular localization, and proteomic and gene expression experiments were conducted to identify proteins that might interact with KIAA1199 and molecular pathways in which it might play roles. Using colon cancer cell lines, we showed that both endogenous and ectopically expressed KIAA1199 is secreted into the extracellular environment. In the cells, it was found mainly in the perinuclear space (probably the ER) and cell membrane. Both cellular compartments were also over-represented in lists of proteins identified by mass spectrometry as putative KIAA1199 interactors and/or proteins encoded by genes whose transcription was significantly changed by KIAA1199 expression. These proteomic and transcriptomic datasets concordantly link KIAA1199 to several genes/proteins and molecular pathways, including ER processes like protein binding, transport, and folding; and Ca2+, G-protein, ephrin, and Wnt signaling. Immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed KIAA1199’s interaction with the cell-membrane receptor ephrin A2 and with the ER receptor ITPR3, a key player in Ca2+ signaling. By modulating Ca2+ signaling, KIAA1199 could affect different branches of the Wnt network. Our findings suggest it may negatively regulate the Wnt/CTNNB1 signaling, and its expression is associated with decreased cell proliferation and invasiveness. PMID:23936024

Tiwari, Amit; Schneider, Mirjam; Fiorino, Antonio; Haider, Ritva; Okoniewski, Michal J.; Roschitzki, Bernd; Uzozie, Anuli; Menigatti, Mirco; Jiricny, Josef; Marra, Giancarlo

2013-01-01

309

Overexpression of human lipoprotein lipase enhances uptake of lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein B-100 in transfected cells.  

PubMed

To investigate the role in lipoprotein metabolism of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) secreted by tissues, we established two cell lines. Fusion plasmids containing either human LPL cDNA or antisense LPL cDNA under control of the cytomegalovirus promoter were transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, designated as CHO-LPL and CHO-anti-LPL, respectively. CHO-LPL constitutively produced a high level of LPL, whereas CHO-anti-LPL produced a minimal level. When very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) was incubated with CHO-LPL, VLDL triglycerides were hydrolyzed, intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) was produced, and apolipoprotein E contents increased. CHO-LPL took up and degraded 125I-VLDL at 37 degrees C four times more strongly than did CHO-anti-LPL. Whereas the degradation of apolipoprotein E-deficient VLDL was only 12% that of normal VLDL in CHO-LPL, structural changes of the lipoprotein, including apolipoprotein E expression on the lipoprotein surface, may be important for the cellular uptake of VLDL. Furthermore, we found that binding at 4 degrees C of VLDL and LDL to CHO-LPL was greater than to CHO-anti-LPL, and this binding difference was abolished by washing the cells with heparin. This suggests that cell surface LPL plays a role in the binding of lipoproteins to the cells. We conclude that both the composition of VLDL particles and their cellular binding are influenced by LPL secreted by cells, both of which may enhance the cellular uptake of VLDL. PMID:8305414

Kawamura, M; Shimano, H; Gotoda, T; Harada, K; Shimada, M; Ohsuga, J; Inaba, T; Watanabe, Y; Yamamoto, K; Kozaki, K

1994-02-01

310

Free ?-human chorionic gonadotropin, total human chorionic gonadotropin and maternal risk of breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated whether the free ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (free ?-hCG) would provide additional information to that provided by total hCG alone and thus be useful in future epidemiological studies relating hCG to maternal breast cancer risk. Materials & methods Cases (n = 159) and controls (n = 286) were a subset of our previous study within the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort on total hCG during primiparous pregnancy and breast cancer risk. Results The associations between total hCG (hazard ratio: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.49–1.27), free ?-hCG (hazard ratio: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.33–2.18) and maternal risk of breast cancer were very similar in all analyses and mutual adjustment for either one had minor effects on the risk estimates. Conclusion In the absence of a reliable assay on intact hCG, total hCG alone can be used in epidemiological studies investigating hCG and breast cancer risk, as free ?-hCG does not appear to provide any additional information. PMID:24559445

Toriola, Adetunji T; Tolockiene, Egle; Schock, Helena; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Wadell, Goran; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva; Grankvist, Kjell; Lukanova, Annekatrin

2014-01-01

311

Frondoside A inhibits human breast cancer cell survival, migration, invasion and the growth of breast tumor xenografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is a major challenge for pharmacologists to develop new drugs to improve the survival of cancer patients. Frondoside A is a triterpenoid glycoside isolated from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa. It has been demonstrated that Frondoside A inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the impact of Frondoside A on human

Nadia Al Marzouqi; Rabah Iratni; Abderrahim Nemmar; Kholoud Arafat; Mahmood Ahmed Al Sultan; Javed Yasin; Peter Collin; Jan Mester; Thomas E. Adrian; Samir Attoub

2011-01-01

312

Knockdown of ANLN by lentivirus inhibits cell growth and migration in human breast cancer.  

PubMed

Anillin (ANLN), an actin-binding protein, is required for cytokinesis. Recently, ANLN has been identified as a biomarker in diverse human cancers; however, the precise role of ANLN in breast cancer remains unclear. In this study, we firstly detected the expression of ANLN in 71 patients with breast cancer by immunohistochemistry, and found ANLN was highly expressed in breast cancer tissues. To evaluate the function of ANLN in breast cancer cells, we employed lentivirus-mediated RNA interference to knock down ANLN expression in two human breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231, and ZR-75-30. Knockdown of ANLN remarkably inhibited the proliferation rate and colony formation ability of both breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis showed that depletion of ANLN in MDA-MB-231 cells blocked the cell cycle progression, with more cells delayed at G2/M phase, due to phosphorylation of Cdc2 and suppression of Cyclin D1. Furthermore, knockdown of ANLN strongly suppressed the migration of breast cancer cells, strengthening the evidence that ANLN could be involved in breast cancer progression. Our results may suggest ANLN as a potential target candidate in breast cancer. PMID:25223638

Zhou, Weibing; Wang, Zhan; Shen, Ni; Pi, Weiwei; Jiang, Wuzhong; Huang, Juan; Hu, Yuanping; Li, Xiong; Sun, Lunquan

2015-01-01

313

Identification of Genes Expressed in Premalignant Breast Disease by Microscopy-Directed Cloning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Histopathologic study of human breast biopsy samples has identified specific lesions which are associated with a high risk of development of invasive breast cancer. Presumably, these lesions (collectively termed premalignant breast disease) represent the earliest recognizable morphologic expression of fundamental molecular events that lead to the development of invasive breast cancer. To study molecular events underlying premalignant breast disease, we have developed a method for isolating RNA from histologically identified lesions from frozen human breast tissue. This method specifically obtains mRNA from breast epithelial cells and has identified three genes which are differentially expressed in premalignant breast epithelial lesions. One gene identified by this method is overexpressed in four of five noncomedo ductal carcinoma in situ lesions and appears to be the human homologue of the gene encoding the M2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme involved in DNA synthesis.

Jensen, Roy A.; Page, David L.; Holt, Jeffrey T.

1994-09-01

314

Negative regulation of the expressions of cytokeratins 8 and 19 by SLUG repressor protein in human breast cells  

PubMed Central

Invasiveness of tumor cells is often determined by the profile of their expressed genes. To determine the gene expression differences between an invasive and a non-invasive human breast tumor cells, we selected BT-549 (invasive) and MDA-MB-468 (non-invasive) cells, and compared their transcriptomes by cDNA microarray analysis. Among the significant differences in gene expressions, notable are the up-regulation of cytokeratins 8 and 19, and down-regulation of metallothioneins 1G and IL in MDA-MB-468 cells. Since MDA-MB-468 cells do not express SLUG, a member of a small family of E2-box-binding zinc finger silencer proteins, we studied whether the cytokeratin gene overexpressions in these cells are due to the absence of SLUG. Inducible expression of SLUG in MDA-MB-468 cells inhibited the expressions of the cytokeratin 8 and 19 but not others as was revealed by microarray analysis. Similarly, siRNA knock down of SLUG in BT-549 cells increased the expressions of those cytokeratin mRNAs. SLUG levels in the cell regulated the function of cytokeratins 8 and 19 gene promoters. We conclude that the expressions of cytokeratins and metallothioneins may be associated with the differential invasive behaviors of these breast tumor cells and SLUG may have regulatory roles in this process. PMID:15737616

Tripathi, Manish Kumar; Misra, Smita; Chaudhuri, Gautam

2011-01-01

315

miR-630 targets IGF1R to regulate response to HER-targeting drugs and overall cancer cell progression in HER2 over-expressing breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background While the treatment of HER2 over-expressing breast cancer with recent HER-targeted drugs has been highly effective for some patients, primary (also known as innate) or acquired resistance limits the success of these drugs. microRNAs have potential as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers, as well as replacement therapies. Here we investigated the role of microRNA-630 (miR-630) in breast cancer progression and as a predictive biomarker for response to HER-targeting drugs, ultimately yielding potential as a therapeutic approach to add value to these drugs. Methods We investigated the levels of intra- and extracellular miR-630 in cells and conditioned media from breast cancer cell lines with either innate- or acquired- resistance to HER-targeting lapatinib and neratinib, compared to their corresponding drug sensitive cell lines, using qPCR. To support the role of miR-630 in breast cancer, we examined the clinical relevance of this miRNA in breast cancer tumours versus matched peritumours. Transfection of miR-630 mimics and inhibitors was used to manipulate the expression of miR-630 to assess effects on response to HER-targeting drugs (lapatinib, neratinib and afatinib). Other phenotypic changes associated with cellular aggressiveness were evaluated by motility, invasion and anoikis assays. TargetScan prediction software, qPCR, immunoblotting and ELISAs, were used to assess miR-630’s regulation of mRNA, proteins and their phosphorylated forms. Results We established that introducing miR-630 into cells with innate- or acquired- resistance to HER-drugs significantly restored the efficacy of lapatinib, neratinib and afatinib; through a mechanism which we have determined to, at least partly, involve miR-630’s regulation of IGF1R. Conversely, we demonstrated that blocking miR-630 induced resistance/insensitivity to these drugs. Cellular motility, invasion, and anoikis were also observed as significantly altered by miR-630 manipulation, whereby introducing miR-630 into cells reduced cellular aggression while inhibition of miR-630 induced a more aggressive cellular phenotype. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest miR-630 as a key regulator of cancer cell progression in HER2 over-expressing breast cancer, through targeting of IGF1R. This study supports miR-630 as a diagnostic and a predictive biomarker for response to HER-targeted drugs and indicates that the therapeutic addition of miR-630 may enhance and improve patients’ response to HER-targeting drugs. PMID:24655723

2014-01-01

316

Human Breast Cancer Tissues Contain Abundant Phosphatidylcholine(36:1) with High Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-1 Expression  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer and mortality in women worldwide. Recent studies have argued that there is a close relationship between lipid synthesis and cancer progression because some enzymes related to lipid synthesis are overexpressed in breast cancer tissues. However, lipid distribution in breast cancer tissues has not been investigated. We aimed to visualize phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and lysoPCs (LPCs) in human breast cancer tissues by performing matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS), which is a novel technique that enables the visualization of molecules comprehensively. Twenty-nine breast tissue samples were obtained during surgery and subjected to MALDI-IMS analysis. We evaluated the heterogeneity of the distribution of PCs and LPCs on the tissues. Three species [PC(32?1), PC(34?1), and PC(36?1)] of PCs with 1 mono-unsaturated fatty acid chain and 1 saturated fatty acid chain (MUFA-PCs) and one [PC(34?0)] of PCs with 2 saturated fatty acid chains (SFA-PC) were relatively localized in cancerous areas rather than the rest of the sections (named reference area). In addition, the LPCs did not show any biased distribution. The relative amounts of PC(36?1) compared to PC(36?0) and that of PC(36?1) to LPC(18?0) were significantly higher in the cancerous areas. The protein expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), which is a synthetic enzyme of MUFA, showed accumulation in the cancerous areas as observed by the results of immunohistochemical staining. The ratios were further analyzed considering the differences in expressions of the estrogen receptor (ER), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67. The ratios of the signal intensity of PC(36?1) to that of PC(36?0) was higher in the lesions with positive ER expression. The contribution of SCD1 and other enzymes to the formation of the observed phospholipid composition is discussed. PMID:23613812

Hayasaka, Takahiro; Nishio, Tomohisa; Morita, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sasaki, Takeshi; Koizumi, Kei; Matsunuma, Ryoichi; Hosokawa, Yuko; Ogura, Hiroyuki; Shiiya, Norihiko; Setou, Mitsutoshi

2013-01-01

317

Wild-type genotypes of BRCA1 gene SNPs combined with micro-RNA over-expression in mammary tissue leading to familial breast cancer with an increased risk of distant metastases' occurrence.  

PubMed

Germ line deleterious mutations of BRCA1 gene are not the unique factor that could inactivate BRCA1 protein which leads to familial breast cancer onset with distant metastases' occurrence. The present research explores the role that could be assigned to BRCA1 SNPs to inactivate BRCA1 protein and therefore to the occurrence of familial breast cancer with an increased risk of distant metastases' occurrence. The presence or the absence of BRCA1 protein was first analyzed by applying the immunohistochemistry technique to the tumors with sporadic and familial breast cancer. Then, a case-control study was conducted including 40 patients with familial breast cancer, 46 ones with sporadic breast cancer and 34 healthy controls based on the genotyping of nine BRCA1 SNPs (c.442.58delT, c.2082C>T, c.2311T>C, c.2612C>T, c.3113A>G, c.3119G>A, c.3548A>G, c.4308T>C and 4837A>G) via direct sequencing. Finally, the functional role that could be assigned to these SNPs was focused upon. miRbase site was used as a bioinformatics tool to predict potential micro-RNAs (miRs) targeting SNPs that are associated with familial breast cancer according to the results of this research. These predicted miRs were confirmed by Q-PCR analysis and correlated with BRCA1 protein expression among patients along with potential distant metastases. Clinical outcome showed that distant metastasis concerned 45 % of familial breast cancer patients and 19.5 % with sporadic breast cancer. Analysis of BRCA1 protein expression revealed a negative staining among 46.6 % of familial breast cancer patients and only 16.6 % within sporadic breast cancer ones. The association of four variants was identified within BRCA1 gene (c.442.58 delT, c.2311T>C, c.2612C>T and c.4308T>C) to familial breast cancer across their wild genotypes. miR-1179 was selected as potential miR that targets the region of BRCA1 mRNA containing the c.2311T>C variant within the TT genotype. The expression of miR-1179 was significantly associated with familial breast cancer patients without BRCA1 deleterious mutations compared to those with sporadic breast cancer according to TT genotype along with BRCA1 negative staining and according to the occurrence of distant metastases. Combination between TT genotype of c.2311T>C and miR-1179 over-expression could generate a lack of BRCA1 protein leading to a high risk of familial breast cancer with distant metastases. PMID:25273865

Medimegh, Imen; Troudi, Wafa; Stambouli, Nejla; Khodjet-El-Khil, Houssein; Baroudi, Olfa; Ayari, Hajer; Omrane, Ines; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Privat, Maud; Mezlini, Amel; Ayed, Farhat Ben; Romdhane, Khaled Ben; Mader, Sylvie; Bignon, Yve Jean; Elgaaied, Amel Benammar

2014-11-01

318

Frondoside A inhibits human breast cancer cell survival, migration, invasion and the growth of breast tumor xenografts.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is a major challenge for pharmacologists to develop new drugs to improve the survival of cancer patients. Frondoside A is a triterpenoid glycoside isolated from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa. It has been demonstrated that Frondoside A inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the impact of Frondoside A on human breast cancer cell survival, migration and invasion in vitro, and on tumor growth in nude mice, using the human estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The non-tumorigenic MCF10-A cell line derived from normal human mammary epithelium was used as control. Frondoside A (0.01-5 ?M) decreased the viability of breast cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with 50%-effective concentration (EC50) of 2.5 ?M at 24h. MCF10-A cells were more resistant to the cytotoxic effect of Frondoside A (EC50 superior to 5 ?M at 24 h). In the MDA-MB-231 cells, Frondoside A effectively increased the sub-G1 (apoptotic) cell fraction through the activation of p53, and subsequently the caspases 9 and 3/7 cell death pathways. In addition, Frondoside A induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cell migration and invasion. In vivo, Frondoside A (100 ?g/kg/dayi.p. for 24 days) strongly decreased the growth of MDA-MB-231 tumor xenografts in athymic mice, without manifest toxic side-effects. Moreover, we found that Frondoside A could enhance the killing of breast cancer cells induced by the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel. These findings identify Frondoside A as a promising novel therapeutic agent for breast cancer. PMID:21741966

Al Marzouqi, Nadia; Iratni, Rabah; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Arafat, Kholoud; Ahmed Al Sultan, Mahmood; Yasin, Javed; Collin, Peter; Mester, Jan; Adrian, Thomas E; Attoub, Samir

2011-10-01

319

BreastDefend(TM) prevents breast-to-lung cancer metastases in an orthotopic animal model of triple-negative human breast cancer  

PubMed Central

We have recently demonstrated that a natural dietary supplement BreastDefend (BD), which contains extracts from medicinal mushrooms (Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus linteus), medicinal herbs (Scutellaria barbata, Astragalus membranaceus, Curcuma longa), and purified biologically active nutritional compounds (diindolylmethane and quercetin), inhibits proliferation and metastatic behavior of MDA-MB-231 invasive human breast cancer cells in vitro. In the present study, we evaluated whether BD suppresses growth and breast-to lung cancer metastasis in an orthotopic model of human breast cancer cells implanted in mice. Oral application of BD (100 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks) by intragastric gavage did not affect body weight or activity of liver enzymes and did not show any sign of toxicity in liver, spleen, kidney, lung and heart tissues in mice. Moreover, BD significantly decreased the change in tumor volume over time compared to the control group (p=0.002). BD treatment also markedly decreased the incidence of breast-to-lung cancer metastasis from 67% (control) to 20% (BD) (p<0.05) and the number of metastases from 2.8 (0.0, 48.0) in the control group to 0.0 (0.0, 14.2) in the BD treatment group (p<0.05). Finally, anti-metastatic activity of BD in vivo was further confirmed by the downregulation of expression of PLAU (urokinase plasminogen activator, uPA) and CXCR4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor-4) genes in breast tumors. In conclusion, BD may be considered as a biological therapeutic agent against invasive breast cancers. PMID:22842551

JIANG, JIAHUA; THYAGARAJAN-SAHU, ANITA; LOGANATHAN, JAGADISH; ELIAZ, ISAAC; TERRY, COLIN; SANDUSKY, GEORGE E.; SLIVA, DANIEL

2012-01-01

320

Automated quantification of aligned collagen for human breast carcinoma prognosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Mortality in cancer patients is directly attributable to the ability of cancer cells to metastasize to distant sites from the primary tumor. This migration of tumor cells begins with a remodeling of the local tumor microenvironment, including changes to the extracellular matrix and the recruitment of stromal cells, both of which facilitate invasion of tumor cells into the bloodstream. In breast cancer, it has been proposed that the alignment of collagen fibers surrounding tumor epithelial cells can serve as a quantitative image-based biomarker for survival of invasive ductal carcinoma patients. Specific types of collagen alignment have been identified for their prognostic value and now these tumor associated collagen signatures (TACS) are central to several clinical specimen imaging trials. Here, we implement the semi-automated acquisition and analysis of this TACS candidate biomarker and demonstrate a protocol that will allow consistent scoring to be performed throughout large patient cohorts. Methods: Using large field of view high resolution microscopy techniques, image processing and supervised learning methods, we are able to quantify and score features of collagen fiber alignment with respect to adjacent tumor-stromal boundaries. Results: Our semi-automated technique produced scores that have statistically significant correlation with scores generated by a panel of three human observers. In addition, our system generated classification scores that accurately predicted survival in a cohort of 196 breast cancer patients. Feature rank analysis reveals that TACS positive fibers are more well-aligned with each other, are of generally lower density, and terminate within or near groups of epithelial cells at larger angles of interaction. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the utility of a supervised learning protocol for streamlining the analysis of collagen alignment with respect to tumor stromal boundaries.

Bredfeldt, Jeremy S.; Liu, Yuming; Conklin, Matthew W.; Keely, Patricia J.; Mackie, Thomas R.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.

2014-01-01

321

Photothermal optical coherence tomography in ex vivo human breast tissues using gold nanoshells  

E-print Network

We demonstrate photothermal optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging in highly scattering human breast tissue ex vivo. A 120 kHz axial scan rate, swept-source phase-sensitive OCT system at 1300 nm was used to detect phase ...

Zhou, Chao

322

Tissue Specific DNA Methylation in Normal Human Breast Epithelium and in Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Cancer is a heterogeneous and tissue-specific disease. Thus, the tissue of origin reflects on the natural history of the disease and dictates the therapeutic approach. It is suggested that tissue differentiation, mediated mostly by epigenetic modifications, could guide tissue-specific susceptibility and protective mechanisms against cancer. Here we studied breast specific methylation in purified normal epithelium and its reflection in breast cancers. We established genome wide methylation profiles of various normal epithelial tissues and identified 110 genes that were differentially methylated in normal breast epithelium. A number of these genes also showed methylation alterations in breast cancers. We elaborated on one of them, TRIM29 (ATDC), and showed that its promoter was hypo-methylated in normal breast epithelium and heavily methylated in other normal epithelial tissues. Moreover, in breast carcinomas methylation increased and expression decreased whereas the reverse was noted for multiple other carcinomas. Interestingly, TRIM29 regulation in breast tumors clustered according to the PAM50 classification. Thus, it was repressed in the estrogen receptor positive tumors, particularly in the more proliferative luminal B subtype. This goes in line with previous reports indicating tumor suppressive activity of TRIM29 in estrogen receptor positive luminal breast cells in contrast to oncogenic function in pancreatic and lung cancers. Overall, these findings emphasize the linkage between breast specific epigenetic regulation and tissue specificity of cancer. PMID:24651077

Avraham, Ayelet; Cho, Sean Soonweng; Uhlmann, Ronit; Polak, Mia Leonov; Sandbank, Judith; Karni, Tami; Pappo, Itzhak; Halperin, Ruvit; Vaknin, Zvi; Sella, Avishay; Sukumar, Saraswati; Evron, Ella

2014-01-01

323

Identification of over-expressed genes in human renal cell carcinoma by combining suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA library array.  

PubMed

To isolate the over-expressed genes in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and analyze its molecular basis of carcinogenesis, we used the mRNA from human RCC tissues as tester and that from the matched normal kidney tissues as driver to construct the suppression subtractive hybridization library. 379 of the subtracted clones were arrayed onto a nylon membrane and the over-expressed genes were then screened by hybridizing the filter with radioactively labeled cDNA from RCC and matched normal kidney tissues. 67 clones over-expressed in RCC by a factor of 6 or more were sequenced and its identities were analyzed in GenBank database. 4 clones were previously unknown fragments and 2 clones represent KIAA genes. The rest clones were the known genes and some of them were RCC-related, including vascular endothelial growth factor, vimentin and tissue factor. Most of the known genes were the RCC-related genes previously unknown, including zinc ribbon domain-containing 1 protein (ZNRD1), pituitary tumor transforming gene1 (PTTG1). Northern blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that the mRNA levels of the 3 novel fragments and 1 KIAA and 3 known genes were significantly higher in RCC than in the matched normal kidney tissues. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis for PTTG1 and ZNRD1 revealed increased protein level in RCC. The over-expressed genes in RCC are the potential molecular targets for diagnosis and therapy and it is very important to understand the molecular mechanism of RCC through the profile of over-expressed genes. PMID:15379247

Ai, Junkui; Zhang, Zhiwen; Xin, Dianqi; Zhu, Hongjian; Yan, Quanjian; Xin, Zhongcheng; Na, Yanqun; Guo, Yinglu

2004-04-01

324

Growth inhibitory activity of cucurbitacin glucosides isolated from Citrullus colocynthis on human breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to study the effects of cucurbitacin glucosides extracted from Citrullus colocynthis leaves on human breast cancer cell growth. Leaves were extracted, resulting in the identification of cucurbitacin B\\/E glucosides. The cucurbitacin glucoside combination (1:1) inhibited growth of ER+ MCF-7 and ER? MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. Cell-cycle analysis showed that treatment with isolated cucurbitacin glucoside combination

Tehila Tannin-Spitz; Shlomo Grossman; Sara Dovrat; Hugo E. Gottlieb; Margalit Bergman

2007-01-01

325

Estrogen and its metabolites are carcinogenic agents in human breast epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogens play a crucial role in the development and evolution of human breast cancer. However, it is still unclear whether estrogens are carcinogenic to the human breast. There are three mechanisms that have been considered to be responsible for the carcinogenicity of estrogens: receptor-mediated hormonal activity, a cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolic activation, which elicits direct genotoxic effects by increasing mutation

Jose Russo; M. Hasan Lareef; Gabriela Balogh; Shanchun Guo; Irma H. Russo

2003-01-01

326

p53-dependent inhibition of progestin-induced VEGF expression in human breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

VEGF, a potent angiogenic growth factor, is up-regulated in many tumors including human breast tumors and stimulates growth of vascular networks that support tumor growth and metastasis. We previously reported that natural and synthetic progestins (P) increased VEGF mRNA and protein levels in progesterone receptor (PR) containing T47-D human breast cancer cells in a PR dependent manner, but not in

Yayun Liang; Jianbo Wu; George M. Stancel; Salman M. Hyder

2005-01-01

327

Biodistribution and Predictive Value of 18F-Fluorocyclophosphamide in Mice Bearing Human Breast Cancer Xenografts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mice bearing human breast cancer xenografts, we examined the biodistribution of 18F-fluorocyclophosphamide (18F-F-CP) to evaluate its potential as a noninvasive prognostic tool for pre- dicting the resistance of tumors to cyclophosphamide therapy. Methods: 18F-F-CP was synthesized as we recently described, and PET data were acquired after administration of 18F-F-CP in mice bearing human breast cancer xenografts (MCF-7 cells). Tracer

Amanda L. Kesner; Wei-Ann Hsueh; Nwe Linn Htet; Betty S. Pio; Johannes Czernin; Mark D. Pegram; Michael E. Phelps; Daniel H. S. Silverman

328

Insulin effects on methotrexate polyglutamate synthesis and enzyme binding in cultured human breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Previous studies have demonstrated that insulin augments methotrexate transport and enhances its cytotoxicity to human breast cancer cells. We therefore investigated the effects of insulin on methotrexate polyglutamate synthesis and binding to dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) in two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Cells were exposed to 2 ?M [3H]MTX and varying insulin concentrations for the desired

Richard L. Schilsky; Frederick S. Ordway

1985-01-01

329

Regulation of E2F-1 gene expression in human breast cancer cells  

E-print Network

REGULATION OF E2F-1 GENE EXPRESSION IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELLS A Dissertation by SHARON KHETHIWE NGWENYA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2005 Major Subject: Biochemistry REGULATION OF E2F-1 GENE EXPRESSION IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELLS A Dissertation by SHARON KHETHIWE NGWENYA Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial...

Ngwenya, Sharon Khethiwe

2005-08-29

330

The role and regulation of the nuclear receptor co-activator AIB1 in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIB1 (amplified in breast cancer 1), also called SRC-3 and NCoA-3, is a member of the p160 nuclear receptor co-activator family and is considered an important\\u000a oncogene in breast cancer. Increased AIB1 levels in human breast cancer have been correlated with poor clinical prognosis.\\u000a Overexpression of AIB1 in conjunction with members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF\\/HER) tyrosine kinase

Tyler Lahusen; Ralf T. Henke; Benjamin L. Kagan; Anton Wellstein; Anna T. Riegel

2009-01-01

331

Involvement of Autophagy in Cardiac Remodeling in Transgenic Mice with Cardiac Specific Over-Expression of Human Programmed Cell Death 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) is a cytosolic protein suppressing growth of multiple types of cancer cells through activating p53. We hypothesized that PDCD5 plays an essential role in cardiac remodeling and function. PDCD5 was significantly up-regulated in the hearts from mice subjected to angiotensin II treatment or transverse aortic constriction. Thus, we generated transgenic mice over-expressing human PDCD5 under

Lin An; Xiwen Zhao; Jian Wu; Jianguo Jia; Yunzeng Zou; Xizhi Guo; Lin He; Hongxin Zhu

2012-01-01

332

Overexpression of M68/DcR3 in human gastrointestinal tract tumors independent of gene amplification and its location in a four-gene cluster  

PubMed Central

Fas-mediated apoptosis is an important regulator of cell survival, and abnormalities in this system have been shown to result in a number of human pathological conditions. A secreted member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, DcR3, was recently reported to be amplified in human lung and colon cancers as a negative regulator of Fas-mediated apoptosis. We identified this gene, which we call M68. M68 genomic DNA, mRNA, and protein levels were examined in a series of human gastrointestinal tract tumors. Using M68 immunohistochemistry and a scoring system similar to that used for HER-2/neu, we found that M68 protein was overexpressed in 30 of 68 (44%) human adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, colon, and rectum. Tumors examined by Northern blot revealed M68 mRNA highly elevated in a similar fraction of primary tumors from the same gastrointestinal tract regions, as well as in the colon adenocarcinoma cell lines SW480 and SW1116. Further, we found M68 protein to be overexpressed in a substantial number of tumors in which gene amplification could not be detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization or quantitative genomic PCR, suggesting that overexpression of M68 may precede amplification in tumors. Finally, we find that M68 lies within a four-gene cluster that includes a novel helicase-like gene (NHL) related to RAD3/ERCC2, a plasma membrane Ras-related GTPase and a member of the stathmin family, amplification or overexpression of which may also contribute to cell growth and tumor progression. PMID:10655513

Bai, Chang; Connolly, Brett; Metzker, Michael L.; Hilliard, Catherine A.; Liu, Xiaomei; Sandig, Volker; Soderman, Avery; Galloway, Sheila M.; Liu, Qingyun; Austin, Christopher P.; Caskey, C. Thomas

2000-01-01

333

Differential Neuroprotection from Human Heat Shock Protein 70 Overexpression in in Vitro and in Vivo Models of Ischemia and Ischemia-like Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously showed that overexpressing the 70-kDa inducible heat shock protein in primary astrocyte cultures and in a rodent stroke model using viral vectors resulted in protection from ischemia and ischemia-like injury. However, viral transfection could potentially provoke a stress response itself; therefore, we examined whether transgenic mice constitutively expressing human heat shock protein 70 were protected from ischemic insults.

Jong Eun Lee; Midori A. Yenari; Guo Hua Sun; Lijun Xu; Michelle R. Emond; Danye Cheng; Gary K. Steinberg; Rona G. Giffard

2001-01-01

334

Involvement of Autophagy in Cardiac Remodeling in Transgenic Mice with Cardiac Specific Over-Expression of Human Programmed Cell Death 5  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) is a cytosolic protein suppressing growth of multiple types of cancer cells through activating p53. We hypothesized that PDCD5 plays an essential role in cardiac remodeling and function. PDCD5 was significantly up-regulated in the hearts from mice subjected to angiotensin II treatment or transverse aortic constriction. Thus, we generated transgenic mice over-expressing human PDCD5 under the control of alpha myosin heavy chain promoter to examine the role of PDCD5 in cardiac remodeling. Transgenic founder died spontaneously displayed enlarged heart. The high PDCD5 over-expressing line (10-fold) showed reduced survival rate, increase in heart weight normalized to body weight. Real-Time RT-PCR analysis revealed fetal gene program was up-regulated. Echocardiography and histopathological examination showed characteristics of dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure in transgenic mice. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis showed autophagy was dramatically increased in transgenic mice as compared to WT littermates control mice, while apoptosis remained unchanged. The enhanced autophagy in high over-expressing line was associated with significant increase in p53 activity and its downstream target damage-regulated autophagy modulator expression. The low over-expressing line (3.5-fold) appeared normal, but was more susceptible to angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy. This study is the first providing evidence that PDCD5 plays an important role in cardiac remodeling. PMID:22253891

An, Lin; Zhao, Xiwen; Wu, Jian; Jia, Jianguo; Zou, Yunzeng; Guo, Xizhi; He, Lin; Zhu, Hongxin

2012-01-01

335

TC-1 Overexpression Promotes Cell Proliferation in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer that Can Be Inhibited by PD173074  

PubMed Central

Thyroid cancer-1 (TC-1), a natively disordered protein, is widely expressed in vertebrates and overexpressed in many kinds of tumors. However, its exact role and regulation mechanism in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are still unclear. In the present study, we found that TC-1 is highly expressed in NSCLC and that its aberrant expression is strongly associated with NSCLC cell proliferation. Exogenous TC-1 overexpression promotes cell proliferation, accelerates the cell G1-to-S-phase transition, and reduces apoptosis in NSCLC. The knockdown of TC-1, however, inhibits NSCLC cell proliferation, cycle transition, and apoptosis resistance. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that PD173074, which functions as an inhibitor of the TC-1 in NSCLC, decreases the expression of TC-1 and inhibits TC-1 overexpression mediated cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Nevertheless, the inhibition function of PD173074 on NSCLC cell proliferation was eliminated in cells with TC-1 knockdown. These results suggest that PD173074 plays a significant role in TC-1 overexpression mediated NSCLC cell proliferation and may be a potential intervention target for the prevention of cell proliferation in NSCLC. PMID:24941347

Zhang, Na; Bai, Guangzhen; Zhong, Daixing; Su, Kai; Liu, Boya; Li, Xiaofei; Wang, Yunjie; Wang, Xiaoping

2014-01-01

336

Intracellular A? pathology and early cognitive impairments in a transgenic rat overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein: a multidimensional study  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have implicated the abnormal accumulation of intraneuronal amyloid-? (A?) as an important contributor to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology, capable of triggering neuroinflammation, tau hyperphosphorylation and cognitive deficits. However, the occurrence and pathological relevance of intracellular A? remain a matter of controversial debate. In this study, we have used a multidimensional approach including high-magnification and super-resolution microscopy, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) mass spectrometry analysis and ELISA to investigate the A? pathology and its associated cognitive impairments, in a novel transgenic rat model overexpressing human APP. Our microscopy studies with quantitative co-localization analysis revealed the presence of intraneuronal A? in transgenic rats, with an immunological signal that was clearly distinguished from that of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its C-terminal fragments (CTFs). The early intraneuronal pathology was accompanied by a significant elevation of soluble A?42 peptides that paralleled the presence and progression of early cognitive deficits, several months prior to amyloid plaque deposition. A?38, A?39, A?40 and A?42 peptides were detected in the rat CSF by MALDI-MS analysis even at the plaque-free stages; suggesting that a combination of intracellular and soluble extracellular A? may be responsible for impairing cognition at early time points. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the intraneuronal development of AD-like amyloid pathology includes a mixture of molecular species (A?, APP and CTFs) of which a considerable component is A?; and that the early presence of these species within neurons has deleterious effects in the CNS, even before the development of full-blown AD-like pathology. PMID:24903713

2014-01-01

337

Hexokinase II inhibitor, 3-BrPA induced autophagy by stimulating ROS formation in human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Hexokinase II (HKII), a key enzyme of glycolysis, is widely over-expressed in cancer cells. 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), an inhibitor of HK II, has been proposed as a specific antitumor agent. Autophagy is a process that regulates the balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. Autophagy in mammalian systems occurs under basal conditions and can be stimulated by stresses, including starvation, oxidative stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that 3-BrPA could induce autophagy. In the present study, we explored the mechanism of 3-BrPA and its combined action with chloroquine. Our results demonstrate that in MDA-MB-435 and in MDA-MB-231 cells, 3-BrPA induces autophagy, which can be inhibited by chloroquine. Furthermore, the combined treatment synergistically decreased the number of viable cells. Interestingly, the combined treatment triggered apoptosis in MDA-MB-435 cells, while it induced necroptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. ROS mediated cell death when 3-BrPA and CQ were co-administered. Finally, CQ enhanced the anticancer efficacy of 3-BrPA in vivo. Collectively, our results show that 3-BrPA triggers autophagy, increasing breast cancer cell resistance to 3-BrPA treatment and that CQ enhanced 3-BrPA-induced cell death in breast cancer cells by stimulating ROS formation. Thus, inhibition of autophagy may be an innovative strategy for adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer.human skeletal muscle. Efficient Mirk depletion in SU86.86 pancreatic cancer cells by an inducible shRNA decreased expression of eight antioxidant genes. Thus both cancer cells and differentiated myotubes utilize Mirk kinase to relieve oxidative stress. PMID:25053988

Zhang, Qianwen; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Pei; Chao, Zhenhua; Xia, Fei; Jiang, Chenchen; Zhang, Xudong; Jiang, Zhiwen; Liu, Hao

2014-03-01

338

Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) Polymorphism and Expression in Breast Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is known to be implicated in a tumor-driven immune escape mechanism in malignancies. The purpose of this study was to investigate HLA-G polymorphism and expression in breast cancer. HLA-G alleles were determined by direct DNA sequencing procedures from blood samples of 80 breast cancer patients and 80 healthy controls. Soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from serum specimens. HLA-G expression in breast cancer lesions was also analyzed by immunohistochemistry staining. The presence of HLA-G 3? untranslated region (UTR) 14-bp sequence was analyzed and found to be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer susceptibility based on HLA-G expression in tissues (P?=?0.0407). Levels of sHLA-G were higher in the breast cancer group (median 117.2 U/mL) compared to the control group (median 10.1 U/mL, P<0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AU-ROC) values of sHLA-G for differentiating breast cancer from normal controls and for detecting metastasis from other stages of breast cancer were 0.89 and 0.79, respectively. HLA-G polymorphism and expression may be involved in breast carcinogenesis and sHLA-G concentrations could be used as a diagnostic marker for detecting breast cancer. PMID:24870375

Jeong, Seri; Park, Seho; Park, Byeong-Woo; Park, Younhee; Kwon, Oh-Joong; Kim, Hyon-Suk

2014-01-01

339

Growth and metastasis of human breast carcinomas with Matrigel in athymic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunodeficient athymic mice with human tumor xenografts provide an importantin vivo experimental model for cancer research. However, only a limited number of tumor types grow in these animals. For human breast carcinomas, the incidence of tumor-take is 6–15%. Recently, increased incidence of xenograft development in mice has been reported for various human tumors when the tumors were coinjected with Matrigel.

Rajeshwari R. Mehta; Jewell M. Graves; Gloria D. Hart; Anne Shilkaitis; Tapas K. Gupta

1993-01-01

340

Combined photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging of human breast in vivo in the mammographic geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This photoacoustic volume imaging (PAVI) system is designed to study breast cancer detection and diagnosis in the mammographic geometry in combination with automated 3D ultrasound (AUS). The good penetration of near-infrared (NIR) light and high receiving sensitivity of a broad bandwidth, 572 element, 2D PVDF array at a low center-frequency of 1MHz were utilized with 20 channel simultaneous acquisition. The feasibility of this system in imaging optically absorbing objects in deep breast tissues was assessed first through experiments on ex vivo whole breasts. The blood filled pseudo lesions were imaged at depths up to 49 mm in the specimens. In vivo imaging of human breasts has been conducted. 3D PAVI image stacks of human breasts were coregistered and compared with 3D ultrasound image stacks of the same breasts. Using the designed system, PAVI shows satisfactory imaging depth and sensitivity for coverage of the entire breast when imaged from both sides with mild compression in the mammographic geometry. With its unique soft tissue contrast and excellent sensitivity to the tissue hemodynamic properties of fractional blood volume and blood oxygenation, PAVI, as a complement to 3D ultrasound and digital tomosynthesis mammography, might well contribute to detection, diagnosis and prognosis for breast cancer.

Xie, Zhixing; Lee, Won-Mean; Hooi, Fong Ming; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Pinsky, Renee W.; Mueller, Dean; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L.

2013-03-01

341

Overexpression of enhancer of zeste human homolog 2 (EZH2) gene in human cytomegalovirus positive glioblastoma multiforme tissues.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is considered to be one of the most invasive human cancers, characterized by a high mortality rate and an average survival is <1 year. These tumors are highly aggressive and insensitive to conventional radio and chemotherapy. An interesting aspect of glioblastoma is the association of active human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, which is evident by the presence of viral DNA, mRNA and protein level in most glioblastoma tissues. Although the presence of the HCMV infection in glioblastoma is well established, but the oncomodulatory role of HCMV is not defined yet. Enhancer of zeste human homolog 2 (EZH2) is a key protein of the polycomb repressive complex 2, epigenetic gene silencers. There have been several reports that EZH2 activity is essential in GBM pathogenesis. In our previous research, we have found a high rate of HCMV infection in a cohort of Iranian glioblastoma patients. In this study, we investigated the expression of EZH2 in HCMV-negative versus HCMV-positive GBM tissues in comparison to non-tumor tissues. The level of expression was determined by real time PCR and the differences were calculated using the Livac or 2(-??Ct) and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Relative expression of EZH2 in HCMV-negative glioblastoma tissues were increased 6.053-fold compared to non-neoplastic brain tissues, while EZH2 gene expression was increased 41.098-fold in HCMV-positive glioblastoma tissues. ANOVA test showed that there is a significant difference in EZH2 expression between normal brain tissue, HCMV-negative and HCMV-positive glioblastoma tumors (p value = 0.0001). Our data indicate that EZH2 expression can be considered a risk factor in glioblastoma and EZH2 inhibitors may serve as potential new treatment in glioblastoma. This would be an interesting new field to investigate in more detail. PMID:25294424

Ahani, Narges; Shirkoohi, Reza; Rokouei, Mohammad; Alipour Eskandani, Majid; Nikravesh, Abbas

2014-11-01

342

Human papillomavirus infection in Bowen disease: Negative p53 expression, not p16(INK) (4a) overexpression, is correlated with human papillomavirus-associated Bowen disease.  

PubMed

Genital Bowen disease (BD) has been linked to the high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Recently, it has been recognized that HPV also can be associated with extragenital BD. HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7 interfere with the function of p53 and pRb, respectively, leading carcinogenesis. p16(INK) (4a) overexpression induced by inactivation of pRb is recognized as a surrogate marker for HPV-associated cervical cancer. In this study, we examined the presence of HPV DNA in 142 BD lesions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and determined the type of HPV by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism or direct DNA sequencing. HPV DNA was detected in 66.7% of genital BD and 8.3% of extragenital BD. The types of HPV detected were HPV types 6, 16, 33, 52, 56, 58 and 59. We also investigated the expression of p16(INK) (4a) , pRb and p53 by immunohistochemistry. Positive expression was detected in 88.6% for p16(INK) (4a) , 25.2% for pRb, and 63.8% for p53. There was no significant difference in p16(INK) (4a) and pRb expression between HPV-positive and -negative BD. However, a strong correlation of HPV positivity with p53 negativity was found. A total of 66.7% of HPV-positive BD showed no p53 expression, whereas the corresponding rate was 32.8% of HPV-negative BD. This study demonstrated that HPV can participate in the development of BD, not only in the genital lesion, but also in extragenital lesion. p16(INK) (4a) overexpression is not a marker for HPV infection in BD. Instead, negative p53 expression is correlated with HPV-associated BD. PMID:25201325

Murao, Kazutoshi; Yoshioka, Rika; Kubo, Yoshiaki

2014-10-01

343

Novel sorafenib analogues induce apoptosis through SHP-1 dependent STAT3 inactivation in human breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is constitutively activated in various cancers including breast cancer and has emerged as a novel potential anti-cancer target. STAT3 has been demonstrated to be a target of sorafenib, and a protein tyrosine phosphatase Src homology 2-domain containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) has been demonstrated to downregulate p-STAT3 via its phosphatase activity. Here, we tested the efficacy of two sorafenib analogues, SC-1 and SC-43, in breast cancer cells and examined the drug mechanism. Methods Breast cancer cell lines were used for in vitro studies. Cell viability was examined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry and western blot. Signal transduction pathways in cells were assessed by western blot. In vivo efficacy of sorafenib, SC-1 and SC-43 was tested in xenografted nude mice. Results SC-1 and SC-43 induced more potent apoptosis than sorafenib, in association with downregulation of p-STAT3 and its downstream proteins cyclin D1 and survivin in a dose-dependent manner in breast cancer cell lines (HCC-1937, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-453, SK-BR3, MCF-7). Overexpression of STAT3 in MDA-MB-468 cells protected the cells from apoptosis induced by sorafenib, SC-1 and SC-43. Moreover, SC-1 and SC-43 upregulated SHP-1 activity to a greater extent than sorafenib as measured by in vitro phosphatase assays. Knockdown of SHP-1 by siRNA reduced apoptosis induced by SC-1 and SC-43. Importantly, SC-1 and SC-43 showed more efficacious antitumor activity and p-STAT3 downregulation than sorafenib in MDA-MB-468 xenograft tumors. Conclusions Novel sorafenib analogues SC-1 and SC-43 induce apoptosis through SHP-1 dependent STAT3 inactivation and demonstrate greater potency than sorafenib in human breast cancer cells. PMID:23938089

2013-01-01

344

Compensated individually addressable array technology for human breast imaging  

DOEpatents

A method of forming broad bandwidth acoustic or microwave beams which encompass array design, array excitation, source signal preprocessing, and received signal postprocessing. This technique uses several different methods to achieve improvement over conventional array systems. These methods are: 1) individually addressable array elements; 2) digital-to-analog converters for the source signals; 3) inverse filtering from source precompensation; and 4) spectral extrapolation to expand the bandwidth of the received signals. The components of the system will be used as follows: 1) The individually addressable array allows scanning around and over an object, such as a human breast, without any moving parts. The elements of the array are broad bandwidth elements and efficient radiators, as well as detectors. 2) Digital-to-analog converters as the source signal generators allow virtually any radiated field to be created in the half-space in front of the array. 3) Preprocessing allows for corrections in the system, most notably in the response of the individual elements and in the ability to increase contrast and resolution of signal propagating through the medium under investigation. 4) Postprocessing allows the received broad bandwidth signals to be expanded in a process similar to analytic continuation. Used together, the system allows for compensation to create beams of any desired shape, control the wave fields generated to correct for medium differences, and improve contract and resolution in and through the medium.

Lewis, D. Kent (San Francisco, CA)

2003-01-01

345

Silica-gold nanoshells as potential intraoperative molecular probes for HER2-overexpression in ex vivo breast tissue using near-infrared reflectance confocal microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obtaining negative margins is critical for breast cancer patients undergoing conservation therapy in order to reduce the reemergence\\u000a of the original cancer. Currently, breast cancer tumor margins are examined in a pathology lab either while the patient is\\u000a anesthetized or after the surgical procedure has been terminated. These current methods often result in cancer cells present\\u000a at the surgical resection

Lissett R. Bickford; Germaine Agollah; Rebekah Drezek; Tse-Kuan Yu

2010-01-01

346

Twist2 contributes to breast cancer progression by promoting an epithelial–mesenchymal transition and cancer stem-like cell self-renewal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved cellular programme that has an important role in normal embryogenesis and in cancer invasion and metastasis. We report here that Twist2, a tissue-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is overexpressed in human breast cancers and lymph node metastases. In mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells, ectopic overexpression of Twist2 results

X Fang; Y Cai; J Liu; Z Wang; Q Wu; Z Zhang; C J Yang; L Yuan; G Ouyang

2011-01-01

347

Overexpression of human CRB1 or related isoforms, CRB2 and CRB3, does not regulate the human presenilin complex in culture cells.  

PubMed

The presenilin proteins (PS1 and PS2) with their partners (NCT, Aph1, and Pen2) are the major components of the high molecular weight gamma-secretase complex which facilitates the intramembraneous cleavage of various type 1 transmembrane proteins, including the amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) and the Notch receptor. Additional gamma-secretase complex components may be involved in regulation of its activity and specificity. A recent investigation indicated that the Crumbs protein is a negative regulator of Notch signaling and may act by repressing gamma/epsilon-secretase activity in Drosophila [Herranz, H., Stamataki, E., Feiguin, F., and Milan, M. (2006) EMBO Rep. 7, 297-302]. To address this question, we investigated potential functional interactions between the human Crumbs homologues (CRB1, CRB2, and CRB3) and presenilin complexes which mediate gamma/epsilon-secretase cleavage of APP and Notch. We found no evidence for direct interaction between CRB1, CRB2, or CRB3 and presenilin complex components. Furthermore, overexpression of human CRB1 and related isoforms, CRB2 and CRB3, had no effect on the levels of presenilin complex components, on NCT maturation or on PS endoproteolysis, and did not alter Abeta AICD or NICD production. These results suggest that, in mammalian cells at least, Crumbs is unlikely to be a significant direct modulator of presenilin-dependent gamma/epsilon-secretase activity. PMID:17988153

Pardossi-Piquard, Raphaëlle; Chen, Fusheng; Silva-Gagliardi, Nancy F; Szego, Michael; McInnes, Roderick; McGlade, C Jane; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Fraser, Paul E

2007-12-01

348

Down?regulation of gelsolin expression in human breast ductal carcinoma in situ with and without invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of gelsolin, an actin filament regulatory protein, in human breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 59 pure DCIS specimens and 33 DCIS specimens with associated invasive components were evaluated for gelsolin reactivity and compared to eight normal breast cases and 76 invasive breast cancers. The proportion of

Harold L. Asch; Janet S. Winston; Stephen B. Edge; Paul C. Stomper; Bonnie B. Asch

1999-01-01

349

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and evaluation of human breast tissue: preliminary clinical trials  

SciTech Connect

In vivo clinical evaluations of human mammary tissue, including normal, dysplastic, and neoplastic breasts, were initiated using the FONAR method of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging. Spin-lattice relaxation times (T/sub 1/) were determined and correlated with other diagnostic modalities including mammography, xeroradiography, and sonography. Normal breasts and breasts with extensive fatty replacement were found to have the lowest T/sub 1/ values, whereas T/sub 1/ values of malignant tissue were elevated. T/sub 1/ values for mammary dysplasia extended over a wide range, and NMR images exhibited lower proton density than normal tissues. In several patients with severely dysplastic breasts, T/sub 1/ values overlapped those from patients with documented breast neoplasms. Markedly elevated T/sub 1/ values were obtained from fluidfilled cysts that were well beyond the range of malignancy.

Ross, R.J.; Thompson, J.S.; Kim, K.; Bailey, R.A.

1982-04-01

350

VIS-NIR spectrum analysis for distinguishing tumor and normal human breast tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high incidence and mortality of breast cancer require an effective method for early breast diagnosis. In order to investigate the optical differences among malignant tumor, benign tumor and normal human breast tissue, a commercial spectrophotometer combined with single integrating sphere was used to measure the optical properties of different types of breast tissue in the wavelength range of 400 nm to 2200 nm in vitro. The hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E staining) are used as the standard, and to find the find possible optical markers from the corresponding absorption or scattering spectra. This work is not only used for in vitro rapid optical diagnosis, but very helpful to develop innovative optical diagnosis of breast tumor in vivo.

Zhang, Yang; Yu, Yuan; Tuchin, Valery V.; Chen, Yongjun; Wen, Xiang; Liu, Caihua; Wang, Jing; Xue, Xingbo; Zhu, Dan

2012-03-01

351

Stimulation of proliferation by 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine in poorly differentiated human hepatocarcinoma cells overexpressing beta 1 thyroid hormone receptor.  

PubMed

To understand the role of thyroid hormone nuclear receptors (TRs) in hepatocarcinogenesis, we characterized the TRs in nine human hepatocarcinoma cell lines. The expression of TR proteins is receptor subtype- and cell type-dependent. TR alpha 1 protein expresses similarly at a low level in each of the nine cell lines. In contrast, TR beta 1 is overexpressed in hepatocarcinoma cells which are poorly differentiated. Furthermore, thyroid hormone was found to stimulate the proliferation of cells in which TR beta 1 is overexpressed. These results suggest that TR beta 1 is most likely involved in the differentiation and proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells. Our studies have shed new light in the understanding of the role of TRs in liver carcinogenesis. PMID:7954336

Lin, K H; Lin, Y W; Parkison, C; Cheng, S Y

1994-10-14

352

Analysis of HOX gene expression patterns in human breast cancer.  

PubMed

HOX genes are highly conserved transcription factors that determine the identity of cells and tissues along the anterior-posterior body axis in developing embryos. Aberrations in HOX gene expression have been shown in various tumors. However, the correlation of HOX gene expression patterns with tumorigenesis and cancer progression has not been fully characterized. Here, to analyze putative candidate HOX genes involved in breast cancer tumorigenesis and progression, the expression patterns of 39 HOX genes were analyzed using breast cancer cell lines and patient-derived breast tissues. In vitro analysis revealed that HOXA and HOXB gene expression occurred in a subtype-specific manner in breast cancer cell lines, whereas most HOXC genes were strongly expressed in most cell lines. Among the 39 HOX genes analyzed, 25 were chosen for further analysis in malignant and non-malignant tissues. Fourteen genes, encoding HOXA6, A13, B2, B4, B5, B6, B7, B8, B9, C5, C9, C13, D1, and D8, out of 25 showed statistically significant differential expression patterns between non-malignant and malignant breast tissues and are putative candidates associated with the development and malignant progression of breast cancer. Our data provide a valuable resource for furthering our understanding of HOX gene expression in breast cancer and the possible involvement of HOX genes in tumor progression. PMID:23820980

Hur, Ho; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Yun, Hyo Jung; Park, Byeong Woo; Kim, Myoung Hee

2014-01-01

353

Overexpression of Bcl-xs Sensitizes MCF7 Cells to Chemotherapy-induced Apoptosis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance to apoptosis plays an important role in tumors that are refractory to chemotherapy. We report that Bcl-x,, which functions like Bcl-2 to inhibit apoptosis, is highly expressed in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. We used Bcl-xs, a dominant negative inhibitor of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x,, to demonstrate the role of these genes in modulating chemo therapy-induced apoptosis. Bcl-xs overexpressed in

Venil N. Sumantran; Mark W. Ealovega; Gabriel Nunez; Michael F. Clarke; Max S. Wicha

1995-01-01

354

Optimization of heterologous protein production in Chinese hamster ovary cells under overexpression of spliced form of human X-box binding protein  

PubMed Central

Background The optimization of protein production is a complex and challenging problem in biotechnology. Different techniques for transcription, translation engineering and the optimization of cell culture conditions have been used to improve protein secretion, but there remain many open problems involving post-translational modifications of the secreted protein and cell line stability. Results In this work, we focus on the regulation of secreted protein specific productivity (using a recombinant human immunoglobulin G (IgG)) by controlling the expression of the spliced form of human X-box binding protein (XBP-(s)) in Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) under doxycycline (DOX) induction at different temperatures. We observed a four-fold increase in specific IgG productivity by CHO cells under elevated concentrations of DOX at 30°C compared to 37°C, without detectable differences in binding activity in vitro or changes in the structural integrity of IgG. In addition, we found a correlation between the overexpression of human XBP-1(s) (and, as a consequence, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) size expansion) and the specific IgG productivity under DOX induction. Conclusions Our data suggest the T-REx system overexpressing human XBP-1(s) can be successfully used in CHO-K1 cells for human immunoglobulin production. PMID:24725707

2014-01-01

355

Overexpression of Human ABCB1 in Cancer Cells Leads to Reduced Activity of GSK461364, a Specific Inhibitor of Polo-like Kinase 1.  

PubMed

Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a serine/threonine kinase involved in the regulation of mitosis and is overexpressed in many tumor types. Inhibition of Plk1 leads to cell cycle arrest, onset of apoptosis, and cell death, thus Plk1 has emerged as an important target for cancer treatment. GSK461364 is a potent inhibitor of Plk1 that inhibits the proliferation of multiple human cancer cell lines by promoting G2/M cell cycle arrest at low concentrations. However, as is the case for many therapeutic drugs, the risk of developing drug resistance to GSK461364 can present a therapeutic challenge to clinicians. Since the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporter ABCB1 is one of the most common mechanisms of drug resistance, we aimed to investigate the effect of ABCB1 on the cellular efficacy of GSK461364. In this study, we observed a significantly reduced activity of GSK461364 in cells overexpressing human ABCB1. We showed that GSK461364 stimulates the ABCB1 ATPase activity and competitively inhibits ABCB1-mediated efflux of calcein-AM in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, as a way to assess the impact of ABCB1 on the efficacy of GSK461364, we evaluated the G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by GSK461364. We discovered that, by inhibiting the function of ABCB1, the reduced G2/M cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and sensitivity to GSK461364 treatment in ABCB1-overexpressing cells can be significantly restored. In conclusion, in order to achieve a better therapeutic outcome, combination therapy of GSK461364 with a modulator of ABCB1 should be further investigated as a potential treatment approach. PMID:25192198

Wu, Chung-Pu; Hsiao, Sung-Han; Luo, Shi-Yu; Tuo, Wei-Cherng; Su, Ching-Ya; Li, Yan-Qing; Huang, Yang-Hui; Hsieh, Chia-Hung

2014-10-01

356