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1

Microvascular endothelial cells of the corpus luteum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyclic nature of the capillary bed in the corpus luteum offers a unique experimental model to examine the life cycle of endothelial cells, involving discrete physiologically regulated steps of angiogenesis, blood vessel maturation and blood vessel regression. The granulosa cells and theca cells of the developing antral follicle and the steroidogenic cells of the corpus luteum produce and respond

John S Davis; Bo R Rueda; Katherina Spanel-Borowski

2003-01-01

2

Immunocytochemical localization of oxytocin in the equine corpus luteum  

E-print Network

direct or local pathway between the ovary and the uterine horn on the adjacent side in cattle, sheep and swine, while in the mare a systemic luteolytic effect seems more likely (Del Campo and Ginther, 1973). Hysterectomy of cattle, sheep and swine... results in the maintenance of the corpus luteum and a partial hysterectomy with the remaining uterine tissue and ovary on the same side allows the corpus luteum to regress quickly. In the mare, total hysterectomy caused retention of the corpus luteum...

Murray, Melanie Ann

2012-06-07

3

CORPUS LUTEUM: ANIMAL MODELS OF POSSIBLE RELEVANCE TO REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The presence of a normally functioning corpus luteum is an essential requirement for the maintenance of gestation in mammals. he chief function of the corpus luteum in all species is to synthesize the steroid hormone progesterone that is necessary for implantation and for the sub...

4

Progesterone and interferon tau regulated genes in the endometrium of the ovine uterus and expression of interferon stimulated genes in the corpus luteum during early pregnancy in sheep  

E-print Network

genes identified by previous custom ovine cDNA microarray analyses. ACTA2, COL3A1, POSTN, SPARC, S100A2, STAT5A and TAGLN were examined. POSTN was upregulated by P4 and S100A2 was downregulated by IFNT. Moreover, functional studies showed that POSTN...

Ahn, Hyo Won

2008-10-10

5

Endocrine and Local Control of the Primate Corpus Luteum  

PubMed Central

The primate corpus luteum is a transient endocrine gland that differentiates from the ovulatory follicle midway through the ovarian (menstrual) cycle. Its formation and limited lifespan is critical for fertility, as luteal-derived progesterone is the essential steroid hormone required for embryo implantation and maintenance of intra-uterine pregnancy until the placenta develops. It is well-established that LH and the LH-like hormone, CG, are the vital luteotropic hormones during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy, respectively. Recent advances, particularly through genome analyses and cellular studies, increased our understanding of various local factors and cellular processes associated with the development, maintenance and repression of the corpus luteum. These include paracrine or autocrine factors associated with angiogenesis (e.g., VEGF), and that mediate LH/CG actions (e.g., progesterone), or counteract luteotropic effects (i.e., local luteolysis; e.g., PGF2?). However, areas of mystery and controversy remain, particularly regarding the signals and events that initiate luteal regression in the non-fecund cycle. Novel approaches capable of gene “knockdown” or amplification”, in vivo as well as in vitro, should identify novel or underappreciated gene products that are regulated by or modulate LH/CG actions to control the functional lifespan of the primate corpus luteum. Further advances in our understanding of luteal physiology will help to improve or control fertility for purposes ranging from preservation of endangered primate species to designing novel ovary-based contraceptives and treating ovarian disorders in women. R01 HD020869, R01 HD042000, U54 HD018185, U54 HD055744, P51 OD011092, T32 HD007133, Bayer Schering Pharma AG. PMID:24287034

Stouffer, Richard L.; Bishop, Cecily V.; Bogan, Randy L.; Xu, Fuhua; Hennebold, Jon D.

2014-01-01

6

Der Einfluß von gonadotropem Hormon auf das Corpus luteum der Frau  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Als Hinweis auf die Fähigkeit des chorialen gonadotropen Hormons, die Lebensdauer des Corpus luteum zu verlängern, also aus dem Gelbkörper des Zyklus das Corpus luteum graviditatis zu machen, werden folgende Beobachtungen angeführt:1.In Fällen von Chorionepitheliom, bei denen gegenüber der normalen Schwangerschaft die Prolanbildung häufig stark erhöht, die Bildung von Follikelhormon aber erniedrigt ist, finden sich oft mehrere Gelbkörper oder

W. Büttner; D. Majakos

1940-01-01

7

Progestin content and biosynthetic potential of the corpus luteum of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana)  

E-print Network

Progestin content and biosynthetic potential of the corpus luteum of the African elephant and biosynthetic potential of the corpus luteum of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Luteal tissue within and biosynthesized by corpora lutea of African elephants are 5\\g=a\\-reduced metabolites

Pretoria, University of

8

Mutant mouse models and their contribution to our knowledge of corpus luteum development, function and regression  

PubMed Central

The corpus luteum is a unique organ, which is transitory in nature. The development, maintenance and regression of the corpus luteum are regulated by endocrine, paracrine and autocrine signaling events. Defining the specific mediators of luteal development, maintenance and regression has been difficult and often perplexing due to the complexity that stems from the variety of cell types that make up the luteal tissue. Moreover, some regulators may serve dual functions as a luteotropic and luteolytic agent depending on the temporal and spatial environment in which they are expressed. As a result, some confusion is present in the interpretation of in vitro and in vivo studies. More recently investigators have utilized mutant mouse models to define the functional significance of specific gene products. The goal of this mini-review is to identify and discuss mutant mouse models that have luteal anomalies, which may provide some clues as to the significance of specific regulators of corpus luteum function. PMID:14613537

Henkes, Luiz E; Davis, John S; Rueda, Bo R

2003-01-01

9

The size of the corpus luteum during pseudopregnancy and pregnancy in the rat.  

PubMed

The corpus luteum in mature Sprague Dawley rats was weighted at the various stages of pseudopregnancy and pregancy. The average size of these corpora lutea was 1.0 +/- 0.10 mg, 1.61 +/- 0.69 mg, 1.90 +/- 0.25 mg, 3.69 +/- 0.36 mg, and 4.37 +/- 0.50 mg on day 2 of diestrus, on days 10-15 of psuedopregnancy, on days 9-10, 14, and 20 of pregnancy, respectively. The fact that the average size of the corpus luteum on days 10-15 of pseudopregnancy was larger than that on day 2 of diestrus is thought to drive from prolonged exposure of the corpus luteum to prolactin. The average size of the corpus luteum on days 9-10 of pregnancy had a tendency to be larger than that on days 10-15 of pseudopregnancy and this seems to demonstrate that the placenta secreted placental lactogen by this stage of pregnancy. The average size of the corpus luteum on day 14 of pregnancy was larger than that on days 9-10 of pregnancy. This phenomenon might be attributed to the presence of large amounts of placental lactogen secreted from the placenta between days 10 and 14 of pregnancy. Furthermore, it was noted that the size of the corpus luteum on day 20 of pregnancy was larger than that of day 14, which suggests that further secretion of placental lactogen continued after day 14 of pregnancy. As there was a remarkable decrease in the number of fetuses on day 20 of pregnancy when overiectomy was performed on day 14 of pregnancy, the ovary was considered indispensable in maintaining pregnancy in the rat. PMID:1175527

Miyagawa, N; Noguchi, K; Okamoto, R; Saito, M

1975-06-01

10

DNA Methylation and Histone Modifications Are Associated with Repression of the Inhibin ? Promoter in the Rat Corpus Luteum  

PubMed Central

The transition from follicle to corpus luteum after ovulation is associated with profound morphological and functional changes and is accompanied by corresponding changes in gene expression. The gene encoding the ? subunit of the dimeric reproductive hormone inhibin is maximally expressed in the granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicle, is rapidly repressed by the ovulatory LH surge, and is expressed at only very low levels in the corpus luteum. Although previous studies have identified transient repressors of inhibin ? gene transcription, little is known about how this repression is maintained in the corpus luteum. This study examines the role of epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation and histone modification, in silencing of inhibin ? gene expression. Bisulfite sequencing reveals that methylation of the inhibin ? proximal promoter is low in preovulatory and ovulatory follicles but is elevated in the corpus luteum. Increased methylation during luteinization is observed within the cAMP response element in the promoter, and EMSA demonstrate that methylation of this site inhibits cAMP response element binding protein binding in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals that repressive histone marks H3K9 and H3K27 trimethylation are increased on the inhibin ? promoter in primary luteal cells, whereas the activation mark H3K4 trimethylation is decreased. The changes in histone modification precede the alterations in DNA methylation, suggesting that they facilitate the recruitment of DNA methyltransferases. We show that the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a is present in the ovary and in luteal cells when the inhibin ? promoter becomes methylated and observe recruitment of DNMT3a to the inhibin promoter during luteinization. PMID:22865368

Meldi, Kristen M.; Gaconnet, Georgia A.

2012-01-01

11

Fas and Fas Ligand Messenger Ribonucleic Acid and Protein Expression in the Rat Corpus Luteum during Apoptosis-Mediated Luteolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis has been found to occur during regression of the corpus luteum (CL) in many species. The Fas (APO-1\\/CD95) re- ceptor, a transmembrane protein that induces apoptosis in the cell when bound to Fas ligand (FasL), may be involved. This study established and quantitated the presence and regulation of Fas receptor and FasL in the rat CL during pregnancy and

Sharon A. Roughton; Ricky R. Lareu; Alan H. Bittles; Arun M. Dharmarajan; Human Biology

1999-01-01

12

Effect of a prostaglandin F2? analogue on the cyclic corpus luteum during its refractory period in cows  

PubMed Central

Background The goal of this study was to examine the response of the cyclic corpus luteum of cows to the administration of a prostaglandin F2? analogue (PGF) during the transition of refractoriness to responsiveness by investigating ultrasonographic changes in the corpus luteum and changes in plasma progesterone concentration in cows following the administration of PGF 3 and 5 days after ovulation. Results All cows that responded to PGF given on day 5 ovulated on day 9. In the cows that did not respond on day 5, the luteal cross-sectional area stagnated after treatment, whereas the plasma progesterone concentration continued to increase. In the cows that received PGF on day 3 of the oestrous cycle, the luteal cross-sectional area and the plasma progesterone concentration continued to increase. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the transition of the bovine corpus luteum from refractoriness to responsiveness to PGF occurs during day 5 of the oestrous cycle because in 5 of 8 cows given PGF on day 5, early luteal regression was evident during the examination 24 hours after PGF administration. PMID:23151276

2012-01-01

13

Lymphatic Involvement in the Disappearance of Steroidogenic Cells from the Corpus Luteum during Luteolysis  

PubMed Central

In mammals, the corpus luteum (CL) is an essential endocrine gland for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. If pregnancy is not established, the CL regresses and disappears rapidly from the ovary. A possible explanation for the rapid disappearance of the CL is that luteal cells are transported from the ovary via lymphatic vessels. Here, we report the presence of cells positive for 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD), an enzyme involved in progesterone synthesis, in the lumen of lymphatic vessels at the regressing luteal stage and in the lymphatic fluid collected from the ovarian pedicle ipsilateral to the regressing CL. The 3?-HSD positive cells were alive and contained lipid droplets. The 3?-HSD positive cells in the lymphatic fluid were most abundant at days 22–24 after ovulation. These findings show that live steroidogenic cells are in the lymphatic vessels drained from the CL. The outflow of steroidogenic cells starts at the regressing luteal stage and continues after next ovulation. The overall findings suggest that the complete disappearance of the CL during luteolysis is involved in the outflow of luteal cells from the CL via ovarian lymphatic vessels. PMID:24586455

Abe, Hironori; Al-zi'abi, Mohamad Omar; Sekizawa, Fumio; Acosta, Tomas J.; Skarzynski, Dariusz J.; Okuda, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

14

Luteoprotective Mechanisms of Prostaglandin F2? Stimulated by Luteinizing Hormone in the Bovine Corpus Luteum  

PubMed Central

Abstract Luteinizing hormone (LH) regulates several ovarian functions. However, the luteoprotective mechanisms of LH involved in the maintenance of bovine corpus luteum (CL) function are not well understood. Since prostaglandin F2? (PGF), PGE2 and progesterone (P4) are well documented as antiapoptotic factors in the bovine CL, we hypothesized that LH protects the CL by stimulating the local production and action of PGF, PGE2 and P4. Cultured bovine luteal cells obtained at the mid-luteal stage (days 8–12 of the estrous cycle) were treated with LH (10 ng/ml), onapristone (OP: a specific P4 receptor antagonist, 100 ?M) and indomethacin [INDO; a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, 100 ?M] for 24 h. LH with and without OP significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of COX-2, PGF synthase and carbonyl reductase (P<0.05) but not the mRNA and protein expressions of COX-1 and PGE synthase in bovine luteal cells. In addition, these treatments significantly increased PGF and P4 production (P<0.05) but not PGE2 production. Luteal cell viability was significantly increased by LH alone (P<0.05), but LH-increased cell viability was reduced by LH in combination with INDO as well as OP (P<0.05). The overall results suggest that LH prevents luteal cell death by stimulating luteal PGF and P4 production and supports CL function during the luteal phase in cattle. PMID:23358309

KAWAGUCHI, Syota; BOWOLAKSONO, Anom; YOSHIOKA, Shin; SAKUMOTO, Ryosuke; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

2013-01-01

15

Induction of the Expressions of Antioxidant Enzymes by Luteinizing Hormone in the Bovine Corpus Luteum  

PubMed Central

Abstract Luteoprotective mechanisms of luteinizing hormone (LH) involved in the maintenance of bovine corpus luteum (CL) function have not been completely clarified. Since antioxidant enzymes are well documented as antiapoptotic factors in the CL of many mammals, we hypothesized that the luteoprotective action of LH is mediated by stimulating the local production and action of antioxidant enzymes. To test the above hypothesis, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms involved in the luteoprotective actions of LH. Cultured bovine luteal cells obtained from the CL at the mid-luteal stage (days 8–12 of the estrous cycle) were treated with LH (10 ng/ml), onapristone (OP; a specific progesterone receptor antagonist, 100 ?M) and diethyldithiocarbamate [DETC; an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase (SOD), 100 ?M] for 24 h. LH in combination with or without OP significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of manganese SOD (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CATA) and SOD activity. While LH alone significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of SOD containing copper and zinc (Cu,Zn-SOD), OP in combination with or without LH significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of Cu,Zn-SOD. In addition, Cu,Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CATA mRNA expressions were higher at the mid luteal phase than the other luteal phases. LH in combination with DETC significantly decreased LH-increased cell viability. The overall results suggest that LH increases cell viability by LH-increased antioxidant enzymes, resulting in maintenance of CL function during the luteal phase in cattle. PMID:23386101

KAWAGUCHI, Syota; SAKUMOTO, Ryosuke; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

2013-01-01

16

Mathematical analysis of a model for the growth of the bovine corpus luteum.  

PubMed

The corpus luteum (CL) is an ovarian tissue that grows in the wound space created by follicular rupture. It produces the progesterone needed in the uterus to maintain pregnancy. Rapid growth of the CL and progesterone transport to the uterus require angiogenesis, the creation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, a process which is regulated by proteins that include fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). In this paper we develop a system of time-dependent ordinary differential equations to model CL growth. The dependent variables represent FGF2, endothelial cells (ECs), luteal cells, and stromal cells (like pericytes), by assuming that the CL volume is a continuum of the three cell types. We assume that if the CL volume exceeds that of the ovulated follicle, then growth is inhibited. This threshold volume partitions the system dynamics into two regimes, so that the model may be classified as a Filippov (piecewise smooth) system. We show that normal CL growth requires an appropriate balance between the growth rates of luteal and stromal cells. We investigate how angiogenesis influences CL growth by considering how the system dynamics depend on the dimensionless EC proliferation rate, [Formula: see text]. We find that weak (low [Formula: see text]) or strong (high [Formula: see text]) angiogenesis leads to 'pathological' CL growth, since the loss of CL constituents compromises progesterone production or delivery. However, for intermediate values of [Formula: see text], normal CL growth is predicted. The implications of these results for cow fertility are also discussed. For example, inadequate angiogenesis has been linked to infertility in dairy cows. PMID:24337679

Prokopiou, Sotiris A; Byrne, Helen M; Jeffrey, Mike R; Robinson, Robert S; Mann, George E; Owen, Markus R

2014-12-01

17

Form and function of the corpus luteum during the human menstrual cycle  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize the growth and regression of the corpus luteum (CL) during an interovulatory interval (IOI) using serial transvaginal ultrasonography. Methods Fifty healthy women of reproductive age with a history of regular menstrual cycles underwent daily transvaginal ultrasonography for one IOI. Measurements of luteal area and luteal numerical pixel value (NPV) were recorded each day after ovulation until the CL could no longer be detected. Blood was drawn every third day during the IOI to measure serum concentrations of progesterone and estradiol-17?. Results Corpora lutea were of two morphological types: those with a central fluid-filled cavity (CFFC) (78%) and those without (22%). Eighty-eight percent of women exhibited a CL containing a CFFC 2 days after ovulation, followed by 34% 13 days after ovulation and 2% 27 days after ovulation. Luteal area, progesterone concentration and estradiol concentration increased for approximately the first 6 days following ovulation followed by a subsequent decline. Luteal NPV decreased from days 1 to 11 and increased during days 11–16. Changes in luteal area, NPV, progesterone and estradiol concentrations did not differ in women with two versus three waves of follicular development. Conclusions Peak luteal function, as determined by maximum luteal area, progesterone concentration and estradiol concentration, is observed 6 days following ovulation. Luteal NPV is reflective of morphological and endocrinological changes in the CL. The development of a CFFC during luteinization is a normal physiological phenomenon. The CL can be detected, but is not functional, during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. PMID:15846762

BAERWALD, A. R.; ADAMS, G. P.; PIERSON, R. A.

2010-01-01

18

The lncRNA Neat1 is required for corpus luteum formation and the establishment of pregnancy in a subpopulation of mice.  

PubMed

Neat1 is a non-protein-coding RNA that serves as an architectural component of the nuclear bodies known as paraspeckles. Although cell-based studies indicate that Neat1 is a crucial regulator of gene expression, its physiological relevance remains unclear. Here, we find that Neat1 knockout (KO) mice stochastically fail to become pregnant despite normal ovulation. Unilateral transplantation of wild-type ovaries or the administration of progesterone partially rescued the phenotype, suggesting that corpus luteum dysfunction and concomitant low progesterone were the primary causes of the decreased fertility. In contrast to the faint expression observed in most of the adult tissues, Neat1 was highly expressed in the corpus luteum, and the formation of luteal tissue was severely impaired in nearly half of the Neat1 KO mice. These observations suggest that Neat1 is essential for the formation of the corpus luteum and for the subsequent establishment of pregnancy under a suboptimal condition that has not yet been identified. PMID:25359727

Nakagawa, Shinichi; Shimada, Masayuki; Yanaka, Kaori; Mito, Mari; Arai, Takashi; Takahashi, Eiki; Fujita, Youko; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Standaert, Laura; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Hirose, Tetsuro

2014-12-01

19

A prostaglandin f(2alpha) analog induces suppressors of cytokine signaling-3 expression in the corpus luteum of the pregnant rat: a potential new mechanism in luteolysis.  

PubMed

PRL and placental lactogen (PL) play key roles in maintaining the rodent corpus luteum through pregnancy. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) have been shown to decrease cell sensitivity to cytokines, including PRL, and so here we have addressed the issue of whether luteolysis induced by prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) might up-regulate SOCS proteins to inhibit PRL signaling. In d 19 pregnant rats, cloprostenol, a PGF(2alpha) analog, rapidly induced transcripts for SOCS-3 and, to a lesser extent, SOCS-1. We also found increased SOCS-3 protein in the ovary by immunoblot and in the corpus luteum by immunohistochemistry. Increased SOCS-3 expression was preceded by an increase in STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation 10 min after cloprostenol injection and was maintained for 4 h, as determined by gel shift and immunohistochemistry. Induction of SOCS-3 was accompanied by a sharp decrease in active STAT5, as determined by gel-shift assay and by loss of nuclear localized STAT5. Four hours after cloprostenol administration, the corpus luteum was refractory to stimulation of STAT5 by PRL administration, and this was not due to down-regulation of PRL receptor. Therefore, induction of SOCS-3 by PGF(2alpha) may be an important element in the initiation of luteolysis via rapid suppression of luteotropic support from PL. PMID:12239110

Curlewis, J D; Tam, S P; Lau, P; Kusters, D H L; Barclay, J L; Anderson, S T; Waters, M J

2002-10-01

20

Foetal loss in dairy goats: function of the adrenal glands, corpus luteum and the foetal-placental unit.  

PubMed

To investigate the causes and mechanisms of foetal loss in Norwegian dairy goats, blood parameters in 40 goats that lost foetuses were compared with those in 40 goats that experienced a normal pregnancy. High mean levels of 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha, and low mean levels of oestrone sulphate throughout pregnancy were associated with foetal loss. The mean oestrone sulphate level was low before abortion, and the distinct peak that occurred at parturition in the control goats was not observed in connection with abortion. Association of other blood parameters with foetal loss was not detected. Infectious agents and toxins did not appear to be major causes of foetal loss in this study. The normal level of progesterone and cortisol in goats with foetal loss indicated that the function of the corpus luteum and adrenal glands, respectively, were not disturbed. The rapid decline in progesterone level associated with foetal loss may therefore be a result, rather than the cause, of foetal death. The lowered level of oestrone sulphate and elevated level of 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha in goats with foetal loss clearly indicated that the endocrine foetal-placental function was disturbed. PMID:10379673

Engeland, I V; Ropstad, E; Kindahl, H; Andresen, O; Waldeland, H; Tverdal, A

21

Restoration of corpus luteum angiogenesis in immature hypothyroid rdw rats after thyroxine treatment: morphologic and molecular evidence.  

PubMed

Thyroxine (T4) plus gonadotropins might stimulate ovarian follicular angiogenesis in immature infertile hypothyroid rdw rats by upregulating mRNA expression of major angiogenic factors. Development of growing corpus luteum (CL) is strongly related to angiogenesis and to morphofunctional development of microcirculation. Our aim was to investigate if T4 is involved in CL angiogenesis and in the activation of capillary cells and angiogenic factors after ovulation in a spontaneous model of hypothyroidism, the rdw rat. Rdw rats were treated with T4 plus gonadotropins (equine chorionic gonadotropin plus human chorionic gonadotropin; eCG+hCG) or gonadotropins alone in order to evaluate the effects of T4 on early luteal angiogenesis, on microvascular cells and on expression of major growth factors which are involved in the regulation of angiogenesis. Wistar-Imamichi rats treated with gonadotropins were used as controls. The ovaries were collected 4 days after hCG administration and analyzed using morphologic and molecular approaches. Thyroxine plus gonadotropins stimulated the growth of CLs and follicles as in controls, differently from rdw rats treated only with gonadotropins, in which CLs were not found and only small follicles, often atretic, could be recognized. In T4 plus gonadotropin-treated rdw rats CLs showed increased microvasculature, numerous activated capillaries characterized by sprouting and other angiogenic figures, and associated pericytes. Quantitative analysis revealed that the number of pericytes in T4 plus gonadotropin-treated rdw rats was comparable with that found in control rats and was significantly higher than that found in gonadotropin-treated rdw rats. The mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor was significantly higher in control rats and in T4 plus gonadotropin-treated rdw rats than in gonadotropin-treated rdw rats. mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor ?, transforming growth factor ?, and epidermal growth factor did not show significant changes. Our data originally demonstrated that T4 promoted the growth of an active microcirculation in developing CLs of gonadotropin-primed hypothyroid rdw rats, mainly by inducing sprouting angiogenesis, pericyte recruitment, and upregulation of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. In conclusion, we suggest that T4 plays a key role in restoring luteal angiogenesis in ovaries of immature hypothyroid rdw rats. PMID:23122683

Macchiarelli, Guido; Palmerini, Maria Grazia; Nottola, Stefania Annarita; Cecconi, Sandra; Tanemura, Kentaro; Sato, Eimei

2013-01-01

22

Expression and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in the corpus luteum during oestrous cycle in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to document the expression and localization of VEGF system comprising of VEGF isoforms (VEGF 120, VEGF 164 and VEGF 188) and their receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) in buffalo corpus luteum (CL) obtained from different stages of the oestrous cycle. Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry were applied to investigate mRNA expression, protein expression and localization of examined factors. In general, all the components of VEGF system (the VEGF isoforms and their receptors) were found in the water buffalo CL during the oestrous cycle. The mRNA as well as protein expression of VEGF system was highest during the early and mid-luteal phase, which later steadily decreased (p < 0.05) after day 10 to reach the lowest level in regressed CL. As demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, VEGF protein was localized predominantly in luteal cells; however, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 were localized in luteal cells as well as in endothelial cells. In conclusion, the dynamics of expression and localization of VEGF system in buffalo corpora lutea during the luteal phase were demonstrated in this study, indicating the possible role of VEGF system in the regulation of luteal angiogenesis and proliferation of luteal as well as endothelial cells through their non-angiogenic function. PMID:23551326

Chouhan, V S; Panda, R P; Yadav, V P; Babitha, V; Khan, F A; Das, G K; Gupta, M; Dangi, S S; Singh, G; Bag, S; Sharma, G T; Berisha, B; Schams, D; Sarkar, M

2013-10-01

23

Induction of mRNA for Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors by Prostaglandin F2? Is Dependent upon Stage of the Porcine Corpus Luteum and Intraluteal Progesterone  

PubMed Central

This study tested the hypotheses that prostaglandin (PG) F2? increases expression of genes related to recruitment of leukocytes in mature but not early corpus luteum (CL) and that insensitivity to PGF2? action in early CL is dependent on high intraluteal progesterone (P4) concentrations. Experiment 1 examined early (0.5 h) and late (10 h) in vivo effects of PGF2? on mature (d 17 of pseudopregnancy) and early (d 9) porcine CL. Real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA for chemokines (IL8, CXCL2, CCL2, CCL8, CCL4, CCL11) and chemokine receptors (CCR1, CCR2, CXCR2, CCR5). Western blotting was used to measure protein expression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-?B proteins. Treatment with PGF2? for 10 h increased mRNA for almost all of these genes (all expect CXCL2 and CCL11) in d 17 CL but not d 9 CL. Treatment with PGF2? also led to greater phosphorylation of nuclear factor-?B-1A protein in d 17 than d 9 CL. Experiment 2 had a 2 × 2 factorial design with d 9 gilts treated or not treated with epostane (3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor to suppress intraluteal P4) and treated or not treated with PGF2?. Treatment with PGF2? (10 h) or epostane alone did not induce expression of any of these genes in d 9 CL. However, PGF2? + epostane increased expression of all of these genes except CCL11. In conclusion, PGF2? increases mRNA for chemokines and chemokine receptors in mature CL with similar PGF2? effects induced in early CL if intraluteal P4 is suppressed prior to PGF2? treatment. PMID:21505051

Luo, Wenxiang; Diaz, Francisco J.

2011-01-01

24

ERK1/2 is involved in luteal cell autophagy regulation during corpus luteum regression via an mTOR-independent pathway.  

PubMed

Autophagy is known to be regulated by the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (AKT) and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways, leading to activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a major negative regulator of autophagy. However, some reports have also suggested that autophagic regulation by the PI3K-AKT and/or MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathways may not be mediated by mTOR activity, and there is no direct evidence of the involvement of these pathways in luteal cell autophagy regulation. To elucidate the luteal cell-specific regulatory mechanisms of autophagy induction during corpus luteum (CL) regression, we evaluated whether luteal cell autophagy is regulated by the PI3K-AKT pathway and/or MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway and if this regulation is mediated by mTOR. We found that autophagy induction increased despite mTOR activation in luteal cells cultured with prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), an important mediator of CL regression, suggesting that PGF2?-induced autophagy is independent of mTOR regulation. We also found that PGF2?-induced autophagy was not mediated by AKT activity, because AKT inhibition using a PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) did not change autophagy induction or mTOR activity. In contrast, ERK1/2 activity increased in PGF2?-treated luteal cells, as did the levels of autophagy induction despite increased mTOR activity. Furthermore, PGF2?-mediated up-regulation of luteal cell autophagy was reversed by addition of ERK1/2 inhibitors, despite a decrease in mTOR activity. These in vitro results suggest that luteal cell autophagy is induced by increased ERK1/2 activity during CL regression, and is independent of mTOR activity. This finding was further supported by in vivo experiments in a pseudo-pregnant rat model, which showed that induction of luteal cell autophagy increased during luteal stage progression and that this was accompanied by increased ERK1/2 and mTOR activity. Taken together, our findings indicate that activation of ERK1/2 is a key event in the induction of luteal cell autophagy during CL regression which is not associated with mTOR regulation. PMID:25107837

Choi, JongYeob; Jo, MinWha; Lee, EunYoung; Choi, DooSeok

2014-10-01

25

Lack of complete regression of the Day 5 corpus luteum after one or two doses of PGF2? in nonlactating Holstein cows.  

PubMed

The early corpus luteum (CL) (before Day 6) does not regress after a single PGF2? treatment. We hypothesized that increasing PGF2? dose or number of treatments would allow regression of the early CL (Day 5). Nonlactating Holstein cows (N = 22) were synchronized using the Ovsynch protocol. On Day 5 (Day 0 = second GnRH treatment), cows were assigned to: (1) control (N = 5): no further treatment; (2) 1PGF (N = 6): one dose of 25 mg PGF2?; (3) 2PGF (N = 5): two doses of 25 mg PGF2? (50 mg) given 8 hours apart (second PGF2? on Day 5 at the same time as the other PGF2? treatments); (4) DPGF (N = 6): double dose of 25 mg PGF2? (50 mg) given on Day 5. Blood samples were collected to monitor progesterone (P4) profiles in two periods. In the first period (0 to 24 hours), there were effects of treatment (P = 0.01), time (P < 0.01), and an interaction of treatment and time (P = 0.02). Group 1PGF versus control was different only at 12 hours (P = 0.02). Cows treated with DPGF were different than control at 4 hours (P = 0.04), 12 hours (P < 0.01), and 24 hours (P < 0.01). Only cows treated with 2PGF had lower P4 than control during the entire period and low P4 (0.37 ± 0.17 ng/mL) at 24 hours, usually indicative of luteolysis. In the second period (Day 5 to 15 of the cycle), there were effects of treatment (P < 0.01), time (P < 0.01), and interaction of treatment and time (P = 0.002). Group 1PGF was not different than control from Day 5 to 13 and P4 was greater than control on Day 14 (P = 0.01) and 15 (P < 0.01). Circulating P4 in DPGF cows was lower than control from Day 7 (P = 0.05) through 12 (P < 0.01). Likewise, there were differences between control and 2PGF from Day 7 to 13, but not on Day 14 and 15. On Day 15, all PGF2?-treated groups had circulating P4 consistent with an active CL. Ultrasound evaluation confirmed that no CL from any group completely regressed during the experiment and no new ovulations occurred to account for functional CL later in cycle. In summary, a double dose of PGF2? (twice on Day 5 or 8 hours apart) can dramatically decrease P4, consistent with classical definitions of luteolysis; however, these CL recover and become fully functional. Thus, the Day 5 CL of mature Holstein cows do not regress even to two doses of PGF2?. PMID:24252637

Nascimento, Anibal B; Souza, Alexandre H; Keskin, Abdulkadir; Sartori, Roberto; Wiltbank, Milo C

2014-02-01

26

Prostaglandin F2? Stimulates the Expression and Secretion of Transforming Growth Factor B1 Via Induction of the Early Growth Response 1 Gene (EGR1) in the Bovine Corpus Luteum  

PubMed Central

In most mammals, prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) is believed to be a trigger that induces the regression of the corpus luteum (CL), whereby progesterone synthesis is inhibited, the luteal structure involutes, and the reproductive cycle resumes. Studies have shown that the early growth response 1 (EGR1) protein can induce the expression of proapoptotic proteins, suggesting that EGR1 may play a role in luteal regression. Our hypothesis is that EGR1 mediates the actions of PGF2? by inducing the expression of TGF ?1 (TGFB1), a key tissue remodeling protein. The levels of EGR1 mRNA and protein were up-regulated in the bovine CL during PGF2?-induced luteolysis in vivo and in PGF2?-treated luteal cells in vitro. Using chemical and genetic approaches, the RAF/MAPK kinase (MEK) 1/ERK pathway was identified as a proximal signaling event required for the induction of EGR1 in PGF2?-treated cells. Treatment with PGF2? increased the expression of TGFB1 mRNA and protein as well as the binding of EGR1 protein to TGFB1 promoter in bovine luteal cells. The effect of PGF2? on TGFB1 expression was mimicked by a protein kinase C (PKC)/RAF/MEK1/ERK activator or adenoviral-mediated expression of EGR1. The stimulatory effect of PGF2? on TGFB1 mRNA and TGFB1 protein secretion was inhibited by blockade of MEK1/ERK signaling and by adenoviral-mediated expression of NAB2, an EGR1 binding protein that inhibits EGR1 transcriptional activity. Treatment of luteal cells with TGFB1 reduced progesterone secretion, implicating TGFB1 in luteal regression. These studies demonstrate that PGF2? stimulates the expression of EGR1 and TGFB1 in the CL. We suggest that EGR1 plays a role in the expression of genes whose cognate proteins coordinate luteal regression. PMID:17916653

Hou, Xiaoying; Arvisais, Edward W.; Jiang, Chao; Chen, Dong-bao; Roy, Shyamal K.; Pate, Joy L.; Hansen, Thomas R.; Rueda, Bo R.; Davis, John S.

2008-01-01

27

Ultrastructural development of the rat corpus luteum  

E-print Network

pores. The microvilli have not developed and the outer surface is almost perfectly spherical, The mitochondria are sparse and clustered together-. They -re usually spheroid and contain only a few transversely oriented cristae. The . "~a' ur' ticii... stage is a companied by chai ges in. thc cyLoplac. ic or, -. , anel3 es and. 'oy multiplication of the folliculef and tunica albuginea cells. The mitochoxiixia are spherical with cristae iihich run parallel to the outer itcchondrial r...

Bailey, John Franklin

2012-06-07

28

A Field Study to Unravel Factors that are Significantly Associated with the Secretory Activity of the Corpus Luteum During the First Three Postpartum Cycles in High Yielding Dairy Cows, Based on the Amount of Steroidogenic and Endothelial Cells Present in the Luteal Tissue.  

PubMed

Fourteen multi- and eight primiparous high-yielding dairy cows were followed from the first till the fourth ovulation postpartum. Cows were randomly divided into two groups and supplemented with soybean (group I; n = 11) or rapeseed meal (group II; n = 11). Both groups were subjected to a biopsy sampling of the corpus luteum (CL) at cycle day 9. The luteal capillary network (visualized by Bandeiraea simplicifolia) was denser in cycles 2 and 3 (p = 0.0005). The same was seen for the surface occupied by steroidogenic cells (visualized by 3?-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase) (p = 0.0001). The peripheral blood progesterone concentration showed an increasing trend with increasing cycle number and was higher in primiparous cows (p = 0.013), which had also larger glands on cycle day 9. The area occupied by endothelial cells was positively correlated with the area occupied by steroidogenic cells (r = 0.59; p < 0.0001). Both the areas occupied by endothelial and by steroidogenic cells were negatively correlated with the blood concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (respectively, r = -0.377; p = 0.004 and r = -0.355; p = 0.007). We can conclude that primiparous cows generally have higher peripheral progesterone levels during the first three cycles after calving which is associated with a larger CL. In comparison with those of the first post-partum cycle, corpora lutea of cycles 2 and 3 have a denser capillary network and a larger area of steroidogenic cells, while these are only associated with a trend of higher peripheral progesterone concentrations. PMID:25147002

Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; Bossaert, P; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

2014-12-01

29

Cellular Transport of Prostaglandins in the Ovine Uterus  

E-print Network

In ruminants, prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2?) is released from the endometrium in a pulsatile pattern at the time of luteolysis. The luteolytic PGF2? pulses are transported from the uterus to the corpus luteum (CL) through the utero-ovarian plexus...

Lee, Je Hoon

2013-05-08

30

Bovine corpus luteum regression, estrus response and subsequent corpus luteum formation and function following treatment with Alfaprostol  

E-print Network

secretion are the gonadotrop- in hormones From the pituitary. Fortune (26) has shown that LH binds to theca cells and stimulates cAMP production, which acts at the level of of conversion of cholesterol to androstenedione. furthermore, androstenedione... secretion are the gonadotrop- in hormones From the pituitary. Fortune (26) has shown that LH binds to theca cells and stimulates cAMP production, which acts at the level of of conversion of cholesterol to androstenedione. furthermore, androstenedione...

Hansen, Thomas Ross

2012-06-07

31

Impaired steroidogenesis in the luteal phase of the reproductive cycle and during pregnancy in rhesus monkeys immunized with the beta-subunit of ovine luteinizing hormone.  

PubMed

Monkeys immunized with the beta-subunit of ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH beta) develop antibodies which cross react with rhesus chorionic gonadotropin (rhCG) and luteinizing hormone (rhLH). Immunization causes shortened menstrual cycles and reduced fertility. Fertility can be restored by administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) during the first 5 weeks of pregnancy. In the present study, we have measured the effects of circulating oLH beta-antibodies on peripheral estradiol, progesterone and 17 alpha OH-progesterone (17OH-P) concentrations throughout the menstrual cycle and during gestation in monkeys which became pregnant following MPA-treatment. Progesterone concentrations were markedly reduced during the luteal phase in cycling animals and the luteal phase of the cycle was significantly shorter as compared to non-immunized controls. Concentrations of estradiol and 17OH-P in the peripheral circulation were not affected by the oLH beta-antibodies. In immunized monkeys which became pregnant following MPA-treatment, progesterone and 17OH-P levels were consistently lower and estradiol concentrations were increased during the second and third trimesters. Our results show that circulating antibodies to oLH beta have multiple endocrinological effects. Corpus luteum function is impaired in cycling monkeys and during the early part of pregnancy. In addition, the pattern of steroid secretion remains abnormal in pregnant monkeys even after the luteal-placental shift. PMID:7078153

Spinola, P G; Seidman, L S; Sundaram, K; Thau, R B

1982-02-01

32

Endothelin1 receptors and biosynthesis in the corpus luteum: Molecular and physiological implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a 21-amino acid peptide was initially identified as a potent vasoconstrictor, ET-1 plays an important role in the female reproductive cycle: its quick ascent during luteal regression, ability to inhibit steroidogenesis in vitro and in vivo, combined with the observation that the luteolytic effects of prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) were delayed by pretreatment with ET-1 receptors type A (ETA)

Rina Meidan; Nitzan Levy

2002-01-01

33

Evidence for the presence of oxytocin in the corpus luteum of the goat.  

PubMed Central

Purified acetic acid extracts of corpora lutea (CL) of non-pregnant goats were found to contain substantial amounts of oxytocin (OT) as measured by radioimmunoassay. OT standard and the CL extracts released prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) from rat isolated uteri in a quantitatively similar manner. Treatment of both OT standard and CL extract with sodium thioglycolate, oxytocin antiserum or oxytocin antagonist abolished this biological activity. Acid extracts of CL of pregnant goat were found to contain approximately 2% of levels during the cycle by day 21 after fertile mating and this had a reduced ability to release PGF2 alpha from rat uterus. It is concluded that both the immunoreactivity and the biological activity of the CL extracts are due to the presence of an oxytocin-like substance and that tissue levels of oxytocin are low in pregnant compared to non-pregnant goats. PMID:3458513

Homeida, A. M.

1986-01-01

34

Isozymes of cAMP-dependent protein kinase present in the rat corpus luteum.  

PubMed

Regulatory (R) subunits and their association with catalytic subunits to form cAMP-dependent protein kinase holoenzymes were investigated in corpora lutea of pregnant rats. Following separation by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, R subunits were identified by labeling with 8-N3[32P]cAMP and autophosphorylation on one and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and by reactivity with antisera. DEAE-cellulose elution of R subunits with catalytic subunits as holoenzymes or without catalytic subunits was determined by sedimentation characteristics on sucrose density gradient centrifugation and by cAMP-stimulated kinase activation characteristics on Eadie-Scatchard analysis. We identified the presence of a type I holoenzyme containing RI alpha (Mr 47,000) subunits, a prominent type II holoenzyme containing RII beta (Mr 52,000) subunits, and a second more acidic type II holoenzyme peak containing both RII beta and RII alpha (Mr 54,000) subunits. However, the majority of total R subunit activity was associated with a catalytic subunit-free peak of RI alpha protein which on elution from DEAE-cellulose was associated with cAMP. This report establishes the more basic elution position from DEAE-cellulose of the prominent rat luteal RII beta holoenzyme in very close proximity to free RI alpha and presents one of the few reports of a normal tissue containing a large percentage of catalytic subunit-free RI alpha. PMID:1849902

Hunzicker-Dunn, M; Cutler, R E; Maizels, E T; DeManno, D A; Lamm, M L; Erlichman, J; Sanwal, B D; LaBarbera, A R

1991-04-15

35

Original article Ovine CD16+  

E-print Network

of interferon-gamma (IFN-c). Some insight into ruminant NK cell biology has been gained through cells. natural killer cell / ovine / perforin / cytotoxicity / interferon-gamma 1. INTRODUCTION Natural the development of the adaptive immune response and its Th1 orientation with inter- feron-gamma (IFN-c) production

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

36

CALBC silver standard corpus.  

PubMed

The CALBC initiative aims to provide a large-scale biomedical text corpus that contains semantic annotations for named entities of different kinds. The generation of this corpus requires that the annotations from different automatic annotation systems be harmonized. In the first phase, the annotation systems from five participants (EMBL-EBI, EMC Rotterdam, NLM, JULIE Lab Jena, and Linguamatics) were gathered. All annotations were delivered in a common annotation format that included concept identifiers in the boundary assignments and that enabled comparison and alignment of the results. During the harmonization phase, the results produced from those different systems were integrated in a single harmonized corpus ("silver standard" corpus) by applying a voting scheme. We give an overview of the processed data and the principles of harmonization--formal boundary reconciliation and semantic matching of named entities. Finally, all submissions of the participants were evaluated against that silver standard corpus. We found that species and disease annotations are better standardized amongst the partners than the annotations of genes and proteins. The raw corpus is now available for additional named entity annotations. Parts of it will be made available later on for a public challenge. We expect that we can improve corpus building activities both in terms of the numbers of named entity classes being covered, as well as the size of the corpus in terms of annotated documents. PMID:20183881

Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Jimeno Yepes, Antonio José; Van Mulligen, Erik M; Kang, Ning; Kors, Jan; Milward, David; Corbett, Peter; Buyko, Ekaterina; Beisswanger, Elena; Hahn, Udo

2010-02-01

37

Bilingual Corpus Callosum Variability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Magnetic resonance imaging was used to produce midsagittal images of the corpus callosum of 19 right-handed adult male and female subjects. The preliminary findings of this study indicate that significant adaptation in the anterior midbody of the corpus callosum has occurred to accommodate multiple language capacity in bilingual individuals…

Coggins, Porter E., III.; Kennedy, Teresa J.; Armstrong, Terry A.

2004-01-01

38

Hemoperitoneum from Corpus Luteal Cyst Rupture: A Practical Approach in Emergency Room  

PubMed Central

Corpus luteum cyst rupture with consequent hemoperitoneum is a common disorder in women in their reproductive age. This condition should be promptly recognized and treated because a delayed diagnosis may significantly reduce women's fertility and intra-abdominal bleeding may be life-threatening. Many imaging modalities play a key role in the diagnosis of acute pelvic pain from gynecological causes. Ultrasound study (USS) is usually the first imaging technique for initial evaluation. USS is used to confirm or to exclude the presence of intraperitoneal fluid but it has some limitations in the identification of the bleeding source. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) is the imaging modality which could be used in the acute setting in order to recognize gynecological emergencies and to establish a correct management. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nowadays is the most useful technique for studying the pelvis but its low availability and the long acquisition time of the images limit its usefulness in characterization of acute gynecological complications. We report a case of a young patient with hemoperitoneum from hemorrhagic corpus luteum correctly identified by transabdominal USS and contrast-enhanced CT. PMID:24987535

Fiaschetti, Valeria; Ricci, Aurora; Scarano, Angela Lia; Arduini, Silvia; Sorrenti, Giuseppe; Simonetti, Giovanni

2014-01-01

39

Chryseobacterium luteum sp. nov., associated with the phyllosphere of grasses.  

PubMed

Three isolates obtained from grass samples were investigated by means of a polyphasic taxonomic study and were shown to represent a novel species within the genus Chryseobacterium. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences and phenotypic features indicated that the three isolates belonged to a single species. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the closest phylogenetic neighbours were Chryseobacterium shigense and Chryseobacterium vrystaatense, which formed a stable cluster with the isolates; this phylogeny was supported by a high bootstrap value and was obtained using different treeing methods. A DNA-DNA hybridization study with the closest neighbour, C. shigense DSM 17126(T) (98.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), clearly demonstrated a separate species status for the grass isolate strain P 456/04(T). Comparisons involving physiological properties and whole-cell fatty acid profiles confirmed this result at the phenotypic level. On the basis of these results, strain P 456/04(T) represents a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium luteum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P 456/04(T) (=DSM 18605(T) =LMG 23785(T)). PMID:17684275

Behrendt, Undine; Ulrich, Andreas; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter

2007-08-01

40

Corpus Uteri Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Corpus Uteri C540–C559 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) [SEER Note: Do not code dilation and curettage (D&C) as Surgery of Primary Site for invasive cancers] Codes 00 None; no surgery

41

Corpus callosotomy in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  For children of medical resistant epilepsy without resectable epileptogenic zone, corpus callosotomy and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy are the two commonly used palliative epilepsy surgeries that can be considered. Although their routes and mechanisms to control epilepsy are different, both surgeries have shown their efficacy in selected candidates. The most common candidates for palliative surgery are in infants and

Tai-Tong Wong; Shang-Yeong Kwan; Kai-Ping Chang; Wu Hsiu-Mei; Tsui-Fen Yang; Ying-Sheue Chen; Lee Yi-Yen

2006-01-01

42

Pharmacology and Physiology of Ovine Corticosteroid Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of these studies was to characterize the ovine corticosteroid receptors (MR, mineralocorticoid receptors and GR, glucocorticoid receptors) in ovine hippocampus and brainstem. Adrenal-intact and adrenalectomized ewes were studied; adrenalectomized ewes were killed 47 ± 9 h after steroid withdrawal, when symptoms of hypotension and\\/or hyperkalemia became evident. RT-PCR, immunoblotting and pharmacologic studies indicated the presence of both MR

Elaine M. Richards; Yi Hua; Maureen Keller-Wood

2003-01-01

43

The Expression of Interleukin6 in the Pregnant Rat Corpus Luteum and Its Regulation by Progesterone and Glucocorticoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin (IL)-6, a multifunctional cytokine originally described as a T cell-derived factor, is also produced by different cell types, and it influences a wide variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. Recent studies further suggest that IL-6 has a role in down-regulating hormone production by endocrine organs and can negatively affect the steroidogenic capacity of both ovaries and testes. Thus, the

C. M. Telleria; N. SUGINO; S. FERGUSON; G. GIBORI

1998-01-01

44

Prostaglandin F2? for Lactating Dairy Cows with a Palpable Corpus Luteum but Unobserved Estrus[1], [2] and [3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments in 17 dairy herds were for the effectiveness of prostaglandin F2c~ (treatment) in inducing luteolysis and reducing intervals to conception of 308 cycling lactating dairy cows. Cows with unobserved estrus before first insemination (Experiment 1) and non- pregnant cows with unobserved estrus after insemination (Experiment 2) were eligible for treatment. Cows in Experiment 1 were assigned alternately either

S. S. Plunkett; J. S. Stevenson; E. P. Call

1984-01-01

45

CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE corpusJCR Alternative Prospectus  

E-print Network

CORPUS CHRISTI COLLEGE CAMBRIDGE corpusJCR Alternative Prospectus #12;Introduction Cambridge can college to apply to. Ultimately, all of the colleges offer very similar things regarding both academic and social lives, but each college does have its own unique selling points. Choice of college can be based

Travis, Adrian

46

Crowdsourcing a wikipedia vandalism corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the construction of the PAN Wikipedia vandalism corpus, PAN-WVC-10, using Amazon's Mechanical Turk. The corpus compiles 32452 edits on 28468 Wikipedia articles, among which 2391 vandalism edits have been identified. 753 human annotators cast a total of 193022 votes on the edits, so that each edit was reviewed by at least 3 annotators, whereas the achieved level

Martin Potthast

2010-01-01

47

(Corpus Linguistics: History and Problematization)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers an overview of Corpus Linguistics, which is a research area that has experienced a considerable growth in the past years and which has made a considerable impact on linguistics. The overview looks at both the past and the present of Corpus Linguistics. The main concepts in the area are presented and debated, and the paper also comments

Tony Berber SARDINHA

48

[Corpus Hermeticum in history].  

PubMed

The originator and founder of hermetism was the mythical Hermes Trismegistos, a deity of the syncretic Hellenistic religion that came into being through the identification of the Greek god Hermes with the Egyptian god Thot. In later Hellenistsic times various hermetic writers considered Hermes Trismegistos to have been a historical personage, a king, prophet and philosopher (physician), as well as author of many widely disseminated writings that made up the so-called Corpus Hermeticum (eighteen separate treatises from the 2nd-4th centuries AD) and the so-called Emerald Table (Tabula Smaragdina). The Corpus Hermeticum is a collection of treatises of a philosophical, religious, theological as well as theosophical nature. The collection played an important role in the development of the philosophy of alchemy and hermetism, and formed the basis for an alchemist philosophy of nature. There are currently two views among scholars on the origins of hermetism. According to one, hermetism derived directly from Egypt, while according to the other it orginated in Greece. In the years 1945-46 a number of hermetic texts forming part of the now famous gnostic "library" were discovered in Nag-Hammadi (Chenosboskion) in Upper Egypt. The Coptic texts from Nag-Hammadi date from the middle of the 4th century AD, and according to experts are translations from the Greek. Some authors (R. Reitzenstein and T. Zieli?ski) have suggested that along with the appearance in Egypt of the Hermetic Books, attributed to Hermes Trismegistos, there also appeared a new god in Egypt, Poimandres, and a new religion was established, hermetism, which competed for influence with Christianity. The present article discusses the main of the hermetic treatises, including Poimandres, which contains an account of the creation of the world. The article also discusses the reasons for the decline of hermetism as a religion and stresses that in spite of this decline the doctrine managed to survive in the form of alchemic hermetism, which played an important role in the culture of the Renaissance. The article also cites the voluminous work by W. Scott and A. S. Ferguson (1924-1936), and A. D. Nock and A. -J. Festugiére (1945-1964), which contains contemporary, English and French, commentaries on and translations of the Corpus Hermeticum texts. PMID:12030267

Bugaj, R

2001-01-01

49

Review article Ovine cytokines and their role  

E-print Network

Paul J. Chaplina Paul R. Woodb 'CRC for Vaccine Technology Unit, CSIRO, Division of Animal Health. This has led to the use of ovine cytokines as adjuvants to mod- ulate the immune responses to vaccine vaccination and of the interaction between pathogens and the immune system. © Inra/Elsevier, Paris

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

50

Analysis of corrinoids in ovine tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrinoids from various ovine tissue samples (liver, blood, small intestinal fluid and faeces) were analysed using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a radioisotope dilution assay (RIDA) to estimate the distribution of corrinoids - the cobalamins hydroxocobalamin (OH-cbl), methylcobalamin (me-cbl) and 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (ado-cbl), and cobalamin analogues - in these tissues. Samples were taken from either cobalt-deficient or cobalt-replete

R. J. Kelly; Tini M Gruner; J. M. Furlong; A. R. Sykes

2006-01-01

51

Original article Inhibitory effect of interferon-? activated ovine  

E-print Network

Original article Inhibitory effect of interferon-? activated ovine umbilical vein endothelial endothelial cells with bovine recombinant y-interferon (IFN-y) blocked the growth of T gondii. Growth cellules endoth�liales de la veine ombilicale ovine activ�es par l'interf�ron gamma (IFN-y) recombinant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

52

Histological characteristics and stereological volume assessment of the ovine tonsils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tonsils form a first line of defence against foreign antigens and therefore play a key role in immunity. Since documented information about ovine tonsils is limited, a study was performed in which the morphological characteristics and the volume of lymphoid tissue present in each ovine tonsil were determined. The tonsils of five adult healthy sheep were examined histologically and the

Christophe Casteleyn; Wim Van den Broeck; Paul Simoens

2007-01-01

53

Review article Recent advances on ovine chlamydial abortion  

E-print Network

Review article Recent advances on ovine chlamydial abortion Annie Rodolakisa Jesus Salinasb John on ovine chlamydial abortion. Concerning chlamy- dial taxonomy, with the recent advances due, with the kinetics of placental col- onization and placental pathology leading to abortion in ruminants. Studies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

Corpus-based Metonymy Analysis 1 Running head: Corpus-based Metonymy Analysis  

E-print Network

Corpus-based Metonymy Analysis 1 Running head: Corpus-based Metonymy Analysis Corpus-based Metonymy-based Metonymy Analysis 2 Abstract In this paper we make the case for corpus-based metonymy analysis and show. To facilitate such studies, we present a method for annotating metonymies in domain and genre-independent text

Markert, Katja

55

33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...165.808 Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX...transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving...transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel. The safety zone remains...of loaded LPG vessels via a Marine Safety Information...

2012-07-01

56

33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...165.808 Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX...transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving...transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel. The safety zone remains...of loaded LPG vessels via a Marine Safety Information...

2010-07-01

57

33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...165.808 Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX...transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving...transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel. The safety zone remains...of loaded LPG vessels via a Marine Safety Information...

2011-07-01

58

Developing an International Corpus of Creative English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes an International Corpus of Creative English (ICCE) as a worldwide corpus particularly suitable for implementation in countries which have tertiary institutions with well-defined populations of students possessing similar cultural and/or linguistic backgrounds. The ICCE is contextualized as a world Englishes corpus with…

Hassall, Peter John

2006-01-01

59

Ovine pedomics: the first study of the ovine foot 16S rRNA-based microbiome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first study of the bacterial microbiome of ovine interdigital skin based on 16S rRNA by pyrosequencing and conventional cloning with Sanger-sequencing. Three flocks were selected, one a flock with no signs of footrot or interdigital dermatitis, a second flock with interdigital dermatitis alone and a third flock with both interdigital dermatitis and footrot. The sheep were classified

Leo A Calvo-Bado; Brian B Oakley; Scot E Dowd; Laura E Green; Graham F Medley; Atiya Ul-Hassan; Vicky Bateman; William Gaze; Luci Witcomb; Rose Grogono-Thomas; Jasmeet Kaler; Claire L Russell; Elizabeth MH Wellington

2011-01-01

60

Ovine pedomics: the first study of the ovine foot 16S rRNA-based microbiome.  

PubMed

We report the first study of the bacterial microbiome of ovine interdigital skin based on 16S rRNA by pyrosequencing and conventional cloning with Sanger-sequencing. Three flocks were selected, one a flock with no signs of footrot or interdigital dermatitis, a second flock with interdigital dermatitis alone and a third flock with both interdigital dermatitis and footrot. The sheep were classified as having either healthy interdigital skin (H) and interdigital dermatitis (ID) or virulent footrot (VFR). The ovine interdigital skin bacterial community varied significantly by flock and clinical condition. The diversity and richness of operational taxonomic units was greater in tissue from sheep with ID than H or VFR-affected sheep. Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla comprising 25 genera. Peptostreptococcus, Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus were associated with H, ID and VFR, respectively. Sequences of Dichelobacter nodosus, the causal agent of ovine footrot, were not amplified because of mismatches in the 16S rRNA universal forward primer (27F). A specific real-time PCR assay was used to demonstrate the presence of D. nodosus, which was detected in all samples including the flock with no signs of ID or VFR. Sheep with ID had significantly higher numbers of D. nodosus (10(4)-10(9) cells per g tissue) than those with H or VFR feet. PMID:21430786

Calvo-Bado, Leo A; Oakley, Brian B; Dowd, Scot E; Green, Laura E; Medley, Graham F; Ul-Hassan, Atiya; Bateman, Vicky; Gaze, William; Witcomb, Luci; Grogono-Thomas, Rose; Kaler, Jasmeet; Russell, Claire L; Wellington, Elizabeth M H

2011-09-01

61

Precursors to glycogen in ovine fetuses  

SciTech Connect

Postprandial hepatic glycogenesis in the adult animal is now felt to proceed largely through gluconeogenic pathways rather than directly from glucose. The ovine fetus, like the mature sheep, lacks specific hepatic glucokinase. Therefore, the authors examined the role of lactate as a fetal glycogenic precursor in seven chronically catheterized 125-day sheep fetuses. Fetuses were infused with L-(U-{sup 14}C)lactate and D-(3-{sup 3}H)glucose, while maternal glucose was maintained at 50 mg/dl. Mean fetal hepatic glycogen specific activity ({mu}Ci/mg {times} 10{sup 3}) was 0.82 {plus minus} 0.08 for {sup 14}C and 2.6 {plus minus} 0.4 for {sup 3}H, whereas fetal renal glycogen specific activity was 0.46 {plus minus} 0.22 for {sup 14}C and 0.78 {plus minus} 0.16 for {sup 3}H. In contrast, ({sup 14}C)glucose specific activity was undetectable in blood and mean ({sup 3}H)glucose specific activity was 8.9 {plus minus} 1.3 {mu}Ci/mg {times} 10{sup 3}. The least detectable specific activity of ({sup 14}C)glucose did not differ significantly from the ({sup 14}C)glycogen enrichment in liver, whereas ({sup 3}H)glucose specific activity was significantly greater than ({sup 3}H)glycogen enrichment. The authors conclude that glycogenesis from glucose is partly through the indirect gluconeogenic route and that lactate may be a glycogenic precursor in the ovine fetus.

Levitsky, L.L.; Paton, J.B.; Fisher, D.E. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

1988-11-01

62

CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CELT, an "online database of contemporary and historical topics from many areas, including literature and the other arts," is aimed at the greatest possible range of readers, from academic scholars to the general public. Texts at the site can be searched, read on-screen, or downloaded. Other works available at CELT include essays by Michael Collins, the Dail debates on the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty, works by James Connolly and Padraic Pearse, and almost the whole corpus of Hiberno-Norman French poetry.

1997-01-01

63

CANCER OF THE CORPUS UTERI 19. CANCER OF THE CORPUS UTERI  

E-print Network

is classified by ICD-10 into three sites--cancer of the cervix uteri (cervical cancer; see Chapter 20), cancerCANCER OF THE CORPUS UTERI 171 19. CANCER OF THE CORPUS UTERI 19.1. SUMMARY Cancer of the uterus of the corpus uteri (uterine cancer; discussed in this chapter), and cancer of the uterus, part unspecified

Paxton, Anthony T.

64

CORPUS  

Cancer.gov

The Est. Annual PC is the Estimated Annual Percent Change (EAPC) over the time interval. SEER Program. NCHS public use tape. The EAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). The EAPC for 1991-95 is significantly different from the EAPC for

65

Partial segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum.  

PubMed

The case of a 32-year-old man with perineal pain and local swelling is presented. Partial segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum was diagnosed and treated conservatively with systemic anticoagulants. Conservative management proved to be a safe and successful therapeutic option in partial thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum. PMID:24578910

G?uchowski, Jaros?aw; B?awat, Adam; Kordasz, Janusz; Jeli?ski, Artur; Lazarczyk, Anna

2011-01-01

66

Partial segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum  

PubMed Central

The case of a 32-year-old man with perineal pain and local swelling is presented. Partial segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum was diagnosed and treated conservatively with systemic anticoagulants. Conservative management proved to be a safe and successful therapeutic option in partial thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum. PMID:24578910

Blawat, Adam; Kordasz, Janusz; Jelinski, Artur; Lazarczyk, Anna

2011-01-01

67

Expression of paracrine growth factors and their receptors in the ovine uterus  

E-print Network

the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. An ovine FGF-10 cDNA was cloned from an ovine endometrial cDNA library. The ovine FGF-10 cDNA encodes a protein of 213 amino acids and possesses an unusually long 5' untranslated region (UTR). In situ hybridization...

Chen, Chen

2012-06-07

68

EFFICACY OF A LONG-ACTING OXYTETRACYCLINE* AGAINST CHLAMYDIAL OVINE ABORTION  

E-print Network

EFFICACY OF A LONG-ACTING OXYTETRACYCLINE* AGAINST CHLAMYDIAL OVINE ABORTION Annie RODOLAKIS1 A ABORTIVE OVINE. ― Le traitement de la chlamydiose abortive ovine par la Terramycine/L A 200 a été-bas. La transposition d'un tel traitement à la pratique et son intérêt sont discutés. Chlamydial abortion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

The effect of repeated administrations of llama ovulation-inducing factor (OIF/NGF) during the peri-ovulatory period on corpus luteum development and function in llamas.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that repeated administrations of OIF/NGF during the peri-ovulatory period (pre-ovulatory, ovulatory, early post-ovulatory), will enhance the luteotrophic effect in llamas. Female llamas were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography in B- and Doppler-mode using a scanner equipped with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer to monitor ovarian follicle and luteal dynamics. When a growing follicle ?7mm was detected, llamas were assigned randomly to one of the three groups and given 1mg of purified OIF/NGF im (intramuscular) (a) pre-ovulation (single dose; n=12), (b) pre-ovulation and at the time of ovulation (2 doses, n=10), or (c) pre-ovulation, at the time of ovulation, and 24h after ovulation (3 doses, n=10). The pre-ovulatory follicle diameter at the time of treatment, ovulation rate and the first day of CL detection did not differ (P=0.3) among groups. However, maximum CL diameter was greatest (P=0.003) in llamas in the 2-dose group, and smallest in the 3-dose group. Accordingly, the 2 dose-group had the largest day-to-day profile for CL diameter (P<0.01), area of CL vascularization (<0.01), and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.01) compared to the other groups. Interestingly, the luteal response to 3-doses of OIF/NGF during the peri-ovulatory period was not different from a single dose. In conclusion, OIF/NGF isolated from llama seminal plasma is luteotrophic and the effect on CL size and function is affected by the number and timing of treatments during the peri-ovulatory period. PMID:25176642

Fernández, A; Ulloa-Leal, C; Silva, M; Norambuena, C; Adams, G P; Guerra, M; Ratto, M H

2014-10-01

70

Corpus of Electronic Texts (CELT)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed at University College Cork, the Corpus of Electronic Texts project is intended "to bring the wealth of Irish literary and historical culture (in Irish, Latin, Anglo-Norman French, and English) to the Internet in a rigorously scholarly project." Additionally, the project is designed to be utilized by a wide group of interested parties, including students, academics, and the general public. Visitors may peruse the documents by language of original publication, or by viewing a complete list of all the works currently available (many in HTML or pdf format) from the project's website. Some of the rather compelling works available here include the complete works of Oscar Wilde, the political writings of Michael Collins, and various historical documents regarding the struggle for Irish independence. [KMG

71

Mirazid shows insignificant activity against ovine fascioliasis.  

PubMed

In a recent study, the fasciolicidal activity of Mirazid (a myrrh-derived drug) and its effect on the function and histopathology of host liver were investigated in Egyptian sheep, with triclabendazole (TCBZ) used as the positive control. Sheep were infected with metacercariae (150/animal) and treated 3 months later, either with Mirazid (10 mg/kg/day for six consecutive days) or TCBZ (a single dose of 10 mg/kg), or left untreated, as controls. When the animals were killed 4 weeks after the end of treatment, no Fasciola flukes or eggs could be found in the animals given TCBZ but the number of flukes found in the Mirazid-treated animals was only 6% lower than that recorded in the untreated sheep (a statistically insignificant difference). In terms of their Fasciola egg loads, serum concentrations of hepatic enzymes and hepatic histopathological changes, the Mirazid-treated sheep appeared very similar to the untreated, infected animals. The TCBZ-treated animals, in contrast, showed remarkably little evidence of hepatic pathology. It therefore appears that, in the treatment of ovine fascioliasis, at least some batches of Mirazid have little, if any, value. PMID:19825282

Botros, S S; El-Lakkany, N M; Badawy, A A; Mahmoud, S S; Ebeid, F A; Fenwick, A

2009-10-01

72

Ultramicroscopic examination of the ovine tonsillar epithelia.  

PubMed

As solid morphological knowledge of ovine tonsillar epithelia might contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of several diseases including prion diseases, the epithelia of all tonsils of 7 one-year-old Texel sheep were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Major parts of the pharyngeal and tubal tonsils were covered by pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelia that were interrupted by patches of epithelium containing cells with densely packed microfolds or microvilli, and cells with both microvilli and cilia. Smaller parts were covered by either flattened polygonal cells with densely packed microvilli or microfolds, squamous epithelial cells, or patches of reticular epithelium. The palatine and paraepiglottic tonsils were mainly lined by squamous epithelial cells with apical microplicae or short knobs. Additionally, regions of reticular epithelium containing epithelial cells with apical microvilli were seen. The lingual tonsil was uniformly covered by a keratinized squamous epithelium and devoid of microvillous cells and patches of reticular epithelium. The rostral half of the tonsil of the soft palate was lined by a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with characteristics of the pharyngeal and tubal tonsils. The epithelium of the caudal part resembled the epithelia of the palatine and paraepiglottic tonsils. Putative M cells, mainly characterized by apical microvilli or microfolds and a close association with lymphoid cells, seem manifestly present on the nasopharyngeal tonsils. The reticular epithelium of the palatine and paraepiglottic tonsils also harbor cells with small apical microvilli. The exact nature of these presumptive M cells should, however, be elucidated in functional studies. PMID:20225209

Casteleyn, Christophe; Cornelissen, Maria; Simoens, Paul; Van den Broeck, Wim

2010-05-01

73

Global distribution and diversity of ovine-associated Staphylococcus aureus?  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of many species, including sheep, and impacts on both human and animal health, animal welfare, and farm productivity. Here we present the widest global diversity study of ovine-associated S. aureus to date. We analysed 97 S. aureus isolates from sheep and sheep products from the UK, Turkey, France, Norway, Australia, Canada and the USA using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing. These were compared with 196 sheep isolates from Europe (n = 153), Africa (n = 28), South America (n = 14) and Australia (n = 1); 172 bovine, 68 caprine and 433 human S. aureus profiles. Overall there were 59 STs and 87 spa types in the 293 ovine isolates; in the 97 new ovine isolates there were 22 STs and 37 spa types, including three novel MLST alleles, four novel STs and eight novel spa types. Three main CCs (CC133, CC522 and CC700) were detected in sheep and these contained 61% of all isolates. Four spa types (t002, t1534, t2678 and t3576) contained 31% of all isolates and were associated with CC5, CC522, CC133 and CC522 respectively. spa types were consistent with MLST CCs, only one spa type (t1403) was present in multiple CCs. The three main ovine CCs have different but overlapping patterns of geographical dissemination that appear to match the location and timing of sheep domestication and selection for meat and wool production. CC133, CC522 and CC700 remained ovine-associated following the inclusion of additional host species. Ovine isolates clustered separately from human and bovine isolates and those from sheep cheeses, but closely with caprine isolates. As with cattle isolates, patterns of clonal diversification of sheep isolates differ from humans, indicative of their relatively recent host-jump. PMID:24035790

Smith, Edward M.; Needs, Polly F.; Manley, Grace; Green, Laura E.

2014-01-01

74

Ovine TRIM5? Can Restrict Visna/Maedi Virus  

PubMed Central

The restrictive properties of tripartite motif-containing 5 alpha (TRIM5?) from small ruminant species have not been explored. Here, we identify highly similar TRIM5? sequences in sheep and goats. Cells transduced with ovine TRIM5? effectively restricted the lentivirus visna/maedi virus DNA synthesis. Proteasome inhibition in cells transduced with ovine TRIM5? restored restricted viral DNA synthesis, suggesting a conserved mechanism of restriction. Identification of TRIM5? active molecular species may open new prophylactic strategies against lentiviral infections. PMID:22696640

Jauregui, P.; Crespo, H.; Glaria, I.; Lujan, L.; Contreras, A.; Rosati, S.; de Andres, D.; Amorena, B.; Towers, G. J.

2012-01-01

75

[Medicine and astrology in Arnau's corpus].  

PubMed

The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology. PMID:17214132

Giralt, Sebastià

2006-01-01

76

Analysis of corrinoids in ovine tissues.  

PubMed

Corrinoids from various ovine tissue samples (liver, blood, small intestinal fluid and faeces) were analysed using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a radioisotope dilution assay (RIDA) to estimate the distribution of corrinoids--the cobalamins hydroxocobalamin (OH-cbl), methylcobalamin (me-cbl) and 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (ado-cbl), and cobalamin analogues--in these tissues. Samples were taken from either cobalt-deficient or cobalt-replete ewes, and ruminant and pre-ruminant lambs. In liver, ado-cbl predominated, followed by analogues, OH-cbl and me-cbl. Supplementation with either cobalt (ruminant) or vitamin B12 injections (pre-ruminant) increased the amount of ado-cbl and decreased analogues. In blood, OH-cbl predominated, followed by ado-cbl, analogues and me-cbl, respectively. In small intestinal fluid, the distribution from largest to smallest percentage was analogues, ado-cbl, OH-cbl and me-cbl. In faeces, analogues constituted the greatest proportion, followed by OH-cbl, ado-cbl and me-cbl, respectively. Owing to the small sample sizes only cautionary interpretations can be made. In contrast to humans, where me-cbl constitutes the highest proportion of corrinoids in plasma and ado-cbl in the liver, in sheep the amount of ado-cbl was consistently higher than me-cbl in all tissues. This may be due to the higher metabolic need of sheep for ado-cbl due to gluconeogenesis. Analogues and OH-cbl were found in each tissue, contrary to previous postulations. The much higher amount of vitamin B12 in small intestinal fluid compared with faeces indicates that a large proportion of the vitamin is absorbed by the gastro-intestinal tract. PMID:16345011

Kelly, R J; Gruner, T M; Furlong, J M; Sykes, A R

2006-08-01

77

Communication Networks from the Enron Email Corpus \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Enron email corpus is appealing to researchers because it represents a rich temporal record of internal communication\\u000a within a large, real-world organization facing a severe and survival-threatening crisis. We describe how we enhanced the original\\u000a corpus database and present findings from our investigation undertaken with a social network analytic perspective. We explore\\u000a the dynamics of the structure and properties

Jana Diesner; Terrill L. Frantz; Kathleen M. Carley

2005-01-01

78

Original article The development of the ovine fetal adrenal gland  

E-print Network

Original article The development of the ovine fetal adrenal gland and its regulation E Naaman involves local regulations. We review the actual knowledge of the modalities of fetal adrenal development- ity of fetal adrenal cells to produce steroids (for review, see Durand, 1987). This latter development

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

79

Revealing the structural and mechanical characteristics of ovine teeth.  

PubMed

The survival and function of dentition over the lifetime of an animal depends upon the ability of the teeth to resist wear and chemical erosion, and to withstand occlusal loading conditions without suffering debilitating fracture. Understanding how geometrical factors (radius, height, enamel thickness) and mechanical properties of the dental tissues (Young's modulus E, hardness H and toughness KIC of enamel and dentin) combine to ensure the survival of an animal's teeth can provide great insight into the evolutionary history of the animal and its dietary adaptation. While the geometrical factors are beginning to be understood, the range of animals for which measurements of dental tissue properties are available is very narrow, being restricted almost entirely to humans and other primates. The absence of comparative data across a broader range of species makes it impossible to draw conclusions with any certainty. The present study expands knowledge of mammalian dental tissue properties by reporting the Young's modulus and hardness of ovine (sheep) enamel and dentin measured using nano-indentation. We found that sheep molar enamel Young's modulus and hardness are both lower than those of human enamel, by approximately 30%, and 9% respectively, while the properties of dentin are similar. The combination of E and H makes the ovine enamel approximately 30% more resistant to wear than human enamel, which is an imperative in ruminant dentition. The results of this study are interpreted in terms of the ovine feeding ecology, and the structure of the ovine molar and its occlusal surface. PMID:24316873

O'Brien, Simona; Keown, Amanda J; Constantino, Paul; Xie, Zonghan; Bush, Mark B

2014-02-01

80

Article de Synthse SALMONELLOSE OVINE DUE A SALMONELLA ABORTUSOVIS  

E-print Network

Article de Synthèse SALMONELLOSE OVINE DUE A SALMONELLA ABORTUSOVIS P PARDON R SANCHIS J MARLY F SALMONELLA ABORTION IN SHEEP. - Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. Abortusovis, a sheep- adapted-placental unit, the principal site of salmonella multiplication. Peripartum vaginal excretion, coming

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

81

Immunomodulatory activity of plant residues on ovine neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutrophils play an essential role in host defense and inflammation. Plants have long been used to improve the immune function, but for most of them specific investigations on animal health are lacking. In the present study, water and hydroethanolic extracts from 11 plant wastes have been screened on immune responses of ovine neutrophils. Eight sheep clinically healthy, not lactating, non-pregnant

Maura Farinacci; Monica Colitti; Sandy Sgorlon; Bruno Stefanon

2008-01-01

82

The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dating from about 2100 to 1650 BCE, ancient Mesopotamian literature, written in Sumerian cuneiform, is the earliest known recorded literature in the world. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL) project, an initiative of the Faculty of Oriental Studies at the University of Oxford, aims to produce a Web-based digital collection of more than 400 poetic Sumerian compositions. The ETCSL project Website provides a browseable catalog of all texts in the corpus as well as an extensive description of the project. Each entry in the corpus catalog will eventually include a Sumerian text in transliteration, an English translation of that text, and detailed bibliographic information on the original text. At present, the site provides only a handful of texts but promises to expand significantly in the coming months.

83

Bayesian stratified sampling to assess corpus utility  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method for asking statistical questions about a large text corpus. The authors exemplify the method by addressing the question, ``What percentage of Federal Register documents are real documents, of possible interest to a text researcher or analyst?`` They estimate an answer to this question by evaluating 200 documents selected from a corpus of 45,820 Federal Register documents. Bayesian analysis and stratified sampling are used to reduce the sampling uncertainty of the estimate from over 3,100 documents to fewer than 1,000. A possible application of the method is to establish baseline statistics used to estimate recall rates for information retrieval systems.

Hochberg, J.; Scovel, C.; Thomas, T.; Hall, S.

1998-12-01

84

Control of ovine brucellosis in najdi sheep in saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical programme for control of ovine brucellosis in a Najdi sheep flock at Haradh and protection of sheep handlers from infection was implemented. Haradh sheep were serologically tested three times at six-month intervals. Of 2,721 sheep subjected to the first test, 387 (14.2%) were positive reactors. At the second test 2,072 sheep were tested and 31 (1.5%) were positive.

Ahmed I. Radwan; Saad I. Bekairi; Abdullah A. Al-Mukayel; Osama S. Abu Agla

1984-01-01

85

Primary Structure of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor from Ovine Hypothalamus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequence analysis was performed of an ovine hypothalamic 41-residue polypeptide that had been postulated to be a putative corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) because of its high intrinsic corticotropin releasing activity. The NH2-terminal 39 residues of CRF were determined by Edman degradation of 0.6-3.5 nmol of peptide in a Wittmann-Liebold modified Beckman 890C spinning cup sequencer with reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography for

Joachim Spiess; Jean Rivier; Catherine Rivier; Wylie Vale

1981-01-01

86

A General-Purpose Monitor Corpus of Written Pashto  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of the development of a general-purpose reference corpus for Pashto. It is an open-ended (monitor) corpus. The corpus currently contains 10,000 words. It has two cells, one containing essays and the other letters. This corpus represents Yousafzai group of dialects and the data for it has been provided by the Pashto Academy, Peshawar University. The

Mohammad Abid Khan; Fatima Tuz Zuhra

87

The American Local News Corpus Ann Irvine1  

E-print Network

The American Local News Corpus Ann Irvine1 Joshua Langfus1 Chris Callison-Burch2 1 Center Department, University of Pennsylviania, Philadelphia, PA Abstract We present the American Local News Corpus continuously. Version 1.0 is available for research use. Keywords: Corpus Creation, Newspapers, American

88

Corpus Callosum Area in Children and Adults with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite repeated findings of abnormal corpus callosum structure in autism, the developmental trajectories of corpus callosum growth in the disorder have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined corpus callosum size from a developmental perspective across a 30-year age range in a large cross-sectional sample of individuals with autism…

Prigge, Molly B. D.; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Neeley, E. Shannon; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

2013-01-01

89

A Human-Human Train Timetable Dialogue Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes progress in a development of the human- human dialogue corpus. The corpus contains transcribed user's phone calls to a train timetable information center. The phone calls consist of inquiries regarding their train traveler's plans. The corpus is based on dialogues's transcription of user's in- quiries that were previously collected for a train timetable in- formation center. We

Filip Jurcicek; Jiri Zahradil; Libor Jelinek

2005-01-01

90

Toward a Knowledge Representation Corpus of Historical Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research communities need a large corpus of representative, rel- evant and interesting problems to evaluate their proposed solutions; unfortunately the KR&R community lacks such a corpus. We there- fore propose to construct a large corpus of knowledge representation and reasoning problems, drawing upon readily available historical real- world events for contents, in a highly expressive representation lan- guage such as

Robert C. Kahlert; Jennifer Sullivan

2005-01-01

91

Deciphering the Socratic Narrative in Plato's Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In her book, Zuckert presents a new interpretation of the Platonic corpus based on the internal dramatic chronology of all the dialogues. According to Zuckert, once the dialogues are ordered in this way, then it is possible to understand Plato's story of the development of Socratic philosophy, especially in relation to the other non-Socratic philosophers: Parmenides, Timaeus, the Eleatic Stranger,

Christina Tarnopolsky

2011-01-01

92

The ATIS Sign Language Corpus Jan Bungeroth  

E-print Network

, Ireland {smorri,away}@computing.dcu.ie Computer Science Department, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa lynette@cs.sun.ac.za Abstract Systems that automatically process sign language rely on appropriate and South African sign language. The corpus can be used for different tasks like automatic statistical

van Zijl, Lynette

93

Elastic Registration of the Corpus Callosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometric analysis of postmortem normal and autistic human subjects reveal distinctions in deformations in the corpus cal- losum(CC) that may be used forimage analysis-basedstudies of autism. Preliminary studies showed that the CC of autis- tic patients is quite distinct from normal controls. We use an implicit vector representation of CC to carry out the registra- tion process which measures the

Hossam E. Abd El Munim; Aly A. Farag

2007-01-01

94

Sirenomelia with agenesis of corpus callosum.  

PubMed

Sirenomelia is a very rare anomaly presented with fusion of the lower limbs. Genitourinary, neural tube, and vertebral anomalies are found in most cases. We report a case of sirenomelia with agenesis of corpus callosum, which has not been reported previously. PMID:16859065

Shirani, Shapour; Rekabi, Vahab; Kamalian, Naser

2006-07-01

95

Creating a Parallel Corpus from the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a project to annotate biblical texts in order to create an aligned multilingualBible corpus for linguistic research, particularly computational linguistics, including automaticallycreating and evaluating translation lexicons and semantically tagged texts. The output of thisproject will enable researchers to take advantage of parallel translations across a wider number oflanguages than previously available, providing, with relatively little effort,

Philip Resnik; Mari Broman Olsen; Mona Diab

96

Comparison of ovine, bovine and porcine mucosal heparins and low molecular weight heparins by disaccharide analyses and 13C NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovine, porcine and bovine heparin were compared by NMR, disaccharide composition, optical rotation, elemental analyses, HPSEC and USP analyses. There were some differences found in the NMR and disaccharide composition of the heparins. Ovine heparin contained less monosulphated and disulphated disaccharides than porcine or bovine mucosal heparins. The heparins were approximately equivalent in USP activity.Low molecular weight ovine, porcine and

D. K. Watt; S. C. Yorke; G. C. Slim

1997-01-01

97

Concept annotation in the CRAFT corpus  

PubMed Central

Background Manually annotated corpora are critical for the training and evaluation of automated methods to identify concepts in biomedical text. Results This paper presents the concept annotations of the Colorado Richly Annotated Full-Text (CRAFT) Corpus, a collection of 97 full-length, open-access biomedical journal articles that have been annotated both semantically and syntactically to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural-language-processing (NLP) community. CRAFT identifies all mentions of nearly all concepts from nine prominent biomedical ontologies and terminologies: the Cell Type Ontology, the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest ontology, the NCBI Taxonomy, the Protein Ontology, the Sequence Ontology, the entries of the Entrez Gene database, and the three subontologies of the Gene Ontology. The first public release includes the annotations for 67 of the 97 articles, reserving two sets of 15 articles for future text-mining competitions (after which these too will be released). Concept annotations were created based on a single set of guidelines, which has enabled us to achieve consistently high interannotator agreement. Conclusions As the initial 67-article release contains more than 560,000 tokens (and the full set more than 790,000 tokens), our corpus is among the largest gold-standard annotated biomedical corpora. Unlike most others, the journal articles that comprise the corpus are drawn from diverse biomedical disciplines and are marked up in their entirety. Additionally, with a concept-annotation count of nearly 100,000 in the 67-article subset (and more than 140,000 in the full collection), the scale of conceptual markup is also among the largest of comparable corpora. The concept annotations of the CRAFT Corpus have the potential to significantly advance biomedical text mining by providing a high-quality gold standard for NLP systems. The corpus, annotation guidelines, and other associated resources are freely available at http://bionlp-corpora.sourceforge.net/CRAFT/index.shtml. PMID:22776079

2012-01-01

98

Performance of Blue-Yellow Screening Test for Antimicrobial Detection in Ovine Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugresiduesinmilkareimportantbecauseofpublic health and industrial implications. The detection limits of 25 antimicrobialagents were determined bythe blue- yellow screening method in ovine milk. For each drug, 8 concentrations were tested on 20 ovine milk samples from individual ewes in midlactation. Detection limits determined by means of logistic regression were below European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRL) for penicillin G (3 to 4

B. Linage; C. Gonzalo; J. A. Carriedo; J. A. Asensio; M. A. Blanco; L. F. De La Fuente; F. San Primitivo

2007-01-01

99

Immunohistochemical Identification of Campylobacter fetus in Natural Cases of Bovine and Ovine Abortions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure for the detection of Campylobacter fetus antigens using an avidin-biotin com- plex technique was performed on formalin fixed bovine and ovine fetal tissues from 26 natural cases of Campylobacter spp. abortion (four ovine and 22 bovine). The species of Campy- lobacter isolated included C. fetus ssp. venerealis from 13 bovine fetuses, C. fetus ssp. fetus

C. M. Campero; M. L. Anderson; R. L. Walker; P. C. Blanchard; L. Barbano; P. Chiu; A. Martinez; G. Combessies; J. C. Bardon; J. Cordeviola

2005-01-01

100

LIPOGENESIS IN OVINE ADIPOSE TISSUE IN TISSUE CULTURE R.G. VERNON  

E-print Network

responsi- ble for the low rate of glucose utilization for fatty acid synthesis in ovine adipose tissue-antagonists in ovine adipose tissue. The very low rate of utilization of glucose carbon for fatty acid synthesis in ruminant adipose tissue is thought to be due to the low activity of ATP-citrate lyase (Ballard et a/., 1969

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

101

Spontaneous secretion of lipoprotein lipase by bovine and ovine adipose tissue incubated for 7 days  

E-print Network

Spontaneous secretion of lipoprotein lipase by bovine and ovine adipose tissue incubated for 7 days such as insulin, serum, heparin (Garfinkel et al, 1976, Bioch Biophys Acta, 424, 147-156 ; Pradines- Figu6res et was to measure the secretion of LPL activity by bovine and ovine adipose tissue (AT) explants incubated for 7

Boyer, Edmond

102

Biosec baseline corpus: A multimodal biometric database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The baseline copus of a new multimodal database, acquired in the framework of the FP6 EU BioSec Integrated Project, is presented. The corpus consist of fingerprint images acquired with three different sensors, frontal face images from a webcam, iris images from an iris sensor, and voice utterances acquired both with a close-talk headset and a distant webcam,microphone. The BioSec

Julian Fiérrez-aguilar; Javier Ortega-garcia; Doroteo Torre Toledano; Joaquin Gonzalez-rodriguez

2007-01-01

103

Idiopathic partial thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum.  

PubMed

A case of spontaneous, partial, unilateral thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum is described. A 35-year-old white male presented with a painful mass in the perineum without priapism. Diagnostic evaluation with sonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a thrombosis in the left posterior corporal body. Treatment consisted of intravenous heparin followed by prophylactic acetylsalicylic acid. The thrombosis resolved spontaneously over several months without sequelae. Conservative management of this rare disease appears to be possible and safe. PMID:9644790

Thiel, R; Kahn, T; Vögeli, T A

1998-01-01

104

Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus  

PubMed Central

Mesonephric carcinomas are rare in the female genital tract and usually are found in sites where embryonic remnants of wolffian ducts are usually detected, such as the uterine cervix, broad ligament, mesosalpinx and exceptionally rarely in the uterine corpus. To date, only four cases of mesonephric carcinomas arising in the uterine corpus have been described in literature. Here we report two cases of mesonephric carcinomas arising in a deep intramural location of the uterine corpus in a 55-year-old woman and a 62-year-old woman in Chinese populations. It is believed to be the first report in China. Both cases presented with a little postmenopausal bleeding. Before hospitalized, uterine curettages were programmed for both cases. The pathology reports were mesonephric adenocarcinoma. A total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. On gross examination, the tumors of both cases were confined to the myometrium. Microscopic examination found both tumors of these two cases were adenocarcinomas mixed with spindle cell component. The most primary histologic patterns of the mesonephric adenocarcinomas were tubular glands that varied in size and were lined by one to several layers of columnar cells. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells expressed positive with CD10, calretinin, vimentin, cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA); but expressions of ER and PR were completely negative. The peculiar location of mesonephric carcinoma of the uterine corpus may be misinterpreted as other histological type neoplasms. Awareness of this rare phenomenon and immunostaining for markers of mesonephric carcinoma can prevent from making a false diagnosis. PMID:25400789

Wu, Haixia; Zhang, Lin; Cao, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanjing; Liu, Yixin

2014-01-01

105

Syntactic Annotation of a German Newspaper Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We report on the syntactic annotation of a German newspaper corpus. The annotations consist of context-free structures, additionally\\u000a allowing crossing branches, with labeled nodes (phrases) and edges (grammatical functions). Furthermore, we present a new,\\u000a interactive semi-automatic annotation process that allows efficient and reliable annotations. The annotation process is sped\\u000a up by incrementally presenting structures and by automatically highlighting unreliable assignments.

Thorsten Brants; Wojciech Skut; Hans Uszkoreit

106

Annotating Sanskrit Corpus: Adapting IL-POSTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we present an experiment on the use of the hierarchical Indic Languages POS\\u000a Tagset (IL-POSTS) (Baskaran et al 2008 a&b), developed by Microsoft Research India (MSRI) for tagging Indian languages, for\\u000a annotating Sanskrit corpus. Sanskrit is a language with richer morphology and relatively free word-order. The authors have\\u000a included and excluded certain tags according to the requirements

Girish Nath Jha; Madhav Gopal; Diwakar Mishra

2009-01-01

107

Ruptured Corpus Luteal Cyst: CT Findings  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the CT findings of ruptured corpus luteal cysts. Materials and Methods Six patients with a surgically proven ruptured corpus luteal cyst were included in this series. The prospective CT findings were retrospectively analyzed in terms of the size and shape of the cyst, the thickness and enhancement pattern of its wall, the attenuation of its contents, and peritoneal fluid. Results The mean diameter of the cysts was 2.8 (range, 1.5-4.8) cm; three were round and three were oval. The mean thickness of the cyst wall was 4.7 (range, 1-10) mm; in all six cases it showed strong enhancement, and in three was discontinuous. In five of six cases, the cystic contents showed high attenuation. Peritoneal fluid was present in all cases, and its attenuation was higher, especially around the uterus and adnexa, than that of urine present in the bladder. Conclusion In a woman in whom CT reveals the presence of an ovarian cyst with an enhancing rim and highly attenuated contents, as well as highly attenuated peritoneal fluid, a ruptured corpus luteal cyst should be suspected. Other possible evidence of this is focal interruption of the cyst wall and the presence of peritoneal fluid around the adnexa. PMID:12679633

Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Sun Ho; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Hak Jong; Moon, Min Hoan; Jeong, Jun Yong

2003-01-01

108

Developing a corpus of spoken language variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a novel, searchable corpus as a research tool for investigating phonetic and phonological phenomena across various speech styles. Five speech styles have been well studied independently in previous work: reduced (casual), careful (hyperarticulated), citation (reading), Lombard effect (speech in noise), and ``motherese'' (child-directed speech). Few studies to date have collected a wide range of styles from a single set of speakers, and fewer yet have provided publicly available corpora. The pilot corpus includes recordings of (1) a set of speakers participating in a variety of tasks designed to elicit the five speech styles, and (2) casual peer conversations and wordlists to illustrate regional vowels. The data include high-quality recordings and time-aligned transcriptions linked to text files that can be queried. Initial measures drawn from the database provide comparison across speech styles along the following acoustic dimensions: MLU (changes in unit duration); relative intra-speaker intensity changes (mean and dynamic range); and intra-speaker pitch values (minimum, maximum, mean, range). The corpus design will allow for a variety of analyses requiring control of demographic and style factors, including hyperarticulation variety, disfluencies, intonation, discourse analysis, and detailed spectral measures.

Carmichael, Lesley; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia Beckford

2003-10-01

109

Isolation and characterization of bifidobacteria from ovine cheese.  

PubMed

Animal products are one of the niches of bifidobacteria, a fact probably attributable to secondary contamination. In this study, 2 species of the genus Bifidobacterium were isolated by culture-dependent methods from ovine cheeses that were made from unpasteurized milk without addition of starter cultures. The isolates were identified as Bifidobacterium crudilactis and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis and sequencing of phylogenetic markers (16S rRNA, hsp60, and fusA). PMID:25086349

Bunesova, Vera; Killer, Jiri; Vlkova, Eva; Musilova, Sarka; Tomaska, Martin; Rada, Vojtech; Kmet, Vladimir

2014-10-01

110

VOLUTION D'UNE FRQUENCE GNIQUE DANS LA RACE OVINE BLEU DU MAINE  

E-print Network

Le gène récessif b qui existe dans la race ovine « Bleu du .1I aine» o est jugé indésirable, car il�VOLUTION D'UNE FR�QUENCE G�NIQUE DANS LA RACE OVINE «BLEU DU MAINE» J. J. LAUVERGNE Station de exemple d'épistasie mériterait des études complémentaires. INTRODUCTION Dans la race ovine Bleu du Maine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

Strain-rate sensitivity of porcine and ovine corneas.  

PubMed

Knowledge of strain-rate sensitivity of corneal tissue is important for improving the understanding of the tissue's response to mechanical actions and the accurate numerical simulation of corneal biomechanical behaviour under the effects of disease and surgery. In the study, fresh and well-preserved porcine and ovine corneal buttons were subjected to uniaxial tension loads with seven different strain rates ranging between 0.8 and 420% per minute. All specimens exhibited increased stiffness (as measured by the tangent modulus) with higher strain rates. However, clear differences in their behaviour were observed. While ovine corneas showed gradual, consistent and mostly statistically significant increases in stiffness with all elevations in strain rate, porcine corneas' response was significant over only a limited range of low strain rates. The effect of strain rate on the material's stress-strain behaviour was considered in the formation of three sets of constitutive models including: (i) a model based on a simple exponential stress-strain relationship, (ii) the Ogden model that considers the tissue's hyperelasticity but not anisotropy, and (iii) a third model by Holzapfel, Gasser and Ogden that considers both hyperelasticity and anisotropy. The three models are introduced to enable consideration of the strain rate effects in simulations employing finite element programs with varying capabilities or in modelling applications in corneal biomechanics which may or may not require consideration of mechanical anisotropy. PMID:21761808

Elsheikh, Ahmed; Kassem, Wael; Jones, Stephen W

2011-01-01

112

Interrelationship between ovine follicular fluid inhibin and serum albumin.  

PubMed

Ovine follicular fluid inhibin (oFF-I) as isolated in this laboratory, proved to be a monomeric protein (M(r).65 kDa). It was found to share very many of the physico-chemical characteristics of ovine serum albumin (oSA)-such as molecular size, iso-electric point, N-terminal aminoacid, finger-print patterns following enzymatic or cyanogen bromide cleavage, as well as binding of estradiol-17 beta and tryptophan. Furthermore, an antiserum containing polyclonal antibodies to oSA showed perfect cross-reaction with oFF-I. Nevertheless, oFF-I is distinct and different from oSA, as would be evident from the data reported here. Of the two proteins, oFF-I alone is capable of suppressing pituitary FSH output in a dose-dependent manner. Secondly, an antiserum containing polyclonal antibodies against Fraction-S2, a partially purified, biologically active fragment (M(r): 30-40 kDa)-derived from oFF-I, cross-reacted with the 65 kDa inhibin, but did not recognize oSA. Finally, the CD-spectra of the two proteins, when examined as a function of pH, show characteristic differences. PMID:1293026

Kumar, N; Gupta, S; Duraiswami, S

1992-11-01

113

Amino acid sequence of ovine 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

The amino acid sequence of the NADP+-dependent enzyme ovine 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase has been determined by conventional direct protein sequence analysis of peptides resulting from digestion of the protein with trypsin and chemical cleavages with cyanogen bromide, hydroxylamine, and iodosobenzoic acid. The polypeptide contains 466 amino acids and its NH2 terminus is acetylated. The Candida utilis enzyme is inactivated by reaction of pyridoxal phosphate with two lysine residues (Minchiotti, L., Ronchi, S., and Rippa, M. (1981) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 657, 232-242). These residues are conserved in the ovine enzyme. In contrast to NAD+ dehydrogenases which have weakly related sequences and spatially related folds in their nucleotide-binding sites, no significant sequence homologies were detected between 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and any of three other NADP+-requiring enzymes, glutamate dehydrogenase, p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase, and dihydrofolate reductase. This is in accord with structural data that show no spatial relationship between NADP+-binding sites in these enzymes. PMID:6685125

Carne, A; Walker, J E

1983-11-10

114

Biomechanical characterisation of ovine spinal facet joint cartilage.  

PubMed

The spinal facet joints are known to be an important component in the kinematics and the load transmission of the spine. The articular cartilage in the facet joint is prone to degenerative changes which lead to back pain and treatments for the condition have had limited long term success. There is currently a lack of information on the basic biomechanical properties of the facet joint cartilage which is needed to develop tissue substitution or regenerative interventions. In the present study, the thickness and biphasic properties of ovine facet cartilage were determined using a combination of indentation tests and computational modelling. The equilibrium biphasic Young's modulus and permeability were derived to be 0.76±0.35 MPa and 1.61±1.10×10?¹? m?/(Ns) respectively, which were within the range of cartilage properties characterised from the human synovial joints. The average thickness of the ovine facet cartilage was 0.52±0.10 mm, which was measured using a needle indentation test. These properties could potentially be used for the development of substitution or tissue engineering interventions and for computational modelling of the facet joint. Furthermore, the developed method to characterise the facet cartilage could be used for other animals or human donors. PMID:22483055

Abd Latif, Mohd Juzaila; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth K

2012-05-11

115

What's In a Note: Construction of a Suicide Note Corpus  

PubMed Central

This paper reports on the results of an initiative to create and annotate a corpus of suicide notes that can be used for machine learning. Ultimately, the corpus included 1,278 notes that were written by someone who died by suicide. Each note was reviewed by at least three annotators who mapped words or sentences to a schema of emotions. This corpus has already been used for extensive scientific research. PMID:23170067

Pestian, John P.; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Linn-Gust, Michelle

2012-01-01

116

A General-Purpose Monitor Corpus of Written Pashto  

E-print Network

This paper provides an overview of the development of a general-purpose reference corpus for Pashto. It is an open-ended (monitor) corpus. The corpus currently contains 10,000 words. It has two cells, one containing essays and the other letters. This corpus represents Yousafzai group of dialects and the data for it has been provided by the Pashto Academy, Peshawar University. The corpus has been developed in Microsoft Visual Studio environment, with Extensible Markup Language (XML) at back-end and C # at front-end. The data in the XML form is tagged upto sentence level. The user-friendly front-end, in C#, allows a user to type a word in a text-box. The system searches the sentences containing this word and displays these sentences. This facility is useful for those language researchers who want to have example sentences of the use of a particular word. It also has a button for counting the total number of occurrences of a particular word, entered by the user, for searching in the corpus. This count is useful in situations where the users want to find out how frequently a particular word is used in the language. The whole interface is in Pashto language. The text in the corpus is handled in Unicode form. The paper provides an overview of how this corpus is useful for research purposes. This paper also provides the details of the methodology used for the development of this corpus. It has also been discussed that how different operations, such as searching the data, can be performed on the corpus using the interface provided by the corpus. Coding excerpts are given to facilitate the corpus development discussion. 1.

Mohammad Abid Khan; Fatima Tuz Zuhra

117

L2 rated speech corpus 1 Running head: CONSTRUCTION OF A RATED L2 SPEECH CORPUS  

E-print Network

-Champaign abstract This work reports on the construction of a rated database of spontaneous speech produced by second generally. This database will be released to the public in the near future. Key-Words: rated speech corpus on the construction of a rated, spontaneous speech database of second language (L2) learners of English. The purpose

Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

118

Metagenomic Insights into the RDX-Degrading Potential of the Ovine Rumen Microbiome  

PubMed Central

The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX), or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB) were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies. PMID:25383623

Li, Robert W.; Giarrizzo, Juan Gabriel; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Duringer, Jennifer M.; Craig, A. Morrie

2014-01-01

119

Novel in vitro systems for prediction of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products.  

PubMed

A new in vitro tool was developed for the identification of veterinary substrates of the main drug transporter in the mammary gland. These drugs have a much higher chance of being concentrated into ovine milk and thus should be detectable in dairy products. Complementarily, a cell model for the identification of compounds that can inhibit the secretion of drugs into ovine milk, and thus reduce milk residues, was also generated. The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) is responsible for the concentration of its substrates into milk. The need to predict potential drug residues in ruminant milk has prompted the development of in vitro cell models over-expressing ABCG2 for these species to detect veterinary drugs that interact with this transporter. Using these models, several substrates for bovine and caprine ABCG2 have been found, and differences in activity between species have been reported. However, despite being of great toxicological relevance, no suitable in vitro model to predict substrates of ovine ABCG2 was available. New MDCKII and MEF3.8 cell models over-expressing ovine ABCG2 were generated for the identification of substrates and inhibitors of ovine ABCG2. Five widely used veterinary antibiotics (marbofloxacin, orbifloxacin, sarafloxacin, danofloxacin and difloxacin) were discovered as new substrates of ovine ABCG2. These results were confirmed for the bovine transporter and its Y581S variant using previously generated cell models. In addition, the avermectin doramectin was described as a new inhibitor of ruminant ABCG2. This new rapid assay to identify veterinary drugs that can be concentrated into ovine milk will potentially improve detection and monitoring of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products. PMID:24679113

González-Lobato, L; Real, R; Herrero, D; de la Fuente, A; Prieto, J G; Marqués, M M; Alvarez, A I; Merino, G

2014-01-01

120

Metagenomic Insights into the RDX-Degrading Potential of the Ovine Rumen Microbiome.  

PubMed

The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX), or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB) were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies. PMID:25383623

Li, Robert W; Giarrizzo, Juan Gabriel; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Duringer, Jennifer M; Craig, A Morrie

2014-01-01

121

[Traumatic rupture of the corpus cavernosum].  

PubMed

Traumatic rupture of the corpus cavernosum is relatively frequent in the authors' experience. Based on the study of a series of 80 cases and a review of the literature, the authors analyse the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects and outcome of this disease. The patients in this series had a mean age of 30 years. Meticulous and intimate clinical interview demonstrated that the commonest mechanism is forced manipulation of the erect penis (68%). Clinical examination localized the site of the fracture (proximal: 57%, distal 43%). The fracture was unilateral (78 cases), rarely bilateral (2 cases) and associated with complete rupture of the urethra (1 case). Treatment was surgical in 79 patients. A distal semicircumferential incision was used in the case of bilateral rupture, distal rupture and associated urethral lesion (34 cases). A favourable course was observed in 86% of cases. However, 9 postoperative complications (12.5%) were observed (6 cases of fibrous plaques, 3 cases of chordee of the penis), due either to the extent of the haematoma or to the delay in treatment. Traumatic rupture of the corpus cavernosum is a disease of young adults, which requires early surgical treatment with an approach adapted to the type of lesions. PMID:9834519

Bennani, S; Dakir, M; Debbagh, A; Hafiani, M; el Moussaoui, A; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

1998-09-01

122

A Spoken Dialog Corpus for Car Telematics Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spoken corpora provide a critical resource for research, development and evaluation of spoken dialog systems. This chapter describes the spoken dialog corpus used in the design of CAMMIA (Conversational Agent for Multimedia Mobile Information Access), which employs a novel dialog management system that allows users to switch dialog tasks in a flexible manner. The corpus for car telematics services was

Masahiko Tateishi; Katsushi Asami; Ichiro Akahori; Scott Judy; Yasunari Obuchi; Teruko Mitamura; Eric Nyberg; Nobuo Hataoka

123

The Corpus of English as Lingua Franca in Academic Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project to make a corpus of English spoken as a lingua franca in university settings in Finland. This corpus is one of the first to address the need for corpora that show the target for English-as-a-Foreign-Language learners whose goal is not to speak with native speakers but to interact in communities where English is a lingua franca.…

Mauranen, Anna

2003-01-01

124

Semantic Similarity Based on Corpus Statistics and Lexical Taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach for measuring semantic similarity\\/distance between words and concepts. It combines a lexical taxonomy structure with corpus statistical information so that the semantic distance between nodes in the semantic space constructed by the taxonomy can be better quantified with the computational evidence derived from a distributional analysis of corpus data. Specifically, the proposed measure is

Jay J. Jiang; David W. Conrath

1997-01-01

125

Use of "Google Scholar" in Corpus-Driven EAP Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the "Google Scholar" search engine. These resources ("Google Scholar virtual corpus") are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. "Google Scholar", however, was not designed for linguistic searches…

Brezina, Vaclav

2012-01-01

126

The American National Corpus: A standardized resource for American English  

E-print Network

The American National Corpus: A standardized resource for American English Nancy Ide* and Catherine) in the US and the European Language Resources Association (ELRA) in Europe. However, in the main the corpora­scale resource and include spoken language data; however, this corpus is not representative of American English

127

The American National Corpus: A standardized resource for American English  

E-print Network

The American National Corpus: A standardized resource for American English Nancy Ide* and Catherine) in the US and the European Language Resources Association (ELRA) in Europe. However, in the main the corpora-scale resource and include spoken language data; however, this corpus is not representative of American English

Ide, Nancy

128

Toward a Name Entity Aligned Bilingual Corpus Linguistic Data Consortium  

E-print Network

Toward a Name Entity Aligned Bilingual Corpus Xiaoyi Ma Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market St-training framework in which, through named entity aligned bilingual text, named entity taggers can complement) adapt named entity taggers to new domains; 3) create a named entity aligned bilingual corpus. Experiment

Pennsylvania, University of

129

Annotating the MASC Corpus with BabelNet Andrea Moro  

E-print Network

annotating, with both word senses and named entities, the MASC 3.0 corpus, a large English corpus covering path, with the creation of huge resources containing annotated named entities. However, to date entities. Finally, we estimate the quality of our annotations using both manually-tagged named entities

Navigli, Roberto

130

Corpus linguistics and phraseo-paremiology ric Laporte  

E-print Network

1 Corpus linguistics and phraseo-paremiology �ric Laporte Universidade federal do Espírito Santo bad for the facts Nelson Rodrigues If corpus linguistics and phraseo-paremiology are two fields of linguistics, how are they interlinked and how can they interplay? In this paper, we defend the position

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

131

Using an Annotated Corpus as a Stochastic Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Data Oriented Parsing (DOP), an annotated corpus is used as a stochastic grammar. An input string is parsed by combining subtrees from the corpus. As a consequence, one parse tree can usually be generated by several derivations that involve different subtrees. This leads to a statistics where the probability of a parse is equal to the sum of the

Rens Bod

1993-01-01

132

Using an Annotated Language Corpus as a Virtual Stochastic Grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In Data Oriented Parsing (DOP), an annotated corpus is used as a stochastic grammar An input string is parsed by combining subtrees from the corpus As a consequence, one parse tree can usually be generated by several derivations that involve different subtrces This leads to a statistics where the probability of a parse is equal to the sum of

Rens Bod

1993-01-01

133

United States--Habeas Corpus Supreme Court Cites Changed Facts,  

E-print Network

United States--Habeas Corpus Supreme Court Cites Changed Facts, Remands Uighur Detainees' Habeas. In a per curiam order, however, the court stated that by now, ``each of the detainees in this case has Ruling T he U.S. Supreme Court, citing changed circum- stances, March 1 remanded a habeas corpus case

Huang, Jianyu

134

Corpus Design for Signing Avatars Kyle Duarte, Sylvie Gibet  

E-print Network

Corpus Design for Signing Avatars Kyle Duarte, Sylvie Gibet Universit´e de Bretagne. An important part of any signing avatar project is to ensure that a computer animation engine has a large, we describe how an avatar corpus has a different motivation than traditional signed language corpora

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

135

Diagnosis and phylogenetic analysis of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma in China.  

PubMed

Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a lung tumor of sheep caused by jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). OPA is common in sheep, and it is most commonly observed in China. Without preventative vaccines and serological diagnostic tools for assay of OPA, identification of JSRV based on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is very important for prevention and control measures for OPA in practice management. In this study, the diagnosis of OPA was made from analysis of clinical signs, pathological observations, JSRV-like particle discovery, and RT-PCR of the target env gene. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the China Shandong (SD) strain studied in this article belonged to exogenous JSRV, and it was very similar to 92k3, which was isolated from sheep in the Kenya (Y18305). The current study reported a severe outbreak of OPA in Shandong Province, China. The observations could offer a comparative view of the env gene of JSRV. PMID:24150961

Zhang, Keshan; Kong, Hanjin; Liu, Yongjie; Shang, Youjun; Wu, Bin; Liu, Xiangtao

2014-02-01

136

Immunomodulatory activity of plant residues on ovine neutrophils.  

PubMed

Neutrophils play an essential role in host defense and inflammation. Plants have long been used to improve the immune function, but for most of them specific investigations on animal health are lacking. In the present study, water and hydroethanolic extracts from 11 plant wastes have been screened on immune responses of ovine neutrophils. Eight sheep clinically healthy, not lactating, non-pregnant were selected and used for the experiment. Freshly isolated neutrophils were incubated with the extracts of the residues at increasing doses, and then they were tested for adhesion and superoxide production induced with PMA. The residues of Larix decidua, Thymus vulgaris, Salix alba, Sinupret, Helianthus annuus, Mangifera indica modulated the neutrophil immune functions, moreover, Larix decidua, Thymus vulgaris and Salix alba presented the highest anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:18667240

Farinacci, Maura; Colitti, Monica; Sgorlon, Sandy; Stefanon, Bruno

2008-11-15

137

Molecular and Biomorphometrical Identification of Ovine Babesiosis in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Ovine babesiosis is the most important haemoparasitic tick-borne disease of small ruminants in Iran caused by Babesia ovis, B. motasi, and B. crassa. The aim of this study was to characterize the species of ovine Babesia species isolated from different geographical region of Iran. Methods One hundred fifty four blood samples collected from animals, which demonstrated the pale mucous membranes or hyperthermia. The specimens were transferred to the laboratory and the blood smears stained with Geimsa, the morphological and biometrical data of parasite in any infected erythrocyte have been considered. Extracted DNA from each blood samples were used in PCR and semi nested- PCR in order to confirm the presence of the species. Results Microscopical observation on 154 blood smears determined 38 (24.67%) and 40 (26%) samples were infected by Babesia and Theileria respectively. The mixed infections occurred in four (2.6%) samples. The results of the PCR assays showed nine (5.85%), 81 (53%) and 18 (11.7%) were distinguished as Babesia, Theileria and mixed infection, respectively. Semi nested- PCR did not confirm the presence of B. motasi. Conclusion The causative organism of many cases of haemoprotozoal diseases, which recorded in previous studies, could be B. ovis or Theileria lestoquardi. The result confirmed that B. ovis was only species which causes babesiosis in the study areas. It seems that the biometrical polymorphisms could exist in B. ovis in Iran. This polymorphism could be a main problem in differentiation between B. ovis and B. motasi and it could be dissolved by specific PCR analysis. PMID:22347262

Dehkordi, Z Sadeghi; Zakeri, S; Nabian, S; Bahonar, A; Ghasemi, F; Noorollahi, F; Rahbari, S

2010-01-01

138

The corpus callosum: white matter or terra incognita  

PubMed Central

The corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure in the brain, consisting of 200–250 million contralateral axonal projections and the major commissural pathway connecting the hemispheres of the human brain. The pathology of the corpus callosum includes a wide variety of entities that arise from different causes such as congenital, inflammatory, tumoural, degenerative, infectious, metabolic, traumatic, vascular and toxic agents. The corpus callosum, or a specific part of it, can be affected selectively. Numerous pathologies of the corpus callosum are encountered during CT and MRI. The aim of this study is to facilitate a better understanding and thus treatment of the pathological entities of the corpus callosum by categorising them according to their causes and their manifestations in MR and CT imaging. Familiarity with its anatomy and pathology is important to the radiologist in order to recognise its disease at an early stage and help the clinician establish the optimal therapeutic approach. PMID:21172964

Fitsiori, A; Nguyen, D; Karentzos, A; Delavelle, J; Vargas, M I

2011-01-01

139

Corpus Linguistics and the Design of a Response Message  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most research related to SETI, the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence, is focussed on techniques for detection of possible incoming signals from extra-terrestrial intelligent sources (e.g. Turnbull et al. 1999), and algorithms for analysis of these signals to identify intelligent language-like characteristics (e.g. Elliott and Atwell 1999, 2000). However, another issue for research and debate is the nature of our response, should a signal arrive and be detected. The design of potentially the most significant communicative act in history should not be decided solely by astrophysicists; the Corpus Linguistics research community has a contribution to make to what is essentially a Corpus design and implementation project. (Vakoch 1998) advocated that the message constructed to transmit to extraterrestrials should include a broad, representative collection of perspectives rather than a single viewpoint or genre; this should strike a chord with Corpus Linguists for whom a central principle is that a corpus must be "balanced" to be representative (Meyer 2001). One idea favoured by SETI researchers is to transmit an encyclopaedia summarising human knowledge, such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, to give ET communicators an overview and "training set" key to analysis of subsequent messages. Furthermore, this should be sent in several versions in parallel: the text; page-images, to include illustrations left out of the text-file and perhaps some sort of abstract linguistic representation of the text, using a functional or logic language (Ollongren 1999, Freudenthal 1960). The idea of "enriching" the message corpus with annotations at several levels should also strike a chord with Corpus Linguists who have long known that Natural language exhibits highly complex multi-layering sequencing, structural and functional patterns, as difficult to model as sequences and structures found in more traditional physical and biological sciences. Some corpora have been annotated with several levels or layers of linguistic knowledge, for example the SEC corpus (Taylor and Knowles 1988), the ISLE corpus (Menzel et al. 2000). Tagged and parsed corpus can be used by corpus linguists as a testbed to guide their development of grammars (e.g. Souter and Atwell 1994); and they can be used to train Natural Language Learning or data-mining models of complex sequence data (e.g. Brill 1993, Hughes 1993, Atwell 1996). Corpus linguists have a range of standards and tools for design and annotation of representative corpus resources, and experience of which annotation types are more amenable to Natural Language Learning algorithms. An Advisory panel of corpus linguists could help design and implement an extended Multi-annotated Interstellar Corpus of English, incorporating ideas from Corpus Linguistics such as: - Augment the Encyclopaedia Britannica with a collection of samples representing the diversity of language in real use. - As an additional "key", transmit a dictionary aimed at language learners which has also been a rich source for NLP - Supply our ET communicators with several levels of linguistic annotation, to give them a richer training set for their - Add translations of the English text into other human languages: Humanity should not be represented by English alone, This calls for a large-scale corpus annotation project, requiring an Interstellar Corpus Advisory Panel, analogous to the BNC or MATE advisory panels, to include experts in English grammar and semantics, English language learning, computational Natural language Learning algorithms, and corpus design, implementation, annotation, standardisation, and analysis.

Atwell, E.

2002-01-01

140

The DDI corpus: an annotated corpus with pharmacological substances and drug-drug interactions.  

PubMed

The management of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is a critical issue resulting from the overwhelming amount of information available on them. Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques can provide an interesting way to reduce the time spent by healthcare professionals on reviewing biomedical literature. However, NLP techniques rely mostly on the availability of the annotated corpora. While there are several annotated corpora with biological entities and their relationships, there is a lack of corpora annotated with pharmacological substances and DDIs. Moreover, other works in this field have focused in pharmacokinetic (PK) DDIs only, but not in pharmacodynamic (PD) DDIs. To address this problem, we have created a manually annotated corpus consisting of 792 texts selected from the DrugBank database and other 233 Medline abstracts. This fined-grained corpus has been annotated with a total of 18,502 pharmacological substances and 5028 DDIs, including both PK as well as PD interactions. The quality and consistency of the annotation process has been ensured through the creation of annotation guidelines and has been evaluated by the measurement of the inter-annotator agreement between two annotators. The agreement was almost perfect (Kappa up to 0.96 and generally over 0.80), except for the DDIs in the MedLine database (0.55-0.72). The DDI corpus has been used in the SemEval 2013 DDIExtraction challenge as a gold standard for the evaluation of information extraction techniques applied to the recognition of pharmacological substances and the detection of DDIs from biomedical texts. DDIExtraction 2013 has attracted wide attention with a total of 14 teams from 7 different countries. For the task of recognition and classification of pharmacological names, the best system achieved an F1 of 71.5%, while, for the detection and classification of DDIs, the best result was F1 of 65.1%. These results show that the corpus has enough quality to be used for training and testing NLP techniques applied to the field of Pharmacovigilance. The DDI corpus and the annotation guidelines are free for use for academic research and are available at http://labda.inf.uc3m.es/ddicorpus. PMID:23906817

Herrero-Zazo, María; Segura-Bedmar, Isabel; Martínez, Paloma; Declerck, Thierry

2013-10-01

141

Citrimicrobium luteum gen. nov., sp. nov., aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium isolated from the gut of a sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.  

PubMed

A Gram-stain negative, yellow-pigmented, motile, pleomorphic bacterium, designated strain CBA4602(T), was isolated from the gut of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus, which was collected from Jeju Island in the Republic of Korea. In a phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene, strain CBA4602(T) belonged to the order Sphingomonadales in the class Alphaproteobacteria. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain CBA4602(T) and 'Citromicrobium bathyomarinum' JF-1, the most closely related strain having nonvalidly published name, was 98.4%, followed by 95.2-96.7% identities with sequence of the other closest strains in the genus Erythrobacter. Strain CBA4602(T) had bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids. Strain CBA4602(T) grew in 0-10% (w/v) NaCl, at 10-42°C and pH 6.0-8.0, with optimal growth in 1-2% NaCl, at 30-37°C and pH 7.0. Strain CBA4602(T) was positive for catalase and oxidase activities and was able to hydrolyse gelatine and Tween 20 and 40, but not starch, Tween 80 or L-tyrosine. The G+C content of genomic DNA from strain CBA4602(T) was 68.0 mol% and Q-10 was the major detected isoprenoid quinone. The polar lipids were three unidentified phospholipids, three unidentified glycolipids, and two unidentified lipids. The dominant fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, anteiso-C17:0 and C18:0. As considering the current taxonomic status of the genus 'Citromicrobium' and polyphasic taxonomic analyses, strain CBA4602(T) represents a novel genus and species. The name Citrimicrobium luteum is proposed for the type strain CBA4602(T) (=KACC 17668(T) =JCM 19530(T)). PMID:25163838

Jung, Hong-Joo; Cha, In-Tae; Yim, Kyung June; Song, Hye Seon; Cho, Kichul; Kim, Daekyung; Lee, Hae-Won; Lee, Jae Kook; Seo, Myung-Ji; Roh, Seong Woon; Lee, Sung-Jae

2014-10-01

142

Genetic architecture of gene expression in ovine skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Background In livestock populations the genetic contribution to muscling is intensively monitored in the progeny of industry sires and used as a tool in selective breeding programs. The genes and pathways conferring this genetic merit are largely undefined. Genetic variation within a population has potential, amongst other mechanisms, to alter gene expression via cis- or trans-acting mechanisms in a manner that impacts the functional activities of specific pathways that contribute to muscling traits. By integrating sire-based genetic merit information for a muscling trait with progeny-based gene expression data we directly tested the hypothesis that there is genetic structure in the gene expression program in ovine skeletal muscle. Results The genetic performance of six sires for a well defined muscling trait, longissimus lumborum muscle depth, was measured using extensive progeny testing and expressed as an Estimated Breeding Value by comparison with contemporary sires. Microarray gene expression data were obtained for longissimus lumborum samples taken from forty progeny of the six sires (4-8 progeny/sire). Initial unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis revealed strong genetic architecture to the gene expression data, which also discriminated the sire-based Estimated Breeding Value for the trait. An integrated systems biology approach was then used to identify the major functional pathways contributing to the genetics of enhanced muscling by using both Estimated Breeding Value weighted gene co-expression network analysis and a differential gene co-expression network analysis. The modules of genes revealed by these analyses were enriched for a number of functional terms summarised as muscle sarcomere organisation and development, protein catabolism (proteosome), RNA processing, mitochondrial function and transcriptional regulation. Conclusions This study has revealed strong genetic structure in the gene expression program within ovine longissimus lumborum muscle. The balance between muscle protein synthesis, at the levels of both transcription and translation control, and protein catabolism mediated by regulated proteolysis is likely to be the primary determinant of the genetic merit for the muscling trait in this sheep population. There is also evidence that high genetic merit for muscling is associated with a fibre type shift toward fast glycolytic fibres. This study provides insight into mechanisms, presumably subject to strong artificial selection, that underpin enhanced muscling in sheep populations. PMID:22171619

2011-01-01

143

Epizootic of ovine congenital malformations associated with Schmallenberg virus infection.  

PubMed

Epizootic outbreaks of congenital malformations in sheep are rare and have, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported before in Europe. This paper describes relevant preliminary findings from the first epizootic outbreak of ovine congenital malformations in the Netherlands. Between 25 November and 20 December 2011, congenital malformations in newborn lambs on sheep farms throughout the country were reported to the Animal Health Service in Deventer. Subsequently, small ruminant veterinary specialists visited these farms and collected relevant information from farmers by means of questionnaires. The deformities varied from mild to severe, and ewes were reported to have given birth to both normal and deformed lambs; both male and female lambs were affected. Most of the affected lambs were delivered at term. Besides malformed and normal lambs, dummy lambs, unable to suckle, were born also on these farms. None of the ewes had shown clinical signs during gestation or at parturition. Dystocia was common, because of the lambs' deformities. Lambs were submitted for post-mortem examination, and samples of brain tissue were collected for virus detection. The main macroscopic findings included arthrogryposis, torticollis, scoliosis and kyphosis, brachygnathia inferior, and mild-to-marked hypoplasia of the cerebrum, cerebellum and spinal cord. Preliminary data from the first ten affected farms suggest that nutritional deficiencies, intoxication, and genetic factors are not likely to have caused the malformations. Preliminary diagnostic analyses of precolostral serum samples excluded border disease virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, and bluetongue virus. In December 2011, samples of brain tissue from 54 lambs were sent to the Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen University Research, Lelystad. Real-time PCR detected the presence of a virus, provisionally named the Schmallenberg virus, in brain tissue from 22 of the 54 lambs, which originated from seven of eight farms that had submitted lambs for post-mortem examination. This Schmallenberg virus was first reported in Germany and seems to be related to the Shamonda, Aino, and Akabane viruses, all of which belong to the Simbu serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae. These preliminary findings suggest that the Schmallenberg virus is the most likely cause of this epizootic of ovine congenital malformations, which is the first such outbreak reported in Europe. PMID:22393844

van den Brom, R; Luttikholt, S J M; Lievaart-Peterson, K; Peperkamp, N H M T; Mars, M H; van der Poel, W H M; Vellema, P

2012-02-01

144

Rapid communication: The ovine cDNA encoding interferon-stimulated gene product 17 (ISG17)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Name of the Sequence. Ovine interferon-stimulated gene product 17 (oISG17). Genus and Species, Breed. Ovis aries, Purebred Ro- manov and Hampshire, crossbred Columbia × Ram- bouillet and Romanov × Hampshire. Origin of the Clone. Ovine endometrial RNA was pooled from nonpregnant and pregnant ewes (d 7, 8, and 10 nonpregnant; d 13, 15, and 16 pregnant and nonpregnant; and d

A. M. Nighswonger; K. J. Austin; A. D. Ealy; C.-S. Han; T. R. Hansen

145

Corpus callosum size in schizophrenia – a magnetic resonance imaging analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous MRI studies have shown differences in corpus callosum size between schizophrenic patients and controls. The corpus\\u000a callosum (CC), as the main interhemispheric fiber tract, plays an important role in interhemispheric integration and communication.\\u000a Though MRI studies suggest smaller CC in schizophrenia, there are still conflicting findings. Using in vivo magnetic resonance\\u000a imaging, it was investigated whether the midsagittal area

E. M. Meisenzahl; T. Frodl; J. Greiner; G. Leinsinger; K.-P. Maag; D. Heiss; K. Hahn; U. Hegerl; H.-J. Möller

1999-01-01

146

Epidemiology of ovine theileriosis in Ganan region, Gansu Province, China.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of ovine theilreiosis in Gannan Tibet Autonomous Region was investigated. The results of these studies indicate that this disease is endemic in the following counties of Gannan where the vector tick was identified as Haemaphysalis qighaiensis: Luqu, Xiahe, Hezuo, Zhuoni, Lintan, Diebu, Maqu. The disease mainly occurred from March to May and some cases also occurred in September and October. The incidence rates in lambs of sheep brought from areas free of the disease were high. On average, the incidence and mortality rates were 60.8% and 81.5% respectively. In adult sheep, the incidence and mortality rates were 17.12% and 65.78% respectively. The mean incidence rate of young goats was 40% and the mortality was 85.71%. The incidence rate for adult goats was 8.06% and the mortality was 73.33%. During the carrier period, the infection rates of lambs, young goats, adult sheep and adult goats were 91.7%, 64.29%, 63.13%,and 20% respectively. PMID:12051605

Guo, Shuzhen; Yuan, Zhengphu; Wu, Guoxue; Wang, Wenbiao; Ma, Denglu; Du, Hongde

2002-05-01

147

sup 77 Se NMR studies on ovine erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase  

SciTech Connect

To facilitate {sup 77}Se NMR observation of the endogenous active site selenium in ovine erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), lambs have been maintained on an artificial diet deficient in selenium and supplemented with 0.2 ppm 92atom% {sup 77}Se , as selenite. After 5 months, preparations of GSHPx showed that incorporation of selenium from the artificial diet represented 88% of the GSHPx selenium. Each monthly bleeding of two sheep routinely yielded 20mg of pure {sup 77}Se-enriched GSHPx. Limitations on the solubility of the enzyme have so far prevented observation of {sup 77}Se resonances from the intact enzyme. Upon denaturation, a broad resonance is observed at 277 ppm, indicating that the selenium is involved in mixed selenide sulfide bonds both inter and intramolecularly. Reduction of the SeS bonds with dithiothreitol resulted in an upfield shift of the {sup 77}Se resonance to {minus}212 ppm at pH 8 and {minus}55ppm at pH4.2, consistent with formation of Se- and SeH respectively. It is concluded that the selenium is most probably in the SeS or Se{sup {minus}} form in the intact enzyme. Relaxation time measurements were made at field strengths of 4.7 and 9.4T, which demonstrated the dominance of chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) relaxation for the selenium in GSHPx. A value of {le} 262 ppm was determined for the CSA of the iodoacetamide derivative of GSHPx.

Gettins, P.; Crews, B.C. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States))

1991-03-11

148

Interleukin-6, Age, and Corpus Callosum Integrity  

PubMed Central

The contribution of inflammation to deleterious aging outcomes is increasingly recognized; however, little is known about the complex relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and brain structure, or how this association might change with increasing age. We examined the association between IL-6, white matter integrity, and cognition in 151 community dwelling older adults, and tested whether age moderated these associations. Blood levels of IL-6 and vascular risk (e.g., homocysteine), as well as health history information, were collected. Processing speed assessments were administered to assess cognitive functioning, and we employed tract-based spatial statistics to examine whole brain white matter and regions of interest. Given the association between inflammation, vascular risk, and corpus callosum (CC) integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA) of the genu, body, and splenium represented our primary dependent variables. Whole brain analysis revealed an inverse association between IL-6 and CC fractional anisotropy. Subsequent ROI linear regression and ridge regression analyses indicated that the magnitude of this effect increased with age; thus, older individuals with higher IL-6 levels displayed lower white matter integrity. Finally, higher IL-6 levels were related to worse processing speed; this association was moderated by age, and was not fully accounted for by CC volume. This study highlights that at older ages, the association between higher IL-6 levels and lower white matter integrity is more pronounced; furthermore, it underscores the important, albeit burgeoning role of inflammatory processes in cognitive aging trajectories. PMID:25188448

Bettcher, Brianne M.; Watson, Christa L.; Walsh, Christine M.; Lobach, Iryna V.; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Joshua W.; Green, Ralph; Patel, Nihar; Dutt, Shubir; Busovaca, Edgar; Rosen, Howard J.; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce L.; Kramer, Joel H.

2014-01-01

149

Growth of ovine granulocyte-macrophage precursors in vitro without exogenous colony-stimulating activity  

SciTech Connect

Ovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) from peripheral blood and bone marrow were cultured in vitro. The colony-stimulating activity (CSA) was provided by various conditioned-media previously reported to contain CSA and by homologous sheep serum (SS). The maximum number of CFU-GM was observed in the cultures containing SS without the addition of exogenous CSA. The CFU-GM appeared earlier in the cultures containing bone marrow cells when compared to the peripheral blood CFU-GM. Replacement of SS by bovine fetal serum resulted in suboptimal growth of ovine CFU-GM.

Chandra, P.; Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.

1983-11-01

150

Polymorphisms at amino acid residues 141 and 154 influence conformational variation in ovine PrP  

E-print Network

and the coordinates saved every 100 ps. Long-range electrostatic interactions were calculated using Particle Mesh Ewald. 2.4. Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Ovine Recom- binant PrP. Expression constructs for mature length AFRQ and ALHQ ovine PrP (amino acid... of 𝛼- helices into 𝛽-sheets features in the formation of the scrapie prion proteins,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 90, no. 23, pp. 10962–10966, 1993. [4] D. R. Brown, K. Qin, J. W. Herms et al...

Yang, Sujeong; Thackray, Alana M.; Hopkins, Lee; Monie, Tom P.; Burke, David F.; Bujdoso, Raymond

2014-07-14

151

ning of the corpus luteum regression. At this stage, the estrone secretion, low up till then, increases (40 to 60 !.g eliminated in the urine/24 hours) until the next estrus. This secretion of estrogenes  

E-print Network

hours). As the estrogen secretion is of feto- placentary origin, one may therefore control the viability of the fetus and predict the size of the litter. ESSAI D'EXPLOITATION PLANIFIÃ?E D'UN TROUPEAU EXPÃ?RIMENTAL C

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

152

Expression and localization of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 and 2 and serpine mRNA binding protein 1 in the bovine corpus luteum during the estrous cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression and the localization of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), PGRMC2, and the PGRMC1 partner serpine mRNA binding protein 1 (SERBP1) in the bovine CL on Days 2 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 16, and 17 to 20 of the estrous cycle as well as during Weeks 3 to 5, 6 to 8, and 9 to 12 of pregnancy (n = 5-6 per each period). The highest levels of PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA expression were found on Days 6 to 16 (P < 0.05) and 11 to 16, respectively, of the estrous cycle and during pregnancy (P < 0.001). The level of PGRMC1 protein was the highest (P < 0.05) on Days 11 to 16 of the estrous cycle compared with the other stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, whereas PGRMC2 protein expression (P < 0.001) was the highest on Days 17 to 20 and also during pregnancy. The mRNA expression of SERBP1 was increased (P < 0.05) on Days 11 to 16, whereas the level of its protein product was decreased (P < 0.05) on Days 6 to 10 of the estrous cycle and was at its lowest (P < 0.001) on Days 17 to 20. In pregnant cows, the patterns of SERBP1 mRNA and protein expression remained constant and were comparable with those observed during the estrous cycle. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 and PGRMC2 localized to both large and small luteal cells, whereas SERBP1 was observed mainly in small luteal cells and much less frequently in large luteal cells. All proteins were also localized in the endothelial cells of blood vessels. The data obtained indicate the variable expression of PGRMC1, PGRMC2, and SERBP1 mRNA and protein in the bovine CL and suggest that progesterone may regulate CL function via its membrane receptors during both the estrous cycle and pregnancy. PMID:25168721

Kowalik, Magdalena K; Rekawiecki, Robert; Kotwica, Jan

2014-11-01

153

Mineralocorticoid effects in the late gestation ovine fetal lung.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine the effects of corticosteroids at MR in the late-gestation fetal lung. Since both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are expressed at relatively high levels in the fetal lung, endogenous corticosteroids may act at MR as well as GR in the preterm fetal lung. The GR agonist, betamethasone, the MR agonist, aldosterone, or both were infused intravenously for 48 h in ovine fetuses of approximately 130 days gestation. Effects on airway pressures during stepwise inflation of the in situ lung, expression of ENaC alpha (SCNN1A), ENaC beta (SCNN1B), and Na,K ATPase (ATP1A1), and elastin and collagen content were determined after the infusions. We found that aldosterone significantly reduced the airway pressure measured during the initial step in inflation of the lung, although aldosterone had no overall effect on lung compliance, nor did aldosterone induce expression of ENaC?, ENaC? or Na,K ATPase?1. Betamethasone significantly increased expression of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunit mRNAs, and collagen and elastin content in the lungs, although this dose of betamethasone also had no effect on lung compliance. There was no synergy between effects of the MR and GR agonists. Transcriptomic analysis suggested that although aldosterone did not alter genes in pathways related to epithelial sodium transport, aldosterone did alter genes in pathways involved in cell proliferation in the lungs. The results are consistent with corticosteroid-induced fluid reabsorption at birth through GR rather than MR, but suggest that MR facilitates lung maturation, and may contribute to inflation with the first breaths via mechanisms distinct from known aldosterone effects in other epithelia. PMID:25347852

McCartney, Jarret; Richards, Elaine M; Wood, Charles E; Keller-Wood, Maureen

2014-01-01

154

Mineralocorticoid effects in the late gestation ovine fetal lung  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study was designed to determine the effects of corticosteroids at MR in the late?gestation fetal lung. Since both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are expressed at relatively high levels in the fetal lung, endogenous corticosteroids may act at MR as well as GR in the preterm fetal lung. The GR agonist, betamethasone, the MR agonist, aldosterone, or both were infused intravenously for 48 h in ovine fetuses of approximately 130 days gestation. Effects on airway pressures during stepwise inflation of the in situ lung, expression of ENaC alpha (SCNN1A), ENaC beta (SCNN1B), and Na,K ATPase (ATP1A1), and elastin and collagen content were determined after the infusions. We found that aldosterone significantly reduced the airway pressure measured during the initial step in inflation of the lung, although aldosterone had no overall effect on lung compliance, nor did aldosterone induce expression of ENaC?, ENaC? or Na,K ATPase?1. Betamethasone significantly increased expression of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunit mRNAs, and collagen and elastin content in the lungs, although this dose of betamethasone also had no effect on lung compliance. There was no synergy between effects of the MR and GR agonists. Transcriptomic analysis suggested that although aldosterone did not alter genes in pathways related to epithelial sodium transport, aldosterone did alter genes in pathways involved in cell proliferation in the lungs. The results are consistent with corticosteroid?induced fluid reabsorption at birth through GR rather than MR, but suggest that MR facilitates lung maturation, and may contribute to inflation with the first breaths via mechanisms distinct from known aldosterone effects in other epithelia. PMID:25347852

McCartney, Jarret; Richards, Elaine M.; Wood, Charles E.; Keller?Wood, Maureen

2014-01-01

155

Ovine MHC Class II DRB1 Alleles Associated with Resistance or Susceptibility to Development of Bovine Leukemia Virus-induced Ovine Lymphoma1  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the further characterization of bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-in- duced leukemogenesis, we investigated the association between polymor- phism of ovine leukocyte antigen (OLA)-DRB1 gene and tumor develop- ment after infection of sheep with BLV. We infected 28 sheep with BLV and cloned exon 2 of the OLA-DRB1 gene from asymptomatic animals and from animals with lymphoma. Sequence analysis revealed that,

Yoshiko Nagaoka; Hidenori Kabeya; Misao Onuma; Noriyuki Kasai; Kosuke Okada; Yoko Aid

156

Morphometric Changes of the Corpus Callosum in Congenital Blindness  

PubMed Central

We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender. There was no overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus callosum are in line with the well-described cross-modal functional and structural neuroplastic changes in congenital blindness. PMID:25255324

Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D. Louis; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Sartori, Giuseppe; Pietrini, Pietro; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

2014-01-01

157

Postinoculation Protozoan Establishment and Association Patterns of Methanogenic Archaea in the Ovine Rumen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Association patterns between archaea and rumen protozoa were evaluated by analyzing archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from ovine rumen inoculated with different protozoa. Five protozoan inoculation treat- ments, fauna free (negative control), holotrich and cellulolytic protozoa, Isotricha and Dasytricha spp., Ento- dinium spp., and total fauna (type A) were tested. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative PCR, and

Samuel Ohene-Adjei; Ronald M. Teather; Michael Ivan; Robert J. Forster

2007-01-01

158

Leg ulcer treatment outcomes with new ovine collagen extracellular matrix dressing: a retrospective case series.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe the rate of closure observed in venous leg ulcers during treatment with ovine collagen extracellular matrix dressings and compression. Fourteen patients with 23 wounds were retrospectively evaluated with respect to healing rates, time to closure, and weekly facility charge fees. PMID:25198432

Bohn, Gregory A; Gass, Kimberly

2014-10-01

159

Relationship of fetal growth to duration of heat stress in an ovine model of placental insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Intrauterine growth restriction in an ovine model occurs after exposure to environmental heat stress for 80 days beginning at 35 days’ gestation. Our objective was to determine whether intrauterine growth restriction is reversible on removal of the heat stress after only 55 days of exposure; that is, does a brief exposure at a critical point of development suffice? Study

Henry L. Galan; Michael J. Hussey; Antonio Barbera; Enrico Ferrazzi; Misoo Chung; John C. Hobbins; Frederick C. Battaglia

1999-01-01

160

Effects of trehalose co-incubation on in vitro matured prepubertal ovine oocyte vitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to evaluate if loading prepubertal ovine oocyte with trehalose would impact on their further developmental potential in vitro and if it would improve their survival to vitrification procedures. COCs matured in vitro with (TRH) or without (CTR) 100mM trehalose were tested for developmental potential after in vitro fertilization and culture. Trehalose uptake was measured by the antrone

F. Berlinguer; S. Succu; F. Mossa; M. Madeddu; D. Bebbere; G. G. Leoni; S. Naitana

2007-01-01

161

Role of steroids in the maturation of ovine oocytes Institute of Animal Physiology, Animal Research Station  

E-print Network

Role of steroids in the maturation of ovine oocytes R. M. MOOR Institute of Animal Physiology of oocytes in sheep. Steroid function during the inductive phase is characterized by (i) elevated levels of progesterone (0.4 and 0.8 nmol/ml in vitro and in vivo respectively). Steroid support is not required

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

Ovine prenatal growth, its mathematical description and the effects of maternal nutrition  

E-print Network

of maternal nutrition on foetal growth in early, middle and late pregnancy respectively, and the findingsOvine prenatal growth, its mathematical description and the effects of maternal nutrition J. J contributed to disagree- ment on whether maternal under-nutrition has different effects on different foetal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

163

Biochemical modifications involved in the maturation of the ovine fetal adrenal gland in late gestation  

E-print Network

of ACTH, the adenylate cyclase system and the steroidogenic potency of cultured cells increase and the adenylate cyclase (AC) activity of adrenal crude membranes from ovine fetuses and newborn lambs is shown during the last 5 days of gestation. At 124 days, #12;ACTH (1-24) alone cannot increase AC activity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

164

UREA AND GLUCOSE FORMATION IN OVINE LIVER AFTER AMMONIA AND LACTATE LOADING IN VIVO  

E-print Network

and ornithine (Briggs and Freedland 1976). Glucogenic precursors, however, interfered ureagenesis from ammonia and also it is a limiting substrate for glucose formation (Krebs et a/1979). Aspartate as a precursor of the ovine liver to bind ammonia, but the regulation of this process is not clear. The in vivo technique

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

165

Suitability of Human, Bovine, Equine, and Ovine Tooth Enamel for Studies of Artificial Bacterial Carious Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress of artificial caries-like lesions created in human, bovine, equine, and ovine enamel has been studied. Lesions were produced by exposure to an acid gel system or by 5-day exposure to a sequential batch culture technique using Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10832. Longitudinal ground sections were prepared. The lesions were of similar appearance in all species when examined in polarized

D. H. Edmunds; D. K. Whittaker; R. M. Green

1988-01-01

166

Experimental pneumonia in red deer (Cervus elaphus L) produced by an ovine chlamydia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isolate of Chlamydia psittaci from ovine pneumonia produced extensive pneumonia in red deer after endobronchial inoculation. Associated clinical signs lasting for several days included pyrexia, inappetance, increased pulse and respiration rate, and physical distress after handling, but no coughing or upper respiratory symptoms. Histologically, an acute exudative reaction was present after two days, and an early proliferative response after

DA McMartin; AR Hunter; JW Harris

1979-01-01

167

Progesterone Regulation of Endometrial Gene Expression in the Early Pregnant Ovine Uterus  

E-print Network

by microarray analysis. The genes included: ANGPTL3, CHGA, CLEC4E, CXCL14, EFNA1, EFNB1, FABP3, IFNG, IL6, LGALS3, PTH, RBP4, SLIT2, SLIT3, and VWF. Early P4 treatment up-regulated CXCL14 gene expression in Day 9 ovine endometrium compared to control...

Minten, Megan A.

2012-10-19

168

Productive Vocabulary Knowledge and Evaluation of ESL Writing in Corpus-Based Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since Sinclair (1991) concretized the possibilities of processing and analyzing large quantities of text data through corpus linguistic techniques, the applications of corpus linguistic approaches employing authentic language data and empirical evidence have been widely accepted in language teaching and research. As the applications of corpus

Nam, Daehyeon

2010-01-01

169

Characterization of the corpus callosum in very preterm and full-term infants utilizing MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corpus callosum is the largest white matter tract, important for interhemispheric communication. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare corpus callosum size, shape and diffusion characteristics in 106 very preterm infants and 22 full-term infants. Structural and diffusion magnetic resonance images were obtained at term equivalent. The corpus callosum was segmented, cross-sectional areas were calculated, and

Deanne K. Thompson; Terrie E. Inder; Nathan Faggian; Leigh Johnston; Simon K. Warfield; Peter J. Anderson; Lex W. Doyle; Gary F. Egan

2011-01-01

170

Applications of the Buckeye GTA Corpus for L2 teaching and research Jocelyn B. Hardman1  

E-print Network

Applications of the Buckeye GTA Corpus for L2 teaching and research Jocelyn B. Hardman1 , Elizabeth State University, USA hardmajb@notes.udayton.edu, eam@ling.ohio-state.edu Abstract The Buckeye GTA. The Buckeye GTA Corpus The Buckeye GTA Corpus contains 9,664 L1 and L2 sentences by 89 talkers (27 American

Fujimoto, Hiroshi

171

Basic Quantitative Characteristics of the Modern Greek Language Using the Hellenic National Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern Greek is one of the least quantitatively studied modern European languages and the goal of this paper is to fill this relative void. We use the Hellenic National Corpus (HNC), which is a growing corpus that currently includes 33 million words. The corpus and all the tools used in our work were developed by the Institute for Language and

George Mikros; Nick Hatzigeorgiu; George Carayannis

2005-01-01

172

Computer-assisted Lemmatisation of a Cornish Text Corpus for Lexicographical Purposes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project sets out to discover and develop techniques for the lemmatisation of a historical corpus of the Cornish language in order that a lemmatised dictionary macrostructure can be generated from the corpus. The system should be capable of uniquely identifying every lexical item that is attested in the corpus. A survey of published and…

Mills, Jon

2002-01-01

173

Corpus-Guided Sentence Generation of Natural Images Yezhou Yang  

E-print Network

Corpus-Guided Sentence Generation of Natural Images Yezhou Yang and Ching Lik Teo and Hal Daum, Maryland 20742, USA {yzyang, cteo, hal, yiannis}@umiacs.umd.edu Abstract We propose a sentence generation- mates as parameters on a HMM that models the sentence generation process, with hidden nodes as sentence

Daume III, Hal

174

BioSec baseline corpus: A multimodal biometric database  

E-print Network

BioSec baseline corpus: A multimodal biometric database Julian Fierrez-Aguilar , Javier Ortega The baseline copus of a new multimodal database, acquired in the framework of the FP6 EU BioSec Integrated and handwritten signature. These previously existing databases had sev- eral limitations that the BioSec baseline

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

175

Detecting Privacy Leaks Using Corpus-based Association Rules  

E-print Network

that it is not enough to look for known sensitive terms like "missile" and so they begin to look for other, seemingly innocuous, terms that might allow the government's missile devel- opment activities to be inferred. That is, association rule mining analyzes the contents of the corpus to identify words closely associated with "missile

Golle, Philippe

176

Commissurotomy of the Corpus Callosum and the Remedial Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Testimony presented at a congressional hearing on illiteracy (March 1986) indicated that good readers use their myelinated corpus callosum fibers (which connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain) at millisecond speeds to coordinate the two brain hemispheres. Students taught using the whole-word recognition method (also called the…

Albert, Elaine

177

Perspectives on Dichotic Listening and the Corpus Callosum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present review summarizes historic and recent research which has investigated the role of the corpus callosum in dichotic processing within the context of audiology. Examination of performance by certain clinical groups, including split brain patients, multiple sclerosis cases, and other types of neurological lesions is included. Maturational,…

Musiek, Frank E.; Weihing, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

178

Perception of Blended Emotions: from Video Corpus to Expressive Agent  

E-print Network

. A masked emotion may leak over the displayed emotion [17]; while superposi- tion of two emotions was displaying expressions of felt emotion or expression of fake emotion. Video corpora of TV interviews enablePerception of Blended Emotions: from Video Corpus to Expressive Agent Stéphanie Buisine1, Sarkis

Pelachaud, Catherine

179

Brains, Meaning and Corpus Statistics Tom M. Mitchell  

E-print Network

Carnegie Mellon University May, 2009 "Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings of Nouns Conference on Human Brain Mapping. June 2007. · "Using fMRI Brain Activation to Identify Cognitive StatesBrains, Meaning and Corpus Statistics Tom M. Mitchell and collaborators Machine Learning Department

Murphy, Robert F.

180

Corpus callosum atrophy and neuropsychological outcome following carbon monoxide poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning on the corpus callosum (CC). Sixty-two CO-poisoned patients had MRI scans and a battery of neuropsychological tests within 24 h (day of exposure) of CO poisoning and at 6 months post CO exposure. Serial quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (QMRI) analysis of the CC was carried out, with the day of

Scott S Porter; Ramona O Hopkins; Lindell K Weaver; Erin D Bigler; Duane D Blatter

2002-01-01

181

Corpus Callosum Anatomy in Chronically Treated and Stimulant Naive ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine the effect of chronic stimulant treatment on corpus callosum (CC) size in children with ADHD using volumetric and area measurements. Previously published research indicated possible medication effects on specific areas of the CC. Method: Measurements of the CC from anatomical MRIs were obtained from children aged 9-16 in…

Schnoebelen, Sarah; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Pliszka, Steven R.

2010-01-01

182

The American National Corpus: A Standardized Resource for American English  

E-print Network

The American National Corpus: A Standardized Resource for American English Catherine Macleod 1998, Charles Fillmore, Nancy Ide, Daniel Jurafsky, and Catherine Macleod proposed creating an American. For American English, freely available corpora that meet this requirement do not exist. The most recent

Ide, Nancy

183

Which XML standards for multilevel corpus annotation? Adam Przepirkowski,  

E-print Network

Which XML standards for multilevel corpus annotation? Adam Przepiórkowski, and Piotr Ba into fine-grained word-level to- kens, 3) morphosyntactic analysis, 4) coarse-grained syn- tactic words (e.g-linguistic levels of annotation re- quired for each document are text structure (e.g., divi- sion into chapters

Przepiórkowski, Adam

184

Wanted: Large Corpus, Simple Software. No Timewasters Alex BOULTON  

E-print Network

against the early corpora (large, general-purpose, linguistically oriented) in favour of small, ad hoc in press). The appeal of such activities is of course that they reduce or eliminate the need for technology iconoclastic at a TaLC conference, but DDL and corpus linguistics have broken more than one ideological barrier

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

185

Producing Biographical Summaries: Combining Linguistic Knowledge with Corpus Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a biographical multi-document summarizer that summarizes information about people described in the news. The summarizer uses corpus statistics along with linguistic knowledge to select and merge descriptions of people from a document collection, removing redundant descriptions. The summarization components have been extensively evaluated for coherence, accuracy, and non-redundancy of the descriptions produced.

Barry Schiffman; Inderjeet Mani; Kristian J. Concepcion

2001-01-01

186

A CorpusBased Investigation of Definite Description Use  

E-print Network

Place Edinburgh EH8 9LW, UK Abstract We present the results of a study of definite descriptions use description interpretation. We ran two experiments, in which subjects were asked to classify the uses as being related to an antecedent in the text. The most interesting result of this study from a corpus

Poesio, Massimo

187

Autism Traits in Individuals with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have numerous etiologies, including structural brain malformations such as agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We sought to directly measure the occurrence of autism traits in a cohort of individuals with AgCC and to investigate the neural underpinnings of this association. We screened a large AgCC cohort (n =…

Lau, Yolanda C.; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Bukshpun, Polina; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Jeremy, Rita J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa J.

2013-01-01

188

Mutual Spectral Clustering: Microarray Experiments Versus Text Corpus  

E-print Network

Mutual Spectral Clustering: Microarray Experiments Versus Text Corpus K. Pelckmans1 , S. Van Vooren of this task is found in that it provides better clusters of genes by fusing both information sources together learning problem of finding meaningful clusters co-occurring in both knowledge-bases. Here, one

189

Statistical Dependency Parsing Korean: From Corpus Generation To Automatic Parsing  

E-print Network

2013-04-23 1 1 Statistical Dependency Parsing Korean: From Corpus Generation To Automatic Parsing Issues in this paper LINGUISTICS 7800 Less work done on dependency parsing in Korean because of the lack of training data in dependency structure. Statistical Dependency Parsing Korean How to extract useful

Palmer, Martha

190

Parsing Corpus-Induced Type-Logical Grammars Richard Moot  

E-print Network

Parsing Corpus-Induced Type-Logical Grammars Richard Moot LaBRI Domaine Universitaire 351, Cours de call for rethinking of the tradi- tional type-logical parsing strategies. We show how methods from that the size of the final lexicon, even after some reductions we propose, is still prohibitive to parsing even

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

191

Using On-line Corpus To Facilitate Language Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential for on-line corpus in language teaching and learning has been the focus of attention on the part of teachers and researchers for some time now. The purpose of this study is to report on an Internet-based concordance approach to language learning and to investigate both qualitatively and quantitatively Taiwanese…

Sun, Yu-Chih

192

38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

The following rules are for application in determining the corpus of estate of a parent where dependency is a factor under § 3.250, and the net worth of a veteran, surviving spouse, or child where pension is subject to Pub. L. 86-211 (73 Stat. 432) under §...

2010-07-01

193

The EUSES Spreadsheet Corpus: A Shared Resource for Supporting Experimentation  

E-print Network

, some based on spreadsheets created by Excel users. Ayalew, et al. have developed testing and debug task. Therefore, we have undertaken the task of assembling and maintaining a corpus of spreadsheets used a Java-based interface to the Google search engine. This interface lets users specify search

Fisher II, Marc

194

A Corpus-Based Finite State Morphological Analyzer for Pashto  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides details of the development of an inflectional morphological analyzer that can analyze different inflections of a Pashto verb, noun or adjective. The system is corpus-based. The developed system is capable to accept input in the form of a transliterated Pashto verbal, nominal or adjectival inflection; convert it to an Arabic-scripted Pashto equivalent; morphologically analyze the word and

Fatima Tuz Zuhra; Mohammad Abid Khan

195

Isolation of luteinizing hormone receptor binding inhibitor from ovine corpora lutea.  

PubMed

Procedures for the isolation of luteinizing hormone receptor binding inhibitor (LHRBI) from crude extracts of ovine corpora lutea are described. Microsomal pellets recovered by differential centrifugation of homogenates of fresh corpora lutea were stored at -20 degrees C for 3 weeks and then extracted with Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4). On sequential filtration of the extract on Amicon UM-20, PM-10 and UM-2R filters, the corresponding retentates (UM-20R, PM-10R and UM-2R) demonstrated inhibition of radio-labeled human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to ovine luteal cells. The retentate of UM-2 filter (UM-2R) was further fractionated by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography. The active fractions- III, IX, X and XIII, thus obtained, calculated by their ability to inhibit 125I-hCG binding in dose dependent manner, were purified 150 to 1000-fold. PMID:3150752

Kumar, N; Kumari, G L; Dhir, R N; Duraiswami, S

196

Synthesis of a high molecular weight thyroglobulin dimer by two ovine thyroid cell lines: the OVNIS.  

PubMed

The OVNIS 6H and 5H thyroid cells, 2 permanent cell lines isolated 3 years ago from ovine tissue, synthesize a high molecular weight glycosylated protein, immunologically related to ovine thyroglobulin, which is similar to the prothyroid hormone dimer (17-19) S: thyroglobulin. Using sucrose gradient centrifugation and cell labelling with [14C]Leu or [3H]GlNH2, radioactivity was observed in proteins purified from cell layers and from cell culture media. Addition of thyrotropin to or removal from the media resulted respectively in an increase (+773%) or decrease (-1090%) of the total radioactivity detected in the (17-19)S thyroglobulin fraction. Estimation of thyroglobulin by RIA gave similar though less pronounced effects. These experiments prove (1) that thyroglobulin is still expressed in these OVNIS thyroid cell lines even after 3 years of permanent culture, (2) that TSH modulates the level of this protein through a TSH-receptor functional system. PMID:3709961

Hovsépian, S; Aouani, A; Fayet, G

1986-05-01

197

The permeation of nalmefene hydrochloride across different regions of ovine nasal mucosa.  

PubMed

The permeability of nalmefene hydrochloride (NH) across different regions of ovine nasal mucosa was investigated in vitro. Five different regions of ovine nasal mucosa (superior turbinate mucosa, middle turbinate mucosa, inferior turbinate mucosa, posterior septum mucosa, and anterior septum mucosa) were studied. The results showed that the permeability coefficients of NH through different regions of nasal mucosa were different, and the suitable regions for the absorption of NH were the middle turbinate mucosa, the posterior septum mucosa and the superior turbinate. At the same time, the middle turbinate mucosa was the largest region among the five regions, thus it was the main absorption region for NH. The high uniformity of the middle turbinate mucosa also made it the most suitable model for the permeation of NH in vitro. PMID:17139110

Du, Gani; Gao, Yongliang; Nie, Shufang; Pan, Weisan

2006-12-01

198

Channel-mediated and carrier-mediated uptake of K+ into cultured ovine oligodendrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake of radioactive K+ by mature ovine oligodendrocytes (OLGs) maintained in primary culture was measured under steady-state conditions, i.e., in cells maintained in a normal tissue culture medium (5.4 mM K+), and in cells after depletion of intracellular K+ to less than 15% of its normal value by pre-incubation in K(+)-free medium. The latter value is dominated by an active,

L. Hertz; B. Soliven; E. Hertz; S. Szuchet; D. J. Nelson

1990-01-01

199

Evidence for multiple alleles effecting muscling and fatness at the Ovine GDF8 locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The current investigation surveyed genetic polymorphism at the ovine GDF8 locus and determined its contribution to variation in muscling and fatness in sheep. RESULTS: Re-sequencing 2988 bp from a panel of 15 sires revealed a total of six SNP, none of which were located within exons of the gene. One of the identified SNP, g+6723G>A, is known to increase

James W Kijas; Russell McCulloch; Janelle E Hocking Edwards; V Hutton Oddy; Sang Hong Lee; Julius van der Werf

2007-01-01

200

Comparison of conventional freezing and vitrification with dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol for cryopreservation of ovine embryos.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the cryoprotectants dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol for cryopreservation of ovine embryos using vitrification and conventional freezing. The recovered embryos were distributed randomly in three treatment groups: Gr. 1: conventional freezing (n = 44), Gr. 2: vitrification with ethylene glycol (n = 39) and Gr. 3: vitrification with dimethylformamide (n = 38). Quality of fresh embryos in control group as well as of frozen and vitrified embryos was examined by three methodologies: staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258 and evaluation under fluorescent microscopy, evaluation of re-expansion and hatching rates after culture, and determination of apoptotic index with TUNEL technique. It was established that re-expansion rate in all treatment groups was similar. In the same time, hatching rates were higher in Gr. 1 (40.5%) and Gr. 2 (35.3%) in comparison with Gr. 3 (15.5%, p < 0.05). The number of dead cells in vitrified embryos of Gr. 2 and Gr. 3 was higher (42.6 ± 26.2 and 63.2 ± 34.65, respectively) in comparison with Gr. 1 (conventional freezing, 10.1 ± 8.5, p < 0.05). Embryos vitrified with dimethylformamide included the same quality of apoptotic cells that Gr. 1 (conventional freezing) and fresh embryos. In conclusion, the dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol used as cryoprotectant to vitrify ovine embryos, in the concentrations and exposition time tested in this work, were not as efficient as the conventional freezing for cryopreservation of ovine embryos Thus, the conventional freezing with ethylene glycol was the most efficient method to cryopreserve ovine embryos in comparison with vitrification. PMID:25131414

Varago, Fc; Moutacas, Vs; Carvalho, Bc; Serapião, Rv; Vieira, F; Chiarini-Garcia, H; Brandão, Fz; Camargo, Ls; Henry, M; Lagares, Ma

2014-10-01

201

Isolation, characterization, and in vitro differentiation of ovine amniotic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cell (SC) regenerative therapy represents an emerging strategy for the treatment of human diseases. Since amniotic fluid-derived\\u000a cells have been recently proposed as a promising source of human SCs, the present research aimed to amplify in vitro and characterize\\u000a ovine amniotic fluid-derived SCs collected from the membranes (AMSCs) or fluid (AFSCs). These cells were found to proliferate,\\u000a express the

A. Mauro; M. Turriani; A. Ioannoni; V. Russo; A. Martelli; O. Di Giacinto; D. Nardinocchi; P. Berardinelli

2010-01-01

202

ISOLATION-PERFUSION OF OVINE HIND LIMBS. III. PERFUSATE LYSINE LEVELS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Fifteen wether lambs averaging 25.4 kg were utilized in a study to determine the influence of different perfusate lysine levels on amino acid metabolism in isolated-perfused ovine hind limbs. Lysine containing 50\\/~Ci of 14 C-L-lysine (UL) was added to the modified whole blood perfusate at levels equivalent to 0, 9 and 18 \\/amole of added lysine per 100 ml

J. A. Boling; J. C. Willard; W. R. Burris

203

Detection and differentiation of ovine Theileria and Babesia by reverse line blotting in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was developed for detection and specific identification of the different ovine Theileria and Babesia parasites. In a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the hypervariable region 4 (V4 region) of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene was\\u000a amplified with a set of general primers specific for members of the genera Theileria and Babesia. Meanwhile, specific oligonucleotide probes

Qingli Niu; Jianxun Luo; Guiquan Guan; Miling Ma; Zhijie Liu; Aihong Liu; Zhisheng Dang; Jinliang Gao; Qiaoyun Ren; Youquan Li; Junlong Liu; Hong Yin

2009-01-01

204

Antiproliferative Activity of a Pregnancy Recognition Hormone, Ovine Trophoblast Protein11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovine trophoblast protein-1 (oTP-1 ) is the a-interferon (IFNa) variant, secreted by conceptuses and referred to as type I trophoblast interferon, that is responsible for maternal recognition of pregnancy in sheep. We have previously shown that oTP-1 is as potent an antiviral agent as any known IFN. IFNs also possess anticellular activity and are, in fact, used in cancer therapy

Carol H. Pontzer; Fuller W. Bazer; Howard M. Johnson

205

Primary Structure of the Ovine Hypothalamic Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Factor (LRF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary structure of ovine hypothalamic hypophysiotropic luteinizing hormone-releasing factor, LRF, has been established as pGlu-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Arg-Pro-Gly-NH2 by hydrolysis of the peptide with chymotrypsin or pyrrolidone-carboxylylpeptidase and by analysis of the products by an Edman-dansylation sequencing technique, as well as by mass spectrometry of the derived phenylthiohydantoins. A decapeptide with the proposed primary structure, prepared by total synthesis, gave the same

Roger Burgus; Madalyn Butcher; Max Amoss; Nicholas Ling; Michael Monahan; Jean Rivier; Robert Fellows; Richard Blackwell; Wylie Vale; Roger Guillemin

1972-01-01

206

Comparison of mechanical and ultrasound elastic modulus of ovine tibial cortical bone.  

PubMed

Finite element models of bones can be created by deriving geometry from an X-ray CT scan. Material properties such as the elastic modulus can then be applied using either a single or set of homogeneous values, or individual elements can have local values mapped onto them. Values for the elastic modulus can be derived from the CT density values using an elasticity versus density relationship. Many elasticity-density relationships have been reported in the literature for human bone. However, while ovine in vivo models are common in orthopaedic research, no work has been done to date on creating FE models of ovine bones. To create these models and apply relevant material properties, an ovine elasticity-density relationship needs to be determined. Using fresh frozen ovine tibias the apparent density of regions of interest was determined from a clinical CT scan. The bones were the sectioned into cuboid samples of cortical bone from the regions of interest. Ultrasound was used to determine the elastic modulus in each of three directions - longitudinally, radially and tangentially. Samples then underwent traditional compression testing in each direction. The relationships between apparent density and both ultrasound, and compression modulus in each direction were determined. Ultrasound testing was found to be a highly repeatable non-destructive method of calculating the elastic modulus, particularly suited to samples of this size. The elasticity-density relationships determined in the longitudinal direction were very similar between the compression and ultrasound data over the density range examined. A clear difference was seen in the elastic modulus between the longitudinal and transverse directions of the bone samples, and a transverse elasticity-density relationship is also reported. PMID:24793408

Grant, Caroline A; Wilson, Lance J; Langton, Christian; Epari, Devakar

2014-07-01

207

Identification of the ovine mannose receptor and its possible role in Visna/Maedi virus infection  

PubMed Central

This study aims to characterize the mannose receptor (MR) gene in sheep and its role in ovine visna/maedi virus (VMV) infection. The deduced amino acid sequence of ovine MR was compatible with a transmembrane protein having a cysteine-rich ricin-type amino-terminal region, a fibronectin type II repeat, eight tandem C-type lectin carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD), a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal tail. The ovine and bovine MR sequences were closer to each other compared to human or swine MR. Concanavalin A (ConA) inhibited VMV productive infection, which was restored by mannan totally in ovine skin fibroblasts (OSF) and partially in blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMDM), suggesting the involvement of mannosylated residues of the VMV ENV protein in the process. ConA impaired also syncytium formation in OSF transfected with an ENV-encoding pN3-plasmid. MR transcripts were found in two common SRLV targets, BMDM and synovial membrane (GSM) cells, but not in OSF. Viral infection of BMDM and especially GSM cells was inhibited by mannan, strongly suggesting that in these cells the MR is an important route of infection involving VMV Env mannosylated residues. Thus, at least three patterns of viral entry into SRLV-target cells can be proposed, involving mainly MR in GSM cells (target in SRLV-induced arthritis), MR in addition to an alternative route in BMDM (target in SRLV infections), and an alternative route excluding MR in OSF (target in cell culture). Different routes of SRLV infection may thus coexist related to the involvement of MR differential expression. PMID:21314911

2011-01-01

208

Lpez, M.T. & Chanier, T. Corpus de Aprendizaje: Conformacin, Estructura y Construccin de un Corpus Virtual a partir de La Experiencia Ecofralin. Comunicacin en el V encuentro nacional y I interinstitucional de investigacin  

E-print Network

L�pez, M.T. & Chanier, T. Corpus de Aprendizaje: Conformaci�n, Estructura y Construcci�n de un, Bogot�, Colombia L�pez, M.T. & Chanier, T. Corpus de Aprendizaje: Conformaci�n, Estructura y Construcci 2008, Bogot�, Colombia Corpus de aprendizaje: conformaci�n, estructura y construcci�n de un corpus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

209

Biological functions of galectin 15 (lgals15) in the ovine uterus  

E-print Network

and oxytocin, then to corpus albicans following luteolysis. Luteolysis is the functional and physical breakdown of the CL and is dependent on oxytocin (OXT) binding to its receptor to induce pulsatile release of the uterine luteolysin prostaglandin F2? (PGF... and oxytocin, then to corpus albicans following luteolysis. Luteolysis is the functional and physical breakdown of the CL and is dependent on oxytocin (OXT) binding to its receptor to induce pulsatile release of the uterine luteolysin prostaglandin F2? (PGF...

Farmer, Jennifer Lynn

2009-05-15

210

Whole Ovine Ovaries as a Model for Human: Perfusion with Cryoprotectants In Vivo and In Vitro  

PubMed Central

These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100?IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15?M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60?min with the rate of perfusion 50?mL/h (0.8?mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

2014-01-01

211

Effects of natural tachykinins on ovine lower urinary tract smooth muscle.  

PubMed

1. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the urinary bladder is particularly sensitive to tachykinins; rat, rabbit and guinea pig bladders, besides human detrusor, have been the most extensively studied, whereas very little is known about most large animal detrusors. The aim of this work was to study natural tachykinin activity on the lower urinary tract of ovine to make a comparison with data obtained in laboratory animals. 2. As in other animal species, tachykinins are also able to contract ovine bladder smooth muscle. 3. The results reported in this study indicate that in ovine bladder, neurokinin 2 (NK2) receptors are expressed most. In fact, on lamb and sheep bladder neurokinin A (NKA), a NK2- almost selective peptide, was shown to be > 100% more active than the natural tachykinins kassinin (KASS) and eledoisin (ELED). Eledoisin was shown to be 50% less active than KASS, which is typical behaviour for an almost exclusively NK2 receptor population. Moreover, NK1- preferential peptides, namely substance P (SP) and physalaemin (PHYS), showed a lack of activity even when applied at high concentrations. 4. The results reported in this study show that lamb and sheep detrusor represent a good alternative model for the characterization of NK2-selective tachykinins. PMID:11679016

Tucci, P; Bolle, P; Severini, C

2001-04-01

212

Primary and secondary restraints of human and ovine knees for simulated in vivo gait kinematics.  

PubMed

Knee soft tissue structures are frequently injured, leading to the development of osteoarthritis even with treatment. Understanding how these structures contribute to knee function during activities of daily living (ADLs) is crucial in creating more effective treatments. This study was designed to determine the role of different knee structures during a simulated ADL in both human knees and ovine stifle joints. A six degree-of-freedom robot was used to reproduce each species' in vivo gait while measuring three-dimensional joint forces and torques. Using a semi-randomized selective cutting method, we determined the primary and secondary structures contributing to the forces and torques along and about each anatomical axis. In both species, the bony interaction, ACL, and medial meniscus provided most of the force contributions during stance, whereas the ovine MCL, human bone, and ACLs of both species were the key contributors during swing. This study contributes to our overarching goal of establishing functional tissue engineering parameters for knee structures by further validating biomechanical similarities between the ovine model and the human to provide a platform for measuring biomechanics during an in vivo ADL. These parameters will be used to develop more effective treatments for knee injuries to reduce or eliminate the incidence of osteoarthritis. PMID:24326097

Nesbitt, Rebecca J; Herfat, Safa T; Boguszewski, Daniel V; Engel, Andrew J; Galloway, Marc T; Shearn, Jason T

2014-06-27

213

Whole ovine ovaries as a model for human: perfusion with cryoprotectants in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100 IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15 M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60 min with the rate of perfusion 50 mL/h (0.8 mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

2014-01-01

214

Frequency of Basic English Grammatical Structures: A Corpus Analysis  

PubMed Central

Many recent models of language comprehension have stressed the role of distributional frequencies in determining the relative accessibility or ease of processing associated with a particular lexical item or sentence structure. However, there exist relatively few comprehensive analyses of structural frequencies, and little consideration has been given to the appropriateness of using any particular set of corpus frequencies in modeling human language. We provide a comprehensive set of structural frequencies for a variety of written and spoken corpora, focusing on structures that have played a critical role in debates on normal psycholinguistics, aphasia, and child language acquisition, and compare our results with those from several recent papers to illustrate the implications and limitations of using corpus data in psycholinguistic research. PMID:19668599

Roland, Douglas; Dick, Frederic; Elman, Jeffrey L.

2009-01-01

215

The corpus callosum: a commissural road to anger and aggression.  

PubMed

According to the frontal cortical asymmetry model of motivational direction, anger and aggression are associated with approach motivation and a dominant left frontal hemisphere. Functional interhemispheric connectivity has been proposed as a possible mechanism that could explain the frontal cortical asymmetry of anger and aggression. Reciprocal interactions between the cerebral hemispheres are primarily established by the corpus callosum which is the largest white matter bundle of the human brain. Experimental brain research has now provided evidence for callosal involvement in approach-motivation. In line with the frontal cortical asymmetry model of motivational direction, differences in the direction of interhemispheric signal transfer are proposed to contribute to anger and aggression. It is concluded that the human corpus callosum provides a possible neuroanatomical correlate for frontal cortical asymmetries and that interhemispheric signal transfer plays a role in the emergence of approach-related motivation and behaviour. PMID:23911937

Schutter, Dennis J L G; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

2013-12-01

216

Corpus annotation for mining biomedical events from literature  

PubMed Central

Background Advanced Text Mining (TM) such as semantic enrichment of papers, event or relation extraction, and intelligent Question Answering have increasingly attracted attention in the bio-medical domain. For such attempts to succeed, text annotation from the biological point of view is indispensable. However, due to the complexity of the task, semantic annotation has never been tried on a large scale, apart from relatively simple term annotation. Results We have completed a new type of semantic annotation, event annotation, which is an addition to the existing annotations in the GENIA corpus. The corpus has already been annotated with POS (Parts of Speech), syntactic trees, terms, etc. The new annotation was made on half of the GENIA corpus, consisting of 1,000 Medline abstracts. It contains 9,372 sentences in which 36,114 events are identified. The major challenges during event annotation were (1) to design a scheme of annotation which meets specific requirements of text annotation, (2) to achieve biology-oriented annotation which reflect biologists' interpretation of text, and (3) to ensure the homogeneity of annotation quality across annotators. To meet these challenges, we introduced new concepts such as Single-facet Annotation and Semantic Typing, which have collectively contributed to successful completion of a large scale annotation. Conclusion The resulting event-annotated corpus is the largest and one of the best in quality among similar annotation efforts. We expect it to become a valuable resource for NLP (Natural Language Processing)-based TM in the bio-medical domain. PMID:18182099

Kim, Jin-Dong; Ohta, Tomoko; Tsujii, Jun'ichi

2008-01-01

217

Thickness profile generation for the corpus callosum using Laplace's equation.  

PubMed

The corpus callosum facilitates communication between the cerebral hemispheres. Morphological abnormalities of the corpus callosum have been identified in numerous psychiatric and neurological disorders. To quantitatively analyze the thickness profile of the corpus callosum, we adapted an automatic thickness measurement method, which was originally used on magnetic resonance (MR) images of the cerebral cortex (Hutton et al. [2008]: NeuroImage 40:1701-10; Jones et al. [2002]: Hum Brain Mapp 11:12-32; Schmitt and Böhme [2002]: NeuroImage 16:1103-9; Yezzi and Prince [2003]: IEEE Trans Med Imaging 22:1332-9), to MR images of the corpus callosum. The thickness model was derived by computing a solution to Laplace's equation evaluated on callosal voxels. The streamlines from this solution form non-overlapping, cross-sectional contours the lengths of which are modeled as the callosal thickness. Apart from the semi-automated segmentation and endpoint selection procedures, the method is fully automated, robust, and reproducible. We compared the Laplace method with the orthogonal projection technique previously published (Walterfang et al. [2009a]: Psych Res Neuroimaging 173:77-82; Walterfang et al. [2008a]: Br J Psychiatry 192:429-34; Walterfang et al. [2008b]: Schizophr Res 103:1-10) on a cohort of 296 subjects, composed of 86 patients with chronic schizophrenia (CSZ), 110 individuals with first-episode psychosis, 100 individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR; 27 of whom later developed psychosis, UHR-P, and 73 who did not, UHR-NP), and 55 control subjects (CTL). We report similar patterns of statistically significant differences in regional callosal thickness with respect to the comparisons CSZ vs. CTL, UHR vs. CTL, UHR-P vs. UHR-NP, and UHR vs. CTL. PMID:21305661

Adamson, Christopher L; Wood, Amanda G; Chen, Jian; Barton, Sarah; Reutens, David C; Pantelis, Christos; Velakoulis, Dennis; Walterfang, Mark

2011-12-01

218

Agenesis of the corpus callosum associated with narcolepsy–cataplexy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a 24-year-old man with episodes of intense desire to sleep for periods ranging from 2min to 3h, episodes of generalized weakness and inability to speak without alteration of consciousness, frequent hypnagogic hallucinations during sleep and occasionally transient paralysis of limbs upon awakening. Brain MRI demonstrated elevation of the third ventricle, a characteristic lack of depiction of the corpus

Sigliti-Henrietta Pelidou; Sotirios Giannopoulos; Georgios Lagos; Athanassios P. Kyritsis

2009-01-01

219

Annotated Chemical Patent Corpus: A Gold Standard for Text Mining  

PubMed Central

Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org. PMID:25268232

Akhondi, Saber A.; Klenner, Alexander G.; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K.; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A. R. P.; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A.; Muresan, Sorel

2014-01-01

220

Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.  

PubMed

Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org. PMID:25268232

Akhondi, Saber A; Klenner, Alexander G; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A R P; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A; Muresan, Sorel

2014-01-01

221

A Combined Corpus and Systemic-Functional Analysis of the Problem-Solution Pattern in a Student and Professional Corpus of Technical Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on research describing similarities and differences between expert and novice writing in the problem-solution pattern, a frequent rhetorical pattern of technical academic writing. A corpus of undergraduate student writing and one containing professional writing consisted of 80 and 60 recommendation reports, respectively, with each corpus

Flowerdew, Lynne

2003-01-01

222

Oxidation of glucose, glutamate, and glutamine by isolated ovine enterocytes in vitro is decreased by the presence of other metabolic fuels1,2  

E-print Network

Oxidation of glucose, glutamate, and glutamine by isolated ovine enterocytes in vitro is decreased was to evalu- ate oxidative metabolism of glucose, glutamate, and glutamine by isolated ovine enterocytes.0 mM. Oxidation of labeled substrates to CO2 and net production of lactate and pyruvate in incubation

Bequette, Brian J.

223

In Vitro Nasal Transport Across Ovine Mucosa: Effects of Ammonium Glycyrrhizinate on Electrical Properties and Permeability of Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide, Mannitol, and Lucifer Yellow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport of growth hormone releasing peptide across ovine nasal mucosa in the absence or presence of ammonium glycyrrhizinate (AMGZ) was studied in vitro. Ovine nasal mucosa was stripped from underlying cartilage and mounted in Ussing chambers. Transepithelial conductance (Gt) and short-circuit current (Isc) were monitored during experiments to assess tissue viability and integrity. Radiolabeled mannitol (Man; MW 182) and growth

Patricia M. Reardon; Caroline H. Gochoco; Kenneth L. Audus; Glynn Wilson; Philip L. Smith

1993-01-01

224

Japanese large-vocabulary continuous-speech recognition using a business-newspaper corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-vocabulary continuous-speech recognition (LVCSR) system was developed and evaluated. To evaluate the system, a Japanese business-newspaper speech corpus was designed and recorded. The corpus was designed so that is can be used for Japanese LVCSR research in the same way that the Wall Street Journal (WSJ) corpus, for example, is used for English LVCSR research. Since Japanese sentences are

T. Matsuoka; Katsutoshi Ohtsuki; Takeshi Mori; K. Yoshida; S. Furui; K. Shirai

1997-01-01

225

EFFECTS OF CORPUS CHRISTI BAY SEDIMENTS ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The study described here examined effects on mortality, growth, reproduction, and behavior of Americamysis bahi exposed under extended static conditions to bedded sediments from Corpus Christi Bay. ...

226

Automated Diagnosis of Autism Using Fourier Series Expansion of Corpus Callosum Boundary  

E-print Network

' & $ % Automated Diagnosis of Autism Using Fourier Series Expansion of Corpus Callosum Boundary diagnostic tool for detecting autism based on MRI measurements. Since the two previous structural imaging

Chung, Moo K.

227

Postinoculation Protozoan Establishment and Association Patterns of Methanogenic Archaea in the Ovine Rumen?  

PubMed Central

Association patterns between archaea and rumen protozoa were evaluated by analyzing archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from ovine rumen inoculated with different protozoa. Five protozoan inoculation treatments, fauna free (negative control), holotrich and cellulolytic protozoa, Isotricha and Dasytricha spp., Entodinium spp., and total fauna (type A) were tested. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative PCR, and phylogenetic analysis to evaluate the impact of the protozoan inoculants on the respective archaeal communities. Protozoan 18S ribosomal DNA clone libraries were also evaluated to monitor the protozoal population that was established by the inoculation. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that archaeal clones associated with the fauna-free, the Entodinium, and the type A inoculations clustered primarily with uncultured phylotypes. Polyplastron multivesiculatum was the predominant protozoan strain established by the holotrich and cellulolytic protozoan treatment, and this resulted predominantly in archaeal clones affiliated with uncultured and cultured methanogenic phylotypes (Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, and Methanobacterium bryantii). Furthermore, the Isotricha and Dasytricha inoculation treatment resulted primarily in archaeal clones affiliated with Methanobrevibacter smithii. This report provides the first assessment of the influence of protozoa on archaea within the rumen microbial community and provides evidence to suggest that different archaeal phylotypes associate with specific groups of protozoa. The observed patterns may be linked to the evolution of commensal and symbiotic relationships between archaea and protozoa in the ovine rumen environment. This report further underscores the prevalence and potential importance of a rather large group of uncultivated archaea in the ovine rumen, probably unrelated to known methanogens and undocumented in the bovine rumen. PMID:17513586

Ohene-Adjei, Samuel; Teather, Ronald M.; Ivan, Michael; Forster, Robert J.

2007-01-01

228

Heterogeneity and complexity of alpha 1-adrenoceptors in the ovine uterine artery and umbilical vein.  

PubMed

To understand the subtypes of alpha 1-adrenoceptors in the regulation of uterine and umbilical vascular function, the subtypes of alpha 1-adrenoceptors in the ovine uterine artery and umbilical vein were investigated pharmacologically. The use of the irreversible alpha 1B-adrenoceptor antagonist, chloroethylclonidine, revealed the heterogeneity of alpha 1-adrenoceptors in these two tissues. Chloroethylclonidine showed different patterns of action. While it depressed the maximal contraction to norepinephrine in the umbilical vein, it did not decrease the maximal response in the uterine artery. The alpha 1A-adrenoceptor antagonist, 2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl) aminomethyl-1,4-benzodioxane (WB 4101), competitively inhibited norepinephrine-induced contractile responses in the ovine uterine artery and umbilical vein with intermediate pA2 values of 8.30 and 8.45, respectively. Combined use of chloroethylclonidine with either prazosin or WB 4101 produced an additive inhibition of norepinephrine-induced contractions in both tissues, suggesting an interaction of WB 4101 with a chloroethylclonidine-insensitive alpha 1-adrenoceptor. However, the chloroethylclonidine-insensitive alpha 1-adrenoceptor differed on the affinity for prazosin in the uterine artery and umbilical vein. The Ca2+ channel blocker, nifedipine, inhibited contractions to both the chloroethylclonidine-sensitive alpha 1-adrenoceptor (alpha 1B subtype) and the chloroethylclonidine-insensitive alpha 1-adrenoceptor in both tissues. Prazosin, WB 4101 and chloroethylclonidine all inhibited norepinephrine-induced contraction due to the release of calcium from intracellular stores in both tissues. Our results suggest that there is heterogeneity and complexity of alpha 1-adrenoceptors in the ovine uterine artery and umbilical vein. Both the chloroethylclonidine-sensitive and insensitive alpha 1-adrenoceptor may use both intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ sources. PMID:9137915

Hu, X Q; Dyer, D C

1997-04-11

229

Characterization of the ovine ribosomal protein SA gene and its pseudogenes  

PubMed Central

Background The ribosomal protein SA (RPSA), previously named 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor/67-kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is a multifunctional protein that plays a role in a number of pathological processes, such as cancer and prion diseases. In all investigated species, RPSA is a member of a multicopy gene family consisting of one full length functional gene and several pseudogenes. Therefore, for studies on RPSA related pathways/pathologies, it is important to characterize the whole family and to address the possible function of the other RPSA family members. The present work aims at deciphering the RPSA family in sheep. Results In addition to the full length functional ovine RPSA gene, 11 other members of this multicopy gene family, all processed pseudogenes, were identified. Comparison between the RPSA transcript and these pseudogenes shows a large variety in sequence identities ranging from 99% to 74%. Only one of the 11 pseudogenes, i.e. RPSAP7, shares the same open reading frame (ORF) of 295 amino acids with the RPSA gene, differing in only one amino acid. All members of the RPSA family were annotated by comparative mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) localization. Transcription was investigated in the cerebrum, cerebellum, spleen, muscle, lymph node, duodenum and blood, and transcripts were detected for 6 of the 11 pseudogenes in some of these tissues. Conclusions In the present work we have characterized the ovine RPSA family. Our results have revealed the existence of 11 ovine RPSA pseudogenes and provide new data on their structure and sequence. Such information will facilitate molecular studies of the functional RPSA gene taking into account the existence of these pseudogenes in the design of experiments. It remains to be investigated if the transcribed members are functional as regulatory non-coding RNA or as functional proteins. PMID:20233419

2010-01-01

230

Collective Instance-Level Gene Normalization on the IGN Corpus  

PubMed Central

A high proportion of life science researches are gene-oriented, in which scientists aim to investigate the roles that genes play in biological processes, and their involvement in biological mechanisms. As a result, gene names and their related information turn out to be one of the main objects of interest in biomedical literatures. While the capability of recognizing gene mentions has made significant progress, the results of recognition are still insufficient for direct use due to the ambiguity of gene names. Gene normalization (GN) goes beyond the recognition task by linking a gene mention to a database ID. Unlike most previous works, we approach GN on the instance-level and evaluate its overall performance on the recognition and normalization steps in abstracts and full texts. We release the first instance-level gene normalization (IGN) corpus in the BioC format, which includes annotations for the boundaries of all gene mentions and the corresponding IDs for human gene mentions. Species information, along with existing co-reference chains and full name/abbreviation pairs are also provided for each gene mention. Using the released corpus, we have designed a collective instance-level GN approach using not only the contextual information of each individual instance, but also the relations among instances and the inherent characteristics of full-text sections. Our experimental results show that our collective approach can achieve an F-score of 0.743. The proposed approach that exploits section characteristics in full-text articles can improve the F-scores of information lacking sections by up to 1.8%. In addition, using the proposed refinement process improved the F-score of gene mention recognition by 0.125 and that of GN by 0.03. Whereas current experimental results are limited to the human species, we seek to continue updating the annotations of the IGN corpus and observe how the proposed approach can be extended to other species. PMID:24282506

Dai, Hong-Jie; Wu, Johnny Chi-Yang; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han

2013-01-01

231

Malignant catarrhal fever associated with ovine herpesvirus-2 in free-ranging mule deer in Colorado.  

PubMed

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed in four free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in January and February of 2003. Diagnosis was based on typical histologic lesions of lymphocytic vasculitis and PCR identification of ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2) viral genetic sequences in formalin-fixed tissues. The animals were from the Uncompahgre Plateau of southwestern Colorado. Deer from these herds occasionally resided in close proximity to domestic sheep (Ovis aries), the reservoir host of OHV-2, in agricultural valleys adjacent to their winter range. These cases indicate that fatal OHV-2 associated MCF can occur in free-ranging mule deer exposed to domestic sheep that overlap their range. PMID:17699095

Schultheiss, Patricia C; Van Campen, Hana; Spraker, Terry R; Bishop, Chad; Wolfe, Lisa; Podell, Brendan

2007-07-01

232

TSH-induced cyclic AMP production in an ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 5H.  

PubMed

The TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was studied using a 3-year-old ovine thyroid cell line TSH-independent for growth: OVNIS 5H. The kinetics of cyclic AMP production was followed both in cell layers and in cell culture media, with or without phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is noteworthy that following the first wave in cyclic AMP obtained within minutes, we observed later a sustained exponential increase in cyclic AMP during the 5 days following TSH stimulation. A bioassay of TSH was derived allowing measurement of 1 microU/ml TSH from a crude bTSH preparation. PMID:3000830

Fayet, G; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

1986-01-01

233

Detection of antibodies to ovine lentivirus using a recombinant antigen derived from the env gene.  

PubMed

The Western blot assay was performed to characterize antibodies to the transmembrane glycoprotein (TGP) of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) by using glutathione-S-transferase-TGP (GST-TGP) protein. The GST-TGP protein was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and was highly immunoreactive in the Western blot assay. This assay detected antibodies in 97% (103/106) of the sera from agarose gel immunodiffusion (AGID) positive OPP animals. Like human AIDS patients, antibodies to TGP appear to be one of the major serological markers in OPP infected animals. PMID:1314572

Kwang, J; Cutlip, R

1992-03-31

234

Differential expression of Toll-like receptors and inflammatory cytokines in ovine interdigital dermatitis and footrot  

E-print Network

in paraffin wax. mbedding, biopsies were orientated to ensure a n of the skin-hoof interface was obtained. Cut- ax blocks was facilitated by soaking the blocks 0% ammoniated water prior to cutting. Sections e cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin oscopy... ?, reverse 5 uct, AM981 CGCTACCTT 130 bp, NM using NCBI ovine #3;-act et al., 2012) et al., 2008 2009) and I expression (Roche App diluted sam #3;-actin, wh qPCR maste forward an tions were at 95 ?C for dissociation Standard cu or fibroblas Supplem online...

Davenport, Rebecca; Heawood, Christopher; Sessford, Kate; Baker, Melissa; Baiker, Kerstin; Blacklaws, Barbara; Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, Laura; Tötemeyer, Sabine

2014-07-24

235

Prions of Ruminants Show Distinct Splenotropisms in an Ovine Transgenic Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Background Transmissible agents involved in prion diseases differ in their capacities to target different regions of the central nervous system and lymphoid tissues, which are also host-dependent. Methodology/Principal Findings Protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) was analysed by Western blot in the spleen of transgenic mice (TgOvPrP4) that express the ovine prion protein under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter, after infection by intra-cerebral route with a variety of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) from cattle and small ruminants. Splenic PrPres was consistently detected in classical BSE and in most natural scrapie sources, the electrophoretic pattern showing similar features to that of cerebral PrPres. However splenic PrPres was not detected in L-type BSE and TME-in-cattle, or in the CH1641 experimental scrapie isolate, indicating that some TSE strains showed reduced splenotropism in the ovine transgenic mice. In contrast with CH1641, PrPres was also consistently detected in the spleen of mice infected with six natural “CH1641-like” scrapie isolates, but then showed clearly different molecular features from those identified in the brains (unglycosylated PrPres at ?18 kDa with removal of the 12B2 epitope) of ovine transgenic mice or of sheep. These features included different cleavage of the main PrPres cleavage product (unglycosylated PrPres at ?19 kDa with preservation of the 12B2 epitope) and absence of the additional C-terminally cleaved PrPres product (unglycosylated form at ?14 kDa) that was detected in the brain. Conclusion/Significance Studies in a transgenic mouse model expressing the sheep prion protein revealed different capacities of ruminant prions to propagate in the spleen. They showed unexpected features in “CH1641-like” ovine scrapie suggesting that such isolates contain mixed conformers with distinct capacities to propagate in the brain or lymphoid tissues of these mice. PMID:20436680

Baron, Thierry; Bencsik, Anna; Morignat, Eric

2010-01-01

236

Characterization of a 41Residue Ovine Hypothalamic Peptide that Stimulates Secretion of Corticotropin and beta -endorphin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A peptide with high potency and intrinsic activity for stimulating the secretion of corticotropin-like and beta -endorphin-like immunoactivities by cultured anterior pituitary cells has been purified from ovine hypothalamic extracts. The primary structure of this 41-residue corticotropin- and beta -endorphin-releasing factor has been determined to be: H-Ser-Gln-Glu-Pro-Pro-Ile-Ser-Leu-Asp-Leu-Thr-Phe-His-Leu-Leu-Arg-Glu- Val-Leu-Glu-Met-Thr-Lys-Ala-Asp-Gln-Leu-Ala-Gln-Gln-Ala-His-Ser-Asn-Arg- Lys-Leu-Leu-Asp-Ile-Ala-NH2 The synthetic peptide is active in vitro and in vivo.

Wylie Vale; Joachim Spiess; Catherine Rivier; Jean Rivier

1981-01-01

237

Pharmacological profile of evodiamine in isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the pharmacological properties of evodiamine in isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum. In phenylephrine-precontracted cavernosal strips, evodiamine (0.01–10 ?M) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation. Endothelium removal, NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), or 1-H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo [4,3-?] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) treatment did not affect this effect. In endothelium-denuded preparations, evodiamine-evoked response was significantly reduced in 60 mM KCl-precontracted strips and by charybdotoxin

Wen-Fei Chiou; Chieh-Fu Chen

2002-01-01

238

Unsupervised chunking based on graph propagation from bilingual corpus.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel approach for unsupervised shallow parsing model trained on the unannotated Chinese text of parallel Chinese-English corpus. In this approach, no information of the Chinese side is applied. The exploitation of graph-based label propagation for bilingual knowledge transfer, along with an application of using the projected labels as features in unsupervised model, contributes to a better performance. The experimental comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms show that the proposed approach is able to achieve impressive higher accuracy in terms of F-score. PMID:24772017

Zhu, Ling; Wong, Derek F; Chao, Lidia S

2014-01-01

239

Corpus analysis and automatic detection of emotion-including keywords  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emotion words play a vital role in many sentiment analysis tasks. Previous research uses sentiment dictionary to detect the subjectivity or polarity of words. In this paper, we dive into Emotion-Inducing Keywords (EIK), which refers to the words in use that convey emotion. We first analyze an emotion corpus to explore the pragmatic aspects of EIK. Then we design an effective framework for automatically detecting EIK in sentences by utilizing linguistic features and context information. Our system outperforms traditional dictionary-based methods dramatically in increasing Precision, Recall and F1-score.

Yuan, Bo; He, Xiangqing; Liu, Ying

2013-12-01

240

Dopamine receptor binding in the corpus striatum of mammalian brain.  

PubMed Central

Specific binding of [3H]dopamine to membranes from the corpus striatum of rat and calf brain appears to involve the postsynaptic dopamine receptor. Specific [3H]dopamine binding is saturable, wnd with half-maximal binding in calf membranes at 7 nM. Apomorphine is about twice as potent as dopamine in competing for binding sites, whereas (-)norepinephrine is 5% as potent as dopamine and isoproterenol is virtually inactive. The relative potencies of phenothiazines as inhibitors of specific dopamine binding correlates with their clinical potencies and actions on the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase. PMID:1060143

Burt, D R; Enna, S J; Creese, I; Snyder, S H

1975-01-01

241

Corpus Callosum Differences associated with Persistent Stuttering in Adults  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have implicated anatomical differences in speech-relevant brain regions of adults who stutter (AWS) compared to normally fluent adults (NFA). The present study focused on the region of the corpus callosum (CC) which is involved in interhemispheric processing between the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Two-dimensional segmentation of area and voxel based morphometry were used to evaluate the corpus callosum. Results revealed that the rostrum and anterior midbody of the CC was larger in AWS than NFA. In addition, the overall callosa area was larger in AWS than NFA. The group comparison of white matter volume showed a cluster of increased white matter volume predominantly encompassing the rostrum across the midline portion in AWS. These results potentially reflect anatomical changes associated with differences in the hemispheric distribution of language processes that has been reported previously in AWS. Educational objectives After reading this article, the reader will be able to: (1) summarize research findings on functional and anatomical differences between AWS and NFA; (2) summarize research findings on anatomical anomalies observed in AWS; (3) discuss the possible relationships between functional and anatomical aberrations in AWS; and (4) discuss how the findings of the present study may support results of previous behavioral investigations (e.g. dichotic listening) in AWS. PMID:21513943

Choo, Ai Leen; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Olivero, William; Ambrose, Nicoline G.; Sharma, Harish; Chang, Soo-Eun; Loucks, Torrey

2011-01-01

242

A human language corpus for interstellar message construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of HuLCC (the human language chorus corpus), is to provide a resource of sufficient size to facilitate inter-language analysis by incorporating languages from all the major language families: for the first time all aspects of typology will be incorporated within a single corpus, adhering to a consistent grammatical classification and granularity, which historically adopt a plethora of disparate schemes. An added feature will be the inclusion of a common text element, which will be translated across all languages, to provide a precise comparable thread for detailed linguistic analysis for translation strategies and a mechanism by which these mappings can be explicitly achieved. Methods developed to solve unambiguous mappings across these languages can then be adopted for any subsequent message authored by the SETI community. Initially, it is planned to provide at least 20,000 words for each chosen language, as this amount of text exceeds the point where randomly generated text can be disambiguated from natural language and is of sufficient size useful for message transmission [1] (Elliot, 2002). This paper details the design of this resource, which ultimately will be made available to SETI upon its completion, and discusses issues 'core' to any message construction.

Elliott, John

2011-02-01

243

Demyelination increases radial diffusivity in corpus callosum of mouse brain.  

PubMed

Myelin damage, as seen in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other demyelinating diseases, impairs axonal conduction and can also be associated with axonal degeneration. Accurate assessments of these conditions may be highly beneficial in evaluating and selecting therapeutic strategies for patient management. Recently, an analytical approach examining diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived parameters has been proposed to assess the extent of axonal damage, demyelination, or both. The current study uses the well-characterized cuprizone model of experimental demyelination and remyelination of corpus callosum in mouse brain to evaluate the ability of DTI parameters to detect the progression of myelin degeneration and regeneration. Our results demonstrate that the extent of increased radial diffusivity reflects the severity of demyelination in corpus callosum of mouse brain affected by cuprizone treatment. Subsequently, radial diffusivity decreases with the progression of remyelination. Furthermore, radial diffusivity changes were specific to the time course of changes in myelin integrity as distinct from axonal injury, which was detected by betaAPP immunostaining and shown to be most extensive prior to demyelination. Radial diffusivity offers a specific assessment of demyelination and remyelination, as distinct from acute axonal damage. PMID:15862213

Song, Sheng-Kwei; Yoshino, Jun; Le, Tuan Q; Lin, Shiow-Jiuan; Sun, Shu-Wei; Cross, Anne H; Armstrong, Regina C

2005-05-15

244

Corpus callosotomy in a patient with startle epilepsy.  

PubMed

Startle epilepsy is a syndrome of reflex epilepsy in which the seizures are precipitated by a sudden and surprising, usually auditory, stimulus. We describe herein a girl who had been suffering with startle-induced seizures since 2 years of age. She had focal, tonic and tonic-clonic seizures, refractory to antiepileptic treatment. Daily tonic seizures led to very frequent falls and morbidity. Neurologically, she had no deficit. Interictal EEG showed slow waves and epileptiform discharges in central and fronto-central regions. Video-polygraphic recordings of seizures, triggered by stimuli, showed generalised symmetric tonic posturing with ictal EEG, characterised by an abrupt and diffuse electrodecremental pattern of fast activity, followed by alpha-theta rhythm superimposed by epileptic discharges predominantly over the vertex and anterior regions. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormalities. Corpus callosotomy was performed when the patient was 17. Since surgery, the patient (one year follow-up) has remained seizure-free. Corpus callosotomy may be considered in patients with startle epilepsy and tonic seizures, in the absence of focal lesions amenable to surgery. [Published with video sequences]. PMID:23531553

Gómez, Nicolás Garófalo; Hamad, Ana Paula; Marinho, Murilo; Tavares, Igor M; Carrete, Henrique; Caboclo, Luís Otávio; Yacubian, Elza Márcia; Centeno, Ricardo

2013-03-01

245

Verbal learning and memory in agenesis of the corpus callosum.  

PubMed

The role of interhemispheric interactions in the encoding, retention, and retrieval of verbal memory can be clarified by assessing individuals with complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), but who have normal intelligence. This study assessed verbal learning and memory in AgCC using the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II). Twenty-six individuals with AgCC were compared to 24 matched controls on CVLT-II measures, as well as Donders? four CVLT-II factors (i.e., Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory, and Inaccurate Memory). Individuals with AgCC performed significantly below healthy controls on the Delayed Memory factor, confirmed by significant deficits in short and long delayed free recall and cued recall. They also performed less well in original learning. Deficient performance by individuals with AgCC during learning trials, as well as deficits in all forms of delayed memory, suggest that the corpus callosum facilitates interhemispheric elaboration and encoding of verbal information. PMID:24933663

Erickson, Roger L; Paul, Lynn K; Brown, Warren S

2014-07-01

246

Mid-Gestation Ovine Cardiomyocytes Are Vulnerable to Mitotic Suppression by Thyroid Hormone  

PubMed Central

Circulating fetal 3,3?,5-tri-iodo-l-thyronine (T3 ) is maintained at very low levels until a dramatic prepartum surge. 3,3?,5-Tri-iodo-l-thyronine inhibits serum-stimulated proliferation in near-term ovine cardiomyocytes, but it is not known whether midgestation myocytes are also inhibited. Because early cessation of cardiomyocyte mitosis would result in an underendowed heart, we hypothesized that 0.67 gestation (100 of 145 days gestation) ovine cardiomyocytes would be insensitive to suppressive growth effects of T3 . These younger cardiomyocytes were grown with T3 in 10% serum-enriched media for 24 hours. Physiological (0.37, 0.75, and 1.5 nmol/L) concentrations of T3 dramatically suppressed mitotic activity in cardiomyocytes (P < .001). 3,3?,5-Tri-iodo-l-thyronine stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and AKT (also known as Protein Kinase B [PKB]) signaling pathways. Nevertheless, the protein content of the cell cycle suppressor, p21, increased 2-fold (P < .05), and promoter, cyclin D1, decreased by 50%. Contrary to our hypothesis, elevated levels of T3 powerfully inhibit proliferation of midgestation fetal cardiomyocytes. Thus, midgestation maternal hyperthyroidism might lead to an underendowed fetal myocardium. PMID:22421446

Chattergoon, Natasha N.; Louey, Samantha; Stork, Philip; Giraud, George D.

2012-01-01

247

Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus Infects Multiple Cell Types in the Ovine Lung? †  

PubMed Central

Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a transmissible lung cancer of sheep caused by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). The details of early events in the pathogenesis of OPA are not fully understood. For example, the identity of the JSRV target cell in the lung has not yet been determined. Mature OPA tumors express surfactant protein-C (SP-C) or Clara cell-specific protein (CCSP), which are specific markers of type II pneumocytes or Clara cells, respectively. However, it is unclear whether these are the cell types initially infected and transformed by JSRV or whether the virus targets stem cells in the lung that subsequently acquire a differentiated phenotype during tumor growth. To examine this question, JSRV-infected lung tissue from experimentally infected lambs was studied at early time points after infection. Single JSRV-infected cells were detectable 10 days postinfection in bronchiolar and alveolar regions. These infected cells were labeled with anti-SP-C or anti-CCSP antibodies, indicating that differentiated epithelial cells are early targets for JSRV infection in the ovine lung. In addition, undifferentiated cells that expressed neither SP-C nor CCSP were also found to express the JSRV Env protein. These results enhance the understanding of OPA pathogenesis and may have comparative relevance to human lung cancer, for which samples representing early stages of tumor growth are difficult to obtain. PMID:21270155

Martineau, Henny M.; Cousens, Chris; Imlach, Stuart; Dagleish, Mark P.; Griffiths, David J.

2011-01-01

248

Gene expression profiling of ovine keratinocytes stimulated with Psoroptes ovis mite antigen--a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Sheep scab is caused by the noninvasive mite, Psoroptes ovis, which initiates a profound pro-inflammatory skin response leading to lesion development. To investigate these early events between the skin and the parasite, primary ovine epidermal keratinocyte cultures were generated and challenged with mite derived antigens. The kinetics of the mRNA response of these cells were monitored by microarray. The results indicated that the cells responded within 1 h of challenge, with a significant increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8. This result was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR, and showed that IL-8 up-regulation was maximal at 1 h but declined to pre-stimulation levels at 24 and 48 h. The IL-8 mRNA response to mite wash antigens containing secretory and/or excretory proteins was also investigated and compared to the response to whole mite antigen. These studies revealed that the mite wash antigen, at a challenge dose of 10 microg/mL, was markedly more potent and induced significantly higher levels of IL-8 mRNA than the same concentration of whole mite antigen. These results are discussed in relation to mite establishment and survival on the ovine host. PMID:19493210

Watkins, C A; Mackellar, A; Frew, D; Mackie, C; George, A; Hopkins, J; Burgess, S T G; McNeilly, T N; Huntley, J F

2009-06-01

249

Effects of milk high pressure homogenization on biogenic amine accumulation during ripening of ovine and bovine Italian cheeses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to evaluate the biogenic amine (BA) content during the ripening of both bovine and ovine cheeses obtained using milk subjected to a homogenization treatment at 100MPa before cheese-making. The data obtained were compared with those from cheeses produced by the same milks without any treatment or thermized. The results showed that both microbial ecology

Rosalba Lanciotti; Francesca Patrignani; Luciana Iucci; Maria Elisabetta Guerzoni; Giovanna Suzzi; Nicoletta Belletti; Fausto Gardini

2007-01-01

250

A model of ovine cutaneous myosis using the predicted abundance of Lucilia sericata and a pattern of sheep susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation model of ovine cutaneous myosis (blowfly strike) was developed to investigate the potential for forecasting the pattern of disease and to explore a range of control options. The model was developed from an understanding of the population dynamics of Lucilia sericata and the proposed interaction between flies and sheep. Fly abundance patterns were simulated from daily maximum and

Nigel P. French; Kenton L. Morgan

1996-01-01

251

Comparison of a New Braid Fixation System to an Interlocking Intramedullary Nail for Tibial Osteotomy Repair in an Ovine Model  

E-print Network

alignment, tibial shaft fractures can be treated by external fixation with a cast, intramedullary (IM) nail) and polymethylmethacrylate bone cement with an interlocking intramedullary (IM) nail fixation in an ovine model. Study DesignComparison of a New Braid Fixation System to an Interlocking Intramedullary Nail for Tibial

Scharer, John E.

252

Seroprevalence and risk factors of antibodies against Leptospira spp. in ovines from Uberl?ndia municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil  

PubMed Central

The objectives of the present study were to verify the seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies, identify the most frequent serovars and the risk factors associated with the infection in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 334 ovines blood samples were collected in 12 farms from Uberlândia municipality to be evaluated by means the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) against 22 serovars of Leptospira spp. and an epidemiologic questionnaire was applied for each farm in order to correlate with risk factors of leptospirosis: sex, age and breed as well as contact with cattle, contact with dogs and presence of rodents. The prevalence of seropositive to MAT was found in seventy four ovines (22.2%; CI 95% 17.6–26.4%), with titers ranging from 100 to 3200. The most frequent serovars identified were: Hardjo, Autumnalis, Hardjo and Wolffi association and Grippotyphosa. Statistically significant differences were found in males, pure breeds and presence of rodents (p<0.05). The prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies found in the present study demonstrated that this bacterium occurs in ovines of Uberlândia municipality, MG, Brazil. The need for the adoption of efficient management for the control of rodents and infection in ovines in order to avoid leptospirosis in the local flocks and future transmission to humans. PMID:24031773

Salaberry, Sandra R.S.; Castro, Vanessa; Nassar, Alessandra F.C.; Castro, Jacqueline R.; Guimaraes, Ednaldo C.; Lima-Ribeiro, Anna M.C.

2011-01-01

253

Experimental aerosol infection of cattle ( Bos taurus) with ovine herpesvirus 2 using nasal secretions from infected sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of clinically susceptible ruminants, including domesticated cattle and American bison, with ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) can result in the fatal lymphoproliferative and vasculitis syndrome known as malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). A reliable experimental infection model is needed to study the pathogenesis of MCF and to develop effective vaccination strategies to control the disease. An experimental aerosol infection model using

Naomi S. Taus; J. Lindsay Oaks; Katherine Gailbreath; Donald L. Traul; Donal O’Toole; Hong Li

2006-01-01

254

A C-Terminal Protease-Resistant Prion Fragment Distinguishes Ovine ``CH1641-Like'' Scrapie from Bovine  

E-print Network

A C-Terminal Protease-Resistant Prion Fragment Distinguishes Ovine ``CH1641-Like'' Scrapie from Aliments­Lyon, Unite´ ATNC, Lyon, France Abstract The protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres ) of a few method for the molecular discrimination of prion strains, and demonstrates differences between ``CH1641

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

255

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum 19L3, a Strain Proposed as a Starter Culture for Slovensk? Bryndza Ovine Cheese  

PubMed Central

The genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from ovine cheese is presented here. This bacterium is proposed as a starter strain, named 19L3, for Slovenská bryndza cheese, a traditional Slovak cheese fulfilling European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requirements. PMID:24762933

Dzunkova, Maria; Moya, Andres; Tomaska, Martin; Kolosta, Miroslav; Kmet, Vladimir

2014-01-01

256

Partial Morphological and Functional Characterization of the Corpus Allatum - Corpus Cardiacum Complex from the Two-Spotted Stinkbug, Perillus bioculatus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Selected morphological and physiological properties of the corpus allatum (CA)-corpus cardiacum (CC) complex from the two-spotted stinkbug, Perillus bioculatus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), were studied. The CAs play an important role in insect physiology because of their production of the juvenile hormones (JHs), i.e., key hormones involved in devel- opment and reproduction. We found that the P. bioculatus CA-CC complex is

CYNTHIA L. GOODMAN; Henda Nabli; MAUREEN K. WRIGHT-OSMENT; Takashi Okuda; THOMAS A. COUDRON

2005-01-01

257

Partial morphological and functional characterization of the corpus allatum-corpus cardiacum complex from the two-spotted stinkbug, Perillus bioculatus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Selected morphological and physiological properties of the corpus allatum (CA)-corpus cardiacum (CC) complex from the two-spotted\\u000a stinkbug, Perillus bioculatus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), were studied. The CAs play an important role in insect physiology because of their production\\u000a of the juvenile hormones (JHs), i.e., key hormones involved in development and reproduction. We found that the P. bioculatus CA-CC complex is present in

Cynthia L. Goodman; Renee M. Wagner; Henda Nabli; Maureen K. Wright-Osment; Takashi Okuda; Thomas A. Coudron

2005-01-01

258

26 CFR 1.661(a)-1 - Estates and trusts accumulating income or distributing corpus; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Estates and trusts accumulating income or distributing corpus...CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates and Trusts Which May Accumulate Income Or Which Distribute...Corpus § 1.661(a)-1 Estates and trusts accumulating income or distributing...

2010-04-01

259

Job Title Substance Abuse Counselor Clinical Supervision (Corpus Christi, TX) Employer/ Agency Danya International, Inc.  

E-print Network

Job Title Substance Abuse Counselor Clinical Supervision (Corpus Christi, TX) Employer/ Agency Navy substance abuse counselors stationed in Corpus Christi, Texas. This is a part-time contract treatment. Seven years full-time direct counseling experience with substance abusers. Four years experience

Azevedo, Ricardo

260

Capturing L2 Accuracy Developmental Patterns: Insights from an Error-Tagged EFL Learner Corpus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present article addresses the issue of second language accuracy developmental trajectories and shows how they can be captured via an error-tagged version of an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learner corpus. The data used in this study were extracted from the International Corpus of Learner English (Granger et al., 2009) and consist of a…

Thewissen, Jennifer

2013-01-01

261

Corpus Callosum and Prefrontal Functions in Adolescents with History of Very Preterm Birth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very preterm (VPT) birth can account for thinning of the corpus callosum and poorer cognitive performance. Research findings about preterm and VPT adolescents usually describe a small posterior corpus callosum, although our research group has also found reductions of the anterior part, specifically the genu. The aim of the present study was to…

Narberhaus, Ana; Segarra, Dolors; Caldu, Xavier; Gimenez, Monica; Pueyo, Roser; Botet, Francesc; Junque, Carme

2008-01-01

262

The design for the wall street journal-based CSR corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DARPA Spoken Language System (SLS) community has long taken a leadership position in designing, implementing, and globally distributing significant speech corpora widely used for advancing speech recognition research. The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) CSR Corpus described here is the newest addition to this valuable set of resources. In contrast to previous corpora, the WSJ corpus will provide DARPA its

Douglas B. Paul; Janet M. Baker

1992-01-01

263

Towards a Corpus Annotated for Metonymies: the Case of Location Names Katja Markert  

E-print Network

Towards a Corpus Annotated for Metonymies: the Case of Location Names Katja Markert , Malvina-scale metonymy processing. As a contribution, we here present a corpus annotated for metonymies. We describe a framework for annotating metonymies in domain-independent text that considers the regularity, productivity

Markert, Katja

264

Metonymy in Language about Organizations: A Corpus-Based Study of Company Names  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? In this paper, I examine the use of metonymies in people's talk about organizations. Drawing upon a corpus of natural talk extracted from the British National Corpus (BNC) I identify recurring categories of metonymies that appear to be a central part of people's talk about organizations. These categories of metonymies involve substitutions where an organization stands in for its

Joep P. Cornelissen

2008-01-01

265

Reducing Noise in Labels and Features for a Real World Dataset: Application of NLP Corpus  

E-print Network

Reducing Noise in Labels and Features for a Real World Dataset: Application of NLP Corpus@hotmail.com Abstract. This paper illustrates how a combination of information ex- traction, machine learning, and NLP boxes, manholes) in the Manhattan electrical grid. By adapting NLP corpus an- notation methods

Rudin, Cynthia

266

Corpus Evidence for Age Effects on Priming in Child Language Jeffrey Gerard (jeffreygerard@gmail.com)  

E-print Network

Corpus Evidence for Age Effects on Priming in Child Language Jeffrey Gerard (jeffreygerard. Keywords: Syntactic priming; Child language; Corpus stud- ies; Mixed models; Age effects in language, the tendency to repeat previously uttered syntactic structures, can give insight into human language pro

Koehn, Philipp

267

Semantic Spaces: Behavior, Language and Word Learning in the Human Speechome Corpus  

E-print Network

Semantic Spaces: Behavior, Language and Word Learning in the Human Speechome Corpus by Matthew Spaces: Behavior, Language and Word Learning in the Human Speechome Corpus by Matthew Miller Submitted roughly 80% of the waking hours of a single child from his birth until age 3. This thesis proposes

Roy, Deb

268

Comparison of corpus callosotomy and vagus nerve stimulation in children with Lennox–Gastaut syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To compare the efficacy of corpus callosotomy and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for long-term adjunctive therapy in children with Lennox–Gastaut syndrome (LGS). Method: Fourteen patients underwent a total corpus callosotomy and 10 patients received VNS implantation. The patients were monitored for more than 12 months after treatment, and seizure rates and complications were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Seizure types among

Su Jeong You; Hoon-Chul Kang; Tae-Sung Ko; Heung Dong Kim; Mi-Sun Yum; Yong Soon Hwang; Jung-Kyo Lee; Dong Suk Kim; Sang Keun Park

2008-01-01

269

Interpreting the Discourse of H.G. Widdowson: A Corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The discourse of a recent position paper by H.G. Widdowson is analyzed by using three methods criticized in Widdowson's paper. The paper was converted into a miniature data corpus and analyzed with the concepts of systemic functional linguistics, corpus linguistics, and critical discourse analysis. (Author/VWL)

de Beaugrande, Robert

2001-01-01

270

Towards the Annotation of Named Entities in the National Corpus of Polish  

E-print Network

Towards the Annotation of Named Entities in the National Corpus of Polish Agata Savary , Jakub235843@students.mimuw.edu.pl, adamp@ipipan.waw.pl Abstract We present the named entity annotation task, this is the first attempt at a large-scale corpus annotation of Polish named entities. We describe the scope

Przepiórkowski, Adam

271

Towards a Balanced Named Entity Corpus for Dutch Bart Desmet1,2  

E-print Network

Towards a Balanced Named Entity Corpus for Dutch Bart Desmet1,2 and V´eronique Hoste1,2 1 LT3 entity corpus for Dutch. State-of-the-art named entity recognition systems require a substantial annotation layers: named entities, coreference relations, semantic roles and spatiotemporal expressions. A 1

Hoste, Véronique

272

GENETAG: a tagged corpus for gene\\/protein named entity recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Named entity recognition (NER) is an important first step for text mining the biomedical literature. Evaluating the performance of biomedical NER systems is impossible without a standardized test corpus. The annotation of such a corpus for gene\\/protein name NER is a difficult process due to the complexity of gene\\/protein names. We describe the construction and annotation of GENETAG, a

Lorraine K. Tanabe; Natalie Xie; Lynne H. Thom; Wayne Matten; W. John Wilbur

2005-01-01

273

Formulaic Language in Native and Second Language Speakers: Psycholinguistics, Corpus Linguistics, and TESOL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural language makes considerable use of recurrent formulaic patterns of words. This article triangulates the construct of "formula" from corpus linguistic, psycholinguistic, and educational perspectives. It describes the corpus linguistic extraction of pedagogically useful formulaic sequences for academic speech and writing. It determines…

Ellis, Nick C.; Simpson-Vlach, Rita; Maynard, Carson

2008-01-01

274

More than a Linguistic Reference: The Infuence of Corpus Technology on L2 Academic Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a qualitative study that investigated the changes in students' writing process associated with corpus use over an extended period of time. The primary purpose of this study was to examine how corpus technology affects students' development of competence as second language (L2) writers. The research was mainly based on case…

Yoon, Hyunsook

2008-01-01

275

Suicidal behavior is associated with reduced corpus callosum area. Cyprien Fabienne*1,2,3  

E-print Network

1 Suicidal behavior is associated with reduced corpus callosum area. Cyprien Fabienne*1 45 79 Email: sylvaine.artero@inserm.fr Key Words: corpus callosum, suicidal behavior, magnetic. As such deficits are also found in suicidal behavior, we investigated specifically the association between CC

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

276

The Use of Corpus Concordancing for Second Language Learners' Self Error-Correction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corpus concordancing has been utilized in second language (L2) writing classrooms for a few decades. Some studies have shown that this application is helpful, to a certain degree, to learners' writing process. However, how corpus concordancing is utilized for nonnative speakers' (NNSs) self error-correction in writing, especially the…

Feng, Hui-Hsien

2014-01-01

277

English Collocation Learning through Corpus Data: On-Line Concordance and Statistical Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed an English Collocations On Demand system offering on-line corpus and concordance information to help Japanese researchers acquire a better command of English collocation patterns. The Life Science Dictionary Corpus consists of approximately 90,000,000 words collected from life science related research papers published in academic…

Ohtake, Hiroshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Morren, Brian; Ugawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Shuji

2012-01-01

278

Social variation in the use of apology formulae in the British National Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores sociolinguistic variation in the act of apologising in the spoken part of the British National Corpus. The starting point for the investigation is the 'apology formula', as exemplified by the lexemes 'afraid', 'apologise', 'apology', 'excuse', 'forgive', 'pardon', 'regret' and 'sorry'. The sub-corpus used for the study comprises a spoken text collection of about five million words and

Mats Deutschmann

279

Designing and Recording an Emotional Speech Database for Corpus Based Synthesis in Basque  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an emotional speech database recorded for standard Basque. The database has been designed with the twofold purpose of being used for corpus based synthesis, and also of allowing the study of prosodic models for the emotions. The database is thus large, to get good corpus based synthesis quality and contains the same texts recorded in the six

Ibon Saratxaga; Eva Navas; Inmaculada Hernáez; Iker Luengo

280

Inhibition of ovine in vitro fertilization by anti-Prt antibody: hypothetical model for Prt/ZP interaction  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of prion proteins in the rules that dictate biological reproduction is still poorly understood. Likewise, the role of prnt gene, encoding the prion-like protein testis specific (Prt), in ram reproductive physiology remains largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the effect of Prt in ovine fertilization by using an anti-Prt antibody (APPA) in fertilization medium incubated with spermatozoa and oocytes. Moreover, a computational model was constructed to infer how the results obtained could be related to a hypothetical role for Prt in sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding. Methods Mature ovine oocytes were transferred to fertilization medium alone (control) or supplemented with APPA, or pre-immune serum (CSerum). Oocytes were inseminated with ovine spermatozoa and after 18 h, presumptive zygotes (n?=?142) were fixed to evaluate fertilization rates or transferred (n?=?374) for embryo culture until D6-7. Predicted ovine Prt tertiary structure was compared with data obtained by circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and a protein-protein computational docking model was estimated for a hypothetical Prt/ZP interaction. Results The fertilizing rate was lower (P?=?0.006) in APPA group (46.0+/?6.79%) when compared to control (78.5+/?7.47%) and CSerum (64.5+/?6.65%) groups. In addition, the cleavage rate was higher (P?ovine Prt, which was subsequently used to test Prt/ZP docking. Computational analyses predicted a favorable Prt-binding activity towards ZP domains. Conclusions Our data indicates that the presence of APPA reduces the number of fertilized oocytes and of cleaved embryos. Moreover, the CD analysis data reinforces the predicted ovine Prt trend towards an alpha-helical structure. Predicted protein-protein docking suggests a possible interaction between Prt and ZP, thus supporting an important role for Prt in ovine fertilization. PMID:23531155

2013-01-01

281

Identification of myotropic neuropeptides from the brain and corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex of the beetle, Zophobas atratus.  

PubMed

The neuropeptide profiles of the two major neuro-endocrinological organs, brain and retrocerebral complex corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum (CC/CA) of adult beetles, Zophobas atratus Fabricius (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) were analyzed by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS). The homological semi-isolated heart bioassay was used to screen HPLC fractions for myotropic activity in tissues, revealing several cardiostimulatory and cardioinhibitory factors from both the brain and CC/CA. Analysis of HPLC fractions by MALDI-TOF MS identified seven mass ions that could be assigned to other known peptides: leucomyosuppressin (LMS), Tribolium castaneum pyrokinin 2, sulfakinin 1, myoinhibitory peptide 4, a truncated NVP-like peptide, Tenebrio molitor AKH and crustacean cardioactive peptide. In addition, two novel peptides, myosuppressin (pEDVEHVFLRFa), which differs from LMS by one amino acid (E for D at position 4) and pyrokinin-like peptide (LPHYTPRLa) were also identified. To establish cardioactive properties of some of the identified peptides, chemical synthesis was carried out and their activities were tested using the heart bioassay. PMID:21067424

Marciniak, Pawel; Audsley, Neil; Kuczer, Mariola; Rosinski, Grzegorz

2010-01-01

282

Identification of Myotropic Neuropeptides from the Brain and Corpus Cardiacum-Corpus Allatum Complex of the Beetle, Zophobas atratus  

PubMed Central

The neuropeptide profiles of the two major neuro-endocrinological organs, brain and retrocerebral complex corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum (CC/CA) of adult beetles, Zophobas atratus Fabricius (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) were analyzed by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS). The homological semi-isolated heart bioassay was used to screen HPLC fractions for myotropic activity in tissues, revealing several cardiostimulatory and cardioinhibitory factors from both the brain and CC/CA. Analysis of HPLC fractions by MALDI-TOF MS identified seven mass ions that could be assigned to other known peptides: leucomyosuppressin (LMS), Tribolium castaneum pyrokinin 2, sulfakinin 1, myoinhibitory peptide 4, a truncated NVP-like peptide, Tenebrio molitor AKH and crustacean cardioactive peptide. In addition, two novel peptides, myosuppressin (pEDVEHVFLRFa), which differs from LMS by one amino acid (E for D at position 4) and pyrokinin-like peptide (LPHYTPRLa) were also identified. To establish cardioactive properties of some of the identified peptides, chemical synthesis was carried out and their activities were tested using the heart bioassay. PMID:21067424

Marciniak, Pawel; Audsley, Neil; Kuczer, Mariola; Rosinski, Grzegorz

2010-01-01

283

The potent relaxant effect of resveratrol in rat corpus cavernosum and its underlying mechanisms.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the relaxant effect of resveratrol (RVT), one of the most commonly employed dietary polyphenols, in rat corpus cavernosum, and to further investigate the contribution of possible underlying mechanisms. Strips of corpus cavernosum were used in organ baths for isometric tension studies. RVT (10(-6)-10(-4) M) produced concentration-dependent relaxation responses in rat corpus cavernosum precontracted by phenylephrine. The relaxant responses to RVT partially, but significantly inhibited by removal of endothelium. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) blocker N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10(-4) M) or soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10(-5) M) caused a significant inhibition on relaxation response to RVT, whereas cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10(-5) M) did not significantly alter relaxant responses of corpus cavernosum strips to RVT. Corpus cavernosum contractions induced by stepwise addition to Ca2+ to high KCl solution with no Ca2+ were significantly inhibited by RVT incubation. The treatment of corpus cavernosum tissues with non-specific potassium channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium (TEA, 10(-2) M) did also significantly affect the relaxant activity of RVT. Otherwise, the relaxation response of corpus cavernosum induced by the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil increased significantly in the group pretreated with 10(-5) M RVT. These results demonstrated that RVT has a potent relaxant effect on rat corpus cavernosum via endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of corpus cavernosum to RVT is thought to be mediated primarily through NO/cGMP signaling pathway, and possibly an additional mechanism, endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization factor (EDHF). The residual endothelium-independent corpus cavernosum relaxation induced by RVT is uncertain but seems to depend on the interactions of RVT with Ca2+ entry mechanism from the extracellular space and also other undefined direct effects in this tissue. PMID:23466662

Dalaklioglu, S; Ozbey, G

2013-09-01

284

The Emergence of Texture: An Analysis of the Functions of the Nominal Demonstratives in English Interlanguage Corpus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses the concept of "emergent texture" to analyze the corpus behavior of the four nominal demonstratives--"this,""that,""these," an "those"--in an interlanguage corpus created at Yonsei University in Korea in 1999. Investigates a corpus of 109 single paragraphs. The concept of markedness is emphasized as a way of mediating the debate over the…

Murphy, Terry

2001-01-01

285

THE OGI KIDS' SPEECH CORPUS AND RECOGNIZERS Khaldoun Shobaki*, John-Paul Hosom*, and Ronald A. Cole**  

E-print Network

to address this issue, we have developed a corpus of children's speech as well as an initial speaker of the subjects. This constrained the vocabulary to a set that very young children could understand and produce describe a corpus of children's speech, called the OGI Kids' Speech corpus, and a speaker- and vocabulary

Hosom, John-Paul

286

An MRI review of acquired corpus callosum lesions.  

PubMed

Lesions of the corpus callosum (CC) are seen in a multitude of disorders including vascular diseases, metabolic disorders, tumours, demyelinating diseases, trauma and infections. In some diseases, CC involvement is typical and sometimes isolated, while in other diseases CC lesions are seen only occasionally in the presence of other typical extra-callosal abnormalities. In this review, we will mainly discuss the MRI characteristics of acquired lesions involving the CC. Identification of the origin of the CC lesion depends on the exact localisation of the lesion(s) inside the CC, presence of other lesions seen outside the CC, signal changes on different MRI sequences, evolution over time of the radiological abnormalities, history and clinical state of the patient, and other radiological and non-radiological examinations. PMID:24563521

Renard, Dimitri; Castelnovo, Giovanni; Campello, Chantal; Bouly, Stephane; Le Floch, Anne; Thouvenot, Eric; Waconge, Anne; Taieb, Guillaume

2014-09-01

287

[The succession of the Hippocratic corpus in modern Greece].  

PubMed

This paper examines how the Hippocratic corpus was passed on during the Enlightenment of modern Greece, introducing part of the latest Greek research on the history of medicine. Although classical studies at large had stagnated at the time under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, with the movement toward independence in the second half of the 18th century the Greeks raised their consciousness of the fact that they were the successors to their ancestral great achievements. From that time classical studies, including the history of medicine, had been activated. From some medical dissertations and books written by Greek doctors or researchers of those days, we will recognize that they made efforts to deepen the substance of modern Greek medicine, seeking the principles of medical practice from the ancient heritage. PMID:20614734

Sugano, Yukiko; Honda, Katsuya

2010-03-01

288

Interhemispheric Osteolipoma with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum  

PubMed Central

Osteolipoma is an ossified lipoma with distinct components of fat and bone. We present a case of interhemispheric osteolipoma associated with total agenesis of the corpus callosum. A 20-year-old man complained of severe headache, nausea and vomiting. Brain computed tomography showed a low-density mass in an interhemispheric fissure, with high T1 and T2 magnetic resonance signals compatible with fat. The mass measured 4.9 × 2.9 cm in size and showed peripheral calcifications. There was another small piece of same signal mass within the lateral ventricular choroid plexus. The interhemispheric lesion was removed by an interhemispheric approach. Osteolipoma is rare in interhemispheric region, however, it should be a differential diagnosis of lesions with fat intensity mass and calcifications. PMID:20224717

Park, Yong-Sook; Park, Un-Sub

2010-01-01

289

The Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act in England  

E-print Network

? HABEAS C0RBU3 ACT TOTOLAMD BY OIiARSHCS C. CRAWFORD. C.I TABLE of CONTENTS/ Chapter I• Introduction Pages I-II. • 2, Period of the Revolution, 1689-90 • 11-23, " 3. Assassination Plot,1696, " 24-28. " 4. Jacobite Uprising,1715-16. » 28-36. • 5...^ slJa^ O^ »9t^ sT'O'ts^Ns^'J^fes 0.' JKsT^PN^as^ C^ ,'i, s^^© .dolphus. Sir John. History Of England. 7 V o l * London, 1 0 4 0 . Alison, Sir Arsnibeld. History of »s*is**a*s., I f ¥el. Ediaburg Bright, J. Speech on Habeas Corpus, printed in Modern...

Crawford, Clarence Cory

1903-01-01

290

Case report: Malignant teratoma of the uterine corpus  

PubMed Central

Background Teratomas are the commonest germ cell tumours and are most frequently found in the testes and ovary. Extragonadal teratomas are rare and mainly occur in midline structures. Uterine teratomas are extremely rare with only a few previous case reports, usually involving mature teratomas of the uterine cervix. Case Presentation We report an 82-year-old lady presenting with post-menopausal bleeding. Initial investigations revealed a benign teratoma of the uterus which was removed. Her symptoms persisted and a recurrent, now malignant, teratoma of the uterine corpus was resected at hysterectomy. Six months after surgery she relapsed with para-aortic lymphadenopathy and was treated with a taxane, etoposide and cisplatin-containing chemotherapy regimen followed by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Conclusion In this report we discuss the aetiology, diagnosis and management of uterine teratomas, and review previous case studies. PMID:19538751

2009-01-01

291

Building an efficient curation workflow for the Arabidopsis literature corpus  

PubMed Central

TAIR (The Arabidopsis Information Resource) is the model organism database (MOD) for Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant with a literature corpus of about 39 000 articles in PubMed, with over 4300 new articles added in 2011. We have developed a literature curation workflow incorporating both automated and manual elements to cope with this flood of new research articles. The current workflow can be divided into two phases: article selection and curation. Structured controlled vocabularies, such as the Gene Ontology and Plant Ontology are used to capture free text information in the literature as succinct ontology-based annotations suitable for the application of computational analysis methods. We also describe our curation platform and the use of text mining tools in our workflow. Database URL: www.arabidopsis.org PMID:23221298

Li, Donghui; Berardini, Tanya Z.; Muller, Robert J.; Huala, Eva

2012-01-01

292

SELECTIVELY DIMINISHED CORPUS CALLOSUM FIBERS IN CONGENITAL CENTRAL HYPOVENTILATION SYNDROME  

PubMed Central

Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a condition associated with mutations in the PHOX2B gene, is characterized by loss of breathing drive during sleep, insensitivity to CO2 and O2, and multiple somatomotor, autonomic, neuropsychological, and ophthalmologic deficits, including impaired intrinsic and extrinsic eye muscle control. Brain structural studies show injury in peri-callosal regions and the corpus callosum (CC), which has the potential to affect functions disturbed in the syndrome; however, the extent of CC injury in CCHS is unclear. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based fiber tractography procedures display fiber directional information and allow quantification of fiber integrity. We performed DTI in 13 CCHS children (age, 18.2±4.7 years; 8 male) and 31 control (17.4±4.9 years; 18 male) subjects using a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner; CC fibers were assessed globally and regionally with tractography procedures, and fiber counts and densities compared between groups using analysis-of-covariance (covariates; age and sex). Global CC evaluation showed reduced fiber counts and densities in CCHS over control subjects (CCHS vs controls; fiber-counts, 4490±854 vs 5232±777, p<0.001; fiber-density, 10.0±1.5 vs 10.8±0.9 fibers/mm2, p<0.020), and regional examination revealed that these changes are localized to callosal axons projecting to prefrontal (217±47 vs 248±32, p<0.005), premotor (201±51 vs 241±47, p<0.012), parietal (179±64 vs 238±54, p<0.002), and occipital regions (363±46 vs 431±82, p<0.004). Corpus callosum fibers in CCHS are compromised in motor, cognitive, speech, and ophthalmologic regulatory areas. The mechanisms of fiber injury are unclear, but may result from hypoxia or perfusion deficits accompanying the syndrome, or from consequences of PHOX2B action. PMID:21256194

Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M.

2011-01-01

293

In vitro infection of ovine cell lines by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus.  

PubMed

Sheep pulmonary adenomatosis (SPA), also known as jaagsiekte or ovine pulmonary carcinoma, is a contagious lung cancer of sheep, originating from type II pneumocytes and Clara cells. Previous studies have implicated a type D retrovirus (jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus [JSRV]) as the causative agent of SPA. We recently isolated a proviral clone of JSRV from an animal with a spontaneous case of SPA (JSRV(21)) and showed that it harbors an infectious and oncogenic virus. This demonstrated that JSRV is necessary and sufficient to induce SPA. A major impediment in research on JSRV has been the lack of an in vitro tissue culture system for the virus. The experiments reported here show the first successful in vitro infection with this virus, using the JSRV(21) clone. JSRV(21) virus was obtained by transiently transfecting human 293T cells with a plasmid containing the JSRV(21) provirus driven by the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter. Virus produced in this manner exhibited reverse transcriptase (RT) activity that banded at 1.15 g/ml in sucrose density gradients. Infection of concentrated JSRV(21) into ovine choroid plexus (CP), testes (OAT-T3), turbinate (FLT), and intestinal carcinoma (ST6) cell lines resulted in establishment of infection as measured by PCR amplification. Evidence that this reflected genuine infection included the fact that heat inactivation of the virus eliminated it, the levels of viral DNA increased with passage of the infected cells, and the infected cells released active RT as measured by the sensitive product enhancement RT assay. The RT activity released from the infected cells banded at 1.15 g/ml, and JSRV(21) provirus was transmitted from infected cells to uninfected ones by cocultivation. However, the amount of virus released from infected cells was low. These results suggest that the JSRV receptor is present on many ovine cell types and that the observed restriction of JSRV expression in vivo to tumor cells might be controlled by factors other than the viral receptor. Finally we tagged the U3 of pJSRV(21) with the bacterial supF gene, an amber suppressor tRNA gene. The resulting clone, termed pJSRV(supF), is infectious in vitro. It may be a useful tool for future studies on viral DNA integration, since the normal sheep genome contains 15 to 20 copies of highly JSRV-related endogenous sequences that cross-react with many JSRV hybridization probes. PMID:10559321

Palmarini, M; Sharp, J M; Lee, C; Fan, H

1999-12-01

294

Lentivirus-induced lymphoproliferative disease. Comparative pathogenicity of phenotypically distinct ovine lentivirus strains.  

PubMed Central

For investigation of the pathogenicity of lentivirus strains, which have distinctly different cytopathic phenotypes in synovial membrane cell culture, plaque-purified, lytic, and nonlytic ovine lentivirus (OvLV) isolates were inoculated intratracheally into two groups of neonatal lambs. Twelve lambs were inoculated with a lytic OvLV isolate and 3 lambs each with two nonlytic OvLV isolates. Five control lambs were inoculated with either virus-free medium or were left uninoculated. In 8 of 12 lambs inoculated with a lytic OvLV isolate mild to severe lesions of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) and pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia developed, 6 of 12 lambs had lesions of pulmonary lymph node follicular hyperplasia, 3 of 9 female lambs had lesions of lymphoproliferative mastitis, 3 of 10 lambs had lesions of lymphocytic/plasmacytic synovitis, and 3 lambs had no lesions. In 3 of 6 lambs inoculated with nonlytic OvLV isolates only mild LIP lesions developed, without concurrent mammary gland or joint lesions. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples from OvLV-diseased lambs contained on average 1.5-fold more numbers of total leukocytes, and 4-fold more numbers of lymphocytes, compared with bronchoalveolar lavage samples of normal lambs. Monoclonal antibodies to ovine lymphocyte surface markers showed that the SBU-T8+ lymphocyte (CD 8 equivalent) was the predominant lymphocyte subset (mean of 65% of total lavaged lymphocytes) in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of 3 diseased lambs. Ovine lentivirus was reisolated from multiple tissues of both groups of OvLV-inoculated lambs, but the percentage of individual tissues infected was greater in lambs inoculated with the lytic viral isolate. Control lambs had no lesions and failed to produce OvLV-specific antibodies or yield OvLV from tissues. All OvLV-inoculated lambs produced either low or undetectable serum virus neutralizing antibodies. In contrast, lambs inoculated with either lytic or nonlytic OvLV produced precipitating antibodies to OvLV glycoprotein and group-specific protein. However, initial detection of precipitating antibodies to OvLV glycoprotein was earlier (mean, 5.8 weeks after inoculation) in OvLV-infected lambs in which severe lymphoproliferative disease developed and delayed (mean, 10.2 weeks after inoculation) in OvLV-infected lambs with mild or no lesions. Together, these results suggest that lentivirus isolates produced disease in a virus strain-dependent manner and suggest that humoral immune responses against OvLV failed to prevent lesion development in lentivirus-infected lambs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3337213

Lairmore, M. D.; Poulson, J. M.; Adducci, T. A.; DeMartini, J. C.

1988-01-01

295

Detection and differentiation of ovine Theileria and Babesia by reverse line blotting in China.  

PubMed

A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was developed for detection and specific identification of the different ovine Theileria and Babesia parasites. In a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the hypervariable region 4 (V4 region) of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene was amplified with a set of general primers specific for members of the genera Theileria and Babesia. Meanwhile, specific oligonucleotide probes were designed and bound on membrane. After one single-PCR amplification, the amplified fragment was hybridized against different generic and species-specific probes. It was able to detect four species, i.e., Babesia motasi (Chengde, Lintan, Ningxian, Tianzhu), Babesia sp. (Kashi), Theileria luwenshuni (Lintan, Madang, Ningxian), Theileria uilenbergi (Longde, Zhangjiachuan) as defined previously. All probes bound to their respective target sequence only; therefore, no cross-reaction was observed, resulting in clear recognition of either individual strains, species, or groups in normal positive tests. Meanwhile, no signal was observed when ovine genomic DNA and water were used as a control, demonstrating that the signals are due to the presence of parasite DNA in the samples. Furthermore, the sensitivity of RLB could be considerably enhanced to detect a parasitemia level between10(-3)% and 10(-8)%. Finally, 117 samples from field were tested with RLB, PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The positive rate of RLB was higher than that of PCR and ELISA, and furthermore, RLB could determinate the species of piroplasms, the samples were infected with. Samples, 1,117, from five areas in Gannan Tibet Autonomous Region have been examined with RLB assay and compared with ELISA assay for corresponding samples. The results showed that the positive rate of RLB was higher than that of ELISA test obviously, and both T. luwenshuni and T. uilenbergi were widely distributed in these areas. RLB developed here could be used for differentiation of Babesia and Theileria infection and for epidemiological survey, which was difficult to achieve by classical methods. In conclusion, the RLB is a versatile technique for simultaneous detection and identification of all ovine piroplasms. PMID:19205742

Niu, Qingli; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Ma, Miling; Liu, Zhijie; Liu, Aihong; Dang, Zhisheng; Gao, Jinliang; Ren, Qiaoyun; Li, Youquan; Liu, Junlong; Yin, Hong

2009-06-01

296

BioInfer: a corpus for information extraction in the biomedical domain  

PubMed Central

Background Lately, there has been a great interest in the application of information extraction methods to the biomedical domain, in particular, to the extraction of relationships of genes, proteins, and RNA from scientific publications. The development and evaluation of such methods requires annotated domain corpora. Results We present BioInfer (Bio Information Extraction Resource), a new public resource providing an annotated corpus of biomedical English. We describe an annotation scheme capturing named entities and their relationships along with a dependency analysis of sentence syntax. We further present ontologies defining the types of entities and relationships annotated in the corpus. Currently, the corpus contains 1100 sentences from abstracts of biomedical research articles annotated for relationships, named entities, as well as syntactic dependencies. Supporting software is provided with the corpus. The corpus is unique in the domain in combining these annotation types for a single set of sentences, and in the level of detail of the relationship annotation. Conclusion We introduce a corpus targeted at protein, gene, and RNA relationships which serves as a resource for the development of information extraction systems and their components such as parsers and domain analyzers. The corpus will be maintained and further developed with a current version being available at . PMID:17291334

Pyysalo, Sampo; Ginter, Filip; Heimonen, Juho; Bjorne, Jari; Boberg, Jorma; Jarvinen, Jouni; Salakoski, Tapio

2007-01-01

297

Hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) is a growth factor for human, ovine and porcine thyroid cells.  

PubMed

Hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) provokes in murine erythroleukemia cells (MELC) a commitment to terminal differentiation leading to the activation of the expression of hemoglobin. HMBA has been tested also in other cells from colon cancer, melanoma or lung cancer. However it has not yet been tested in the thyroid. We demonstrate in this paper that HMBA in kinetics and concentration-response experiments increases the proliferation of human thyroid cells isolated from Graves'-Basedow patients. It also acts like a growth factor for ovine and porcine thyroid cells, respectively, from the OVNIS line and the ATHOS line. This molecule which is a differentiating factor in the MELC system and a growth factor in human thyroid cell cultures represents a potential to get human thyroid cell lines expressing specialized functions. PMID:8734479

Fayet, G; Amphoux-Fazekas, T; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

1996-03-01

298

Higher susceptibility to amyloid fibril formation of the recombinant ovine prion protein modified by transglutaminase.  

PubMed

Prion proteins are known as the main agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies affecting humans as well as animals. A recombinant ovine prion protein was found to be in vitro able to act as an effective substrate for a microbial isoform of transglutaminase, an enzyme catalyzing the formation of isopeptide bonds inside the proteins. We proved that transglutaminase modifies the structure of the prion protein by leading to the formation of three intra-molecular crosslinks and that the crosslinked protein form is more competent in amyloid formation compared to the unmodified one. In addition, the crosslinked prion protein was shown also to be more resistant to proteinase K digestion. Our findings suggest a possible use of transglutaminase in stabilizing the prion protein three-dimensional structure in order to investigate the molecular basis of the conversion of the protein into its pathological form. PMID:22705206

Sorrentino, Angela; Giosafatto, Concetta Valeria L; Sirangelo, Ivana; De Simone, Carmela; Di Pierro, Prospero; Porta, Raffaele; Mariniello, Loredana

2012-10-01

299

Unlocked and locked elastic stable intramedullary nailing in an ovine tibia fracture model: a biomechanical study.  

PubMed

In the present study, four different systems of elastic stable intramedullary nails (unlocked, Ender stainless steel nails locked with 3-mm screws, titanium nails locked with end caps, titanium nails locked with plugs and 3-mm screws) were implanted in cadaveric ovine tibiae. Fractures were simulated by a transverse diaphyseal osteotomy. The specimens were subjected to simultaneous axial and torsional fatigue loading of 5000 and 1000 cycles, respectively. The unlocked systems failed at an axial load of 200 N peak amplitude. End caps systems withstood axial loads up to 800 N for 1000 cycles, and ender nails and plugs lasted up to 1000 N for 1000 cycles. All systems showed a decrease of axial stiffness with higher loads and endured cycles. Ender nails and nails locked with plugs failed by penetration of the distal epiphysis rather than by loosening of the interlocking system. Overall, the titanium nails locked with plugs and 3-mm screws exhibited superior test results. PMID:24857493

Berger, Leopold; Fischerauer, Stefan; Weiß, Barbara; Celarek, Anna; Castellani, Christoph; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina; Tschegg, Elmar

2014-07-01

300

Idiopathic partial thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum: conservative management is effective and possible.  

PubMed

Three cases of spontaneous, partial, unilateral thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum are described. The patients presented with a painful mass in the perineum without priapism. Diagnosis was made through ultrasound evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging, showing unilateral, partial thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum. Treatment consisted of systemic anticoagulation. In all three cases, the thrombosis resolved spontaneously over several months without complications. The aetiology of partial thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum remains unclear, but conservative management of this rare condition appears to be effective and safe. PMID:12814686

Goeman, Lieven; Joniau, Steven; Oyen, Raymond; Claes, Hubert; Van Poppel, Hein

2003-07-01

301

The Local Effects of Ovarian Diathermy in an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30–100 gestation. Their female offspring (n?=?12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n?=?4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n?=?4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n?=?4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P?=?0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles. PMID:25343339

Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

2014-01-01

302

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus pseudotyped lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer to fetal ovine lung.  

PubMed

Viral vector-mediated gene transfer to the postnatal respiratory epithelium has, in general, been of low efficiency due to physical and immunological barriers, non-apical location of cellular receptors critical for viral uptake and limited transduction of resident stem/progenitor cells. These obstacles may be overcome using a prenatal strategy. In this study, HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors (LVs) pseudotyped with the envelope glycoproteins of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV-LV), baculovirus GP64 (GP64-LV), Ebola Zaire-LV or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVg-LV) and the adeno-associated virus-2/6.2 (AAV2/6.2) were compared for in utero transfer of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene to ovine lung epithelium between days 65 and 78 of gestation. GFP expression was examined on day 85 or 136 of gestation (term is ?145 days). The percentage of the respiratory epithelial cells expressing GFP in fetal sheep that received the JSRV-LV (3.18 × 10(8)-6.85 × 10(9) viral particles per fetus) was 24.6±0.9% at 3 weeks postinjection (day 85) and 29.9±4.8% at 10 weeks postinjection (day 136). Expression was limited to the surface epithelium lining fetal airways <100??m internal diameter. Fetal airways were amenable to VSVg-LV transduction, although the percentage of epithelial expression was low (6.6±0.6%) at 1 week postinjection. GP64-LV, Ebola Zaire-LV and AAV2/6.2 failed to transduce the fetal ovine lung under these conditions. These data demonstrate that prenatal lung gene transfer with LV engineered to target apical surface receptors can provide sustained and high levels of transgene expression and support the therapeutic potential of prenatal gene transfer for the treatment of congenital lung diseases. PMID:21654824

Davey, M G; Zoltick, P W; Todorow, C A; Limberis, M P; Ruchelli, E D; Hedrick, H L; Flake, A W

2012-02-01

303

Unexpected maturation of PI3K and MAPK-ERK signaling in fetal ovine cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

In the first two-thirds of gestation, ovine fetal cardiomyocytes undergo mitosis to increase cardiac mass and accommodate fetal growth. Thereafter, some myocytes continue to proliferate while others mature and terminally differentiate into binucleated cells. At term (145 days gestational age; dGA) about 60% of cardiomyocytes become binucleated and exit the cell cycle under hormonal control. Rising thyroid hormone (T3) levels near term (135 dGA) inhibit proliferation and stimulate maturation. However, the degree to which intracellular signaling patterns change with age in response to T3 is unknown. We hypothesized that in vitro activation of ERK, Akt, and p70(S6K) by two regulators of cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity, T3 and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), would be similar in cardiomyocytes at gestational ages 100 and 135 dGA. IGF-1 and T3 each independently stimulated phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, and p70(S6K) in cells at both ages. In the younger mononucleated myocytes, the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt was reduced in the presence of IGF-1 and T3. However, the same hormone combination led to a dramatic twofold increase in the phosphorylation of these signaling proteins in the 135 dGA cardiomyocytes-even in cells that were not proliferating. In the older cells, both mono- and binucleated cells were affected. In conclusion, fetal ovine cardiomyocytes undergo profound maturation-related changes in signaling in response to T3 and IGF-1, but not to either factor alone. Differences in age-related response are likely to be related to milestones in fetal cardiac development as the myocardium prepares for ex utero life. PMID:25128174

Chattergoon, N N; Louey, S; Stork, P J; Giraud, G D; Thornburg, K L

2014-10-15

304

Interplay between Ovine Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Antigen 2/Tetherin and Endogenous Retroviruses ?  

PubMed Central

Endogenous betaretroviruses (enJSRVs) of sheep are expressed abundantly in the female reproductive tract and play a crucial role in conceptus development and placental morphogenesis. Interestingly, the colonization of the sheep genome by enJSRVs is likely still ongoing. During early pregnancy, enJSRV expression correlates with the production of tau interferon (IFNT), a type I IFN, by the developing conceptus. IFNT is the pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants and possesses potent antiviral activity. In this study, we show that IFNT induces the expression of bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2) (also termed CD317/tetherin) both in vitro and in vivo. The BST2 gene is duplicated in ruminants. Transfection assays found that ovine BST2 proteins (oBST2A and oBST2B) block release of viral particles produced by intact enJSRV loci and of related exogenous and pathogenic jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). Ovine BST2A appears to restrict enJSRVs more efficiently than oBST2B. In vivo, the expression of BST2A/B and enJSRVs in the endometrium increases after day 12 and remains high between days 14 and 20 of pregnancy. In situ hybridization analyses found that oBST2A is expressed mainly in the endometrial stromal cells but not in the luminal and glandular epithelial cells, in which enJSRVs are highly expressed. In conclusion, enJSRVs may have coevolved in the presence of oBST2A/B by being expressed in different cellular compartments of the same organ. Viral expression in cells unable to express BST2 may be one of the mechanisms used by retroviruses to escape restriction. PMID:20181686

Arnaud, Frederick; Black, Sarah G.; Murphy, Lita; Griffiths, David J.; Neil, Stuart J.; Spencer, Thomas E.; Palmarini, Massimo

2010-01-01

305

How do Annuloplasty Rings Affect Mitral Annular Strains in the Normal Beating Ovine Heart?  

PubMed Central

Background We hypothesized that annuloplasty ring implantation alters mitral annular strains in a normal beating ovine heart preparation. Methods and Results Sheep had 16 radiopaque markers sewn equally spaced around the mitral annulus. Edwards Cosgrove partial flexible band (COS, n=12), St. Jude complete rigid saddle-shaped annuloplasty ring (RSA, n=10), Carpentier-Edwards Physio (PHY, n=11), IMR ETlogix (ETL, n=11), and GeoForm (GEO, n=12) annuloplasty rings were implanted in a releasable fashion. Four-dimensional marker coordinates were obtained using biplane videofluoroscopy with the ring inserted (Ring) and after ring release (Control). From marker coordinates, a functional spatio-temporal representation of each annulus was generated through a best fit using 16 piecewise cubic Hermitian splines. Absolute total mitral annular strains were calculated from the relative change in length of the tangent vector to the annular curve as strains occurring from Control to Ring state at end-systole. In addition, average Green-Lagrange strains occurring from Control to Ring state at end-systole along the annulus were calculated. Absolute total mitral annular ring strains were smallest for COS and greatest for ETL. Strains for RSA, PHY and GEO were similar. Except for COS in the septal mitral annular segment, all rings induced compressive strains along the entire annulus with greatest values occurring at the lateral mitral annular segment. Conclusions In healthy, beating ovine hearts, annuloplasty rings (COS; RSA, PHY, ETL and GEO) induce compressive strains that are: 1.) Predominate in the lateral annular region; 2.) Smallest for flexible partial bands (COS) and greatest for an asymmetric rigid ring type with intrinsic septal-lateral downsizing (ETL). However, the ring type with the most drastic intrinsic septal-lateral downsizing (GEO) introduced strains similar to physiologically shaped rings (RSA and PHY) indicating that rings effects on annular strain profiles cannot be estimated from the degree of septal-lateral downsizing. PMID:22965988

Bothe, Wolfgang; Rausch, Manuel K.; Kvitting, John P.; Echtner, Dominique K.; Walther, Mario; Ingels, Neil B.; Kuhl, Ellen; Miller, D. Craig

2012-01-01

306

Effect of synthetic ovine corticotropin-releasing factor. Dose response of plasma adrenocorticotropin and cortisol.  

PubMed Central

Synthetic ovine corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was administered to normal male volunteer subjects as an intravenous bolus or 30-s infusion. Doses of CRF ranging from 0.001 to 30 micrograms/kg body wt were administered, and plasma immunoreactive (IR)-ACTH and IR-cortisol concentrations were measured. The threshold dose appeared to be 0.01-0.03 micrograms/kg, the half-maximal dose 0.3-1 micrograms/kg, and the maximally effective dose 3-10 micrograms/kg. Basal concentrations of IR-ACTH and IR-cortisol were 14 +/- 7.6 pg/ml (mean +/- SD) and 5.6 +/- 2.2 micrograms/dl, respectively. IR-ACTH rose as early as 2 min after CRF injection, reached peak levels in 10-15 min, and declined slowly thereafter. IR-cortisol rose at 10 min or later and reached peak levels in 30-60 min. At a dose of 30 micrograms/kg, neither IR-ACTH nor IR-cortisol fell from peak levels of 82 +/- 21 pg/ml (mean +/- SE) and 23 +/- 1.4 micrograms/dl, respectively, during the 2-h course of the experiment, indicating that CRF has a sustained effect on ACTH release and/or a prolonged circulating plasma half-life. There was little or no increase in the levels of other anterior pituitary hormones. At doses of 1 microgram/kg and higher, facial flushing, tachycardia, and, in some subjects, a 15-29-mmHg decline in systemic arterial blood pressure were observed, even though blood volume was replaced and the subjects remained supine. These data indicate that synthetic ovine CRF is a very potent and specific ACTH secretagogue in man. Administered with caution until its vasomotor effects are more fully defined, CRF promises to be a safe and very useful investigative, diagnostic, and, possibly, therapeutic agent in man. Images PMID:6298280

Orth, D N; Jackson, R V; DeCherney, G S; DeBold, C R; Alexander, A N; Island, D P; Rivier, J; Rivier, C; Spiess, J; Vale, W

1983-01-01

307

Detection of Helicobacter pylori in bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine milk in Iran.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. In the present study, 447 bulk milk samples from 230 dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds were collected in four provinces and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Using the cultural method, three of 447 milk samples (0.67%), including two sheep (2.2%) and one buffalo (1.6%) milk samples, were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 56 (12.5%) of milk samples, including 19 cow (14.1%), 11 sheep (12.2%), nine goat (8.7%), two camel (3.6%), and 15 buffalo (23.4%) milk samples. Using PCR method, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the level of contamination with H. pylori between milk samples collected from different species. The present study is the first report of the isolation of H. pylori from raw sheep and buffalo milk in Iran and the first demonstration of H. pylori DNA in camel and buffalo milk. PMID:22458716

Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kheirabadi, Elahe Kazemi

2012-05-01

308

Effect of cortisol on fetal ovine vascular angiotensin II receptors and contractility.  

PubMed

The renin angiotensin system is important in the regulation of fetal blood pressure. This study investigated the expression of angiotensin AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in the ovine fetal heart, aorta and umbilical artery, and how these receptors are affected by cortisol. Cortisol infusion into the fetus has previously been shown to cause an increase in fetal blood pressure. We hypothesised that this effect of cortisol is mediated by upregulation of the angiotensin AT(1) receptor. Binding studies performed on tissues with intact endothelium demonstrated both receptor subtypes in the fetal aorta and right ventricle, although the latter contained mainly angiotensin AT(2) receptors. In contrast, only angiotensin AT(1) receptors were found in the umbilical artery. Cortisol infusion into fetuses (3 mg/day for 3-5 days) caused a physiological increase in plasma cortisol levels to 29+/-4 nM. This was associated with an increase in systolic pressure (57.8+/-1.7 vs. 52.2+/-1.5 mm Hg, P<0.05), but cortisol had no effect on the density or affinity of angiotensin receptors, nor on the in vitro contractile responses of carotid and umbilical arterial rings to 5-microM angiotensin II. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated differential expression of angiotensin AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in the different regions of the ovine fetal cardiovascular system and that the angiotensin AT(1) receptor is functional. The lack of any effect of low doses of cortisol on these receptors and on the contractility of isolated fetal vessels to angiotensin II suggests cortisol acts by other mechanisms to raise fetal arterial pressure. PMID:11040351

Hegarty, B D; Burrell, J H; Gibson, K J; McMullen, J R; Lumbers, E R

2000-10-20

309

Energy balance-dependent regulation of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein isoform expression.  

PubMed

G6PDH is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and one of the principal source of NADPH, a major cellular reductant. Importantly, in ruminant's metabolism the aforementioned NADPH provided, is utilized for de novo fatty acid synthesis. Previous work of cloning the ovine (Ovis aries) og6pdh gene has revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (og6pda and og6pdb), og6pdb being a product of alternative splicing not similar to any other previously reported.(1) In the current study the effect of energy balance in the ovine G6PDH protein expression was investigated, shedding light on the biochemical features and potential physiological role of the oG6PDB isoform. Changes in energy balance leads to protein expression changes in both transcripts, to the opposite direction and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance was not in favor of the presence of any particular isoform, while both protein expression levels were not significantly different (P > 0.05). In contrast, at the transition point from negative to positive and on the positive energy balance, there is a significant increase of oG6PDA compared with oG6PDB protein expression (P < 0.001). Both oG6PDH protein isoforms changed significantly toward the positive energy balance. oG6PDA is escalating, while oG6PDB is falling, under the same stimulus (positive energy balance alteration). This change is also positively associated with increasing levels in enzyme activity, 4 weeks post-weaning in ewes' adipose tissue. Furthermore, regression analysis clearly demonstrated the linear correlation of both proteins in response to the WPW, while energy balance, enzyme activity, and oG6PDA relative protein expression follow the same escalating trend; in contrast, oG6PDB relative protein expression falls in time, similar to both transcripts accumulation pattern, as reported previously.(2.) PMID:24575366

Triantaphyllopoulos, Kostas A; Laliotis, George P; Bizelis, Iosif A

2014-01-01

310

Rotational dynamics of luteinizing hormone receptors on bovine and ovine luteal cell plasma membranes.  

PubMed

To determine whether LH receptor rotational diffusion is similar in closely related species, we compared the rotational correlation times of LH receptors on bovine CL membranes with those of LH receptors on sheep small luteal cells and luteal cell plasma membranes using time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy techniques. After binding of erythrosin isothiocyanate (ErITC)-derived bovine LH (bLH), ErITC-ovine LH (oLH), or ErITC-hCG, there was no difference in the initial and final anisotropy at 4 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 37 degrees C, indicating that the bLH receptor was rotationally immobile on the time scale of our experiments. On these same membrane preparations, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor occupied by ErITC-murine EGF exhibited temperature-dependent rotational correlation times of 80 +/- 5 microseconds, 111 +/- 7 microseconds, 254 +/- 4 microseconds, and > 1000 microseconds at 4 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 37 degrees C, respectively. Slower rotational times for EGF receptor observed at higher temperatures suggested the occurrence of temperature-dependent receptor aggregation. Like the bLH receptor, the oLH receptor on intact cells and on CL plasma membranes was rotationally immobile on the time scale of our experiments when occupied by ErITC-hCG. However, the oLH-occupied receptors on small luteal cells and on luteal cell membranes had comparable rotational correlation times at 37 degrees C. These results suggest that bLH receptors are present in large, rotationally immobile structures, whereas the receptor-containing structure formed on ovine luteal cells depends on whether that receptor is occupied by hCG or oLH. Also, despite the similarities between reproductive function in these species, the LH-occupied receptor appears to be organized differently in the plasma membranes of these hormone-responsive luteal cells. PMID:7578689

Philpot, C J; Rahman, N A; Kenny, N; Barisas, B G; Roess, D A

1995-09-01

311

Percutaneous Osseointegrated Prostheses for Amputees: Limb Compensation in a 12-Month Ovine model  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses are being investigated as an alternative strategy to attach prosthetic limbs to patients. Although the use of these implants has shown to be promising in clinical trials; the ability to maintain a skin seal around an osseointegrated implant interface is a major challenge to prevent superficial and deep periprosthetic infections. The specific aim of this study was to establish a translational load-bearing ovine model to assess postoperative limb compensation and gait symmetry following a percutaneous integrated implant. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) the animals would return to pre-amputation limb loads within 12-months; (2) the animals would return to a symmetrical gait pattern (stride length and time in stance) within 12-months. The results demonstrated that one month following surgery, the sheep loaded their amputated limb to a mean value of nearly 80% of their pre-amputation loading condition; by 12-months, this mean had dropped to approximately 74%. There were no statistical differences between the symmetry of the amputated forelimb and the contralateral forelimb at any time point for the animals stride length or the time spent in the stance phase of their gait cycle. Thus, the data showed that while the animals maintained symmetric gait patterns, they did not return to full weight-bearing after 12-months. The results of this study showed that a large animal load-bearing model had a symmetric gait and was weight bearing for up to 12 months. While the current investigation utilizes an ovine model, there data show that osseointegrated implant technology with postoperative follow-up can help our human patients return to symmetric gait and maintain an active lifestyle, leading to an improvement in their quality of life following amputation. PMID:21920525

Shelton, Trevor J.; Beck, J. Peter; Bloebaum, Roy D.; Bachus, Kent N.

2011-01-01

312

Influence of Reproductive Status on Tissue Composition and Biomechanical Properties of Ovine Vagina  

PubMed Central

Objective To undertake a comprehensive analysis of the biochemical tissue composition and passive biomechanical properties of ovine vagina and relate this to the histo-architecture at different reproductive stages as part of the establishment of a large preclinical animal model for evaluating regenerative medicine approaches for surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. Methods Vaginal tissue was collected from virgin (n?=?3), parous (n?=?6) and pregnant sheep (n?=?6; mean gestation; 132 d; term?=?145 d). Tissue histology was analyzed using H+E and Masson's Trichrome staining. Biochemical analysis of the extracellular matrix proteins used a hydroxyproline assay to quantify total collagen, SDS PAGE to measure collagen III/I+III ratios, dimethylmethylene blue to quantify glycosaminoglycans and amino acid analysis to quantify elastin. Uniaxial tensiometry was used to determine the Young's modulus, maximum stress and strain, and permanent strain following cyclic loading. Results Vaginal tissue of virgin sheep had the lowest total collagen content and permanent strain. Parous tissue had the highest total collagen and lowest elastin content with concomitant high maximum stress. In contrast, pregnant sheep had the highest elastin and lowest collagen contents, and thickest smooth muscle layer, which was associated with low maximum stress and poor dimensional recovery following repetitive loading. Conclusion Pregnant ovine vagina was the most extensible, but the weakest tissue, whereas parous and virgin tissues were strong and elastic. Pregnancy had the greatest impact on tissue composition and biomechanical properties, compatible with significant tissue remodeling as demonstrated in other species. Biochemical changes in tissue protein composition coincide with these altered biomechanical properties. PMID:24709913

Ulrich, Daniela; Edwards, Sharon L.; Su, Kai; White, Jacinta F.; Ramshaw, John A. M.; Jenkin, Graham; Deprest, Jan; Rosamilia, Anna

2014-01-01

313

The local effects of ovarian diathermy in an ovine model of polycystic ovary syndrome.  

PubMed

In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30-100 gestation. Their female offspring (n?=?12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n?=?4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n?=?4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n?=?4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P?=?0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles. PMID:25343339

Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

2014-01-01

314

Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum in a Newborn with Turner Mosaicism  

PubMed Central

The agenesis of the corpus callosum results from a failure in the development of the largest fiber bundle that connects cerebral hemispheres. Patient’s outcome is influenced by etiology and associated central nervous system malformations. We describe a child with Turner syndrome (TS) mosaicism, with particular phenotype features and a complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. To our knowledge, this is the second case report of TS mosaicism associated with complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. Anatomical brain magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging were useful to confirm the complete absence of the corpus callosum, evaluate associated central nervous system malformations, visualize abnormal white matter tracts (Probst bundles) and assess the remaining commissures. PMID:24987509

Pereira, Ester; Polo, Monica Rebollo; Lopez, Jordi Muchart; Quijano, Thais Agut; Garcia-Alix, Alfredo; Fons, Carmen

2014-01-01

315

Brain anatomy of autism spectrum disorders I. Focus on corpus callosum.  

PubMed

This brief review aims to examine the structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) studies on corpus callosum in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and discuss the clinical and demographic factors involved in the interpretation of results. PMID:23531487

Bellani, M; Calderoni, S; Muratori, F; Brambilla, P

2013-09-01

316

Matrix: A statistical method and software tool for linguistic analysis through corpus comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Matrix: A statistical method and software tool for linguistic analysis through corpus comparison A thesis submitted to Lancaster University for the degree of Ph D in Computer Science Paul Edward Rayson, B Sc September 2002

P. Rayson

2003-01-01

317

The Blizzard Challenge 2005: Evaluating corpus-based speech synthesis on common datasets  

E-print Network

The Blizzard Challenge ­ 2005: Evaluating corpus-based speech synthesis on common datasets Alan W to the result- ing synthetic voice quality. 2. A common dataset The key aspect of the Blizzard Challenge [2

Black, Alan W

318

Effects of cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs on inflammatory activation in ex vivo human and ovine fetal membranes.  

PubMed

Intrauterine infection and inflammation are responsible for the majority of early (<32 weeks) spontaneous preterm births (PTBs). Anti-inflammatory agents, delivered intra-amniotically together with antibiotics, may be an effective strategy for preventing PTB. In this study, the effects of four cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs (CSAIDs: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), SB239063, TPCA-1 and NEMO binding domain inhibitor (NBDI)) were assessed on human and ovine gestational membrane inflammation. Full-thickness membranes were collected from healthy, term, human placentas delivered by Caesarean section (n=5). Using a Transwell model, they were stimulated ex vivo with ?-irradiation-killed Escherichia coli applied to the amniotic face. Membranes from near-term, ovine placentas were stimulated in utero with lipopolysaccharide, Ureaplasma parvum or saline control and subjected to explant culture. The effects of treatment with CSAIDs or vehicle (1% DMSO) on accumulation of PGE2 and cytokines (human interleukin 6 (IL6), IL10 and TNF?; ovine IL8 (oIL8)) were assessed in conditioned media at various time points (3-20 ?h). In human membranes, the IKK? inhibitor TPCA-1 (7 ??M) and p38 MAPK inhibitor SB239063 (20 ??M) administered to the amniotic compartment were the most effective in inhibiting accumulation of cytokines and PGE2 in the fetal compartment. NAC (10 ?mM) inhibited accumulation of PGE2 and IL10 only; NBDI (10 ??M) had no significant effect. In addition to the fetal compartment, SB239063 also exerted consistent and significant inhibitory effects in the maternal compartment. TPCA-1 and SB239063 suppressed oIL8 production, while all CSAIDs tested suppressed ovine PGE2 production. These results support the further investigation of intra-amniotically delivered CSAIDs for the prevention of inflammation-mediated PTB. PMID:24493151

Stinson, Lisa F; Ireland, Demelza J; Kemp, Matthew W; Payne, Matthew S; Stock, Sarah J; Newnham, John P; Keelan, Jeffrey A

2014-03-01

319

Impact of weaning system on composition and yield of a semi-soft ovine-milk cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-soft, brined cheese was produced from frozen early lactation ovine-milk collected from two weaning systems. Weaning systems were: (1) ewes weaned from their lambs at 24h postpartum, ewes machine milked twice daily, and their lambs raised artificially (DY1); and (2) beginning 24h postpartum, ewes separated from their lambs for 15h during the evening, ewes machine milked once daily in

J. J. Jaeggi; W. L. Wendorff; Y. M. Berger; M. E. Johnson

2008-01-01

320

Identification of Genes in the Ovine Endometrium Regulated by Interferon   Independent of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferon (IFN), a type I IFN produced by the conceptus trophectoderm, increases many type I IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in the ovine uterine endometrial stroma and glandular epithelium (GE) using signal transducer and activator of tran- scription 1 (STAT1)-dependent pathways. Most ISGs are not induced or increased by IFN in the STAT1-negative endome- trial luminal epithelium (LE). The objective was to

SEOKWOON KIM; YOUNGSOK CHOI; FULLER W. BAZER; THOMAS E. SPENCER

2003-01-01

321

Comparison of Performance, Clinical Chemistry, and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Lambs Treated with Recombinant Ovine or Bovine Somatotropins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation in growth and carcass composition responses of lambs to somatotropin ( S T ) treatment may depend on the source of ST used as well as on other experimental conditions. In the present experiment, growth, carcass composition, and clinical chemistry responses to recombinantly produced ovine ST (oST) and two bovine ST (N- methionyl-bST(M-bST1 and N-alanyl-bST(A-bST1 were compared. Lambs

C. L. McLaughlin; H. B. Hedrickt; J. J. Veenhuizen; R. L. Hintz; G. F. Hartnell; T. R. Kasser; C. A. Baile

2010-01-01

322

Npas4 Is Activated by Melatonin, and Drives the Clock Gene Cry1 in the Ovine Pars Tuberalis  

PubMed Central

Seasonal mammals integrate changes in the duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion to drive annual physiologic cycles. Melatonin receptors within the proximal pituitary region, the pars tuberalis (PT), are essential in regulating seasonal neuroendocrine responses. In the ovine PT, melatonin is known to influence acute changes in transcriptional dynamics coupled to the onset (dusk) and offset (dawn) of melatonin secretion, leading to a potential interval-timing mechanism capable of decoding changes in day length (photoperiod). Melatonin offset at dawn is linked to cAMP accumulation, which directly induces transcription of the clock gene Per1. The rise of melatonin at dusk induces a separate and distinct cohort, including the clock-regulated genes Cry1 and Nampt, but little is known of the up-stream mechanisms involved. Here, we used next-generation sequencing of the ovine PT transcriptome at melatonin onset and identified Npas4 as a rapidly induced basic helix-loop-helix Per-Arnt-Sim domain transcription factor. In vivo we show nuclear localization of NPAS4 protein in presumptive melatonin target cells of the PT (?-glycoprotein hormone-expressing cells), whereas in situ hybridization studies identified acute and transient expression in the PT of Npas4 in response to melatonin. In vitro, NPAS4 forms functional dimers with basic helix loop helix-PAS domain cofactors aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), ARNT2, and ARNTL, transactivating both Cry1 and Nampt ovine promoter reporters. Using a combination of 5?-deletions and site-directed mutagenesis, we show NPAS4-ARNT transactivation to be codependent upon two conserved central midline elements within the Cry1 promoter. Our data thus reveal NPAS4 as a candidate immediate early-response gene in the ovine PT, driving molecular responses to melatonin. PMID:23598442

West, A.; Dupre, S.M.; Yu, L.; Paton, I.R.; Miedzinska, K.; McNeilly, A.S.; Davis, J.R.E.

2013-01-01

323

ABSORPTION AND HALF-LIFE OF BOVINE, CAPRINE AND OVINE IgG1 IN THE NEWBORN LAMB.  

E-print Network

ont été nourris au biberon avec un colostrum bovin identique pendant les 32 premières heures de la vie, alors que six agneaux à terme et sept prématurés ont reçu le même colostrum, un colostrum caprin, puis un colostrum ovin, respecti- vement 2 h, 8 h et 16 h post-partum. Dans le premier groupe, les taux

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

324

Growth performances and carcass traits of Ovin Martinik lambs fed various ratios of tropical forage to concentrate under intensive conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted to determine the effects of supplementation upon intake, growth and carcass traits of Ovin Martinik hair sheep. Forty lambs weighing 20±3.7kg live weight (LW) were reared after weaning in individual pens during a 4-month experimental study. Four supplement levels were compared (10 lambs per treatment): the L0 group received the basal diet (tropical forage 0.75 UFL and

H. Archimède; P. Pellonde; P. Despois; T. Etienne; G. Alexandre

2008-01-01

325

Changes of Renal AT1\\/AT2 Receptors and Structures in Ovine Fetuses following Exposure to Long-Term Hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The present study tested the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia adversely affects renal development in the ovine fetus. Methods: Kidneys were collected from near-term fetuses of pregnant ewes maintained at sea level or high altitude (3,801 m, PaO2: approx. 60 mm Hg) for 110 days (n = 6 for each group). Results: Long-term high altitude hypoxia reduced the fetal kidney\\/body

Caiping Mao; Jianquan Hou; Jianyi Ge; Yali Hu; Yang Ding; Yun Zhou; Huiying Zhang; Zhice Xu; Lubo Zhang

2010-01-01

326

Properties of Kefir made in Scotland and Poland using Bovine, Caprine and Ovine Milk with Different Starter Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Varieties of Kefir were made in Poland and Scotland from bovine, caprine and ovine milk, using Kefir grains and two direct-to-vat inoculation (DVI) starter cultures. The chemical composition (g\\/kg) of the Kefir ranged from 106–149 for total solids, 29–64 for crude protein, 38–47 for carbohydrate, 7–11 for ash. The fat content was standardized to a mean value of 31 g\\/kg.

M. Wszolek; A. Y. Tamime; D. D. Muir; M. N. I. Barclay

2001-01-01

327

MRI evaluation of pathologies affecting the corpus callosum: A pictorial essay  

PubMed Central

The corpus callosum is a midline cerebral structure and has a unique embryological development pattern. In this article, we describe the pathophysiology and present imaging findings of various typical/atypical conditions affecting the corpus callosum. Since many of these pathologies have characteristic appearances on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their therapeutic approaches are poles apart, ranging from medical to surgical, the neuroradiologist should be well aware of them. PMID:24604936

Kazi, Aamish Z; Joshi, Priscilla C; Kelkar, Abhimanyu B; Mahajan, Mangal S; Ghawate, Amit S

2013-01-01

328

Determination of indices of the corpus callosum associated with normal aging in Japanese individuals.  

PubMed

Indices of the corpus callosum with normal aging and their sex differences were elucidated using quantitative MRI. We studied 94 Japanese men (mean+/-SD 57.3+/-20.8 years, range 6-90 years) and 111 Japanese women (mean+/-SD 61.2+/-17.6 years, range 9-86 years) who had no intracranial lesions on MRI and no history of neurological illness. The widths of the rostrum, body and splenium, the anterior to posterior length, and the maximum height in the midsagittal image were selected for measurement. The Evans index, which is the relative ratio of lateral ventricle expansion, and the maximum width of the third ventricle in the axial image were also estimated for comparison. The widths of rostrum, body and splenium of the corpus callosum became thinner with age. Conversely, the anterior to posterior length and the maximum height of the corpus callosum increased with age. The ratio of the width of the body to the length of the corpus callosum and the ratio of the width of the body to the height of the corpus callosum are best correlated with age. No sex differences in regional size of corpus callosum, including these two ratios, were observed in any raw measures, although ventricular indices were larger in men than women. Evaluation of the ratio of the width of the body to its length and the ratio of the width of the body to its height may enable accurate estimation of normal or pathological changes of the corpus callosum. Aging and pathological atrophy of corpus callosum can be evaluated without any adjustment for gender. PMID:12879325

Takeda, S; Hirashima, Y; Ikeda, H; Yamamoto, H; Sugino, M; Endo, S

2003-08-01

329

The Swedish NICE corpus - spoken dialogues between children and embodied characters in a computer game scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the collection and analysis of a Swedish database of spontaneous and unconstrained children-machine dialogues. The Swedish NICE corpus consists of spoken dialogues between children aged 8 to 15 and embodied fairy- tale characters in a computer game scenario. Compared to previously collected corpora of children's computer-directed speech, the Swedish NICE corpus contains extended interactions, including three-party conversation,

Linda Bell; Johan Boye; Joakim Gustafson; Mattias Heldner; Anders Lindström; Mats Wirén

2005-01-01

330

SEER Data, Corpus Uteri Cancer: Treatment Trends versus Survival for FIGO Stage II, 1988–1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. 1998 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data estimate an 83.1% 5-year survival rate for corpus uteri adenocarcinoma FIGO stage II. The SEER data were evaluated to determine whether primary treatment differences using simple hysterectomy or radical hysterectomy, with or without radiation, altered disease survival.Materials and Methods. SEER incidence data for FIGO II uterine corpus cancer of adenocarcinoma histology

Terri L. Cornelison; Edward L. Trimble; Carol L. Kosary

1999-01-01

331

Determination of mirodenafil and sildenafil in the plasma and corpus cavernous of SD male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine sildenafil and a novel PDE-5 inhibitor, mirodenafil in the plasma and corpus cavernosum tissue of rats to compare their pharmacokinetic properties. The concentrations of mirodenafil and sildenafil in the rat plasma and corpus cavernosum tissue samples were analyzed using LC–MS\\/MS after a single oral administration at a dose of 40mg\\/kg to

Sang Kyu Lee; Yoon Kim; Tae Kon Kim; Guang-Jin Im; Bong-Yong Lee; Dong-Hyun Kim; Changbae Jin; Hye Hyun Yoo

2009-01-01

332

Automatic corpus callosum segmentation for standardized MR brain scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic Resonance (MR) brain scanning is often planned manually with the goal of aligning the imaging plane with key anatomic landmarks. The planning is time-consuming and subject to inter- and intra- operator variability. An automatic and standardized planning of brain scans is highly useful for clinical applications, and for maximum utility should work on patients of all ages. In this study, we propose a method for fully automatic planning that utilizes the landmarks from two orthogonal images to define the geometry of the third scanning plane. The corpus callosum (CC) is segmented in sagittal images by an active shape model (ASM), and the result is further improved by weighting the boundary movement with confidence scores and incorporating region based refinement. Based on the extracted contour of the CC, several important landmarks are located and then combined with landmarks from the coronal or transverse plane to define the geometry of the third plane. Our automatic method is tested on 54 MR images from 24 patients and 3 healthy volunteers, with ages ranging from 4 months to 70 years old. The average accuracy with respect to two manually labeled points on the CC is 3.54 mm and 4.19 mm, and differed by an average of 2.48 degrees from the orientation of the line connecting them, demonstrating that our method is sufficiently accurate for clinical use.

Xu, Qing; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.

2007-03-01

333

Data modelling in corpus linguistics: how low may we go?  

PubMed

Corpus linguistics allows researchers to process millions of words. However, the more words we analyse, i.e., the more data we acquire, the more urgent the call for correct data interpretation becomes. In recent years, a number of studies saw the light attempting to profile some prolific authors' linguistic decline, linking this decline to pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, in line with the nature of the (literary) work that was analysed, numbers alone do not suffice to 'tell the story'. The one and only objective of using statistical methods for the analysis of research data is to tell a story--what happened, when, and how. In the present study we describe a computerised but individualised approach to linguistic analysis--we propose a unifying approach, with firm grounds in Information Theory, that, independently from the specific parameter being investigated, guarantees to produce a robust model of the temporal dynamics of an author's linguistic richness over his or her lifetime. We applied this methodology to six renowned authors with an active writing life of four decades or more: Iris Murdoch, Gerard Reve, Hugo Claus, Agatha Christie, P.D. James, and Harry Mulisch. The first three were diagnosed with probable Alzheimer Disease, confirmed post-mortem for Iris Murdoch; this same condition was hypothesized for Agatha Christie. Our analysis reveals different evolutive patterns of lexical richness, in turn plausibly correlated with the authors' different conditions. PMID:24332294

van Velzen, Marjolein H; Nanetti, Luca; de Deyn, Peter P

2014-06-01

334

The structure of the corpus callosum in obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

Abnormal brain connectivity has recently been reported in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). However, structural differences in the corpus callosum (CC), the primary structure connecting the two hemispheres, have not been extensively studied. In this case-control study, we recruited 30 patients with OCD and 30 healthy control subjects carefully matched for age, sex and handedness. Combining surface-based mesh-modeling and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we compared callosal thickness and white matter (WM) density in patients and controls. We investigated associations between callosal structure and cortical gray matter (GM) density, and we related CC measures to neuropsychological performance in OCD. OCD patients showed small anterior and posterior callosal regions compared to healthy control subjects. In the OCD group, anterior callosal thickness was positively correlated with GM density of the right mid-dorso-lateral prefrontal (BA 9/46) area, while posterior callosal thickness was positively correlated with GM density in the left supramarginal gyrus (BA 40). Moreover, posterior callosal WM density was positively correlated with verbal memory, visuo-spatial memory, verbal fluency, and visuo-spatial reasoning performances. Callosal attributes were related to GM density in cortical areas innervated by the CC, and were also related to performance in cognitive domains impaired in the disorder. The CC may therefore be integrally involved in OCD. PMID:23078960

Di Paola, M; Luders, E; Rubino, I A; Siracusano, A; Manfredi, G; Girardi, P; Martinotti, G; Thompson, P M; Chou, Y-Y; Toga, A W; Caltagirone, C; Spalletta, G

2013-10-01

335

Effect of human, bovine and ovine prolactin on DNA synthesis by organ cultures of benign human breast tumours.  

PubMed

Ten benign breast tumours from 9 female patients (8 with fibrocystic disease and 1 with fibroadenoma) and 1 male patient (with gynaecomastia) were processed into slices and individually cultured for 2 days in serum-free Medium 199. [3H]-TdR was added to the culture medium to assess DNA synthesis. The addition of human prolactin to the culture medium (500 ng/ml) significantly (0.05 greater than P greater than 0.01) increased DNA synthesis; all 9 biopsy specimens from the 9 female patients responded positively to this hormone. Ovine prolactin (500 ng/ml) and bovine prolactin (500 ng/ml) increased the mean incorporation of [3H]-TdR into extracted DNA and increased the mean number of [3H]-TdR-labelled cells, but this increase did not reach the 5% level of probability. The sole case of male breast dysplasia analysed in this study did not respond to either human, ovine or bovine prolactin. These results provide evidence that human prolactin and, to a lesser degree, ovine and bovine prolactin are direct mitogenic stimulants to the epithelium in human (female) benign breast tumours. PMID:575047

Welsch, C W; Dombroske, S E; McManus, M J; Calaf, G

1979-12-01

336

Effect of human, bovine and ovine prolactin on DNA synthesis by organ cultures of benign human breast tumours.  

PubMed Central

Ten benign breast tumours from 9 female patients (8 with fibrocystic disease and 1 with fibroadenoma) and 1 male patient (with gynaecomastia) were processed into slices and individually cultured for 2 days in serum-free Medium 199. [3H]-TdR was added to the culture medium to assess DNA synthesis. The addition of human prolactin to the culture medium (500 ng/ml) significantly (0.05 greater than P greater than 0.01) increased DNA synthesis; all 9 biopsy specimens from the 9 female patients responded positively to this hormone. Ovine prolactin (500 ng/ml) and bovine prolactin (500 ng/ml) increased the mean incorporation of [3H]-TdR into extracted DNA and increased the mean number of [3H]-TdR-labelled cells, but this increase did not reach the 5% level of probability. The sole case of male breast dysplasia analysed in this study did not respond to either human, ovine or bovine prolactin. These results provide evidence that human prolactin and, to a lesser degree, ovine and bovine prolactin are direct mitogenic stimulants to the epithelium in human (female) benign breast tumours. PMID:575047

Welsch, C. W.; Dombroske, S. E.; McManus, M. J.; Calaf, G.

1979-01-01

337

Oligodendrocyte Lineage and Subventricular Zone Response to Traumatic Axonal Injury in the Corpus Callosum  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury frequently causes traumatic axonal injury (TAI) in white matter tracts. Experimental TAI in the corpus callosum of adult mice was used to examine the effects on oligodendrocyte lineage cells and myelin in conjunction with neuroimaging. The injury targeted the corpus callosum over the subventricular zone, a source of neural stem/progenitor cells. TAI was produced in the rostral body of the corpus callosum by impact onto the skull at bregma. During the first week post-injury, magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging showed that axial diffusivity decreased in the corpus callosum and that corresponding regions exhibited significant axon damage accompanied by hypertrophic microglia and reactive astrocytes. Oligodendrocyte progenitor proliferation increased in the subventricular zone and corpus callosum. Oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum shifted toward upregulation of myelin gene transcription. Plp/CreERT:R26IAP reporter mice showed normal reporter labeling of myelin sheaths 0 to 2 days post-injury but labeling was increased between 2 to 7 days post-injury. Electron microscopy revealed axon degeneration, demyelination and redundant myelin figures. These findings expand the cell types and responses to white matter injuries that inform diffusion tensor imaging evaluation and identify pivotal white matter changes following TAI that may affect axon vulnerability vs. recovery following brain injury. PMID:24226267

Sullivan, Genevieve M.; Mierzwa, Amanda J.; Kijpaisalratana, Naruchorn; Tang, Haiying; Wang, Yong; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Selwyn, Reed; Armstrong, Regina C.

2014-01-01

338

Oligodendrocyte lineage and subventricular zone response to traumatic axonal injury in the corpus callosum.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury frequently causes traumatic axonal injury (TAI) in white matter tracts. Experimental TAI in the corpus callosum of adult mice was used to examine the effects on oligodendrocyte lineage cells and myelin in conjunction with neuroimaging. The injury targeted the corpus callosum over the subventricular zone, a source of neural stem/progenitor cells. Traumatic axonal injury was produced in the rostral body of the corpus callosum by impact onto the skull at the bregma. During the first week after injury, magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging showed that axial diffusivity decreased in the corpus callosum and that corresponding regions exhibited significant axon damage accompanied by hypertrophic microglia and reactive astrocytes. Oligodendrocyte progenitor proliferation increased in the subventricular zone and corpus callosum. Oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum shifted toward upregulation of myelin gene transcription. Plp/CreER(T):R26IAP reporter mice showed normal reporter labeling of myelin sheaths 0 to 2 days after injury but labeling was increased between 2 and 7 days after injury. Electron microscopy revealed axon degeneration, demyelination, and redundant myelin figures. These findings expand the cell types and responses to white matter injuries that inform diffusion tensor imaging evaluation and identify pivotal white matter changes after TAI that may affect axon vulnerability vs. recovery after brain injury. PMID:24226267

Sullivan, Genevieve M; Mierzwa, Amanda J; Kijpaisalratana, Naruchorn; Tang, Haiying; Wang, Yong; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Selwyn, Reed; Armstrong, Regina C

2013-12-01

339

Substantial Differences Between Human and Ovine Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Response to Osteogenic Media: How to Explain and How to Manage?  

PubMed Central

Abstract It is expected that use of adult multipotential mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bone tissue engineering (TE) will lead to improvement of TE products. Prior to clinical application, biocompatibility of bone TE products need to be tested in vitro and in vivo. In orthopedic research, sheep are a well-accepted model due to similarities with humans and are assumed to be predictive of human outcomes. In this study we uncover differences between human and ovine bone marrow–derived MSCs (BMSCs) and adipose tissue–derived MSCs (ADSCs) in response to osteogenic media. Osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and ADSCs was monitored by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition. Mineralization of ovine BMSC was achieved in medium containing NaH2PO4 as a source of phosphate ions (Pi), but not in medium containing ?-glycerophosphate (?-GP), which is most often used. In a detailed study we found no induction of ALP activity in ovine BMSCs and ADSCs upon osteogenic stimulation, which makes ?-GP an unsuitable source of phosphate ions for ovine cells. Moreover, mineralization of human ADSCs was more efficient in osteogenic medium containing NaH2PO4. These results indicate major differences between ovine and human MSCs and suggest that standard in vitro osteogenic differentiation techniques may not be suitable for all types of cells used in cell-based therapies. Since mineralization is a widely accepted marker of the osteogenic differentiation and maturation of cells in culture, it may lead to potentially misleading results and should be taken into account at the stage of planning and interpreting preclinical observations performed in animal models. We also present a cell culture protocol for ovine ADSCs, which do not express ALP activity and do not mineralize under routine pro-osteogenic conditions in vitro. We plan to apply it in preclinical experiments of bone tissue–engineered products performed in an ovine model. PMID:24083091

Kalaszczynska, Ilona; Ruminski, Slawomir; Platek, Anna E.; Bissenik, Igor; Zakrzewski, Piotr; Noszczyk, Maria

2013-01-01

340

Transcriptome signatures in Helicobacter pylori-infected mucosa identifies acidic mammalian chitinase loss as a corpus atrophy marker  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of gastric cancer cases are believed to be caused by chronic infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, and atrophic corpus gastritis is a predisposing condition to gastric cancer development. We aimed to increase understanding of the molecular details of atrophy by performing a global transcriptome analysis of stomach tissue. Methods Biopsies from patients with different stages of H. pylori infection were taken from both the antrum and corpus mucosa and analyzed on microarrays. The stages included patients without current H. pylori infection, H. pylori-infected without corpus atrophy and patients with current or past H. pylori-infection with corpus-predominant atrophic gastritis. Results Using clustering and integrated analysis, we found firm evidence for antralization of the corpus mucosa of atrophy patients. This antralization harbored gain of gastrin expression, as well as loss of expression of corpus-related genes, such as genes associated with acid production, energy metabolism and blood clotting. The analyses provided detailed molecular evidence for simultaneous intestinal metaplasia (IM) and spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in atrophic corpus tissue. Finally, acidic mammalian chitinase, a chitin-degrading enzyme produced by chief cells, was shown to be strongly down-regulated in corpus atrophy. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis revealed several gene groups which are related to development of corpus atrophy, some of which were increased also in H. pylori-infected non-atrophic patients. Furthermore, loss of acidic chitinase expression is a promising marker for corpus atrophy. PMID:24119614

2013-01-01

341

The Epicardial Neural Ganglionated Plexus of the Ovine Heart: Anatomical Basis for Experimental Cardiac Electrophysiology and Nerve Protective Cardiac Surgery  

PubMed Central

Summary BACKGROUND The sheep is routinely used in experimental cardiac electrophysiology and surgery. OBJECTIVE We aimed at (1) ascertaining the topography and architecture of the ovine epicardial neural plexus (ENP), (2) determining the relationships of the ENP with the vagal and sympathetic cardiac nerves and ganglia, and (3) evaluating gross anatomical differences and similarities among ENPs in humans, sheep and other species. METHODS The ovine ENP, extrinsic sympathetic and vagal nerves were revealed histochemically for acetylcholinesterase on whole heart and/or thorax-dissected preparations from 23 newborn lambs with subsequent examination by a stereomicroscope. RESULTS The intrinsic cardiac nerves extend from the venous part of the ovine heart hilum (HH) along the roots of the cranial (superior) caval and left azygos veins to both atria and ventricles via five epicardial routes; i.e. the dorsal right atrial (DRA), middle (MD), left dorsal (LD), right ventral (VR) and ventral left atrial (VLA) nerve subplexuses. Intrinsic nerves proceeding from the arterial part of the HH along the roots of the aorta and pulmonary trunk extend exclusively into the ventricles as the right and left coronary subplexuses. The DRA, RV, and MD subplexuses receive the main extrinsic neural input from the right cervicothoracic and the right thoracic sympathetic T2, T3 ganglia, as well as from the right vagal nerve. The LD is supplied by sizeable extrinsic nerves from the left thoracic T4-T6 sympathetic ganglia and the left vagal nerve. Sheep hearts contained on average 769±52 epicardial ganglia. Cumulative areas of epicardial ganglia on the root of the cranial vena cava and on the wall of the coronary sinus were the largest of all regions (p<0.05). CONCLUSION Despite substantial interindividual variability in the morphology of the ovine ENP, the right-sided epicardial neural subplexuses supplying the sinuatrial and atrioventricular nodes are mostly concentrated at a fat pad between the right pulmonary veins and the cranial vena cava. This is in sharp contrast with a solely left lateral neural input to the human atrioventricular node which extends mainly from the LD and MD subplexuses. The abundance of epicardial ganglia distributed widely along the ovine ventricular nerves over respectable distances below the coronary groove implies a distinctive neural control of the ventricles in human and sheep hearts. PMID:20197118

Saburkina, Inga; Rysevaite, Kristina; Pauziene, Neringa; Mischke, Karl; Schauerte, Patrick; Jalife, Jose; Pauza, Dainius H.

2011-01-01

342

Jean-Paul Rosaye Corpus et modlisation : l'exemple darwinien -1/12 - Corpus et modlisation : l'exemple darwinien  

E-print Network

: l'exemple darwinien » (J.P. Rosaye, Université d'Artois) Introduction Un corpus peut se définir et de différenciation inscrit au coeur de notre civilisation moderne et postmoderne, on peut ainsi

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

343

Progesterone and Interferon Tau Regulate Hypoxia-Inducible Factors in the Endometrium of the Ovine Uterus  

PubMed Central

In ruminants, progesterone (P4) from the ovary and interferon tau (IFNT) from the elongating blastocyst regulate expression of genes in the endometrium that are hypothesized to be important for uterine receptivity and blastocyst development. These studies determined effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy, P4, and IFNT on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) expression in the ovine uterus. HIF1A mRNA, HIF2A mRNA, and HIF2A protein were most abundant in the endometrial luminal and superficial glandular epithelia (LE and sGE, respectively) of the uterus and conceptus trophectoderm. During the estrous cycle, HIF1A and HIF2A mRNA levels were low to undetectable on d 10 in the endometrial LE/sGE, increased between d 10 and 14, and then declined on d 16. Both HIF1A and HIF2A mRNA were more abundant in the endometrial LE/sGE of pregnant ewes. However, HIF3A, HIF1B, HIF2B, and HIF3B mRNA abundance was low in most cell types of the endometria and conceptus. Treatment of ovariectomized ewes with P4 induced HIF1A and HIF2A in the endometrial LE/sGE, and intrauterine infusion of ovine IFNT further increased HIF2A in P4-treated ewes, but not in ewes treated with P4 and the antiprogestin ZK 136,317. HIF3A, HIF1B, HIF2B, and HIF3B mRNA abundance was not regulated by either P4 or IFNT. Two HIF-responsive genes, carboxy-terminal domain 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor A, were detected in both the endometrium and conceptus. These studies identified new P4-induced (HIF1A and HIF2A) and IFNT-stimulated (HIF2A) genes in the uterine LE/sGE, and implicate the HIF pathway in regulation of endometrial epithelial functions and angiogenesis, as well as peri-implantation blastocyst development. PMID:18174278

Song, Gwonhwa; Kim, Jinyoung; Bazer, Fuller W.; Spencer, Thomas E.

2008-01-01

344

Short Communication: Evaluation of the Overall Accuracy of the DeLaval Cell Counter for Somatic Cell Count in Ovine Milk: Effect of Soak Time in Diluted and Undiluted Milk Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the performance of the DeLaval cell counter (DCC) when analyzing ovine milk with dif- ferent soak times (defined as the permanence time of samples within the DCC cassette before starting the DCC counting procedure) in diluted and undiluted milk samples in 2 dairy sheep breeds. A total of 101 compos- ite ovine milk samples (50 from Assaf

C. Gonzalo; B. Linage; J. A. Carriedo; L. F. De La Fuente

2008-01-01

345

Comprehension of humor in primary agenesis of the corpus callosum.  

PubMed

Individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) can, in some cases, perform normally on standardized intelligence tests. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that individuals with ACC and normal IQ scores have deficits in domains of fluid and social intelligence. Anecdotal reports from families suggest diminished appreciation of the subtleties of social interactions, and deficits in the comprehension of jokes and stories. In this research, both the cartoon and narrative joke subtests of a humor test (developed by Brownell et al. [Brownell, H., Michel, D., Powelson, J., & Gardner, H. (1983). Surprise but not coherence: sensitivity to verbal humor in right-hemisphere patients. Brain and language, 18(1), 20-27] and Bihrle et al. [Bihrle, A. M., Brownell, H. H., Powelson, J. A., & Gardner, H. (1986). Comprehension of humorous and non-humorous materials by left and right brain-damaged patients. Brain and Cognition, 5(4), 399-411]) were given to 16 adults with complete ACC (all with IQs>80) and 31 controls of similar age and IQ. Individuals with ACC performed worse than controls on the narrative joke subtest (p<.025) when VIQ was controlled. However, on the cartoon subtest the two groups were not significantly different. Covarying age, forms of IQ, narrative memory, set-switching, and literal language comprehension did not substantially alter the group difference. However, covarying comprehension of nonliteral language and proverbs eliminated the difference, suggesting a common origin for the comprehension of jokes, nonliteral language, and proverbs, most likely related to capacity for understanding second-order meanings. PMID:15716161

Brown, Warren S; Paul, Lynn K; Symington, Melissa; Dietrich, Rosalind

2005-01-01

346

Role of different types of potassium channels in the relaxation of corpus cavernosum induced by resveratrol  

PubMed Central

Background: Resveratrol (RVT), one of the most commonly employed dietary polyphenol, is used in traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Recently, we have shown that RVT has a potent relaxant effect on rat corpus cavernosum via endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Objective: The present study addressed the question whether different types of potassium channels are involved in the endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanism of corpus cavernosum relaxation induced by RVT. Materials and Methods: Strips of corpus cavernosum from rats were mounted in an organ-bath system for isometric tension studies. Results: RVT (1-100 ?mol/L) produced concentration-dependent relaxation responses in rat corpus cavernosum pre-contracted by phenylephrine. The non-selective potassium channels blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA, 10 mmol/L), ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels blocker glibenclamide (10 ?mol/L), and inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels inhibitor barium chloride (BaCl2, 30 ?mol/L) caused a significant inhibition on the relaxation response to RVT, whereas voltage-dependent potassium channels inhibitor 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 1 mmol/L), and large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels inhibitor iberiotoxin (IbTX, 0.1 ?mol/L) did not significantly alter relaxant responses of corpus cavernosum strips to RVT. In addition, relaxant responses to RVT did not significantly inhibited by the combination of selective inhibitors of small and intermediate conductance BKCa channels (0.1 ?mol/L charybdotoxin and 1 ?mol/L apamin, respectively). Conclusion: These results demonstrated that endothelial small and intermediate conductance BKCa channels are not thought to be an important role in RVT-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of corpus cavernosum. The endothelium-independent corpus cavernosum relaxation induced by RVT is seems to largely depend on Kir channels and KATP channels in corporal tissue. PMID:24696545

Dalaklioglu, Selvinaz; Ozbey, G.

2014-01-01

347

The combination of thermal dysregulation and agenesis of corpus callosum: Shapiro's or/and reverse Shapiro's syndrome  

PubMed Central

Shapiro syndrome is an extremely rare condition consisting the clinical triad of recurrent hypothermia, hyperhydrosis and agenesis of the corpus callosum. On the other hand, reverse Shapiro's sydrome is characterized periodic hyperthermia and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Here, we describe a 3.5-year-old girl with complete agenesis of corpus callosum presenting with recurrent fever and vomiting. She also had hypothermia attacks with accompanying diaphoresis. To the best of our knowledge, there is no described case with episodes of hyperthermia, hypothermia, and vomiting associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum. Recurrent vomiting may be a newly defined symptom associated with these syndromes. PMID:24339619

Topcu, Yasemin; Bayram, Erhan; Karaoglu, Pakize; Yis, Uluc; Kurul, Semra Hiz

2013-01-01

348

Compartmentalizing Proximal FGFR1 Signaling in Ovine Placental Artery Endothelial Cell Caveolae1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Caveolae orchestrate the dominant placental angiogenic growth factor fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) signaling primarily via FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) in placental artery endothelial cells; however, how the proximal FGF2/FGFR1 signaling is organized in the caveolae is obscure. We have shown in the present study that the FGFR substrate 2alpha (FRS2alpha) is physically associated with FGFR1, and both are targeted to the caveolae via interaction with caveolin-1 in ovine fetoplacental artery endothelial cells. Treatment with FGF2 rapidly stimulated time- and concentration-dependent FRS2alpha tyrosine phosphorylation and recruited the cytosolic growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2)-GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (GAB1) complex to the caveolae, where they formed a ternary complex with FRS2alpha. Disruption of caveolae by cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin inhibited FGF2-induced FRS2alpha tyrosine phosphorylation, and it blocked the FGF2-induced recruitment of GRB2 and GAB1 to the caveolae and formation of the FRS2alpha-GRB2-GAB1 complex in the caveolae, as well as activation of the PI3K/AKT1 and MAPK1/2 pathways. Thus, these findings have demonstrated that the proximal fibroblast growth factor (FGF2/FGFR1) signaling is compartmentalized in the placental endothelial caveolae via the FGFR substrate 2? that mediates formation of a FRS2?-GRB2-GAB1 complex. PMID:22674390

Feng, Lin; Zhang, Hong-hai; Wang, Wen; Zheng, Jing; Chen, Dong-bao

2012-01-01

349

Isolation and propagation of infectious bursal disease virus using the ovine kidney continuous cell line.  

PubMed

Twenty-six samples known to contain infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were examined by virus-isolation attempts on ovine kidney (OK) cell line, Vero cell line, and chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cultures. Virus was isolated from two of 26 samples, three of 26 samples, and three of 25 samples on OK, Vero, and CEF cultures, respectively. However, in contrast to IBDV replication in Vero and CEF cultures, isolated virus was unable to induce serially sustained cytopathic effects (CPE) during successive passages in the OK cell line, unless cell lysates were treated with chloroform between every other passage. The cytopathogenicity of the untreated virus passaged in OK cells was revived and maintained upon passage in Vero cells. An initial single passage of laboratory or field material in OK cells followed by further passages in Vero cells resulted in virus isolation from six of 26 samples, which was better virus recovery than when either cell line was used alone or when CEF cultures were used. Twenty of the 26 test samples were originally positive when examined by nucleic acid hybridization with radiolabeled IBDV cDNA, indicating that some of the samples that were negative upon virus isolation using OK and Vero cells may have contained inactivated virus. PMID:1320862

Kibenge, F S; McKenna, P K

1992-01-01

350

Bacterial expression and purification of the ovine type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor ectodomain.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are essential for a wide range of developmental processes. They signal through type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors, and differ from other TGF-beta family members in that the type II receptor binds with a lower affinity than the type I. Here, we describe the development of various Escherichia coli expression systems for the extracellular domain of the ovine type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor. In order to facilitate disulfide bond formation and protein solubility, BMPRII was expressed fused to bacterial thioredoxin, which, following cleavage, could be purified using several chromatography steps. Although this material migrated as a single band in denaturing PAGE, native-PAGE indicated heterogeneity, and this protein could not be crystallised. When expressed alone, either containing a histidine tag or as an untagged protein, the receptor ectodomain was deposited as insoluble inclusion bodies. Protein subjected to in vitro refolding procedures exhibited multiple species following anion exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography, as visualised on native-PAGE. Separation of these species could be achieved using a MonoP chromatofocusing matrix. One of these separated fractions, representing about 5% of the starting material, was amenable to crystallisation, and furthermore exhibited biological activity. Crystals of the histidine-tagged form were shown to diffract weakly, whereas crystals of the native form grew in two different morphologies, and diffracted to a resolution of 1.2A. PMID:16982201

Mace, Peter D; Cutfield, John F; Cutfield, Sue M

2007-03-01

351

Biological and binding activities of ovine and porcine prolactins in porcine mammary tissue  

SciTech Connect

The concentration of prolactin receptors may play a critical role in regulating growth and development of the mammary gland during gestation and tumor development; however, the discrepancy between specific binding of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and porcine prolactin (pPRL) in porcine mammary tissue was disturbing. It was possible that /sup 125/I-oPRL may be an unsuitable ligand for the procine prolactin receptor. The validate the use of oPRL in binding assays, the biological and binding activities of oPRL and pPRL were compared. A lactogenic bioassay of pPRL was developed using porcine mammary explants cultured in Medium 199 containing insulin, cortisol, and pPRL. The potencies of oPRL and pPRL were compared using this bioassay. Oxidation of glucose and incorporation of glucose into lipids were similarly enhanced by physiological concentrations of both oPRL and pPRL. However, specific binding of /sup 125/I-oPRL was 20%, while less than 1% of /sup 125/I-pPRL was bound. /sup 125/I-oPRL bound to high affinity sites.

Jerry, D.J.

1987-01-01

352

Study of the comparative efficacy of toltrazuril and diclazuril against ovine coccidiosis in housed lambs.  

PubMed

A blinded, controlled and randomised field study was conducted on a sheep farm with a known history of coccidiosis and a high prevalence mainly of the pathogenic coccidium Eimeria ovinoidalis. The efficacy of treatment with toltrazuril (Baycox 5% suspension) against natural infections with Eimeria crandallis and/or Eimeria ovinoidalis in housed lambs was investigated in comparison with diclazuril and untreated controls. Both drugs were administered either metaphylactically (i.e., in the prepatency of Eimeria spp.) or therapeutically (after onset of oocyst excretion). A total of 145 animals aged 1 to 5 days at the start of the study were included. Examination of faecal samples was performed every second day between days 13 and 49 of the study. The assessment of treatment efficacy was based mainly on total oocyst excretion and the number of E. crandallis and E. ovinoidalis oocysts (OPG) shed throughout the study. Oocyst excretion was reduced significantly in both groups treated with toltrazuril compared with the untreated control group and with both diclazuril-treated groups. The most prevalent and most severe diarrhoea was observed in the untreated control group. In this study, toltrazuril proved to be highly effective in controlling ovine coccidiosis both metaphylactically and therapeutically. The efficacy of toltrazuril was significantly higher than the efficacy of the control substance with regard to the duration and amount of oocyst excretion, both for the comparison of metaphylactic as well as therapeutic treatment. PMID:19575235

Mundt, Hans-Christian; Dittmar, Katja; Daugschies, Arwid; Grzonka, Elmar; Bangoura, Berit

2009-08-01

353

Radioimmunoassay of bovine, ovine and porcine luteinizing hormone with a monoclonal antibody and a human tracer.  

PubMed

A radioimmunoassay for bovine (bLH), ovine (oLH) and porcine (pLH) luteinizing hormone was developed using a human 125ILH tracer from a commercial kit and a monoclonal antibody (518B7) specific for LH but with low species specificity. Standard curves demonstrated similar binding kinetics when bLH, oLH and pLH were incubated with tracer and antibody for 2 h at room temperature. A 30-min delay in the addition of the tracer gave sufficient sensitivity when analysing pLH. Separation of antibody-bound LH from free hormone was achieved by using second antibody-coated micro Sepharose beads. The assay was validated and the performance compared with that of an RIA currently in use for determination of bLH and oLH (coefficient of correlation: 0.99 and 0.98). Regardless of the standards used, intra-assay coefficients of variation were < 10% for LH concentrations exceeding 1 microgram/L. The inter-assay coefficients of variation were < 15%. The assay was used for clinical evaluation demonstrating the pre-ovulatory LH surge in two cyclic cows, LH pulsatility in an oophorectomized ewe and LH response to GnRH injection in a boar. PMID:8310898

Forsberg, M; Tagle, R; Madej, A; Molina, J R; Carlsson, M A

1993-01-01

354

Impacts of the Callipyge mutation on ovine plasma metabolites and muscle fibre type.  

PubMed

The ovine Callipyge mutation causes postnatal muscle hypertrophy localized to the pelvic limbs and torso, as well as body leanness. The mechanism underpinning enhanced muscle mass is unclear, as is the systemic impact of the mutation. Using muscle fibre typing immunohistochemistry, we confirmed muscle specific effects and demonstrated that affected muscles had greater prevalence and hypertrophy of type 2X fast twitch glycolytic fibres and decreased representation of types 1, 2C, 2A and/or 2AX fibres. To investigate potential systemic effects of the mutation, proton NMR spectra of plasma taken from lambs at 8 and 12 weeks of age were measured. Multivariate statistical analysis of plasma metabolite profiles demonstrated effects of development and genotype but not gender. Plasma from Callipyge lambs at 12 weeks of age, but not 8 weeks, was characterized by a metabolic profile consistent with contributions from the affected hypertrophic fast twitch glycolytic muscle fibres. Microarray analysis of the perirenal adipose tissue depot did not reveal a transcriptional effect of the mutation in this tissue. We conclude that there is an indirect systemic effect of the Callipyge mutation in skeletal muscle in the form of changes of blood metabolites, which may contribute to secondary phenotypes such as body leanness. PMID:24937646

Li, Juan; Greenwood, Paul L; Cockett, Noelle E; Hadfield, Tracy S; Vuocolo, Tony; Byrne, Keren; White, Jason D; Tellam, Ross L; Schirra, Horst Joachim

2014-01-01

355

Complementary tools for the control and eradication of caprine and ovine brucellosis in the European Union.  

PubMed

Caprine and ovine brucellosis is one of the most serious and complex animal health problems faced by Veterinary Services in countries where the disease is endemic. Various geographical factors and the nature of the disease itself influence its epidemiology, encouraging widespread distribution and, at the same time, impeding the ability of animal health programmes to prevent, control and eradicate it. Although strategies against brucellosis have traditionally been based on two specific tools (namely, vaccination of the at-risk population and testing and slaughter of animals which are suspected of or test positive for the disease), other complementary tools of a technical or administrative nature should also be considered. Experience in the European Union has shown that these tools are necessary to guarantee sustainable progress and success against this disease. However, these complementary tools have not always received sufficient attention during the strategic planning and subsequent implementation of animal health programmes, with consequent reductions in efficiency. The aim of this article is to review these complementary tools, in order to facilitate their adoption and use by official Veterinary Services, according to the resources available. PMID:23520752

Crespo León, F; Sáez Llorente, J L; Reviriego Gordejo, F J; Rodríguez Ferri, E F; Durán Ferrer, M

2012-12-01

356

Biomechanical studies in an ovine model of non-accidental head injury.  

PubMed

This paper presents the head kinematics of a novel ovine model of non-accidental head injury (NAHI) that consists only of a naturalistic oscillating insult. Nine, 7-to-10-day-old anesthetized and ventilated lambs were subjected to manual shaking. Two six-axis motion sensors tracked the position of the head and torso, and a triaxial accelerometer measured head acceleration. Animals experienced 10 episodes of shaking over 30 min, and then remained under anesthesia for 6h until killed by perfusion fixation of the brain. Each shaking episode lasted for 20s resulting in about 40 cycles per episode. Each cycle typically consisted of three impulsive events that corresponded to specific phases of the head's motion; the most substantial of these were interactions typically with the lamb's own torso, and these generated accelerations of 30-70 g. Impulsive loading was not considered severe. Other kinematic parameters recorded included estimates of head power transfer, head-torso flexion, and rate of flexion. Several styles of shaking were also identified across episodes and subjects. Axonal injury, neuronal reaction and albumin extravasation were widely distributed in the hemispheric white matter, brainstem and at the craniocervical junction and to a much greater magnitude in lower body weight lambs that died. This is the first biomechanical description of a large animal model of NAHI in which repetitive naturalistic insults were applied, and that reproduced a spectrum of injury associated with NAHI. PMID:24974335

Anderson, R W G; Sandoz, B; Dutschke, J K; Finnie, J W; Turner, R J; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Vink, R

2014-08-22

357

The Vacuolar-Type H+-ATPase in Ovine Rumen Epithelium is Regulated by Metabolic Signals  

PubMed Central

In this study, the effect of metabolic inhibition (MI) by glucose substitution with 2-deoxyglucose (2-DOG) and/or application of antimycin A on ovine rumen epithelial cells (REC) vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (vH+-ATPase) activity was investigated. Using fluorescent spectroscopy, basal pHi of REC was measured to be 7.3 ± 0.1 in HCO3?-free, glucose-containing NaCl medium. MI induced a strong pHi reduction (?0.44 ± 0.04 pH units) with a more pronounced effect of 2-DOG compared to antimycin A (?0.30 ± 0.03 versus ?0.21 ± 0.03 pH units). Treatment with foliomycin, a specific vH+-ATPase inhibitor, decreased REC pHi by 0.21 ± 0.05 pH units. After MI induction, this effect was nearly abolished (?0.03 ± 0.02 pH units). In addition, membrane-associated localization of vH+-ATPase B subunit disappeared. Metabolic control of vH+-ATPase involving regulation of its assembly state by elements of the glycolytic pathway could provide a means to adapt REC ATP consumption according to energy availability. PMID:20069127

Kuzinski, Judith; Zitnan, Rudolf; Warnke-Gurgel, Christina; Schweigel, Monika

2010-01-01

358

BMP13 Prevents the Effects of Annular Injury in an Ovine Model  

PubMed Central

Chronic back pain is a global health problem affecting millions of people worldwide and carries significant economic and social morbidities. Intervertebral disc damage and degeneration is a major cause of back pain, characterised by histological and biochemical changes that have been well documented in animal models. Recently there has been intense interest in early intervention in disc degeneration using growth factors or stem cell transplantation, to replenish the diseased tissues. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) have been approved for clinical use in augmenting spinal fusions, and may represent candidate molecules for intervertebral disc regeneration. BMP13 has an important role in embryonic development and recent genetic evidence shows a role in the development of the human spine. This study explores the effect of BMP13 on a damaged intervertebral disc in an ovine model of discal degeneration. We found that, when injected at the time of injury, BMP13 reversed or arrested histological changes that occurred in the control discs such as loss of extracellular matrix proteins. In addition, BMP13 injected discs retained greater hydration after 4months, and possessed more cells in the NP. Taken together, BMP13 may be a potent clinical therapeutic agent when used early in the degeneration cascade to promote healthy disc tissue. PMID:19521550

Wei, Aiqun; Williams, Lisa A; Bhargav, Divya; Shen, Bojiang; Kishen, Thomas; Duffy, Neil; Diwan, Ashish D

2009-01-01

359

Modulation of Innate Immune Responses by Influenza-Specific Ovine Polyclonal Antibodies Used for Prophylaxis  

PubMed Central

In the event of a novel influenza A virus pandemic, prophylaxis mediated by antibodies provides an adjunct control option to vaccines and antivirals. This strategy is particularly pertinent to unvaccinated populations at risk during the lag time to produce and distribute an effective vaccine. Therefore, development of effective prophylactic therapies is of high importance. Although previous approaches have used systemic delivery of monoclonal antibodies or convalescent sera, available supply is a serious limitation. Here, we have investigated intranasal delivery of influenza-specific ovine polyclonal IgG antibodies for their efficacy against homologous influenza virus challenge in a mouse model. Both influenza-specific IgG and F(ab’)2 reduced clinical scores, body weight loss and lung viral loads in mice treated 1 hour before virus exposure. Full protection from disease was also observed when antibody was delivered up to 3 days prior to virus infection. Furthermore, effective prophylaxis was independent of a strong innate immune response. This strategy presents a further option for prophylactic intervention against influenza A virus using ruminants to generate a bulk supply that could potentially be used in a pandemic setting, to slow virus transmission and reduce morbidity associated with a high cytokine phenotype. PMID:24586955

Rinaldi, Catherine; Penhale, William J.; Stumbles, Philip A.; Tay, Guan; Berry, Cassandra M.

2014-01-01

360

Identification of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in the Corpus Cavernosum in Rats  

PubMed Central

The vascular wall resident progenitor cells seem to serve as a local reservoir of cells for vascular repair. It was hypothesized that the corpus cavernosum may contain vascular wall endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). In this study, we investigated the identification and localization of EPCs in the corpus cavernosum in a rat model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to isolate EPCs from corpora cavernosum. To verify the existence and localization of EPCs, EPC-specific markers (CD34, Flk-1, and VE-cadherin) were evaluated by flow cytometric analysis and confocal microscopy. The EPC markers were mainly expressed in the cavernosal sinusoidal endothelial space. EPC-marker-positive cells made up about 3.31% of the corpus cavernosum of normal rat by FACS analysis. As shown by confocal microscopy, CD34+/Flk-1+ and CD34+/VE-cadherin+ positive cells existed in the corpus cavernosum. Our findings imply that regulation of corpus cavernosal EPCs may be a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

Lee, Jun Sik; Hwang, In Sang; Lee, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Mi Eun; Seo, Young-Woo

2014-01-01

361

A framework to improve digital corpus uses: image-mode navigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a new system to enhance navigation inside digital corpora. This system is based on an automatic indexation in image mode and provides the user intuitive navigation in interactive time. Keywords and containers are extracted directly from the document images to create an Image Mode Index, which shows the keywords as cut-out images of their actual appearances. Our approach recreates a summary of the structured documents, following indications given by the creators of the document themselves. Our system is detailed in the general case and sample applications on a 19th century handwritten corpus and a 18th century machine printed text corpus are provided. This approach, developed for documents unreachable otherwise, can be applied on any corpus where keywords and containers can be identified.

Eynard, Loris; Malleron, Vincent; Emptoz, Hubert

2011-01-01

362

Cloning, mapping and association studies of the ovine ABCG2 gene with facial eczema disease in sheep.  

PubMed

Facial eczema (FE) is a hepatogenous mycotoxicosis in sheep caused by the fungal toxin sporidesmin. Resistance to FE is a multigenic trait. To identify QTL associated with this trait, a scan of ovine chromosomes was implemented. In addition, ABCG2 was investigated as a possible positional candidate gene because of its sequence homology to the yeast PDR5 protein and its functional role as a xenobiotic transporter. The sequence of ovine ABCG2 cDNA was obtained from liver mRNA by RT-PCR and 5' and 3' RACE. The predicted protein sequence shares >80% identity with other mammalian ABCG2 proteins. SNPs were identified within exon 6, exon 9 and intron 4. The intron 4 SNP was used to map ABCG2 to ovine chromosome 6 (OAR6), about 2 cM distal to microsatellite marker OarAE101. Interestingly, this chromosomal region contains weak evidence for a FE QTL detected in a previous genome-scan experiment. To further investigate the association of ABCG2 with FE, allele frequencies for the three SNPs plus three neighbouring microsatellite markers were tested for differences in sheep selected for and against FE. Significant differences were detected in the allele frequencies of the intronic SNP marker among the resistant, susceptible and control lines. No difference in the levels of ABCG2 expression between the resistant and susceptible animals was detected by Northern hybridisation of liver RNA samples. However, significantly higher expression was observed in sporidesmin-dosed sheep compared with naïve animals. Our inference is that the ABCG2 gene may play a minor role in FE sensitivity in sheep, at least within these selection lines. PMID:17403009

Duncan, E J; Dodds, K G; Henry, H M; Thompson, M P; Phua, S H

2007-04-01

363

Ontogeny of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) in the ovine fetal hypothalamus: use of multiple CRF antibodies.  

PubMed

In previous studies, using one particular antibody, immunohistochemical localization of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) in ovine fetal brain was not possible before 90 days of gestation (term is approximately 150 days), although radioimmunoassay of hypothalamic extracts, using a different antibody, had shown CRF to be present from 63 days. The purpose of this study was to use a variety of CRF antibodies in both immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay to determine the presence and concentration of the CRF peptide as early in gestation as possible, and to determine whether more than one molecular size of CRF is detectable at any time in gestation. Seven different antibodies were used on hypothalamic tissue or extracts from seven adult sheep and 37 fetuses from 48 to 140 days of gestation. With one ovine CRF antibody (provided by Dr W. Vale, Salk Institute) immunohistochemical detection of CRF-labelled neurones and nerve fibres of the paraventricular nucleus and median eminence was possible from 49 days. The antibody with the greatest sensitivity in radioimmunoassay was one raised against human CRF, Ab-code R1 (provided by Dr E. Hillhouse, University of Newcastle upon Tyne). The hypothalamic contents of CRF (ng/whole hypothalamus) were 0.28 +/- 0.06 (mean +/- S.E.M.) (n = 4), 9.0 +/- 0.6 (n = 5), 14.3 +/- 0.6 (n = 5), 30.0 +/- 3.4 (n = 4) in fetuses at 48-50, 100-109 and 139-140 days of gestation and in adult sheep respectively. At all ages only one peak of CRF-like activity, which co-eluted with synthetic ovine CRF, was observed after chromatography of hypothalamic extracts, and assays performed with three different antibodies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2066691

Watabe, T; Levidiotis, M L; Oldfield, B; Wintour, E M

1991-06-01

364

Diffusion Tensor Measures of the Corpus Callosum in Adolescents With Adolescent Onset Alcohol Use Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background In adults, myelination injury is associated with alcoholism. Maturation of the corpus callosum is prominent during adolescence. We hypothesized that subjects with adolescent-onset alcohol use disorders (AUD; defined as Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV alcohol dependence or abuse) would have myelination mircostructural differences compared to controls. Methods Adolescent subjects (25 males, 7 females) with an AUD (16.9 ± 1.2 years), who were recruited from substance abuse treatment programs and had co-morbid mental disorders, and 28 sociodemographically similar healthy controls (17 males, 11 females; 15.9 ± 1.1 years) underwent a 3.0 T MRI diffusion tensor imaging scan. Results Measures of rostral body fractional anisotropy (FA) were higher in the AUD group than in the control group. Compared to controls, mean diffusivity (MD) was lower, while FA was higher, in the AUD group in the isthmus region. Anterior corpus callosum mircostructural development differed in adolescents with AUD, as age was positively (not negatively) associated with rostrum MD and age was negatively (not positively) associated with rostrum FA. There were sex by group interactions in that control females had higher posterior midbody FA when com pared to female adolescents with AUD. Conclusions Lower MD and higher FA values in the AUD group suggest pre-morbid vulnerability for accelerated prefrontal and temporo-parietal myelin maturation that may enhance the risk for adolescent AUD. Significant (and opposite to developmentally expected) correlations were seen between anterior corpus callosum MD and FA measures and age in the AUD group, suggesting neurotoxic effects of alcohol on adolescent corpus callosum microstructure. As seen in adults, female adolescents with AUD may be especially vulnerable to corpus callosum mircostructural injury. Further diffusion tensor imaging studies of corpus callosum maturation in children at familial risk for alcoholism, and in those with AUD, need to be done to elucidate these mechanisms. PMID:18241319

De Bellis, Michael D.; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; Hooper, Stephen R.; Gibler, Nicole; Nelson, Lauren; Hege, Steve G.; Payne, Martha E.; MacFall, James

2013-01-01

365

The development of the corpus callosum in semilobar and lobar holoprosencephaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The objective of this study was to determine whether and how a true corpus callosum develops in milder cases of holoprosencephaly.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  The MR scans of seven patients with holoprosencephaly and a callosum-like structure were reviewed. The anatomy of the callosum-like\\u000a structure and the pericallosal anatomy were evaluated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Six of the seven cases had a posterior corpus callosum. The

David Rubinstein; Ana G. Cajade-Law; Vicky Youngman; Joseph M. Hise; Mark Baganz

1996-01-01

366

Primary cervical and uterine corpus lymphoma; a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Primary lymphoma of the uterine corpus and cervix is rare. We present a case of primary non-Hodgkin follicular lymphoma isolated to uterine corpus and parametria with focal spread to ovaries and fallopian tubes, incidentally found on the background of endometrial malignancy. A summary of the published cases focusing on the presentation and prognosis as well as a review of current management are discussed. The rising incidence of extra-nodal lymphoma and recent changes in classification and therapeutic approach, require clinical vigilance. In the absence of prospective studies assessing the value of the available therapeutic options, data from retrospective series and scattered case reports are presented in this review. PMID:23641308

Anagnostopoulos, Antonios; Mouzakiti, Niki; Ruthven, Stuart; Herod, Jonathan; Kotsyfakis, Michail

2013-01-01

367

Anlisis de Sentimientos y Minera de Opiniones: el corpus EmotiBlog Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining: The EmotiBlog Corpus  

E-print Network

with the Web 2.0. Previous work has demonstrated the relevance of the Machine learning systems as toolBlog Corpus, Machine Learning. 1 Introducción y motivación1 Gracias a la expansión de la Web 2.0, los últimos for detecting opinionated information. In this paper we explore addi- tional features for a deep analysis

Escolano, Francisco

368

The Effect of Corpus Assisted Language Teaching on the Learners' Proper Use of Punctuation Marks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the critical contributions of the emerging technologies in computer sciences is the capability of corpus compilation and processing. Corpus resources and approaches are regarded as a potentially valuable areas both in developing instructional methods and designing pedagogical materials. This study aimed to explore the effect of exposing…

Celik, Serkan; Elkatmis, Metin

2013-01-01

369

Australasian Medical Journal [AMJ 2012, 5, 9, 503-506] Creation of a corpus for evidence based medicine summarisation  

E-print Network

of a corpus for evidence based medicine summarisation Diego Mollá, María Elena Santiago of a corpus for evidence based medicine summarisation. AMJ 2012, 5, 9, 503 of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM). Research and development of text summarisers

Aliod, Diego Mollá

370

Lexicometrica : Topographie et topologie textuelles, 2007 L'analyse de donnes textuelles aujourd'hui : du corpus comme  

E-print Network

Lexicometrica : Topographie et topologie textuelles, 2007 L'analyse de données textuelles aujourd'hui : du corpus comme une urne au corpus comme un plan. Retour sur les travaux actuels de topographie/topologie préoccupations fondamentales. MOTS-CLES : topologie textuelle, topographie textuelle, statistique textuelle, ADT

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

371

Clinical Features: Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum (HMSN/ACC) [OMIM #218000  

E-print Network

1/13 Clinical Features: Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy with Agenesis of the Corpus sensorimotor neuropathy resulting in hypotonia, areflexia and amyotrophy, variable degrees of dysgenesis Neuropathy with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum #12;1/13 Prenatal testing for a known mutation Sample

Ober, Carole

372

A Corpus-Based Evaluation of Syntactic Complexity Measures as Indices of College-Level ESL Writers' Language Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports results of a corpus-based evaluation of 14 syntactic complexity measures as objective indices of college-level English as a second language (ESL) writers' language development. I analyzed large-scale ESL writing data from the Written English Corpus of Chinese Learners (Wen, Wang, & Liang, 2005) using a computational system…

Lu, Xiaofei

2011-01-01

373

When I started to using BLURAccounting for Unusual Verb Complementation Patterns in an Electronic Corpus of Earlier African American English  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces BLUR, an electronic corpus of Blues lyrics from the early twentieth century, as a valuable resource for the study of syntactic phenomena in Earlier African American English and investigates the properties and origins of a peculiar construction found in it. The design of the BLUR corpus is presented, and methodological consequences resulting from the nature of the

Edgar W. Schneider; Ulrich Miethaner

2006-01-01

374

Altered lymphatics in an ovine model of congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities of the lymphatic circulation are well recognized in patients with congenital heart defects. However, it is not known how the associated abnormal blood flow patterns, such as increased pulmonary blood flow (PBF), might affect pulmonary lymphatic function and structure. Using well-established ovine models of acute and chronic increases in PBF, we cannulated the efferent lymphatic duct of the caudal mediastinal node and collected and analyzed lymph effluent from the lungs of lambs with acutely increased PBF (n = 6), chronically increased PBF (n = 6), and age-matched normal lambs (n = 8). When normalized to PBF, we found that lymph flow was unchanged following acute increases in PBF but decreased following chronic increases in PBF. The lymph:plasma protein ratio decreased with both acute and chronic increases in PBF. Lymph bioavailable nitric oxide increased following acute increases in PBF but decreased following chronic increases in PBF. In addition, we found perturbations in the transit kinetics of contrast material through the pleural lymphatics of lambs with chronic increases in PBF. Finally, there were structural changes in the pulmonary lymphatic system in lambs with chronic increases in PBF: lymphatics from these lambs were larger and more dilated, and there were alterations in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1, and Angiopoietin-2, proteins known to be important for lymphatic growth, development, and remodeling. Taken together these data suggest that chronic increases in PBF lead to both functional and structural aberrations of lung lymphatics. These findings have important therapeutic implications that warrant further study. PMID:22207591

Datar, Sanjeev A.; Johnson, Eric G.; Oishi, Peter E.; Johengen, Michael; Tang, Eric; Aramburo, Angela; Barton, Jubilee; Kuo, Hsuan-Chang; Bennett, Stephen; Xoinis, Konstantine; Reel, Bhupinder; Kalkan, Gokhan; Sajti, Eniko; Osorio, Oscar; Raff, Gary W.; Matthay, Michael A.

2012-01-01

375

Membrane modification differentially affects the binding of the lactogenic hormones human growth hormone and ovine prolactin.  

PubMed Central

Human growth hormone (hGH) and ovine prolactin (oPRL) are both lactogenic as defined by their ability to induce milk-protein synthesis in vitro in the presence of insulin and hydrocortisone. At physiological concentrations, both hGH and oPRL have similar dose-response curves in a mouse mammary gland organ culture system. Binding of 125I-labeled hGH (125I-hGH) to lactogenic receptors is competed by both hGH and oPRL, and the competition curves are nearly superimposable. Moreover, solubilized membrane proteins bound with either 125I-hGH or 125I-labeled oPRL (125I-oPRL) show the same sedimentation pattern on sucrose gradients. However, methylation of membrane phospholipids in the presence of the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine only increases the binding of 125I-hGH. Binding of either 125I-oPRL or 125I-labeled bovine growth hormone (125I-bGH) was unaffected. Addition of concanavalin A (Con A) to the membranes decreased binding of 125I-oPRL to the lactogenic site by 80%, whereas 125I-hGH binding was decreased by only 40%, with the binding of 125I-bGH unaffected. However, both hGH-and oPRL-bound proteins bind to Con A-Sepharose columns to the same extent. These results suggest that although hGH and oPRL bind to the same lactogenic site with similar affinities and elicit similar biological responses, modification of membranes either by phospholipid methylation or by Con A differentially affects the binding of these two hormones. PMID:6272313

Bhattacharya, A; Vonderhaar, B K

1981-01-01

376

Membrane modification differentially affects the binding of the lactogenic hormones human growth hormone and ovine prolactin.  

PubMed

Human growth hormone (hGH) and ovine prolactin (oPRL) are both lactogenic as defined by their ability to induce milk-protein synthesis in vitro in the presence of insulin and hydrocortisone. At physiological concentrations, both hGH and oPRL have similar dose-response curves in a mouse mammary gland organ culture system. Binding of 125I-labeled hGH (125I-hGH) to lactogenic receptors is competed by both hGH and oPRL, and the competition curves are nearly superimposable. Moreover, solubilized membrane proteins bound with either 125I-hGH or 125I-labeled oPRL (125I-oPRL) show the same sedimentation pattern on sucrose gradients. However, methylation of membrane phospholipids in the presence of the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine only increases the binding of 125I-hGH. Binding of either 125I-oPRL or 125I-labeled bovine growth hormone (125I-bGH) was unaffected. Addition of concanavalin A (Con A) to the membranes decreased binding of 125I-oPRL to the lactogenic site by 80%, whereas 125I-hGH binding was decreased by only 40%, with the binding of 125I-bGH unaffected. However, both hGH-and oPRL-bound proteins bind to Con A-Sepharose columns to the same extent. These results suggest that although hGH and oPRL bind to the same lactogenic site with similar affinities and elicit similar biological responses, modification of membranes either by phospholipid methylation or by Con A differentially affects the binding of these two hormones. PMID:6272313

Bhattacharya, A; Vonderhaar, B K

1981-09-01

377

An Injectable Nucleus Pulposus Implant Restores Compressive Range of Motion in the Ovine Disc  

PubMed Central

Study Design Investigation of injectable nucleus pulposus (NP) implant. Objective To assess the ability of a recently developed injectable hydrogel implant to restore non-degenerative disc mechanics through support of NP functional mechanics. Summary of Background Data While surgical intervention for low back pain is effective for some patients, treated discs undergo altered biomechanics and adjacent levels are at increased risk for accelerated degeneration. One potential treatment as an alternative to surgery for degenerated disc includes the percutaneous delivery of agents to support NP functional mechanics. The implants are delivered in a minimally invasive fashion, potentially on an outpatient basis, and do not preclude later surgical options. One of the challenges in designing such implants include the need to match key NP mechanical behavior and mimic the role of native non-degenerate NP in spinal motion. Methods The oxidized hyaluronic acid gelatin implant material was prepared. In vitro mechanical testing was performed in mature ovine bone-disc-bone units in three stages: intact, discectomy, and implantation vs. sham. Tested samples were cut axially for qualitative structural observations. Results Discectomy increased axial range of motion (ROM) significantly compared to intact. Hydrogel implantation reduced ROM 17% (p < 0.05) compared to discectomy and returned ROM to intact levels (ROM intact 0.71 mm, discectomy 0.87 mm, post-implantation 0.72 mm). While ROM for the hydrogel implant group was statistically unchanged compared to the intact disc, ROM for sham discs, which received a discectomy and no implant, was significant increase compared to intact. The compression and tension stiffness were decreased with discectomy and remained unchanged for both implant and sham groups, as expected because the annulus fibrosus was not repaired. Gross morphology images confirmed no ejection of NP implant. Conclusion An injectable implant that mimics non-degenerate NP has the potential to return motion segment ROM to normal subsequent to injury. PMID:22588378

Malhotra, Neil R.; Han, Woojin M.; Beckstein, Jesse; Cloyd, Jordan; Chen, Weiliam; Elliott, Dawn M.

2013-01-01

378

An influx of macrophages is the predominant local immune response in ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

Infection with a retrovirus, Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), causes ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). The excess production of surfactant proteins by alveolar tumour cells results in increased production of pulmonary fluid, which is characteristically expelled through the nostrils of affected sheep. The immune response to JSRV and the tumour is poorly understood: no JSRV-specific circulating antibodies or T cells have been detected to date. The aim of the present study was to obtain phenotypic evidence for a local immune response in OPA lungs. Specific-pathogen free lambs were infected intratracheally with JSRV. When clinical signs of OPA were apparent, the lungs were removed at necropsy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on lung sections using a panel of mouse anti-sheep mAbs. No influx of dendritic cells, B cells, CD4, CD8 or gammadelta T cells was seen in the neoplastic nodules or in their periphery. MHC Class II-positive cells were found intratumourally, peritumourally and in the surrounding alveolar lumina. In the tumours, many of these cells were shown to be fibroblasts and the remainder were likely to be mature macrophages. In the alveolar lumen, the MHC Class II-positive cells were CD14-positive and expressed high levels of IFN-gamma. They appeared to be immature monocytes or macrophages which then differentiated to become CD14-negative as they reached the periphery of the tumours. A high level of MHC Class I expression was detected on a range of cells in the OPA lungs but the tumour nodules themselves contained no MHC Class I-positive cells. On the basis of these findings, it is proposed that the lack of an effective immune response in OPA could result from a mechanism of peripheral tolerance in which the activity of the invading macrophages is suppressed by the local environment, possibly as a consequence of the inhibitory properties of the surfactant proteins. PMID:15878202

Summers, C; Norval, M; De Las Heras, M; Gonzalez, L; Sharp, J M; Woods, G M

2005-07-15

379

Kinetics of atrial repolarization alternans in a free-behaving ovine model  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Repolarization alternans (Re-ALT), a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential repolarization, promotes dispersion of repolarization, wavebreaks and reentry. Recently, Re-ALT has been shown to play an important role in the transition from rapid pacing to atrial fibrillation (AF) in humans. The detailed kinetics of atrial Re-ALT, however, has not been reported so far. We developed a chronic free-behaving ovine pacing model to study the kinetics of atrial Re-ALT as a function of pacing rate. METHODS Thirteen sheep were chronically implanted with two pacemakers for the recording of broadband right atrial unipolar electrograms and delivery of rapid pacing protocols. Beat-to-beat differences in atrial T-wave apex amplitude as a measure of Re-ALT and activation time were analyzed at incremental pacing rates until the effective refractory period (ERP) defined as stable 2:1 capture. RESULTS Atrial Re-ALT appeared intermittently but without periodicity, and increased in amplitude as a function of pacing rate until ERP. Intermittent 2:1 atrial capture was observed at pacing cycle lengths 40ms above ERP, and increased in duration as a function of pacing rate. Episodes of rapid pacing-induced AF were rare, and were preceded by Re-ALT or complex oscillations of atrial repolarization, but without intermittent capture. CONCLUSION We show in vivo that atrial Re-ALT developed and increased in magnitude with rate until stable 2:1 capture. In rare instances where capture failure did not occur, Re-ALT and complex oscillations of repolarization surged and preceded AF initiation. PMID:22554055

Jousset, Florian; Tenkorang, Joanna; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Pascale, Patrizio; Ruchat, Patrick; Rollin, Anne Garderes; Fromer, Martin; Narayan, Sanjiv M.; Pruvot, Etienne

2012-01-01

380

Developmental programming: prenatal androgen exposure alters the gonadotroph population of the ovine pituitary gland.  

PubMed

In utero exposure of the female foetus to androgens during development disrupts the reproductive axis and results in hypersecretion of luteinising hormone (LH) (but not follicle-stimulating hormone) in postnatal life. Abnormalities in the neural circuits controlling hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone have been documented; however, androgens could also programme abnormalities in the pituitary gland. Ovine foetuses were exposed to either testosterone propionate or the non-aromatisable androgen dihydro-testosterone from days 30-90 of gestation (term 147 days) and the effects on the functional morphology of the pituitary were determined. Exogenous testosterone propionate exposure resulted in pituitary glands in adult male and female sheep that were 40% heavier than controls. Because this effect was not observed in the dihydro-testosterone-exposed animals, these actions are mediated via the oestrogen receptor (ER). No significant differences were apparent in 90- or 140-day foetuses. There was no difference between control and androgen-exposed animals in the density of LH? or ER? immunoreactive cells in the pituitary although the density of follicle-stimulating hormone-? immunoreactive cells was lower in the testosterone-treated animals. The percentage of cells co-localising LH? and ER? was lower in the testosterone-treated ewes and this may, in part, explain a reduced ability to respond to steroid feedback. Thus, enlargement of the pituitary gland, coupled with a reduced sensitivity to oestrogen negative-feedback, may contribute to the hyper-secretion of LH observed in animals that have been exposed to excess androgens during foetal life. PMID:22129152

Robinson, J E; Hastie, P M; Shah, A; Smith, A; Evans, N P

2012-03-01

381

Quantification of biomechanical interaction of transcatheter aortic valve stent deployed in porcine and ovine hearts.  

PubMed

Success of the deployment and function in transcatheter aortic valve replacement is heavily reliant on the tissue-stent interaction. The present study quantified important tissue-stent contact variables of self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve stents when deployed into ovine and porcine aortic roots, such as the stent radial expansion force, stent pullout force, the annulus deformation response and the coefficient of friction on the tissue-stent contact interface. Braided Nitinol stents were developed, tested to determine stent crimped diameter vs. stent radial force from a stent crimp experiment, and deployed in vitro to quantify stent pullout, aortic annulus deformation, and the coefficient of friction between the stent and the aortic tissue from an aortic root-stent interaction experiment. The results indicated that when crimped at body temperature from 26 mm to 19, 21 and 23 mm stent radial forces were approximately 30-40% higher than those crimped at room temperature. Coefficients of friction leveled to approximately 0.10 ± 0.01 as stent wire diameter increased and annulus size decreased from 23 to 19 mm. Regardless of aortic annulus size and species tested, it appeared that a minimum of about 2.5 mm in annular dilatation, caused by about 60 N of radial force from stent expansion, was needed to anchor the stent against a pullout into the left ventricle. The study of the contact biomechanics in animal aortic tissues may help us better understand characteristics of tissue-stent interactions and quantify the baseline responses of non-calcified aortic tissues. PMID:23161165

Mummert, Joseph; Sirois, Eric; Sun, Wei

2013-03-01

382

THE PEROXYNITRITE CATALYST WW-85 IMPROVES PULMONARY FUNCTION IN OVINE SEPTIC SHOCK  

PubMed Central

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is associated with excessive production of nitric oxide (NO•) and superoxide (O2?), forming peroxynitrite (ONOO?), which in turn, acts as a terminal mediator of cellular injury by producing cell necrosis and apoptosis. We examined the effect of the ONOO? decomposition catalyst WW-85 in a sheep model of acute lung injury (ALI) and septic shock. Eighteen sheep were operatively prepared and randomly allocated, either to the sham, control, or WW-85 group (n=6 each). Following a tracheotomy, ALI was produced in the control and WW-85 group by insufflation of four sets of 12 breaths of cotton smoke. Then, a 30 mL suspension of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (containing 2–5×1011 cfu) was instilled into the lungs according to an established protocol. The sham group received only the vehicle (30 mL saline). The sheep were studied in awake state for 24 hrs and ventilated with 100% oxygen. WW-85 was administered 1 h post injury as bolus infusion (0.1 mg/kg), followed by a continuous infusion of 0.02 mg•kg?1•h?1 until the end of the 24-h experimental period. Compared to injured but untreated controls, WW-85-treated animals had significantly improved gas exchange, reductions in airway obstruction, shunt formation, lung myeloperoxidase-, lung malondialdehyde-, lung 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations, and plasma nitrate-to-nitrite (NOx) levels. Animals treated with WW-85 exhibited less microvascular leakage and improvements in pulmonary function. These results provide evidence that blockade of the nitric oxide - peroxynitrite pathway improves disturbances from septic shock, as demonstrated in a clinically relevant ovine experimental model. PMID:20577150

Maybauer, Dirk M.; Maybauer, Marc O.; Szabo, Csaba; Cox, Robert A.; Westphal, Martin; Kiss, Levente; Horvath, Eszter M.; Traber, Lillian D.; Hawkins, Hal K.; Salzman, Andrew L.; Southan, Garry J.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

2013-01-01

383

Quantification of Biomechanical Interaction of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Stent Deployed in Porcine and Ovine Hearts  

PubMed Central

Success of the deployment and function in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is heavily reliant on the tissue-stent interaction. The present study quantified important tissue-stent contact variables of self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) stents when deployed into ovine and porcine aortic roots, such as the stent radial expansion force, stent pullout force, the annulus deformation response and the coefficient of friction on the tissue-stent contact interface. Braided Nitinol stents were developed, tested to determine stent crimped diameter vs. stent radial force from a stent crimp experiment, and deployed in vitro to quantify stent pullout, aortic annulus deformation, and the coefficient of friction between the stent and the aortic tissue from an aortic root-stent interaction experiment. The results indicated that when crimped at body temperature from 26 mm to 19, 21 and 23 mm stent radial forces were approximately 30-40% higher than those crimped at room temperature. Coefficients of friction leveled to approximately 0.10 ± 0.01 as stent wire diameter increased and annulus size decreased from 23 to 19 mm. Regardless of aortic annulus size and species tested, it appeared that a minimum of about 2.5 mm in annular dilatation, caused by about 60N of radial force from stent expansion, was needed to anchor the stent against a pullout into the left ventricle. The study of the contact biomechanics in animal aortic tissues may help us better understand characteristics of tissue-stent interactions and quantify the baseline responses of non-calcified aortic tissues. PMID:23161165

Mummert, Joseph; Sirois, Eric; Sun, Wei

2012-01-01

384

Placental TonEBP/NFAT5 osmolyte regulation in an ovine model of intrauterine growth restriction.  

PubMed

TonEBP/NFAT5 (the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein/nuclear factor of activated T cells) modulates cellular response to osmotic changes by accumulating inositol and sorbitol inside the cells. Our objective was to assess placental osmolytes, TonEBP/NFAT5 RNA and protein expression, and signaling molecules across gestation between control and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) ovine pregnancies. Pregnant sheep were placed in hyperthermic conditions to induce IUGR. Placental tissues were collected at 55, 95, and 130 days gestational age (dGA) to measure inositol, sorbitol, TonEBP/NFAT5 (NFAT5), sodium-dependent myo-inositol transporter (SMIT; official symbol SLC5A3), aldose reductase (AR), and NADPH (official symbol DE-CR1). Placental weight was reduced in IUGR compared to controls at 95 and 130 dGA. Osmolyte concentrations were similar between control and IUGR placentas, but both groups demonstrated a significant decrease in inositol concentration and an increase in sorbitol concentration with advancing gestation. Cytosolic NFAT5 protein decreased significantly from 55 to 95 dGA in both groups, and nuclear NFAT5 protein increased only at 130 dGA in the IUGR group, but no differences were seen between groups for either cytosolic or nuclear NFAT5 protein concentrations. DE-CR1 concentrations were similar between groups and increased significantly with advancing gestational age. AR was lowest at 55dGA, and SLC5A3 increased with advancing gestational age. We conclude that both placental osmolytes inositol and sorbitol (and their corresponding proteins SLC5A3 and AR) change with gestational age and are regulated, at least in part, by NFAT5 and DE-CR1 (NADPH). The inverse relationship between each osmolyte across gestation (e.g., inositol higher in early gestation and sorbitol higher in late gestation) may reflect nutritional needs that change across gestation. PMID:22190709

Arroyo, Juan A; Garcia-Jones, Pastora; Graham, Amanda; Teng, Cecilia C; Battaglia, Frederick C; Galan, Henry L

2012-03-01

385

An investigation of growth factors and lactoferrin in naturally occurring ovine pulmonary adenomatosis.  

PubMed

Ovine pulmonary adenomatosis (OPA), also known as jaagsiekte, is a transmissible beta retrovirus-induced lung tumour of sheep that has several features resembling human bronchoalveolar carcinoma (BAC). Angiogenesis has been suggested to be one of the most important factors underlying tumour growth and invasion. This process involves the action of growth factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-C and its receptor (PDGFR-?). Bovine lactoferrin (bLF), an iron and heparin-binding glycoprotein secreted into various biological fluids, has been implicated in innate immunity and has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour functions. Tissues from 16 cases of OPA were compared with tissues from seven healthy control sheep by immunohistochemistry. Expression of the markers was assessed semi-quantitatively by ascribing an immunoreactivity score (IRS) with a maximum value of 300. VEGF-C, bFGF, PDGF-C, PDGFR-? and bLF signals were detected in 10/16, 15/16, 12/16, 15/16 and 10/16 of the OPA cases studied, respectively. bLF expression was weak in the neoplastic epithelial cells (IRS 21.4 ± 10.0) in contrast to high levels detected in infiltrating macrophages and plasma cells (IRS 141.3 ± 24.8 and 140.0 ± 25.1, respectively). The PDGFR-? IRS was elevated for neoplastic epithelial cells (108.9 ± 18.2) and was lowest for macrophages and plasma cells (20.4 ± 13.1 and 13.7 ± 12.4, respectively). These results suggest that bFGF, VEGF-C and PDGF-C have roles in the pathogenesis of OPA. bLF may activate macrophages and plasma cells in these lesions, but limited expression of bLF by neoplastic cells may be a consequence of defective or impaired function of this molecule. PMID:22721818

Sozmen, M; Beytut, E

2012-11-01

386

Preventing and treating discitis: cephazolin penetration in ovine lumbar intervertebral disc  

PubMed Central

Infection can occur after any spinal procedure that violates the disc and although it is not common, the potential consequences are serious. Treatment of discitis is not always successful and the key to management is prevention. Intradiscal prophylaxis with antibiotic is routinely used in spinal surgery, but there is a limited understanding of how well antibiotics can enter the avascular disc after intravenous injection. An in vivo ovine study to optimise prophylactic and parenteral treatment of discitis is described to assess the effectiveness of cephazolin in preventing and treating infection. The concentration of cephazolin was measured in disc tissue from normal and degenerate sheep discs to determine if cephazolin can enter the disc and if disc degeneration affects antibiotic uptake. Fourteen sheep were deliberately inoculated with bacteria to induce discitis. Eight sheep (“prophylaxis” group) were given either a 0, 1, 2 or 3 g dose of prophylactic cephazolin before inoculation while the remaining sheep (“treatment” group) were treated with cephazolin commencing 7 days after inoculation for 21 days at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day. Histopathology and radiography were used to assess the effect of the different treatments. Cephazolin was given 30 min prior to sacrifice and the intradiscal concentration was measured by biochemistry. In the “prophylaxis” group all doses of antibiotic provided some protection against infection, although it was not dose dependent. In the “treatment” group discitis was confirmed radiologically and histologically in all animals from 2 weeks onwards. Biochemical assay confirmed that antibiotic is distributed throughout the disc but was present in higher concentration in the anulus fibrosus than the nucleus pulposus. This study demonstrated that whilst the incidence of iatrogenic discitis can be reduced by antibiotic prophylaxis, it could not be abolished in all incidences with a broad-spectrum antibiotic such as cephazolin. Furthermore, antibiotics were ineffective at preventing endplate destruction once an intradiscal inoculum was established. PMID:16830132

Rahmat, Razmi; Fraser, Robert; Moore, Robert

2006-01-01

387

Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone (GnIH) Secretion into the Ovine Hypophyseal Portal System  

PubMed Central

GnIH was first identified in avian species, and there is now strong evidence that it is operant in mammals as an inhibitor of reproduction. Mammalian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH)-3 is encoded by the RFRP gene in neurons of the dorsomedial nucleus. These neurons project to the median eminence, predicting a role as a secreted neurohormone and regulation of the pituitary gonadotropes. To determine whether GnIH-3 is a secreted neurohormone, we measured its concentration in hypophyseal portal blood in ewes during the nonbreeding (anestrous) season and during the luteal and follicular phases of the estrous cycle in the breeding season. Paired portal and jugular blood samples were collected and plasma prepared for RIA using an ovine GnIH-3 antibody. Pulsatile GnIH-3 secretion was observed in the portal blood of all animals. Mean GnIH-3 pulse amplitude and pulse frequency was higher during the nonbreeding season. GnIH-3 was virtually undetectable in peripheral blood plasma. There was a lack of association between secretory pulses of GnIH-3 (portal) and LH (peripheral). To determine the role of secreted GnIH-3, we examined its effects on GnRH-stimulated LH secretion in hypothalamo-pituitary-disconnected ewes; a significant reduction in the LH response to GnRH was observed. Finally, to identify cellular targets in the pituitary, the expression of GnIH receptor [G protein-coupled receptor 147 (GPR147)] in fractions enriched for gonadotropes somatotropes, and lactotropes was examined; expression was observed in each cell type. These data show GnIH-3 is secreted into portal blood to act on pituitary gonadotropes, reducing the action of GnRH. PMID:22549225

Ross Young, I.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Clarke, Iain J.

2012-01-01

388

31 CFR 358.19 - Who is responsible for any loss resulting from the conversion of a bearer corpus missing callable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...responsible for any loss resulting from the conversion of a bearer corpus missing callable... REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY CONVERSION OF BEARER CORPORA AND DETACHED BEARER...responsible for any loss resulting from the conversion of a bearer corpus missing...

2010-07-01

389

Separation of the unsaponifiable matter from cottonseed oil by adsorption  

E-print Network

reabsorption of calcium and phosphoric acids and regulates their proportion. (15) The relation of sterols to the sexual hormones is also important. Cholesterol ~ Androsteron (male sexual hormone) Stigmasterol~ Progestone (Corpus luteum hormone... reabsorption of calcium and phosphoric acids and regulates their proportion. (15) The relation of sterols to the sexual hormones is also important. Cholesterol ~ Androsteron (male sexual hormone) Stigmasterol~ Progestone (Corpus luteum hormone...

Zeitoun, Mohamed Ali

2012-06-07

390

Sequence diversity of the leukotoxin (lktA) gene in caprine and ovine strains of Mannheimia haemolytica.  

PubMed

Mannheimia haemolytica is the aetiological agent of pneumonic pasteurellosis in small ruminants. The primary virulence factor of the bacterium is a leukotoxin (LktA), which induces apoptosis in susceptible cells via mitochondrial targeting. It has been previously shown that certain lktA alleles are associated either with cattle or sheep. The objective of the present study was to investigate lktA sequence variation among ovine and caprine M haemolytica strains isolated from pneumonic lungs, revealing any potential adaptation for the caprine host, for which there is no available data. Furthermore, we investigated amino acid variation in the N-terminal part of the sequences and its effect on targeting mitochondria. Data analysis showed that the prevalent caprine genotype differed at a single non-synonymous site from a previously described uncommon bovine allele, whereas the ovine sequences represented new, distinct alleles. N-terminal sequence differences did not affect the mitochondrial targeting ability of the isolates; interestingly enough in one case, mitochondrial matrix targeting was indicated rather than membrane association, suggesting an alternative LktA trafficking pattern. PMID:23396525

Vougidou, C; Sandalakis, V; Psaroulaki, A; Petridou, E; Ekateriniadou, L

2013-04-20

391

Use of Murine Bioassay to Resolve Ovine Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Cases Showing a Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Molecular Profile  

PubMed Central

Two cases of unusual transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) were diagnosed on the same farm in ARQ/ARQ PrP sheep showing attributes of both bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and scrapie. These cases, UK-1 and UK-2, were investigated further by transmissions to wild-type and ovine transgenic mice. Lesion profiles (LP) on primary isolation and subpassage, incubation period (IP) of disease, PrPSc immunohistochemical (IHC) deposition pattern and Western blot profiles were used to characterize the prions causing disease in these sheep. Results showed that both cases were compatible with scrapie. The presence of BSE was contraindicated by the following: LP on primary isolation in RIII and/or MR (modified RIII) mice; IP and LP after serial passage in wild-type mice; PrPSc deposition pattern in wild-type mice; and IP and Western blot data in transgenic mice. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed that each case generated two distinct PrPSc deposition patterns in both wild-type and transgenic mice, suggesting that two scrapie strains coexisted in the ovine hosts. Critically, these data confirmed the original differential IHC categorization that these UK-1 and UK-2 cases were not compatible with BSE. PMID:21919992

Beck, Katy E; Sallis, Rosemary E; Lockey, Richard; Vickery, Christopher M; Beringue, Vincent; Laude, Hubert; Holder, Thomas M; Thorne, Leigh; Terry, Linda A; Tout, Anna C; Jayasena, Dhanushka; Griffiths, Peter C; Cawthraw, Saira; Ellis, Richard; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Groschup, Martin H; Simmons, Marion M; Spiropoulos, John

2012-01-01

392

Regeneration of nucleus pulposus tissue in an ovine intervertebral disc degeneration model by cell-free resorbable polymer scaffolds.  

PubMed

Degeneration of intervertebral discs (IVDs) occurs frequently and is often associated with lower back pain. Recent treatment options are limited and treat the symptoms rather than regenerate the degenerated disc. Cell-free, freeze-dried resorbable polyglycolic acid (PGA)-hyaluronan implants were used in an ovine IVD degeneration model. The nucleus pulposus of the IVD was partially removed, endoscopically. PGA-hyaluronan implants were immersed in autologous sheep serum and implanted into the disc defect. Animals with nucleotomy only served as controls. The T2-weighted/fat suppression sequence signal intensity index of the operated discs, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), showed that implantation of the PGA-hyaluronan implant improved (p?=?0.0066) the MRI signal compared to controls at 6?months after surgery. Histological analysis by haematoxylin and eosin and safranin O staining showed the ingrowth of cells with typical chondrocytic morphology, even cell distribution, and extracellular matrix rich in proteoglycan. Histomorphometric analyses confirmed that the implantation of the PGA-hyaluronan scaffolds improved (p?=?0.027) the formation of regenerated tissue after nucleotomy. Disc heights remained stable in discs with nucleotomy only as well as after implantation of the implant. In conclusion, implantation of cell-free polymer-based implants after nucleotomy induces nucleus pulposus tissue regeneration and improves disc water content in the ovine model. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22865642

Woiciechowsky, Christian; Abbushi, Alexander; Zenclussen, Maria L; Casalis, Pablo; Krüger, Jan Philipp; Freymann, Undine; Endres, Michaela; Kaps, Christian

2014-10-01

393

Analysis and evaluation of a biomedical polycarbonate urethane tested in an in vitro study and an ovine arthroplasty model. Part II: in vivo investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polyurethane (PU) elastomer Corethane 80A (Corvita) is being considered as the acetabular bearing material in a novel total replacement hip joint. Its biostability was investigated in vitro (Analysis and evaluation of a biomedical polycarbonate urethane tested in an in vitro study and an ovine arthroplasty model. Part I: material selection and evaluation, Biomaterials, in press) together with three other

Imran Khan; Nigel Smith; Eric Jones; Dudley S Finch; Ruth Elizabeth Cameron

2005-01-01

394

Analysis and evaluation of a biomedical polycarbonate urethane tested in an in vitro study and an ovine arthroplasty model. Part I: materials selection and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polyurethane elastomer (PU) Corethane 80A (Corvita) is being considered as the acetabular bearing material in a novel total replacement hip joint. The biostability of Corethane 80A was investigated in vitro (this work) and in vivo (reported separately) in a fully functioning ovine total hip arthroplasty (THA) model, with the PU as the bearing layer in a prototype compliant layer

Imran Khan; Nigel Smith; Eric Jones; Dudley S Finch; Ruth Elizabeth Cameron

2005-01-01

395

Ovine fetal development is more sensitive to perturbation by the presence of serum in embryo culture before rather than after compaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on subsequent fetal development of the presence or absence of serum at different times during IVC of ovine zygotes were studied. Zygotes, recovered from superovulated ewes 36h after intrauterine AI using semen from a single sire, were cultured for 5 days in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) media supplemented with either BSA and amino acids (SOF?) or with 10%

J. A. Rooke; T. G. McEvoy; C. J. Ashworth; J. J. Robinson; I. Wilmut; L. E. Young; K. D. Sinclair

2007-01-01

396

Morphological characterization of pre- and peri-implantation in vitro cultured, somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vivo derived ovine embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processes of cellular differentiation were studied in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), in vitro cultured (IVC) and in vivo developed (in vivo) ovine embryos on days 7, 9, 11, 13, 17 and 19. SCNT embryos were constructed from in vitro matured oocytes and granulosa cells, and IVC embryos were produced by in vitro culture of in vivo fertilized zygotes.

P Tveden-Nyborg; T T Peura; K M Hartwich; S K Walker; P Maddox-Hyttel

2005-01-01

397

Towards a Discursive Representation of Public Opinion. The Problems Involved in Building and Analysing Corpuses of Open-Ended Poll Questions.  

E-print Network

corpuses. We do not set out the tools or the methods ­ in particular the analysis of textual data applied to this type of corpus ­ but instead we identify the socio-political and linguistic conditions which govern the creation of such corpuses and which also partly determine the strategies for analysis and interpretation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

398

33 CFR 165.809 - Security Zones; Port of Port Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor...authorized by the Captain of the Port Corpus Christi or a designated...commercial fishing vessels requiring entry into the security zone must contact the Captain of the Port Corpus Christi or a...

2010-07-01

399

Annotating Irony in a Novel Italian Corpus for Sentiment Analysis Andrea Gianti  

E-print Network

for the devel- opment of an Italian corpus annotated for sentiment analy- sis. We concentrate our attention relevance theory (Sperber and Wil- son, 1986), suggests that irony is a variety of echoic use of language sentiment. Microblogging messages, like "tweets" or Facebook messages, emerged as a very valuable

Torino, Università di

400

Psychological Correlates of Handedness and Corpus Callosum Asymmetry in Autism: The Left Hemisphere Dysfunction Theory Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rightward cerebral lateralization has been suggested to be involved in the neuropathology of autism spectrum conditions. We investigated functional and neuroanatomical asymmetry, in terms of handedness and corpus callosum measurements in male adolescents with autism, their unaffected siblings and controls, and their associations with executive…

Floris, Dorothea L.; Chura, Lindsay R.; Holt, Rosemary J.; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Spencer, Michael D.

2013-01-01

401

Corpus Callosum Morphology in Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Morphometric Analysis of MRI.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed that, compared to nondisabled controls, the seven children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had a smaller corpus callosum. Results suggest that subtle differences may exist in the brains of these children and that deviations in normal corticogenesis may underlie the…

Hynd, George W.; And Others

1991-01-01

402

Development of a Speaker Discrimination Test for Cochlear Implant Users Based on the Oldenburg Logatome Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to develop a speaker discrimination test for cochlear implant (CI) users. The speech material was drawn from the Oldenburg Logatome (OLLO) corpus, which contains 150 different logatomes read by 40 German and 10 French native speakers. The prototype test battery included 120 logatome pairs spoken by 5 male and 5 female speakers with balanced

Roland Mühler; Michael Ziese; Dorothea Rostalski

2009-01-01

403

p. 21-24, 154-157 Using corpus linguistics 3Cs  

E-print Network

of scientific papers on the subject of your interest. By analyzing your personal corpus, you can learn very for example "such" and push "Start." 3.4 In the "Level 1" for sorting, set "1R" and push the "Sort" button" to "4" and push "Start." This will confirm that "such as" is very frequent 3.6 You can verify which

Miyashita, Yasushi

404

THE TDT-2 TEXT AND SPEECH CORPUS Chris Cieri, David Graff, Mark Liberman,  

E-print Network

THE TDT-2 TEXT AND SPEECH CORPUS Chris Cieri, David Graff, Mark Liberman, Nii Martey, Stephanie includes: · Original reference audio which the research sites may use to generate their own text · SGML · Tokenized, non-segmented text · ASR output for all audio generated by Dragon Systems · Boundary tables

Pennsylvania, University of

405

The Case of Perrin and Thomson: An Example of the Use of a Mini-Corpus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although recent trends have been towards large corpora, there is a valid place for the study of small corpora. This article is an example of one such study using a corpus of late 19th century texts, consisting of 1783 words in French by Perrin, and 2824 words in English by Thomson. Perrin uses more first person pronouns in a wider range of…

Banks, David

2005-01-01

406

Reduced White Matter Connectivity in the Corpus Callosum of Children with Tourette Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Brain imaging studies have revealed anatomical anomalies in the brains of individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS). Prefrontal regions have been found to be larger and the corpus callosum (CC) area smaller in children and young adults with TS compared with healthy control subjects, and these anatomical features have been understood to…

Plessen, Kerstin J.; Gruner, Renate; Lundervold, Arvid; Hirsch, Jochen G.; Xu, Dongrong; Bansal, Ravi; Hammar, Asa; Lundervold, Astri J.; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Lie, Stein Atle; Gass, Achim; Peterson, Bradley S.; Hugdahl, Kenneth

2006-01-01

407

BIOMETRICS ON THE INTERNET MCYT baseline corpus: a bimodal biometric database  

E-print Network

BIOMETRICS ON THE INTERNET MCYT baseline corpus: a bimodal biometric database J. Ortega-Garcia, J, C. Vivaracho, D. Escudero and Q.-I. Moro Abstract: The current need for large multimodal databases to evaluate automatic biometric recognition systems has motivated the development of the MCYT bimodal database

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

408

ORIGINAL PAPER Corpus Callosum Anatomy in Right-Handed Homosexual and  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Corpus Callosum Anatomy in Right-Handed Homosexual and Heterosexual Men Sandra F The results of several studies have shown that homosexual men have an increased prevalence of non that isthmal area would be greater in homosexual men, even among right handers. Twelve homosexual and ten

Stanchev, Peter

409

Corpus-based Static Branch Prediction Brad Calder, Dirk Grunwald, Donald Lindsay,  

E-print Network

Corpus-based Static Branch Prediction Brad Calder, Dirk Grunwald, Donald Lindsay, James Martin Boulder, CO 80309-0430 USA Abstract Correctly predicting the direction that branches will take is increasingly important in today's wide-issue computer archi- tectures. The name program-based branch prediction

Martin, James H.

410

Congenital and Acquired Abnormalities of the Corpus Callosum: A Pictorial Essay  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review is to illustrate the wide spectrum of lesions in the corpus callosum, both congenital and acquired: developmental abnormalities, phakomatoses, neurometabolic disorders, demyelinating diseases, infection and inflammation, vascular lesions, neoplasms, traumatic and iatrogenic injury, and others. Cases include fetuses, children, and adults with rich iconography from the authors' own archive. PMID:24027754

Krupa, Katarzyna; Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika

2013-01-01

411

MRI Findings of Coexistence of Ectopic Neurohypophysis, Corpus Callosum Dysgenesis, and Periventricular Neuronal Heterotopia  

PubMed Central

Ectopic neurohypophysis is a pituitary gland abnormality, which can accompany growth hormone deficiency associated with dwarfism. Here we present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a rare case of ectopic neurohypophysis, corpus callosum dysgenesis, and periventricular neuronal heterotopia coexisting, with a review of the literature. PMID:24987569

Arslan, Harun; Sayl?k, Metin; Akdeniz, Huseyin

2014-01-01

412

TBALL DATA COLLECTION: THE MAKING OF A YOUNG CHILDREN'S SPEECH CORPUS  

E-print Network

collection for the TBALL project (Technology Based Assessment of Language and Literacy) and report also discuss the task this corpus was designed to serve and our research approach. 1. INTRODUCTION. Recently, there have been several notable projects that have used speech technology in educational

Alwan, Abeer

413

Linguistic Markers of Stance in Early and Advanced Academic Writing: A Corpus-Based Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses corpus methods to examine linguistic expressions of stance in over 4,000 argumentative essays written by incoming first-year university students in comparison with the writing of upper-level undergraduate students and published academics. The findings reveal linguistic stance markers shared across the first-year essays despite…

Aull, Laura L.; Lancaster, Zak

2014-01-01

414

Corpus Callosum Analysis using MDL-based Sequential Models of Shape and Appearance  

E-print Network

as a fully automated clinical tool for analysis and segmentation. Keywords: registration, atlases, deformable This paper describes a method for automatically analysing and segmenting the corpus callosum from magnetic remain applicable to other domain problems. The well-known multi-resolution AAM optimisation is extended

415

Introducing the Webb Spam Corpus: Using Email Spam to Identify Web Spam Automatically  

E-print Network

Introducing the Webb Spam Corpus: Using Email Spam to Identify Web Spam Automatically Steve Webb as email spam has negatively impacted the user mes- saging experience, the rise of Web spam is threatening to severely degrade the quality of information on the World Wide Web. Fundamentally, Web spam is designed

Caverlee, James

416

Outcome after corpus callosotomy in children with injurious drop attacks and severe mental retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wide variability in patient selection, extent of callosal section and definition of successful outcome between studies make impact of corpus callosotomy on patients with medically refractory epilepsies difficult to interpret. Severe mental retardation is considered to be predictive of unfavorable seizure outcome after callosotomy. Very little attention has been paid on the influence of callosotomy on the psychosocial burden on

Chaturbhuj Rathore; Mathew Abraham; Ravi Mohan Rao; Annamma George; P. Sankara Sarma; Kurupath Radhakrishnan

2007-01-01

417

Tracking Learners' Progress: Adopting a Dual "Corpus cum Experimental Data" Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article discusses the potential of combining learner corpus research with experimental studies in order to fine-tune the understanding of learner language development. It illustrates the complementarity of the two methodological approaches with data from an ongoing study of the acquisition of the English tense and aspect system by French…

Meunier, Fanny; Littre, Damien

2013-01-01

418

Idiopathic segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum as a cause of partial priapism.  

PubMed

Idiopathic segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum as a cause for partial priapism is an uncommon event. Diagnosis and treatment in the past have principally involved invasive methods. We present a case in which both conventional invasive methods and noninvasive imaging were used. PMID:7820037

Ptak, T; Larsen, C R; Beckmann, C F; Boyle, D E

1994-01-01

419

Hallermann-Streiff syndrome associated with complete agenesis of the corpus callosum.  

PubMed

Hallermann-Streiff syndrome is a rare clinical entity with unknown etiology characterized by a birdlike face, microphthalmia, a beaked nose, hypotrichosis, and proportional small stature. We present a 4-year-old boy in whom magnetic resonance imaging showed complete agenesis of the corpus callosum, which has not been presented in the literature. PMID:16225817

Sigirci, Ahmet; Alkan, Alpay; Bicak, Ugur; Yakinci, Cengiz

2005-08-01

420

On Building a Reusable Twitter Corpus Richard McCreadie1  

E-print Network

On Building a Reusable Twitter Corpus Richard McCreadie1 , Ian Soboroff2 , Jimmy Lin3 , Craig@umd.edu3 ABSTRACT The Twitter real-time information network is the subject of research for information retrieval tasks such as real-time search. However, so far, reproducible experimentation on Twitter data has

Lin, Jimmy

421

An Algerian Arabic-French Code-Switched Corpus Ryan Cotterell1  

E-print Network

little dialectal Arabic in written form. With the advent of social-media, however, the landscape has the assumption that text is written in a single language. As social media becomes a more prominent mode unique and highlight the value of this corpus to the natural language processing and linguistics

Plotkin, Joshua B.

422

Lexical Bundles in Discourse Structure: A Corpus-Based Study of Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study applies corpus-based methods to document the distributional patterns of previously reported lexical bundle functions as they relate to discourse structure. Specifically, 84 lexical bundles and their discourse functions (Biber "et al." 2004a) were tracked in 1,176 discourse units extracted from the initial phases of 196 university…

Csomay, Eniko

2013-01-01

423

Utilizing Lexical Data from a Web-Derived Corpus to Expand Productive Collocation Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collocations are of great importance for second language learners, and a learner's knowledge of them plays a key role in producing language fluently (Nation, 2001: 323). In this article we describe and evaluate an innovative system that uses a Web-derived corpus and digital library software to produce a vast concordance and present it in a way…

Wu, Shaoqun; Witten, Ian H.; Franken, Margaret

2010-01-01

424

Neuropeptide Y immunoreactive axons in the corpus callosum of the cat during postnatal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many immunocytochemical studies have identified different types of neurotransmitters localized in the corpus callosum (CC) axons in the adult mammal. Few studies have looked at the development of different neurochemically identified CC systems. Previous studies on the development of cat CC axons have indicated that a large number of transitory CC axons project to the cortex during early postnatal development.

Song-Lin Ding; Andrea J. Elberger

1994-01-01

425

Corpus Analysis of Simultaneous Interpretation Data for Improving Real Time Speech Translation  

E-print Network

-to-speech translation, si- multaneous interpretation, paraphrasing, time lag 1. Introduction Voice translation basedCorpus Analysis of Simultaneous Interpretation Data for Improving Real Time Speech Translation2S) translation of lectures and speeches require simultaneous translation with low latency

Fisher, Kathleen

426

Anterior corpus callosotomy: effects in a patient with congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome and oromotor seizures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anterior corpus callosotomy was performed in a patient with pseudobulbar palsy, mild mental retardation and intractable epilepsy related to congenital bilateral perisylvian cortical dysplasia. Before surgery, she had daily atonic drop attacks, rare and mainly sleep-related oromotor seizures, and multifocal and diffuse paroxysmal EEG discharges; after callosotomy, less abrupt atonic drop attacks recurred monthly and the EEG epileptiform abnormalities disappeared.

Ambrosetto G. I; L. Antonini

1995-01-01

427

Creating a Corpus of Targeted Learning Resources with a Web-Based Open Authoring Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personalizing learning to students' traits and in- terests requires diverse learning content. Previous studies have demonstrated the value of such materials in learning but a challenge remains in creating a corpus of content large enough to meet students' varied interests and abilities. We present and evaluate a prototype web-based tool for open authoring of learn- ing materials. We conducted a

Turadg Aleahmad; Vincent Aleven; Robert E. Kraut

2009-01-01

428

Crowdsourcing for Affective Annotation of Video: Development of a Viewer-reported Boredom Corpus  

E-print Network

corpora for development and testing. This paper reports on the development of the MediaEval 2010 Affect Task Corpus for boredom prediction of Internet video. Standard limitations on viewer affective response, such as reaction of the annotators to the topic of the video, tiredness or underlying mood of the annotators. We

Genève, Université de

429

Corpus callosum size in adults with high-functioning autism and the relevance of gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the study was to investigate the size of the corpus callosum (CC) and its subsegments in relation to total brain volume (TBV) as an empirical indicator of impaired connectivity in autism with special respect to gender. In MRI data sets of 29 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 29 age-, gender- and IQ-matched control subjects, the TBV

Ralf Tepest; Esther Jacobi; Astrid Gawronski; Barbara Krug; Walter Möller-Hartmann; Fritz G. Lehnhardt; Kai Vogeley

2010-01-01

430

Automatic corpus callosum segmentation using a deformable active Fourier contour model  

E-print Network

neuroimaging studies of neuro-developmental pathol- ogy such as autism. It plays an integral role in relaying component shape space. Using MNI space aligned T1w MRI data, the CC segmentation is initialized on the mid to a large longitudinal pediatric study of brain development in autism. Keywords: corpus callosum

Utah, University of

431

Two Different Faces of Cavafy in English: A Corpus-Assisted Approach to Translational Stylistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A translator is seen to leave a personal mark on the text through their stylistic choices and the patterns formed by these choices. This article comprises a case study that uses a specialized comparative corpus containing translations of C.P. Cavafy's canon in order to explore the distinctive stylistic features of Rae Dalven and of Edmund…

Pantopoulos, Iraklis

2012-01-01

432

Corpus callosum size is linked to dichotic deafness and hemisphericity, not sex or handedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals differ in the number of corpus callosum (CC) nerve fibers interconnecting their cerebral hemispheres by about threefold. Early reports suggested that males had smaller CCs than females. This was often interpreted to support the concept that the male brain is more “lateralized” or “specialized,” thus accounting for presumed male predominance in mathematics, as well as for aggressive behavior. Ultimately,

Bruce E. Morton; Stein E. Rafto

2006-01-01

433

The Brain Connection: The Corpus Callosum is Larger in Left-Handers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the neurobiological basis for functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres, indicating that the size of the corpus callosum is correlated with the neurophysiological measure of hand preference. In postmortem examinations of 42 subjects there were no sex differences, but mixed-handers had significantly larger total areas of the…

Witelson, Sandra F.

1985-01-01

434

A Methodology for Semantically Annotating a Corpus Using a Domain Ontology and Machine Learning  

E-print Network

and evaluate it on the task of semantically annotating with named entities a domain- specific corpus of Web pages. Named Entity Recognition (NER) deals with the identification and categorization of specific names system will be then able to identify new named entities that are not included in the ontology. At runtime

Paliouras, George

435

Extended Named Entity Annotation on OCRed Documents: From Corpus Constitution to Evaluation Campaign  

E-print Network

Extended Named Entity Annotation on OCRed Documents: From Corpus Constitution to Evaluation.lastname}@lne.fr Abstract Within the framework of the Quaero project, we proposed a new definition of named entities, based upon an extension of the coverage of named entities as well as the structure of those named entities

Zweigenbaum, Pierre

436

Giving instructions in virtual environments by corpus based selection Luciana Benotti  

E-print Network

worlds to non player characters for virtual games. In this paper we present a novel algorithm for rapidly instructor for a game-like, task-oriented virtual world. We evaluate the virtual instructor with human usersGiving instructions in virtual environments by corpus based selection Luciana Benotti PLN Group

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

437

CREATING A CORPUS OF JINGJU (BEIJING OPERA) MUSIC AND POSSIBILITIES FOR MELODIC ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

unique. Its musical content is also created by specific sets of such conventions. Xiqu genres developed music traditions [18, 19] and other xiqu genres [20]. Sundberg et al. have analyzed acousticallyCREATING A CORPUS OF JINGJU (BEIJING OPERA) MUSIC AND POSSIBILITIES FOR MELODIC ANALYSIS Rafael

438

An Audio Visual Corpus for Emergent Leader Analysis Dairazalia Sanchez-Cortes1,2  

E-print Network

. For each group in the corpus, the participants performed the win- ter survival task. To date General Terms Human Factors Keywords small groups, emergent leadership 1. INTRODUCTION Human interactions are rich, ranging from courtship to family, working in teams and building communities. Psy- chologists

Gatica-Perez, Daniel

439

Erfahrungen mit einem Corpus cavernosum-Vena saphena-Shunt bei der Behandlung des Priapismus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Es wird über 5 Fälle von Priapismus, bei denen eine Anastomose zwischen der Vena saphena magna und dem Corpus cavernosum penis durchgeführt wurde, berichtet. Da die venose Stase in den Schwellkòrpern des Penis bei längerem Bestehen über eine Trabekelfibrose zur Impotenz führt und bei Fallen, die frühzeitig operiert wurden, die Potenz erhalten blieb, wird vorgeschlagen, bei alien Fallen von

A.-A. Kollwitz; W. Brosig

1970-01-01

440

A Multi-Scale Spectral Image Segmentation Method for Corpus Callosum Classification in MR Images  

E-print Network

A Multi-Scale Spectral Image Segmentation Method for Corpus Callosum Classification in MR Images visible structure contained within MR images whose function is to connect the left hemisphere of the brain callosum is of particular interest to the medical profession in the context of neurological diseases

Coenen, Frans

441

Listen, listen, listen and listen: building a comprehension corpus and making it comprehensible  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listening comprehension input is necessary for language learning and acculturation. One approach to developing listening comprehension skills is through exposure to massive amounts of naturally occurring spoken language input. But exposure to this input is not enough; learners also need to make the comprehension corpus meaningful to their learning experience.

Owen G. Mordaunt; Daniel W. Olson

2010-01-01

442

A Text Corpus Approach to an Analysis of the Shared Use of Core Terminology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the shared use of core Ophthalmology terms in the domains of Ophthalmology, Family Practice and Radiology. Core terms were searched for in a text corpus of 38,695 MEDLINE abstracts covering 1970-1999 from journals representing the three domains. Findings indicated core Ophthalmology terms were used significantly more by Ophthalmology…

Patrick, Timothy B.; Sievert, MaryEllen; Reid, John C.; Rice, Frances Ellis; Gigantelli, James W.; Schiffman, Jade S.; Shelton, Mark E.

2003-01-01

443

Specific Syntactic Complexity: Developmental Profiling of Individuals Based on an Annotated Learner Corpus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tracks the development of syntactic complexity in the writing of two beginning German as a second language learners with English as a first language over four semesters of collegiate language study by using developmental profiling techniques applied to an annotated learner corpus. The focus of the investigation is on individual…

Vyatkina, Nina

2013-01-01

444

Corpus-Based Investigation of Language Changes: The Case of the RNC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corpus-based approach is extremely essential and may be fruitful in research of language variation and correlation between norm and real usage. Variation is a fundamental property of a language that imparts to it flexibility, redundancy, possibility to express one meaning in different ways. There are orthoepic and accentologic variations on a phonetic level, orthographic and punctuation variations - on a

Svetlana Savchuk

445

ECLIPSE RECORDS IN A CORPUS OF COLONIAL ZAPOTEC 260DAY CALENDARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper translates and analyzes referencesto eclipses in two seventeenth-century Zapotec calendrical booklets. 1These booklets are part of a corpus of 106 separate calendrical texts and four collections of ritual songs that were turned over to ecclesiastical authorities in 1704 and 1705 as part of an ambitious campaign against traditional indigenous ritual practices conducted in the province of Villa Alta

David Tavárez; John Justeson

2008-01-01

446

SEASONAL ABUNDANCE AND HABITAT USE OF SHOREBIRDS ON AN OSO BAY MUDFLAT, CORPUS CHRISTI, TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shorebirds (Charadrii) were censused for a year at weekly to biweekly intervals along an approximately 1-km transect on an Oso Bay tidal mudfiat surrounding Ward Island, Corpus Christi, Nueces County, Texas. A total of 34,822 shorebirds of 26 species were observed and categorized by their use of three microhabitats. The greatest shorebird use of the area occurred during the winter

KIM WITHERS; BRIAN R. CHAPMAN

447

The Bible as a Parallel Corpus: Annotating the 'Book of 2000 Tongues'  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a project to annotate biblical texts in order to create an aligned multilingual Bible corpus for linguistic research, particularly computational linguistics, including automatically creating and evaluating translation lexicons and semantically tagged texts. The output of this project will enable researchers to take advantage of parallel translations across a wider number of languages than previously available, providing, with

Philip Resnik; Mari Broman Olsen; Mona T. Diab

1999-01-01

448

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Open corpus architecture for personalised ubiquitous e-learning  

E-print Network

, PDAs, e-learning service providers C. H. Muntean (&) School of Informatics, National College of IrelandORIGINAL ARTICLE Open corpus architecture for personalised ubiquitous e-learning Cristina Hava September 2007 Ã? Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007 Abstract As the e-learning area matures

449

The Development of Second Language Writing Complexity in Groups and Individuals: A Longitudinal Learner Corpus Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the development of multiple dimensions of linguistic complexity in the writing of beginning learners of German both as a group and as individuals. The data come from an annotated, longitudinal learner corpus. The development of lexicogrammatical complexity is explored at 2 intersections: (a) between cross-sectional trendlines…

Vyatkina, Nina

2012-01-01

450

Interocular transfer in guinea pigs following section of the corpus callosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measured interocular transfer of an active-avoidance habit, based on discriminations of shape discriminanda or of slant discriminanda, in 27 ocularly pigmented male American Brown guinea pigs, after section of the corpus callosum or a sham operation. Mastery of discriminations was not retarded by the section, but interocular transfer, while nearly perfect in sham-operated Ss, was significantly inferior in callosally sectioned

Daniel M. Levinson

1972-01-01

451

Large scale evaluation of corpus-based synthesizers: results and lessons from the blizzard challenge 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Blizzard Challenge 2005 was a large scale international evaluation of various corpus-based speech synthesis systems using common datasets. Six sites from around the world, both academic and industrial, participated in this evaluation, the first ever to compare voices built by different systems using the same data. Here we describe results of the evaluation and many of the observations and

Christina L. Bennett

2005-01-01

452

The blizzard challenge - 2005: evaluating corpus-based speech synthesis on common datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to better understand different speech synthesis tech- niques on a common dataset, we devised a challenge that will help us better compare research techniques in building corpus- based speech synthesizers. In 2004, we released the first two 1200-utterance single-speaker databases from the CMU ARC- TIC speech databases, and challenged current groups working in speech synthesis around the world

Alan W. Black; Keiichi Tokuda

2005-01-01

453

The CAVA Corpus: Synchronised Stereoscopic and Binaural Datasets with Head Movements  

E-print Network

The CAVA Corpus: Synchronised Stereoscopic and Binaural Datasets with Head Movements E. Arnaud1 obtained from a binaural microphone pair, a stereoscopic camera pair and a head tracking device. All Binaural Hearing, Stereo Vision, Database 1. INTRODUCTION Humans' ability to navigate in their environment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

454

Image-Guided, Frameless Stereotactic Sectioning of the Corpus callosum in Children with Intractable Epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corpus callosotomy is an effective neurosurgical procedure for children with intractable atonic or drop attack seizures. While this procedure has not changed significantly over the past three decades, some technical issues remain to be resolved. These include the intraoperative determination of the extent of the callosotomy, the need to stage the procedure, as well as side of approach of craniotomy.

Mojgan Hodaie; Awni Musharbash; Hiroshi Otsubo; O. Carter Snead III; Shiro Chitoku; Ayako Ochi; Stephanie Holowka; Harold J. Hoffman; James T. Rutka

2001-01-01

455

Discourse Particles in Corpus Data and Textbooks: The Case of "Well"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discourse particles are ubiquitous in spoken discourse. Yet despite their pervasiveness very few studies attempt to look at their use in the pedagogical setting. Drawing on data from an intercultural corpus of speech and a textbook database, the present study compares the use of discourse particles by expert users of English in Hong Kong with…

Lam, Phoenix W. Y.

2010-01-01

456

ALMANNARMUR: AN OPEN ICELANDIC SPEECH CORPUS Jn Gunason , Oddur Kjartansson , Jkull Jhannsson ,  

E-print Network

Reykjavik. ABSTRACT The purpose of the Almannarómur project is collecting data for a speech corpus (database for Icelandic language technology. The database is particularly suitable for acoustic modelling for speech speech recognition for Icelandic. However, the database can be used for many other types of spoken

Loftsson, Hrafn

457

Development and Evaluation of Polish Speech Corpus for Unit Selection Speech Synthesis Systems  

E-print Network

and suprasegmental features, the size of databases for speech technology purposes is expected to be substantial, e the database structure influence on the quality of the resulting synthesised speech. 2. Polish Speech Corpus 2 language, we have decided to use various speech units from different mixed databases as follows: · Base A

Möbius, Bernd

458

Prosodic analysis of a multi-style corpus in the perspective of emotional speech synthesis  

E-print Network

, an Italian emotional speech database was recorded and analyzed to verify the correlations and to quantify and conclusions will follow. 2. Multi-style emotional speech database Three professional Italian speakers, oneProsodic analysis of a multi-style corpus in the perspective of emotional speech synthesis Enrico

Edinburgh, University of

459

Corpus Callosum Size is Linked to Dichotic Deafness and Hemisphericity, Not Sex or Handedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals differ in the number of corpus callosum (CC) nerve fibers interconnecting their cerebral hemispheres by about threefold. Early reports suggested that males had smaller CCs than females. This was often interpreted to support the concept that the male brain is more "lateralized" or "specialized," thus accounting for presumed male…

Morton, Bruce E.; Rafto, Stein E.

2006-01-01

460

The DCIEM Map Task Corpus: Spontaneous Dialogue under Sleep Deprivation and Drug Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a resource for the study of spontaneous speech under stress, a corpus of 216 unscripted taskoriented dialogues conducted by normal Canadian adults in the course of a sleep deprivation experiment under 3 drug conditions. Speakers carried out the route-communication task (see [1]) in alternation with a battery of other tasks over a 6-day study which included a

E. g. Bard; C. Sotillo; A. h. Anderson; M. m. Taylor

1995-01-01

461

Annotations en chanes de corfrences et anaphores dans un corpus de discours spontan en franais  

E-print Network

'annotation des anaphores en corpus de français parlé spontané, ainsi que des études distributionnelles. Celles lequel sont soulignées les entités nommées : (1) « Nicolas Sarkozy a rencontré samedi Angela Merkel en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

462

A gene network switch enhances the oxidative capacity of ovine skeletal muscle during late fetal development  

PubMed Central

Background The developmental transition between the late fetus and a newborn animal is associated with profound changes in skeletal muscle function as it adapts to the new physiological demands of locomotion and postural support against gravity. The mechanisms underpinning this adaption process are unclear but are likely to be initiated by changes in hormone levels. We tested the hypothesis that this developmental transition is associated with large coordinated changes in the transcription of skeletal muscle genes. Results Using an ovine model, transcriptional profiling was performed on Longissimus dorsi skeletal muscle taken at three fetal developmental time points (80, 100 and 120 d of fetal development) and two postnatal time points, one approximately 3 days postpartum and a second at 3 months of age. The developmental time course was dominated by large changes in expression of 2,471 genes during the interval between late fetal development (120 d fetal development) and 1-3 days postpartum. Analysis of the functions of genes that were uniquely up-regulated in this interval showed strong enrichment for oxidative metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid cycle indicating enhanced mitochondrial activity. Histological examination of tissues from these developmental time points directly confirmed a marked increase in mitochondrial activity between the late fetal and early postnatal samples. The promoters of genes that were up-regulated during this fetal to neonatal transition were enriched for estrogen receptor 1 and estrogen related receptor alpha cis-regulatory motifs. The genes down-regulated during this interval highlighted de-emphasis of an array of functions including Wnt signaling, cell adhesion and differentiation. There were also changes in gene expression prior to this late fetal - postnatal transition and between the two postnatal time points. The former genes were enriched for functions involving the extracellular matrix and immune response while the latter principally involved functions associated with transcriptional regulation of metabolic processes. Conclusions It is concluded that during late skeletal muscle development there are substantial and coordinated changes in the transcription of a large number of genes many of which are probably triggered by increased estrogen levels. These changes probably underpin the adaption of muscle to new physiological demands in the postnatal environment. PMID:20546621

2010-01-01

463

Rigid, Complete Annuloplasty Rings Increase Anterior Mitral Leaflet Strains in the Normal Beating Ovine Heart  

PubMed Central

Background Annuloplasty ring or band implantation during surgical mitral valve repair perturbs mitral annular dimensions, dynamics and shape, which have been associated with changes in anterior mitral leaflet (AML) strain patterns and suboptimal long-term repair durability. We hypothesized that rigid rings with non-physiological 3-D shapes, but not saddle-shaped rigid rings or flexible bands, increase AML strains. Methods and Results Sheep had 23 radiopaque markers inserted: 7 along the anterior mitral annulus and 16 equally spaced on the AML. True-sized Edwards Cosgrove flexible, partial band (COS, n=12), rigid, complete St. Jude saddle-shaped annuloplasty ring (RSAR, n=12), Carpentier-Edwards Physio (PHYSIO, n=12), Edwards IMR ETlogix (ETL, n=11) and Edwards GeoForm (GEO, n=12) annuloplasty rings were implanted in a releasable fashion. Under acute open-chest conditions, four-dimensional marker coordinates were obtained using biplane videofluoroscopy along with hemodynamic parameters with the ring inserted and after release. Marker coordinates were triangulated and the largest maximum principal AML strains were determined during isovolumetric relaxation (IVR). No relevant changes in hemodynamics occurred. Compared to the respective Control state, strains increased significantly with RSAR, PHYSIO, ETL and GEO (0.14±0.05 vs. 0.16±0.05, p=0.024, 0.15±0.03 vs. 0.18±0.04, p=0.020, 0.11±0.05 vs. 0.14±0.05, p=0.042 and 0.13±0.05 vs. 0.16±0.05, p=0.009), but not with COS (0.15±0.05 vs. 0.15±0.04,p=0.973). Conclusions Rega