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1

Ovine corpus luteum proteins, with functions including oxidative stress and lipid metabolism, show complex alterations during implantation.  

PubMed

Progesterone (P(4)) secreted by the corpus luteum (CL) is critical for in utero embryo survival and development, although CL proteins are key regulatory factors during the luteal phase. We, therefore, characterised protein expression patterns in ovine CL of pregnancy (days 12, 16 and 20) compared with those of controls, CL of oestrous cycle (days 12 and 16), using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) gel-based proteomics. Proteins in 24 significantly altered spots were identified by tandem mass spectroscopy. At the time of embryo implantation (day 16), 77 spots were up-regulated and 101 spots were down-regulated in CL of pregnancy compared with regressed CL. Vimentin, lamin A/C (LMNA), [Mn] superoxide dismutase (SOD2), isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, annexin A1 and elongation factor Tu, mitochondrial (TUFM) altered during CL regression, whereas glutathione S-transferase A1, apolipoprotein A-1, myxovirus resistance protein 1, ornithine aminotransferase and enoyl-CoA hydratase, mitochondrial (ECHS1) tended to be altered during CL maintenance. biliverdin reductase B (BLVRB), FDXR, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-2 (GNB2) and cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 1, mitochondrial (UQCRC1) showed divergent expression during CL regression and maintenance. The expression of two representative proteins, SOD2 and BLVRB, by western blot increased in CL of non-pregnant ewes on day 16 compared with that on day 12. SOD2 and BLVRB were localised in the large and small luteal cells and endothelial cells of CL over peri-implantation periods. 2DE gel and mass spectrometry have been used, for the first time, to study ovine CL function. We have identified proteins involved in key pathways, including oxidative stress, steroidogenesis, signal transduction and apoptosis, which have not previously been associated with changes occurring in the CL during the peri-implantation period. These proteins are most likely involved with mechanisms allowing the CL to produce P(4) during early pregnancy. PMID:21478226

Arianmanesh, Mitra; McIntosh, Rebecca H; Lea, Richard G; Fowler, Paul A; Al-Gubory, Kaïs H

2011-07-01

2

Pregnancy-associated genes contribute to antiluteolytic mechanisms in ovine corpus luteum.  

PubMed

The hypothesis that ovine luteal gene expression differs due to pregnancy status and day of estrous cycle was tested. RNA was isolated from corpora lutea (CL) on days 12 and 14 of the estrous cycle (NP) or pregnancy (P) and analyzed with the Affymetrix bovine microarray. RNA also was isolated from luteal cells on day 10 of estrous cycle that were cultured for 24 h with luteolytic hormones (OXT and PGF) and secretory products of the conceptus (IFNT and PGE2). Differential gene expression (>1.5-fold, P < 0.05) was confirmed using semiquantitative real-time PCR. Serum progesterone concentrations decreased from day 12 to day 15 in NP ewes (P < 0.05) reflecting luteolysis and remained >1.7 ng/ml in P ewes reflecting rescue of the CL. Early luteolysis (days 12-14) was associated with differential expression of 683 genes in the CL, including upregulation of SERPINE1 and THBS1. Pregnancy on day 12 (55 genes) and 14 (734 genes) also was associated with differential expression of genes in the CL, many of which were ISGs (i.e., ISG15, MX1) that were induced when culturing luteal cells with IFNT, but not PGE2. Finally, many genes, such as PTX3, IL6, VEGF, and LHR, were stabilized during pregnancy and downregulated during the estrous cycle and in response to culture of luteal cells with luteolytic hormones. In conclusion, pregnancy circumvents luteolytic pathways and activates or stabilizes genes associated with interferon, chemokine, cell adhesion, cytoskeletal, and angiogenic pathways in the CL. PMID:24046284

Romero, Jared J; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q; Smirnova, Natalia P; Webb, Brett T; Yu, Fang; Davis, John S; Hansen, Thomas R

2013-11-15

3

Pregnancy-associated genes contribute to antiluteolytic mechanisms in ovine corpus luteum  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that ovine luteal gene expression differs due to pregnancy status and day of estrous cycle was tested. RNA was isolated from corpora lutea (CL) on days 12 and 14 of the estrous cycle (NP) or pregnancy (P) and analyzed with the Affymetrix bovine microarray. RNA also was isolated from luteal cells on day 10 of estrous cycle that were cultured for 24 h with luteolytic hormones (OXT and PGF) and secretory products of the conceptus (IFNT and PGE2). Differential gene expression (>1.5-fold, P < 0.05) was confirmed using semiquantitative real-time PCR. Serum progesterone concentrations decreased from day 12 to day 15 in NP ewes (P < 0.05) reflecting luteolysis and remained >1.7 ng/ml in P ewes reflecting rescue of the CL. Early luteolysis (days 12–14) was associated with differential expression of 683 genes in the CL, including upregulation of SERPINE1 and THBS1. Pregnancy on day 12 (55 genes) and 14 (734 genes) also was associated with differential expression of genes in the CL, many of which were ISGs (i.e., ISG15, MX1) that were induced when culturing luteal cells with IFNT, but not PGE2. Finally, many genes, such as PTX3, IL6, VEGF, and LHR, were stabilized during pregnancy and downregulated during the estrous cycle and in response to culture of luteal cells with luteolytic hormones. In conclusion, pregnancy circumvents luteolytic pathways and activates or stabilizes genes associated with interferon, chemokine, cell adhesion, cytoskeletal, and angiogenic pathways in the CL. PMID:24046284

Romero, Jared J.; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q.; Smirnova, Natalia P.; Webb, Brett T.; Yu, Fang; Davis, John S.

2013-01-01

4

Progesterone and interferon tau regulated genes in the endometrium of the ovine uterus and expression of interferon stimulated genes in the corpus luteum during early pregnancy in sheep  

E-print Network

During early pregnancy in ruminants, progesterone (P4) from the corpus luteum (CL) and interferon tau (IFNT) from the conceptus act on the endometrium to regulate genes including interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) that are hypothesized...

Ahn, Hyo Won

2008-10-10

5

CORPUS LUTEUM: ANIMAL MODELS OF POSSIBLE RELEVANCE TO REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The presence of a normally functioning corpus luteum is an essential requirement for the maintenance of gestation in mammals. he chief function of the corpus luteum in all species is to synthesize the steroid hormone progesterone that is necessary for implantation and for the sub...

6

Cytokines and Angiogenesis in the Corpus Luteum  

PubMed Central

In adults, physiological angiogenesis is a rare event, with few exceptions as the vasculogenesis needed for tissue growth and function in female reproductive organs. Particularly in the corpus luteum (CL), regulation of angiogenic process seems to be tightly controlled by opposite actions resultant from the balance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors. It is the extremely rapid sequence of events that determines the dramatic changes on vascular and nonvascular structures, qualifying the CL as a great model for angiogenesis studies. Using the mare CL as a model, reports on locally produced cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF), interferon gamma (IFNG), or Fas ligand (FASL), pointed out their role on angiogenic activity modulation throughout the luteal phase. Thus, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the interaction between immune, endothelial, and luteal steroidogenic cells, regarding vascular dynamics/changes during establishment and regression of the equine CL. PMID:23840095

Galvão, António M.; Ferreira-Dias, Graça; Skarzynski, Dariusz J.

2013-01-01

7

Regulation of the Primate Corpus Luteum: Cellular and Molecular Perspectives.  

PubMed

The process of luteinization, during which follicular granulosa cells are transformed into luteal cells, is accompanied by dramatic changes in the responses of luteal cells to luteinizing hormone (LH) and cAMP. The goal of this review is to summarize the findings of recent studies in monkeys, which have shown that the expression of the cAMP-dependent nuclear transcription factor CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) ceases upon luteinization, and also to suggest possible consequences of its loss on corpus luteum function and lifespan. PMID:10370229

Zeleznik; Somers

1999-07-01

8

Electron microscopic observations on the involution of the human corpus luteum of menstruation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involution of the granulosa lutein cell in the human corpus luteum is characterized by a dilatation of agranular endoplasmic reticulum vesicles and tubules. This process continues until the whole cell is filled with large vacuoles and the cytoplasm is reduced to thin strands between the vacuoles. The contents of the latter are of low electron density in contrast to

Ernest W. Lennep; Lesley M. Madden

1965-01-01

9

Effect of the relative locations of embryo and corpus luteum on embryo survival in cattle  

E-print Network

Effect of the relative locations of embryo and corpus luteum on embryo survival in cattle M. R. DEL in gestation ( embryo in the ipsilateral '10m increases the survival rate of an embryo in the contralateral horn and if later in gestation (> day 30) the presence of two embryos adversely affects

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

10

Regulation of Endothelial Permeability in the Corpus Luteum: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

The development of the human corpus luteum (yellow body) is dictated by a strictly controlled system of mutually communicating cells, the luteal steroid hormone-producing cells and endothelial cells. This cell-to-cell communication facilitates control of neoangiogenesis which is a prerequisite for the development of the corpus luteum and its function, the rapid release of large amounts of progesterone into the blood-vascular system. Preconditions for this process are the hormonal regulation of endothelial cell proliferation as well as of vascular permeability through LH and hCG. The morphological correlates of endothelial permeability are cell-to-cell adhesion molecules such as adherens junctions (AJ) and tight junctions (TJ) that open and close the gaps between mutually interacting, neighbouring endothelial cells like a “zip fastener”. Various types of cell adhesion molecules have been detected in the corpus luteum such as occludin, claudin 1 and claudin 5 as well as VE-cadherin. It may be assumed that the regulation of AJ and TJ proteins is of particular importance for the permeability and thus for the function of the corpus luteum in early pregnancy since hCG treatment leads to a down-regulation of cell adhesion molecules in the luteal vessels. This effect is apparently mediated by VEGF. From a functional point of view, the hCG-dependent and VEGF-mediated down-regulation of cell adhesion molecules leads to a reduced transmissibility of cell-to-cell contacts and thus to an increased endothelial permeability. In this process the various cell adhesion molecules are not only directly regulated by VEGF but they also mutually interact and thus influence one another. PMID:24771896

Herr, D.; Bekes, I.; Wulff, C.

2013-01-01

11

Influence of corpus luteum and ovarian volume on the number and quality of bovine oocytes.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate whether ovarian volume, presence and diameter of the corpus luteum (CL) have effects on the number and quality of bovine recovered oocytes, 110 ovaries were obtained from the slaughterhouse. Cumulus oocytes complex were aspirated and evaluated under stereomicroscope. Oocytes were counted and classified according to their quality (Grades I, II, III and IV). Ovarian volume was weakly correlated to the number of good quality oocytes (P?

Penitente-Filho, Jurandy Mauro; Jimenez, Carolina Rodrigues; Zolini, Adriana Moreira; Carrascal, Erly; Azevedo, Jovana Luiza; Silveira, Camila Oliveira; Oliveira, Fabrício Albani; Torres, Ciro Alexandre Alves

2015-02-01

12

Regulating life or death: Potential role of microRNA in rescue of the corpus luteum.  

PubMed

The role of miRNA in tissue biology has added a new level of understanding of gene regulation and function. The corpus luteum (CL) is a transitory endocrine gland; the dynamic nature of the CL makes it a candidate for regulation by miRNA. Rescue of the CL from luteolysis is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy in all eutherian mammals. Using next generation sequencing, we profiled miRNA expression in the bovine CL during maternal recognition of pregnancy. We identified 590 luteal miRNA, of which 544 were known and 46 were novel miRNAs. Fifteen (including 3 novel) miRNAs were differentially expressed between CL of pregnant vs. cyclic animals. Target analysis of the differentially expressed miRNA resulted in genes involved in regulating apoptosis and immune response, providing evidence that miRNAs regulate the intracellular pathways that lead to either luteal regression or survival. PMID:25458694

Maalouf, Samar W; Liu, Wan-Sheng; Albert, Istvan; Pate, Joy L

2014-12-01

13

Antioxidant capacity is correlated with steroidogenic status of the corpus luteum during the bovine estrous cycle.  

PubMed

The reactions of steroid hormone biosynthesis are accompanied by formation of oxygen radicals. We determined the levels of some antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes at different developmental stages of bovine corpora lutea to examine their correlation with steroidogenic status. Plasma progesterone concentrations of estrous cycle synchronized cows increased until day 16, and then decreased rapidly during luteal regression. The levels of steroidogenic cytochrome P450scc and adrenodoxin paralleled the changes in plasma progesterone. Among the antioxidative enzymes examined, the SOD and catalase activities showed patterns most similar to plasma progesterone. Catalase and SOD activities increased 6-8 fold from day 6 to 16 of the estrous cycle and then decreased during the luteal regression. Ascorbate and beta-carotene showed low but significant correlation with P450scc and plasma progesterone levels. The profiles of two lipophilic antioxidants in corpora lutea were very different. beta-carotene concentration increased by approximately 6 fold from day 6 to 16, and decreased in regressive tissue. alpha-tocopherol showed a 3 fold increase between days 6 and 9 followed by a rapid decrease. Thus, at the peak of steroidogenesis at mid-luteal phase alpha-tocopherol levels decreased, but beta-carotene levels increased. The correlation between the levels of some antioxidant enzymes and compounds with progesterone levels indicates that antioxidative mechanisms are activated to cope with steroidogenesis dependent oxyradical formation in the bovine corpus luteum. PMID:9545562

Rapoport, R; Sklan, D; Wolfenson, D; Shaham-Albalancy, A; Hanukoglu, I

1998-03-12

14

Lymphatic Involvement in the Disappearance of Steroidogenic Cells from the Corpus Luteum during Luteolysis  

PubMed Central

In mammals, the corpus luteum (CL) is an essential endocrine gland for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. If pregnancy is not established, the CL regresses and disappears rapidly from the ovary. A possible explanation for the rapid disappearance of the CL is that luteal cells are transported from the ovary via lymphatic vessels. Here, we report the presence of cells positive for 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD), an enzyme involved in progesterone synthesis, in the lumen of lymphatic vessels at the regressing luteal stage and in the lymphatic fluid collected from the ovarian pedicle ipsilateral to the regressing CL. The 3?-HSD positive cells were alive and contained lipid droplets. The 3?-HSD positive cells in the lymphatic fluid were most abundant at days 22–24 after ovulation. These findings show that live steroidogenic cells are in the lymphatic vessels drained from the CL. The outflow of steroidogenic cells starts at the regressing luteal stage and continues after next ovulation. The overall findings suggest that the complete disappearance of the CL during luteolysis is involved in the outflow of luteal cells from the CL via ovarian lymphatic vessels. PMID:24586455

Abe, Hironori; Al-zi’abi, Mohamad Omar; Sekizawa, Fumio; Acosta, Tomas J.; Skarzynski, Dariusz J.; Okuda, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

15

Opposing Roles of Leptin and Ghrelin in the Equine Corpus Luteum Regulation: An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Metabolic hormones have been associated with reproductive function modulation. Thus, the aim of this study was: (i) to characterize the immunolocalization, mRNA and protein levels of leptin (LEP), Ghrelin (GHR) and respective receptors LEPR and Ghr-R1A, throughout luteal phase; and (ii) to evaluate the role of LEP and GHR on progesterone (P4), prostaglandin (PG) E2 and PGF2?, nitric oxide (nitrite), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF); macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) secretion, and on angiogenic activity (BAEC proliferation), in equine corpus luteum (CL) from early and mid-luteal stages. LEPR expression was decreased in late CL, while GHR/Ghr-R1A system was increased in the same stage. Regarding secretory activity, GHR decreased P4 in early CL, but increased PGF2?, nitrite and TNF in mid CL. Conversely, LEP increased P4, PGE2, angiogenic activity, MIF, TNF and nitrite during early CL, in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro effect of LEP on secretory activity was reverted by GHR, when both factors acted together. The present results evidence the presence of LEP and GHR systems in the equine CL. Moreover, we suggest that LEP and GHR play opposing roles in equine CL regulation, with LEP supporting luteal establishment and GHR promoting luteal regression. Finally, a dose-dependent luteotrophic effect of LEP was demonstrated. PMID:25125800

Galvão, António; Tramontano, Angela; Rebordão, Maria Rosa; Amaral, Ana; Bravo, Pedro Pinto; Szóstek, Anna; Skarzynski, Dariusz; Mollo, Antonio; Ferreira-Dias, Graça

2014-01-01

16

Mathematical analysis of a model for the growth of the bovine corpus luteum.  

PubMed

The corpus luteum (CL) is an ovarian tissue that grows in the wound space created by follicular rupture. It produces the progesterone needed in the uterus to maintain pregnancy. Rapid growth of the CL and progesterone transport to the uterus require angiogenesis, the creation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, a process which is regulated by proteins that include fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). In this paper we develop a system of time-dependent ordinary differential equations to model CL growth. The dependent variables represent FGF2, endothelial cells (ECs), luteal cells, and stromal cells (like pericytes), by assuming that the CL volume is a continuum of the three cell types. We assume that if the CL volume exceeds that of the ovulated follicle, then growth is inhibited. This threshold volume partitions the system dynamics into two regimes, so that the model may be classified as a Filippov (piecewise smooth) system. We show that normal CL growth requires an appropriate balance between the growth rates of luteal and stromal cells. We investigate how angiogenesis influences CL growth by considering how the system dynamics depend on the dimensionless EC proliferation rate, [Formula: see text]. We find that weak (low [Formula: see text]) or strong (high [Formula: see text]) angiogenesis leads to 'pathological' CL growth, since the loss of CL constituents compromises progesterone production or delivery. However, for intermediate values of [Formula: see text], normal CL growth is predicted. The implications of these results for cow fertility are also discussed. For example, inadequate angiogenesis has been linked to infertility in dairy cows. PMID:24337679

Prokopiou, Sotiris A; Byrne, Helen M; Jeffrey, Mike R; Robinson, Robert S; Mann, George E; Owen, Markus R

2014-12-01

17

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Apoptotic Pathway Is Involved in Corpus Luteum Regression in Rats.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), which is a novel pathway of regulating cellular apoptosis and the function of ERS during corpus luteum (CL) regression, is explored. Early-luteal stage (day 2), mid-luteal stage (day 7), and late-luteal stage (day 14 and 20) were induced, and the apoptosis of luteal cells was detected by a terminal 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The apoptotic cells were increased with the regression of CL, especially during the late-luteal stage. The ERS markers glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), activating transcription factor 6? (ATF6?), eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?), inositol-requiring protein 1? (IRE1?), caspase 12, and apoptosis marker caspase 3 were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, in agreement with the results of the TUNEL assay; the expression levels of CHOP, caspase 12, and caspase 3 were increased during the process of CL regression. Luteal cells were isolated and cultured in vitro, and the apoptosis of luteal cells was induced by prostaglandin F2?. The ERS was attenuated by the ERS inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid, and the apoptotic rate was analyzed by flow cytometry. The ERS markers Grp78, CHOP, XBP1s, ATF6?, eIF2?, IRE1?, caspase 12, and apoptotic execute marker caspase 3 were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence, and the results suggested that the expression of CHOP, caspase 12, and caspase 3 were increased, and there was increased apoptosis of luteal cells. But the expression of IRE1?/XBP1s and eIF2? was not detected. Taken together, the ERS is involved in the CL regression of rats through the CHOP and caspase 12 pathway. PMID:25332219

Yang, Yanzhou; Sun, Miao; Shan, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Xiaomin; Ma, Huiming; Ma, Wenzhi; Wang, Zhisheng; Pei, Xiuying; Wang, Yanrong

2014-10-20

18

A link between Notch and progesterone maintains the functionality of the rat corpus luteum.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the interaction between the Notch pathway and progesterone to maintain the functionality of the corpus luteum (CL). When Notch signaling is activated, the ?-secretase complex releases the active intracellular domains (NICD) of their receptors, which exert survival effects. We designed studies to analyze whether the in vitro inhibition of Notch affects progesterone production, steroidogenic regulators, apoptotic parameters, and signaling transduction pathways in the cultures of CL isolated from pregnant and superovulated rats. We detected a decrease in progesterone production when corpora lutea (CL) were incubated with N-(N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl-l-alanyl))-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT), a ?-secretase inhibitor. This effect could be in part due to the decrease detected in the CL protein levels of P450scc because STAR and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were not affected by Notch inhibition. Besides, the addition of aminoglutethimide to the CL culture medium decreased NICD of NOTCH1. We observed an increase in the expression of active CASPASE3 (CASP3) after inhibition by Notch, which was reversed by the presence of progesterone. The BAX:BCLXL ratio was increased in CL treated with DAPT and the presence of progesterone reversed this effect. In addition, phosphorylation of AKT was inhibited in CL treated with DAPT, but had no effect on ERK activation. To demonstrate that the action of DAPT is specifically related with the inhibition of Notch, CLs were incubated with DLL4 antibody and a decrease in progesterone production was detected. These results suggest the existence of a novel link between progesterone and the Notch signaling pathway to maintain the functionality of the CL. PMID:25433026

Accialini, P; Hernández, S F; Bas, D; Pazos, M C; Irusta, G; Abramovich, D; Tesone, M

2015-01-01

19

Changes in vascular leakage and expression of angiopoietins in the corpus luteum during pregnancy in rats.  

PubMed

The present study investigates changes in blood vessel stability and its regulation in the corpus luteum (CL) during pregnancy in the rat. First, blood vessel stability in the CL was evaluated during pregnancy based on vascular leakage, which was quantified by the Evans blue assay. Vascular leakage was highest on day 3, thereafter decreased until day 15 and increased again on day 21. Secondly, to study the regulation of vascular leakage, the expression of angiopoietins was examined in the CL during pregnancy. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) effects maturation and stabilization of newly formed blood vessels, while Ang-2 produces the opposite effect by allowing vascular remodeling. An immunohistochemical study showed both Ang-1 and Ang-2 expression in luteal cells. mRNA and protein levels of Ang-1 were significantly higher on days 12 and 15 than those on days 3 and 21, whereas there was no significant change in Ang-2 expression. Since estradiol contributes to CL development during mid-pregnancy, we finally studied whether estradiol regulates vascular leakage and angiopoietin expression. Rats undergoing hypophysectomy and hysterectomy (hypox-hect) on day 12 were treated with estradiol until day 15. Vascular leakage was increased and Ang-1 expression was decreased by hypox-hect, and these effects were completely reversed by estradiol treatment. In conclusion, blood vessel stability in the CL is likely to be associated with CL development and CL regression, and may be regulated by angiopoietins. Estradiol contributes to blood vessel stabilization in the CL during mid-pregnancy, which is associated with an increase in Ang-1 expression. PMID:16452728

Matsuoka-Sakata, Aki; Tamura, Hiroshi; Asada, Hiromi; Miwa, Ichiro; Taketani, Toshiaki; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro

2006-02-01

20

ATF3 Expression in the Corpus Luteum: Possible Role in Luteal Regression†  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the induction and possible role of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in the corpus luteum. Postpubertal cattle were treated at midcycle with prostaglandin F2?(PGF) for 0–4 hours. Luteal tissue was processed for immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and isolation of protein and RNA. Ovaries were also collected from midluteal phase and first-trimester pregnant cows. Luteal cells were prepared and sorted by centrifugal elutriation to obtain purified small (SLCs) and large luteal cells (LLCs). Real-time PCR and in situ hybridization showed that ATF3 mRNA increased within 1 hour of PGF treatment in vivo. Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that ATF3 protein was expressed in the nuclei of LLC within 1 hour and was maintained for at least 4 hours. PGF treatment in vitro increased ATF3 expression only in LLC, whereas TNF induced ATF3 in both SLCs and LLCs. PGF stimulated concentration- and time-dependent increases in ATF3 and phosphorylation of MAPKs in LLCs. Combinations of MAPK inhibitors suppressed ATF3 expression in LLCs. Adenoviral-mediated expression of ATF3 inhibited LH-stimulated cAMP response element reporter luciferase activity and progesterone production in LLCs and SLCs but did not alter cell viability or change the expression or activity of key regulators of progesterone synthesis. In conclusion, the action of PGF in LLCs is associated with the rapid activation of stress-activated protein kinases and the induction of ATF3, which may contribute to the reduction in steroid synthesis during luteal regression. ATF3 appears to affect gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone secretion at a step or steps downstream of PKA signaling and before cholesterol conversion to progesterone. PMID:24196350

Mao, Dagan; Hou, Xiaoying; Talbott, Heather; Cushman, Robert; Cupp, Andrea

2013-01-01

21

Comparison of endocrine and cellular mechanisms regulating the corpus luteum of primates and ruminants  

PubMed Central

The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine organ that is essential for maintenance of pregnancy in both ruminants and primates. The cellular and endocrine mechanisms that regulate the CL in these species have commonalities and some distinct and intriguing differences. Both species have similar cellular content with large luteal cells derived from the granulosa cells of the follicle, small luteal cells from follicular thecal cells, and large numbers of capillary endothelial cells that form the vasculature that has an essential role in optimal CL function. Intriguingly, the large luteal cells in ruminants grow larger than in primates and acquire a capacity for high constitutive progesterone (P4) production that is independent of stimulation from LH. In contrast, the primate CL and the granulosa lutein cells from primates continue to require stimulation by LH/CG throughout the luteal phase. Although the preovulatory follicle of women and cows had similar size and steroidogenic output (10 to 20 mg/h), the bovine CL had about ten-fold greater P4 output compared to the human CL (17.4 vs. 1.4 mg/h), possibly due to the development of high constitutive P4 output by the bovine large luteal cells. The continued dependence of the primate CL on LH/CG/cAMP also seems to underlie luteolysis, as there seems to be a requirement for greater luteotropic support in the older primate CL than is provided by the endogenous LH pulses. Conversely, regression of the ruminant CL is initiated by PGF from the nonpregnant uterus. Consequently, the short luteal phase in ruminants is primarily due to premature secretion of PGF by the nonpregnant uterus and early CL regression, whereas CL insufficiency in primates is related to inadequate luteotropic support and premature CL regression. Thus, the key functions of the CL, pregnancy maintenance and CL regression in the absence of pregnancy, are produced by common cellular and enzymatic pathways regulated by very distinct luteotropic and luteolytic mechanisms in the CL of primates and ruminants. PMID:23750179

Wiltbank, M.C.; Salih, S.M.; Atli, M.O.; Luo, W.; Bormann, C.L.; Ottobre, J.S.; Vezina, C.M.; Mehta, V.; Diaz, F.J.; Tsai, S.J.; Sartori, R.

2013-01-01

22

The effect of progesterone replacement on gene expression in the corpus luteum during induced regression and late luteal phase in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In higher primates, although LH\\/CG play a critical role in the control of corpus luteum (CL) function, the direct effects of progesterone (P4) in the maintenance of CL structure and function are unclear. Several experiments were conducted in the bonnet monkey to examine direct effects of P4 on gene expression changes in the CL, during induced luteolysis and the

Padmanaban S Suresh; Kadthur C Jayachandra; Rudraiah Medhamurthy

2011-01-01

23

Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Primate Ovary Up-Regulates Hypoxia-Inducible Factor1  in the Follicle and Corpus Luteum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-dependent angio- genesis is crucial for follicular growth, and corpus luteum formation and function, in the primate ovary. In the ovary VEGF can be hormonally regulated, but in other systems, the main regulator of VEGF expression is hypoxia. We hypothe- sized that hypoxia was involved in the regulation of angio- genesis in the cycling ovary. We

W. Colin Duncan; Sander van den Driesche; Hamish M. Fraser

2008-01-01

24

A high affinity Ca2+-stimulated and Mg2+-dependent ATPase in rat corpus luteum plasma membrane fractions.  

PubMed

Plasma membrane fractions from rat corpus luteum contain two kinds of Ca2+-stimulated ATPase, one having a high affinity for Ca2+, the other a low affinity for Ca2+. The high affinity ATPase had a specific Ca2+ requirement with a K 1/2 of 0.2 to 0.3 microM; it had a Vmax of 105 nmol min-1 mg-1 and distributed, upon subcellular fractionation, with recognized plasma membrane enzymes. The properties of this enzyme indicate that it is a CA2+ extrusion pump. The low affinity pump (K 1/2 for Ca2+, about 15 microM) was nonspecific, being stimulated equally well by Ca2+ of Mg2+; its function is unknown. Although the high affinity ATPase resembled the erythrocyte Ca2+-pumping ATPase in the properties mentioned above, it differed in that it failed to respond to Mg2+ or calmodulin. The lack of response to Mg2+ was due to the enzyme's retention of endogenous Mg2+; it did, after incubation with chelators, show a Mg2+ requirement. However, we were unable to show any effect of added calmodulin or trifluoperazine. This failure may be related to the high content of tightly bound calmodulin in these membranes. Much of this calmodulin could not be extracted even by washing with 1 mM EGTA and/or 0.1% (w/v) Triton X-100. This enzyme, the erythrocyte enzyme, and the adipocyte plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase all belong to the class of Ca2+ ATPases with plasma membrane distribution and high affinity for Ca2+, indicating that they are Ca2+ extrusion pumps. However, the data indicate that tissue-specific differences exist within this class, with the enzyme from adipocytes and rat corpus luteum belonging to a subclass in which the requirement for Mg2+ and any response to calmodulin are difficult to demonstrate. PMID:6108962

Verma, A K; Penniston, J T

1981-02-10

25

Conversion of intraovarian patterns from preovulation to postovulation based on location of dominant follicle and corpus luteum in heifers.  

PubMed

The conversion of preovulatory intraovarian patterns based on location of the preovulatory follicle (PF) and the associated corpus luteum (cl) to postovulatory patterns based on location of the future and established dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) was studied daily in 26 heifers from Days -5 to 6 (Day 0 = ovulation). The two ipsilateral preovulatory patterns were PF-cl and devoid (neither PF nor cl), and the two contralateral patterns were PF and cl. The postovulatory patterns were DF-CL, devoid, DF, and CL. For the contralateral preovulatory relationships, a conversion from PF to DF-CL and the accompanying conversion from cl to devoid occurred most frequently (17 of 18 conversions, 94%). For the ipsilateral preovulatory relationships, a conversion from PF-cl to CL and from devoid to DF occurred most frequently (6 of 8, 75%). Number of 2-mm follicles during preovulation was greatest (P < 0.05) for the devoid and PF patterns, and number of 6-mm follicles during postovulation was greatest (P < 0.05) for the DF-CL and DF patterns. Blood flow resistance at a color Doppler signal in the ovarian pedicle indicated increasing ovarian perfusion over days in the PF to DF-CL and devoid to DF conversions and decreasing perfusion in the PF-cl to CL and cl to devoid conversions. In addition to formation of the CL from the PF, it was interpreted that the conversion of patterns involved number of newly emerging 2-mm follicles per ovary before ovulation and a continuation of the preovulatory angioarchitecture into postovulation. Results supported the novel hypothesis that the four preovulatory intraovarian patterns determine the frequency of the four postovulatory patterns. PMID:25457678

Ginther, O J; Siddiqui, M A R; Baldrighi, J M; Hoffman, M M

2015-01-15

26

Efficacy of PGF 2? to synchronize estrus in water buffalo cows ( Bubalus bubalis) is dependent upon plasma progesterone concentration, corpus luteum size and ovarian follicular status before treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to identify factors affecting PGF2? efficacy to synchronize estrus in water buffalo cows. After detection of a corpus luteum (CL) by rectal palpation, cows were treated (im) with dinoprost (12.5, 25 or 50mg) or d(+) cloprostenol (75, 150 or 300?g) in a total of 66 treatments. Blood samples were collected 0, 24 and 48h after treatment

L. F. C Brito; R Satrapa; E. P Marson; J. P Kastelic

2002-01-01

27

The lncRNA Neat1 is required for corpus luteum formation and the establishment of pregnancy in a subpopulation of mice  

PubMed Central

Neat1 is a non-protein-coding RNA that serves as an architectural component of the nuclear bodies known as paraspeckles. Although cell-based studies indicate that Neat1 is a crucial regulator of gene expression, its physiological relevance remains unclear. Here, we find that Neat1 knockout (KO) mice stochastically fail to become pregnant despite normal ovulation. Unilateral transplantation of wild-type ovaries or the administration of progesterone partially rescued the phenotype, suggesting that corpus luteum dysfunction and concomitant low progesterone were the primary causes of the decreased fertility. In contrast to the faint expression observed in most of the adult tissues, Neat1 was highly expressed in the corpus luteum, and the formation of luteal tissue was severely impaired in nearly half of the Neat1 KO mice. These observations suggest that Neat1 is essential for the formation of the corpus luteum and for the subsequent establishment of pregnancy under a suboptimal condition that has not yet been identified. PMID:25359727

Nakagawa, Shinichi; Shimada, Masayuki; Yanaka, Kaori; Mito, Mari; Arai, Takashi; Takahashi, Eiki; Fujita, Youko; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Standaert, Laura; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Hirose, Tetsuro

2014-01-01

28

The lncRNA Neat1 is required for corpus luteum formation and the establishment of pregnancy in a subpopulation of mice.  

PubMed

Neat1 is a non-protein-coding RNA that serves as an architectural component of the nuclear bodies known as paraspeckles. Although cell-based studies indicate that Neat1 is a crucial regulator of gene expression, its physiological relevance remains unclear. Here, we find that Neat1 knockout (KO) mice stochastically fail to become pregnant despite normal ovulation. Unilateral transplantation of wild-type ovaries or the administration of progesterone partially rescued the phenotype, suggesting that corpus luteum dysfunction and concomitant low progesterone were the primary causes of the decreased fertility. In contrast to the faint expression observed in most of the adult tissues, Neat1 was highly expressed in the corpus luteum, and the formation of luteal tissue was severely impaired in nearly half of the Neat1 KO mice. These observations suggest that Neat1 is essential for the formation of the corpus luteum and for the subsequent establishment of pregnancy under a suboptimal condition that has not yet been identified. PMID:25359727

Nakagawa, Shinichi; Shimada, Masayuki; Yanaka, Kaori; Mito, Mari; Arai, Takashi; Takahashi, Eiki; Fujita, Youko; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Standaert, Laura; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Hirose, Tetsuro

2014-12-01

29

Rapid Accumulation of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils in the Corpus luteum during Prostaglandin F2?-Induced Luteolysis in the Cow  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) induces luteolysis within a few days in cows, and immune cells increase in number in the regressing corpus luteum (CL), implying that luteolysis is an inflammatory-like immune response. We investigated the rapid change in polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) numbers in response to PGF2? administration as the first cells recruited to inflammatory sites, together with mRNA of interleukin-8 (IL-8: neutrophil chemoattractant) and P-selectin (leukocyte adhesion molecule) in the bovine CL. CLs were collected by ovariectomy at various times after PGF2? injection. The number of PMNs was increased at 5 min after PGF2? administration, whereas IL-8 and P-selectin mRNA increased at 30 min and 2 h, respectively. PGF2? directly stimulated P-selectin protein expression at 5–30 min in luteal endothelial cells (LECs). Moreover, PGF2? enhanced PMN adhesion to LECs, and this enhancement by PGF2? was inhibited by anti-P-selectin antibody, suggesting that P-selectin expression by PGF2? is crucial in PMN migration. In conclusion, PGF2? rapidly induces the accumulation of PMNs into the bovine CL at 5 min and enhances PMN adhesion via P-selectin expression in LECs. It is suggested that luteolytic cascade by PGF2? may involve an acute inflammatory-like response due to rapidly infiltrated PMNs. PMID:22235260

Shirasuna, Koumei; Jiemtaweeboon, Sineenard; Raddatz, Sybille; Nitta, Akane; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Bollwein, Heinrich; Shimizu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Akio

2012-01-01

30

Expression of Aldo-keto Reductase 1C23 in the Equine Corpus Luteum in Different Luteal Phases  

PubMed Central

Regression of the corpus luteum (CL) is characterized by a decay in progesterone (P4) production (functional luteolysis) and disappearance of luteal tissues (structural luteolysis). In mares, structural luteolysis is thought to be caused by apoptosis of luteal cells, but functional luteolysis is poorly understood. 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20?-HSD) catabolizes P4 into its biologically inactive form, 20?-hydroxyprogesterone (20?-OHP). In mares, aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C23, which is a member of the AKR superfamily, has 20?-HSD activity. To clarify whether AKR1C23 is associated with functional luteolysis in mares, we investigated the expression of AKR1C23 in the CL in different luteal phases. The luteal P4 concentration and levels of 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD) mRNA were higher in the mid luteal phase than in the late and regressed luteal phases (P<0.05), but the level of 3?-HSD protein was higher in the late luteal phase than in the regressed luteal phase (P<0.05). The luteal 20?-OHP concentration and the level of AKR1C23 mRNA were higher in the late luteal phase than in the early and mid luteal phases (P<0.05), and the level of AKR1C23 protein was also highest in the late luteal phase. Taken together, these findings suggest that metabolism of P4 by AKR1C23 is one of the processes contributing to functional luteolysis in mares. PMID:24492656

KOZAI, Keisuke; HOJO, Takuo; TOKUYAMA, Shota; SZÓSTEK, Anna Z; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; SAKATANI, Miki; NAMBO, Yasuo; SKARZYNSKI, Dariusz J; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

31

Leptin and leptin receptor gene expression in the canine corpus luteum during diestrus, pregnancy and after aglepristone-induced luteolysis.  

PubMed

Leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEP-R) expression was shown to change throughout the luteal phase in several species and may be involved in steroid hormone production. In the bitch, leptin but not LEP-R protein was detected in the non-pregnant corpus luteum (CL). Until now, no further information has been available on their expression levels and role in CL function. Our objective was to compare time-related changes in luteal LEP and LEP-R mRNA levels during the non-pregnant luteal phase, pregnancy and after aglepristone treatment in mid-gestation. CLs were collected by ovariohysterectomy at different time points: day (d) 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 65 after ovulation (p.o.) in non-pregnant bitches; pre-implantation, post-implantation, mid-gestation, during prepartum luteolysis; 24 and 72 h after aglepristone injection. Non-pregnant LEP expression was lowest on d5 p.o., increased thereafter and fell again on d45 (P ? 0.04). LEP-R expression was not altered (P = 0.07). In pregnant bitches, neither LEP nor LEP-R mRNA levels varied over time (P = 0.201 and P = 0.150, respectively). Aglepristone treatment caused substantial downregulation of luteal LEP expression by 72 h post-treatment (P ? 0.01). However, LEP-R expression did not follow the same course (P = 0.193). Our results indicate that both LEP and LEP-R mRNA are present in the canine CL during the non-pregnant luteal phase and pregnancy. LEP expression changes significantly over time in non-pregnant dogs and after aglepristone administration and thus, it may play a role in luteal steroidogenesis and regression. PMID:23279462

Balogh, O; Kowalewski, M P; Reichler, I M

2012-12-01

32

The corpus luteum of the domestic cat: Histologic classification and intraluteal hormone profile.  

PubMed

In the present study, we aimed to histologically stage and characterize the structural life span of the CL in the domestic cat. Moreover, the intraluteal levels of progesterone and estrogens were determined throughout the pregnant and nonpregnant (pseudopregnant, PP) luteal phases. On the basis of observed histomorphology of CL, the following stages were identified: CL formation (preimplantation period, PP1), development/maintenance (Days 10-36 of pregnancy, PP2), early regression (Days 38 and 39 of pregnancy, PP3), late regression (Day 48 of pregnancy, PP4), and corpus albicans. The main cellular markers included luteal cell shape, the type and degree of vacuolation, nucleus condition, and the ratio of nonsteroidogenic to luteal cells. Intraluteal levels of progesterone and estrogens differed significantly throughout stages of pseudopregnancy (P < 0.01, progesterone; P < 0.0001, estrogens). The progesterone level in PP2 was higher compared with PP3 and PP4 (P < 0.05). The estrogen level in PP1 was higher compared with PP2 (P < 0.05), PP3 and PP4 (P < 0.005), as well as in PP2 compared with PP3 and PP4 (P < 0.005). The staging of the domestic cat luteal phase established here provides a basis for further research on feline luteotropic and luteolytic factors. These data will contribute to comparative studies in felids. PMID:25483868

Amelkina, Olga; Braun, Beate C; Dehnhard, Martin; Jewgenow, Katarina

2015-03-01

33

Changes in available gonadotropin receptors in the corpus luteum of the rhesus monkey during simulated early pregnancy.  

PubMed

Stimulation of the primate corpus luteum (CL) by endogenous CG in early pregnancy or by exogenous human CG (hCG) in simulated early pregnancy, is transient, despite continued exposure to rising concentrations of CG. The objective of this study was to determine if the transitory response of the CL to CG is related to changes in gonadotropin receptors. Numbers and affinities of available LH/CG binding sites were characterized in the CL of rhesus monkeys (n = 27) during prolonged CG exposure in simulated early pregnancy, and the temporal relationship between changes in receptor parameters and in luteal function was examined. Administration of hCG increased progesterone concentrations above pretreatment levels within 9 h (2.2 +/- 0.8 vs. 7.6 +/- 1.1 ng/ml, mean +/- SE, P less than 0.05); the relative increase (345% of control) in serum progesterone was more profound than that of available hCG binding sites (135%, P greater than 0.05) or luteal weight (128%, P greater than 0.05) over this interval. Receptor affinities for hCG remained comparable to pretreatment values (Kd = 1.1 +/- 0.2 X 10(-10) M) throughout this 9-h period. A significant diminution in available hCG receptors occurred between 9 h (12.7 +/- 2.1 fmol/mg tissue) and 3 days (7.4 +/- 1.5 fmol/mg tissue) of hCG treatment (P less than 0.05). The loss of available CG receptors preceded a significant decline in serum progesterone concentrations. Serum progesterone decreased by 6 days (4.0 +/- 0.6 ng/ml, P less than 0.05) of hCG treatment, as did receptor affinity for hCG (Kd = 4.7 +/- 0.9 X 10(-10) M, P less than 0.05). Numbers and affinities of available receptors for hCG and serum progesterone concentrations fell before any decrease in luteal weight. Binding capacities and receptor affinities for human LH were comparable to those for hCG throughout simulated early pregnancy. In conclusion, the population of available LH/CG receptors in the macaque CL is maintained, or perhaps modestly increased, amidst dramatic stimulation of luteal function during early CG exposure. The subsequent diminution of number and affinity of available LH/CG receptors during prolonged exposure to CG in early pregnancy may compromise CL function and thus participate in the establishment of the transient nature of the luteal response to CG. PMID:6329648

Ottobre, J S; Ottobre, A C; Stouffer, R L

1984-07-01

34

Ultrasound monitoring of blood flow and echotexture of the corpus luteum and uterus during early pregnancy of beef heifers.  

PubMed

The aim was to characterize changes in the ultrasound characteristics of the CL and uterus in pregnant, inseminated nonpregnant, and cyclic beef heifers and to correlate findings with systemic progesterone (P4) concentrations with the intention of identifying possible markers for early identification of pregnancy. Heifers were randomly selected for artificial insemination after estrus synchronization. Ultrasound examinations of the CL and uterus were carried out by transrectal ultrasonography using a high-resolution ultrasound scanner equipped with a 12 MHz linear array probe on Days 7, 11, 14, 16, and 18 after artificial insemination (Day 0; i.e., estrus). Cross-sectional B-mode images of the CL were captured for calculation of CL tissue area and echotexture. Images of the CL and associated blood flow were captured and stored for analysis of luteal blood flow area and ratio. Longitudinal B-mode images of the uterine horns were captured just beyond the bifurcation of the uterine horns and stored for analysis of contrast and homogeneity (MaZda v4.6; Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Electronics, Poland). A total of three images were captured for each structure of interest. Serum concentrations of P4 were determined from blood samples collected at each ultrasound examination. After pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasound, heifers were retrospectively allocated as being pregnant (embryonic heartbeat on Day 28; n = 14) or nonpregnant (interestrous interval 18-21 days; n = 8) and their data were compared with noninseminated cyclic heifers (n = 10). Corpus luteum tissue area did not appear to change between pregnant, nonpregnant, or cyclic control groups between Days 7 and 18 (P > 0.05). No significant differences in CL echotexture characteristics were found between groups at any time point. There were no significant differences between pregnant, nonpregnant, and cyclic control groups for CL blood flow area (P > 0.05). However, CL blood flow ratio decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in both inseminated nonpregnant and cyclic heifers between Days 14 and 18, whereas it remained unchanged in pregnant heifers (P > 0.05). Uterine homogeneity was not significantly different between groups at any time point (P > 0.05). However, uterine contrast was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in pregnant compared with cyclic control heifers on Days 16 and 18. Concentrations of P4 were lower (P < 0.05) in nonpregnant and control heifers than in pregnant heifers from Days 16 to 18. In conclusion, there were differences between nonpregnant and cyclic heifers compared with pregnant heifers in P4 concentrations from Day 16. On Day 18, the CL and uterine characteristics were different between the nonpregnant and pregnant heifers. Ultrasound measures of CL blood flow and uterine echotexture may be useful to establish pregnancy status. Further investigation is required to identify if pregnancy diagnosis can be made on Day 18 or at a later day postpartum. PMID:25459026

Scully, S; Evans, A C O; Carter, F; Duffy, P; Lonergan, P; Crowe, M A

2015-02-01

35

Paradoxical effect of supplementary progesterone between Day 3 and Day 7 on corpus luteum function and conceptus development in cattle.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of short-term progesterone (P4) supplementation during the early metoestrous period on circulating P4 concentrations and conceptus development in cattle. The oestrous cycles of cross-bred beef heifers were synchronised using a 7-day P4-releasing intravaginal device (PRID® Delta; 1.55 g P4) treatment with administration of a prostaglandin F(2?) analogue (Enzaprost; CEVA Sante Animale) the day before PRID® Delta removal. Only those heifers recorded in standing oestrus (Day 0) were used. In Experiment 1, heifers were randomly assigned to one of five groups: (1) control: no treatment; (2) placebo: insertion of a blank device (no P4) from Day 3 to Day 7; (3) insertion of a PRID® Delta from Day 3 to Day 7; (4) insertion of a PRID® Delta from Day 3 to Day 5; or (5) insertion of a PRID® Delta from Day 5 to Day 7. In vitro-produced blastocysts were transferred to each heifer in Groups 2-5 on Day 7 (n=10 blastocysts per heifer) and conceptuses were recovered when heifers were killed on Day 14. Based on the outcome of Experiment 1, in Experiment 2 heifers were artificially inseminated at oestrus and randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) placebo; (2) PRID from Day 3 to Day 5; or (3) PRID from Day 3 to Day 7. All heifers were killed on Day 16 and recovered conceptuses were incubated in synthetic oviducal fluid medium for 24 h; spent media and uterine flushes were analysed for interferon-? (IFNT). In both experiments, daily blood samples were taken to determined serum P4 concentrations. Data were analysed using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). Insertion of a PRID resulted in an increase (P<0.05) in serum P4 that declined following removal. In Experiment 1, P4 supplementation from Day 3 to Day 5 (17.0±1.4 mm) or Day 3 to Day 7 (11.3±2.3 mm) increased conceptus length compared with placebo (2.1±1.8 mm). Serum P4 was significantly lower from Day 9 to Day 14 (P<0.05) and the weight of the Day 14 corpus luteum (CL) was lower in the PRID Day 3-7 group than the placebo or control groups. In Experiment 2, supplementation from Day 3 to Day 5 (94.0±18.8 mm) or Day 3 to Day 7 (143.6±20.6 mm) increased conceptus length on Day 16 compared with placebo (50.3±17.4 mm). Serum P4 was significantly lower in the two supplemented groups following PRID removal compared with placebo (P<0.05) and was associated with a lower CL weight in the Day 3-7 group. Conceptus length was strongly correlated with the IFNT concentration in the uterine flush (r=0.58; P=0.011) and spent culture medium (r=0.68; P<0.002). The findings of the present study highlight the somewhat paradoxical effects of P4 supplementation when given in the early metoestrous period in terms of its positive effect on conceptus development and its potentially negative effects on CL lifespan. PMID:23439105

O'Hara, L; Forde, N; Carter, F; Rizos, D; Maillo, V; Ealy, A D; Kelly, A K; Rodriguez, P; Isaka, N; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P

2014-01-01

36

Inhibitory effect of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) on in vitro angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells in the rat corpus luteum  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis in the developing corpus luteum (CL) is a prerequisite for establishment and maintenance of an early pregnancy. To explore the physiological significance of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) in the developing CL, the effects of IGFBP7 on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA)- and luteinizing hormone (LH)-induced in vitro tube formation were tested using isolated luteal microvascular endothelial cells (LECs). Capillary-like tube formation of LECs and their proliferation were stimulated by both VEGFA and LH. IGFBP7 treatment suppressed VEGFA- or LH-induced tube formation. The proliferation and migration of LECs, and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 were inhibited by IGFBP7. Furthermore, IGFBP7 attenuated VEGFA-enhanced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA expression and prostaglandin E2 secretion. These findings suggest the possibility that luteal IGFBP7 secretion may suppress the stimulatory effect of VEGFA on angiogenesis in the early CL.

TAMURA, Kazuhiro; YOSHIE, Mikihiro; HASHIMOTO, Keisuke; TACHIKAWA, Eiichi

2014-01-01

37

Expression and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in the corpus luteum during oestrous cycle in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to document the expression and localization of VEGF system comprising of VEGF isoforms (VEGF 120, VEGF 164 and VEGF 188) and their receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) in buffalo corpus luteum (CL) obtained from different stages of the oestrous cycle. Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry were applied to investigate mRNA expression, protein expression and localization of examined factors. In general, all the components of VEGF system (the VEGF isoforms and their receptors) were found in the water buffalo CL during the oestrous cycle. The mRNA as well as protein expression of VEGF system was highest during the early and mid-luteal phase, which later steadily decreased (p < 0.05) after day 10 to reach the lowest level in regressed CL. As demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, VEGF protein was localized predominantly in luteal cells; however, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 were localized in luteal cells as well as in endothelial cells. In conclusion, the dynamics of expression and localization of VEGF system in buffalo corpora lutea during the luteal phase were demonstrated in this study, indicating the possible role of VEGF system in the regulation of luteal angiogenesis and proliferation of luteal as well as endothelial cells through their non-angiogenic function. PMID:23551326

Chouhan, V S; Panda, R P; Yadav, V P; Babitha, V; Khan, F A; Das, G K; Gupta, M; Dangi, S S; Singh, G; Bag, S; Sharma, G T; Berisha, B; Schams, D; Sarkar, M

2013-10-01

38

/sup 125/I-luteinizing hormone (LH) binding to soluble receptors from the primate (Macaca mulatta) corpus luteum: effects of ethanol exposure  

SciTech Connect

In the current study, we compared the effects of ethanol on gonadotropin receptors solubilized from macaque luteal membranes to those on receptors associated with the lipid bilayer. Treatment with 1% Triton X-100 for 30 min at 4C, followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol, resulted in recovery of 50% more binding sites for /sup 125/I-human luteinizing hormone (hLH) than were available in particulate preparations. However, the soluble receptors displayed a 3-fold lower affinity for /sup 125/I-hLH. Conditions which enhanced LH binding to particulates, i.e., 1-8% ethanol at 25C, decreased specific /sup 125/I-hLH binding to soluble receptors. Steady-state LH binding to soluble receptors during incubation at 4C was half of that observed at 25C. The presence of 8% ethanol at 4C restored LH binding to levels observed in the absence of ethanol at 25C. Thus, LH binding sites in the primate corpus luteum can be effectively solubilized with Triton X-100. The different binding characteristics of particulate and soluble receptors, including the response to ethanol exposure, suggest that the lipid environment in the luteal membrane modulates the availability and affinity of gonadotropin receptors.

Danforth, D.R.; Stouffer, R.L.

1988-01-01

39

Effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha on local luteotropic and angiogenic factors during induced functional luteolysis in the bovine corpus luteum.  

PubMed

The essential role of endometrial prostaglandin F2 alpha (PTGF) for induction of the corpus luteum (CL) regression is well documented in the cow. However, the acute effects of PTGF on known local luteotropic factors (oxytocin [OXT] and its receptor, insulin-like growth factor [IGF] 1, and progesterone and its receptor), the principal angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A and the capillary destabilization factor angiopoietin (ANGPT) 2 were not thoroughly studied in detail. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the tissue concentration of these factors during PTGF induced luteolysis. In addition the mRNA expression of progesterone receptor (PGR), OXT receptor (OXTR), IGF1, IGFBP1, ANGPT1, and ANGPT2 was determined at different times after PTGF treatment. Cows (n = 5 per group) in the mid-luteal phase (Days 8-12, control group) were injected with the PTGF analog (cloprostenol), and CL were collected by transvaginal ovariectomy at 0.5, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, and 64 h after injection. The mRNA expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, and the protein concentration was evaluated by enzyme immunoassay or radioimmunoassay. Progesterone concentrations, as well as mRNA expression of PGR, in CL tissue were significantly down-regulated by 12 h after PTGF. Tissue OXT peptide and OXTR mRNA decreased significantly after 2 h, followed by a continuous decrease of OXT mRNA. IGF1 and VEGFA protein already decreased after 0.5 h. By contrast, the IGFBP1 mRNA was up-regulated significantly after 2 h to a high plateau. ANGPT2 protein and mRNA significantly increased during the first 2 h, followed by a steep decrease after 4 h. The acute decrease of local luteotropic activity and acute changes of ANGPT2 and VEGFA suggest that modulation of vascular stability may be a key component in the cascade of events leading to functional luteolysis. PMID:20056670

Berisha, Bajram; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Schams, Dieter

2010-05-01

40

Gene expression profiles in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) during the estrous cycle and pregnancy: possible roles of chemokines in regulating CL function during pregnancy.  

PubMed

To determine functional differences between the corpus luteum (CL) of the estrous cycle and pregnancy in cows, gene expression profiles were compared using a 15?K bovine oligo DNA microarray. In the pregnant CL at days 20-25, 40-45 and 150-160, the expressions of 138, 265 and 455 genes differed by a factor of >2-fold (P<0.05) from their expressions in the cyclic CL (days 10-12 of the estrous cycle). Messenger RNA expressions of chemokines (eotaxin, lymphotactin and ENA-78) and their receptors (CCR3, XCR1 and CXCR2) were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Transcripts of eotaxin were more abundant in the CL at days 40-45 and 150-160 of pregnancy than in the cyclic CL (P<0.01). In contrast, the mRNA expressions of lymphotactin, ENA-78 and XCR1 were lower in the CL of pregnancy (P<0.05). Messenger RNAs of CCR3 and CXCR2 were similarly detected both in the cyclic and pregnant CL. Tissue protein levels of eotaxin were significantly higher in the CL at days 150-160 of pregnancy than in the CL at other stages, whereas the lymphotactin protein levels in the CL at days 20-25 of pregnancy were lower (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining showed that CCR3 was expressed in the luteal cells and that XCR1 was expressed in both the luteal cells and endothelial cells. Collectively, the different gene expression profiles may contribute to functional differences between the cyclic and pregnant CL, and chemokines including eotaxin and lymphotactin may regulate CL function during pregnancy in cows. PMID:25382605

Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Ken-Go; Hosoe, Misa; Iga, Kosuke; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Okuda, Kiyoshi

2014-11-01

41

Short communication: Development of the first follicular wave dominant follicle on the ovary ipsilateral to the corpus luteum is associated with decreased conception rate in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the effect of the locations of the first-wave dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) on fertility. In total, 350 artificial insemination (AI) procedures were conducted (lactating dairy cows: n=238, dairy heifers: n=112). Ovulation was confirmed 24 h after AI. The locations of the first-wave DF and CL were examined 5 to 9d after AI using rectal palpation or transrectal ultrasonography. Lactating dairy cows and dairy heifers were divided into 2 groups: (1) the ipsilateral group (IG), in which the DF was ipsilateral to the CL; and (2) the contralateral group (CG), in which the DF was contralateral to the CL. Pregnancy was diagnosed using transrectal ultrasonography 40d after AI. Conception rates were 54.0% in all cattle: 48.9% in lactating dairy cows, and 58.9% in dairy heifers. The incidence of the first-wave DF location did not differ between IG and CG (all cattle: 184 vs. 166; lactating cows: 129 vs. 109; heifers: 55 vs. 57 for IG vs. CG). Conception rates were lower in IG than in CG (all cattle: 40.2 vs. 69.3%; lactating dairy cows: 38.0 vs. 67.0%; dairy heifers: 45.5 vs. 73.7%, for IG vs. CG). Conception rate was not affected by season or live weight in heifers and lactating cows. In addition, days in milk at AI, milk production, body condition score, and parity did not affect conception in lactating cows. In summary, development of the first-wave DF in the ovary ipsilateral to the CL was associated with reduced conception rates in both lactating cows and heifers. PMID:25465564

Miura, R; Haneda, S; Kayano, M; Matsui, M

2015-01-01

42

CELL BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: perspectives: possible roles of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the corpus luteum during development and early pregnancy in ruminants.  

PubMed

The establishment of pregnancy requires well-balanced regulation of the endocrine and immune systems and involves interactions among the conceptus, oviduct-uterus, and corpus luteum (CL). In particular, a rapid increase in plasma progesterone during the first week after ovulation is critical for the growth of the conceptus and successful pregnancy in cattle. Events involved in maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) may commence within 1 wk from AI, when interferon-stimulated gene expression in circulating polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) increases in pregnant cows. To regulate optimal endocrine conditions within this time, the CL must develop rapidly, with active angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. The major angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2, contribute to the development of the CL but may also act as chemoattractants for PMN. Indeed, the number of PMN is greatest in the new CL, where PMN together with IL-8 induce active angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. During MRP, the conceptus secretes interferon tau (IFNT), which prevents CL regression by inhibiting luteolytic release of PGF2? from uterine endometrium. In addition, IFNT and PGE2 reach the CL and may contribute to desensitizing the CL to the luteolytic effects of PGF2?. In the bovine CL, lymphangiogenesis, stimulated by IFNT, may occur during MRP, and thus a shift of local immunity might occur at this timing. The aforementioned evidence supports the possible involvement of PMN in the establishment of pregnancy via CL regulation. Further investigation could expand our understanding of the communication between zygotes, PMN, and reproductive organs during early pregnancy. This should provide new insight into the contribution of neutrophils to CL function and immune tolerance during early pregnancy in ruminants. PMID:24663155

Miyamoto, A; Shirasuna, K; Haneda, S; Shimizu, T; Matsui, M

2014-05-01

43

The effect of progesterone replacement on gene expression in the corpus luteum during induced regression and late luteal phase in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata)  

PubMed Central

Background In higher primates, although LH/CG play a critical role in the control of corpus luteum (CL) function, the direct effects of progesterone (P4) in the maintenance of CL structure and function are unclear. Several experiments were conducted in the bonnet monkey to examine direct effects of P4 on gene expression changes in the CL, during induced luteolysis and the late luteal phase of natural cycles. Methods To identify differentially expressed genes encoding PR, PR binding factors, cofactors and PR downstream signaling target genes, the genome-wide analysis data generated in CL of monkeys after LH/P4 depletion and LH replacement were mined and validated by real-time RT-PCR analysis. Initially, expression of these P4 related genes were determined in CL during different stages of luteal phase. The recently reported model system of induced luteolysis, yet capable of responsive to tropic support, afforded an ideal situation to examine direct effects of P4 on structure and function of CL. For this purpose, P4 was infused via ALZET pumps into monkeys 24 h after LH/P4 depletion to maintain mid luteal phase circulating P4 concentration (P4 replacement). In another experiment, exogenous P4 was supplemented during late luteal phase to mimic early pregnancy. Results Based on the published microarray data, 45 genes were identified to be commonly regulated by LH and P4. From these 19 genes belonging to PR signaling were selected to determine their expression in LH/P4 depletion and P4 replacement experiments. These 19 genes when analyzed revealed 8 genes to be directly responsive to P4, whereas the other genes to be regulated by both LH and P4. Progesterone supplementation for 24 h during the late luteal phase also showed changes in expression of 17 out of 19 genes examined. Conclusion These results taken together suggest that P4 regulates, directly or indirectly, expression of a number of genes involved in the CL structure and function. PMID:21291521

2011-01-01

44

193 progesterone concentrations and messenger RNA expression of progesterone receptors in endometrial tissue of bovine uterine horn ipsilateral and contralateral to corpus luteum.  

PubMed

Generally, conception is established in the uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum (CL) in cattle. When a bovine embryo is transferred into the uterine horn contralateral to CL, conception rate is low. Since progesterone (P4) is essential for the establishment of pregnancy in cattle, locational effects of P4 released from CL at the uterus may cause the differences in fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the endometrial tissue P4 concentrations (EndP4) and the mRNA expression of nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR), and progesterone receptor component-1 (PGRMC-1) and -2 (PGRMC-2) in the endometrial tissues from the ipsi- and contralateral horn. The uteruses of Holstein cows were obtained at a local abattoir. Endometrial tissues were collected from both horns. Based on ovarian morphology, the oestrus cycle of the cow was estimated as follows: early luteal phase (ELP, Day 5-6, Day 0=oestrus), mid luteal phase (MLP, Day 8-12), late luteal phase (LLP, Day 15-17), and follicular phase (FP, Day 18-20). EndP4 was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Expressions of mRNA were analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Two-way factorial ANOVA and the Steel-Dwass test were applied for a multiple comparison of means. The interrelations between both parameters were expressed by Spearman correlation coefficient. At ELP and MLP, EndP4 in ipsi-horn were higher than that in contra-horn (P<0.05, see Table 1). Higher mRNA expression of PGRMC-1 in ipsi-horn was observed at ELP compared with contra-horn (P<0.05). Expressions of mRNA for PGR and PGRMC-2 were similar in both horns. In ipsi-horn at ELP, EndP4 was positively correlated with PGRMC-1 mRNA (r=0.87, P<0.05), but was negatively correlated with PGR mRNA (r=-0.76, P<0.05). However, in contra-horn, EndP4 has no correlation to mRNA expression of P4 receptors. In conclusion, EndP4 was influenced by the location of CL and stage of oestrus cycle. Higher expression of PGRMC-1 mRNA in endometrial tissue of ipsi-horn at ELP might be up-regulated by higher EndP4. These locational effects of CL on uterus may provide an intrauterine environment suitable for embryo development. PMID:25472242

Takahashi, H; Haneda, S; Matsui, M

2014-12-01

45

176 blood flow to the corpus luteum and preovulatory follicle after ovulation induction during first versus second wave in water buffalo.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to compare the blood flow to the corpus luteum (CL) and the preovulatory follicle in dairy buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) when ovulation was induced during the first (low to increasing progesterone levels) versus the second (luteal progesterone levels) follicular wave. We hypothesised that the wall of the first-wave dominant follicle will be less vascular compared with that of the second-wave follicle. The study was conducted during the summer months in Punjab, India. Ovulation was synchronized with prostaglandin F2? (PGF) IM followed by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) IM 48h later (Day 0) and buffaloes were randomised to first wave (FW; n=6) and second wave (SW; n=7) groups. FW group was given PGF on Days 6.5 and 7, and GnRH on Day 9.5 followed by AI (14-16h after GnRH). The SW group was given GnRH on Day 7 (to induce ovulation of first-wave dominant follicle without luteolysis and synchronous emergence of next wave), PGF on Days 13.5 and 14, GnRH on Day 16.5 followed by artificial insemination. Transrectal colour Doppler ultrasonography (MyLab5 Vetwith 7.5MHz transducer, Esaote S.p.A, Genoa, Italy) was performed daily and 20-s cineloops of each ovary were recorded under standardized gain controls. Images from the cineloops were processed using Fiji (ImageJ, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA) to calculate the area of blood flow (coloured area=vascular area, grey scale area=tissue area, and their ratio) for the preovulatory follicle (on the day before ovulation) and luteal tissue (on the day of PGF injection and 4 days post-ovulation). Data were analysed by t-test from the animals that ovulated one day before (n=3) or the day of AI (n=6) and had a functional CL at day 5 post-AI (FW n=5, SW n=4). FW follicles ovulated on 8.6±0.3 days from wave emergence compared with SW follicles on 10.0±0.6 days (P<0.05) but were similar in size (i.e. follicular area on the day before ovulation did not differ between groups; P=0.5). There was no difference in the blood flow area in the wall of preovulatory follicles (P=0.4). Vascular area of follicles was strongly correlated with their diameter (r=0.87). Follicles >13.5mm in diameter had more blood flow in their wall than smaller follicles (P<0.01). FW had a tendency (P=0.07) for smaller luteal area on the day of PGF treatment (FW=171±24mm(2); SW=332±81mm(2)) and tended (P=0.06) to have less vascular area in the CL compared to SW group (FW=30±6mm(2); SW=67±17mm(2)). There was no difference (P=0.5) between the groups for vascular to CL area ratio. The area of luteal tissue and blood flow to the CL at Day 4 post-ovulation did not differ between the groups (P=0.4). The diameter of the preovulatory follicle (11.6-15.7mm) was not correlated with the cross-sectional area of developing CL at Day 4 post-ovulation (r=0.09). In conclusion, vascularity to preovulatory follicles originating from the first wave v. second wave did not differ and preovulatory follicles ?13.5mm were more vascular than smaller follicles. PMID:25472225

Caunce, S; Dadarwal, D; Brar, P S; Singh, J

2014-12-01

46

Characterization of miR-126-3p and its target talin2 in the bovine corpus luteum during the oestrus cycle.  

PubMed

Although clear advances have been made in understanding of gene transcriptional regulation in the corpous luteum (CL) during the oestrous cycle, little is known about the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in this physiological process. In the present study, expression of miR-126-3p was preliminarily detected in bovine CL throughout the oestrous cycle, while the expression during the middle or late stages was significantly more abundant (p < 0.01) than that during the early or regressed stages. Localization of miR-126-3p was subsequently observed in large and small luteal cells during the oestrous cycle in cattle. Meanwhile, to further investigate the function of miR-126-3p, its potential targets and responsive elements were determined and evaluated. It was revealed that miR-126-3p could target talin2 (TLN2) directly by binding the responsive element within the 3'-UTR. Quantitative analysis of TLN2 at mRNA and protein level also suggested that there was an inverse correlation between miR-126-3p and TLN2 at the developmental luteal stages in cattle. Collectively, these results demonstrated that difference in the expression pattern and location of miR-126-3p occurred at different stages of the bovine CL and that miR-126-3p acted as an important regulator of TLN2, suggesting their putative involvement in the development of bovine CL during the oestrous cycle. PMID:25244588

Dai, L; Xu, J; Liu, S; Ma, T; Zhu, Y; Xu, F; Gao, Y; Yuan, B; Wang, S; Zhang, Y; Sun, G; Zhang, J

2014-12-01

47

Analysis of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression in the corpus luteum of the buffalo cow: effect of prostaglandin F2-alpha treatment on circulating 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone levels  

PubMed Central

Background During female reproductive cycles, a rapid fall in circulating progesterone (P4) levels is one of the earliest events that occur during induced luteolysis in mammals. In rodents, it is well recognized that during luteolysis, P4 is catabolized to its inactive metabolite, 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (20alpha-OHP) by the action of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD) enzyme and involves transcription factor, Nur77. Studies have been carried out to examine expression of 20alpha-HSD and its activity in the corpus luteum (CL) of buffalo cow. Methods The expression of 20alpha-HSD across different bovine tissues along with CL was examined by qPCR analysis. Circulating P4 levels were monitored before and during PGF2alpha treatment. Expression of 20alpha-HSD and Nur77 mRNA was determined in CL at different time points post PGF2alpha treatment in buffalo cows. The chromatographic separation of P4 and its metabolite, 20alpha-OHP, in rat and buffalo cow serum samples were performed on reverse phase HPLC system. To further support the findings, 20alpha-HSD enzyme activity was quantitated in cytosolic fraction of CL of both rat and buffalo cow. Results Circulating P4 concentration declined rapidly in response to PGF2alpha treatment. HPLC analysis of serum samples did not reveal changes in circulating 20alpha-OHP levels in buffalo cows but serum from pseudo pregnant rats receiving PGF2alpha treatment showed an increased 20alpha-OHP level at 24 h post treatment with accompanying decrease in P4 concentration. qPCR expression of 20alpha-HSD in CL from control and PGF2alpha-treated buffalo cows showed higher expression at 3 and 18 h post treatment, but its specific activity was not altered at different time points post PGF2alpha treatment. The Nur77 expression increased several fold 3 h post PGF2alpha treatment similar to the increased expression observed in the PGF2alpha-treated pseudo pregnant rats which perhaps suggest initiation of activation of apoptotic pathways in response to PGF2alpha treatment. Conclusions The results taken together suggest that synthesis of P4 appears to be primarily affected by PGF2alpha treatment in buffalo cows in contrast to increased metabolism of P4 in rodents. PMID:24330451

2013-01-01

48

Administration of prostaglandin f(2 alpha) during the early bovine luteal phase does not alter the expression of ET-1 and of its type A receptor: a possible cause for corpus luteum refractoriness.  

PubMed

Luteal regression is initiated by prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (PGF(2 alpha)). In domestic species and primates, demise of the corpus luteum (CL) enables development of a new preovulatory follicle. However, during early stages of the cycle, which are characterized by massive neovascularization, the CL is refractory to PGF(2 alpha). Our previous studies showed that endothelin-1 (ET-1), which is produced by the endothelial cells lining these blood vessels, plays a crucial role during PGF(2 alpha)-induced luteolysis. Therefore, in this study, we compared the effects of PGF(2 alpha) administered at the early and mid luteal phases on ET-1 and its type A receptors (ETA-R) along with plasma ET-1 and progesterone concentrations, and the mRNA levels of PGF(2 alpha) receptors (PGF(2 alpha)-R) and steroidogenic genes. As expected, ET-1 and ETA-R mRNA levels were markedly induced in midcycle CL exposed to luteolytic dose of PGF(2 alpha) analogue (Cloprostenol). In contrast, neither ET-1 mRNA nor its receptors were elevated when the same dose of PGF(2 alpha) analogue was administered on Day 4 of the cycle. In accordance with ET-1 expression within the CL, plasma ET-1 concentrations were significantly elevated 24 h after PGF(2 alpha) injection only on Day 10 of the cycle. The steroidogenic capacity of the CL (plasma progesterone as well as the mRNA levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450(scc)) was only affected when PGF(2 alpha) was administered during midcycle. Nevertheless, PGF(2 alpha) elicited certain responses in the early CL: progesterone and oxytocin secretion were elevated, and PGF(2 alpha)-R was transiently affected. Such effects probably result from PGF(2 alpha) acting on luteal steroidogenic cells. These findings may suggest, however, that the cell type mediating the luteolytic actions of PGF(2 alpha), possibly the endothelium, could yet be nonresponsive during the early luteal phase. PMID:10906040

Levy, N; Kobayashi, S; Roth, Z; Wolfenson, D; Miyamoto, A; Meidan, R

2000-08-01

49

Ultrastructural development of the rat corpus luteum  

E-print Network

obser ved. the formation oi tne zona pellucida and commented about its origin. . e noted that there seemed to be a means of exchange between the follicle cells themselves and o tween the follicle cells and. the ovum via the microvilli. Ti... noted that the zona pellucida forms during the period of most rapid growth of the follicle. Through a close study of the inclusions of both the ovum and follicular cells during zona pellucida development he discovered several important changes: (1...

Bailey, John Franklin

2012-06-07

50

A field study to unravel factors that are significantly associated with the secretory activity of the corpus luteum during the first three postpartum cycles in high yielding dairy cows, based on the amount of steroidogenic and endothelial cells present in the luteal tissue.  

PubMed

Fourteen multi- and eight primiparous high-yielding dairy cows were followed from the first till the fourth ovulation postpartum. Cows were randomly divided into two groups and supplemented with soybean (group I; n = 11) or rapeseed meal (group II; n = 11). Both groups were subjected to a biopsy sampling of the corpus luteum (CL) at cycle day 9. The luteal capillary network (visualized by Bandeiraea simplicifolia) was denser in cycles 2 and 3 (p = 0.0005). The same was seen for the surface occupied by steroidogenic cells (visualized by 3?-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase) (p = 0.0001). The peripheral blood progesterone concentration showed an increasing trend with increasing cycle number and was higher in primiparous cows (p = 0.013), which had also larger glands on cycle day 9. The area occupied by endothelial cells was positively correlated with the area occupied by steroidogenic cells (r = 0.59; p < 0.0001). Both the areas occupied by endothelial and by steroidogenic cells were negatively correlated with the blood concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (respectively, r = -0.377; p = 0.004 and r = -0.355; p = 0.007). We can conclude that primiparous cows generally have higher peripheral progesterone levels during the first three cycles after calving which is associated with a larger CL. In comparison with those of the first post-partum cycle, corpora lutea of cycles 2 and 3 have a denser capillary network and a larger area of steroidogenic cells, while these are only associated with a trend of higher peripheral progesterone concentrations. PMID:25147002

Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; Bossaert, P; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

2014-12-01

51

Bovine corpus luteum regression, estrus response and subsequent corpus luteum formation and function following treatment with Alfaprostol  

E-print Network

analogue. The efficacy of AP to synchr o- nize standing estrus was evaluated in Brahman cows versus heifers (Trial 1) and in Simmental -cross hei fera that were injected with AP on day 8-10 versus day 11-13 (Trial 2). AP (0. 00, 0. 38, 0. 75, 1. 50 or 2.... 25 mg/100 kg body weight) was injected intramuscularly at 0800 on day 11-13 post-estrus in Brahman cows and heiFers or on day 8-10 or day 11-13 post-estrus in Simmental-cross heifers. Brahman cows responded to a lower AP dose (0. 38 mg) than did...

Hansen, Thomas Ross

1984-01-01

52

Antioxidant capacity is correlated with steroidogenic status of the corpus luteum during the bovine estrous cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reactions of steroid hormone biosynthesis are accompanied by formation of oxygen radicals. We determined the levels of some antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes at different developmental stages of bovine corpora lutea to examine their correlation with steroidogenic status. Plasma progesterone concentrations of estrous cycle synchronized cows increased until day 16, and then decreased rapidly during luteal regression. The levels of

Revital Rapoport; David Sklan; David Wolfenson; Amira Shaham-Albalancy; Israel Hanukoglu

1998-01-01

53

Changes in rabbit corpus luteum progesterone secretion and cellular morphology following unilateral luteectomy or ovariectomy.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine whether removal of corpora lutea (CL) from one ovary (unilateral luteectomy; ULL) or removal of the entire ovary (unilateral ovariectomy; ULO) of pseudopregnant rabbits would cause compensatory growth and progesterone production by the contralateral ovary. Pseudopregnancy was induced in rabbits with hCG (Day 0). On the first day of pseudopregnancy, one group of rabbits received a sham operation (controls), another group underwent ULL, and a third group underwent ULO. On Day 11 of pseudopregnancy, each rabbit underwent laparotomy, the ovarian artery and vein were cannulated, and the ovary(ies) was removed and perfused in vitro for 6 h. The mean CL weight increased by 33% in the ULL group and by 28% in the ULO group as compared to sham-operated controls. Peripheral estradiol and progesterone levels in sham-operated control, ULL, and ULO groups were similar. Ovarian venous estradiol levels were similar in the control and ULL groups, but were significantly increased in the remaining ovary of the ULO group. Both ovarian venous progesterone in vivo and progesterone secretion in vitro increased significantly in contralateral ovaries from ULL and ULO rabbits as compared to sham-operated controls. Progesterone secretion by ovaries perfused in vitro increased significantly in the contralateral ovary of the ULL and ULO groups. Mean number of luteal cells per CL increased significantly in the ULL group, but not in the ULO group. In contrast, luteal cell volume increased significantly in the ULO, but not in the ULL group. The stimuli responsible for increased progesterone production following ULL and ULO result in morphological changes in the remaining CL.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1536901

Dharmarajan, A M; Zanagnolo, V L; Dasko, L M; Hardy, M P; Wallach, E E

1992-02-01

54

Hormonal, luteal, and follicular changes during initiation of persistent corpus luteum in mares.  

PubMed

Mares with persistent CL (PCL) with no known etiology (idiopathic) were matched with mares with an interovulatory interval (IOI) of apparent physiological length, so that ovulation at the beginning of each PCL and IOI occurred during the same month (n = 6/group). Blood samples were collected daily from Days 12 to 22 (Day 0 = ovulation). Mean progesterone (P4) decreased in both groups on Days 14 and 15 and then diverged with a continued decrease in the IOI group and the beginning of constant and greater (P < 0.05) P4 concentration on each day in the PCL group. Before P4 divergence between groups, P4 in the PCL group decreased either abruptly (apparent incomplete luteolysis) or gradually. Concentration of PGFM (a metabolite of PGF2?) was not different between groups and reached maximum on mean Day 15 in each group. After the divergence in P4 between groups, LH and estradiol (E2) remained low in the PCL group. There was no indication that an increase in a luteotropic effect of LH in the PCL group accounted for the divergence in P4. Differences in prolactin between the groups were inconclusive. The hypothesis that secretion of PGF2? at the time of expected luteolysis is defective in mares with idiopathic PCL was not supported. The hypothesis that E2 concentration before expected luteolysis is greater in mares with PCL than those without PCL was not supported; however, a difference on Day 12 approached significance (P < 0.06) and tentatively indicated greater E2 in the PCL group before the beginning of luteolysis. PMID:25497782

Santos, V G; Bettencourt, E M; Ginther, O J

2015-03-01

55

The Potsdam Commentary Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A corpus of German newspaper commentaries has been assembled and annotated with differ- ent information (and currently, to different de- grees): part-of-speech, syntax, rhetorical struc- ture, connectives, co-reference, and information structure. The paper explains the design deci- sions taken in the annotations, and describes a number of applications using this corpus with its multi-layer annotation.

Manfred Stede

56

Corpus Based Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corpus-based instruction, also referred to as corpus-based linguistics, is essentially the study of genre texts for the production of materials that fit a specific group of second language learners. For example, if a group of students is learning the language in order to read medical articles, a specific teaching program can be set up based on the…

Jabbhour, Georgette

57

Hemoperitoneum from Corpus Luteal Cyst Rupture: A Practical Approach in Emergency Room  

PubMed Central

Corpus luteum cyst rupture with consequent hemoperitoneum is a common disorder in women in their reproductive age. This condition should be promptly recognized and treated because a delayed diagnosis may significantly reduce women's fertility and intra-abdominal bleeding may be life-threatening. Many imaging modalities play a key role in the diagnosis of acute pelvic pain from gynecological causes. Ultrasound study (USS) is usually the first imaging technique for initial evaluation. USS is used to confirm or to exclude the presence of intraperitoneal fluid but it has some limitations in the identification of the bleeding source. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) is the imaging modality which could be used in the acute setting in order to recognize gynecological emergencies and to establish a correct management. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nowadays is the most useful technique for studying the pelvis but its low availability and the long acquisition time of the images limit its usefulness in characterization of acute gynecological complications. We report a case of a young patient with hemoperitoneum from hemorrhagic corpus luteum correctly identified by transabdominal USS and contrast-enhanced CT. PMID:24987535

Fiaschetti, Valeria; Ricci, Aurora; Scarano, Angela Lia; Arduini, Silvia; Sorrenti, Giuseppe; Simonetti, Giovanni

2014-01-01

58

33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety...District § 165.808 Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety...the vessel transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving...

2014-07-01

59

Ovine mitochondrial DNA: mapping and sequencing data  

E-print Network

DNA as well as cloned fragments were used to map 28 cleavage sites produced by EcoRI, EcoRV, BamHI, Bg' recommendations. DNA fragments were separated in 1% agarose gels, stained with ethidium bromide, photographed EcoRI fragments of ovine mtDNA were isolated on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) membrane filters, cloned

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

60

A comparison of ovine and equine antivenoms.  

PubMed

Commercial antivenoms produced in horses were compared with monospecific antivenoms raised in sheep against Crotalus durissus terrificus, Crotalus atrox, Crotalus adamanteus, Micrurus fulvius fulvius, Naja naja, Naja kaouthia, Echis ocellatus, Vipera lebetina deserti, Vipera berus berus and Vipera ammodytes ammodytes venom. Antibodies raised by immunizing sheep with C. d. terrificus venom were more effective than their equine counterparts in preventing lethal toxicity in mice (ED50), in inhibiting the venom's pharmacological effects (haemolysis, platelet aggregation and coagulation), and in neutralizing phospholipase A2 activity. Comparison of one ovine and three equine F(ab)2 products raised against V. a. ammodytes venom showed that all were at least 95% pure; that all protected mice; and that all contained antibody populations directed against most components of V. a. ammodytes and V. b. berus venoms. The ovine antivenoms generally contained a higher concentration of specific antibodies than the equine products. Finally, the ovine antivenoms raised against E. ocellatus, V. lebetina deserti, V. b. berus, M. f. fulvius and N. naja venoms provided better in vivo protection to mice than the equine antivenoms, but the equine antivenoms to N. kaouthia and C. atrox were more protective than the ovine product. PMID:8052997

Sjostrom, L; al-Abdulla, I H; Rawat, S; Smith, D C; Landon, J

1994-04-01

61

Size of Ovulatory Follicles in Cattle Expressing Multiple Ovulations Naturally and Its Influence on Corpus Luteum Development and Fertility  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Long-term genetic selection of cattle for fraternal twins has increased the frequency of twin and triplet ovulations. Although twin and triplet ovulations increased pregnancy rates initially, ratio of fetal number:ovulation site in pregnant females with twin (0.83) or triplet (0.73) ovulations was <...

62

Nitric oxide stimulates progesterone and prostaglandin E2 secretion as well as angiogenic activity in the equine corpus luteum.  

PubMed

Cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) are potential mediators of luteal development and maintenance, angiogenesis, and blood flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate (i) the localization and protein expression of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases (eNOS and iNOS) in equine corpora lutea (CL) throughout the luteal phase and (ii) the effect of a nitric oxide donor (spermine NONOate, NONOate) on the production of progesterone (P4) and prostaglandin (PG) E(2) and factor(s) that stimulate endothelial cell proliferation using equine luteal explants. Luteal tissue was classified as corpora hemorrhagica (CH; n = 5), midluteal phase CL (mid-CL; n = 5) or late luteal phase CL (late CL; n = 5). Both eNOS and iNOS were localized in large luteal cells and endothelial cells throughout the luteal phase. The expression of eNOS was the lowest in mid-CL (P < 0.05) and the highest in late CL (P < 0.05). However, no change was found for iNOS expression. Luteal explants were cultured with no hormone added or with NONOate (10(-5) M), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?; 10 ng/mL; positive control), or equine LH (100 ng/mL; positive control). Conditioned media by luteal tissues were assayed for P4 and PGE(2) and for their ability to stimulate proliferation of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). All treatments stimulated release of P4 in CH, but not in mid-CL. TNF? and NONOate treatments also increased PGE(2) levels and BAEC proliferation in CH (P < 0.05). However, in mid-CL, no changes were observed, regardless of the treatments used. These data suggest that NO and TNF? stimulate equine CH secretory functions and the production of angiogenic factor(s). Furthermore, in mares, NO may play a role in CL growth during early luteal development, when vascular development is more intense. PMID:20961721

Ferreira-Dias, G; Costa, A S; Mateus, L; Korzekwa, A J; Galvão, A; Redmer, D A; Lukasik, K; Szóstek, A Z; Woclawek-Potocka, I; Skarzynski, D J

2011-01-01

63

Hyperthermia and body energy store effects on estrous behavior, conception rate, and corpus luteum function in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The reproductive performance of 74 Israeli Holstein dairy cows was examined during summer. Cows were fed prepartum to reach high (3.8) and low (2.6) body condition scores by 1 mo prepartum. After calving, half of each group were cooled seven times a day for 30 min by sprinkling and ventilation. Cows were inseminated starting 60 d postpartum. Daily mean body temperatures of cooled and noncooled cows were 38.6 and 39.2 degrees C, respectively, with differences between them reaching 1 degree C and more during the hot hours. Body condition affected only the time taken postpartum to the start of ovarian activity (26 d for high and 32 d for low body condition groups). Estrous behavior lasted longer in cooled (16 h) than in noncooled (11.5 h) cows of the low body condition group only. Conception rate was higher in cooled than in noncooled cows (59 vs. 17%). Pregnancy rate at 90 d postpartum was higher in cooled (44%) than in noncooled cows (14%). Progesterone concentrations were higher in inseminated nonpregnant and in noninseminated cyclic cooled cows than in noncooled cows and were similar in pregnant cows of both cooled and non-cooled groups. The present cooling method appears to have a high potential for improvement of summer fertility. PMID:3235739

Wolfenson, D; Flamenbaum, I; Berman, A

1988-12-01

64

Hyperthermia and Body Energy Store Effects on Estrous Behavior, Conception Rate, and Corpus Luteum Function in Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive performance of 74 Israeli Holstein dairy cows was examined during summer. Cows were fed prepartum to reach high (3.8) and low (2.6) body condition scores by I mo prepartum. After calving, half of each group were cooled seven times a day for 30 rain by sprinkling and ventilation. Cows were in- seminated starting 60 d postpartum. Daily mean

D. Wolfenson; I. Flamenbaum; A. Berman

1988-01-01

65

Induction of high-density-lipoprotein receptors in rat corpus luteum by human choriogonadotropin. Evidence of protein synthesis de novo.  

PubMed Central

The present studies investigated the specific binding of 125I-labelled high-density lipoprotein (125I-HDL) to plasma membranes. Golgi, rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria/lysosomes, prepared from ovaries of rats injected with human choriogonadotropin (hCG) or 0.9% NaCl. Treatment in vivo with hCG resulted in 2-3-fold induction of 125I-HDL binding activity in all the subcellular organelles. The specific binding of HDL to various subcellular organelles was dependent on the amount of protein, lipoprotein concentration and incubation time. Equilibrium-binding studies revealed comparable Kd values (13-22 micrograms of HDL protein/ml) for HDL binding in all the subcellular organelles tested. Treatment with cycloheximide (2.0 mg/kg body wt.) before hCG administration abolished the induction of HDL receptors, suggesting the involvement of a protein-synthesis-dependent process in receptor induction. Analysis of equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) for 125I-HDL binding in membranes from hCG-, cycloheximide-and saline-treated animals suggests that the increase in binding was due to an increase in the number of binding sites rather than a change in the affinity. Additionally, pretreatment with tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation, had no effect on hCG-mediated receptor induction, suggesting that glycosylation of the receptor may not be necessary for the interaction of HDL with its receptors. PMID:2822008

Ghosh, D K; Menon, K M

1987-01-01

66

Effect of environmental pollutants on oxytocin synthesis and secretion from corpus luteum and on contractions of uterus from pregnant cows  

SciTech Connect

Chloro-organic compounds are persistent environmental pollutants and affect many reproductive processes. Oxytocin (OT) synthesized in luteal cells is a local regulator of ovarian activity and uterine contractions. Therefore the effect of xenobiotics on the OT prohormone synthesis, secretion of OT and progesterone (P4) from luteal cells and on myometrial contractions during early pregnancy in cows was investigated. Luteal cells and myometrial strips from a cow at early pregnancy were treated with polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB 77), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (1 or 10 ng/ml). The mRNA expression of neurophysin-I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT) and peptidyl-glycine-{alpha}-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA) and concentration of OT and P4 were determined by RT-PCR and EIA, respectively. Moreover, the effect of xenobiotics given with P4 (12 ng/ml) on the basal and OT (10{sup -7} M) stimulated contractions of myometrial strips was studied. Xenobiotics increased (P < 0.05) OT secretion but DDE only stimulated P4 secretion. The ratio of P4 to OT in culture medium was decreased by all xenobiotics during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. All xenobiotics, except HCH, increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of NP-I/OT during all stages of pregnancy and all treatments decreased (P < 0.05) expression of mRNA for PGA during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. Myometrial strips were relaxed (P < 0.01) after pre-incubation with P4, while each of the xenobiotics jointly with P4 increased (P < 0.01) myometrial contractions. In conclusion, the xenobiotics used increased both expression of mRNA for genes involved in OT synthesis and secretion of OT from luteal cells. This decreases the ratio of P4 to OT and presumably, in this manner, the chloro-organic compounds can influence uterine contractions and enhance risk of abortions in pregnant females.

Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Wrobel, Michal H.; Kotwica, Jan, E-mail: j.kotwica@pan.olsztyn.p

2010-09-15

67

VACE multimodal meeting corpus  

E-print Network

Abstract. In this paper, we report on the infrastructure we have developed to support our research on multimodal cues for understanding meetings. With our focus on multimodality, we investigate the interaction among speech, gesture, posture, and gaze in meetings. For this purpose, a high quality multimodal corpus is being produced. 1

Lei Chen; R. Travis Rose; Ying Qiao; Irene Kimbara; Fey Parrill; Tony Xu Han; Jilin Tu; Zhongqiang Huang; Mary Harper; Yingen Xiong; David Mcneill; Ronald Tuttle; Thomas Huang

2005-01-01

68

Corpus Uteri Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Corpus Uteri C540–C559 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) [SEER Note: Do not code dilation and curettage (D&C) as Surgery of Primary Site for invasive cancers] Codes 00 None; no surgery

69

Article original Fcondation in vitro chez les ovins,  

E-print Network

. fécondation in vitrol ovocyte 1 ovin 1 caprin 1 équin Summary — In vitro fertilization in ovine, caprineArticle original Fécondation in vitro chez les ovins, caprins et équins Y Cognié N Crozet Y Guérin; accepté le 8 février 1992) Résumé — La production in vitro d'ceufs fécondés et de jeunes embryons

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

70

Cellular prion protein in ovine milk.  

PubMed

Cellular prion protein, PrP(C), is essential for the development of prion diseases where it is considered to be a substrate for the formation of the disease-associated conformer, PrP(Sc). In sheep, PrP(C) is abundant in neuronal tissue and is also found at lower concentrations in a range of non-neuronal tissues, including mammary gland. Here, we demonstrate the presence of soluble PrP(C) in the non-cellular, non-lipid fraction of clarified ovine milk. Compared with brain-derived PrP(C), ovine milk PrP(C) displays an increased electrophoretic mobility. Ovine milk PrP(C) is mainly present as three species that differ in the extent of their N-linked glycosylation, with glycoform profiles varying among animals. Similar PrP(C) species are also present in fresh and commercial homogenised/pasteurised bovine milk, with additional N-terminal PrP(C) fragments detectable in ruminant milk and commercial milk products. PMID:17174270

Maddison, Ben C; Whitelam, Garry C; Gough, Kevin C

2007-02-01

71

Variation in the ovine WFIKKN2 gene.  

PubMed

WFIKKN2 may play a role in the regulation of muscle growth and development through its interaction with growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), but to date research into the function of the protein has been focused on mice, even though the WFIKKN2 gene (WFIKKN2) was first identified in humans in 2001. In this study two regions (intron 1 and the 3' UTR) of ovine WFIKKN2 were investigated, using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Stranded Conformational Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). Two different PCR-SSCP patterns, representing two unique DNA sequences (designated a and b) were detected in a 399-bp amplicon derived from the 3' UTR, with sequence analysis revealing one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). In a 421-bp amplicon from intron 1, five different PCR-SSCP patterns (designated A-E) were observed and twelve SNPs were detected. Either one or two different sequences were detected in individual sheep and all the sequences identified shared homology with the WFIKKN2 sequences from cattle and other animal species, suggesting that these sequences represent variants of the ovine WFIKKN2 gene. In intron 1 of 487 sheep from eight breeds, variants B and C were the most common, followed by A, D and E. These results indicate that ovine WFIKKN2 is polymorphic and suggest that further analysis is required to see if variation in the gene is associated with variation in growth and muscle traits in sheep. PMID:24704001

Wang, Jiqing; Zhou, Huitong; Fang, Qian; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G H

2014-06-10

72

Minimum intravenous infectious dose of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The minimum intravenous infectious dose for ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) WLC1 was determined using twenty-four 6 month-old lambs. Twelve groups of two 6 month-old lambs were inoculated intravenously with tissue culture fluid containing ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) WLC1 titer...

73

Original article Coculture of ovine zygotes fertilized in vivo  

E-print Network

Original article Coculture of ovine zygotes fertilized in vivo or in vitro and positive effect of CZB medium on the development of in vitro fertilized zygotes ML Bernardi, C Delouis INRA, laboratoire; The development and quality of ovine zygotes derived from in vivo (IVOF) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

74

Ovine placental lactogen binds specifically to endometrial glands of the ovine uterus  

E-print Network

ligand binding assay; and (3) determine temporal and spatial alterations in STAT 1, 3 and 5 expression in the pregnant ovine uterus. Intrauterine infusion of oPL and/or oGH following IFN[T] into ovariectomized ewes treated daily with progesterone...

Noel, Sekoni Daouda

2002-01-01

75

[Corpus Hermeticum in history].  

PubMed

The originator and founder of hermetism was the mythical Hermes Trismegistos, a deity of the syncretic Hellenistic religion that came into being through the identification of the Greek god Hermes with the Egyptian god Thot. In later Hellenistsic times various hermetic writers considered Hermes Trismegistos to have been a historical personage, a king, prophet and philosopher (physician), as well as author of many widely disseminated writings that made up the so-called Corpus Hermeticum (eighteen separate treatises from the 2nd-4th centuries AD) and the so-called Emerald Table (Tabula Smaragdina). The Corpus Hermeticum is a collection of treatises of a philosophical, religious, theological as well as theosophical nature. The collection played an important role in the development of the philosophy of alchemy and hermetism, and formed the basis for an alchemist philosophy of nature. There are currently two views among scholars on the origins of hermetism. According to one, hermetism derived directly from Egypt, while according to the other it orginated in Greece. In the years 1945-46 a number of hermetic texts forming part of the now famous gnostic "library" were discovered in Nag-Hammadi (Chenosboskion) in Upper Egypt. The Coptic texts from Nag-Hammadi date from the middle of the 4th century AD, and according to experts are translations from the Greek. Some authors (R. Reitzenstein and T. Zieli?ski) have suggested that along with the appearance in Egypt of the Hermetic Books, attributed to Hermes Trismegistos, there also appeared a new god in Egypt, Poimandres, and a new religion was established, hermetism, which competed for influence with Christianity. The present article discusses the main of the hermetic treatises, including Poimandres, which contains an account of the creation of the world. The article also discusses the reasons for the decline of hermetism as a religion and stresses that in spite of this decline the doctrine managed to survive in the form of alchemic hermetism, which played an important role in the culture of the Renaissance. The article also cites the voluminous work by W. Scott and A. S. Ferguson (1924-1936), and A. D. Nock and A. -J. Festugiére (1945-1964), which contains contemporary, English and French, commentaries on and translations of the Corpus Hermeticum texts. PMID:12030267

Bugaj, R

2001-01-01

76

33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone...District § 165.808 Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone...vessel transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving facility. The...

2011-07-01

77

33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone...District § 165.808 Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone...vessel transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving facility. The...

2012-07-01

78

33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone...District § 165.808 Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone...vessel transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving facility. The...

2013-07-01

79

Universum Inference and Corpus Homogeneity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Universum Inference is re-interpreted for assessment of corpus homogeneity in computational stylometry. Recent stylometric research quantifies strength of characterization within dramatic works by assessing the homogeneity of corpora associated with dramatic personas. A methodological advance is suggested to mitigate the potential for the assessment of homogeneity to be achieved by chance. Baseline comparison analysis is constructed for contributions to debates by nonfictional participants: the corpus analyzed consists of transcripts of US Presidential and Vice-Presidential debates from the 2000 election cycle. The corpus is also analyzed in translation to Italian, Spanish and Portuguese. Adding randomized categories makes assessments of homogeneity more conservative.

Vogel, Carl; Lynch, Gerard; Janssen, Jerom

80

Original article Inhibitory effect of interferon-? activated ovine  

E-print Network

and neonatal mortality in sheep. In congenital toxoplasmosis, Tgondiifirst invades the umbilical vein-blooded animals, including man (Werk, 1985). In the farming industry, ovine toxoplasmosis is of great economic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

81

Proteomics-Driven Analysis of Ovine Whey Colostrum  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to shed light in to the complexity of the ovine colostrum proteome, with a specific focus on the low abundance proteins. The ovine colostrum is characterized by a few dominating proteins, as the immunoglobulins, but it also contains less represented protein species, equally important for the correct development of neonates. Ovine colostrum, collected immediately after lambing, was separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Proteins bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, a total of 343 unique proteins were identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of ovine colostrum proteome. PMID:25643159

Scumaci, Domenica; Trimboli, Francesca; Dell’Aquila, Ludovica; Concolino, Antonio; Pappaianni, Giusi; Tammè, Laura; Vignola, Giorgio; Luciani, Alessia; Morelli, Daniela; Cuda, Giovanni; Boari, Andrea; Britti, Domenico

2015-01-01

82

9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...immunity of the two vaccinates and one or more unvaccinated lambs (controls) shall be challenged in the same manner as for vaccination, using the opposite thigh. (3) If typical signs of ovine ecthyma, such as hyperemia, vesicles, and pustules...

2011-01-01

83

9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...immunity of the two vaccinates and one or more unvaccinated lambs (controls) shall be challenged in the same manner as for vaccination, using the opposite thigh. (3) If typical signs of ovine ecthyma, such as hyperemia, vesicles, and pustules...

2013-01-01

84

9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...immunity of the two vaccinates and one or more unvaccinated lambs (controls) shall be challenged in the same manner as for vaccination, using the opposite thigh. (3) If typical signs of ovine ecthyma, such as hyperemia, vesicles, and pustules...

2010-01-01

85

9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...immunity of the two vaccinates and one or more unvaccinated lambs (controls) shall be challenged in the same manner as for vaccination, using the opposite thigh. (3) If typical signs of ovine ecthyma, such as hyperemia, vesicles, and pustules...

2012-01-01

86

9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...immunity of the two vaccinates and one or more unvaccinated lambs (controls) shall be challenged in the same manner as for vaccination, using the opposite thigh. (3) If typical signs of ovine ecthyma, such as hyperemia, vesicles, and pustules...

2014-01-01

87

Toxic effects of cypermethrin and methamidophos on bovine corpus luteal cells and progesterone production.  

PubMed

This study was planned and executed with the aims to explore corpus luteal primary cell culture as an "animal alternate testing system" in toxicity studies and in vitro toxic effects of cypermethrin (CY) 90% (pyrethroid) and methamidophos (MTP) 73% (organophosphate) on morphology and progesterone secretory activity of bovine corpus luteal cells and tissue. For this purpose, primary cell cultures of bovine corpus luteum (CL) cells were maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 5% fetal calf serum (FCS). Toxicity evaluation were based on viable CL cell counts, morphological changes in CL cells, ability of CL cells to produce progesterone and histological changes in CL tissue at different hours post exposure to CY and MTP. The changes induced by both the insecticides were time and dose dependant. Viable cell counts and progesterone concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05) with the treatment of CY and MTP when compared to control. Corpus luteal cells exposed to CY showed more severe toxic effects as compared to MTP, though the difference was non-significant. Cellular or tissue alterations included degenerative changes in luteal cells, pleomorphic changes, nuclear degeneration and vacuolation, cell shrinkage and rupture, cloudy swelling and hydropic degeneration, less cytoplasmic granulation, cell elongation, hyalinization and cytoplasmic haziness and stripling and necrosis. It was concluded that both the insecticides induce toxic effects in terms of viable counts, morphological and histological changes and progesterone production of bovine CL cells. Cypermethrin exhibited more adverse toxic changes in viable cell counts, progesterone production and histological findings as compared to methamidophos. PMID:19942419

Gill, Shahid Afzal; Rizvi, Farzana; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar

2011-01-01

88

A field test of inducible resistance to specialist and generalist herbivores using the water lily Nuphar luteum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested whether grazing by the specialist beetle Galerucella nymphaeae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) induced resistance to herbivory in the water lily Nuphar luteum macrophyllum (Nymphaeaceae) using both the specialist beetle and the generalist crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Decapoda: Cambaridae). For 2 months, we allowed natural densities of beetles to develop on control plants of Nuphar, while removing beetles every 2–3 days from

Robin C. Bolser; Mark E. Hay

1998-01-01

89

Oculomotor-corpus callosum dysplasia.  

PubMed Central

An infant with congenital bilateral ophthalmoplegia with levator and pupillary sparing is presented. The eyes are fixed in a divergent position with no apparent motility. The baby is otherwise clinically normal and is developing in a normal fashion except for delayed growth pattern. Visual attention is present and he fixates with either eye. Computed tomography demonstrates an associated dysplasia of the corpus callosum and an abnormal ventricular system. Neuroendocrine studies performed at one year of age demonstrate subnormal levels of growth hormone. It is postulated that this represents an embryodysgenesis involving the developing mesencephalic tegmentum (oculomotor nuclei) and the diencephalic lamina reuniens (corpus callosum). It is the first reported case of congenital ophthalmoplegia with corpus callosum dysplasia. The "embryodysgenic" relationship with other forebrain-ocular anomalies has been alluded to and remains speculative. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B PMID:7182958

Acers, T E; Blackwell, C

1982-01-01

90

The SALSA Corpus: a German corpus resource for lexical semantics Aljoscha Burchardt, Katrin Erk, Anette Frank,  

E-print Network

The SALSA Corpus: a German corpus resource for lexical semantics Aljoscha Burchardt, Katrin Erk, pado, pinkal}@coli.uni-sb.de Abstract This paper describes the SALSA corpus, a large German corpus manually annotated with role-semantic information, based on the syntactically annotated TIGER newspaper

Padó, Sebastian

91

Corpus gastritis is protective against reflux oesophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDGastric acid is important in the pathogenesis of reflux oesophagitis. Acid production by the gastric corpus is reduced in corpus gastritis.AIMSTo determine whether corpus gastritis protects against reflux oesophagitis.METHODSPatients presenting for elective oesophagogastroduodenoscopy were studied. Two biopsy specimens were taken from the antrum, corpus, and cardia and stained with haematoxylin\\/eosin and Diff-Quick II stains. The presence and severity of gastritis

H B El-Serag; A Sonnenberg; M M Jamal; J M Inadomi; L A Crooks; R M Feddersen

1999-01-01

92

Corpus Hippocraticum 'on the sacred disease'.  

PubMed

The Hippocratic Corpus was attributed to all branches of healing including internal medicine, surgery, and obstetrics. The Hippocratic collection of treatises (or corpus) was mostly written between 430 and 330 B.C. and some are later works. Some 600 years after Hippocrates, the Corpus were further systematized by Galen and later still by the Persian Islamic physician Avicenna and others. The Corpus provides an insight into the origin and development of rational medicine in the west. PMID:12596739

Majumdar, S K

1998-07-01

93

[Partial segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum].  

PubMed

Partial segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum is an unusual clinical condition. It is characterized by thrombosis within the proximal segment of the corpus cavernosum visualized with radiologic imaging. We report a case of a 56-year-old man diagnosed with computed tomography, sonography and magnetic resonance imaging that revealed a thrombosis in the right proximal corpus cavernosum. PMID:25563023

Koyfman, Anna; Yaffe, Daniel; Gur, Uri; Werner, Myriam

2014-11-01

94

Refine Crude Corpus for Opinion Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is meant for a heuristic approach for the refinements of corpus based on regular expressions and its possible applications in the field of opinion mining. Corpus which is the plural form of dasiacorporapsila is nothing but the collection of linguistic data. And here the proposed work is based on a corpus of reviews; more specifically product reviews. The

D. Bhattacharyya; P. Das; K. Mitra; S. Mukherjee; D. Ganguly; S. K. Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

2009-01-01

95

Contagious ovine digital dermatitis: an emerging disease.  

PubMed

The novel sheep disease, contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) was first described in the UK in 1997. The disease is characterised by severe lameness associated with initial inflammation at the coronary band, followed by progressive separation of the hoof capsule from the underlying tissue. On microbiological examination, treponeme bacteria have been frequently isolated from cases of CODD, including treponemes phylogenetically identical to those associated with bovine digital dermatitis (BDD). Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum have also been isolated from CODD lesions although their role in the pathogenesis remains uncertain. While epidemiological data indicate that the prevalence of CODD is increasing in the UK, the routes of transmission and associated risk factors have not been clearly elucidated. Evidenced-based treatment trials indicate that parenteral administration of long-acting amoxicillin is an efficacious treatment for CODD, while anecdotal evidence suggests other antibiotics, given locally and/or parenterally, may also be beneficial. Further microbiological and epidemiological research is urgently required to develop sustainable control strategies, including the development of vaccines and appropriate biosecurity and farm management protocols. In this review current knowledge of the clinical, aetiological, and epidemiological aspects of CODD is assessed as well as approaches to its control. PMID:24973004

Duncan, J S; Angell, J W; Carter, S D; Evans, N J; Sullivan, L E; Grove-White, D H

2014-09-01

96

Global distribution and diversity of ovine-associated Staphylococcus aureus?  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of many species, including sheep, and impacts on both human and animal health, animal welfare, and farm productivity. Here we present the widest global diversity study of ovine-associated S. aureus to date. We analysed 97 S. aureus isolates from sheep and sheep products from the UK, Turkey, France, Norway, Australia, Canada and the USA using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing. These were compared with 196 sheep isolates from Europe (n = 153), Africa (n = 28), South America (n = 14) and Australia (n = 1); 172 bovine, 68 caprine and 433 human S. aureus profiles. Overall there were 59 STs and 87 spa types in the 293 ovine isolates; in the 97 new ovine isolates there were 22 STs and 37 spa types, including three novel MLST alleles, four novel STs and eight novel spa types. Three main CCs (CC133, CC522 and CC700) were detected in sheep and these contained 61% of all isolates. Four spa types (t002, t1534, t2678 and t3576) contained 31% of all isolates and were associated with CC5, CC522, CC133 and CC522 respectively. spa types were consistent with MLST CCs, only one spa type (t1403) was present in multiple CCs. The three main ovine CCs have different but overlapping patterns of geographical dissemination that appear to match the location and timing of sheep domestication and selection for meat and wool production. CC133, CC522 and CC700 remained ovine-associated following the inclusion of additional host species. Ovine isolates clustered separately from human and bovine isolates and those from sheep cheeses, but closely with caprine isolates. As with cattle isolates, patterns of clonal diversification of sheep isolates differ from humans, indicative of their relatively recent host-jump. PMID:24035790

Smith, Edward M.; Needs, Polly F.; Manley, Grace; Green, Laura E.

2014-01-01

97

The AMI Meeting Corpus: A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The AMI Meeting Corpus is a multi-modal data set consisting of 100 hours of meeting recordings. It is being created in the context of a project that is developing meeting browsing technology and will eventually be released publicly. Some of the meetings it contains are naturally occurring, and some are elicited, particularly using a scenario in which the participants

Pre-Announcement; Jean Carletta; Simone Ashby; Sebastien Bourban; Mike Flynn; Mael Guillemot; Thomas Hain; Jaroslav Kadlec; Vasilis Karaiskos; Wessel Kraaij; Melissa Kronenthal; Guillaume Lathoud; Mike Lincoln; Agnes Lisowska; Iain McCowan; Wilfried Post; Dennis Reidsma; Pierre Wellner

98

Ovine Reference Materials and Assays for Prion Genetic Testing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Genetic predisposition to scrapie in sheep is associated with variation in the peptide sequence of the ovine prion protein encoded by Prnp. Codon variants implicated in scrapie susceptibility or disease progression include those at amino acid positions 112, 136, 141, 154, and 171. Nin...

99

Article de Synthse SALMONELLOSE OVINE DUE A SALMONELLA ABORTUSOVIS  

E-print Network

Article de Synthèse SALMONELLOSE OVINE DUE A SALMONELLA ABORTUSOVIS P PARDON R SANCHIS J MARLY F SALMONELLA ABORTION IN SHEEP. - Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. Abortusovis, a sheep- adapted-placental unit, the principal site of salmonella multiplication. Peripartum vaginal excretion, coming

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

100

Immunomodulatory activity of plant residues on ovine neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrophils play an essential role in host defense and inflammation. Plants have long been used to improve the immune function, but for most of them specific investigations on animal health are lacking. In the present study, water and hydroethanolic extracts from 11 plant wastes have been screened on immune responses of ovine neutrophils. Eight sheep clinically healthy, not lactating, non-pregnant

Maura Farinacci; Monica Colitti; Sandy Sgorlon; Bruno Stefanon

2008-01-01

101

Corpus gastritis is protective against reflux oesophagitis  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Gastric acid is important in the pathogenesis of reflux oesophagitis. Acid production by the gastric corpus is reduced in corpus gastritis.?AIMS—To determine whether corpus gastritis protects against reflux oesophagitis.?METHODS—Patients presenting for elective oesophagogastroduodenoscopy were studied. Two biopsy specimens were taken from the antrum, corpus, and cardia and stained with haematoxylin/eosin and Diff-Quick II stains. The presence and severity of gastritis were graded according to a modified updated Sydney classification.?RESULTS—Of 302 patients, 154 had endoscopic signs of reflux oesophagitis. There was no difference between patients with and controls without oesophagitis in the overall infection rates with Helicobacter pylori. Acute or chronic corpus gastritis occurred less often in patients with than those without reflux oesophagitis. Compared with controls, corpus gastritis was less severe in patients with reflux oesophagitis. The presence of acute or chronic gastritis in the corpus was significantly correlated with either type of gastritis in other areas of the stomach. In a multivariate logistic regression, age, sex, smoking status, and the presence of chronic corpus gastritis all exerted a significant influence on the presence of reflux oesophagitis. Chronic corpus gastritis was associated with a 54% reduced risk for reflux oesophagitis.?CONCLUSIONS—While infection with H pylori alone may not affect the occurrence of reflux oesophagitis, the development of chronic corpus gastritis seems to be protective.???Keywords: acid secretion; gastritis; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; Helicobacter pylori; reflux oesophagitis; Sydney system PMID:10403728

El-Serag, H; Sonnenberg, A; Jamal, M; Inadomi, J; Crooks, L; Feddersen, R

1999-01-01

102

Neonatal ovine uterine morphogenesis: mechanisms regulating the development of endometrial glands  

E-print Network

OF TABLES TABLE Page 3. 1 Distribution and relative abundance of immunoreactive PCNA protein in the neonatal ovine uterus 3. 2 Distribution and relative abundance of immunoreactive ER-tr protein in the neonatal ovine uterus 70 3. 3 Distribution... of neonatal ewes 97 4. 2 In situ localization of FGFR2IIIb mRNA in the developing neonatal ovine uterus 101 4. 3 In situ localization of c-met mRNA in the developing neonatal uterus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 4. 4...

Taylor, Kristin Marie

2000-01-01

103

A Statistical Corpus-Based Term Extractor 1 A Statistical Corpus-Based Term Extractor  

E-print Network

A Statistical Corpus-Based Term Extractor 1 A Statistical Corpus-Based Term Extractor Patrick Canada {ppantel, lindek}@cs.ualberta.ca Abstract. Term extraction is an important problem in natural language process- ing. In this paper, we propose a language independent statistical corpus-based term

Lin, Dekang

104

Effect of progesterone supplementation on fertility responses of lactating dairy cows with corpus luteum at the initiation of the Ovsynch protocol.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of supplemental progesterone on fertility responses of lactating dairy cows with a CL at the initiation of the timed artificial insemination (AI) program. Holstein cows were subjected to the Ovsynch protocol (Day -10 GnRH, Day -3 PGF2?, Day -0.7 GnRH, and Day 0 timed AI). Ovaries were scanned by ultrasonography on Day -10 and cows with CL were blocked by pen and assigned randomly to receive no supplemental progesterone (control, n = 863) or to receive a controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) insert containing progesterone from Days -10 to -3 (1CIDR, n = 862). Cows were observed for signs of estrus beginning on Day -9 based on removal of tail chalk and those in estrus received AI on the same day. Blood sampled from a subset of cows was analyzed for progesterone concentrations on Days -10, -9, -7, -5, -3, 0, 6, 13, and 19. Pregnancy was diagnosed on Days 32 and 60 after AI. Supplementation increased (P < 0.01) progesterone concentrations between Day -9 and -3 compared with control (7.5 vs. 6.2 ng/mL). Treatment had no effect on the ovulatory response to the first and final GnRH injections of the Ovsynch protocol, the proportion of cows that maintained their CL until the day of PGF2? injection, or the diameter of the ovulatory follicle before AI. Although the overall proportion of cows in estrus at AI did not differ between treatments, progesterone supplementation prevented (P < 0.01) cows from coming into estrus from Days -9 to -3 (0.0% vs. 4.7%), whereas it increased (P = 0.02) the proportion of cows inseminated in estrus from Days -2 to -1 (7.1% vs. 4.5%). Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) tended to be reduced (P = 0.06) by supplemental progesterone on Day 32 (40.5% vs. 45.0%), but not on Day 60 after AI (36.6% vs. 39.7%). A tendency for an interaction (P = 0.09) between treatment and the presence of CL at the PGF2? injection was observed for P/AI on Day 32 in cows that received timed AI because progesterone supplementation reduced P/AI in cows that maintained their CL until Day -3 (40.3% vs. 46.7%); however, it increased P/AI in those that did not have a CL at PGF2? (38.1% vs. 27.7%). Treatment did not affect pregnancy loss between Days 32 and 60 of gestation. In conclusion, incorporating a single intravaginal insert to the timed AI program increased progesterone concentrations in plasma by 1.3 ng/mL, but did not benefit fertility in dairy cows that have CL at the initiation of the synchronization protocol. PMID:25442385

Bisinotto, R S; Pansani, M B; Castro, L O; Narciso, C D; Sinedino, L D P; Martinez, N; Carneiro, P E; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

2015-01-15

105

77 FR 34034 - Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC; Cheniere Corpus Christi Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Intent To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and Pipeline Project, June 26, 2012...the natural gas transmission pipeline facilities. The company would...to construct and operate a marine berth connecting the terminal...routes. Cheniere Corpus Christi Pipeline, L.P. (Corpus...

2012-06-08

106

CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CELT, an "online database of contemporary and historical topics from many areas, including literature and the other arts," is aimed at the greatest possible range of readers, from academic scholars to the general public. Texts at the site can be searched, read on-screen, or downloaded. Other works available at CELT include essays by Michael Collins, the Dail debates on the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty, works by James Connolly and Padraic Pearse, and almost the whole corpus of Hiberno-Norman French poetry.

1997-01-01

107

Skeletal muscle pathology in ovine congenital progressive muscular dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fiber-type proportions were determined in 12 skeletal muscles (peronaeus tertius, tibialis cranialis, tensor fascia lata, psoas major, extensor digitorum lateralis, tensor fascia antibrachii, vastus intermedius, soleus, anconaeus, and flexor digitorum superficialis of fore and hind limb) from infantile (20 weeks), juvenile (16 months) and adult (2.5 and 3.5 years) Merino sheep with ovine congenital progressive muscular dystrophy and in age-matched

R. B. Richards; I. K. Passmore; E. F. Dempsey

1988-01-01

108

Corpus Callosum Volume and Neurocognition in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The corpus callosum has recently been considered as an index of interhemispheric connectivity. This study applied a novel volumetric method to examine the size of the corpus callosum in 32 individuals with autism and 34 age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls and to investigate the relationship between this structure and cognitive measures linked to…

Keary, Christopher J.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Bansal, Rahul; Goradia, Dhruman; Fedorov, Serguei; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

2009-01-01

109

Corpus Linguistics: Discovering How We Use language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the use of corpus linguistics--or the the study of language through the use of a large collection of naturally-occurring written and spoken texts. Discusses corpora with computers, applications of corpus linguistics, and the University of Pennsylvania's Linguistic data Consortium, which is conducting a speech study to support linguistic…

Rosenthal, John

2003-01-01

110

Corpus Variation and Parser Performance Daniel Gildea  

E-print Network

focused on a single corpus: the Wall Street Journal portion of the Penn Treebank. While this has allowed that subcategorization frequen- cies for certain verbs vary significantly between the Wall Street Journal corpus and test data. In each case, the cor- pus used was the Penn Treebank's hand-annotated parses of Wall Street

Gildea, Daniel

111

The ATIS Spoken Language Systems Pilot Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speech research has made tremendous progress in the past using the following paradigm: • define the research problem, • collect a corpus to objectively measure progress, and • solve the research problem. Natural language research, on the other hand, has typ- ically progressed without the benefit of any corpus of data with which to test research hypotheses. We de- scribe

Charles T. Hemphill; John J. Godfrey; George R. Doddington

1990-01-01

112

Syntactic Priming: A Corpus-Based Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is a corpus-based investigation of syntactic priming, i.e. the tendency to reuse syntactic constructions. On the basis of data from the ICE-GB corpus, I analyze two different pairs of syntactic patterns, the so-called dative alternation and particle placement of transitive phrasal verbs. Although it has sometimes been argued that…

Gries, Stefan Th.

2005-01-01

113

Enhancing Writing Pedagogy with Learner Corpus Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learner corpora have become prominent in language teaching and learning, enhancing data-driven learning (DDL) pedagogy by promoting "learning driven data" in the classroom. This study explores the potential of a local learner corpus by investigating the effects of two types of DDL activities, one relying on a native-speaker corpus (NSC)…

Cotos, Elena

2014-01-01

114

Performance of Blue-Yellow Screening Test for Antimicrobial Detection in Ovine Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugresiduesinmilkareimportantbecauseofpublic health and industrial implications. The detection limits of 25 antimicrobialagents were determined bythe blue- yellow screening method in ovine milk. For each drug, 8 concentrations were tested on 20 ovine milk samples from individual ewes in midlactation. Detection limits determined by means of logistic regression were below European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRL) for penicillin G (3 to 4

B. Linage; C. Gonzalo; J. A. Carriedo; J. A. Asensio; M. A. Blanco; L. F. De La Fuente; F. San Primitivo

2007-01-01

115

Evolution de monooxygnases hpatiques en fonction de l'ge chez les ovins de race Lacaune  

E-print Network

Evolution de monooxygénases hépatiques en fonction de l'âge chez les ovins de race Lacaune M'enzymes micro- somales hépatiques d'oxydation chez les ovins femelles de race Lacaune. Matériel et Méthodes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

116

A Corpus-Based Study of Idioms in Academic Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the advantages and limitations of a corpus-based approach to researching and teaching idioms in a specific genre by drawing on a specialized corpus of 1.7 million words of academic discourse, the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English. Argues that evidence from such a corpus can be informative for language teachers when the primary…

Simpson, Rita; Mendis, Dushyanthi

2003-01-01

117

Corpus of Electronic Texts (CELT)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed at University College Cork, the Corpus of Electronic Texts project is intended "to bring the wealth of Irish literary and historical culture (in Irish, Latin, Anglo-Norman French, and English) to the Internet in a rigorously scholarly project." Additionally, the project is designed to be utilized by a wide group of interested parties, including students, academics, and the general public. Visitors may peruse the documents by language of original publication, or by viewing a complete list of all the works currently available (many in HTML or pdf format) from the project's website. Some of the rather compelling works available here include the complete works of Oscar Wilde, the political writings of Michael Collins, and various historical documents regarding the struggle for Irish independence. [KMG

118

Corpus Callosum MR Image Classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach to classifying Magnetic Resonance (MR) image data is described. The specific application is the classification of MRI scan data according to the nature of the corpus callosum, however the approach has more general applicability. A variation of the “spectral segmentation with multi-scale graph decomposition” mechanism is introduced. The result of the segmentation is stored in a quad-tree data structure to which a weighted variation (also developed by the authors) of the gSpan algorithm is applied to identify frequent sub-trees. As a result the images are expressed as a set frequent sub-trees. There may be a great many of these and thus a decision tree based feature reduction technique is applied before classification takes place. The results show that the proposed approach performs both efficiently and effectively, obtaining a classification accuracy of over 95% in the case of the given application.

Elsayed, A.; Coenen, F.; Jiang, C.; García-Fiñana, M.; Sluming, V.

119

76 FR 18395 - Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show, Oso Bay, Corpus Christi, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show, Oso Bay, Corpus...Texas in support of the 2011 Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show. This temporary...participants and spectators in the Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show. Under 5...

2011-04-04

120

[Medicine and astrology in Arnau's corpus].  

PubMed

The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology. PMID:17214132

Giralt, Sebastià

2006-01-01

121

Epidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ovine breeding.  

PubMed

An outbreak of toxoplasmosis occurring in a typical farm of 524 ovines was monitored for 1 year after the occurrence of 31 abortions. Abortion events involved 7.2% of 430 pregnant sheep. Presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sheep sera was investigated by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). A total of 422 ewes were bled four times during the year, and an epidemiological analysis was performed on all serology data collected in this subgroup. The prevalence of IgG positives ranged from 31.52% (133/422) at the first sampling to 62.56% (264/422) at the fourth sampling. Incidence of IgG antibodies was 38.75% at the second sampling, 14.92% at the third and 29.28% at the fourth sampling. At the beginning of the study, prevalence was 70.7% in primiparous sheep and 20.9% in sheep older than 5 years; at the third sampling, prevalence was stable at 70% in pluriparous sheep. The mean prevalence of IgM antibodies was 14.87%. A total of 147 out of all 524 ovines of the flock tested positive for IgM in more than one sampling. After an initial positivity, 60 sheep tested negative for IgG at the following serological controls (4 between the first and the second sampling, 30 between the second and the third and 28 between the third and the fourth sampling). One stray cat was positive for IgG, with a titre of 1 : 320. Moreover, one of the farmers was also positive, with a titre of 1 : 160 for IgG. A positive PCR result for T. gondii DNA was also observed in aliquots of grain and pellets taken from feed stocks amassed inside the sheds without protection, suggesting that an adequate management of the farm might be useful, if not essential, for controlling T. gondii outbreaks in ovine flocks. PMID:19968848

Zedda, M T; Rolesu, S; Pau, S; Rosati, I; Ledda, S; Satta, G; Patta, C; Masala, G

2010-12-01

122

Syntactic priming: a corpus-based approach.  

PubMed

The present study is a corpus-based investigation of syntactic priming, i.e. the tendency to reuse syntactic constructions. On the basis of data from the ICE-GB corpus, I analyze two different pairs of syntactic patterns, the so-called dative alternation and particle placement of transitive phrasal verbs. Although it has sometimes been argued that only experimental data can contribute to studies of priming, the analysis shows that (a) the corpus-based results for datives are very similar to the experimental ones; (b) priming is also obtained for the verb-particle construction, a construction hitherto not explored in the priming literature and (c), most importantly, in line with much previous psycholinguistic and corpus-linguistic work, priming effects turn out to be strongly verb-specific such that some verbs are much more resistant or responsive to priming than others. I conclude with a discussion of how corpus data relate to experimental data and how the corpus-based findings can contribute to psycholinguistic model building. PMID:16142588

Gries, Stefan Th

2005-07-01

123

76 FR 18391 - Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show Power Boat Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Texas International Boat Show Power Boat Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus Christi...will consist of a series of power boat races for approximately 8-12 vessels that are...safety zone is necessary for the safety of race participants, spectators and the...

2011-04-04

124

Learner-Corpus Interaction: A Locus of Microgenesis in Corpus-Assisted L2 Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the processes through which learners interact with a corpus system and microgenetic development emerges from the interaction. The corpus system described in this paper is capable of retrieving highly relevant textual examples tailored to individual needs. Data were collected from an undergraduate ESL composition course in North…

Park, Kwanghyun

2012-01-01

125

Polyamine profile in ovine and caprine colostrum and milk.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to monitor the post-partum variation of polyamine content, in ovine and caprine milk, from indigenous Greek breeds. Twenty samples of ewe and 20 samples of goat colostrum and milk were collected at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 15th day post-partum. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were measured as dansylated derivatives by high-performance liquid chromatography. Putrescine was the least concentrated of these substances in both milk types. Spermidine was the prevailing polyamine in caprine samples, reaching levels up to 4.41 ?mol/l on the 3rd day post-partum. In ovine milk, the profile of the mean concentrations showed greater levels of spermine than spermidine, except for the 5th day post-partum. These data suggest that goat colostrum and ewe milk (15th day) could be considered as good natural sources for these bioactive growth factors, and may become useful raw materials for designing tailored dairy products for specific population groups. PMID:25465997

Galitsopoulou, Augustina; Michaelidou, Alexandra-Maria; Menexes, George; Alichanidis, Efstathios

2015-04-15

126

Stable isotope probing of the ovine rumen for RDX degrading microorganisms.  

E-print Network

??The anaerobic and highly reductive conditions found in the ovine rumen are considered favorable for the degradation of the nitroaromatic explosives such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX).… (more)

Mitchell, Edward A.

2010-01-01

127

Ovine-induced pluripotent stem cells can contribute to chimeric lambs.  

PubMed

Pluripotential stem cells from livestock offer an exciting prospect for the biotechnology industry. Applying strategies established for the derivation of murine induced pluripotential stem cells (iPSCs), we have isolated ovine iPSCs that can give rise to cells characteristic of all three germ cell layers both in vitro from embryoid bodies and in teratomas in vivo. Furthermore, although at a low level, these ovine iPS cells can contribute to live-born chimeric lambs. Colonies derived from ovine embryonic fibroblasts transfected with murine cMyc, Klf4, Oct4, and Sox2 displayed smooth domes with sharp edges when grown in human embryonic stem cell (ESC) medium but not in mouse ESC medium. These ovine iPSCs were alkaline phosphatase positive, expressed Nanog, and had a normal karyotype. These cells represent an important step in the understanding of mechanistic nature of pluripotency in ungulates. PMID:22217199

Sartori, Chiara; DiDomenico, Alex I; Thomson, Alison J; Milne, Elspeth; Lillico, Simon G; Burdon, Tom G; Whitelaw, C Bruce A

2012-02-01

128

Identification of novel implantation-related genes in the ovine uterus  

E-print Network

. vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT... Page V PREGNANCY AND INTERFERON TAU REGULATE RSAD2 AND IFIH1 EXPRESSION IN THE OVINE UTERUS ................... 59 Introduction ............................................................................... 59 Materials and Methods...

Song, Gwon Hwa

2007-09-17

129

Amino acids, polyamines, and nitric oxide synthesis in the ovine conceptus  

E-print Network

The objective of this study was to determine concentrations of amino acids and polyamines as well as nitric oxide (NO) and polyamine synthesis in the ovine conceptus (embryo/fetal and associated placental membrane). Ewes were hysterectomized...

Kwon, Hyuk Jung

2005-08-29

130

Maternal adrenocorticotropin, cortisol and thyroid hormone responses to chronic binge alcohol exposure throughout gestation: ovine model  

E-print Network

This study investigated the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on the responses of the maternal hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and thyroid hormones throughout gestation using an ovine model. Maternal plasma concentrations of ACTH...

Tress, Ursula

2009-05-15

131

Novel in vitro systems for prediction of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products.  

PubMed

A new in vitro tool was developed for the identification of veterinary substrates of the main drug transporter in the mammary gland. These drugs have a much higher chance of being concentrated into ovine milk and thus should be detectable in dairy products. Complementarily, a cell model for the identification of compounds that can inhibit the secretion of drugs into ovine milk, and thus reduce milk residues, was also generated. The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) is responsible for the concentration of its substrates into milk. The need to predict potential drug residues in ruminant milk has prompted the development of in vitro cell models over-expressing ABCG2 for these species to detect veterinary drugs that interact with this transporter. Using these models, several substrates for bovine and caprine ABCG2 have been found, and differences in activity between species have been reported. However, despite being of great toxicological relevance, no suitable in vitro model to predict substrates of ovine ABCG2 was available. New MDCKII and MEF3.8 cell models over-expressing ovine ABCG2 were generated for the identification of substrates and inhibitors of ovine ABCG2. Five widely used veterinary antibiotics (marbofloxacin, orbifloxacin, sarafloxacin, danofloxacin and difloxacin) were discovered as new substrates of ovine ABCG2. These results were confirmed for the bovine transporter and its Y581S variant using previously generated cell models. In addition, the avermectin doramectin was described as a new inhibitor of ruminant ABCG2. This new rapid assay to identify veterinary drugs that can be concentrated into ovine milk will potentially improve detection and monitoring of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products. PMID:24679113

González-Lobato, L; Real, R; Herrero, D; de la Fuente, A; Prieto, J G; Marqués, M M; Alvarez, A I; Merino, G

2014-01-01

132

On the relationship between moment and curvature for an ovine artery  

E-print Network

ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOMENT AND CURVATURE FOR AN OVINE ARTERY A Thesis by GABRIEL ALEJANDRO REZA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 2006 Major Subject: Biomedical Engineering ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOMENT AND CURVATURE FOR AN OVINE ARTERY A Thesis by GABRIEL ALEJANDRO REZA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Reza, Gabriel Alejandro

2006-10-30

133

The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dating from about 2100 to 1650 BCE, ancient Mesopotamian literature, written in Sumerian cuneiform, is the earliest known recorded literature in the world. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL) project, an initiative of the Faculty of Oriental Studies at the University of Oxford, aims to produce a Web-based digital collection of more than 400 poetic Sumerian compositions. The ETCSL project Website provides a browseable catalog of all texts in the corpus as well as an extensive description of the project. Each entry in the corpus catalog will eventually include a Sumerian text in transliteration, an English translation of that text, and detailed bibliographic information on the original text. At present, the site provides only a handful of texts but promises to expand significantly in the coming months.

134

Bayesian stratified sampling to assess corpus utility  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method for asking statistical questions about a large text corpus. The authors exemplify the method by addressing the question, ``What percentage of Federal Register documents are real documents, of possible interest to a text researcher or analyst?`` They estimate an answer to this question by evaluating 200 documents selected from a corpus of 45,820 Federal Register documents. Bayesian analysis and stratified sampling are used to reduce the sampling uncertainty of the estimate from over 3,100 documents to fewer than 1,000. A possible application of the method is to establish baseline statistics used to estimate recall rates for information retrieval systems.

Hochberg, J.; Scovel, C.; Thomas, T.; Hall, S.

1998-12-01

135

Immunomodulatory activity of plant residues on ovine neutrophils.  

PubMed

Neutrophils play an essential role in host defense and inflammation. Plants have long been used to improve the immune function, but for most of them specific investigations on animal health are lacking. In the present study, water and hydroethanolic extracts from 11 plant wastes have been screened on immune responses of ovine neutrophils. Eight sheep clinically healthy, not lactating, non-pregnant were selected and used for the experiment. Freshly isolated neutrophils were incubated with the extracts of the residues at increasing doses, and then they were tested for adhesion and superoxide production induced with PMA. The residues of Larix decidua, Thymus vulgaris, Salix alba, Sinupret, Helianthus annuus, Mangifera indica modulated the neutrophil immune functions, moreover, Larix decidua, Thymus vulgaris and Salix alba presented the highest anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:18667240

Farinacci, Maura; Colitti, Monica; Sgorlon, Sandy; Stefanon, Bruno

2008-11-15

136

Can a Graded Reader Corpus Provide "Authentic" Input?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In addition to their intended purpose, graded reader texts can be made into a corpus appropriate for use with lower-level learners. Here I consider using such a corpus for data-driven learning (DDL), to make this approach more accessible to intermediate level students. However, how far does grading the corpus in this way compromise the…

Allan, Rachel

2009-01-01

137

Corpus Properties of Protein Interaction Descriptions D. Berleant*  

E-print Network

Corpus Properties of Protein Interaction Descriptions D. Berleant* Department of Electrical head: Corpus Properties of Protein Interactions #12;1 Corpus Properties of Protein Interaction aspect of this task is unearthing interactions from biomedical texts. While a body of work exists

Berleant, Daniel

138

[Case report of corpus callosum lipoma diagnosed with computer tomography].  

PubMed

The case of corpus callosum lipoma that was accidentally discovered during the routine brain examination by computed tomography had been described. The CT features of corpus callosum lipoma were described as well as differential-diagnostic differences with epidermoid cyst agenesia of corpus callosum and cyst of the pellucid septum (cavum vergae). PMID:9720452

Markovi?, N; Ciri?, S; Stanojevi?, B; Vujnovi?, M

1998-01-01

139

Corpus Callosum Area in Children and Adults with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite repeated findings of abnormal corpus callosum structure in autism, the developmental trajectories of corpus callosum growth in the disorder have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined corpus callosum size from a developmental perspective across a 30-year age range in a large cross-sectional sample of individuals with autism…

Prigge, Molly B. D.; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Neeley, E. Shannon; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

2013-01-01

140

Ovine Proinflammatory Cytokines Cross the Murine Blood-Brain Barrier by a Common Saturable Transport Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Objectives The cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 are modulators of the neuroimmune axis and have been implicated in neuronal cell death cascades after ischemia or infection. Previous work has shown that some cross-species conservation exists between human and rodent blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport systems. To further assess cross-species conservation of cytokine transport across the BBB, the current studies investigated permeability and inhibition of ovine IL-1? and IL-6 in the mouse. Methods IL-1? or IL-6 was radioactively labeled with 131I and injected into the jugular vein at time zero. A subset of mice received 1 or 3 ?g/mouse of an unlabeled ovine or murine cytokine (IL-1? or IL-6) to assess self- and/or cross-inhibition of transport. Permeability was assessed using multiple-regression analysis. Results There was a significant linear relationship for both ovine 131I-IL-1? and 131I-IL-6 between brain/serum ratios and exposure time, indicating BBB permeability. Inclusion of 3 ?g/mouse unlabeled ovine IL-1? or IL-6 significantly reduced the transport of ovine 131I-IL-1? or 131I-IL-6, respectively, across the BBB. Transport of both ovine 131I-IL-1? and 131I-IL-6 was significantly inhibited by 1 ?g/mouse of murine IL-1? or IL-6, respectively. In contrast, 1 ?g/mouse of unlabeled ovine IL-1? or IL-6 did not inhibit the transport of murine 131I-IL-1? or 131I-IL-6. Conclusions Ovine IL-1? and IL-6 cross the mouse BBB by saturable transport. Inhibition of transport by murine homologs indicates that both species use the same transport mechanisms. Conversely, an inability of ovine cytokines to significantly inhibit the transport of murine cytokines indicates that mouse BBB has a lower affinity for ovine than murine cytokines. Knowledge of species-conserved BBB transport mechanisms may facilitate the development of novel animal models of central nervous system pathogenesis. PMID:20516722

Threlkeld, Steven W.; Lynch, Jessica L.; Lynch, Kristin M.; Sadowska, Grazyna B.; Banks, William A.; Stonestreet, Barbara S.

2010-01-01

141

33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(1) For incoming tank vessels loaded with Liquefied Petroleum Gas, the waters within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving...

2010-07-01

142

77 FR 2448 - Special Local Regulation; HITS Triathlon; Corpus Christi Bayfront, Corpus Christi, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Corpus Christi Bayfront area. This temporary special local regulation is necessary...direct effect on State or local governments and would either preempt...expenditure by a State, local, or tribal government, in the aggregate,...

2012-01-18

143

Medicina i astrologia en el corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Es revisa el paper de l’astrologia en l’obra mèdica d’Arnau de Vilanova amb una atenció especial envers els problemes d’autoria que plantegen els escrits astrològics del corpus arnaldià i envers la hipotètica delimitació cronològica d’aquest recurs.

Sebastià Giralt Soler

2008-01-01

144

Corpus design for biomedical natural language processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper classifies six publicly avail- able biomedical corpora according to var- ious corpus design features and charac- teristics. We then present usage data for the six corpora. We show that corpora that are carefully annotated with respect to structural and linguistic characteristics and that are distributed in standard for- mats are more widely used than corpora that are not.

K. Bretonnel Cohen; Lynne Fox; Philip V. Ogren; Lawrence Hunter

2005-01-01

145

The Need for a Speech Corpus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the ongoing construction of a speech corpus for use by applied linguists and advanced EFL/ESL students. In the first part, sections 1-4, the need for improvements in the teaching of listening skills and pronunciation practice for EFL/ESL students is noted. It is argued that the use of authentic native-to-native speech is…

Campbell, Dermot F.; McDonnell, Ciaran; Meinardi, Marti; Richardson, Bunny

2007-01-01

146

Renal Terminology from the Corpus Hippocraticum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hippocratic writings have not lost their nephrologic interest, despite the enormous recent advances in renal biotechnology. The present-day nephrologist can still learn not only from Hippocratic clinical observations but also from the prognostic thoughts, the ethical principles, the philosophic concepts and the humane messages of the ‘Father of Clinical Nephrology’ [1]. The Corpus Hippocraticum (Hippocratic Collection) represents the major source

Effie Poulakou-Rebelakou; S. G. Marketos

2002-01-01

147

32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

A soldier may file a writ of habeas corpus to challenge his continued custody (usually in a post court-martial situation) or retention in the Army. As is the case with injunctive relief in the preceding paragraph, installation SJAs and legal advisers must take immediate...

2010-07-01

148

Quantitative assessment of corpus callosum morphology in periventricular nodular heterotopia.  

PubMed

We investigated systematic differences in corpus callosum morphology in periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH). Differences in corpus callosum mid-sagittal area and subregional area changes were measured using an automated software-based method. Heterotopic gray matter deposits were automatically labeled and compared with corpus callosum changes. The spatial pattern of corpus callosum changes were interpreted in the context of the characteristic anterior-posterior development of the corpus callosum in healthy individuals. Individuals with periventricular nodular heterotopia were imaged at the Melbourne Brain Center or as part of the multi-site Epilepsy Phenome Genome project. Whole brain T1 weighted MRI was acquired in cases (n=48) and controls (n=663). The corpus callosum was segmented on the mid-sagittal plane using the software "yuki". Heterotopic gray matter and intracranial brain volume was measured using Freesurfer. Differences in corpus callosum area and subregional areas were assessed, as well as the relationship between corpus callosum area and heterotopic GM volume. The anterior-posterior distribution of corpus callosum changes and heterotopic GM nodules were quantified using a novel metric and compared with each other. Corpus callosum area was reduced by 14% in PVNH (p=1.59×10(-9)). The magnitude of the effect was least in the genu (7% reduction) and greatest in the isthmus and splenium (26% reduction). Individuals with higher heterotopic GM volume had a smaller corpus callosum. Heterotopic GM volume was highest in posterior brain regions, however there was no linear relationship between the anterior-posterior position of corpus callosum changes and PVNH nodules. Reduced corpus callosum area is strongly associated with PVNH, and is probably associated with abnormal brain development in this neurological disorder. The primarily posterior corpus callosum changes may inform our understanding of the etiology of PVNH. Our results suggest that interhemispheric pathways are affected in PVNH. PMID:25524841

Pardoe, Heath R; Mandelstam, Simone A; Hiess, Rebecca Kucharsky; Kuzniecky, Ruben I; Jackson, Graeme D

2015-01-01

149

Ovine Haemophilus somnus: experimental intracisternal infection and antigenic comparison with bovine Haemophilus somnus.  

PubMed Central

Experimental infection was produced by two of four isolates of ovine Haemophilus somnus given by intracisternal inoculation into two to three-month-old lambs. Isolate 2041 (originally obtained from a septicemic lamb in Alberta) caused lethal infection in eight of nine lambs, isolate 67p from the prepuce of a normal lamb produced less acute disease in four of nine lambs, and the other two isolates (93p and 1190) caused no detectable disease. Significant lesions were limited to the brain and spinal cord. Purulent meningitis was characteristic but vasculitis or septicemia were not detected, perhaps due to the route of inoculation. Since a difference in virulence was noted among strains, we analyzed surface proteins thought to be virulence factors of bovine H. somnus. Protein profiles of bovine and ovine H. somnus done by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed similar patterns for virulent bovine isolates and ovine septicemic isolates. Preputial isolates showed a lower molecular mass major outer membrane protein than septicemic isolates. Antigenic analysis revealed that outer membrane proteins p270, p78, p76, p40, and p39 were detected in both ovine and bovine isolates except for 1190, which was probably not a true H. somnus isolate. Thus the preputial and septicemic isolates of ovine H. somnus were similar to bovine H. somnus in pathogenicity and in surface antigens. Images Fig. 1a. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7954123

Lees, V W; Yates, W D; Corbeil, L B

1994-01-01

150

In-vitro Validation of Cytokine Neutralizing Antibodies by testing with Ovine Mononuclear Splenocytes  

PubMed Central

Summary Cytokines have gained increasing attention as therapeutic targets in inflammation-related disorders and inflammatory conditions have been investigated in sheep. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the ovine pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 could be used to study the effects of blocking pro-inflammatory cytokines in sheep. Ovine-specific IL-1? and IL-6 proteins and mAbs specific for these molecules were produced and the ability of the mAbs to neutralize the proteins was tested in cultures of ovine splenic mononuclear cells. Expression of nuclear factor (NF)-?? and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 was evaluated by western blotting and densitometric quantification. Treatment with purified IL-1? and IL-6 proteins increased NF-?? (P <0.001) and STAT-3 P <0.01) expression,(respectively, in cell culture. Treatment with these proteins that were pre-incubated with IL-1? and IL-6 mAbs attenuated (P <0.01) these effects. These results confirm the bioactivity of ovine IL-1? and IL-6 proteins and neutralizing capacity of anti-ovine-IL-1? and -IL-6 mAbs in vitro. These mAbs could be used to investigate anti-inflammatory strategies for attenuation of the effects of these pro-inflammatory cytokines in sheep. PMID:22819013

Chen, X.; Threlkeld, S. W.; Cummings, E. E; Sadowska, G. B.; Lim, Y.-P.; Padbury, J. F.; Sharma, S.; Stonestreet, B. S.

2012-01-01

151

In-vitro validation of cytokine neutralizing antibodies by testing with ovine mononuclear splenocytes.  

PubMed

Cytokines have gained increasing attention as therapeutic targets in inflammation-related disorders and inflammatory conditions have been investigated in sheep. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the ovine pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 could be used to study the effects of blocking pro-inflammatory cytokines in sheep. Ovine-specific IL-1? and IL-6 proteins and mAbs specific for these molecules were produced and the ability of the mAbs to neutralize the proteins was tested in cultures of ovine splenic mononuclear cells. Expression of nuclear factor (NF)-?? and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 was evaluated by western blotting and densitometric quantification. Treatment with purified IL-1? and IL-6 proteins increased NF-?? (P < 0.001) and STAT-3 (P < 0.01) expression, respectively, in cell culture. Treatment with these proteins that were pre-incubated with IL-1? and IL-6 mAbs attenuated (P < 0.01) these effects. These results confirm the bioactivity of ovine IL-1? and IL-6 proteins and the neutralizing capacity of anti-ovine-IL-1? and -IL-6 mAbs in vitro. These mAbs could be used to investigate anti-inflammatory strategies for attenuation of the effects of these pro-inflammatory cytokines in sheep. PMID:22819013

Chen, X; Threlkeld, S W; Cummings, E E; Sadowska, G B; Lim, Y-P; Padbury, J F; Sharma, S; Stonestreet, B S

2013-02-01

152

Genetic architecture of gene expression in ovine skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Background In livestock populations the genetic contribution to muscling is intensively monitored in the progeny of industry sires and used as a tool in selective breeding programs. The genes and pathways conferring this genetic merit are largely undefined. Genetic variation within a population has potential, amongst other mechanisms, to alter gene expression via cis- or trans-acting mechanisms in a manner that impacts the functional activities of specific pathways that contribute to muscling traits. By integrating sire-based genetic merit information for a muscling trait with progeny-based gene expression data we directly tested the hypothesis that there is genetic structure in the gene expression program in ovine skeletal muscle. Results The genetic performance of six sires for a well defined muscling trait, longissimus lumborum muscle depth, was measured using extensive progeny testing and expressed as an Estimated Breeding Value by comparison with contemporary sires. Microarray gene expression data were obtained for longissimus lumborum samples taken from forty progeny of the six sires (4-8 progeny/sire). Initial unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis revealed strong genetic architecture to the gene expression data, which also discriminated the sire-based Estimated Breeding Value for the trait. An integrated systems biology approach was then used to identify the major functional pathways contributing to the genetics of enhanced muscling by using both Estimated Breeding Value weighted gene co-expression network analysis and a differential gene co-expression network analysis. The modules of genes revealed by these analyses were enriched for a number of functional terms summarised as muscle sarcomere organisation and development, protein catabolism (proteosome), RNA processing, mitochondrial function and transcriptional regulation. Conclusions This study has revealed strong genetic structure in the gene expression program within ovine longissimus lumborum muscle. The balance between muscle protein synthesis, at the levels of both transcription and translation control, and protein catabolism mediated by regulated proteolysis is likely to be the primary determinant of the genetic merit for the muscling trait in this sheep population. There is also evidence that high genetic merit for muscling is associated with a fibre type shift toward fast glycolytic fibres. This study provides insight into mechanisms, presumably subject to strong artificial selection, that underpin enhanced muscling in sheep populations. PMID:22171619

2011-01-01

153

Syntactic Annotation of a German Newspaper Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We report on the syntactic annotation of a German newspaper corpus. The annotations consist of context-free structures, additionally\\u000a allowing crossing branches, with labeled nodes (phrases) and edges (grammatical functions). Furthermore, we present a new,\\u000a interactive semi-automatic annotation process that allows efficient and reliable annotations. The annotation process is sped\\u000a up by incrementally presenting structures and by automatically highlighting unreliable assignments.

Thorsten Brants; Wojciech Skut; Hans Uszkoreit

154

Crimp morphology in the ovine anterior cruciate ligament.  

PubMed

While the crimp morphology in ligaments and tendons has been described in detail in the literature, its relative distribution within the tissue has not been studied, especially in relation to the complex multi-bundle arrangement as is found in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). In this study, the crimp morphology of the ovine ACL was examined topologically and with respect to its double-bundle structure. The crimp morphologies were compared with the knee in three knee positions, namely stance, maximum extension and maximum flexion. As a control, the crimp morphology of the ACL free from its bony attachments was determined. In the control samples, the anterior-medial (AM) bundle contained a combination of coarse and fine crimp, whereas the posterior-lateral (PL) bundle manifested only a coarse crimp. Using the extent of crimp loss observed when subjecting the knee to the respective positions, and comparing with the controls, the crimp morphologies show that the AM bundle of the ACL is most active in the stance position, whereas for the maximum extension and flexion positions the PL bundle is most active. We propose that these differences in crimp morphologies have relevance to ACL design and function. PMID:25677165

Zhao, Lei; Thambyah, Ashvin; Broom, Neil

2015-03-01

155

Development and application of ovine reproductive technologies: an Indian experience.  

PubMed

Sheep play an important role in the Indian economy by providing employment to a large population of marginal and landless farmers. The production from native breeds is relatively low due to their poor reproductive efficiency. Embryo transfer technology can be utilised for faster multiplication of elite animal to increase the genetic gain. A great deal of research is involved to overcome the constraints in the technology, i.e. expensive and complicated nature of the technology and low success rate. In order to avoid surgical involvement, procedures of laparoscope aided embryo collection and transfer have been developed. Although the use of FSH of ovine origin has given more consistent superovulatory response, but it is still too low to get sufficient numbers of progeny from a donor ewe. The progress made in cryopreservation of ram semen has opened the possibility for conservation and utilisation of frozen semen of elite rams in sheep improvement programme. The lambing rate obtained after laparoscope aided intrauterine artificial insemination with frozen semen is encouraging but the impetus is now to develop the non-invasive transcervical insemination technique. PMID:11230955

Naqvi, S M.K.; Joshi, A; Das, G K.; Mittal, J P.

2001-03-01

156

Cytokine release by ovine macrophages following infection with Chlamydia psittaci  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular pathogen that causes abortion in both sheep and humans. The disease in sheep (but not humans) is characterized by a long-term persistent phase that appears to be under the control of interferon-gamma. However, nothing is known about cytokine induction that precedes the persistent phase in sheep. Primary alveolar lavage cells recovered from normal adult sheep were used to study cytokine production in the first 72 h of infection with C. psittaci. These cells were phenotypically characteristic of macrophages, being adherent, phagocytic, CD14+ and staining positive for non-specific esterase. In vitro infection of the macrophages with C. psittaci resulted in the release of IL-1?, IL-8 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as measured by ovine-specific ELISAs. Heat-treated chlamydiae (1 h at 65°C) did not induce the release of IL-1?, but the release of IL-8 was similar to that induced by untreated organisms. The cells from different sheep varied most notably in their patterns of GM-CSF release in response to heat-treated and untreated organisms. PMID:10444263

Entrican, G; Wilkie, R; Mcwaters, P; Scheerlinck, J-P; Wood, P R; Brown, J

1999-01-01

157

Aquaporin gene expression and regulation in the ovine fetal lung  

PubMed Central

Fetal lung development is dependent upon secretion of liquid into the future airways which must be cleared at birth to establish air-breathing. Aquaporins (AQP) 1, 3, 4 and 5 are membranous water channel proteins that are present in the lung after birth in rodents, with little expression before birth. Our aim was to describe the changes in AQP1, 3, 4 and 5 expression and protein levels in the fetal lung of a long-gestation species (sheep) and in response to physiological factors known to alter fetal lung liquid dynamics. Both mRNA and high protein levels were detected for AQP1, 3, 4 and 5 by day 100 (term is ?150 days in ovine fetuses). A cortisol infusion (120–131 days) significantly (P < 0.05) increased AQP1 (0.9 ± 0.2 (n = 4) vs.1.8 ± 0.3 (n = 5)) and AQP5 (8.8 ± 0.6 vs. 14.1 ± 1.2) mRNA levels in fetal lung (measured by real-time PCR). Ten days of tracheal obstruction significantly (P < 0.05) decreased AQP5 mRNA levels (6.1 ± 0.9 (n = 5) vs. 2.7 ± 0.3 (n = 5)). Immunohistochemistry was used to show that protein levels changed in parallel with the mRNA changes. These findings suggest that AQPs could be involved in lung liquid production and reabsorption during fetal development in long-gestation species. PMID:12819302

Liu, H; Hooper, S B; Armugam, A; Dawson, N; Ferraro, T; Jeyaseelan, K; Thiel, A; Koukoulas, I; Wintour, E M

2003-01-01

158

In vitro ovine articular chondrocyte proliferation: experiments and modelling.  

PubMed

This study focuses on analysis of in vitro cultures of chondrocytes from ovine articular cartilage. Isolated cells were seeded in Petri dishes, then expanded to confluence and phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry. The sigmoidal temporal profile of total counts was obtained by classic haemocytometry and corresponding cell size distributions were measured electronically using a Coulter Counter. A mathematical model recently proposed (1) was adopted for quantitative interpretation of these experimental data. The model is based on a 1-D (that is, mass-structured), single-staged population balance approach capable of taking into account contact inhibition at confluence. The model's parameters were determined by fitting measured total cell counts and size distributions. Model reliability was verified by predicting cell proliferation counts and corresponding size distributions at culture times longer than those used when tuning the model's parameters. It was found that adoption of cell mass as the intrinsic characteristic of a growing chondrocyte population enables sigmoidal temporal profiles of total counts in the Petri dish, as well as cell size distributions at 'balanced growth', to be adequately predicted. PMID:20412130

Mancuso, L; Liuzzo, M I; Fadda, S; Pisu, M; Cincotti, A; Arras, M; La Nasa, G; Concas, A; Cao, G

2010-06-01

159

The Hebrew CHILDES corpus: transcription and morphological analysis  

PubMed Central

We present a corpus of transcribed spoken Hebrew that reflects spoken interactions between children and adults. The corpus is an integral part of the CHILDES database, which distributes similar corpora for over 25 languages. We introduce a dedicated transcription scheme for the spoken Hebrew data that is sensitive to both the phonology and the standard orthography of the language. We also introduce a morphological analyzer that was specifically developed for this corpus. The analyzer adequately covers the entire corpus, producing detailed correct analyses for all tokens. Evaluation on a new corpus reveals high coverage as well. Finally, we describe a morphological disambiguation module that selects the correct analysis of each token in context. The result is a high-quality morphologically-annotated CHILDES corpus of Hebrew, along with a set of tools that can be applied to new corpora. PMID:25419199

Albert, Aviad; MacWhinney, Brian; Nir, Bracha

2014-01-01

160

Calcium fluxes across the wall of the ovine reticulorumen in vivo.  

PubMed

Calcium fluxes were measured, in vivo, in both directions across the ovine reticulorumen wall of four sheep when the luminal potassium concentration was either 30 mmol litre-1 or 90 mmol litre-1. Neither fluxes were affected by an increased potassium concentration although net magnesium absorption was decreased (PO less than 0.05) and the transmural potential difference was increased (P less than 0.01) under these conditions. The results obtained suggest that, unlike magnesium, calcium is transported bidirectionally across ovine ruminal tissue independently of the transmural potential difference across the rumen wall. PMID:2595100

Beardsworth, L; Bearsworth, P; Care, A D

1989-11-01

161

Building a large annotated corpus of English: the penn treebank  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, we review our experience with constructing one such large annotated corpus--the Penn Treebank, a corpus consisting of over 4.5 million words of American English. During the first three-year phase of the Penn Treebank Project (1989-1992), this corpus has been annotated for part-of-speech (POS) information. In addition, over half of it has been annotated for skeletal syntactic structure. These

Mitchell P. Marcus; Mary Ann Marcin-kiewicz; Beatrice Santorini

1993-01-01

162

40 CFR 81.136 - Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.136 Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality...

2010-07-01

163

Citrimicrobium luteum gen. nov., sp. nov., aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium isolated from the gut of a sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain negative, yellow-pigmented, motile, pleomorphic bacterium, designated strain CBA4602(T), was isolated from the gut of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus, which was collected from Jeju Island in the Republic of Korea. In a phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene, strain CBA4602(T) belonged to the order Sphingomonadales in the class Alphaproteobacteria. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain CBA4602(T) and 'Citromicrobium bathyomarinum' JF-1, the most closely related strain having nonvalidly published name, was 98.4%, followed by 95.2-96.7% identities with sequence of the other closest strains in the genus Erythrobacter. Strain CBA4602(T) had bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids. Strain CBA4602(T) grew in 0-10% (w/v) NaCl, at 10-42°C and pH 6.0-8.0, with optimal growth in 1-2% NaCl, at 30-37°C and pH 7.0. Strain CBA4602(T) was positive for catalase and oxidase activities and was able to hydrolyse gelatine and Tween 20 and 40, but not starch, Tween 80 or L-tyrosine. The G+C content of genomic DNA from strain CBA4602(T) was 68.0 mol% and Q-10 was the major detected isoprenoid quinone. The polar lipids were three unidentified phospholipids, three unidentified glycolipids, and two unidentified lipids. The dominant fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, anteiso-C17:0 and C18:0. As considering the current taxonomic status of the genus 'Citromicrobium' and polyphasic taxonomic analyses, strain CBA4602(T) represents a novel genus and species. The name Citrimicrobium luteum is proposed for the type strain CBA4602(T) (=KACC 17668(T) =JCM 19530(T)). PMID:25163838

Jung, Hong-Joo; Cha, In-Tae; Yim, Kyung June; Song, Hye Seon; Cho, Kichul; Kim, Daekyung; Lee, Hae-Won; Lee, Jae Kook; Seo, Myung-Ji; Roh, Seong Woon; Lee, Sung-Jae

2014-10-01

164

Characterization of ovine utero-placental interface tensile failure.  

PubMed

Data on the strength of the utero-placental interface (UPI) would help improve understanding of the mechanisms of placental abruption (premature separation of the placenta from the uterus) during motor-vehicle crashes involving pregnant occupants. An ovine model was selected for study because like the human, its placenta has a villous attachment structure. Uteri with intact placentas were obtained from three sheep as by-products of another research study. The samples were harvested between 102 and 119 days of the 145-day gestational period. Rectangular specimens with areas measuring 15 mm × 5 mm were cut through the thickness of the placenta and uterus. Each subject provided eight samples, of which four were tested at a nominal strain rate of 0.10 strains/sec and the remainder was tested at a nominal strain rate of 1.0 strains/sec. Sutures were used to secure the uterine side of the specimens to the test fixture, while mechanical clamps were used to attach the placenta side. A FARO arm scanner recorded the initial geometry of the tissue, and a random dot pattern applied to the placenta and uterus tissue allowed visualization of displacement. For the structure of the UPI, mean tensile failure strain and standard deviations are 0.37 (0.11) and 0.37 (0.18) for the 0.10 and 1.0 strain rates, respectively (p-value = 0.970) while the associated failure stresses are 6.5 (1.37) and 15.0 (5.08) kPa, (p-value = 0.064). The results from sheep UPI testing provide the first estimate of the human UPI structural failure tolerance. PMID:22809672

Klinich, K D; Miller, C S; Hu, J; Samorezov, J E; Pearlman, M D; Schneider, L W; Rupp, J D

2012-10-01

165

Three-dimensional architecture of the ovine oviductal mucosa.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to establish for the first time a complete three-dimensional model of the ovine oviductal mucosa. The oviducts of 15 cyclic ewes were examined combining the direct examination of the mucosa, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histology, with the SEM observation of resin moulds of the oviductal lumen. Around the ostium abdominale, all longitudinal primary folds and wide secondary are seen to form cul-de-sacs, with their opening pointing in the ovarian direction were observed. At the connection of the ampulla to the isthmus, there is a sharp change in the morphology, from a high folded structure to a smoother one. In the utero-tubal junction, the primary folds broaden and become more voluminous, the lumen has a slit-like appearance, and secondary folds form cul-de-sacs with their opening oriented towards the uterus. The areas between the folds throughout the lumen of the oviduct show a high degree of complexity. The presence of crypts was observed in all the regions studied, branched in the ampulla and spiniform in the isthmus. Marked variations were observed in the oviductal epithelium depending on the oviductal segment and the basal or apical areas of the folds. The variations found regarding the phase of the oestrous cycle were similar to those described in studies of other species. The anatomy of the oviductal mucosa provides a complex system that seems to be designed to regulate the movement of fluids and the passage of cells within the oviductal canal. PMID:23848134

Yániz, J L; Carretero, T; Recreo, P; Arceiz, E; Santolaria, P

2014-10-01

166

Behavioural state linkage in the ovine fetus near term.  

PubMed

Nine fetal sheep were surgically prepared with placement of electrocortical and electro-ocular electrodes for monitoring behavioural state activity to determine the relationship of adjacent low-voltage (LV)/rapid eye movement (REM) and high-voltage (HV)/non-(N)REM epoch durations and the inter-epoch transition time. Animals were subsequently studied over an 8-hour period with behavioural state epoch duration and transition time assessed using paired t-test and regression analysis. For all animals, the duration of LV/REM epochs averaged 14.8+/-0.8 (SEM) minutes which was significantly greater than that for HV/NREM epochs at 10.1+/-0.5 min (P<0.01). The mean duration of LV/REM to HV/NREM transition periods at 93+/-3 s was also significantly longer than that for the HV/NREM to LV/REM transition periods at 78+/-6 s (P<0.05). HV/NREM epoch duration was positively correlated with the prior LV/REM epoch duration with a group mean correlation of 0.59 (P<0.01). HV/NREM epoch duration was likewise positively correlated with the subsequent LV/REM epoch duration with a group mean correlation of 0.46 (P<0.01). We conclude that the transition time into HV/NREM is longer than that into LV/REM for the ovine fetus near term which may involve differences in the rate of maturation of cycling control mechanisms for these two behavioural states and earlier development of REM-on versus REM-off pathways. The positive LV/REM-HV/NREM linkage relationships also support a homeostatic model of behavioural state control whereby LV/REM and HV/NREM timings are both controlled by accumulation of propensity for these states during the other state and favours an interactive process between these states in the brain's growth and development. PMID:19028465

Rao, Neesha; Keen, Ashley; Czikk, Marie; Frasch, Martin; Richardson, Bryan S

2009-01-23

167

L2 rated speech corpus 1 Running head: CONSTRUCTION OF A RATED L2 SPEECH CORPUS  

E-print Network

-Champaign abstract This work reports on the construction of a rated database of spontaneous speech produced by second generally. This database will be released to the public in the near future. Key-Words: rated speech corpus on the construction of a rated, spontaneous speech database of second language (L2) learners of English. The purpose

Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

168

Creating a Live, Public Short Message Service Corpus: The NUS SMS Corpus  

E-print Network

Short Message Service (SMS) messages are largely sent directly from one person to another from their mobile phones. They represent a means of personal communication that is an important communicative artifact in our current digital era. As most existing studies have used private access to SMS corpora, comparative studies using the same raw SMS data has not been possible up to now. We describe our efforts to collect a public SMS corpus to address this problem. We use a battery of methodologies to collect the corpus, paying particular attention to privacy issues to address contributorsâ?? concerns. Our live project collects new SMS message submissions, checks their quality and adds the valid messages, releasing the resultant corpus as XML and as SQL dumps, along with corpus statistics, every month. We opportunistically collect as much metadata about the messages and their sender as possible, so as to enable different types of analyses. To date, we have collected about 60,000 messages, focusing on English and...

Chen, Tao

2011-01-01

169

Corpus-Assisted Creative Writing: Introducing Intermediate Italian Learners to a Corpus as a Reference Resource  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In much of the literature on the exploitation of corpora for language learning, the learners are viewed as researchers, who formulate and test their own hypotheses about language use. Having identified difficulties encountered in corpus investigations by our intermediate-level students of Italian in a previous study, we have designed a…

Kennedy, Claire; Miceli, Tiziana

2010-01-01

170

The ovine nasal mucosa: An alternative tissue site for mucosal immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ovine nasal mucosal environment has histological and ultrastructural features that resemble well-known inductive sites of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. In the present study, the nasal mucosa was assessed as a potential mucosal tissue site for delivering vaccines to sheep. Sheep were immunized by either injection with the model antigen, Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin (KLH), and aluminium hydroxide gel (alum) or by

Bradley J. Sedgmen; Shari A. Lofthouse; Els N. T. Meeusen

2006-01-01

171

Evidence of proviral clearance following postpartum transmission of an ovine lentivirus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lentiviral transmission by transfer of infected colostrum and/or milk is considered to be highly efficient. In this study, postpartum transmission of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) from 10 naturally infected ewes to their 23 lambs was followed from the perinatal period throughout a four y...

172

OVINE HERPESVIRUS 2 MRNA EXPRESSION IN CATTLE AND BISON WITH MALIGNANT CATARRHAL FEVER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fulminant disease of certain susceptible ruminants caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2). The characteristic lesions of MCF include lymphoproliferation, vasculitis and mucosal ulceration. The pathogenesis of these lesions is very poorly understood, but is most ...

173

DETERMINATION OF THE NFAT5/ TonEBP TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR IN THE HUMAN AND OVINE PLACENTA  

PubMed Central

Osmotic stress results in the accumulation of osmolytes in tissues. Synthesis of these osmolytes is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT5/TonEBP in the human kidney. We tested for the presence of NFAT5 mRNA and protein in the human and ovine placenta and confirmed sorbitol and inositol osmolyte concentrations in these tissues. To determine NFAT5 protein, human and ovine placentae were tested for inositol, sorbitol and glucose using HPLC. Additionally, RNA was extracted and cDNA was made from these tissues. PCR was performed and products were sequenced. Western blotting was used to assess the expression of the NFAT5 protein. Human and ovine placentae demonstrated: 1) high concentrations of sorbitol and inositol, 2) presence of NFAT5 mRNA, 3) matched NFAT5 sequence identity, and 4) presence of NFAT5 protein. NFAT5 is present in the ovine and human placenta at the RNA and protein levels which suggest a role for this protein in the induction of these osmolytes. Further trophoblast studies of osmotic stress effects on osmolytes are planned. PMID:19886771

ARROYO, Juan A.; TENG, Cecilia; BATTAGLIA, Frederick C.; GALAN, Henry L.

2010-01-01

174

The pathology of malignant catarrhal fever, with an emphasis on ovine herpesvirus 2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The enigmatic pathogenesis of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) involves dysregulated immune responses in susceptible ruminant species. Economically important outbreaks of MCF are due to two of the 10 viruses that currently comprise the malignant catarrhal fever virus group: ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-...

175

Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels associate with breed and Ovar-DRB1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies have suggested that host genetics influence both lung histopathology and seroprevalence in sheep infected with ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV). As a first start, a genetic association study was conducted in 383 Idaho sheep of the Columbia, Polypay and Rambouillet breeds ut...

176

MIGRATIONS OF TRICHOSTRONGYLE INFECTIVE LARVAE EXPERIMENTS WITH OVINE PARASITES IN SOIL  

E-print Network

MIGRATIONS OF TRICHOSTRONGYLE INFECTIVE LARVAE EXPERIMENTS WITH OVINE PARASITES IN SOIL L. GRUNER of the larvae (Beaver, 1953) as well as for their migration (Cort, 1925). More recently the appearence was explained by vertical migrations through soil of D. viviparus larvae, no larvae being recovered from grass

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

Ovine herpesvirus 2 replicates initially in the lung of experimentally infected sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a rhadinovirus in the gammaherpesvirus subfamily, is the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), a frequently fatal lymphoproliferative disease primarily of ruminants worldwide. Inability to propagate the virus in vitro has made it diffi...

178

Sheep (Ovis aries) airway epithelial cells support ovine herpesvirus 2 lytic replication in vivo  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study we describe the development of a monospecific, polyclonal rabbit antiserum directed against the ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) major capsid protein and its use to detect lytically infected cells in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Immunofluorescent labeling using monoclonal antibodies direc...

179

SHEDDING OF OVINE HERPESVIRUS 2 IN SHEEP NASAL SECRETIONS: THE PREDOMINANT MODE OF TRANSMISSION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), the major causative agent of malignant catarrhal fever in ruminant species worldwide, has never been propagated in vitro. Using real-time PCR, a striking peak of viral genomic copies, ranging from 100,000 to over 100,000,000 copies/2 ug DNA, was detected in nasal secre...

180

Characterization of ovine herpesvirus 2-induced malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a frequently fatal lymphoproliferative disease syndrome primarily of ruminant species, caused by gammaherpesviruses in the genus Macavirus. Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2),carried by sheep,causes sheep-associated MCF worldwide,while Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1)...

181

Ovine progressive pneumonia virus is transmitted more effectively via aerosol nebulization than oral administration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new method of experimental infection of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), aerosol nebulization (Nb), was compared to intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) methods of experimental infection. Seven month old lambs were given 3.5 × 107 TCID50 of Dubois OPPV LMH19 isolate using IV, PO, or Nb methods ...

182

Development of cell lines from the sheep used to construct the CHORI-243 ovine BAC library  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two cell lines, designated MARC.OVSM and MARC.OKF, were initiated from the aorta and kidney, respectively, obtained from the Texel ram used to make the CHORI-243 Ovine BAC library. These cell lines have been submitted to the NIA Aging Cell Repository at the Coriell Cell Respositories, Camden, NJ, U...

183

Development and Validation of an Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus Quantitative PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) infects at least one sheep in eighty-one percent of U.S. sheep flocks as measured by serological diagnostic tests and can cause viral-induced mastitis, arthritis, dypsnea, and cachexia. Diagnostic tests that quantify OPP proviral load in peripheral blood leu...

184

HORMONAL REGULATION OF GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE RECEPTORS AND MRNA ACTIVITY IN OVINE PITUITARY CULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Previous studies demonstrate that gonadotroph responsiveness to GnRH, GnRH binding, and the apparent number of GnRH receptors are all increased by 17B-estradiol (E) or inhibin (IN) in ovine pituitary cultures. rogesterone attenuates these effects. o explore differences between th...

185

Characterization of ovine Nectin-4, a novel peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) receptor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Small ruminants infected with peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) exhibit lesions typical of epithelial infection and necrosis. However, the only established host receptor for this virus is the immune cell marker signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). We have confirmed that the ovine ...

186

Experimental infection of rabbits with ovine herpesvirus 2 from sheep nasal secretions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a generally fatal disease that primarily occurs in ruminants and is caused by a group of gammaherpesviruses. Outside of Africa MCF is mainly caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) which is carried subclinically by sheep. Cell-free virus is present in nasal secret...

187

Role of steroids in the maturation of ovine oocytes Institute of Animal Physiology, Animal Research Station  

E-print Network

Role of steroids in the maturation of ovine oocytes R. M. MOOR Institute of Animal Physiology of oocytes in sheep. Steroid function during the inductive phase is characterized by (i) elevated levels of progesterone (0.4 and 0.8 nmol/ml in vitro and in vivo respectively). Steroid support is not required

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

188

The medial-lateral force distribution in the ovine stifle joint during walking.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the load distribution in the knee is essential for understanding the interaction between mechanics and biology in both the healthy and diseased joint. While the sheep stifle joint is a predominant model for better understanding regeneration after injury, little is known about the compartmental force distribution between the medial and lateral condyles. By including sheep specific anatomy and gait analyses, we used computational musculoskeletal analyses to estimate the medial-lateral joint contact force distribution in ovine stifle joints during walking by simplifying the system of equations into a 2D problem that was solved directly. Gait analysis was conducted using bone markers in three female Merino-mix sheep. Joint contact forces were computed with respect to the specific anatomy of the ovine tibia, resulting in low (<0.13 bodyweight) mean anteroposterior shear forces throughout the gait cycle, with mean peak contact forces perpendicular to the tibial plateau of 2.2 times bodyweight. The medial-lateral compartmental load distribution across the tibial condyles was determined and revealed loading predominantly on the medial condyle, bearing approximately 75% of the total load during phases of peak loading. By considering the anatomical characteristics of the ovine stifle joint, together with the dynamic forces during gait, this study provides evidence for predominantly medial loading in sheep, somewhat similar to the distribution reported in man. However, the exact conditions under which the loading in the ovine stifle joint is representative of the human situation will need to be elucidated in further studies. PMID:20957731

Taylor, William R; Poepplau, Berry M; König, Christian; Ehrig, Rainald M; Zachow, Stefan; Duda, Georg N; Heller, Markus O

2011-04-01

189

Educational Implications for Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study evaluates the case of a 20-year-old young Australian adult born with agenesis of the corpus callosum, the area of the brain uniting the hemispheres. Deficits commonly associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum are mental retardation, motor involvement, seizure activity, and lateral transfer difficulties. The report: (1)…

Ritter, Shirley A.

190

Detecting Privacy Leaks Using Corpus-based Association Rules  

E-print Network

, association rule mining analyzes the contents of the corpus to identify words closely associated with "missileDetecting Privacy Leaks Using Corpus-based Association Rules Richard Chow Palo Alto Research Center model is inspired by association rule mining: inferences are based on word co-occurrences. Using

Golle, Philippe

191

English Corpus Linguistics: An Introduction. Studies in English Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a step-by-step guide to creating and analyzing linguistic corpora. It defines a corpus as a collection of texts or parts of texts upon which some general linguistic analysis can be conducted. It begins with a discussion of the role that corpus linguistics plays in linguistic theory, demonstrating that corpora have proven to be very…

Meyer, Charles F.

192

Using Corpus Tools To Highlight Academic Vocabulary in SCLT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how corpus tools can be used for identifying and integrating useful English for academic vocabulary instruction and can offer sustained-content language teaching (CSLT) a balanced approach for preparing students for the linguistic demands of regular classes. Advocates using techniques from corpus linguistics as a tool for highlighting…

Donley, Kate M.; Reppen, Randi

2001-01-01

193

The MILE Corpus for Less Commonly Taught Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a small, struc- tured English corpus that is designed for translation into Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTLs), and a set of re-usable tools for creation of similar cor- pora. 1 The corpus systematically explores meanings that are known to affect morphology or syntax in the world's languages. Each sentence is associated with a feature structure showing the

Alison Alvarez; Lori S. Levin; Robert E. Frederking; Simon Fung; Donna Gates; Jeff Good

2006-01-01

194

Semantic Similarity Based on Corpus Statistics and Lexical Taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach for measuring semantic similarity\\/distance between words and concepts. It combines a lexical taxonomy structure with corpus statistical information so that the semantic distance between nodes in the semantic space constructed by the taxonomy can be better quantified with the computational evidence derived from a distributional analysis of corpus data. Specifically, the proposed measure is

Jay J. Jiang; David W. Conrath

1997-01-01

195

Corpus linguistics and phraseo-paremiology ric Laporte  

E-print Network

1 Corpus linguistics and phraseo-paremiology �ric Laporte Universidade federal do Espírito Santo bad for the facts Nelson Rodrigues If corpus linguistics and phraseo-paremiology are two fields of linguistics, how are they interlinked and how can they interplay? In this paper, we defend the position

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

196

Syntactic Annotation for the Spoken Dutch Corpus Project (CGN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the ten million words of contemporary standard Dutch in the Spoken Dutch Corpus (Corpus Gesproken Nederlands, CGN), a selection of one million words of natural spoken language will be annotated syntactically. In the present pa per we discuss the tag sets and the annotation procedures that are currently being developed and tested. The annotation tags provide information about syntactic

Heleen Hoekstra; Michael Moortgat; Ineke Schuurman; Ton Van Der Wouden

2000-01-01

197

Corpus, Concordance, Classification: Young Learners in the L1 Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an ESRC-funded project that investigated the use of corpus-based activities in a primary-school context, with children aged 8-10 years. The study explored the contributions that could be made by a corpus--comprising language written for a child audience--and a modified version of the associated software, in helping these…

Sealey, Alison; Thompson, Paul

2007-01-01

198

The Importance of Corpus-Based Research for Language Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the fundamental characteristics of corpus-based research and illustrates such research with a study of a complex grammatical feature in English: linking adverbials (i.e., connecting expressions such as "therefore" and "in other words"). Shows that corpus-based research is useful even with features that cannot be studied with automatic…

Conrad, S. M.

1999-01-01

199

ESL Student Attitudes toward Corpus Use in L2 Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of corpora in L2 writing instruction. Many studies have argued for corpus use from a teacher's perspective, that is, in terms of how teachers can develop instructional materials and activities involving a corpus-based orientation. In contrast, relatively little attention has been paid to…

Yoon, Hyunsook; Hirvela, Alan

2004-01-01

200

Description of a novel viral tool to identify and quantify ovine faecal pollution in the environment.  

PubMed

Farmed animals such as sheep, cattle, swine and poultry play an important role in microbial contamination of water, crops and food, and introduce large quantities of pathogens into the environment. The ability to determine the origin of faecal pollution in water resources is essential when establishing a robust and efficient water management system. Animal-specific viruses have previously been suggested as microbial source tracking tools, but specific ovine viral markers have not been reported before now. Previous studies have shown that polyomaviruses are host-specific, highly prevalent and are commonly excreted in urine. Furthermore, they have been reported to infect several vertebrate species but not sheep. That situation encouraged the study of a new putative ovine polyomavirus (OPyV) and its use to determine whether faecal pollution originates from ovine faecal/urine contamination. Putative OPyV DNA was amplified from ovine urine and faecal samples using a broad-spectrum nested PCR (nPCR). Specific nested PCR and quantitative PCR assays were developed and applied to faecal and environmental samples, including sheep slurries, slaughterhouse wastewater effluents, urban sewage and river water samples. Successful amplification by PCR was achieved in sheep urine samples, sheep slaughterhouse wastewater and downstream sewage effluents. The assay was specific and was negative in samples of human, bovine, goat, swine and chicken origin. Ovine faecal pollution was detected in river water samples by applying the designed methods. These results provide a quantitative tool for the analysis of OPyV as a suitable viral indicator of sheep faecal contamination that may be present in the environment. PMID:23672793

Rusiñol, Marta; Carratalà, Anna; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Bach, Alex; Kern, Anita; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Girones, Rosina; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia

2013-08-01

201

[Agenesis of corpus callosum - a review].  

PubMed

The subject herein discussed is malformations about which information abounds. This is due to constant improvements in approaches to obtaining such information through images generated by modern imaging technology. As the examination of structures at hand progresses, so does the possibility for precise imaging diagnostics. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is one those subtle and difficult to detect malformations which are currently becoming subjects of research. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a brain anomaly with incidence of occurrence from 0.05 to 0.7%. It could be either observed in 49% of cases unaccompanied by other conditions or accompanied by other anomaly syndromes. This cerebral malformation is usually diagnosed post partum in children suffering from epilepsy or behaviour or cognitive disorders. In consideration of the necessity of early fetal abnormality detection and the conduct of the obstetrician in a social aspect, the above-mentioned is a prerequisite which makes discussions necessary. Constant up-dating and discussions allow periodic revision and optimizations of prenatal diagnostics. PMID:20734653

Christova, R

2010-01-01

202

33 CFR 334.800 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

The waters of Corpus Christi Bay within the area described as follows: Beginning at a point on the south shore of Corpus Christi Bay at the “North Gate” of the U.S. Naval Air Station at longitude 97°17?15.0? W.; thence through points at: North latitude West...

2010-07-01

203

Corpus Linguistics and the Design of a Response Message  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most research related to SETI, the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence, is focussed on techniques for detection of possible incoming signals from extra-terrestrial intelligent sources (e.g. Turnbull et al. 1999), and algorithms for analysis of these signals to identify intelligent language-like characteristics (e.g. Elliott and Atwell 1999, 2000). However, another issue for research and debate is the nature of our response, should a signal arrive and be detected. The design of potentially the most significant communicative act in history should not be decided solely by astrophysicists; the Corpus Linguistics research community has a contribution to make to what is essentially a Corpus design and implementation project. (Vakoch 1998) advocated that the message constructed to transmit to extraterrestrials should include a broad, representative collection of perspectives rather than a single viewpoint or genre; this should strike a chord with Corpus Linguists for whom a central principle is that a corpus must be "balanced" to be representative (Meyer 2001). One idea favoured by SETI researchers is to transmit an encyclopaedia summarising human knowledge, such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, to give ET communicators an overview and "training set" key to analysis of subsequent messages. Furthermore, this should be sent in several versions in parallel: the text; page-images, to include illustrations left out of the text-file and perhaps some sort of abstract linguistic representation of the text, using a functional or logic language (Ollongren 1999, Freudenthal 1960). The idea of "enriching" the message corpus with annotations at several levels should also strike a chord with Corpus Linguists who have long known that Natural language exhibits highly complex multi-layering sequencing, structural and functional patterns, as difficult to model as sequences and structures found in more traditional physical and biological sciences. Some corpora have been annotated with several levels or layers of linguistic knowledge, for example the SEC corpus (Taylor and Knowles 1988), the ISLE corpus (Menzel et al. 2000). Tagged and parsed corpus can be used by corpus linguists as a testbed to guide their development of grammars (e.g. Souter and Atwell 1994); and they can be used to train Natural Language Learning or data-mining models of complex sequence data (e.g. Brill 1993, Hughes 1993, Atwell 1996). Corpus linguists have a range of standards and tools for design and annotation of representative corpus resources, and experience of which annotation types are more amenable to Natural Language Learning algorithms. An Advisory panel of corpus linguists could help design and implement an extended Multi-annotated Interstellar Corpus of English, incorporating ideas from Corpus Linguistics such as: - Augment the Encyclopaedia Britannica with a collection of samples representing the diversity of language in real use. - As an additional "key", transmit a dictionary aimed at language learners which has also been a rich source for NLP - Supply our ET communicators with several levels of linguistic annotation, to give them a richer training set for their - Add translations of the English text into other human languages: Humanity should not be represented by English alone, This calls for a large-scale corpus annotation project, requiring an Interstellar Corpus Advisory Panel, analogous to the BNC or MATE advisory panels, to include experts in English grammar and semantics, English language learning, computational Natural language Learning algorithms, and corpus design, implementation, annotation, standardisation, and analysis.

Atwell, E.

2002-01-01

204

Analyzing part-of-speech variability in a longitudinal learner corpus and a pedagogic corpus  

E-print Network

& D. Stewart (eds) Corpora and Language Learners. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 151-168. Saville, N. (2010). The English Profile Programme: Background, current issues and future prospects. Language Teaching 43, 238-244. Schmid, H. (1994..., automatic taggers achieve a 95-96% accuracy (Schmid 1994). Although they perform worse on learner language (van Rooy & Schäfer 2003), a number of studies have attacked SLA research questions using corpus tagging software. Granger & Rayson (1998: 119...

Vyatkina, Nina

2013-01-01

205

Corpus-based Learning in Stochastic OT-LFG Experiments with a Bidirectional  

E-print Network

free corpus data (in the present study from a newspaper corpus of German). The candidate generation of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). 239 #12;LFG02 ­ Kuhn: Corpus-based Learning in Stochastic OT, the clausal syntax of German has to be learned from learning instances of clauses extracted from a corpus

Kuhn, Jonas

206

Corpus-Based Word Sense Disambiguation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolution of lexical ambiguity, commonly termed ``word sense disambiguation'', is expected to improve the analytical accuracy for tasks which are sensitive to lexical semantics. Such tasks include machine translation, information retrieval, parsing, natural language understanding and lexicography. Reflecting the growth in utilization of machine readable texts, word sense disambiguation techniques have been explored variously in the context of corpus-based approaches. Within one corpus-based framework, that is the similarity-based method, systems use a database, in which example sentences are manually annotated with correct word senses. Given an input, systems search the database for the most similar example to the input. The lexical ambiguity of a word contained in the input is resolved by selecting the sense annotation of the retrieved example. In this research, we apply this method of resolution of verbal polysemy, in which the similarity between two examples is computed as the weighted average of the similarity between complements governed by a target polysemous verb. We explore similarity-based verb sense disambiguation focusing on the following three methods. First, we propose a weighting schema for each verb complement in the similarity computation. Second, in similarity-based techniques, the overhead for manual supervision and searching the large-sized database can be prohibitive. To resolve this problem, we propose a method to select a small number of effective examples, for system usage. Finally, the efficiency of our system is highly dependent on the similarity computation used. To maximize efficiency, we propose a method which integrates the advantages of previous methods for similarity computation.

Fujii, Atsushi

1998-04-01

207

Cavernous Angioma of the Corpus Callosum Presenting with Acute Psychosis  

PubMed Central

Psychiatric symptoms may occasionally be related to anatomic alterations of brain structures. Particularly, corpus callosum lesions seem to play a role in the change of patients' behavior. We present a case of a sudden psychotic attack presumably due to a hemorrhagic cavernous angioma of the corpus callosum, which was surgically removed with complete resolution of symptoms. Although a developmental defect like agenesis or lipoma is present in the majority of these cases, a growing lesion of the corpus callosum can rarely be the primary cause. Since it is potentially possible to cure these patients, clinicians should be aware of this association. PMID:24825949

Pavesi, Giacomo; Causin, Francesco; Feletti, Alberto

2014-01-01

208

A specific radioimmunoassay for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) using synthetic ovine CRF. [Rats  

SciTech Connect

This newly developed specific radioimmunoassay for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) had a sensitivity range of 25 pg/tube to 4 ng/tube. Intra and interassay coefficients of variation were 4.6% and 9.8%, respectively. Rat median eminence extracts showed a parallel dose response curve with synthetic ovine CRF and a significant cross reaction was not evident with other tested neuropeptides. The highest mean levels of CRF were found in the median eminence (6.61 ng/mg proparaventricular nucleus, dorsomedial nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus and ventromedial nucleus. The immunoreactive CRF of the rat medial basal hypothalamus coeluted with bioassayable CRF and with iodinated CRF on Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The results indicate that rat hypothalamus contains a CRF similar to ovine CRF.

Hashimoto, K.; Murakami, K.; Ohno, N.; Kageyama, J.; Aoki, Y.; Takahara, J.; Ota, Z.

1983-02-28

209

Synthesis of a high molecular weight thyroglobulin dimer by two ovine thyroid cell lines: the OVNIS.  

PubMed

The OVNIS 6H and 5H thyroid cells, 2 permanent cell lines isolated 3 years ago from ovine tissue, synthesize a high molecular weight glycosylated protein, immunologically related to ovine thyroglobulin, which is similar to the prothyroid hormone dimer (17-19) S: thyroglobulin. Using sucrose gradient centrifugation and cell labelling with [14C]Leu or [3H]GlNH2, radioactivity was observed in proteins purified from cell layers and from cell culture media. Addition of thyrotropin to or removal from the media resulted respectively in an increase (+773%) or decrease (-1090%) of the total radioactivity detected in the (17-19)S thyroglobulin fraction. Estimation of thyroglobulin by RIA gave similar though less pronounced effects. These experiments prove (1) that thyroglobulin is still expressed in these OVNIS thyroid cell lines even after 3 years of permanent culture, (2) that TSH modulates the level of this protein through a TSH-receptor functional system. PMID:3709961

Hovsépian, S; Aouani, A; Fayet, G

1986-05-01

210

A specific radioimmunoassay for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) using synthetic ovine CRF. [Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This newly developed specific radioimmunoassay for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) had a sensitivity range of 25 pg\\/tube to 4 ng\\/tube. Intra and interassay coefficients of variation were 4.6% and 9.8%, respectively. Rat median eminence extracts showed a parallel dose response curve with synthetic ovine CRF and a significant cross reaction was not evident with other tested neuropeptides. The highest mean

K. Hashimoto; K. Murakami; N. Ohno; J. Kageyama; Y. Aoki; J. Takahara; Z. Ota

1983-01-01

211

Internalization and degradation of human chorionic gonadotropin in ovine luteal cells: Kinetic studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovine luteal cells grown in suspensions and\\/or monolayer culture were used to study the rates of internalization and degradation of (¹²⁵I)hCG. At specified times after a 5- to 7-min exposure to (¹²⁵I)hCG, cells were treated with acidic buffer (pH 3.9) to elute membrane-bound hormone, which left the internalized radioactivity associated with the cell pellet. Radioactivity released into the medium during

C. E. Ahmed; H. R. Sawyer; G. D. Niswender

1981-01-01

212

Enterococcus faecalis affects the proliferation and differentiation of ovine osteoblast-like cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is a Gram-positive bacterium, mostly recovered from root-filled teeth with persistent periapical lesions. Bacterial contamination\\u000a of root canals inevitably results in interaction between E. faecalis and periapical tissues during the dynamic process of periapical inflammation. This study investigated the impact of heat-inactivated\\u000a endodontic E. faecalis on the proliferation and the differentiation of ovine osteoblast-like cells, in

Lamprini Karygianni; Margit Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad; Günter Finkenzeller; Sebastian Sauerbier; Martin Wolkewitz; Elmar Hellwig; Ali Al-Ahmad

213

Catastrophic acute ischemic stroke after Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine)-treated rattlesnake envenomation.  

PubMed

We report 2 cases of catastrophic ischemic stroke after Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine)-treated rattlesnake envenomation, 1 fatal and the other resulting in significant permanent disability. It is possible these serious adverse events may have been related to venom factor(s), an interaction between venom and antivenom, occult patient blood dyscrasia, or to random unrelated events. We present the rationale for each possibility, and submit the experiences to elicit alternate postulation and communication of similar presentations. PMID:24864067

Bush, Sean P; Mooy, Graham G; Phan, Tammy H

2014-06-01

214

Effects of chronological age and physiological maturity on palatability traits of ovine carcasses  

E-print Network

revealed that there was little if any decrease in tender- ness with progressive increases in chronological age. Lamb carcasses in the combined sex class which were 220 days to 580 days of age produced the most satisfactory loin chops. Muscle color... . . . . . . . . . ~ . ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ 12 12 13 14 32 34 34 Experimental Procedure Results and Discussion 37 39 Summary and Conclusions STRATIFICATION OF OVINE CARCASSES INTO PALATABILITY GROUPS BY USE OF CHRONOLOGICAL AGE, SEX AND SKELETAL OR MUSCLE MATURITY INDICATORS...

Stout, Bobby Ray

2012-06-07

215

Identification of the ovine mannose receptor and its possible role in Visna/Maedi virus infection.  

PubMed

This study aims to characterize the mannose receptor (MR) gene in sheep and its role in ovine visna/maedi virus (VMV) infection. The deduced amino acid sequence of ovine MR was compatible with a transmembrane protein having a cysteine-rich ricin-type amino-terminal region, a fibronectin type II repeat, eight tandem C-type lectin carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD), a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal tail. The ovine and bovine MR sequences were closer to each other compared to human or swine MR. Concanavalin A (ConA) inhibited VMV productive infection, which was restored by mannan totally in ovine skin fibroblasts (OSF) and partially in blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMDM), suggesting the involvement of mannosylated residues of the VMV ENV protein in the process. ConA impaired also syncytium formation in OSF transfected with an ENV-encoding pN3-plasmid. MR transcripts were found in two common SRLV targets, BMDM and synovial membrane (GSM) cells, but not in OSF. Viral infection of BMDM and especially GSM cells was inhibited by mannan, strongly suggesting that in these cells the MR is an important route of infection involving VMV Env mannosylated residues. Thus, at least three patterns of viral entry into SRLV-target cells can be proposed, involving mainly MR in GSM cells (target in SRLV-induced arthritis), MR in addition to an alternative route in BMDM (target in SRLV infections), and an alternative route excluding MR in OSF (target in cell culture). Different routes of SRLV infection may thus coexist related to the involvement of MR differential expression. PMID:21314911

Crespo, Helena; Reina, Ramsés; Glaria, Idoia; Ramírez, Hugo; de Andrés, Ximena; Jáuregui, Paula; Luján, Lluís; Martínez-Pomares, Luisa; Amorena, Beatriz; de Andrés, Damián F

2011-01-01

216

La complmentation azote du cactus inerme pour les ovins. Effet de la source d'azote  

E-print Network

La complémentation azotée du cactus inerme pour les ovins. Effet de la source d'azote A Nefzaoui1 H ARIANA, Tunisie 2Direction des Ressources Alimentaires, OEP, rue Alain Savary - TUNIS, Tunisie Le cactus cactus et de comparer l'effet de différentes sources d'azote (urée, tourteau de soja, Atriplex halimus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

Allelic variants of ovine prion protein gene (PRNP) in Oklahoma sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

1,144 sheep belonging to 21 breeds and known crosses were sequence analyzed for polymorphisms in the ovine PRNP gene. Genotype and allele frequencies of polymorphisms in PRNP known to confer resistance to scrapie, a fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep, are reported. Known polymorphisms at codons 136 (A\\/V), 154 (H\\/R) and 171 (Q\\/R\\/H\\/K) were identified. The frequency of the171R allele known

U. DeSilva; X. Guo; D. M. Kupfer; S. C. Fernando; A. T. V. Pillai; F. Z. Najar; S. So; G. Q. Fitch; B. A. Roe

2003-01-01

218

Corpus-Based Techniques for Word Sense Disambiguation  

E-print Network

The need for robust and easily extensible systems for word sense disambiguation coupled with successes in training systems for a variety of tasks using large on-line corpora has led to extensive research into corpus-based ...

Levow, Gina-Anne

1998-05-27

219

The American Local News Corpus Ann Irvine1  

E-print Network

are talked about over time and geography. The second compares per capita murder rates with news coverage of murders across the 50 states. The ALNC is about the same size as the Gigaword corpus and is growing

220

38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Restitution to individuals of Japanese ancestry. Effective...10, 1988, for the purposes of section 306 pension and parents' death compensation, there shall be excluded from the corpus of estate or net worth of a...

2014-07-01

221

38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Restitution to individuals of Japanese ancestry. Effective...10, 1988, for the purposes of section 306 pension and parents' death compensation, there shall be excluded from the corpus of estate or net worth of a...

2011-07-01

222

38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Restitution to individuals of Japanese ancestry. Effective...10, 1988, for the purposes of section 306 pension and parents' death compensation, there shall be excluded from the corpus of estate or net worth of a...

2012-07-01

223

38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Restitution to individuals of Japanese ancestry. Effective...10, 1988, for the purposes of section 306 pension and parents' death compensation, there shall be excluded from the corpus of estate or net worth of a...

2010-07-01

224

38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Restitution to individuals of Japanese ancestry. Effective...10, 1988, for the purposes of section 306 pension and parents' death compensation, there shall be excluded from the corpus of estate or net worth of a...

2013-07-01

225

Corpus-Based Acquisition of Support Verb Constructions for Portuguese  

E-print Network

in a corpus-driven fashion. SVCs play a role in many natural language processing (NLP) tasks, such as anaphora, Duran et al. use POS patterns to identify CPs in Brazilian Portuguese and extract productive patterns

Padó, Sebastian

226

Quantitative Corpus-based Research: Much More than Bean Counting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that important insights about language use are gained through examination of quantitative linguistic data. Discusses corpus-based research and examines common lexical verbs across registers, aspect across registers, and co-occurrence. (Author/VWL)

Biber, Douglas; Conrad, Susan

2001-01-01

227

Whole Ovine Ovaries as a Model for Human: Perfusion with Cryoprotectants In Vivo and In Vitro  

PubMed Central

These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100?IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15?M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60?min with the rate of perfusion 50?mL/h (0.8?mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

2014-01-01

228

Development of a simple enzyme immunoassay for the determination of ovine luteinizing hormone.  

PubMed

The present study describes the development and validation of a simple sensitive and specific sandwich enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the quantification of ovine luteinizing hormone (LH) in plasma. Microtitre plates were coated with the capture antibody 518b7 anti-bovine LH. A second peroxidase-labelled anti-ovine LH antibody was used as tracer. A simple 3-step procedure was used for the sample analysis; (1) incubation of standards and samples with the pre-coated antibody plates for 2 h at 37 degrees C; (2) incubation with the peroxidase-labelled antibody for 1 h at room temperature; and (3) colour development with TMB substrate. A linear dose-response curve was obtained in the range 0-10 ng/ml (r2 > 0.99). The detection limit was 0.05 ng/ml, and the intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 7% and 11.7%, respectively. The theoretical stability of microplates and reagents was calculated, this being greater than one year. Low or undetectable cross-reactivities were recorded for follicle-stimulating hormone, bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone, equine chorionic gonadotrophin and a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. The EIA was biologically validated by the determination of plasma LH concentrations of nine Rasa Aragonesa ovariectomized and estradiol-implanted ewes after a double GnRH challenge. In conclusion, this enzyme immunoassay provides an efficient, simple and sensitive method for the routine analysis of ovine LH. PMID:17225084

Valares, J A; Abecia, J A; Forcada, F; Palacín, I; Mata, L; Razquin, P

2007-05-01

229

Whole ovine ovaries as a model for human: perfusion with cryoprotectants in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100 IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15 M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60 min with the rate of perfusion 50 mL/h (0.8 mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

2014-01-01

230

Novel image analysis of corpus cavernous tissue in impotent men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To objectively evaluate the contents of corpus cavernous tissue in impotent men using an automated novel image analysis system.Methods. Thirty-three impotent men and 2 normal potent men (controls) underwent corpus cavernous biopsies. The procedures were performed using a Biopty gun under local anesthesia. The obtained specimens were stained with Masson’s trichome technique, and the collagen fiber contents were evaluated

Johnny Shinn-Nan Lin; Yung-Ming Lin; Nan-Haw Chow; Shan-Tair Wang; Yung-Nien Sun

2000-01-01

231

Inter-Annotator Agreement for a German Newspaper Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an investigation on inter-annotator agreement for the NEGRA corpus, consisting of German newspaper texts. The corpus is syntactically annotated with part-of-speech and structural information. Agreement for part-of-speech is 98.6%, the labeled F-score for structures is 92.4%. The two annotations are used to create a common final version by discussing differences and by several iterations

Thorsten Brants

2000-01-01

232

Rescue of corpus luteum function with peri-ovulatory HCG supplementation in IVF/ICSI GnRH antagonist cycles in which ovulation was triggered with a GnRH agonist: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Previous studies found a poor clinical outcome when a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) was used to trigger ovulation in GnRH antagonist IVF/ICSI cycles. This study aimed to determine the clinical and endocrine effects as well the optimal timing of HCG supplementation. Forty-five normogonadotrophic IVF/ICSI patients following a flexible antagonist protocol were prospectively randomized (sealed envelopes) to triggering of ovulation with a single bolus of either 10,000 IU of HCG (group 1, n = 15) or 0.5 mg buserelin s.c. In addition, the GnRHa triggered group was randomized into two groups: group 2 (n = 17) was supplemented with HCG 1500 IU, 12 h after ovulation induction and group 3 (n = 13) was supplemented with HCG 1500 IU 35 h after ovulation induction. Group 1 and group 3 had significantly higher luteal phase concentrations of progesterone (P < 0.001) as compared with group 2. Moreover, the clinical pregnancy rate of groups 1 and 3 was similar and significantly higher (P < 0.02) than that of group 2. A larger study, however, is required to substantiate these differences. No differences were seen regarding mid-luteal inhibin A concentrations between the three groups. Triggering of ovulation with GnRHa supplemented with 1500 IU HCG 35 h later (group 3) seems to secure a normal luteal phase and a normal clinical pregnancy outcome. PMID:16895629

Humaidan, P; Bungum, L; Bungum, M; Yding Andersen, C

2006-08-01

233

Rescue of corpus luteum function with peri-ovulatory HCG supplementation in IVF\\/ICSI GnRH antagonist cycles in which ovulation was triggered with a GnRH agonist: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies found a poor clinical outcome when a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) was used to trigger ovulation in GnRH antagonist IVF\\/ICSI cycles. This study aimed to determine the clinical and endocrine effects as well the optimal timing of HCG supplementation. Forty-five normogonadotrophic IVF\\/ICSI patients following a flexible antagonist protocol were prospectively randomized (sealed envelopes) to triggering of ovulation with a

P Humaidan; L Bungum; M Bungum; C Yding Andersen

2006-01-01

234

Expression of factors associated with apoptosis in the porcine corpus luteum throughout the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy: Their possible involvement in acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity.  

PubMed

The studies on the acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity have been focused mainly on molecular changes induced in the luteal tissue after treatment with exogenous PGF2? or on physiological changes occurring during the estrous cycle. The comparison of changes leading to the acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity after Day 12 of the estrous cycle and corresponding days of pregnancy has not been investigated in the pig. The present study was undertaken to evaluate (1) apoptosis measured as the proportions of early apoptotic, late apoptotic, and viable cells; (2) expression of factors involved in the extrinsic (TNFA/TNF?, TNFRSF1A/TNFR1, TNFRSF1B/TNFR2, FAS/Fas, and FASLG/FasL) and intrinsic (CASP3/Casp3, TP53/p-53, BAX/Bax, and BCL2/Bcl-2) apoptotic pathways, with two components of the activating protein-1 complex, i.e., FOS/Fos and JUN/Jun and IFNG/IFN?; and (3) concentrations of luteal and blood plasma progesterone (P4) throughout the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Corpora lutea (CL) were collected postmortem on Days 8, 10, 12, and 14 of the estrous cycle and the corresponding days of pregnancy. The luteal tissue was subjected to RNA and/or protein isolation and disaggregation of CL cells followed by flow cytometry analysis aimed to determine apoptotic changes. Luteal and blood plasma P4 concentrations decreased on Day 14 of the estrous cycle versus pregnancy (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). A significant increase in the number of early apoptotic cells and a decrease in the number of viable cells were observed on Day 14 of the estrous cycle (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Increase (P < 0.05) of TNFA messenger RNA (mRNA) level coincided with that of IFNG on Day 12 of the estrous cycle but not on the corresponding day of pregnancy. The content of FAS mRNA and protein increased on Day 14 of the estrous cycle versus pregnancy (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of CASP3, BCL-2 and BAX was unchanged in cyclic and pregnant CL, while level of TP53 increased (P < 0.05) on Day 12 of the estrous cycle versus Day 8. The level of FOS and JUN mRNA increased (P < 0.05) on Day 14 of the estrous cycle versus the remaining days. The level of FOS and JUN mRNA was significantly higher (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) on Day 14 of the estrous cycle than that on the corresponding day of pregnancy. In summary, the simultaneous increase of TNFA and IFNG transcript in cyclic CL suggests the crucial role of both cytokines in sensitization of porcine CL to further luteolytic action of PGF2?. The upregulated expression of FAS, FOS, and JUN mRNA in the late luteal phase in cyclic CL can indicate their involvement in structural luteolysis. The increased viability of luteal cells and elevated P4 concentrations in pregnant CL confirm the protective role of luteal P4 against apoptosis. PMID:25457680

Przygrodzka, E; Witek, K J; Kaczmarek, M M; Andronowska, A; Ziecik, A J

2015-03-01

235

Expression and localization of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 and 2 and serpine mRNA binding protein 1 in the bovine corpus luteum during the estrous cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression and the localization of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), PGRMC2, and the PGRMC1 partner serpine mRNA binding protein 1 (SERBP1) in the bovine CL on Days 2 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 16, and 17 to 20 of the estrous cycle as well as during Weeks 3 to 5, 6 to 8, and 9 to 12 of pregnancy (n = 5-6 per each period). The highest levels of PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA expression were found on Days 6 to 16 (P < 0.05) and 11 to 16, respectively, of the estrous cycle and during pregnancy (P < 0.001). The level of PGRMC1 protein was the highest (P < 0.05) on Days 11 to 16 of the estrous cycle compared with the other stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, whereas PGRMC2 protein expression (P < 0.001) was the highest on Days 17 to 20 and also during pregnancy. The mRNA expression of SERBP1 was increased (P < 0.05) on Days 11 to 16, whereas the level of its protein product was decreased (P < 0.05) on Days 6 to 10 of the estrous cycle and was at its lowest (P < 0.001) on Days 17 to 20. In pregnant cows, the patterns of SERBP1 mRNA and protein expression remained constant and were comparable with those observed during the estrous cycle. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 and PGRMC2 localized to both large and small luteal cells, whereas SERBP1 was observed mainly in small luteal cells and much less frequently in large luteal cells. All proteins were also localized in the endothelial cells of blood vessels. The data obtained indicate the variable expression of PGRMC1, PGRMC2, and SERBP1 mRNA and protein in the bovine CL and suggest that progesterone may regulate CL function via its membrane receptors during both the estrous cycle and pregnancy. PMID:25168721

Kowalik, Magdalena K; Rekawiecki, Robert; Kotwica, Jan

2014-11-01

236

Co-expression of ovine LPS receptor CD14 with Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin receptor LFA-1 or Mac-1 does not enhance leukotoxin-induced cytotoxicity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leukotoxin (Lkt) and LPS are the major virulence determinants of Mannheimia haemolytica that contribute to the pathogenesis of bovine and ovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. We have previously identified bovine and ovine CD18 as the functional receptor for Lkt. LPS complexes with Lkt resulting in incre...

237

Polyvinyl alcohol as a defined substitute for serum in vitrification and warming solutions to cryopreserve ovine embryos at different stages of development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the viability of ovine embryos after replacing fetal calf serum (FCS) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in vitrification and warming solutions. Ovine embryos were obtained from superovulated Sardinian breed ewes at 4, 5, 6, and 7 days after insemination. All vitrification and warming solutions were prepared using buffered saline solution with 20% FCS

S. Naitana; S. Ledda; P. Loi; G. Leoni; L. Bogliolo; M. Dattena; P. Cappai

1997-01-01

238

Interleukin-6, Age, and Corpus Callosum Integrity  

PubMed Central

The contribution of inflammation to deleterious aging outcomes is increasingly recognized; however, little is known about the complex relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and brain structure, or how this association might change with increasing age. We examined the association between IL-6, white matter integrity, and cognition in 151 community dwelling older adults, and tested whether age moderated these associations. Blood levels of IL-6 and vascular risk (e.g., homocysteine), as well as health history information, were collected. Processing speed assessments were administered to assess cognitive functioning, and we employed tract-based spatial statistics to examine whole brain white matter and regions of interest. Given the association between inflammation, vascular risk, and corpus callosum (CC) integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA) of the genu, body, and splenium represented our primary dependent variables. Whole brain analysis revealed an inverse association between IL-6 and CC fractional anisotropy. Subsequent ROI linear regression and ridge regression analyses indicated that the magnitude of this effect increased with age; thus, older individuals with higher IL-6 levels displayed lower white matter integrity. Finally, higher IL-6 levels were related to worse processing speed; this association was moderated by age, and was not fully accounted for by CC volume. This study highlights that at older ages, the association between higher IL-6 levels and lower white matter integrity is more pronounced; furthermore, it underscores the important, albeit burgeoning role of inflammatory processes in cognitive aging trajectories. PMID:25188448

Bettcher, Brianne M.; Watson, Christa L.; Walsh, Christine M.; Lobach, Iryna V.; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Joshua W.; Green, Ralph; Patel, Nihar; Dutt, Shubir; Busovaca, Edgar; Rosen, Howard J.; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce L.; Kramer, Joel H.

2014-01-01

239

Purinergic modulation of human corpus cavernosum relaxation.  

PubMed

The activation of P2Y(6) receptors has been previously reported to cause vascular smooth muscle constriction and relaxation. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of P2Y(6) receptor subtype activation on human cavernosal function. Cavernosal tissue was obtained from 23 patients undergoing gender reassignment surgery. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting were used to determine the presence of P2Y(6) receptors in corpus cavernosal tissue. The effects of UDP (a selective P2Y(6) receptor agonist) before and after the addition of distilled water (control), cibacron blue 3GA (CB, a P2Y(6) receptor antagonist; 10(-4) m) or N-nitro-L-arginine methyl esther (L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor; 10(-4) m) were assessed on phenylephrine (PE; 10(-4) m) pre-contracted cavernosal strips using organ baths. Electrical field stimulation (EFS; 0.5-32 Hz) was performed in the absence and presence of CB to determine neuronal-mediated P2Y(6) receptor responses. IHC and Western blotting revealed the presence of P2Y(6) receptors on cavernosal sections. UDP at 10(-4) m and 10(-3) m induced a 5% and 16% relaxation of the PE-mediated response (both p < 0.0001), respectively, which was significantly blocked by CB (48% reduction of the UDP 10(-3) m response, p < 0.002) but not affected by L-NAME. EFS-induced relaxations of pre-contraction strips were not significantly altered by CB. We have found the presence of P2Y(6) receptors in human cavernosal tissues, that when activated induce cavernosal smooth muscle cell relaxation via non-neuronal and non-nitric oxide dependent mechanism. Further investigation is needed to establish whether P2Y(6) receptors play a physiological role in penile erection. PMID:17971163

Lau, D H W; Metcalfe, M J; Mumtaz, F H; Mikhailidis, D P; Thompson, C S

2009-04-01

240

Platelet Activation in Ovines Undergoing Sham Surgery or Implant of the Second Generation PediaFlow™ Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device  

PubMed Central

The PediaFlow™ pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) is a magnetically levitated turbodynamic pump under development for circulatory support of small children with a targeted flow rate range of 0.3 - 1.5 L/min. As the design of this device is refined, ensuring high levels of blood biocompatibility is essential. In this study we characterized platelet activation during the implantation and operation of a second generation prototype of the PediaFlow VAD (PF2) and also performed a series of surgical sham studies to examine purely surgical effects on platelet activation. In addition, a newly available monoclonal antibody was characterized and shown to be capable of quantifying ovine platelet activation. The PF2 was implanted in 3 chronic ovine experiments of 16, 30, and 70 days, while surgical sham procedures were performed in 5 ovines with 30 d monitoring. Blood biocompatibility in terms of circulating activated platelets was measured by flow cytometric assays with and without exogenous agonist stimulation. Platelet activation following sham surgery returned to baseline in approximately 2 weeks. Platelets in PF2 implanted ovines returned to baseline activation levels in all three animals, and showed an ability to respond to agonist stimulation. Late term platelet activation was observed in one animal corresponding with unexpected pump stoppages related to a manufacturing defect in the percutaneous cable. The results demonstrated encouraging platelet biocompatibility for the PF2 in that basal platelet activation was achieved early in the pump implant period. Furthermore, this first characterization of the effect of a major cardiothoracic procedure on temporal ovine platelet activation provides comparative data for future cardiovascular device evaluation in the ovine model. PMID:21463346

Johnson, Carl A.; Wearden, Peter D.; Kocyildirim, Ergin; Maul, Timothy M.; Woolley, Joshua R.; Ye, Sang-Ho; Strickler, Elise M.; Borovetz, Harvey S.; Wagner, William R.

2011-01-01

241

Corpus Callosum Volume in Railroad Workers With Chronic Exposure to Solvents  

E-print Network

Corpus Callosum Volume in Railroad Workers With Chronic Exposure to Solvents Marc W. Haut, Ph railroad workers and 31 matched controls. Results: There was a decrease in the genu of the corpus callosum

242

26 CFR 1.643(b)-2 - Dividends allocated to corpus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Beneficiaries § 1.643(b)-2 Dividends allocated to corpus. Extraordinary dividends or taxable stock dividends which the fiduciary, acting in good faith, determines to be allocable to corpus under the terms of the governing instrument and...

2010-04-01

243

26 CFR 1.643(b)-2 - Dividends allocated to corpus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Beneficiaries § 1.643(b)-2 Dividends allocated to corpus. Extraordinary dividends or taxable stock dividends which the fiduciary, acting in good faith, determines to be allocable to corpus under the terms of the governing instrument and...

2011-04-01

244

In vivo implant fixation of carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK hip prostheses in an ovine model.  

PubMed

Carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR/PEEK) is theoretically suitable as a material for use in hip prostheses, offering excellent biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and the absence of metal ions. To evaluate in vivo fixation methods of CFR/PEEK hip prostheses in bone, we examined radiographic and histological results for cementless or cemented CFR/PEEK hip prostheses in an ovine model with implantation up to 52 weeks. CFR/PEEK cups and stems with rough-textured surfaces plus hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings for cementless fixation and CFR/PEEK cups and stems without HA coating for cement fixation were manufactured based on ovine computed tomography (CT) data. Unilateral total hip arthroplasty was performed using cementless or cemented CFR/PEEK hip prostheses. Five cementless cups and stems and six cemented cups and stems were evaluated. On the femoral side, all cementless stems demonstrated bony ongrowth fixation and all cemented stems demonstrated stable fixation without any gaps at both the bone-cement and cement-stem interfaces. All cementless cases and four of the six cemented cases showed minimal stress shielding. On the acetabular side, two of the five cementless cups demonstrated bony ongrowth fixation. Our results suggest that both cementless and cemented CFR/PEEK stems work well for fixation. Cup fixation may be difficult for both cementless and cemented types in this ovine model, but bone ongrowth fixation on the cup was first seen in two cementless cases. Cementless fixation can be achieved using HA-coated CFR/PEEK implants, even under load-bearing conditions. PMID:23097319

Nakahara, Ichiro; Takao, Masaki; Bandoh, Shunichi; Bertollo, Nicky; Walsh, William R; Sugano, Nobuhiko

2013-03-01

245

Enterococcus faecalis affects the proliferation and differentiation of ovine osteoblast-like cells.  

PubMed

Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is a Gram-positive bacterium, mostly recovered from root-filled teeth with persistent periapical lesions. Bacterial contamination of root canals inevitably results in interaction between E. faecalis and periapical tissues during the dynamic process of periapical inflammation. This study investigated the impact of heat-inactivated endodontic E. faecalis on the proliferation and the differentiation of ovine osteoblast-like cells, in an attempt to elucidate its putative enhanced pathogenicity mechanisms. Therefore, two different concentrations of a heat-inactivated endodontic E. faecalis isolate (2 × 10(6) or 2 × 10(8) CFU/ml) were incubated with ovine osteoblast-like cells for 7 and 14 days, respectively. Cells without antigen served as control. The effects of antigen on cell growth were evaluated by a proliferation assay (EZ4U). Furthermore, the assessment of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, and osteocalcin (OCN) gene expression through quantitative real-time PCR determined the degree of osteogenic cell differentiation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also performed to detect alterations in cell morphology. Interestingly, although highly concentrated E. faecalis increased cellular reproduction after 14 days, ALP activity and OCN gene expression decreased in an antigen concentration-dependent and incubation time-independent way. SEM images revealed E. faecalis adhesion on cells, a fact that might contribute to its virulence. These results suggest that E. faecalis stimulated cell multiplication, whereas it likely restrained cell differentiation of ovine osteoblast-like cells. In conclusion, the presence of E. faecalis in root canals may negatively affect periapical new bone formation, and thus, the healing of periapical lesions. PMID:21584693

Karygianni, Lamprini; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Finkenzeller, Günter; Sauerbier, Sebastian; Wolkewitz, Martin; Hellwig, Elmar; Al-Ahmad, Ali

2012-06-01

246

Effect of diet on microRNA expression in ovine subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that regulate ovine adipogenesis is very limited. MicroRNAs (miRNA) have been reported as one of the regulatory mechanisms of adipogenesis. This study aimed to compare the expression of miRNA related to ovine adipogenesis in different adipose depots and to investigate whether their expression is affected by dietary fatty acid composition. We also investigated the role of miRNA in adipogenic gene regulation. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples were collected at slaughter from 12 Canadian Arcott lambs fed a barley-based finishing diet where an algae meal (DHA-Gold; Schizochytrium spp.) replaced flax oil and barley grain at 0 or 3% DM (n = 6). Total RNA from each tissue was subjected to quantitative real time (qRT-) PCR analysis to determine the expression of 15 selected miRNA including 11 identified from bovine adipose tissues and 4 conserved between bovine and ovine species. MicroRNAs were differentially expressed according to diet in each tissue depot (miR-142-5p and miR-376d) in visceral and miR-142-5p, miR-92a, and miR-378 in subcutaneous adipose tissue; P ? 0.05) and in each tissue depot depending on diet (miR-101, miR-106, miR-136, miR-16b, miR-196a-1, miR-2368*, miR-2454, miR-296, miR-376d, miR-378, and miR-92a in both control and DHA-G diets and miR-478 in control; P ? 0.05). Six miRNA were subjected to functional analysis and 3 genes of interest (ACSL1, PPAR?, and C/EBP?) were validated by qRT-PCR. Both diet and tissue depot affected expression levels of all 3 genes (P < 0.05). miR-101, miR-106, and miR-136 were negatively correlated with their respective predicted gene targets C/EBP?, PPAR?, and ACSL1 in subcutaneous adipose tissue of lambs fed DHA-G. Yet miR-142-5p and miR-101 showed no correlation with ACSL1 or C/EBP?. The variability in expression patterns of miRNA across adipose depots reflects the tissue specific nature of adipogenic regulation. Although the examined miRNA appear to be conserved across ruminant species, our results indicate the presence of ovine specific regulatory mechanisms that can be influenced by diet. PMID:24893997

Meale, S J; Romao, J M; He, M L; Chaves, A V; McAllister, T A; Guan, L L

2014-08-01

247

Malignant catarrhal fever associated with ovine herpesvirus-2 in free-ranging mule deer in Colorado.  

PubMed

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed in four free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in January and February of 2003. Diagnosis was based on typical histologic lesions of lymphocytic vasculitis and PCR identification of ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2) viral genetic sequences in formalin-fixed tissues. The animals were from the Uncompahgre Plateau of southwestern Colorado. Deer from these herds occasionally resided in close proximity to domestic sheep (Ovis aries), the reservoir host of OHV-2, in agricultural valleys adjacent to their winter range. These cases indicate that fatal OHV-2 associated MCF can occur in free-ranging mule deer exposed to domestic sheep that overlap their range. PMID:17699095

Schultheiss, Patricia C; Van Campen, Hana; Spraker, Terry R; Bishop, Chad; Wolfe, Lisa; Podell, Brendan

2007-07-01

248

TSH-induced cyclic AMP production in an ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 5H.  

PubMed

The TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was studied using a 3-year-old ovine thyroid cell line TSH-independent for growth: OVNIS 5H. The kinetics of cyclic AMP production was followed both in cell layers and in cell culture media, with or without phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is noteworthy that following the first wave in cyclic AMP obtained within minutes, we observed later a sustained exponential increase in cyclic AMP during the 5 days following TSH stimulation. A bioassay of TSH was derived allowing measurement of 1 microU/ml TSH from a crude bTSH preparation. PMID:3000830

Fayet, G; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

1986-01-01

249

Agenesis of Corpus Callosum and Frontotemporal Dementia: A Casual Finding?  

PubMed

Agenesis of corpus callosum (AgCC) is a congenital malformation characterized by total or partial absence of corpus callosum with a good neuropsychological profile. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the third most common cause of cortical dementia, and it is characterized by alterations in personality and social relationship, often associated with deficits in attention, abstraction, planning, and problem solving. Herein, we report a case of a 73-year-old woman presenting with FTD associated with primary AgCC. The possible "causal or casual" relationship between these 2 different conditions should be investigated in large prospective studies. PMID:25194000

Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Spadaro, Letteria; Marra, Angela; Balletta, Tina; Cammaroto, Simona; Bramanti, Placido

2014-09-01

250

[Corpus cavernosum autoinjection therapy: initial experiences in erectile dysfunction].  

PubMed

The cause of erectile dysfunction was evaluated by a multidisciplinary approach in 120 impotent patients. Out of these, the CCAT was proposed to 20 patients with vasculogenic erectile dysfunction, 19 of them accepted this therapy. The dosage of phentolamine mesylate-papaverin hydrochloride injection required was determined in each patient individually. Usually we injected initially 1 cc in one corpus cavernosum. Eighteen patients followed the regimen successfully at home. In 2 patients prolonged erections were observed, which were successfully relieved by simple corpus puncture, however, discontinuation of therapy was not necessary. CCAT failed in 1/19 patients with a severe venous leak. Follow up was carried out weekly. PMID:2421473

Stief, C G; Bähren, W; Gall, H; Scherb, W; Gallwitz, A; Altwein, J E

1986-01-01

251

The Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act in England  

E-print Network

. London, 1809* Green, Henry. The Constitutional History of England. Londonl870. Hamaond Charles James Fox. &>«J*r* , 3 Rill's Reports. 647 80.. (A copious bibliography of the Hetb- eas Corpus in America.) Hurd, On Habeas Oorpoi, Ingorsoll, B. History.... Industrial Disturbances,1817-18. • 82-94, " 12, Conclusion. " (4-96, The Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act in England. iarliamantary History by William Corbott, 96 Vol. Jtosj earliest times to 1803. Debates of the House of Commons, by 4 Grey. 10 Vol...

Crawford, Clarence Cory

1903-01-01

252

Primary human chorionic gonadotropin secreting germinoma of the corpus callosum  

PubMed Central

Background: Primary intracranial germinomas are a rare subset of intracranial tumors derived from mis-incorporated germ cells within the folding neural plate during embryogenesis. Though known to arise from midline structures in the central nervous system (CNS), occurrence within the corpus callosum is exceedingly rare. Case Description: We present a rare case of secreting primary intracranial germinoma with extensive intraventricular metastasis presenting as a multi-cystic butterfly lesion in the genu of the corpus callosum in a young boy. Conclusion: Intracranial germ cell tumors must be considered for any multi-cystic lesion arising from midline structures in the CNS in the preadult population. PMID:24233184

Chuan Aaron, Foo Song; Dawn, Chong Q. Q.; Kenneth, Chang T. E.; Hoe, Ng Wai; Yen, Soh Shui; Chee Kian, Tham

2013-01-01

253

Corpus-based identification and refinement of semantic classes.  

PubMed Central

Medical Language Processing (MLP), especially in specific domains, requires fine-grained semantic lexica. We examine whether robust natural language processing tools used on a representative corpus of a domain help in building and refining a semantic categorization. We test this hypothesis with ZELLIG, a corpus analysis tool. The first clusters we obtain are consistent with a model of the domain, as found in the SNOMED nomenclature. They correspond to coarse-grained semantic categories, but isolate as well lexical idiosyncrasies belonging to the clinical sub-language. Moreover, they help categorize additional words. PMID:9357693

Nazarenko, A.; Zweigenbaum, P.; Bouaud, J.; Habert, B.

1997-01-01

254

Corpus design based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence for Text-To-Speech synthesis application  

E-print Network

-Leibler divergence to compute the score of each candidate sentence. The proposed cri- terion gives the possibility to the quality of the recorded textual corpus. Therefore, the corpus construction is a crucial step in building is defined by the units to be covered. However, each sentence in the textual corpus is a set of units, so

Yvon, François

255

The corpus callosum, interhemisphere interactions, and the function of the right hemisphere of the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complex clinical-neuropsychological study was performed by the Luriya method before and after surgery in 36 patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVM) of the corpus callosum. The symptoms of local lesions to the various parts of the corpus callosum are described. Symptoms of partial lesioning of the corpus callosum were found to be modality-specific, though only relatively. The symptoms of dyscopia

S. B. Buklina

2005-01-01

256

Computer-assisted Lemmatisation of a Cornish Text Corpus for Lexicographical Purposes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project sets out to discover and develop techniques for the lemmatisation of a historical corpus of the Cornish language in order that a lemmatised dictionary macrostructure can be generated from the corpus. The system should be capable of uniquely identifying every lexical item that is attested in the corpus. A survey of published and…

Mills, Jon

2002-01-01

257

Productive Vocabulary Knowledge and Evaluation of ESL Writing in Corpus-Based Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since Sinclair (1991) concretized the possibilities of processing and analyzing large quantities of text data through corpus linguistic techniques, the applications of corpus linguistic approaches employing authentic language data and empirical evidence have been widely accepted in language teaching and research. As the applications of corpus…

Nam, Daehyeon

2010-01-01

258

75 FR 66301 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

This action amends Class E airspace for the Corpus Christi, TX, area. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Corpus Christi International Airport, Corpus Christi, TX. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) operations at the...

2010-10-28

259

Evaluating Corpus Literacy Training for Pre-Service Language Teachers: Six Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corpus literacy is the ability to use corpora--large, principled databases of spoken and written language--for language analysis and instruction. While linguists have emphasized the importance of corpus training in teacher preparation programs, few studies have investigated the process of initiating teachers into corpus literacy with the result…

Heather, Julian; Helt, Marie

2012-01-01

260

Integrating Corpus Work into Secondary Education: From Data-Driven Learning to Needs-Driven Corpora  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an empirical case study conducted to investigate the overall conditions and challenges of integrating corpus materials and corpus-based learning activities into English-language classes at a secondary school in Germany. Starting from the observation that in spite of the large amount of research into corpus-based language…

Braun, Sabine

2007-01-01

261

Species-specific PCR for the identification of ovine, porcine and chicken species in meat and bone meal (MBM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BSE, first identified in the UK in 1986 is thought to have arisen from feeding scrapie infected Meat and Bone Meal (MBM), produced under sub-optimal conditions, to cattle. For quality and safety reasons there is a requirement for a good analytical test for the surveillance of processed MBM. This study describes species-specific PCR assays for the identification of ovine, porcine

S. Lahiff; M. Glennon; J. Lyng; T. Smith; M. Maher; N. Shilton

2001-01-01

262

PCR and RAPD identification of L. plantarum strains isolated from ovine milk and cheese. Geographical distribution of strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacilli, and specifically Lactobacillus plantarum, are an important group of microorganisms in ovine cheeses, even though they are not ordinarily included in the starter cultures added. The present study effected counts of lactobacilli in Roncal Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) milk and cheese samples and isolated a total of 1026 strains. The strains were identified to species level by polymerase

Aurora Irigoyen; Paloma Torre

2003-01-01

263

Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels are unaffected by the prion 171R allele in an Idaho sheep flock  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Selective breeding of sheep for arginine (R) at prion gene (PRNP) codon 171 confers resistance to Scrapie. The 171R allele naturally occurs at low frequency, possibly because it imparts a deleterious trait such as impaired disease resistance. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia/Maedi-Visna virus (OPPV) is...

264

Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma as an animal model of progressive lung cancer and the impact of nutritional selenium supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) is known to induce ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). Several studies have suggested an influence of selenium (Se) status on cancer progression. Thus, combining OPA with a defined Se supply might serve as a suitable animal model to study the impact of Se on lung cancer progression.16 naturally JSRV-infected sheep were divided into 2 treatment groups receiving

Esther Humann-Ziehank; Petra Wolf; Kostja Renko; Lutz Schomburg; Michael Ludwig Bruegmann; Arnim Andreae; Carsten Brauer; Martin Ganter

2011-01-01

265

Non-maternal transmission is the major mode of ovine lentivirus transmission in a ewe flock: A molecular epidemiology study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transmission of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), a lentivirus of sheep, occurs through both maternal and non-maternal means. Currently, the contribution of each route to the overall flock OPPV prevalence is poorly understood since previous serological epidemiologic studies lacked the abilit...

266

Genome-Wide association identifies multiple genomic regions associated with susceptibility to and control of ovine lentivirus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is macrophage-tropic and causes lifelonginfection. OvLV infects one quarter of U.S. sheep and induces pneumonia and body condition wasting. There is no vaccine to prevent OvLV infection and no cost-effective treatment for i...

267

Close Phylogenetic Relationship between Egg Drop Syndrome Virus, Bovine Adenovirus Serotype 7, and Ovine Adenovirus Strain 287  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cloned egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus genomic DNA fragment containing the protease gene has been identified and the complete nucleotide sequence of the protease and partial nucleotide sequence of the hexon genes has been determined. Phylogenetic analysis of the protease gene has revealed EDS virus to be genetically more closely related to bovine adenovirus type 7 (BAV-7) and ovine

Balázs Harrach; Brian M Meehan; Mária Benkö; Brian M Adair; Daniel Todd

1997-01-01

268

Experimental nebulization of American bison (Bison bison) with low doses of ovine herpesvirus 2 from sheep nasal secretions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), is an important cause of mortality in ranched American bison (Bison bison) in North America. Detection of antibody against MCF-group viruses and OvHV-2 DNA in peripheral blood of healthy bison indicates that some are subclinic...

269

Demonstration of Listeria monocytogenes by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed brain tissues from natural cases of ovine and bovine encephalitis.  

PubMed

In the present work, evidence of Listeria monocytogenes antigens based on the avidin-biotin complex (ABC) immunoperoxidase technique was performed on formalin-fixed central nervous system tissues (CNS) from a total of 23 natural cases of encephalitis (four ovine and 19 bovine). Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4 was isolated from 10 of 17 cultured specimens. Meningoencephalitis characterized by focal necrosis, microabscesses, perivascular cuffing, and gliosis with presence of macrophages and/or neutrophils was observed at histological examination. Positive L. monocytogenes antigens were successfully identified by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the CNS of all 23 cases. Paraffin-embedded tissues assayed were stored up for 17 years. Morbidity of the outbreaks was between 0.3-3% and 0.1-1% for ovine and bovine cases, respectively. In all the ovine cases, flocks involved were under extensive grazing conditions. In nine of the 19 bovine cases (47.3%), supplementation with corn silage was used. The ABC test can help as a practical tool for the diagnosis of natural cases of L. monocytogenes encephalitis on formalin-fixed specimens from ovine and bovine. PMID:12449246

Campero, C M; Odeón, A C; Cipolla, A L; Moore, D P; Poso, M A; Odriozola, E

2002-10-01

270

Changes of platelet function and blood coagulation during short-term storage of CPDA-1-stabilised ovine blood.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to detect the influence of short-term storage on the haemostatic function in whole citrated ovine blood at different storage temperatures. Ovine blood was collected in a commercial transfer bag system containing CPDA-1 and stored on a wobbler at room (20-25 °C; n=5) or refrigerator temperature (4 °C; n=5). The following analyses were performed initially and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of storage: platelet count and (spontaneous) aggregates, agonist-induced platelet aggregation with two methods (impedance aggregometry, turbidimetric method), prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen concentration and resonance thrombography. Platelet count remained stable at room temperature, whereas a significant decrease was detected after 48 h storage at 4 °C. The latter was associated with the formation of a high percentage of platelet aggregates (50-60%) after 5h storage. Decrease in platelet aggregation was significantly more pronounced when blood was stored at 4°C. The plasmatic coagulation tests were stable within the observation period. Results indicate that platelet count and aggregability of CPDA-1-stabilised ovine blood is better preserved at room temperature and provides adequate haemostatic function for ex vivo experiments for one working day. Functional loss and high percentage of platelets within aggregates which were observed in ovine blood stored at refrigerator temperature have to be considered in blood transfusion in sheep. PMID:20888020

Baumgarten, A; Wilhelmi, M; Ganter, M; Rohn, K; Mischke, R

2011-08-01

271

Vitrification solution containing DMSO and EG can induce parthenogenetic activation of in vitro matured ovine oocytes and decrease sperm penetration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the reduced incidence of normal fertilization in vitrified ovine oocytes. After in vitro maturation for 24h, the oocytes were randomly allocated into three groups: (1) untreated (control), (2) exposed to vitrification solution (VS) without being plunged into liquid nitrogen (toxicity), or (3) vitrified by open-pulled straw method (vitrification). In experiment 1, the treated and

Shu-Jun Tian; Chang-Liang Yan; Hui-Xin Yang; Guang-Bin Zhou; Zhong-Qiang Yang; Shi-En Zhu

2007-01-01

272

SUPPRESSION OF MANNHEIMIA (PASTEURELLA) HAEMOLYTICA SEROVAR 1 INFECTION IN LAMBS BY INTRAPULMONARY ADMINISTRATION OF OVINE ANTIMICROBIAL ANIONIC PEPTIDE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study, the efficacy of ovine antimicrobial anionic peptide (AP) was assessed in a lamb model of acute pneumonia. A single intratracheal dose of H-DDDDDDD-OH (0.5 mg) reduced pulmonary inflammation and the concentration of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica in infected lung tissue. Admini...

273

OXIDATION OF GLUCOSE, GLUTAMATE, AND GLUTAMINE BY ISOLATED OVINE ENTEROCYTES IN VITRO IS DECREASED BY PRESENCE OF OTHER METABOLIC FUELS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to evaluate oxidative metabolism of glucose, glutamate, and glutamine by isolated ovine enterocytes in presence of other metabolic fuels in vitro. Mucosal enterocytes were isolated from crossbred wether sheep (n=6) fed a mixed forage-concentrate diet, and incubated f...

274

EXPERIMENTAL AEROSOL INFECTION OF CATTLE (BOS TAURUS) WITH OVINE HERPESVIRUS 2 USING NASAL SECRETIONS FROM INFECTED SHEEP  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infection of clinically susceptible ruminants, including domesticated cattle and American bison, with ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) can result in the fatal lymphoproliferative and vaculitis syndrome known as malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). A reliable experimental infection model is needed to study ...

275

A C-Terminal Protease-Resistant Prion Fragment Distinguishes Ovine ``CH1641-Like'' Scrapie from Bovine  

E-print Network

A C-Terminal Protease-Resistant Prion Fragment Distinguishes Ovine ``CH1641-Like'' Scrapie from Aliments­Lyon, Unite´ ATNC, Lyon, France Abstract The protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres ) of a few method for the molecular discrimination of prion strains, and demonstrates differences between ``CH1641

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

276

Use of eukaryotic mitochondrial DNA to differentiate human, bovine, porcine and ovine sources in fecally contaminated surface water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular method based on the detection of mitochondrial DNA from various animal species was developed to track the origin of surface water pollutions, and to differentiate human and animal sources. Mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to design PCR primers specific for human, bovine, ovine and porcine DNA using single, multiplex and nested PCR protocols. The primers were tested with

Anouk Martellini; Pierre Payment; Richard Villemur

2005-01-01

277

Comparison of a New Braid Fixation System to an Interlocking Intramedullary Nail for Tibial Osteotomy Repair in an Ovine Model  

E-print Network

by placing 1or 2 lock- ing screws at either end of the nail. These screws engage the bone cortices, HIROHITO KOBAYASHI, MS, and MARK D. MARKEL, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVS Objectives--To compare bone healing) and polymethylmethacrylate bone cement with an interlocking intramedullary (IM) nail fixation in an ovine model. Study Design

Scharer, John E.

278

Molecular analysis of the ovine cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene.  

PubMed Central

There is a need for a large-animal model to investigate the etiology and biology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease and to study potential therapies. The development and electrophysiology of the sheep airway have been shown to exhibit close functional parallels with the human airway, particularly with respect to the respiratory epithelium. We have cloned and sequenced the ovine cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cDNA. It shows a high degree of conservation at the DNA coding and predicted polypeptide levels with human CFTR: at the nucleic acid level there is a 90% conservation (compared with 80% between human and mouse CFTR cDNA); at the polypeptide level, the degree of similarity is 95% (compared with 88% between human and mouse). Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription-PCR have shown that the patterns of expression of the ovine CFTR gene are very similar to those seen in humans. Further, the developmental expression of CFTR in the sheep is equivalent to that observed in humans. Thus, overall a CF sheep should show lung pathology similar to that of humans with CF. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7534416

Tebbutt, S J; Wardle, C J; Hill, D F; Harris, A

1995-01-01

279

Mid-Gestation Ovine Cardiomyocytes Are Vulnerable to Mitotic Suppression by Thyroid Hormone  

PubMed Central

Circulating fetal 3,3?,5-tri-iodo-l-thyronine (T3 ) is maintained at very low levels until a dramatic prepartum surge. 3,3?,5-Tri-iodo-l-thyronine inhibits serum-stimulated proliferation in near-term ovine cardiomyocytes, but it is not known whether midgestation myocytes are also inhibited. Because early cessation of cardiomyocyte mitosis would result in an underendowed heart, we hypothesized that 0.67 gestation (100 of 145 days gestation) ovine cardiomyocytes would be insensitive to suppressive growth effects of T3 . These younger cardiomyocytes were grown with T3 in 10% serum-enriched media for 24 hours. Physiological (0.37, 0.75, and 1.5 nmol/L) concentrations of T3 dramatically suppressed mitotic activity in cardiomyocytes (P < .001). 3,3?,5-Tri-iodo-l-thyronine stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and AKT (also known as Protein Kinase B [PKB]) signaling pathways. Nevertheless, the protein content of the cell cycle suppressor, p21, increased 2-fold (P < .05), and promoter, cyclin D1, decreased by 50%. Contrary to our hypothesis, elevated levels of T3 powerfully inhibit proliferation of midgestation fetal cardiomyocytes. Thus, midgestation maternal hyperthyroidism might lead to an underendowed fetal myocardium. PMID:22421446

Chattergoon, Natasha N.; Louey, Samantha; Stork, Philip; Giraud, George D.

2012-01-01

280

The Ovine Cerebral Venous System: Comparative Anatomy, Visualization, and Implications for Translational Research  

PubMed Central

Cerebrovascular diseases are significant causes of death and disability in humans. Improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches strongly rely on adequate gyrencephalic, large animal models being demanded for translational research. Ovine stroke models may represent a promising approach but are currently limited by insufficient knowledge regarding the venous system of the cerebral angioarchitecture. The present study was intended to provide a comprehensive anatomical analysis of the intracranial venous system in sheep as a reliable basis for the interpretation of experimental results in such ovine models. We used corrosion casts as well as contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography to scrutinize blood drainage from the brain. This combined approach yielded detailed and, to some extent, novel findings. In particular, we provide evidence for chordae Willisii and lateral venous lacunae, and report on connections between the dorsal and ventral sinuses in this species. For the first time, we also describe venous confluences in the deep cerebral venous system and an ‘anterior condylar confluent’ as seen in humans. This report provides a detailed reference for the interpretation of venous diagnostic imaging findings in sheep, including an assessment of structure detectability by in vivo (imaging) versus ex vivo (corrosion cast) visualization methods. Moreover, it features a comprehensive interspecies-comparison of the venous cerebral angioarchitecture in man, rodents, canines and sheep as a relevant large animal model species, and describes possible implications for translational cerebrovascular research. PMID:24736654

Nitzsche, Björn; Lobsien, Donald; Seeger, Johannes; Schneider, Holm; Boltze, Johannes

2014-01-01

281

Development and evaluation of an ovine antibody-based platform for treatment of Clostridium difficile infection.  

PubMed

Treatment of Clostridium difficile is a major problem as a hospital-associated infection which can cause severe, recurrent diarrhea. The currently available antibiotics are not effective in all cases and alternative treatments are required. In the present study, an ovine antibody-based platform for passive immunotherapy of C. difficile infection is described. Antibodies with high toxin-neutralizing titers were generated against C. difficile toxins A and B and were shown to neutralize three sequence variants of these toxins (toxinotypes) which are prevalent in human C. difficile infection. Passive immunization of hamsters with a mixture of toxin A and B antibodies protected them from a challenge with C. difficile spores in a dose-dependent manner. Antibodies to both toxins A and B were required for protection. The administration of toxin A and B antibodies up to 24 h postchallenge was found to reduce significantly the onset of C. difficile infection compared to nonimmunized controls. Protection from infection was also demonstrated with key disease isolates (ribotypes 027 and 078), which are members of the hypervirulent C. difficile clade. The ribotype 027 and 078 strains also have the capacity to produce an active binary toxin and these data suggest that neutralization of this toxin is unnecessary for the management of infection induced by these strains. In summary, the data suggest that ovine toxin A and B antibodies may be effective in the treatment of C. difficile infection; their potential use for the management of severe, fulminant cases is discussed. PMID:22144483

Roberts, April; McGlashan, Joanna; Al-Abdulla, Ibrahim; Ling, Roger; Denton, Harriet; Green, Steve; Coxon, Ruth; Landon, John; Shone, Clifford

2012-02-01

282

Bioconversion of ovine scotta into lactic acid with pure and mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Scotta is the main by-product in the making of ricotta cheese. It is widely produced in southern Europe and particularly in Italy where it represents a serious environmental pollutant due to its high lactose content. With the aim of evaluating whether scotta bioconversion into lactic acid can be considered as an alternative to its disposal, besides providing it with an added value, here the growth, fermentative performances, and lactic acid productions of pure and mixed cultures of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Streptococcus thermophilus were evaluated on ovine scotta-based media, without and with the addition of nutritional supplements. The outcomes indicate that ovine scotta can be utilized for the biotechnological production of lactic acid with yields up to 92%, comparable to those obtained on cheese-whey. Indeed, the addition of nutritional supplements generally improves the fermentative performances of lactic acid bacteria leading to about 2 g l(-1) h(-1) of lactic acid. Moreover, the use of mixed cultures for scotta bioconversion reduces the need for nutritional supplements, with no detrimental effects on the productive parameters compared to pure cultures. Finally, by using L. casei and S. thermophilus in pure and mixed cultures, up to 99% optically pure L: -lactic acid can be obtained. PMID:21739193

Secchi, Nicola; Giunta, Daniela; Pretti, Luca; García, Mónica Ruiz; Roggio, Tonina; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Catzeddu, Pasquale

2012-01-01

283

Regulation of GnRH receptors by progesterone and inhibin in ovine pituitary cell culture  

SciTech Connect

The effects of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and the gonadal protein, inhibin, on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor number and binding affinity were investigated in vitro, using ovine pituitary cells in culture. Changes in GnRH binding were correlated with GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) release following pretreatment with P{sub 4} and inhibin. Ovine pituitary cells in culture were preincubated with P{sub 4} or porcine inhibin (I{sub P}) for 24 or 48 hours (h). Cells were collected and analyzed for GnRH binding using a radioligand-receptor assay. des-Gly{sup 10}-(D-Ala{sup 6})-LHRH-ethyl-amide was used as the radiolabeled GnRh superagonist analog (mono-{sup 125}I-GnRH-A) and as competing ligand. Treatment with P{sub 4} progressively decreased GnRH-A binding capacity by 44.3% and 71.8% of the control following pretreatment for 24 or 48 h, respectively. When P{sub 4} was removed from the cultures, GnRH-A binding capacity partially returned to control levels within 24 h. Decreased GnRH-A binding was closely correlated with the reduction in GnRH-stimulated LH release which was observed following 24 or 48 h pretreatment with P{sub 4}.

Laws, S.C.

1988-01-01

284

White matter injury after repeated endotoxin exposure in the preterm ovine fetus.  

PubMed

Intrauterine infection has been linked to neurologic injury in preterm infants. However, a reproducible model of white matter injury in the preterm fetus in a long gestation species that can be monitored in utero is currently unavailable. Thus, our objective was to determine the effects of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on physiologic and inflammatory responses and brain structure in the preterm ovine fetus. At 0.7 of gestation, six catheterized fetuses received three to five intravenous injections of LPS (1 micro g/kg) over 5 d; seven fetuses served as controls. Fetal responses were monitored and brain tissue examined 10-11 d after the initial LPS injection. After LPS on d 1 and 2, fetuses became transiently hypoxemic and hypotensive and blood IL-6 levels were increased, but these responses were smaller or absent after subsequent LPS exposures. Neural injury was observed in all LPS-exposed fetuses, most prominently in the cerebral white matter. Injury ranged from diffuse subcortical damage to periventricular leukomalacia, and in the brainstem the cross-sectional area of the corticospinal tract was reduced by 30%. Thus, repeated exposure of the preterm ovine fetus to LPS causes neuropathology resembling that of cerebral palsy and provides a robust model for exploring the etiology, prevention, and treatment of white matter damage. PMID:12438674

Duncan, Jhodie R; Cock, Megan L; Scheerlinck, Jean-Pierre Y; Westcott, Kerryn T; McLean, Catriona; Harding, Richard; Rees, Sandra M

2002-12-01

285

Inhibition of ovine in vitro fertilization by anti-Prt antibody: hypothetical model for Prt/ZP interaction  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of prion proteins in the rules that dictate biological reproduction is still poorly understood. Likewise, the role of prnt gene, encoding the prion-like protein testis specific (Prt), in ram reproductive physiology remains largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the effect of Prt in ovine fertilization by using an anti-Prt antibody (APPA) in fertilization medium incubated with spermatozoa and oocytes. Moreover, a computational model was constructed to infer how the results obtained could be related to a hypothetical role for Prt in sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding. Methods Mature ovine oocytes were transferred to fertilization medium alone (control) or supplemented with APPA, or pre-immune serum (CSerum). Oocytes were inseminated with ovine spermatozoa and after 18 h, presumptive zygotes (n?=?142) were fixed to evaluate fertilization rates or transferred (n?=?374) for embryo culture until D6-7. Predicted ovine Prt tertiary structure was compared with data obtained by circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and a protein-protein computational docking model was estimated for a hypothetical Prt/ZP interaction. Results The fertilizing rate was lower (P?=?0.006) in APPA group (46.0+/?6.79%) when compared to control (78.5+/?7.47%) and CSerum (64.5+/?6.65%) groups. In addition, the cleavage rate was higher (P?ovine Prt, which was subsequently used to test Prt/ZP docking. Computational analyses predicted a favorable Prt-binding activity towards ZP domains. Conclusions Our data indicates that the presence of APPA reduces the number of fertilized oocytes and of cleaved embryos. Moreover, the CD analysis data reinforces the predicted ovine Prt trend towards an alpha-helical structure. Predicted protein-protein docking suggests a possible interaction between Prt and ZP, thus supporting an important role for Prt in ovine fertilization. PMID:23531155

2013-01-01

286

On Automating and Standardising Corpus Callosum Analysis in Brain MRI  

E-print Network

Estimation The human brain consists on a coarse level of the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brainstem. Most prominent is the cerebrum which is divided into hemispheres connected by a nervous fibre bundle; the corpus callosum. The surface partitioning this approximate bilateral symmetry of the cerebrum is typically denoted

287

Corpus Callosum Morphology in Twin Pairs Discordant for Bipolar Disorder  

E-print Network

Corpus Callosum Morphology in Twin Pairs Discordant for Bipolar Disorder Submission No: 3973 callosal volume reduction in patients with bipolar disorder, but it is not yet known whether these deficits callosum (CC) thickness and curvature in a population-based sample of twin pairs discordant for bipolar

Thompson, Paul

288

Prenatal diagnosis of colpocephaly with absent corpus callosum.  

PubMed

Colpocephaly is a rare abnormality of the brain, described as persistence of primitive foetal configuration of lateral ventricles. It has been found in association with several abnormalities of the brain. Herein we report a case of colpocephaly with absent corpus callosum, confirmed antenatally with foetal MRI following diagnostic suspicion based on absent septum pellucidum at prenatal sonography. PMID:25468365

Ansary, Althaf; Manjunatha, Cm; Ibhanesebhor, Samuel

2014-12-01

289

Corpus Callosum Differences Associated with Persistent Stuttering in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have implicated anatomical differences in speech-relevant brain regions of adults who stutter (AWS) compared to normally fluent adults (NFA). The present study focused on the region of the corpus callosum (CC) which is involved in interhemispheric processing between the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Two-dimensional…

Choo, Ai Leen; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Olivero, William; Ambrose, Nicoline G.; Sharma, Harish; Chang, Soo-Eun; Loucks, Torrey M.

2011-01-01

290

The AMI Meeting Corpus: A Pre-announcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The AMI Meeting Corpus is a multi-modal data set consisting of 100 hours of meeting recordings. It is being created in the context of a project that is developing meeting browsing technology and will eventually be released publicly. Some of the meetings it contains are naturally occurring, and some are elicited, particularly using a scenario in which the participants play

Jean Carletta; Simone Ashby; Sebastien Bourban; Mike Flynn; Mael Guillemot; Thomas Hain; Jaroslav Kadlec; Vasilis Karaiskos; Wessel Kraaij; Melissa Kronenthal; Guillaume Lathoud; Mike Lincoln; Agnes Lisowska; Iain McCowan; Wilfried Post; Dennis Reidsma; Pierre Wellner; S. Renals; S. Bengio

2006-01-01

291

Perspectives on Dichotic Listening and the Corpus Callosum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present review summarizes historic and recent research which has investigated the role of the corpus callosum in dichotic processing within the context of audiology. Examination of performance by certain clinical groups, including split brain patients, multiple sclerosis cases, and other types of neurological lesions is included. Maturational,…

Musiek, Frank E.; Weihing, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

292

A factor analysis of the rat's corpus callosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work from our laboratory (Berrebi et al., Brain Research, 438 (1988) 216-224) demonstrated region-specific sexual dimorphisms in the size of the rat's corpus callosum, which are modifiable by extra stimulation in early life. These differences are assumed to reflect regional corticocortical fibers of passage which are altered differentially by gender and our experimental manipulations. In this paper, we report

Victor H. Denenberg; Albert S. Berrebi; Roslyn H. Fitch

1989-01-01

293

Dietary effects on development of the human mandibular corpus.  

PubMed

The extent to which the mandibular corpus exhibits developmental plasticity has important implications for interpreting variation in adult and juvenile mandibular morphology in the archaeological and paleontological record. Here, we examine ontogenetic changes in mandibular corpus breadth, rigidity, and strength in two population samples with contrasting diets: late prehistoric Tigara from Point Hope, Alaska, characterized by a very demanding masticatory regime, and proto-historic Arikara from the Sully Site in South Dakota, with a less demanding regime. A total of 52 juvenile and 11 adult Tigara, and 32 juvenile and 10 adult Arikara were included in the study. Juveniles ranged in age from 1 to 17 years, with good representation of younger (1-6-year-old) juveniles (20 Arikara, 18 Tigara). Superoinferior and buccolingual external and cortical bone breadths of mandibles were measured at the Pm(4) -M(1) and M(1) -M(2) junctions using calipers and biplanar radiographs, respectively. An asymmetrical hollow beam model was employed to reconstruct cross sections and calculate bending rigidities and strengths in the sagittal and transverse planes. Among adults, Tigara have greater transverse corpus width, bending rigidity, and strength, and ratios of transverse to sagittal dimensions than Arikara. This shape difference develops gradually during growth, with only weak trends among young juveniles, increasing to near-adult contrasts among adolescents. These results support a role for functional mechanical loading of the mandible during growth in producing adult differences in mandibular corpus morphology. PMID:21702003

Holmes, Megan A; Ruff, Christopher B

2011-08-01

294

Corpus Linguistics, Network Analysis and Co-Occurrence Matrices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes research undertaken in order to design a methodology for the reticular representation of knowledge of a specific discourse community. To achieve this goal, a representative corpus of the scientific production of the members of this discourse community (Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, UPV) was created. This article…

Stuart, Keith; Botella, Ana

2009-01-01

295

Analyzing Parallelism and Domain Similarities in the MAREC Patent Corpus  

E-print Network

Analyzing Parallelism and Domain Similarities in the MAREC Patent Corpus Katharina W}@cl.uni-heidelberg.de Abstract. Statistical machine translation of patents requires large a- mounts of sentence-parallel data. Translations of patent text often exist for parts of the patent document, namely title, abstract and claims

Riezler, Stefan

296

A Multidimensional Analysis of a Written L2 Spanish Corpus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study adds to our understanding of how learners employ lexical and grammatical phenomena to communicate in writing in different types of interlanguage discourse. A multidimensional (factor) analysis of a corpus of L2 Spanish writing (202,241 words) generated by second- and third-year, university-level learners was performed. The…

Asencion-Delaney, Yuly; Collentine, Joseph

2011-01-01

297

Automatic Extraction of Japanese Grammar from a Bracketed Corpus  

E-print Network

.2 Extracting CFG rules Each node other than any leaf in a skeletal tree can be transformed into a production a CFG by using a large corpus. The advantage of this approach includes: less human labor, broad coverage features into the grammar. This may help to choose a correct parse tree. Lari and Young (Lari and Young

Shirai, Kiyoaki

298

CorpusDriven Splitting of Compound Words Ralf D. Brown  

E-print Network

Corpus­Driven Splitting of Compound Words Ralf D. Brown Language Technologies Institute Carnegie is presented for splitting compound words into their constituents based on cognate words in the other language. Further, the algorithm can produce, as a by­product, a mapping from compound words in one language

Brown, Ralf

299

The Dependency Structure of Coordinate Phrases: A Corpus Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hudson (1990) proposes that each conjunct in a coordinate phrase forms dependency relations with heads or dependents outside the coordinate phrase (the "multi-head" view). This proposal is tested through corpus analysis of Wall Street Journal text. For right-branching constituents (such as direct-object NPs), a short-long preference for conjunct…

Temperley, David

2005-01-01

300

Unsupervised Learning of Arabic Stemming Using a Parallel Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an unsupervised learning approach to building a non-English (Arabic) stemmer. The stemming model is based on statistical machine translation and it uses an English stemmer and a small (10 K sentences) parallel corpus as its sole training resources. No parallel text is needed after the training phase. Monolingual, unannotated text can be used to further improve the

Monica Rogati; J. Scott McCarley; Yiming Yang

2003-01-01

301

Autism Traits in Individuals with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have numerous etiologies, including structural brain malformations such as agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We sought to directly measure the occurrence of autism traits in a cohort of individuals with AgCC and to investigate the neural underpinnings of this association. We screened a large AgCC cohort (n =…

Lau, Yolanda C.; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Bukshpun, Polina; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Jeremy, Rita J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa J.

2013-01-01

302

Connectivity and the corpus callosum in autism spectrum conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural models of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have moved, in recent years, from a lesion model to a focus on abnormal connectivity. In this chapter, we review this work and summarize findings from our recent research comparing autism and agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We discuss our findings in the context of the “fractionable triad” account and highlight three

Rhonda Booth; Gregory L. Wallace; Francesca Happé

2011-01-01

303

Generalisation of language and knowledge models for corpus analysis  

E-print Network

This paper takes new look on language and knowledge modelling for corpus linguistics. Using ideas of Chaitin, a line of argument is made against language/knowledge separation in Natural Language Processing. A simplistic model, that generalises approaches to language and knowledge, is proposed. One of hypothetical consequences of this model is Strong AI.

Loss, Anton

2012-01-01

304

SWITCHBOARD: telephone speech corpus for research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

SWITCHBOARD is a large multispeaker corpus of conversational speech and text which should be of interest to researchers in speaker authentication and large vocabulary speech recognition. About 2500 conversations by 500 speakers from around the US were collected automatically over T1 lines at Texas Instruments. Designed for training and testing of a variety of speech processing algorithms, especially in speaker

John J. Godfrey; Edward C. Holliman; Jane McDaniel

1992-01-01

305

Dative Alternation in Indian English: A Corpus-Based Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dative alternation refers to the alternation between two constructions that denote some type of transfer: the double object construction ("I give my sister a book") vs. the to-dative construction ("I give a book to my sister"). We examined the motivations behind the dative alternation in Indian English. A corpus study was performed based on a…

De Cuypere, Ludovic; Verbeke, Saartje

2013-01-01

306

The LECTRA Corpus - Classroom Lecture Transcriptions in European Portuguese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the corpus of university lectures that has been recorded in European Portuguese, and some of the recognition experiments we have done with it. The highly specific topic domain and the spontaneous speech nature of the lectures are two of the most challenging problems. Lexical and language model adaptation proved difficult given the scarcity of domain material in

Isabel Trancoso; Rui Martins; Helena Moniz; Ana Isabel Mata; Céu Viana

2008-01-01

307

Corpus callosum atrophy and neuropsychological outcome following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning on the corpus callosum (CC). Sixty-two CO-poisoned patients had MRI scans and a battery of neuropsychological tests within 24 h (day of exposure) of CO poisoning and at 6 months post CO exposure. Serial quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (QMRI) analysis of the CC was carried out, with the day of

Scott S Porter; Ramona O Hopkins; Lindell K Weaver; Erin D Bigler; Duane D Blatter

2002-01-01

308

Modifying Corpus Annotation to Support the Analysis of Learner Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A crucial question for automatically analyzing learner language is to determine which grammatical information is relevant and useful for learner feedback. Based on knowledge about how learner language varies in its grammatical properties, we propose a framework for reusing analyses found in corpus annotation and illustrate its applicability to…

Dickinson, Markus; Lee, Chong Min

2009-01-01

309

33 CFR 110.75 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Southward of the southernmost T-head pier at the foot of Cooper Avenue and of a line bearing 156°44?, 340.6 feet, from the southerly corner of said pier to a point on the rubble breakwater; westward and northward of said breakwater; and eastward of the Corpus Christi sea...

2010-07-01

310

Combining text clustering and retrieval for corpus adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application-relevant text data are very useful in various natural language applications. Using them can achieve significantly better performance for vocabulary selection, language modeling, which are widely employed in automatic speech recognition, intelligent input method etc. In some situations, however, the relevant data is hard to collect. Thus, the scarcity of application-relevant training text brings difficulty upon these natural language processing. In this paper, only using a small set of application specific text, by combining unsupervised text clustering and text retrieval techniques, the proposed approach can find the relevant text from unorganized large scale corpus, thereby, adapt training corpus towards the application area of interest. We use the performance of n-gram statistical language model, which is trained from the text retrieved and test on the application-specific text, to evaluate the relevance of the text acquired, accordingly, to validate the effectiveness of our corpus adaptation approach. The language models trained from the ranked text bundles present well discriminated perplexities on the application-specific text. The preliminary experiments on short message text and unorganized large corpus demonstrate the performance of the proposed methods.

He, Feng; Ding, Xiaoqing

2007-01-01

311

The Use of Corpus Examples for Language Comprehension and Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the many new features of English language learners' dictionaries derived from the technological developments that have taken place over recent decades is the presence of corpus-based examples to illustrate the use of words in context. However, empirical studies have generally not been able to produce conclusive evidence about their…

Frankenberg-Garcia, Ana

2014-01-01

312

Generation of Dutch referring expressions using the D-TUNA corpus Marissa Hoek (m.d.hoek@student.utwente.nl)  

E-print Network

Generation of Dutch referring expressions using the D-TUNA corpus Marissa Hoek (m is done on the Dutch version of the TUNA-corpus, which contains annotated human-produced descriptions the lexical choice from the D-TUNA corpus, and used templates generated from the corpus which specified

Vellekoop, Michel

313

Evaluation of strain-specific primer sequences from an abortifacient strain of ovine Chlamydophila abortus ( Chlamydia psittaci) for the detection of EAE by PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strain-specific primer sequences derived from the helicase gene of an ovine abortifacient strain (S26\\/3) of Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci) were evaluated for the diagnosis of enzootic abortion in ewes (EAE) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). C. abortus DNA was amplified from tissues submitted from ovine abortion cases using genus-specific and strain-specific primers in a standard thermal cycler. Amplification was followed

Julie L Creelan; Samuel J McCullough

2000-01-01

314

Cellular and molecular maturation in fetal and adult ovine calcaneal tendons.  

PubMed

Processes of development during fetal life profoundly transform tendons from a plastic tissue into a highly differentiated structure, characterised by a very low ability to regenerate after injury in adulthood. Sheep tendon is frequently used as a translational model to investigate cell-based regenerative approaches. However, in contrast to other species, analytical and comparative baseline studies on the normal developmental maturation of sheep tendons from fetal through to adult life are not currently available. Thus, a detailed morphological and biochemical study was designed to characterise tissue maturation during mid- (2?months of pregnancy: 14?cm of length) and late fetal (4?months: 40?cm of length) life, through to adulthood. The results confirm that ovine tendon morphology undergoes profound transformations during this period. Endotenon was more developed in fetal tendons than in adult tissues, and its cell phenotype changed through tendon maturation. Indeed, groups of large rounded cells laying on smaller and more compacted ones expressing osteocalcin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) were identified exclusively in fetal mid-stage tissues, and not in late fetal or adult tendons. VEGF, NGF as well as blood vessels and nerve fibers showed decreased expression during tendon development. Moreover, the endotenon of mid- and late fetuses contained identifiable cells that expressed several pluripotent stem cell markers [Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT), SRY Determining Region Y Box-2 (SOX2), Nanog Homeobox (NANOG) and Octamer Binding Transcription Factor-4A (OCT-4A)]. These cells were not identifiable in adult specimens. Ovine tendon development was also accompanied by morphological modifications to cell nuclei, and a progressive decrease in cellularity, proliferation index and expression of connexins 43 and 32. Tendon maturation was similarly characterised by modulation of several other gene expression profiles, including Collagen type I, Collagen type III, Scleraxis B, Tenomodulin, Trombospondin 4 and Osteocalcin. These gene profiles underwent a dramatic reduction in adult tissues. Transforming growth factor-?~1 expression (involved in collagen synthesis) underwent a similar decrease. In conclusion, these morphological studies carried out on sheep tendons at different stages of development and aging offer normal structural and molecular baseline data to allow accurate evaluation of data from subsequent interventional studies investigating tendon healing and regeneration in ovine experimental models. PMID:25546075

Russo, Valentina; Mauro, Annunziata; Martelli, Alessandra; Di Giacinto, Oriana; Di Marcantonio, Lisa; Nardinocchi, Delia; Berardinelli, Paolo; Barboni, Barbara

2015-02-01

315

Effect of whey concentration on protein recovery in fresh ovine ricotta cheese.  

PubMed

Ricotta cheese, particularly the ovine type, is a typical Italian dairy product obtained by heat-coagulation of the proteins in whey. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of whey protein concentration, obtained by ultrafiltration, on yield of fresh ovine ricotta cheese. Ricotta cheeses were obtained by thermocoagulation of mixtures with protein content of 1.56, 3.10, 4.16, and 7.09g/100g from the mixing of skim whey and ultrafiltered skim whey. A fat-to-protein ratio of 1.1 (wt/wt) was obtained for all mixtures by adding fresh cream. The initial mixtures, as well as the final ricotta cheeses, were analyzed for their composition and by SDS-PAGE. Protein bands were quantified by QuantityOne software (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Significant differences in the composition of the ricotta cheese were observed depending on protein concentration. Particularly, ricotta cheese resulting from the mixture containing 7.09g/100g of protein presented higher moisture (72.88±1.50g/100g) and protein (10.18±0.45g/100g) contents than that prepared from the mixture with 1.56g/100g of protein (69.52±1.75 and 6.70±0.85g/100g, respectively), and fat content was lower in this sample (12.20±1.60g/100g) compared with the other treatments, with mean values between 15.72 and 20.50g/100g. Each protein fraction presented a different behavior during thermocoagulation. In particular, the recovery of ?-lactoglobulin and ?-lactalbumin in the cheese increased as their content increased in the mixtures. It was concluded that concentrating ovine rennet whey improved the extent of heat-induced protein aggregation during the thermal coagulation process. This resulted in a better recovery of each protein fraction in the product, and in a consequent increase of ricotta cheese yield. PMID:24856986

Salvatore, E; Pes, M; Falchi, G; Pagnozzi, D; Furesi, S; Fiori, M; Roggio, T; Addis, M F; Pirisi, A

2014-08-01

316

Comparing English Vocabulary in a Spoken Learner Corpus with a Native Speaker Corpus: Pedagogical Implications Arising from an Empirical Study in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Insights from corpus linguistics have come to be seen as having a significant impact in second language pedagogy. Learner corpora, or collections of texts spoken or written by non-native speakers (NNS) of a language, are now being used for the purposes of enhancing language teaching. Specifically, by comparing the corpus of NNS with native…

Shirato, Junko; Stapleton, Paul

2007-01-01

317

An Integration of Corpus-Based and Genre-Based Approaches to Text Analysis in Eap/esp: Countering Criticisms against Corpus-Based Methodologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past few years, several corpus-based studies have been carried out which either explicitly in some cases, but more subtly in others, draw on aspects of genre theory for their analyses. The purpose of this paper is to review those corpus studies which specifically draw on either the English for Specific Purposes (following the Swales…

Flowerdew, L.

2005-01-01

318

Ovine Carotid Artery-Derived Cells as an Optimized Supportive Cell Layer in 2-D Capillary Network Assays  

PubMed Central

Background Endothelial cell co-culture assays are differentiation assays which simulate the formation of capillary-like tubules with the aid of a supportive cell layer. Different cell types have been employed as a supportive cell layer, including human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and human mammary fibroblasts. However, these sources of human tissue-derived cells are limited, and more readily accessible human or animal tissue-derived cell sources would simplify the endothelial cell co-culture assay. In the present study, we investigated the potential use of alternative, accessible supportive cells for endothelial cell co-culture assay, including human umbilical cord and ovine carotid artery. Methods and Results: Human umbilical artery SMCs (HUASMCs) and ovine carotid artery-derived cells were seeded into 96-well plates, followed by addition of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Nine days after co-culture, cells were fixed, immunostained and analysed using an in vitro angiogenesis quantification tool. Capillary-like structures were detected on ovine carotid artery-derived supportive cell layers. The initial cell number, as well as pro- and anti-angiogenic factors (VEGF, PDGF-BB and Bevacizumab), had a positive or negative influence on the number of capillary-like structures. Furthermore, HUVECs from different donors showed distinct levels of VEGF receptor-2, which correlated with the amount of capillary-like structures. In the case of HUASMC supportive cell layers, HUVECs detached almost completely from the surface. Conclusions Cells of different origin have a varying applicability regarding the endothelial cell co-culture assay: under the conditions described here, ovine carotid artery-derived cells seem to be more suitable than HUASMCs for an endothelial co-culture assay. Furthermore, the ovine carotid artery-derived cells are easier to obtain and are in more abundant supply than the currently used dermal or breast tissue cells. The use of ovine carotid artery-derived cells simplifies the endothelial co-culture assay with respect to testing large amounts of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. PMID:24621607

Dreier, Agnieszka; Unger, Ronald E.; Flanagan, Thomas C.; Kirkpatrick, C. James; Zenke, Martin; Klee, Doris; Jockenhoevel, Stefan

2014-01-01

319

Production of bacteriocin-like substances by lactic acid bacteria isolated from regional ovine cheese  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from ovine milk and cheeses manufactured in the South Region of Brazil. Among 112 bacterial isolates investigated, 59 were chosen through a screening for LAB. Among these 59 strains of LAB, 21% showed antimicrobial, proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Based on this screening, Lactobacillus plantarum LCN 17 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LCN 43 were selected and tested for the production of bacteriocin-like substances (BLS). The BLS produced by both isolates showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, whereas that produced by L. plantarum LCN 17 presented higher stability to different temperature, pH and enzyme treatments. These strains present potential for production of BLS, and for use as starter cultures. PMID:24031581

Nespolo, Cássia Regina; Brandelli, Adriano

2010-01-01

320

Fracture properties of growth plate cartilage compared to cortical and trabecular bone in ovine femora.  

PubMed

Fracture mechanical parameters (notch tensile strength, specific fracture energy/crack resistance and specific crack initiation energy) of epiphyseal plate cartilage, trabecular bone (metaphysis) and cortical bone (diaphysis) were determined on ovine femur specimens. The fracture behaviour before and after crack initiation was recorded in force-displacement diagrams from wedge splitting tests. Crack propagation was stable both during and after the formation of a principal crack. This is the main advantage of the wedge-splitting method by Tschegg in comparison with tensile tests. Microscopy of the epiphyseal plate during fracture showed fibre elongation and tearing in the crack tip region. The results of this study can help to understand the mechanics of epiphyseal plate injuries and the obtained values can be used for computational simulations and models. PMID:23022566

Tschegg, E K; Celarek, A; Fischerauer, S F; Stanzl-Tschegg, S; Weinberg, A M

2012-10-01

321

Hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) is a growth factor for human, ovine and porcine thyroid cells.  

PubMed

Hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) provokes in murine erythroleukemia cells (MELC) a commitment to terminal differentiation leading to the activation of the expression of hemoglobin. HMBA has been tested also in other cells from colon cancer, melanoma or lung cancer. However it has not yet been tested in the thyroid. We demonstrate in this paper that HMBA in kinetics and concentration-response experiments increases the proliferation of human thyroid cells isolated from Graves'-Basedow patients. It also acts like a growth factor for ovine and porcine thyroid cells, respectively, from the OVNIS line and the ATHOS line. This molecule which is a differentiating factor in the MELC system and a growth factor in human thyroid cell cultures represents a potential to get human thyroid cell lines expressing specialized functions. PMID:8734479

Fayet, G; Amphoux-Fazekas, T; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

1996-03-01

322

Frequency of Basic English Grammatical Structures: A Corpus Analysis  

PubMed Central

Many recent models of language comprehension have stressed the role of distributional frequencies in determining the relative accessibility or ease of processing associated with a particular lexical item or sentence structure. However, there exist relatively few comprehensive analyses of structural frequencies, and little consideration has been given to the appropriateness of using any particular set of corpus frequencies in modeling human language. We provide a comprehensive set of structural frequencies for a variety of written and spoken corpora, focusing on structures that have played a critical role in debates on normal psycholinguistics, aphasia, and child language acquisition, and compare our results with those from several recent papers to illustrate the implications and limitations of using corpus data in psycholinguistic research. PMID:19668599

Roland, Douglas; Dick, Frederic; Elman, Jeffrey L.

2009-01-01

323

Prenatal PCB exposure, the corpus callosum, and response inhibition.  

PubMed Central

The present study reports the association between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the corpus callosum, and response inhibition in children who are 4.5 years old. Children (n = 189) enrolled in the Oswego study were tested using a continuous performance test. We measured (square millimeters) the splenium of the corpus callosum, a pathway implicated in the regulation of response inhibition, using magnetic resonance imaging. Results indicated a dose-dependent association between cord blood PCBs and errors of commission. Splenium size but not other brain areas predicted errors of commission (r(2) = 0.20), with smaller size associated with more errors of commission. There was an interaction between splenium size and PCB exposure. The smaller the splenium, the larger the association between PCBs and errors of commission. If the association between PCBs and response inhibition is indeed causal, then children with suboptimal development of the splenium are particularly vulnerable to these effects. These data await replication. PMID:14527849

Stewart, Paul; Fitzgerald, Susan; Reihman, Jacqueline; Gump, Brooks; Lonky, Edward; Darvill, Thomas; Pagano, Jim; Hauser, Peter

2003-01-01

324

BMP4 and LGL1 are Down Regulated in an Ovine Model of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia  

PubMed Central

Background/Purpose: The molecular pathophysiology of lung hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) remains poorly understood. The Wnt signaling pathway and downstream targets, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) 4 and other factors such as late gestation lung protein 1 (LGL1), are essential to normal lung development. Nitrofen-induced hypoplastic CDH rodent lungs demonstrate down regulation of the Wnt pathway including BMP4 and reduced LGL1 expression. The aim of the current study was to examine the molecular pathophysiology associated with a surgically induced CDH in an ovine model. Methods: Left thoracotomy was performed at 80?days in 14 fetal sheep; CDH was created in seven experimental animals. Lungs were harvested at 136?days (term?=?145?days). Lung weight (LW) and mean terminal bronchiole density (MTBD) were measured to determine the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia. Quantitative real time PCR was undertaken to analyze Wnt2, Wnt7b, BMP4, and LGL1 mRNA expression. Results: Total LW was decreased while MTBD was increased in the CDH group (p?ovine CDH model. In contrast to other animal models, these changes are persistent to near term. These findings suggest that mechanical compression from herniated viscera may play a more important role in causing pulmonary hypoplasia in CDH, rather than a primary defect in lung organogenesis. PMID:25593968

Emmerton-Coughlin, Heather M. A.; Martin, K. Kathryn; Chiu, Jacky S. S.; Zhao, Lin; Scott, Leslie A.; Regnault, Timothy R. H.; Bütter, Andreana

2014-01-01

325

Anaerobic bioremediation of RDX by ovine whole rumen fluid and pure culture isolates.  

PubMed

The ability of ruminal microbes to degrade the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in ovine whole rumen fluid (WRF) and as 24 bacterial isolates was examined under anaerobic conditions. Compound degradation was monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identification of metabolites. Organisms in WRF microcosms degraded 180 ?M RDX within 4 h. Nitroso-intermediates hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX) were present as early as 0.25 h and were detected throughout the 24-h incubation period, representing one reductive pathway of ring cleavage. Following reduction to MNX, peaks consistent with m/z 193 and 174 were also produced, which were unstable and resulted in rapid ring cleavage to a common metabolite consistent with an m/z of 149. These represent two additional reductive pathways for RDX degradation in ovine WRF, which have not been previously reported. The 24 ruminal isolates degraded RDX with varying efficiencies (0-96 %) over 120 h. Of the most efficient degraders identified, Clostridium polysaccharolyticum and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. desulfuricans degraded RDX when medium was supplemented with both nitrogen and carbon, while Anaerovibrio lipolyticus, Prevotella ruminicola, and Streptococcus bovis IFO utilized RDX as a sole source of nitrogen. This study showed that organisms in whole rumen fluid, as well as several ruminal isolates, have the ability to degrade RDX in vitro and, for the first time, delineated the metabolic pathway for its biodegradation. PMID:22688904

Eaton, H L; Duringer, J M; Murty, L D; Craig, A M

2013-04-01

326

Genomics of estradiol-3-sulfate action in the ovine fetal hypothalamus  

PubMed Central

In fetal sheep during late gestation sulfoconjugated estrogens in plasma reach a concentration 40–100 times greater than unconjugated estrogens. The objective of the present study was to determine the genomics of estradiol-3-sulfate (E2S) action in the ovine fetal brain. The hypothesis was that E2S stimulates genes involved in the neuroendocrine pathways that direct or facilitate fetal development at the end of gestation. Four sets of chronically catheterized ovine twin fetuses were studied (gestational age: 120–127 days gestation) with one infused with E2S intracerebroventricularly (1 mg/day) and the other remaining untreated (control). After euthanasia, mRNA samples were extracted from fetal brains. Only hypothalamic samples were employed for this study given the important function of this brain region in the control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Microarray analysis was performed following the Agilent protocol for one-color 8 × 15 microarrays, designed for Ovis aries. A total of 363 known genes were significantly upregulated by the E2S treatment (P < 0.05). Network and enrichment analyses were performed using the Cytoscape/Bingo software, and the results validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The main overrepresented biological processes resulting from this analysis were feeding behavior, hypoxia response, and transforming growth factor signaling. Notably, the genes involved in the feeding behavior (neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein) were the most strongly induced by the E2S treatment. In conclusion, E2S may be an important component of the mechanism for activating orexigenic, hypoxia responsiveness and neuroprotective pathways in the lamb as it approaches postnatal life. PMID:22570439

Rabaglino, Maria Belen; Richards, Elaine; Denslow, Nancy; Wood, Charles E.

2012-01-01

327

The end of a myth: cloning and characterization of the ovine melatonin MT2 receptor  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: For many years, it was suspected that sheep expressed only one melatonin receptor (closely resembling MT1 from other mammal species). Here we report the cloning of another melatonin receptor, MT2, from sheep. Experimental approach: Using a thermo-resistant reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction primer set homologous to the bovine MT2 mRNA sequence, we have cloned and characterized MT2 receptors from sheep retina. Key results: The ovine MT2 receptor presents 96%, 72% and 67% identity with cattle, human and rat respectively. This MT2 receptor stably expressed in CHO-K1 cells showed high-affinity 2[125I]-iodomelatonin binding (KD= 0.04 nM). The rank order of inhibition of 2[125I]-iodomelatonin binding by melatonin, 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin and luzindole was similar to that exhibited by MT2 receptors of other species (melatonin > 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin > luzindole). However, its pharmacological profile was closer to that of rat, rather than human MT2 receptors. Functionally, the ovine MT2 receptors were coupled to Gi proteins leading to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, as the other melatonin receptors. In sheep brain, MT2 mRNA was expressed in pars tuberalis, choroid plexus and retina, and moderately in mammillary bodies. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that in sheep pars tuberalis, premammillary hypothalamus and mammillary bodies, the temporal pattern of expression of MT1 and MT2 mRNA was not parallel in the three tissues. Conclusion and implications: Co-expression of MT1 and MT2 receptors in all analysed sheep brain tissues suggests that MT2 receptors may participate in melatonin regulation of seasonal anovulatory activity in ewes by modulating MT1 receptor action. PMID:19814723

Cogé, F; Guenin, SP; Fery, I; Migaud, M; Devavry, S; Slugocki, C; Legros, C; Ouvry, C; Cohen, W; Renault, N; Nosjean, O; Malpaux, B; Delagrange, P; Boutin, JA

2009-01-01

328

Determination of sex and scrapie resistance genotype in preimplantation ovine embryos.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of genotype diagnosis after pre-amplification of DNA extracted from biopsies obtained by microblade cutting of ovine embryos and to evaluate the viability of biopsied embryos after vitrification/warming and transfer to recipients. Sex and PrP genotypes were determined. Sex diagnosis was done by PCR amplification of ZFX/ZFY and SRY sequences after PEP-PCR while PrP genotype determination was performed after specific pre-amplification of specific target including codons 136, 154 and 171. Embryos were collected at Day 7 after oestrus. Blastocysts and expanded blastocysts were biopsied immediately after collection whereas compacted morulae were biopsied after 24 hr of in vitro culture. Eighty-nine biopsied embryos were frozen by vitrification. Fresh and vitrified whole embryos were kept as control. DNA of biopsies was extracted and pre-amplified. Sex diagnosis was efficient for 96.6% of biopsies and PrP genotyping was determined in 95.8% of codons. After embryo transfer, no significant difference was observed in lambing rate between biopsied, vitrified control and fresh embryos (54.5%, 60% and 66.6%, respectively). Embryo survival rate was not different between biopsied and whole vitrified embryos (P = 0.38). At birth, 96.7% of diagnosed sex and 95.4% of predetermined codons were correct. Lamb PrP profiles were in agreement with parental genotype. PEP-PCR coupled with sex diagnosis and nested PCR coupled with PrP genotype predetermination are very accurate techniques to genotype ovine embryo before transfer. These original results allow planning of selection of resistant genotype to scrapie and sex of offspring before transfer of cryopreserved embryo. PMID:18543282

Guignot, Florence; Baril, Gerard; Dupont, Francis; Cognie, Yves; Folch, Jose; Alabart, Jose Luis; Poulin, Naty; Beckers, Jean-Francois; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Babilliot, Jean-Marc; Mermillod, Pascal

2009-02-01

329

Detection of Helicobacter pylori in bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine milk in Iran.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. In the present study, 447 bulk milk samples from 230 dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds were collected in four provinces and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Using the cultural method, three of 447 milk samples (0.67%), including two sheep (2.2%) and one buffalo (1.6%) milk samples, were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 56 (12.5%) of milk samples, including 19 cow (14.1%), 11 sheep (12.2%), nine goat (8.7%), two camel (3.6%), and 15 buffalo (23.4%) milk samples. Using PCR method, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the level of contamination with H. pylori between milk samples collected from different species. The present study is the first report of the isolation of H. pylori from raw sheep and buffalo milk in Iran and the first demonstration of H. pylori DNA in camel and buffalo milk. PMID:22458716

Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kheirabadi, Elahe Kazemi

2012-05-01

330

The Local Effects of Ovarian Diathermy in an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30–100 gestation. Their female offspring (n?=?12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n?=?4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n?=?4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n?=?4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P?=?0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles. PMID:25343339

Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

2014-01-01

331

Lectin-histochemical analysis of glycans in ovine and bovine near-term placental binucleate cells.  

PubMed

Chorionic binucleate cells (BNC) occur in several ruminants including cow, deer, goat and sheep. They migrate through the chorionic tight junction to fuse with uterine epithelial cells and discharge their granules into maternal connective tissue. We have compared the BNC of near-term, resin-embedded, ovine and bovine placentae using 15 biotinylated lectins and an avidinperoxidase revealing system. There was pronounced conservation of saccharides between the two species. Several sub-types of N-glycan were present, with highly branched structures being abundant, as shown by Galanthus nivalis, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris (leuko) agglutinins. Among the non-reducing terminal saccharides conserved were GalNAc alpha 1,3(Fuc alpha 1,2)-Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc beta 1-, GalNAc alpha 1,6Gal beta 1-, Gal beta 1-, Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc- and Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha 1- shown by Dolichos biflorus, Wisteria floribunda, Erythrina cristagalli, and Maclura pomifera agglutinins, respectively. Arachis hypogaea and Glycine max agglutinins tended to bind to bovine BNC at different stages of maturity, while fucosyl residues detectable by Tetragonolobus purpureus and Ulex europaeus-1 agglutinins were not observed in either species. The only major difference related to sialyl residues, with alpha 2,3-linked sialic acid being present in bovine (Maackia amurensis, Limax flavus) and alpha 2,6 sialic acid being present in ovine (Sambucus nigra agglutinin) cells. This conservation of glycan may be related to glycosylation of peptide hormones in the granules, and may thus be important in the targeting of these hormones to their receptors. PMID:7850870

Jones, C J; Koob, B; Stoddart, R W; Hoffmann, B; Leiser, R

1994-12-01

332

Suppression of ovine lymphocyte activation by Teladorsagia circumcincta larval excretory-secretory products  

PubMed Central

Teladorsagia circumcincta is an important pathogenic nematode of sheep. It has been demonstrated previously that stimulation of murine T lymphocytes with excretory-secretory (ES) products derived from fourth stage larvae of T. circumcincta (Tci-L4-ES) results in de novo expression of Foxp3, a transcription factor intimately involved in regulatory T cell function. In the current study, Foxp3+ T cell responses in the abomasum and the effects of Tci-L4-ES on ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) following T. circumcincta infection were investigated. T. circumcincta infection resulted in a significant increase in numbers of abomasal Foxp3+ T cells, but not an increase in the proportion of T cells expressing Foxp3. Unlike in mice, Tci-L4-ES was incapable of inducing T cell Foxp3 expression but instead suppressed mitogen-induced and antigen-specific activation and proliferation of ovine PBMC in vitro. This effect was heat labile, suggesting that it is mediated by protein(s). Suppression was associated with up-regulation of interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA, and specific monoclonal antibody neutralisation of IL-10 resulted in a 50% reduction in suppression, indicating involvement of the IL-10 signaling pathway. Suppression was significantly reduced in PBMC isolated from T. circumcincta infected vs. helminth-naïve lambs, and this reduction in suppression was associated with an increase in Tci-L4-ES antigen-specific T cells within the PBMC. In conclusion, we have identified a mechanism by which T. circumcincta may modulate the host adaptive immune response, potentially assisting survival of the parasite within the host. However, the impact of Tci-L4-ES-mediated lymphocyte suppression during T. circumcincta infection remains to be determined. PMID:23964850

2013-01-01

333

Unexpected maturation of PI3K and MAPK-ERK signaling in fetal ovine cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

In the first two-thirds of gestation, ovine fetal cardiomyocytes undergo mitosis to increase cardiac mass and accommodate fetal growth. Thereafter, some myocytes continue to proliferate while others mature and terminally differentiate into binucleated cells. At term (145 days gestational age; dGA) about 60% of cardiomyocytes become binucleated and exit the cell cycle under hormonal control. Rising thyroid hormone (T3) levels near term (135 dGA) inhibit proliferation and stimulate maturation. However, the degree to which intracellular signaling patterns change with age in response to T3 is unknown. We hypothesized that in vitro activation of ERK, Akt, and p70(S6K) by two regulators of cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity, T3 and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), would be similar in cardiomyocytes at gestational ages 100 and 135 dGA. IGF-1 and T3 each independently stimulated phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, and p70(S6K) in cells at both ages. In the younger mononucleated myocytes, the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt was reduced in the presence of IGF-1 and T3. However, the same hormone combination led to a dramatic twofold increase in the phosphorylation of these signaling proteins in the 135 dGA cardiomyocytes-even in cells that were not proliferating. In the older cells, both mono- and binucleated cells were affected. In conclusion, fetal ovine cardiomyocytes undergo profound maturation-related changes in signaling in response to T3 and IGF-1, but not to either factor alone. Differences in age-related response are likely to be related to milestones in fetal cardiac development as the myocardium prepares for ex utero life. PMID:25128174

Chattergoon, N N; Louey, S; Stork, P J; Giraud, G D; Thornburg, K L

2014-10-15

334

Ovine and Bovine Congenital Abnormalities Associated With Intrauterine Infection With Schmallenberg Virus.  

PubMed

In December 2011, a previously unknown congenital syndrome of arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in sheep and cattle appeared in the Netherlands as an emerging epizootic due to Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Gross lesions in 102 lambs and 204 calves included porencephaly, hydranencephaly, cerebellar dysplasia and dysplasia of the brainstem and spinal cord, a flattened skull with brachygnathia inferior, arthrogryposis, and vertebral column malformations. Microscopic lesions in the central nervous system showed rarefaction and cavitation in the white matter, as well as degeneration, necrosis, and loss of neurons in the gray matter. Brain and spinal cord lesions were more severe in lambs than in calves. Ovine and bovine cases examined early in the outbreak showed encephalomyelitis. SBV infection was confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in brain samples in 46 of 102 lambs (45%) and in 32 of 204 calves (16%). Immunohistochemistry, performed on tissue samples from 18 RT-qPCR-positive lambs, confirmed the presence of bunyaviral antigen in neurons of the brain in 16 cases. SBV antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in fetal blood in 56 of 61 sampled ovine cases (92%). In a virus neutralization test, all tested dams of affected newborns, 46 ewes and 190 cows, were seropositive. Compared with other teratogenic viral infections, the pathogenesis and lesions of SBV in sheep and cattle fetuses are similar to those of other ruminant orthobunyaviruses. However, the loss of spinal ventral motor neurons and their tracts, resulting in micromyelia, distinguishes SBV infection from other viral central nervous system lesions in newborn ruminants. PMID:25428409

Peperkamp, N H; Luttikholt, S J; Dijkman, R; Vos, J H; Junker, K; Greijdanus, S; Roumen, M P; Garderen, E van; Meertens, N; Maanen, C van; Lievaart, K; Wuyckhuise, L van; Wouda, W

2014-11-26

335

Serosurvey on schmallenberg virus and selected ovine reproductive pathogens in culled ewes from southern Spain.  

PubMed

After the first case of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was reported in southern Spain (March 2012), a retrospective serological study was carried out in extensive sheep flocks from nearby areas to assess the history of exposure to SBV and other selected ovine reproductive pathogens (Chlamydophila abortus, Coxiella burnetii, Border Disease virus 'BDV', Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum). Secondly, the presence of antibodies was investigated in meat juice samples against selected pathogens to validate their use in serosurveys in sheep. A total of 209 Merina and cross-bred culled ewes belonging to 12 outdoor flocks managed in extensive breeding systems were sampled. Serum and meat juice samples were collected at the slaughterhouse and analysed using commercial ELISA kits. Chlamydophila abortus (62.68%, CI95 56.13-69.23) and Toxoplasma gondii (57.42%, CI95 50.72-64.12) were the most prevalent pathogens. The seroprevalence of BDV (16.27%, CI95 11.27-21.27) and Coxiella burnetii (13.88%, CI95 9.2-18.56) was moderate, and only 4 of 209 animals (1.91%, CI95 1.82-2.96) presented specific antibodies against Neospora caninum or SBV. All the examined ovine flocks were seropositive to three or more pathogens. The highest percentage of seropositive animals was detected for T. gondii-C. abortus coseropositive (25.36%) culled ewes. The concordance between serum and meat juice samples was moderate for T. gondii (? = 0.419) and BDV (? = 0.568), and fair for C. abortus (? = 0.311). Our results show evidence of circulation of SBV from summer 2011 in southern Spain. Furthermore, C. abortus and T. gondii were the most prevalent pathogens associated with sheep in outdoor rearing systems. Finally, these preliminary results point to meat juice samples as a potential biological sample for serosurveys studies on sheep. PMID:24219149

Astorga, R J; Reguillo, L; Hernández, M; Cardoso-Toset, F; Tarradas, C; Maldonado, A; Gómez-Laguna, J

2014-02-01

336

Corpus Clouds - Facilitating Text Analysis by Means of Visualizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Large text corpora are a main language resource for the human-driven analysis of linguistic phenomena. With the ever increasing\\u000a amount of data, it is vital to find ways to help people understand the data, and visualization techniques provide one way\\u000a to do that. Corpus Clouds is a program which provides visualizations of different types of frequency information dynamically\\u000a derived from

Chris Culy; Verena Lyding

2009-01-01

337

REX-J: Japanese referring expression corpus of situated dialogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying objects in conversation is a fundamental human capability necessary to achieve efficient collaboration on any\\u000a real world task. Hence the deepening of our understanding of human referential behaviour is indispensable for the creation\\u000a of systems that collaborate with humans in a meaningful way. We present the construction of REX-J, a multi-modal Japanese\\u000a corpus of referring expressions in situated dialogs,

Philipp Spanger; Masaaki Yasuhara; Ryu Iida; Takenobu Tokunaga; Asuka Terai; Naoko Kuriyama

338

5HT4 receptors in isolated human corpus cavernosum?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The novel serotonin subtype-4 (5-HT4) receptor agonist, SC53116 (SC), produced a limited relaxation of noradrenaline (NA) pre-contracted human corpus cavernosum (CC) smooth muscle in vitro. This effect was not significantly attenuated by the 5-HT4 antagonist SDZ250557 (SDZ). In the presence of (±) pindolol (1 ?M) and methysergide (1 ?M), employed to mask 5-HT1 and ?-adrenergic, and 5-HT2 receptors respectively, SC

ES Hayes; PG Adaikan; SS Ratnam; SC Ng

1999-01-01

339

Statistical shape analysis of the corpus callosum in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

We present a statistical shape-analysis framework for characterizing and comparing morphological variation of the corpus callosum. The midsagittal boundary of the corpus callosum is represented by a closed curve and analyzed using an invariant shape representation. The shape space of callosal curves is endowed with a Riemannian metric. Shape distances are given by the length of shortest paths (geodesics) that are invariant to shape-confounding transformations. The statistical framework enables computation of shape averages and covariances on the shape space in an intrinsic manner (unique to the shape space). The statistical framework makes use of the tangent principal component approach to achieve dimension reduction on the space of corpus callosum shapes. The advantages of this approach are – it is fully automatic, invariant, and avoids the use of landmarks to define shapes. We applied our method to determine the effects of sex, age, schizophrenia and schizophrenia-related genetic liability on callosal shape in a large sample of patients and controls and their first-degree relatives (N=218). Results showed significant age, sex, and schizophrenia effects on both global and local callosal shape structure. PMID:23000788

Joshi, Shantanu H.; Narr, Katherine L.; Philips, Owen R.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Asarnow, Robert F.; Toga, Arthur W.; Woods, Roger P.

2013-01-01

340

British Sign La nguage Corpus Pro ject: Open Access Archives a nd the Observer's Paradox  

Microsoft Academic Search

The British Sign Language Corpus Project is a new three-year project (2008-2010) that aims to create a machine-readable digital corpus of spontaneous and elicited British Sign Language (BSL) collected from deaf native signers and early learners across the United Kingdom. In the field of sign language studies, it represents a unique combination of methodology from variationist sociolinguistics and corpus linguistics.

Adam Schembri

341

What’s In a Note: Construction of a Suicide Note Corpus  

PubMed Central

This paper reports on the results of an initiative to create and annotate a corpus of suicide notes that can be used for machine learning. Ultimately, the corpus included 1,278 notes that were written by someone who died by suicide. Each note was reviewed by at least three annotators who mapped words or sentences to a schema of emotions. This corpus has already been used for extensive scientific research. PMID:23170067

Pestian, John P.; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Linn-Gust, Michelle

2012-01-01

342

Using A Japanese-English Parallel Corpus for Teaching English Vocabulary to Beginning-Level Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although recognized by educators as a potentially useful tool, until now corpus application has been limited because the English concordance examples retrieved have been difficult for beginning-level learners to understand. The recent development of Japanese-English parallel corpus programs have exciting potential for not only eliminating this barrier, but also in facilitating inductive corpus-based language learning in ways that have not

Kiyomi Chujo; Masao Utiyama; Shinji Miura

2006-01-01

343

Effects of cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs on inflammatory activation in ex vivo human and ovine fetal membranes.  

PubMed

Intrauterine infection and inflammation are responsible for the majority of early (<32 weeks) spontaneous preterm births (PTBs). Anti-inflammatory agents, delivered intra-amniotically together with antibiotics, may be an effective strategy for preventing PTB. In this study, the effects of four cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs (CSAIDs: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), SB239063, TPCA-1 and NEMO binding domain inhibitor (NBDI)) were assessed on human and ovine gestational membrane inflammation. Full-thickness membranes were collected from healthy, term, human placentas delivered by Caesarean section (n=5). Using a Transwell model, they were stimulated ex vivo with ?-irradiation-killed Escherichia coli applied to the amniotic face. Membranes from near-term, ovine placentas were stimulated in utero with lipopolysaccharide, Ureaplasma parvum or saline control and subjected to explant culture. The effects of treatment with CSAIDs or vehicle (1% DMSO) on accumulation of PGE2 and cytokines (human interleukin 6 (IL6), IL10 and TNF?; ovine IL8 (oIL8)) were assessed in conditioned media at various time points (3-20 ?h). In human membranes, the IKK? inhibitor TPCA-1 (7 ??M) and p38 MAPK inhibitor SB239063 (20 ??M) administered to the amniotic compartment were the most effective in inhibiting accumulation of cytokines and PGE2 in the fetal compartment. NAC (10 ?mM) inhibited accumulation of PGE2 and IL10 only; NBDI (10 ??M) had no significant effect. In addition to the fetal compartment, SB239063 also exerted consistent and significant inhibitory effects in the maternal compartment. TPCA-1 and SB239063 suppressed oIL8 production, while all CSAIDs tested suppressed ovine PGE2 production. These results support the further investigation of intra-amniotically delivered CSAIDs for the prevention of inflammation-mediated PTB. PMID:24493151

Stinson, Lisa F; Ireland, Demelza J; Kemp, Matthew W; Payne, Matthew S; Stock, Sarah J; Newnham, John P; Keelan, Jeffrey A

2014-03-01

344

Properties of Kefir made in Scotland and Poland using Bovine, Caprine and Ovine Milk with Different Starter Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varieties of Kefir were made in Poland and Scotland from bovine, caprine and ovine milk, using Kefir grains and two direct-to-vat inoculation (DVI) starter cultures. The chemical composition (g\\/kg) of the Kefir ranged from 106–149 for total solids, 29–64 for crude protein, 38–47 for carbohydrate, 7–11 for ash. The fat content was standardized to a mean value of 31 g\\/kg.

M. Wszolek; A. Y. Tamime; D. D. Muir; M. N. I. Barclay

2001-01-01

345

Quantitation of immunoglobulins in ovine sera and secretions by laser nephelometry. Comparison with the radial immunodiffusion (RID) technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In twenty-five ovine body fluids (serum, lung fluid and cerebro-spinal fluid), the concentrations of IgG1, IgG2, IgM and IgA were determined by laser nephelometry and radial immunodiffusion (RID). When nephelometric assays are carried out, antisera free from any turbidity are essential. Methods ensuring that goat and rabbit antisera will satisfy this requirement are described in the present paper. When sheep

J. Goudswaard; C. V. M. Verdouw-Chamalaun; A. Noordzij

1980-01-01

346

A Single Dose of Antenatal Betamethasone Enhances Isoprenaline and Prostaglandin E2Induced Relaxation of Preterm Ovine Pulmonary Arteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Adrenergic agonists and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) play an important role in perinatal pulmonary circulation. We have determined the effect of antenatal glucocorticoid treatment on isoprenaline- and PGE2-mediated relaxation of pulmonary arteries of newborn preterm lambs. Ovine fetuses (121 days of gestation; term = 150 days) received a single intramuscular dose of betamethasone (0.5 mg\\/kg) or saline. Fifteen hours after the

Yuansheng Gao; Jean-Francois Tolsa; Hai Shen; J. Usha Raj

1998-01-01

347

A single-base change in the tyrosine kinase II domain of ovine FGFR3 causes hereditary chondrodysplasia in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ovine hereditary chondrodysplasia, or spider lamb syndrome (SLS), is a genetic disorder that is characterized by severe skeletal abnormalities and has resulted in substantial eco- nomic losses for sheep producers. Here we demonstrate that a non-synonymous T>A transversion in the highly conserved tyrosine kinase II domain of a positional candidate gene, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), is responsible

J. E. Beever; M. A. Smit; S. N. Meyers; T. S. Hadfield; C. Bottema; J. Albretsen; N. E. Cockett

2006-01-01

348

Geometrical properties of the ovine tibia: a suitable animal model to study the pin-bone interface in fracture fixation?  

PubMed

To determine whether dimensional scaling (relative to the human) is necessary for screwed pins used in externally applied fracture fixation studies on sheep, geometrical data were determined for six ovine tibiae. Each tibia was potted relative to a lengthwise reference axis and sectioned at 5 per cent length intervals over its central 80 per cent. Enlarged (280 per cent) images of each cross-section were digitized at 1 mm increments around the periphery of the periosteal and endosteal surfaces, the data were digitally filtered, and geometrical properties were computed to include cross-sectional area A, maximum and minimum second moments of area (Imax and Imin), polar second moment of area J, and effective polar second moment of area J(eff). Proportional scaling of geometrical properties with respect to bone length (L2 for A, and L4 for second moments of area) significantly (p < 0.000001) decreased the coefficient of variation in data by an average 36 per cent. From 30-90 per cent distal, J(eff) for the ovine tibia is smaller but within 7 per cent of J--in stark contrast with the human tibia, where J(eff) has been reported as 70-80 per cent of J over the same tibial length. While previous ovine studies involving external fixator pins have employed the same diameter of pin as has been used in humans (that is 5 or 6 mm), a 'first-order' approximation of the data for A, Imax, Imin and J(eff) suggests these pins should be scaled down to 4 mm and 4.75 mm respectively for use on the ovine tibia over the range 25-80 per cent distal along its length. PMID:7669119

Finlay, J B; Hurtig, M B; Hardie, W R; Liggins, A B; Batte, S W

1995-01-01

349

Growth performances and carcass traits of Ovin Martinik lambs fed various ratios of tropical forage to concentrate under intensive conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted to determine the effects of supplementation upon intake, growth and carcass traits of Ovin Martinik hair sheep. Forty lambs weighing 20±3.7kg live weight (LW) were reared after weaning in individual pens during a 4-month experimental study. Four supplement levels were compared (10 lambs per treatment): the L0 group received the basal diet (tropical forage 0.75 UFL and

H. Archimède; P. Pellonde; P. Despois; T. Etienne; G. Alexandre

2008-01-01

350

Substantial differences between human and ovine mesenchymal stem cells in response to osteogenic media: how to explain and how to manage?  

PubMed

It is expected that use of adult multipotential mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bone tissue engineering (TE) will lead to improvement of TE products. Prior to clinical application, biocompatibility of bone TE products need to be tested in vitro and in vivo. In orthopedic research, sheep are a well-accepted model due to similarities with humans and are assumed to be predictive of human outcomes. In this study we uncover differences between human and ovine bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ADSCs) in response to osteogenic media. Osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and ADSCs was monitored by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition. Mineralization of ovine BMSC was achieved in medium containing NaH2PO4 as a source of phosphate ions (Pi), but not in medium containing ?-glycerophosphate (?-GP), which is most often used. In a detailed study we found no induction of ALP activity in ovine BMSCs and ADSCs upon osteogenic stimulation, which makes ?-GP an unsuitable source of phosphate ions for ovine cells. Moreover, mineralization of human ADSCs was more efficient in osteogenic medium containing NaH2PO4. These results indicate major differences between ovine and human MSCs and suggest that standard in vitro osteogenic differentiation techniques may not be suitable for all types of cells used in cell-based therapies. Since mineralization is a widely accepted marker of the osteogenic differentiation and maturation of cells in culture, it may lead to potentially misleading results and should be taken into account at the stage of planning and interpreting preclinical observations performed in animal models. We also present a cell culture protocol for ovine ADSCs, which do not express ALP activity and do not mineralize under routine pro-osteogenic conditions in vitro. We plan to apply it in preclinical experiments of bone tissue-engineered products performed in an ovine model. PMID:24083091

Kalaszczynska, Ilona; Ruminski, Slawomir; Platek, Anna E; Bissenik, Igor; Zakrzewski, Piotr; Noszczyk, Maria; Lewandowska-Szumiel, Malgorzata

2013-10-01

351

Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. Results Using cultural method, 19 samples (7.3%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw water buffalo milk (11.8%), followed by raw bovine milk (10.6%), raw ovine milk (7.1%), and raw caprine milk (4.2%) samples. All 37 camel milk samples from 20 camel breeding farms were negative for Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria was 7.3%, in which Listeria innocua was the most recovered species (4.2%); the remaining isolates were Listeria monocytogenes (1.9%), Listeria ivanovii (0.08%) and Listeria seeligari (0.04%). The PCR assay could identify 8 Listeria-contaminated milk samples that were negative using the cultural method. Conclusions The results presented in this study indicate the potential risk of infection with Listeria in people consuming raw and unpasteurized milk.

Rahimi, Ebrahim; Momtaz, Hassan; Behzadnia, Asma; Baghbadorani, Zeinab Torki

2014-01-01

352

Effect of human, bovine and ovine prolactin on DNA synthesis by organ cultures of benign human breast tumours.  

PubMed Central

Ten benign breast tumours from 9 female patients (8 with fibrocystic disease and 1 with fibroadenoma) and 1 male patient (with gynaecomastia) were processed into slices and individually cultured for 2 days in serum-free Medium 199. [3H]-TdR was added to the culture medium to assess DNA synthesis. The addition of human prolactin to the culture medium (500 ng/ml) significantly (0.05 greater than P greater than 0.01) increased DNA synthesis; all 9 biopsy specimens from the 9 female patients responded positively to this hormone. Ovine prolactin (500 ng/ml) and bovine prolactin (500 ng/ml) increased the mean incorporation of [3H]-TdR into extracted DNA and increased the mean number of [3H]-TdR-labelled cells, but this increase did not reach the 5% level of probability. The sole case of male breast dysplasia analysed in this study did not respond to either human, ovine or bovine prolactin. These results provide evidence that human prolactin and, to a lesser degree, ovine and bovine prolactin are direct mitogenic stimulants to the epithelium in human (female) benign breast tumours. PMID:575047

Welsch, C. W.; Dombroske, S. E.; McManus, M. J.; Calaf, G.

1979-01-01

353

Applications of the Buckeye GTA Corpus for L2 teaching and research Jocelyn B. Hardman1  

E-print Network

on classroom communication and acoustic phonetic patterns. These projects demonstrate how investigations phonological acquisition. Index Terms: corpus studies, pronunciation, intelligibility, phonetics, SLA, L2

Fujimoto, Hiroshi

354

EFFECTS OF CORPUS CHRISTI BAY SEDIMENTS ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The study described here examined effects on mortality, growth, reproduction, and behavior of Americamysis bahi exposed under extended static conditions to bedded sediments from Corpus Christi Bay. ...

355

The Effect of Corpus Size on Case Frame Acquisition for Predicate-Argument Structure Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the effect of corpus size on case frame acquisition for predicate-argument structure analysis in Japanese. For this study, we collect a Japanese corpus consisting of up to 100 billion words, and construct case frames from corpora of six different sizes. Then, we apply these case frames to syntactic and case structure analysis, and zero anaphora resolution, in order to investigate the relationship between the corpus size for case frame acquisition and the performance of predicate-argument structure analysis. We obtained better analyses by using case frames constructed from larger corpora; the performance was not saturated even with a corpus size of 100 billion words.

Sasano, Ryohei; Kawahara, Daisuke; Kurohashi, Sadao

356

Corpus callosum thickness in children: an MR pattern-recognition approach on the midsagittal image.  

PubMed

Thickening of the corpus callosum is an important feature of development, whereas thinning of the corpus callosum can be the result of a number of diseases that affect development or cause destruction of the corpus callosum. Corpus callosum thickness reflects the volume of the hemispheres and responds to changes through direct effects or through Wallerian degeneration. It is therefore not only important to evaluate the morphology of the corpus callosum for congenital anomalies but also to evaluate the thickness of specific components or the whole corpus callosum in association with other findings. The goal of this pictorial review is raise awareness that the thickness of the corpus callosum can be a useful feature of pathology in pediatric central nervous system disease and must be considered in the context of the stage of development of a child. Thinning of the corpus callosum can be primary or secondary, and generalized or focal. Primary thinning is caused by abnormal or failed myelination related to the hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies, metabolic disorders affecting white matter, and microcephaly. Secondary thinning of the corpus callosum can be caused by diffuse injury such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, dysmyelinating conditions and demyelinating conditions. Focal disturbance of formation or focal injury also causes localized thinning, e.g., callosal dysgenesis, metabolic disorders with localized effects, hypoglycemia, white matter injury of prematurity, HIV-related atrophy, infarction and vasculitis, trauma and toxins. The corpus callosum might be too thick because of a primary disorder in which the corpus callosum finding is essential to diagnosis; abnormal thickening can also be secondary to inflammation, infection and trauma. PMID:25173405

Andronikou, Savvas; Pillay, Tanyia; Gabuza, Lungile; Mahomed, Nasreen; Naidoo, Jaishree; Hlabangana, Linda Tebogo; du Plessis, Vicci; Prabhu, Sanjay P

2015-02-01

357

Collective Instance-Level Gene Normalization on the IGN Corpus  

PubMed Central

A high proportion of life science researches are gene-oriented, in which scientists aim to investigate the roles that genes play in biological processes, and their involvement in biological mechanisms. As a result, gene names and their related information turn out to be one of the main objects of interest in biomedical literatures. While the capability of recognizing gene mentions has made significant progress, the results of recognition are still insufficient for direct use due to the ambiguity of gene names. Gene normalization (GN) goes beyond the recognition task by linking a gene mention to a database ID. Unlike most previous works, we approach GN on the instance-level and evaluate its overall performance on the recognition and normalization steps in abstracts and full texts. We release the first instance-level gene normalization (IGN) corpus in the BioC format, which includes annotations for the boundaries of all gene mentions and the corresponding IDs for human gene mentions. Species information, along with existing co-reference chains and full name/abbreviation pairs are also provided for each gene mention. Using the released corpus, we have designed a collective instance-level GN approach using not only the contextual information of each individual instance, but also the relations among instances and the inherent characteristics of full-text sections. Our experimental results show that our collective approach can achieve an F-score of 0.743. The proposed approach that exploits section characteristics in full-text articles can improve the F-scores of information lacking sections by up to 1.8%. In addition, using the proposed refinement process improved the F-score of gene mention recognition by 0.125 and that of GN by 0.03. Whereas current experimental results are limited to the human species, we seek to continue updating the annotations of the IGN corpus and observe how the proposed approach can be extended to other species. PMID:24282506

Dai, Hong-Jie; Wu, Johnny Chi-Yang; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han

2013-01-01

358

A corpus-based approach for automated LOINC mapping  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether the knowledge contained in a rich corpus of local terms mapped to LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes) could be leveraged to help map local terms from other institutions. Methods We developed two models to test our hypothesis. The first based on supervised machine learning was created using Apache's OpenNLP Maxent and the second based on information retrieval was created using Apache's Lucene. The models were validated by a random subsampling method that was repeated 20 times and that used 80/20 splits for training and testing, respectively. We also evaluated the performance of these models on all laboratory terms from three test institutions. Results For the 20 iterations used for validation of our 80/20 splits Maxent and Lucene ranked the correct LOINC code first for between 70.5% and 71.4% and between 63.7% and 65.0% of local terms, respectively. For all laboratory terms from the three test institutions Maxent ranked the correct LOINC code first for between 73.5% and 84.6% (mean 78.9%) of local terms, whereas Lucene's performance was between 66.5% and 76.6% (mean 71.9%). Using a cut-off score of 0.46 Maxent always ranked the correct LOINC code first for over 57% of local terms. Conclusions This study showed that a rich corpus of local terms mapped to LOINC contains collective knowledge that can help map terms from other institutions. Using freely available software tools, we developed a data-driven automated approach that operates on term descriptions from existing mappings in the corpus. Accurate and efficient automated mapping methods can help to accelerate adoption of vocabulary standards and promote widespread health information exchange. PMID:23676247

Fidahussein, Mustafa; Vreeman, Daniel J

2014-01-01

359

Corpus analysis and automatic detection of emotion-including keywords  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emotion words play a vital role in many sentiment analysis tasks. Previous research uses sentiment dictionary to detect the subjectivity or polarity of words. In this paper, we dive into Emotion-Inducing Keywords (EIK), which refers to the words in use that convey emotion. We first analyze an emotion corpus to explore the pragmatic aspects of EIK. Then we design an effective framework for automatically detecting EIK in sentences by utilizing linguistic features and context information. Our system outperforms traditional dictionary-based methods dramatically in increasing Precision, Recall and F1-score.

Yuan, Bo; He, Xiangqing; Liu, Ying

2013-12-01

360

Anatomy of the Corpus vasculare paracloacale of the male turkey.  

PubMed

The copulatory apparatus of the male turkey consists of two parts: the Phallus nonprotrudens, composed of the paired Corpora phallica lateralia and Plicae lymphaticae, and the paired Corpora vascularia paracloacalia. The Corpus vasculare paracloacale receives its vascular supply and drainage from the Arteria (A.) and Vena (V.) pudenda interna, respectively, and its innervation from the Nervus pudendus internus. During sexual stimulation lymph produced in the Corpora vascularia paracloacalia rapidly flows through the lymph sinuses into larger lymph channels located in the Phallus nonprotrudens producing tumescence. With detumescence, the lymph flows cranially from Phallus nonprotrudens into the Vasa lymphatica pudenda interna, which parallels the A. and V. pudenda interna. PMID:6483748

Knight, C E; Bakst, M R; Cecil, H C

1984-09-01

361

Unsupervised Chunking Based on Graph Propagation from Bilingual Corpus  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel approach for unsupervised shallow parsing model trained on the unannotated Chinese text of parallel Chinese-English corpus. In this approach, no information of the Chinese side is applied. The exploitation of graph-based label propagation for bilingual knowledge transfer, along with an application of using the projected labels as features in unsupervised model, contributes to a better performance. The experimental comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms show that the proposed approach is able to achieve impressive higher accuracy in terms of F-score. PMID:24772017

Chao, Lidia S.

2014-01-01

362

Corpus-Based Problem Selection for EHR Note Summarization.  

PubMed

Physicians have access to patient notes in volumes far greater than what is practical to read within the context of a standard clinical scenario. As a preliminary step toward being able to provide a longitudinal summary of patient history, methods are examined for the automated extraction of relevant patient problems from existing clinical notes. We explore a grounded approach to identifying important patient problems from patient history. Methods build on existing NLP and text-summarization methodologies and leverage features observed in a relevant corpus. PMID:21347092

Van Vleck, Tielman T; Elhadad, Noémie

2010-01-01

363

Corpus-Based Problem Selection for EHR Note Summarization  

PubMed Central

Physicians have access to patient notes in volumes far greater than what is practical to read within the context of a standard clinical scenario. As a preliminary step toward being able to provide a longitudinal summary of patient history, methods are examined for the automated extraction of relevant patient problems from existing clinical notes. We explore a grounded approach to identifying important patient problems from patient history. Methods build on existing NLP and text-summarization methodologies and leverage features observed in a relevant corpus. PMID:21347092

Van Vleck, Tielman T.; Elhadad, Noémie

2010-01-01

364

Perspectives on dichotic listening and the corpus callosum.  

PubMed

The present review summarizes historic and recent research which has investigated the role of the corpus callosum in dichotic processing within the context of audiology. Examination of performance by certain clinical groups, including split brain patients, multiple sclerosis cases, and other types of neurological lesions is included. Maturational, age related, and genetic factors are also discussed. Finally, some attention is given to recent trends in audiology research to develop improved diagnostic and rehabilitation tools for individuals with dichotic deficits potentially related to callosal dysfunction. PMID:21531063

Musiek, Frank E; Weihing, Jeffrey

2011-07-01

365

1 | P a g e Corpus Callosum deformation analysis in Multiple Sclerosis  

E-print Network

1 | P a g e Corpus Callosum deformation analysis in Multiple Sclerosis *F. Derraz, **A. Pinti, *B to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesion. We propose an approach for 3D segmentation of the volume of interest based the criterion established in this paper. Key words : Segmentation, multiple sclerosis, corpus callosum, medical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

366

Design and Construction of Knowledge base for Verb using MRD and Tagged Corpus 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper represents the procedure of building syntactic knowledge base. This study is to construct basic sentence pattern automatically by using the POS-tagged corpus in balanced KAIST corpus, and electronic dictionary for Korean, and to construct syntactic knowledge base with specific information added to the lexicographer's analysis. The summary of work process will be as follows: 1) Extraction of characteristic

Young-Soog Chae; Key-Sun Choi

367

"Nice Things Get Said": Corpus Evidence and the National Literacy Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article compares evidence from an electronic corpus of texts written for a child audience with specifications in the National Literacy Strategy. The concepts and terminology associated with corpus linguistics are introduced and explained, and the research study from which the findings derive is summarised. Results of the analysis are presented…

Sealey, Alison; Thompson, Paul

2006-01-01

368

Interpreting the Discourse of H.G. Widdowson: A Corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The discourse of a recent position paper by H.G. Widdowson is analyzed by using three methods criticized in Widdowson's paper. The paper was converted into a miniature data corpus and analyzed with the concepts of systemic functional linguistics, corpus linguistics, and critical discourse analysis. (Author/VWL)

de Beaugrande, Robert

2001-01-01

369

Use of Corpus in the Business English Classroom: From Lesser to More Specific.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The integration of a corpus-based approach in the English for Specific Purposes (ESP) syllabus is one possible course design step in university settings. This paper describes a situation in which Business English is taught by incorporating corpus-driven knowledge and communicative task feedback. Two main goals are pursued in this reciprocal…

Fuentes, Alejandro Curado; Rokowski, Patricia Edwards

370

Designing and Recording an Emotional Speech Database for Corpus Based Synthesis in Basque  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an emotional speech database recorded for standard Basque. The database has been designed with the twofold purpose of being used for corpus based synthesis, and also of allowing the study of prosodic models for the emotions. The database is thus large, to get good corpus based synthesis quality and contains the same texts recorded in the six

Ibon Saratxaga; Eva Navas; Inmaculada Hernáez; Iker Luengo

371

Base de Donnes annotes et Wiki pour la constitution du corpus numrique CARE Pascale Chevalier14  

E-print Network

Base de Données annotées et Wiki pour la constitution du corpus numérique-forme collaborative, WikiBridge, gérant les connaissances du corpus CARE. Cette plate-forme offre modélisée par une ontologie. La plate-forme est basée sur une interface wiki

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

372

How to Avoid Burning Ducks: Combining Linguistic Analysis and Corpus Statistics  

E-print Network

. The empirical approach of Koehn and Knight (2003) splits German compounds into words found in a training corpusHow to Avoid Burning Ducks: Combining Linguistic Analysis and Corpus Statistics for German Compound Processing Fabienne Fritzinger and Alexander Fraser Institute for Natural Language Processing University

Fraser, Alexander M.

373

The design for the wall street journal-based CSR corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DARPA Spoken Language System (SLS) community has long taken a leadership position in designing, implementing, and globally distributing significant speech corpora widely used for advancing speech recognition research. The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) CSR Corpus described here is the newest addition to this valuable set of resources. In contrast to previous corpora, the WSJ corpus will provide DARPA its

Douglas B. Paul; Janet M. Baker

1992-01-01

374

English Collocation Learning through Corpus Data: On-Line Concordance and Statistical Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed an English Collocations On Demand system offering on-line corpus and concordance information to help Japanese researchers acquire a better command of English collocation patterns. The Life Science Dictionary Corpus consists of approximately 90,000,000 words collected from life science related research papers published in academic…

Ohtake, Hiroshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Morren, Brian; Ugawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Shuji

2012-01-01

375

A Corpus-Based Approach to Online Materials Development for Writing Research Articles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been increasing interest in the possible applications of corpora to both linguistic research and pedagogy. This study takes a corpus-based, genre-analytic approach to discipline-specific materials development. Combining corpus analysis with genre analysis makes it possible to develop teaching materials that are not only authentic but…

Chang, Ching-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hua

2011-01-01

376

Automatic Extraction of Bilingual Terms From A Chinese-Japanese Parallel Corpus  

E-print Network

Automatic Extraction of Bilingual Terms From A Chinese-Japanese Parallel Corpus Xiaorong Fan.itc.u-tokyo.ac.jp ABSTRACT This paper proposes a new approach for the automatic extraction of bilingual terms from a domain-specific bilingual parallel corpus. We combine existing monolingual term extractor and a word alignment tool

Nakagawa, Hiroshi

377

The Buckeye corpus of conversational speech: labeling conventions and a test of transcriber reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Buckeye corpus of spontaneous American English speech, a 307,000-word corpus contain- ing the speech of 40 talkers from central Ohio, USA. The method used to elicit and record the speech is described, fol- lowed by a description of the protocol that was developed to phonemically label what talkers said. The results of a test of labeling

Mark A. Pitt; Keith Johnson; Elizabeth Hume; Scott Kiesling; William Raymond

2005-01-01

378

The ACL Anthology Reference Corpus: A Reference Dataset for Bibliographic Research in Computational Linguistics  

E-print Network

The ACL Anthology Reference Corpus: A Reference Dataset for Bibliographic Research in Computational@umiacs.umd.edu, {gibsonb,mtjoseph,radev}@umich.edu, {kanmy,tanyeefa}@comp.nus.edu.sg, dongwon@psu.edu Abstract The ACL an enriched and standardized reference corpus derived from the ACL Anthology that can be used for research

Dale, Robert

379

Capturing L2 Accuracy Developmental Patterns: Insights from an Error-Tagged EFL Learner Corpus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present article addresses the issue of second language accuracy developmental trajectories and shows how they can be captured via an error-tagged version of an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learner corpus. The data used in this study were extracted from the International Corpus of Learner English (Granger et al., 2009) and consist of a…

Thewissen, Jennifer

2013-01-01

380

Job Title Substance Abuse Counselor Clinical Supervision (Corpus Christi, TX) Employer/ Agency Danya International, Inc.  

E-print Network

Job Title Substance Abuse Counselor Clinical Supervision (Corpus Christi, TX) Employer/ Agency Navy substance abuse counselors stationed in Corpus Christi, Texas. This is a part-time contract treatment. Seven years full-time direct counseling experience with substance abusers. Four years experience

Azevedo, Ricardo

381

Language with Character: A Stratified Corpus Comparison of Individual Differences in E-Mail Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To what extent does the wording and syntactic form of people's writing reflect their personalities? Using a bottom-up stratified corpus comparison, rather than the top-down content analysis techniques that have been used before, we examine a corpus of e-mail messages elicited from individuals of known personality, as measured by the Eysenck…

Oberlander, Jon; Gill, Alastair J.

2006-01-01

382

The JRC-Acquis: A multilingual aligned parallel corpus with 20+ languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new, unique and freely available parallel corpus containing European Union (EU) documents of mostly legal nature. It is available in all 20 official EU languages, with additional documents being available in the languages of the EU candidate countries. The corpus consists of almost 8,000 documents per language, with an average size of nearly 9 million words per

Ralf Steinberger; Bruno Pouliquen; Anna Widiger; Camelia Ignat; Tomaz Erjavec; Dan Tufis; Daniel Varga

2006-01-01

383

Using Edit Distance to Analyse Errors in a Natural Language to Logic Translation Corpus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have assembled a large corpus of student submissions to an automatic grading system, where the subject matter involves the translation of natural language sentences into propositional logic. Of the 2.3 million translation instances in the corpus, 286,000 (approximately 12%) are categorized as being in error. We want to understand the nature of…

Barker-Plummer, Dave; Dale, Robert; Cox, Richard; Romanczuk, Alex

2012-01-01

384

75 FR 43886 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

This action proposes to amend Class E airspace in the Corpus Christi, TX area. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Corpus Christi International Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at the...

2010-07-27

385

Textual, Genre and Social Features of Spoken Grammar: A Corpus-Based Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a corpus-based approach to teaching and learning spoken grammar for English for Academic Purposes with reference to Bhatia's (2002) multi-perspective model for discourse analysis: a textual perspective, a genre perspective and a social perspective. From a textual perspective, corpus-informed instruction helps students identify…

Perez-Llantada, Carmen

2009-01-01

386

The Pedagogical Mediation of a Developmental Learner Corpus for Classroom-Based Language Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although corpora have been used in language teaching for some time, few empirical studies explore their impact on learning outcomes. We provide a microgenetic account of learners' responses to corpus-driven instructional units for German modal particles and pronominal "da"-compounds. The units are based on developmental corpus data produced by…

Belz, Julie A.; Vyatkina, Nina

2008-01-01

387

Attitudes towards English in Norway: A Corpus-Based Study of Attitudinal Expressions in Newspaper Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores some dimensions of how the role of the English language in Norway has been discursively constructed in newspapers during recent years, based on the analysis of data from the five-year period 2008-2012. The analysis is conducted using a specialised corpus containing 3,743 newspaper articles which were subjected to corpus-based…

Graedler, Anne-Line

2014-01-01

388

Applying Corpus-Based Findings to Form-Focused Instruction: The Case of Reported Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguing that the introduction of corpus linguistics in teaching materials and the language classroom should be informed by theories and principles of SLA, this paper presents a case study illustrating how corpus-based findings on reported speech can be integrated into a form-focused model of instruction. After overviewing previous work which…

Barbieri, Federica; Eckhardt, Suzanne E. B.

2007-01-01

389

Combined hepatoid and serous carcinoma of the uterine corpus: an undescribed phenomenon.  

PubMed

We report the first case of combined hepatoid and serous adenocarcinoma arising in the uterine corpus here. The patient is a 63-year-old Japanese woman. She presented with vaginal abnormal bleeding and subsequent imaging analysis disclosed a mass in the uterine corpus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25393224

Kuroda, Naoto; Moritani, Suzuko; Ichihara, Shu

2014-11-12

390

The Use of Corpus Concordancing for Second Language Learners' Self Error-Correction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corpus concordancing has been utilized in second language (L2) writing classrooms for a few decades. Some studies have shown that this application is helpful, to a certain degree, to learners' writing process. However, how corpus concordancing is utilized for nonnative speakers' (NNSs) self error-correction in writing, especially the…

Feng, Hui-Hsien

2014-01-01

391

Verb-Noun Collocations in Second Language Writing: A Corpus Analysis of Learners' English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the use of English verb-noun collocations in the writing of native speakers of Hebrew at three proficiency levels. For this purpose, we compiled a learner corpus that consists of about 300,000 words of argumentative and descriptive essays. For comparison purposes, we selected LOCNESS, a corpus of young adult native…

Laufer, Batia; Waldman, Tina

2011-01-01

392

Corpus Callosum and Prefrontal Functions in Adolescents with History of Very Preterm Birth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very preterm (VPT) birth can account for thinning of the corpus callosum and poorer cognitive performance. Research findings about preterm and VPT adolescents usually describe a small posterior corpus callosum, although our research group has also found reductions of the anterior part, specifically the genu. The aim of the present study was to…

Narberhaus, Ana; Segarra, Dolors; Caldu, Xavier; Gimenez, Monica; Pueyo, Roser; Botet, Francesc; Junque, Carme

2008-01-01

393

Ultrasound measurement of the corpus callosum and neural development of premature infants  

PubMed Central

Length and thickness of 152 corpus callosa were measured in neonates within 24 hours of birth. Using ultrasonic diagnostic equipment with a neonatal brain-specific probe, corpus callosum length and thickness of the genu, body, and splenium were measured on the standard mid-sagittal plane, and the anteroposterior diameter of the genu was measured in the coronal plane. Results showed that corpus callosum length as well as thickness of the genu and splenium increased with tional age and birth weight, while other measures did not. These three factors on the standard mid-sagittal plane are therefore likely to be suitable for real-time evaluation of corpus callosum velopment in premature infants using cranial ultrasound. Further analysis revealed that thickness of the body and splenium and the anteroposterior diameter of the genu were greater in male infants than in female infants, suggesting that there are sex differences in corpus callosum size during the neonatal period. A second set of measurements were taken from 40 premature infants whose gestational age was 34 weeks or less. Corpus callosum measurements were corrected to a gestational age of 40 weeks, and infants were grouped for analysis depending on the outcome of a neonatal behavioral neurological assessment. Compared with infants with a normal neurological assessment, corpus callosum length and genu and splenium thicknesses were less in those with abnormalities, indicating that corpus callosum growth in premature infants is associated with neurobehavioral development during the early extrauterine stage. PMID:25206553

Liu, Fang; Cao, Shikao; Liu, Jiaoran; Du, Zhifang; Guo, Zhimei; Ren, Changjun

2013-01-01

394

Corpus-Based Work and Discourse Analysis in FL Pedagogy: A Reassessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pinpoints specificities of computer-aided corpus-based work in foreign language pedagogic contexts and assesses how they can feed into language teaching and learning practices generally, despite the ostensible pedagogic and processing shortcomings of corpus-based work in these kinds of contexts. (Author/VWL)

Guillot, Marie-Noelle

2002-01-01

395

A Corpus-Based View of Lexical Gender in Written Business English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates lexical gender in specialized communication. The key method of analysis is that of forms of address, professional titles, and "generic man" in a 10 million word corpus of written Business English. After a brief introduction and literature review on both gender in specialized communication and similar corpus-based views of…

Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.

2007-01-01

396

The Language Learner as Language Researcher: Putting Corpus Linguistics on the Timetable.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an attempt to make room for the subject corpus linguistics in an already packed English language major undergraduate program. Describes the rationale for bringing together two existing subjects--information technology and discourse analysis--to more systematically and meaningfully introduce students to corpus-based language study in…

Cheng, Winnie; Warren, Martin; Xun-Feng, Xu

2003-01-01

397

Formulaic Language in Native and Second Language Speakers: Psycholinguistics, Corpus Linguistics, and TESOL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural language makes considerable use of recurrent formulaic patterns of words. This article triangulates the construct of "formula" from corpus linguistic, psycholinguistic, and educational perspectives. It describes the corpus linguistic extraction of pedagogically useful formulaic sequences for academic speech and writing. It determines…

Ellis, Nick C.; Simpson-Vlach, Rita; Maynard, Carson

2008-01-01

398

A quantitative MRI study of the corpus callosum in children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total midsagittal area and seven subdivisions of the corpus callosum were measured on magnetic resonance images of 114 healthy boys and girls, aged 4 to 18. Striking variability of size was noted for all measures. Total midsagittal corpus callosum area increased in a robust and linear fashion from ages 4 to 18 (slope = 13.1 mm2\\/year, P = 0.0001 and

Jay N. Giedd; Judith M. Rumsey; F. Xavier Castellanos; Jagath C. Rajapakse; Debra Kaysen; A. Catherine Vaituzis; Yolanda C. Vauss; Susan D. Hamburger; Judith L. Rapoport

1996-01-01

399

Corpus-based Approach to Creating a Semantic Lexicon for Clinical Research Eligibility Criteria from UMLS.  

PubMed

We describe a corpus-based approach to creating a semantic lexicon using UMLS knowledge sources. We extracted 10,000 sentences from the eligibility criteria sections of clinical trial summaries contained in ClinicalTrials.gov. The UMLS Metathesaurus and SPECIALIST Lexical Tools were used to extract and normalize UMLS recognizable terms. When annotated with Semantic Network types, the corpus had a lexical ambiguity of 1.57 (=total types for unique lexemes / total unique lexemes) and a word occurrence ambiguity of 1.96 (=total type occurrences / total word occurrences). A set of semantic preference rules was developed and applied to completely eliminate ambiguity in semantic type assignment. The lexicon covered 95.95% UMLS-recognizable terms in our corpus. A total of 20 UMLS semantic types, representing about 17% of all the distinct semantic types assigned to corpus lexemes, covered about 80% of the vocabulary of our corpus. PMID:21347142

Luo, Zhihui; Duffy, Robert; Johnson, Stephen; Weng, Chunhua

2010-01-01

400

Corpus-based Approach to Creating a Semantic Lexicon for Clinical Research Eligibility Criteria from UMLS  

PubMed Central

We describe a corpus-based approach to creating a semantic lexicon using UMLS knowledge sources. We extracted 10,000 sentences from the eligibility criteria sections of clinical trial summaries contained in ClinicalTrials.gov. The UMLS Metathesaurus and SPECIALIST Lexical Tools were used to extract and normalize UMLS recognizable terms. When annotated with Semantic Network types, the corpus had a lexical ambiguity of 1.57 (=total types for unique lexemes / total unique lexemes) and a word occurrence ambiguity of 1.96 (=total type occurrences / total word occurrences). A set of semantic preference rules was developed and applied to completely eliminate ambiguity in semantic type assignment. The lexicon covered 95.95% UMLS-recognizable terms in our corpus. A total of 20 UMLS semantic types, representing about 17% of all the distinct semantic types assigned to corpus lexemes, covered about 80% of the vocabulary of our corpus. PMID:21347142

Luo, Zhihui; Duffy, Robert; Johnson, Stephen; Weng, Chunhua

2010-01-01

401

Organising white matter in a brain without corpus callosum fibres.  

PubMed

Isolated corpus callosum dysgenesis (CCD) is a congenital malformation which occurs during early development of the brain. In this study, we aimed to identify and describe its consequences beyond the lack of callosal fibres, on the morphology, microstructure and asymmetries of the main white matter bundles with diffusion imaging and fibre tractography. Seven children aged between 9 and 13 years old and seven age- and gender-matched control children were studied. First, we focused on bundles within the mesial region of the cerebral hemispheres: the corpus callosum, Probst bundles and cingulum which were selected using a conventional region-based approach. We demonstrated that the Probst bundles have a wider connectivity than the previously described rostrocaudal direction, and a microstructure rather distinct from the cingulum but relatively close to callosal remnant fibres. A sigmoid bundle was found in two partial ageneses. Second, the corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations and association bundles were extracted automatically via an atlas of adult white matter bundles to overcome bias resulting from a priori knowledge of the bundles' anatomical morphology and trajectory. Despite the lack of callosal fibres and the colpocephaly observed in CCD, all major white matter bundles were identified with a relatively normal morphology, and preserved microstructure (i.e. fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity) and asymmetries. Consequently the bundles' organisation seems well conserved in brains with CCD. These results await further investigations with functional imaging before apprehending the cognition variability in children with isolated dysgenesis. PMID:25282054

Bénézit, Audrey; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Monzalvo, Karla; Germanaud, David; Duclap, Delphine; Guevara, Pamela; Mangin, Jean-François; Poupon, Cyril; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Dubois, Jessica

2014-09-11

402

A human language corpus for interstellar message construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of HuLCC (the human language chorus corpus), is to provide a resource of sufficient size to facilitate inter-language analysis by incorporating languages from all the major language families: for the first time all aspects of typology will be incorporated within a single corpus, adhering to a consistent grammatical classification and granularity, which historically adopt a plethora of disparate schemes. An added feature will be the inclusion of a common text element, which will be translated across all languages, to provide a precise comparable thread for detailed linguistic analysis for translation strategies and a mechanism by which these mappings can be explicitly achieved. Methods developed to solve unambiguous mappings across these languages can then be adopted for any subsequent message authored by the SETI community. Initially, it is planned to provide at least 20,000 words for each chosen language, as this amount of text exceeds the point where randomly generated text can be disambiguated from natural language and is of sufficient size useful for message transmission [1] (Elliot, 2002). This paper details the design of this resource, which ultimately will be made available to SETI upon its completion, and discusses issues 'core' to any message construction.

Elliott, John

2011-02-01

403

Emotional structure of jokes: a corpus-based investigation.  

PubMed

Although considerable attention has been paid to the cognitive structure of humor, its emotional structure tends to be overlooked. Humor is often associated with the single emotion of mirth or amusement, while other aspects of its rich emotional structure are ignored. The purpose of the present study was to explore this structure by analyzing the content of a Taiwanese corpus of 204 'negative' jokes to identify the basic emotion was induced and the emotional shift pattern of the joke. Additionally, the corpus might be used to compare emotional reversal jokes (negative to positive emotion) and regular jokes (neutral to positive emotion) as an aid when preparing materials for use in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) investigations on the neural substrates of humor. In terms of basic emotions, 82 fear jokes, 61 disgust jokes, 42 sadness jokes and 19 anger jokes were found. The most common type of emotional shift was from negative to positive, with the punch lines of 114 jokes providing relief from the negative emotion by either diverting attention away from it or dissolving it entirely. PMID:25227017

Chan, Yu-Chen

2014-01-01

404

Balancing SoNaR: IPR versus Processing Issues in a 500-Million-Word Written Dutch Reference Corpus  

E-print Network

Balancing SoNaR: IPR versus Processing Issues in a 500-Million-Word Written Dutch Reference Corpus during the creation of the SoNaR Corpus. Based on recent developments in traditional corpus compiling and new web harvesting approaches, SoNaR is designed to contain 500 million words, balanced over 36 text

Tilburg, Universiteit van

405

Hematologic and Clinical Aspects of Experimental Ovine Anaplasmosis Caused by Anaplasma ovis in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Anaplasma ovis infections can cause clinical symptoms in acute phase and lead to huge economic losses in flocks. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hematological and parasitological changes in experimental anaplasmosis in sheep with Iranian strain of A. ovis. Method Five male sheep without any blood parasite infection were selected. One hundred ml heparinized blood was collected from splenectomised sheep that showed 6% A. ovis parasitemia. Inoculums of 20 ml blood were administered intravenously to each test animal. Hematological, parasitological and clinical changes of experimental anaplasmosis were studied in 0-38 days post infection. Result Parasitemia was detected 3 days post infection and reached its maximum level on the day 12 of experiment in test animals. Then the parasitemia was declined, but the organism could be found persistently until the last day of study. The red cell counts, packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentration were decreased and mean corpuscular volume was increased significantly during the infection period. Reticulocytosis and basophilic stippling were also detected. No significant changes were observed in total and differential leukocyte count and animal body temperature. Conclusion Experimental A. ovis infection in sheep resulted in marked normocytic normochromic anemia at the beginning of the infection which became macrocytic normochromic by the development of the disease. There were negative correlations between parasitemia and RBC, PCV and Hb values, therefore hematological assessment can be considered as a practical diagnostic tool in ovine anaplasmosis. PMID:23323097

Yasini, SP; Khaki, Z; Rahbari, S; Kazemi, B; Amoli, J Salar; Gharabaghi, A; Jalali, SM

2012-01-01

406

Pharmacokinetic analysis of the plasma disappearance of ovine follitropin and analogues in the male rat  

SciTech Connect

Ovine follitropin (oFSH) and its chemically deglycosylated (DG) or the asialo analogue were injected as a single bolus to intact mature male rats and plasma levels measured by radioimmunoassay. Semi-logarithmic plots of the plasma disappearance curves were all biphasic. For all substances tested, the data were best fitted to a biexponential equation and the following parameters were calculated: the half-lives of the distribution and elimination phases and the metabolic clearance rate (MCR) at steady state. It was found that the distribution phase of oFSH was much slower than for deglycosylated (DG) {alpha} + {beta} recombinant, DG-oFSH and asialo-oFSH. The elimination half-lives for asialo-oFSH and DG {alpha} + {beta} recombinant were much shorter than for oFSH and DG-oFSH. oFSH had the lowest MCR, followed by DG {alpha} + {beta}, DG-oFSH and asialo-oFSH. This study clearly shows that sugar residues internal to sialic acid also play a significant part in the clearance of the hormone.

Sebok, K.; Meloche, S.; Sairam, M.R. (Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1990-01-01

407

Molecular characterization of enterotoxigenic and borderline oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus strains from ovine milk.  

PubMed

Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus spp. are superantigens responsible for food-poisoning and are associated to mobile genetic elements such as Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPI). The presence of 13 enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, sej, sel, sek, seq, and tst) was tested in 15 S. aureus and 24 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) multi-resistant strains isolated from ovine milk in Sardinia. All CNS isolates were enterotoxin-negative, whereas co-presence of sec, sel and tst was observed in most of the S. aureus strains. One isolate of S. aureus was characterized by tst alone. A multiplex PCR assay aimed at discriminating between the integrase genes of pathogenicity islands SaPI2, SaPIbov1, and SaPIMW2 was developed. We demonstrated that strains harboring sec, sel and tst were associated with SaPIbov1, whereas the strain positive for tst was associated with SaPI2. Borderline oxacillin resistant S. aureus strains were also detected. RAPD analysis of the Staphylococcus strains showed that clonal relationships were correlated with pathogenic profiles. PMID:22986189

Perillo, Jusy; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Spagnoletti, Matteo; Lollai, Stefano; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Colombo, Mauro M

2012-12-01

408

Bacterial expression and purification of the ovine type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor ectodomain.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are essential for a wide range of developmental processes. They signal through type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors, and differ from other TGF-beta family members in that the type II receptor binds with a lower affinity than the type I. Here, we describe the development of various Escherichia coli expression systems for the extracellular domain of the ovine type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor. In order to facilitate disulfide bond formation and protein solubility, BMPRII was expressed fused to bacterial thioredoxin, which, following cleavage, could be purified using several chromatography steps. Although this material migrated as a single band in denaturing PAGE, native-PAGE indicated heterogeneity, and this protein could not be crystallised. When expressed alone, either containing a histidine tag or as an untagged protein, the receptor ectodomain was deposited as insoluble inclusion bodies. Protein subjected to in vitro refolding procedures exhibited multiple species following anion exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography, as visualised on native-PAGE. Separation of these species could be achieved using a MonoP chromatofocusing matrix. One of these separated fractions, representing about 5% of the starting material, was amenable to crystallisation, and furthermore exhibited biological activity. Crystals of the histidine-tagged form were shown to diffract weakly, whereas crystals of the native form grew in two different morphologies, and diffracted to a resolution of 1.2A. PMID:16982201

Mace, Peter D; Cutfield, John F; Cutfield, Sue M

2007-03-01

409

A Nonthoracotomy Myocardial Infarction Model in an Ovine Using Autologous Platelets  

PubMed Central

Objective. There is a paucity of a biological large animal model of myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that, using autologous-aggregated platelets, we could create an ovine model that was reproducible and more closely mimicked the pathophysiology of MI. Methods. Mepacrine stained autologous platelets from male sheep (n = 7) were used to create a myocardial infarction via catheter injection into the mid-left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Serial daily serum troponin measurements were taken and tissue harvested on post-embolization day three. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to detect the mepacrine-stained platelet-induced thrombus, and histology performed to identify three distinct myocardial (infarct, peri-ischemic “border zone,” and remote) zones. Results. Serial serum troponin levels (?g/mL) measured 0.0 ± 0.0 at baseline and peaked at 297.4 ± 58.0 on post-embolization day 1, followed by 153.0 ± 38.8 on day 2 and 76.7 ± 19.8 on day 3. Staining confirmed distinct myocardial regions of inflammation and fibrosis as well as mepacrine-stained platelets as the cause of intravascular thrombosis. Conclusion. We report a reproducible, unique model of a biological myocardial infarction in a large animal model. This technique can be used to study acute, regional myocardial changes following a thrombotic injury. PMID:24367790

Spata, Tyler; Bobek, Daniel; Whitson, Bryan A.; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Mohler, Peter J.; Higgins, Robert S. D.; Kilic, Ahmet

2013-01-01

410

Ovine Fetal Renal Development Impacted by Multiple Fetuses and Uterine Space Restriction  

PubMed Central

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) from uteroplacental dysfunction causes impaired nephrogenesis and ultimately hypertension, but it is unknown whether IUGR caused by insufficient space for placental development seen in uterine anomalies and/or multifetal gestation exerts the same effects. Fetal renal development and metabolism were studied in an ovine space-restriction model by combining unilateral horn surgical ligation and/or multifetal gestation. Reduced placental attachment sites and placental weight per fetus defined space-restricted (USR) versus control nonrestricted (NSR) fetuses. Space-restricted fetuses exhibited evidence for decreased plasma volume, with higher hematocrit and plasma albumin at gestational day (GD) 120, followed by lower blood pO2, and higher osmolarity, and creatinine at GD130, P<0.05 for all. By combining treatments, fetal kidney weight relative to fetal weight was inversely related to both fetal weight and plasma creatinine levels, P<0.05 for both. At GD130, space-restricted fetal kidney weights, cortical depths and glomerular generations were decreased, P<0.05 for all. Space-restricted kidneys underwent an adaptive response by prolonging active nephrogenesis and increasing maculae densa number, P<0.05 for both. The major renal adaptations in space-restricted IUGR fetuses included immaturity in both development and endocrine function, with evidence for impaired renal excretory function. PMID:24159370

Meyer-Gesch, Katie M.; Sun, Mary Y.; Koch, Jill M.; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Blohowiak, Sharon E.; Magness, Ronald R.; Kling, Pamela J.

2013-01-01

411

A Novel Ovine ex vivo Arteriovenous Shunt Model to Test Vascular Implantability  

PubMed Central

The major objective of successful development of tissue-engineered vascular grafts is long-term in vivo patency. Optimization of matrix, cell source, surface modifications, and physical preconditioning are all elements of attaining a compatible, durable, and functional vascular construct. In vitro model systems are inadequate to test elements of thrombogenicity and vascular dynamic functional properties while in vivo implantation is complicated, labor-intensive, and cost-ineffective. We proposed an ex vivo ovine arteriovenous shunt model in which we can test the patency and physical properties of vascular grafts under physiologic conditions. The pressure, flow rate, and vascular diameter were monitored in real-time in order to evaluate the pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and dynamic elastic modulus, all indicators of graft stiffness. Carotid arteries, jugular veins, and small intestinal submucosa-based grafts were tested. SIS grafts demonstrated physical properties between those of carotid arteries and jugular veins. Anticoagulation properties of grafts were assessed via scanning electron microscopy imaging, en face immunostaining, and histology. Luminal seeding with endothelial cells greatly decreased the attachment of thrombotic components. This model is also suture free, allowing for multiple samples to be stably processed within one animal. This tunable (pressure, flow, shear) ex vivo shunt model can be used to optimize the implantability and long-term patency of tissue-engineered vascular constructs. PMID:22005667

Peng, Haofan; Schlaich, Evan M.; Row, Sindhu; Andreadis, Stelios T.; Swartz, Daniel D.

2011-01-01

412

Impacts of the Callipyge Mutation on Ovine Plasma Metabolites and Muscle Fibre Type  

PubMed Central

The ovine Callipyge mutation causes postnatal muscle hypertrophy localized to the pelvic limbs and torso, as well as body leanness. The mechanism underpinning enhanced muscle mass is unclear, as is the systemic impact of the mutation. Using muscle fibre typing immunohistochemistry, we confirmed muscle specific effects and demonstrated that affected muscles had greater prevalence and hypertrophy of type 2X fast twitch glycolytic fibres and decreased representation of types 1, 2C, 2A and/or 2AX fibres. To investigate potential systemic effects of the mutation, proton NMR spectra of plasma taken from lambs at 8 and 12 weeks of age were measured. Multivariate statistical analysis of plasma metabolite profiles demonstrated effects of development and genotype but not gender. Plasma from Callipyge lambs at 12 weeks of age, but not 8 weeks, was characterized by a metabolic profile consistent with contributions from the affected hypertrophic fast twitch glycolytic muscle fibres. Microarray analysis of the perirenal adipose tissue depot did not reveal a transcriptional effect of the mutation in this tissue. We conclude that there is an indirect systemic effect of the Callipyge mutation in skeletal muscle in the form of changes of blood metabolites, which may contribute to secondary phenotypes such as body leanness. PMID:24937646

Li, Juan; Greenwood, Paul L.; Cockett, Noelle E.; Hadfield, Tracy S.; Vuocolo, Tony; Byrne, Keren; White, Jason D.; Tellam, Ross L.; Schirra, Horst Joachim

2014-01-01

413

Evaluation of a new immunocapture test for the diagnosis of ovine brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis.  

PubMed

A new immunocapture technique has been applied to the diagnosis of ovine brucellosis under experimental conditions. The tests were made on a serum bank derived from both young and adult ewes vaccinated conjunctivally with the Rev 1 strain at a dose of 10(8) to 10(9) colony-forming units. Adult ewes were infected experimentally two-and-a-half years after they had been vaccinated and the results were compared with an unvaccinated control group. The condition of each animal in terms of infection with Brucella melitensis was determined by clinical and bacteriological investigations. The development of the immune response was compared by the rose bengal test, the complement fixation test, the Coombs' test and the immunocapture technique for 180 days after the vaccination and for 410 days after the experimental infection, that is, the two following gestations. The results suggest that the new technique is more specific in animals vaccinated conjunctivally, regardless of their age when they were vaccinated. After the experimental infection, significantly (P < 0.05) fewer of the vaccinated sheep which were free of clinical signs and were not excreting B melitensis reacted positively to the test. PMID:12479299

Durán-Ferrer, M; Mendoza, J; Osuna, A; Caporale, V; Lucas, A; León, L; Garrido, F

2002-11-23

414

Study of the comparative efficacy of toltrazuril and diclazuril against ovine coccidiosis in housed lambs.  

PubMed

A blinded, controlled and randomised field study was conducted on a sheep farm with a known history of coccidiosis and a high prevalence mainly of the pathogenic coccidium Eimeria ovinoidalis. The efficacy of treatment with toltrazuril (Baycox 5% suspension) against natural infections with Eimeria crandallis and/or Eimeria ovinoidalis in housed lambs was investigated in comparison with diclazuril and untreated controls. Both drugs were administered either metaphylactically (i.e., in the prepatency of Eimeria spp.) or therapeutically (after onset of oocyst excretion). A total of 145 animals aged 1 to 5 days at the start of the study were included. Examination of faecal samples was performed every second day between days 13 and 49 of the study. The assessment of treatment efficacy was based mainly on total oocyst excretion and the number of E. crandallis and E. ovinoidalis oocysts (OPG) shed throughout the study. Oocyst excretion was reduced significantly in both groups treated with toltrazuril compared with the untreated control group and with both diclazuril-treated groups. The most prevalent and most severe diarrhoea was observed in the untreated control group. In this study, toltrazuril proved to be highly effective in controlling ovine coccidiosis both metaphylactically and therapeutically. The efficacy of toltrazuril was significantly higher than the efficacy of the control substance with regard to the duration and amount of oocyst excretion, both for the comparison of metaphylactic as well as therapeutic treatment. PMID:19575235

Mundt, Hans-Christian; Dittmar, Katja; Daugschies, Arwid; Grzonka, Elmar; Bangoura, Berit

2009-08-01

415

Ultrastructural characterization of in vivo-produced ovine morulae and blastocysts.  

PubMed

Summary The ultrastructure of in vivo-produced ovine embryos, at the morula, early blastocyst and late blastocyst stages, was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Embryonic cells were characterized by the presence of intact intercellular junctions, numerous mitochondria, smooth endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and light vesicles. Polyribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, secondary lysosomes, Golgi complexes and lipid droplets were also observed in the cytoplasm. The nucleus was well defined and organized, with an intact envelope rich in nuclear pore complexes, and one or more reticular nucleoli. Microvilli were present in external blastomeres of morulae and became more abundant in trophectoderm cells of early and late blastocysts. Light vesicles seemed to be associated with small cisternae of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum origin. These cisternae fused and created light vesicles with engulfed heterogeneous cytosolic structures, small cisternae and vesicles. Their labile membrane enabled them to rapidly coalesce into medium-sized vesicles that began to engulf mitochondria and lipid droplets, forming giant vacuoles mostly filled with fat. Incomplete matured secretory vesicles were observed to exocytose into the perivitelline space of morulae, whereas fully matured secretory vesicles appeared only in trophectoderm cells, being exocytosed into the blastocoelic cavity. These observations suggested that these endoplasmic-/Golgi-derived vesicles behave as active autophagic organelles presenting probably a maturation process from compact morulae to blastocyst. PMID:25076424

Bettencourt, E M V; Bettencourt, C M V; E Silva, J N Chagas; Ferreira, P; Oliveira, E; Romão, R; Rocha, A; Sousa, M

2014-07-30

416

BMP13 Prevents the Effects of Annular Injury in an Ovine Model  

PubMed Central

Chronic back pain is a global health problem affecting millions of people worldwide and carries significant economic and social morbidities. Intervertebral disc damage and degeneration is a major cause of back pain, characterised by histological and biochemical changes that have been well documented in animal models. Recently there has been intense interest in early intervention in disc degeneration using growth factors or stem cell transplantation, to replenish the diseased tissues. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) have been approved for clinical use in augmenting spinal fusions, and may represent candidate molecules for intervertebral disc regeneration. BMP13 has an important role in embryonic development and recent genetic evidence shows a role in the development of the human spine. This study explores the effect of BMP13 on a damaged intervertebral disc in an ovine model of discal degeneration. We found that, when injected at the time of injury, BMP13 reversed or arrested histological changes that occurred in the control discs such as loss of extracellular matrix proteins. In addition, BMP13 injected discs retained greater hydration after 4months, and possessed more cells in the NP. Taken together, BMP13 may be a potent clinical therapeutic agent when used early in the degeneration cascade to promote healthy disc tissue. PMID:19521550

Wei, Aiqun; Williams, Lisa A; Bhargav, Divya; Shen, Bojiang; Kishen, Thomas; Duffy, Neil; Diwan, Ashish D

2009-01-01

417

Epitope analysis of capsid and matrix proteins of North American ovine lentivirus field isolates.  

PubMed Central

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against two phenotypically distinct ovine lentivirus (OvLV) strains were generated by fusion of BALB/c SP2/0-Ag 14 myeloma cells with spleen cells from mice immunized with purified OvLV. Hybridomas were selected by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and analysis of reactivity on immunoblots. The majority (17 of 21) of the MAbs recognized the gag-encoded capsid protein, CA p27, of both strains. Four other MAbs recognized a smaller structural protein, presumably a matrix protein, MA p17. Three distinct epitopes on CA p27 and one on MA p17 were distinguished by the MAbs with competition ELISA. MAbs from each epitope group were able to recognize 17 North American field isolates of OvLV and the closely related caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV). Analysis of the data indicated that these epitopes were highly conserved among naturally occurring isolates. A representative MAb from each epitope group of anti-CA p27 MAbs reacted with four field strains of OvLV and CAEV on immunoblots. An anti-MA p17 MAb recognized the same OvLV strains on immunoblots but failed to recognize CAEV. MAbs which recognize conserved epitopes of gag-encoded lentivirus proteins (CA p27 and MA p17) are valuable tools. These MAbs can be used to develop sensitive diagnostic assays and to study the pathogenesis of lentivirus infections in sheep and goats. Images PMID:1715884

Marcom, K A; Pearson, L D; Chung, C S; Poulson, J M; DeMartini, J C

1991-01-01

418

Changes in kinetics of amino acid uptake at the ageing ovine blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier.  

PubMed

Amino acids (AA) in brain are precisely controlled by blood-brain barriers, which undergo a host of changes in both morphology and function during ageing. The effect of these age-related changes on AA homeostasis in brain is not well described. This study investigated the kinetics of four AA (Leu, Phe, Ala and Lys) uptakes at young and old ovine choroid plexus (CP), the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCB), and measured AA concentrations in CSF and plasma samples. In old sheep, the weight of lateral CP increased, so did the ratio of CP/brain. The expansion of the CP is consistent with clinical observation of thicker leptomeninges in old age. AA concentrations in old CSF, plasma and their ratio were different from the young. Both V(max) and K(m) of Phe and Lys were significant higher compared to the young, indicating higher trans-stimulation in old BCB. Cross-competition and kinetic inhibition studies found the sensitivity and specificity of these transporters were impaired in old BCB. These changes may be the first signs of a compromised barrier system in ageing brain leading increased AA influx into the brain causing neurotoxicity. PMID:20138405

Chen, R L; Preston, J E

2012-01-01

419

Biological and binding activities of ovine and porcine prolactins in porcine mammary tissue  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of prolactin receptors may play a critical role in regulating growth and development of the mammary gland during gestation and tumor development; however, the discrepancy between specific binding of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and porcine prolactin (pPRL) in porcine mammary tissue was disturbing. It was possible that /sup 125/I-oPRL may be an unsuitable ligand for the procine prolactin receptor. The validate the use of oPRL in binding assays, the biological and binding activities of oPRL and pPRL were compared. A lactogenic bioassay of pPRL was developed using porcine mammary explants cultured in Medium 199 containing insulin, cortisol, and pPRL. The potencies of oPRL and pPRL were compared using this bioassay. Oxidation of glucose and incorporation of glucose into lipids were similarly enhanced by physiological concentrations of both oPRL and pPRL. However, specific binding of /sup 125/I-oPRL was 20%, while less than 1% of /sup 125/I-pPRL was bound. /sup 125/I-oPRL bound to high affinity sites.

Jerry, D.J.

1987-01-01

420

Extenders containing dimethylformamide associated or not with glycerol are ineffective for ovine sperm cryopreservation.  

PubMed

The study aimed at testing the effectiveness of dimethylformamide, alone or combined with glycerol, as cryoprotectant for freezing ram semen. Ejaculates from nine rams were cryopreserved in Tris-based extenders, containing 5% of glycerol, association of dimethylformamide with glycerol, in four proportions achieving 5% of cryoprotectors in the media and pure dimethylformamide (2, 3, 4 and 5%) in replacement to glycerol. The samples were diluted to 100 × 10(6) sptz/ml and stored in 0.25-ml straws in liquid nitrogen. After thawing (37 °C for 30 s), motility was preserved better by the extender containing 5% of glycerol (p < 0.05). The extenders containing pure dimethylformamide, or more than 2% in combination with glycerol, provided sperm motilities close to zero. Plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity were preserved better (p < 0.05) in the extender containing 5% glycerol. It can be concluded that dimethylformamide, alone or combined with glycerol, has no beneficial effects on ovine semen cryopreservation. PMID:21535236

Moustacas, V S; Cruz, B C; Varago, F C; Miranda, D A; Lage, P G; Henry, M

2011-10-01

421

Modulation of Innate Immune Responses by Influenza-Specific Ovine Polyclonal Antibodies Used for Prophylaxis  

PubMed Central

In the event of a novel influenza A virus pandemic, prophylaxis mediated by antibodies provides an adjunct control option to vaccines and antivirals. This strategy is particularly pertinent to unvaccinated populations at risk during the lag time to produce and distribute an effective vaccine. Therefore, development of effective prophylactic therapies is of high importance. Although previous approaches have used systemic delivery of monoclonal antibodies or convalescent sera, available supply is a serious limitation. Here, we have investigated intranasal delivery of influenza-specific ovine polyclonal IgG antibodies for their efficacy against homologous influenza virus challenge in a mouse model. Both influenza-specific IgG and F(ab’)2 reduced clinical scores, body weight loss and lung viral loads in mice treated 1 hour before virus exposure. Full protection from disease was also observed when antibody was delivered up to 3 days prior to virus infection. Furthermore, effective prophylaxis was independent of a strong innate immune response. This strategy presents a further option for prophylactic intervention against influenza A virus using ruminants to generate a bulk supply that could potentially be used in a pandemic setting, to slow virus transmission and reduce morbidity associated with a high cytokine phenotype. PMID:24586955

Rinaldi, Catherine; Penhale, William J.; Stumbles, Philip A.; Tay, Guan; Berry, Cassandra M.

2014-01-01

422

Amino acid sequence and the cellular location of the Na(+)-dependent D-glucose symporters (SGLT1) in the ovine enterocyte and the parotid acinar cell.  

PubMed

The Na(+)-dependent D-glucose symporter has been shown to be located on the basolateral domain of the plasma membrane of ovine parotid acinar cells. This is in contrast to the apical location of this transporter in the ovine enterocyte. The amino acid sequences of these two proteins have been determined. They are identical. The results indicated that the signals responsible for the differential targeting of these two proteins to the apical and the basal domains of the plasma membrane are not contained within the primary amino acid sequence. PMID:7492327

Tarpey, P S; Wood, I S; Shirazi-Beechey, S P; Beechey, R B

1995-11-15

423

Regulation of beta follicle stimulating hormone subunit RNA by 17-beta estradiol, progesterone, and inhibin in ovine pituitary cells in culture  

SciTech Connect

The molecular mechanism by which ovine follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is negatively regulated by 17-beta estradiol, progesterone, and inhibin was investigated in vitro, using ovine pituitary cells in culture. The effects of these gonadal hormones on beta FSH RNA levels were assayed by dot blot hybridization to a specific radiolabeled cDNA probe for beta FSH RNA. This was compared to concomitant changes in FSH secretion, which were measured by radioimmunoassay, in order to determine if the alterations in beta FSH RNA could account for the changes in FSH secretion.

Phillips, C.L.

1987-01-01

424

Prolonged uterine artery nitric oxide synthase inhibition modestly alters basal uteroplacental vasodilation in the last third of ovine pregnancy.  

PubMed

Mechanisms regulating uteroplacental blood flow (UPBF) in pregnancy remain unclear, but they likely involve several integrated signaling systems. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) is considered an important contributor, but the extent of its involvement is unclear. Bolus intra-arterial infusions of nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) modestly decrease ovine basal UPBF; however, the doses and duration of infusion may have been insufficient. We, therefore, examined prolonged uterine artery (UA) NO synthase inhibition with l-NAME throughout the last third of ovine pregnancy by performing either continuous 30-min UA infusion dose responses (n = 4) or 72-h UA infusions (0.01 mg/ml) at 104-108, 118-125, and 131-137 days of gestation (n = 7) while monitoring mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and UPBF. Uteroplacental vascular resistance (UPVR) was calculated, and uterine cGMP synthesis was measured. Thirty-minute UA l-NAME infusions did not dose dependently decrease UPBF, increase UPVR, or decrease uterine cGMP synthesis (P > 0.1); however, MAP rose and HR fell modestly. Prolonged continuous 72-h UA l-NAME infusions decreased UPBF ?32%, increased UPVR ?68% (P ? 0.001), and decreased uterine cGMP synthesis 70% at 54-72 h (P ? 0.004); the noninfused uterine horn was unaffected. These findings were associated with ?10% increases in MAP and decreases in HR that were greater at 104-108 than 118-125 and 131-137 days of gestation (P = 0.006). Although uterine and UA NO and cGMP synthesis increase severalfold during ovine pregnancy, they contribute modestly to the maintenance and rise in UPBF in the last third of gestation. Thus, local UA NO may primarily modulate vasoconstrictor responses. Notably, the systemic vasculature appears more sensitive than the uterine vasculature to NO synthase inhibition. PMID:25128169

Rosenfeld, Charles R; Roy, Timothy

2014-10-15

425

First documented case of human infection with ovine Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli serotype O52:H45.  

PubMed

We report a concurrent case of infection with non-O157 Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strain in an 8-month-old child. Laboratory and epidemiological investigations indicated child exposure to contaminated sheep meat following the Muslim feast of sacrifice (Eid al-Adha). Microbiological and molecular typing confirmed that the ovine strain O52:H45 (stx1+, eae-, hlyA-) was the causal agent. This is the first documented case of human infection to this STEC serotype. PMID:24849211

Bekal, Sadjia; Ramsay, Danielle; Rallu, Fabien; Pilon, Pierre; Gilmour, Matthew; Johnson, Roger; Tremblay, Cécile

2014-06-01

426

Prolactin messenger ribonucleic acid concentrations throughout the ovine estrous cycle: Assessment relative to prolactin serum and pituitary amounts  

SciTech Connect

Prolactin (PRL) mRNA concentrations were assessed by nucleic acid hybridization assays in pituitaries of ewes representing the defined stages of the ovine estrous cycle. Concomitantly, pituitary and serum PRL concentrations were measured in these ewes using radioimmunoassays. It was observed that PRL serum, pituitary and mRNA concentrations tended to increase near the time of the gonadotropin preovulatory surge, particularly between 24 hrs before behavioral estrus to 5 hours after estrus. However, the changes in PRL mRNA, serum and pituitary concentrations were shown not to be statistically significant. These data suggest that PRL production during the sheep estrous cycle is maintained without dramatic changes in synthesis or secretion.

Landefeld, T.; Roulia, V.; Bagnell, T.; Ballard, T.; Levitan, I. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

1991-01-01

427

An MRI review of acquired corpus callosum lesions.  

PubMed

Lesions of the corpus callosum (CC) are seen in a multitude of disorders including vascular diseases, metabolic disorders, tumours, demyelinating diseases, trauma and infections. In some diseases, CC involvement is typical and sometimes isolated, while in other diseases CC lesions are seen only occasionally in the presence of other typical extra-callosal abnormalities. In this review, we will mainly discuss the MRI characteristics of acquired lesions involving the CC. Identification of the origin of the CC lesion depends on the exact localisation of the lesion(s) inside the CC, presence of other lesions seen outside the CC, signal changes on different MRI sequences, evolution over time of the radiological abnormalities, history and clinical state of the patient, and other radiological and non-radiological examinations. PMID:24563521

Renard, Dimitri; Castelnovo, Giovanni; Campello, Chantal; Bouly, Stephane; Le Floch, Anne; Thouvenot, Eric; Waconge, Anne; Taieb, Guillaume

2014-09-01

428

Corpus callosal microstructure influences intermanual transfer in chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

Learning a new motor skill with one hand typically results in performance improvements in the alternate hand. The neural substrates involved with this skill acquisition are poorly understood. We combined behavioral testing and non-invasive brain imaging to study how the organization of the corpus callosum was related to intermanual transfer performance in chimpanzees. Fifty-three chimpanzees were tested for intermanual transfer of learning using a bent-wire task. Magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor images were collected from 39 of these subjects. The dominant hand showed greater performance benefits than the nondominant hand. Further, performance was associated with structural integrity of the motor and sensory regions of the CC. Subjects with better intermanual transfer of learning had lower fractional anisotropy values. The results are consistent with the callosal access model of motor programming. PMID:24427118

Phillips, Kimberley A.; Schaeffer, Jennifer A.; Hopkins, William D.

2013-01-01

429

SELECTIVELY DIMINISHED CORPUS CALLOSUM FIBERS IN CONGENITAL CENTRAL HYPOVENTILATION SYNDROME  

PubMed Central

Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a condition associated with mutations in the PHOX2B gene, is characterized by loss of breathing drive during sleep, insensitivity to CO2 and O2, and multiple somatomotor, autonomic, neuropsychological, and ophthalmologic deficits, including impaired intrinsic and extrinsic eye muscle control. Brain structural studies show injury in peri-callosal regions and the corpus callosum (CC), which has the potential to affect functions disturbed in the syndrome; however, the extent of CC injury in CCHS is unclear. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based fiber tractography procedures display fiber directional information and allow quantification of fiber integrity. We performed DTI in 13 CCHS children (age, 18.2±4.7 years; 8 male) and 31 control (17.4±4.9 years; 18 male) subjects using a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner; CC fibers were assessed globally and regionally with tractography procedures, and fiber counts and densities compared between groups using analysis-of-covariance (covariates; age and sex). Global CC evaluation showed reduced fiber counts and densities in CCHS over control subjects (CCHS vs controls; fiber-counts, 4490±854 vs 5232±777, p<0.001; fiber-density, 10.0±1.5 vs 10.8±0.9 fibers/mm2, p<0.020), and regional examination revealed that these changes are localized to callosal axons projecting to prefrontal (217±47 vs 248±32, p<0.005), premotor (201±51 vs 241±47, p<0.012), parietal (179±64 vs 238±54, p<0.002), and occipital regions (363±46 vs 431±82, p<0.004). Corpus callosum fibers in CCHS are compromised in motor, cognitive, speech, and ophthalmologic regulatory areas. The mechanisms of fiber injury are unclear, but may result from hypoxia or perfusion deficits accompanying the syndrome, or from consequences of PHOX2B action. PMID:21256194

Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M.

2011-01-01

430

Clinical features of acute corpus callosum infarction patients  

PubMed Central

The clinical manifestation of acute corpus callosum (CC) infarction is lack of specificity and complex, so it is easily missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis in the early stage. The present study aims to describe the clinical features of the acute CC infarction. In this study, 25 patients with corpus callosum infarction confirmed by the brain MRI/DWI and the risk factors were summarized. Patients were classified into genu infarction (3 cases), body infarction (4cases), body and genu infarction (4 cases), body and splenium infarction (1 case), splenium infarction (13 cases) according to lesion location. Clinical manifestation and prognosis were analyzed among groups. The results indicated that CC infarction in patients with high-risk group accounted for 72%, moderate-risk group accounted for 20%, low-risk group (8%). The main risk factors are carotid intimal thickening or plaque formation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cerebral artery stenosis, and so on. The CC infarction often merged with other parts infarction, and splenium infarction had the highest incidence, the clinical symptoms in the body infarction which can appear typical signs and symptoms, but in other parts infarction which always merged many nerve defect symptoms. The body infarction prognosis is poor; the rest parts of infarction are more favorable prognosis. In conclusion, CC infarction has the highest incidence in the stroke of high-risk group; neck color Doppler and TCD examination can be found as early as possible to explore the pathogenic factors. Prognosis is usually much better by treatment according to the location and risk factors. PMID:25197390

Yang, Li-Li; Huang, Yi-Ning; Cui, Zhi-Tang

2014-01-01

431

The catalogue of the Ripley Corpus: alchemical writings attributed to George Ripley (d. ca. 1490).  

PubMed

The period 1471 to 1700 saw the accretion of a large corpus of alchemical works associated with the famous English alchemist George Ripley, Canon of Bridlington (d. ca. 1490). Evaluation of Ripley's alchemy is hampered by uncertainty over the composition of the corpus, the dating and provenance of individual texts, and the difficulty of separating genuine from spurious attributions. The Catalogue of the Ripley Corpus (CRC) provides a first step in ordering these diverse materials: a descriptive catalogue of approximately forty-five alchemical treatises, recipes and poems attributed to Ripley, with an index of all known manuscript copies. PMID:20973441

Rampling, Jennifer M

2010-07-01

432

A Cross-cultural Corpus of Annotated Verbal and Nonverbal Behaviors in Receptionist Encounters  

E-print Network

We present the first annotated corpus of nonverbal behaviors in receptionist interactions, and the first nonverbal corpus (excluding the original video and audio data) of service encounters freely available online. Native speakers of American English and Arabic participated in a naturalistic role play at reception desks of university buildings in Doha, Qatar and Pittsburgh, USA. Their manually annotated nonverbal behaviors include gaze direction, hand and head gestures, torso positions, and facial expressions. We discuss possible uses of the corpus and envision it to become a useful tool for the human-robot interaction community.

Makatchev, Maxim; Sakr, Majd

2012-01-01

433

Ovine induced pluripotent stem cells are resistant to reprogramming after nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) share similar characteristics of indefinite in vitro growth with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and may therefore serve as a useful tool for the targeted genetic modification of farm animals via nuclear transfer (NT). Derivation of stable ESC lines from farm animals has not been possible, therefore, it is important to determine whether iPSCs can be used as substitutes for ESCs in generating genetically modified cloned farm animals. We generated ovine iPSCs by conventional retroviral transduction using the four Yamanaka factors. These cells were basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)- and activin A-dependent, showed persistent expression of the transgenes, acquired chromosomal abnormalities, and failed to activate endogenous NANOG. Nonetheless, iPSCs could differentiate into the three somatic germ layers in vitro. Because cloning of farm animals is best achieved with diploid cells (G1/G0), we synchronized the iPSCs in G1 prior to NT. Despite the cell cycle synchronization, preimplantation development of iPSC-NT embryos was lower than with somatic cells (2% vs. 10% blastocysts, p<0.01). Furthermore, analysis of the blastocysts produced demonstrated persistent expression of the transgenes, aberrant expression of endogenous SOX2, and a failure to activate NANOG consistently. In contrast, gene expression in blastocysts produced with the parental fetal fibroblasts was similar to those generated by in vitro fertilization. Taken together, our data suggest that the persistent expression of the exogenous factors and the acquisition of chromosomal abnormalities are incompatible with normal development of NT embryos produced with iPSCs. PMID:25513856

German, Sergio D; Campbell, Keith H S; Thornton, Elisabeth; McLachlan, Gerry; Sweetman, Dylan; Alberio, Ramiro

2015-02-01

434

Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of benzimidazole resistance in the ovine parasite Nematodirus battus.  

PubMed

Benzimidazole resistance is common amongst many ovine trichostrongylid nematodes species globally. Although anthelmintics have been used for over half a century in some areas of the world for the control of Nematodirus battus, resistance has never been detected. Veterinary investigations conducted in 2010 demonstrated reduced efficacy in a flock that had been treated previously with fenbendazole (FBZ), suggesting probable resistance in N. battus. Infective larvae (L3; designated MNba2) were generated from the original material to conduct a controlled efficacy test (CET). Faecal egg counts showed an average of 37% reduction in the FBZ treated group 7 days post treatment compared to the untreated lambs. Average worm burden results showed no reduction after FBZ treatment compared to the untreated group (3850 and 3850 worms respectively). A molecular assay to assess the frequency of the commonly associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the ß-tubulin isotype 1 gene, F200Y and E198A, was developed. Larval genotypes were predominantly homozygous resistant at codon 200 SNP, ranging from 56%-83% and remained stable at 70% for adult worm populations taken from treated and control lambs in the CET. Only susceptible genotypes were found at codon 198. The allele frequency for F200Y ranged between 80-83% in adult worms taken from the CET from treated and control lambs. The results confirmed initial findings and demonstrated the first report of FBZ resistance in N. battus whilst providing evidence that the P200 point mutation in the ß-tubulin isotype 1 gene is a potential mechanism of resistance in the species. PMID:25487605

Morrison, Alison A; Mitchell, Sian; Mearns, Rebecca; Richards, Iain; Matthews, Jacqui B; Bartley, David J

2014-12-01

435

Hypoxic depression of PKG-mediated inhibition of serotonergic contraction in ovine carotid arteries  

PubMed Central

Chronic hypoxia attenuates soluble guanylate cyclase-induced vasorelaxation in serotonin (5-HT)-contracted ovine carotid arteries. Because protein kinase G (PKG) mediates many effects of soluble guanylate cyclase activation through phosphorylation of multiple kinase targets in vascular smooth muscle, we tested the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia reduces the ability of PKG to phosphorylate its target proteins, which attenuates the ability of PKG to induce vasorelaxation. We also tested the hypothesis that hypoxia attenuates PKG expression and/or activity. Arteries from normoxic and chronically hypoxic (altitude of 3,820 m for 110 days) fetal and adult sheep were denuded of endothelium and equilibrated with 95% O2-5% CO2 in the presence of nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and NG-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA) to inhibit residual endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Concentration-response relations for 5-HT were determined in the presence of prazosin to minimize activation of ?-adrenergic receptors. The PKG activator 8-(p-chlorophenylthio)-guanosine 3?,5?-cyclic monophosphate (8-pCTP-cGMP) reduced agonist binding affinity of the 5-HT receptor in a concentration-dependent manner that was attenuated by hypoxia. Expression and activity of PKG-I was not significantly affected by chronic hypoxia in either fetal or adult arteries, although PKG-I abundance was greater in fetal arteries. Pretreatment with the large conductance calcium-sensitive potassium channel (BK) inhibitor iberiotoxin attenuated the vasorelaxation induced by 8-pCPT-cGMP in normoxic but not chronically hypoxic arteries. These results support the hypothesis that hypoxia attenuates the vasorelaxant effects of PKG through suppression of the ability of PKG to activate large conductance calcium-sensitive potassium channels in arterial smooth muscle. The results also reveal that this hypoxic effect is greater in fetal than adult arteries and that chronic maternal hypoxia can profoundly affect fetal vascular function. PMID:23447135

Thorpe, Richard B.; Stockman, Sara L.; Williams, James M.; Lincoln, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

436

Dynamic Assessment of Mitral Annular Force Profile in an Ovine Model  

PubMed Central

Background Limited knowledge exists regarding the forces that act on devices implanted in the mitral annulus. Determining the peak magnitudes, directions, rates, variation throughout the cardiac cycle, and change with left ventricular pressure (LVP) will aid in device development and evaluation. Methods Novel transducers with the ability to measure forces in the septal-lateral and transverse directions were implanted in six healthy ovine subjects. Forces were measured for cardiac cycles reaching a peak LVP of 90, 125, 150, 175, and 200 mm Hg. Results The septal-lateral force was observed to significantly increase from 3.9 ± 0.8 N (90) to 5.2 ± 1.0 N (125) p < 0.001, 5.9 ± 0.9 N (150) p < 0.001, 6.4 ± 1.2 N (175) p < 0.001, and 6.7 ± 1.5 N (200 mm Hg) p < 0.001. Similarly, the transverse force was seen to increase from 2.6 ± 0.6 N (90) to 3.8 ± 1.0 N (125) p < 0.01, 4.6 ± 1.3 N (150) p < 0.001, 4.3 ± 1.2 N (175) p < 0.001, and 3.5 ± 0.7 N (200 mm Hg) p < 0.05. In comparison, the septal-lateral force was significantly greater than the transverse force at 90 (p < 0.05), 125 (p < 0.05), 175 (p < 0.001), and 200 mm Hg (p < 0.0005). Conclusions Annular forces and their variations with LVP through the cardiac cycle are described. The results demonstrate differences in force magnitude and rate for increasing levels of LVP between the septal-lateral and transverse directions. These directional differences have strong implications in the development of future mitral devices. PMID:22588012

Siefert, Andrew W.; Jimenez, Jorge H.; Koomalsingh, Kevin J.; West, Dustin S.; Aguel, Fernando; Shuto, Takashi; Gorman, Robert C.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

2013-01-01

437

Ontogeny of inter-alpha inhibitor proteins in ovine brain and somatic tissues.  

PubMed

Inter-alpha inhibitor proteins (IAIPs) found in relatively high concentrations in human plasma are important in inflammation. IAIPs attenuate brain damage in young and adult subjects, decrease during sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants, and attenuate sepsis-related inflammation in newborn rats. Although a few studies have reported adult organ-specific IAIP expression, information is not available on age-dependent IAIP expression. Given evidence suggesting IAIPs attenuate brain damage in young and adult subjects, and inflammation in newborns, we examined IAIP expression in plasma, cerebral cortex (CC), choroid plexus (CP), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and somatic organs in fetal, newborn, and adult sheep to determine the endogenous expression patterns of these proteins during development. IAIPs (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were higher in newborn and adult than fetal plasma (P?ovine development and that expression patterns are unique to each organ. Although exact functions of IAIPs in CNS and somatic tissues are not known, their presence in relatively high amounts during development suggests their potential importance in brain and organ development. PMID:24728724

Spasova, Mariya S; Sadowska, Grazyna B; Threlkeld, Steven W; Lim, Yow-Pin; Stonestreet, Barbara S

2014-06-01

438

North American and French caprine arthritis-encephalitis viruses emerge from ovine maedi-visna viruses.  

PubMed

The full extent of genetic diversity among small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), i.e., caprine arthritis encephalitis viruses (CAEVs) and maedi-visna viruses (MVVs), remains unknown. This is due in part to the fact that few sequences of CAEV are available. To contribute to this knowledge, gag, pol, and env nucleotide sequences from an SRLV named CA680 originating from a goat from western France were determined. This analysis revealed that this virus is closely related to the Cork and 63 CAEV American isolates. Mismatched amino acids between the CA680 virus and prototype CAEVs ranged from 6.7, 0. 7, and 17.5% for gag, pol, and SU sequences, respectively. The differences between the CA680 virus and MVV prototypes ranged from 16.5, 12.5, and 32.3% for the protein sequences, respectively. A screening using a heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) adapted to SRLVs revealed that 6 of 10 caprine virus field isolates were closely related to CA680, indicating that this latter isolate was a prototype of CAEVs common in the west of France. Phylogenetic trees drawn using CA, RT, or SU sequences of numerous SRLVs and rooted with EIAV sequences revealed that CA680 and CAEV prototypes, all infectious for goat, clustered in one group. From these HMA and phylogenetic analyses, it appears that U.S. and French caprine SRLVs form a clade that had emerged from a much more diverse group containing all SRLVs infectious for sheep. These ovine SRLVs form a more ancient group in which the EIAV is rooted. PMID:9356342

Valas, S; Benoit, C; Guionaud, C; Perrin, G; Mamoun, R Z

1997-10-27

439

Genomic architecture of histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation during late ovine skeletal muscle development.  

PubMed

The ruminant developmental transition from late foetus to lamb is associated with marked changes in skeletal muscle structure and function that reflect programming for new physiological demands following birth. To determine whether epigenetic changes are involved in this transition, we investigated the genomic architecture of the chromatin modification, histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), which typically regulates early life developmental processes; however, its role in later life processes is unclear. Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing was used to map H3K27me3 nucleosomes in ovine longissimus lumborum skeletal muscle at 100 days of gestation and 12 weeks post-partum. In both states, H3K27me3 modification was associated with genes, transcription start sites and CpG islands and with transcriptional silencing. The H3K27me3 peaks consisted of two major categories, promoter specific and regional, with the latter the dominant feature. Genes encoding homeobox transcription factors regulating early life development and genes involved in neural functions, particularly gated ion channels, were strongly modified by H3K27me3. Gene promoters differentially modified by H3K27me3 in the foetus and lamb were enriched for gated ion channels, which may reflect changes in neuromuscular function. However, most modified genes showed no changes, indicating that H3K27me3 does not have a large role in late muscle maturation. Notably, promyogenic transcription factors were strongly modified with H3K27me3 but showed no differences between the late gestation foetus and lamb, likely reflecting their lack of involvement in the myofibre fusion process occurring in this transition. H3K27me3 is a major architectural feature of the epigenetic landscape of ruminant skeletal muscle, and it comments on gene transcription and gene function in the context of late skeletal muscle development. PMID:24673416

Byrne, K; McWilliam, S; Vuocolo, T; Gondro, C; Cockett, N E; Tellam, R L

2014-06-01

440

Antibodies to ovine herpesvirus 2 glycoproteins decrease virus infectivity and prevent malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits.  

PubMed

Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) is the etiological agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), a fatal lymphoproliferative disease of many species in the order Artiodactyla. Development of a vaccine is critical to prevent mortality. Because OvHV-2 has not been cultured in vitro, SA-MCF research is hindered by the lack of in vitro tools to study viral constituents and specific host immune responses. As an alternative, in this study the neutralizing activity of antibodies against OvHV-2 glycoproteins gB and gH/gL was evaluated in vivo using rabbits. OvHV-2-specific antibodies were developed in rabbits by immunization using biolistic delivery of plasmids expressing the genes of interest. A lethal dose of OvHV-2 was incubated with the antisera and then nebulized into rabbits. Virus neutralization was assessed by measuring infection parameters associated with the virus infectious dose. Anti-gB or anti-gH/gL antibodies alone blocked infection in five out of six rabbits (83%), while a combination of anti-gB and anti-gH/gL antibodies protected all six rabbits (100%) from infection. These results indicate that antibodies to OvHV-2 gB and gH/gL are capable of neutralizing virions, and consequently, reduce virus infectivity and prevent SA-MCF in rabbits. Thus, OvHV-2 gB and gH/gL are suitable targets to be tested in a SA-MCF vaccine aimed at stimulating neutralizing antibody responses. PMID:25542288

Cunha, Cristina W; Knowles, Donald P; Taus, Naomi S; O'Toole, Donal; Nicola, Anthony V; Aguilar, Hector C; Li, Hong

2015-02-25

441

Waddlia chondrophila Infects and Multiplies in Ovine Trophoblast Cells Stimulating an Inflammatory Immune Response  

PubMed Central

Background Waddlia chondrophila (W. chondrophila) is an emerging abortifacient organism which has been identified in the placentae of humans and cattle. The organism is a member of the order Chlamydiales, and shares many similarities at the genome level and in growth studies with other well-characterised zoonotic chlamydial abortifacients, such as Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus). This study investigates the growth of the organism and its effects upon pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a ruminant placental cell line which we have previously utilised in a model of C. abortus pathogenicity. Methodology/Principal Findings Using qPCR, fluorescent immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, we characterised the infection and growth of W. chondrophila within the ovine trophoblast AH-1 cell line. Inclusions were visible from 6 h post-infection (p.i.) and exponential growth of the organism could be observed over a 60 h time-course, with significant levels of host cell lysis being observed only after 36 h p.i. Expression of CXCL8, TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-1? were determined 24 h p.i. A statistically significant response in the expression of CXCL8, TNF-? and IL-1? could be observed following active infection with W. chondrophila. However a significant increase in IL-1? expression was also observed following the exposure of cells to UV-killed organisms, indicating the stimulation of multiple innate recognition pathways. Conclusions/Significance W. chondrophila infects and grows in the ruminant trophoblast AH-1 cell line exhibiting a complete chlamydial replicative cycle. Infection of the trophoblasts resulted in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner similar to that observed with C. abortus in previous studies, suggesting similarities in the pathogenesis of infection between the two organisms. PMID:25010668

Wheelhouse, Nick; Coyle, Christopher; Barlow, Peter G.; Mitchell, Stephen; Greub, Gilbert; Baszler, Tim; Rae, Mick T.; Longbottom, David

2014-01-01

442

Deletion variant near ZNF389 is associated with control of ovine lentivirus in multiple sheep flocks  

PubMed Central

Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus found in many countries that causes interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and cachexia in sheep. There is no preventive vaccine and no cure, but breed differences suggest marker-assisted selective breeding might improve odds of infection and control of OvLV post-infection. Although variants in TMEM154 have consistent association with odds of infection, no variant in any gene has been associated with host control of OvLV post-infection in multiple animal sets. Proviral concentration is a live-animal diagnostic measure of OvLV control post-infection related to severity of OvLV-induced lesions. A recent genome-wide association study identified a region including four zinc finger genes associated with proviral concentration in one Rambouillet flock. To refine this region, we tested additional variants and identified a small insertion/deletion variant near ZNF389 that showed consistent association with proviral concentration in three animal sets (P < 0.05). These animal sets contained Rambouillet, Polypay and crossbred sheep from multiple locations and management conditions. Strikingly, one flock had exceptionally high prevalence (>87%, including yearlings) and mean proviral concentration (>950 copies/?g), possibly due to needle sharing. The best estimate of proviral concentration by genotype, obtained from all 1310 OvLV-positive animals tested, showed insertion homozygotes had less than half the proviral concentration of other genotypes (P < 0.0001). Future work will test additional breeds, management conditions and viral subtypes, and identify functional properties of the haplotype this deletion variant tracks. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic variant consistently associated with host control of OvLV post-infection in multiple sheep flocks. PMID:24303974

White, S N; Mousel, M R; Reynolds, J O; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Knowles, D P

2014-01-01

443

The peroxynitrite catalyst WW-85 improves pulmonary function in ovine septic shock.  

PubMed

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is associated with excessive production of nitric oxide (NO·) and superoxide (O2), forming peroxynitrite, which in turn, acts as a terminal mediator of cellular injury by producing cell necrosis and apoptosis. We examined the effect of the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, WW-85, in a sheep model of acute lung injury and septic shock. Eighteen sheep were operatively prepared and randomly allocated to the sham, control, or WW-85 group (n = 6 each). After a tracheotomy, acute lung injury was produced in the control and WW-85 groups by insufflation of four sets of 12 breaths of cotton smoke. Then, a 30-mL suspension of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (containing 2 - 5 × 10¹¹ colony-forming units) was instilled into the lungs according to an established protocol. The sham group received only the vehicle (30 mL saline). The sheep were studied in awake state for 24 h and ventilated with 100% oxygen. WW-85 was administered 1 h after injury as bolus infusion (0.1 mg/kg), followed by a continuous infusion of 0.02 mg·kg?¹·h?¹ until the end of the 24-h experimental period. Compared with injured but untreated controls, WW-85-treated animals had significantly improved gas exchange, reductions in airway obstruction, shunt formation, lung myeloperoxidase concentrations, lung malondialdehyde concentrations, lung 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations, and plasma nitrate-to-nitrite levels. Animals treated with WW-85 exhibited less microvascular leakage and improvements in pulmonary function. These results provide evidence that blockade of the nitric oxide-peroxynitrite pathway improves disturbances from septic shock, as demonstrated in a clinically relevant ovine experimental model. PMID:20577150

Maybauer, Dirk M; Maybauer, Marc O; Szabó, Csaba; Cox, Robert A; Westphal, Martin; Kiss, Levente; Horvath, Eszter M; Traber, Lillian D; Hawkins, Hal K; Salzman, Andrew L; Southan, Garry J; Herndon, David N; Traber, Daniel L

2011-02-01

444

Vascular development in early ovine gestation: carotid smooth muscle function, phenotype, and biochemical markers.  

PubMed

Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) maturation is developmentally regulated and differs between vascular beds. The maturation and contribution of VSM function to tissue blood flow and blood pressure regulation during early gestation are unknown. The carotid artery (CA) contributes to fetal cerebral blood flow regulation and well being. We studied CA VSM contractility, protein contents, and phenotype beginning in the midthird of ovine development. CAs were collected from early (88-101 day of gestation) and late (138-150 day; term = day 150) fetal (n = 14), newborn (6-8 day old; n = 7), and adult (n = 5) sheep to measure forces in endothelium-denuded rings with KCl, phenylephrine, and ANG II; changes in cellular proteins, including total and soluble protein, actin and myosin, myosin heavy chain isoforms (MHC), filamin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen; and vascular remodeling. KCl and phenylephrine elicited age- and dose-dependent contraction responses (P < 0.001) at all ages except early fetal, which were unresponsive. In contrast, ANG II elicited dose responses only in adults, with contractility increasing greater than fivefold vs. that shown in fetal or neonatal animals (P < 0.001). Increased contractility paralleled age-dependent increases (P < 0.01) in soluble protein, actin and myosin, filamin, adult smooth muscle MHC-2 (SM2) and medial wall thickness and reciprocal decreases (P < 0.001) in nonmuscle MHC-B, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and medial cellular density. VSM nonreceptor- and receptor-mediated contractions are absent or markedly attenuated in midgestation and increase age dependently, paralleling the transition from synthetic to contractile VSM phenotype and, in the case of ANG II, paralleling the switch to the AT(1) receptor. The mechanisms regulating VSM maturation and thus blood pressure and tissue perfusion in early development remain to be determined. PMID:17475675

Hutanu, Catalina; Cox, Blair E; DeSpain, Kevin; Liu, Xiao-Tie; Rosenfeld, Charles R

2007-07-01

445

Monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4: expression and regulation by PPAR? in ovine ruminal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

In the intact rumen epithelium, isoforms 1 and 4 of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1 and MCT4) are thought to play key roles in mediating transcellular and intracellular permeation of short-chain fatty acids and their metabolites and in maintaining intracellular pH. We examined whether both MCT1 and MCT4 are expressed at mRNA and protein levels in ovine ruminal epithelial cells (REC) maintained in primary culture and whether they are regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?). Because both transporters have been characterized to function coupled to protons, the influence of PPAR? on the recovery of intracellular pH after l-lactate exposure was evaluated by spectrofluorometry. MCT1 and MCT4 were detected using immunocytochemistry both at the cell margins and intracellularly in cultured REC. To test regulation by PPAR?, cells were exposed to WY 14.643, a selective ligand of PPAR?, for 48 h. The subsequent qPCR analysis resulted in a dose-dependent upregulation of MCT1 and PPAR? target genes, whereas response of MCT4 was not uniform. Protein expression of MCT1 and MCT4 quantified by Western blot analysis was not altered by WY 14.643 treatment. l-Lactate-dependent proton export was blocked almost completely by pHMB, a specific inhibitor of MCT1 and MCT4. However, l-lactate-dependent, pHMB-inhibited proton export in WY 14.643-treated cells was not significantly altered compared with cells not treated with WY 14.643. These data suggest that PPAR? is particularly regulating MCT1 but not MCT4 expression. Extent of lactate-coupled proton export indicates that MCT1 is already working on a high level even under unstimulated conditions. PMID:25320343

Benesch, Franziska; Dengler, Franziska; Masur, Franziska; Pfannkuche, Helga; Gäbel, Gotthold

2014-12-15

446

Quantification of Biomechanical Interaction of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Stent Deployed in Porcine and Ovine Hearts  

PubMed Central

Success of the deployment and function in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is heavily reliant on the tissue-stent interaction. The present study quantified important tissue-stent contact variables of self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) stents when deployed into ovine and porcine aortic roots, such as the stent radial expansion force, stent pullout force, the annulus deformation response and the coefficient of friction on the tissue-stent contact interface. Braided Nitinol stents were developed, tested to determine stent crimped diameter vs. stent radial force from a stent crimp experiment, and deployed in vitro to quantify stent pullout, aortic annulus deformation, and the coefficient of friction between the stent and the aortic tissue from an aortic root-stent interaction experiment. The results indicated that when crimped at body temperature from 26 mm to 19, 21 and 23 mm stent radial forces were approximately 30-40% higher than those crimped at room temperature. Coefficients of friction leveled to approximately 0.10 ± 0.01 as stent wire diameter increased and annulus size decreased from 23 to 19 mm. Regardless of aortic annulus size and species tested, it appeared that a minimum of about 2.5 mm in annular dilatation, caused by about 60N of radial force from stent expansion, was needed to anchor the stent against a pullout into the left ventricle. The study of the contact biomechanics in animal aortic tissues may help us better understand characteristics of tissue-stent interactions and quantify the baseline responses of non-calcified aortic tissues. PMID:23161165

Mummert, Joseph; Sirois, Eric; Sun, Wei

2012-01-01

447

Intra-nasal Inoculation of American Bison (Bison bison) with Ovine Herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) Reliably Reproduces Malignant Catarrhal Fever  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever due to infection with ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) is common in commercial herds of American bison (Bison bison). Inability to propagate OvHV-2 in vitro constrains experimental studies of the disease. We sought to establish whether nasal secretions from s...

448

Ovine herpesvirus 2 infection in american bison: virus and host dynamics in the development of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) is a gammaherpesvirus that causes sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), a frequently fatal disease mainly of ruminants. This study was designed to define virus-host dynamics following experimental OvHV-2 infection in bison. A transient peak in viral DNA ac...

449

Characterization by restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA hybridization using IS 900 of bovine, ovine, caprine and human dependent strains of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis isolated in various localities  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA of 90 mycobactin-dependent strains of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, isolated in 9 countries, was digested with restriction endonuclease PstI and hybridized with a DNA fragment containing insertion sequence IS900. Bovine strains (n = 73) were isolated from 61 animals in 17 herds, ovine strains (n = 15) from 13 animals in 3 herds and the set was completed by 1 caprine

I. Pavlík; L. Bej?ková; M. Pavlas; Z. Rozsypalová; S. Kosková

1995-01-01

450

Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus Capsid Antigen as Found in CD163- and CD172a-Positive Alveolar Macrophages of Persistently Infected Sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In situ detection of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) and the phenotypic identification of the cells which harbor OPPV have not been described for the OPPV affected tissues which include lung, mammary gland, synovial membranes of the carpal joint, and choroid plexus of the brain. In this st...

451

Two proximal activating protein-1-binding sites are sufficient to stimulate transcription of the ovine follicle-stimulating hormone-beta gene  

EPA Science Inventory

FSH is an important regulator of mammalian gametogenesis and the female reproductive cycle. Although little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the beta-subunit (the rate-limiting subunit of FSH synthesis), sequence analysis of the ovine FSHbeta promoter has revealed...

452

Sequence diversity of the leukotoxin (lktA) gene in caprine and ovine strains of Mannheimia haemolytica.  

PubMed

Mannheimia haemolytica is the aetiological agent of pneumonic pasteurellosis in small ruminants. The primary virulence factor of the bacterium is a leukotoxin (LktA), which induces apoptosis in susceptible cells via mitochondrial targeting. It has been previously shown that certain lktA alleles are associated either with cattle or sheep. The objective of the present study was to investigate lktA sequence variation among ovine and caprine M haemolytica strains isolated from pneumonic lungs, revealing any potential adaptation for the caprine host, for which there is no available data. Furthermore, we investigated amino acid variation in the N-terminal part of the sequences and its effect on targeting mitochondria. Data analysis showed that the prevalent caprine genotype differed at a single non-synonymous site from a previously described uncommon bovine allele, whereas the ovine sequences represented new, distinct alleles. N-terminal sequence differences did not affect the mitochondrial targeting ability of the isolates; interestingly enough in one case, mitochondrial matrix targeting was indicated rather than membrane association, suggesting an alternative LktA trafficking pattern. PMID:23396525

Vougidou, C; Sandalakis, V; Psaroulaki, A; Petridou, E; Ekateriniadou, L

2013-04-20

453

Identification of the Target Cells and Sequence of Infection during Experimental Infection of Ovine Fetuses with Cache Valley Virus  

PubMed Central

Cache Valley virus-induced malformations have been previously reproduced in ovine fetuses; however, no studies have established the course of infection of cells and tissues with Cache Valley virus. To address these questions, ovine fetuses at 35 days of gestation were inoculated in utero with Cache Valley virus and euthanized at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days postinfection. On postmortem examination, arthrogryposis and oligohydramnios were observed in some infected fetuses. Morphological studies showed necrosis in the central nervous system and skeletal muscle of infected fetuses evaluated after 7 to 14 days postinfection, and hydrocephalus, micromyelia, and muscular loss were observed in infected fetuses after 21 to 28 days postinfection. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, intense Cache Valley virus antigen and RNA staining was detected in the brain, spinal cord, skeletal muscle, and, to a lesser degree, in fetal membranes and other tissues of infected fetuses. Viral antigen and RNA staining decreased in targeted and infected tissues with the progression of the infection. PMID:22379096

Welsh, Christabel Jane; Varner, Patricia Wilcox; de la Concha-Bermejillo, Andres; Ball, Judith Marchand; Ambrus, Andy

2012-01-01

454

Discrimination between ovine Babesia and Theileria species in China based on the ribosomal protein S8 (RPS8) gene.  

PubMed

Ovine babesiosis and theileriosis are important hemoprotozoal diseases of sheep and goats in tropical and subtropical regions that lead to economic losses in these animals. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is a reliable molecular diagnostic tool for discriminating Theileria or Babesia species in the same host. In this study, the DNA sequences of a ribosomal protein S8 (RPS8) gene from four species of piroplasms in China were used to develop a species-specific PCR-RFLP diagnostic tool. The sensitivity of the PCR assays was 0.1 pg DNA for B. motasi and 1 pg DNA for T. uilenbergi and 10 pg DNA for Babesia sp. Xinjiang-2005 and T. luwenshuni. The clear size difference of the PCR products allowed for a direct discrimination for B. motasi, Babesia sp. Xinjiang-2005 and ovine Theileria species (T. uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni), except that the mixed infection between T. uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni may be difficult to distinguish, simply after the electrophoretic separation of the amplification products. Further T. uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni diagnoses were made by digesting the PCR product with SacI. The established method could be applicable for the survey of parasite dynamics, and epidemiological studies as well as prevention and control of the disease. PMID:23747103

Tian, Zhancheng; Liu, Guangyuan; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jin; Xie, Junren; Zheng, Jinfeng; Yuan, Xiaosong; Wang, Fangfang; Shen, Hui; Tian, Meiyuan

2013-10-18

455

Characterization of proteoglycan 4 and hyaluronan composition and lubrication function of ovine synovial fluid following knee surgery.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine changes in (1) proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) and hyaluronan (HA) concentration, (2) HA molecular weight (MW) distribution, and (3) cartilage boundary lubricating ability of synovial fluid (SF) from surgical sham (SHAM), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)/medial collateral ligament (MCL) transection, and lateral meniscectomy (MEN) in a post-knee surgery ovine model. Ovine SF (oSF) was collected at euthanization 20 weeks after surgery, with the contralateral joint serving as the non-operative control. PRG4 and HA concentration in oSF was measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and HA MW distribution by agarose gel electrophoresis. Cartilage boundary lubricating ability of oSF was measured by a cartilage-cartilage friction test. PRG4 and HA concentration in SHAM, ACL/MCL, and MEN oSF were similar in comparison to the contralateral control (CTRL) oSF. The HA MW distribution in the operated oSF for all ranges were similar to the respective CTRL oSF. The kinetic coefficients of friction in operated and CTRL oSF were similar in all groups, and were significantly lower than saline. These results indicate oSF lubricant composition and function at 20 weeks post-knee surgery were similar to contralateral CTRL, and suggest earlier time points post surgery warrant further investigation. PMID:23722645

Barton, Kristen I; Ludwig, Taryn E; Achari, Yamini; Shrive, Nigel G; Frank, Cyril B; Schmidt, Tannin A

2013-10-01

456

Contrasting apoptotic responses of conjugated linoleic acid in the liver of obese Zucker rats fed palm oil or ovine fat.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that reducing weight properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are due to adipocyte apoptosis and that CLA differentially modulates the apoptotic responses in hepatic lipotoxicity from rats fed saturated fat diets. Obese Zucker rats were fed atherogenic diets (2%w/w of cholesterol) formulated with high (15%w/w) saturated fat, from vegetable or animal origin, supplemented or not with 1% of a mixture (1:1) of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers for 14 weeks. CLA induced no changes on retroperitoneal fat depot weight, which was in line with similar levels of apoptosis. Interestingly, CLA had a contrasting effect on cell death in the liver according to the dietary fat. CLA increased hepatocyte apoptosis, associated with upregulation of Fas protein in rats fed palm oil, compared to rats receiving palm oil alone. However, rats fed ovine fat alone displayed the highest levels of hepatic cell death, which were decreased in rats fed ovine fat plus CLA. This reducing effect of CLA was related to positively restoring endoplasmic reticulum (ER) ATF-6?, BiP and CHOP protein levels and increasing phosphorylated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun, thus suggesting an adaptive response of cell survival. These findings reinforce the role of CLA as regulator of apoptosis in the liver. Moreover, the dietary fat composition is a key factor in activation of apoptosis. PMID:21600750

Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Viana, Ricardo S J; Ramalho, Rita M; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinho, Mário S; Jerónimo, Eliana; Bessa, Rui J B; Castro, Matilde F; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Prates, José A M

2011-08-01

457

A gene duplication affecting expression of the ovine ASIP gene is responsible for white and black sheep  

PubMed Central

Agouti signaling protein (ASIP) functions to regulate pigmentation in mice, while its role in many other animals and in humans has not been fully determined. In this study, we identify a 190-kb tandem duplication encompassing the ovine ASIP and AHCY coding regions and the ITCH promoter region as the genetic cause of white coat color of dominant white/tan (AWt) agouti sheep. The duplication 5? breakpoint is located upstream of the ASIP coding sequence. Ubiquitous expression of a second copy of the ASIP coding sequence regulated by a duplicated copy of the nearby ITCH promoter causes the white sheep phenotype. A single copy ASIP gene with a silenced ASIP promoter occurs in recessive black sheep. In contrast, a single copy functional wild-type (A+) ASIP is responsible for the ancient Barbary sheep coat color phenotype. The gene duplication was facilitated by homologous recombination between two non-LTR SINE sequences flanking the duplicated segment. This is the first sheep trait attributable to gene duplication and shows nonallelic homologous recombination and gene conversion events at the ovine ASIP locus could have an important role in the evolution of sheep pigmentation. PMID:18493018

Norris, Belinda J.; Whan, Vicki A.

2008-01-01

458

Increased adrenergic signaling is responsible for decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the chronically hyperinsulinemic ovine fetus.  

PubMed

Insulin may stimulate its own insulin secretion and is a potent growth factor for the pancreatic ?-cell. Complications of pregnancy, such as diabetes and intrauterine growth restriction, are associated with changes in fetal insulin concentrations, secretion, and ?-cell mass. However, glucose concentrations are also abnormal in these conditions. The direct effect of chronic fetal hyperinsulinemia with euglycemia on fetal insulin secretion and ?-cell mass has not been tested. We hypothesized that chronic fetal hyperinsulinemia with euglycemia would increase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and ?-cell mass in the ovine fetus. Singleton ovine fetuses were infused with iv insulin to produce high physiological insulin concentrations, or saline for 7-10 days. The hyperinsulinemic animals also received a direct glucose infusion to maintain euglycemia. GSIS, measured at 133 ± 1 days of gestation, was significantly attenuated in the hyperinsulinemic fetuses (P < .05). There was no change in ?-cell mass. The hyperinsulinemic fetuses also had decreased oxygen (P < .05) and higher norepinephrine (1160 ± 438 vs 522 ± 106 pg/mL; P < .005). Acute pharmacologic adrenergic blockade restored GSIS in the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic fetuses, demonstrating that increased adrenergic signaling mediates decreased GSIS in these fetuses. PMID:25343274

Andrews, Sasha E; Brown, Laura D; Thorn, Stephanie R; Limesand, Sean W; Davis, Melissa; Hay, William W; Rozance, Paul J

2015-01-01

459

Regeneration of nucleus pulposus tissue in an ovine intervertebral disc degeneration model by cell-free resorbable polymer scaffolds.  

PubMed

Degeneration of intervertebral discs (IVDs) occurs frequently and is often associated with lower back pain. Recent treatment options are limited and treat the symptoms rather than regenerate the degenerated disc. Cell-free, freeze-dried resorbable polyglycolic acid (PGA)-hyaluronan implants were used in an ovine IVD degeneration model. The nucleus pulposus of the IVD was partially removed, endoscopically. PGA-hyaluronan implants were immersed in autologous sheep serum and implanted into the disc defect. Animals with nucleotomy only served as controls. The T2-weighted/fat suppression sequence signal intensity index of the operated discs, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), showed that implantation of the PGA-hyaluronan implant improved (p = 0.0066) the MRI signal compared to controls at 6 months after surgery. Histological analysis by haematoxylin and eosin and safranin O staining showed the ingrowth of cells with typical chondrocytic morphology, even cell distribution, and extracellular matrix rich in proteoglycan. Histomorphometric analyses confirmed that the implantation of the PGA-hyaluronan scaffolds improved (p = 0.027) the formation of regenerated tissue after nucleotomy. Disc heights remained stable in discs with nucleotomy only as well as after implantation of the implant. In conclusion, implantation of cell-free polymer-based implants after nucleotomy induces nucleus pulposus tissue regeneration and improves disc water content in the ovine model. PMID:22865642

Woiciechowsky, Christian; Abbushi, Alexander; Zenclussen, Maria L; Casalis, Pablo; Krüger, Jan Philipp; Freymann, Undine; Endres, Michaela; Kaps, Christian

2014-10-01

460

Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum in Niemann-Pick type C disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two unrelated patients with Niemann-Pick type C disease MRI showed symmetrical cerebral and cerebellar atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. T2-weighted images in one showed high signal areas in the posterior white matter.

S. Palmeri; C. Battisti; A. Federico; G. C. Guazzi

1994-01-01

461

Longitudinal, Regional and Deformation-Specific Corpus Callosum Shape Analysis for Multiple Sclerosis  

E-print Network

brain scans of a group of multiple sclerosis patients undergoing a longitudinal (serial) study transmit neural impulses between the hemispheres. Multiple Sclerosis is an inflammatory and degenerativeLongitudinal, Regional and Deformation-Specific Corpus Callosum Shape Analysis for Multiple

Hamarneh, Ghassan

462

AUTOMATIC CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF CORPUS CALLOSUM SUBDIVISIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: A DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING STUDY  

E-print Network

an important role in relaying sensory, cognitive, and motor information throughout the brain. While MRI studies for the Corpus Callosum. Figure 6 DTI ACQUSITION: · 3 Tesla GE system (General Electric Medical Systems

463

76 FR 49285 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

This action corrects the geographic coordinates in the regulatory text of a final rule that was published in the Federal Register June 2, 2011, amending Class D airspace at Cabaniss Navy Outlying Field (NOLF), Corpus Christi,...

2011-08-10

464

76 FR 31821 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

This action amends Class D airspace within the Corpus Christi, TX, area by updating the geographic coordinates for Cabaniss Navy Outlying Field (NOLF). This action does not change the boundaries or operating requirements of the...

2011-06-02

465

Towards the National Corpus of Polish Adam Przepirkowski1,5  

E-print Network

Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk4 , Marek Lazi´nski3,5 1 Institute of Computer Science 2 Institute of Polish Language 3 with an eye on specific applications in various fields, including lexicography (the corpus

Przepiórkowski, Adam

466

Evaluation of pore-water samplers at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used innovative sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report evaluates a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. The new type of pore-water sampler appears to be an effective approach for long-term monitoring of ground water in the sand and organic-rich mud beneath the drainage ditch.

Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

2007-01-01

467

Transcriptome signatures in Helicobacter pylori-infected mucosa identifies acidic mammalian chitinase loss as a corpus atrophy marker  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of gastric cancer cases are believed to be caused by chronic infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, and atrophic corpus gastritis is a predisposing condition to gastric cancer development. We aimed to increase understanding of the molecular details of atrophy by performing a global transcriptome analysis of stomach tissue. Methods Biopsies from patients with different stages of H. pylori infection were taken from both the antrum and corpus mucosa and analyzed on microarrays. The stages included patients without current H. pylori infection, H. pylori-infected without corpus atrophy and patients with current or past H. pylori-infection with corpus-predominant atrophic gastritis. Results Using clustering and integrated analysis, we found firm evidence for antralization of the corpus mucosa of atrophy patients. This antralization harbored gain of gastrin expression, as well as loss of expression of corpus-related genes, such as genes associated with acid production, energy metabolism and blood clotting. The analyses provided detailed molecular evidence for simultaneous intestinal metaplasia (IM) and spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in atrophic corpus tissue. Finally, acidic mammalian chitinase, a chitin-degrading enzyme produced by chief cells, was shown to be strongly down-regulated in corpus atrophy. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis revealed several gene groups which are related to development of corpus atrophy, some of which were increased also in H. pylori-infected non-atrophic patients. Furthermore, loss of acidic chitinase expression is a promising marker for corpus atrophy. PMID:24119614

2013-01-01

468

Mlanges CRAPEL n31 CORPUS ORAUX PAR ET POUR L'APPRENANT  

E-print Network

de grands corpus, est né dans les années 1990 le paradigme « TaLC » (« teaching and language corpora'apprentissage des langues. En général, on identifie trois types d'approches en TaLC (voir Stewart et al., 2004 oraux en TaLC est considérablement à la traîne. Les travaux existants sur les corpus oraux dans l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

469

Further results on the recognition of a continuously read natural corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Further results have been obtained on the recognition of continuously read sentences from a natural language corpus of laser patents. The vocabulary is limited to the 1000 most frequently occurring words in the corpus. Our model of the task language has a perplexity of 24.1 words (corresponding to an entropy of 4.6 bits\\/word). This paper describes modifications and improvements to

L. Bahl; R. Bakis; P. Cohen; A. Cole; F. Jelinek; B. Lewis; R. Mercer

1980-01-01

470

Current status in the management of uterine corpus cancer in Korea  

PubMed Central

Uterine corpus cancer has increased in prevalence in Korean women over the last decade. Recently, elegant studies have been reported from many institutes. To improve treatment strategies, a review of our own data is warranted. This work will discuss the risks and prognostic factors for uterine corpus cancer, and the radiologic evaluation, prediction of lymph node metastasis, systematic lymphadenectomy, minimally invasive surgery, ovarian-saving surgery, fertility-sparing treatment, and adjuvant treatment in women with uterine cancer. PMID:20922137

Jeong, Nan-Hee; Lee, Seon-Kyung

2010-01-01

471

Uncertainty Corpus: Resource to Study User Affect in Complex Spoken Dialogue Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a corpus of spoken dialogues between students and an adaptive Wizard-of-Oz tutoring system, in which student uncertainty was manually annotated in real-time. We detail the corpus contents, including speech files, transcripts, annotations, and log files, and we discuss possible future uses by the computational linguist ics community as a novel resource for studying naturally occurring user affect and

Katherine Forbes-Riley; Diane J. Litman; Scott Silliman; Amruta Purandare

2008-01-01

472

Case File: Mare Infertility SIGNALMENTAND HISTORY  

E-print Network

and uterus · Presence of corpus luteum on right ovary indicated that the ma