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Sample records for overt heart failure

  1. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump enough ... failure often experience tiredness and shortness of breath. Heart Failure is Serious Heart failure is a serious and ...

  2. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Heart Failure? Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can' ... force. Some people have both problems. The term "heart failure" doesn't mean that your heart has stopped ...

  3. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... Tiredness and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

  4. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Above Heart Failure initiative. Living with HF and Managing Advanced HF Although it can be difficult to live with a chronic condition like heart failure, you can learn to manage the symptoms and live a full and enjoyable ...

  5. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... to Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases Million Hearts® Web Sites with More Information About Heart Failure For ...

  6. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat heart failure? Will I need a heart transplant? Is it safe for me to exercise? What kind of exercise should I do? Should I make any lifestyle changes at home to reduce my risk of complications? Source Reducing Readmissions for Congestive Heart Failure by RE Hoyt, CAPT, MC, USN, and ...

  7. About Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... talk about your health and the medicines About Heart Failure Heart failure is a disease where the heart cannot do ... very important for your health. common causes of heart failure are diseases or conditions that damage the heart. ...

  8. Classes of Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Classes of Heart Failure Updated:May 4,2016 Doctors usually classify patients' ... Blood Pressure Tracker Find additional helpful resources here Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure Introduction Types of Heart ...

  9. Living with Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Heart Failure Currently, heart failure has no cure. You'll ... avoid harmful side effects. Take Steps To Prevent Heart Failure From Getting Worse Certain actions can worsen your ...

  10. Types of Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Types of Heart Failure Updated:May 4,2016 Left-sided heart failure ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure Introduction Types of Heart ...

  11. Heart failure - medicines

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  12. Advanced Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Advanced Heart Failure Updated:Oct 8,2015 When heart failure (HF) ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  13. Heart failure - home monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... body and the symptoms that tell you your heart failure is getting worse will help you stay healthier ... Januzi JL, Mann DL. Clinical assessment of heart failure. In: ... of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  14. Antithrombotics in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Miličić, Davor; Samardžić, Jure; Petričević, Mate

    2014-12-01

    Heart failure is a common clinical condition associated with high morbidity and mortality rate despite significant improvements in pharmacotherapy and implementation of medical procedures. Patients with heart failure are at an increased risk of developing arterial and venous thrombosis, which contribute to the high rate of adverse events and fatal outcomes. Many heart failure patients routinely receive antithrombotic therapy due to the presence of a specific indication for its use, like ischemic heart disease or atrial fibrillation. However, there is no solid evidence to support the routine use of antithrombotic agents in all heart failure patients. This article reviews the evidence for using antithrombotic therapy in heart failure patients. PMID:25559833

  15. Heart Failure Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Medications Used to Treat Heart Failure Updated:May 24,2016 This information is provided ... health. This content was last reviewed May 2016 Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  16. Heart failure - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart failure from getting worse, and help you live longer. It is very important that you take your ... flow to the heart muscle) Eating high-salt foods Heart attack ... surgery no longer help at this stage. People with heart failure ...

  17. Heart failure - tests

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... An echocardiogram (Echo) is a test that uses sound waves to create a moving picture of the heart. The picture is much more detailed than a plain ...

  18. Heart Failure Society of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Releases Awards CEO Update Corporate Members Quick Heart Failure Facts Link Exchanges Use of Our Name Social ... App Education Modules What You Should Know About Heart Failure Living With Heart Failure Quick Tips and Topics ...

  19. Lungs in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Apostolo, Anna; Giusti, Giuliano; Gargiulo, Paola; Bussotti, Maurizio; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Lung function abnormalities both at rest and during exercise are frequently observed in patients with chronic heart failure, also in the absence of respiratory disease. Alterations of respiratory mechanics and of gas exchange capacity are strictly related to heart failure. Severe heart failure patients often show a restrictive respiratory pattern, secondary to heart enlargement and increased lung fluids, and impairment of alveolar-capillary gas diffusion, mainly due to an increased resistance to molecular diffusion across the alveolar capillary membrane. Reduced gas diffusion contributes to exercise intolerance and to a worse prognosis. Cardiopulmonary exercise test is considered the “gold standard” when studying the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic adaptations to exercise in cardiac patients. During exercise, hyperventilation and consequent reduction of ventilation efficiency are often observed in heart failure patients, resulting in an increased slope of ventilation/carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2) relationship. Ventilatory efficiency is as strong prognostic and an important stratification marker. This paper describes the pulmonary abnormalities at rest and during exercise in the patients with heart failure, highlighting the principal diagnostic tools for evaluation of lungs function, the possible pharmacological interventions, and the parameters that could be useful in prognostic assessment of heart failure patients. PMID:23365739

  20. Arrhythmias and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, Heath E

    2014-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachyarrhythmias are frequently seen in patients with heart failure, and complicate the management of such patients. Both types of arrhythmia lead to increased morbidity and mortality, and often prove to be challenging issues to manage. The many randomized studies that have been performed in patients with these conditions and concomitant heart failure have helped in designing optimal treatment strategies. PMID:24286583

  1. Devices in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Munir, Shahzeb M.; Bogaev, Roberta C.; Sobash, Ed; Shankar, K. J.; Gondi, Sreedevi; Stupin, Igor V.; Robertson, Jillian; Brewer, M. Alan; Casscells, S. Ward; Delgado, Reynolds M.; Ahmed, Amany

    2008-01-01

    Congestive heart failure has long been one of the most serious medical conditions in the United States; in fact, in the United States alone, heart failure accounts for 6.5 million days of hospitalization each year. One important goal of heart-failure therapy is to inhibit the progression of congestive heart failure through pharmacologic and device-based therapies. Therefore, there have been efforts to develop device-based therapies aimed at improving cardiac reserve and optimizing pump function to meet metabolic requirements. The course of congestive heart failure is often worsened by other conditions, including new-onset arrhythmias, ischemia and infarction, valvulopathy, decompensation, end-organ damage, and therapeutic refractoriness, that have an impact on outcomes. The onset of such conditions is sometimes heralded by subtle pathophysiologic changes, and the timely identification of these changes may promote the use of preventive measures. Consequently, device-based methods could in the future have an important role in the timely identification of the subtle pathophysiologic changes associated with congestive heart failure. PMID:18612451

  2. Heart failure - palliative care

    MedlinePlus

    ... peace of mind. You may have already discussed heart transplantation and the use of a ventricular assist device with your doctor. At some point, you will be faced with the ... treatment of heart failure. Then, you may want to discuss the ...

  3. Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2011-09-01

    The present manuscript provides a definition for, and evaluates the prevalence and maternal/fetal/child impact of, overt hyperthyroidism and overt hypothyroidism. The prevalence of overt hyperthyroidism is 0.5% and the prevalence of overt hyperthyroidism is 0.3%. Overt maternal hyperthyroidism is associated with heart failure, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, still birth, and neonatal mortality. Overt maternal hypothyroidism is associated with preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, cretinism, fetal deaths, and spontaneous abortion. A cost-effective analysis for screening and treating overt thyroid disease during pregnancy is warranted. PMID:21857178

  4. After Heart Attack, New Threat: Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159007.html After Heart Attack, New Threat: Heart Failure 1 in 4 survivors develops this serious ... TUESDAY, May 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Risk of heart failure appears high within a few years of ...

  5. Warning Signs of Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Warning Signs of Heart Failure Updated:May 4,2016 By themselves, any one ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  6. Primary Prevention of Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Javed

    2012-01-01

    Most heart failure research and quality improvement efforts are targeted at treatment and secondary prevention of patients with manifest heart failure. This is distinct from coronary disease where primary prevention has been a focus for over three decades. Given the current importance and the projected worsening of heart failure epidemiology, a more focused effort on prevention is urgently needed. PMID:22957272

  7. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Lifestyle Changes for Heart Failure Updated:May 4,2016 Following recommendations about diet, ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  8. Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement Updated:May 4,2016 The ejection fraction ( ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  9. Your Heart Failure Healthcare Team

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Your Heart Failure Healthcare Team Updated:Mar 25,2016 Patients with ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  10. Planning Ahead: Advanced Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Planning Ahead: Advanced Heart Failure Updated:Oct 8,2015 An important part of ... content was last reviewed on 04/16/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  11. [Drug-induced heart failure].

    PubMed

    Negrusz-Kawecka, M

    2001-09-01

    Heart failure is a clinical syndrome caused mainly by cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension and valvular disease, but several categories of drugs may potentially induce heart failure in patients without previous heart disease or precipitate revealing of heart failure symptoms in patients with preexisting left ventricle impairment. Pathophysiologically drugs that increase preload, afterload or have negative inotropic properties may be able to cause this adverse reaction. In the article the potential role in the occurrence of heart failure of cytostatics, immunomodulating drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcium channel blockers, beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, antiarrhythmics, anesthetics and antidepressants is reviewed. PMID:11761828

  12. Congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Yancy, C W; Firth, B G

    1988-08-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is not a single entity but a symptom complex that may represent the consequence of mechanical abnormalities, myocardial abnormalities, and/or disturbances of cardiac rhythm. In turn, it affects virtually every organ system in the body. This review focuses on CHF due to systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle, which comprises the majority of cases of this condition. Recent data suggest that CHF may be the most frequent primary diagnosis in patients on medical services in nonmilitary hospitals in this country: it affects approximately 2% of the United States population, or some 4 million people. The mortality rate for CHF is also worse than for many forms of cancer; thus, new therapeutic alternatives are imperative. In order to devise new therapeutic strategies, a detailed understanding of the pathophysiology of this condition is required. The relative advantages and disadvantages of various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches are considered in detail. Certain medications, such as the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, have been shown to improve survival, and heart transplantation is clearly life-saving for those who are eligible for this therapy. However, the real challenge is to devise strategies to prevent the occurrence of heart failure, or interrupt its progress at a very early stage. PMID:3044719

  13. Sleep and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kimberly A; Trupp, Robin J

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation occurs for many reasons but, when chronic in nature, has many consequences for optimal health and performance. Despite its high prevalence, sleep-disordered breathing is underrecognized and undertreated. This is especially true in the setting of heart failure, where sleep-disordered breathing affects more than 50% of patients. Although the optimal strategy to best identify patients is currently unknown, concerted and consistent efforts to support early recognition, diagnosis, and subsequent treatment should be encouraged. Optimization of guideline-directed medical therapy and concurrent treatment of sleep-disordered breathing are necessary to improve outcomes in this complex high-risk population. PMID:26567495

  14. Heart failure - fluids and diuretics

    MedlinePlus

    When you have heart failure, your heart does not pump out enough blood. This causes fluids to build up in your body. If you ... the amount of fluids you drink: When your heart failure is not very bad, you may not have ...

  15. [Multidisciplinary guideline 'Heart failure 2010'].

    PubMed

    Voors, Adriaan A; Walma, Edmond P; Twickler, T B; Rutten, Frans H; Hoes, Arno W

    2011-01-01

    In the multidisciplinary practice guideline 'Heart failure 2010', the diagnosis of heart failure relies on a combination of signs and symptoms and on supplementary investigation with natriuretic peptides and echocardiography. Once diagnosed, it is important to detect the potentially treatable cause of the heart failure. The non-medical treatment consists of lifestyle advice, of which regular body exercise is the most important component. The medical treatment of patients with systolic heart failure consists of a diuretic, ACE inhibitor, and beta-blocker, optionally extended by an aldosterone antagonist, an angiotensin receptor blocker and/or digoxin. A restricted group of patients may require an internal cardiac defibrillator (ICD) and/or cardiac resynchronisation therapy. There is limited scientific evidence concerning treatment of patients with diastolic heart failure. It is important to coordinate the care of the patient with heart failure within a multidisciplinary team to provide optimal treatment and information for the patient. PMID:21447221

  16. Insomnia Self-Management in Heart Failure

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-11

    Cardiac Failure; Heart Failure; Congestive Heart Failure; Heart Failure, Congestive; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders; Chronic Insomnia; Disorders of Initiating and Maintaining Sleep; Fatigue; Pain; Depressive Symptoms; Sleep Disorders; Anxiety

  17. Acute Heart Failure Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bellou, Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Dyspnea is the predominant symptom for patients with acute heart failure and initial treatment is largely directed towards the alleviation of this. Contrary to conventional belief, not all patients present with fluid overload and the approach to management is rapidly evolving from a solitary focus on diuresis to one that more accurately reflects the complex interplay of underlying cardiac dysfunction and acute precipitant. Effective treatment thus requires an understanding of divergent patient profiles and an appreciation of various therapeutic options for targeted patient stabilization. The key principle within this paradigm is directed management that aims to diminish the work of breathing through situation appropriate ventillatory support, volume reduction and hemodynamic improvement. With such an approach, clinicians can more efficiently address respiratory discomfort while reducing the likelihood of avoidable harm. PMID:24223323

  18. Acute Heart Failure Treatment.

    PubMed

    Levy, Phillip D; Bellou, Abdel

    2013-06-01

    Dyspnea is the predominant symptom for patients with acute heart failure and initial treatment is largely directed towards the alleviation of this. Contrary to conventional belief, not all patients present with fluid overload and the approach to management is rapidly evolving from a solitary focus on diuresis to one that more accurately reflects the complex interplay of underlying cardiac dysfunction and acute precipitant. Effective treatment thus requires an understanding of divergent patient profiles and an appreciation of various therapeutic options for targeted patient stabilization. The key principle within this paradigm is directed management that aims to diminish the work of breathing through situation appropriate ventillatory support, volume reduction and hemodynamic improvement. With such an approach, clinicians can more efficiently address respiratory discomfort while reducing the likelihood of avoidable harm. PMID:24223323

  19. Copeptin in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Balling, Louise; Gustafsson, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is one of the most common causes of hospitalization and mortality in the modern Western world and an increasing proportion of the population will be affected by HF in the future. Although HF management has improved quality of life and prognosis, mortality remains very high despite therapeutic options. Medical management consists of a neurohormonal blockade of an overly activated neurohormonal axis. No single marker has been able to predict or monitor HF with respect to disease progression, hospitalization, or mortality. New methods for diagnosis, monitoring therapy, and prognosis are warranted. Copeptin, a precursor of pre-provasopressin, is a new biomarker in HF with promising potential. Copeptin has been found to be elevated in both acute and chronic HF and is associated with prognosis. Copeptin, in combination with other biomarkers, could be a useful marker in the monitoring of disease severity and as a predictor of prognosis and survival in HF. PMID:26975969

  20. Heart failure - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice ... Cardiovascular Nursing; American Heart Association Council on Clinical ... Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, ...

  1. Congestive heart failure. New frontiers.

    PubMed Central

    Parmley, W. W.; Chatterjee, K.; Francis, G. S.; Firth, B. G.; Kloner, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Congestive heart failure is a common syndrome with high mortality in its advanced stages. Current therapy includes the use of vasodilator drugs, which have been shown to prolong life. Despite current therapy, mortality remains high in patients with severe heart failure. Potent new inotropic vasodilators have improved ventricular performance but have not prolonged life in patients with end-stage heart failure. Serious arrhythmias are implicated in the sudden deaths of 30% to 40% of patients with severe heart failure, but the benefits of antiarrhythmic therapy have not been established. Upcoming trials will address this question. Ventricular remodeling and progressive dilatation after myocardial infarction commonly lead to congestive heart failure; early unloading of the ventricle with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor may attenuate these events. These findings support the concept that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may be useful in managing heart failure of all degrees of severity, including left ventricular dysfunction and end-stage heart failure. Part of the damage that may occur with acute myocardial infarction, particularly in this era of thrombolysis therapy, is reperfusion injury, which may be mediated by oxygen-derived free radicals. Better knowledge of the mechanisms and treatment of myocardial infarction, the leading cause of congestive heart failure, may help prevent or attenuate the development of this syndrome. PMID:1678903

  2. What Causes Heart Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure Other heart conditions or diseases Other factors Coronary Heart Disease Coronary heart disease is a condition in which a waxy substance ... clots can partially or completely block blood flow. Coronary heart disease can lead to chest pain or discomfort called ...

  3. Heart Failure in North America

    PubMed Central

    Blair, John E. A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering better heart failure prevention and treatment. PMID:23597296

  4. Heart failure in North America.

    PubMed

    Blair, John E A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-05-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering better heart failure prevention and treatment. PMID:23597296

  5. Heart failure and personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Mestroni, Luisa; Merlo, Marco; Taylor, Matthew R G; Camerini, Fulvio; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    Personalized medicine is a form of medicine that uses the patient's genomic information to improve diagnosis, prevention and therapy. In this review we discuss the personalized management of heart failure, from monogenic disorders, to modifier genes and pharmacogenomics. Monogenic disorders causing heart failure are cardiomyopathies. In this disease, recent guidelines assist the clinician in molecular diagnostics, genetic counseling and therapeutic choices. Several lines of evidence suggest the existence of common polymorphic variants of genes that modify the susceptibility to heart failure (modifier genes). A candidate gene approach has shown that common genetic variants of the renin-angiotensin-adrenergic pathway can also influence heart failure and may be associated with different outcomes. However, still little is known regarding this and it is expected that more advanced high throughput technologies will allow the discovery of a number of novel modifier genes that could be used for prognostic profiling and development of novel therapeutics. Finally, pharmacogenomics of heart failure appears very promising. Common genetic variants of beta-adrenergic receptors, alpha-adrenergic receptors and endothelin receptors, among others, significantly alter the response to heart failure therapy. This knowledge could be used to personalize and optimize heart failure therapy based on the patient's genetic profile. Whereas the advances in technologies will continue to transition personalized medicine from research to the clinical setting, physicians, and in particular cardiologists, need to reshape clinical diagnostics paradigms, learn how to use new genomic information to change management decisions, and provide the patients with appropriate education and management recommendations. PMID:20814312

  6. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Updated:Mar 25, ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  7. Message for Heart Failure Patients: Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159059.html Message for Heart Failure Patients: Exercise You'll feel better and maybe ... activity may help extend survival for patients with heart failure, a new review suggests. "Patients with heart failure ...

  8. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Heart Failure Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... or maintain quality of life. Urinary Incontinence and Heart Failure If you have heart failure, you may experience ...

  9. Hyperthyroidism as a reversible cause of right ventricular overload and congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Di Giovambattista, Raniero

    2008-01-01

    We describe a case of severe congestive heart failure and right ventricular overload associated with overt hyperthyroidism, completely reversed with antithyroid therapy in a few week. It represents a very unusual presentation of overt hyperthyroidism because of the severity of right heart failure. The impressive right ventricular volume overload made mandatory to perform transesophageal echo and angio-TC examination to exclude the coexistence of ASD or anomalous pulmonary venous return. Only a few cases of reversible right heart failure, with or without pulmonary hypertension, have been reported worldwide. In our case the most striking feature has been the normalization of the cardiovascular findings after six weeks of tiamazole therapy. PMID:18549503

  10. [Competence Network Heart Failure (CNHF) : Together against heart failure].

    PubMed

    Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Börste, Rita

    2016-04-01

    Heart failure is one of the most urgent medical and socio-economic challenges of the 21(st) century. Up to three million people are affected in Germany; this means one in ten people over the age of 65  live with heart failure. The current demographic changes will accentuate the importance of this grave health problem. The care of patients with heart failure, as well as the associated research mandates a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach. The Competence Network Heart Failure (CNHF) pursues this objective. CNHF is a research alliance with 11 sites in Germany and was funded by the Federal Ministry of Research (BMBF) from 2003 through 2014. Since January 2015, the network has been an associate cooperating partner of the German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK). During the 12-year funding period by the BMBF, scientists in the field of heart failure from 30 university hospitals, 5 research institutes, 7 heart centers, 17 cardiovascular clinics, over 200 general practitioners, 4 rehabilitation clinics, as well as numerous organizations and associations were involved in cooperative CNHF research. In the context of 22 projects, the CNHF covered basic, clinical, and health care research, and generated numerous groundbreaking insights into disease mechanisms, as well as diagnosis and treatment of heart failure, which are documented in more than 350 publications. With its central study database and bank of biomaterials, the network has set up a Europe-wide unique research resource, which can be used in the future for national and international cooperations with the DZHK and other partners. Furthermore, the CNHF strongly promotes nation- and Europe-wide public relations and heart failure awareness activities. PMID:26979718

  11. The molecular and cellular pathophysiology of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Piano, M R; Bondmass, M; Schwertz, D W

    1998-01-01

    In the United States, it is estimated that heart failure develops in 465,000 people each year. Heart failure occurs in both men and women and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate in both sexes and in all races. Our knowledge of the pathophysiology of heart failure has advanced beyond the cardiorenal-neurohumoral model and now includes changes in myocyte structure and function. Cellular changes in heart failure include myocyte hypertrophy, abnormalities in calcium homeostasis, excitation-contraction coupling, cross-bridge cycling, and changes in the cytoskeletal architecture. Data also indicate that some of these changes are found during the compensated stage of heart failure; whereas other changes are found during overt decompensation and are associated with changes in systolic and diastolic function. The transition from compensated to decompensated heart failure is more than likely related to the overexpression of neurohormones and peptides such as norepinephrine, angiotensin II, and proinflammatory cytokines. The purpose of this article is to review the epidemiology and cellular pathophysiology of heart failure. PMID:9493878

  12. Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Update

    PubMed Central

    Teerlink, John R; Alburikan, Khalid; Metra, Marco; Rodgers, Jo E

    2015-01-01

    Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) continues to increase in prevalence and is associated with substantial mortality and morbidity including frequent hospitalizations. The American Heart Association is predicting that more than eight million Americans will have heart failure by 2030 and that the total direct costs associated with the disease will rise from $21 billion in 2012 to $70 billion in 2030. The increase in the prevalence and cost of HF is primarily the result of shifting demographics and a growing population. Although many large, randomized, controlled clinical trials have been conducted in patients with chronic heart failure, it was not until recently that a growing number of studies began to address the management of ADHF. It is the intent of this review to update the clinician regarding the evaluation and optimal management of ADHF. PMID:24251454

  13. Diastolic Function in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Sándor J

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure has reached epidemic proportions, and diastolic heart failure or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) constitutes about 50% of all heart failure admissions. Long-term prognosis of both reduced ejection fraction heart failure and HFpEF are similarly dismal. No pharmacologic agent has been developed that actually treats or repairs the physiologic deficit(s) responsible for HFpEF. Because the physiology of diastole is both subtle and counterintuitive, its role in heart failure has received insufficient attention. In this review, the focus is on the physiology of diastole in heart failure, the dominant physiologic laws that govern the process in all hearts, how all hearts work as a suction pump, and, therefore, the elucidation and characterization of what actually is meant by “diastolic function”. The intent is for the reader to understand what diastolic function actually is, what it is not, and how to measure it. Proper measurement of diastolic function requires one to go beyond the usual E/A, E/E′, etc. phenomenological metrics and employ more rigorous causality (mathematical modeling) based parameters of diastolic function. The method simultaneously provides new physiologic insight into the meaning of in vivo “equilibrium volume” of the left ventricle (LV), longitudinal versus transverse volume accommodation of the chamber, diastatic “ringing” of the mitral annulus, and the mechanism of L-wave generation, as well as availability of a load-independent index of diastolic function (LIIDF). One important consequence of understanding what diastolic function is, is the recognition that all that current therapies can do is basically alter the load, rather than actually “repair” the functional components (chamber stiffness, chamber relaxation). If beneficial (biological/structural/metabolic) remodeling due to therapy does manifest ultimately as improved diastolic function, it is due to resumption of normal physiology (as in alleviation of ischemia) or activation of compensatory pathways already devised by evolution. In summary, meaningful quantitative characterization of diastolic function in any clinical setting, including heart failure, requires metrics based on physiologic mechanisms that quantify the suction pump attribute of the heart. This requires advancing beyond phenomenological global indexes such as E/A, E/E′, Vp, etc. and employing causality (mathematical modeling) based parameters of diastolic function easily obtained via the parametrized diastolic function (PDF) formalism. PMID:25922587

  14. Nesiritide therapy for acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Davis, Alice

    2003-12-01

    Each year, more than 1 million hospitalizations are the result of heart failure. Acute exacerbations of heart failure can occur following routine surgical procedures. One of the newest pharmacological therapies for heart failure is nesiritide. The PACU nurse's vital role in the early recognition and early intervention of heart failure may include the administration of this agent. PMID:14730520

  15. Understand Your Risk for Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Causes and Risks for Heart Failure Updated:Feb 1,2016 Who Develops Heart Failure ( ... HF. This content was last reviewed April 2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  16. Updated Heart Failure Treatment Guidelines Issued

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158956.html Updated Heart Failure Treatment Guidelines Issued Two new drugs added to ... drugs to the list of treatment options for heart failure. In people with the condition, the heart can' ...

  17. Heart failure - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a pump that moves blood through your body. Heart failure occurs when blood does not move well and ... often, fluid collects in your lungs and legs. Heart failure most often occurs because your heart muscle is ...

  18. Angiotensin inhibition in heart failure.

    PubMed

    McMurray, John J V

    2004-09-01

    Survival in patients with heart failure remains very poor, and is worse than that for most common cancers, including bowel cancer in men and breast cancer in women. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is not completely blocked by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Blockade of the RAAS at the AT1-receptor has the theoretical benefit of more effective blockade of the actions of angiotensin II. ACE inhibitors (ACE-Is) prevent the breakdown of bradykinin: this has been blamed for some of the unwanted effects of ACE-Is although bradykinin may have advantageous effects in heart failure. Consequently, ACE-Is and ARBs might be complementary or even additive treatments; recent trials have tested these hypotheses. The Candesartan in Heart failure Assessment of Reduction in Mortality and morbidity (CHARM) programme compared the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) candesartan (target dose 32 mg once daily) to placebo in three distinct but complementary populations of patients with symptomatic heart failure. These were: patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) who were ACE-I-intolerant (CHARM-Alternative); patients with reduced LVEF who were being treated with ACE-Is (CHARM-Added); and patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function (CHARM-Preserved). There were substantial and statistically significant reductions in the primary composite end point (risk of cardiovascular death or hospital admission for heart failure) in CHARM-Alternative. This was also the case in CHARM-Added, supporting and extending the findings of Val-HeFT. In CHARM-Preserved, the effect of candesartan on the primary end point did not reach conventional statistical significance though hospital admission for heart failure was reduced significantly with candesartan. In the CHARM-Overall programme there was a statistically borderline reduction in all-cause mortality with a clear reduction in cardiovascular mortality. All-cause mortality was reduced by 12% in the two CHARM trials in patients with low LVEF. CHARM succeeded in answering a number of questions about the safety and efficacy of ARB use in heart failure. It showed evidence for a clinical benefit of candesartan both additive to and independent of ACE-I use. The benefits in terms of clinical outcomes were seen irrespective of beta-blocker usage. Benefits in patients with preserved LVEF were shown in the proportion of patients hospitalised with worsening heart failure and in overall number of admissions for heart failure. Candesartan had expected effects on blood pressure and renal function, emphasising the need for careful patient monitoring. PMID:15526237

  19. Insulin Signaling and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Riehle, Christian; Abel, E Dale

    2016-04-01

    Heart failure is associated with generalized insulin resistance. Moreover, insulin-resistant states such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity increases the risk of heart failure even after adjusting for traditional risk factors. Insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus alters the systemic and neurohumoral milieu, leading to changes in metabolism and signaling pathways in the heart that may contribute to myocardial dysfunction. In addition, changes in insulin signaling within cardiomyocytes develop in the failing heart. The changes range from activation of proximal insulin signaling pathways that may contribute to adverse left ventricular remodeling and mitochondrial dysfunction to repression of distal elements of insulin signaling pathways such as forkhead box O transcriptional signaling or glucose transport, which may also impair cardiac metabolism, structure, and function. This article will review the complexities of insulin signaling within the myocardium and ways in which these pathways are altered in heart failure or in conditions associated with generalized insulin resistance. The implications of these changes for therapeutic approaches to treating or preventing heart failure will be discussed. PMID:27034277

  20. Telemonitoring in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Ayesha; Paul, Vince

    2011-06-01

    Clinical management of refractory heart failure remains challenging, with a high rate of rehospitalizations despite advances in medical and device therapy. Care can be provided in person, via telehomecare (by telephone), or telemonitoring, which involves wireless technology for remote follow-up. Telemonitoring wirelessly transmits parameters such as weight, heart rate, or blood pressure for review by health-care professionals. Cardiac implantable devices (defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy) also transmit continually interrogated physiological data, such as heart rate variability or intrathoracic impedance, which may be of value to predict patients at greater risk of hospitalization for heart failure. The use of remote monitoring techniques facilitates a rapid and regular review of such data by health-care workers as part of a heart failure management programme. Current evidence supports the feasibility of such an approach but routinely assessed parameters have been shown not to impact patient outcomes. Devices that directly assess cardiac haemodynamic status through invasive measurement of pressures are currently under investigation and could potentially increase the sensitivity and specificity of predicting heart failure events. The current evidence for telemonitoring and remote monitoring, including implantable haemodynamic devices, will be reviewed. PMID:21289040

  1. Mechanisms of Heart Failure in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ebong, Imo A.; Goff, David C.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Chen, Haiying; Bertoni, Alain G.

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and its prevalence continues to rise. Because obesity has been linked with heart failure, the increasing prevalence of obesity may presage further rise in heart failure in the future. Obesity-related factors are estimated to cause 11% of heart failure cases in men and 14% in women. Obesity may result in heart failure by inducing hemodynamic and myocardial changes that lead to cardiac dysfunction, or due to an increased predisposition to other heart failure risk factors. Direct cardiac lipotoxicity has been described where lipid accumulation in the heart results in cardiac dysfunction inexplicable of other heart failure risk factors. In this overview, we discussed various pathophysiological mechanisms that could lead to heart failure in obesity, including the molecular mechanisms underlying cardiac lipotoxicity. We defined the obesity paradox and enumerated various premises for the paradoxical associations observed in the relationship between obesity and heart failure. PMID:25434909

  2. Heart failure and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cermakova, P; Eriksdotter, M; Lund, L H; Winblad, B; Religa, P; Religa, D

    2015-04-01

    It has recently been proposed that heart failure is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Decreased cerebral blood flow and neurohormonal activation due to heart failure may contribute to the dysfunction of the neurovascular unit and cause an energy crisis in neurons. This leads to the impaired clearance of amyloid beta and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, resulting in the formation of amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In this article, we will summarize the current understanding of the relationship between heart failure and Alzheimer's disease based on epidemiological studies, brain imaging research, pathological findings and the use of animal models. The importance of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and valve disease as well as the effect of relevant medications will be discussed. PMID:25041352

  3. Metabolic and signaling alterations in dystrophin-deficient hearts precede overt cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Khairallah, Maya; Khairallah, Ramzi; Young, Martin E; Dyck, Jason R B; Petrof, Basil J; Des Rosiers, Christine

    2007-08-01

    The cytoskeletal protein dystrophin has been implicated in hereditary and acquired forms of cardiomyopathy. However, much remains to be learned about the role of dystrophin in the heart. We hypothesized that the dystrophin-deficient heart displays early alterations in energy metabolism that precede overt cardiomyopathy. We evaluated the metabolic and functional phenotype of dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse hearts at 10-12 weeks, when no major histological or echocardiographic abnormalities are reported. Ex vivo working mdx heart perfusions with stable isotopes revealed a marked shift in substrate fuel selection from fatty acids to carbohydrates associated with enhanced oxygen consumption. They also unmasked in the mdx heart: (i) compromised cardiac contractile function and efficiency, (ii) reduced cellular integrity, and (iii) exacerbated alterations in mitochondrial citric acid cycle-related parameters and in nutrient signaling pathways related to Akt. The observed shift in substrate selection cannot be explained by metabolic gene remodeling. However, mdx mice hearts showed an increased expression of the atrial natriuretic factor (anf) gene, an activator of the nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP signaling pathway and marker of cardiac remodeling, and, only as the cardiomyopathy progresses (at 25 weeks of age), an increased expression of the alpha1 subunit of soluble guanylate cyclase, which is known to negatively correlate with the activity NO/cGMP pathway. Collectively, our results highlight early metabolic and signaling alterations in the dystrophin-deficient heart, which may predispose these hearts to contractile dysfunction and sarcolemmal fragility. They also suggest the presence of a "sub-clinical" defect in the NO/cGMP pathway, which in vivo, at an early age, may be compensated by enhanced anf gene expression. PMID:17583724

  4. Heart Failure in Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Failure in Children and Adolescents Updated:Mar 25,2016 ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure Introduction Types of Heart ...

  5. Model for heart failure education.

    PubMed

    Baldonado, Analiza; Dutra, Danette; Abriam-Yago, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is the heart's inability to meet the body's need for blood and oxygen. According to the American Heart Association 2013 update, approximately 5.1 million people are diagnosed with HF in the United States in 2006. Heart failure is the most common diagnosis for hospitalization. In the United States, the HF direct and indirect costs are estimated to be US $39.2 billion in 2010. To address this issue, nursing educators designed innovative teaching frameworks on HF management both in academia and in clinical settings. The model was based on 2 resources: the American Association of Heart Failure Nurses (2012) national nursing certification and the award-winning Pierce County Responsive Care Coordination Program. The HF educational program is divided into 4 modules. The initial modules offer foundational levels of Bloom's Taxonomy then progress to incorporate higher-levels of learning when modules 3 and 4 are reached. The applicability of the key components within each module allows formatting to enhance learning in all areas of nursing, from the emergency department to intensive care units to the medical-surgical step-down units. Also applicable would be to provide specific aspects of the modules to nurses who care for HF patients in skilled nursing facility, rehabilitation centers, and in the home-health care setting. PMID:25140745

  6. [Thyrometabolic disorders and heart failure].

    PubMed

    Fater-Debska, Agata; Gworys, Przemysław; Brzeziński, Jan; Gawor, Zenon

    2007-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential to maintain normal function of many systems including the cardiovascular system. Their excess or deficiency may upset human body homeostasis. Hyperthyroidism leads to cardiovascular system's hyperdynamic status which is characterized by tachycardia, increased difference between systolic and diastolic arterial pressure, significant increase of the stroke volume and improvement of the left ventricular diastolic function. Long-lasting thyrotoxicosis in patient with heart disease may result in atrial fibrillation, deterioration of angina pectoris or congestive heart failure. Hypothyroidism leads to hemodynamic disturbances which are quite different than those observed in hyperthyroidism, but cardiac symptoms are scant in clinical practice. Hypothyroidism's clinical significance is limited to atherosclerosis progression and intensification of ischaemic heart disease symptoms. Both leads to symptomatic cardiovascular system failure or its deterioration. We should emphasize that cardiovascular system dysfunction associated with thyrometabolic disturbances subsides when euthyreosis is restored. It sounds promising that there are reports suggesting a potential advantage of thyroxin treatment in patients with acute or chronic cardiovascular system diseases. These hypotheses result from the observations that heart dysfunction in hypothyroidism is similar to that observed in heart failure. PMID:17940989

  7. Cardiotonic Modulation in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tang, W. H. Wilson; Huang, Yanming

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have been used over the past centuries for restoring the body's homeostatic balance. Contemporary use of herbal supplements remains widespread in many cultures as treatment for specific ailments. Many possess cardiovascular actions, and some interact with cardiac medications. However, there is variable scientific evidence with respect to their safety and efficacy, and few have been subjected to the same rigorous evaluation processes and regulations as contemporary pharmaceuticals (1). In the field of heart failure, we have also witnessed the failure of promising naturopathic therapies like hawthorn extract in translating their potential benefits in rigorous clinical trials (2,3). PMID:23747774

  8. Management of severe heart failure.

    PubMed

    Hiramitsu, Shinya; Miyagishima, Kenji; Kimura, Hisashi; Mori, Kazumasa; Shiino, Kenji; Yamada, Akira; Kato, Shigeru; Kato, Yasuchika; Morimoto, Shin-ichiro; Hishida, Hitoshi; Ozaki, Yukio

    2009-06-01

    Patients admitted to the hospital with heart failure (HF) include those with new-onset of acute HF and those with acute exacerbation of chronic HF (CHF). In therapy for new-onset acute HF associated with acute myocardial infarction, therapy to inhibit left ventricular (LV) remodeling in the convalescent phase is required in addition to that needed to overcome the acute phase. Hitherto, CHF therapy was aimed at improving LV contractability, whereas more recently the aim has shifted to resting the heart. Most patients with HF should be routinely managed with a combination of 3 types of drugs: a diuretic; an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and/or an angiotensin II receptor blocker; and a beta-blocker. The administration of beta-blockers is of particular importance. For HF unresponsive to medical therapy, non-pharmacological therapies are considered. When a HF patient fails to respond to all available therapies, heart transplantation becomes necessary. Of the 1,000 HF patients admitted to our hospital, two cases received heart transplants. 11 cases were indicated for heart transplantation but died before registration. It should be remembered that although in Japan the possibility of receiving a heart transplant is very low, it is by no means entirely impossible. PMID:19474507

  9. Stress echocardiography in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Agricola, Eustachio; Oppizzi, Michele; Pisani, Matteo; Margonato, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    Echocardiography has the ability to noninvasively explore hemodynamic variables during pharmacologic or exercise stress test in patients with heart failure. In this review, we detail some important potential applications of stress echocardiography in patients with heart failure. In patients with coronary artery disease and chronic LV dysfunction, dobutamine stress echocardiography is able to distinguish between viable and fibrotic tissue to make adequate clinical decisions. Exercise testing, in combination with echocardiographic monitoring, is a method of obtaining accurate information in the assessment of functional capacity and prognosis. Functional mitral regurgitation is a common finding in patients with dilated and ischaemic cardiomyopathy and stress echocardiography in the form of exercise or pharmacologic protocols can be useful to evaluate the behaviour of mitral regurgitation. It is clinical useful to search the presence of contractile reserve in non ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy such as to screen or monitor the presence of latent myocardial dysfunction in patients who had exposure to cardiotoxic agents. Moreover, in patients with suspected diastolic heart failure and normal systolic function, exercise echocardiography could be able to demonstrate the existence of such dysfunction and determine that it is sufficient to limit exercise tolerance. Finally, in the aortic stenosis dobutamine echocardiography can distinguish severe from non-severe stenosis in patients with low transvalvular gradients and depressed left ventricular function. PMID:15285780

  10. Heart Failure in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Sivadasan Pillai, Harikrishnan; Ganapathi, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    South Asia (SA) is both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world. The countries in this region are undergoing epidemiological transition and are facing the double burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. Heart failure (HF) is a major and increasing burden all over the world. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of HF in SA today and its impact in the health system of the countries in the region. There are no reliable estimates of incidence and prevalence of HF (heart failure) from this region. The prevalence of HF which is predominantly a disease of the elderly is likely to rise in this region due to the growing age of the population. Patients admitted with HF in the SA region are relatively younger than their western counterparts. The etiology of HF in this region is also different from the western world. Untreated congenital heart disease and rheumatic heart disease still contribute significantly to the burden of HF in this region. Due to epidemiological transition, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking is on the rise in this region. This is likely to escalate the prevalence of HF in South Asia. We also discuss potential developments in the field of HF management likely to occur in the nations in South Asia. Finally, we discuss the interventions for prevention of HF in this region PMID:23597297

  11. Heart Failure Update: Outpatient Management.

    PubMed

    Wojnowich, Katherine; Korabathina, Ravi

    2016-03-01

    Outpatient management of heart failure (HF) is aimed at treating symptoms and preventing hospitalizations and readmissions. Management is initiated in a stepwise approach. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system is a cornerstone of therapy and should be started, along with beta blockers, as soon as the diagnosis of HF is made. Other drugs, including diuretics, aldosterone antagonists, hydralazine, and nitrates, may be added based on symptoms and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association stage. Despite a great interest in and theoretical benefit of naturoceutical products in the mitigation of oxidative stress and HF progression, none has been proven to be beneficial, and concerns exist regarding their interactions with standard HF drugs. Other nonpharmacologic interventions, including sodium restriction, regular exercise, and/or cardiac rehabilitation, should be initiated at diagnosis. HF often is progressive, and clinicians should be aware of late stage management options, including implantable devices, cardiac transplantation, and hospice care. PMID:26974001

  12. [Baroreflexes and congestive heart failure].

    PubMed

    Aumont, M C; Himbert, D; Czitrom, D

    1995-04-01

    Abnormal responses are found in the early stages of heart failure with increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activity, causing peripheral arteriolar vasconstriction and tachycardia respectively. The cardiopulmonary baroreflex may be studied by decreasing venous return ("low body negative pressure") and by measuring vascular resistance forearm. The arterial baroreflex may be studied by changing aortic pressures (by intravenous phenylephrine or nitroglycerin). Orthostatism and the tilt test deactivate the cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreflexes simultaneously. These baroreflexes are impaired in patients with heart failure. Their activation does not cause the usual sympatho-inhibition so contributing to increased sympathetic tone. This dysfunction may result from a change at any point on the reflex pathway: the baroreceptors themselves, the afferent, central and efferent pathways. It is selective as during the cold pressor test, the vasoconstrictor response remains intact. One of the possible mechanisms of baroreflex dysfunction in heart failure is loss of sensitivities of the baroreceptors. This may be multifactorial: structural abnormalities, changes in compliance or functional abnormality. Even if the loss of sensitivity is partially related to a change in compliance, other factors play a role. It is more functional than structural abnormalities because, after cardiac transplantation, the baroreceptors regain their sensitivity within 2 to 3 weeks. Excessive Na-K dependent ATPase activation of the smooth muscle cells of the carotid sinus could lead to hyperpolarization of the cell membrane, so reducing the excitability of the receptor. Aldosterone is one of the factors which could activate the Na-K ATPase, as this hormone directly increases pump activity and favorizes the synthesis of new pumps in the vascular smooth muscle cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7487298

  13. Heart Failure and Loss of Metabolic Control

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao V.; Li, Dan L.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, currently affecting 5 million Americans. A syndrome defined on clinical terms, heart failure is the end-result of events occurring in multiple heart diseases, including hypertension, myocardial infarction, genetic mutations and diabetes, and metabolic dysregulation is a hallmark feature. Mounting evidence from clinical and preclinical studies suggests strongly that fatty acid uptake and oxidation are adversely affected, especially in end-stage heart failure. Moreover, metabolic flexibility, the heart’s ability to move freely among diverse energy substrates, is impaired in heart failure. Indeed, impairment of the heart’s ability to adapt to its metabolic milieu, and associated metabolic derangement, are important contributing factors in heart failure pathogenesis. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms governing metabolic control in heart failure will provide critical insights into disease initiation and progression, raising the prospect of advances with clinical relevance. PMID:24336014

  14. Tolvaptan, hyponatremia, and heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Zmily, Hammam D; Daifallah, Suleiman; Ghali, Jalal K

    2011-01-01

    Tolvaptan is the first FDA-approved oral V2 receptor antagonist for the treatment of euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia, in patients with conditions associated with free water excess such as heart failure, cirrhosis, and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Tolvaptan inhibits the binding of arginine vasopressin to the V2 receptors on the collecting ducts of the kidneys resulting in aquaresis, the electrolytes sparing excretion of water. This article reviews the accumulated experience with tolvaptan and all the major clinical trials that were conducted to study its safety and efficacy and concludes by summarizing clinicians’ views of its current application in clinical practice. PMID:21694950

  15. Micronutrients in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Krim, Selim R; Campbell, Patrick; Lavie, Carl J; Ventura, Hector

    2013-03-01

    Heart failure (HF)-associated mortality remains high, despite guideline-recommended medical therapies. Poor nutritional status and unintentional cachexia have been shown to have a strong association with worse survival in HF patients. Importantly, micronutrient deficiencies are potential contributing factors to the progression of HF. This review aims to summarize contemporary evidence on the role of micronutrients in the pathophysiology and outcome of HF patients. Emphasis will be given to the most well-studied micronutrients, specifically, vitamin D, vitamin B complex, coenzyme Q10 and L-carnitine. PMID:23070580

  16. Right heart failure: toward a common language.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mandeep R; Park, Myung H; Landzberg, Michael J; Lala, Anuradha; Waxman, Aaron B

    2014-02-01

    In this perspective, the International Right Heart Foundation Working Group moves a step forward to develop a common language to describe the development and defects that exemplify the common syndrome of right heart failure. We first propose fundamental definitions of the distinctive components of the right heart circulation and provide consensus on a universal definition of right heart failure. These definitions will form the foundation for describing a uniform nomenclature for right heart circulatory failure with a view to foster collaborative research initiatives and conjoint education in an effort to provide insight into echanisms of disease unique to the right heart. PMID:24268184

  17. Right heart failure: toward a common language

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this guideline, the International Right Heart Foundation Working Group moves a step forward to develop a common language to describe the development and defects that exemplify the common syndrome of right heart failure. We first propose fundamental definitions of the distinctive components of the right heart circulation and provide consensus on a universal definition of right heart failure. These definitions will form the foundation for describing a uniform nomenclature for right heart circulatory failure with a view to foster collaborative research initiatives and conjoint education in an effort to provide insight into mechanisms of disease unique to the right heart. PMID:25006413

  18. [Exercise training in heart failure].

    PubMed

    Edelmann, F; Grabs, V; Halle, M

    2014-06-01

    Exercise training in patients with chronic stable heart failure (HF) is a recommended and broadly accepted treatment strategy that is an integral part of an evidence-based management involving pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. There is ample scientific evidence that exercise training in HF with reduced (HFrEF) and with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) improves exercise capacity, HF symptoms and quality of life. This is due to an improvement of central hemodynamics, endothelial function, neurohumoral activation, skeletal muscle structure and function as well as a decrease in inflammatory markers. The largest randomized, controlled HF-ACTION study (Heart Failure-A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of exercise TraiNing) demonstrated that exercise training results in a modest improvement of all-cause mortality and hospitalizations in HFrEF, depending on adequate compliance. Outcome data in HFpEF are lacking. Besides compliance, efficacy of exercise training is dependent on the intensity and type of exercise. Resistance and high intensity endurance training in addition to a standard aerobic exercise seem to be superior in improving the clinical status of HF patients. In the future, individualized exercise programs will help to improve long-term adherence to exercise training. PMID:24817538

  19. Serelaxin and acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tietjens, Jeremy; Teerlink, John R

    2016-01-15

    Attempts at developing novel therapeutic agents for acute heart failure (AHF) over the past two decades have been marked by disappointment. Relaxin is a human peptide hormone believed to mediate many adaptive haemodynamic changes that occur during pregnancy. Because these effects may be useful for treating AHF, a recombinant version of human relaxin-2, serelaxin, has been developed as a novel therapeutic agent. Studies have confirmed serelaxin's haemodynamic effects of decreasing pulmonary and systemic resistance and increasing renal blood flow. A 1161-patient, placebo-controlled Phase III trial, RELAX-AHF, demonstrated significant improvement in symptoms, reduced worsening of heart failure, decreased hospital length of stay and increased 180-day survival after index hospitalisation. Additional Phase III trials (RELAX-AHF-2; RELAX-AHF-ASIA) are underway to further evaluate the efficacy of serelaxin in patients with AHF. This article will review the physiological function, mechanism of action, clinical trial results and future directions of serelaxin in the treatment of AHF. PMID:26603680

  20. The heart metabolism: pathophysiological aspects in ischaemia and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Abozguia, K; Shivu, G Nallur; Ahmed, I; Phan, T T; Frenneaux, M P

    2009-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality of coronary heart disease and of heart failure remain unacceptably high despite major advances in their management. The main focus of treatment has been revascularisation for ischaemic heart disease and neuro-humoral modification for heart failure. There is an urgent need for new modalities of treatment to improve mortality and morbidity. Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the role of disturbances in cardiac energetics and myocardial metabolism in the pathophysiology of both ischaemic heart disease and heart failure and of therapeutic potential of metabolic modulation. The myocardium is a metabolic omnivore, but mainly uses fatty acids and glucose for generation of Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP). This review focuses on the key changes that occur to the metabolism of the heart in ischaemia and in heart failure and its effects on cardiac energetics. PMID:19275646

  1. How Is Heart Failure Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a pocket, or hung around your neck. Nuclear Heart Scan A nuclear heart scan shows how well blood is flowing ... blood is reaching your heart muscle. During a nuclear heart scan, a safe, radioactive substance called a ...

  2. Malnutrition and Cachexia in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Adam; Jafry, Syed; Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed; Nagpal, A Dave; Pisani, Barbara; Agarwala, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    Heart failure is a growing public health concern. Advanced heart failure is frequently associated with severe muscle wasting, termed cardiac cachexia This process is driven by systemic inflammation and tumor necrosis factor in a manner common to other forms of disease-related wasting seen with cancer or human immunodeficiency virus. A variable degree of malnutrition is often superimposed from poor nutrient intake. Cardiac cachexia significantly decreases quality of life and survival in patients with heart failure. This review outlines the evaluation of nutrition status in heart failure, explores the pathophysiology of cardiac cachexia, and discusses therapeutic interventions targeting wasting in these patients. PMID:25634161

  3. Pacific Islanders’ Perspectives on Heart Failure Management

    PubMed Central

    Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe‘aimoku; Saito, Erin; Mau, Marjorie K.; Latimer, Renee; Seto, Todd B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify the health beliefs, attitudes, practices and social and family relations important in heart failure treatment among Pacific Islanders. Methods Four focus groups were convened with 36 Native Hawaiians and Samoans with heart failure and their family caregivers. Thematic data analysis was used to categorize data into four domains: health beliefs and attitudes, preferred health practices, social support systems, and barriers to heart failure care. Results Common coping styles and emotional experiences of heart failure in this population included avoidance or denial of illness, hopelessness and despair, and reliance on spiritual/religious beliefs as a means of support. Among study participants, more Samoans preferred to be treated by physicians whereas more Native Hawaiians preferred traditional Hawaiian methods of healing. Two types of social support (informational and tangible-instrumental) were identified as important in heart failure care. Barriers to heart failure care included poor knowledge of heart failure, lack of trust in physicians’ care, poor physician-patient relations, finances, dietary changes, and competing demands on time. Conclusion The recruitment, retention, and adherence of Pacific Islanders to heart failure interventions are affected by an array of psychosocial and socio-cultural factors. Practice Implications Interventions might be improved by offering participants accurate and detailed information about heart failure and its treatment, engaging the extended family in providing necessary supports, and providing tools to facilitate physician-patient relationships, among others, within the context of a larger socio-cultural system. PMID:18068939

  4. Cerebral impairment in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ogren, Jennifer A; Fonarow, Gregg C; Woo, Mary A

    2014-09-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) exhibit a wide range of symptoms, including dyspnea, sleep-disordered breathing, autonomic abnormalities, cognitive dysfunction, and neuropsychological disturbances. These symptoms, which affect quality of life and morbidity and mortality in the condition, are largely related to structural and functional changes in the brain. There are increasing reports of brain abnormalities in HF, but often the linkages between brain injury and common HF clinical symptomatology are not clearly described. In this review, we will discuss the current evidence of brain injury and the associated clinical symptoms in HF, focusing on those brain regions that are commonly damaged in the condition. We will also provide a brief exploration of some potential mechanisms for brain injury in HF. PMID:25001614

  5. Polypharmacy in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Mastromarino, Vittoria; Casenghi, Matteo; Testa, Marco; Gabriele, Erica; Coluccia, Roberta; Rubattu, Speranza; Volpe, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    In heart failure (HF), the progressive use of multiple drugs and a complex therapeutic regimen is common and is recommended by international guidelines. With HF being a common disease in the elderly, patients often have numerous comorbidities that require additional specific treatment, thus producing a heavy pill burden. Polypharmacy, defined as the chronic use of five or more medications, is an underestimated problem in the management of HF patients. However, polypharmacy has an important impact on HF treatment, as it often leads to inappropriate drug prescription, poor adherence to pharmacological therapies, drug-drug interactions, and adverse effects. The growing complexity of HF patients, whose mean age increases progressively and who present multiple comorbidities, suggests the need for newer models of primary care to improve the management of HF patients. Self-care, telemonitoring, and natriuretic peptide-guided therapy represent promising new HF care models to face the complexity of the disease and its therapeutic regimen. PMID:24493574

  6. Alcohol Consumption and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Djoussé, Luc; Gaziano, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) remains a major public health issue. It is estimated that about 500,000 Americans per year are diagnosed with HF. Despite advanced medical and surgical treatments for HF, mortality after the onset of HF is still high, thereby underscoring the importance of primary prevention. Among modifiable lifestyle factors, alcohol consumption appears to play a role in the development of HF. Although excessive drinking has been known to lead to alcoholic cardiomyopathy and light-to-moderate drinking may confer some cardiovascular benefits, recent studies suggest it is not only the quantity, but also drinking patterns and genetic factors, that may influence the relation between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease. This article reviews current evidence on the association between alcohol consumption and HF. PMID:18417065

  7. Mitochondrial dysfunction in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Rosca, Mariana G.; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex chronic clinical syndrome. Energy deficit is considered to be a key contributor to the development of both cardiac and skeletal myopathy. In HF several components of cardiac and skeletal muscle bioenergetics are altered, such as oxygen availability, substrate oxidation, mitochondrial ATP production, and ATP transfer to the contractile apparatus via the creatine kinase shuttle. This review focuses on alterations in mitochondrial biogenesis and respirasome organization, substrate oxidation coupled with ATP synthesis in the context of their contribution to the chronic energy deficit, and mechanical dysfunction of the cardiac and skeletal muscle in HF. We conclude that HF is associated with decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and function in both heart and skeletal muscle, supporting the concept of a systemic mitochondrial cytopathy. The sites of mitochondrial defects are located within the electron transport and phosphorylation apparatus, and differ with the etiology and progression of HF in the two mitochondrial populations (subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar) of cardiac and skeletal muscle. The roles of adrenergic stimulation, the renin-angiotensin system, and cytokines are evaluated as factors responsible for the systemic energy deficit. We propose a cylic AMP-mediated mechanism by which increased adrenergic stimulation contributes to the mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:22948484

  8. Heart Failure in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yutao; Lip, Gregory YH; Banerjee, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) carries a major burden of disease in East Asia, with high associated risk of mortality and morbidity. In recent decades, the epidemiology of HF has changed with social and economical development in East Asia. The burden of HF is still severe in East Asia. The prevalence of HF ranges from 1.3% to 6.7% throughout the region. As aetiological factors, ischaemic heart disease has increased and valvular disease reduced in most East Asian countries. Diuretics are the most commonly used drugs (51.0%-97%), followed by renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors (59%-77%), with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ACEI, (32%-52%) and has angiotensin-2 receptor blockers, ARBs (31%-44%) in similar proportions. β-blocker use has also increased in recent years. Total mortality from HF ranges from 2% to 9% in China, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand, and Japan. Age>65 years, diabetes mellitus, anaemia, renal dysfunction and atrial fibrillation (AF) are associated with adverse outcome. More prospective, region-specific data are still required, particularly regarding new drug therapies such as eplerenone and ivabradine. PMID:23597295

  9. Focus on renal congestion in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Afsar, Baris; Ortiz, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Solak, Yalcin; Goldsmith, David; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Hospitalizations due to heart failure are increasing steadily despite advances in medicine. Patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure have high mortality in hospital and within the months following discharge. Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure patients. Recent evidence suggests that both deterioration in kidney function and renal congestion are important prognostic factors in heart failure. Kidney congestion in heart failure results from low cardiac output (forward failure), tubuloglomerular feedback, increased intra-abdominal pressure or increased venous pressure. Regardless of the cause, renal congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The impact on outcomes of renal decongestion strategies that do not compromise renal function should be explored in heart failure. These studies require novel diagnostic markers that identify early renal damage and renal congestion and allow monitoring of treatment responses in order to avoid severe worsening of renal function. In addition, there is an unmet need regarding evidence-based therapeutic management of renal congestion and worsening renal function. In the present review, we summarize the mechanisms, diagnosis, outcomes, prognostic markers and treatment options of renal congestion in heart failure. PMID:26798459

  10. Heart failure - surgeries and devices

    MedlinePlus

    ... ejection fraction. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook ... heart disease. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook ...

  11. Heart Failure - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arabic) هبوط القلب - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Heart Failure Zatajenje srca - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Heart Failure 心力衰竭 - 简体中文 (Chinese - ...

  12. How Can I Live with Heart Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... goal of heart failure treatment is to help you live a longer, better-quality life. Treating the causes of heart failure with medication can lessen tiredness (fatigue), shortness of breath and swelling. It also helps improve your energy level so you can be physically active. Here are some examples ...

  13. "Playboy bunny" sign of congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Akira; Arakaki, Shingo; Shibata, Daisuke; Maeshiro, Tatsuji; Kinjo, Fukunori; Fujita, Jiro

    2011-11-01

    In emergency, ultrasound has been widely used as a noninvasive and effective examination to evaluate congestive heart failure. We highlight "Playboy Bunny" sign as a reliable marker and an important clue to the diagnosis of passive hepatic congestion, caused by congestive heart failure. PMID:22224133

  14. The role of micronutrients in heart failure.

    PubMed

    McKeag, Nicholas A; McKinley, Michelle C; Woodside, Jayne V; Harbinson, Mark T; McKeown, Pascal P

    2012-06-01

    Heart failure is a common condition in the Western world, particularly among elderly persons and with an ever-aging population, the incidence is expected to increase. Diet in the setting of heart failure is important--patients with this condition are advised to consume a low-salt diet and monitor their weight closely. Nutritional status of patients with heart failure also is important--those with poor nutritional status tend to have a poor long-term prognosis. A growing body of evidence suggests an association between heart failure and micronutrient status. Reversible heart failure has been described as a consequence of severe thiamine and selenium deficiency. However, contemporary studies suggest that a more subtle relationship may exist between micronutrients and heart failure. This article reviews the existing literature linking heart failure and micronutrients, examining studies that investigated micronutrient intake, micronutrient status, and the effect of micronutrient supplementation in patients with heart failure, and focusing particularly on vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, thiamine, other B vitamins, vitamin D, selenium, zinc, and copper. PMID:22709814

  15. Generation of Antigen Microarrays to Screen for Autoantibodies in Heart Failure and Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chruscinski, Andrzej; Huang, Flora Y. Y.; Nguyen, Albert; Lioe, Jocelyn; Tumiati, Laura C.; Kozuszko, Stella; Tinckam, Kathryn J.; Rao, Vivek; Dunn, Shannon E.; Persinger, Michael A.; Levy, Gary A.; Ross, Heather J.

    2016-01-01

    Autoantibodies directed against endogenous proteins including contractile proteins and endothelial antigens are frequently detected in patients with heart failure and after heart transplantation. There is evidence that these autoantibodies contribute to cardiac dysfunction and correlate with clinical outcomes. Currently, autoantibodies are detected in patient sera using individual ELISA assays (one for each antigen). Thus, screening for many individual autoantibodies is laborious and consumes a large amount of patient sample. To better capture the broad-scale antibody reactivities that occur in heart failure and post-transplant, we developed a custom antigen microarray technique that can simultaneously measure IgM and IgG reactivities against 64 unique antigens using just five microliters of patient serum. We first demonstrated that our antigen microarray technique displayed enhanced sensitivity to detect autoantibodies compared to the traditional ELISA method. We then piloted this technique using two sets of samples that were obtained at our institution. In the first retrospective study, we profiled pre-transplant sera from 24 heart failure patients who subsequently received heart transplants. We identified 8 antibody reactivities that were higher in patients who developed cellular rejection (2 or more episodes of grade 2R rejection in first year after transplant as defined by revised criteria from the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation) compared with those who did have not have rejection episodes. In a second retrospective study with 31 patients, we identified 7 IgM reactivities that were higher in heart transplant recipients who developed antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) compared with control recipients, and in time course studies, these reactivities appeared prior to overt graft dysfunction. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the autoantibody microarray technique outperforms traditional ELISAs as it uses less patient sample, has increased sensitivity, and can detect autoantibodies in a multiplex fashion. Furthermore, our results suggest that this autoantibody array technology may help to identify patients at risk of rejection following heart transplantation and identify heart transplant recipients with AMR. PMID:26967734

  16. Gene Therapy in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Vinge, Leif Erik; Raake, Philip W.; Koch, Walter J.

    2008-01-01

    With increasing knowledge of basic molecular mechanisms governing the development of heart failure (HF), the possibility of specifically targeting key pathological players is evolving. Technology allowing for efficient in vivo transduction of myocardial tissue with long-term expression of a transgene enables translation of basic mechanistic knowledge into potential gene therapy approaches. Gene therapy in HF is in its infancy clinically with the predominant amount of experience being from animal models. Nevertheless, this challenging and promising field is gaining momentum as recent preclinical studies in larger animals have been carried out and, importantly, there are 2 newly initiated phase I clinical trials for HF gene therapy. To put it simply, 2 parameters are needed for achieving success with HF gene therapy: (1) clearly identified detrimental/beneficial molecular targets; and (2) the means to manipulate these targets at a molecular level in a sufficient number of cardiac cells. However, several obstacles do exist on our way to efficient and safe gene transfer to human myocardium. Some of these obstacles are discussed in this review; however, it primarily focuses on the molecular target systems that have been subjected to intense investigation over the last decade in an attempt to make gene therapy for human HF a reality. PMID:18566312

  17. Health Literacy and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Cajita, Maan Isabella; Cajita, Tara Rafaela; Han, Hae-Ra

    2015-01-01

    Background Low health literacy affects millions of Americans, putting those who are affected at a disadvantage and at risk for poorer health outcomes. Low health literacy can act as a barrier to effective disease self-management; this is especially true for chronic diseases such as heart failure (HF) that require complicated self-care regimens. Purpose This systematic review examined quantitative research literature published between 1999 and 2014 to explore the role of health literacy among HF patients. The specific aims of the systematic review are to (1) describe the prevalence of low health literacy among HF patients, (2) explore the predictors of low health literacy among HF patients, and (3) discuss the relationship between health literacy and HF self-care and common HF outcomes. Methods A systematic search of the following databases was conducted, PubMed, CINAHL Plus, Embase, PsycINFO, and Scopus, using relevant keywords and clear inclusion and exclusion criteria. Conclusions An average of 39% of HF patients have low health literacy. Age, race/ethnicity, years of education, and cognitive function are predictors of health literacy. In addition, adequate health literacy is consistently correlated with higher HF knowledge and higher salt knowledge. Clinical Implications Considering the prevalence of low health literacy among in the HF population, nurses and healthcare professionals need to recognize the consequences of low health literacy and adopt strategies that could minimize its detrimental effect on the patient's health outcomes. PMID:25569150

  18. Community management of heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    McKelvie, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review therapies for treating patients with heart failure (HF). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Recommendations in this paper are mainly based on the results of randomized controlled trials. To a lesser extent, data from smaller, more physiologic studies are included. Where appropriate, recommendations are based on the results of a consensus conference. MAIN MESSAGE: Although pharmacologic therapy is the main strategy for treating HF patients, general measures, such as counseling and advice about regular physical activity, are an important component of management. Use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) is central to treating HF patients, because these agents decrease mortality and morbidity significantly. Digoxin does not reduce mortality but does reduce morbidity. Angiotensin II antagonists, although found to provide clinical benefit equal to ACE-I, have not been found as yet to have similar effects on mortality and morbidity. Diuretics and nitrates are useful for treating these patients' symptoms. Calcium channel blockers should generally be avoided. CONCLUSIONS: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are the therapy of choice for HF patients and should be used in all cases unless there are contraindications or clear evidence of intolerance. All other therapies are used mainly for symptom relief. PMID:9870122

  19. Heart failure and galectin 3.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Gabriela; Meyerrose, Gary

    2014-09-01

    Innovations in medical diagnosis and treatment have led to prolongation of life of patients. Increasing the life expectancy of cardiac patients and thereby increasing the prevalence of heart failure (HF). Currently more than one million hospital admissions per year are due to HF and it has been estimated that the cost is approximately $39 billion annually in the U.S. There are two pathophysiologic myocardial mechanisms that cause HF: systolic dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction. Normal cardiac aging is characterized by morphological and structural changes that increase cardiomyocyte size, increased number of apoptosis with decreased number in myocytes, increased collagen deposition, and functional changes at cellular level. All these factors contribute to fibrotic remodeling that leads to LV diastolic stiffness, which ultimately leads to impaired diastolic function. At the same time it has been shown that galectin-3, a soluble β-galactoside-binding protein secreted by activated macrophages, promotes cardiac fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, and ventricular dysfunction. In this paper we review the prognostic value of galectin-3 as an independent predictor of mortality in patients with moderate to advanced chronic HF (CHF). PMID:25405161

  20. Heart failure and galectin 3

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Innovations in medical diagnosis and treatment have led to prolongation of life of patients. Increasing the life expectancy of cardiac patients and thereby increasing the prevalence of heart failure (HF). Currently more than one million hospital admissions per year are due to HF and it has been estimated that the cost is approximately $39 billion annually in the U.S. There are two pathophysiologic myocardial mechanisms that cause HF: systolic dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction. Normal cardiac aging is characterized by morphological and structural changes that increase cardiomyocyte size, increased number of apoptosis with decreased number in myocytes, increased collagen deposition, and functional changes at cellular level. All these factors contribute to fibrotic remodeling that leads to LV diastolic stiffness, which ultimately leads to impaired diastolic function. At the same time it has been shown that galectin-3, a soluble β-galactoside-binding protein secreted by activated macrophages, promotes cardiac fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition, and ventricular dysfunction. In this paper we review the prognostic value of galectin-3 as an independent predictor of mortality in patients with moderate to advanced chronic HF (CHF). PMID:25405161

  1. VT ablation in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bnsch, D; Schneider, R; Akin, I; Nienaber, C A

    2012-03-01

    Ventricular tachycardias (VT), shocks, and clusters of shock are ominous signs in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and herald an increased risk of hospitalization and mortality. VT clusters have been associated with aggravation of heart failure (19%), acute coronary events (14%), and electrolyte imbalance (10%). Yet, any association of potential causative factors and aggravation of VT is vague. Maybe, in patients with any substrate for re-entry, progressive aggravation of ventricular dysrhythmias is to be expected. The high recurrence rate of electrical storm despite antiarrhythmic drug therapy supports this view. The optimal timing of VT ablation is unknown, but current convention is to perform VT ablation after shock clusters or incessant VT has occurred. Preemptive VT ablation before VT has occurred is rarely performed (only in 15% of active centers) and the majority of centers never perform VT ablation even after the first shock. Such practice is within guidelines that recommend VT ablation only in ICD patients with recurrent or incessant VT. However, there is strong data in support of preemptive VT ablation. PMID:22410757

  2. The Genomic Architecture of Sporadic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Gerald W

    2011-01-01

    Common or sporadic systolic heart failure (heart failure) is the clinical syndrome of insufficient forward cardiac output resulting from myocardial disease. Most heart failure is the consequence of ischemic or idiopathic cardiomyopathy. There is a clear familial predisposition to heart failure, with a genetic component estimated to confer between 20 and 30% of overall risk. The multifactorial etiology of this syndrome has complicated identification of its genetic underpinnings. Until recently, almost all genetic studies of heart failure were designed and deployed according to the common disease-common variant hypothesis, in which individual risk alleles impart a small positive or negative effect and overall genetic risk is the cumulative impact of all functional genetic variations. Early studies employed a candidate gene approach, focused mainly on factors within adrenergic and renin-angiotensin pathways that affect heart failure progression and are targeted by standard pharmacotherapeutics. Many of these reported allelic associations with heart failure have not been replicated. However, the preponderance of data support risk-modifier effects for the Arg389Gly polymorphism of β1-adrenergic receptors and the intron 16 in/del polymorphism of angiotensin converting enzyme. Recent unbiased studies using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays have shown fewer positive results than when these platforms were applied to hypertension, myocardial infarction, or diabetes, possibly reflecting the complex etiology of heart failure. A new cardiovascular gene-centric sub-genome SNP array identified a common heat failure risk allele at 1p36 in multiple independent cohorts, but the biological mechanism for this association is still uncertain. It is likely that common gene polymorphisms account for only a fraction of individual genetic heart failure risk, and future studies using deep resequencing are likely to identify rare gene variants with larger biological effects. PMID:21566223

  3. Pharmacogenomics, personalized medicine, and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mestroni, Luisa; Taylor, Matthew R G

    2011-06-01

    Heart failure, a major clinical problem affecting millions of people, may be modified by the genetic diversity of the affected individuals. A novel medical approach, personalized medicine, seeks to use genetic information to "personalize" and improve diagnosis, prevention, and therapy. The personalized management of heart failure involves a large spectrum of potential applications, from diagnostics of monogenic disorders, to prevention and management strategies based on modifier genes, to pharmacogenomics. In rare monogenic disorders causing heart failure, recent guidelines now assist the clinician in molecular diagnostics, genetic counseling, and therapeutic choices. Several lines of evidence suggest that common polymorphic variants of modifier genes can influence the susceptibility to heart failure, and it is expected that more advanced high throughput technologies will allow the discovery of a number of novel modifier genes that could be used for prognostic profiling and development of novel therapeutics. Finally, using pharmacogenomic approaches to affect heart failure management appears very promising. Common genetic variants of beta-adrenergic receptors, alpha-adrenergic receptors, and endothelin receptors among others significantly alter the response to heart failure therapy. This knowledge could be used to personalize and optimize heart failure therapy based on the patient's genetic profile. While the advances in technologies will continue to transition personalized medicine from the research to the clinical setting, physicians and in particular cardiologists need to reshape clinical diagnostics paradigms, learn how to use new genomic information to change management decisions, and provide the patients with appropriate education and management recommendations. PMID:21712021

  4. Hyponatremia in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Filippatos, Theodosios D; Elisaf, Moses S

    2013-01-01

    The present review analyses the mechanisms relating heart failure and hyponatremia, describes the association of hyponatremia with the progress of disease and morbidity/mortality in heart failure patients and presents treatment options focusing on the role of arginine vasopressin (AVP)-receptor antagonists. Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in the clinical setting and in hospitalized patients. Patients with hyponatremia may have neurologic symptoms since low sodium concentration produces brain edema, but the rapid correction of hyponatremia is also associated with major neurologic complications. Patients with heart failure often develop hyponatremia owing to the activation of many neurohormonal systems leading to decrease of sodium levels. A large number of clinical studies have associated hyponatremia with increased morbidity and mortality in patients hospitalized for heart failure or outpatients with chronic heart failure. Treatment options for hyponatremia in heart failure, such as water restriction or the use of hypertonic saline with loop diuretics, have limited efficacy. AVP-receptor antagonists increase sodium levels effectively and their use seems promising in patients with hyponatremia. However, the effects of AVP-receptor antagonists on hard outcomes in patients with heart failure and hyponatremia have not been thoroughly examined. PMID:24109495

  5. Diet and Exercise Benefit People with Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... 156532.html Diet and Exercise Benefit People With Heart Failure Combination approach greatly boosted oxygen consumption, study shows ... capacity in people with a particular form of heart failure, a new study reports. Heart failure with preserved ...

  6. Multimorbidity in Older Adults with Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Dharmarajan, Kumar; Dunlay, Shannon M

    2016-05-01

    Multimorbidity is common among older adults with heart failure and creates diagnostic and management challenges. Diagnosis of heart failure may be difficult, as many conditions commonly found in older persons produce dyspnea, exercise intolerance, fatigue, and weakness; no singular pathognomonic finding or diagnostic test differentiates them from one another. Treatment may also be complicated, as multimorbidity creates high potential for drug-disease and drug-drug interactions in settings of polypharmacy. The authors suggest that management of multimorbid older persons with heart failure be patient, rather than disease-focused, to best meet patients' unique health goals and minimize risk from excessive or poorly-coordinated treatments. PMID:27113146

  7. Recent advances in treatment of heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Kitai, Takeshi; Tang, WH Wilson

    2015-01-01

    With the total cases and economic burden of heart failure continuing to rise, there is an overwhelming need for novel therapies. Several drugs for heart failure have succeeded in preclinical and early-phase clinical trials, but most of them failed to show the real benefit in pivotal clinical trials. Meanwhile, the US Food and Drug Administration recently approved two promising new drugs to treat heart failure: ivabradine and sacubitril/valsartan. Furthermore, some of the newer agents in testing offer the potential for significant progress in addition to these drugs. Patiromer and zirconium cyclosilicate are attractive agents that are expected to prevent hyperkalemia during renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition, and serelaxin and urodilatin are promising drugs in the treatment of acute heart failure. Future clinical trials with more appropriate study designs, optimal clinical endpoints, and proper patient selection are mandatory to assess the true efficacy of these attractive compounds in clinical practice. PMID:26918130

  8. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Gladden, James D.; Linke, Wolfgang A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of this series devoted to heart failure (HF), we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Gaps in knowledge and needed future research are discussed. PMID:24663384

  9. Telerehabilitation for patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tousignant, Michel; Mampuya, Warner Mbuila

    2015-02-01

    Heart failure is a chronic and progressive condition that is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Even though cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has been shown to be beneficial to heart failure patients, only a very small proportion of them will actually be referred and eventually participate. The low participation rate is due in part to accessibility and travel difficulties. Telerehabilitation is a new approach in the rehabilitation field that allows patients to receive a complete rehabilitation program at home in a safe manner and under adequate supervision. We believe that by increasing accessibility to CR, telerehabilitation programs will significantly improve heart failure patients' functional capacity and quality of life. However, it is crucial to provide policy makers with evidence-based data on cardiac telerehabilitation if we want to see its successful implementation in heart failure patients. PMID:25774353

  10. Anticoagulation in Heart Failure: a Review

    PubMed Central

    Zeitler, Emily P.; Eapen, Zubin J

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) with reduced left ventricular function inflicts a large and growing burden of morbidity and mortality in the US and across the globe. One source of this burden is stroke. While it appears that HF itself may impose some risk of stroke, it is in the presence of other risk factors, like atrial fibrillation, that the greatest risks are observed. Therapeutic anticoagulation is the mainstay of risk reduction strategies in this population. While warfarin was the only available therapy for anticoagulation for many decades, there are now four direct oral anticoagulants available. In three of these four, outcomes in the specific subgroup of patients with heart failure have been examined. In this review, we provide some pathophysiologic basis for the risk of stroke in heart failure. In addition, the available therapeutic options for stroke risk prevention in heart failure are described in detail including how these options are incorporated into relevant professional society guidelines. PMID:26690383

  11. Telerehabilitation for patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Tousignant, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is a chronic and progressive condition that is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Even though cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has been shown to be beneficial to heart failure patients, only a very small proportion of them will actually be referred and eventually participate. The low participation rate is due in part to accessibility and travel difficulties. Telerehabilitation is a new approach in the rehabilitation field that allows patients to receive a complete rehabilitation program at home in a safe manner and under adequate supervision. We believe that by increasing accessibility to CR, telerehabilitation programs will significantly improve heart failure patients functional capacity and quality of life. However, it is crucial to provide policy makers with evidence-based data on cardiac telerehabilitation if we want to see its successful implementation in heart failure patients. PMID:25774353

  12. In-hospital worsening heart failure.

    PubMed

    Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Kelkar, Anita; Fonarow, Gregg C; Anker, Stefan; Greene, Stephen J; Papadimitriou, Lampros; Collins, Sean; Ruschitzka, Frank; Yancy, Clyde W; Teerlink, John R; Adams, Kirkwood; Cotter, Gadi; Ponikowski, Piotr; Felker, G Michael; Metra, Marco; Filippatos, Gerasimos

    2015-11-01

    Acute worsening heart failure (WHF) is seen in a sizable portion of patients hospitalized for heart failure, and is increasingly being recognized as an entity that is associated with an adverse in-hospital course. WHF is generally defined as worsening heart failure symptoms and signs requiring an intensification of therapy, and is reported to be seen in anywhere from 5% to 42% of heart failure admissions. It is difficult to ascertain the exact epidemiology of WHF due to varying definitions used in the literature. Studies indicate that WHF cannot be precisely predicted on the basis of baseline variables assessed at the time of admission. Recent data suggest that some experimental therapies may reduce the risk of development of WHF among hospitalized heart failure patients, and this is associated with a reduction in risk of subsequent post-discharge cardiovascular mortality. In this respect, WHF holds promise as a endpoint for acute heart failure clinical trials to better elucidate the benefit of targeted novel therapies. Better understanding of the pathophysiology and a consensus on the definition of WHF will further improve our epidemiological and clinical understanding of this entity. PMID:26235192

  13. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Barasa, Felix A; Doll, Jacob A; Velazquez, Eric J

    2013-05-01

    The heart failure syndrome has been recognized as a significant contributor to cardiovascular disease burden in sub-Saharan African for many decades. Seminal knowledge regarding heart failure in the region came from case reports and case series of the early 20th century which identified infectious, nutritional and idiopathic causes as the most common. With increasing urbanization, changes in lifestyle habits, and ageing of the population, the spectrum of causes of HF has also expanded resulting in a significant burden of both communicable and non-communicable etiologies. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa is notable for the range of etiologies that concurrently exist as well as the healthcare environment marked by limited resources, weak national healthcare systems and a paucity of national level data on disease trends. With the recent publication of the first and largest multinational prospective registry of acute heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa, it is timely to review the state of knowledge to date and describe the myriad forms of heart failure in the region. This review discusses several forms of heart failure that are common in sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, pericardial disease, various dilated cardiomyopathies, HIV cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis, ischemic heart disease, cor pulmonale) and presents each form with regard to epidemiology, natural history, clinical characteristics, diagnostic considerations and therapies. Areas and approaches to fill the remaining gaps in knowledge are also offered herein highlighting the need for research that is driven by regional disease burden and needs. PMID:23597299

  14. Heart Failure in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Barasa, Felix A; Doll, Jacob A; Velazquez, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    The heart failure syndrome has been recognized as a significant contributor to cardiovascular disease burden in sub-Saharan African for many decades. Seminal knowledge regarding heart failure in the region came from case reports and case series of the early 20th century which identified infectious, nutritional and idiopathic causes as the most common. With increasing urbanization, changes in lifestyle habits, and ageing of the population, the spectrum of causes of HF has also expanded resulting in a significant burden of both communicable and non-communicable etiologies. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa is notable for the range of etiologies that concurrently exist as well as the healthcare environment marked by limited resources, weak national healthcare systems and a paucity of national level data on disease trends. With the recent publication of the first and largest multinational prospective registry of acute heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa, it is timely to review the state of knowledge to date and describe the myriad forms of heart failure in the region. This review discusses several forms of heart failure that are common in sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, pericardial disease, various dilated cardiomyopathies, HIV cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis, ischemic heart disease, cor pulmonale) and presents each form with regard to epidemiology, natural history, clinical characteristics, diagnostic considerations and therapies. Areas and approaches to fill the remaining gaps in knowledge are also offered herein highlighting the need for research that is driven by regional disease burden and needs. PMID:23597299

  15. How Is Heart Failure Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Whole grains, such as oatmeal, brown rice, and corn tortillas When following a heart-healthy diet, you ... sources of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are: Avocados Corn, sunflower, and soybean oils Nuts and seeds, such ...

  16. Optimization of cardiac metabolism in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Tomohisa; Yoshimura, Michihiro; Rosano, Giuseppe M C; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Mochizuki, Seibu

    2011-12-01

    The derangement of the cardiac energy substrate metabolism plays a key role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. The utilization of non-carbohydrate substrates, such as fatty acids, is the predominant metabolic pathway in the normal heart, because this provides the highest energy yield per molecule of substrate metabolized. In contrast, glucose becomes an important preferential substrate for metabolism and ATP generation under specific pathological conditions, because it can provide greater efficiency in producing high energy products per oxygen consumed compared to fatty acids. Manipulations that shift energy substrate utilization away from fatty acids toward glucose can improve the cardiac function and slow the progression of heart failure. However, insulin resistance, which is highly prevalent in the heart failure population, impedes this adaptive metabolic shift. Therefore, the acceleration of the glucose metabolism, along with the restoration of insulin sensitivity, would be the ideal metabolic therapy for heart failure. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of modifying substrate utilization to optimize cardiac metabolism in heart failure. PMID:21933140

  17. Palliative care in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    McIlvennan, Colleen K; Allen, Larry A

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in cardiac therapy, heart failure (HF) remains a progressive, highly symptomatic, and deadly disease that places great demands on patients, caregivers, and healthcare systems. Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to care that focuses on communication, shared decision making, and advance care planning; provides relief from pain and other distressing symptoms; integrates psychological and spiritual aspects of care; and offers a support system to help families cope during illness and bereavement. Palliative care has applications across the stages of heart failure, including early in the course of illness, often in conjunction with other therapies that are intended to prolong life. However, the incorporation of palliative care into the management of heart failure has been suboptimal for several reasons: uncertainty in the disease trajectory, failure to reward communication between healthcare providers and patients, siloed care, lack of knowledge, overlay of comorbidity and frailty, life saving devices with complex trade-offs, and a limited evidence base. This review will summarize the current literature on the emerging role of palliative care in patients with heart failure and the challenges and opportunities for its integration into routine care. It will discuss current initiatives and future directions of the collaborative relationship between the palliative care and heart failure disciplines. PMID:27079896

  18. [Appendicular thermal therapy for heart failure].

    PubMed

    Komamura, Kazuo

    2009-03-01

    We preliminarily assessed the utility of a steam foot bath in 4 male patients with dilated cardiomyopathy with refractory chronic congestive heart failure awaiting heart transplantation. Sublingual temperature significantly increased from 36.1 +/- 0.3 to 36.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C (p = 0.01). Blood pressure, heart rate and numbers of ventricular arrhythmia did not differ before and after two weeks of the therapy. Grade of mitral regurgitation tended to decrease (2.0 +/- 1.2 to 1.3 +/- 1.0, p = 0.06), and endothelial function measured by arterial tonometry significantly increased from 1.35 +/- 0.26 to 2.13 +/- 0.26 (p = 0.02). Thus, steam foot bath therapy may be safe and beneficial for the patients with endstage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation. PMID:19280944

  19. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure? The most common signs and symptoms of heart ... in your lungs. The condition requires emergency treatment. Heart Failure Signs and Symptoms The image shows the major ...

  20. Metabolic and Signaling Alterations in Dystrophin-Deficient Hearts Precede Overt Cardiomyopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cytoskeletal protein dystrophin has been implicated in hereditary and acquired forms of cardiomyopathy. However, much remains to be learned about the role of dystrophin in the heart. We hypothesized that the dystrophin-deficient heart displays early alterations in energy metabolism that precede ...

  1. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    ElGuindy, Ahmed; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has recently emerged as a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Contrary to initial beliefs, HFpEF is now known to be as common as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and carries an unacceptably high mortality rate. With a prevalence that has been steadily rising over the past two decades, it is very likely that HFpEF will represent the dominant heart failure phenotype over the coming few years. The scarcity of trials in this semi-discrete form of heart failure and lack of unified enrolment criteria in the studies conducted to date might have contributed to the current absence of specific therapies. Understanding the epidemiological, pathophysiological and molecular differences (and similarities) between these two forms of heart failure is cornerstone to the development of targeted therapies. Carefully designed studies that adhere to unified diagnostic criteria with the recruitment of appropriate controls and adoption of practical end-points are urgently needed to help identify effective treatment strategies. PMID:25610841

  2. Hemoconcentration-guided diuresis in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Greene, Stephen J; Fonarow, Gregg C; Voors, Adriaan A; Butler, Javed; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2014-12-01

    One quarter of patients hospitalized for heart failure are readmitted within 30 days, perhaps related to ineffective decongestion. Limited data exist guiding the extent and duration of diuresis in patients hospitalized for heart failure. The objective of this review was to determine the prognostic value of hemoconcentration, or the relative increase in the cellular elements in blood, in patients hospitalized for heart failure and to clarify its role in guiding inpatient diuretic practices. Six post hoc retrospective studies from 2010 to 2013 were available for review. Hemoconcentration was consistently associated with markers of aggressive fluid removal, including higher diuretic dosing and reduced body weight, but increased risk of in-hospital worsening renal function. Despite this, hemoconcentration was associated with improved short-term mortality and rehospitalization. Hemoconcentration is a practical, readily available, noninvasive, economically feasible strategy to help guide diuresis and monitor congestion relief in patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure. Clinicians should strongly consider using changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit as an adjunct to other available measures of decongestion and clinical acumen in inpatient heart failure care. PMID:24937157

  3. [Management of comorbidities in heart failure].

    PubMed

    Peperstraete, B

    2013-01-01

    We will review some diseases that interfere most with management of heart failure : anemia, chronic renal failure, chronic pulmonary diseases, diabetes, atrial fibrillation/flutter, sleep apnea, angina, systemic arterial hypertension, rheumatic disease, depression and anticancer chemotherapy. We will retain principally their therapeutic implications. Anemia can be partially corrected by administration of intravenous iron or erythropoietin. Chronic renal failure requires adaptation of the treatment, in particular for drugs of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Chronic pulmonary diseases complicate diagnosis of heart failure and may lead to sub prescription of beta-blockers. Diabetes does not alter the usual recommendations for the treatment of heart failure but some hypoglycemic medications should be prescribed with caution. In the presence of atrial fibrillation or flutter, the main purpose of the treatment is to improve the quality of live and to diminish the thromboembolic risk ; it may be obtained by rhythm or rate control. Therapeutic approach of sleep apnea is based on optimal treatment of heart failure and weight loss. In the presence of angina, systemic arterial hypertension, rheumatic disease or depression, certain drugs usually prescribed are contraindicated or must be prescribed with caution. Finally, chemotherapy can be cardiotoxic and require careful monitoring of cardiac function. PMID:23951855

  4. Molecular profiling of dilated cardiomyopathy that progresses to heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Wakimoto, Hiroko; Gorham, Joshua M.; Conner, David A.; Christodoulou, Danos C.; Parfenov, Michael G.; DePalma, Steve R.; Eminaga, Seda; Konno, Tetsuo; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Seidman, Christine E.

    2016-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined by progressive functional and structural changes. We performed RNA-seq at different stages of disease to define molecular signaling in the progression from pre-DCM hearts to DCM and overt heart failure (HF) using a genetic model of DCM (phospholamban missense mutation, PLNR9C/+). Pre-DCM hearts were phenotypically normal yet displayed proliferation of nonmyocytes (59% relative increase vs. WT, P = 8 × 10−4) and activation of proinflammatory signaling with notable cardiomyocyte-specific induction of a subset of profibrotic cytokines including TGFβ2 and TGFβ3. These changes progressed through DCM and HF, resulting in substantial fibrosis (17.6% of left ventricle [LV] vs. WT, P = 6 × 10−33). Cardiomyocytes displayed a marked shift in metabolic gene transcription: downregulation of aerobic respiration and subsequent upregulation of glucose utilization, changes coincident with attenuated expression of PPARα and PPARγ coactivators -1α (PGC1α) and -1β, and increased expression of the metabolic regulator T-box transcription factor 15 (Tbx15). Comparing DCM transcriptional profiles with those in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) revealed similar and distinct molecular mechanisms. Our data suggest that cardiomyocyte-specific cytokine expression, early fibroblast activation, and the shift in metabolic gene expression are hallmarks of cardiomyopathy progression. Notably, key components of these profibrotic and metabolic networks were disease specific and distinguish DCM from HCM.

  5. Mitochondrial Dynamics and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, A A; Liu, T T

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dynamics, fission and fusion, were first identified in yeast with investigation in heart cells beginning only in the last 5 to 7 years. In the ensuing time, it has become evident that these processes are not only required for healthy mitochondria, but also, that derangement of these processes contributes to disease. The fission and fusion proteins have a number of functions beyond the mitochondrial dynamics. Many of these functions are related to their membrane activities, such as apoptosis. However, other functions involve other areas of the mitochondria, such as OPA1's role in maintaining cristae structure and preventing cytochrome c leak, and its essential (at least a 10 kDa fragment of OPA1) role in mtDNA replication. In heart disease, changes in expression of these important proteins can have detrimental effects on mitochondrial and cellular function. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:507-526, 2016. PMID:26756641

  6. Serelaxin for the treatment of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Moin, Danyaal S; Bloom, Michelle W; Papadimitriou, Lampros; Butler, Javed

    2016-06-01

    Outcomes for patients with acute heart failure remain suboptimal and treatments principally target improvement of symptoms. To date there has been no therapy approved for acute heart failure shown to improve mortality or readmission risk post-discharge. Serelaxin, a recombinant form of the naturally occurring polypeptide hormone relaxin, has demonstrated promise in preclinical and early clinical trials as a potentially novel therapy for acute heart failure. It is postulated through its anti-fibrotic and vasodilatory effects that this agent can improve outcomes in both the short and long term in these patients. Randomized clinical data has suggested that the medication is safe and well tolerated. However, definitive outcomes data is currently being assessed in a large multi-center trial. PMID:27045761

  7. [Holistic therapy of chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Feldmann, C; Ertl, G; Angermann, C E

    2014-06-01

    The rising prevalence and increasing disease-related costs render chronic heart failure a rapidly growing socioeconomic challenge. The concerted action of guideline-adjusted therapy and holistic patient care is essential to achieve improvements in mortality, morbidity, functional status and quality of life of patients with symptomatic heart failure. Holistic care strategies comprise consideration of comorbidities and individual needs, lifestyle recommendations and multidisciplinary management programs for high-risk symptomatic patients in addition to basic medication and surgical therapies. For optimal patient care and coaching, seamless interaction is required between in-hospital treatment and outpatient facilities. Moreover, the palliative needs of heart failure patients need to be considered, a topic that is currently not receiving enough attention. PMID:24806269

  8. Can complexity decrease in congestive heart failure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sayan; Palit, Sanjay Kumar; Banerjee, Santo; Ariffin, M. R. K.; Rondoni, Lamberto; Bhattacharya, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The complexity of a signal can be measured by the Recurrence period density entropy (RPDE) from the reconstructed phase space. We have chosen a window based RPDE method for the classification of signals, as RPDE is an average entropic measure of the whole phase space. We have observed the changes in the complexity in cardiac signals of normal healthy person (NHP) and congestive heart failure patients (CHFP). The results show that the cardiac dynamics of a healthy subject is more complex and random compare to the same for a heart failure patient, whose dynamics is more deterministic. We have constructed a general threshold to distinguish the border line between a healthy and a congestive heart failure dynamics. The results may be useful for wide range for physiological and biomedical analysis.

  9. Heart failure and Alzheimer′s disease

    PubMed Central

    Cermakova, P; Eriksdotter, M; Lund, L H; Winblad, B; Religa, P; Religa, D

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that heart failure is a risk factor for Alzheimer′s disease. Decreased cerebral blood flow and neurohormonal activation due to heart failure may contribute to the dysfunction of the neurovascular unit and cause an energy crisis in neurons. This leads to the impaired clearance of amyloid beta and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, resulting in the formation of amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In this article, we will summarize the current understanding of the relationship between heart failure and Alzheimer′s disease based on epidemiological studies, brain imaging research, pathological findings and the use of animal models. The importance of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and valve disease as well as the effect of relevant medications will be discussed. PMID:25041352

  10. Heart Failure and Mechanical Circulatory Assist Devices

    PubMed Central

    Franca, Eluisa La; Iacona, Rosanna; Ajello, Laura; Sansone, Angela; Caruso, Marco; Assennato, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    During the last 20 years, the management of heart failure has significantly improved by means of new pharmacotherapies, more timely invasive treatments and device assisted therapies. Indeed, advances in mechanical support, namely with the development of more efficient left ventricular assist devices (LVAD), and the total artificial heart have reduced mortality and morbidity in patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting for transplantation. However, the transplant cannot be the only solution, due to an insufficient number of available donors, but also because of the high number of patients who are not candidates for severe comorbidities or advanced age. New perspectives are emerging in which the VAD is no longer conceived only as a “Bridge to Transplant”, but is now seen as a destination therapy. In this review, the main VAD classification, current basic indications, functioning modalities, main limitations of surgical VAD and the total artificial heart development are described. PMID:23985102

  11. GENE THERAPIES FOR ARRHYTHMIAS IN HEART FAILURE

    PubMed Central

    Akar, Fadi G.; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we review recent advances in our understanding of arrhythmia mechanisms in the failing heart. We focus on changes in repolarization, conduction, and intracellular calcium cycling because of their importance to the vast majority of clinical arrhythmias in heart failure. We highlight recent efforts to combat arrhythmias using gene-based approaches that target ion channel, gap junction, and calcium cycling proteins. We further discuss the advantages and limitations associated with individual approaches. PMID:24566976

  12. Congestive heart failure associated with itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S R; Singer, S J; Leissa, B G

    2001-06-01

    Itraconazole is a synthetic antifungal agent approved in the USA for the treatment of onychomycosis and serious systemic fungal infections. Animal and clinical pharmacology studies suggest negative inotropic effects with itraconazole. Data from the US Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System suggest that use of itraconazole is associated with congestive heart failure. We summarise the details of 58 cases suggestive of congestive heart failure in association with the use of itraconazole. Labelling of itraconazole has been changed to alert physicians to this new finding. PMID:11403818

  13. Congestive Heart Failure and Central Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Sands, Scott A; Owens, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is among the most common causes of admission to hospitals in the United States, especially in those over age 65. Few data exist regarding the prevalence CHF of Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) owing to congestive heart failure in the intensive care unit (ICU). Nevertheless, CSR is expected to be highly prevalent among those with CHF. Treatment should focus on the underlying mechanisms by which CHF increases loop gain and promotes unstable breathing. Few data are available to determine prevalence of CSR in the ICU, or how CSR might affect clinical management and weaning from mechanical ventilation. PMID:26972039

  14. Intercellular communication lessons in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bang, Claudia; Antoniades, Charalambos; Antonopoulos, Alexios S; Eriksson, Ulf; Franssen, Constantijn; Hamdani, Nazha; Lehmann, Lorenz; Moessinger, Christine; Mongillo, Marco; Muhl, Lars; Speer, Thimoteus; Thum, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Cell-cell or inter-organ communication allows the exchange of information and messages, which is essential for the coordination of cell/organ functions and the maintenance of homeostasis. It has become evident that dynamic interactions of different cell types play a major role in the heart, in particular during the progression of heart failure, a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Heart failure is associated with compensatory structural and functional changes mostly in cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, which finally lead to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis. Intercellular communication within the heart is mediated mostly via direct cell-cell interaction or the release of paracrine signalling mediators such as cytokines and chemokines. However, recent studies have focused on the exchange of genetic information via the packaging into vesicles as well as the crosstalk of lipids and other paracrine molecules within the heart and distant organs, such as kidney and adipose tissue, which might all contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. In this review, we discuss emerging communication networks and respective underlying mechanisms which could be involved in cardiovascular disease conditions and further emphasize promising therapeutic targets for drug development. PMID:26398116

  15. New Management Strategies in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Owens, Anjali Tiku; Brozena, Susan C; Jessup, Mariell

    2016-02-01

    Despite >100 clinical trials, only 2 new drugs had been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic heart failure in more than a decade: the aldosterone antagonist eplerenone in 2003 and a fixed dose combination of hydralazine-isosorbide dinitrate in 2005. In contrast, 2015 has witnessed the Food and Drug Administration approval of 2 new drugs, both for the treatment of chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: ivabradine and another combination drug, sacubitril/valsartan or LCZ696. Seemingly overnight, a range of therapeutic possibilities, evoking new physiological mechanisms, promise great hope for a disease that often carries a prognosis worse than many forms of cancer. Importantly, the newly available therapies represent a culmination of basic and translational research that actually spans many decades. This review will summarize newer drugs currently being used in the treatment of heart failure, as well as newer strategies increasingly explored for their utility during the stages of the heart failure syndrome. PMID:26846642

  16. Cell death signalling mechanisms in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Mughal, Wajihah; Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac disease is a global epidemic that is on the rise, despite the recent advances in cardiovascular research. Once the myocardium is injured, it has a limited capacity to activate reparative mechanisms to restore proper cardiac function, leading to the development of systemic heart failure. Autophagy, under certain conditions, may result in cell death, further emphasizing the controversial issues regarding the autophagic process as an adaptive or maladaptive biological response. Although significant progress in understanding the signalling mechanisms of cell death in myocytes has been made, the role of apoptotic cell death and programmed necrosis during heart failure is not completely understood. Insight to how myocytes determine whether to activate apoptotic or programmed necrosis signalling machinery remains under current investigation because it is a major problem for both scientists and clinicians in treating heart failure patients. Herein, the different modes of cell death implicated in heart failure are highlighted, as well as the role of B-cell lymphoma-2 family members and how mitochondria act as central organelles in directing such cell death mechanisms. PMID:22131851

  17. Nonadherence in the Advanced Heart Failure Population.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Jonathan; McCue, Andrew; Cole, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The number of patients living with heart failure (HF) in the USA now exceeds 5 million. Although HF is a disease readily treated by medications and lifestyle interventions, nonadherence is common, leading to worse clinical outcomes and increased healthcare costs. While adherence to medical therapy and clinician recommendations is key in the management of HF, it is perhaps more critical in patients with the most advanced disease, including those receiving home inotropic infusion, heart transplantation, or a left ventricular assist device. Yet, there is a paucity of data on the effects of nonadherence on the advanced heart failure population and little information on the most effective management strategies in these patients. Future studies of nonadherence in HF should utilize uniform definitions of adherence and, ideally, more objective measurements of adherence such as the novel "digital pill" technology. PMID:26879391

  18. Exercise and heart failure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kappagoda, Tissa; Amsterdam, Ezra A

    2012-09-01

    In this review, we will examine the physiological responses to exercise in elderly populations (age>65years) with and without evidence of heart failure. Aging per se in both men and women is associated with a ~40% lower maximum oxygen consumption in sedentary subjects. In trained individuals, this value is 25-32% lower. A smaller SV accounts for nearly 50% of these age-related differences, and the remainder is explained by a lower maximal HR and reduced oxygen extraction. Exercise training is also associated with an increase in the arteriovenous O(2) difference in previously sedentary elderly men and women, which probably contributes to the overall beneficial effect of training in the elderly. However, during vigorous exercise (125W), the cardiac output in the elderly is dependent upon an age-related increase in end-diastolic volume and stroke volume, which "compensates" partially for the age-related decrease in heart rate. Hence, in elderly individuals, the stroke volume during exercise depends upon diastolic filling. The changes that occur in the heart are also associated with an overall reduction in efferent sympathetic nerve activity. Despite this decline, the metaboreflex initiated by receptors in exercising muscles remains the main determinant of sympathetic activation (to maintain blood pressure) during exercise in the elderly. It is recognized that aging is associated with the development of heart failure, particularly in women in whom its prevalence increases >twofold from age 65-69 (6.6%) to age 85years (14%). Almost half the people presenting with heart failure appear to have normal left ventricular systolic function, a phenomenon that is more common in women. Exercise training in elderly people with and without heart failure appears to have a beneficial effect in terms of enhancing the quality of life and functional capacity. Mortality benefit in the latter has not been established with certainty. PMID:22327748

  19. Remote Monitoring of Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bhimaraj, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    “The Teledactyl (Tele, far; Dactyl, finger — from the Greek) is a future instrument by which it will be possible for us to ‘feel at a distance.’ This idea is not at all impossible, for the instrument can be built today with means available right now. It is simply the well known telautograph, translated into radio terms, with additional refinements. The doctor of the future, by means of this instrument, will be able to feel his patient, as it were, at a distance…The doctor manipulates his controls, which are then manipulated at the patient’s room in exactly the same manner. The doctor sees what is going on in the patient’s room by means of a television screen.” —Hugo Gernsback, Science and Invention Magazine, February 1925 Heart failure continues to be a major burden on our health care system. As the number of patients with heart failure increases, the cost of hospitalization alone is contributing significantly to the overall cost of this disease. Readmission rate and hospital length of stay are emerging as quality markers of heart failure care along with reimbursement policies that force hospitals to optimize these outcomes. Apart from maintaining quality assurance, the disease process of heart failure per-se requires demanding and close attention to vitals, diet, and medication compliance to prevent acute decompensation episodes. Remote patient monitoring is morphing into a key disease management strategy to optimize care for heart failure. Innovative implantable technologies to monitor intracardiac hemodynamics also are evolving, which potentially could offer better and substantial parameters to monitor. PMID:23519115

  20. Remote monitoring of heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Bhimaraj, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    "The Teledactyl (Tele, far; Dactyl, finger--from the Greek) is a future instrument by which it will be possible for us to 'feel at a distance.' This idea is not at all impossible, for the instrument can be built today with means available right now. It is simply the well known telautograph, translated into radio terms, with additional refinements. The doctor of the future, by means of this instrument, will be able to feel his patient, as it were, at a distance...The doctor manipulates his controls, which are then manipulated at the patient's room in exactly the same manner. The doctor sees what is going on in the patient's room by means of a television screen." -Hugo Gernsback, Science and Invention Magazine, February 1925 Heart failure continues to be a major burden on our health care system. As the number of patients with heart failure increases, the cost of hospitalization alone is contributing significantly to the overall cost of this disease. Readmission rate and hospital length of stay are emerging as quality markers of heart failure care along with reimbursement policies that force hospitals to optimize these outcomes. Apart from maintaining quality assurance, the disease process of heart failure per-se requires demanding and close attention to vitals, diet, and medication compliance to prevent acute decompensation episodes. Remote patient monitoring is morphing into a key disease management strategy to optimize care for heart failure. Innovative implantable technologies to monitor intracardiac hemodynamics also are evolving, which potentially could offer better and substantial parameters to monitor. PMID:23519115

  1. Mitochondria in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Rosca, Mariana G.; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) frequently is the unfavorable outcome of pathological heart hypertrophy. In contrast to physiological cardiac hypertrophy, which occurs in response to exercise and leads to full adaptation of contractility to the increased wall stress, pathological hypertrophy occurs in response to volume or pressure overload, ultimately leading to contractile dysfunction and HF. Because cardiac hypertrophy impairs the relationship between ATP demand and production, mitochondrial bioenergetics must keep up with the cardiac hypertrophic phenotype. We review data regarding the mitochondrial proteomic and energetic remodeling in cardiac hypertrophy, as well as the temporal and causal relationship between mitochondrial failure to match the increased energy demand and progression to cardiac decompensation. We suggest that the maladaptive effect of sustained neuroendocrine signals on mitochondria leads to bioenergetic fading which contributes to the progression from cardiac hypertrophy to failure. PMID:22982369

  2. Role of cell death in the progression of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Moe, Gordon W; Marn-Garca, Jos

    2016-03-01

    All multicellular organisms develop during evolution the highly regulated and interconnected pathways of cell death. This complex network contributes to the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular disorders including ischemia/reperfusion injury, myocardial infarction, heart failure, dysrhythmias and atherosclerosis. Chronic cardiac remodeling response and transition to overt HF have been associated with modestly increased apoptosis, although the actual burden of chronic cell loss attributable to apoptosis is not clear. Central mediators of cardiomyocyte survival and death are the mitochondrial organelles. Based on its morphological characteristics, cell death can be classified into three major types: apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. Recently, a new pathway of regulated necrosis, necroptosis, has also been reported in the failing heart. The mitochondrial (intrinsic) and the death-receptor-mediated (extrinsic) converge at mitochondria inducing release of mitochondrial apoptogens to initiate the caspase cascade and eventually degradation of the doomed cardiomyocyte. Activation of death receptors can initiate not only extrinsic apoptotic pathway, but also necrosis. On the other hand, autophagy, which is characterized by the massive formation of lysosomal-derived vesicles, containing degenerating cytoplasmic contents, is primarily a survival response to nutrient deprivation, and a selective form of autophagy, mitophagy, is also a protective mechanism that allows to eliminate damaged mitochondria and thereby to attenuate mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and necrosis in the myocardium. Further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying cell death will increase the efficiency and repertoire of therapeutic interventions available in cardiovascular disease. PMID:26872675

  3. Heart Failure in Adult Congenital Heart Disease: Nonpharmacologic Treatment Strategies.

    PubMed

    LeMond, Lisa; Mai, Tuan; Broberg, Craig S; Muralidaran, Ashok; Burchill, Luke J

    2015-11-01

    In early stages, heart failure (HF) in adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) remains an elusive diagnosis. Many ACHD patients seem well-compensated owing to chronic physical and psychological adaptations. HF biomarkers and cardiopulmonary exercise tests are often markedly abnormal, although patients report stable health and good quality of life. Treatment differs from acquired HF. Evidence for effective drug therapy in ACHD-related HF is lacking. Residual ventricular, valvular, and vascular abnormalities contribute to HF pathophysiology, leading to an emphasis on nonpharmacologic treatment strategies. This article reviews emerging perspectives on nonpharmacologic treatment strategies, including catheter-based interventions, surgical correction, and palliative care. PMID:26471822

  4. Neural modulation for hypertension and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Smith, S; Rossignol, P; Willis, S; Zannad, F; Mentz, R; Pocock, S; Bisognano, J; Nadim, Y; Geller, N; Ruble, S; Linde, C

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension (HTN) and heart failure (HF) have a significant global impact on health, and lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Despite recent advances in pharmacologic and device therapy for these conditions, there is a need for additional treatment modalities. Patients with sub-optimally treated HTN have increased risk for stroke, renal failure and heart failure. The outcome of HF patients remains poor despite modern pharmacological therapy and with established device therapies such as CRT and ICDs. Therefore, the potential role of neuromodulation via renal denervation, baro-reflex modulation and vagal stimulation for the treatment of resistant HTN and HF is being explored. In this manuscript, we review current evidence for neuromodulation in relation to established drug and device therapies and how these therapies may be synergistic in achieving therapy goals in patients with treatment resistant HTN and heart failure. We describe lessons learned from recent neuromodulation trials and outline strategies to improve the potential for success in future trials. This review is based on discussions between scientists, clinical trialists, and regulatory representatives at the 11th annual CardioVascular Clinical Trialist Forum in Washington, DC on December 5-7, 2014. PMID:27085120

  5. Stem Cell Therapy Shows Promise Against Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158122.html Stem Cell Therapy Shows Promise Against Heart Failure A second ... 4, 2016 MONDAY, April 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Stem cell therapy shows promise for people battling heart failure, ...

  6. Gene Therapy Shows Early Promise Against Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158046.html Gene Therapy Shows Early Promise Against Heart Failure Inserting new DNA into cardiac cells may help ... news for millions of Americans who suffer from heart failure: A trial using gene therapy appears to have ...

  7. The sympathetic nervous system and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, David Y; Anderson, Allen S

    2014-02-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome characterized by upregulation of the sympathetic nervous system and abnormal responsiveness of the parasympathetic nervous system. Studies in the 1980s and 1990s demonstrated that inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors improved symptoms and mortality in HF resulting from systolic dysfunction, thus providing a framework to consider the use of β-blockers for HF therapy, contrary to the prevailing wisdom of the time. Against this backdrop, this article reviews the contemporary understanding of the sympathetic nervous system and the failing heart. PMID:24286577

  8. Advanced (stage D) heart failure: a statement from the Heart Failure Society of America Guidelines Committee.

    PubMed

    Fang, James C; Ewald, Gregory A; Allen, Larry A; Butler, Javed; Westlake Canary, Cheryl A; Colvin-Adams, Monica; Dickinson, Michael G; Levy, Phillip; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Sweitzer, Nancy K; Teerlink, John R; Whellan, David J; Albert, Nancy M; Krishnamani, Rajan; Rich, Michael W; Walsh, Mary N; Bonnell, Mark R; Carson, Peter E; Chan, Michael C; Dries, Daniel L; Hernandez, Adrian F; Hershberger, Ray E; Katz, Stuart D; Moore, Stephanie; Rodgers, Jo E; Rogers, Joseph G; Vest, Amanda R; Givertz, Michael M

    2015-06-01

    We propose that stage D advanced heart failure be defined as the presence of progressive and/or persistent severe signs and symptoms of heart failure despite optimized medical, surgical, and device therapy. Importantly, the progressive decline should be primarily driven by the heart failure syndrome. Formally defining advanced heart failure and specifying when medical and device therapies have failed is challenging, but signs and symptoms, hemodynamics, exercise testing, biomarkers, and risk prediction models are useful in this process. Identification of patients in stage D is a clinically important task because treatments are inherently limited, morbidity is typically progressive, and survival is often short. Age, frailty, and psychosocial issues affect both outcomes and selection of therapy for stage D patients. Heart transplant and mechanical circulatory support devices are potential treatment options in select patients. In addition to considering indications, contraindications, clinical status, and comorbidities, treatment selection for stage D patients involves incorporating the patient's wishes for survival versus quality of life, and palliative and hospice care should be integrated into care plans. More research is needed to determine optimal strategies for patient selection and medical decision making, with the ultimate goal of improving clinical and patient centered outcomes in patients with stage D heart failure. PMID:25953697

  9. Coronary Bypass - Survival Benefit in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Guyton, Robert A; Smith, Andrew L

    2016-04-21

    Velazquez and colleagues report the outcomes from the 10-year extended follow-up of the surgical revascularization component of the Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure (STICH) study.(1) This STICH Extension Study (STICHES) was a tenacious 15-year effort, achieving a 98% rate of follow-up from 99 institutions of 1212 patients with heart failure and severe left ventricular dysfunction who were randomly assigned to receive either medical therapy alone or medical therapy plus coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). CABG was found to confer a significant and substantial survival benefit at 10 years, with a rate of death from any cause that was 16% lower . . . PMID:27040599

  10. Current Management of Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Congestive heart failure is still one of the most common causes of death in our society. Treatment should be approached systematically with a set of well-defined objectives, which include rest, a low-sodium diet, inotropic agents, diuretics, and peripheral vasodilators. Patients receiving treatment for congestive heart failure should be examined daily for symptomatic improvement, cardiac signs, and accurate recording of total fluid intake and output. Serum electrolyte levels and chest X-ray films should also be checked intermittently. When using powerful diuretics or vasodilators, the physician should be aware of the risk-benefit ratio because many of these drugs, alone or in combination, may produce undesirable or even fatal side-effects. PMID:20469506

  11. Sexual dysfunction in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Fridlund, Bengt; Mårtensson, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Heart failure has a severe impact on different aspects of a patient's life, including sexual function. Sexual problems are common in heart failure (HF) patients, both in men and women, and are not always adequately addressed and treated in the current health care system. Several factors have been described to be related to sexual problems, such as activity intolerance, psychological factors, physiological factors, cardiac medications, recreational habits and co-morbidity. The current review summarizes knowledge that can help clinicians treat sexual dysfunction in HF patients. After a good assessment, several steps are advised, including improving HF and co-morbid conditions, discussing psychosocial problems, worries and misunderstandings, managing risk factors and considering PDE-5 inhibitors or other libido enhancing agents. PMID:24800993

  12. Targeting Iron Deficiency Anemia in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Saraon, Tajinderpal; Katz, Stuart D

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency is common in heart failure (HF) patients, and is associated with increased risk of adverse clinical outcomes. Clinical trials of intravenous iron supplementation in iron-deficient HF patients have demonstrated short-term improvement in functional capacity and quality of life. In some trials, the benefits of iron supplementation were independent of the hemoglobin levels. Additional investigations of iron supplementation are needed to characterize the mechanisms contributing to clinical benefit and long-term safety in HF. PMID:26657161

  13. Chronic Heart Failure: Contemporary Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Gautam V.; Uber, Patricia A.; Mehra, Mandeep R.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) remains the only cardiovascular disease with an increasing hospitalization burden and an ongoing drain on health care expenditures. The prevalence of CHF increases with advancing life span, with diastolic heart failure predominating in the elderly population. Primary prevention of coronary artery disease and risk factor management via aggressive blood pressure control are central in preventing new occurrences of left ventricular dysfunction. Optimal therapy for CHF involves identification and correction of potentially reversible precipitants, target-dose titration of medical therapy, and management of hospitalizations for decompensation. The etiological phenotype, absolute decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction and a widening of QRS duration on electrocardiography, is commonly used to identify patients at increased risk of progression of heart failure and sudden death who may benefit from prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy. Patients who transition to advanced stages of disease despite optimal traditional medical and device therapy may be candidates for hemodynamically directed approaches such as a left ventricular assist device; in selected cases, listing for cardiac transplant may be warranted. PMID:20118395

  14. Chronic heart failure: contemporary diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Gautam V; Uber, Patricia A; Mehra, Mandeep R

    2010-02-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) remains the only cardiovascular disease with an increasing hospitalization burden and an ongoing drain on health care expenditures. The prevalence of CHF increases with advancing life span, with diastolic heart failure predominating in the elderly population. Primary prevention of coronary artery disease and risk factor management via aggressive blood pressure control are central in preventing new occurrences of left ventricular dysfunction. Optimal therapy for CHF involves identification and correction of potentially reversible precipitants, target-dose titration of medical therapy, and management of hospitalizations for decompensation. The etiological phenotype, absolute decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction and a widening of QRS duration on electrocardiography, is commonly used to identify patients at increased risk of progression of heart failure and sudden death who may benefit from prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy. Patients who transition to advanced stages of disease despite optimal traditional medical and device therapy may be candidates for hemodynamically directed approaches such as a left ventricular assist device; in selected cases, listing for cardiac transplant may be warranted. PMID:20118395

  15. Gene and Cell Therapy for Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Cardiac gene and cell therapy have both entered clinical trials aimed at ameliorating ventricular dysfunction in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. The transduction of myocardial cells with viral constructs encoding a specific cardiomyocyte Ca2+ pump in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), SRCa2+-ATPase has been shown to correct deficient Ca2+ handling in cardiomyocytes and improvements in contractility in preclinical studies, thus leading to the first clinical trial of gene therapy for heart failure. In cell therapy, it is not clear whether beneficial effects are cell-type specific and how improvements in contractility are brought about. Despite these uncertainties, a number of clinical trials are under way, supported by safety and efficacy data from trials of cell therapy in the setting of myocardial infarction. Safety concerns for gene therapy center on inflammatory and immune responses triggered by viral constructs, and for cell therapy with myoblast cells, the major concern is increased incidence of ventricular arrhythmia after cell transplantation. Principles and mechanisms of action of gene and cell therapy for heart failure are discussed, together with the potential influence of reactive oxygen species on the efficacy of these treatments and the status of myocardial-delivery techniques for viral constructs and cells. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 20252042. PMID:19416058

  16. Mechano-signaling in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Buyandelger, Byambajav; Mansfield, Catherine; Knöll, Ralph

    2014-06-01

    Mechanosensation and mechanotransduction are fundamental aspects of biology, but the link between physical stimuli and biological responses remains not well understood. The perception of mechanical stimuli, their conversion into biochemical signals, and the transmission of these signals are particularly important for dynamic organs such as the heart. Various concepts have been introduced to explain mechanosensation at the molecular level, including effects on signalosomes, tensegrity, or direct activation (or inactivation) of enzymes. Striated muscles, including cardiac myocytes, differ from other cells in that they contain sarcomeres which are essential for the generation of forces and which play additional roles in mechanosensation. The majority of cardiomyopathy causing candidate genes encode structural proteins among which titin probably is the most important one. Due to its elastic elements, titin is a length sensor and also plays a role as a tension sensor (i.e., stress sensation). The recent discovery of titin mutations being a major cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) also underpins the importance of mechanosensation and mechanotransduction in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Here, we focus on sarcomere-related mechanisms, discuss recent findings, and provide a link to cardiomyopathy and associated heart failure. PMID:24531746

  17. Dilemmas in end-stage heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Saravolatz, Louis; Hirsh, Benjamin; Agrawal, Pratik; Scarabelli, Tiziano M.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF), a complex clinical syndrome due to structural or functional disorder of the heart, is a major global health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA alone, and over 23 million worldwide. As a leading cause of hospitalizations among patients aged 65 years or older, HF is a major consumer of healthcare resources, creating a substantial strain on the healthcare system. This paper discusses the epidemiology of HF, financial impact, and multifaceted predicaments in end-stage HF care. A search was conducted on the U.S. National Library of Medicine website (www.pubmed.gov) using keywords such as end-stage heart failure, palliative care, ethical dilemmas. Despite the poor prognosis of HF (worse than that for many cancers), many HF patients, caregivers, and clinicians are unaware of the poor prognosis. In addition, the unpredictable clinical trajectory of HF complicates the planning of end-of-life care, such as palliative care and hospice, leading to underutilization of such resources. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas in end-stage HF are numerous, embroiling not only the patient, but also the caregiver, healthcare team, and society. PMID:25678905

  18. Managing Patients With Heart Failure: A Qualitative Study of Multidisciplinary Teams With Specialist Heart Failure Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Glogowska, Margaret; Simmonds, Rosemary; McLachlan, Sarah; Cramer, Helen; Sanders, Tom; Johnson, Rachel; Kadam, Umesh T.; Lasserson, Daniel S.; Purdy, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of health care clinicians working in multidisciplinary teams that include specialist heart failure nurses when caring for the management of heart failure patients. METHODS We used a qualitative in-depth interview study nested in a broader ethnographic study of unplanned admissions in heart failure patients (HoldFAST). We interviewed 24 clinicians across primary, secondary, and community care in 3 locations in the Midlands, South Central, and South West of England. RESULTS Within a framework of the role and contribution of the heart failure specialist nurse, our study identified 2 thematic areas that the clinicians agreed still represent particular challenges when working with heart failure patients. The first was communication with patients, in particular explaining the diagnosis and helping patients to understand the condition. The participants recognized that such communication was most effective when they had a long-term relationship with patients and families and that the specialist nurse played an important part in achieving this relationship. The second was communication within the team. Multidisciplinary input was especially needed because of the complexity of many patients and issues around medications, and the participants believed the specialist nurse may facilitate team communication. CONCLUSIONS The study highlights the role of specialist heart failure nurses in delivering education tailored to patients and facilitating better liaison among all clinicians, particularly when dealing with the management of comorbidities and drug regimens. The way in which specialist nurses were able to be caseworkers for their patients was perceived as a method of ensuring coordination and continuity of care. PMID:26371268

  19. Primary Graft Failure after Heart Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Arjun; Kumarasinghe, Gayathri; Hicks, Mark; Watson, Alasdair; Gao, Ling; Doyle, Aoife; Keogh, Anne; Kotlyar, Eugene; Hayward, Christopher; Dhital, Kumud; Granger, Emily; Jansz, Paul; Pye, Roger; Spratt, Phillip; Macdonald, Peter Simon

    2011-01-01

    Primary graft failure (PGF) is a devastating complication that occurs in the immediate postoperative period following heart transplantation. It manifests as severe ventricular dysfunction of the donor graft and carries significant mortality and morbidity. In the last decade, advances in pharmacological treatment and mechanical circulatory support have improved the outlook for heart transplant recipients who develop this complication. Despite these advances in treatment, PGF is still the leading cause of death in the first 30 days after transplantation. In today's climate of significant organ shortages and growing waiting lists, transplant units worldwide have increasingly utilised “marginal donors” to try and bridge the gap between “supply and demand.” One of the costs of this strategy has been an increased incidence of PGF. As the threat of PGF increases, the challenges of predicting and preventing its occurrence, as well as the identification of more effective treatment modalities, are vital areas of active research and development. PMID:21837269

  20. Multidisciplinary Approach for Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Frankenstein, Lutz; Fröhlich, Hanna; Cleland, John G F

    2015-10-01

    Acute heart failure describes the rapid deterioration, over minutes, days or hours, of symptoms and signs of heart failure. Its management is an interdisciplinary challenge that requires the cooperation of various specialists. While emergency providers, (interventional) cardiologists, heart surgeons, and intensive care specialists collaborate in the initial stabilization of acute heart failure patients, the involvement of nurses, discharge managers, and general practitioners in the heart failure team may facilitate the transition from inpatient care to the outpatient setting and improve acute heart failure readmission rates. This review highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to acute heart failure with particular focus on the chain-of-care delivered by the various services within the healthcare system. PMID:26409892

  1. Epidemiology of Heart Failure in Europe.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Aldo Pietro

    2015-10-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem. For acute HF, therapeutic developments have been scarce in the past decades. In contrast to acute HF, chronic HF was the object of several successful controlled studies conducted in the past 30 years, which encouraged the use of drugs and devices able to improve the outcomes of ambulatory patients. For both patients with acute and chronic HF, observational research remains an important research tool to confirm the results of the controlled trials in the real world, to collect periodic reports, and to assess the quality-of-care indicators. PMID:26462102

  2. Iron deficiency anemia in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Arora, Natasha P; Ghali, Jalal K

    2013-07-01

    Anemia and iron deficiency are quite prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF) and may overlap. Both anemia and iron deficiency are associated with worse symptoms and adverse clinical outcomes. In the past few years, there has been an enormous interest in the subject of iron deficiency and its management in patients with HF. In this review, the etiology and relevance of iron deficiency, iron metabolism in the setting of HF, studies on iron supplementation in patients with HF and potential cardiovascular effects of subclinical iron overload are discussed. PMID:22948485

  3. Roadmap to inpatient heart failure management.

    PubMed

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) accounts for over 1 million primary hospitalizations in the USA each year and carries a tremendous burden on costs and patient outcomes. The clinical syndrome of HF is not a single disease, but represents the complex interplay between various cardiac and non-cardiac processes, each of which need to be individually addressed. This review provides an updated, contemporary roadmap for inpatient worsening chronic HF management with a focus on identifying and addressing initiating mechanisms, amplifying factors, and cardiac structural abnormalities. Inpatient risk stratification should guide patient education, team structuring, disposition, and post-discharge monitoring. PMID:25238886

  4. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, J. G. F.; Dargie, H. J.; Robertson, J. I. S.

    1984-01-01

    1 Captopril, the first orally effective converting enzyme inhibitor, was administered to 14 patients with chronic heart failure for 6 week periods, in a double-blind crossover comparison with placebo. 2 Captopril improved symptoms and exercise performance, while left ventricular internal dimensions were reduced. 3 The fall in blood pressure induced by captopril was well tolerated. 4 Glomerular filtration rate was reduced and effective renal plasma flow increased on captopril. 5 No decline in body weight or total body sodium was seen, suggesting that a natriuresis had not occurred. 6 Serum and total body potassium rose. 7 Ventricular arrhythmias declined. PMID:6099732

  5. Rescue of Heart Failure by Mitochondrial Recovery.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Jubert; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Nari; Han, Jin

    2016-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a multifactorial disease brought about by numerous, and oftentimes complex, etiological mechanisms. Although well studied, HF continues to affect millions of people worldwide and current treatments can only prevent further progression of HF. Mitochondria undoubtedly play an important role in the progression of HF, and numerous studies have highlighted mitochondrial components that contribute to HF. This review presents an overview of the role of mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial oxidative stress, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore in HF, discusses ongoing studies that attempt to address the disease through mitochondrial targeting, and provides an insight on how these studies can affect future research on HF treatment. PMID:27032551

  6. Rescue of Heart Failure by Mitochondrial Recovery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a multifactorial disease brought about by numerous, and oftentimes complex, etiological mechanisms. Although well studied, HF continues to affect millions of people worldwide and current treatments can only prevent further progression of HF. Mitochondria undoubtedly play an important role in the progression of HF, and numerous studies have highlighted mitochondrial components that contribute to HF. This review presents an overview of the role of mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial oxidative stress, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore in HF, discusses ongoing studies that attempt to address the disease through mitochondrial targeting, and provides an insight on how these studies can affect future research on HF treatment. PMID:27032551

  7. Positive airway pressure therapy for heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Takao; Suda, Shoko; Kasai, Takatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a life-threatening disease and is a growing public health concern. Despite recent advances in pharmacological management for HF, the morbidity and mortality from HF remain high. Therefore, non-pharmacological approaches for HF are being developed. However, most non-pharmacological approaches are invasive, have limited indication and are considered only for advanced HF. Accordingly, the development of less invasive, non-pharmacological approaches that improve outcomes for patients with HF is important. One such approach may include positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. In this review, the role of PAP therapy applied through mask interfaces in the wide spectrum of HF care is discussed. PMID:25429330

  8. [Heart failure--are there gender aspects?].

    PubMed

    Regitz-Zagrosek, V; Lehmkuhl, E; Lehmkuhl, H B

    2008-04-01

    Gender differences in the syndrome of heart failure (HF) occur in etiology and pathophysiology, in the clinical presentation and course of the syndrome. In addition, gender specific treatment responses and gender associated differences in the behavior of treating physicians are found. Hypertension and diabetes play a major role as causes of HF in women and both interact in their pathophysiology with the renin angiotensin system (RAS). Modulation of the RAS by estrogens explains specific differences between pre- and postmenopausal women and men. Myocardial growth processes and myocardial calcium handling are differentially regulated in female and male myocytes. Myocardial remodeling with age and as a consequence of mechanical load differs in women and men. For yet unknown reasons, HF with preserved systolic function seems to be more frequent in women than in men and the clinical course of systolic failure is different in both genders. PMID:18301870

  9. Mechanisms of Cardiotoxicity and the Development of Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher S

    2015-12-01

    Cardiotoxicity is a broad term that refers to the negative effects of toxic substances on the heart. Cancer drugs can cause cardiotoxicity by effects on heart cells, thromboembolic events, and/or hypertension that can lead to heart failure. Rheumatoid arthritis biologics may interfere with ischemic preconditioning and cause/worsen heart failure. Long-term and heavy alcohol use can result in oxidative stress, apoptosis, and decreased contractile protein function. Cocaine use results in sympathetic nervous system stimulation of heart and smooth muscle cells and leads to cardiotoxicity and evolution of heart failure. The definition of cardiotoxicity is likely to evolve along with knowledge about detecting subclinical myocardial injury. PMID:26567492

  10. "Targeting the Heart" in Heart Failure: Myocardial Recovery in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Jane E; Fonarow, Gregg C; Ardehali, Hossein; Bonow, Robert O; Butler, Javed; Sauer, Andrew J; Epstein, Stephen E; Khan, Sadiya S; Kim, Raymond J; Sabbah, Hani N; Díez, Javier; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2015-09-01

    Myocardial recovery in heart failure (HF) is possible, but its determinants are not fully defined. At least partial functional improvement is possible with current evidence-based therapies. However, once significant HF symptoms develop, patients have varied trajectories, including: 1) structural and functional recovery; 2) stabilization (remission); and 3) acceleration to end-stage HF/death. All 3 trajectories may be interrupted by sudden death. These trajectories may represent the interplay of heterogeneous causality, genetic predeterminants, and disease phenotypes. Enhanced phenotypic description with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, molecular imaging, or circulating biomarkers of the heterogeneous HF population may provide insights regarding specific biological targets amenable to existing and novel therapeutic strategies. The identification of patients in "remission," before progression to the end stage of predominantly nonviable tissue (e.g., fibrosis), has implications for clinical practice and future trials because such patients may be more likely to experience myocardial recovery (cardiac reserve). The identification of dysfunctional but viable myocardium and its diverse pathophysiological causes may provide opportunities to investigate existing and novel therapeutics aimed at enhancing myocardial recovery. PMID:26362444

  11. Crosstalk between the heart and peripheral organs in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Jahng, James Won Suk; Song, Erfei; Sweeney, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Mediators from peripheral tissues can influence the development and progression of heart failure (HF). For example, in obesity, an altered profile of adipokines secreted from adipose tissue increases the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI). Less appreciated is that heart remodeling releases cardiokines, which can strongly impact various peripheral tissues. Inflammation, and, in particular, activation of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors with pyrin domain (NLRP3) inflammasome are likely to have a central role in cardiac remodeling and mediating crosstalk with other organs. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to cardiac injury induces the production and secretion of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. In addition to having local effects in the myocardium, these pro-inflammatory cytokines are released into circulation and cause remodeling in the spleen, kidney, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The collective effects of various cardiokines on peripheral organs depend on the degree and duration of myocardial injury, with systematic inflammation and peripheral tissue damage observed as HF progresses. In this article, we review mechanisms regulating myocardial inflammation in HF and the role of factors secreted by the heart in communication with peripheral tissues. PMID:26964833

  12. [Chronic heart failure with impaired left ventricular function (systolic heart failure)].

    PubMed

    Hőgye, Márta; Forster, Tamás

    2012-12-23

    Chronic heart failure is a common public health problem. The disease has a poor prognosis with high mortality rate and the incidence increases continuously. Prognosis of chronic systolic heart failure can be improved by several different medications as well as by special cardiac interventions based on the newly-published European and American guidelines. In case of severe systolic dysfunction, hospitalization and mortality can be reduced using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blocking drugs, beta-receptor blocking agents and aldosterone antagonists, as evidenced in multicentric studies. In selected cases different cardiac interventions, such as intracardial defibrillator and/or cardiac desynchronization device implantation can be used for supporting the failing left ventricle. In terminal stage, special devices (ventricular assist device, intra-aortic balloon pump, arteficial heart) and, finally, heart transplantation can be applied. In this paper, the authors highlight therapeutic options of chronic systolic heart failure referring to recommendations of the latest, 2012 guideline from the European Society of Cardiology. PMID:23248057

  13. Medical management of congestive heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Arai, A. E.; Greenberg, B. H.

    1990-01-01

    The syndrome of congestive heart failure can result from a variety of cardiac disorders of which left ventricular dysfunction is the most common. The clinical presentation is determined by the interaction between cardiac dysfunction and a series of compensatory mechanisms that are activated throughout the body. Therapy for this disorder is best approached through an understanding of this complex relationship and an appreciation for the influence of preload, afterload, and contractility on cardiac performance. Recent important advances in therapy include the use of combined diuretic therapy, a better understanding of the value of the digitalis glycosides, and evidence that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors can relieve symptoms and prolong life. More intensive therapy earlier in the course of congestive heart failure appears to have some clinical benefit. The use of ACE inhibitors during this phase may delay progression of the underlying left ventricular dysfunction. Future therapy will be influenced by the results of ongoing trials that are testing both new agents and expanded indications for drugs that are currently available. PMID:2244376

  14. Interventional heart failure: a new field.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sanjiv J

    2016-05-17

    With the rapid expansion of interventional therapies for structural heart disease, it is no surprise that the field of interventional heart failure (HF) is now an established reality. Why is there a need for interventional treatment of HF? Despite critical advances in the treatment of some forms of HF, there are still major unmet needs in the HF field (e.g., HF with preserved ejection fraction and right ventricular failure), and HF-related morbidity and mortality remain high. Furthermore, there are several advantages to device-based therapies for HF: they may help reduce polypharmacy and the need for patient compliance with pharmacotherapies, both of which continue to plague the treatment of HF. For these reasons and others, there has been a plethora of development within the interventional HF field, with therapies ranging from interatrial shunt devices to left ventricular partition devices. Here we discuss the current unmet need for interventional HF therapies, lessons learned from prior successes and challenges in the development of device-based HF therapeutics, novel interventional therapies on the horizon for HF patients, and future challenges that will be critical for all those in the field to consider when developing interventional therapies for HF. PMID:27174120

  15. Insulin Resistance and Heart Failure: Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Aroor, Annayya R.; Mandavia, Chirag H.; Sowers, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and associated reductions in cardiac insulin metabolic signaling is emerging as a major factor for the development of heart failure and assumes more importance because of an epidemic increase in obesity and the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome and our aging population. Major factors contributing to the development of cardiac insulin resistance are oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, dysregulated secretion of adipokines/cytokines and inappropriate activation of renin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system (RAAS) and the sympathetic nervous system. The effects of cardiac insulin resistance are exacerbated by metabolic, endocrine and cytokine alterations associated with systemic insulin resistance. The aggregate of these various alterations leads to an insulin resistant phenotype with metabolic inflexibility, impaired calcium handling, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, dysregulated myocardial-endothelial interactions resulting in energy deficiency, impaired diastolic dysfunction, myocardial cell death and cardiac fibrosis. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms linking insulin resistance and heart failure may help to design new and more effective mechanism-based drugs to improve myocardial and systemic insulin resistance. PMID:22999243

  16. Exploring the Microbiome in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kitai, Takeshi; Kirsop, Jennifer; Tang, W H Wilson

    2016-04-01

    Recent years have brought interesting insights into the human gut microbiota and have highlighted its increasingly recognized impact on cardiovascular (CV) diseases, including heart failure (HF). Changes in composition of gut microbiota, called dysbiosis, can trigger systemic inflammation, which is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of HF. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is derived from gut microbiota metabolites of specific dietary nutrients, has emerged as a key contributor to cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. Elevated TMAO levels have been reported to be associated with poor outcomes in patients with both HF and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Dysbiosis of gut microbiota can contribute to higher levels of TMAO and the generation of uremic toxins, progressing to both HF and CKD. Therefore, this bidirectional relationship between HF and CKD through gut microbiota may be a novel therapeutic target for the cardiorenal syndrome. However, the mechanisms by which gut microbiota could influence the development of heart failure are still unknown, and there are still some questions regarding the causative effects of TMAO and the underlying mechanistic link that explains how TMAO might directly or indirectly promote CV diseases including HF. Further studies are warranted to clarify the function of TMAO on the pathophysiology of cardiorenal syndrome and the handling of TMAO levels by the kidneys. PMID:26886380

  17. Prospective memory and chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) experience a number of debilitating symptoms, which impact on activities of daily living and result in poor quality of life. Prospective memory, which is defined as memory to carry out future intentions, has not been investigated in this group. However, emerging evidence suggests CHF patients have difficulties with cognitive processes related to prospective memory. Self-care, which partly relies on prospective memory, is essential in symptom management and preventing acute clinical deterioration. This study aims to measure prospective memory in CHF patients, and examine the relationship between prospective memory and CHF self-care. Methods/Design A comprehensive neuropsychological assessment will be conducted to assess a range of cognitive functions and psychopathology. The primary focus will be an assessment of prospective memory using a well-established behavioral measure; Virtual Week. Thirty CHF patients attending a nurse-led management program will be recruited from three hospital sites in Melbourne, Australia and their self-care behaviors will be assessed using the Self-care Chronic Heart Failure Index (SCHFI), a validated self-report tool. An additional 30 healthy controls, matched on age, gender, and IQ will be recruited from the general community. Discussion This is a group comparison study that will provide an evaluation of the prospective memory abilities of CHF patients. The findings of this research will provide insight into whether prospective memory may be hindering patients’ ability to perform adequate self-care. PMID:23984757

  18. Diastolic heart failure and LV dyssynchrony.

    PubMed

    Kasner, Mario; Westermann, Dirk; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Tschöpe, Carsten

    2012-10-01

    Our knowledge of diastolic heart failure (DHF) is still limited with regard to pathophysiology, diagnosis and clinical treatment. Amongst others, LV dyssynchrony was suggested to be an additional factor involved in the pathogenesis of subgroup of patients with DHF. In 20-30% of patients with DHF a systolic LV dyssynchrony could be detected and about 20% DHF patients evidenced a diastolic dyssyncrony. Both systolic and diastolic dyssynchrony may contribute to the impairment of cardiac function and clinical manifestation in DHF. Opposite to the systolic heart failure, wide QRS complex is uncommon which incriminates that dyssynchrony in DHF is rather related to regional disperse in contractility than to electromechanical coupling delay. Asynchronous LV relaxation and impairment of ventricular restoring forces may also impair the LV filing and lead to a diastolic dyssynchrony. Particularly in patients with preserved LV contractility mechanical LV dyssynchrony induces energy wastage and consequently reduces cardiac reserves. However, up to date it is not clear to what degree LV dyssynchrony is involved in the pathomechanisms of this subpopulation of DHF. PMID:22280429

  19. 2013 update on congenital heart disease, clinical cardiology, heart failure, and heart transplant.

    PubMed

    Subirana, M Teresa; Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Manito, Nicolás; Oliver, José M; Ripoll, Tomás; Lambert, Jose Luis; Zunzunegui, José L; Bover, Ramon; García-Pinilla, José Manuel

    2014-03-01

    This article presents the most relevant developments in 2013 in 3 key areas of cardiology: congenital heart disease, clinical cardiology, and heart failure and transplant. Within the area of congenital heart disease, we reviewed contributions related to sudden death in adult congenital heart disease, the importance of specific echocardiographic parameters in assessing the systemic right ventricle, problems in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and indication for pulmonary valve replacement, and confirmation of the role of specific factors in the selection of candidates for Fontan surgery. The most recent publications in clinical cardiology include a study by a European working group on correct diagnostic work-up in cardiomyopathies, studies on the cost-effectiveness of percutaneous aortic valve implantation, a consensus document on the management of type B aortic dissection, and guidelines on aortic valve and ascending aortic disease. The most noteworthy developments in heart failure and transplantation include new American guidelines on heart failure, therapeutic advances in acute heart failure (serelaxin), the management of comorbidities such as iron deficiency, risk assessment using new biomarkers, and advances in ventricular assist devices. PMID:24774396

  20. Novel Therapeutic Strategies for Reducing Right Heart Failure Associated Mortality in Fibrotic Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Adegunsoye, Ayodeji; Levy, Matthew; Oyenuga, Olusegun

    2015-01-01

    Fibrotic lung diseases carry a significant mortality burden worldwide. A large proportion of these deaths are due to right heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. Underlying contributory factors which appear to play a role in the mechanism of progression of right heart dysfunction include chronic hypoxia, defective calcium handling, hyperaldosteronism, pulmonary vascular alterations, cyclic strain of pressure and volume changes, elevation of circulating TGF-β, and elevated systemic NO levels. Specific therapies targeting pulmonary hypertension include calcium channel blockers, endothelin (ET-1) receptor antagonists, prostacyclin analogs, phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, and rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitors. Newer antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory agents may exert beneficial effects on heart failure in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, right ventricle-targeted therapies, aimed at mitigating the effects of functional right ventricular failure, include β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, antioxidants, modulators of metabolism, and 5-hydroxytryptamine-2B (5-HT2B) receptor antagonists. Newer nonpharmacologic modalities for right ventricular support are increasingly being implemented. Early, effective, and individualized therapy may prevent overt right heart failure in fibrotic lung disease leading to improved outcomes and quality of life. PMID:26583148

  1. Khat Use: History and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Mekkodathil, Ahammed; Al-Thani, Hassan; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that 20 million people worldwide are regularly using khat as a stimulant, even though the habit of chewing khat is known to cause serious health issues. Historical evidence suggests khat use has existed since the 13th century in Ethiopia and the southwestern Arabian regions even before the cultivation and use of coffee. In the past three decades, its availability and use spread all over the world including the United States and Europe. Most of the consumers in the Western world are immigrant groups from Eastern Africa or the Middle East. The global transport and availability of khat has been enhanced by the development of synthetic forms of its active component. The World Health Organization considers khat a drug of abuse since it causes a range of health problems. However, it remains lawful in some countries. Khat use has long been a part of Yemeni culture and is used in virtually every social occasion. The main component of khat is cathinone, which is structurally and functionally similar to amphetamine and cocaine. Several studies have demonstrated that khat chewing has unfavorable cardiovascular effects. The effect on the myocardium could be explained by its effect on the heart rate, blood pressure, its vasomotor effect on the coronary vessels, and its amphetamine–like effects. However, its direct effect on the myocardium needs further elaboration. To date, there are few articles that contribute death among khat chewers to khat-induced heart failure. Further studies are needed to address the risk factors in khat chewers that may explain khat-induced cardiotoxicity, cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. PMID:25960830

  2. Khat use: history and heart failure.

    PubMed

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Mekkodathil, Ahammed; Al-Thani, Hassan; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Recent reports suggest that 20 million people worldwide are regularly using khat as a stimulant, even though the habit of chewing khat is known to cause serious health issues. Historical evidence suggests khat use has existed since the 13th century in Ethiopia and the southwestern Arabian regions even before the cultivation and use of coffee. In the past three decades, its availability and use spread all over the world including the United States and Europe. Most of the consumers in the Western world are immigrant groups from Eastern Africa or the Middle East. The global transport and availability of khat has been enhanced by the development of synthetic forms of its active component. The World Health Organization considers khat a drug of abuse since it causes a range of health problems. However, it remains lawful in some countries. Khat use has long been a part of Yemeni culture and is used in virtually every social occasion. The main component of khat is cathinone, which is structurally and functionally similar to amphetamine and cocaine. Several studies have demonstrated that khat chewing has unfavorable cardiovascular effects. The effect on the myocardium could be explained by its effect on the heart rate, blood pressure, its vasomotor effect on the coronary vessels, and its amphetamine-like effects. However, its direct effect on the myocardium needs further elaboration. To date, there are few articles that contribute death among khat chewers to khat-induced heart failure. Further studies are needed to address the risk factors in khat chewers that may explain khat-induced cardiotoxicity, cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. PMID:25960830

  3. D-ribose aids advanced ischemic heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    MacCarter, Dean; Vijay, Nampalli; Washam, Melinda; Shecterle, Linda; Sierminski, Helen; St Cyr, J A

    2009-09-11

    Patients with advanced heart failure are exercise intolerant. Low cellular energy levels in the failing heart have been proposed. Energy enhancing substrates have revealed mixed results. Ribose, a pentose monosaccharide, has shown to replenish low myocardial energy levels, improving cardiac dysfunction following ischemia, and improving ventilation efficiency in patients with heart failure. As current pharmaceuticals do not address cellular energy levels, this study was designed to investigate the role of ribose on ventilation at anaerobic threshold in congestive heart failure patients. d-ribose (5 gms/dose, tid) was assessed in 16 NYHA class III-IV, heart failure patients with VO(2), tidal volume/VCO(2), heart rate/tidal volume evaluated at 8 weeks. All patients had a significant improvement in ventilatory parameters at anaerobic threshold, along with a 44% Weber class improvement. Ribose improved the ventilatory exercise status in advanced heart failure patients. PMID:18674831

  4. Developing New Treatments for Heart Failure: Focus on the Heart.

    PubMed

    Gheorghiade, Mihai; Larson, Christopher J; Shah, Sanjiv J; Greene, Stephen J; Cleland, John G F; Colucci, Wilson S; Dunnmon, Preston; Epstein, Stephen E; Kim, Raymond J; Parsey, Ramin V; Stockbridge, Norman; Carr, James; Dinh, Wilfried; Krahn, Thomas; Kramer, Frank; Wahlander, Karin; Deckelbaum, Lawrence I; Crandall, David; Okada, Shunichiro; Senni, Michele; Sikora, Sergey; Sabbah, Hani N; Butler, Javed

    2016-05-01

    Compared with heart failure (HF) care 20 to 30 years ago, there has been tremendous advancement in therapy for ambulatory HF with reduced ejection fraction with the use of agents that block maladaptive neurohormonal pathways. However, during the past decade, with few notable exceptions, the frequency of successful drug development programs has fallen as most novel therapies have failed to offer incremental benefit or raised safety concerns (ie, hypotension). Moreover, no therapy has been approved specifically for HF with preserved ejection fraction or for worsening chronic HF (including acutely decompensated HF). Across the spectrum of HF, preliminary results from many phase II trials have been promising but are frequently followed by unsuccessful phase III studies, highlighting a disconnect in the translational process between basic science discovery, early drug development, and definitive clinical testing in pivotal trials. A major unmet need in HF drug development is the ability to identify homogeneous subsets of patients whose underlying disease is driven by a specific mechanism that can be targeted using a new therapeutic agent. Drug development strategies should increasingly consider therapies that facilitate reverse remodeling by directly targeting the heart itself rather than strictly focusing on agents that unload the heart or target systemic neurohormones. Advancements in cardiac imaging may allow for more focused and direct assessment of drug effects on the heart early in the drug development process. To better understand and address the array of challenges facing current HF drug development, so that future efforts may have a better chance for success, the Food and Drug Administration facilitated a meeting on February 17, 2015, which was attended by clinicians, researchers, regulators, and industry representatives. The following discussion summarizes the key takeaway dialogue from this meeting. PMID:27166246

  5. [Roles of cytokines in the pathogenesis of heart failure].

    PubMed

    Matsumori, Akira

    2003-05-01

    Cytokines are being increasingly recognized as important factors in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of heart failure. Elevated levels of circulating cytokines have been reported in patients with heart failure, and various cytokines have been shown to depress myocardial contractility in vitro and in vivo. Our recent study showed that the various drugs for heart failure modulated the production of cytokines, and some of these drugs inhibited activation of NF-kappa B. Cytokine gene therapy which inhibits inflammatory response by viral IL-10 and IL-1 receptor antagonist has been shown to be effective in the animal models of heart failure. Mast cells have been shown to play important role in the pathogenesis of heart failure due to viral myocarditis, and transition from compensated hypertrophy to heart failure. PMID:12754997

  6. Statins in heart failure: do we need another trial?

    PubMed Central

    Bonsu, Kwadwo Osei; Kadirvelu, Amudha; Reidpath, Daniel Diamond

    2013-01-01

    Statins lower serum cholesterol and are employed for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Clinical evidence from observational studies, retrospective data, and post hoc analyses of data from large statin trials in various cardiovascular conditions, as well as small scale randomized trials, suggest survival and other outcome benefits for heart failure. Two recent large randomized controlled trials, however, appear to suggest statins do not have beneficial effects in heart failure. In addition to lowering cholesterol, statins are believed to have many pleotropic effects which could possibly influence the pathophysiology of heart failure. Following the two large trials, evidence from recent studies appears to support the use of statins in heart failure. This review discusses the role of statins in the pathophysiology of heart failure, current evidence for statin use in heart failure, and suggests directions for future research. PMID:23807852

  7. New pharmacological strategies for the treatment of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Chin, B S; Lip, G Y

    2001-07-01

    Heart failure still carries a high morbidity and mortality, necessitating new approaches for its management. Greater understanding of the pathophysiology of heart failure has opened the way for novel therapeutic approaches, including analogs of natriuretic peptides and drugs that modulate endothelin, cytokine release and endothelial vasoconstriction. Other drugs are undergoing laboratory and clinical trials that will eventually supersede or complement less optimal heart failure treatments. Clinical trials will ascertain if these new strategies in the treatment of heart failure will ultimately be successful in the management of these patients. PMID:11757792

  8. Recent advances in the diagnosis of heart failure.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, James O; Taylor, David O

    2004-05-01

    Heart failure has reached epidemic proportions and the prevalence is increasing. The accurate and efficient diagnosis of heart failure remains problematic, as signs and symptoms are neither sensitive nor specific. Recent advances in the diagnosis of this condition include a conceptual change in what constitutes heart failure, a greater understanding of heart failure with preserved systolic function, and an abundance of data supporting the use of neurohormonal assays, particularly brain-type natriuretic peptide. These factors will help facilitate earlier diagnosis and targeted treatment of patients with this malady. PMID:15075057

  9. Clinical service organisation for heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Stephanie JC; Bestall, Janine C; Cotter, Sarah; Falshaw, Margaret; Hood, Sonja G; Parsons, Suzanne; Wood, Lesley; Underwood, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a serious, common condition associated with frequent hospitalisation. Several different disease management interventions (clinical service organisation interventions) for patients with CHF have been proposed. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of disease management interventions for patients with CHF. Search methods We searched: Cochrane CENTRAL Register of Controlled Trials (to June 2003); MEDLINE (January 1966 to July 2003); EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2003); CINAHL (January 1982 to July 2003); AMED (January 1985 to July 2003); Science Citation Index Expanded (searched January 1981 to March 2001); SIGLE (January 1980 to July 2003); DARE (July 2003); National Research Register (July 2003); NHS Economic Evaluations Database (March 2001); reference lists of articles and asked experts in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing disease management interventions specifically directed at patients with CHF to usual care. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently extracted data information and assessed study quality. Study authors were contacted for further information where necessary. Main results Sixteen trials involving 1,627 people were included. We classified the interventions into three models: multidisciplinary interventions (a holistic approach bridging the gap between hospital admission and discharge home delivered by a team); case management interventions (intense monitoring of patients following discharge often involving telephone follow up and home visits); and clinic interventions (follow up in a CHF clinic). There was considerable overlap within these categories, however the components, intensity and duration of the interventions varied. Case management interventions tended to be associated with reduced all cause mortality but these findings were not statistically significant (odds ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.67 to 1.10, P = 0.23), although the evidence was stronger when analysis was limited to the better quality studies (odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.46 to 0.98, P = 0.04). There was weak evidence that case management interventions may be associated with a reduction in admissions for heart failure. It is unclear what the effective components of the case management interventions are. The single RCT of a multidisciplinary intervention showed reduced heart-failure related re-admissions in the short term. At present there is little available evidence to support clinic based interventions. Authors’ conclusions The data from this review are insufficient for forming recommendations. Further research should include adequately powered, multicentre studies. Future studies should also investigate the effect of interventions on patients’ and carers’ quality of life, their satisfaction with the interventions and cost effectiveness. PMID:15846638

  10. Update on heart failure, heart transplant, congenital heart disease, and clinical cardiology.

    PubMed

    Almenar, Luis; Zunzunegui, José Luis; Barón, Gonzalo; Carrasco, José Ignacio; Gómez-Doblas, Juan José; Comín, Josep; Barrios, Vivencio; Subirana, M Teresa; Díaz-Molina, Beatriz

    2013-04-01

    In the year 2012, 3 scientific sections-heart failure and transplant, congenital heart disease, and clinical cardiology-are presented together in the same article. The most relevant development in the area of heart failure and transplantation is the 2012 publication of the European guidelines for heart failure. These describe new possibilities for some drugs (eplerenone and ivabradine); expand the criteria for resynchronization, ventricular assist, and peritoneal dialysis; and cover possibilities of percutaneous repair of the mitral valve (MitraClip(®)). The survival of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome in congenital heart diseases has improved significantly. Instructions for percutaneous techniques and devices have been revised and modified for the treatment of atrial septal defects, ostium secundum, and ventricular septal defects. Hybrid procedures for addressing structural congenital heart defects have become more widespread. In the area of clinical cardiology studies have demonstrated that percutaneous prosthesis implantation has lower mortality than surgical implantation. Use of the CHA2DS2-VASc criteria and of new anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban) is also recommended. In addition, the development of new sequencing techniques has enabled the analysis of multiple genes. PMID:24775619

  11. The pathophysiology of hypertensive acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Viau, David M; Sala-Mercado, Javier A; Spranger, Marty D; O'Leary, Donal S; Levy, Phillip D

    2015-12-01

    While acute heart failure (AHF) is often regarded as a single disorder, an evolving understanding recognises the existence of multiple phenotypes with varied pathophysiological alterations. Herein we discuss hypertensive AHF and provide insight into a mechanism where acute fluid redistribution is caused by a disturbance in the ventricular-vascular coupling relationship. In this relationship, acute alterations in vascular elasticity, vasoconstriction and reflected pulse waves lead to increases in cardiac work and contribute to decompensated LV function with associated subendocardial ischaemia and end-organ damage. Chronic predisposing factors (neurohormonal activity, nitric oxide insensitivity, arterial stiffening) and physiological stressors (sympathetic surge, volume overload, physical exertion) that are causally linked to acute symptom onset are discussed. Lastly, we review treatment options including both nitrovasodilators and promising novel therapeutics, and discuss future directions in the management of this phenotypic variant. PMID:26123135

  12. Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Yogesh N V; Borlaug, Barry A

    2016-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) is one of the largest drivers of morbidity and health care expenditure in the world and continues to increase in prevalence at an alarming rate. Most of this increasing burden is related to the rapidly expanding population of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), largely driven by the increasing rates of obesity, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome in western countries. In the last 3 decades, there have been tremendous advances in treating patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), with essentially no change in outcomes for HFpEF. The lack of efficacy for established HFrEF therapies in HFpEF underscores the fundamental differences between both these phenotypically distinct forms of HF. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of the pathophysiology of HFpEF, discuss diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, and provide future avenues to direct clinical investigation. PMID:26952248

  13. Exercise oscillatory ventilation in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Corrà, Ugo

    2016-03-01

    Ventilation inefficiency has become a matter of interest for heart failure (HF) specialists, the most remarkable being exertional oscillatory ventilation (EOV). EOV is an abnormal ventilatory phenomenon, originally described as anecdotal, but now considered a marker of disease severity and worst prognosis in HF. EOV is a cyclic fluctuation of minute ventilation (VE) and expired gas kinetics occurring during exercise: it is a slow, prominent, consistent rather than random, fluctuation in VE that may be evanescent or transient and can follow several distinct patterns. In contrast to the periodic breathing observed in Cheyne-Stokes respiration and central sleep apnea, the gradual increase and decrease in minute ventilation (VE) are not spaced by periods of apnea. This review will discuss EOV in HF and the overlap with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. PMID:26935880

  14. Metabolic remodeling in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Guo, Tao

    2013-08-01

    Although the management of chronic heart failure (CHF) has made enormous progress over the past decades, CHF is still a tremendous medical and societal burden. Metabolic remodeling might play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of CHF. The characteristics and mechanisms of metabolic remodeling remained unclear, and the main hypothesis might include the changes in the availability of metabolic substrate and the decline of metabolic capability. In the early phases of the disease, metabolism shifts toward carbohydrate utilization from fatty acids (FAs) oxidation. Along with the progress of the disease, the increasing level of the hyperadrenergic state and insulin resistance cause the changes that shift back to a greater FA uptake and oxidation. In addition, a growing body of experimental and clinical evidence suggests that the improvement in the metabolic capability is likely to be more significant than the selection of the substrate. PMID:23897787

  15. Heart Failure Update: Chronic Disease Management Programs.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Lorna B

    2016-03-01

    With high mortality and readmission rates among patients with heart failure (HF), multiple disease management models have been and continue to be tested, with mixed results. Early postdischarge care improves outcomes for patients. Telemonitoring also can assist in reducing mortality and HF-related hospitalizations. Office-based team care improves patient outcomes, with important components including rapid access to physicians, partnerships with clinical pharmacists, education, monitoring, and support. Pay-for-performance measures developed for HF, primarily use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta blockers, also improve patient outcomes, but the influence of adherence to other measures has been minimal. Evaluating comorbid conditions, including diabetes and hypertension, and making drug adjustments for patients with HF to include blood pressure control and use of metformin, when possible, can reduce mortality and morbidity. PMID:26974003

  16. Remote patient monitoring in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Mishkin, Aaron; Aronow, Wilbert S; Kalra, Ankur; Frishman, William H

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) poses a significant economic burden on our health-care resources with very high readmission rates. Remote monitoring has a substantial potential to improve the management and outcome of patients with HF. Readmission for decompensated HF is often preceded by a stage of subclinical hemodynamic decompensation, where therapeutic interventions would prevent subsequent clinical decompensation and hospitalization. Various methods of remote patient monitoring include structured telephone support, advanced telemonitoring technologies, remote monitoring of patients with implanted cardiac devices such as pacemakers and defibrillators, and implantable hemodynamic monitors. Current data examining the efficacy of remote monitoring technologies in improving outcomes have shown inconsistent results. Various medicolegal and financial issues need to be addressed before widespread implementation of this exciting technology can take place. PMID:23018667

  17. Cognitive impairment in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Leto, Laura; Feola, Mauro

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive damage in heart failure (HF) involves different domains thus interfering with the ability for single patient to self-care and to cope with treatment regimens, modifying symptoms and health behaviours. Many cerebral and functional changes were detected in brain imaging, involving areas of both grey and white matter deputed to cognition. Although various instruments are available to explore cognition, no consensus was obtained on better tools to be used in HF population. Reduction in cerebral blood flow, decreased cardiac output, alterations of cerebrovascular reactivity and modification of blood pressure levels are the main features involved in the etiopathogenetic mechanisms of cognitive deficit. Several cardiac variables, laboratory parameters, demographic and clinical elements were studied for their possible relation with cognition and should be properly evaluated to define patients at increased risk of impairment. The present review gathers available data pointing out assured information and discussing possible areas of research development. PMID:25593581

  18. Cognitive impairment in heart failure patients

    PubMed Central

    Leto, Laura; Feola, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive damage in heart failure (HF) involves different domains thus interfering with the ability for single patient to self-care and to cope with treatment regimens, modifying symptoms and health behaviours. Many cerebral and functional changes were detected in brain imaging, involving areas of both grey and white matter deputed to cognition. Although various instruments are available to explore cognition, no consensus was obtained on better tools to be used in HF population. Reduction in cerebral blood flow, decreased cardiac output, alterations of cerebrovascular reactivity and modification of blood pressure levels are the main features involved in the etiopathogenetic mechanisms of cognitive deficit. Several cardiac variables, laboratory parameters, demographic and clinical elements were studied for their possible relation with cognition and should be properly evaluated to define patients at increased risk of impairment. The present review gathers available data pointing out assured information and discussing possible areas of research development. PMID:25593581

  19. Preventing Heart Failure in Inflammatory and Immune Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Serhal, Maya; Longenecker, Chris T.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases are at increased risk for heart failure due to ischemic heart disease and other causes including heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Using rheumatoid arthritis and treated HIV infection as two prototypical examples, we review the epidemiology and potential therapies to prevent heart failure in these populations. Particular focus is given to anti-inflammatory therapies including statins and biologic disease modifying drugs. There is also limited evidence for lifestyle changes and blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. We conclude by proposing how a strategy for heart failure prevention, such as the model tested in the Screening To Prevent Heart Failure (STOP-HF) trial, may be adapted to chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:26316924

  20. Rural Patients’ Knowledge about Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Dracup, Kathleen; Moser, Debra; Pelter, Michele M.; Nesbitt, Thomas; Southard, Jeffrey; Paul, Steven M.; Robinson, Susan; Zègre Hemsey, Jessica; Cooper, Lawton

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) is a potentially disabling condition requiring significant patient knowledge to manage the requirements of self-care. The need for self-care is important for all patients, but particularly for those living in rural areas that are geographically remote from health care services. Objective To identify the level of knowledge of rural patients with HF and the clinical and demographic characteristics associated with low levels of HF knowledge Methods Baseline data from 612 patients with HF enrolled in the REMOTE-HF trial were analyzed using the Heart Failure Knowledge Scale, the Short Test of Functional Health literacy in Adults, and the anxiety subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory. Multiple linear regression was used to explore the contribution of sociodemographic and clinical variables to levels of HF knowledge. Results Mean age was 66±13 years; 59% were male, and 50.5% had an ejection fraction (EF) <40%. Mean percent correct on the HF Knowledge Scale was 69.5±13 (range 25 to 100) percent, with the most frequent incorrect items related to symptoms of HF and the need for daily weights. Males and older patients scored significantly lower in HF knowledge than females and younger patients (p = 0.002 and 0.011 respectively). Patients with preserved systolic function also scored significantly lower than those with systolic HF (p=0.030). Conclusion Patients can be identified who are at risk for poor self-care because of low levels of HF knowledge. Older patients, males and patients with HF with preserved systolic function may require special educational strategies to gain the knowledge required for effective self-care. PMID:23839575

  1. Nutritional assessment in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, John H; Jarreau, Tara; Prasad, Amit; Lavie, Carl; O'Keefe, James; Ventura, Hector

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a growing epidemic worldwide with a particularly large presence in the United States. Nutritional assessment and supplementation is an area that can be studied to potentially improve the outcomes of these chronically ill patients. There have been many studies reporting the effect of various nutrients on HF patients, often with mixed results. Amino acids such as taurine, which is involved in calcium exchange, has been reported to improve heart function. Coenzyme Q10, a key component in the electron transport chain, is vital for energy production. l-carnitine, an amino acid derivative, is responsible for transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria along with modulating glucose metabolism. Thiamine and the other B vitamins, which serve as vital cofactors, can often be deficient in HF patients. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has been demonstrated to benefit HF patients potentially through anti-arrhythmic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Vitamin D supplementation can potentially benefit HF patients by way of modulating the renin-angiotensin system, smooth muscle proliferation, inflammation, and calcium homeostasis. Although supplementation of all of the above nutrients has the potential to benefit patients with HF, more studies are needed to solidify these recommendations. PMID:21790970

  2. The kidney in heart failure: an update.

    PubMed

    Damman, Kevin; Testani, Jeffrey M

    2015-06-14

    Heart and kidney are closely related in the clinical syndrome of heart failure (HF). It is now sufficiently clear that renal dysfunction occurs frequently in all phenotypes of HF, and when present, it is associated with higher mortality and morbidity. While the pathophysiology is multifactorial, the most important factors are a reduced renal perfusion and venous congestion. Recent interest has focused on worsening renal function (WRF), a situation strongly related to mortality, but seemingly only when HF status deteriorates. Unfortunately, to date clinicians are unable to identify specifically those patients with a grim prognosis following WRF. Although much has been learned on cardiorenal interaction in HF, still more questions have been left unanswered. The coming decade should provide us with more dedicated epidemiologic, mechanistic, and controlled trials in HF patients with reduced renal function. An updated classification of the cardiorenal syndrome that incorporates recent evidence and points towards areas of interest and uncertainties, and areas where progress is needed could facilitate this process. Ultimately, this should lead to preventive and treatment strategies that can preserve renal function and associated outcome in patients with HF. PMID:25838436

  3. Comprehensive rehabilitation in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gąsiorowski, Adam; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a complex disease process connected with cardiovascular system as well as other organs and skeletal muscles. In connection with the above, cardiac rehabilitation, consisting of exercise training and diet supplementation, aims at recovery of physical, social and psychic function and removing risk factors influencing the occurrence of circulatory system diseases. Evidence has shown that exercise training in CHF patients, both aerobic and resistance, can increase peak oxygen consumption and exercise capacity, improve NYHA (New York Heart Association) functional class, reduce mortality and improve the quality of life. Evidence suggests that most improvement is due to the effects of training on the peripheral circulation and skeletal muscle, rather than on the heart itself. Exercise training can improve skeletal muscle metabolism, increase blood flow within the active skeletal muscles, increase capillary density, promote the synthesis and release of nitric oxide, improve angiogenesis, and decrease oxidative stress. Physical effort reduces sympathetic arousal and increases parasympathetic arousal, thus reducing cardiac dysrythmia and ischemia. Mitochondria start working harder, as the demand for energy is higher and electron flow provides energy in the form of ATP. Studies have consistently demonstrated that exercise training is safe and has no deleterious effect on central haemodynamics, left ventricular remodeling, systolic or diastolic function, or myocardial metabolism. Taking several supplements that have documented roles in medical therapy, including vitamins B, C and E, coenzyme Q10, alpha-lipoic acid, chromium, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, L-carnitine, and quercetin, has beneficiary effect on many diseases, including CHF. In our experience, 19 patients with CHF who undertook resistance (weight) training and food supplementation, returned to their normal activities after 4 months, without any complaints. PMID:24069873

  4. The Alberta Heart Failure Etiology and Analysis Research Team (HEART) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nationally, symptomatic heart failure affects 1.5-2% of Canadians, incurs $3 billion in hospital costs annually and the global burden is expected to double in the next 1–2 decades. The current one-year mortality rate after diagnosis of heart failure remains high at >25%. Consequently, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed for this debilitating condition. Methods/Design The objective of the Alberta HEART program (http://albertaheartresearch.ca) is to develop novel diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic approaches to patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. We hypothesize that novel imaging techniques and biomarkers will aid in describing heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Furthermore, the development of new diagnostic criteria will allow us to: 1) better define risk factors associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; 2) elucidate clinical, cellular and molecular mechanisms involved with the development and progression of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; 3) design and test new therapeutic strategies for patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Additionally, Alberta HEART provides training and education for enhancing translational medicine, knowledge translation and clinical practice in heart failure. This is a prospective observational cohort study of patients with, or at risk for, heart failure. Patients will have sequential testing including quality of life and clinical outcomes over 12 months. After that time, study participants will be passively followed via linkage to external administrative databases. Clinical outcomes of interest include death, hospitalization, emergency department visits, physician resource use and/or heart transplant. Patients will be followed for a total of 5 years. Discussion Alberta HEART has the primary objective to define new diagnostic criteria for patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. New criteria will allow for targeted therapies, diagnostic tests and further understanding of the patients, both at-risk for and with heart failure. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02052804. PMID:25063541

  5. Genetics and Heart Failure: A Concise Guide for the Clinician

    PubMed Central

    Skrzynia, Cécile; Berg, Jonathan S; Willis, Monte S; Jensen, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of heart failure involves a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Genetic factors may influence the susceptibility to the underlying etiology of heart failure, the rapidity of disease progression, or the response to pharmacologic therapy. The genetic contribution to heart failure is relatively minor in most multifactorial cases, but more direct and profound in the case of familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Early studies of genetic risk for heart failure focused on polymorphisms in genes integral to the adrenergic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Some of these variants were found to increase the risk of developing heart failure, and others appeared to affect the therapeutic response to neurohormonal antagonists. Regardless, each variant individually confers a relatively modest increase in risk and likely requires complex interaction with other variants and the environment for heart failure to develop. Dilated cardiomyopathy frequently leads to heart failure, and a genetic etiology increasingly has been recognized in cases previously considered to be “idiopathic”. Up to 50% of dilated cardiomyopathy cases without other cause likely are due to a heritable genetic mutation. Such mutations typically are found in genes encoding sarcomeric proteins and are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. In recent years, rapid advances in sequencing technology have improved our ability to diagnose familial dilated cardiomyopathy and those diagnostic tests are available widely. Optimal care for the expanding population of patients with heritable heart failure involves counselors and physicians with specialized training in genetics, but numerous online genetics resources are available to practicing clinicians. PMID:24251456

  6. Practical guide on home health in heart failure patients

    PubMed Central

    Jaarsma, Tiny; Larsen, Torben; Strömberg, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Chronic heart failure is a common condition affecting up to 15 million people in the extended Europe. Heart failure is burdensome and costly for patients in terms of decreased quality of life and poor prognosis, and it is also costly for society. Better integrated care is warranted in this population and specialised heart failure care can save costs and improve the quality of care. However, only a few European countries have implemented specialised home care and offered this to a larger number of patients with heart failure. Method We developed a guide on Home Health in Heart Failure patients from a literature review, a survey of heart failure management programs, the opinion of researchers and practitioners, data from clinical trials and a reflection of an international expert meeting. Results In integrated home care for heart failure patients, it is advised to consider the following components: integrated multidisciplinary care, patient and partner participation, care plans with clear goals of care, patient education, self-care management, appropriate access to care and optimised treatment. Discussion We summarised the state of the art of home-based care for heart failure patients in Europe, described the typical content of such care to provide a guide for health care providers. PMID:24250283

  7. “Playboy Bunny” Sign of Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Hokama, Akira; Arakaki, Shingo; Shibata, Daisuke; Maeshiro, Tatsuji; Kinjo, Fukunori; Fujita, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    In emergency, ultrasound has been widely used as a noninvasive and effective examination to evaluate congestive heart failure. We highlight “Playboy Bunny” sign as a reliable marker and an important clue to the diagnosis of passive hepatic congestion, caused by congestive heart failure. PMID:22224133

  8. Diagnosis and management of heart failure in the fetus

    PubMed Central

    DAVEY, B.; SZWAST, A.; RYCHIK, J.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure can be defined as the inability of the heart to sufficiently support the circulation. In the fetus, heart failure can be caused by a myriad of factors that include fetal shunting abnormalities, genetic cardiomyopathies, extracardiac malformations, arrhythmias and structural congenital heart disease. With advances in ultrasound has come the ability to characterize many complex conditions, previously poorly understood. Fetal echocardiography provides the tools necessary to evaluate and understand the various physiologies that contribute to heart failure in the fetus. In this review, we will explore the different mechanisms of heart failure in this unique patient population and highlight the role of fetal echocardiography in the current management of these conditions PMID:22992530

  9. Sarcomere gene mutations in hypertrophy and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Morita, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Ryozo; Seidman, J G; Seidman, Christine E

    2010-08-01

    Despite considerable progress in identifying and modifying risk factors that cause cardiovascular disease, heart failure has emerged as an important medical and socioeconomic problem. Hypertrophic remodeling, a common response to many cardiovascular disorders, increases the risk of heart failure. Discovery of the genetic basis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has allowed consideration of whether these genes also contribute to pathologic remodeling that occurs in the context of common acquired cardiovascular disorders. Evidence supporting a shared etiology has emerged from the recent identification of sarcomere protein mutations and sequence variants in community-based populations with hypertrophy and heart failure. These findings imply that harnessing genetic testing for hypertrophic mutations may help define patients at risk for heart failure. In the future, mechanistic insights into hypertrophic remodeling, combined with strategies to prevent this pathology, are expected to reduce the burden of heart failure. PMID:20559778

  10. Respiratory sleep disorders in patients with congestive heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory sleep disorders (RSD) occur in about 40-50% of patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure (CHF). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is considered a cause of CHF, whereas central sleep apnea (CSA) is considered a response to heart failure, perhaps even compensatory. In the setting of heart failure, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has a definite role in treating OSA with improvements in cardiac parameters expected. However in CSA, CPAP is an adjunctive therapy to other standard therapies directed towards the heart failure (pharmacological, device and surgical options). Whether adaptive servo controlled ventilatory support, a variant of CPAP, is beneficial is yet to be proven. Supplemental oxygen therapy should be used with caution in heart failure, in particular, by avoiding hyperoxia as indicated by SpO2 values >95%. PMID:26380758

  11. Improving Patient Outcomes With Oral Heart Failure Medications.

    PubMed

    Sherrod, Melissa M; Cheek, Dennis J; Seale, Ashlie

    2016-05-01

    Hospitals are under immense pressure to reduce heart failure readmissions that occur within 30 days of discharge, and to improve the quality of care for these patients. Penalties mandated by the Affordable Care Act decrease hospital reimbursement and ultimately the overall cost of caring for these patients increases if they are not well managed. Approximately 25% of patients hospitalized for heart failure are at high risk for readmission and these rates have not changed over the past decade. As a result of an aging population, the incidence of heart failure is expected to increase to one in five Americans over the age of 65. Pharmacologic management can reduce the risk of death and help prevent unnecessary hospitalizations. Healthcare providers who have knowledge of heart failure medications and drug interactions and share this information with their patients contribute to improved long-term survival and physical functioning as well as fewer hospitalizations and a delay of progressive worsening of heart failure. PMID:27145405

  12. Anemia associated with chronic heart failure: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ravish; Agarwal, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    Anemia is a frequent comorbidity of heart failure and is associated with poor outcomes. Anemia in heart failure is considered to develop due to a complex interaction of iron deficiency, kidney disease, and cytokine production, although micronutrient insufficiency and blood loss may contribute. Currently, treatment of anemia of heart failure lacks clear targets and specific therapy is not defined. Intravenous iron use has been shown to benefit anemic as well as nonanemic patients with heart failure. Treatment with erythropoietin-stimulating agents has been considered alone or in combination with iron, but robust evidence to dictate clear guidelines is not currently available. Available and emerging new agents in the treatment of anemia of heart failure will need to be tested in randomized, controlled studies. PMID:23403618

  13. New Targets in the Drug Treatment of Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Iwaz, James A; Lee, Elizabeth; Aramin, Hermineh; Romero, Danilo; Iqbal, Navaid; Kawahara, Matt; Khusro, Fatima; Knight, Brian; Patel, Minal V; Sharma, Sumita; Maisel, Alan S

    2016-02-01

    Heart failure is a complex syndrome that has been a major contributor to readmissions into hospitals in the USA. Currently, a large number of medications are being used to treat the symptoms of the disease-digoxin, diuretics, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, ?-blockers, and vasodilators. There is no doubt that the given pharmaceutical therapy has been effective in lowering hospital readmission rates and prolonging life in individual chronic heart failure patients. Despite this, admission rates following heart failure hospitalization remain high, resulting in a substantial financial strain on healthcare institutions. Clearly, there is much room for improvement in heart failure therapy and management in reducing readmission rates. In this review, we address the unmet needs in the current drug treatment of chronic heart failure and describe novel drug targets that are currently under investigation. PMID:26659475

  14. Cost of Informal Caregiving for Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Heesoo; Fang, Jing; Losby, Jan L.; Wang, Guijing

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart failure is a serious health condition that requires a significant amount of informal care. However, informal caregiving costs associated with heart failure is largely unknown. Methods We used a study sample of non-institutionalized US respondents aged 50 and older from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study (n=19,762). Heart failure cases were defined by using self-reported information. The weekly informal caregiving hours were derived by a sequence of survey questions assessing (1) whether respondents had any difficulties in activities of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living, (2) whether they had caregivers or not because of reported difficulties, (3) the relationship between the patient and the caregiver, (4) whether caregivers were paid, and (5) how many hours per week each informal caregiver provided help. We used a two-part econometric model to estimate the informal caregiving hours associated with heart failure. The first part was a logit model to estimate the likelihood of using informal caregiving, and the second was a generalized linear model to estimate the amount of informal caregiving hours used among those who used informal caregiving. Replacement approach was used to estimate informal caregiving cost. Results The 943 (3.9%) respondents who self-reported as ever being diagnosed with heart failure used about 1.6 more hours of informal caregiving per week than those who did not have heart failure (P < .001). Informal caregiving hours associated with heart failure were higher among non-Hispanic blacks (3.9 hours/week) than non-Hispanic whites (1.4 hours/week). The estimated annual informal caregiving cost attributable to heart failure was $3 billion in 2010. Conclusion The cost of informal caregiving was substantial and should be included in estimating the economic burden of heart failure. The results should help public health decision makers in understanding the economic burden of heart failure and in setting public health priorities. PMID:25497259

  15. Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

  16. Left ventricular heart failure and pulmonary hypertension†.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Stephan; Gibbs, J Simon R; Wachter, Rolf; De Marco, Teresa; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc

    2016-03-21

    In patients with left ventricular heart failure (HF), the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are frequent and have important impact on disease progression, morbidity, and mortality, and therefore warrant clinical attention. Pulmonary hypertension related to left heart disease (LHD) by far represents the most common form of PH, accounting for 65-80% of cases. The proper distinction between pulmonary arterial hypertension and PH-LHD may be challenging, yet it has direct therapeutic consequences. Despite recent advances in the pathophysiological understanding and clinical assessment, and adjustments in the haemodynamic definitions and classification of PH-LHD, the haemodynamic interrelations in combined post- and pre-capillary PH are complex, definitions and prognostic significance of haemodynamic variables characterizing the degree of pre-capillary PH in LHD remain suboptimal, and there are currently no evidence-based recommendations for the management of PH-LHD. Here, we highlight the prevalence and significance of PH and RV dysfunction in patients with both HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and provide insights into the complex pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary interaction in LHD, which may lead to the evolution from a 'left ventricular phenotype' to a 'right ventricular phenotype' across the natural history of HF. Furthermore, we propose to better define the individual phenotype of PH by integrating the clinical context, non-invasive assessment, and invasive haemodynamic variables in a structured diagnostic work-up. Finally, we challenge current definitions and diagnostic short falls, and discuss gaps in evidence, therapeutic options and the necessity for future developments in this context. PMID:26508169

  17. Left ventricular heart failure and pulmonary hypertension†

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkranz, Stephan; Gibbs, J. Simon R.; Wachter, Rolf; De Marco, Teresa; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    In patients with left ventricular heart failure (HF), the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are frequent and have important impact on disease progression, morbidity, and mortality, and therefore warrant clinical attention. Pulmonary hypertension related to left heart disease (LHD) by far represents the most common form of PH, accounting for 65–80% of cases. The proper distinction between pulmonary arterial hypertension and PH-LHD may be challenging, yet it has direct therapeutic consequences. Despite recent advances in the pathophysiological understanding and clinical assessment, and adjustments in the haemodynamic definitions and classification of PH-LHD, the haemodynamic interrelations in combined post- and pre-capillary PH are complex, definitions and prognostic significance of haemodynamic variables characterizing the degree of pre-capillary PH in LHD remain suboptimal, and there are currently no evidence-based recommendations for the management of PH-LHD. Here, we highlight the prevalence and significance of PH and RV dysfunction in patients with both HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and provide insights into the complex pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary interaction in LHD, which may lead to the evolution from a ‘left ventricular phenotype’ to a ‘right ventricular phenotype’ across the natural history of HF. Furthermore, we propose to better define the individual phenotype of PH by integrating the clinical context, non-invasive assessment, and invasive haemodynamic variables in a structured diagnostic work-up. Finally, we challenge current definitions and diagnostic short falls, and discuss gaps in evidence, therapeutic options and the necessity for future developments in this context. PMID:26508169

  18. Heart failure care for patients who do not speak English.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Emma Jane

    Heart failure affects 1-2% of the UK population with prevalence rates predicted to rise over the next decade. Ineffective education for patients with heart failure can lead to a failure to adhere to guidance, reduced self-care and increased hospital readmissions. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have issued clear guidelines on patient-centred care in heart failure, particularly in relation to patients' cultural and linguistic needs. Patients with heart failure should have access to an interpreter or advocate if needed. Furthermore, heart failure educational materials should be tailored to suit the individual and be accessible to people who do not speak or read English. This article explores the practice recommendations for these patients with heart failure and provides an overview of current guidelines associated with optimal patient outcomes. It also includes practical advice on translation services, and information and educational materials available for patients with heart failure who do not speak English. PMID:26559103

  19. Comorbidity of atrial fibrillation and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ling, Liang-Han; Kistler, Peter M; Kalman, Jonathan M; Schilling, Richard J; Hunter, Ross J

    2016-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) are evolving epidemics, together responsible for substantial human suffering and health-care expenditure. Ageing, improved cardiovascular survival, and epidemiological transition form the basis for their increasing global prevalence. Although we now have a clear picture of how HF promotes AF, gaps remain in our knowledge of how AF exacerbates or even causes HF, and how the development of HF affects the outcome of patients with AF. New data regarding HF with preserved ejection fraction and its unique relationship with AF suggest a possible role for AF in its aetiology, possibly as a trigger for ventricular fibrosis. Deciding on optimal treatment strategies for patients with both AF and HF is increasingly difficult, given that results from trials of pharmacological rhythm control are arguably obsolete in the age of catheter ablation. Restoring sinus rhythm by catheter ablation seems successful in the medium term and improves HF symptoms, functional capacity, and left ventricular function. Long-term studies to examine the effect on rates of stroke and death are ongoing. Guidelines continue to evolve to keep pace with this rapidly changing field. PMID:26658575

  20. Blood flow dynamics in heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, J. K.; Naylor, H. L.; Hogeman, C. S.; Sinoway, L. I.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise intolerance in heart failure (HF) may be due to inadequate vasodilation, augmented vasoconstriction, and/or altered muscle metabolic responses that lead to fatigue. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vascular and metabolic responses to rhythmic forearm exercise were tested in 9 HF patients and 9 control subjects (CTL) during 2 protocols designed to examine the effect of HF on the time course of oxygen delivery versus uptake (protocol 1) and on vasoconstriction during exercise with 50 mm Hg pressure about the forearm to evoke a metaboreflex (protocol 2). In protocol 1, venous lactate and H+ were greater at 4 minutes of exercise in HF versus CTL (P<0.05) despite similar blood flow and oxygen uptake responses. In protocol 2, mean arterial pressure increased similarly in each group during ischemic exercise. In CTL, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance were similar at the end of ischemic and ambient exercise. In HF, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance were reduced during ischemic exercise compared with the ambient trial. CONCLUSIONS: Intrinsic differences in skeletal muscle metabolism, not vasodilatory dynamics, must account for the augmented glycolytic metabolic responses to moderate-intensity exercise in class II and III HF. The inability to increase forearm vascular conductance during ischemic handgrip exercise, despite a normal pressor response, suggests that enhanced vasoconstriction of strenuously exercising skeletal muscle contributes to exertional fatigue in HF.

  1. Epidemiology and aetiology of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ziaeian, Boback; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2016-06-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a rapidly growing public health issue with an estimated prevalence of >37.7 million individuals globally. HF is a shared chronic phase of cardiac functional impairment secondary to many aetiologies, and patients with HF experience numerous symptoms that affect their quality of life, including dyspnoea, fatigue, poor exercise tolerance, and fluid retention. Although the underlying causes of HF vary according to sex, age, ethnicity, comorbidities, and environment, the majority of cases remain preventable. HF is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and confers a substantial burden to the health-care system. HF is a leading cause of hospitalization among adults and the elderly. In the USA, the total medical costs for patients with HF are expected to rise from US$20.9 billion in 2012 to $53.1 billion by 2030. Improvements in the medical management of risk factors and HF have stabilized the incidence of this disease in many countries. In this Review, we provide an overview of the latest epidemiological data on HF, and propose future directions for reducing the ever-increasing HF burden. PMID:26935038

  2. Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Huang, Shu-Chun; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Wang, Chao-Hung; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2014-01-01

    Reduced exercise capacity negatively affects the ability of patients with heart failure (HF) to perform activities required for daily life, further decreasing their independence and quality of life (QoL). Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) can effectively improve aerobic fitness and overall health status in patients with HF. Low referral rate is an important limitation that may impede successful CR, whereas the automatic referral and liaison strategies performed by some healthcare providers manifestly increase the CR referral rate. However, there is still controversy regarding the most effective exercise strategy for improving hemodynamic efficiency during daily activities in the HF population. Aerobic interval training (AIT), that includes alternating high- and low-intensity exercise sessions, may be a more effective modality for improving functional capacity than traditional moderate continuous training (MCT) in patients with HF. A novel AIT regimen designed in our previous study may substantially enhance the ability of ventilation-perfusion matching during exercise, which effects are accompanied by an improved global and disease-specific QoL in HF patients. Conversely, the traditional MCT regimen may only maintain these physiologic responses to exercise at pre-interventional status. By elucidating the relationship between physical activity and hemodynamic property, this review attempts to provide a CR strategy for developing suitable exercise prescription that ameliorates hemodynamic disturbance, further retarding the disease progression and improving health-related QoL in patients with HF. PMID:27122811

  3. Managing erectile dysfunction in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Giagulli, V A; Moghetti, P; Kaufman, J M; Guastamacchia, E; Iacoviello, M; Triggiani, V

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays, erectile dysfunction (ED) is considered an increasingly important clinical condition in men with heart failure (HF) which may influence the therapeutic approach to these patients. Since there is cogent evidence that ED is a "sentinel marker" of acute cardiovascular events especially in men younger than 65 years or in those affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus, it deserves an early diagnosis and an appropriate treatment. In NYHA III-IV class HF patients, sexual activity could lead to acute cardiovascular events and this should be taken into account when approaching ED patients. Moreover, it is well known that some classes of drugs, normally employed in the treatment of HF patients (e.g.thiazide diuretics, spironolactone and β-blockers), might worsen or even contribute to ED development. On the other hand, growing evidence suggests that PDE 5 inhibitors (vardenafil, tadalafil and sildenafil) seem to better satisfy the needs of NYHA HF I- II class men suffering from ED. In fact, they show few side effects, while improving both cardiopulmonary parameters and quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this review is to sum up the most recent evidence regarding the management of ED in men suffering from HF. PMID:23369145

  4. MicroRNA and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lee Lee; Wang, Juan; Liew, Oi Wah; Richards, Arthur Mark; Chen, Yei-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) imposes significant economic and public health burdens upon modern society. It is known that disturbances in neurohormonal status play an important role in the pathogenesis of HF. Therapeutics that antagonize selected neurohormonal pathways, specifically the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, have significantly improved patient outcomes in HF. Nevertheless, mortality remains high with about 50% of HF patients dying within five years of diagnosis thus mandating ongoing efforts to improve HF management. The discovery of short noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) and our increasing understanding of their functions, has presented potential therapeutic applications in complex diseases, including HF. Results from several genome-wide miRNA studies have identified miRNAs differentially expressed in HF cohorts suggesting their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of HF and their potential as both biomarkers and as therapeutic targets. Unravelling the functional relevance of miRNAs within pathogenic pathways is a major challenge in cardiovascular research. In this article, we provide an overview of the role of miRNAs in the cardiovascular system. We highlight several HF-related miRNAs reported from selected cohorts and review their putative roles in neurohormonal signaling. PMID:27058529

  5. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Rigolli, Marzia; Whalley, Gillian A

    2013-01-01

    Progressive aging of the population and prolongation of life expectancy have led to the rising prevalence of heart failure (HF). Despite the improvements in medical therapy, the mortality rate of this condition has remained unacceptably high, becoming the primary cause of death in the elderly population. Almost half of patients with signs and symptoms of HF are found to have a nearly normal ejection fraction, which delineates a distinct clinical syndrome, known as HF with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF). While early research focused on the importance of diastolic dysfunction, more recent studies reported the pathophysiological complexity of the disease with multiple cardiovascular abnormalities contributing to its development and progression. HF-PEF is a challenging major health problem with yet no solution as there is no evidence-based treatment which improves clinical outcomes. This review summarizes the state of current knowledge on diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of HF-PEF, with particular insights on the pathological characteristics in the elderly population. PMID:24454331

  6. MicroRNA and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lee Lee; Wang, Juan; Liew, Oi Wah; Richards, Arthur Mark; Chen, Yei-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) imposes significant economic and public health burdens upon modern society. It is known that disturbances in neurohormonal status play an important role in the pathogenesis of HF. Therapeutics that antagonize selected neurohormonal pathways, specifically the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, have significantly improved patient outcomes in HF. Nevertheless, mortality remains high with about 50% of HF patients dying within five years of diagnosis thus mandating ongoing efforts to improve HF management. The discovery of short noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) and our increasing understanding of their functions, has presented potential therapeutic applications in complex diseases, including HF. Results from several genome-wide miRNA studies have identified miRNAs differentially expressed in HF cohorts suggesting their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of HF and their potential as both biomarkers and as therapeutic targets. Unravelling the functional relevance of miRNAs within pathogenic pathways is a major challenge in cardiovascular research. In this article, we provide an overview of the role of miRNAs in the cardiovascular system. We highlight several HF-related miRNAs reported from selected cohorts and review their putative roles in neurohormonal signaling. PMID:27058529

  7. Heart failure patients utilizing an electric home monitor: What effects does heart failure have on their quality of life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simuel, Gloria J.

    Heart Failure continues to be a major public health problem associated with high mortality and morbidity. Heart Failure is the leading cause of hospitalization for persons older than 65 years, has a poor prognosis and is associated with poor quality of life. More than 5.3 million American adults are living with heart failure. Despite maximum medical therapy and frequent hospitalizations to stabilize their condition, one in five heart failure patients die within the first year of diagnosis. Several disease-management programs have been proposed and tested to improve the quality of heart failure care. Studies have shown that hospital admissions and emergency room visits decrease with increased nursing interventions in the home and community setting. An alternative strategy for promoting self-management of heart failure is the use of electronic home monitoring. The purpose of this study was to examine what effects heart failure has on patient's quality of life that had been monitoring on an electronic home monitor longer than 2 months. Twenty-one questionnaires were given to patients utilizing an electronic home monitor by their home health agency nurse. Eleven patients completed the questionnaire. The findings showed that there is some deterioration in quality of life with more association with the physical aspects of life than with the emotional aspects of life, which probably was due to the small sample size. There was no significant difference in readmission rates in patients utilizing an electronic home monitor. Further research is needed with a larger population of patients with chronic heart failure and other chronic diseases which may provide more data, and address issues such as patient compliance with self-care, impact of heart failure on patient's quality of life, functional capacity, and heart failure patient's utilization of the emergency rooms and hospital. Telemonitoring holds promise for improving the self-care abilities of persons with HF.

  8. Percutaneous mitral valve repair: potential in heart failure management.

    PubMed

    Hussaini, Asma; Kar, Saibal

    2010-03-01

    As a large portion of the US demographic advances into the later decades of life, the incidence of valvular heart disease is expected to increase. Mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by primary valve abnormality (degenerative) or secondary to cardiomyopathy (functional) is an important cause of heart failure. Management of valvular heart disease is expected to account for a large segment of services provided to heart failure patients. Recent years have seen a transition from surgical therapy to minimally invasive techniques, specifically percutaneous approaches for the correction of heart valve disease. The double orifice technique of mitral valve repair using the MitraClip System (Abbott Vascular, Menlo Park, CA) is one of many percutaneous approaches to treat significant MR. This technique is effective in patients with both degenerative and functional MR, reducing MR severity and improving heart failure symptoms. Broad acceptance of this percutaneous technology requires collaboration among cardiologists and cardiac surgeons in centers with superior catheter experience and knowledge of echocardiography. PMID:20425493

  9. Management of Patients Admitted with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Krim, Selim R.; Campbell, Patrick T.; Desai, Sapna; Mandras, Stacy; Patel, Hamang; Eiswirth, Clement; Ventura, Hector O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hospital admission for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure is an unfortunate certainty in the vast majority of patients with heart failure. Regardless of the etiology, inpatient treatment for acute decompensated heart failure portends a worsening prognosis. Methods This review identifies patients with heart failure who need inpatient therapy and provides an overview of recommended therapies and management of these patients in the hospital setting. Results Inpatient therapy for patients with acute decompensated heart failure should be directed at decongestion and symptom improvement. Clinicians should also treat possible precipitating events, identify comorbid conditions that may exacerbate heart failure, evaluate and update current guideline-directed medical therapy, and perform risk stratification for all patients. Finally, efforts should be made to educate patients about the importance of restricting salt and fluid, monitoring daily weights, and adhering to a graded exercise program. Conclusion Early discharge follow-up and continued optimization of guideline-directed medical therapy are key to preventing future heart failure readmissions. PMID:26413005

  10. Anemia in heart failure: to treat or not to treat?

    PubMed

    Mak, George; Murphy, Niamh F; McDonald, Kenneth

    2008-12-01

    Anemia is a prevalent comorbidity in chronic heart failure (CHF). As studies have demonstrated close links between anemia and a poorer prognosis, there has been an interest in developing treatment strategies for this condition. Anemia is closely associated with disease severity and may be secondary to multiple modifiable causes; therefore, the initial strategies should always include a thorough search for etiology and should focus on optimizing heart failure treatment. Recently, more specific therapies have been assessed, namely erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and iron supplementation therapy. Studies evaluating erythropoietin in heart failure have demonstrated conflicting results to date, with smaller, single-center studies seeming to show a clinical benefit and larger, multicenter trials demonstrating no significant effect on clinical outcome aside from improvement in selected quality-of-life indices. Similarly, studies evaluating iron therapy alone in anemic patients with heart failure have so far shown promising results with regard to clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, but these studies are limited in that they involved small patient numbers. Ongoing studies such as the Reduction of Events With Darbepoetin Alfa in Heart Failure (RED-HF), Iron Supplementation in Heart Failure Patients With Anemia (IRON-HF), and Ferinject Assessment in Patients With Iron Deficiency and Chronic Heart Failure (FAIR-HF) trials will determine the value of darbepoetin alfa and intravenous iron replacement therapy in anemic CHF patients. PMID:19026176

  11. Atrial natriuretic factor binding sites in experimental congestive heart failure

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, C.; Thibault, G.; Wrobel-Konrad, E.; De Lean, A.; Genest, J.; Cantin, M. )

    1989-10-01

    A quantitative in vitro autoradiographic study was performed on the aorta, renal glomeruli, and adrenal cortex of cardiomyopathic hamsters in various stages of heart failure and correlated, in some instances, with in vivo autoradiography. The results indicate virtually no correlation between the degree of congestive heart failure and the density of 125I-labeled atrial natriuretic factor ((Ser99, Tyr126)ANF) binding sites (Bmax) in the tissues examined. Whereas the Bmax was increased in the thoracic aorta in moderate and severe heart failure, there were no significant changes in the zona glomerulosa. The renal glomeruli Bmax was lower in mild and moderate heart failure compared with control and severe heart failure. The proportion of ANF B- and C-receptors was also evaluated in sections of the aorta, adrenal, and kidney of control and cardiomyopathic hamsters with severe heart failure. (Arg102, Cys121)ANF (des-(Gln113, Ser114, Gly115, Leu116, Gly117) NH2) (C-ANF) at 10(-6) M displaced approximately 505 of (Ser99, Tyr126)125I-ANF bound in the aorta and renal glomeruli and approximately 20% in the adrenal zona glomerulosa in both series of animals. These results suggest that ANF may exert a buffering effect on the vasoconstriction of heart failure and to a certain extent may inhibit aldosterone secretion. The impairment of renal sodium excretion does not appear to be related to glomerular ANF binding sites at any stage of the disease.

  12. Heart failure and dementia: survival in relation to types of heart failure and different dementia disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cermakova, Pavla; Lund, Lars H; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Johnell, Kristina; Winblad, Bengt; Dahlström, Ulf; Eriksdotter, Maria; Religa, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Aims Heart failure (HF) and dementia frequently coexist, but little is known about their types, relationships to each other and prognosis. The aims were to (i) describe patients with HF and dementia, assess (ii) the proportion of specific dementia disorders in types of HF based on ejection fraction and (iii) the prognostic role of types of HF and dementia disorders. Methods and results The Swedish Heart Failure Registry (RiksSvikt) and The Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem) were record-linked. Associations between dementia disorders and HF types were assessed with multinomial logistic regression and survival was investigated with Kaplan–Meier analysis and multivariable Cox regression. We studied 775 patients found in both registries (55% men, mean age 82 years). Ejection fraction was preserved in 38% of patients, reduced in 34%, and missing in 28%. The proportions of dementia disorders were similar across HF types. Vascular dementia was the most common dementia disorder (36%), followed by other dementias (28%), mixed dementia (20%), and Alzheimer disease (16%). Over a mean follow-up of 1.5 years, 76% of patients survived 1 year. We observed no significant differences in survival with regard to HF type (P = 0.2) or dementia disorder (P = 0.5). After adjustment for baseline covariates, neither HF types nor dementia disorders were independently associated with survival. Conclusions Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction was the most common HF type and vascular dementia was the most common dementia disorder. The proportions of dementia disorders were similar across HF types. Neither HF types nor specific dementia disorders were associated with survival. PMID:25581033

  13. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2). Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%), noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data suggest that undiagnosed cases may be common in this population. In order to optimise management and to inform policy, high quality research on heart failure in Indigenous Australians is required to delineate accurate epidemiological indicators and to appraise health service provision. PMID:23116367

  14. Heart failure due to tension hydrothorax after left pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Kim; Leung, Calvin; Kodali, Visali; Taylor, Brice; Fontaine, Jacques-Pierre; Rojas, Carlos A; Guglin, Maya

    2013-12-01

    Tension hydrothorax is a rare complication of pneumonectomy for pleural mesothelioma and an exceptionally rare cause of heart failure. We describe a patient who had undergone extrapleural pneumonectomy, chemotherapy, and radiation for pleural mesothelioma and who developed heart failure symptoms within months of the completion of treatment. Investigation showed a massive left pleural effusion resulting in tension hydrothorax, mediastinal shift, and evidence of right heart failure with constrictive physiology and low cardiac output. Therapeutic thoracentesis resulted in increase in cardiac output and symptomatic improvement. PMID:24370800

  15. Cardiovascular Simulation of Heart Failure Pathophysiology and Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Darshan; Burkhoff, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical modeling and simulation allows for an in-depth examination of the cardiovascular system and provides the opportunity to develop deeper understanding. This review summarizes recent efforts at modeling the cardiovascular system and how these models have been useful in providing greater comprehension of the pathophysiology of heart failure, explaining the hemodynamic impact of various heart failure devices, predicting the hemodynamic effects and clinical outcomes of certain heart failure clinical trials, and perhaps aiding in patient selection for new therapies. The potential future use of these models in clinical research and clinical practice are also discussed. PMID:26703246

  16. ZINC AND THE PROOXIDANT HEART FAILURE PHENOTYPE

    PubMed Central

    Efeovbokhan, Nephertiti; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Ahokas, Robert A.; Sun, Yao; Guntaka, Ramareddy V.; Gerling, Ivan C.; Weber, Karl T.

    2014-01-01

    Neurohormonal activation with attendant aldosteronism contributes to the clinical appearance of congestive heart failure (CHF). Aldosteronism is intrinsically coupled to Zn2+ and Ca2+ dyshomeostasis, in which consequent hypozincemia compromises Zn2+ homeostasis and Zn2+-based antioxidant defenses that contribute to the CHF prooxidant phenotype. Ionized hypocalcemia leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism with parathyroid hormone-mediated Ca2+ overloading of diverse cells, including cardiomyocytes. When mitochondrial Ca2+ overload exceeds a threshold, myocyte necrosis follows. The reciprocal regulation involving cytosolic free [Zn2+]i as antioxidant and [Ca2+]i as prooxidant that can be uncoupled in favor of Zn2+-based antioxidant defenses. Increased [Zn2+]i acts as a multifaceted antioxidant by: i) inhibiting Ca2+ entry via L-type channels and hence cardioprotectant from the Ca2+-driven mitochondriocentric signal-transducer-effector pathway to nonischemic necrosis; ii) serving as catalytic regulator of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase; and iii) activating its cytosolic sensor, metal-responsive transcription factor that regulates the expression of relevant antioxidant defense genes. Albeit present in subnanomolar range, increased cytosolic free [Zn2+]i enhances antioxidant capacity that confers cardioprotection. It can be achieved exogenously by ZnSO4 supplementation or endogenously, using a β3 receptor agonist, (e.g., nebivolol) that enhances NO generation to release inactive cytosolic Zn2+ bound to metallothionein. By recognizing the pathophysiologic relevance of Zn2+ dyshomeostasis in the prooxidant CHF phenotype and by exploiting the pharmacophysiologic potential of [Zn2+]i as antioxidant, vulnerable cardiomyocytes under assault from neurohormonal activation can be protected and the myocardium spared from adverse structural remodeling. PMID:25291496

  17. Conceptual model for heart failure disease management.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulou, Efstathia; Abbate, Kariann; Whellan, David J

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this review is to propose a conceptual model for heart failure (HF) disease management (HFDM) and to define the components of an efficient HFDM plan in reference to this model. Articles that evaluated 1 or more of the following aspects of HFDM were reviewed: (1) outpatient clinic follow-up; (2) self-care interventions to enhance patient skills; and (3) remote evaluation of worsening HF either using structured telephone support (STS) or by monitoring device data (telemonitoring). The success of programs in reducing readmissions and mortality were mixed. Outpatient follow-up programs generally resulted in improved outcomes, including decreased readmissions. Based on 1 meta-analysis, specialty clinics improved outcomes and nonspecialty clinics did not. Results from self-care programs were inconsistent and might have been affected by patient cognitive status and educational level, and intervention intensity. Telemonitoring, despite initially promising meta-analyses demonstrating a decrease in the number and duration of HF-related readmissions and all-cause mortality rates at follow-up, has not been shown in randomized trials to consistently reduce readmissions or mortality. However, evidence from device monitoring trials in particular might have been influenced by technology and design issues that might be rectified in future trials. Results from the literature suggest that the ideal HFDM plan would include outpatient follow-up at an HF specialty clinic and continuous education to improve patient self-care. The end result of this plan would lead to better understanding on the part of the patient and improved patient ability to recognize and respond to signs of decompensation. PMID:24565255

  18. Inflammatory cytokines as biomarkers in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ueland, Thor; Gullestad, Lars; Nymo, Ståle H; Yndestad, Arne; Aukrust, Pål; Askevold, Erik T

    2015-03-30

    Inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF). In addition to their direct involvement as mediators in the pathogenesis of HF, inflammatory cytokines and related mediators could also be suitable markers for risk stratification and prognostication in HF patients. Many reports have suggested that inflammatory cytokines may predict adverse outcome in these patients. However, most studies have been limited in sample size and lacking full adjustment with the most recent and strongest biochemical predictor such as NT-proBNP and high sensitivity troponins. Furthermore, a number of pre-analytical and analytical aspects of cytokine measurements may limit their use as biomarkers. This review focuses on technical, informative and practical considerations concerning the clinical use of inflammatory cytokines as prognostic biomarkers in HF. We focus on the predictive value of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, the TNF family receptors sTNFR1 and osteoprotegerin, interleukin (IL)-6 and its receptor gp130, the chemokines MCP-1, IL-8, CXCL16 and CCL21 and the pentraxin PTX-3 in larger prospective fully adjusted studies. No single inflammatory cytokine provides sufficient discrimination to justify the transition to everyday clinical use as a prognosticator in HF. However, while subjecting potential new HF markers to rigorous comparisons with "gold-standard" markers, such as NT-proBNP, using receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) and HF risk models, makes sense from a clinical standpoint, it may pose a threat to a broadening of mechanistic insight if the new markers are dismissed solely on account of lower statistical power. PMID:25199849

  19. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE: WHERE HOMEOSTASIS BEGETS DYSHOMEOSTASIS

    PubMed Central

    Kamalov, German; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Weber, Karl T.

    2010-01-01

    Despite today’s standard of care, aimed at containing homeostatic neurohormonal activation, 1 in every 5 patients recently hospitalized with congestive heart failure (CHF) will be readmitted within 30 days of discharge because of a recurrence of their symptoms and signs. In light of recent pathophysiologic insights, it is now propitious to revisit CHF with a view toward complementary and evolving management strategies. CHF is a progressive systemic illness. Its features include: oxidative stress in diverse tissues; an immunostimulatory state with circulating proinflammatory cytokines; a wasting of soft tissues; and a resorption of bone. Its origins are rooted in homeostatic mechanisms gone awry to beget dyshomeostasis. For example, marked excretory losses of Ca2+ and Mg2+ accompany renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation, causing ionized hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia that lead to secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) with consequent bone resorption and a propensity to atraumatic fractures. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) accounts for paradoxical intracellular Ca2+ overloading in diverse tissues and consequent systemic induction of oxidative stress. In cardiac myocytes and mitochondria these events orchestrate opening of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore (mPTP) with an ensuing osmotic-based destruction of these organelles and resultant cardiomyocyte necrosis with myocardial scarring. Contemporaneous with Ca2+ and Mg2+ dyshomeostasis is hypozincemia and hyposelenemia, which compromise metalloenzyme-based antioxidant defenses while hypovitaminosis D threatens Ca2+ stores needed to prevent SHPT. An intrinsically coupled dyshomeostasis of intracellular Ca2+ and Zn2+, representing prooxidant and antioxidant, respectively, is integral to regulating mitochondrial redox state; it can be uncoupled by a Zn2+ supplement in favor of antioxidant defenses. Hence, the complementary use of nutriceuticals to nullify dyshomeostatic responses involving macro- and micronutrients should be considered. Evolving strategies with mitochondria-targeted interventions interfering with their uptake of Ca2+ or serving as selective antioxidant or mPTP inhibitor may also prove efficacious in the overall management of CHF. PMID:20588190

  20. Heart failure and atrial fibrillation: current concepts and controversies.

    PubMed Central

    Van den Berg, M. P.; Tuinenburg, A. E.; Crijns, H. J.; Van Gelder, I. C.; Gosselink, A. T.; Lie, K. I.

    1997-01-01

    Heart failure and atrial fibrillation are very common, particularly in the elderly. Owing to common risk factors both disorders are often present in the same patient. In addition, there is increasing evidence of a complex, reciprocal relation between heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Thus heart failure may cause atrial fibrillation, with electromechanical feedback and neurohumoral activation playing an important mediating role. In addition, atrial fibrillation may promote heart failure; in particular, when there is an uncontrolled ventricular rate, tachycardiomyopathy may develop and thereby heart failure. Eventually, a vicious circle between heart failure and atrial fibrillation may form, in which neurohumoral activation and subtle derangement of rate control are involved. Treatment should aim at unloading of the heart, adequate control of ventricular rate, and correction of neurohumoral activation. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors may help to achieve these goals. Treatment should also include an attempt to restore sinus rhythm through electrical cardioversion, though appropriate timing of cardioversion is difficult. His bundle ablation may be used to achieve adequate rate control in drug refractory cases. PMID:9155607

  1. Cardiac Metabolism in Heart Failure - Implications beyond ATP production

    PubMed Central

    Doenst, Torsten; Nguyen, T. Dung; Abel, E. Dale

    2013-01-01

    The heart has a high rate of ATP production and turnover which is required to maintain its continuous mechanical work. Perturbations in ATP generating processes may therefore affect contractile function directly. Characterizing cardiac metabolism in heart failure revealed several metabolic alterations termed metabolic remodeling, ranging from changes in substrate utilization to mitochondrial dysfunction, ultimately resulting in ATP deficiency and impaired contractility. However, ATP depletion is not the only relevant consequence of metabolic remodeling during heart failure. By providing cellular building blocks and signaling molecules, metabolic pathways control essential processes such as cell growth and regeneration. Thus, alterations in cardiac metabolism may also affect the progression to heart failure by mechanisms beyond ATP supply. Our aim is therefore to highlight that metabolic remodeling in heart failure not only results in impaired cardiac energetics, but also induces other processes implicated in the development of heart failure such as structural remodeling and oxidative stress. Accordingly, modulating cardiac metabolism in heart failure may have significant therapeutic relevance that goes beyond the energetic aspect. PMID:23989714

  2. Use of pimobendan in the management of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Virginia Luis

    2004-09-01

    Pimobendan is an oral inodilator compound available in many countries for use in canine heart failure. It combines calcium-sensitizing effects with PDE III inhibition, resulting in positive inotropic effects and veno- and ergic signal transduction pathway in the failing heart, the calcium-sensitizing effects may assume greater importance in patients with heart failure. Clinical studies in human patients have shown sustained improvement in hemodynamics and exercise tolerance, with favorable neurohormonal effects. One study showed a nonsignificant trend toward increased mortality [20], but proarrhythmic effects have not ben observed. Studies in naturally occurring canine heart failure suggest that pimobendan's effects are at least comparable to those of ACE inhibitors, if not superior. Pimobendan is likely to play an increasing role in the future in the treatment of canine heart disease. PMID:15325474

  3. Comorbid Heart Failure and Renal Impairment: Epidemiology and Management

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Thomas, Merlin; Majoni, William; Anavekar, Nagesh S.; Ronco, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure mortality is significantly increased in patients with baseline renal impairment and those with underlying heart failure who subsequently develop renal dysfunction. This accelerated progression occurs independent of the cause or grade of renal dysfunction and baseline risk factors. Recent large prospective databases have highlighted the depth of the current problem, while longitudinal population studies support an increasing disease burden. We have extensively reviewed the epidemiological and therapeutic data among these patients. The evidence points to a progression of heart failure early in renal impairment, even in the albuminuric stage. The data also support poor prescription of prognostic therapies. As renal function is the most important prognostic factor in heart failure, it is important to establish the current understanding of the disease burden and the therapeutic implications. PMID:23381594

  4. Family Influences on Heart Failure Self-care and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Sandra B.; Clark, Patricia C.; Quinn, Christina; Gary, Rebecca A.; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2009-01-01

    Many patient education guidelines for teaching heart failure patients recommend inclusion of the family; however, family-focused interventions to promote self-care in heart failure are few. This article reviews the state of the science regarding family influences on heart failure self-care and outcomes. The literature and current studies suggest that family functioning, family support, problem solving, communication, self-efficacy, and caregiver burden are important areas to target for future research. In addition, heart failure patients without family and those who live alone and are socially isolated are highly vulnerable for poor self-care and should receive focused attention. Specific research questions based on existing science and gaps that need to be filled to support clinical practice are posed. PMID:18437068

  5. Postinfarct Left Ventricular Remodelling: A Prevailing Cause of Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Alessio; Lombardi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is a chronic disease with high morbidity and mortality, which represents a growing challenge in medicine. A major risk factor for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is a history of myocardial infarction. The expansion of a large infarct scar and subsequent regional ventricular dilatation can cause postinfarct remodelling, leading to significant enlargement of the left ventricular chamber. It has a negative prognostic value, because it precedes the clinical manifestations of heart failure. The characteristics of the infarcted myocardium predicting postinfarct remodelling can be studied with cardiac magnetic resonance and experimental imaging modalities such as diffusion tensor imaging can identify the changes in the architecture of myocardial fibers. This review discusses all the aspects related to postinfarct left ventricular remodelling: definition, pathogenesis, diagnosis, consequences, and available therapies, together with experimental interventions that show promising results against postinfarct remodelling and heart failure. PMID:26989555

  6. Associations of Heart Failure with Sleep Quality: The Rotterdam Study

    PubMed Central

    Zuurbier, Lisette A.; Luik, Annemarie I.; Leening, Maarten J.G.; Hofman, Albert; Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Franco, Oscar H.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The prevalence of sleep disturbances and heart failure increases with age. We aimed to evaluate the associations of incident heart failure and cardiac dysfunction with changes in sleep quality. Methods: This prospective population-based study was conducted in the Rotterdam Study. Of the 3,445 eligible persons (mean age 72.0 ± 7.1 years) available for cross-sectional analyses, 8.9% (n = 307) had prevalent clinical heart failure. In longitudinal analyses, 1,989 eligible persons (mean age 70.0 ± 5.8 years) were followed for an average of 6.5 ± 0.4 years, of which 4.6% (n = 91) had prevalent or incident clinical heart failure. Heart failure was assessed according to European Society of Cardiology criteria. To estimate cardiac function, we measured left ventricular fractional shortening, left ventricular systolic function, and E/A ratio by echocardiography. Heart failure and cardiac dysfunction were studied with linear regression in relation to sleep quality, assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results: No associations between clinical heart failure and sleep quality were observed in cross-sectional analyses. Clinical heart failure predicted a reduction of sleep quality (B = 1.00 points on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; 95% CI 0.40, 1.60) in longitudinal assessment. This association was driven by the sleep onset latency and sleep quality components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Cardiac dysfunction was not related to sleep quality in cross-sectional or longitudinal analyses. Conclusions: Clinical heart failure, but not cardiac dysfunction measured by echocardiography, increases the risk of poor sleep quality in the general population over time. These findings suggest that clinical manifestations of heart failure negatively affect sleep. Citation: Zuurbier LA, Luik AI, Leening MJ, Hofman A, Freak-Poli R, Franco OH, Stricker BH, Tiemeier H. Associations of heart failure with sleep quality: the Rotterdam Study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(2):117–121. PMID:25406270

  7. Nesiritide for heart failure: impact on costs and complications.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Claire B; Ndemo, Francis; Lenz, Thomas L; Maciejewski, Stephanie; Hilleman, Daniel E

    2005-02-01

    Decompensated heart failure accounts for approximately 1 million hospitalizations in the USA each year with an estimated cost of US$11,000 per hospitalization. Despite this prevalence and cost burden, relatively few therapies for decompensated heart failure have been developed over the past 30 years. Although once the mainstay of treatment of decompensated heart failure, the use of positive inotropic agents has fallen into disfavor. Although these agents improve hemodynamics and ejection fraction, there is evidence that the positive inotropes increase the risk of adverse clinical outcomes and mortality. Nesiritide is a naturetic peptide that produces balance vasodilation, inhibits sympathetic nervous system activity, and promotes diuresis and naturesis. At the time the drug received Food and Drug Administration approval for marketing in the USA, it had been shown to produce hemodynamic improvements to an extent greater than placebo or nitroglycerin. However, evidence of benefit in terms of clinical improvement and other outcomes was lacking. Recent trials have found that nesiritide reduces hospital length of stay (although not statistically significant in all trials) and healthcare resource utilization in patients admitted to hospital with decompensated heart failure. In a randomized, controlled trial, nesiritide given in the emergency room reduced hospital admissions for heart failure compared with placebo/usual care. Preliminary data from an outpatient intermittent infusion trial of nesiritide found that patients receiving nesiritide had fewer hospital admissions than patients randomized to standard care. There is currently little objective evidence that therapies used routinely in the management of patients with decompensated heart failure are associated with improved outcomes. Data with positive inotropic agents suggest that they do more harm than good. There is a growing body of evidence that nesiritide is associated with improvements in clinical outcomes in decompensated heart failure including fewer complications, less healthcare resource utilization, and lower costs when compared with standard therapy. Despite this evidence, larger, prospective trials demonstrating the impact of nesiritide on the costs and complications in decompensated heart failure are needed. PMID:19807556

  8. Iron Deficiency in Heart Failure: Looking Beyond Anaemia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher C Y; Ng, Austin C C; Kritharides, Leonard; Sindone, Andrew P

    2016-03-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient in many cellular processes. Iron deficiency, with or without anaemia, is common in patients with chronic heart failure. Observational studies have shown iron deficiency to be associated with worse clinical outcomes and mortality. The treatment of iron deficiency in chronic heart failure patients using intravenous iron alone has shown promise in several clinical trials, although further studies which include larger populations and longer follow-up times are needed. PMID:26669811

  9. Heart Failure Management: The Present and the Future

    PubMed Central

    Jameel, Mohammad N.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Clinical heart failure has been defined for a long time as a clinical syndrome with symptoms and signs including shortness of breath, cyanosis, ascites, and edema. However, in recent years, with the thought of promoting early diagnosis and heart-failure prevention, the concept of heart failure has often been defined simply as a subject with severe LV dysfunction and a dilated left ventricle, or by some, defined by evidence of increased circulating levels of molecular markers of cardiac dysfunction, such as ANP and BNP. Heart failure has been considered an irreversible clinical end point. Current medical management for heart failure only relieves symptoms, slows deterioration, and prolongs life modestly. However, in the recent years, rejuvenation of the failing myocardium began to seem possible as the accumulating preclinical studies demonstrated that rejuvenating the myocardium at the molecular and cellular level can be achieved by gene therapy or stem cell transplantation. Here, we review selected novel modalities that have been shown in preclinical studies to exert beneficial effects in animal models of severe LV dysfunction and seem to have the potential to make an impact in the clinical practice of heart-failure management. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1989–2010. PMID:19203220

  10. Angiotensin II, sympathetic nerve activity and chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yutang; Seto, Sai-Wang; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    Sympathetic nerve activity has been reported to be increased in both humans and animals with chronic heart failure. One of the mechanisms believed to be responsible for this phenomenon is increased systemic and cerebral angiotensin II signaling. Plasma angiotensin II is increased in humans and animals with chronic heart failure. The increase in angiotensin II signaling enhances sympathetic nerve activity through actions on both central and peripheral sites during chronic heart failure. Angiotensin II signaling is enhanced in different brain sites such as the paraventricular nucleus, the rostral ventrolateral medulla and the area postrema. Blocking angiotensin II type 1 receptors decreases sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex when therapy is administered to the paraventricular nucleus. Injection of an angiotensin receptor blocker into the area postrema activates the sympathoinhibitory baroreflex. In peripheral regions, angiotensin II elevates both norepinephrine release and synthesis and inhibits norepinephrine uptake at nerve endings, which may contribute to the increase in sympathetic nerve activity seen in chronic heart failure. Increased circulating angiotensin II during chronic heart failure may enhance the sympathoexcitatory chemoreflex and inhibit the sympathoinhibitory baroreflex. In addition, increased circulating angiotensin II can directly act on the central nervous system via the subfornical organ and the area postrema to increase sympathetic outflow. Inhibition of angiotensin II formation and its type 1 receptor has been shown to have beneficial effects in chronic heart failure patients. PMID:23225134

  11. Self-care behaviour of patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, T; Abu-Saad, H H; Dracup, K; Halfens, R

    2000-01-01

    Heart failure-related self-care behaviour is important to optimize outcomes for patients with heart failure. Such behaviours include adherence to medication, diet and exercise, but self-care also refers to such things as seeking assistance when symptoms occur, and daily weighing. The study aim was to describe heart failure-related self-care behaviour, to test the effect of education and support on self-care behaviour and to discuss limitations. Data were collected from 128 heart failure patients during their hospital stay and at 1-, 3-, and 9-month follow-ups. Concepts from Orem's general theory of nursing were used to describe heart failure-related self-care behaviour and its limitations. The effects of intensive systematized and planned education from a nurse in hospital and at home were evaluated in an experimental design. Results showed that education enhanced self-care behaviour significantly at 1 and 3 months after discharge. Despite intensive education and support, patients did not manifest all self-care behaviours that might be expected. Patients in both the intervention and control groups described limitations in knowledge, judgement/decision-making and skills. It can be concluded that supportive-educative intervention is effective in enhancing heart failure-related self-care behaviour early after discharge. To optimize such intervention, more emphasis must be placed on behavioural strategies (e.g. self-medication), social support (e.g. from family members) and reinforcement (e.g. home visits). PMID:12035274

  12. Pediatric Heart Failure: Current State and Future Possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Gi Young

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is a complex pathophysiological syndrome that can occur in children from a variety of diseases, including cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, and congenital heart disease. The condition is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality and places a significant burden on families of affected children and to society as a whole. Current medical therapy is taken largely from the management of heart failure in adults, though clear survival benefit of these medications are lacking. Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have taken an increasingly important role in the management of advanced heart failure in children. The predominant role of these devices has been as a bridge to heart transplantation, and excellent results are currently achieved for most children with cardiomyopathies. There is an ongoing investigation to improve outcomes in high-risk populations, such as small infants and those with complex congenital heart disease, including patients with functionally univentricular hearts. Additionally, there is an active investigation and interest in expansion of VADs beyond the predominant utilization as a bridge to a heart transplant into ventricular recovery, device explant without a heart transplantation (bridge to recovery), and placement of devices without the expectation of recovery or transplantation (destination therapy). PMID:25653697

  13. Heart rate variability in left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure: effects and implications of drug treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Tuininga, Y S; van Veldhuisen, D J; Brouwer, J; Haaksma, J; Crijns, H J; Man in't Veld, A J; Lie, K I

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To review the importance of heart rate variability analysis in left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure and to assess the effects of drug treatment. In patients with left ventricular dysfunction or heart failure, a low heart rate variability is a strong predictor of a low probability of survival. Because drug treatment in these patients has rapidly changed over the past two decades, the effect of these drugs on heart rate variability needs special attention. DESIGN--A study of published reports to give an overview of heart rate variability in patients with left ventricular dysfunction or heart failure and how it is affected by drug treatment. RESULTS--Analysis of heart rate variability provides an easily obtained early marker for progression of disease. It seems to be more closely related to the degree of neurohumoral activation than to haemodynamic variables. Cardiovascular drugs may either stimulate or inhibit the degree of neurohumoral activation, and the effects of pharmacological intervention can be closely monitored with this method. CONCLUSIONS--The analysis of heart rate variability, including spectral analysis, is a novel non-invasive way to obtain potentially useful clinical information in patients with reduced left ventricular function. The effects of drug treatment on heart rate variability are in general consistent with their long-term effects in left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. PMID:7857731

  14. Use of pimobendan in feline congenital heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wainberg, Shannon

    2013-12-01

    A 6-month-old domestic shorthair cat was referred for evaluation of sudden lethargy and tachypnea following ovariohysterectomy. Upon failure of improvement with supportive care, a cardiologist identified congenital tricuspid dysplasia with signs of heart failure. Furosemide, enalapril, and pimobendan were used to reduce clinical signs and improve length and quality of life. PMID:24293678

  15. Dietary Salt Restriction in Heart Failure: Where Is the Evidence?

    PubMed

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Chatterjee, Subhankar; O'Keefe, James H

    2016-01-01

    Several dietary guidelines, health organizations and government policies recommend population-wide sodium restriction to prevent hypertension and related comorbidities like heart failure (HF). The current European Society of Cardiology and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Heart Failure guidelines recommend restricting sodium in HF patients. However, these recommendations are based on expert opinion (level C), leading to wide variability in application and lack of consensus among providers pertaining to dietary salt restriction. To evaluate the strength of current evidences to recommend dietary salt restriction among HF patients, we performed a comprehensive literature review and explored the safety and efficacy of such recommendations. PMID:26721179

  16. Spirituality and well being among elders: differences between elders with heart failure and those without heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Mary T Quinn; Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Seo, Yaewon; Marin, Patricia A; Starling, Randall C; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2007-01-01

    Heart failure is a chronic debilitating disease that affects all aspects of a person’s life, including physical, mental and spiritual dimensions. The associations among these dimensions, and the relationship to overall health status, have not been clearly identified. The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive study was to explore differences between spirituality, depressive symptoms, and quality of life among elders with and without heart failure. A total of 44 elders with heart failure and 40 non-heart failure elders completed several questionnaires including: The Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES), Spirituality Index of Well-Being (SIWB), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and SF-12™ Health Survey. There were significant differences in the groups on gender and ethnicity; thus these variables were controlled in the analyses related to the dependent variables. After controlling for gender and ethnicity, there were significant differences in the physical component of quality of life and spiritual well-being. The heart failure patients had significantly lower physical quality of life but more spiritual well-being than the non-heart failure patients. There were no significant differences in daily spiritual experiences, mental component of quality of life, and depressive symptoms between the two groups. PMID:18225469

  17. The Multi-Biomarker Approach for Heart Failure in Patients with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bielecka-Dabrowa, Agata; Gluba-Brzózka, Anna; Michalska-Kasiczak, Marta; Misztal, Małgorzata; Rysz, Jacek; Banach, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the predictive ability of selected biomarkers using N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) as the benchmark and tried to establish a multi-biomarker approach to heart failure (HF) in hypertensive patients. In 120 hypertensive patients with or without overt heart failure, the incremental predictive value of the following biomarkers was investigated: Collagen III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP), cystatin C (CysC), lipocalin-2/NGAL, syndecan-4, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1 receptor type I (IL1R1), galectin-3, cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The highest discriminative value for HF was observed for NT-proBNP (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.873) and TGF-β (AUC = 0.878). On the basis of ROC curve analysis we found that CT-1 > 152 pg/mL, TGF-β < 7.7 ng/mL, syndecan > 2.3 ng/mL, NT-proBNP > 332.5 pg/mL, CysC > 1 mg/L and NGAL > 39.9 ng/mL were significant predictors of overt HF. There was only a small improvement in predictive ability of the multi-biomarker panel including the four biomarkers with the best performance in the detection of HF—NT-proBNP, TGF-β, CT-1, CysC—compared to the panel with NT-proBNP, TGF-β and CT-1 only. Biomarkers with different pathophysiological backgrounds (NT-proBNP, TGF-β, CT-1, CysC) give additive prognostic value for incident HF in hypertensive patients compared to NT-proBNP alone. PMID:25984599

  18. The multi-biomarker approach for heart failure in patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bielecka-Dabrowa, Agata; Gluba-Brzzka, Anna; Michalska-Kasiczak, Marta; Misztal, Ma?gorzata; Rysz, Jacek; Banach, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the predictive ability of selected biomarkers using N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) as the benchmark and tried to establish a multi-biomarker approach to heart failure (HF) in hypertensive patients. In 120 hypertensive patients with or without overt heart failure, the incremental predictive value of the following biomarkers was investigated: Collagen III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP), cystatin C (CysC), lipocalin-2/NGAL, syndecan-4, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin 1 receptor type I (IL1R1), galectin-3, cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The highest discriminative value for HF was observed for NT-proBNP (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC)=0.873) and TGF-? (AUC=0.878). On the basis of ROC curve analysis we found that CT-1>152 pg/mL, TGF-?<7.7 ng/mL, syndecan>2.3 ng/mL, NT-proBNP>332.5 pg/mL, CysC>1 mg/L and NGAL>39.9 ng/mL were significant predictors of overt HF. There was only a small improvement in predictive ability of the multi-biomarker panel including the four biomarkers with the best performance in the detection of HF-NT-proBNP, TGF-?, CT-1, CysC-compared to the panel with NT-proBNP, TGF-? and CT-1 only. Biomarkers with different pathophysiological backgrounds (NT-proBNP, TGF-?, CT-1, CysC) give additive prognostic value for incident HF in hypertensive patients compared to NT-proBNP alone. PMID:25984599

  19. A reappraisal of loop diuretic choice in heart failure patients

    PubMed Central

    Buggey, Jonathan; Mentz, Robert J.; Pitt, Bertram; Eisenstein, Eric L.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Velazquez, Eric J.; O’Connor, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The health and economic burden of heart failure is significant, and continues to grow each year. Loop diuretics are an integral part of symptom management in heart failure. Furosemide is used disproportionately compared to other loop diuretics and there is currently no guidance for physicians regarding which agent to choose. However, there exist pharmacologic differences as well as other mechanistic differences that appear to favor torsemide use over furosemide. Compared to furosemide, torsemide improves surrogate markers of heart failure severity such as left ventricular function, plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels, and New York Heart Association functional class and may also reduce hospitalizations, readmissions, and mortality. Data suggest these benefits could be mediated through torsemide’s ability to positively affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Specifically, torsemide has been shown to inhibit aldosterone secretion, synthesis, and receptor binding in vitro, as well as decrease transcardiac extraction of aldosterone, myocardial collagen production and cardiac fibrosis in patients with heart failure. We identified pertinent literature using keyword MEDLINE searches and cross-referencing prior bibliographies. We summarize the available data suggesting potential benefits with torsemide over furosemide, and call attention to the need for a reappraisal of diuretic use in heart failure patients and also for a well powered, randomized control trial assessing torsemide versus furosemide use. PMID:25728721

  20. Pacemaker-Induced Transient Asynchrony Suppresses Heart Failure Progression

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Jonathan A.; Chakir, Khalid; Lee, Kyoung Hwan; Karst, Edward; Holewinski, Ronald J.; Pironti, Gianluigi; Tunin, Richard S.; Pozios, Iraklis; Abraham, Theodore P.; de Tombe, Pieter; Rockman, Howard A.; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Craig, Roger; Farazi, Taraneh G.; Kass, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Uncoordinated contraction from electromechanical delay worsens heart failure pathophysiology and prognosis, but restoring coordination with bi-ventricular pacing, known as cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves both. Not every patient, however, qualifies for CRT. Here we show that heart failure with synchronous contraction is improved by inducing dyssynchrony for 6 hours daily by right-ventricular pacing using an intracardiac pacing device, in a process we call pacemaker-induced transient asynchrony (PITA). In dogs with heart failure induced by 6 weeks of atrial tachypacing, PITA (starting on week 3) suppressed progressive cardiac dilation as well as chamber and myocyte dysfunction. PITA enhanced β-adrenergic responsiveness in vivo and normalized it in myocytes. Myofilament calcium response declined in dogs with synchronous heart failure, which was accompanied by sarcomere disarray and generation of myofibers with severely reduced function, and these changes were absent in PITA-treated hearts. The benefits of PITA were not replicated when the same number of RV-paced beats was randomly distributed throughout the day, indicating that continuity of dyssynchrony exposure is necessary to trigger the beneficial biological response upon resynchronization. These results suggest PITA could bring the benefits of CRT to the many heart failure patients with synchronous contraction that are not CRT candidates. PMID:26702095

  1. The role of BNP testing in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Doust, Jenny; Lehman, Richard; Glasziou, Paul

    2006-12-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels are simple and objective measures of cardiac function. These measurements can be used to diagnose heart failure, including diastolic dysfunction, and using them has been shown to save money in the emergency department setting. The high negative predictive value of BNP tests is particularly helpful for ruling out heart failure. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, spironolactone, and diuretics reduces BNP levels, suggesting that BNP testing may have a role in monitoring patients with heart failure. However, patients with treated chronic stable heart failure may have levels in the normal range (i.e., BNP less than 100 pg per mL and N-terminal proBNP less than 125 pg per mL in patients younger than 75 years). Increases in BNP levels may be caused by intrinsic cardiac dysfunction or may be secondary to other causes such as pulmonary or renal diseases (e.g., chronic hypoxia). BNP tests are correlated with other measures of cardiac status such as New York Heart Association classification. BNP level is a strong predictor of risk of death and cardiovascular events in patients previously diagnosed with heart failure or cardiac dysfunction. PMID:17168346

  2. Pacemaker-induced transient asynchrony suppresses heart failure progression.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Jonathan A; Chakir, Khalid; Lee, Kyoung Hwan; Karst, Edward; Holewinski, Ronald J; Pironti, Gianluigi; Tunin, Richard S; Pozios, Iraklis; Abraham, Theodore P; de Tombe, Pieter; Rockman, Howard A; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Craig, Roger; Farazi, Taraneh G; Kass, David A

    2015-12-23

    Uncoordinated contraction from electromechanical delay worsens heart failure pathophysiology and prognosis, but restoring coordination with biventricular pacing, known as cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), improves both. However, not every patient qualifies for CRT. We show that heart failure with synchronous contraction is improved by inducing dyssynchrony for 6 hours daily by right ventricular pacing using an intracardiac pacing device, in a process we call pacemaker-induced transient asynchrony (PITA). In dogs with heart failure induced by 6 weeks of atrial tachypacing, PITA (starting on week 3) suppressed progressive cardiac dilation as well as chamber and myocyte dysfunction. PITA enhanced β-adrenergic responsiveness in vivo and normalized it in myocytes. Myofilament calcium response declined in dogs with synchronous heart failure, which was accompanied by sarcomere disarray and generation of myofibers with severely reduced function, and these changes were absent in PITA-treated hearts. The benefits of PITA were not replicated when the same number of right ventricular paced beats was randomly distributed throughout the day, indicating that continuity of dyssynchrony exposure is necessary to trigger the beneficial biological response upon resynchronization. These results suggest that PITA could bring the benefits of CRT to the many heart failure patients with synchronous contraction who are not CRT candidates. PMID:26702095

  3. Effect of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) on heart failure development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Hou, Lei; Xu, Dachun; Chen, Angela; Yang, Liuqing; Zhuang, Yan; Xu, Yawei; Fassett, John T; Chen, Yingjie

    2016-04-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases that limits nitric oxide bioavailability and can increase production of NOS derived reactive oxidative species. Increased plasma ADMA is a one of the strongest predictors of mortality in patients who have had a myocardial infarction or suffer from chronic left heart failure, and is also an independent risk factor for several other conditions that contribute to heart failure development, including hypertension, coronary artery disease/atherosclerosis, diabetes, and renal dysfunction. The enzyme responsible for ADMA degradation is dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH1). DDAH1 plays an important role in maintaining nitric oxide bioavailability and preserving cardiovascular function in the failing heart. Here, we examine mechanisms of abnormal NO production in heart failure, with particular focus on the role of ADMA and DDAH1. PMID:26923818

  4. Ivabradine in Management of Heart Failure: a Critical Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Orasanu, Gabriela; Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Oliveira, Guilherme H

    2016-02-01

    Elevated resting heart rate has been linked to poor outcomes in patients with chronic systolic heart failure. Blockade of funny current channel with ivabradine reduces heart rate without inotropic effects. Ivabradine was recently approved by US Food and Drug Administration for patients with stable, symptomatic chronic heart failure (HF) with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35 %, who are in sinus rhythm with resting heart rate (HR) ≥ 70 bpm and either are on maximally tolerated doses of beta-blockers, or have a contraindication to beta-blockers. This article will review and evaluate the data supporting the use of ivabradine in patients with HF and explore its mechanisms and physiologic effects. PMID:26797824

  5. New Insights in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Agnetti, Giulio; Piepoli, Massimo F.; Siniscalchi, Giuseppe; Nicolini, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the US and in westernized countries with ischemic heart disease accounting for the majority of these deaths. Paradoxically, the improvements in the medical and surgical treatments of acute coronary syndrome are leading to an increasing number of “survivors” who are then developing heart failure. Despite considerable advances in its management, the gold standard for the treatment of end-stage heart failure patients remains heart transplantation. Nevertheless, this procedure can be offered only to a small percentage of patients who could benefit from a new heart due to the limited availability of donor organs. The aim of this review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of innovative approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of patients refractory to standard medical therapy and excluded from cardiac transplantation lists. PMID:26634204

  6. Healing the orphaned heart: heart failure in a patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Balderia, Percy Guanzon; Wongrakpanich, Supakanya; Patel, Monil; Stanek, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    Patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency are not represented in clinical trials for heart failure. Moreover, many of the recommended medications can cause haemolysis in this group of patients. We present the case of a 71-year-old woman with G6PD deficiency admitted for acute non-ischemic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Our experience showed that a combination of ethacrynic acid and spironolactone is safe and effective for relief of volume overload in this group of patients. Studies are needed to determine whether the morbidity and mortality benefits of established heart failure regimens extend to patients with G6PD deficiency. PMID:25743872

  7. FDA: 2 Diabetes Drugs May Be Linked to Heart Failure Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... FDA: 2 Diabetes Drugs May Be Linked to Heart Failure Risk Warning pertains to drugs containing saxagliptin or ... saxagliptin and alogliptin may raise the risk of heart failure, particularly in patients with heart or kidney disease, ...

  8. Needs of caregivers in heart failure management: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Julia; Britten, Nicky; Jolly, Kate; Greaves, Colin; Abraham, Charles; Dalal, Hayes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify the needs of caregivers supporting a person with heart failure and to inform the development of a caregiver resource to be used as part of a home-based self-management programme. Methods A qualitative study informed by thematic analysis involving 26 caregivers in individual interviews or a focus group. Results Three distinct aspects of caregiver support in heart failure management were identified. Firstly, caregivers identified needs about supporting management of heart failure including: coping with the variability of heart failure symptoms, what to do in an emergency, understanding and managing medicines, providing emotional support, promoting exercise and physical activity, providing personal care, living with a cardiac device and supporting depression management. Secondly, as they make the transition to becoming a caregiver, they need to develop skills to undertake difficult discussions about the role; communicate with health professionals; manage their own mental health, well-being and sleep; and manage home and work. Thirdly, caregivers require skills to engage social support, and voluntary and formal services while recognising that the long-term future is uncertain. Discussion The identification of the needs of caregiver has been used to inform the development of a home-based heart failure intervention facilitated by a trained health care practitioner. PMID:25795144

  9. Beta-adrenergic blocker mortality trials in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Teerlink, J R; Massie, B M

    1999-11-01

    Many of the current discussions of beta-adrenergic blocker therapy in patients with congestive heart failure have used fairy tales to describe the evolution of this treatment from contraindication to standard of care. This article reviews the early studies that initiated this revolution in heart failure therapy and discusses the major mortality trials that have demonstrated that these agents improve survival and limit the progression of congestive heart failure. These major trials have used 1 of 4 beta blockers (metoprolol, bisoprolol, carvedilol, or bucindolol) in varying study designs with different patient populations. Each trial had different objectives and limitations, and these are described in the context of their impact on proving a survival benefit. In addition, the specific effect of beta-blocker therapy on sudden death in patients with heart failure is briefly discussed. The weight of these trials suggests that beta-adrenergic blocker therapy can save 1 life of every 35 patients treated in patients with mild-to-moderate heart failure. The data are compelling and the techniques for "starting low and going slow" with titrations have been well documented. PMID:10568667

  10. Iron deficiency: an emerging therapeutic target in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Solal, Alain; Leclercq, Christophe; Deray, Gilbert; Lasocki, Sigismond; Zambrowski, Jean-Jacques; Mebazaa, Alexandre; de Groote, Pascal; Damy, Thibaud; Galinier, Michel

    2014-09-15

    In patients with heart failure, iron deficiency is frequent but overlooked, with a prevalence of 30%-50%. Since it contributes to cardiac and peripheral muscle dysfunction, iron deficiency is associated with poorer clinical outcomes and a greater risk of death, independent of haemoglobin level. Therefore, iron deficiency emerges as a new comorbidity and a therapeutic target of chronic heart failure in addition to chronic renal insufficiency, anaemia and diabetes. In a series of placebo-controlled, randomised studies in patients with heart failure and iron deficiency, intravenous iron had a favourable effect on exercise capacity, functional class, LVEF, renal function and quality of life. These clinical studies were performed in the context of a renewed interest in iron metabolism. During the past 10 years, knowledge about the transport, storage and homeostasis of iron has improved dramatically, and new molecules involved in iron metabolism have been described (eg, hepcidin, ferroportin, divalent metal transporter 1). Recent European guidelines recommend the monitoring of iron parameters (ie, serum ferritin, transferrin saturation) for all patients with heart failure. Ongoing clinical trials will explore the benefits of iron deficiency correction on various heart failure parameters. PMID:24957529

  11. Loop diuretic therapy, thiamine balance, and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sica, Domenic A

    2007-01-01

    Thiamine, or vitamin B1, is a water-soluble B complex vitamin that was first discovered in 1910 in the process of exploring how rice bran cured patients of beriberi. Thiamine is not synthesized in humans, therefore its availability for necessary cellular processes hinges on its continual ingestion. The amount of thiamine one needs to ingest to maintain balance is disease state-dependent or medication-dependent. Severe chronic thiamine deficiency can have significant neurologic and cardiac effects, the latter is reflected in a particular type of heart failure called wet beriberi. This form of heart failure clearly benefits from thiamine supplementation. It is unclear, however, whether thiamine supplementation offers any benefit in other forms of heart failure. Despite this, it is not unreasonable for heart failure patients to routinely ingest a thiamine-containing multivitamin; patients using diuretics have an increased urinary excretion of thiamine and thus are at a higher risk for developing thiamine deficiency. The role of thiamine in heart failure, however, remains arguable. PMID:17673878

  12. A critical review on telemonitoring in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gurné, Olivier; Conraads, Viviane; Missault, Luc; Mullens, Wilfried; Vachierys, Jean-Luc; Van Mieghem, Walter; Droogne, Walter; Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; Troisfontaine, Pierre; Huez, Sandrine; Nellessens, Eric; Peperstraete, Beatrice; Blouardo, Philippe; Vanhaecke, Johan; Raes, David

    2012-08-01

    Morbidity and mortality remain high in heart failure despite considerable progress achieved with medical therapy and electrical devices. A multidisciplinary approach is actually strongly recommended. In order to provide optimal care to the ever-growing population of patients with heart failure, telemonitoring has been proposed as a modality to improve usual care. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the existing evidence on telemonitoring in HF. Despite two major meta-analyses with favourable results, two recent, large, multicentre, randomized controlled trials, one with a sophisticated technical remote telemonitoring approach (TIM-HF) in stable chronic HF and the other with a comprehensive telephone-based interactive voice-response monitoring (Tele-HF) in patients recently hospitalized for heart failure, have been performed and both failed to demonstrate a clinical benefit for telemonitoring. Newer technologies or other modalities, such as collaboration between a general practitioner and a heart failure clinic facilitated by telemonitoring should be further evaluated. Dedicated telemonitoring for heart failure may be a practical adjunct in selective centres and patients, on top of usual care, including education and a multidisciplinary approach. However, prior to being accepted as a standard of care, more evidence from large, randomized clinical trials is required. PMID:22997998

  13. Telehealth on heart failure: results of the Recap project.

    PubMed

    Varon, Carolina; Alao, Morenikeji; Minter, Jan; Stapleton, Michelle; Thomson, Stuart; Jaecques, Siegfried; Rocca, Hans-Peter Bl; Huffel, Sabine V

    2015-09-01

    Telehealth has become a very important tool that allows the monitoring of heart failure patients in a home environment. However, little is known about the effect that such monitoring systems have on patients' compliance, evolution and self-care behaviour. In particular, the effect that the selected user interface has on these factors is unknown. This study aims to investigate this, and to determine some practicalities that must be considered when designing and implementing a telehealth programme for heart failure. To achieve this, daily measurements of blood pressure, pulse, SpO2 and weight were collected from 534 patients suffering from heart failure. In addition, they were asked to fill in the European heart failure self-care behaviour scale questionnaire and the EQ-5D quality of life questionnaire, before and after the monitoring period. Two telehealth systems were used, the Motiva platform provided by Philips and the standalone unit provided by Docobo, the Doc@Home system. Significant differences were found between both systems concerning the compliance and adherence of patients. Moreover, a general, positive effect of telehealth was identified due to the fact that patients showed an increased self-awareness when managing their condition. These findings are supported by behavioural changes and a better understanding of heart failure from the patients' perspective. PMID:25962654

  14. Use of Inotropic Agents in Treatment of Systolic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Sohaib; Aronow, Wilbert S.

    2015-01-01

    The most common use of inotropes is among hospitalized patients with acute decompensated heart failure, with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and with signs of end-organ dysfunction in the setting of a low cardiac output. Inotropes can be used in patients with severe systolic heart failure awaiting heart transplant to maintain hemodynamic stability or as a bridge to decision. In cases where patients are unable to be weaned off inotropes, these agents can be used until a definite or escalated supportive therapy is planned, which can include coronary revascularization or mechanical circulatory support (intra-aortic balloon pump, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, impella, left ventricular assist device, etc.). Use of inotropic drugs is associated with risks and adverse events. This review will discuss the use of the inotropes digoxin, dopamine, dobutamine, norepinephrine, milrinone, levosimendan, and omecamtiv mecarbil. Long-term inotropic therapy should be offered in selected patients. A detailed conversation with the patient and family shall be held, including a discussion on the risks and benefits of use of inotropes. Chronic heart failure patients awaiting heart transplants are candidates for intravenous inotropic support until the donor heart becomes available. This helps to maintain hemodynamic stability and keep the fluid status and pulmonary pressures optimized prior to the surgery. On the other hand, in patients with severe heart failure who are not candidates for advanced heart failure therapies, such as transplant and mechanical circulatory support, inotropic agents can be used for palliative therapy. Inotropes can help reduce frequency of hospitalizations and improve symptoms in these patients. PMID:26690127

  15. Ivabradine, coronary artery disease, and heart failure: beyond rhythm control.

    PubMed

    Scicchitano, Pietro; Cortese, Francesca; Ricci, Gabriella; Carbonara, Santa; Moncelli, Michele; Iacoviello, Massimo; Cecere, Annagrazia; Gesualdo, Michele; Zito, Annapaola; Caldarola, Pasquale; Scrutinio, Domenico; Lagioia, Rocco; Riccioni, Graziano; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Elevated heart rate could negatively influence cardiovascular risk in the general population. It can induce and promote the atherosclerotic process by means of several mechanisms involving endothelial shear stress and biochemical activities. Furthermore, elevated heart rate can directly increase heart ischemic conditions because of its skill in unbalancing demand/supply of oxygen and decreasing the diastolic period. Thus, many pharmacological treatments have been proposed in order to reduce heart rate and ameliorate the cardiovascular risk profile of individuals, especially those suffering from coronary artery diseases (CAD) and chronic heart failure (CHF). Ivabradine is the first pure heart rate reductive drug approved and currently used in humans, created in order to selectively reduce sinus node function and to overcome the many side effects of similar pharmacological tools (ie, β-blockers or calcium channel antagonists). The aim of our review is to evaluate the role and the safety of this molecule on CAD and CHF therapeutic strategies. PMID:24940047

  16. Digoxin remains useful in the management of chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Dec, G William

    2003-03-01

    Despite the introduction of a variety of new classes of drugs for the management of heart failure, digoxin continues to have an important role in long-term outpatient management. A wide variety of placebo-controlled clinical trials have unequivocally shown that treatment with digoxin can improve symptoms, quality of life, and exercise tolerance in patients with mild, moderate, or severe heart failure. These benefits are evident regardless of the underlying rhythm (normal sinus rhythm or atrial fibrillation), etiology of the heart failure, or concomitant therapy (eg. ACE inhibitors). Unlike other agents with positive inotropic properties, digoxin does not increase all-cause mortality and has a substantial benefit in reducing heart failure hospitalizations. Consensus guidelines have recently been published by the Heart Failure Society of America and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, and they contain the following recommendations for digoxin treatment: 1. Digoxin should be considered for the outpatient treatment of all patients who have persistent symptoms of heart failure (NYHA class II-IV) despite conventional pharmacologic therapy with diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and a beta-blocker when the heart failure is caused by systolic dysfunction (the strength of evidence = A for NYHA class II and III; strength of evidence = C for NYHA class IV). 2. Digoxin is not indicated as primary treatment for the stabilization of patients with acutely decompensated heart failure. (Strength of evidence = B). Digoxin may be initiated after emergent treatment of heart failure has been completed in an effort to establish a long-term treatment strategy. 3. Digoxin should not be administered to patients who have significant sinus or atrioventricular block, unless the block has been treated with a permanent pacemaker (strength of evidence = B). The drug should be used cautiously in patients who receive other agents known to depress sinus or atrioventricular nodal function (such as amiodarone or a beta-blocker) (strength of evidence = B). 4. The dosage of digoxin should be 0.125-0.25 mg daily in the majority of patients (strength of evidence = C). The lower dose should be used in patients over 70 years of age, those with impaired renal function, or those with a low lean body mass. Higher doses (eg, digoxin 0.375-0.50 mg daily) are rarely needed. Loading doses of digoxin are not necessary during initiation of therapy for patients with chronic heart failure. 5. Serial assessment of serum digoxin levels is unnecessary in most patients. The radioimmunoassay was developed to assist in the evaluation of toxicity, not the efficacy of the drug. There appears to be little relationship between serum digoxin concentration and the drug's therapeutic effects. 6. Digoxin toxicity is commonly associated with serum levels >2 ng/mL but may occur with lower digoxin levels if hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, or hypothyroidism coexist. Likewise, the concomitant use of agents such as quinidine, verapamil, spironolactone, flecainide, and amiodarone can increase serum digoxin levels and increase the likelihood of digoxin toxicity. 7. For patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response, the administration of high doses of digoxin (>0.25 mg daily) for the purpose of rate control is not recommended. When necessary, additional rate control should be achieved by the addition of beta-blocker therapy or amiodarone (strength of evidence = C). If amiodarone is added, the dose of digoxin should be reduced. Digitalis preparations are now entering their fourth century of clinical use for the treatment of chronic heart failure symptoms. Its clinical efficacy can no longer be doubted and its safety has been verified by the multicenter DIG trial. Future advances in pharmacogenetics should facilitate identification of those patients most likely to benefit from its pharmacologic effects. PMID:12693728

  17. Vasodilator treatment for acute and chronic heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, K; Parmley, W W

    1977-01-01

    The current status of the use of vasodilator drugs in the treatment of acute and chronic heart failure has been reviewed. It is apparent that vasodilator treatment can be used effectively in some patients with heart failure with a beneficial haemodynamics response, and that vasodilator agents are likely to find an important place in the management of such patients. Vasodilator treatment may be associated with complications and must be used with care. Though several nonparenteral vasodilator agents have been investigated, no ideal drug is yet available for the treatment of chronic heart failure. Nevertheless, it is probable that suitable drugs will emerge and find an important place in the management of such patients. Images PMID:884021

  18. Biomarkers as surrogate end points in heart failure trials.

    PubMed

    Felker, G Michael

    2011-10-01

    Despite the continued growth of heart failure as a major public health problem, the development of new therapies for heart failure has slowed and recent studies have been neutral, suggesting the need for a reappraisal of the clinical research enterprise. Surrogate end points, defined as measurements that are used as substitutes for the more clinically meaningful end points, can play a valuable role in clinical trials by accelerating the timeline for determining appropriate dosages, efficacy, and safety. Biomarkers, such as the natriuretic peptides, have many of the characteristics of valid surrogates but have not been sufficiently validated for widespread use. Ongoing research into the role of biomarkers as surrogates may lead to better clinical trial design and more efficient development of new therapies for heart failure. PMID:21925433

  19. Beta-adrenergic blockers for chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Javed, Usman; Deedwania, Prakash C

    2009-01-01

    Systolic dysfunction and heart failure are major public health problems associated with a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. During the past 2 decades, considerable progress has been made in defining the underlying pathophysiology and the appropriate therapies in heart failure. In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), sustained sympathetic overactivation leads to down-regulation of beta receptors and uncoupling of the receptors from adenylate cyclase. The clear understanding of the pivotal role of sympathetic overactivation in CHF has led to the evaluation of beta- blocker therapy in CHF. A number of large randomized clinical trials have been conducted with a variety of beta-blockers, and although most of them have shown benefit, there have been differing findings with different molecules. beta-blockers are now considered part of the standard therapy for all patients with symptomatic CHF. Despite the strong evidence supporting their use, beta-blockers continue to be underutilized in CHF. PMID:19829179

  20. Subclinical Myocardial Disease in Heart Failure Detected by CMR

    PubMed Central

    Ohyama, Yoshiaki; Volpe, Gustavo J.

    2014-01-01

    Noninvasive cardiac imaging plays a central role in the assessment of patients with heart failure at all stages of disease. Moreover, this role can be even more important for individuals with asymptomatic cardiac functional or structural abnormalities—subclinical myocardial disease — because they could have benefits from early interventions before the onset of clinical heart failure. In this sense, cardiac magnetic resonance offers not only precise global cardiac function and cardiac structure, but also more detailed regional function and tissue characterization by recent developing methods. In this section, some of the main methods available for subclinical myocardial disease detection are reviewed in terms of what they can provide and how they can improve heart failure assessment. PMID:25132911

  1. SUBSTANCE P IN HEART FAILURE: THE GOOD AND THE BAD

    PubMed Central

    Dehlin, Heather M.; Levick, Scott P.

    2015-01-01

    The tachykinin, substance P, is found primarily in sensory nerves. In the heart, substance P-containing nerve fibers are often found surrounding coronary vessels, making them ideally situated to sense changes in the myocardial environment. Recent studies in rodents have identified substance P as having dual roles in the heart, depending on disease etiology and/or timing. Thus far, these studies indicate that substance P may be protective acutely following ischemia-reperfusion, but damaging long-term in non-ischemic induced remodeling and heart failure. Sensory nerves may be at the apex of the cascade of events leading to heart failure, therefore, they make a promising potential therapeutic target that warrants increased investigation. PMID:24286592

  2. Chronic heart failure: Ca(2+), catabolism, and catastrophic cell death.

    PubMed

    Cho, Geoffrey W; Altamirano, Francisco; Hill, Joseph A

    2016-04-01

    Robust successes have been achieved in recent years in conquering the acutely lethal manifestations of heart disease. Many patients who previously would have died now survive to enjoy happy and productive lives. Nevertheless, the devastating impact of heart disease continues unabated, as the spectrum of disease has evolved with new manifestations. In light of this ever-evolving challenge, insights that culminate in novel therapeutic targets are urgently needed. Here, we review fundamental mechanisms of heart failure, both with reduced (HFrEF) and preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction. We discuss pathways that regulate cardiomyocyte remodeling and turnover, focusing on Ca(2+) signaling, autophagy, and apoptosis. In particular, we highlight recent insights pointing to novel connections among these events. We also explore mechanisms whereby potential therapeutic approaches targeting these processes may improve morbidity and mortality in the devastating syndrome of heart failure. PMID:26775029

  3. Nitric Oxide Synthases in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Carnicer, Ricardo; Crabtree, Mark J.; Sivakumaran, Vidhya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The regulation of myocardial function by constitutive nitric oxide synthases (NOS) is important for the maintenance of myocardial Ca2+ homeostasis, relaxation and distensibility, and protection from arrhythmia and abnormal stress stimuli. However, sustained insults such as diabetes, hypertension, hemodynamic overload, and atrial fibrillation lead to dysfunctional NOS activity with superoxide produced instead of NO and worse pathophysiology. Recent Advances: Major strides in understanding the role of normal and abnormal constitutive NOS in the heart have revealed molecular targets by which NO modulates myocyte function and morphology, the role and nature of post-translational modifications of NOS, and factors controlling nitroso-redox balance. Localized and differential signaling from NOS1 (neuronal) versus NOS3 (endothelial) isoforms are being identified, as are methods to restore NOS function in heart disease. Critical Issues: Abnormal NOS signaling plays a key role in many cardiac disorders, while targeted modulation may potentially reverse this pathogenic source of oxidative stress. Future Directions: Improvements in the clinical translation of potent modulators of NOS function/dysfunction may ultimately provide a powerful new treatment for many hearts diseases that are fueled by nitroso-redox imbalance. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1078–1099. PMID:22871241

  4. Left ventricular noncompaction: a new form of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Towbin, Jeffrey A

    2010-10-01

    In this article the newly classified cardiomyopathy known as left ventricular noncompaction is discussed. This genetic inherited form of heart disease has substantial risk of heart failure, stroke, metabolic derangement, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. The disorder seems to occur because of an arrest of the normal process of development, and the genes identified to date seem to encode for cytoskeletal or sarcomeric proteins. These features are outlined. PMID:20869646

  5. Gene Transfer for Ischemic Heart Failure in a Preclinical Model

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Kiyotake; Ladage, Dennis; Tilemann, Lisa; Fish, Kenneth; Kawase, Yoshiaki; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2011-01-01

    Various emerging technologies are being developed for patients with heart failure. Well-established preclinical evaluations are necessary to determine their efficacy and safety. Gene therapy using viral vectors is one of the most promising approaches for treating cardiac diseases. Viral delivery of various different genes by changing the carrier gene has immeasurable therapeutic potential. In this video, the full process of an animal model of heart failure creation followed by gene transfer is presented using a swine model. First, myocardial infarction is created by occluding the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. Heart remodeling results in chronic heart failure. Unique to our model is a fairly large scar which truly reflects patients with severe heart failure who require aggressive therapy for positive outcomes. After myocardial infarct creation and development of scar tissue, an intracoronary injection of virus is demonstrated with simultaneous nitroglycerine infusion. Our injection method provides simple and efficient gene transfer with enhanced gene expression. This combination of a myocardial infarct swine model with intracoronary virus delivery has proven to be a consistent and reproducible methodology, which helps not only to test the effect of individual gene, but also compare the efficacy of many genes as therapeutic candidates. PMID:21633324

  6. The cardiac enigma: current conundrums in heart failure research

    PubMed Central

    Kapiloff, Michael S.; Emter, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of heart failure is expected to increase almost 50% in the next 15 years because of aging of the general population, an increased frequency of comorbidities, and an improved survival following cardiac events. Conventional treatments for heart failure have remained largely static over the past 20 years, illustrating the pressing need for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents for this patient population. Given the heterogeneous nature of heart failure, it is important to specifically define the cellular mechanisms in the heart that drive the patient’s symptoms, particularly when considering new treatment strategies. This report highlights the latest research efforts, as well as the possible pitfalls, in cardiac disease translational research and discusses future questions and considerations needed to advance the development of new heart failure therapies. In particular, we discuss cardiac remodeling and the translation of animal work to humans and how advancements in our understanding of these concepts relative to disease are central to new discoveries that can improve cardiovascular health. PMID:26918161

  7. Antiarrhythmic effect of converting enzyme inhibitors in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gürlek, A; Erol, C; Basesme, E

    1994-03-01

    In this study 24-h Holter electrocardiographic recordings were used to measure the effects of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril given for 4 weeks, on the frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in 24 patients (14 patients had enalapril, 30 patients had placebo) with congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association Functional Class 3) receiving maintenance therapy with digoxin and furosemide. Although the placebo group had no change in the frequence of arrhythmias, enalapril-treated patients showed significant decrease in the frequency of premature ventricular complexes couplet, bigemine VPS and ventricular tachycardia. Moreover, it was observed that six cases of atrial fibrillation returned to sinus rhythm. During enalapril treatment, some patients experienced increased serum potassium levels, but there was no change in serum digoxin levels. We also observed echocardiographic improvement in left ventricular function as well as clinical symptoms of congestive heart failure. Finally we observed that there was an antiarrhythmic effect of enalapril in congestive heart failure. We thought that the antiarrhythmic effect of enalapril in congestive heart failure was probably due to hemodynamic improvement. PMID:7514156

  8. Renal Denervation in Heart Failure: A New Therapeutic Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Pramesh; Liu, Kan; Kozman, Hani; Carhart, Robert L; Villarreal, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure constitutes a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the United States, and its incidence and prevalence continue to grow, increasing its burden on the health care system. Renal dysfunction in patients with heart failure is common and has been associated with adverse clinical outcomes. This complex interaction is characterized by a pathophysiological disequilibrium between the heart and the kidney, in which cardiac malfunction promotes renal impairment, which in turn feeds back, resulting in further deterioration of cardiovascular function. Multiple neurohumoral and hemodynamic mechanisms are involved in this cardiorenal dyshomeostasis, including resistance to compensatory cardiac natriuretic peptides, leading to sodium retention, volume overload, and organ remodeling. Previous studies in animal models of heart failure have demonstrated that renal denervation promotes a robust natriuresis and diuresis as well as increased response of endogenous and exogenous natriuretic agents. With the recent development of minimally invasive renal denervation in humans, it is possible to suggest that this technique may become effective and important in the management of renal sodium and water metabolism in heart failure. PMID:26157338

  9. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations presenting as refractory heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai-Hong; Huang, Guo-Yong; Song, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A 22-year-old young man with a history of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) was admitted to our hospital due to difficult-to-control heart failure. A thoracic X-ray showed multiple nodules at the both pulmonary hilus and upper lobe of the right lung. Computed tomography (CT) angiography of the thorax confirmed arteriovenous malformation (AVM). However, effective treatment was impossible due to the poor physical condition; he died a few days later. Here we reported on the case of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) being misdiagnosed as refractory heart failure. PMID:25276390

  10. Cognitive profiles in heart failure: a cluster analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lindsay A; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Alosco, Michael L; Cohen, Ronald A; Raz, Naftali; Sweet, Lawrence H; Colbert, Lisa; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common among individuals with heart failure (HF), but the exact nature of these impairments remains unclear. The current study examined 140 older adults with heart failure and sought to determine whether there are distinct cognitive profiles using a cluster analytic approach. Results indicated three unique profiles comprising individuals who were cognitively intact, memory impaired, and globally impaired. Clusters differed on several important demographic and clinical characteristics. These findings suggest that cognitive impairment in persons with HF is more heterogeneous than commonly believed and has important implications for treatment recommendations. PMID:22375800

  11. Nitrates in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Michael F; Safar, Michel E; Nichols, Wilmer W

    2016-04-21

    To the Editor: In their article on the Nitrate's Effect on Activity Tolerance in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (NEAT-HFpEF) trial, Redfield et al. (Dec. 10 issue)(1) show a significant linear relationship between the dose of isosorbide mononitrate and daily physical activity quantified by means of accelerometers. They interpret the findings to indicate an adverse effect of isosorbide mononitrate in patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction. We favor a different view - that the use of isosorbide mononitrate at a dose of up to 120 mg per day caused subtle but disabling symptoms such as headache, . . . PMID:27096586

  12. Nitrates in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Tufan, Fatih; Akpinar, Timur; Karan, M Akif

    2016-04-21

    To the Editor: In their article on the Nitrate's Effect on Activity Tolerance in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (NEAT-HFpEF) trial, Redfield et al. (Dec. 10 issue)(1) show a significant linear relationship between the dose of isosorbide mononitrate and daily physical activity quantified by means of accelerometers. They interpret the findings to indicate an adverse effect of isosorbide mononitrate in patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction. We favor a different view - that the use of isosorbide mononitrate at a dose of up to 120 mg per day caused subtle but disabling symptoms such as headache, . . . PMID:27096587

  13. Nitrates in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Kohzuharov, Nikola; Sabti, Zaid; Mueller, Christian

    2016-04-21

    To the Editor: In their article on the Nitrate's Effect on Activity Tolerance in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (NEAT-HFpEF) trial, Redfield et al. (Dec. 10 issue)(1) show a significant linear relationship between the dose of isosorbide mononitrate and daily physical activity quantified by means of accelerometers. They interpret the findings to indicate an adverse effect of isosorbide mononitrate in patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction. We favor a different view - that the use of isosorbide mononitrate at a dose of up to 120 mg per day caused subtle but disabling symptoms such as headache, . . . PMID:27096588

  14. Nitrates in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    2016-04-21

    To the Editor: In their article on the Nitrate's Effect on Activity Tolerance in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (NEAT-HFpEF) trial, Redfield et al. (Dec. 10 issue)(1) show a significant linear relationship between the dose of isosorbide mononitrate and daily physical activity quantified by means of accelerometers. They interpret the findings to indicate an adverse effect of isosorbide mononitrate in patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction. We favor a different view - that the use of isosorbide mononitrate at a dose of up to 120 mg per day caused subtle but disabling symptoms such as headache, . . . PMID:27096585

  15. Leukocyte behavior in atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Swirski, Filip K.; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases claim more lives worldwide than any other. Etiologically, the dominant trajectory involves atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory process of lipid-rich lesion growth in the vascular wall that can cause life-threatening myocardial infarction (MI). Those who survive MI can develop congestive heart failure, a chronic condition of inadequate pump activity that is frequently fatal. Leukocytes – white blood cells – are important participants at the various stages of cardiovascular disease progression and complication. This review will discuss leukocyte function in atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. PMID:23307733

  16. CARDIOGENIC ACUTE RENAL FAILURE (CARF) FOLLOWING OPEN-HEART SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Barcenas, Camilo G.; Jones, Peter; Solomon, Stuart; Van Reet, Richard; Cooley, Denton A.

    1979-01-01

    Although previous reports have attributed acute renal failure (ARF) following cardiovascular surgery to acute tubular necrosis (ATN), little emphasis has been placed on renal failure due to congestive heart failure (CARF). Of 100 cases of ARF studied prospectively over an 18-month period, 36 occurred after open-heart surgery. Nineteen of these cases were associated with heart failure. The remaining 17 had ATN as manifested by high urinary sodium, low urine/plasma creatinine, and abnormal urinary sediment. At the onset of CARF, intravascular volume expansion was universally present, and oliguria with pulmonary edema was common. Urinary chemistries were (mean SD): sodium (mEq/L) 8 7, U/P creatinine 72 45, and FENa (%) 0.1 0.1. Therapy consisted of digoxin, furosemide (F), vasopressors (V), and, when indicated, intraaortic balloon counterpulsation. Survivors of CARF responded more frequently to F and required less V. Ultimately, survival depended upon improvement in cardiac performance. All oliguric ATN patients failed to respond to F. Mortality for the CARF group was 52%. In contrast, 82% of the oliguric ATN group expired, whereas overall ATN mortality was 60%. Cardiogenic acute renal failure is a frequent cause of ARF after open-heart surgery in our institution. It is characterized by prerenal urinary chemistries, has a high mortality, and may be reversible. PMID:15216306

  17. High-Output Heart Failure Caused by Thyrotoxicosis and Beriberi.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    High-output heart failure is not seen as commonly as low-output heart failure and some of the typical guideline recommendations may not benefit patients with high-output failure. High-output failure is caused by several diseases, including thyrotoxicosis and beriberi, highlighted in this article. Thyrotoxicosis, caused by excessive thyroid hormone production, has profound hemodynamic effects. Wet beriberi, affecting predominately the cardiovascular system, is caused by severe thiamine deficiency, most commonly seen in patients with chronic alcoholism or poor nutrition from other causes. Prompt recognition of these infrequently seen syndromes is essential. This article outlines the medical treatment and nursing care needed to return these patients to a normal state. PMID:26567494

  18. A novel distributed model of the heart under normal and congestive heart failure conditions.

    PubMed

    Ravanshadi, Samin; Jahed, Mehran

    2013-04-01

    Conventional models of cardiovascular system frequently lack required detail and focus primarily on the overall relationship between pressure, flow and volume. This study proposes a localized and regional model of the cardiovascular system. It utilizes noninvasive blood flow and pressure seed data and temporal cardiac muscle regional activity to predict the operation of the heart under normal and congestive heart failure conditions. The analysis considers specific regions of the heart, namely, base, mid and apex of left ventricle. The proposed method of parameter estimation for hydraulic electric analogy model is recursive least squares algorithm. Based on simulation results and comparison to clinical data, effect of congestive heart failure in the heart is quantified. Accumulated results for simulated ejection fraction percentage of the apex, mid and base regions of the left ventricle in congestive heart failure condition were 39 ± 6, 36 ± 9 and 38 ± 8, respectively. These results are shown to satisfactorily match those found through clinical measurements. The proposed analytical method can in effect be utilized as a preclinical and predictive tool for high-risk heart patients and candidates for heart transplant, assistive device and total artificial heart. PMID:23637212

  19. Mortality by Heart Failure and Ischemic Heart Disease in Brazil from 1996 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gaui, Eduardo Nagib; de Oliveira, Gláucia Maria Moraes; Klein, Carlos Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Background Circulatory system diseases are the first cause of death in Brazil. Objective To analyze the evolution of mortality caused by heart failure, by ischemic heart diseases and by ill-defined causes, as well as their possible relations, in Brazil and in the geoeconomic regions of the country (North, Northeast, Center-West, South and Southeast), from 1996 to 2011. Methods Data were obtained from DATASUS and death declaration records with codes I20 and I24 for acute ischemic diseases, I25 for chronic ischemic diseases, and I50 for heart failure, and codes in chapter XIII for ill-defined causes, according to geoeconomic regions of Brazil, from 1996 to 2011. Results Mortality rates due to heart failure declined in Brazil and its regions, except for the North and the Northeast. Mortality rates due to acute ischemic heart diseases increased in the North and Northeast regions, especially from 2005 on; they remained stable in the Center-West region; and decreased in the South and in the Southeast. Mortality due to chronic ischemic heart diseases decreased in Brazil and in the Center-West, South and Southeast regions, and had little variation in the North and in the Northeast. The highest mortality rates due to ill-defined causes occurred in the Northeast until 2005. Conclusions Mortality due to heart failure is decreasing in Brazil and in all of its geoeconomic regions. The temporal evolution of mortality caused by ischemic heart diseases was similar to that of heart failure. The decreasing number of deaths due to ill-defined causes may represent the improvement in the quality of information about mortality in Brazil. The evolution of acute ischemic heart diseases ranged according to regions, being possibly confused with the differential evolution of ill-defined causes. PMID:25004417

  20. Ammonia response to exercise in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, K.; Osaki, S.; Kitamura, H.; Noguchi, N.; Hisatome, I.; Matsumoto, T.; Omodani, H.; Kato, M.; Kinugawa, T.; Miyakoda, H.; Kotake, H.; Mashiba, H.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess energy depletion in skeletal muscle in patients with congestive heart failure by measuring blood purine metabolites during exercise and, at the same time, determine the implications of the ammonia response to exercise in these patients. SETTING: Tottori University Hospital, Yonago, Japan. PATIENTS: 49 heart failure patients (New York Heart Association (NYHA) grades I-III) and 16 normal subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood lactate, ammonia, and hypoxanthine levels were measured during exercise with expired gas analysis. RESULTS: In normal exercising subjects as well as in each heart failure subgroup, the ammonia threshold was significantly higher than both the lactate threshold [control: 21.8 (SD 5.3) v 17.4 (3.3) ml/kg/min; NYHA class I: 18.9 (3.8) v 15.5 (2.6); class II: 14.8 (2.5) v 12.7 (2.4); class III: 13.5 (2.6) v 11.8 (2.5)] and the ventilatory threshold (P < 0.01). The difference between the ammonia and lactate thresholds was noted in all normal subjects and in all heart failure patients. The ammonia threshold, however, was significantly lower in heart failure patients than in normal subjects and it decreased with increasing NYHA class (P < 0.01). Maximum ammonia levels were lower in the heart failure group and decreased further with higher NYHA classifications [control: 198 (52) mg/dl; NYHA class I: 170 (74); class II: 134 (58); class III: 72 (15); P < 0.01]. There were significant correlations between maximum ammonia values and maximum lactate, oxygen consumption, and hypoxanthine levels (r = 0.74, 0.48, and 0.87, respectively; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The ammonia threshold may reflect the onset of ATP depletion in exercising skeletal muscles, as opposed to the onset of anaerobic respiration. It seems therefore that energy depletion in skeletal muscles during exercise occurs after attaining the anaerobic threshold. Both aerobic and anaerobic capacities of skeletal muscle are reduced in patients with congestive heart failure. PMID:8705758

  1. [Assessment of diastolic heart failure. Current role of echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Weidemann, F; Niemann, M; Herrmann, S; Ertl, G; Störk, S

    2013-02-01

    Diastolic heart failure, also known as heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HF-pEF), is responsible for approximately 50 % of all heart failure cases. According to current guidelines the diagnosis HF-pEF requires three criteria: (1) signs or symptoms of heart failure, (2) presence of a normal left ventricular ejection fraction and (3) evidence of diastolic dysfunction. Echocardiography is the diagnostic modality of choice, especially after ruling out other causes of dyspnea, such as pulmonary diseases, heart rhythm disturbances and volume overload. Important echocardiographic parameters for the assessment of diastolic function are atrial dimensions, myocardial mass, mitral inflow pattern, pulmonary vein flow, propagation velocity of mitral inflow and the tissue Doppler of the mitral annulus. Nevertheless, a complete echocardiographic examination should be performed in every patient with heart failure. In general, diastolic dysfunction is frequently associated with increased atrial diameter and left ventricular hypertrophy. In advanced stages pulmonary hypertension can be present. A robust method for evaluation of systolic function in patients with diastolic dysfunction is crucial. The mitral inflow pattern provides various parameters to describe diastolic function (E/A ratio, deceleration time, isovolumetric relaxation time). In case of difficulties to separate a normal from a pseudonormal mitral inflow pattern the Valsalva maneuver can be used. Another valuable parameter for this differentiation is the duration of the backward flow in the pulmonary veins in contrast to forward flow over the mitral valve. Tachycardia or atrial fibrillation is a major problem for grading of diastolic function; however, in patients with atrial fibrillation E/e' is a well-established parameter. In summary, this review provides a detailed overview and discussion of the established and newer echocardiography techniques for the evaluation of diastolic function and provides an algorithm for the assessment of diastolic dysfunction in everyday routine. PMID:23324920

  2. Increased walking variability in elderly persons with congestive heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Forman, D. E.; Ladin, Z.; Goldberger, A. L.; Rigney, D. R.; Wei, J. Y.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of congestive heart failure on a person's ability to walk at a steady pace while ambulating at a self-determined rate. SETTING: Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, a primary and tertiary teaching hospital, and a social activity center for elderly adults living in the community. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven elderly subjects (aged 70-93 years) with well compensated congestive heart failure (NY Heart Association class I or II), seven elderly subjects (aged 70-79 years) without congestive heart failure, and 10 healthy young adult subjects (aged 20-30 years). MEASUREMENTS: Subjects walked for 8 minutes on level ground at their own selected walking rate. Footswitches were used to measure the time between steps. Step rate (steps/minute) and step rate variability were calculated for the entire walking period, for 30 seconds during the first minute of the walk, for 30 seconds during the last minute of the walk, and for the 30-second period when each subject's step rate variability was minimal. Group means and 5% and 95% confidence intervals were computed. MAIN RESULTS: All measures of walking variability were significantly increased in the elderly subjects with congestive heart failure, intermediate in the elderly controls, and lowest in the young subjects. There was no overlap between the three groups using the minimal 30-second variability (elderly CHF vs elderly controls: P < 0.001, elderly controls vs young: P < 0.001), and no overlap between elderly subjects with and without congestive heart failure when using the overall variability. For all four measures, there was no overlap in any of the confidence intervals, and all group means were significantly different (P < 0.05).

  3. Peritoneal ultrafiltration in patients with advanced decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Iadarola, Gian Maria; Lusardi, Paola; La Milia, Vincenzo; Amici, Gianpaolo; Santarelli, Stefano; Virga, Giovambattista; Basile, Carlo; Bertoli, Silvio; Bonofiglio, Renzo; Del Rosso, Goffredo; Feriani, Mariano; Galli, Emilio; Gallieni, Maurizio; Gambaro, Giovanni; Sandrini, Massimo; Sisca, Sergio; Cancarini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the Best Practice guidelines on peritoneal ultrafiltration (UF) in patients with treatment-resistant advanced decompensated heart failure (TR-AHDF) is to achieve a common approach to the management of decompensated heart failure in those situations in which all conventional treatment options have been unsuccessful, and to stimulate a closer cooperation between nephrologists and cardiologists. The standardization of the case series of different centers would allow a better definition of the results published in the literature, without which they are nothing more than anecdotes. TR-AHDF is characterized by the persistence of severe symptoms even when all possible pharmacological and surgical options have been exhausted. These patients are often treated with methods that allow extracorporeal UF - slow continuous ultrafiltration (SCUF) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) - which have to be performed in hospital facilities. Peritoneal ultrafiltration (PUF) can be considered a treatment option in patients with TR-AHDF when, despite the fact that all treatment options have been used, patients meet the following criteria: • stage D decompensated heart failure (ACC/AHA classification); • INTERMACS level 4 decompensated heart failure; • INTERMACS frequent flyer profile; • chronic renal failure (estimated glomerular filtration rate <50 ml/min per 1.73 m2: KDOQI classification stage 3 chronic kidney disease); • no obvious contraindications to peritoneal UF. PUF treatment modes are derived from the treatment regimens proposed by various authors to obtain systemic UF in patients with severe decompensated heart failure, using manual and automated incremental peritoneal dialysis involving various glucose concentrations in addition to the single icodextrin exchange. These guidelines also identify a minimum set of tests and procedures for the follow-up phase, to be supplemented, according to the center's resources and policy, with other tests that are less routine or more complex also from a logistic/organizational standpoint, emphasizing the need for the patient's clinical and treatment program to involve both the nephrologist and the cardiologist. The pathophysiological aspects of a deterioration in kidney function in patients with decompensated heart failure are also considered, and the results of PUF in patients with decompensated heart failure reported in the various case series are reviewed. PMID:24307445

  4. Angiotensin II contributes to arterial compliance in congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lage, Silvia G; Kopel, Liliane; Medeiros, Caio C J; Carvalho, Ricardo T; Creager, Mark A

    2002-10-01

    Arterial compliance is determined by structural factors, such as collagen and elastin, and functional factors, such as vasoactive neurohormones. To determine whether angiotensin II contributes to decreased arterial compliance in patients with heart failure, this study tested the hypothesis that administration of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor improves arterial compliance. Arterial compliance and stiffness were determined by measuring carotid artery diameter, using high-resolution duplex ultrasonography, and blood pressure in 23 patients with heart failure secondary to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Measurements were made before and after intravenous administration of enalaprilat (1 mg) or vehicle. Arterial compliance was inversely related to both baseline plasma angiotensin II (r = -0.52; P = 0.015) and angiotensin-converting enzyme concentrations (r = -0.45; P = 0.041). During isobaric conditions, enalaprilat increased carotid artery compliance from 3.0 +/- 0.4 to 5.0 +/- 0.4 x 10(-10) N(-1). m(4) (P = 0.001) and decreased the carotid artery stiffness index from 17.5 +/- 1.8 to 10.1 +/- 0.6 units (P = 0.001), whereas the vehicle had no effect. Thus angiotensin II is associated with reduced carotid arterial compliance in patients with congestive heart failure, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition improves arterial elastic properties. This favorable effect on the pulsatile component of afterload may contribute to the improvement in left ventricular performance that occurs in patients with heart failure treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. PMID:12234793

  5. Endpoints in stem cell trials in ischemic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Banovic, Marko; Loncar, Zlatibor; Behfar, Atta; Vanderheyden, Marc; Beleslin, Branko; Zeiher, Andreas; Metra, Marco; Terzic, Andre; Bartunek, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Despite multimodal regimens and diverse treatment options alleviating disease symptoms, morbidity and mortality associated with advanced ischemic heart failure remain high. Recently, technological innovation has led to the development of regenerative therapeutic interventions aimed at halting or reversing the vicious cycle of heart failure progression. Driven by the unmet patient need and fueled by encouraging experimental studies, stem cell-based clinical trials have been launched over the past decade. Collectively, these trials have enrolled several thousand patients and demonstrated the clinical feasibility and safety of cell-based interventions. However, the totality of evidence supporting their efficacy in ischemic heart failure remains limited. Experience from the early randomized stem cell clinical trials underscores the key points in trial design ranging from adequate hypothesis formulation to selection of the optimal patient population, cell type and delivery route. Importantly, to translate the unprecedented promise of regenerative biotherapies into clinical benefit, it is crucial to ensure the appropriate choice of endpoints along the regulatory path. Accordingly, we here provide considerations relevant to the choice of endpoints for regenerative clinical trials in the ischemic heart failure setting. PMID:26319401

  6. Anger Proneness, Gender, and the Risk of Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kucharska-Newton, Anna M.; Williams, Janice E.; Chang, Patricia P.; Stearns, Sally C.; Sueta, Carla A.; Blecker, Saul B.; Mosley, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence concerning the association of anger-proneness with incidence of heart failure is lacking. Methods Anger proneness was ascertained among 13,171 black and white participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study cohort using the Spielberger Trait Anger Scale. Incident heart failure events, defined as occurrence of ICD-9-CM code 428.x, were ascertained from participants’ medical records during follow-up 1990–2010. Relative hazard of heart failure across categories of trait anger was estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. Results Study participants (mean age 56.9 (SD 5.7) years) experienced 1,985 incident HF events during 18.5 (SD 4.9) years of follow-up. Incidence of HF was greater among those with high, as compared to those with low or moderate trait anger, with higher incidence observed for men as compared to women. The relative hazard of incident HF was modestly high among those with high trait anger, as compared to those with low or moderate trait anger (age-adjusted HR for men=1.44 (95% CI 1.23, 1.69). Adjustment for comorbidities and depressive symptoms attenuated the estimated age-adjusted relative hazard in men to 1.26 (95% CI 1.00, 1.60). Conclusion Assessment of anger proneness may be necessary in successful prevention and clinical management of heart failure, especially in men. PMID:25284390

  7. [Device therapy of chronic heart failure : Update 2015].

    PubMed

    Israel, C W; Ekosso-Ejangue, L; Sheta, M-K

    2015-12-01

    Cardiac pacemakers, implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) and systems for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) represent an important component of heart failure therapy. Pacemakers only play a role in bradycardia-associated heart failure and require optimal programming to prevent ventricular desynchronization. Primary prophylactic ICD implantation is indicated in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of ??35?%, clinical stages NYHA II-III and a life expectancy >?1 year. The CRT is indicated in patients with a left bundle branch block but only in individual cases for other QRS morphologies of heart failure should always include remote monitoring to detect events early and to implement treatment accordingly. New developments include quadripolar left ventricular leads and pacing from multiple sites simultaneously thus enabling better resynchronization. Stimulation for modulation of cardiac contractility and the autonomous nervous system are currently being clinically tested. The optimal utilization of device therapy improves the course of heart failure and prevents cardiac decompensation and fatalities. PMID:26631395

  8. Benefits of exercise training in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tabet, Jean-Yves; Meurin, Philippe; Driss, Ahmed Ben; Weber, Hélène; Renaud, Nathalie; Grosdemouge, Anne; Beauvais, Florence; Cohen-Solal, Alain

    2009-10-01

    Exercise training performed in cardiac rehabilitation centres is an adjuvant therapy in chronic heart failure patients with left ventricular dysfunction; it decreases the deleterious consequences of chronic heart failure. Exercise training attenuates neurohormonal stimulation, the production of proinflammatory cytokines and natriuretic peptide overexpression. Trained patients showed a significant decrease in the peripheral organ injuries encountered in chronic heart failure, with a reduction in vascular resistance and improvements in endothelial dysfunction and the oxidative capacity of peripheral muscles, without a deleterious effect on left ventricular remodelling. Ultimately, exercise training leads to a notable improvement in ventilatory capacity. These beneficial effects are accompanied by improvements in symptoms at rest, exercise capacity and quality of life. Several training programmes are in current use: exercise training sessions always include endurance exercise performed either at a constant load intensity or with interval training, combining periods of exercise performed at high intensity with periods performed at low intensity. Most of the time, training programmes also include resistance training sessions, which improves large muscle strength. Exercise training programmes seem to have a favourable effect on prognosis, even if the results of Heart Failure: a Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training (HF-ACTION) remain controversial, emphasizing the difficulty in monitoring observance and the importance of compliance with a long-term exercise training programme. Patients who do not improve their exercise capacity significantly after an exercise training programme have a poorer prognosis. PMID:19913773

  9. Acute Right-Sided Heart Failure Caused by Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Taldir, Guillaume; Parize, Perrine; Arvis, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Meningococcal myocarditis is a rarely diagnosed infection and could be the consequence of primary invasive infection or late immunologic complications. An unusual presentation of meningococcemia in an immunocompetent adult is described, with Neisseria meningitidis identified as the cause of selective right-sided heart failure in a case of acute myocarditis. PMID:23115261

  10. Systemic sclerosis: a rare cause of heart failure?

    PubMed

    González-Cambeiro, María Cristina; Abu-Assi, Emad; Abumuaileq, Rami Riziq-Yousef; Raposeiras-Roubín, Sergio; Rigueiro-Veloso, Pedro; Virgós-Lamela, Alejandro; Díaz-Castro, Oscar; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-10-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SS) is a chronic disease in which there may be multisystem involvement. It is rare (estimated prevalence: 0.5-2/10000) with high morbidity and mortality, and there is as yet no curative treatment. We report the case of a young woman newly diagnosed with SS, in whom decompensated heart failure was the main manifestation. PMID:26421376

  11. Teaching Congestive Heart Failure to Doctor of Pharmacy Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes a lecture given to pharmacy students that emphasizes the pathophysiologic mechanisms causing congestive heart failure and the effects of drugs on these mechanisms. The approach shows the importance of drug therapy in this disorder and how this knowledge can improve patient care. An appendix provides a case study. (GLR)

  12. [Use of diuretics in acute decompensated heart failure].

    PubMed

    Akin, I; Ince, H; Rauchhaus, M; Kische, S; Rehders, T C; Wenzel, R R; Nienaber, C A; Chatterjee, T

    2010-06-01

    Patients with acute heart failure usually present with dyspnoe and edema secondary to elevated intracardiac filling pressure resulting from volume overload. Despite significant progress in understanding heart failure, the treatment strategy for acute heart failure did not change in the same way. Diuretics, especially loop diuretics, are the most common therapy used in this setting. Intravenous diuretics act acutely by exerting a modest vasodilatory response and chronically by reducing circulating blood volume. Despite near universal use of diuretics in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure, nearly half of these patients are discharged from hospital without weight loss. This could be due to inadequate diuresis, overdiuresis with subsequent volume replacement and diuretic resistance. Aggressive diuresis carries a significant risk of electrolyte and volume depletion with subsequent arrythmias, hypotension, and worsening renal function. Actually there were scant data available from randomized clinical trials to guide therapeutic choice with diuretics. Thus, the choice and dosing of diuretic therapy must be individualized based on general knowledge of potency and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations. PMID:20533230

  13. Heart failure: New data do not SUPPORT triple RAAS blockade.

    PubMed

    Danser, A H Jan; van den Meiracker, Anton H

    2015-05-01

    The SUPPORT trial evaluated the effect of adding the angiotensin-receptor blocker olmesartan to a combination of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and β-blockers in hypertensive patients with chronic stable heart failure. Unfortunately, this triple renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade was associated with worsening of renal function and increases in cardiac events and mortality. PMID:25802078

  14. Renal failure induces telomere shortening in the rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Wong, L.S.; Windt, W.A.; Roks, A.J.; van Dokkum, R.P.; Schoemaker, R.G.; de Zeeuw, D.; Henning, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Renal failure aggravates pathological cardiac remodelling induced by myocardial infarction (MI). Cardiac remodelling is associated with telomere shortening, a marker for biological ageing. We investigated whether mild and severe renal failure shorten cardiac telomeres and excessively shorten telomeres after MI. Methods Rats were subjected to sham, unilateral (UNX) or 5/6th nephrectomy (5/6NX) to induce none, mild or severe renal failure. MI was induced by left coronary artery ligation. Renal function parameters and blood pressure were measured. DNA was isolated from non-infarcted cardiac tissue. Telomere length was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Proteinuria was unchanged in UNX and MI compared with control, but strongly increased in 5/6NX, UNX+MI and 5/6NX+MI. Serum creatinine levels were increased fourfold in 5/6NX and tenfold in 5/6NX+MI. 5/6NX and groups with both renal failure and MI showed an approximate 20% reduction of telomere length, similar to the MI group. No excess telomere shortening was observed in hearts from rats with renal ablation after MI. Conclusion Severe renal failure, but not mild renal failure, leads to shortening of cardiac telomeres to a similar extent as found after MI. Renal failure did not induce excessive telomere shortening after MI. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:190-4.) PMID:19484154

  15. Patient Characteristics Predicting Readmission Among Individuals Hospitalized for Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Melissa; Murtaugh, Christopher M.; Shah, Shivani; Barrón-Vaya, Yolanda; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Peng, Timothy R.; Zhu, Carolyn W.; Feldman, Penny H.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is difficult to manage and increasingly common with many individuals experiencing frequent hospitalizations. Little is known about patient factors consistently associated with hospital readmission. A literature review was conducted to identify heart failure patient characteristics, measured before discharge, that contribute to variation in hospital readmission rates. Database searches yielded 950 potential articles, of which 34 studies met inclusion criteria. Patient characteristics generally have a very modest effect on all-cause or heart failure–related readmission within 7 to 180 days of index hospital discharge. A range of cardiac diseases and other comorbidities only minimally increase readmission rates. No single patient characteristic stands out as a key contributor across multiple studies underscoring the challenge of developing successful interventions to reduce readmissions. Interventions may need to be general in design with the specific intervention depending on each patient's unique clinical profile. PMID:26180045

  16. Regenerative cell therapy and pharmacotherapeutic intervention in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Qian, C.; Schoemaker, R.G.; van Gilst, W.H.; Yu, B.; Roks, A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Regenerative medicine represents a promising perspective on therapeutic angiogenesis in patients with cardiovascular disease, including heart failure. However, previous or ongoing clinical trials show ambiguous outcomes with respect to the benefit of regenerative therapy by means of bone marrow stem cell infusion in myocardial infarction patients. Therefore, it is necessary to set up a rational therapeutic strategy in the treatment of congestive heart failure. Chemokines, cytokines and growth factors, as well as pharmaceutical agents, may have an impact on endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) physiology and thus can provide targets for pharmacological intervention. Indeed, EPCs and stem cell niches both in bone marrow and myocardial tissue can be treated as an integral target for recruitment of EPCs from the bone marrow to the cardiac ischaemic niche. In this article, we individually place the signalling factors in their specified context, and explain their roles in the various phases of neovascularisation (see Part 1). (Neth Heart J 2008;16:337-43.) PMID:18958257

  17. Statins stimulate atherosclerosis and heart failure: pharmacological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Harumi; Langsjoen, Peter H; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Ogushi, Yoichi; Hama, Rokuro; Kobayashi, Tetsuyuki; Uchino, Hajime

    2015-03-01

    In contrast to the current belief that cholesterol reduction with statins decreases atherosclerosis, we present a perspective that statins may be causative in coronary artery calcification and can function as mitochondrial toxins that impair muscle function in the heart and blood vessels through the depletion of coenzyme Q10 and 'heme A', and thereby ATP generation. Statins inhibit the synthesis of vitamin K2, the cofactor for matrix Gla-protein activation, which in turn protects arteries from calcification. Statins inhibit the biosynthesis of selenium containing proteins, one of which is glutathione peroxidase serving to suppress peroxidative stress. An impairment of selenoprotein biosynthesis may be a factor in congestive heart failure, reminiscent of the dilated cardiomyopathies seen with selenium deficiency. Thus, the epidemic of heart failure and atherosclerosis that plagues the modern world may paradoxically be aggravated by the pervasive use of statin drugs. We propose that current statin treatment guidelines be critically reevaluated. PMID:25655639

  18. Heart failure and carotid body chemoreception.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Harold D; Marcus, Noah J

    2012-01-01

    There is substantial evidence to implicate a role of the carotid body (CB) chemoreflex in sympathetic and breathing dysregulation in several cardio-respiratory diseases, drawing renewed interest in its potential implications for clinical treatment and management. Evidence from both chronic heat failure (CHF) patients and animal models indicates that the CB chemoreflex is enhanced in CHF and contributes to the tonic elevation in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and periodic breathing associated with the disease. Although this maladaptive change likely derives from altered function at all levels of the reflex arc, a change in afferent function of the CB is likely to be a main driving force. This review will focus on recent advances in our understanding of the physiological mechanisms that alter CB function in CHF and their potential translational impact on treatment of CHF. PMID:23080187

  19. Ivabradine for the treatment of chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Henri, Christine; O'Meara, Eileen; De Denus, Simon; Elzir, Lynn; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have underlined the beneficial effects of a lower heart rate on mortality in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. In clinical practice, achieving a heart rate ≤70 bpm with beta-blockers is not always possible. In this context, the more recent guidelines added ivabradine to the management of those patients if heart rate remains ≥70 bpm in sinus rhythm and symptoms persist despite treatment with an evidence-based or maximum tolerated dose of a beta-blocker, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker, and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Ivabradine is a well-tolerated, safe and effective treatment option with the objective to improve prognosis, left ventricular structure and function, exercise tolerance and quality of life. Accordingly, the following article will evaluate the benefits of a combination of the currently recommended pharmacological therapy in chronic heart failure with the selective heart rate reducing agent ivabradine. PMID:26967048

  20. [Diastolic heart failure treated by diet].

    PubMed

    Heilmeyer, Peter; von Bibra, Helene

    2016-01-01

    History and admission findings | An obese patient with type 2 diabetes (on 90 IU insulin daily) and exertional dyspnoea (NYHA II-III) for 3 weeks presented in a rehabilitation clinic hoping to reduce his weight. Clinical and laboratory findings excluded any inflammatory or systemic disease apart from diabetes mellitus. Blood pressure and serum lipid levels were normal. Investigations | An unremarkable ECG stress test and echocardiogram excluded ischemic and hypertensive heart disease and primary cardiomyopathy. Pulsed tissue Doppler revealed diastolic cardiac dysfunction. Unremarkable were also chest X-ray, pulmonary function testing and 24-hour ECG. Treatment and Course | The findings supported the diagnosis of HFpEF and diabetic/insulin resistance cardiomyopathy. Insulin resistance was treated for three weeks by low-carbohydrate nutrition and moderate exercise. At discharge, weight was reduced by 2 kg, exercise capacity and diastolic function were normalized, as were insulin resistance and postprandial glucose levels, whilst antidiabetic therapy was reduced to low-carbohydrate nutrition. Conclusion | HFpEF due to insulin resistance cardiomyopathy is often not recognized, especially in obese individuals, and may be further aggravated by the traditional recommendation of low-fat nutrition. Due to the high reversibility of metabolically dysregulated cardiovascular mechanisms, a causal, i.e. metabolic therapeutic strategy that normalizes insulin resistance by low-carbohydrate nutrition is a promising option. PMID:26800073

  1. Artificial muscle for end-stage heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Piergiorgio; Michalis, Alexandre; Hayoz, Daniel; Locca, Didier; von Segesser, Ludwig K

    2012-01-01

    We describe a device made of artificial muscle for the treatment of end-stage heart failure as an alternative to current heart assist devices. The key component is a matrix of nitinol wires and aramidic fibers called Biometal muscle (BM). When heated electrically, it produces a motorless, smooth, and lifelike motion. The BM is connected to a carbon fiber scaffold, tightening the heart and providing simultaneous assistance to the left and right ventricles. A pacemaker-like microprocessor drives the contraction of the BM. We tested the device in a dedicated bench model of diseased heart. It generated a systolic pressure of 75 mm Hg and ejected a maximum of 330 ml/min, with an ejection fraction of 12%. The device required a power supply of 6 V, 250 mA. This could be the beginning of an era in which BMs integrate or replace the mechanical function of natural muscles. PMID:22370680

  2. BAG3: a new player in the heart failure paradigm.

    PubMed

    Knezevic, Tijana; Myers, Valerie D; Gordon, Jennifer; Tilley, Douglas G; Sharp, Thomas E; Wang, JuFang; Khalili, Kamel; Cheung, Joseph Y; Feldman, Arthur M

    2015-07-01

    BAG3 is a cellular protein that is expressed predominantly in skeletal and cardiac muscle but can also be found in the brain and in the peripheral nervous system. BAG3 functions in the cell include: serving as a co-chaperone with members of the heat-shock protein family of proteins to facilitate the removal of misfolded and degraded proteins, inhibiting apoptosis by interacting with Bcl2 and maintaining the structural integrity of the Z-disk in muscle by binding with CapZ. The importance of BAG3 in the homeostasis of myocytes and its role in the development of heart failure was evidenced by the finding that single allelic mutations in BAG3 were associated with familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, significant decreases in the level of BAG3 have been found in end-stage failing human heart and in animal models of heart failure including mice with heart failure secondary to trans-aortic banding and in pigs after myocardial infarction. Thus, it becomes relevant to understand the cellular biology and molecular regulation of BAG3 expression in order to design new therapies for the treatment of patients with both hereditary and non-hereditary forms of dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:25925243

  3. Troglitazone improves cardiac function in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Kazuhide; Furuse, Yoshiyuki; Uchida, Kazuhiko; Shimoyama, Masaki; Kinugawa, Toru; Osaki, Shuichi; Kato, Masahiko; Endo, Akihiro; Igawa, Osamu; Hisatome, Ichiro; Ikawa, Shiro; Shigemasa, Chiaki

    2002-05-01

    Troglitazone increased cardiac output and stroke volume, as a result of decreased peripheral resistance, in diabetic patients with normal cardiac function. The cardiovascular effects of troglitazone in patients with heart failure are unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of troglitazone in patients with heart failure. Blood pressure and echocardiographic findings were evaluated before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours after a single dose of troglitazone (400 mg) or placebo, in eight type II diabetic patients with congestive heart failure. The plasma catecholamines and coefficient of variance of RR intervals (CVRR) were also measured. Neither heart rate nor blood pressure changed after the administration of troglitazone. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic dimension did not change either, however, the LV end-systolic dimension significantly decreased compared with its baseline value and with that of the placebo group. On the other hand, the % fractional shortening and the E/A ratio increased significantly after troglitazone. The LV end-diastolic volume did not change, whereas the LV end-systolic volume significantly decreased. The stroke volume and the LV ejection fraction significantly increased compared with its baseline value and with that of the placebo group. The peripheral vascular resistance did not change after the administration of troglitazone, whereas plasma catecholamines significantly decreased, and CVRR remained unchanged in both groups. These hemodynamic changes suggest that a single oral dose of troglitazone induced inotropy without activation of the sympathetic nervous system. PMID:12374899

  4. Chronic vagal stimulation in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    De Ferrari, Gaetano M; Sanzo, Antonio; Schwartz, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Increased sympathetic and reduced vagal activity predict increased mortality in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Experimentally, vagal stimulation (VS) is protective both during acute myocardial ischemia and in chronic heart failure. In man, VS is used in refractory epilepsy but has never been used in cardiovascular diseases. Thus, there is a strong rationale to investigate the effects of chronic VS in patients with CHF. We assesses the feasibility and safety of chronic VS with CardioFit (BioControl Medical), a VS implantable system delivering pulses synchronous with heart beats to the right cervical vagus nerve in a preliminary pilot study in eight advanced CHF patients with favorable results, and subsequently in a larger multicenter study. Overall, 32 patients have been successfully implanted (mostly in NYHA Class III; mean age 56 years, ischemic etiology in 69%; prior implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in 63%; concomitant beta blocker and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) in 100%). Preliminary results confirm feasibility of the study, an acceptable side effect profile and promising preliminary efficacy data. Several mechanisms may contribute to the beneficial effect observed in patients with heart failure. Should these results be confirmed in larger controlled studies, chronic vagal stimulation could be a further treatment option for CHF patients, possibly integrated with defibrillator and resynchronization therapies. PMID:19964772

  5. Heart Rate at Hospital Discharge in Patients With Heart Failure Is Associated With Mortality and Rehospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Laskey, Warren K.; Alomari, Ihab; Cox, Margueritte; Schulte, Phillip J.; Zhao, Xin; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Heidenreich, Paul A.; Eapen, Zubin J.; Yancy, Clyde; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Fonarow, Gregg C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Whether heart rate upon discharge following hospitalization for heart failure is associated with long‐term adverse outcomes and whether this association differs between patients with sinus rhythm (SR) and atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been well studied. Methods and Results We conducted a retrospective cohort study from clinical registry data linked to Medicare claims for 46 217 patients participating in Get With The Guidelines®–Heart Failure. Cox proportional‐hazards models were used to estimate the association between discharge heart rate and all‐cause mortality, all‐cause readmission, and the composite outcome of mortality/readmission through 1 year. For SR and AF patients with heart rate ≥75, the association between heart rate and mortality (expressed as hazard ratio [HR] per 10 beats‐per‐minute increment) was significant at 0 to 30 days (SR: HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.39; AF: HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.29) and 31 to 365 days (SR: HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.20; AF: HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08). Similar associations between heart rate and all‐cause readmission and the composite outcome were obtained for SR and AF patients from 0 to 30 days but only in the composite outcome for SR patients over the longer term. The HR from 0 to 30 days exceeded that from 31 to 365 days for both SR and AF patients. At heart rates <75, an association was significant for mortality only for both SR and AF patients. Conclusions Among older patients hospitalized with heart failure, higher discharge heart rate was associated with increased risks of death and rehospitalization, with higher risk in the first 30 days and for SR compared with AF. PMID:25904590

  6. Comparison of partners-heart failure algorithm vs care alert in remote heart failure management

    PubMed Central

    Calo’, Leonardo; Martino, Annamaria; Tota, Claudia; Fagagnini, Alessandro; Iulianella, Renzo; Rebecchi, Marco; Sciarra, Luigi; Giunta, Giuseppe; Romano, Maria Grazia; Colaceci, Roberto; Ciccaglioni, Antonio; Ammirati, Fabrizio; de Ruvo, Ermenegildo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the utility of the partners-heart failure (HF) algorithm with the care alert strategy for remote monitoring, in guiding clinical actions oriented to treat impending HF. METHODS: Consecutive cardiac resynchronization-defibrillator recipients were followed with biweekly automatic transmissions. After every transmission, patients received a phone contact in order to check their health status, eventually followed by clinical actions, classified as “no-action”, “non-active” and “active”. Active clinical actions were oriented to treat impending HF. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and diagnostic accuracy of the partners-HF algorithm vs care alert in determining active clinical actions oriented to treat pre-HF status and to prevent an acute decompensation, were also calculated. RESULTS: The study population included 70 patients with moderate to advanced systolic HF and QRS duration longer than 120 ms. During a mean follow-up of 8 ± 2 mo, 665 transmissions were collected. No deaths or HF hospitalizations occurred. The sensitivity and specificity of the partners-HF algorithm for active clinical actions oriented to treat impending HF were 96.9% (95%CI: 0.96-0.98) and 92.5% (95%CI: 0.90-0.94) respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 84.6% (95%CI: 0.82-0.87) and 98.6% (95%CI: 0.98-0.99) respectively. The partners-HF algorithm had an accuracy of 93.8% (95%CI: 0.92-0.96) in determining active clinical actions. With regard to active clinical actions, care alert had a sensitivity and specificity of 11.05% (95%CI: 0.09-0.13) and 93.6% respectively (95%CI: 0.92-0.95). The positive predictive value was 42.3% (95%CI: 0.38-0.46); the negative predictive value was 71.1% (95%CI: 0.68-0.74). Care alert had an accuracy of 68.9% (95%CI: 0.65-0.72) in determining active clinical actions. CONCLUSION: The partners-HF algorithm proved higher accuracy and sensitivity than care alert in determining active clinical actions oriented to treat impending HF. Future studies in larger populations should evaluate partners-HF ability to improve HF-related clinical outcomes. PMID:26730298

  7. ST2 and patient prognosis in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Zhang, Yuhui; Ky, Bonnie

    2015-04-01

    Biomarkers of cardiovascular diseases are indispensable tools for diagnosis and prognosis, and the use of several biomarkers is now considered the standard of care. New markers continue to be developed, but few prove to be substantially better than established markers. Suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) is a marker of cardiomyocyte stress and fibrosis that provides incremental value to natriuretic peptides for risk stratification of patients with a wide spectrum of cardiovascular diseases. On the basis of all available data, the 2013 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association guidelines now recommend measurement of ST2 for additive risk stratification in patients with acute or chronic ambulatory heart failure (HF). This report provides an up-to-date overview of the clinical studies that led to the endorsement of ST2 as a cardiovascular prognostic marker in chronic HF. The presented data suggest that the addition of ST2 to a model that includes established mortality risk factors, including natriuretic peptides, substantially improves the risk stratification for death and HF hospitalization in patients with HF. ST2's prognostic value remains strong even in the subset of patients with renal insufficiency and is superior to other remodeling-fibrosis biomarkers currently being evaluated. In conclusion, these results have been repeatedly validated; thus, ST2 could be rapidly incorporated into clinical practice for risk prediction. Indeed, the body of evidence supporting the use of ST2 in chronic HF stratification continues to grow, with consistent data from cohorts around the world in single-center (Barcelona, Brussels, and San Diego cohorts) and multicenter (Penn Heart Failure Study [PHFS] and Muerte Subita en Insuficiencia Cardiac [MUSIC]) studies and in post hoc studies from clinical trials (Prospective Randomized Amlodipine Survival Evaluation 2 [PRAISE-2], Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training [HF-ACTION], and Controlled Rosuvastatin Multinational Trial in Heart Failure [CORONA]). PMID:25665758

  8. Bio-Artificial Heart as Ultimate Treatment of End-Stage Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Francis E.; Dohmen, Pascal M.

    2014-01-01

    End-stage heart failure is a major health problem, but implementation of guidelines and optimizing medical therapy for this devastating disease should decrease mortality. If optimal conservative therapy is no longer sufficient, a mechanical support system may be required as final destination therapy or as bridge-to-transplant. Since the first heart transplantation in 1967, this therapy has become the criterion standard for end-stage heart failure, but is limited due to organ shortage. Tissue engineering could help overcome this limitation and provide regeneration, remodeling, and growth potential. This so-called bio-artificial heart would be available, created by a decellularized extracellular matrix and seeded with in vitro proliferated autologous cardiovascular cells. Results of the first experimental studies have been promising, but numerous challenges must be met before this procedure will be available. PMID:25321347

  9. Quality of Life After Bypass Surgery in Patients with Chest Pain and Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bypass Surgery in Patients With Chest Pain and Heart Failure The full report is titled “Quality-of-Life ... in patients who have coronary artery disease plus heart failure, which can cause additional symptoms, such as shortness ...

  10. Drug Does Not Improve Set of Cardiovascular Outcomes for Diastolic Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... not improve set of cardiovascular outcomes for diastolic heart failure NIH-supported study finds drug does appear to reduce hospitalizations for diastolic heart failure. A drug that blocks the action of a ...

  11. Effect of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy on Inflammation in Congestive Heart Failure: A Review.

    PubMed

    Lappegård, K T; Bjørnstad, H; Mollnes, T E; Hovland, A

    2015-09-01

    Congestive heart failure is associated with increased levels of several inflammatory mediators, and animal studies have shown that infusion of a number of cytokines can induce heart failure. However, several drugs with proven efficacy in heart failure have failed to affect inflammatory mediators, and anti-inflammatory therapy in heart failure patients has thus far been disappointing. Hence, to what extent heart failure is caused by or responsible for the increased inflammatory burden in the patient is still unclear. Over the past couple of decades, resynchronization therapy with a biventricular pacemaker has emerged as an effective treatment in a subset of heart failure patients, reducing both morbidity and mortality. Such treatment has also been shown to affect the inflammation associated with heart failure. In this study, we review recent data on the association between heart failure and inflammation, and in particular how resynchronization therapy can affect the inflammatory process. PMID:26099323

  12. Pimobendan and its use in treating canine congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Danielle; Fry, Darren

    2011-11-01

    Pimobendan, a calcium sensitizer and phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, has positive inotropic and vasodilatory properties. Its use in patients with naturally occurring congestive heart failure (CHF) has been studied in a number of blinded, randomized, multicenter clinical trials. It has been shown to improve quality of life, reduce heart insufficiency scores, and increase median survival times for patients with CHF due to dilated cardiomyopathy and myxomatous valvular disease. Although most studies have reported positive findings, some potential adverse effects have also been described. Studies are under way to further evaluate the effects of this novel positive inotrope and vasodilator in canine cardiac disease. PMID:22101450

  13. Novel molecular mechanisms and regeneration therapy for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Oka, Toru; Morita, Hiroyuki; Komuro, Issei

    2016-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. Various molecular mechanisms have been proposed for HF, but its precise mechanisms are still largely unknown. In this review, summarizing the "President's Distinguished Lecture Award" of XX World Congress of International Society for Heart Research 2010 in Kyoto, Japan, we introduce recent our studies on HF, including 1) p53-induced suppression of Hif-1-induced angiogenesis as a novel mechanism of HF, 2) angiogenesis as a potential therapeutic strategy for HF, and 3) IGFBP-4 as a novel factor for cardiomyogenesis by inhibiting canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:26829118

  14. Arrhythmia triggers in heart failure: the smoking gun of [Ca2+]i dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Aistrup, Gary L; Balke, C William; Wasserstrom, J Andrew

    2011-11-01

    Among the most serious problems associated with heart failure is the increased likelihood of life-threatening arrhythmias. Both triggered and reentrant arrhythmias in heart failure may arise as a result of aberrant intracellular Ca cycling. This article presents some new ideas, based on recent studies, about how altered Ca cycling in heart failure might serve as the cellular basis for arrhythmogenesis. PMID:21699870

  15. Lifestyle modification with diet and exercise in obese patients with heart failure - A pilot study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a paucity of data regarding intentional weight loss in obese heart failure patients. This study sought to ascertain the safety and effectiveness of a lifestyle modification program in patients with systolic heart failure and metabolic syndrome. Patients (n=20) with systolic heart failure (e...

  16. Pathways in heart failure disease management across socioeconomic spectra.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Kathy; Gogichaishvili, Ilia; Gopie, Stephanie; Arcement, Lee

    2011-12-01

    Caring for heart failure patients with a low socioeconomic status presents a unique set of challenges for health care providers. Heart failure disease management programs can integrate the use of teaching DVDs to overcome deficiencies in health literacy and take advantage of the Wal-Mart/Target $4 dollar medication program to provide life-saving medical therapy. In addition, open discussions with the patient and family regarding the costs of medications and the reality of what they can afford to pay monthly on a long term basis can guide the physician to prescribing medications by prioritizing use with a focus on evidence-based data for the medications with the highest mortality reduction. Finally, connecting inpatient visits to outpatient visits through the use of electronic medical records systems can facilitate avoidance of unnecessary repeat lab and diagnostic testing. PMID:22089272

  17. [Mitochondrial dynamics: a potential new therapeutic target for heart failure].

    PubMed

    Kuzmicic, Jovan; Del Campo, Andrea; López-Crisosto, Camila; Morales, Pablo E; Pennanen, Christian; Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Hechenleitner, Jonathan; Zepeda, Ramiro; Castro, Pablo F; Verdejo, Hugo E; Parra, Valentina; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio

    2011-10-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles able to vary their morphology between elongated interconnected mitochondrial networks and fragmented disconnected arrays, through events of mitochondrial fusion and fission, respectively. These events allow the transmission of signaling messengers and exchange of metabolites within the cell. They have also been implicated in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, metabolism, apoptosis, and autophagy. Although the majority of these studies have been confined to noncardiac cells, emerging evidence suggests that changes in mitochondrial morphology could participate in cardiac development, the response to ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, and diabetes mellitus. In this article, we review how the mitochondrial dynamics are altered in different cardiac pathologies, with special emphasis on heart failure, and how this knowledge may provide new therapeutic targets for treating cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21820793

  18. Novelties in the early management of acute heart failure syndromes.

    PubMed

    Salem, Reda; Sibellas, Franck; Socrates, Thenral; Arenja, Nisha; Yilmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Mueller, Christian; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    The recent European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines delineate the diagnosis and management of distinct categories of acute heart failure syndromes. However, physicians dealing with these patients may need guidance in choosing therapeutic alternatives as soon as the dyspneic patient arrives at the emergency department, until distinct categories of the ESC guidelines are identified. Hence, this manuscript summarizes practical recommendations for the very early management of patients with acute heart failure syndromes. The recommendations are based on a clinical classification system considering the initial systolic blood pressure and other symptoms. Early initiation of diagnostic and goal-directed treatment strategies are key factors in improving patient outcomes. Early and frequent reassessment is also imperative so that adjustments to the initial therapeutic approach can be made, as clinically indicated. PMID:20407961

  19. Automated weight monitoring in chronic heart failure: the excluded majority.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Glenis; Weatherburn, Gwyn

    2010-01-01

    We interviewed nurses and patients with heart failure who were participating in a research trial of home telemonitoring in which weight data were monitored automatically by a call centre. A total of 35 interviews were conducted and the transcripts were analysed thematically. The results indicated that nurses disagreed about the role of weight monitoring and the practicalities of telemonitoring in their daily practice, indicating that the process was idiosyncratic to each user. The lack of personal feedback and nursing contact discouraged patients from weight monitoring, suggesting that a feedback mechanism may have to be adapted to suit patients. There were other factors which created barriers to acceptance by patients and staff. Home telemonitoring for heart failure cannot be evaluated effectively using the standard approach commonly employed. New studies are required. PMID:20511571

  20. Targeting calcium cycling proteins in heart failure through gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    del Monte, Federica; Hajjar, Roger J

    2003-01-01

    Our understanding of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling has improved significantly over the last 10 years. Furthermore, defects in the various steps of excitation-contraction coupling that characterize cardiac dysfunction have been identified in human and experimental models of heart failure. The various abnormalities in ionic channels, transporters, kinases and various signalling pathways collectively contribute to the ‘failing phenotype.’ However, deciphering the causative changes continues to be a challenge. An important tool in dissecting the importance of the various changes in heart failure has been the use of cardiac gene transfer. To achieve effective cardiac gene transfer a number of obstacles remain, including appropriate vectors for gene delivery, appropriate delivery systems, and a better understanding of the biology of the disease. In this review, we will examine our current understanding of these various factors. Gene transfer provides not only a potential therapeutic modality but also an approach to identifying and validating molecular targets. PMID:12509478

  1. The Biologic Syndrome of Frailty in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Jermyn, Rita; Patel, Snehal

    2014-01-01

    As we continue to care for an older and sicker end-stage heart failure population, it has become challenging to evaluate patients based on current risk scores that mainly focus on subjective symptoms and patient disability. For generations, geriatricians have sought to identify the body’s underlying vulnerabilities that characterize frailty. More recently, cardiologists have begun to recognize this entity in their own practice. Several studies have suggested rates of frailty as high as 50% in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, despite recognizing frailty, it remains difficult to define. Like heart failure, frailty is a biologic syndrome that affects multiple organ systems. Measures of frailty are shown to strongly correlate with adverse outcomes in the health care system. PMID:25861225

  2. Pathophysiology and clinical evaluation of acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mentz, Robert J; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a complex syndrome characterized by worsening heart failure (HF) symptoms that requires escalation of therapy. Intrinsic cardiac abnormalities and comorbid conditions, including lung and renal disease, and sleep-disordered breathing, can contribute to the development of AHF. In this Review, we summarize and discuss the literature on the clinical evaluation and underlying pathophysiology of AHF. Important features of AHF evaluation include identification of precipitating factors to the disease, and assessment of circulatory-renal limitations associated with use of HF medications, prior HF hospitalizations, congestion and perfusion profiles, and end-organ dysfunction. The pathophysiological contributions of endothelial dysfunction, neurohormonal activation, venous congestion, and myocardial injury to the development of AHF are also discussed. These potential causative mechanisms provide a framework for clinicians to evaluate and manage patients with AHF and highlight possible future targets for therapies designed to improve clinical outcomes. PMID:26370473

  3. Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: Persistent Diagnosis, Therapeutic Enigma

    PubMed Central

    Bhuiyan, Taslima

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is increasing in prevalence with the aging of the population, and morbidity and mortality rates are comparable to that of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). The diagnosis can be difficult to make, especially in older adults, stemming from the presence of multiple comorbid illnesses with confounding symptoms. New diagnostic tools have resulted in guidelines proposed to define and diagnose HFPEF. Recent literature focusing on the pathophysiology underlying this disease suggests multiple mechanisms are involved in the generation of the phenotype, such as abnormal relaxation and ventricular-vascular coupling, chronotropic incompetence, volume overload, and redistribution and /or endothelial dysfunction. Currently, no clinically proven treatments are shown to decrease morbidity and mortality in this population; however, there may be a novel multidisciplinary and multistage treatment strategy that can be studied to address this complex disease which incorporates pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapeutics. PMID:22081782

  4. Creating interatrial shunts in heart failure and pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wolsk, Emil; Gustafsson, Finn

    2016-05-17

    Patients with elevated filling pressures are at increased risk of adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. Structural interventions to lower elevated either left or right atrial filling pressures are gaining attention. Studies in heart failure show that lowering left atrial pressure may reduce CV events while improving functional capacity. In recognition of this, trials are ongoing studying the effects of percutaneously implanted interatrial shunt devices (IASD). The preliminary results of IASD implantation suggest that periprocedural complications are rare and midterm safety good. Although both haemodynamic and functional parameters improve after IASD implantation, study designs, including sample size and duration, preclude definite conclusions regarding potential efficacy. In this paper, we briefly summarise current knowledge in the field, and give a perspective on the data needed to make interatrial device shunt therapy a part of our armamentarium in patients with heart failure or pulmonary hypertension and increased filling pressure. PMID:27174121

  5. Targeting Cardiomyocyte Ca2+ Homeostasis in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Røe, Åsmund T.; Frisk, Michael; Louch, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Improved treatments for heart failure patients will require the development of novel therapeutic strategies that target basal disease mechanisms. Disrupted cardiomyocyte Ca2+ homeostasis is recognized as a major contributor to the heart failure phenotype, as it plays a key role in systolic and diastolic dysfunction, arrhythmogenesis, and hypertrophy and apoptosis signaling. In this review, we outline existing knowledge of the involvement of Ca2+ homeostasis in these deficits, and identify four promising targets for therapeutic intervention: the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase, the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, the ryanodine receptor, and t-tubule structure. We discuss experimental data indicating the applicability of these targets that has led to recent and ongoing clinical trials, and suggest future therapeutic approaches. PMID:25483944

  6. Rapid and fatal acute heart failure induced by pazopanib.

    PubMed

    van Marcke, Cédric; Ledoux, Benjamin; Petit, Bénédicte; Seront, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, represented by sunitinib, sorafenib, axitinib and pazopanib, are emerging molecules harbouring antitumoural efficacy in multiple neoplasia. We report the case of a 51-year-old woman with right thoracic sarcoma who developed fatal heart failure on pazopanib. The patient had no cardiovascular risk factor, except previous exposure to anthracycline, and her cardiac function was normally controlled before initiating the pazopanib. Despite a rapid tumour response, fatigue rapidly appeared, requiring treatment interruption 2 weeks after pazopanib introduction. After clinical improvement, the pazopanib was reintroduced at reduced dose; however, a few days later, our patient was admitted for worsening dyspnoea and fatigue. Pulmonary embolism was excluded as was pleuropericardial effusion. Brain natriuretic peptide was the only laboratory abnormality, and echocardiography revealed acute and severe heart failure. The patient died despite pazopanib arrest and inotropic support. PMID:26336188

  7. Effects of Personal Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter on Acute Change in Nocturnal Heart Rate Variability in Subjects Without Overt Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Eum, Ki-Do; Rodrigues, Ema G; Magari, Shannon R; Fang, Shona C; Modest, Geoffrey A; Christiani, David C

    2016-01-01

    The immediate effect within minutes to hours of personal exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on cardiac autonomic function is limited, particularly at night. Our study aimed to assess the lagged association between personal exposure to PM2.5 and nocturnal heart rate variability. Repeated measures panel study among 21 community adults recruited from a local health clinic during the period of March 1, 2004, to August 31, 2004, in Boston, Massachusetts, in the United States. Ambulatory electrocardiogram and continuous monitoring of personal exposure to PM2.5 and were measured for up to 2 consecutive days. We calculated 5-minute time-specific average PM2.5 exposure for each participant. Mixed-effects models were fit for 5-minute SD of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and 5-minute heart rate in relation to 5-minute PM2.5 exposure lagged in 5-minute intervals up to 4 hours. We found an 8.4% decrease in nocturnal SDNN (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.3% to -5.5%) and a 1.9% increase in nighttime heart rate (95% CI 1.1% to 2.7%) for an interquartile range increase in PM2.5 (13.6 μg/m(3)), after adjusting for confounders. Significant decreases in nocturnal SDNN associated with PM2.5 exposure occurred within 2.5 hours. The largest decrease in nocturnal SDNN of -12.8% (95% CI -16.4 to -9.1%) that was associated with PM2.5 exposure was found with a lag of 25 minutes. Rapid changes in nocturnal heart rate variability associated with personal PM2.5 exposure occurred within the previous 2.5 hours, with the largest effects at 25 minutes, suggesting immediate cardiac autonomic effects of fine particulate exposure. PMID:26552502

  8. Demographics, Clinical Characteristics, Management, and Outcomes of Acute Heart Failure Patients: Observations from the Oman Acute Heart Failure Registry

    PubMed Central

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Alazzawi, Aouf AbdlRahman; Abraham, Abraham; Singh, Prit Pal; Narayan, Narayan Anantha; Rajarao, Mamatha Punjee; Khdir, Mohammed Ahmed; Abdlraheem, Mohamad; Siddiqui, Aftab Ahmed; Soliman, Hisham; Elkadi, Osama Abdellatif; Bichu, Ruchir Kumar; Al Lawati, Kumayl Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, management and outcomes of patients in Oman with acute heart failure (AHF) as part of the Gulf aCute heArt failuRe rEgistry (CARE) project. Methods Data were analyzed from 988 consecutive patients admitted with AHF to 12 hospitals in Oman between 14 February and 14 November 2012. Results The mean age of our patients was 63±12 years. Over half (57%) were male and 95% were Omani citizens. Fifty-seven percent of patients presented with acute decompensated chronic heart failure (ADCHF) while 43% had new-onset AHF. The primary comorbid conditions were hypertension (72%), coronary artery disease (55%), and diabetes mellitus (53%). Ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease, and idiopathic cardiomyopathy were the most common etiologies of AHF in Oman. The median left ventricular ejection fraction of the cohort was 36% (27–45%) with 56% of the patients having heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (< 40%). Atrial fibrillation was seen in 15% of patients. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and non-compliance with medications were the most common precipitating factors. At discharge, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers were prescribed adequately, but aldosterone antagonists were under prescribed. Within 12-months follow-up, one in two patients were rehospitalized for AHF. In-hospital mortality was 7.1%, which doubled to 15.7% at three months and reached 26.4% at one-year post discharge. Conclusions Oman CARE was the first prospective multicenter registry of AHF in Oman and showed that heart failure (HF) patients present at a younger age with recurrent ADCHF and HF with reduced ejection fraction. IHD was the most common etiology of HF with a low prevalence of AHF, but a high prevalence of acute coronary syndrome and non-compliance with medications precipitating HF. A quarter of patients died at one-year follow-up even though at discharge medical therapy was nearly optimal. Our study indicates an urgent need for prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of AHF in Oman. PMID:27162589

  9. Cellular cardiomyoplasty for a patient with heart failure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Fumin; Chen Yijiang; Yang Zhijian; Gao Xiang; Ma Wenzhu; Li Chuanfu; Kao, Race L

    2003-03-01

    Background: A 73-year-old man with a history of myocardial infarction and hypertension for 5 years suffered heart failure (NYHA III-IV). Methods: 2D echo indicated hypokinesia at septal, left ventricular anterior wall and apical regions. Coronary angiograms demonstrated 60% stenosis in distal left main and 99% stenosis in proximal and distal left anterior descending coronary arteries (LAD). Both proximal artery and middle left circumflex coronary artery (LC) had 90% stenosis, and diffuse stenosis of right coronary artery (RC) was found. Myocardial perfusion imaging using {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI indicated defective perfusion of left ventricular apex, anterior wall and septal region and severe reduced perfusion of posterior inferior wall. Myocardial metabolic activities ({sup 18}F-deoxyglucose) also showed comparable reductions. After exposing the heart, LAD, LC, and RC were all completely occluded and bypass procedure could not be completed. Autologous satellite cells were implanted without any complication and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Results: During the first 2 months, he remained in heart failure, and by the third month, he gradually improved and reached NYHA II. At fifth month after the procedure, significant increased ejection fraction (37.1-48.6%) and wall movement with modest reduction of left ventricular systolic diameter (48-45 mm) were observed. Imaging with {sup 18}F-deoxyglucose showed dramatic improvement in myocardial metabolic activity with similar improvement in myocardial perfusion ({sup 99m}Tc-MIBI). Conclusion: This is the first successful case of cellular cardiomyoplasty without any conjunctional procedure for patient with severe coronary heart disease and heart failure.

  10. Hope in elderly adults with chronic heart failure. Concept analysis

    PubMed Central

    Caboral, Meriam F.; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Whetsell, Martha V.

    2015-01-01

    This topic review employed Walker and Avant’s method of concept analysis to explore the construct of hope in elderly adults with chronic heart failure. The articles analyzed revealed that hope, as the belief of the occurrence of a positive result without any guarantee that it will be produced, is necessary for the survival and wellbeing of the elderly adults enduring this disease. PMID:26321777

  11. Novel device-based interventional strategies for advanced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Toth, Gabor G; Vanderheyden, Marc; Bartunek, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    While heart failure is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity, our tools to provide ultimate treatment solutions are still limited. Recent developments in new devices are designed to fill this therapeutic gap. The scope of this review is to focus on two particular targets, namely (1) left ventricular geometric restoration and (2) atrial depressurization. (1) Reduction of the wall stress by shrinking the ventricular cavity has been traditionally attempted surgically. Recently, the Parachute device (CardioKinetix Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA) has been introduced to restore ventricular geometry and cardiac mechanics. The intervention aims to partition distal dysfunctional segments that are non-contributory to the ventricular mechanics and forward cardiac output. (2) Diastolic heart failure is characterized by abnormal relaxation and chamber stiffness. The main therapeutic goal achieved should be the reduction of afterload and diastolic pressure load. Recently, new catheter-based approaches were proposed to reduce left atrial pressure and ventricular decompression: the InterAtrial Shunt Device (IASD™) (Corvia Medical Inc., Tewksbury, MA, USA) and the V-Wave Shunt (V-Wave Ltd, Or Akiva, Israel). Both are designed to create a controlled atrial septal defect in symptomatic patients with heart failure. While the assist devices are aimed at end-stage heart failure, emerging device-based percutaneous or minimal invasive techniques comprise a wide spectrum of innovative concepts that target ventricular remodeling, cardiac contractility or neuro-humoral modulation. The clinical adoption is in the early stages of the initial feasibility and safety studies, and clinical evidence needs to be gathered in appropriately designed clinical trials. PMID:26966444

  12. Team-Based Care for Outpatients with Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Creaser, Julie W; DePasquale, Eugene C; Vandenbogaart, Elizabeth; Rourke, Darlene; Chaker, Tamara; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2015-07-01

    Management of heart failure requires a multidisciplinary team-based approach that includes coordination of numerous team members to ensure guideline-directed optimization of medical therapy, frequent and regular assessment of volume status, frequent education, use of cardiac rehabilitation, continued assessment for the use of advanced therapies, and advance care planning. All of these are important aspects of the management of this complex condition. PMID:26142637

  13. Novel device-based interventional strategies for advanced heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Vanderheyden, Marc; Bartunek, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    While heart failure is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity, our tools to provide ultimate treatment solutions are still limited. Recent developments in new devices are designed to fill this therapeutic gap. The scope of this review is to focus on two particular targets, namely (1) left ventricular geometric restoration and (2) atrial depressurization. (1) Reduction of the wall stress by shrinking the ventricular cavity has been traditionally attempted surgically. Recently, the Parachute device (CardioKinetix Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA) has been introduced to restore ventricular geometry and cardiac mechanics. The intervention aims to partition distal dysfunctional segments that are non-contributory to the ventricular mechanics and forward cardiac output. (2) Diastolic heart failure is characterized by abnormal relaxation and chamber stiffness. The main therapeutic goal achieved should be the reduction of afterload and diastolic pressure load. Recently, new catheter-based approaches were proposed to reduce left atrial pressure and ventricular decompression: the InterAtrial Shunt Device (IASD™) (Corvia Medical Inc., Tewksbury, MA, USA) and the V-Wave Shunt (V-Wave Ltd, Or Akiva, Israel). Both are designed to create a controlled atrial septal defect in symptomatic patients with heart failure. While the assist devices are aimed at end-stage heart failure, emerging device-based percutaneous or minimal invasive techniques comprise a wide spectrum of innovative concepts that target ventricular remodeling, cardiac contractility or neuro-humoral modulation. The clinical adoption is in the early stages of the initial feasibility and safety studies, and clinical evidence needs to be gathered in appropriately designed clinical trials. PMID:26966444

  14. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation alterations in heart failure, ischaemic heart disease and diabetic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, N; Mori, J; Lopaschuk, G D

    2014-01-01

    Heart disease is a leading cause of death worldwide. In many forms of heart disease, including heart failure, ischaemic heart disease and diabetic cardiomyopathies, changes in cardiac mitochondrial energy metabolism contribute to contractile dysfunction and to a decrease in cardiac efficiency. Specific metabolic changes include a relative increase in cardiac fatty acid oxidation rates and an uncoupling of glycolysis from glucose oxidation. In heart failure, overall mitochondrial oxidative metabolism can be impaired while, in ischaemic heart disease, energy production is impaired due to a limitation of oxygen supply. In both of these conditions, residual mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation dominates over mitochondrial glucose oxidation. In diabetes, the ratio of cardiac fatty acid oxidation to glucose oxidation also increases, although primarily due to an increase in fatty acid oxidation and an inhibition of glucose oxidation. Recent evidence suggests that therapeutically regulating cardiac energy metabolism by reducing fatty acid oxidation and/or increasing glucose oxidation can improve cardiac function of the ischaemic heart, the failing heart and in diabetic cardiomyopathies. In this article, we review the cardiac mitochondrial energy metabolic changes that occur in these forms of heart disease, what role alterations in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation have in contributing to cardiac dysfunction and the potential for targeting fatty acid oxidation to treat these forms of heart disease. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24147975

  15. Patient Selection for Advanced Heart Failure Therapy Referral

    PubMed Central

    Fanaroff, Alexander C.; DeVore, Adam D.; Mentz, Robert J.; Daneshmand, Mani A.; Patel, Chetan B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in medical therapy for chronic heart failure (HF), advanced HF carries a dismal prognosis. Options such as transplantation and durable mechanical circulatory support have greatly improved outcomes for these patients, but their introduction has introduced signifcant complexity to patient management. Although much of this management occurs at specialized heart transplant centers, it is the responsibility of the primary cardiologist of the patient with advanced HF to refer patients at the appropriate time and to help them navigate the difficult decisions related to the pursuit of advanced therapies. We present a unique pathway that incorporates guidelines, recent data, and expert opinion to help general cardiologists determine which patients should be referred for transplantation or durable mechanical circulatory support, and when they should be referred. Decision making on referral to the heart transplant center is also summarized. PMID:24526143

  16. Heart failure in the diabetic population – pathophysiology, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Drzewoski, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from clinical trials repeatedly confirms the association of diabetes with heart failure, independent of hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease and valvular heart disease. However, the importance of coexistence of diabetes and heart failure is not universally recognized, despite the fact that it may significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality of the diabetic population. It seems that prevention of heart failure, early diagnosis, and appropriate management could improve the outcome. Unfortunately, the etiology of heart failure in diabetic patients is still to be elucidated. It is multifactorial in nature and several cellular, molecular and metabolic factors are implicated. Additionally, there are still no definite guidelines on either the diagnosis and treatment of heart failure in diabetic patients or on the therapy of diabetes in subjects with heart failure. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prevention of heart failure in the diabetic population as well as management of both comorbidities. PMID:25097587

  17. The Adrenergic Nervous System in Heart Failure: Pathophysiology and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Rengo, Giuseppe; Koch, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure (HF), the leading cause of death in the western world, develops when a cardiac injury or insult impairs the ability of the heart to pump blood and maintain tissue perfusion. It is characterized by a complex interplay of several neurohormonal mechanisms that get activated in the syndrome in order to try and sustain cardiac output in the face of decompensating function. Perhaps the most prominent among these neurohormonal mechanisms is the adrenergic (or sympathetic) nervous system (ANS), whose activity and outflow are enormously elevated in HF. Acutely, and if the heart works properly, this activation of the ANS will promptly restore cardiac function. However, if the cardiac insult persists over time, chances are the ANS will not be able to maintain cardiac function, the heart will progress into a state of chronic decompensated HF, and the hyperactive ANS will continue to “push” the heart to work at a level much higher than the cardiac muscle can handle. From that point on, ANS hyperactivity becomes a major problem in HF, conferring significant toxicity to the failing heart and markedly increasing its morbidity and mortality. The present review discusses the role of the ANS in cardiac physiology and in HF pathophysiology, the mechanisms of regulation of ANS activity and how they go awry in chronic HF, methods of measuring ANS activity in HF, the molecular alterations in heart physiology that occur in HF along with their pharmacological and therapeutic implications, and, finally, drugs and other therapeutic modalities used in HF treatment that target or affect the ANS and its effects on the failing heart. PMID:23989716

  18. Beta-blocker titration failure is independent of severity of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Anthonio, R L; van Veldhuisen, D J; Breekland, A; Crijns, H J; van Gilst, W H

    2000-02-15

    In the present study, predictors of complicated initiation of beta blockade in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy was studied. We found that generally accepted measures of severity of heart failure are not predictable, whereas low systolic blood pressure (< or =120 mm Hg) was the strongest predictor for problematic (up)titration. PMID:10728963

  19. [Congestive heart failure in patients with chronic kidney disease].

    PubMed

    Poskurica, Mileta; Petrović, Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disorders are the most frequent cause of death (46-60%) among patients with advanced chronic renal failure (CRF), and on dialysis treatment. Uremic cardiomyopathy is the basic pathophysiologic substrate, whereas ischemic heart disease (IHD) and anemia are the most important contributing factors. Associated with well-know risk factors and specific disorders for terminal kidney failure and dialysis, the aforementioned factors instigate congestive heart failure (CHF). Suspected CHF is based on the anamnesis, clinical examination and ECG, while it is confirmed and defined more precisely on the basis of echocardiography and radiology examination. Biohumoral data (BNP, NT-proBNP) are not sufficiently reliable because of specific volemic fluctuation and reduced natural clearance. Therapy approach is similar to the one for the general population: ACEI, ARBs, β-blockers, inotropic drugs and diuretics. Hypervolemia and most of the related symptoms can be kept under control effectively by the isolated or ultrafiltation, in conjunction with dialysis, during the standard bicarbonate hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration. In the same respect peritoneal dialysis is efficient for the control of hypervolemia symptoms, mainly during the first years of its application and in case of the lower NYHA class (II°/III°). In general, heart support therapy, surgical interventions of the myocardium and valve replacement are rarely used in patients on dialysis, whereas revascularization procedures are beneficial for associated IHD. In selected cases the application of cardiac resynchronization and/or implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator are advisable. PMID:25731010

  20. Utility of Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kelkar, Anita A; Spertus, John; Pang, Peter; Pierson, Renee F; Cody, Robert J; Pina, Ileana L; Hernandez, Adrian; Butler, Javed

    2016-03-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are defined as reports coming directly from patients about how they feel or function in relation to a health condition and its therapy. Although there are numerous compelling reasons why PRO could be an important help in clinical care, they have not evolved into clinical tools integrated into care. The purpose of this review is to assess existing PRO instruments for heart failure with respect to their psychometric properties and potential for use in clinical care. We performed a systematic search of articles published between July 2008 and January 2015 within the MEDLINE, PROMIS, PROQOLID, and Cochrane Library databases. Included instruments had to be developed and tested for heart failure and have had their development processes and psychometric properties described. A total of 31 instruments were identified, 9 of which met all inclusion criteria. After evaluating each remaining instrument in terms of psychometric and clinical criteria and symptom coverage, only 2 instruments-Minnesota Living with Heart Failure and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy questionnaire-met all evaluation criteria. Although clinically useful PRO instruments exist, increasing education to providers on the value and interpretability of PRO instruments, as well as a more streamlined approach to their implementation in the clinical setting is necessary. A clinical trial comparing the routine use of disease-specific PRO with clinical care could further support their incorporation into practice. PMID:26874386

  1. [Prescribing beta blockers in elderly patients with heart failure].

    PubMed

    Galinier, Michel; Emeriau, Jean-Paul

    2008-06-01

    Beta blockers remain underused in elderly patients with heart failure. Age is not a contraindication to beta blockers. The SENIORS study confirmed that beta blockers are both efficacious and well tolerated in elderly people with heart failure, regardless of their ejection fraction. Because adverse effects may be both more frequent and more serious in the elderly, prescription protocols must be strictly applied. Patients in stable NYHA stages II or III may begin beta blocker treatment, at least 1 month after any decompensation. The initial dose must be as low as possible (1.25 mg/d for bisoprolol and nebivolol). Doses must be increased very progressively and stages longer than 15 days may be necessary. The objective is to reach the target dose (10mg/d for bisoprolol and nebivolol), given the dose-response effect that exists for beta blockers in elderly people with heart failure. In the case of low blood pressure, antihypertensive treatments must be reduced or stopped (for example, nitrate derivatives or calcium channel blockers). A reduction in the dosage of any diuretic dosage and finally of the beta blocker may follow, if necessary. Should bradycardia occur, any anti-bradycardia treatments (such as digoxin or amiodarone) must be reduced or stopped before the beta blocker dosage is reduced. PMID:18450415

  2. Advanced Therapies For End-Stage Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Jason N; Waters, Sarah B; Hollis, Ian B; Chang, Patricia P

    2015-01-01

    Management of the advanced heart failure patient can be complex. Therapies include cardiac transplantation and mechanical circulatory support, as well inotropic agents for the short-term. Despite a growing armamentarium of resources, the clinician must carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each therapy to develop an optimal treatment strategy. While cardiac transplantation remains the only true “cure” for end-stage disease, this resource is limited and the demand continues to far outpace the supply. For patients who are transplant-ineligible or likely to succumb to their illness prior to transplant, ventricular assist device therapy has now become a viable option for improving morbidity and mortality. Particularly for the non-operative pa-tient, intravenous inotropes can be utilized for symptom control. Regardless of the treatments considered, care of the heart failure patient requires thoughtful dialogue, multidisciplinary collaboration, and individualized care. While survival is important, most patients covet quality of life above all outcomes. An often overlooked component is the patient’s control over the dying process. It is vital that clinicians make goals-of-care discussions a priority when seeing patients with advanced heart failure. The use of palliative care consultation is well-validated and facilitates these difficult conversations to ensure that all patient needs are ultimately met. PMID:24251460

  3. Heart failure and chronic kidney disease: should we use spironolactone?

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sahil; Agrawal, Nikhil; Garg, Jalaj; Mohandas, Rajesh; Gupta, Tanush; Segal, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Half of all deaths in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) arise from cardiovascular causes. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is specifically more frequent with CKD. Cardiovascular therapies with proven benefit are often withheld from patients with renal disease for fear of adverse events. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been implicated as an important maladaptive neurohormonal pathway in heart failure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers have been shown to suppress it ineffectively. Current guidelines support the use of spironolactone for more comprehensive suppression of the RAAS in heart failure patients. Most supporting trials have however excluded patients with renal dysfunction resulting in a dearth of data to support use of spironolactone in CKD patients with CHF. Several small studies that prospectively interrogated the benefits of augmented RAAS blockade with spironolactone in CKD patients have shown improvement in predictors of cardiovascular mortality. More recently, improved mortality outcomes were demonstrated with the use of spironolactone in hemodialysis patients. Although reduction in glomerular filtration rate and hyperkalemia are potential adverse effects with its use, the available evidence suggests that it is uncommon and serious consequences can be avoided with close monitoring. Studies investigating the optimal spironolactone dosage in such a setting recommend starting with a low dose and careful uptitration. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive insight into the issues associated with the use of spironolactone in the setting of concomitant CHF and CKD. PMID:26086152

  4. Device monitoring strategies in acute heart failure syndromes.

    PubMed

    Samara, Michael A; Tang, W H Wilson

    2011-09-01

    Acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS) represent the most common discharge diagnoses in adults over age 65 and translate into dramatically increased heart failure-associated morbidity and mortality. Conventional approaches to the early detection of pulmonary and systemic congestion have been shown to be of limited sensitivity. Despite their proven efficacy, disease management and structured telephone support programs have failed to achieve widespread use in part due to their resource intensiveness and reliance upon motivated patients. While once thought to hold great promise, results from recent prospective studies on telemonitoring strategies have proven disappointing. Implantable devices with their capacity to monitor electrophysiologic and hemodynamic parameters over long periods of time and with minimal reliance on patient participation may provide solutions to some of these problems. Conventional electrophysiologic parameters and intrathoracic impedance data are currently available in the growing population of heart failure patients with equipped devices. A variety of implantable hemodynamic monitors are currently under investigation. How best to integrate these devices into a systematic approach to the management of patients before, during, and after AHFS is yet to be established. PMID:21424278

  5. Role of Monitoring Devices in Preventing Heart Failure Admissions.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kenneth; Wilkinson, Mark; Ledwidge, Mark

    2015-08-01

    This review aims to discuss and summarize the evidence base for devices that have a role in monitoring patients with heart failure for the purpose of attempting to prevent heart failure-related admissions. Despite contemporary heart failure service provision, many patients continue to need acute admission for decompensation. There is a clinical need for a better strategy for predicting decompensation earlier so that appropriate therapeutic interventions can be commenced sooner in order to prevent the need for acute hospital admission. Between clinical assessment visits, the contemporary approach to management is based primarily on daily home monitoring of weight by patients; while this has proved useful, it falls short. For example, substantial weight gain was seen in only 20% of ADHF admission patients according to data collected in the TEN-HMS home telemonitoring study. Monitoring devices offer the possibility of tracking additional physiological or haemodynamic parameters that may allow for earlier detection and more accurate identification of patients at risk of acute decompensation. PMID:26049264

  6. Racial differences in potassium response to spironolactone in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, Larisa H; Groo, Vicki L; Momary, Kathryn M; Fontana, Deidra; Viana, Marlos Ag; Vaitkus, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Evidence of racial differences in aldosterone concentrations and K+ disposition suggests that response to aldosterone antagonism might vary by race. The authors sought to determine whether K+ response to spironolactone differs between African Americans and Caucasians with heart failure. Heart failure patients of African-American (n = 34) or Caucasian (n = 17) race were started on spironolactone 12.5 mg/d, with up-titration as tolerated. Laboratory values and drug therapy were similar between racial groups at baseline. Spironolactone was titrated to a median dose of 25 mg/d in both groups. Neither concomitant medications nor serum creatinine changed significantly in either group during spironolactone dose titration. Median serum K+ concentrations increased by 0.5 mEq/L (range, -0.7 to 1.6 mEq/L) in Caucasians, but only 0.1 mEq/L (range, -0.8 to 0.9 mEq/L) in African Americans; p < 0.01. These data suggest that African Americans with heart failure may be less responsive to the renal effects of spironolactone. PMID:16894278

  7. Biomarkers in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Meijers, W C; van der Velde, A R; de Boer, R A

    2016-04-01

    Biomarkers are widely used and studied in heart failure. Most studies have described the utility and performance of biomarkers in sub-studies of randomised clinical trials, where the vast majority of the patients suffered from heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), and not with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). As a result, there is a scarcity of data describing the levels, dynamics, clinical and biochemical correlates, and biology of biomarkers in patients suffering from HFpEF, whereas HFpEF is in fact a very frequent clinical entity. This article discusses the value of different biomarkers in HFpEF. We describe various aspects of natriuretic peptide measurements in HFpEF patients, with a focus on diagnosis, prognosis and the risk prediction of developing heart failure. Further, we will discuss several emerging biomarkers such as galectin-3 and suppression of tumorigenicity 2, and recently discovered ones such as growth differentiation factor-15 and syndecan-1. PMID:26942916

  8. Decongestion: Diuretics and other therapies for hospitalized heart failure.

    PubMed

    Vazir, Ali; Cowie, Martin R

    2016-04-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a potentially life-threatening clinical syndrome, usually requiring hospital admission. Often the syndrome is characterized by congestion, and is associated with long hospital admissions and high risk of readmission and further healthcare expenditure. Despite a limited evidence-base, diuretics remain the first-line treatment for congestion. Loop diuretics are typically the first-line diuretic strategy with some evidence that initial treatment with continuous infusion or boluses of high-dose loop diuretic is superior to an initial lower dose strategy. In patients who have impaired responsiveness to diuretics, the addition of an oral thiazide or thiazide-like diuretic to induce sequential nephron blockade can be beneficial. The use of intravenous low-dose dopamine is no longer supported in heart failure patients with preserved systolic blood pressure and its use to assist diuresis in patients with low systolic blood pressures requires further study. Mechanical ultrafiltration has been used to treat patients with heart failure and fluid retention, but the evidence-base is not robust, and its place in clinical practice is yet to be established. Several novel pharmacological agents remain under investigation. PMID:27056656

  9. Nitrendipine binding in congestive heart failure due to myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, I.M.; Lee, S.L.; Dhalla, N.S. )

    1990-03-01

    Depressed cardiac pump function is the hallmark of congestive heart failure, and it is suspected that decreased influx of Ca2+ into the cardiac cell is responsible for depressed contractile function. Since Ca2+ channels in the sarcolemmal membrane are considered to be an important route for the entry of Ca2+, we examined the status of Ca2+ receptors/channels in failing rat hearts after myocardial infarction of the left ventricular free wall. For this purpose, the left coronary artery was ligated and hearts were examined 4, 8, and 16 weeks later; sham-operated animals served as controls. Hemodynamic assessment revealed decreased total mechanical energy (left ventricular systolic pressure x heart rate), increased left ventricular diastolic pressure, and decreased positive and negative dP/dt in experimental animals at 4, 8, and 16 weeks. Although accumulation of ascites in the abdominal cavity was evident at 4 weeks, other clinical signs of congestive heart failure in experimental rats were evident from the presence of lung congestion and cardiac dilatation at 8 and 16 weeks after induction of myocardial infarction. The density of Ca2+ receptors/channels in crude membranes, as assessed by (3H)nitrendipine binding assay, was found to be decreased in the uninfarcted experimental left ventricle at 8 and 16 weeks; however, no change in the affinity of nitrendipine was evident. A similar depression in the specific binding of another dihydropyridine compound, (3H)PN200-110, was also evident in failing hearts. Brain and skeletal muscle crude membrane preparations, unlike those of the right ventricle and liver, revealed a decrease in Ca2+ receptors/channels density in experimental animals at 16 weeks.

  10. Simulation of Dilated Heart Failure with Continuous Flow Circulatory Support

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yajuan; Loghmanpour, Natasha; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Ferreira, Antonio; Keller, Bradley; Gorcsan, John; Antaki, James

    2014-01-01

    Lumped parameter models have been employed for decades to simulate important hemodynamic couplings between a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and the native circulation. However, these studies seldom consider the pathological descending limb of the Frank-Starling response of the overloaded ventricle. This study introduces a dilated heart failure model featuring a unimodal end systolic pressure-volume relationship (ESPVR) to address this critical shortcoming. The resulting hemodynamic response to mechanical circulatory support are illustrated through numerical simulations of a rotodynamic, continuous flow ventricular assist device (cfVAD) coupled to systemic and pulmonary circulations with baroreflex control. The model further incorporated septal interaction to capture the influence of left ventricular (LV) unloading on right ventricular function. Four heart failure conditions were simulated (LV and bi-ventricular failure with/without pulmonary hypertension) in addition to normal baseline. Several metrics of LV function, including cardiac output and stroke work, exhibited a unimodal response whereby initial unloading improved function, and further unloading depleted preload reserve thereby reducing ventricular output. The concept of extremal loading was introduced to reflect the loading condition in which the intrinsic LV stroke work is maximized. Simulation of bi-ventricular failure with pulmonary hypertension revealed inadequacy of LV support alone. These simulations motivate the implementation of an extremum tracking feedback controller to potentially optimize ventricular recovery. PMID:24465511

  11. Individualized biomonitoring in heart failure--Biomon-HF "Keep an eye on heart failure--especially at night".

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Thomas; Schauerte, Patrick; Zink, Matthias; Glöggler, Sigrid; Schiefer, Johannes; Schiek, Michael; Johnen, Udo; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2014-04-01

    In the project "Individualized Biomonitoring in Heart Failure (Biomon-HF)," innovative sensors and algorithms for measuring vital signs, i.e., during the nocturnal sleep period, have been developed and successfully tested in five clinical feasibility studies involving 115 patients. The Biomon-HF sensor concepts are an important step toward future patient-customized telemonitoring and sensor-guided therapy management in chronic heart failure, including early detection of upcoming HF exacerbation and comorbidities at home. The resulting preventable disease complications and emergencies and reduction of consequences of disease are very important advantages for the patients, causing relief for medical staff and, thus, offer an enormous potential for improvements and cost savings in healthcare systems. PMID:24535297

  12. Ventilation heterogeneity is increased in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kee, Kirk; Stuart-Andrews, Christopher; Nilsen, Kris; Wrobel, Jeremy P; Thompson, Bruce R; Naughton, Matthew T

    2015-10-01

    In the healthy lung, ventilation is distributed heterogeneously due to factors such as anatomical asymmetry and gravity. This ventilation heterogeneity increases pathologically in conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and cystic fibrosis. In chronic heart failure, lung biopsy demonstrates evidence of peripheral lung fibrosis and small airways narrowing and distortion. We hypothesized that this would lead to increased ventilation heterogeneity. Furthermore, we proposed that rostral fluid shifts when seated patients lie supine would further increase ventilation heterogeneity. We recruited 30 ambulatory chronic heart failure patients (57 ± 10 years, 83% male, left ventricular ejection fraction 31 ± 12%) as well as 10 healthy controls (51 ± 13 years, 90% male). Heart failure patients were clinically euvolemic. Subjects underwent measurement of ventilation heterogeneity using the multiple-breath nitrogen washout technique in the seated position, followed by repeat measurements after 5 and 45 min in the supine position. Ventilation heterogeneity was calculated using the lung clearance index (LCI), Sacin and Scond which represent overall, acinar, and small conducting airway function, respectively. Lung clearance index (9.6 ± 1.2 vs. 8.6 ± 1.4 lung turnovers, P = 0.034) and Scond (0.029 ± 0.014 vs. 0.006 ± 0.016/L, P = 0.007) were higher in the heart failure patients. There was no difference in Sacin (0.197 ± 0.171 vs. 0.125 ± 0.081/L, P = 0.214). Measures of ventilation heterogeneity did not change in the supine position. This study confirms the presence of peripheral airway pathology in patients with chronic heart failure. This leads to subtle but detectable functional abnormalities which do not change after 45 min in the supine position. PMID:26493954

  13. Ventilation heterogeneity is increased in patients with chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Kee, Kirk; Stuart-Andrews, Christopher; Nilsen, Kris; Wrobel, Jeremy P; Thompson, Bruce R; Naughton, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    In the healthy lung, ventilation is distributed heterogeneously due to factors such as anatomical asymmetry and gravity. This ventilation heterogeneity increases pathologically in conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and cystic fibrosis. In chronic heart failure, lung biopsy demonstrates evidence of peripheral lung fibrosis and small airways narrowing and distortion. We hypothesized that this would lead to increased ventilation heterogeneity. Furthermore, we proposed that rostral fluid shifts when seated patients lie supine would further increase ventilation heterogeneity. We recruited 30 ambulatory chronic heart failure patients (57 ± 10 years, 83% male, left ventricular ejection fraction 31 ± 12%) as well as 10 healthy controls (51 ± 13 years, 90% male). Heart failure patients were clinically euvolemic. Subjects underwent measurement of ventilation heterogeneity using the multiple-breath nitrogen washout technique in the seated position, followed by repeat measurements after 5 and 45 min in the supine position. Ventilation heterogeneity was calculated using the lung clearance index (LCI), Sacin and Scond which represent overall, acinar, and small conducting airway function, respectively. Lung clearance index (9.6 ± 1.2 vs. 8.6 ± 1.4 lung turnovers, P = 0.034) and Scond (0.029 ± 0.014 vs. 0.006 ± 0.016/L, P = 0.007) were higher in the heart failure patients. There was no difference in Sacin (0.197 ± 0.171 vs. 0.125 ± 0.081/L, P = 0.214). Measures of ventilation heterogeneity did not change in the supine position. This study confirms the presence of peripheral airway pathology in patients with chronic heart failure. This leads to subtle but detectable functional abnormalities which do not change after 45 min in the supine position. PMID:26493954

  14. Mechanical Unloading Promotes Myocardial Energy Recovery in Human Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Gupte, Anisha A.; Hamilton, Dale J.; Cordero-Reyes, Andrea M.; Youker, Keith A.; Yin, Zheng; Estep, Jerry D.; Stevens, Robert D.; Wenner, Brett; Ilkayeva, Olga; Loebe, Matthias; Peterson, Leif E.; Lyon, Christopher J.; Wong, Stephen T.C.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Hsueh, Willa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impaired bioenergetics is a prominent feature of the failing heart, but the underlying metabolic perturbations are poorly understood. Methods and Results We compared metabolomic, gene transcript, and protein data from six paired failing human left ventricular (LV) tissue samples obtained during left ventricular assist device (LVAD) insertion (heart failure (HF) samples) and at heart transplant (post-LVAD samples). Non-failing left ventricular (NFLV) wall samples procured from explanted hearts of patients with right HF served as novel comparison samples. Metabolomic analyses uncovered a distinct pattern in HF tissue: 2.6 fold increased pyruvate concentrations coupled with reduced Krebs cycle intermediates and short-chain acylcarnitines, suggesting a global reduction in substrate oxidation. These findings were associated with decreased transcript levels for enzymes that catalyze fatty acid oxidation and pyruvate metabolism and for key transcriptional regulators of mitochondrial metabolism and biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator1α (PGC1A, 1.3 fold) and estrogen-related receptor α (ERRA, 1.2 fold) and γ (ERRG, 2.2 fold). Thus, parallel decreases in key transcription factors and their target metabolic enzyme genes can explain the decreases in associated metabolic intermediates. Mechanical support with LVAD improved all of these metabolic and transcriptional defects. Conclusions These observations underscore an important pathophysiologic role for severely defective metabolism in HF, while the reversibility of these defects by LVAD suggests metabolic resilience of the human heart. PMID:24825877

  15. Decrease of cardiac chaos in congestive heart failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Chi-Sang; Merrill, Christopher K.

    1997-10-01

    The electrical properties of the mammalian heart undergo many complex transitions in normal and diseased states. It has been proposed that the normal heartbeat may display complex nonlinear dynamics, including deterministic chaos,, and that such cardiac chaos may be a useful physiological marker for the diagnosis and management, of certain heart trouble. However, it is not clear whether the heartbeat series of healthy and diseased hearts are chaotic or stochastic, or whether cardiac chaos represents normal or abnormal behaviour. Here we have used a highly sensitive technique, which is robust to random noise, to detect chaos. We analysed the electrocardiograms from a group of healthy subjects and those with severe congestive heart failure (CHF), a clinical condition associated with a high risk of sudden death. The short-term variations of beat-to-beat interval exhibited strongly and consistently chaotic behaviour in all healthy subjects, but were frequently interrupted by periods of seemingly non-chaotic fluctuations in patients with CHF. Chaotic dynamics in the CHF data, even when discernible, exhibited a high degree of random variability over time, suggesting a weaker form of chaos. These findings suggest that cardiac chaos is prevalent in healthy heart, and a decrease in such chaos may be indicative of CHF.

  16. The fibrosis-cell death axis in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Piek, A; de Boer, R A; Silljé, H H W

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac stress can induce morphological, structural and functional changes of the heart, referred to as cardiac remodeling. Myocardial infarction or sustained overload as a result of pathological causes such as hypertension or valve insufficiency may result in progressive remodeling and finally lead to heart failure (HF). Whereas pathological and physiological (exercise, pregnancy) overload both stimulate cardiomyocyte growth (hypertrophy), only pathological remodeling is characterized by increased deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, termed fibrosis, and loss of cardiomyocytes by necrosis, apoptosis and/or phagocytosis. HF is strongly associated with age, and cardiomyocyte loss and fibrosis are typical signs of the aging heart. Fibrosis results in stiffening of the heart, conductivity problems and reduced oxygen diffusion, and is associated with diminished ventricular function and arrhythmias. As a consequence, the workload of cardiomyocytes in the fibrotic heart is further augmented, whereas the physiological environment is becoming less favorable. This causes additional cardiomyocyte death and replacement of lost cardiomyocytes by fibrotic material, generating a vicious cycle of further decline of cardiac function. Breaking this fibrosis-cell death axis could halt further pathological and age-related cardiac regression and potentially reverse remodeling. In this review, we will describe the interaction between cardiac fibrosis, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death, and discuss potential strategies for tackling progressive cardiac remodeling and HF. PMID:26883434

  17. Aging-associated cardiovascular changes and their relationship to heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Strait, James B.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis Aging represents a convergence of declining cardioprotective systems and increasing disease processes that is fertile ground for the development of heart failure. With 50% of all heart failure diagnoses and 90% of all heart failure deaths occurring in the segment of the population over age 70, heart failure is largely a disease of the elderly. This review discusses the microscopic and macroscopic changes in cardiovascular structure, function, protective systems, and disease associated with aging. In addition to outlining important clinical considerations and conditions in older persons, the link between normal aging and the elevated risk for development of stage B heart failure is explained and potential therapeutic pathways highlighted. PMID:22108734

  18. Right ventricular long noncoding RNA expression in human heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan; Su, Yan Ru; Clark, Travis; Brittain, Evan; Absi, Tarek; Maltais, Simon; Hemnes, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in human heart failure (HF) has not been widely studied. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), we compared lncRNA expression in 22 explanted human HF hearts with lncRNA expression in 5 unused donor human hearts. We used Cufflinks to identify isoforms and DESeq to identify differentially expressed genes. We identified the noncoding RNAs by cross-reference to Ensembl release 73 (Genome Reference Consortium human genome build 37) and explored possible functional roles using a variety of online tools. In HF hearts, RNA-Seq identified 84,793 total messenger RNA coding and noncoding different transcripts, including 13,019 protein-coding genes, 2,085 total lncRNA genes, and 1,064 pseudogenes. By Ensembl noncoding RNA categories, there were 48 lncRNAs, 27 pseudogenes, and 30 antisense RNAs for a total of 105 differentially expressed lncRNAs in HF hearts. Compared with donor hearts, HF hearts exhibited differential expression of 7.7% of protein-coding genes, 3.7% of lncRNAs (including pseudogenes), and 2.5% of pseudogenes. There were not consistent correlations between antisense lncRNAs and parent genes and between pseudogenes and parent genes, implying differential regulation of expression. Exploratory in silico functional analyses using online tools suggested a variety of possible lncRNA regulatory roles. By providing a comprehensive profile of right ventricular polyadenylated messenger RNA transcriptome in HF, RNA-Seq provides an inventory of differentially expressed lncRNAs, including antisense transcripts and pseudogenes, for future mechanistic study. PMID:25992278

  19. Dyspnoea and worsening heart failure in patients with acute heart failure: results from the Pre-RELAX-AHF study

    PubMed Central

    Metra, Marco; Teerlink, John R.; Felker, G. Michael; Greenberg, Barry H.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Ponikowski, Piotr; Teichman, Sam L.; Unemori, Elaine; Voors, Adriaan A.; Weatherley, Beth Davison; Cotter, Gad

    2010-01-01

    Aims Although dyspnoea is the most common cause of admission for acute heart failure (AHF), more needs to be known about its clinical course and prognostic significance. Methods and results The Pre-RELAX-AHF study randomized 232 subjects with AHF to placebo or four doses of relaxin and evaluated early (6–24 h Likert scale) and persistent [change in visual analogue scale area under the curve (VAS AUC) through Day 5] dyspnoea relief. Worsening heart failure (WHF) was defined as worsening AHF signs and symptoms requiring additional therapy. Patients were followed until Day 180. Early dyspnoea relief was observed in only 25% of all patients, and VAS AUC at 5 days was 45% over baseline values in all patients (32% placebo; 50% all relaxin-treated patients). Worsening heart failure to Day 5 was observed in 16% of all patients (21% placebo; 14% relaxin). Lack of persistent dyspnoea relief and WHF were associated with a longer length of initial hospital stay and worse 60-day outcomes. Conclusion Dyspnoea relief in patients admitted with AHF is often incomplete, and many may show WHF after the initial stabilization. Both lack of persistent dyspnoea relief and in-hospital WHF predict a longer length of stay and worse outcome. PMID:20732868

  20. Hepatic Dysfunction in Ambulatory Patients With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Maryjane; Wu, Christina; Givens, Raymond C.; Collado, Ellias; Mancini, Donna M.; Schulze, P. Christian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and its modified versions, which are established measures of liver dysfunction, as a tool to assess heart transplantation (HTx) urgency in ambulatory patients with heart failure. Background Liver abnormalities have a prognostic impact on the outcome of patients with advanced heart failure. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 343 patients undergoing HTx evaluation between 2005 and 2009. The prognostic effectiveness of MELD and 2 modifications (MELDNa [includes serum sodium levels] and MELD-XI [does not include international normalized ratio]) for endpoint events, defined as death/HTx/ventricular assist device requirement, was evaluated in our cohort and in subgroups of patients on and off oral anticoagulation. Results The MELD and MELDNa scores were excellent predictors for 1-year endpoint events (areas under the curve: 0.71 and 0.73, respectively). High scores (>12) were strongly associated with poor survival at 1 year (MELD 69.3% vs. 90.4% [p < 0.0001]; MELDNa 70.4% vs. 96.9% [p < 0.0001]). Increased scores were associated with increased risk for HTx (hazard ratio: 1.10 [95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 1.14]; p < 0.0001 for both scores), which was independent of other known risk factors (MELD p = 0.0055; MELDNa p = 0.0083). Anticoagulant use was associated with poor survival at 1 year (73.7% vs. 86.4%; p = 0.0118), and the statistical significance of MELD/MELDNa was higher in patients not receiving oral anticoagulation therapy. MELD-XI was a fair but limited predictor of the endpoint events in patients receiving oral anticoagulation therapy. Conclusions Assessment of liver dysfunction according to the MELD scoring system provides additional risk information in ambulatory patients with heart failure. PMID:23563127

  1. Ambulatory heart rate range predicts mode-specific mortality and hospitalisation in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Cubbon, Richard M; Ruff, Naomi; Groves, David; Eleuteri, Antonio; Denby, Christine; Kearney, Lorraine; Ali, Noman; Walker, Andrew M N; Jamil, Haqeel; Gierula, John; Gale, Chris P; Batin, Phillip D; Nolan, James; Shah, Ajay M; Fox, Keith A A; Sapsford, Robert J; Witte, Klaus K; Kearney, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to define the prognostic value of the heart rate range during a 24 h period in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods Prospective observational cohort study of 791 patients with CHF associated with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Mode-specific mortality and hospitalisation were linked with ambulatory heart rate range (AHRR; calculated as maximum minus minimum heart rate using 24 h Holter monitor data, including paced and non-sinus complexes) in univariate and multivariate analyses. Findings were then corroborated in a validation cohort of 408 patients with CHF with preserved or reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Results After a mean 4.1 years of follow-up, increasing AHRR was associated with reduced risk of all-cause, sudden, non-cardiovascular and progressive heart failure death in univariate analyses. After accounting for characteristics that differed between groups above and below median AHRR using multivariate analysis, AHRR remained strongly associated with all-cause mortality (HR 0.991/bpm increase in AHRR (95% CI 0.999 to 0.982); p=0.046). AHRR was not associated with the risk of any non-elective hospitalisation, but was associated with heart-failure-related hospitalisation. AHRR was modestly associated with the SD of normal-to-normal beats (R2=0.2; p<0.001) and with peak exercise-test heart rate (R2=0.33; p<0.001). Analysis of the validation cohort revealed AHRR to be associated with all-cause and mode-specific death as described in the derivation cohort. Conclusions AHRR is a novel and readily available prognosticator in patients with CHF, which may reflect autonomic tone and exercise capacity. PMID:26674986

  2. Influence of heart failure on nucleolar organization and protein expression in human hearts

    SciTech Connect

    Rosello-Lleti, Esther; Rivera, Miguel; Cortes, Raquel; Azorin, Inmaculada; Sirera, Rafael; Martinez-Dolz, Luis; Hove, Leif; Cinca, Juan; Lago, Francisca; Gonzalez-Juanatey, Jose R.; Salvador, Antonio; Portoles, Manuel

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heart failure alters nucleolar morphology and organization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nucleolin expression is significant increased in ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ventricular function of heart failure patients was related with nucleolin levels. -- Abstract: We investigate for the first time the influence of heart failure (HF) on nucleolar organization and proteins in patients with ischemic (ICM) or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). A total of 71 human hearts from ICM (n = 38) and DCM (n = 27) patients, undergoing heart transplantation and control donors (n = 6), were analysed by western-blotting, RT-PCR and cell biology methods. When we compared protein levels according to HF etiology, nucleolin was increased in both ICM (117%, p < 0.05) and DCM (141%, p < 0.01). Moreover, mRNA expression were also upregulated in ICM (1.46-fold, p < 0.05) and DCM (1.70-fold, p < 0.05. Immunofluorescence studies showed that the highest intensity of nucleolin was into nucleolus (p < 0.0001), and it was increased in pathological hearts (p < 0.0001). Ultrastructure analysis by electron microscopy showed an increase in the nucleus and nucleolus size in ICM (17%, p < 0.05 and 131%, p < 0.001) and DCM (56%, p < 0.01 and 69%, p < 0.01). Nucleolar organization was influenced by HF irrespective of etiology, increasing fibrillar centers (p < 0.001), perinucleolar chromatin (p < 0.01) and dense fibrillar components (p < 0.01). Finally, left ventricular function parameters were related with nucleolin levels in ischemic hearts (p < 0.0001). The present study demonstrates that HF influences on morphology and organization of nucleolar components, revealing changes in the expression and in the levels of nucleolin protein.

  3. Differential clinical characteristics and prognosis of intraventricular conduction defects in patients with chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Cinca, Juan; Mendez, Ana; Puig, Teresa; Ferrero, Andreu; Roig, Eulalia; Vazquez, Rafael; Gonzalez-Juanatey, Jose R.; Alonso-Pulpon, Luis; Delgado, Juan; Brugada, Josep; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Brugada, J.; Batlle, M.; Berruezo, A.; Hevia, S.; Mont, L.; Pérez-Villa, F.; Cinca, J.; Roig, E.; Bayés de Luna, A.; Borrás, X.; Carreras, F.; Ferrero, A.; Guerra, J.M.; Hove-Madsen, L.; Jorge, E.; Martínez, R.; Padró, J.; Puig, T.; Ribas, N.; Viñolas, X.; Alvarez-Garcia, J.; González-Juanatey, J.R.; Bandín, M.; Eiras, S.; Fernández-Hernández, L.; García-Acuña, J.; Gómez-Otero, I.; Grigorian-Shamagian, L.; Lago, F.; Manzón, P.; Moure, M.; Otero-Raviña, F.; Otero-Santiago, F.; Rodino Janeiro, B.K.; Rubio, J.; Salgado, A.; Seoane, A.; Varela, A.; Lear, P.V.; Fernández-Cruz, A.; Alvarez de Arcaya Vicente, A.; Avila, M.; Bordiu, E.; Calle, L.; Fernández-Pinilla, C.; Gómez-Garre, D.; González-Rubio, L.; Marco, J.; Martell, N.; Muñoz-Pacheco, P.; Ortega, A.; Patiño, R.; Pedrajas, J.; Reinares, L.; Pérez-Villacastín, J.; Bover, R.; Cobos, M.; García-Quintanilla, J.; Moreno, J.; Pérez-Castellano, N.; Pérez-Serrano, M.; Vila, I.; Delgado, J.F.; Arribas, F.; Escribano, P.; Flox, A.; Jiménez López-Guarch, C.; Paradina, M.; Ruiz-Cano, J.; Sáenz de la Calzada, C.; Salguero, R.; Sánchez-Sánchez, V.; Tello de Meneses, R.; Vicente-Hernández, M.; Alonso-Pulpón, L.; Fernández -Lozano, I.; García-Pavía, P.; García-Touchard, A.; Gómez-Bueno, M.; Márquez, J.; Segovia, J.; Silva, L.; Vázquez-Mosquera, M.; Valdés, M.; García-Alberola, A.; Garrido, I.; Pascual-Figal, D. A.; Pastor-Pérez, F.J.; Sánchez-Más, J.; Tornel, P.; Rivera, M.; Almenar, L.; Cortés, R.; Martínez-Dolz, L.; Montero, J.; Portolés, M.; Roselló-Lleti, E.; Salvador, A.; Vila, V.; Vázquez, R.; Cubero, J.; Fernández-Palacín, A.; García-Medina, D.; García-Rey, S.; Laguna, E.; Leal del Ojo, J.; Miñano, F.; Pastor-Torres, L.; Pavón, R.; Pérez-Navarro, A.; Villagómez, D.; Vázquez, R.; Arana, R.; Bartolomé, D.; Cabeza, P.; Calle-Pérez, G.; Camacho, F.; Cano, L.; Carrillo, A.; Díaz-Retamino, E.; Escolar, V.; Fernández-Rivero, R.; Gamaza, S.; Giráldes, A.; Hernández-Vicente, N.; Lagares, M.; López-Benítez, J.; Marante, M.; Otero, E.; Pedregal, J.; Sancho-Jaldón, M.; Sevillano, R.; Zayas, R.; Verdú, J.M.; Aguilar, S.; Aizpurúa, M.; Alguacil, F.; Casacuberta, J.; Cerain, J.; Domingo, M.; García-Lareo, M.; Herrero-Melechón, J.; López-Pareja, N.; Mena, A.; Pérez-Orcero, A.; Rodríguez- Cristóbal, J.; Rozas, M.; Sorribes, J.; Torán, P.; Worner, F.; Barta, L.; Bravo, C.; Cabau, J.; Casanova, J.; Daga, B.; De la Puerta, I.; Hernández-Martín, I.; Piñol, E.; Pueo, E.; Torres, G.; Troncoso, A.; Viles, D.; Bardají, A.; Mercè, J.; Sanz-Girgas, E.; Valdovinos, P.; Aramburu, O.; Arias, J.; García-González, C.; Alonso, M.; Bischofberger, C.; Domínguez-De Pablos, G.; Jiménez-Cervantes, D.; Ureña, I.; Grau-Sepúlveda, A.; Fiol, C.; Pericas, P.; Villalonga, M.; Orosa, P.; Agüero, J.; Planas-Aymá, F.; Grau-Amoros, J.; Planas-Comes, F.; San Vicente, L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Intraventricular conduction defects (IVCDs) can impair prognosis of heart failure (HF), but their specific impact is not well established. This study aimed to analyse the clinical profile and outcomes of HF patients with LBBB, right bundle branch block (RBBB), left anterior fascicular block (LAFB), and no IVCDs. Methods and results Clinical variables and outcomes after a median follow-up of 21 months were analysed in 1762 patients with chronic HF and LBBB (n = 532), RBBB (n = 134), LAFB (n = 154), and no IVCDs (n = 942). LBBB was associated with more marked LV dilation, depressed LVEF, and mitral valve regurgitation. Patients with RBBB presented overt signs of congestive HF and depressed right ventricular motion. The LAFB group presented intermediate clinical characteristics, and patients with no IVCDs were more often women with less enlarged left ventricles and less depressed LVEF. Death occurred in 332 patients (interannual mortality = 10.8%): cardiovascular in 257, extravascular in 61, and of unknown origin in 14 patients. Cardiac death occurred in 230 (pump failure in 171 and sudden death in 59). An adjusted Cox model showed higher risk of cardiac death and pump failure death in the LBBB and RBBB than in the LAFB and the no IVCD groups. Conclusion LBBB and RBBB are associated with different clinical profiles and both are independent predictors of increased risk of cardiac death in patients with HF. A more favourable prognosis was observed in patients with LAFB and in those free of IVCDs. Further research in HF patients with RBBB is warranted. PMID:23512097

  4. Rationale and benefits of trimetazidine by acting on cardiac metabolism in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lopatin, Yuri M; Rosano, Giuseppe M C; Fragasso, Gabriele; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Seferovic, Petar M; Gowdak, Luis Henrique W; Vinereanu, Dragos; Hamid, Magdy Abdel; Jourdain, Patrick; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2016-01-15

    Heart failure is a systemic and multiorgan syndrome with metabolic failure as a fundamental mechanism. As a consequence of its impaired metabolism, other processes are activated in the failing heart, further exacerbating the progression of heart failure. Recent evidence suggests that modulating cardiac energy metabolism by reducing fatty acid oxidation and/or increasing glucose oxidation represents a promising approach to the treatment of patients with heart failure. Clinical trials have demonstrated that the adjunct of trimetazidine to the conventional medical therapy improves symptoms, cardiac function and prognosis in patients with heart failure without exerting negative hemodynamic effects. This review focuses on the rationale and clinical benefits of trimetazidine by acting on cardiac metabolism in heart failure, and aims to draw attention to the readiness of this agent to be included in all the major guidelines dealing with heart failure. PMID:26618252

  5. HeartDrive: A Broader Concept of Interoperability to Implement Care Processes for Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Lettere, M; Guerri, D; La Manna, S; Groccia, M C; Lofaro, D; Conforti, D

    2016-01-01

    This paper originates from the HeartDrive project, a platform of services for a more effective, efficient and integrated management of heart failure and comorbidities. HeartDrive establishes a cooperative approach based on the concepts of continuity of care and extreme, patient oriented, customization of diagnostic, therapeutic and follow-up procedures. Definition and development of evidence based processes, migration from parceled and episode based healthcare provisioning to a workflow oriented model and increased awareness and responsibility of citizens towards their own health and wellness are key objectives of HeartDrive. In two scenarios for rehabilitation and home monitoring we show how the results are achieved by providing a solution that highlights a broader concept of cooperation that goes beyond technical interoperability towards semantic interoperability explicitly sharing process definitions, decision support strategies and information semantics. PMID:27225572

  6. Activation of endothelial β-catenin signaling induces heart failure.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Akito; Naito, Atsuhiko T; Sumida, Tomokazu; Nomura, Seitaro; Shibamoto, Masato; Higo, Tomoaki; Okada, Katsuki; Sakai, Taku; Hashimoto, Akihito; Kuramoto, Yuki; Oka, Toru; Lee, Jong-Kook; Harada, Mutsuo; Ueda, Kazutaka; Shiojima, Ichiro; Limbourg, Florian P; Adams, Ralf H; Noda, Tetsuo; Sakata, Yasushi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei

    2016-01-01

    Activation of β-catenin-dependent canonical Wnt signaling in endothelial cells plays a key role in angiogenesis during development and ischemic diseases, however, other roles of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in endothelial cells remain poorly understood. Here, we report that sustained activation of β-catenin signaling in endothelial cells causes cardiac dysfunction through suppressing neuregulin-ErbB pathway in the heart. Conditional gain-of-function mutation of β-catenin, which activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in Bmx-positive arterial endothelial cells (Bmx/CA mice) led to progressive cardiac dysfunction and 100% mortality at 40 weeks after tamoxifen treatment. Electron microscopic analysis revealed dilatation of T-tubules and degeneration of mitochondria in cardiomyocytes of Bmx/CA mice, which are similar to the changes observed in mice with decreased neuregulin-ErbB signaling. Endothelial expression of Nrg1 and cardiac ErbB signaling were suppressed in Bmx/CA mice. The cardiac dysfunction of Bmx/CA mice was ameliorated by administration of recombinant neuregulin protein. These results collectively suggest that sustained activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in endothelial cells might be a cause of heart failure through suppressing neuregulin-ErbB signaling, and that the Wnt/β-catenin/NRG axis in cardiac endothelial cells might become a therapeutic target for heart failure. PMID:27146149

  7. Glycoproteins identified from heart failure and treatment models

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuang; Chen, Lijun; Sun, Shisheng; Shah, Punit; Yang, Weiming; Zhang, Bai; Zhang, Zhen; Chan, Daniel W.; Kass, David A.; van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Conduction abnormalities can lead to dyssynchronous contraction, which significantly worsens morbidity and mortality of heart failure. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) can reverse ventricular remodeling and improve cardiac function. Although the underlying molecular changes are unknown, the use of a canine model of dyssynchrony heart failure (DHF) and CRT has shown that there are global changes across the cardiac proteome. This study determines changes in serum glycoprotein concentration from DHF and CRT compared to normal. We hypothesize that CRT invokes protective or advantageous pathways that can be reflected in the circulating proteome. A two prong discovery approaches were carried out on pooled normal, DHF and CRT samples composed of individual canine serum to determine the overall protein concentration and the N-linked glycosites of circulating glycoproteins. The level of the glycoproteins was altered in DHF and CRT compared to control sera, with 63 glycopeptides substantially increased in DHF and/or CRT. Among the 32 elevated glycosite-containing peptides in DHF, 13 glycopeptides were reverted to normal level after CRT therapy. We further verify the changes of glycopeptides using label-free LC-MS from individual canine serum. Circulating glycoproteins such as alpha-fetoprotein, alpha-2-macroglobulin, galectin-3-binding protein, collectin-10 show association to failing heart and CRT treatment model. PMID:25141849

  8. Reversal of Mitochondrial Transhydrogenase Causes Oxidative Stress in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Alexander G; von Hardenberg, Albrecht; Hohl, Mathias; Löffler, Joachim R; Kohlhaas, Michael; Becker, Janne; Reil, Jan-Christian; Kazakov, Andrey; Bonnekoh, Julia; Stadelmaier, Moritz; Puhl, Sarah-Lena; Wagner, Michael; Bogeski, Ivan; Cortassa, Sonia; Kappl, Reinhard; Pasieka, Bastian; Lafontaine, Michael; Lancaster, C Roy D; Blacker, Thomas S; Hall, Andrew R; Duchen, Michael R; Kästner, Lars; Lipp, Peter; Zeller, Tanja; Müller, Christian; Knopp, Andreas; Laufs, Ulrich; Böhm, Michael; Hoth, Markus; Maack, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a central role in most aging-related diseases. ROS are produced at the respiratory chain that demands NADH for electron transport and are eliminated by enzymes that require NADPH. The nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (Nnt) is considered a key antioxidative enzyme based on its ability to regenerate NADPH from NADH. Here, we show that pathological metabolic demand reverses the direction of the Nnt, consuming NADPH to support NADH and ATP production, but at the cost of NADPH-linked antioxidative capacity. In heart, reverse-mode Nnt is the dominant source for ROS during pressure overload. Due to a mutation of the Nnt gene, the inbred mouse strain C57BL/6J is protected from oxidative stress, heart failure, and death, making its use in cardiovascular research problematic. Targeting Nnt-mediated ROS with the tetrapeptide SS-31 rescued mortality in pressure overload-induced heart failure and could therefore have therapeutic potential in patients with this syndrome. PMID:26256392

  9. Activation of endothelial β-catenin signaling induces heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Akito; Naito, Atsuhiko T.; Sumida, Tomokazu; Nomura, Seitaro; Shibamoto, Masato; Higo, Tomoaki; Okada, Katsuki; Sakai, Taku; Hashimoto, Akihito; Kuramoto, Yuki; Oka, Toru; Lee, Jong-Kook; Harada, Mutsuo; Ueda, Kazutaka; Shiojima, Ichiro; Limbourg, Florian P.; Adams, Ralf H.; Noda, Tetsuo; Sakata, Yasushi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei

    2016-01-01

    Activation of β-catenin-dependent canonical Wnt signaling in endothelial cells plays a key role in angiogenesis during development and ischemic diseases, however, other roles of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in endothelial cells remain poorly understood. Here, we report that sustained activation of β-catenin signaling in endothelial cells causes cardiac dysfunction through suppressing neuregulin-ErbB pathway in the heart. Conditional gain-of-function mutation of β-catenin, which activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in Bmx-positive arterial endothelial cells (Bmx/CA mice) led to progressive cardiac dysfunction and 100% mortality at 40 weeks after tamoxifen treatment. Electron microscopic analysis revealed dilatation of T-tubules and degeneration of mitochondria in cardiomyocytes of Bmx/CA mice, which are similar to the changes observed in mice with decreased neuregulin-ErbB signaling. Endothelial expression of Nrg1 and cardiac ErbB signaling were suppressed in Bmx/CA mice. The cardiac dysfunction of Bmx/CA mice was ameliorated by administration of recombinant neuregulin protein. These results collectively suggest that sustained activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in endothelial cells might be a cause of heart failure through suppressing neuregulin-ErbB signaling, and that the Wnt/β-catenin/NRG axis in cardiac endothelial cells might become a therapeutic target for heart failure. PMID:27146149

  10. Dietary Sodium Modulation of Aldosterone Activation and Renal Function During the Progression of Experimental Heart Failure Miller: Dietary Sodium and Early Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Wayne L.; Borgeson, Daniel D.; Grantham, J. Aaron; Luchner, Andreas; Redfield, Margaret M.; Burnett, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Aldosterone activation is central to the sodium-fluid retention that marks the progression of heart failure (HF). The actions of dietary sodium restriction, a mainstay in HF management, on cardiorenal and neuroendocrine adaptations during the progression of HF are poorly understood. The study aim was to assess the role of dietary sodium during the progression of experimental HF. Methods and Results Experimental HF was produced in a canine model by rapid right ventricular pacing which evolves from early mild HF to overt, severe HF. Dogs were fed one of three diets: 1) high sodium [250 mEq (5.8 grams) per day, n=6]; 2) standard sodium [58 mEq (1.3 grams) per day, n=6]; and 3) sodium restriction [11 mEq (0.25 grams) per day, n=6]. During the 38 day study hemodynamics, renal function, renin activity (PRA), and aldosterone were measured. Changes in hemodynamics at 38 days were similar in all three groups, as were changes in renal function. Aldosterone activation was demonstrated in all three groups, however, dietary sodium restriction, in contrast to high sodium, resulted in early (10 days) activation of PRA and aldosterone. High sodium demonstrated significant suppression of aldosterone activation over the course of HF progression. Conclusions Excessive dietary sodium restriction particularly in early stage HF results in early aldosterone activation, while normal and excess sodium intake are associated with delayed or suppressed activation. These findings warrant evaluation in humans to determine if dietary sodium manipulation, particularly during early stage HF, may have a significant impact on neuroendocrine disease progression. PMID:25823360

  11. Monoamine oxidases (MAO) in the pathogenesis of heart failure and ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Kaludercic, Nina; Carpi, Andrea; Menab, Roberta; Lisa, Fabio Di; Paolocci, Nazareno

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights monoamine oxidases (MAO) as another prominent source of oxidative stress. MAO are a class of enzymes located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, deputed to the oxidative breakdown of key neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine, and in the process generate H2O2. All these monoamines are endowed with potent modulatory effects on myocardial function. Thus, when the heart is subjected to chronic neuro-hormonal and/or peripheral hemodynamic stress, the abundance of circulating/tissue monoamines can make MAO-derived H2O2 production particularly prominent. This is the case of acute cardiac damage due to ischemia/reperfusion injury or, on a more chronic stand, of the transition from compensated hypertrophy to overt ventricular dilation/pump failure. Here, we will first briefly discuss mitochondrial status and contribution to acute and chronic cardiac disorders. We will illustrate possible mechanisms by which MAO activity affects cardiac biology and function, along with a discussion as to their role as a prominent source of reactive oxygen species. Finally, we will speculate on why MAO inhibition might have therapeutic value for treating cardiac affections of ischemic and non-ischemic origin. PMID:20869994

  12. Mechanisms of carotid body chemoreflex dysfunction during heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Harold D.; Marcus, Noah J.; Del Rio, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances have drawn interest in the potential for carotid body (CB) ablation or desensitization as an effective strategy for clinical treatment and management of cardio-respiratory diseases including hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and renal failure. These disease states have in common sympathetic overactivity, which plays an important role in the development and progression of the disease and is often associated with breathing dysregulation, which in turn likely mediates or aggravates the autonomic imbalance. Evidence from both chronic heart failure (CHF) patients and animal models indicates that the CB chemoreflex is enhanced in CHF and contributes to the tonic elevation in sympathetic activity and the development of periodic breathing associated with the disease. Although this maladaptive change likely derives from altered function at all levels of the reflex arc, a tonic increase in afferent activity from CB glomus cells is likely to be a main driving force. This report will focus on our understanding of mechanisms that alter CB function in CHF and their potential translational impact on treatment of CHF. PMID:25398713

  13. Dystrophic heart failure blocked by membrane sealant poloxamer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Soichiro; Townsend, Dewayne; Michele, Daniel E.; Favre, Elizabeth G.; Day, Sharlene M.; Metzger, Joseph M.

    2005-08-01

    Dystrophin deficiency causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in humans, an inherited and progressive disease of striated muscle deterioration that frequently involves pronounced cardiomyopathy. Heart failure is the second leading cause of fatalities in DMD. Progress towards defining the molecular basis of disease in DMD has mostly come from studies on skeletal muscle, with comparatively little attention directed to cardiac muscle. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in cardiac myocytes may differ significantly from skeletal myofibres; this is underscored by the presence of significant cardiac disease in patients with truncated or reduced levels of dystrophin but without skeletal muscle disease. Here we show that intact, isolated dystrophin-deficient cardiac myocytes have reduced compliance and increased susceptibility to stretch-mediated calcium overload, leading to cell contracture and death, and that application of the membrane sealant poloxamer 188 corrects these defects in vitro. In vivo administration of poloxamer 188 to dystrophic mice instantly improved ventricular geometry and blocked the development of acute cardiac failure during a dobutamine-mediated stress protocol. Once issues relating to optimal dosing and long-term effects of poloxamer 188 in humans have been resolved, chemical-based membrane sealants could represent a new therapeutic approach for preventing or reversing the progression of cardiomyopathy and heart failure in muscular dystrophy.

  14. A Patient with Heart Failure and Worsening Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    There is high prevalence of CKD, defined by reduced GFR, in patients with heart failure. Reduced kidney function is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in this patient population. The cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) involves a bidirectional relationship between the heart and kidneys whereby dysfunction in either may exacerbate the function of the other, but this syndrome has been difficult to precisely define because it has many complex physiologic, biochemical, and hormonal abnormalities. The pathophysiology of CRS is not completely understood, but potential mechanisms include reduced kidney perfusion due to decreased forward flow, increased right ventricular and venous pressure, and neurohormonal adaptations. Treatment options include inotropic medications; diuretics; ultrafiltration; and medications, such as β-blockers, inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and more novel treatments that focus on unique aspects of the pathophysiology. Recent observational studies suggest that treatments that result in a decrease in venous pressure and lead to hemoconcentration may be associated with improved outcomes. Patients with CRS that is not responsive to medical interventions should be considered for ventricular assist devices, heart transplantation, or combined heart and kidney transplantation. PMID:24763864

  15. Oxidative Stress and Heart Failure in Altered Thyroid States

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Pallavi; Samanta, Luna

    2012-01-01

    Increased or reduced action of thyroid hormone on certain molecular pathways in the heart and vasculature causes relevant cardiovascular derangements. It is well established that hyperthyroidism induces a hyperdynamic cardiovascular state, which is associated with a faster heart rate, enhanced left ventricular systolic and diastolic function whereas hypothyroidism is characterized by the opposite changes. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism represent opposite clinical conditions, albeit not mirror images. Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested the involvement of ROS tissue damage under altered thyroid status. Altered-thyroid state-linked changes in heart modify their susceptibility to oxidants and the extent of the oxidative damage they suffer following oxidative challenge. Chronic increase in the cellular levels of ROS can lead to a catastrophic cycle of DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, further ROS generation and cellular injury. Thus, these cellular events might play an important role in the development and progression of myocardial remodeling and heart failure in altered thyroid states (hypo- and hyper-thyroidism). The present review aims at elucidating the various signaling pathways mediated via ROS and their modulation under altered thyroid state and the possibility of antioxidant therapy. PMID:22649319

  16. Heart Failure: Advanced Development in Genetics and Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Xu, Wei-wei; Hu, Shen-jiang

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex pathophysiological syndrome that arises from a primary defect in the ability of the heart to take in and/or eject sufficient blood. Genetic mutations associated with familial dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy can contribute to the various pathologies of HF. Therefore, genetic screening could be an approach for guiding individualized therapies and surveillance. In addition, epigenetic regulation occurs via key mechanisms, including ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, histone modification, and RNA-based mechanisms. MicroRNA is also a hot spot in HF research. This review gives an overview of genetic mutations associated with cardiomyopathy and the roles of some epigenetic mechanisms in HF. PMID:25949994

  17. Telemonitoring in chronic heart failure: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Giamouzis, Gregory; Mastrogiannis, Dimos; Koutrakis, Konstantinos; Karayannis, George; Parisis, Charalambos; Rountas, Chris; Adreanides, Elias; Dafoulas, George E; Stafylas, Panagiotis C; Skoularigis, John; Giacomelli, Sara; Olivari, Zoran; Triposkiadis, Filippos

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a growing epidemic with the annual number of hospitalizations constantly increasing over the last decades for HF as a primary or secondary diagnosis. Despite the emergence of novel therapeutic approached that can prolong life and shorten hospital stay, HF patients will be needing rehospitalization and will often have a poor prognosis. Telemonitoring is a novel diagnostic modality that has been suggested to be beneficial for HF patients. Telemonitoring is viewed as a means of recording physiological data, such as body weight, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and electrocardiogram recordings, by portable devices and transmitting these data remotely (via a telephone line, a mobile phone or a computer) to a server where they can be stored, reviewed and analyzed by the research team. In this systematic review of all randomized clinical trials evaluating telemonitoring in chronic HF, we aim to assess whether telemonitoring provides any substantial benefit in this patient population. PMID:22720184

  18. Exercise Intolerance in Heart Failure: Did We Forget the Brain?

    PubMed

    Brassard, Patrice; Gustafsson, Finn

    2016-04-01

    Exercise tolerance is affected in patients with heart failure (HF). Although the inability of the heart to pump blood to the working muscle has been the conventional mechanism proposed to explain the lowered capacity of patients with HF to exercise, evidence suggests that the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with their exercise intolerance is more complex. Recent findings indicate that lowered cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygenation likely represent limiting factors for exercise capacity in patients with HF. After an overview of cardiac and peripheral responses during acute and chronic exercise in healthy individuals, we succinctly review cardiac and noncardiac mechanisms by which HF influences exercise tolerance. We then consider how HF, comorbidity, and HF treatment influence CBF and oxygenation at rest and during exercise. Finally, we provide suggestions for further research to improve our understanding of the role of the brain in exercise intolerance in HF. PMID:26875016

  19. Reparative resynchronization in ischemic heart failure: an emerging strategy

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Satsuki; Terzic, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac dyssynchrony refers to disparity in cardiac wall motion, a serious consequence of myocardial infarction associated with poor outcome. Infarct-induced scar is refractory to device-based cardiac resynchronization therapy, which relies on viable tissue. Leveraging the prospect of structural and functional regeneration, reparative resynchronization has emerged as a potentially achievable strategy. In proof-of-concept studies, stem-cell therapy eliminates contractile deficit originating from infarcted regions and secures long-term synchronization with tissue repair. Limited clinical experience suggests benefit of cell interventions in acute and chronic ischemic heart disease as adjuvant to standard of care. A regenerative resynchronization option for dyssynchronous heart failure thus merits validation. PMID:24840208

  20. Update on Obesity and Obesity Paradox in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Sharma, Abhishek; Alpert, Martin A; De Schutter, Alban; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Milani, Richard V; Ventura, Hector O

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in most of the Westernized world. Overweightness and obesity adversely impact cardiac structure and function, including on both the right and, especially, left sides of the heart, with adverse affects on systolic and, especially, diastolic ventricular function. Therefore, it is not surprising that obesity markedly increases the prevalence of heart failure (HF). Nevertheless, many studies have documented an obesity paradox in large cohorts with HF, where overweight and obese have a better prognosis, at least in the short-term, compared with lean HF patients. Although weight loss clearly improves cardiac structure and function and reduces symptoms in HF, there are no large studies on the impact of weight loss on clinical events in HF, preventing definitive guidelines on optimal body composition in patients with HF. PMID:26721180

  1. Charting a Roadmap for Heart Failure Biomarker Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Tariq; Fiuzat, Mona; Pencina, Michael J.; Geller, Nancy L.; Zannad, Faiez; Cleland, John G. F.; Snider, James V.; Blankenberg, Stephan; Adams, Kirkwood F.; Redberg, Rita F.; Kim, Jae B.; Mascette, Alice; Mentz, Robert J.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Felker, G. Michael; Januzzi, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure is a syndrome with a pathophysiological basis that can be traced to dysfunction in several interconnected molecular pathways. Identification of biomarkers of heart failure that allow measurement of the disease on a molecular level has resulted in enthusiasm for their use in prognostication and selection of appropriate therapies. However, despite considerable amounts of information available on numerous biomarkers, inconsistent research methodologies and lack of clinical correlations have made bench-to-bedside translations rare and left the literature with countless publications of varied quality. There is a need for a systematic and collaborative approach aimed at definitively studying the clinical benefits of novel biomarkers. In this review, on the basis of input from academia, industry, and governmental agencies, we propose a systematized approach based on adherence to specific quality measures for studies looking to augment current prediction model or use biomarkers to tailor therapeutics. We suggest that study quality, rather than results, should determine publication and propose a system for grading biomarker studies. We outline the need for collaboration between clinical investigators and statisticians to introduce more advanced statistical methodologies into the field of biomarkers that would allow for data from a large number of variables to be distilled into clinically actionable information. Lastly, we propose the creation of a heart failure biomarker consortium that would allow for a comprehensive list of biomarkers to be concomitantly analyzed in a pooled sample of randomized clinical trials and hypotheses to be generated for testing in biomarker-guided trials. Such a consortium could collaborate in sharing samples to identify biomarkers, undertake meta- analyses on completed trials, and spearhead clinical trials to test the clinical utility of new biomarkers. PMID:24929535

  2. Correlates of Quality of Life in Rural Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, Thomas; Doctorvaladan, Sahar; Southard, Jeffrey A.; Singh, Satinder; Fekete, Anne; Marie, Kate; Moser, Debra K.; Pelter, Michelle M.; Robinson, Susan; Wilson, Machelle D.; Cooper, Lawton; Dracup, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Background There is abundant research indicating poor physical, psychological and social functioning of patients with chronic heart failure (HF), a reality that can lead to poor health related quality of life (HRQoL). Little is known about the experience of rural HF patients. Methods and Results This study was part of a randomized clinical trial titled Rural Education to Improve Outcomes in Heart Failure (REMOTE-HF) designed to test an education and counseling intervention to improve self-care in patients with HF. We evaluated 612 rural patients. Multiple validated questionnaires were administered to assess patient perceptions of health and health literacy. Baseline factors were collected and compared to baseline QoL measures only. Patients’ HRQoL was assessed using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure (MLWHF) scale. The data were analyzed using a general linear model to test the association of various patient characteristics with quality of life in rural patients with HF. Patients were 65.8 (+12.9) years of age. The majority were male (58.7%), married (56.4%) and had completed a high school education (80.9%). Factors associated with reduced quality of life amongst this population include: geographic location, younger age, male gender, higher NYHA class, worse HF knowledge, poorer perceived control and symptoms of depression or anxiety. The data provided no evidence of an association between left ventricular ejection fraction and quality of life. Conclusions This study of rural HF patients confirms previously identified factors associated with perceptions of quality of life. However, further study is warranted with an urban control group. PMID:25146960

  3. A new approach to treatment of acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Steven R

    2016-05-01

    Conventional therapies for acute decongestion have yielded uniformly poor results in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). The failure of current strategies may be due to advanced disease in hospitalized patients, incomplete therapy, inherent limitations to existing therapy, or some combination of all three factors. Loop diuretics are the mainstay of current therapy and are in theory not ideal since while producing immediate intravascular volume reduction and relief of symptoms they activate neurohormonal forces that are deleterious to both the heart and the kidney. Ultrafiltration is an alternative to loop diuretics but has not proved advantageous in the setting of renal dysfunction, and if not carefully applied may also aggravate neurohormonal imbalance. In theory decongestive therapy for AHF should remove large volumes of fluid quickly and safely and improve symptoms, particularly dyspnea, without aggravating renal dysfunction or causing neurohormonal activation. Several studies have now suggested that the use of aquaretics such as antagonists to the V2 receptor for arginine vasopressin may be useful as adjunctive therapy in AHF, particularly when renal dysfunction and/or hyponatremia are present. These agents leverage osmotic forces to produce tissue decongestion while causing a water diuresis. They do not adversely affect renal function or neurohormonal balance. Building on the current base of knowledge about outcomes in AHF together with the only study of vasopressin antagonists as short-term monotherapy in chronic heart failure, it would be reasonable to design a trial in AHF in which the use of loop diuretics was minimized in favor of these agents. PMID:26946929

  4. Liver Enzymes and Uric acid in Acute Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Vakilian, Farveh; Rafighdoost, Abbas Ali; Rafighdoost, Amir Hossein; Amin, Ahmad; Salehi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute heart failure (AHF) is defined as the new onset or recurrence of gradual or rapidly worsening signs and symptoms of heart failure, requiring urgent or emergent therapy. Objectives: This study attempts to assess the association of liver function tests (LFT) and uric acid level with in hospital outcome and echocardiography parameters, in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients (aged 16 - 90 years, 60% men) admitted with AHF were enrolled. LFTs and uric acid levels were assessed on first day and before discharge, and patients were followed for 3 months. Results: In-hospital outcomes were considered. Mean Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) was 35% (20 - 45%). Mean Uric acid level was 8.4 mg/dL, significantly higher than chronic HF and normal groups (P < 0.02). Elevated liver enzymes were seen in 52% patients, mostly (87%) in transaminases. Liver enzymes were decreased in 85% patients before discharge. LFT and uric acid levels were inversely and significantly correlated with LVEF on echocardiography (P = 0.02), but not with diastolic parameters. Although there was no significant correlation between uric acid level and in-hospital mortality, risk of intubation and rehospitalization in 3 months, enzyme levels increased in these groups. Increased aspartate transaminase (AST level) was associated with inotrope infusion in AHF patients (42 vs. 82 mg/dL, P = 0.03). Conclusions: Abnormal transaminases and uric acid levels are seen in AHF patients. Increased AST levels may be a predictor of the need for inotrope during hospital course in these patients. PMID:26528447

  5. Multimarker testing with ST2 in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Richards, A Mark; Maisel, Alan S; Mueller, Christian; Ky, Bonnie

    2015-04-01

    Despite important progress in recent decades, mortality remains high for patients with chronic heart failure. Risk stratification may be refined by the use of biomarkers for different pathophysiological processes that established mortality risk factors do not directly reflect. Biomarkers that are currently available can provide information about at least 7 pathobiological processes operative in HF, help to identify the specific processes involved in individual patients, and aid in constructing management plans. However, the additional prognostic information gained by any biomarker over a clinical risk model plus other biomarkers needs to be determined with adequate statistical tools. A major problem in selecting a biomarker profile is the proportional increase in economic burden; thus, the addition of any biomarker to a profile should be justified by adequate discrimination, calibration, reclassification, and likelihood analyses. Three studies that implemented such rigorous analyses have assessed a multimarker panel in chronic heart failure that incorporated the biomarker ST2: the Penn HF Study, the Barcelona Study, and the ProBNP Outpatient Tailored Chronic Heart Failure (PROTECT) biomarker substudy. In all 3 studies, a multimarker panel appeared to provide significant information over conventional risk stratification. The latter 2 reports proposed that ST2 might be superior to natriuretic peptides. The Barcelona Bio-HF calculator (www.bcnbiohfcalculator.cat) is a novel risk calculator that considers clinical variables, treatment, and biomarkers (i.e., N terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP], ST2, and high sensitivity troponin T [hsTnT]). The optimal panel of markers, the change in these markers over time, and how these changes might help guide therapeutic interventions remain to be defined. PMID:25697916

  6. Cognitive Status in Patients Hospitalized with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Seth N.; Hajduk, Alexandra M.; McManus, David D.; Darling, Chad E.; Gurwitz, Jerry H.; Spencer, Frederick A.; Goldberg, Robert J.; Saczynski, Jane S.

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Background Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent in patients with heart failure and is associated with adverse outcomes. However, whether specific cognitive abilities (e.g., memory versus executive function) are impaired in heart failure has not been fully examined. We investigated the prevalence of impairment in three cognitive domains in patients hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and the associations of impairment with demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods The sample included 744 patients hospitalized with ADHF (mean age = 72 years, 46% female) at 5 medical centers. Impairment was assessed in three cognitive domains (memory, processing speed, executive function) using standardized measures. Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained from a structured interview and medical record review. Results A total of 593 of 744 (80%) patients were impaired in at least one cognitive domain; 32%, 31%, and 17% of patients were impaired in one, two, or all three cognitive domains, respectively. Patients impaired in more than one cognitive domain were significantly older, had less formal education, and had more non-cardiac comorbidities (all p’s < 0.05). In multivariable adjusted analyses, patients with older age and lower education had higher odds of impairment in two or more cognitive domains. Depressed patients had twice the odds of being impaired in all three cognitive domains (OR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.08, 3.64). Conclusion Impairments in executive function, processing speed and memory are common among patients hospitalized for ADHF. Recognition of these prevalent cognitive deficits is critical for the clinical management of these high risk patients. PMID:25458656

  7. Charting a roadmap for heart failure biomarker studies.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Tariq; Fiuzat, Mona; Pencina, Michael J; Geller, Nancy L; Zannad, Faiez; Cleland, John G F; Snider, James V; Blankenberg, Stephan; Adams, Kirkwood F; Redberg, Rita F; Kim, Jae B; Mascette, Alice; Mentz, Robert J; O'Connor, Christopher M; Felker, G Michael; Januzzi, James L

    2014-10-01

    Heart failure is a syndrome with a pathophysiological basis that can be traced to dysfunction in several interconnected molecular pathways. Identification of biomarkers of heart failure that allow measurement of the disease on a molecular level has resulted in enthusiasm for their use in prognostication and selection of appropriate therapies. However, despite considerable amounts of information available on numerous biomarkers, inconsistent research methodologies and lack of clinical correlations have made bench-to-bedside translations rare and left the literature with countless publications of varied quality. There is a need for a systematic and collaborative approach aimed at definitively studying the clinical benefits of novel biomarkers. In this review, on the basis of input from academia, industry, and governmental agencies, we propose a systematized approach based on adherence to specific quality measures for studies looking to augment current prediction model or use biomarkers to tailor therapeutics. We suggest that study quality, rather than results, should determine publication and propose a system for grading biomarker studies. We outline the need for collaboration between clinical investigators and statisticians to introduce more advanced statistical methodologies into the field of biomarkers that would allow for data from a large number of variables to be distilled into clinically actionable information. Lastly, we propose the creation of a heart failure biomarker consortium that would allow for a comprehensive list of biomarkers to be concomitantly analyzed in a pooled sample of randomized clinical trials and hypotheses to be generated for testing in biomarker-guided trials. Such a consortium could collaborate in sharing samples to identify biomarkers, undertake meta-analyses on completed trials, and spearhead clinical trials to test the clinical utility of new biomarkers. PMID:24929535

  8. Critical care for paediatric patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Costello, John M; Mazwi, Mjaye L; McBride, Mary E; Gambetta, Katherine E; Eltayeb, Osama; Epting, Conrad L

    2015-08-01

    This review offers a critical-care perspective on the pathophysiology, monitoring, and management of acute heart failure syndromes in children. An in-depth understanding of the cardiovascular physiological disturbances in this population of patients is essential to correctly interpret clinical signs, symptoms and monitoring data, and to implement appropriate therapies. In this regard, the myocardial force-velocity relationship, the Frank-Starling mechanism, and pressure-volume loops are discussed. A variety of monitoring modalities are used to provide insight into the haemodynamic state, clinical trajectory, and response to treatment. Critical-care treatment of acute heart failure is based on the fundamental principles of optimising the delivery of oxygen and minimising metabolic demands. The former may be achieved by optimising systemic arterial oxygen content and the variables that determine cardiac output: heart rate and rhythm, preload, afterload, and contractility. Metabolic demands may be decreased by a number of ways including positive pressure ventilation, temperature control, and sedation. Mechanical circulatory support should be considered for refractory cases. In the near future, monitoring modalities may be improved by the capture and analysis of complex clinical data such as pressure waveforms and heart rate variability. Using predictive modelling and streaming analytics, these data may then be used to develop automated, real-time clinical decision support tools. Given the barriers to conducting multi-centre trials in this population of patients, the thoughtful analysis of data from multi-centre clinical registries and administrative databases will also likely have an impact on clinical practice. PMID:26377713

  9. Heart Failure: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Medical Treatment Guidelines, and Nursing Management.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Chad; Bush, Nathania

    2015-12-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a debilitating chronic disease and is expected to increase in upcoming years due to demographic changes. Nurses in all settings have an essential role in supporting patients in managing this disease. This article describes the pathophysiology of HF, diagnosis, medical management, and nursing interventions. It is crucial for nurses to understand the pathophysiology of HF and the importance that nursing actions have on enhancing medical management to alleviate symptoms and to deter the advancement of the pathophysiologic state. Such an understanding can ultimately reduce morbidity and mortality and optimize quality of life in patients with HF. PMID:26596665

  10. Biomarkers in paediatric heart failure: is there value?

    PubMed

    Lin, Kimberly Y

    2015-12-01

    A biomarker is any measurable, surrogate characteristic, which reflects either the presence or the absence of a disease state. This can be a blood test, an imaging characteristic, an exercise parameter, and even a genetic profile. Serum biomarkers are particularly attractive in that their cost to the patient is relatively low in terms of money, time, risk, and ease of obtaining a sample. The potential benefits of a good biomarker are manifold. This manuscript will review serum biomarkers of proposed utility in paediatric heart failure, especially with respect to their ability to aid clinical decision making, diagnosis, and prognosis. PMID:26675592

  11. Pimobendan in heart failure therapy--a silver bullet?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sonya G; Miller, Matthew W; Saunders, Ashley B

    2006-01-01

    Pimobendan is a novel agent with properties that are highly desirable in the clinical management of congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to both dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and chronic degenerative valvular disease in dogs. Review of available data suggests that pimobendan is safe, well tolerated, and leads to enhanced quality of life in dogs with CHF secondary to DCM or chronic valvular disease when used in combination with furosemide or other conventional therapies (e.g., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, digoxin). Pimobendan leads to a reduction in mortality from CHF associated with DCM, and ongoing studies are evaluating its effects on mortality associated with chronic valvular disease. PMID:16527909

  12. Autonomic Modulation in Heart Failure: Ready for Prime Time?

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Mark E; Bhardwaj, Anju; Hauptman, Paul J

    2015-11-01

    It has been known for many decades that multiple abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are present in heart failure (HF). Moreover, many of the effective therapies currently used to treat HF have either direct or indirect effects on the ANS. While therapies that block over-activity of the sympathetic nervous system are now standard of care, much less well studied are therapies aimed at augmenting the parasympathetic nervous system. This review will cover recent and ongoing investigations targeting modulation of the ANS, especially highlighting new and ongoing studies directed toward augmenting parasympathetic mechanisms. PMID:26384110

  13. Exercise therapy for heart failure patients in Canada.

    PubMed

    Stone, James A; Hauer, Trina; Haykowsky, Mark; Aggarwal, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary pharmacologic therapies have greatly improved outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). Exercise therapy also has become increasingly recognized and utilized over the last decade. Patients with HF undergo significant central and peripheral deconditioning. Aerobic and resistance training in this patient population may improve quality of life, muscular strength, aerobic capacity, and potentially longevity. Those HF patients who are able to remain adherent to exercise training programs may improve their self-monitoring skills with respect to progressive volume overload, as well as their capacity for independent living, thereby reducing the likelihood of rehospitalization. PMID:25432476

  14. Germany's Disease Management Program: Improving Outcomes in Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kottmair, Stefan; Frye, Christian; Ziegenhagen, Dieter J.

    2005-01-01

    Hospital admissions among patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are a major contributor to health care costs. A comprehensive disease management program for CHF was developed for private and statutory health insurance companies in order to improve health outcomes and reduce rehospitalization rates and costs. The program comprises care calls, written training material, telemetric monitoring, and health reports. Currently, 909 members from six insurance companies are enrolled. Routine evaluation, based on medical data warehouse software, demonstrates benefits in terms of improved health outcomes and processes of care. Economical evaluation of claims data indicates significant cost savings in a pre/post study design. PMID:17288080

  15. The Prevention of Hospital Readmissions in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Ziaeian, Boback; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a growing healthcare burden and one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and readmission. Preventing readmissions for HF patients is an increasing priority for clinicians, researchers, and various stakeholders. The following review will discuss the interventions found to reduce readmissions for patients and improve hospital performance on the 30-day readmission process measure. While evidence-based therapies for HF management have proliferated, the consistent implementation of these therapies and development of new strategies to more effectively prevent readmissions remain areas for continued improvement. PMID:26432556

  16. [Chronic heart failure and its consequences on the partner relationship].

    PubMed

    Sztajzel, Juan

    2015-12-01

    There are presently few data on chronic heart failure (CHF) and its consequences on the partner relationship. The aim of our study was to assess how patients with severe CHF and their female partners were affected in their relationship. First, there was a need to address the issue of sexuality with the doctor because of fear of the occurrence of a cardiac event or an implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock. Second, there was often a significant decrease in libido and erectile dysfunction associated with general depressive symptoms. Finally, the female partners in several couples developed an overprotective behavior leading to resentment and frustration in patients towards them. PMID:26790235

  17. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction - unwinding the diagnosis mystique

    PubMed Central

    Asrar ul Haq, Muhammad; Mutha, Vivek; Rudd, Nima; Hare, David L; Wong, Chiew

    2014-01-01

    A precise diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction is often difficult and requires invasive techniques to determine left ventricular volume, relaxation, and compliance properties. At this current point of time there is no single non-invasive index available to adequately reflect diastolic function, perhaps because of the numerous factors that can alter diastolic function. In most clinical settings, diastolic function is estimated using Doppler echocardiography. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is yet another emerging modality for diastolic function analysis. Here we present a comprehensive review of the various parameters used to assess diastolic function as part of diagnosis of clinical syndrome “Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF)”. PMID:25360388

  18. Cellular basis of triggered arrhythmias in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Pogwizd, Steven M; Bers, Donald M

    2004-02-01

    Ventricular tachycardia in nonischemic heart failure (HF) initiates by a nonreentrant mechanism that appears to be due to triggered activity primarily from delayed afterdepolarizations that arise from altered cellular Ca handling and ionic currents. In HF, factors that conspire to enhance triggered arrhythmias include upregulated Na/Ca exchange, preserved beta-adrenergic responsiveness, and decreased I(K1). Overall, the further delineation of key factors that underlie triggered arrhythmias in HF will provide the basis for new therapeutic strategies directed toward novel targets that can reduce the high incidence of sudden death in patients with HF. PMID:15030791

  19. Telemonitoring in heart failure: Big Brother watching over you.

    PubMed

    Dierckx, R; Pellicori, P; Cleland, J G F; Clark, A L

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of hospitalisations in older people. Several strategies, supported by novel technologies, are now available to monitor patients' health from a distance. Although studies have suggested that remote monitoring may reduce HF hospitalisations and mortality, the study of different patient populations, the use of different monitoring technologies and the use of different endpoints limit the generalisability of the results of the clinical trials reported, so far. In this review, we discuss the existing home monitoring modalities, relevant trials and focus on future directions for telemonitoring. PMID:24972644

  20. Congestive Heart Failure home monitoring pilot study in urban Denver.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Saba; Li, Xin; Semenov, Nikolay; Apodaca-Madrid, Jesús; Mahoor, Mohammad H; Newman, Kimberly E; Long, Carlin S; Neuman, Christine

    2011-01-01

    With a growing number of low-income patients developing Congestive Heart Failure in urban Denver, accessible and affordable solutions are needed to provide home management options. A multidisciplinary team evaluated currently available options for telemonitoring and developed a solution for an initial pilot study. This system is currently used in the Denver Metro area (Colorado) for 44 CHF patients. Preliminary results show this approach is effective and has reduced the patients' average length of stay at the hospital compared to historical data and control patients who do not use a remote monitoring system. PMID:22255008

  1. [Ventilatory disorders in patients with chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Grzywa-Celi?ska, Anna; Dyczko, Monika; R?kas-Wjcik, Agata; Szmygin-Milanowska, Katarzyna; Witczak, Agnieszka; Ostrowski, Stanis?aw; Barud, Wojciech; Mosiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-10-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a condition in which both structure and functional capacity of cardiac muscle are impaired, resulting in ineffective peripheral tissue perfusion. Affecting numerous organs and systems, it is currently considered to be a systemic illness. Among significant, however until now, hardly recognized consequences of CHF there are ventilatory disorders. Their presence may be explained by proximity of heart and lungs inside rib cage or by close functional cooperation between these two organs. Ventilatory disorders clinically manifest as exacerbations of the underlying disease, i.e. intense dyspnea--primarily exertional in nature, over time, present even at rest. On the basis of functional pulmonary tests, ventilatory disorders may be classified into three categories: restrictive, obstructive and most commonly--mixed. The restrictive model is represented in bodypletysmography as reduction in the total lung capacity to values less than 5th percentile of the predicted values for normals, while Tiffeneau index remains intact. Such condition may probably result from the chronic inflammatory process affecting lung tissue, for which the reaction of macrophage cells to both pulmonary stasis, as well as increased volume of interstitial and alveolar fluid remains the underlying cause. The increased formation of connective tissue fibers engenders thickening of alveolar-capillary membrane, occurrence of disturbed oxygen diffusion and emergence of hypoxemic respiratory failure. Ventilatory disorders of obstructive nature are characterised by reduction of Tiffeneau index--the calculated ratio between forced expiratory volume in 1. second and forced vital capacity--to values below 5th percentile of the predicted range. The research results indicate for the presence of bronchiolar narrowing--dominant in small-diameter bronchi and bronchioles, with larger structures being unaffected--clearly depicted in spirometry as reduced levels of forced expiratory flow after exhaling 50% and 75% of forced vital capacity. Due to a considerable epidemiological problem, as well as significance of the clinical symptoms manifesting ventilatory disorders in course of chronic heart failure, there should be put emphasis on cardiac injury prevention in individuals from risk groups and the proper treatment of patients already suffering from chronic heart failure. PMID:26608495

  2. Exercise physiology in heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Haykowsky, Mark J; Kitzman, Dalane W

    2014-07-01

    Recent advances in the pathophysiology of exercise intolerance in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) suggest that noncardiac peripheral factors contribute to the reduced peak V(o2) (peak exercise oxygen uptake) and to its improvement after endurance exercise training. A greater understanding of the peripheral skeletal muscle vascular adaptations that occur with physical conditioning may allow for tailored exercise rehabilitation programs. The identification of specific mechanisms that improve whole body and peripheral skeletal muscle oxygen uptake could establish potential therapeutic targets for medical therapies and a means to follow therapeutic response. PMID:24975908

  3. Prognosis: does exercise training reduce adverse events in heart failure?

    PubMed

    Myers, Jonathan; Brawner, Clinton A; Haykowsky, Mark J F; Taylor, Rod S

    2015-01-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) were once discouraged from participating in exercise programs because of concerns regarding safety and the potential for harm to an already damaged myocardium. However, studies over the last 3 decades have provided extensive insights into both the health outcome benefits of exercise and the mechanisms underlying these benefits. Studies on the outcome benefits of exercise training, including mortality and hospitalization, have been convincing. This article reviews the physiologic benefits of exercise training in HF, studies on exercise training in women, results and implications of the HF-ACTION trial, and recent meta-analyses using the Cochrane data base. PMID:25432474

  4. Improving Congestive Heart Failure Care with a Clinical Decision Unit.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Jo Ellen; Short, Nancy; Williams, Tracy E; Yandell, Ben; Bowers, Margaret T

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supporting the development of Clinical Decision Units (CDUs) to impact congestive heart failure readmission rates comes from several categories of the literature. In this study, a pre-post design with comparison group was used to evaluate the impact of the CDU. Early changes in clinical and financial outcome indicators are encouraging. Nurse leaders seek ways to improve clinical outcomes while managing the current financially challenging environment. Implementation of a CDU provides many opportunities for nurse leaders to positively impact clinical care and financial performance within their institutions. PMID:26625578

  5. End Points for Clinical Trials in Acute Heart Failure Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Larry A.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Felker, G. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Acute heart failure syndromes (AHFS) remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality, in part because the development of new therapies for these disorders has been marked by frequent failure and little success. The heterogeneity of current approaches to AHFS drug development, particularly with regard to end points, remains a major potential barrier to progress in the field. End points involving hemodynamic status, biomarkers, symptoms, hospital stay, end organ function, and mortality have all been employed either alone or in combination in recent randomized clinical trials in AHFS. In this review, we will discuss the various end point domains from both a clinical and a statistical perspective, summarize the wide variety of end points used in completed and ongoing AHFS studies, and suggest steps for greater standardization of end points across AHFS trials. PMID:19520247

  6. High prevalence of undetected heart failure in long-term care residents: findings from the Heart Failure in Care Homes (HFinCH) study

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Helen C.; Close, Helen; Mason, James M.; Murphy, Jerry J.; Fuat, Ahmet; Singh, Raj; Wood, Esther; de Belder, Mark; Brennan, Gill; Hussain, Nehal; Kumar, Nitin; Wilson, Doug; Hungin, A. Pali S.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Diagnosis of heart failure in older people in long-term care is challenging because of co-morbidities, cognitive deficit, polypharmacy, immobility, and poor access to services. This study aimed to ascertain heart failure prevalence and clinical management in this population. Methods and results A total of 405 residents, aged 65100 years, in 33 UK care facilities were prospectively enrolled between April 2009 and June 2010. The presence of heart failure was determined using European Society of Cardiology guidelines, modified where necessary for immobility. Evaluation of symptoms and signs, functional capacity, and quality of life, portable on-site echocardiography, and medical record review were completed in 399 cases. The point prevalence of heart failure was 22.8% [n = 91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 18.827.2%]; of these, 62.7% (n = 57, 95% CI 59.666.5%) had heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and 37.3% had left ventricular systolic dysfunction (n = 34, 95% CI 34.840.5%). A total of 76% (n = 61) of previous diagnoses of heart failure were not confirmed, and up to 90% (n = 82) of study cases were new. No symptoms or signs were reliable predictors of heart failure. Conclusion Heart failure was diagnosed in almost a quarter of residents: the prevalence was substantially higher than in other populations. The majority of heart failure cases were undiagnosed, while three-quarters of previously recorded cases were misdiagnosed. Common symptoms and signs appear to have little clinical utility in this population. Early, accurate differential diagnosis is key to the effective management of heart failure; this may be failing in long-term care facilities. Trial registration ISRCTN19781227 PMID:23112002

  7. Coexisting Frailty, Cognitive Impairment, and Heart Failure: Implications for Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Brittany; Gary, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review some of the proposed pathways that increase frailty risk in older persons with heart failure and to discuss tools that may be used to assess for changes in physical and cognitive functioning in this population in order to assist with appropriate and timely intervention. Methods Review of the literature. Results Heart failure is the only cardiovascular disease that is increasing by epidemic proportions, largely due to an aging society and therapeutic advances in disease management. Because heart failure is largely a cardiogeriatric syndrome, age-related syndromes such as frailty and cognitive impairment are common in heart failure patients. Compared with age-matched counterparts, older adults with heart failure 4 to 6 times more likely to be frail or cognitively impaired. The reason for the high prevalence of frailty and cognitive impairment in this population is not well known but may likely reflect the synergistic effects of heart failure and aging, which may heighten vulnerability to stressors and accelerate loss of physiologic reserve. Despite the high prevalence of frailty and cognitive impairment in the heart failure population, these conditions are not routinely screened for in clinical practice settings and guidelines on optimal assessment strategies are lacking. Conclusion Persons with heart failure are at an increased risk for frailty, which may worsen symptoms, impair self-management, and lead to worse heart failure outcomes. Early detection of frailty and cognitive impairment may be an opportunity for intervention and a key strategy for improving clinical outcomes in older adults with heart failure. PMID:26594103

  8. Quality of Care for Heart Failure Patients Hospitalized for Any Cause

    PubMed Central

    Blecker, Saul; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Chang, Patricia P.; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Casey, Donald E.; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Radford, Martha J.; Coresh, Josef; Katz, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The study sought to assess the quality of care for heart failure patients who are hospitalized for all causes. Background Performance measures for heart failure target patients with a principal diagnosis of heart failure. However, patients with heart failure are commonly hospitalized for other causes and may benefit from treatments such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors for left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. Methods We assessed rates of compliance with care measures for patients hospitalized with acute or chronic heart failure in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study surveillance catchment area from 2005 to 2009. Rates of compliance were compared between patients with a principal discharge diagnosis of heart failure and those with another principal discharge diagnosis. Results Of 4,345 hospitalizations of heart failure patients, 39.6% carried a principal diagnosis of heart failure. Patients with a principal heart failure diagnosis had higher rates of LV function assessment (89.1% vs. 82.5%; adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04 to 1.10) and discharge ACE inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) in LV dysfunction (64.1% vs. 56.3%; aPR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.20) as compared to patients hospitalized for another cause. LV assessment and ACE inhibitor/ARB use were associated with reductions in 1-year post-discharge mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.85; adjusted odds ratio: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.96, respectively) that did not differ for patients with versus without a principal heart failure diagnosis. Conclusions Compared with individuals hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of heart failure, heart failure patients hospitalized for other causes were less likely to receive guideline recommended care. Quality initiatives may improve care by targeting hospitalizations with either principal or secondary heart failure diagnoses. PMID:24076281

  9. [Surgical heart failure treatment program - the experience of Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    Bekbossynov, Serik; Medressova, Assel; Murzagaliyev, Muradym; Salov, Roman; Dzhetybayeva, Saltanat; Andossova, Saltanat; Bekbossynova, Makhabbat; Pya, Yuriy

    2014-03-01

    In Kazakhstan, geographical and cultural reasons do not favor the development of heart transplant activity. Thus, a surgical program for treatment of advanced, refractory heart failure was implemented, focusing the efforts on ventricular assist device (VAD) therapy. The program, supported and funded by the national healthcare system, is based on a single, highly specialized surgical Center for the operation, and on a regional infrastructure for outpatient follow-up. Regional VAD coordinators are educated by the National Center. They are in charge of regular patient check, anticoagulant and antiplatelet treatment prescription, and continuing patients' and caregivers' education, mainly regarding driveline exit site dressing and driveline stabilization. From November 2011 to November 2013, 95 patients received 100 devices, mainly for left ventricular support (LVAD): HeartMate II, n=70, HeartWare, n=25. Mean age was 49.5 years, and 87.37% of the patients were males. Most patients had INTERMACS profile 4 (55%), followed by 3 and 2 (17% each). Symptomatic and functional improvement are testified by changes from baseline to month 3 of NYHA functional class (from III-IV to I-II), results of the 6-min walk test (from 152 to 440 m), and NT-proBNP levels (from 6997 to 1126 pg/ml). Overall 1-year survival was 69%, with a trend for outcome improvement over time and a relationship with preoperative INTERMACS profile (1-year survival of 60% in patients with INTERMACS profile 1-2 vs 75% in those with INTERMACS profile 3-4). In summary, where and when a heart transplant program cannot be implemented, LVAD represents a realistic therapeutic alternative. The key points for a successful VAD program are a dedicated, highly specialized multidisciplinary team at the Cardiac Surgery Center, an infrastructure throughout the country for coordinated outpatient follow-up, adequate reimbursement for this activity, and support by the healthcare system. PMID:24770427

  10. Adherence to self-care in patients with heart failure in the HeartCycle study

    PubMed Central

    Stut, Wim; Deighan, Carolyn; Cleland, John G; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel online education and coaching program to promote self-care among patients with heart failure. In this program, education and coaching content is automatically tailored to the knowledge and behavior of the patient. Patients and methods The evaluation of the program took place within the scope of the HeartCycle study. This multi-center, observational study examined the ability of a third generation telehealth system to enhance the management of patients recently (<60 days) admitted to the hospital for worsening heart failure or outpatients with persistent New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification III/IV symptoms. Self-reported self-care behavior was assessed at baseline and study-end by means of the 9-item European Heart Failure Self-care Behavior scale. Adherence to daily weighing, blood pressure monitoring, and reporting of symptoms was determined by analyzing the system’s database. Results Of 123 patients enrolled, the mean age was 66±12 years, 66% were in NYHA III and 79% were men. Self-reported self-care behavior scores (n=101) improved during the study for daily weighing, low-salt diet, physical activity (P<0.001), and fluid restriction (P<0.05). Average adherence (n=120) to measuring weight was 90%±16%, to measuring blood pressure was 89%±17% and to symptom reporting was 66%±32%. Conclusion Self-reported self-care behavior scores improved significantly during the period of observation, and the objective evidence of adherence to daily weight and blood pressure measurements was high and remained stable over time. However, adherence to daily reporting of symptoms was lower and declined in the long-term. PMID:26316725

  11. New strategies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: the importance of targeted therapies for heart failure phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Senni, Michele; Paulus, Walter J; Gavazzi, Antonello; Fraser, Alan G; Díez, Javier; Solomon, Scott D; Smiseth, Otto A; Guazzi, Marco; Lam, Carolyn S P; Maggioni, Aldo P; Tschöpe, Carsten; Metra, Marco; Hummel, Scott L; Edelmann, Frank; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Stewart Coats, Andrew J; Filippatos, Gerasimos S; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Anker, Stefan D; Levy, Daniel; Pfeffer, Marc A; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Pieske, Burkert M

    2014-10-21

    The management of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) has improved significantly over the last two decades. In contrast, little or no progress has been made in identifying evidence-based, effective treatments for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF). Despite the high prevalence, mortality, and cost of HF-PEF, large phase III international clinical trials investigating interventions to improve outcomes in HF-PEF have yielded disappointing results. Therefore, treatment of HF-PEF remains largely empiric, and almost no acknowledged standards exist. There is no single explanation for the negative results of past HF-PEF trials. Potential contributors include an incomplete understanding of HF-PEF pathophysiology, the heterogeneity of the patient population, inadequate diagnostic criteria, recruitment of patients without true heart failure or at early stages of the syndrome, poor matching of therapeutic mechanisms and primary pathophysiological processes, suboptimal study designs, or inadequate statistical power. Many novel agents are in various stages of research and development for potential use in patients with HF-PEF. To maximize the likelihood of identifying effective therapeutics for HF-PEF, lessons learned from the past decade of research should be applied to the design, conduct, and interpretation of future trials. This paper represents a synthesis of a workshop held in Bergamo, Italy, and it examines new and emerging therapies in the context of specific, targeted HF-PEF phenotypes where positive clinical benefit may be detected in clinical trials. Specific considerations related to patient and endpoint selection for future clinical trials design are also discussed. PMID:25104786

  12. New strategies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: the importance of targeted therapies for heart failure phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Senni, Michele; Paulus, Walter J.; Gavazzi, Antonello; Fraser, Alan G.; Díez, Javier; Solomon, Scott D.; Smiseth, Otto A.; Guazzi, Marco; Lam, Carolyn S. P.; Maggioni, Aldo P.; Tschöpe, Carsten; Metra, Marco; Hummel, Scott L.; Edelmann, Frank; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Stewart Coats, Andrew J.; Filippatos, Gerasimos S.; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Anker, Stefan D.; Levy, Daniel; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Pieske, Burkert M.

    2014-01-01

    The management of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) has improved significantly over the last two decades. In contrast, little or no progress has been made in identifying evidence-based, effective treatments for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HF-PEF). Despite the high prevalence, mortality, and cost of HF-PEF, large phase III international clinical trials investigating interventions to improve outcomes in HF-PEF have yielded disappointing results. Therefore, treatment of HF-PEF remains largely empiric, and almost no acknowledged standards exist. There is no single explanation for the negative results of past HF-PEF trials. Potential contributors include an incomplete understanding of HF-PEF pathophysiology, the heterogeneity of the patient population, inadequate diagnostic criteria, recruitment of patients without true heart failure or at early stages of the syndrome, poor matching of therapeutic mechanisms and primary pathophysiological processes, suboptimal study designs, or inadequate statistical power. Many novel agents are in various stages of research and development for potential use in patients with HF-PEF. To maximize the likelihood of identifying effective therapeutics for HF-PEF, lessons learned from the past decade of research should be applied to the design, conduct, and interpretation of future trials. This paper represents a synthesis of a workshop held in Bergamo, Italy, and it examines new and emerging therapies in the context of specific, targeted HF-PEF phenotypes where positive clinical benefit may be detected in clinical trials. Specific considerations related to patient and endpoint selection for future clinical trials design are also discussed. PMID:25104786

  13. Epidemiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Charlotte; Vasan, Ramachandran S

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) is a common condition, especially among the elderly and in women, with the reported prevalence approaching 10% in women over the age of 80 years. With an increasing prevalence of hypertension, obesity, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes, and the growing elderly segment of the general population, the prevalence of HFPEF is projected to increase further. HFPEF presents a diagnostic challenge. As a consequence, studies differ widely in their reported incidence and mortality rates associated with this condition, although there is agreement that between a third and one half of heart failure patients in the community have HFPEF. Although several consensus statements and guidelines have been published during the last decade, some of the recent randomized clinical trials have reported low mortality rates, raising doubts whether all patients diagnosed with HFPEF do actually suffer from HFPEF (as opposed to misdiagnosis) or if the condition is heterogeneous by nature in terms of its etiology and prognosis. The overall reported prognosis of patients with HFPEF remains poor, with patients experiencing substantial comorbidity, high rates of repeated hospitalizations, and a high mortality. In both community-based and hospital-based cohorts, HFPEF was recently reported to be associated with approximately 159 (154–165) deaths per 1000 person-years. PMID:24975902

  14. MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM CONFERS CARDIOPROTECTION IN HEART FAILURE

    PubMed Central

    Seawell, Michael R.; Darazi, Fahed Al; Farah, Victor; Ramanathan, Kodangudi B.; Newman, Kevin P.; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Weber, Karl T.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms and signs constituting the congestive heart failure (CHF) syndrome have their pathophysiologic origins rooted in a salt-avid renal state mediated by effector hormones of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and adrenergic nervous systems. Controlled clinical trials, conducted over the past decade in patients having minimally to markedly severe symptomatic heart failure, have demonstrated the efficacy of a pharmacologic regimen that interferes with these hormones, including aldosterone receptor binding with either spironolactone or eplerenone. Potential pathophysiologic mechanisms which have not hitherto been considered involved for the salutary responses and cardioprotection provided by these mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists are reviewed herein. In particular, we focus on the less well-recognized impact of catecholamines and aldosterone on mono- and divalent cation dyshomeostasis which leads to hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, ionized hypocalcemia with secondary hyperparathyroidism and hypozincemia. Attendant adverse cardiac consequences include a delay in myocardial repolarization with increased propensity for supra- and ventricular arrhythmias and compromised antioxidant defenses with increased susceptibility to nonischemic cardiomyocyte necrosis. PMID:23114591

  15. Measurement of thirst in chronic heart failure- a review.

    PubMed

    Allida, Sabine M; Inglis, Sally C; Davidson, Patricia M; Hayward, Christopher S; Newton, Phillip J

    2014-07-19

    Abstract Background: Thirst is a bothersome symptom of chronic heart failure (CHF) which impacts adversely on quality of life. Despite this, limited work has been done to investigate thirst as a symptom or to develop reliable and valid measures of thirst in CHF. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish which tools have been used in research to measure thirst in CHF. Methods: Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus were searched using following key words thirst, heart failure, measure, scale, randomised controlled trials and multicentre studies. Results: The search discovered 37 studies of which 6 studies met the inclusion criteria. One study was a research abstract and five were full- text studies. To date, there are only three measurement tools utilised in studies examining thirst in CHF patients (Visual Analogue Scale, Numeric Rating Scale and Thirst Distress Scale). Conclusion: Thirst in CHF is measured in a non- systematic way. In recent studies, the VAS has been used to measure thirst intensity. While this measurement tool is very easy and quick to administer, using a uni-dimensional tool in conjunction with a multi-dimensional tool may be beneficial to capture all dimensions of thirst. In order to manage thirst efficiently, consistent measurement of thirst in CHF is vital. PMID:25041254

  16. Using EHRs and Machine Learning for Heart Failure Survival Analysis.

    PubMed

    Panahiazar, Maryam; Taslimitehrani, Vahid; Pereira, Naveen; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2015-01-01

    "Heart failure (HF) is a frequent health problem with high morbidity and mortality, increasing prevalence and escalating healthcare costs" [1]. By calculating a HF survival risk score based on patient-specific characteristics from Electronic Health Records (EHRs), we can identify high-risk patients and apply individualized treatment and healthy living choices to potentially reduce their mortality risk. The Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM) is one of the most popular models to calculate HF survival risk that uses multiple clinical variables to predict HF prognosis and also incorporates impact of HF therapy on patient outcomes. Although the SHFM has been validated across multiple cohorts [1-5], these studies were primarily done using clinical trials databases that do not reflect routine clinical care in the community. Further, the impact of contemporary therapeutic interventions, such as beta-blockers or defibrillators, was incorporated in SHFM by extrapolation from external trials. In this study, we assess the performance of SHFM using EHRs at Mayo Clinic, and sought to develop a risk prediction model using machine learning techiniques that applies routine clinical care data. Our results shows the models which were built using EHR data are more accurate (11% improvement in AUC) with the convenience of being more readily applicable in routine clinical care. Furthermore, we demonstrate that new predictive markers (such as co-morbidities) when incorporated into our models improve prognostic performance significantly (8% improvement in AUC). PMID:26262006

  17. Translational success stories: angiotensin receptor 1 antagonists in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Dell'Italia, Louis J

    2011-08-01

    The title of the proposed series of reviews is Translational Success Stories. The definition of "translation" according to Webster is, "an act, process, or instance of translating as a rendering of one language into another." In the context of this inaugural review, it is the translation of Tigerstedt's and Bergman's(1) discovery in 1898 of the vasoconstrictive effects of an extract of rabbit kidney to the treatment of heart failure. As recounted by Marks and Maxwell,(2) their discovery was heavily influenced by the original experiments of the French physiologist Brown-Séquard, who was the author of the doctrine that "many organs dispense substances into the blood which are not ordinary waste products, but have specific functions." They were also influenced by Bright's(3) original observation that linked kidney disease with hypertension with the observation that patients dying with contracted kidneys often exhibited a hard, full pulse and cardiac hypertrophy. However, from Tigerstedt's initial discovery, there was a long and arduous transformation of ideas and paradigms that eventually translated to clinical applications. Although the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the pathophysiology of hypertension and heart failure was suspected through the years, beneficial effects from its blockade were not realized until the early 1970s. Thus, this story starts with a short historical perspective that provides the reader some insight and appreciation into the long delay in translation. PMID:21817164

  18. Mortality in heart failure: clinical variables of prognostic value.

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, J G; Dargie, H J; Ford, I

    1987-01-01

    One hundred and fifty two patients with chronic heart failure caused primarily by left ventricular dysfunction were followed prospectively in an open study for a mean period of 21 months. The effects of several clinical variables on subsequent outcome were examined, including the effects of treatment, which was determined by the clinician caring for the patient and was not randomly allocated. In order of importance, frequent ventricular extrasystoles, non-treatment with amiodarone, low mean arterial pressure, and a diagnosis of coronary artery disease were associated with a poor prognosis, with each of these variables providing extra predictive information independently of the others. Initial serum potassium concentration and treadmill exercise time also carried further weak but independent prognostic information. Neither treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors nor digoxin appeared to affect outcome. Left ventricular function (as reflected by M mode echocardiography) and the dose of diuretic also failed to predict outcome. There did, however, appear to be a reduction in the frequency of sudden death when angiotension converting enzyme inhibitors were given. Further studies are required to confirm the adverse prognostic significance of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with heart failure and the possible benefit associated with amiodarone treatment. PMID:2447925

  19. Experiences of air travel in patients with chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Lee; Hobkirk, James; Damy, Thibaud; Nabb, Samantha; Clark, Andrew L.; Cleland, John G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To conduct a survey in a representative cohort of ambulatory patients with stable, well managed chronic heart failure (CHF) to discover their experiences of air travel. Methods An expert panel including a cardiologist, an exercise scientist, and a psychologist developed a series of survey questions designed to elicit CHF patients' experiences of air travel (Appendix 1). The survey questions, information sheets and consent forms were posted out in a self-addressed envelope to 1293 CHF patients. Results 464 patients (response rate 39%) completed the survey questionnaires. 54% of patients had travelled by air since their heart failure diagnosis. 20% of all patients reported difficulties acquiring travel insurance. 65% of patients who travelled by air experienced no health-related problems. 35% of patients who travelled by air experienced health problems, mainly at the final destination, going through security and on the aircraft. 27% of all patients would not travel by air in the future. 38% of patients would consider flying again if there were more leg room on the aeroplane, if their personal health improved (18%), if they could find cheaper travel insurance (19%), if there were less waiting at the airport (11%), or if there were less walking/fewer stairs to negotiate at the airport (7%). Conclusion For most patients in this sample of stable, well managed CHF, air travel was safe. PMID:21256607

  20. Correlates of Fatigue in Patients With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Moser, Debra K.; Westlake, Cheryl; Pike, Nancy; Ter-Galstanyan, Alvina; Dracup, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of fatigue and identify its demographic, clinical, and psychological correlates in 150 heart failure (HF) patients (73% men, 66% Caucasian, mean age 55 years, mean ejection fraction 26.7%±11%), from a single HF center, using the Profile of Mood States-Fatigue Subscale, the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained through self-report and chart abstraction. High levels of fatigue were reported in 50.4% of men and 51.2% of women. In a multivariate model, maximal workload, physical health, emotional health, and depression explained 51% of the variance in fatigue (P<.001). Fatigue in patients with HF is associated with both clinical and psychosocial variables, offering a number of targets for intervention. These findings suggest the need for multiple risk factor intervention strategies that improve physical and emotional health to decrease fatigue. Patients with depression warrant particular scrutiny. PMID:18326992

  1. Negotiating compliance in heart failure: remaining issues and questions.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Marcia J E; Riegel, Barbara; Carlson, Beverly; De Geest, Sabina

    2005-12-01

    Living with heart failure (HF) means living with a chronic illness characterized by periods of acute decompensation alternating with periods of relative stability. Improved medical care for patients with cardiovascular diseases, coupled with the aging of the populations in the developed world, has resulted in a steadily increasing prevalence of HF. Rehospitalization rates are high for this patient population. In 20-64% of the cases, poor compliance by patients with the prescribed HF treatment is a contributing factor to hospitalization. This article uses a review of the literature on HF non-compliance, including the prevalence, barriers, consequences, and the long-term outcomes of non-compliance with HF therapy, to illustrate remaining issues and questions. Original studies published in English or German between 1966 and June 2004 identified by combining patient compliance, non-compliance, adherence, self-care, rehospitalization, patient education, and management programs, with heart failure in the search strategy are included. Creative approaches to achieving a true partnership between providers and patients are needed if clinical outcomes are to improve. PMID:15893959

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of congestive heart failure (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernjak, Alan; Clarkson, Peter B. M.; McClintock, Peter V. E.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2005-05-01

    Preliminary results are reported from a research project analysing congestive heart failure in terms a stochastic coupled-oscillator model of the cardiovascular system. Measurements of blood flow by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) have been processed by use of the wavelet transform to separate its oscillatory components, which number at least five. Particular attention was concentrated on the frequency content near 0.01 Hz, which is known to be associated with endothelial function. The LDF was carried out in conjunction with iontophoretically administered acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in order to evaluate endothelial reactivity. Measurements were made on 17 congestive heart failure (CHF) patients (a) on first diagnosis, and (b) again several weeks later after their treatment with a β-blocker had been stabilised. The results of these two sets of measurements are being compared with each other, and with data from an age and sex-matched group of healthy controls. It is confirmed that endothelial reactivity is reduced in CHF patients, as compared to healthy controls, and it is found that one effect of the Beta-blocker is to ameliorate the loss of endothelial function in CHF. The implications of these results are discussed.

  3. A randomized trial of telemonitoring heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Christopher; Orwat, John

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the ability of telemonitoring to reduce hospital days and total costs for Medicare managed care enrollees diagnosed with heart failure. Patients were recruited and randomly assigned for six months to either telemonitoring or standard care. Telemonitoring transmitted vital signs and clinical alerts daily to a central nursing station. Utilization of covered services was analyzed for the six-month telemonitoring period to test for hypothesized reductions in hospital days and changes in utilization of the emergency department (ED), urgent care, and primary care. Negative binomial regressions adjusted for gender, age, co-occurring diabetes, co-occurring chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and residence neighborhood were used to analyze units of service, and two-part (hurdle) multivariable models were used for expenditures. The main finding was a tendency for lower total number of hospital days for patients assigned to telemonitoring. Results for other covered services were generally consistent with hypothesized direction and magnitude; however, statistical power was reduced because of lower-than-expected recruitment rates into the study. Within a managed-care environment, telemonitoring appears to facilitate better ambulatory management of heart failure patients, including fewer ED visits, which were offset by more frequent primary care and urgent care visits. PMID:21077581

  4. Economic impact of beta blockade in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gregory, D; Udelson, J E; Konstam, M A

    2001-05-01

    We reviewed the literature on clinical trials of beta-adrenergic blockade for treatment of heart failure, seeking evidence of reductions in hospital admissions. To analyze the economic implications of six clinical trials, we developed a stochastic cost model to generate estimates of total medical costs resulting from heart failure and related causes. The model includes inpatient, outpatient, and professional cost estimates based on Medicare claims data, and it is driven by traditional endpoint statistics reported in the clinical trial literature. It provides a common framework for comparing cost effectiveness across clinical trials in the absence of detailed cost information collected in the trial. The incremental expected cost per year of life saved is $3,300 for bisoprolol, $2,500 for metoprolol, and $6,700 for carvedilol. The cost per year of life saved for each compound is well below accepted standards for cost effectiveness. These results are sensitive to the cost of drug therapy and the relative mortality rate for the experimental group. For example, if the relative mortality rate of the experimental group were to increase from the reported 40% to 82%, and if the annual cost of the drug were to decrease from $2,000 to $500, then we estimate that carvedilol would break even and the cost per year of life saved would drop to zero. Whether beta-blocker therapy, as assumed, sustains its differential effectiveness in terms of relative mortality risk beyond the study duration has not been demonstrated. PMID:11334781

  5. Progression of heart failure after myocardial infarction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Francis, J; Weiss, R M; Wei, S G; Johnson, A K; Felder, R B

    2001-11-01

    This study examined the early neurohumoral events in the progression of congestive heart failure (CHF) after myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Immediately after MI was induced by coronary artery ligation, rats had severely depressed left ventricular systolic function and increased left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV). Both left ventricular function and the neurohumoral indicators of CHF underwent dynamic changes over the next 6 wk. LVEDV increased continuously over the study interval, whereas left ventricular stroke volume increased but reached a plateau at 4 wk. Plasma renin activity (PRA), arginine vasopressin, and atrial natriuretic factor all increased, but with differing time courses. PRA declined to a lower steady-state level by 4 wk. Six to 8 wk after MI, CHF rats had enhanced renal sympathetic nerve activity and blunted baroreflex regulation. These findings demonstrate that the early course of heart failure is characterized not by a simple "switching on" of neurohumoral drive, but rather by dynamic fluctuations in neurohumoral regulation that are linked to the process of left ventricular remodeling. PMID:11641147

  6. Optimization of pharmacotherapy in chronic heart failure: is heart rate adequately addressed?

    PubMed

    Franke, Jennifer; Wolter, Jan Sebastian; Meme, Lillian; Keppler, Jeannette; Tschierschke, Ramon; Katus, Hugo A; Zugck, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the use of beta-blockers in chronic heart failure (CHF) and the extent of heart rate reduction achieved in clinical practice and to determine differences in outcome of patients who fulfilled select inclusion criteria of the SHIFT study according to resting heart rate modulated by beta-blocker therapy. We evaluated an all-comer population of our dedicated CHF outpatient clinic between 2006 and 2010. For inclusion, individually optimized doses of guideline-recommended pharmacotherapy including beta-blockers had to be maintained for at least 3 months and routine follow-up performed at our outpatient CHF-clinic thereafter. Treatment dosages of beta-blockers, and demographic and clinical profiles including resting heart rate were assessed. The outcome of patients who fulfilled select inclusion criteria of the SHIFT study (left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35 %, sinus rhythm, NYHA II-IV) and were followed-up for at least 1 year was stratified according to resting heart rates: ≥75 versus <75 bpm and ≥70 versus <70 bpm. The composite primary endpoint was defined as all-cause death or hospital admission for worsening heart failure during 12-month follow-up. In total, 3,181 patients were assessed in regard to treatment dosages of beta-blockers, and demographic and clinical profiles including resting heart rate. Of the overall studied population, 443 patients fulfilled all inclusion criteria and entered outcome analysis. Median observation time of survivors was 27.5 months with 1,039.7 observation-years in total. Up-titration to at least half the evidence-based target dose of beta-blockers was achieved in 69 % and full up-titration in 29 % of these patients. Patients with increased heart rates were younger, more often male, exhibited a higher NYHA functional class and lower LVEF. The primary endpoint occurred in 21 % of patients in the ≥70 bpm group versus 9 % of patients in the group with heart rates <70 bpm (p <0.01). Likewise, comparing the groups ≥75 and <75 bpm, the primary endpoint was significantly increased in the group of patients with heart rates ≥75 bpm 27 vs. 12.2 %; p < 0.01). 5-year event-free survival was significantly lower among patients with heart rates ≥70 bpm as compared to those with <70 bpm (log-rank test p < 0.05) and among patients in the ≥75 bpm group versus <75 bpm group (log-rank test p < 0.01). In conclusion, in clinical practice, 53 % of CHF patients have inadequate heart rate control (heart rates ≥75 bpm) despite concomitant beta-blocker therapy. In this non-randomized cohort, adequate heart rate control under individually optimized beta-blocker therapy was associated with improved mid- and long-term clinical outcome up to 5 years. As further up titration of beta-blockers is not achievable in many patients, the administration of a selective heart rate lowering agent, such as ivabradine adjuvant to beta-blockers may pose an opportunity to further modulate outcome. PMID:22760479

  7. Micronutrient deficiencies an unmet need in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Soukoulis, Victor; Dihu, Jamil B; Sole, Michael; Anker, Stefan D; Cleland, John; Fonarow, Gregg C; Metra, Marco; Pasini, Evasio; Strzelczyk, Theresa; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2009-10-27

    Heart failure (HF) is a common, disabling, and costly disease. Despite major advances in medical therapy, morbidity and mortality remain high, in part because current pharmacological regimens may not fully address some unique requirements of the heart for energy. The heart requires a continuous supply of energy-providing substrates and amino acids in order to maintain its function. In HF, defects in substrate metabolism and cardiac energy and substrate utilization may contribute to contractile dysfunction. HF is often accompanied by a deficiency in key micronutrients required for unimpeded energy transfer. Correcting these deficits has been proposed as a method to limit or even reverse the progressive myocyte dysfunction and/or necrosis in HF. This review summarizes the existing HF literature with respect to supplementation trials of key micronutrients involved in cardiac metabolism: coenzyme Q10, l-carnitine, thiamine, and amino acids, including taurine. Studies using a broader approach to supplementation are also considered. Although some of the results are promising, none are conclusive. There is a need for a prospective trial to examine the effects of micronutrient supplementation on morbidity and mortality in patients with HF. PMID:19850206

  8. Management of chronic heart failure in the older population

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Nahid; Lemay, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is the leading cause of hospitalization for those over the age of 65 and represents a significant clinical and economic burden. About half of hospital re-admissions are related to co-morbidities, polypharmacy and disabilities associated with CHF. Moreover, CHF also has an enormous cost in terms of poor prognosis with an average one year mortality of 33%–35%. While more than half of patients with CHF are over 75 years, most clinical trials have included younger patients with a mean age of 61 years. Inadequate data makes treatment decisions challenging for the providers. Older CHF patients are more often female, have less cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors, but higher rates of non-cardiovascular conditions and diastolic dysfunction. The prevalence of CHF with reduced ejection fraction, ischemic heart disease, and its risk factors declines with age, whereas the prevalence of non-cardiac co-morbidities, such as chronic renal failure, dementia, anemia and malignancy increases with age. Diabetes and hypertension are among the strongest risk factors as predictors of CHF particularly among women with coronary heart disease. This review paper will focus on the specific consideration for CHF assessment in the older population. Management strategies will be reviewed, including non-pharmacologic, pharmacologic, quality care indicators, quality improvement in care transition and lastly, end-of-life issues. Palliative care should be an integral part of an interdisciplinary team approach for a comprehensive care plan over the whole disease trajectory. In addition, frailty contributes valuable prognostic insight incremental to existing risk models and assists clinicians in defining optimal care pathways for their patients. PMID:25593582

  9. Metabolomic Fingerprint of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Zordoky, Beshay N.; Sung, Miranda M.; Ezekowitz, Justin; Mandal, Rupasri; Han, Beomsoo; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Bouatra, Souhaila; Anderson, Todd; Oudit, Gavin Y.; Wishart, David S.; Dyck, Jason R. B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is increasingly recognized as an important clinical entity. Preclinical studies have shown differences in the pathophysiology between HFpEF and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Therefore, we hypothesized that a systematic metabolomic analysis would reveal a novel metabolomic fingerprint of HFpEF that will help understand its pathophysiology and assist in establishing new biomarkers for its diagnosis. Methods and Results Ambulatory patients with clinical diagnosis of HFpEF (n = 24), HFrEF (n = 20), and age-matched non-HF controls (n = 38) were selected for metabolomic analysis as part of the Alberta HEART (Heart Failure Etiology and Analysis Research Team) project. 181 serum metabolites were quantified by LC-MS/MS and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Compared to non-HF control, HFpEF patients demonstrated higher serum concentrations of acylcarnitines, carnitine, creatinine, betaine, and amino acids; and lower levels of phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelins. Medium and long-chain acylcarnitines and ketone bodies were higher in HFpEF than HFrEF patients. Using logistic regression, two panels of metabolites were identified that can separate HFpEF patients from both non-HF controls and HFrEF patients with area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of 0.942 and 0.981, respectively. Conclusions The metabolomics approach employed in this study identified a unique metabolomic fingerprint of HFpEF that is distinct from that of HFrEF. This metabolomic fingerprint has been utilized to identify two novel panels of metabolites that can separate HFpEF patients from both non-HF controls and HFrEF patients. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02052804 PMID:26010610

  10. Methods of failure and reliability assessment for mechanical heart pumps.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sonna M; Allaire, Paul E; Wood, Houston G; Throckmorton, Amy L; Tribble, Curt G; Olsen, Don B

    2005-01-01

    Artificial blood pumps are today's most promising bridge-to-recovery (BTR), bridge-to-transplant (BTT), and destination therapy solutions for patients suffering from intractable congestive heart failure (CHF). Due to an increased need for effective, reliable, and safe long-term artificial blood pumps, each new design must undergo failure and reliability testing, an important step prior to approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), for clinical testing and commercial use. The FDA has established no specific standards or protocols for these testing procedures and there are only limited recommendations provided by the scientific community when testing an overall blood pump system and individual system components. Product development of any medical device must follow a systematic and logical approach. As the most critical aspects of the design phase, failure and reliability assessments aid in the successful evaluation and preparation of medical devices prior to clinical application. The extent of testing, associated costs, and lengthy time durations to execute these experiments justify the need for an early evaluation of failure and reliability. During the design stages of blood pump development, a failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) should be completed to provide a concise evaluation of the occurrence and frequency of failures and their effects on the overall support system. Following this analysis, testing of any pump typically involves four sequential processes: performance and reliability testing in simple hydraulic or mock circulatory loops, acute and chronic animal experiments, human error analysis, and ultimately, clinical testing. This article presents recommendations for failure and reliability testing based on the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Society for Thoracic Surgeons (STS) and American Society for Artificial Internal Organs (ASAIO), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), and the Bethesda Conference. It further discusses studies that evaluate the failure, reliability, and safety of artificial blood pumps including in vitro and in vivo testing. A descriptive summary of mechanical and human error studies and methods of artificial blood pumps is detailed. PMID:15644079

  11. Stratification of the Risk of Sudden Death in Nonischemic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Maurício; Zimerman, Leandro Ioschpe; Rohde, Luis Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant therapeutic advancements, heart failure remains a highly prevalent clinical condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In 30%-40% patients, the etiology of heart failure is nonischemic. The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is capable of preventing sudden death and decreasing total mortality in patients with nonischemic heart failure. However, a significant number of patients receiving ICD do not receive any kind of therapy during follow-up. Moreover, considering the situation in Brazil and several other countries, ICD cannot be implanted in all patients with nonischemic heart failure. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify patients at an increased risk of sudden death because these would benefit more than patients at a lower risk, despite the presence of heart failure in both risk groups. In this study, the authors review the primary available methods for the stratification of the risk of sudden death in patients with nonischemic heart failure. PMID:25352509

  12. Heart Failure Patients' Experiences of a Self-Management Peer Support Program: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Elizabeth; Foreman, Jane; Mase, Rebecca; Heisler, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Explore the experiences of patients with heart failure in a self-management support program to inform the development of future interventions that support and motivate patients to engage in selfmanagement. Background Peer-support programs have led to improved outcomes among patients with other chronic conditions and may result in similar improvements for heart failure patients. Yet, among patients recently hospitalized for heart failure, over half had no or minimal engagement with a reciprocal peer support program. Methods Qualitative semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 28 patients (mean age 72; 71% Female; 21% African-American; 75% Caucasian) with different levels and types of engagement in a heart failure self-management support program. Results Key themes that emerged included the importance of heart failure specific-social support, sharing information, comparing self to others, depression, and functional status. Conclusions Useful services for heart failure patients provide comfort, restore confidence and offer practical solutions. PMID:24863072

  13. Biomarkers for Heart Failure: An Update for Practitioners of Internal Medicine.

    PubMed

    Wettersten, Nicholas; Maisel, Alan S

    2016-06-01

    Biomarkers have become an integral part of practicing medicine, especially in heart failure. The natriuretic peptides are commonly used in the evaluation of heart failure, but their role extends beyond diagnosis and includes risk stratification and management of heart failure patients. Newer biomarkers have arrived and are becoming part of routine care of heart failure patients. Both ST2 and high-sensitivity troponin have significant prognostic value for mortality, but also may assist in the titration of medical therapy. Procalcitonin can help guide appropriate antibiotic use in patients with heart failure. The ability to appropriately use and interpret these biomarkers is imperative to the care of heart failure patients, especially as these newer biomarkers become widely used. PMID:26844635

  14. [Diagnosis and treatment of anemia in heart failure patients].

    PubMed

    Santilli, Giovanna; Tarantini, Luigi; Baio, Pierangelo; Senni, Michele

    2011-05-01

    Anemia is a common comorbidity in patients with acute and chronic heart failure (HF) with preserved and reduced systolic function. It is recognized as a new therapeutic goal in HF since the reduction in hemoglobin levels is considered a significant independent predictive factor of mortality and hospitalization. At present, it is difficult to determine the real magnitude of the problem in terms of actual incidence and prevalence as no consistent definition of anemia associated with HF does exist, and a variety of hemoglobin thresholds have been used in clinical trials and epidemiological studies. The etiology of anemia is multifactorial with the main causes including renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding and nutritional deficiency. Nevertheless, such criteria are not present in some patients, who show a peculiar type of anemia that may be classified as anemia of chronic diseases, likely due to the chronic inflammatory process of HF. No guidelines for the treatment of anemia in HF patients are available. Most of the previous studies in the literature are limited by small sample sizes. The very few randomized multicenter studies that evaluated the effects of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents associated with intravenous iron therapy did not provide the expected results. Indeed, despite an increase in hemoglobin levels, they did not show any improvement of NYHA functional class, nor of left ventricular ejection fraction. In addition, reasonable hemoglobin levels as a goal of therapy have not been established yet, in particular in relation to the side effects and the cardiovascular risk observed after the administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in oncologic patients. Further studies are warranted to define the magnitude of the problem and establish appropriate therapeutic strategies. It is likely that more reliable data will be derived from an ongoing randomized, double-blind, multicenter study, the RED-HF (Reduction Event with Darbepoetin alfa in Heart Failure), which aims at evaluating morbidity and mortality in a cohort of 2600 HF patients with anemia treated with darbepoetin alfa. PMID:21593950

  15. Drug Does Not Improve Set of Cardiovascular Outcomes for Diastolic Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... preserved systolic function, is a common heart condition accounting for about half of all heart failure cases. ... study showed that participants enrolled via elevated BNP measurements who received spironolactone fared better in the composite ...

  16. Mitochondrial dynamics and cell death in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Marín-García, José; Akhmedov, Alexander T

    2016-03-01

    The highly regulated processes of mitochondrial fusion (joining), fission (division) and trafficking, collectively called mitochondrial dynamics, determine cell-type specific morphology, intracellular distribution and activity of these critical organelles. Mitochondria are critical for cardiac function, while their structural and functional abnormalities contribute to several common cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure (HF). The tightly balanced mitochondrial fusion and fission determine number, morphology and activity of these multifunctional organelles. Although the intracellular architecture of mature cardiomyocytes greatly restricts mitochondrial dynamics, this process occurs in the adult human heart. Fusion and fission modulate multiple mitochondrial functions, ranging from energy and reactive oxygen species production to Ca(2+) homeostasis and cell death, allowing the heart to respond properly to body demands. Tightly controlled balance between fusion and fission is of utmost importance in the high energy-demanding cardiomyocytes. A shift toward fission leads to mitochondrial fragmentation, while a shift toward fusion results in the formation of enlarged mitochondria and in the fusion of damaged mitochondria with healthy organelles. Mfn1, Mfn2 and OPA1 constitute the core machinery promoting mitochondrial fusion, whereas Drp1, Fis1, Mff and MiD49/51 are the core components of fission machinery. Growing evidence suggests that fusion/fission factors in adult cardiomyocytes play essential noncanonical roles in cardiac development, Ca(2+) signaling, mitochondrial quality control and cell death. Impairment of this complex circuit causes cardiomyocyte dysfunction and death contributing to heart injury culminating in HF. Pharmacological targeting of components of this intricate network may be a novel therapeutic modality for HF treatment. PMID:26872674

  17. Operative treatment of cerebral arteriovenous aneurysm of vein of Galen complicated by congestive heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Lillquist, K; Haase, J; Thayssen, P

    1979-01-01

    A rare cause of congestive heart failure in the neonatal period is an intracranial arteriovenous malformation, but this condition should be borne in mind when there is unexplained right-sided congestive heart failure. A case is reported of an aneurysm of the great vein of Galen, complicated by congestive heart failure. Successful surgical treatment was carried out using a two-stage procedure. Images PMID:534592

  18. The PARADIGM of ARNI's: Assessing reasons for non-implementation in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lainscak, Mitja; Coats, Andrew J S

    2016-06-01

    Several trials have targeted neutral endopeptidase to demonstrate benefits for patients with heart failure. In the PARADIGM-HF trial, a combination of sacubitril and valsartan was superior to enalapril in reducing the risk of death and of hospitalization for heart failure. In this editorial we apply the trial to heart failure population at large to estimate what proportion of patients might actually be treated in daily practice. PMID:27038730

  19. Water and Sodium in Heart Failure: A Spotlight on Congestion

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Stephen J.; Torres, Daniele; Alderman, Michael; Bonventre, Joseph Vincent; Di Pasquale, Pietro; Gargani, Luna; Nohria, Anju; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Butler, Javed; Paterna, Salvatore; Stevenson, Lynne Warner; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Despite all available therapies, the rates of hospitalization and death from heart failure (HF) remain unacceptably high. The most common reasons for hospital admission are symptoms related to congestion. During hospitalization, most patients respond well to standard therapy and are discharged with significantly improved symptoms. Post-discharge, many patients receive diligent and frequent follow-up. However, rehospitalization rates remain high. One potential explanation is a persistent failure by clinicians to adequately manage congestion in the outpatient setting. The failure to successfully manage these patients post-discharge may represent an unmet need to improve the way congestion is both recognized and treated. A primary aim of future HF management may be to improve clinical surveillance to prevent and manage chronic fluid overload while simultaneously maximizing the use of evidence-based therapies with proven long-term benefit. Improvement in cardiac function is the ultimate goal and maintenance of a “dry” clinical profile is important to prevent hospital admission and improve prognosis. This paper focuses on methods for monitoring congestion, and strategies for water and sodium management in the context of the complex interplay between the cardiac and renal systems. A rationale for improving recognition and treatment of congestion is also proposed. PMID:24942806

  20. Heart Failure Summit Review: cardiac re-synchronisation therapy in the failing heart.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mitchell I

    2015-08-01

    Extrapolating cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) to pediatric patients with heart failure has at times been difficult given the heterogeneity of pediatric cardiomyopathies, varying congenital heart disease (CHD) substrates, and the fact that most pediatric heart failure patients have right bundle branch block (RBBB) as opposed to LBBB. Yet, despite these limitations a number of multi-center retrospective studies in North America and Europe have identified some data to suggest that certain sub-populations tend to respond positively to CRT. In order to address some of the heterogeneity it is helpful to subdivide pediatric and young adult patients with CHD into four potential groups: (1) CRT for chronic RV pacing, (2) dilated cardiomyopathies, (3) pulmonary right ventricles, and (4) systemic right ventricles. The chronic RV paced group, especially long-standing RV apical pacing, with ventricular dyssynchrony has consistently shown to be the group that best responds to a proactive resynchronization course. CRT therapy in pulmonary right ventricles such as post-op tetralogy of Fallot have shown some promise and may be considered especially if there is evidence of concomitant left ventricular dysfunction with an electrical dyssynchrony. Patients with systemic right ventricles such as post-atrial baffle surgery or congenitally corrected transposition reportedly do well with CRT in the presence of both inter-ventricular and intra-ventricular dyssynchrony. There is little doubt that moving forward to best way to identify which pediatric patients with heart failure will respond to CRT, will require a collaborative effort between the electrophysiologist and the echocardiographer to identify appropriate candidates with electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony. PMID:26377719

  1. Skeletal muscle electrical stimulation improves baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability in heart failure rats.

    PubMed

    Lazzarotto Rucatti, Ananda; Jaenisch, Rodrigo Boemo; Rossato, Douglas Dalcin; Poletto Bonetto, Jéssica Hellen; Ferreira, Janaína; Xavier, Leder Leal; Sonza, Anelise; Dal Lago, Pedro

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on the arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and cardiovascular autonomic control in rats with chronic heart failure (CHF). Male Wistar rats were designated to one of four groups: placebo sham (P-Sham, n=9), ES sham (ES-Sham, n=9), placebo CHF (P-CHF, n=9) or ES CHF (ES-CHF, n=9). The ES was adjusted at a low frequency (30 Hz), duration of 250 μs, with hold and rest time of 8s (4 weeks, 30 min/day, 5 times/week). It was applied on the gastrocnemius muscle with intensity to produce a visible muscle contraction. The rats assigned to the placebo groups performed the same procedures with the equipment turned off. The two-way ANOVA and the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls tests (P<0.05) were used to data comparison. The BRS was higher in ES-Sham group compared to the P-Sham group and the ES-CHF group compared to the P-CHF group. ES was able to decrease heart rate sympatho-vagal modulation and peripheral sympathetic modulation in ES-CHF compared to P-CHF group. Interestingly, heart rate sympatho-vagal modulation was similar between ES-CHF and P-Sham groups. Thus, ES enhances heart rate parasympathetic modulation on heart failure (ES-CHF) compared to placebo (P-CHF), with consequent decrease of sympatho-vagal balance in the ES-CHF group compared to the P-CHF. The results show that a 4 week ES protocol in CHF rats enhances arterial BRS and cardiovascular autonomic control. PMID:26433753

  2. Non-pharmacological modulation of the autonomic tone to treat heart failure.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jagmeet P; Kandala, Jagdesh; Camm, A John

    2014-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system has a significant role in the pathophysiology and progression of heart failure. The absence of any recent breakthrough advances in the medical therapy of heart failure has led to the evolution of innovative non-pharmacological interventions that can favourably modulate the cardiac autonomic tone. Several new therapeutic modalities that may act at different levels of the autonomic nervous system are being investigated for their role in the treatment of heart failure. The current review examines the role of renal denervation, vagal nerve stimulators, carotid baroreceptors, and spinal cord stimulators in the treatment of heart failure. PMID:24174128

  3. Influence of sex on treatment and outcome in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Frankenstein, Lutz; Clark, Andrew L; Ribeiro, Jorge P

    2012-06-01

    The population is aging, the prevalence of heart failure increases with age, and on average women live longer than men. There is evidence for sex-specific effects of individual, guideline-recommended drugs used for treatment of chronic heart failure. Women are underrepresented in most clinical trials and only a minority of drug applications to regulatory authorities have included sex analyses. The present review focuses on the potential female survival benefit in heart failure, the influence of sex on medical treatment in a broader sense, and the potential benefit to be derived from guideline recommended treatment and common adjunctive heart failure medication. PMID:21599874

  4. Race-related differences in heart failure therapies: simply black and white or shades of grey?

    PubMed

    Shroff, Gautam R; Taylor, Anne L; Colvin-Adams, Monica

    2007-05-01

    The magnitude of burden imposed by heart failure on society has necessitated the evolution of innovative strategies to identify specific avenues of treatment and the populations at highest risk. Multiple studies have demonstrated a higher burden of cardiovascular disease in black Americans. It has also been shown that the clinical characteristics of heart failure, therapeutic targets, and response to various treatment modalities, are different in blacks as compared with whites. This article explores the unique race-related differences in heart failure with particular emphasis on the currently recommended therapeutic agents in heart failure. PMID:17470329

  5. Estimating clinical morbidity due to ischemic heart disease and congestive heart failure: the future rise of heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Bonneux, L; Barendregt, J J; Meeter, K; Bonsel, G J; van der Maas, P J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Many developed countries have seen declining mortality rates for heart disease, together with an alleged decline in incidence and a seemingly paradoxical increase in health care demands. This paper presents a model for forecasting the plausible evolution of heart disease morbidity. METHODS. The simulation model combines data from different sources. It generates acute coronary event and mortality rates from published data on incidences, recurrences, and lethalities of different heart disease conditions and interventions. Forecasts are based on plausible scenarios for declining incidence and increasing survival. RESULTS. Mortality is postponed more than incidence. Prevalence rates of morbidity will decrease among the young and middle-aged but increase among the elderly. As the milder disease states act as risk factors for the more severe states, effects will culminate in the most severe disease states with a disproportionate increase in older people. CONCLUSIONS. Increasing health care needs in the face of declining mortality rates are no contradiction, but reflect a tradeoff of mortality for morbidity. The aging of the population will accentuate this morbidity increase. PMID:8279606

  6. High Fat Feeding in Mice Is Insufficient to Induce Cardiac Dysfunction and Does Not Exacerbate Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Brainard, Robert E.; Watson, Lewis J.; DeMartino, Angelica M.; Brittian, Kenneth R.; Readnower, Ryan D.; Boakye, Adjoa Agyemang; Zhang, Deqing; Hoetker, Joseph David; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Baba, Shahid Pervez; Jones, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical studies of animals with risk factors, and how those risk factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and cardiac dysfunction, are clearly needed. One such approach is to feed mice a diet rich in fat (i.e. 60%). Here, we determined whether a high fat diet was sufficient to induce cardiac dysfunction in mice. We subjected mice to two different high fat diets (lard or milk as fat source) and followed them for over six months and found no significant decrement in cardiac function (via echocardiography), despite robust adiposity and impaired glucose disposal. We next determined whether antecedent and concomitant exposure to high fat diet (lard) altered the murine heart’s response to infarct-induced heart failure; high fat feeding during, or before and during, heart failure did not significantly exacerbate cardiac dysfunction. Given the lack of a robust effect on cardiac dysfunction with high fat feeding, we then examined a commonly used mouse model of overt diabetes, hyperglycemia, and obesity (db/db mice). db/db mice (or STZ treated wild-type mice) subjected to pressure overload exhibited no significant exacerbation of cardiac dysfunction; however, ischemia-reperfusion injury significantly depressed cardiac function in db/db mice compared to their non-diabetic littermates. Thus, we were able to document a negative influence of a risk factor in a relevant cardiovascular disease model; however, this did not involve exposure to a high fat diet. High fat diet, obesity, or hyperglycemia does not necessarily induce cardiac dysfunction in mice. Although many investigators use such diabetes/obesity models to understand cardiac defects related to risk factors, this study, along with those from several other groups, serves as a cautionary note regarding the use of murine models of diabetes and obesity in the context of heart failure. PMID:24367585

  7. DuraHeart magnetically levitated centrifugal left ventricular assist system for advanced heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Morshuis, Michiel; Schoenbrodt, Michael; Nojiri, Chisato; Roefe, Daniela; Schulte-Eistrup, Sebastian; Boergermann, Jochen; Gummert, Jan F; Arusoglu, Latif

    2010-03-01

    The implantable left ventricular assist system (LVAS) using pulsatile pump technology has become an established therapeutic option for advanced heart failure patients. However, there have been technological limitations in some older designs, including a high incidence of infection and mechanical failures associated with moving parts, and the large size of both implantable pump and percutaneous cable. A smaller rotary blood pump emerged as a possible alternative to a large pulsatile pump to overcome some of these limitations. The technological advancement that defines the third-generation LVAS was the elimination of all mechanical contacts between the impeller and the drive mechanism. The DuraHeart LVAS is the world's first third-generation implantable LVAS to obtain market approval (CE-mark), which combines a centrifugal pump and active magnetic levitation. The initial clinical experience with the DuraHeart LVAS in Europe demonstrated that it provided significantly improved survival (85% at 6 months and 79% at 1 year), reduced adverse event rates and long-term device reliability (freedom from device replacement at 2 years: 96 +/- 3%) over pulsatile LVAS. PMID:20214423

  8. Transcriptomic profiling of the canine tachycardia-induced heart failure model: global comparison to human and murine heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhong; Xu, Hai; DiSilvestre, Deborah; Halperin, Victoria L.; Tunin, Richard; Tian, Yanli; Yu, Wayne; Winslow, Raimond L.; Tomaselli, Gordon F.

    2006-01-01

    Alterations of cardiac gene expression are central to ventricular dysfunction in human heart failure (HF). The canine tachycardia pacing-induced HF model is known to reproduce the main hemodynamic, echocardiographic and electrophysiological changes observed in human HF. In this study, we use this HF model to compare gene expression profiles in the left and right ventricles (LV, RV) of normal and end-stage failing canine hearts and compare the transcription profiles to those in human and murine models of HF. In end-stage HF, the LV exhibits down regulation of genes involved in energy production, cardiac contraction, and modulation of excitation–contraction coupling as compared with normal LV. The majority of transcriptomic changes between normal and end-stage canine HF were shared by the RV and LV. Genes down regulated only in the LV included those involved in aerobic energy production pathways, regulation of actin filament length, and enzyme-linked receptor protein signaling pathways. In normal canine hearts, genes encoding specific components of the contractile apparatus exhibit LV–RV asymmetric expression patterns; in failing hearts, cardiac fetal transcription factors MEF2 and MITF and the stress-responsive transcription factor ATF4 showed interventricular differences in expression. The comparison among the canine tachypacing, mouse transgenic, and human HF reveals that human disease involves down regulation of genes in a broad range of biological processes while experimentally induced HF is associated with down regulation of energy pathways, and that human ischemic HF and canine HF share a similar over representation of transcriptional pathways in the up regulated genes. This study provides insights into the molecular pathways leading to end-stage tachycardia-induced HF, and into global transcriptomic differences between the animal HF models and human HF. PMID:16236311

  9. Regulation of the renal sympathetic nerves in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Ramchandra, Rohit; Barrett, Carolyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a serious debilitating condition with poor survival rates and an increasing level of prevalence. HF is associated with an increase in renal norepinephrine (NE) spillover, which is an independent predictor of mortality in HF patients. The excessive sympatho-excitation that is a hallmark of HF has long-term effects that contribute to disease progression. An increase in directly recorded renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) has also been recorded in animal models of HF. This review will focus on the mechanisms controlling sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to the kidney during normal conditions and alterations in these mechanisms during HF. In particular the roles of afferent reflexes and central mechanisms will be discussed. PMID:26388778

  10. Factors associated with depressive symptoms in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Graven, Lucinda J; Grant, Joan S; Vance, David E; Pryor, Erica R; Grubbs, Laurie; Karioth, Sally

    2014-10-01

    Home healthcare clinicians commonly provide care for individuals with heart failure (HF). Certain factors may influence the development of depressive symptoms in those with HF. This cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational pilot study (N = 50) examined interrelationships among HF symptoms, social support (actual and perceived), social problem-solving, and depressive symptoms. Findings indicated that increased HF symptoms were related to more depressive symptoms, whereas higher levels of social support were related to fewer depressive symptoms. The use of more maladaptive problem-solving strategies was also associated with more depressive symptoms. Study results have implications for home healthcare clinicians providing care for individuals with HF, indicating a need for programs that strengthen coping skills and resources (i.e., social support and problem solving) in an effort to decrease the risk of developing depressive symptomatology. PMID:25268530

  11. Dietary management of heart failure: room for improvement?

    PubMed

    Butler, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    There is growing awareness of the role of diet in both health and disease management. Much data are available on the cardioprotective diet in the primary and secondary prevention of CVD. However, there is limited information on the role of diet in the management of heart failure (HF). Animal models of HF have provided interesting insight and potential mechanisms by which dietary manipulation may improve cardiac performance and delay the progression of the disease, and small-scale human studies have highlighted beneficial diet patterns. The aim of this review is to summarise the current data available on the role of diet in the management of human HF and to demonstrate that dietary manipulation needs to progress further than the simple recommendation of salt and fluid restriction. PMID:26857032

  12. The wasting continuum in heart failure: from sarcopenia to cachexia.

    PubMed

    von Haehling, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Sarcopenia (muscle wasting) and cachexia share some pathophysiological aspects. Sarcopenia affects approximately 20 %, cachexia <10 % of ambulatory patients with heart failure (HF). Whilst sarcopenia means loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength that predominantly affects postural rather than non-postural muscles, cachexia means loss of muscle and fat tissue that leads to weight loss. The wasting continuum in HF implies that skeletal muscle is lost earlier than fat tissue and may lead from sarcopenia to cachexia. Both tissues require conservation, and therapies that stop the wasting process have tremendous therapeutic appeal. The present paper reviews the pathophysiology of muscle and fat wasting in HF and discusses potential treatments, including exercise training, appetite stimulants, essential amino acids, growth hormone, testosterone, electrical muscle stimulation, ghrelin and its analogues, ghrelin receptor agonists and myostatin antibodies. PMID:26264581

  13. Intersections Between Microbiome and Heart Failure: Revisiting the Gut Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Nagatomo, Yuji; Tang, W H Wilson

    2015-12-01

    Microbes play an important role in human health and disease. In the setting of heart failure (HF), substantial hemodynamic changes, such as hypoperfusion and congestion in the intestines, can alter gut morphology, permeability, function, and possibly the growth and composition of gut microbiota. These changes can disrupt the barrier function of the intestines and exacerbate systemic inflammation via microbial or endotoxin translocation into systemic circulation. Furthermore, cardiorenal alterations via metabolites derived from gut microbiota can potentially mediate or modulate HF pathophysiology. Recently, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has emerged as a key mediator that provides a mechanistic link between gut microbiota and multiple cardiovascular diseases, including HF. Potential intervention strategies which may target this microbiota-driven pathology include dietary modification, prebiotics/probiotics, and selective binders of microbial enzymes or molecules, but further investigations into their safety and efficacy are warranted. PMID:26435097

  14. Iron deficiency and heart failure: diagnostic dilemmas and therapeutic perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Ewa A.; von Haehling, Stephan; Anker, Stefan D.; Macdougall, Iain C.; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Iron is a micronutrient essential for cellular energy and metabolism, necessary for maintaining body homoeostasis. Iron deficiency is an important co-morbidity in patients with heart failure (HF). A major factor in the pathogenesis of anaemia, it is also a separate condition with serious clinical consequences (e.g. impaired exercise capacity) and poor prognosis in HF patients. Experimental evidence suggests that iron therapy in iron-deficient animals may activate molecular pathways that can be cardio-protective. Clinical studies have demonstrated favourable effects of i.v. iron on the functional status, quality of life, and exercise capacity in HF patients. It is hypothesized that i.v. iron supplementation may become a novel therapy in HF patients with iron deficiency. PMID:23100285

  15. Palliative Care and Hospice in Advanced Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    LeMond, Lisa; Allen, Larry A.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced heart failure (HF) is a disease process that carries a high burden of symptoms, suffering, and death. Palliative care can complement traditional care to improve symptom amelioration, patient-caregiver communication, emotional support, and medical decision making. Despite a growing body of evidence supporting the integration of palliative care into the overall care of patients with HF and some recent evidence of increased use, palliative therapies remain underused in the treatment of advanced HF. Review of the literature reveals that although barriers to integrating palliative care are not fully understood, difficult prognostication combined with caregiver inexperience with end-of-life issues specific to advanced HF is likely to contribute. In this review, we have outlined the general need for palliative care in advanced HF, detailed how palliative measures can be integrated into the care of those having this disease, and explored end-of-life issues specific to these patients. PMID:21875515

  16. Management of acute heart failure in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Rob

    2015-12-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a leading cause of hospital admission in the UK and is associated with significant mortality. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence ( 2014 ) has published guidelines for the management of AHF but, after a clinical event in which a patient's management differed from that recommended in the guidelines occurred in the author's emergency department, he conducted a critical analysis of them. This article provides a case study of the clinical event, reviews the treatment methods adopted and explores the rationale for taking a different approach from that recommended in the guidelines. The evidence base for the use of diuretics, nitrates and non-invasive ventilation in the management of patients with AHF is also appraised. PMID:26638756

  17. Sleep apnea and cognitive function in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Krysten M; Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Raz, Naftali; Sweet, Lawrence; Colbert, Lisa H; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2012-01-01

    Background. Prior research indicates that heart failure (HF) patients exhibit significant cognitive deficits on neuropsychological testing. Sleep apnea is associated with both HF and reduced cognitive function, but the combined impact of these conditions on cognitive function is unknown. Methods. In the current study, 172 older adults with a dual diagnosis of HF and sleep apnea or HF alone completed a battery of cognitive tests measuring attention, executive functioning, and memory. Results. Relative to patients with HF alone, persons with both HF and sleep apnea performed worse on measures of attention after adjusting for demographic and medical variables. Conclusions. The current findings suggest that HF patients with comorbid sleep apnea may be at greater risk for cognitive impairment relative to HF patient without such history. Further work is needed to clarify mechanisms for these findings and to determine whether the interactive effects on cognitive function lead to poorer patient outcomes. PMID:22745901

  18. [Iron deficiency in chronic heart failure: from diagnosis to therapy].

    PubMed

    von Haehling, S; Anker, S D

    2014-04-01

    Anaemia and iron deficiency are frequent co-morbidities in patients with chronic heart failure. Both are bound to worsen an already reduced exercise capacity in these patients. Recent data have demonstrated that iron deficiency alone, i.e. without concomitant anaemia, reduces quality of life, exercise capacity and likely also survival. Two clinical entities should be differentiated in this context: absolute and functional iron deficiency, the first being an absolute deficiency of iron, the second representing a disturbed mobilisation capacity. The FAIR-HF study has shown that intravenous iron administration can improve quality of life and exercise capacity in affected patients. A correct diagnosis can easily be arrived at using parameters such as serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Replenishing iron stores is most useful using the intravenous route, and administered doses need to be adjusted to individual needs. PMID:24722935

  19. Wavelet-based signal analysis for heart failure hospitalization prediction.

    PubMed

    Iakovidis, Dimitris K; Douska, Dimitra; Barba, Evaggelia; Koulaouzidis, George

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is commonly a chronic condition associated with frequent hospital admissions. Early knowledge about a possible deterioration of this condition would enable early treatment for the prevention of adverse events and related hospital admissions. In this paper we present a computational method for predictive information extraction from daily physiological signals, which can be obtained by a telemonitoring system with wearable sensors. It is based on wavelet analysis of temporal signal patterns. Experiments with data from patients enrolled in a telemonitoring protocol show that the proposed method is capable of predicting HF hospitalization events one day before they happen, even in the case of low compliance to the protocol. These results indicate a promising perspective towards a monitoring system that would provide improved life quality for HF patients. PMID:27225548

  20. Digital pen-based telemonitoring of elderly heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Lind, Leili; Karlsson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Considering that a majority of elderlies are non-users of computers and Internet we developed a telemonitoring system for elderly heart failure (HF) home care patients based on digital pen technology - a technology never used before by this patient group. We implemented the system in clinical use in a 13 months long study. Fourteen patients (mean/median age 84 years) with severe HF participated. They accepted the technology and performed daily reports of their health state using the digital pen and a Health Diary form. Via the system the clinicians detected all HF-related deteriorations at an early stage and thereby prevented hospital re-admissions for all patients during the study, implying improved symptom control and large cost savings. PMID:23920836

  1. Preventing Thrombosis to Improve Outcomes in Heart Failure Patients.

    PubMed

    Shantsila, Eduard; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with an increased risk of thrombotic events, particularly if this condition is accompanied by atrial fibrillation (AF). Many HF patients have background coronary artery disease (CAD) making them prone to coronary thrombosis resulting in myocardial infarction or sudden death. Oral anticoagulation is essential in the vast majority of HF patients with AF with non-vitamin K based anticoagulants being a suitable alternative to warfarin. In contrast, aspirin alone does not provide adequate stroke prevention in such patients. In HF without AF, oral anticoagulation should not be routinely used, and antiplatelet agents should be prescribed in patients with background CAD. This review provides an overview of prothrombotic factors and antithrombotic management of patients with HF. PMID:26433062

  2. Cardiac biomarkers: new tools for heart failure management

    PubMed Central

    Wentworth, Bailey; Choudhary, Rajiv; Landa, Alejandro De La Parra; Kipper, Benjamin; Fard, Arrash; Maisel, Alan S.

    2012-01-01

    The last decade has seen exciting advances in the field of biomarkers used in managing patients with heart failure (HF). Biomarker research has broadened our knowledge base, shedding more light on the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms occurring in patients with both acute and chronic HF. The criterion required by an ideal cardiovascular biomarker has been progressively changing to an era of sensitive assays that can be used to guide treatment. Recent technological advances have made it possible to rapidly measure even minute amounts of these proteins by means of higher sensitivity assays. With a high prevalence of comorbidities associated with HF, an integrated approach utilizing multiple biomarkers have shown promise in predicting mortality, better risk stratification and reducing re-hospitalizations, thus lowering health-care costs. This review provides a brief insight into recent advances in the field of biomarkers currently used in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with acute and chronic HF. PMID:24282708

  3. Technology to promote and increase physical activity in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Nina C

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is firmly recommended as part of a multifaceted approach to heart failure (HF) self-management. Unfortunately, research indicates that most patients are less likely to engage in and adhere to such activities. The widespread use of information and communication technology tools and resources offers an innovative and potentially beneficial avenue for increasing physical activity levels in HF patients. This article presents specific ways in which advances in information and communication technologies, including Internet- and mobile-based communications, social media platforms, and self-monitoring health devices, can serve as a means to broadly promote increasing levels of physical activity to improve health outcomes in the HF population. PMID:25432484

  4. The future of pharmacogenetics in the treatment of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Mohamed Subhan; Iskandar, Muhammad Zaid; Parry, Helen M; Doney, Alex S; Palmer, Colin N; Lang, Chim C

    2015-11-01

    Heart failure is a common disease with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Current treatment comprises β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, aldosterone antagonists and diuretics. Variation in clinical response seen in patients begs the question of whether there is a pharmacogenetic component yet to be identified. To date, the genes most studied involve the β-1, β-2, α-2 adrenergic receptors and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway, mainly focusing on SNPs. However results have been inconsistent. Genome-wide association studies and next-generation sequencing are seen as alternative approaches to discovering genetic variations influencing drug response. Hopefully future research will lay the foundations for genotype-led drug management in these patients with the ultimate aim of improving their clinical outcome. PMID:26555119

  5. Respiratory muscle function and exercise intolerance in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Jorge P; Chiappa, Gaspar R; Neder, J Alberto; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2009-06-01

    Inspiratory muscle weakness (IMW) is prevalent in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) caused by left ventricular systolic dysfunction, which contributes to reduced exercise capacity and the presence of dyspnea during daily activities. Inspiratory muscle strength (estimated by maximal inspiratory pressure) has independent prognostic value in CHF. Overall, the results of trials with inspiratory muscle training (IMT) indicate that this intervention improves exercise capacity and quality of life, particularly in patients with CHF and IMW. Some benefit from IMT may be accounted for by the attenuation of the inspiratory muscle metaboreflex. Moreover, IMT results in improved cardiovascular responses to exercise and to those obtained with standard aerobic training. These findings suggest that routine screening for IMW is advisable in patients with CHF, and specific IMT and/or aerobic training are of practical value in the management of these patients. PMID:19486593

  6. Understanding the Epidemic of Heart Failure: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Dunlay, Shannon M.; Roger, Véronique L.

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem affecting more than 5 million Americans and more than 23 million patients worldwide. The epidemiology of HF is evolving. Data suggests that the incidence of HF peaked in the mid 1990s and has since declined. Survival after HF diagnosis has improved, leading to an increase in prevalence. The case mix is also changing, as a rising proportion of patients with HF have preserved ejection fraction and multimorbidity is increasingly common. After diagnosis, HF can have a profound associated morbidity. Hospitalizations in HF remain both frequent and costly, though they may be declining as a result of preventive efforts. The need for skilled nursing facility care in HF has risen. The role of palliative medicine in the care of patients with advanced HF is evolving as we learn how to best care for this population with a large symptom burden. PMID:25182014

  7. Complexity in congestive heart failure: A time-frequency approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Santo; Palit, Sanjay K.; Mukherjee, Sayan; Ariffin, MRK; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-03-01

    Reconstruction of phase space is an effective method to quantify the dynamics of a signal or a time series. Various phase space reconstruction techniques have been investigated. However, there are some issues on the optimal reconstructions and the best possible choice of the reconstruction parameters. This research introduces the idea of gradient cross recurrence (GCR) and mean gradient cross recurrence density which shows that reconstructions in time frequency domain preserve more information about the dynamics than the optimal reconstructions in time domain. This analysis is further extended to ECG signals of normal and congestive heart failure patients. By using another newly introduced measure—gradient cross recurrence period density entropy, two classes of aforesaid ECG signals can be classified with a proper threshold. This analysis can be applied to quantifying and distinguishing biomedical and other nonlinear signals.

  8. The current status of heart failure diagnostic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Schulz, Benjamin L; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2016-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) affects approximately 23 million individuals worldwide and this number is increasing, due to an aging and growing population. Early detection of HF is crucial in the management of this debilitating disease. Current diagnostic methods for HF rely heavily on clinical imaging techniques and blood analysis, which makes them less than ideal for population-based screening purposes. Studies focusing on developing novel biomarkers for HF have utilized various techniques and biological fluids, including urine and saliva. Promising results from these studies imply that these body fluids can be used in evaluating the clinical manifestation of HF and will one day be integrated into a clinical workflow and facilitate HF management. PMID:26788983

  9. The role of statins in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Szczurek, Wioletta; Król, Bogumiła; Zembala, Marian

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of statins in reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with documented coronary artery disease is unquestionable. However, in chronic heart failure (CHF), evidence regarding the beneficial effects of statin therapy remains contradictory. Although numerous retrospective studies have demonstrated improved prognosis in CHF patients treated with statins, two randomized trials, GISSI-HF and CORONA, have not confirmed the benefit of rosuvastatin in this group of patients. The benefits of using statins in CHF probably result mostly from their pleiotropic action, including the improvement of endothelial function, the inhibition of neurohormonal activation, and the reduction of proinflammatory activation. On the other hand, it has been recognized that low cholesterol is associated with worse morbidity and mortality in patients with CHF. It appears that it is necessary to conduct further randomized clinical trials using different kinds of statins in different populations of patients with CHF. PMID:26336439

  10. Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers – the future of heart failure diagnostics?

    PubMed Central

    Szczurek, Wioletta

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure remains one of the most important problems in cardiology despite the progress in its treatment. A number of recent studies have demonstrated the relationship between the intensification of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation and the severity of left ventricular dysfunction, development of heart failure symptoms, and prediction of future cardiac events. Early detection of changes developing in the heart is key in improving the treatment's effectiveness. It appears that determining specific, sensitive biomarkers reflecting the complex pathophysiology of heart failure and using them to detect asymptomatic cardiac alterations may become a crucial screening tool, assisting in the identification of patients requiring further diagnostic examinations. This article presents an overview of the current knowledge of the role of oxidative stress and inflammation in heart failure; it also discusses the potential role of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers as prognostic factors in heart failure that may be used in screening tests. PMID:26336497

  11. Pioglitazone-induced congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema in a patient with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Jearath, Vaneet; Vashisht, Rajan; Rustagi, Vipul; Raina, Sujeet; Sharma, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Pioglitazone-induced heart failure is known in patients with underlying heart disease, but is not well documented in patients with normal left ventricular function. Pioglitazone has been very popular as it is an insulin sensitizer and insulin resistance is prevalent among Indians. Fluid retention exacerbates pre-existing heart failure or precipitates heart failure in a patient with underlying left ventricular dysfunction. However, pathogenesis of heart failure in a patient with normal left ventricular function is not known. Probably it is due to dose-related effect on pulmonary endothelial permeability, rather than alterations in left ventricular mass or ejection fraction. We report a patient who developed congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema with normal left ventricular function within 1 year of starting pioglitazone therapy. We have to be careful in monitoring all possible side effects during followup when patients are on pioglitazone therapy.

  12. Effect of Selective Heart Rate Slowing in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Nikhil; Sivaswamy, Nadiya; Mahmod, Masliza; Yavari, Arash; Rudd, Amelia; Singh, Satnam; Dawson, Dana K.; Francis, Jane M.; Dwight, Jeremy S.; Watkins, Hugh; Neubauer, Stefan; Frenneaux, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background— Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality but is currently refractory to therapy. Despite limited evidence, heart rate reduction has been advocated, on the basis of physiological considerations, as a therapeutic strategy in HFpEF. We tested the hypothesis that heart rate reduction improves exercise capacity in HFpEF. Methods and Results— We conducted a randomized, crossover study comparing selective heart rate reduction with the If blocker ivabradine at 7.5 mg twice daily versus placebo for 2 weeks each in 22 symptomatic patients with HFpEF who had objective evidence of exercise limitation (peak oxygen consumption at maximal exercise [o2 peak] <80% predicted for age and sex). The result was compared with 22 similarly treated matched asymptomatic hypertensive volunteers. The primary end point was the change in o2 peak. Secondary outcomes included tissue Doppler–derived E/e′ at echocardiography, plasma brain natriuretic peptide, and quality-of-life scores. Ivabradine significantly reduced peak heart rate compared with placebo in the HFpEF (107 versus 129 bpm; P<0.0001) and hypertensive (127 versus 145 bpm; P=0.003) cohorts. Ivabradine compared with placebo significantly worsened the change in o2 peak in the HFpEF cohort (-2.1 versus 0.9 mL·kg−1·min−1; P=0.003) and significantly reduced submaximal exercise capacity, as determined by the oxygen uptake efficiency slope. No significant effects on the secondary end points were discernable. Conclusion— Our observations bring into question the value of heart rate reduction with ivabradine for improving symptoms in a HFpEF population characterized by exercise limitation. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02354573. PMID:26338956

  13. Sodium and water balance in chronic congestive heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Cody, R J; Covit, A B; Schaer, G L; Laragh, J H; Sealey, J E; Feldschuh, J

    1986-01-01

    As the characteristics of sodium and water balance in heart failure remain undefined, we evaluated the hemodynamic, metabolic, and hormonal effects of balanced sodium intake in 10 patients with chronic congestive heart failure. We discontinued diuretics to avoid their confounding influence, and all patients received 1 wk of 10 meq and 100 meq balanced sodium intake and controlled free water. Comparing sodium intake of 10 with 100 meq, the following observations were made. There was weight gain (2.0 kg) and increased sodium excretion (11 +/- 3 to 63 +/- 15 meq/24 h), unaccompanied by increase of blood volume. Both renin-angiotensin system and sympathetic nervous system activity were greater during the 10 meq diet, and suppressed with the 100 meq sodium diet. For both diets, plasma renin and urinary aldosterone excretion were correlated with urinary sodium excretion (r = -0.768, r = -0.726, respectively; P less than 0.005). Systemic hemodynamics were minimally changed with increased sodium intake. However, reversal of vasoconstriction by captopril during the 10 meq diet, and its ineffectiveness during the 100 meq diet, indicated a renin-dependent mechanism in the former, and a renin-independent mechanism in the latter diet. There were two subgroups of response to the 100 meq diet: one group (n = 5) achieved neutral balance, while the second (n = 5) avidly retained sodium and water. Renin-angiotensin system activity was significantly higher in the latter group, and the mechanism for differences in sodium excretion for the subgroups could not be identified by blood volume or hemodynamic parameters. Orthostatic hypotension during tilt was greater during the 10 meq sodium diet, and in all cases, related to ineffective hemodynamic and hormonal compensatory responses. PMID:3517066

  14. Phenotypic Spectrum of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sanjiv J.; Katz, Daniel H.; Deo, Rahul C.

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a heterogeneous syndrome, with several underlying etiologic and pathophysiologic factors. While prior heart failure clinical trials have used a “one size fits all” approach, this approach has not proven successful for HFpEF. Furthermore, with the aging population and epidemics of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, the prevalence of HFpEF will continue to grow over the foreseeable future. Coupled with the high morbidity and mortality of the HFpEF syndrome, there remains a pressing unmet need to improve the clinical care of HFpEF patients and to design better HFpEF clinical trials. Improved classification of the wide HFpEF phenotypic spectrum is therefore essential to advance the HFpEF field and begin to provide targeted treatment for these patients. Here we describe 4 potential classification schemas for HFpEF: (1) pathophysiologic classification; (2) clinical/etiologic classification; (3) classification based on type of clinical presentation; and (4) phenomics (“phenomapping”) of HFpEF. Improved phenotypic categorization of HFpEF using these schemas is now possible given the multitude of tools available to perform “dense phenotyping” of HFpEF patients. Such categorization should lead to clinical care and clinical trials where targeted therapies based on specific mechanisms of disease can be matched to the specific patient subtypes most likely to respond to those therapies. In addition, innovative analytic strategies, such as “phenomapping”, may allow for the use of dense multi-dimensional data to create novel phenotypic signatures, which should help identify HFpEF patients who are particularly responsive to specific treatments. PMID:24975905

  15. Reduced Regional Brain Cortical Thickness in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajesh; Yadav, Santosh K.; Palomares, Jose A.; Park, Bumhee; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Ogren, Jennifer A.; Macey, Paul M.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Harper, Ronald M.; Woo, Mary A.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Autonomic, cognitive, and neuropsychologic deficits appear in heart failure (HF) subjects, and these compromised functions depend on cerebral cortex integrity in addition to that of subcortical and brainstem sites. Impaired autoregulation, low cardiac output, sleep-disordered-breathing, hypertension, and diabetic conditions in HF offer considerable potential to affect cortical areas by loss of neurons and glia, which would be expressed as reduced cortical thicknesses. However, except for gross descriptions of cortical volume loss/injury, regional cortical thickness integrity in HF is unknown. Our goal was to assess regional cortical thicknesses across the brain in HF, compared to control subjects. Methods and Results We examined localized cortical thicknesses in 35 HF and 61 control subjects with high-resolution T1-weighted images (3.0-Tesla MRI) using FreeSurfer software, and assessed group differences with analysis-of-covariance (covariates; age, gender; p<0.05; FDR). Significantly-reduced cortical thicknesses appeared in HF over controls in multiple areas, including the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, more markedly on the left side, within areas that control autonomic, cognitive, affective, language, and visual functions. Conclusion Heart failure subjects show reduced regional cortical thicknesses in sites that control autonomic, cognitive, affective, language, and visual functions that are deficient in the condition. The findings suggest chronic tissue alterations, with regional changes reflecting loss of neurons and glia, and presumably are related to earlier-described axonal changes. The pathological mechanisms contributing to reduced cortical thicknesses likely include hypoxia/ischemia, accompanying impaired cerebral perfusion from reduced cardiac output and sleep-disordered-breathing and other comorbidities in HF. PMID:25962164

  16. NOVEL PROTEIN THERAPEUTICS FOR SYSTOLIC HEART FAILURE: CHRONIC SUBCUTANEOUS BNP

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Horng H.; Glockner, James F; Schirger, John A.; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Redfield, Margaret M.; Burnett, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study was to translate our laboratory investigations to establish safety and efficacy of 8 weeks of chronic SQ BNP administration in human Stage C HF. Background B-Type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a cardiac hormone with vasodilating, natriuretic, renin-angiotensin (RAS) inhibiting and lusitropic properties. We have previously demonstrated that chronic cardiac hormone replacement with subcutaneous (SQ) administration of BNP in experimental heart failure (HF) resulted in improved cardiovascular function. Methods We performed a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled proof of concept study comparing eight weeks of SQ BNP (10 μg/Kg bid) (n=20) with Placebo (n=20) in patients with EF<35% and NYHA class II–III HF. Primary outcomes were LV volumes and LV mass determined by cardiac MRI. Secondary outcomes include LV filling pressure by Doppler echo, humoral function and renal function. Results Eight weeks of chronic SQ BNP resulted in a greater reduction of LV systolic and diastolic volume index and LV mass index as compared to placebo. There was a significantly greater improvement of Minnesota Living with Heart Failure (MLHF) score, LV filling pressure as demonstrated by the reductions of E/e′ ratio and decrease in LA volume index as compared to placebo. GFR was preserved with SQ BNP, as was the ability to activate plasma cGMP. (p<0.05 vs placebo) Conclusion In this pilot proof of concept study, chronic protein therapy with SQ BNP improved LV remodeling, LV filling pressure and MLHF score in patients with stable systolic HF on optimal therapy. RAS was suppressed and GFR preserved. SQ BNP represents a novel, safe and efficacious protein therapeutic strategy in human HF. Further studies are warranted to determine if these physiologic observations can be translated into improved clinical outcomes and ultimately delay the progression of HF. PMID:23122795

  17. Prognostic Significance of Hyperuricemia in Patients With Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Palazzuoli, Alberto; Ruocco, Gaetano; Pellegrini, Marco; Beltrami, Matteo; Giordano, Nicola; Nuti, Ranuccio; McCullough, Peter A

    2016-05-15

    Serum uric acid (UA) is associated with death and hospitalization in chronic heart failure (HF). However, UA in acute HF has not been well studied with respect to its relation to renal dysfunction and vascular congestion. We measured admission serum UA along with baseline variables in 281 patients with acute HF screened from the Loop Diuretics Administration and Acute Heart Failure (Diur-HF) trial. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum UA >7 mg/dl in men and >6 mg/dl in women. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) before hospital admission. Death or HF hospitalization at 6 months was the primary outcome. The mean UA concentration was 6.4 ± 2.5 mg/dl, and 121 patients (43.1%) were classified as hyperuricemic. UA values were significantly increased in patients with CKD compared to patients without CKD (6.8 ± 2.7 vs 6.1 ± 2.1 mg/dl; p = 0.02); however, UA was not associated with the development of acute kidney injury. Patients with hyperuricemia had greater degrees of pulmonary and systemic congestion than normouricemic patients (congestion score 3.5 vs 2.1, p <0.01). Hyperuricemia was associated with higher risk of death or HF rehospitalization (univariate hazard ratio 1.46 [1.02 to 2.10]; p = 0.04, multivariate hazard ratio 1.69 [1.16 to 2.45]; p = 0.005). In conclusion, hospitalized patients with acute HF, elevated UA levels were associated with both CKD and pulmonary congestion. After controlling for potential confounders, hyperuricemia was associated with rehospitalization and death at 6 months. PMID:27040576

  18. Heart failure in adult congenital heart disease: Emerging concepts with a focus on tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Wald, Rachel M; Valente, Anne Marie; Marelli, Ariane

    2015-07-01

    Emerging heart failure (HF) concepts in the growing population of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) are reviewed in the following article with a focus on individuals with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), the largest group of adults with repaired cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD). In the first section, the changing epidemiology of CHD and HF in ACHD patients is described. We demonstrate the challenges health care providers face when caring for this unique population. Emphasis is placed on the importance and difficulty of identifying patients at risk for HF, of which TOF patients comprise a substantial subset, underscoring the benefits of specialized cardiac care. In the second portion of the article, we review underlying mechanisms of HF in adults with TOF. We elaborate on the wide-ranging etiologies of HF that reflect a confluence of factors related to native anatomic substrate, history of surgical intervention(s), and superimposed hemodynamic and/or ischemic burden to the right and left heart. We describe state-of-the-art imaging concepts as they apply to qualifying and quantifying acquired myocardial and valvular dysfunction in adults with repaired TOF. In the final part of the article, we review the current literature pertaining to the management of adults with repaired TOF. Specifically, we explore medical and surgical issues related to pulmonary valve replacement, arrhythmia management, and transplantation. Finally, we highlight current knowledge gaps and propose future directions of much-needed research that will improve the quality of care for this growing population. PMID:25630927

  19. Effective Strategies in Reducing Rehospitalizations in Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Al-Khazaali, Ali; Arora, Rohit; Helu, Hanan K

    2016-01-01

    Aging of the population and prolongation of the lives of patients with heart failure (HF) by advanced therapeutic innovations has led to an elevating number of patients who live with HF. The American Heart Association estimated that 5.1 million Americans were affected with HF in 2013 and approximately 23 million individuals were affected worldwide. Despite the improved management approaches, the mortality rate is still high; less than half of the patients with HF remain alive after 5 years of HF diagnosis and less than a quarter of them after 10 years. HF costs the nation a huge amount of money. The total cost comprises $34.4 billion each year, including the health care services, medications, and loss of productivity. Hospitalization is a common issue in HF, estimated as primary diagnosis in more than 1 million each year. Readmission after initial hospitalization is another concern in patients with HF. Around 25% will be readmitted in the next 30 days after hospital discharge, out of which only one-third is due to HF. It also costs the government an exhausting amount of money. The report of Medicare Payment Advisory Commission that was provided to the congress in 2008 showed that the expenses on HF readmissions were about $903. In this review, we intended to demonstrate the different strategies that could improve the readmission rates in patients with HF and ultimately decrease the health care payments. These strategies include evidence-based management programs, surgical therapy, risk factors adjustment, and disease monitoring. PMID:24914506

  20. Atrial fibrillation in heart failure: what should we do?

    PubMed Central

    Kotecha, Dipak; Piccini, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are two conditions that are likely to dominate the next 50 years of cardiovascular (CV) care. Both are increasingly prevalent and associated with high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare cost. They are closely inter-related with similar risk factors and shared pathophysiology. Patients with concomitant HF and AF suffer from even worse symptoms and poorer prognosis, yet evidence-based evaluation and management of this group of patients is lacking. In this review, we evaluate the common mechanisms for the development of AF in HF patients and vice versa, focusing on the evidence for potential treatment strategies. Recent data have suggested that these patients may respond differently than those with HF or AF alone. These results highlight the clear clinical need to identify and treat according to best evidence, in order to prevent adverse outcomes and reduce the huge burden that HF and AF are expected to have on global healthcare systems in the future. We propose an easy-to-use clinical mnemonic to aid the initial management of newly discovered concomitant HF and AF, the CAN-TREAT HFrEF + AF algorithm (Cardioversion if compromised; Anticoagulation unless contraindication; Normalize fluid balance; Target initial heart rate <110 b.p.m.; Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone modification; Early consideration of rhythm control; Advanced HF therapies; Treatment of other CV disease). PMID:26419625