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Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The corpus luteum (CL) of the sheep exhibits a differential sensitivity to PGF2alpha in vivo in terms of an increase in oxytocin (OT) secretion and a decrease in progesterone secretion, pointing to the presence in vivo of both high and low affinity receptors for PGF2alpha. The presence of the high a...


Angiogenesis in the corpus luteum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corpus luteum (CL) is a site of intense angiogenesis. Within a short period, this is followed either by controlled regression of the microvascular tree in the non-fertile cycle, or maintenance and stabilisation of the new vasculature a conceptual cycle. The molecular regulation of these diverse aspects is examined. The CL provides a unique model system in which to study

Hamish M Fraser; Christine Wulff



Microvascular endothelial cells of the corpus luteum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cyclic nature of the capillary bed in the corpus luteum offers a unique experimental model to examine the life cycle of endothelial cells, involving discrete physiologically regulated steps of angiogenesis, blood vessel maturation and blood vessel regression. The granulosa cells and theca cells of the developing antral follicle and the steroidogenic cells of the corpus luteum produce and respond

John S Davis; Bo R Rueda; Katherina Spanel-Borowski



Recurrent hemorrhage from corpus luteum during anticoagulant therapy.  

PubMed Central

A 43-year old woman had recurrent massive intraperitoneal hemorrhage from rupture of a hemorrhagic corpus luteum in two successive menstrual cycles while receiving anticoagulant therapy. Left oophorectomy was performed on the first occasion and right salpingo-oophorectomy with left salpingectomy on the second. While the precise incidence cannot be determined, rupture from a hemorrhagic corpus luteum appears to be a rare but potentially catastrophic complication of anticoagulant therapy. Hence possible ovarian hemorrhage should be considered in women of reproductive age receiving heparin or sodium warfarin therapy.

Wong, K. P.; Gillett, P. G.



Chemokines in the corpus luteum: Implications of leukocyte chemotaxis  

PubMed Central

Chemokines are small molecular weight peptides responsible for adhesion, activation, and recruitment of leukocytes into tissues. Leukocytes are thought to influence follicular atresia, ovulation, and luteal function. Many studies in recent years have focused attention on the characterization of leukocyte populations within the ovary, the importance of leukocyte-ovarian cell interactions, and more recently, the mechanisms of ovarian leukocyte recruitment. Information about the role of chemokines and leukocyte trafficking (chemotaxis) during ovarian function is important to understanding paracrine-autocrine relationships shared between reproductive and immune systems. Recent advances regarding chemokine expression and leukocyte accumulation within the ovulatory follicle and the corpus luteum are the subject of this mini-review.

Townson, David H; Liptak, Amy R



Macrophages regulate corpus luteum development during embryo implantation in mice  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are prominent in the uterus and ovary at conception. Here we utilize the Cd11b-Dtr mouse model of acute macrophage depletion to define the essential role of macrophages in early pregnancy. Macrophage depletion after conception caused embryo implantation arrest associated with diminished plasma progesterone and poor uterine receptivity. Implantation failure was alleviated by administration of bone marrow–derived CD11b+F4/80+ monocytes/macrophages. In the ovaries of macrophage-depleted mice, corpora lutea were profoundly abnormal, with elevated Ptgs2, Hif1a, and other inflammation and apoptosis genes and with diminished expression of steroidogenesis genes Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b1. Infertility was rescued by exogenous progesterone, which confirmed that uterine refractoriness was fully attributable to the underlying luteal defect. In normally developing corpora lutea, macrophages were intimately juxtaposed with endothelial cells and expressed the proangiogenic marker TIE2. After macrophage depletion, substantial disruption of the luteal microvascular network occurred and was associated with altered ovarian expression of genes that encode vascular endothelial growth factors. These data indicate a critical role for macrophages in supporting the extensive vascular network required for corpus luteum integrity and production of progesterone essential for establishing pregnancy. Our findings raise the prospect that disruption of macrophage-endothelial cell interactions underpinning corpus luteum development contributes to infertility in women in whom luteal insufficiency is implicated.

Care, Alison S.; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Jasper, Melinda J.; Brown, Hannah M.; Ingman, Wendy V.; Robertson, Sarah A.



Life or death decisions in the corpus luteum.  


The corpus luteum (CL) is an ephemeral endocrine organ. During its lifespan, it undergoes a period of extremely rapid growth that involves hypertrophy, proliferation and differentiation of the steroidogenic cells, as well as extensive angiogenesis. The growth phase is followed by a period in which remodelling of the tissue ceases, but it engages in unparalleled production of steroids, resulting in extraordinarily high metabolic activity within the tissue. It is during this stage that a critical juncture occurs. In the non-fertile cycle, uterine release of prostaglandin (PG)F(2?) initiates a cascade of events that result in rapid loss of steroidogenesis and destruction of the luteal tissue. Alternatively, if a viable embryo is present, signals are produced that result in rescue of the CL. This review article summarizes the major concepts related to the fate of the CL, with particular focus on recent insights into the mechanisms associated with the ability of PGF(2?) to bring about complete luteolysis. It has become clear that the achievement of luteolysis depends on repeated exposure to PGF(2?) and involves coordinated actions of heterogeneous cell types within the CL. Together, these components of the process bring about not only the loss in progesterone production, but also the rapid demise of the structure itself. PMID:22827384

Pate, J L; Johnson-Larson, C J; Ottobre, J S



Response of the corpus luteum to luteinizing hormone.  

PubMed Central

The response of steroidogenic tissues to tropic hormones is regulated in part by specific receptors in the target cells for the stimulatory hormone. As a result of hormone binding to receptor the enzyme adenylate cyclase is activated with a resultant increase in intracellular levels of cAMP. Enhanced protein kinase activity then leads to increased steroidogenesis via several possible mechanisms, including direct activation of components of steroidogenic enzyme systems via phosphorylation. The initial effects of tropic hormones such as LH are dependent upon the number of receptors present on the surface of the target cell. Numerous factors influence the number of LH receptors in the corpus luteum. A model is presented for the mechanisms involved in the loss and renewal of LH receptors in the luteal cell. The life of the LH receptor on luteal cells appears to be a single binding of hormone. The hormone-receptor complex is then internalized by endocytosis and the hormone is degraded in lysosomes. After internalization the receptor is also degraded in lysosomes or recycled via the Golgi apparatus. New or recycled receptors for LH are incorporated into the limiting membrane of protein containing secretory granules. One of the actions of LH is enhancement of the exocytosis of these secretory granules with incorporation of the limiting membrane (and the LH receptors?) of the granule into the plasma membrane of the cell. These proposed mechanisms explain the increase in the number of receptors for LH seen immediately after stimulation of the luteal cell with massive doses of LH and also explain the "down-regulation" of LH receptors 24 hr after administration of LH.

Niswender, G D



Regulation of corpus luteum-function in the bitch.  


Functional lifespan of the corpus luteum (CL) in non-pregnant dogs exceeds that of pregnant animals and may last for more than 80 days. Prolactin and LH act luteotropic, however, luteolytic mechanisms are poorly understood. Other than in life stock there is no uterine luteolysine and it was postulated that local paracrine/autocrine mechanisms might play a major role. In following this hypothesis the present investigations have clearly demonstrated that up-regulation of prostaglandin synthesis in the CL as indicated by the expression of cyclo-oxygenase II occurs with its formation and not regression, pointing towards a luteotropic rather than luteolytic action. Throughout dioestrus luteal and other cells of the CL express the oestrogen (ERalpha) and progesterone receptor (PR). While ERalpha expression was not cycle-related, PR concentrations were high in the early and late-luteal phase and a regulatory role of both steroids on CL-function is assumed. As in other species also in the dog the immune system seems to participate in the mechanisms regulating CL-function as an increased presence of lymphocytes within the CL could be detected at the beginning [CD4- CD8-, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)II-antigen expressing cells] and during the latter half of dioestrus (CD8- and MHCII-antigen expressing cells). Thus, leucocyte-derived cytokines may be important and the expression of the mRNA for interleukin (IL)8, IL10, IL12, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha and transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1 was observed throughout dioestrus. Electron microscopy confirmed the slow process of luteolysis; first distinct signs of degeneration were seen on day 60, accompanied by some apoptotic events. From these data it is concluded that luteal regression as monitored by the gradual decrease of systemic progesterone concentrations in the dog is not an actively regulated but rather a permissive process. Immune-mediated events may play a key role. Changes in the vascular supply, as indicated by the expression of endoglin, seem to be of lower importance. PMID:15225276

Hoffmann, B; Büsges, F; Engel, E; Kowalewski, M P; Papa, P



Corpus luteum dysfunction and the epidemiology of breast cancer: A reconsideration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Many of the epidemiologic risk factors for the development of breast cancer are related to major events in the female reproductive experience. Several years ago, in an attempt to synthesize these observations, we proposed a theory that focused on abnormal corpus luteum function as a major endocrine determinant of breast cancer risk. This review summarizes the work that has

Barry M. Sherman; Robert B. Wallace; Stanley G. Korenman



Impact of ovarian stimulation on corpus luteum function and embryonic implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The luteal phase has been found to be defective in virtually all the stimulation protocols used in in-vitro fertilization (IVF), indicating that common mechanisms might be involved despite the use of different drugs. A normal luteal phase is characterised by a normal hormonal environment, normal progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum and adequate endometrial secretory transformation. Luteinizing hormone supports the

A Tavaniotou; C Albano; J Smitz; P Devroey



Human corpus luteum physiology and the luteal-phase dysfunction associated with ovarian stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine gland that develops after ovulation from the ruptured follicle during the luteal phase. It is an important contributor of steroid hormones, particularly progesterone, and is critical for the maintenance of early pregnancy. Luteal-phase dysfunction can result in premature regression of the gland, with a subsequent shift to an infertile cycle. Understanding the

Luigi Devoto; Paulina Kohen; Alex Muñoz; Jerome F Strauss III



Prostaglandin Biosynthesis, Transport, and Signaling in Corpus Luteum: A Basis for Autoregulation of Luteal Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient ovarian endocrine gland formed from the ovulated follicle. Progesterone is the primary secretory product of CL and is essential for establishment of pregnancy in mammals. In the cyclic female, the life span of CL is characterized by luteal development, maintenance, and regression regulated by complex interactions between lu- teotrophic and luteolytic mediators. It




Immunolocalization of P450C17 in the mare corpus luteum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the mare corpus luteum (CL) is capable of aromatization, the expression of other enzymes involved in estradiol synthesis is not yet clear. This study examined the localization of P450C17 in the mare CL at different stages of its functional development. In ovaries from follicular phase mares P450C17 was localized in the theca cells of ovarian follicles. Following ovulation, no

F. E Rodger; P. J Illingworth; E. D Watson



Basigin expression and regulation in mouse ovary during the sexual maturation and development of corpus luteum.  


Basigin is a highly glycosylated transmembrane protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Basigin-deficient male mice are azoospermic. The majority of basigin null embryos die around the time of implantation. However, basigin expression and regulation in mouse ovary is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate basigin expression in mouse ovary during sexual maturation, gonadotropin treatment, and luteal development by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Both basigin mRNA and immunostaining were not detected in the granulosa cells of preantral follicles until day 20 after birth. On day 30 after birth, basigin immunostaining dropped to a basal level, while basigin mRNA was still at a high level. Basigin expression was strongly induced by equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) treatment at 4 and 8 hr post-eCG injection. Both basigin immunostaining and mRNA signals were strongly observed in the corpus luteum on days 2 and 3 post-hCG injection. However, no basigin expression was detected from days 6 to 15 post-hCG injection. In conclusion, our data suggest that basigin may play a role during the mouse follicle development and corpus luteum formation. PMID:15095333

Chang, Hong; Ni, Hua; Ma, Xing-Hong; Xu, Li-Bin; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Muramatsu, Takashi; Yang, Zeng-Ming



Rapid induction of gene expression in the corpus luteum following in vivo treatment with prostaglandin F2 alpha  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The pulsatile uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF) triggers the regression of the corpus luteum (CL). Research from many laboratories has identified the early intracellular signaling events initiated by PGF (for example, activation of phospholipases, increased intracellular calcium, an...


DNA Methylation and Histone Modifications Are Associated with Repression of the Inhibin ? Promoter in the Rat Corpus Luteum  

PubMed Central

The transition from follicle to corpus luteum after ovulation is associated with profound morphological and functional changes and is accompanied by corresponding changes in gene expression. The gene encoding the ? subunit of the dimeric reproductive hormone inhibin is maximally expressed in the granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicle, is rapidly repressed by the ovulatory LH surge, and is expressed at only very low levels in the corpus luteum. Although previous studies have identified transient repressors of inhibin ? gene transcription, little is known about how this repression is maintained in the corpus luteum. This study examines the role of epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation and histone modification, in silencing of inhibin ? gene expression. Bisulfite sequencing reveals that methylation of the inhibin ? proximal promoter is low in preovulatory and ovulatory follicles but is elevated in the corpus luteum. Increased methylation during luteinization is observed within the cAMP response element in the promoter, and EMSA demonstrate that methylation of this site inhibits cAMP response element binding protein binding in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals that repressive histone marks H3K9 and H3K27 trimethylation are increased on the inhibin ? promoter in primary luteal cells, whereas the activation mark H3K4 trimethylation is decreased. The changes in histone modification precede the alterations in DNA methylation, suggesting that they facilitate the recruitment of DNA methyltransferases. We show that the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a is present in the ovary and in luteal cells when the inhibin ? promoter becomes methylated and observe recruitment of DNMT3a to the inhibin promoter during luteinization.

Meldi, Kristen M.; Gaconnet, Georgia A.



DNA methylation and histone modifications are associated with repression of the inhibin ? promoter in the rat corpus luteum.  


The transition from follicle to corpus luteum after ovulation is associated with profound morphological and functional changes and is accompanied by corresponding changes in gene expression. The gene encoding the ? subunit of the dimeric reproductive hormone inhibin is maximally expressed in the granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicle, is rapidly repressed by the ovulatory LH surge, and is expressed at only very low levels in the corpus luteum. Although previous studies have identified transient repressors of inhibin ? gene transcription, little is known about how this repression is maintained in the corpus luteum. This study examines the role of epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation and histone modification, in silencing of inhibin ? gene expression. Bisulfite sequencing reveals that methylation of the inhibin ? proximal promoter is low in preovulatory and ovulatory follicles but is elevated in the corpus luteum. Increased methylation during luteinization is observed within the cAMP response element in the promoter, and EMSA demonstrate that methylation of this site inhibits cAMP response element binding protein binding in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals that repressive histone marks H3K9 and H3K27 trimethylation are increased on the inhibin ? promoter in primary luteal cells, whereas the activation mark H3K4 trimethylation is decreased. The changes in histone modification precede the alterations in DNA methylation, suggesting that they facilitate the recruitment of DNA methyltransferases. We show that the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a is present in the ovary and in luteal cells when the inhibin ? promoter becomes methylated and observe recruitment of DNMT3a to the inhibin promoter during luteinization. PMID:22865368

Meldi, Kristen M; Gaconnet, Georgia A; Mayo, Kelly E



Evidence that polymorphonuclear neutrophils infiltrate into the developing corpus luteum and promote angiogenesis with interleukin-8 in the cow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  After ovulation in the cow, the corpus luteum (CL) rapidly develops within a few days with angiogenesis and progesterone production.\\u000a CL formation resembles an inflammatory response due to the influx of immune cells. Neutrophils play a role in host defense\\u000a and inflammation, and secrete chemoattractants to stimulate angiogenesis. We therefore hypothesized that neutrophils infiltrate\\u000a in the developing CL from just

Sineenard Jiemtaweeboon; Koumei Shirasuna; Akane Nitta; Ayumi Kobayashi; Hans-Joachim Schuberth; Takashi Shimizu; Akio Miyamoto



Endocrine delivery of interferon tau protects the corpus luteum from prostaglandin F2 alpha-induced luteolysis in ewes.  


Paracrine release of ovine interferon tau (oIFNT) from the conceptus alters release of endometrial prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF) and prevents luteolysis. Endocrine release of oIFNT into the uterine vein occurs by Day 15 of pregnancy and may impart resistance of the corpus luteum (CL) to PGF. It was hypothesized that infusion of recombinant oIFNT (roIFNT) into the uterine or jugular veins on Day 10 of the estrous cycle would protect the CL against exogenous PGF-induced luteolysis. Osmotic pumps were surgically installed in 24 ewes to deliver bovine serum albumin (BSA; n = 12) or roIFNT (200 ?g/day; n = 12) for 24 h into the uterine vein. Six ewes in each treatment group received a single injection of PGF (4 mg/58 kg body weight) 12 h after pump installation. In a second experiment, BSA or roIFNT was delivered at 20 or 200 ?g/day into the uterine vein or 200 ?g/day into the jugular vein for 72 h in 30 ewes. One half of these ewes received an injection of PGF 24 h after pump installation. Concentrations of progesterone in serum declined in BSA-treated ewes injected with PGF, but were sustained in all ewes infused with 20 ?g/day of roIFNT into the uterine vein and 200 ?g of roIFNT into the jugular vein followed 24 h later with injection of PGF. All concentrations of roIFNT and modes of delivery (uterine or jugular vein) increased luteal concentrations of IFN-stimulated gene (i.e., ISG15) mRNA. Infusion of 200 ?g of IFNT over 24 h induced greater mRNA concentrations for cell survival genes, such as BCL2-like 1 (BCL2L1 or Bcl-xL), serine/threonine kinase (AKT), and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and decreased prostaglandin F receptor (PTGFR) mRNA concentrations, when compared to controls. It is concluded that endocrine delivery of roIFNT, regardless of route (uterine or jugular vein), effectively protects CL from the luteolytic actions of PGF by mechanisms that involve ISGs and stabilization of cell survival genes. PMID:23616594

Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q; Webb, Brett T; Romero, Jared J; Ashley, Ryan L; Smirnova, Natalia P; Henkes, Luiz E; Bott, Rebecca C; Oliveira, João F; Niswender, Gordon D; Bazer, Fuller W; Hansen, Thomas R



The corpus luteum of the dog: source and target of steroid hormones?  


Aim of this paper is to review our present understanding on the endocrine control of luteal function in the bitch and to add some new data generated in our laboratories in support of the hypothesis of a paracrine/autocrine role of corpus luteum (CL) derived steroid hormones. Luteal lifespan in non-pregnant dogs often exceeds that of pregnant dogs, where luteal regression terminates in a rapid luteolysis, immediately prior to parturition. In non-pregnant dogs, luteal regression occurs independently of a uterine luteolysin and in spite of increased gonadotropic support during the last third of dioestrus. The CL is the only source of progesterone (P(4)) maintaining pregnancy, and they have the capacity to synthesize oestrogens as substantiated by expression of the CYP19 (aromatase) gene observed in this study. Our data demonstrated that lutein and non-lutein cells of the canine CL express in a rather constant manner the progesterone receptor (PR) and the oestrogen receptor, classifying them as targets for an autocrine/paracrine activity of CL-derived steroids. Therefore, a functional role of P(4) within a positive loop feedback system, including StAR and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, has been postulated. PMID:21332829

Papa, P C; Hoffmann, B



Impaired microRNA processing causes corpus luteum insufficiency and infertility in mice  

PubMed Central

The microRNA (miRNA) processing enzyme Dicer1 is required for zygotic and embryonic development, but the early embryonic lethality of Dicer1 null alleles in mice has limited our ability to address the role of Dicer1 in normal mouse growth and development. To address this question, we used a mouse mutant with a hypomorphic Dicer1 allele (Dicerd/d) and found that Dicer1 deficiency resulted in female infertility. This defect in female Dicerd/d mice was caused by corpus luteum (CL) insufficiency and resulted, at least in part, from the impaired growth of new capillary vessels in the ovary. We found that the impaired CL angiogenesis in Dicerd/d mice was associated with a lack of miR17-5p and let7b, 2 miRNAs that participate in angiogenesis by regulating the expression of the antiangiogenic factor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1. Furthermore, injection of miR17-5p and let7b into the ovaries of Dicerd/d mice partially normalized tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 expression and CL angiogenesis. Our data indicate that the development and function of the ovarian CL is a physiological process that appears to be regulated by miRNAs and requires Dicer1 function.

Otsuka, Motoyuki; Zheng, Min; Hayashi, Masaaki; Lee, Jing-Dwan; Yoshino, Osamu; Lin, Shengcai; Han, Jiahuai



Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: role of immune cells in the corpus luteum.  


The immune system is essential for optimal function of the reproductive system. The corpus luteum (CL) is an endocrine organ that secretes progesterone, which is responsible for regulating the length of the estrous cycle, and for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. This paper reviews literature that addresses 2 areas; i) how immune cells are recruited to the CL, and ii) how immune cells communicate with luteal cells to affect the formation, development, and regression of the CL. Immune cells, primarily recruited to the ovulatory follicle from lymphoid organs after the LH surge, facilitate ovulation and populate the developing CL. During the luteal phase, changes in the population of macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils, and T lymphocytes occur at critical functional stages of the CL. In addition to their role in facilitating ovulation, immune cells may have an important role in luteal function. Evidence shows that cytokines secreted by immune cells modulate both luteotropic and luteolytic processes. However, the decision to pursue either function may depend on the environment provided by luteal cells. It is suggested that understanding the role immune cells play could lead to identification of new strategies to improve fertility in dairy cattle and other species. PMID:23422006

Walusimbi, S S; Pate, J L



Roles of antioxidant enzymes in corpus luteum rescue from reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress.  


Progesterone produced by the corpus luteum (CL) regulates the synthesis of various endometrial proteins required for embryonic implantation and development. Compromised CL progesterone production is a potential risk factor for prenatal development. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play diverse roles in mammalian reproductive biology. ROS-induced oxidative damage and subsequent adverse developmental outcomes constitute important issues in reproductive medicine. The CL is considered to be highly exposed to locally produced ROS due to its high blood vasculature and steroidogenic activity. ROS-induced apoptotic cell death is involved in the mechanisms of CL regression that occurs at the end of the non-fertile cycle. Luteal ROS production and propagation depend upon several regulating factors, including luteal antioxidants, steroid hormones and cytokines, and their crosstalk. However, it is unknown which of these factors have the greatest contribution to the maintenance of CL integrity and function during the oestrous/menstrual cycle. There is evidence to suggest that antioxidants play important roles in CL rescue from luteolysis when pregnancy ensues. As luteal phase defect impacts fertility by preventing implantation and early conceptus development in livestock and humans, this review attempts to address the importance of ROS-scavenging antioxidant enzymes in the control of mammalian CL function and integrity. The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine organ that develops after ovulation from the ovulated follicle during each reproductive cycle. The main function of the CL is the production and secretion of progesterone which is necessary for embryonic implantation and development. Compromised CL progesterone production is a potential risk factor for prenatal development and pregnancy outcomes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are natural by-products of cellular respiration and metabolism, play diverse roles in mammalian reproductive biology. ROS-induced oxidative damage and subsequent development of adverse pregnancy outcomes constitute important issues in reproductive medicine. Before the end of the first trimester, a high rate of human and animal conceptions end in spontaneous abortion and most of these losses occur at the time of implantation in association with ROS-induced oxidative damage. Every cell in the body is normally able to defend itself against the oxidative damage caused by the ROS. The cellular antioxidant enzymes constitute the first line of defence against the toxic effects of ROS. The CL is considered to be highly exposed to locally produced ROS due to its high blood vasculature and metabolic activity. There is now evidence to suggest that cellular antioxidants play important roles in CL rescue from regression when pregnancy ensues. As defective CL function impacts fertility by preventing implantation and early conceptus development in livestock and humans, this review attempts to address the importance of antioxidant enzymes in the control of mammalian CL function and integrity. PMID:23063822

Al-Gubory, Kaïs H; Garrel, Catherine; Faure, Patrice; Sugino, Norihiro



Expression of leptin and its receptor in corpus luteum during estrous cycle in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).  


Leptin is supposed to play a crucial role in ovarian luteal dynamics. The present study was aimed to investigate the importance of leptin and its receptors in buffalo corpus luteum (CL) obtained from different stages of the estrous cycle. Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), western blot and immunohistochemistry techniques were applied to investigate mRNA expression, protein expression and localization of examined factors. Additionally to assess the contribution of leptin in progesterone production the expression profiles of StAR, P450scc and HSD were also investigated. In general, we demonstrated presence of leptin and its receptors in buffalo CL during the estrous cycle. The mRNA levels of leptin and its receptors were significantly up regulated in (P<0.05) in all the stages and highest levels were observed in mid and late luteal stages consistent with in vivo luteinization of buffalo CL and declined coincidental to luteal regression. The expression of StAR, P450scc and HSD factors maintained low in early luteal phase, after that level of expression increased steadily to show a significant rise (P<0.05) in mid luteal phase followed by gradual decline in late luteal phase and regressed CL and this correlates well with the Ob and ObR receptor activity, verifying their key role in progesterone and other steroids production in functional CL. As revealed by immunohistochemistry, leptin protein was localized predominantly in large luteal cells however leptin receptor (Ob-R) was localized in large luteal cells as well as in endothelial cells. It can be concluded from our study that leptin via its autocrine/paracrine effects play a significant role in promoting angiogenesis, steroidogenesis and also acts as key survival factor in bubaline CL. PMID:22959515

Kumar, Lalit; Panda, R P; Hyder, I; Yadav, V P; Sastry, K V H; Sharma, G T; Mahapatra, R K; Bag, S; Bhure, S K; Das, G K; Mitra, A; Sarkar, M



Case of pregnancy in two cows with unicorn horn of the uterus either by artificial insemination at ipsilateral or embryo transfer at contralateral corpus luteum in the ovary.  


Two Holstein heifers and a cow were diagnosed with White Heifer Disease by ultrasonography. Case 1 was a 14 month-old heifer with aplasia of both sides of the uterine horn. In case 2, a primiparous cow and case 3, an 18 month-old heifer, both showed aplasia of the right uterine horn. Case 2 became pregnant by artificial insemination at ipsilateral ovulatory follicle and corpus luteum in the left ovary, while case 3 became pregnant by embryo transfer at 7 days after oestrus with contralateral corpus luteum in the right ovary. PMID:18179630

Moriyama, C; Kobayashi, I; Tani, M; Oishi, T; Kajisa, M; Horii, Y; Kamimura, S



Cellular and functional characterization of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) corpus luteum during the estrous cycle and pregnancy.  


In the present paper, cellular composition of buffalo corpus luteum (CL) with its functional characterization based on 3?-HSD and progesterone secretory ability at different stages of estrous cycle and pregnancy was studied. Buffalo uteri along with ovaries bearing CL were collected from the local slaughter house. These were classified into different stages of estrous cycle (Stage I, II, III and IV) and pregnancy (Stage I, II and III) based on morphological appearance of CL, surface follicles on the ovary and crown rump length of conceptus. Luteal cell population, progesterone content and steroidogenic properties were studied by dispersion of luteal cells using collagenase type I enzyme, RIA and 3?-HSD activity, respectively. Large luteal cells (LLC) appeared as polyhedral or spherical in shape with a centrally placed large round nucleus and an abundance of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. However, small luteal cells (SLC) appeared to be spindle shaped with an eccentrically placed irregular nucleus and there was paucity of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. The size of SLC (range 12-23?m) and LLC (range 25-55?m) increased (P<0.01) with the advancement of stage of estrous cycle and pregnancy. The mean progesterone concentration per gram and per CL increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to III of estrous cycle with maximum concentration at Stage III of estrous cycle and pregnancy. The progesterone concentration decreased at Stage IV (day 17-20) of estrous cycle coinciding with CL regression. Total luteal cell number (LLC and SLC) also increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to III of estrous cycle and decreased (P<0.05), thereafter, at Stage IV indicating degeneration of luteal cells and regression of the CL. Total luteal cell population during pregnancy also increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to II and thereafter decreased (P>0.05) indicating cessation of mitosis. Increased (P<0.05) large luteal cell numbers from Stage I to III of estrous cycle and pregnancy coincided with the increased progesterone secretion and 3?-HSD activity of CL. Thus, proportionate increases of large compared with small luteal cells were primarily responsible for increased progesterone secretion during the advanced stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Total luteal cells and progesterone content per CL during the mid-luteal stage in buffalo as observed in the present study seem to be less than with cattle suggesting inherent luteal deficiency. PMID:23896394

Baithalu, Rubina Kumari; Singh, S K; Gupta, Chhavi; Raja, Anuj K; Saxena, Abhishake; Kumar, Yogendra; Singh, R; Agarwal, S K



Variations in peripheral blood levels of immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) throughout the menstrual cycle and secretion of TNF? from the human corpus luteum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Several cytokines have been implicated as important mediators in the cyclic processes occurring in the reproductive organs. In the present study the peripheral blood concentrations of the cytokines interleukin(IL)-2, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ?, as well as the secretion of TNF? from the human corpus luteum were investigated. Study design: The study was undertaken at infertility clinics

Mats Brännström; Barbro E. Fridén; Melinda Jasper; Robert J. Norman



Genetic merit for fertility traits in Holstein cows: II. Ovarian follicular and corpus luteum dynamics, reproductive hormones, and estrus behavior.  


The objective of this study was to characterize the estrous cycle of cows with similar proportions of Holstein genetics, similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but with good (Fert+) or poor (Fert-) genetic merit for fertility traits. In total, 37 lactating cows were enrolled on a protocol to synchronize estrus. Nineteen Fert+ and 12 Fert- cows that successfully ovulated a dominant follicle and established a corpus luteum underwent daily transrectal ultrasonography. Blood sampling was carried out at 8-h intervals from d 0 to 6 and from d 15 to ovulation, and once daily from d 7 to 15. Blood samples were analyzed for progesterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Estrus behavior was recorded using neck activity collars and mounting pads. The Fert+ cows tended to have fewer follicular waves (2.2 vs. 2.7) and had a shorter estrous cycle (21.0 vs. 25.1 d) than Fert- cows. We observed no effect of genotype on day of first-wave emergence or day of first-wave dominant follicle peak diameter, but the peak diameter of the first-wave dominant follicle tended to be larger in Fert- cows. During the first 13 d of the cycle, Fert+ cows developed a corpus luteum that was 16% larger than that in Fert- cows. Circulating progesterone concentrations were 34% greater in Fert+ than in Fert- cows (5.15 vs. 3.84ng/mL, respectively) from d 5 to 13. During the final follicular wave, the interval from preovulatory follicle emergence to ovulation and the interval from preovulatory follicle dominance to ovulation were similar in both genotypes. Maximum preovulatory follicle diameter was larger in Fert+ than Fert- cows (17.9 vs. 16.8mm, respectively); however, circulating concentrations of estradiol were not different between genotypes. A greater proportion of Fert- cows ovulated to a silent heat than Fert+ cows (22 vs. 2%, respectively). Of cows that showed behavioral estrus, Fert+ cows had 41% greater mean activity count; however, no difference was seen in mounting behavior between genotypes. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that genetic merit for fertility has pronounced effects on corpus luteum development, progesterone concentration, preovulatory follicle diameter, and behavioral estrus. PMID:22720927

Cummins, S B; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Butler, S T



Neuroendocrine regulation of the corpus luteum in the human. Evidence for pulsatile progesterone secretion.  

PubMed Central

The pattern of episodic gonadotropin release was studied in 15 normal female volunteers during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle with 24 h of blood sampling for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels at 10-min intervals. Six subjects (two in the early, two in the mid-, and two in the late luteal phase) also had each of these specimens processed for progesterone levels. A progressive slowing of LH pulsations was present across the luteal phase with the mean LH pulse frequency declining from 15.2 pulses/24 h in the early to 8.4/24 h in the late luteal phase. A trend towards reduction in the amplitude of LH pulses was also observed (12.3 +/- 2.2 SD mIU/ml in the early vs. 8.6 +/- 3.4 mIU/ml in the late luteal phase; NS). In addition, LH pulses of heterogeneous amplitude were identified during the same 24-h study. The mean +/- SD of the larger and of the smaller LH pulses was 16.9 +/- 4.7 and 2.3 +/- 1.0 mIU/ml, respectively (P less than 0.001). While the slowing of the frequency of all LH pulses correlated well (r = 0.80, P less than 0.001) with the day of the luteal phase and poorly with the actual plasma progesterone levels, the incidence of the small LH pulses was highest in the mid-luteal phase and correlated well with the mean progesterone plasma levels (r = 0.63, P less than 0.01). In the early luteal phase, the pattern of progesterone secretion was stable over the 24-h studies and showed no relationship to episodic LH release. In contrast, in the mid- and late luteal phase, plasma progesterone concentrations rapidly fluctuated during the 24-h studies from levels as low as 2.3 to peaks of 40.1 ng/ml, often within the course of minutes. Progesterone increments closely attended episodes of LH release, as documented by the significant (P less than 0.05) cross-correlation between LH and progesterone levels, at time lags of 25-55 min. The results of this study indicate that in the human luteal phase: (a) the frequency of pulsatile release of LH declines progressively and correlates well with the duration of exposure to progressively and correlates well with the duration of exposure to progesterone; (b) the amplitude of LH pulses varies with the appearance of an increased percentage of smaller pulses correlating well with the acute level of progesterone; (c) in the early luteal phase, the pattern of progesterone secretion is stable; (d) in the mid- and late luteal phase, progesterone secretion is episodic, and correlates with LH pulsatile release; and (e) single progesterone estimations in the mid- and late luteal phase do not accurately reflect corpus luteum adequacy.

Filicori, M; Butler, J P; Crowley, W F



The Role of the Orphan Nuclear Receptor, Liver Receptor Homologue1, in the Regulation of Human Corpus Luteum 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type II  

Microsoft Academic Search

After ovulation, ovarian 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (HSD3B2) expression increases to enhance the shift of steroidogenesis toward progesterone biosynthesis. Steroido- genic factor-1 (SF-1) is a transcription factor for several genes encoding steroidogenic enzymes. However, the level of SF-1 expression decreases in the human corpus luteum (CL) after ovulation. Liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) is another mem- ber of the orphan nuclear



Prostaglandin F2alpha- and FAS-activating antibody-induced regression of the corpus luteum involves caspase-8 and is defective in caspase-3 deficient mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently demonstrated that caspase-3 is important for apoptosis during spontaneous involution of the corpus luteum (CL). These studies tested if prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) or FAS regulated luteal regression, utilize a caspase-3 dependent pathway to execute luteal cell apoptosis, and if the two receptors work via independent or potentially shared intracellular signaling components\\/pathways to activate caspase-3. Wild-type (WT) or caspase-3

Silvia F Carambula; James K Pru; Maureen P Lynch; Tiina Matikainen; Paulo Bayard D Gonçalves; Richard A Flavell; Jonathan L Tilly; Bo R Rueda



Dynamic expression of mRNAs and proteins for matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in the primate corpus luteum during the menstrual cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) may be involved in tissue remodelling in the primate corpus luteum (CL). MMP\\/TIMP mRNA and protein patterns were examined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in the early, mid-, mid-late, late and very late CL of rhesus monkeys. MMP-1 (interstitial collagenase) mRNA expression peaked (by >7-fold) in the early CL. MMP-9 (gelatinase B)

K. A. Young; J. D. Hennebold; R. L. Stouffer



Prostaglandin F2  increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the periphery of the bovine corpus luteum: the possible regulation of blood flow at an early stage of luteolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) released from the uterus causes alterations in luteal blood flow, reduces progesterone secretion, and induces luteolysis in the bovine corpus luteum (CL). We have recently discovered that luteal blood flow in the periphery of the mature CL acutely increases coincidently with pulsatile increases in a metabolite of PGF2a (PGFM). In this study, we characterized changes in regional

Koumei Shirasuna; Sho Watanabe; Takayuki Asahi; Missaka P B Wijayagunawardane; Kiemi Sasahara; Chao Jiang; Motozumi Matsui; Motoki Sasaki; Takashi Shimizu; John S Davis; Akio Miyamoto



The influence of the corpus luteum on metabolites composition of follicular fluid from different sized follicles and their relationship to serum concentrations in dairy cows.  


The presence of corpus luteum may have a local effect on metabolite composition of follicular fluid (FF) and could indirectly influence follicular development and oocyte quality. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the corpus luteum on metabolite composition of follicular fluid (FF), harvested from different-sized follicles and the relationship between metabolite composition of FF to blood serum in dairy cows. Ovaries and blood samples were collected from 30 female adult Holstein Friesian cows, 4-7 years old, with clinically normal reproductive tracts. The animals were in the diestrus stage and selected post mortem. The ovaries collected were classified based on the presence and absence of corpus luteum (CL(+/-)). Visible follicles on the surface of the ovaries were classified into (i) small (3-5mm), (ii) medium (6-9 mm) and (iii) large (10-20mm) based on their diameter. Follicular fluid was aspirated from follicles with different sizes in CL(+) and CL(-) ovaries. Blood and FF samples were analyzed for various biochemical constituents including glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, albumin and globulin. The results showed that serum concentration of glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride was significantly different (p?0.05) in FF from follicles of different size categories. Differences between various follicle size categories in CL(-) ovaries were only significant for concentrations of glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride. FF concentration of glucose and cholesterol in the same follicle size categories in CL(+) ovaries was significantly lower than that of CL(-) ovaries. These results indicate that levels of the biochemical metabolites in serum and FF differ significantly. In addition, FF concentrations of biochemical metabolites were related to follicular size and to the presence or absence of corpus luteum. PMID:23890803

Shabankareh, Hamed Karami; Kor, Nasroallah Moradi; Hajarian, Hadi



Influence of season on corpus luteum structure and function and AI outcome in the Italian Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).  


The aim was to ascertain whether relationships between corpus luteum (CL) vascularization, CL function, and pregnancy outcome in AI in buffaloes were consistent across the breeding season and transition period to the nonbreeding season in a Mediterranean environment. Stage of the estrous cycle in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes was synchronized using the Ovsynch with timed AI program and buffaloes were mated by AI in both the breeding season (N = 131) and transition period (N = 125). Detailed investigation of CL structure and function was undertaken in 39 buffaloes at each of the respective times using realtime B-mode/color-Doppler ultrasonography on Days 10 and 20 after AI. Progesterone (P4) concentrations were determined by RIA in all buffaloes. Pregnancy rate on Day 45 after AI was greater (P < 0.05) during the breeding season (58.0%) than the transitional period (45.6%) and this was primarily the result of a lower (P < 0.05) late embryonic mortality during the breeding season (7.3%) compared with the transition period (23%). Circulating concentrations of P4 on Days 10 and 20 after AI were greater (P < 0.01) during the breeding season (4.6 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.2, respectively) than during the transition period (1.6 ± 0.12 and 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively), and this was independent of reproductive status as there was no interaction between pregnancy and season. Corpus luteum time average medium velocity at Day 10 after AI was greater (P < 0.01) during the breeding season (19.3 ± 1.5) than in the transitional period (8.3 ± 0.7). There were positive correlations in pregnant buffaloes between CL time average medium velocity and P4 concentrations on Day 10 (r = 0.722; P < 0.01) and Day 20 (r = 0.446; P < 0.01) after AI. The findings were interpreted to indicate that relationships between CL vascularization, CL function, and pregnancy outcome in AI in buffaloes are consistent across the breeding season and transition period to the nonbreeding season. The distinction between the breeding season and the transition period is the relatively low proportion of buffaloes that have CL function and P4 concentrations required to establish a pregnancy during the transition period, which is manifested in a greater incidence of embryonic mortality. PMID:22979961

Di Francesco, S; Neglia, G; Vecchio, D; Rossi, P; Russo, M; Zicarelli, L; D'Occhio, M J; Campanile, G



Rapid Accumulation of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils in the Corpus luteum during Prostaglandin F2?-Induced Luteolysis in the Cow  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) induces luteolysis within a few days in cows, and immune cells increase in number in the regressing corpus luteum (CL), implying that luteolysis is an inflammatory-like immune response. We investigated the rapid change in polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) numbers in response to PGF2? administration as the first cells recruited to inflammatory sites, together with mRNA of interleukin-8 (IL-8: neutrophil chemoattractant) and P-selectin (leukocyte adhesion molecule) in the bovine CL. CLs were collected by ovariectomy at various times after PGF2? injection. The number of PMNs was increased at 5 min after PGF2? administration, whereas IL-8 and P-selectin mRNA increased at 30 min and 2 h, respectively. PGF2? directly stimulated P-selectin protein expression at 5–30 min in luteal endothelial cells (LECs). Moreover, PGF2? enhanced PMN adhesion to LECs, and this enhancement by PGF2? was inhibited by anti-P-selectin antibody, suggesting that P-selectin expression by PGF2? is crucial in PMN migration. In conclusion, PGF2? rapidly induces the accumulation of PMNs into the bovine CL at 5 min and enhances PMN adhesion via P-selectin expression in LECs. It is suggested that luteolytic cascade by PGF2? may involve an acute inflammatory-like response due to rapidly infiltrated PMNs.

Shirasuna, Koumei; Jiemtaweeboon, Sineenard; Raddatz, Sybille; Nitta, Akane; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim; Bollwein, Heinrich; Shimizu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Akio



Studies on reactivation of regressing bonnet monkey corpus luteum on day 1 of menses: a pilot study.  


Studies on functional characteristics of the regressing primate corpus luteum (CL) to luteotrophic stimulus on day 1 of the non-fertile menstrual cycle are scarce. Recombinant human luteinizing hormone (rhLH) (20 IU/Kg BW; n?=?10) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (180 IU; n?=?6) were administered intravenously to female bonnet monkeys on day 1 of menses. Exogenous treatment of rhLH or hCG caused a significant increase in circulating progesterone (P(4)) levels 2-4 hours post treatment (P?

Suresh, Padmanaban S; Medhamurthy, Rudraiah



Pregnancy and interferon tau regulate N-myc interactor in the ovine uterus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ruminants, interferon tau (IFNT) is synthesized and secreted by the mononuclear trophectoderm cells of the conceptus and maintains the corpus luteum and its secretion of progesterone for successful implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. In this study, we examined regulation of the expression of N-myc interactor (NMI) gene by IFNT in the ovine uterus based on results of microarray data

G. Song; J.-A. G. W. Fleming; J. Kim; T. E. Spencer; F. W. Bazer



Expressions of VEGF and its receptors in rat corpus luteum during interferon alpha administration in early and pseudopregnancy.  


It is accepted that angiogenesis plays an important role in the development of the corpus luteum (CL) and is probably necessary for normal lutein cell function. A number of drugs currently being tested in clinical trials as possible angiogenesis inhibitors were not originally developed with the intention of suppressing tumor angiogenesis. Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) is one of the notable examples of such 'accidental angiogenesis inhibitors' and daily administration of IFN-alpha is known to suppress tumor growth, tumor vascularization, and down-regulation of various growth factors. We investigated the effects of IFN-alpha treatment on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and its receptors KDR and Flt-1, and CD34 in CL during the first week of pseudopregnancy and pregnancy in hormonally induced rat ovaries by immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. Basal body temperatures of the drug-treated rats, as an indicator of treatment effect, were determined daily and were increased significantly when compared to controls (38.03 +/- 0.18 vs. 36.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C), respectively. The effect of IFN-alpha treatment was minimal when the entire week was evaluated, however, the expression of VEGF decreased at 3rd, 5th, and 7th days of both pregnancy and pseudopregnancy, when compared to the 1st day, whereas there was not a such alteration in the untreated rats regarding these days. The daily subcutaneous administrations of 672.500 U IFN-alpha2b had minimal effects on the expressions of VEGF, and its two receptors KDR and Flt-1 in either pregnant or pseudopregnant corpora lutea utilizing HSCORE. PMID:14991732

Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Korgun, Emin Turkay; Savas, Burhan; Demir, Ramazan



Dynamic Changes in Gene Expression that Occur during the Period of Spontaneous Functional Regression in the Rhesus Macaque Corpus Luteum  

PubMed Central

Luteolysis of the corpus luteum (CL) during nonfertile cycles involves a cessation of progesterone (P4) synthesis (functional regression) and subsequent structural remodeling. The molecular processes responsible for initiation of luteal regression in the primate CL are poorly defined. Therefore, a genomic approach was used to systematically identify differentially expressed genes in the rhesus macaque CL during spontaneous luteolysis. CL were collected before [d 10–11 after LH surge, mid-late (ML) stage] or during (d 14–16, late stage) functional regression. Based on P4 levels, late-stage CL were subdivided into functional-late (serum P4 > 1.5 ng/ml) and functionally regressed late (FRL) (serum P4 < 0.5 ng/ml) groups (n = 4 CL per group). Total RNA was isolated, labeled, and hybridized to Affymetrix genome microarrays that contain elements representing the entire rhesus macaque transcriptome. With the ML stage serving as the baseline, there were 681 differentially expressed transcripts (>2-fold change; P < 0.05) that could be categorized into three primary patterns of expression: 1) increasing from ML through FRL; 2) decreasing from ML through FRL; and 3) increasing ML to functional late, followed by a decrease in FRL. Ontology analysis revealed potential mechanisms and pathways associated with functional and/or structural regression of the macaque CL. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate microarray expression patterns of 13 genes with the results being consistent between the two methodologies. Protein levels were found to parallel mRNA profiles in four of five differentially expressed genes analyzed by Western blot. Thus, this database will facilitate the identification of mechanisms involved in primate luteal regression.

Bogan, Randy L.; Murphy, Melinda J.; Hennebold, Jon D.



Expression and regulation of secreted phosphoprotein 1 in the bovine corpus luteum and effects on T lymphocyte chemotaxis.  


Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) regulates cell function during the transitional periods of luteinization and luteal regression. The objectives were to i) characterize SPP1 expression in the CL throughout the estrous cycle, ii) determine factors that regulate SPP1 expression in luteal cells, and iii) examine the role of SPP1 in lymphocyte chemotaxis, proliferation, and function. SPP1 mRNA was greater in fully functional (d10) CL and late cycle (d18) CL compared with developing (d4) CL. Additionally, SPP1 mRNA increased within 1?h and remained elevated 4 and 8?h following induction of luteolysis with prostaglandin (PG)F2?. Expression of the SPP1 receptor, ?3 integrin, was not different throughout the estrous cycle but decreased following induction of luteolysis. Expression of CD44 increased during the estrous cycle but did not change during luteal regression. In cultured luteal cells, SPP1 mRNA was upregulated by PGF2? and/or tumor necrosis factor ?. Western blots revealed the presence of both full-length SPP1 and multiple cleavage products in cultured luteal cells and luteal tissue. Depletion of endogenous SPP1 did not hinder luteal cell-induced lymphocyte proliferation or lymphocyte phenotype but did inhibit lymphocyte migration toward luteal cells. Based on these data, it is concluded that SPP1 is initially activated to establish and maintain cellular interactions between steroidogenic and nonsteroidogenic cells during the development of the CL. Upon induction of luteolysis, SPP1 serves as a signaling molecule to recruit or activate immune cells to facilitate luteal regression and tissue degradation. PMID:24019509

Poole, Daniel H; Ndiaye, Kalidou; Pate, Joy L



Expressions of estrogen receptors in the bovine corpus luteum: cyclic changes and effects of prostaglandin F2alpha and cytokines.  


Estrogen (E) exerts its function by binding to two intracellular estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta. Although ERs have been reported to be expressed in the bovine corpus luteum (CL), the mechanisms that control ER expression in the bovine CL are not fully understood. To determine the possible regulatory mechanisms of ERalpha and ERbeta that meditate distinct E functions, we examined 1) the changes in the protein expressions of ERs in the CL throughout the luteal phase and 2) the effects of prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) on the expressions of ERs in cultured bovine luteal cells. Western blot analyses revealed that ERalpha and ERbeta proteins were expressed throughout the luteal phase. The ERalpha protein level was high at the early luteal (Days 2-3 after ovulation) and mid-luteal stages (Days 8-12) and was extremely low at the regressed luteal stage (Days 19-21). The ERbeta protein level increased from the early to developing luteal stage, remained at the same level at the mid-luteal stage and decreased thereafter. The ratio of ERbeta to ERalpha was higher in the regressed stage than in the other stages. Luteal cells obtained from mid-stage CLs (Days 8-12) were incubated with PGF2alpha (0.01-1 microM), TNFalpha (0.0145-1.45 nM) or IFNgamma (0.0125-1.25 nM) for 24 h. PGF2alpha and TNFalpha inhibited ERa and ERbeta mRNA expressions. IFNgamma suppressed ERbeta mRNA expression but did not affect the expression of ERalpha mRNA. However, the ERalpha and ERbeta protein levels were not affected by any of the above treatments. These data indicate that PGF2alpha, TNFalpha and IFNgamma regulate ERalpha and ERbeta mRNA expressions in bovine luteal cells. Moreover, the changes in the ERbeta/ERalpha ratio throughout the luteal phase suggest that ERalpha is associated with luteal maintenance. Therefore, a dramatic decrease in ERalpha at the regressed luteal stage could result in progression of structural luteolysis in the bovine CL. PMID:17598955

Shibaya, Masami; Matsuda, Ayumi; Hojo, Takuo; Acosta, Tomas Javier; Okuda, Kiyoshi



Influence of corpus luteum and induced ovulation on ovarian follicular dynamics in postpartum cyclic cows treated with buserelin and cloprostenol.  


The influence of the corpus luteum (CL) at the time of buserelin treatment and of buserelin-induced ovulation on the dynamics of ovarian follicular development was determined in 18 postpartum cyclic beef cows injected i.m. with 8 micrograms of buserelin on d 0 (d of treatment) and with 500 micrograms of cloprostenol (PGF) 6 d later. From d 0 to onset of estrus, ovaries were examined ultrasonographically, and blood samples were collected daily. Number of medium (5 to 10 mm) follicles and diameters of the two largest (F1 and F2) follicles in each cow were recorded. Cows were grouped according to the presence (CL+) or absence (CL-) of an active CL before buserelin injection and the presence (OV+) or absence (OV-) of a buserelin-induced ovulation (OV). Three groups were formed: CL-OV+ (n = 8), CL+OV+ (n = 6), and CL+OV- (n = 4). Buserelin induced an ovulation in all CL- cows (progesterone [P4] < .3 ng/mL) and in CL+ cows that had P4 < 4 ng/mL but did not in CL+ cows that had P4 > 8 ng/mL. Within CL+ cows, buserelin-induced ovulation (OV+) was associated with a smaller (P < .0001) increase in F1 and F1-F2 diameters and a transient increase in the number of medium follicles that was greater (P < .03) and of a longer duration (P < .01) than in OV- cows. After PGF, the increase in F1 and F1-F2 diameters was still greater in OV+ than in OV- cows (day x OV; P < .05). In all cows, the selection of the preovulatory follicle occurred before PGF injection. Results indicate that a buserelin-induced ovulation was dependent on P4 concentrations at the time of treatment. Subsequently, ovarian follicular dynamics were altered by a GnRH-induced ovulation, but emergence and selection of a large growing follicle occurred in all cows within 6 d of treatment. This follicle became the preovulatory follicle following PGF-induced luteolysis. PMID:7928759

Twagiramungu, H; Guilbault, L A; Proulx, J G; Dufour, J J



Size of ovulatory follicles in cattle expressing multiple ovulations naturally and its influence on corpus luteum development and fertility.  


Long-term genetic selection of cattle for fraternal twins has increased the frequency of twin and triplet ovulations. In contrast, the ratio of fetal numbers to ovulation sites in pregnant females with twin (0.83) or triplet (0.73) ovulations is <1.0 and the number of calves per parturition is 1.6 and 2.0, respectively. Failure of individual twin or triplet ovulations to yield a conceptus in fertile females indicates a significant contribution of ovulation or oocyte anomalies to increased fertilization failure or early embryonic mortality. The present objective was to identify physiological traits affecting conception in cyclic cattle expressing multiple ovulations naturally, including the effect of ovulation rate on follicle or corpus luteum (CL) size, and their relationship to conception. Diameter of the individual ovulatory follicles was measured by transrectal ultrasonography at AI and ranged from 8 to 30 mm, with a trend for diameter of the individual follicles, and associated CL, to decrease with increasing ovulation rate. Independent of ovulation rate, ovulatory follicles were smaller (P < 0.05) for nulliparous heifers (1.5 yr) compared with parous cows (> or =2.5 yr). Pregnancy and fetal status were diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography between 42 and 72 d after AI. Fertility was reduced (P < 0.01) for small twin or triplet ovulatory follicles (8 to 8.9 mm vs. 10 to 17.9 mm diam.), whereas fertility in monovular females was reduced (P < 0.01) for large ovulatory follicles (> or =22 vs. 14 to 17.9 mm). Plasma progesterone concentrations increased with ovulation rate and were correlated positively with total CL or ovulatory follicle volume per female, indicating that CL size and function were influenced by the size of the follicle of origin. Progesterone was greater (P < 0.05) in the blood of nulliparous heifers compared with parous cows. The increased proportion of small ovulatory follicles associated with twin and triplet ovulations indicates that some ovulatory follicles were either selected to ovulate at a lesser stage of maturity or rescued while undergoing atresia, thus compromising oocyte competency or ovulation. Of greatest importance for reduced fertility was the greater incidence of pregnancy losses occurring in the middle of gestation in females gestating 2 or more fetuses as an apparent effect of uterine crowding, especially when 2 or more fetuses were contained within 1 uterine horn. PMID:19684271

Echternkamp, S E; Cushman, R A; Allan, M F



Restoration of corpus luteum angiogenesis in immature hypothyroid rdw rats after thyroxine treatment: morphologic and molecular evidence.  


Thyroxine (T4) plus gonadotropins might stimulate ovarian follicular angiogenesis in immature infertile hypothyroid rdw rats by upregulating mRNA expression of major angiogenic factors. Development of growing corpus luteum (CL) is strongly related to angiogenesis and to morphofunctional development of microcirculation. Our aim was to investigate if T4 is involved in CL angiogenesis and in the activation of capillary cells and angiogenic factors after ovulation in a spontaneous model of hypothyroidism, the rdw rat. Rdw rats were treated with T4 plus gonadotropins (equine chorionic gonadotropin plus human chorionic gonadotropin; eCG+hCG) or gonadotropins alone in order to evaluate the effects of T4 on early luteal angiogenesis, on microvascular cells and on expression of major growth factors which are involved in the regulation of angiogenesis. Wistar-Imamichi rats treated with gonadotropins were used as controls. The ovaries were collected 4 days after hCG administration and analyzed using morphologic and molecular approaches. Thyroxine plus gonadotropins stimulated the growth of CLs and follicles as in controls, differently from rdw rats treated only with gonadotropins, in which CLs were not found and only small follicles, often atretic, could be recognized. In T4 plus gonadotropin-treated rdw rats CLs showed increased microvasculature, numerous activated capillaries characterized by sprouting and other angiogenic figures, and associated pericytes. Quantitative analysis revealed that the number of pericytes in T4 plus gonadotropin-treated rdw rats was comparable with that found in control rats and was significantly higher than that found in gonadotropin-treated rdw rats. The mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor was significantly higher in control rats and in T4 plus gonadotropin-treated rdw rats than in gonadotropin-treated rdw rats. mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor ?, transforming growth factor ?, and epidermal growth factor did not show significant changes. Our data originally demonstrated that T4 promoted the growth of an active microcirculation in developing CLs of gonadotropin-primed hypothyroid rdw rats, mainly by inducing sprouting angiogenesis, pericyte recruitment, and upregulation of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. In conclusion, we suggest that T4 plays a key role in restoring luteal angiogenesis in ovaries of immature hypothyroid rdw rats. PMID:23122683

Macchiarelli, Guido; Palmerini, Maria Grazia; Nottola, Stefania Annarita; Cecconi, Sandra; Tanemura, Kentaro; Sato, Eimei



Changes in luteal cells distribution, apoptotic rate, lipid peroxidation levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) corpus luteum.  


Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is known for its weak/silent estrous behaviour, lower conception rate and longer inter-calving interval as compared to cattle. Understanding the kinetics and functional properties of luteal cells may be helpful to improve reproductive efficiency in the buffalo. Hence the present study was designed to assess the size and distribution of steroidogenic luteal cells along with biochemical properties during different phases of corpus luteum (CL) in the buffalo. The ovaries collected from the local abattoir were classified into three phases, early, mid and late, based on the morphological appearance of the CL as well as the follicles in the ovary. The proportion (%) of the luteal cells (>10microm diameter) increased (P<0.01) from early (30.7+/-1.3) to mid (36.30+/-1.6), and then decreased (P<0.01) in late luteal (31.46+/-1.8) phases. Percentage of small luteal cells (10-20microm diameter) was higher (P<0.05) in early (58.47+/-0.61) and mid (61.29+/-0.67) than late luteal (37.18+/-1.50) phases of CL. However, the percentage of large luteal cells (20-50microm diameter) was higher (P<0.05) only in late (62.82+/-1.50) than early (41.53+/-0.61) and mid (38.71+/-0.67) phases of CL. The average size (microm) of the large luteal cells increased (P<0.05) from early (25.46+/-0.62) to mid (27.15+/-0.5) and late (28.86+/-0.47) luteal phases. The percentage of luteal cells expressing in situ DNA fragmentation was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the late luteal (41.17+/-5.8) than mid-luteal (21.15+/-4.9) phase of the CL. In the early stage, half of the steroidogenic luteal cells had significantly (P<0.05) less 3beta-HSD activity than the other two phases. In the mid stage, the steroidogenic luteal cells had significantly higher (P<0.05) intense 3beta-HSD activity than the other two phases. Further in the late phase, a significant (P<0.05) reduction in intense 3beta-HSD activity was observed in the large luteal cells. The lipid peroxidation (micromol/g of CL) levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in late luteal (3.46+/-0.2) than the mid-luteal (1.43+/-0.16) phases. The superoxide dismutase and catalase enzyme levels (U/mg of protein) were also significantly (P<0.05) higher in late luteal (0.9+/-0.015 and 3.37+/-0.45, respectively) than the mid-luteal (0.1+/-0.01 and 2.34+/-0.3, respectively) phases. In contrast, the GPx activity (U/mg of protein) decreased significantly (P<0.05) from mid-luteal (1.85+/-0.4) to late luteal (1.22+/-0.2) phases. The present study suggests that (i) the decrease in progesterone levels in late CL may be associated with loss of 3beta-HSD activity in large luteal cells and (ii) demise of the buffalo CL may be mediated by apoptosis despite the high levels of luteal antioxidant enzymes. PMID:20378285

Selvaraju, S; Raghavendra, B S; Subramani, T Siva; Priyadharsini, R; Reddy, I J; Ravindra, J P



Effects of indomethacin, luteinizing hormone (LH), prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2), trilostane, mifepristone, ethamoxytriphetol (MER25) on secretion of prostaglandin E (PGE), prostaglandin F 2? (PGF 2?) and progesterone by ovine corpora lutea of pregnancy or the estrous cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to determine the luteotropin of pregnancy in sheep and to examine autocrine and paracrine roles of progesterone and estradiol-17 ? on progesterone secretion by the ovine corpus luteum (CL). Secretion of progesterone per unit mass by day-8 or day-11 CL of the estrous cycle was similar to day-90 CL of pregnancy (P ? 0.05). In experiment

L. Kim; Y. S. Weems; P. J. Bridges; B. R. LeaMaster; L. Ching; D. L. Vincent; C. W. Weems



Estrous cycle-dependent changes of Fas expression in the bovine corpus luteum: influence of keratin 8/18 intermediate filaments and cytokines  

PubMed Central

Background Fas expression and Fas-induced apoptosis are mechanisms attributed to the selective destruction of cells of the corpus luteum (CL) during luteal regression. In certain cell-types, sensitivity to these death-inducing mechanisms is due to the loss or cleavage of keratin-containing intermediate filaments. Specifically, keratin 8/18 (K8/K18) filaments are hypothesized to influence cell death in part by regulating Fas expression at the cell surface. Methods Here, Fas expression on bovine luteal cells was quantified by flow cytometry during the early (Day 5, postovulation) and late stages (Days 16–18, postovulation) of CL function, and the relationship between Fas expression, K8/K18 filament expression and cytokine-induced cell death in vitro was evaluated. Results Both total and cell surface expression of Fas on luteal cells was greater for early versus late stage bovine CL (89% vs. 44% of cells for total Fas; 65% vs.18% of cells for cell surface Fas; respectively, P<0.05, n=6-9 CL/stage). A similar increase in the steady-state concentration of mRNA for Fas, as detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, however, was not observed. Transient disruption of K8/K18 filaments in the luteal cells with acrylamide (5 mM), however, had no effect on the surface expression of Fas (P>0.05, n=4 CL/stage), despite evidence these conditions increased Fas expression on HepG2 cells (P<0.05, n= 3 expts). Exposure of the luteal cells to cytokines induced cell death (P<0.05) as expected, but there was no effect of K8/K18 filament disruption by acrylamide (P>0.05) or stage of CL (P>0.05, n= 4 CL/stage) on this outcome. Conclusion In conclusion, we rejected our null hypothesis that the cell surface expression of Fas does not differ between luteal cells of early and late stage CL. The results also did not support the idea that K8/K18 filaments influence the expression of Fas on the surface of bovine luteal cells. Potential downstream effects of these filaments on death signaling, however, remain a possibility. Importantly, the elevated expression of Fas observed on cells of early stage bovine CL compared to late stage bovine CL raises a provocative question concerning the physiological role(s) of Fas in the corpus luteum, particularly during early luteal development.



The effects of luteinizing hormone ablation/replacement versus steroid ablation/replacement on gene expression in the primate corpus luteum  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to provide a genome-wide analysis of the effects of luteinizing hormone (LH) versus steroid ablation/replacement on gene expression in the developed corpus luteum (CL) in primates during the menstrual cycle. On Days 9–11 of the luteal phase, female rhesus monkeys were left untreated (control) or received a GnRH antagonist Antide (A), A + LH, A + LH + the 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor Trilostane (TRL) or A + LH + TRL + a progestin R5020. On Day 12 of the luteal phase, CL were removed and samples of RNA from individual CL were hybridized to Affymetrix™ rhesus macaque total genome microarrays. The greatest number of altered transcripts was associated with the ablation/replacement of LH, while steroid ablation/progestin replacement affected fewer transcripts. Replacement of LH during Antide treatment restored the expression of most transcripts to control levels. Validation of a subset of transcripts revealed that the expression patterns were similar between microarray and real-time PCR. Analyses of protein levels were subsequently determined for two transcripts. This is the first genome-wide analysis of LH and steroid regulation of gene transcription in the developed primate CL. Further analysis of novel transcripts identified in this data set can clarify the relative role for LH and steroids in CL maintenance and luteolysis.

Bishop, Cecily V.; Hennebold, Jon D.; Stouffer, Richard L.



The effects of luteinizing hormone ablation/replacement versus steroid ablation/replacement on gene expression in the primate corpus luteum.  


This study was designed to provide a genome-wide analysis of the effects of luteinizing hormone (LH) versus steroid ablation/replacement on gene expression in the developed corpus luteum (CL) in primates during the menstrual cycle. On Days 9-11 of the luteal phase, female rhesus monkeys were left untreated (control) or received a GnRH antagonist Antide (A), A + LH, A + LH + the 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor Trilostane (TRL) or A + LH + TRL + a progestin R5020. On Day 12 of the luteal phase, CL were removed and samples of RNA from individual CL were hybridized to Affymetrix rhesus macaque total genome microarrays. The greatest number of altered transcripts was associated with the ablation/replacement of LH, while steroid ablation/progestin replacement affected fewer transcripts. Replacement of LH during Antide treatment restored the expression of most transcripts to control levels. Validation of a subset of transcripts revealed that the expression patterns were similar between microarray and real-time PCR. Analyses of protein levels were subsequently determined for two transcripts. This is the first genome-wide analysis of LH and steroid regulation of gene transcription in the developed primate CL. Further analysis of novel transcripts identified in this data set can clarify the relative role for LH and steroids in CL maintenance and luteolysis. PMID:19168862

Bishop, Cecily V; Hennebold, Jon D; Stouffer, Richard L



Expression and Localization of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and its Receptors in the Corpus Luteum During Oestrous Cycle in Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).  


The aim of this study was to document the expression and localization of VEGF system comprising of VEGF isoforms (VEGF 120, VEGF 164 and VEGF 188) and their receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) in buffalo corpus luteum (CL) obtained from different stages of the oestrous cycle. Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry were applied to investigate mRNA expression, protein expression and localization of examined factors. In general, all the components of VEGF system (the VEGF isoforms and their receptors) were found in the water buffalo CL during the oestrous cycle. The mRNA as well as protein expression of VEGF system was highest during the early and mid-luteal phase, which later steadily decreased (p < 0.05) after day 10 to reach the lowest level in regressed CL. As demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, VEGF protein was localized predominantly in luteal cells; however, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 were localized in luteal cells as well as in endothelial cells. In conclusion, the dynamics of expression and localization of VEGF system in buffalo corpora lutea during the luteal phase were demonstrated in this study, indicating the possible role of VEGF system in the regulation of luteal angiogenesis and proliferation of luteal as well as endothelial cells through their non-angiogenic function. PMID:23551326

Chouhan, Vs; Panda, Rp; Yadav, Vp; Babitha, V; Khan, Fa; Das, Gk; Gupta, M; Dangi, Ss; Singh, G; Bag, S; Sharma, Gt; Berisha, B; Schams, D; Sarkar, M



Expression and regulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF-receptor family members in the macaque corpus luteum during the menstrual cycle.  


Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor (R) family may be involved in the tissue remodeling that occurs in the primate corpus luteum (CL) during development and regression. As a first step towards addressing this issue, studies assessed TNF ligand-R expression and regulation in CL collected from monkeys during the early (ECL, Days 3-5), mid (MCL, Days 7-8), mid-late (MLCL, Days 10-11), late (LCL, Days 14-16), and very late (VLCL, menses) luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. CL were also collected after gonadotropin and/or steroid ablation and replacement (with hLH and the progestin R5020) for 3 days at mid-late luteal phase. TNF-alpha, -beta, FAS ligand (FASL), and TNF-R1 mRNA levels were two- to sixfold greater (P < 0.05) at the MLCL or LCL phase as compared to earlier (ECL, MCL). In contrast, TNF-R2 and FAS mRNA levels did not change during the luteal phase. Immunohistochemical staining for TNF-beta, TNF-R1, TNF-R2, FAS, and FASL was observed in luteal cells, whereas only TNF-beta staining was observed in endothelial cells. Several TNF-R components were influenced by LH and/or steroid ablation; notably, steroid ablation reduced (P < 0.05) luteal TNF-alpha, but not TNF-beta, mRNA levels, which was prevented by progestin treatment. In contrast, steroid ablation increased (P < 0.05) luteal cell immunostaining for FAS and FASL, which was reduced by progestin treatment. Thus, several members of the TNF R-ligand family are expressed in the primate CL in an LH- and/or progestin-dependent manner. Peak expression in the late luteal phase may signify a role for the TNF-R system in death receptor-mediated apoptosis during luteolysis. PMID:18932199

Peluffo, Marina C; Young, Kelly A; Hennebold, Jon D; Stouffer, Richard L



Expression and Regulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) and TNF- Receptor Family Members in the Macaque Corpus Luteum During the Menstrual Cycle  

PubMed Central

Members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor (R) family may be involved in the tissue remodeling that occurs in the primate corpus luteum (CL) during development and regression. As a first step towards addressing this issue, studies assessed TNF ligand-R expression and regulation in CL collected from monkeys during the early (ECL, d3–5), mid (MCL, d7–8), mid-late (MLCL, d10–11), late (LCL, d14–16), and very late (VLCL, menses) luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. CL were also collected after gonadotropin and/or steroid ablation and replacement (with hLH and the progestin R5020) for 3 days at mid-late luteal phase. TNF-?, -?, FAS ligand (FASL), and TNF-R1 mRNA levels were 2- to 6-fold greater (p<0.05) at the MLCL or LCL phase as compared to earlier (ECL, MCL). In contrast, TNF-R2 and FAS mRNA levels did not change during the luteal phase. Immunohistochemical staining for TNF-?, TNF-R1, TNF-R2, FAS, and FASL was observed in luteal cells, whereas only TNF-? staining was observed in endothelial cells. Several TNF-R components were influenced by LH and/or steroid ablation; notably, steroid ablation reduced (p<0.05) luteal TNF-?, but not TNF-?, mRNA levels, which was prevented by progestin treatment. In contrast, steroid ablation increased (p<0.05) luteal cell immunostaining for FAS and FASL, which was reduced by progestin treatment. Thus, several members of the TNF R-ligand family are expressed in the primate CL in an LH- and/or progestin-dependent manner. Peak expression in the late luteal phase may signify a role for the TNF-R system in death receptor-mediated apoptosis during luteolysis.

Peluffo, Marina C.; Young, Kelly A.; Hennebold, Jon D.; Stouffer, Richard L.



Expression of prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) receptor and its isoforms in the bovine corpus luteum during the estrous cycle and PGF2?-induced luteolysis.  


Prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) induces luteolysis via a specific receptor, PTGFR. Although PTGFR mRNA expression in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) has been studied previously, changes in PTGFR protein and its localization are not fully understood during the life span of the CL. In addition to full-length PTGFR, several types of PTGFR isoforms, such as PTGFR? (type I) and PTGFR? (type II), were reported in the bovine CL, suggesting isoform-specific luteal action. Full-length PTGFR mRNA in the bovine CL increased from the early to the mid-luteal phase and decreased during luteolysis, whereas PTGFR protein remained stable. PTGFR protein was localized to both luteal and endothelial cells and was expressed similarly during the life span of the CL. Like full-length PTGFR mRNA, PTGFR? and PTGFR? mRNA also increased from the early to mid-luteal phases, and mRNA of PTGFR?, but not PTGFR?, decreased in the regressing CL. During PGF2?-induced luteolysis, the mRNAs of full-length PTGFR, PTGFR,? and PTGFR? decreased rapidly (from 5 or 15 min after PGF2? injection), but PTGFR protein decreased only 12 h later. Silencing full-length PTGFR using small interfering RNA prevented PGF2?-stimulated cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2) mRNA induction. By contrast, PGF2? could stimulate vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) mRNA even when full-length PTGFR was knocked down, thus suggesting that PGF2? may stimulate PTGS2 via full-length PTGFR, whereas VEGFA is stimulated via other PTGFR isoforms. Collectively, PTGFR protein was expressed continually in the bovine CL during the estrous cycle, implying that PGF2? could function throughout this period. Additionally, the bovine CL expresses different PTGFR isoforms, and thus PGF2? may have different effects when acting via full-length PTGFR or via PTGFR isoforms. PMID:22560179

Shirasuna, K; Akabane, Y; Beindorff, N; Nagai, K; Sasaki, M; Shimizu, T; Bollwein, H; Meidan, R; Miyamoto, A



The effect of progesterone replacement on gene expression in the corpus luteum during induced regression and late luteal phase in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata)  

PubMed Central

Background In higher primates, although LH/CG play a critical role in the control of corpus luteum (CL) function, the direct effects of progesterone (P4) in the maintenance of CL structure and function are unclear. Several experiments were conducted in the bonnet monkey to examine direct effects of P4 on gene expression changes in the CL, during induced luteolysis and the late luteal phase of natural cycles. Methods To identify differentially expressed genes encoding PR, PR binding factors, cofactors and PR downstream signaling target genes, the genome-wide analysis data generated in CL of monkeys after LH/P4 depletion and LH replacement were mined and validated by real-time RT-PCR analysis. Initially, expression of these P4 related genes were determined in CL during different stages of luteal phase. The recently reported model system of induced luteolysis, yet capable of responsive to tropic support, afforded an ideal situation to examine direct effects of P4 on structure and function of CL. For this purpose, P4 was infused via ALZET pumps into monkeys 24 h after LH/P4 depletion to maintain mid luteal phase circulating P4 concentration (P4 replacement). In another experiment, exogenous P4 was supplemented during late luteal phase to mimic early pregnancy. Results Based on the published microarray data, 45 genes were identified to be commonly regulated by LH and P4. From these 19 genes belonging to PR signaling were selected to determine their expression in LH/P4 depletion and P4 replacement experiments. These 19 genes when analyzed revealed 8 genes to be directly responsive to P4, whereas the other genes to be regulated by both LH and P4. Progesterone supplementation for 24 h during the late luteal phase also showed changes in expression of 17 out of 19 genes examined. Conclusion These results taken together suggest that P4 regulates, directly or indirectly, expression of a number of genes involved in the CL structure and function.



Roles of prostaglandin F2alpha and hydrogen peroxide in the regulation of Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase in bovine corpus luteum and luteal endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF) induces luteolysis in cow by inducing a rapid reduction in progesterone production (functional luteolysis) followed by tissue degeneration (structural luteolysis). However the mechanisms of action of PGF remain unclear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in regulating the luteolytic action of PGF. The local concentration of ROS is controlled by superoxide dismutase (SOD), the main enzyme involved in the control of intraluteal ROS. Thus SOD seems to be involved in luteolysis process induced by PGF in cow. Methods To determine the dynamic relationship between PGF and ROS in bovine corpus luteum (CL) during luteolysis, we determined the time-dependent change of Copper/Zinc SOD (SOD1) in CL tissues after PGF treatment in vivo. We also investigated whether PGF and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) modulates SOD1 expression and SOD activity in cultured bovine luteal endothelial cells (LECs) in vitro. Results Following administration of a luteolytic dose of PGF analogue (0 h) to cows at the mid-luteal stage, the expression of SOD1 mRNA and protein, and total SOD activity in CL tissues increased between 0.5 and 2 h, but fell below the initial (0 h) level at 24 h post-treatment. In cultured LECs, the expression of SOD1 mRNA was stimulated by PGF (1–10 microM) and H2O2 (10–100 microM) at 2 h (P<0.05). PGF and H2O2 increased SOD1 protein expression and total SOD activity at 2 h (P<0.05), whereas PGF and H2O2 inhibited SOD1 protein expressions and total SOD activity at 24 h (P<0.05). In addition, H2O2 stimulated PGF biosynthesis at 2 and 24 h in bovine LECs. Overall results indicate that, SOD is regulated by PGF and ROS in bovine LECs. SOD may play a role in controlling intraluteal PGF and ROS action during functional and structural luteolysis in cows.



Targeted progesterone supplementation improves fertility in lactating dairy cows without a corpus luteum at the initiation of the timed artificial insemination protocol.  


The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of supplemental progesterone on fertility in lactating dairy cows lacking a corpus luteum (CL) at the initiation of the timed artificial insemination (AI) program. Holstein cows were subjected to the 5-d timed AI program (d -8 GnRH, d -3 and -2 PGF2?, d 0 GnRH and AI). Cows had their ovaries scanned by ultrasonography on d -8 and those bearing a CL were considered to be in diestrus (DI; n=946). Cows that lacked a CL on d -8 were assigned to remain as untreated control (CON; n=234) or receive 2 controlled internal drug release (CIDR) inserts containing progesterone (2CIDR; n=218) from d -8 to -3, as a single insert has been proven insufficient to modulate fertility in cows without CL. Blood was analyzed for progesterone and estradiol concentrations. Pregnancy was diagnosed on d 34 and 62 after AI. Progesterone concentrations during the timed AI program were lowest for CON, intermediate for 2CIDR, and highest for DI. Supplementation increased progesterone concentrations between d -7 and -3 compared with CON (2.65 vs. 0.51 ng/mL). Ovulation to the first GnRH was not affected by treatment. However, a greater proportion of CON and 2CIDR cows had a new CL on d -3 compared with DI cows (66.7 vs. 61.9 vs. 52.0%). In cows with a new CL, the diameter of the ovulatory follicle was larger for CON than 2CIDR, and intermediate for DI (18.7 vs. 16.5 vs. 17.7 mm). Concentrations of estradiol on d -3 did not differ among treatments; however, DI cows had greater estradiol concentrations at AI compared with CON or 2CIDR cows. Pregnancy per AI was less for CON compared with 2CIDR or DI on d 32 (30.8 vs. 46.8 vs. 49.9%) and 64 (28.6 vs. 43.7 vs. 47.3%), indicating that supplementation with progesterone reestablished fertility in cows lacking a CL on d -8. A greater proportion of nonpregnant CON cows had a short reinsemination interval compared with 2CIDR or DI (11.1 vs. 3.5 vs. 5.7%). Treatment did not affect pregnancy loss between d 34 and 62 of gestation. A single ultrasound exam was effective in identifying a low-fertility cohort of cows based on the absence of CL at the first GnRH injection of the timed AI protocol. Progesterone supplementation with 2 CIDR inserts increased progesterone in plasma to 2.65 ng/mL and restored fertility in lactating dairy cows lacking a CL at the initiation of the timed AI program similar to that of cows in diestrus. PMID:23415522

Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Lima, F S; Martinez, N; Greco, L F; Barbosa, L F S P; Bueno, P P; Scagion, L F S; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P



Effects of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration on day 5 after oestrus on corpus luteum characteristics, circulating progesterone and conceptus elongation in cattle.  


The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that elevated concentrations of progesterone (P4) resulting from the induction of an accessory corpus luteum (CL) by human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration on day 5 after oestrus would lead to advanced conceptus elongation on day 14 following embryo transfer on day 7. The oestrous cycles of cross-bred beef heifers were synchronised and animals were randomly assigned to receive either of two treatments: (1) intramuscular injection of 3000 IU hCG on day 5 after oestrus (n=14); or (2) intramuscular injection of saline on day 5 after oestrus (n=13). Ovaries were scanned daily by transrectal ultrasonography to assess CL development. Serum concentrations of P4 were determined from daily blood samples collected from the jugular vein. In vitro-produced bovine blastocysts were transferred to synchronised recipients on day 7 after oestrus (n=15 blastocysts per recipient). Heifers were killed on day 14 after oestrus and the uterus was flushed to recover the embryos. Injection of hCG on day 5 induced ovulation of the dominant follicle in all treated heifers and increased the total area of luteal tissue on the ovary, which was associated with a significant increase (P<0.001) in serum concentrations of P4 from day 7 to day 14. Positive associations were detected between circulating P4 with CL area (within-day correlations ranging from r=0.45 to r=0.67) and total area of luteal tissue (within-day correlations ranging from r=0.65 to r=0.86) Administration of hCG did not affect the proportion of day 14 conceptuses recovered. However, compared with the control group, hCG-treated heifers had increased conceptus length (3.91±1.23 vs. 5.57±1.02 mm, respectively; P=0.06), width (1.00±0.06 vs. 1.45±0.05 mm, respectively; P=0.002) and area (5.71±0.97 vs. 8.31±0.83, respectively; P=0.02). Although numerically greater, mean interferon-? (IFNT) production in vitro did not differ significantly (P=0.54) between embryos recovered from hCG-treated and control heifers. In contrast, there was a strong positive correlation between individual embryo length (r=0.76; P<0.001) and individual embryo area (r=0.72; P<0.001) and IFNT production. In conclusion, administration of hCG on day 5 after oestrus resulted in the formation of an accessory CL and hypertrophy of the original CL, the result of which was an increase in P4 concentrations from day 7 onwards. These elevated P4 concentrations were associated with an increased conceptus area. Furthermore, conceptus size was highly correlated with IFNT secretion in vitro. PMID:22401279

Rizos, D; Scully, S; Kelly, A K; Ealy, A D; Moros, R; Duffy, P; Al Naib, A; Forde, N; Lonergan, P



Role of LH and prostaglandin F2alpha on the development and regression of corpus luteum in mithun (Bos frontalis) estrous cycle.  


The present investigation was designed to study the role of LH and prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) on the development and regression of corpus luteum (CL) in the mithun estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein and PGF2alpha secretion was evaluated on the basis of peripheral 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF2alpha (PGFM) concentration. The daily variations in plasma LH, PGFM, and progesterone (P4) concentrations throughout the estrous cycle were monitored in morning and evening blood samples. The variations in plasma LH, PGFM, and P4 concentrations during the early luteal phase were monitored in blood samples that were collected every 2 h until 120 h following the onset of estrus (Day 0). The pulsatile secretion patterns of plasma LH, PGFM and P4 during estrus (Day 1), mid-diestrus (Day 10), and luteolysis (Day 14) were assessed in blood samples that were collected every 15 min for 6h. In the estrous cycle, P4 concentration increased above basal level on day 6-7, peaked on day 10-12 and declined thereafter. Following estrus, a significant (P<0.01) gradual increase in P4 concentration was observed. LH concentration was found to be significantly (P<0.01) greater around estrus and it declined gradually (P<0.01) following estrus. In the estrous cycle, PGFM concentration increased above basal level on day 9-11, peaked on day 16-17, and declined thereafter. The frequency of LH pulses and basal LH concentration were found to be significantly (P<0.01) greater on day 1, but significantly (P<0.01) greater amplitude of LH pulses was found on day 10 and 14. The frequency of P4 and PGFM pulses was found to be significantly (P<0.01) greater on day 1. In contrast, the amplitude of P4 and PGFM pulses and basal P4 and PGFM concentrations were found to be significantly (P<0.01) greater on day 10 and 14. The results indicate that probably the early stages of CL development continued until day 5-6 of the estrous cycle and a fully functional CL existed approximately at the mid estrous cycle. Luteolysis probably started since day 11-13 of the cycle and completed before the onset of the next estrus. The elevated basal LH concentration along with frequent low amplitude LH pulses were probably required for the early stages of CL development. In contrast, the high amplitude LH pulses of lower frequency during the mid estrous cycle were either sufficient or not required for maintaining the luteal function. Whereas, PGF2alpha pulses of greater amplitude and elevated basal PGF2alpha concentration during the mid and late estrous cycle were probably responsible for luteolysis. PMID:16828092

Dhali, A; Mishra, D P; Mech, A; Karunakaran, M; Rajkhowa, C



Length of the luteal phase and frequency of the four permutations between two or three follicular waves and ipsilateral or contralateral locations of the corpus luteum and preovulatory follicle in heifers.  


In Survey 1, the records for 196 interovulatory intervals (IOIs) from 24 heifers were used to study the frequency and repeatability for number of follicular waves per IOI and to study the ipsilateral and contralateral relationships between the extant corpus luteum and ovulatory follicle. In Survey 2, 96 IOIs were used from the controls of the previous experiments that included the day of the end of the luteolytic period (progesterone <1.0 ng/mL). In Survey 1, the percentage of two-wave IOIs (63%) was greater (P < 0.0002) than for three-wave IOIs (37%). The percentage of ovulatory periods with a contralateral relationship (59%) was greater (P < 0.003) than with the ipsilateral relationship (41%). There were more repeats (66%) than reverses (34%) between adjacent IOIs in number of waves per IOI (P < 0.004), but there was no difference in number of corpus luteum/follicle relationships between the ovulatory periods at the beginning and end of an IOI. For the four permutations of ipsilateral and two waves, contralateral and two waves, ipsilateral and three waves, and contralateral and three waves in Survey 2, the interval (days) from ovulation to the day the progesterone was <1.0 ng/mL was 17.8 ± 0.2(a), 17.6 ± 0.2(a), 20.0 ± 0.3(b), and 21.4 ± 0.3(c), respectively, and the number of IOIs was 33 (34%)(a), 34 (35%)(a), 8 (8%)(b), and 22 (23%)(a), respectively; means with different superscripts are different (P < 0.05). The luteal phase was longer for the contralateral relationship than for the ipsilateral relationship for three-wave IOIs but not for two-wave IOIs. The hypothesis was supported that the frequency of the ipsilateral and three-wave permutation was less than for each of the other three permutations. PMID:23602081

Ginther, O J; Bashir, S T



Prostaglandin F2? Stimulates the Expression and Secretion of Transforming Growth Factor B1 Via Induction of the Early Growth Response 1 Gene (EGR1) in the Bovine Corpus Luteum  

PubMed Central

In most mammals, prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) is believed to be a trigger that induces the regression of the corpus luteum (CL), whereby progesterone synthesis is inhibited, the luteal structure involutes, and the reproductive cycle resumes. Studies have shown that the early growth response 1 (EGR1) protein can induce the expression of proapoptotic proteins, suggesting that EGR1 may play a role in luteal regression. Our hypothesis is that EGR1 mediates the actions of PGF2? by inducing the expression of TGF ?1 (TGFB1), a key tissue remodeling protein. The levels of EGR1 mRNA and protein were up-regulated in the bovine CL during PGF2?-induced luteolysis in vivo and in PGF2?-treated luteal cells in vitro. Using chemical and genetic approaches, the RAF/MAPK kinase (MEK) 1/ERK pathway was identified as a proximal signaling event required for the induction of EGR1 in PGF2?-treated cells. Treatment with PGF2? increased the expression of TGFB1 mRNA and protein as well as the binding of EGR1 protein to TGFB1 promoter in bovine luteal cells. The effect of PGF2? on TGFB1 expression was mimicked by a protein kinase C (PKC)/RAF/MEK1/ERK activator or adenoviral-mediated expression of EGR1. The stimulatory effect of PGF2? on TGFB1 mRNA and TGFB1 protein secretion was inhibited by blockade of MEK1/ERK signaling and by adenoviral-mediated expression of NAB2, an EGR1 binding protein that inhibits EGR1 transcriptional activity. Treatment of luteal cells with TGFB1 reduced progesterone secretion, implicating TGFB1 in luteal regression. These studies demonstrate that PGF2? stimulates the expression of EGR1 and TGFB1 in the CL. We suggest that EGR1 plays a role in the expression of genes whose cognate proteins coordinate luteal regression.

Hou, Xiaoying; Arvisais, Edward W.; Jiang, Chao; Chen, Dong-bao; Roy, Shyamal K.; Pate, Joy L.; Hansen, Thomas R.; Rueda, Bo R.; Davis, John S.



Haemorrhagic Corpus Lutem Mimic Appendicitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemoperitoneum secondary to ruptured corpus luteum is a rare complication for women of reproductive life. The differential diagnosis of hemoperitoneum includes various types of acute abdomen that usually associated with acute lower abdominal pain and swelling lower abdomen. The differential diagnosis includes ruptured ectopic pregnancy, ruptured chocolate cyst, twisted ovarian tumor, pelvic inflammatory disease and pelvic peritonitis . Ruptured hemorrhagic

Hasina Afroz; Rabeya Akhter; Shahela Jesmin



Pregnancy and interferon tau regulate N-myc interactor in the ovine uterus.  


In ruminants, interferon tau (IFNT) is synthesized and secreted by the mononuclear trophectoderm cells of the conceptus and maintains the corpus luteum and its secretion of progesterone for successful implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. In this study, we examined regulation of the expression of N-myc interactor (NMI) gene by IFNT in the ovine uterus based on results of microarray data from a study that compared gene expression by human 2fTGH and U3A (STAT1-null 2fTGH) cell lines in response to treatment with IFNT or vehicle. In the present study, semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses verified that IFNT stimulated expression of NMI mRNA in 2fTGH (ie, in a STAT1-dependent manner), but not in U3A (STAT1-null) cells. Furthermore, results of western blot analyses indicated that immunoreactive NMI proteins in 2fTGH and U3A cell lines increased in a time-dependent manner only in response to IFNT. In ovine endometria, steady-state levels of NMI mRNA increased between days 14 and 16 of pregnancy and then decreased slightly by day 20, but there was no effect of day of the estrous cycle. Expression of NMI mRNA was most abundant in endometrial stromal cells, glandular epithelium, and conceptus trophectoderm. Intrauterine infusion of IFNT in cyclic ewes increased expression of NMI in the endometrium. Expression of NMI in ovine and bovine uterine cell lines increased in response to IFNT. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that IFNT regulates expression of NMI mRNA and protein in ovine endometria during pregnancy via a STAT1-dependent cell signaling pathway. PMID:21067885

Song, G; Fleming, J-A G W; Kim, J; Spencer, T E; Bazer, F W



Expression of costimulatory molecules in the bovine corpus luteum  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bovine luteal parenchymal cells express class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and stimulate class II MHC-dependent activation of T cells in vitro. The ability of a class II MHC-expressing cell type to elicit a response from T cells in vivo is also dependent on expression of costimulatory molecules by the antigen presenting cell and delivery of a costimulatory

Matthew J Cannon; John S Davis; Joy L Pate



Expression of costimulatory molecules in the bovine corpus luteum  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine luteal parenchymal cells express class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and stimulate class II MHC-dependent activation of T cells in vitro. The ability of a class II MHC-expressing cell type to elicit a response from T cells in vivo is also dependent on expression of costimulatory molecules by the antigen presenting cell and delivery of a costimulatory signal to the T cell. Whether bovine luteal parenchymal cells express costimulatory molecules and can deliver the costimulatory signal is currently unknown. Methods Bovine luteal tissue was collected during the early (day 5; day of estrus = day 0), mid (day 11–12), or late (day 18) luteal phase of the estrous cycle, and at 0, 0.5, 1, 4, 12 or 24 hours following administration of PGF2alpha to cows on day 10 of the estrous cycle. Northern analysis was used to measure CD80 or CD86 mRNA concentrations in luteal tissue samples. Mixed luteal parenchymal cell cultures and purified luteal endothelial cell cultures were prepared, and real-time RT-PCR was used to examine the presence of CD80 and CD86 mRNA in each culture type. Monoclonal antibodies to CD80 and CD86 were added to a mixed luteal parenchymal cell-T cell co-culture in vitro T cell proliferation assay to assess the functional significance of costimulatory molecules on activation of T lymphocytes by luteal parenchymal cells. Results Northern analysis revealed CD80 and CD86 mRNAs in luteal tissue, with greatest steady-state concentrations at midcycle. CD80 and CD86 mRNAs were detected in mixed luteal parenchymal cell cultures, but only slight amounts of CD80 (and not CD86) mRNA were detected in cultures of luteal endothelial cells. Luteinizing hormone, PGF2alpha and TNF-alpha were without effect on concentrations of CD80 or CD86 mRNA in mixed luteal parenchymal cells cultures. Anti-CD80 or anti-CD86 monoclonal antibodies inhibited T cell proliferation in the in vitro T cell proliferation assay. Conclusion It can be concluded from this study that parenchymal cells within the bovine CL express functional costimulatory molecules that facilitate interactions between with T cells, and these components of the antigen presentation pathway are expressed maximally in the midcycle CL.

Cannon, Matthew J; Davis, John S; Pate, Joy L



CSR corpus development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CSR (Connected Speech Recognition) corpus represents a new DARPA speech recognition technology development initiative to advance the state of the art in CSR. This corpus essentially supersedes the now old Resource Management (RM) corpus that has fueled DARPA speech recognition technology development for the past 5 years. The new CSR corpus supports research on major new problems including unlimited

George R. Doddington



Isolation and characterization of ovine luteal pericytes and effects of nitric oxide on pericyte expression of angiogenic factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is expressed in capillary pericytes of the developing\\u000a corpus luteum (CL) and other have shown that basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and angio-poietins (ANGPT) are present\\u000a in the CL. VEGF and FGF2 target endothelial cells to initiate angiogenesis and stimulate nitric oxide (NO) production. Conversely,\\u000a NO may increase VEGF expression by

Joan D. Beckman; Anna T. Grazul-Bilska; Mary Lynn Johnson; Lawrence P. Reynolds; Dale A. Redmel



Metabolism of phospholipids and the characterization of fatty acids in bovine corpus luteum  

PubMed Central

1. Phosphatidylcholine was the predominant phospholipid in bovine corpora lutea; it accounted for about 50% of the total phospholipid phosphorus. Phosphatidylethanolamine (13%) and ethanolamine plasmalogen (8–9%) were the next two major components. 2. After incubation of the tissue with [32P]orthophosphate the total radioactivity and specific radioactivity of phosphatidylinositol were higher than those of any other lipid. 3. Luteinizing hormone failed to increase significantly the incorporation of [32P]orthophosphate into total phospholipids from luteal tissue slices, but did stimulate progesterone synthesis and lactate production. 4. The proportion of oleate (18:1) in the neutral lipids and phospholipids was higher than that of any other fatty acid. 5. The proportion of unsaturated fatty acid in the tissue lipids exceeded 60%, and almost half of this was polyunsaturated. Arachidonate (20:4), docosatetraenoate (22:4) and docosapentaenoate (22:5) were the principal polyunsaturated fatty acids. 6. After incubation of luteal tissue with [1-14C]acetate, the greatest proportion of radioactivity in the fatty acids isolated from the total lipid fraction was in palmitate (16:0) and docosatetraenoate (22:4). Polyunsaturated fatty acids accounted for almost 50% of the 14C radioactivity incorporated and this pattern was observed in phospholipids, triglycerides and free fatty acids.

Scott, T. W.; Hansel, W.; Donaldson, L. E.



Accuracy of Predicting Stages of Bovine Estrous Cycle by Gross Appearance of the Corpus Luteum1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four readily identifiable changes in appearance of corpora lutea (Stages I to IV) occur during a bovine estrous cycle. Accuracy of estimating the stage of an estrous cycle by appearance of corpora lutea was determined in a double-blind study. One investigator observed estrus in a group of heifers while another with no prior knowledge of reproductive histories of the heifers

James J. Ireland; R. L. Murphee; P. B. Coulson



Apoptosis in canine corpus luteum during spontaneous and prostaglandin-induced luteal regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous luteal regression and prostaglandin-induced luteolysis in bitches were evaluated by measuring the apoptotic index for DNA fragmentation and the relative level of Bax gene expression in ovaries removed from nine untreated nonpregnant bitches at selected times during diestrus and in nine pregnant bitches after 1 day of administering abortive doses of a PGF-analog gel formulation given intravaginally at selected

Giulio Aiudi; Maria Albrizio; Michele Caira; Mario Cinone



On the ultrastructure of granulosa lutein cells in porcine corpus luteum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In young corpora lutea the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are sparse. A marked increase of smooth membranes then follows up to the peak of dioestrus. Continuities between smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum are obvious during the same period. These observations suggest that the agranular membranes develop from the granular ones.

Lars Bjersing



Introducing the Enron Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large set of email messages, the Enron corpus, was made public during the legal investigation concerning the Enron corporation. This dataset, along with a thorough explanation of its origin, is available at http:\\/\\/\\/~enron\\/. This paper provides a brief introduction and analysis of the dataset. The raw Enron corpus contains 619,446 messages belonging to 158 users. We cleaned the corpus

Bryan Klimt; Yiming Yang



Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum  


... Reader Microsoft Word Viewer NINDS Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... Clinical Trials Organizations What is Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum? Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is a ...


Bilingual corpus callosum variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging was used to produce midsagittal images of the corpus callosum of 19 right-handed adult male and female subjects. The preliminary findings of this study indicate that significant adaptation in the anterior midbody of the corpus callosum has occurred to accommodate multiple language capacity in bilingual individuals compared to monolingual individuals. The main interpretation of this finding is

Porter E Coggins III; Teresa J Kennedy; Terry A Armstrong



Bilingual Corpus Callosum Variability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Magnetic resonance imaging was used to produce midsagittal images of the corpus callosum of 19 right-handed adult male and female subjects. The preliminary findings of this study indicate that significant adaptation in the anterior midbody of the corpus callosum has occurred to accommodate multiple language capacity in bilingual individuals…

Coggins, Porter E., III.; Kennedy, Teresa J.; Armstrong, Terry A.



Bilingual Corpus Callosum Variability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Magnetic resonance imaging was used to produce midsagittal images of the corpus callosum of 19 right-handed adult male and female subjects. The preliminary findings of this study indicate that significant adaptation in the anterior midbody of the corpus callosum has occurred to accommodate multiple language capacity in bilingual individuals…

Coggins, Porter E., III.; Kennedy, Teresa J.; Armstrong, Terry A.



Toward Ovine iPSCs.  


Abstract Interest in pluripotent livestock stem cells has been with us for over 2 decades, and although much has been claimed over the years, it is only recently that real progress has been achieved. The recent developments have revolved around the ability to reprogramm somatic cells to become induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Progress has been achieved in porcine, bovine, equine, and ovine species; but for each species, the extent of progress is different. I review the position of ovine iPSCs and comment on the two main drivers for this work-to produce "better" cells for nuclear transfer and to develop a good in vitro system to study the early development of ruminants. PMID:24033138

Whitelaw, C Bruce A



Prenatal development of ovine fetus  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 39 gravid ovine genitalia in various stages of gestation, collected from a local slaughter house in Srinagar city, 37 and 4 fetuses were obtained from single and twin pregnancies, respectively. The genitalia collected were divided into four stages of gestation as: Stage- I (30–60 days); Stage-II (61–90 days); Stage-III (91–120 days); and Stage-IV (120 days to term).Various measurements of

A. M Mufti; G. M Wani; N. A Wani; B. A Buchoo; M. Z Khan



VACE Multimodal Meeting Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report on the infrastructure we have de- veloped to support our research on multimodal cues for understanding meetings. With our focus on multimodality, we investigate the interaction among speech, gesture, posture, and gaze in meetings. For this purpose, a high quality multimodal corpus is being produced.

Lei Chen; R. Rose; Ying Qiao; Irene Kimbara; Fey Parrill; Haleema Welji; Tony X. Han; Jilin Tu; Zhongqiang Huang; Mary P. Harper; Francis K. H. Quek; Yingen Xiong; David Mcneill; Ronald Tuttle; Thomas S. Huang



Corpus callosotomy in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  For children of medical resistant epilepsy without resectable epileptogenic zone, corpus callosotomy and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy are the two commonly used palliative epilepsy surgeries that can be considered. Although their routes and mechanisms to control epilepsy are different, both surgeries have shown their efficacy in selected candidates. The most common candidates for palliative surgery are in infants and

Tai-Tong Wong; Shang-Yeong Kwan; Kai-Ping Chang; Wu Hsiu-Mei; Tsui-Fen Yang; Ying-Sheue Chen; Lee Yi-Yen



Marinoscillum luteum sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.  


A novel strain, designated SJP7(T), was isolated from sediment of the Tofua Arc of the Tonga Trench. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate showed the highest similarity to that of Marinoscillum pacificum KCCM 42325(T) (95.9?%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate formed a distinct phyletic line with Marinoscillum pacificum KCCM 42325(T) and Marinoscillum furvescens LMG 13023(T) within the family Cytophagaceae. Cells of strain SJP7(T) were Gram-stain-negative and appeared as long rods that were motile by gliding. Growth was observed at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 5.5-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.5-8.0) and in the presence of 0.5-7.0?% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.5-3?%). The major respiratory quinone was MK-7. The dominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C16?:?1?7c and/or C16?:?1?6c), iso-C15?:?0 and C16?:?1?5c. The DNA G+C content was 43.5 mol%. These properties support the affiliation of strain SJP7(T) with the genus Marinoscillum. Further phenotypic differentiation of strain SJP7(T) from other species of the genus Marinoscillum was indicated by the results of physiological and biochemical tests. On the basis of evidence from our polyphasic taxonomic study, strain SJP7(T) represents a novel species of the genus Marinoscillum, for which the name Marinoscillum luteum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Marinoscillum luteum is SJP7(T) (?=?KCTC 23939(T)?=?NCAIM B02491(T)). PMID:23543501

Cha, In-Tae; Park, Soo-Je; Kim, So-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Geol; Jung, Man-Young; Shin, Kee-Sun; Kwon, Kae Kyoung; Yang, Sung-Hyun; Seo, Yong-Seok; Rhee, Sung-Keun



Corpus théorique, physiologie  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Les conditions de ?apparition et du développement initial de la médecine chinoise dans une civilisation essentiellement agraire,\\u000a et le contact constant avec les phénomènes naturels se reflètent dans la théorie médicale1. Au fil de son développement, le corpus s’est élaboré et enrichi jusqu’aux périodes contemporaines. Ce développement n’a\\u000a pas connu, loin s’en faut, un parcours linéaire et systématique qui aurait

Marc Sapriel; Patrick Stoltz


Characteristics of ovine cytotoxic lymphocytes  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to examine characteristics of the effector cells responsible for cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the sheep. Conditions for the production and assay of ovine T cell growth factor (TCGF) activity were evaluated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) were stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) in the presence of 2% autologous serum or serum-free media. A 28 h proliferation assay with 2.5 x 10/sup 4/ h Con A blasts per well was optimal for detection of TCGF. Peak TCGF activity occurred with a 30-37kD molecular weight fraction. Ovine PBL were used for in vitro generation of genetically-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Peripheral blood leukocytes from sheep that had been previously inoculated with live vaccinia virus were stimulated by being cultured in vitro on glutaraldehyde-fixed vaccinia-infected autologous skin fibroblasts. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity was assessed in a 6 h /sup 51/Cr-release assay on autologous and allogeneic fibroblasts targets. Killing was restricted to virus-infected autologous targets. In vitro generation of both anti-vaccinia and anti-TNP CTL activity could be enhanced by the addition of TCGF containing media from ConA-stimulated PBL.

Knisley, K.A.



Ovine Mastitis Due to Histophilus ovis.  


The clinical, pathological and bacteriological findings related to ovine mastitis caused by Histophilus ovis are described. A high proportion of the ewes belonging to a flock were infected, but the source of the contamination could not be determined. PMID:17422303

Beauregard, M; Higgins, R



Pharmacology and Physiology of Ovine Corticosteroid Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of these studies was to characterize the ovine corticosteroid receptors (MR, mineralocorticoid receptors and GR, glucocorticoid receptors) in ovine hippocampus and brainstem. Adrenal-intact and adrenalectomized ewes were studied; adrenalectomized ewes were killed 47 ± 9 h after steroid withdrawal, when symptoms of hypotension and\\/or hyperkalemia became evident. RT-PCR, immunoblotting and pharmacologic studies indicated the presence of both MR

Elaine M. Richards; Yi Hua; Maureen Keller-Wood



The METER Corpus: A corpus for analysing journalistic text reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of the METER (MEasuring TExt Reuse) project we have built a new type of comparable corpus consisting of annotated examples of related newspaper texts. Texts in the corpus were manually collected from two main sources: the British Press Association (PA) and nine British national newspapers that subscribe to the PA newswire service. In addition to being structured

Robert Gaizauskas; Jonathan Foster; Yorick Wilks; John Arundel; Paul Clough; Scott Piao


Ovine pedomics: the first study of the ovine foot 16S rRNA-based microbiome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report the first study of the bacterial microbiome of ovine interdigital skin based on 16S rRNA by pyrosequencing and conventional cloning with Sanger-sequencing. Ovine foot rot is an infectious, contagious disease of sheep that causes severe lameness and economic loss from decreased flock produc...


Chryseobacterium luteum sp. nov., associated with the phyllosphere of grasses.  


Three isolates obtained from grass samples were investigated by means of a polyphasic taxonomic study and were shown to represent a novel species within the genus Chryseobacterium. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences and phenotypic features indicated that the three isolates belonged to a single species. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the closest phylogenetic neighbours were Chryseobacterium shigense and Chryseobacterium vrystaatense, which formed a stable cluster with the isolates; this phylogeny was supported by a high bootstrap value and was obtained using different treeing methods. A DNA-DNA hybridization study with the closest neighbour, C. shigense DSM 17126(T) (98.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), clearly demonstrated a separate species status for the grass isolate strain P 456/04(T). Comparisons involving physiological properties and whole-cell fatty acid profiles confirmed this result at the phenotypic level. On the basis of these results, strain P 456/04(T) represents a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium luteum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P 456/04(T) (=DSM 18605(T) =LMG 23785(T)). PMID:17684275

Behrendt, Undine; Ulrich, Andreas; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter



Habeas Corpus and "Enemy Combatants"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The writ of habeas corpus has been a critical tool for balancing the rights of individuals with the government's responsibility to protect the nation's welfare. In this article, the authors discuss the writ of habeas corpus and how it affects the federal government and hundreds of prisoners who are held as enemy combatants. Elementary, middle,…

Pereira, Carolyn; Chavkin, Nisan



Effect of environmental pollutants on oxytocin synthesis and secretion from corpus luteum and on contractions of uterus from pregnant cows  

SciTech Connect

Chloro-organic compounds are persistent environmental pollutants and affect many reproductive processes. Oxytocin (OT) synthesized in luteal cells is a local regulator of ovarian activity and uterine contractions. Therefore the effect of xenobiotics on the OT prohormone synthesis, secretion of OT and progesterone (P4) from luteal cells and on myometrial contractions during early pregnancy in cows was investigated. Luteal cells and myometrial strips from a cow at early pregnancy were treated with polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB 77), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (1 or 10 ng/ml). The mRNA expression of neurophysin-I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT) and peptidyl-glycine-{alpha}-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA) and concentration of OT and P4 were determined by RT-PCR and EIA, respectively. Moreover, the effect of xenobiotics given with P4 (12 ng/ml) on the basal and OT (10{sup -7} M) stimulated contractions of myometrial strips was studied. Xenobiotics increased (P < 0.05) OT secretion but DDE only stimulated P4 secretion. The ratio of P4 to OT in culture medium was decreased by all xenobiotics during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. All xenobiotics, except HCH, increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of NP-I/OT during all stages of pregnancy and all treatments decreased (P < 0.05) expression of mRNA for PGA during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. Myometrial strips were relaxed (P < 0.01) after pre-incubation with P4, while each of the xenobiotics jointly with P4 increased (P < 0.01) myometrial contractions. In conclusion, the xenobiotics used increased both expression of mRNA for genes involved in OT synthesis and secretion of OT from luteal cells. This decreases the ratio of P4 to OT and presumably, in this manner, the chloro-organic compounds can influence uterine contractions and enhance risk of abortions in pregnant females.

Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Wrobel, Michal H.; Kotwica, Jan, E-mail: j.kotwica@pan.olsztyn.p



Characterization and isolation of a high-density-lipoprotein-binding protein from bovine corpus luteum plasma membrane.  

PubMed Central

The ovary uses the cholesterol from high-density lipoproteins (HDL) as a substrate source for steroid hormone production. It is not clear, however, how ovarian cells acquire the lipoprotein cholesterol. This study describes the characterization and isolation of a high-affinity-binding protein for apolipoprotein E-free HDL from the plasma-membrane fraction of bovine corpora lutea. Plasma membranes were prepared by differential centrifugation with 5-6-fold enrichment of 5'-nucleotidase activity. The binding of 125I-HDL to the plasma membranes was time-dependent, and there appeared to be a single high-affinity site with a Kd of 6.7 micrograms of HDL/ml of assay buffer. The binding was not affected by high concentrations of low-density lipoproteins or the Ca2+ chelator EDTA, nor by changes in pH in the range 6.5-9.0. The binding was affected by the salt concentration in the buffer, with a dose-dependent increase that reached a maximum at 150-250 mM-NaCl. Binding was increased in the presence of high concentrations of KCl and KBr, and most significantly increased by high concentrations of bivalent metal ions. Ligand-blot analysis under reducing conditions revealed that the binding protein was a single polypeptide of about 108 kDa that was associated with the plasma-membrane fraction. This HDL-binding protein was purified to homogeneity by solubilization with Triton X-100, poly(ethylene glycol) precipitation, DEAE-Sephadex chromatography, and preparative SDS/PAGE. The purified binding protein is a single polypeptide of 108 kDa that retains high affinity and specificity for HDL as assayed by ligand blotting. Images Fig. 6. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10.

Ferreri, K; Menon, K M



Universum Inference and Corpus Homogeneity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Universum Inference is re-interpreted for assessment of corpus homogeneity in computational stylometry. Recent stylometric research quantifies strength of characterization within dramatic works by assessing the homogeneity of corpora associated with dramatic personas. A methodological advance is suggested to mitigate the potential for the assessment of homogeneity to be achieved by chance. Baseline comparison analysis is constructed for contributions to debates by nonfictional participants: the corpus analyzed consists of transcripts of US Presidential and Vice-Presidential debates from the 2000 election cycle. The corpus is also analyzed in translation to Italian, Spanish and Portuguese. Adding randomized categories makes assessments of homogeneity more conservative.

Vogel, Carl; Lynch, Gerard; Janssen, Jerom


The English-Slovene ACQUIS corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the SVEZ-IJS corpus, a large parallel annotated English-Slovene corpus containing translated legal texts of the European Union, the ACQUIS Communautaire. The corpus contains approx. 2 x 5 million words and was compiled from the translation memory obtained from the Translation Unit of the Slovene Government Office for European Affairs. The corpus is encoded in XML, according to

Toma Erjavec



Corpus development 25 years on: from super-corpus to cyber- corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the early 1980s, corpus linguists were still cons idered maverick and were still pushing at the boundaries of language-processing technology , but a culture was slowly bootstrapping itself into place, as successive rese arch results (e.g. Collins-Cobuild Dictionary ) encouraged the sense that empirical data analysis was a sine qua non for linguists, and a terminology of corpus linguistics

Antoinette Renouf


Modification of surgery equipment for ovine surgery.  


Surgery equipment was modified for ovine surgery. Pre- and postoperative holding pens were designed to meet the specific requirements of sheep. A hydraulic trolley lift was constructed and operating tables fitted with spilltrays. A gag was made to protect Magill tubing and the indifferent electrode was altered for electrosurgery. For fluoroscopy a flexible table was constructed to accommodate sheep. PMID:8049178

Herrmann, W D


Popular ovine and caprine fermented milks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovine and caprine milk are widely produced in semi-arid countries, and mainly utilised for milk consumption and the manufacture of a wide range of cheeses, fermented milk products (e.g. liquid, viscous, concentrated and dried) and to a lesser degree milk powder. The primary aim of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the main components of milk from

A. Y. Tamime; M. Wszolek; R. Božani?; B. Özer


Ovine Mastitis Due to Histophilus ovis  

PubMed Central

The clinical, pathological and bacteriological findings related to ovine mastitis caused by Histophilus ovis are described. A high proportion of the ewes belonging to a flock were infected, but the source of the contamination could not be determined. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.

Beauregard, M.; Higgins, R.



Oculomotor-corpus callosum dysplasia.  

PubMed Central

An infant with congenital bilateral ophthalmoplegia with levator and pupillary sparing is presented. The eyes are fixed in a divergent position with no apparent motility. The baby is otherwise clinically normal and is developing in a normal fashion except for delayed growth pattern. Visual attention is present and he fixates with either eye. Computed tomography demonstrates an associated dysplasia of the corpus callosum and an abnormal ventricular system. Neuroendocrine studies performed at one year of age demonstrate subnormal levels of growth hormone. It is postulated that this represents an embryodysgenesis involving the developing mesencephalic tegmentum (oculomotor nuclei) and the diencephalic lamina reuniens (corpus callosum). It is the first reported case of congenital ophthalmoplegia with corpus callosum dysplasia. The "embryodysgenic" relationship with other forebrain-ocular anomalies has been alluded to and remains speculative. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B

Acers, T E; Blackwell, C



Corpus gastritis is protective against reflux oesophagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDGastric acid is important in the pathogenesis of reflux oesophagitis. Acid production by the gastric corpus is reduced in corpus gastritis.AIMSTo determine whether corpus gastritis protects against reflux oesophagitis.METHODSPatients presenting for elective oesophagogastroduodenoscopy were studied. Two biopsy specimens were taken from the antrum, corpus, and cardia and stained with haematoxylin\\/eosin and Diff-Quick II stains. The presence and severity of gastritis

H B El-Serag; A Sonnenberg; M M Jamal; J M Inadomi; L A Crooks; R M Feddersen



Molecular and Transmission Characteristics of Primary-Passaged Ovine Scrapie Isolates in Conventional and Ovine PrP Transgenic Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A more complete assessment of ovine prion strain diversity will be achieved by complementing biological strain typing in conventional and ovine PrP transgenic mice with a biochemical analysis of the resultant PrPSc. This will provide a correlation between ovine prion strain phenotype and the molecular nature of different PrP conformers associated with particular prion strains. Here, we have compared the

Alana M. Thackray; Lee Hopkins; John Spiropoulos; Raymond Bujdoso



Developing an International Corpus of Creative English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper proposes an International Corpus of Creative English (ICCE) as a worldwide corpus particularly suitable for implementation in countries which have tertiary institutions with well-defined populations of students possessing similar cultural and/or linguistic backgrounds. The ICCE is contextualized as a world Englishes corpus with…

Hassall, Peter John



School Desegregation in Corpus Christi, Texas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report on school desegregation in Corpus Christi, Texas. It discusses in depth the historical and legal basis for school desegregation in Corpus Christi with respect to the litigative processes underlying the issue of school desegregation. This report carefully describes the events leading up to the landmark Cisneros v. Corpus Christi…

Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.


Use of Comparable Corpus in Teaching Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparable corpus is defined as a collection of texts in one language together with texts translated into the same language. Comparable corpus presents the opportunity to discover features that occur more frequently in translated texts or ‘translation universals’. In the Malaysian context, several studies have attempted to look at these translation universals or looking at patterns in Malay translation corpus

Norsimah Mat Awal; Intan Safinaz Zainuddin; Imran Ho-Abdullah



Corpus callosum in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A neuropathological study of 20 multiple sclerosis brains using celloidin-embedded slices was carried out to assess the extent of changes in the corpus callosum. Severe atrophy of the callosum was found in cases with marked hydrocephalus. Demyelination of the callosum varied in extent from slight involvement (with a few small plaques) to almost total myelin loss. A clinical history of

R. O. Barnard; Margaret Triggs



Experimental hydranencephaly in the ovine fetus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydranencephaly is defined as the replacement of a previously normal brain, in whole or in part, by membranous fluid-filled\\u000a sacs. The etiology is not well understood, and the time course of development is unknown. Fifteen ovine fetuses were chronically\\u000a cannulated and had both carotid arteries ligated at 100 days of gestation (term is 145–150 days). They were killed at 1

E. Marelyn Wintour; M. Lewitt; A. McFarlane; K. Moritz; S. Potocnik; S. Rees; K. Tangalakis



Minimum intravenous infectious dose of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The minimum intravenous infectious dose for ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) WLC1 was determined using twenty-four 6 month-old lambs. Twelve groups of two 6 month-old lambs were inoculated intravenously with tissue culture fluid containing ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) WLC1 titer...


Comparative molecular analysis of ovine and bovine Streptococcus uberis isolates.  


Streptococcus uberis causes clinical and subclinical mastitis in cattle and sheep, but it is unknown whether the composition of Strep. uberis populations differs between host species. To address this, we characterized a collection of bovine and ovine Strep. uberis isolates with shared geographical and temporal origins by means of an expanded multilocus sequence typing scheme. Among 14 ovine and 35 bovine isolates, 35 allelic profiles were detected. Each allelic profile was associated with a single host species and all but one were new to the multilocus sequence typing database. The median number of new alleles per isolate was higher for ovine isolates than for bovine isolates. None of the ovine isolates belonged to the global clonal complexes 5 or 143, which are commonly associated with bovine mastitis and which have a wide geographical distribution. Ovine isolates also differed from bovine isolates in carriage of plasminogen activator genes, with significantly higher prevalence of pauB in ovine isolates. Isolates that were negative for yqiL, one of the targets of multilocus sequence typing, were found among ovine and bovine isolates and were not associated with a specific sequence type or global clonal complex. One bovine isolate carried a gapC allele that was probably acquired through lateral gene transfer, most likely from Streptococcus salivarius. We conclude that ovine isolates are distinct from bovine isolates of Strep. uberis, and that recombination between isolates from different host species or bacterial species could contribute to changes in virulence gene profiles with relevance for vaccine development. PMID:23200465

Gilchrist, T L; Smith, D G E; Fitzpatrick, J L; Zadoks, R N; Fontaine, M C



Mutations in ovine TMEM154 associated with reduced risk of ovine lentivirus infection are also associated with reduced proviral concentration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ovine lentivirus (OVLV), also called ovine progressive pneumonia virus or maedi-visna, is present in 24% of US sheep. Like human immunodeficiency virus, OVLV is macrophage-tropic lentivirus that causes lifelong infection. The adverse economic impact on the sheep industry is due to a range of disease...


Modulation of ovine SBD-1 expression by 17beta-estradiol in ovine oviduct epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Mucosal epithelia, including those of the oviduct, secrete antimicrobial innate immune molecules (AIIMS). These have bactericidal/bacteriostatic functions against a variety of pathogens. Among the AIIMs, sheep ?-defensin-1 (SBD-1) is one of the most potent. Even though the SBD-1 is an important AIIM and it is regulated closely by estrogenic hormone, the regulation mechanism of 17?-estradiol has not been clearly established. We investigated the effects of E2 and agonist or inhibitor on ovine oviduct epithelial cells in regard to SBD-1 expression using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). In addition, three different pathways were inhibited separately or simultaneously to confirm the effect of different inhibitors in the regulation mechanism. Results 17beta-estradiol (E2) induced release of SBD-1 in ovine oviduct epithelial cells. SBD-1 expression was mediated through G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) and Estrogen Receptors (ERs) activation in ovine oviduct epithelial cell. Inhibition of gene expression of protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) led to a decreased SBD-1 expression. Conclusions Taken together, E2-induced up-regulation of SBD-1 expressions were GPR30-dependent during prophase and ERs-dependent during later-stage in ovine oviduct epithelial cells, and we assume that the effect was completed by the PKA, PKC, and NF-?B pathways simultaneous.



Recombinant ovine interferon gamma inhibits the multiplication of Chlamydia psittaci in ovine cells.  


The local production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in sheep in response to Chlamydia psittaci was measured by cannulation of the efferent lymph duct draining the site of challenge inoculation. Peak production of IFN-gamma (256 U/ml) was detected 24 h after challenge. Based on these physiological data, functional studies were carried out in vitro to determine the effect of recombinant ovine (rOv) IFN-gamma on the multiplication of C. psittaci in ovine fibroblasts. IFN-gamma inhibited the multiplication of C. psittaci in ovine cells over a range of concentrations (250 U/ml to 2.5 U/ml) in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of chlamydial multiplication was most pronounced when cells were treated with rOvIFN-gamma for 24 h before infection. The addition of exogenous L-tryptophan (500 micrograms/ml) to cultures within 48th of infection abrogated the anti-chlamydial effect of rOvIFN-gamma thus suggesting that tryptophan deprivation is an anti-chlamydial mechanism induced by rOvIFN-gamma in these ovine cells. PMID:7769147

Graham, S P; Jones, G E; MacLean, M; Livingstone, M; Entrican, G



The JOS Morphosyntactically Tagged Corpus of Slovene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The JOS morphosyntactic resources for Slovene consist of the specifications, lexicon, and two corpora: jos100k, a 100,0 00 word balanced monolingual sampled corpus annotated with hand validated morphosyntactic descriptions (MSDs) and lemmas, and jos1M, the 1 million word partially hand validated corpus. The two corpora have been sampled from the 600M word Slovene reference corpus FidaPLUS. The JOS resources have

Tomaz Erjavec; Simon Krek



Isolation and Characterization of an Iron-Containing Superoxide Dismutase From Water Lily, Nuphar luteum1  

PubMed Central

A cyanide-insensitive superoxide dismutase (EC was purified from leaves of the water lily Nuphar luteum (L.) Sibth. and Smith Subsp. macrophyllum (Small) Beal. The enzyme had a molecular weight of 46,000 and was composed of two equally sized subunits. Metal analysis showed the protein to contain about 1 gram atom of iron per dimer. The iron-containing superoxide dismutase was sensitive to H2O2 as well as to azide. Antibody to the protein did not cross-react with iron superoxide dismutase isolated from the eucaryote Brassica or with algal extracts. Images

Salin, Marvin L.; Bridges, Susan M.



[Prognostic factors uterine corpus cancer].  


The accumulated clinico-pathological dates and recent molecular biological studies have identified several prognostic factors for endometrial cancers. FIGO staging has taken into consideration of the tumor expansion and is the most important predictor in evaluating patient outcome. Characteristics of tumor biology, such as morphology of tumor and depth of invasion are also important prognostic considerations. Molecular markers indicating genetic/molecular events in cancer biology appear to be the 3rd predictors in estimating the prognosis. Finally, treatment of uterine corpus cancer can be directly related to prognosis. Postoperative chemotherapy is gradually taking precedence over irradiation in considering evidence-based medicine. PMID:17197744

Inoue, Masaki



CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CELT, an "online database of contemporary and historical topics from many areas, including literature and the other arts," is aimed at the greatest possible range of readers, from academic scholars to the general public. Texts at the site can be searched, read on-screen, or downloaded. Other works available at CELT include essays by Michael Collins, the Dail debates on the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty, works by James Connolly and Padraic Pearse, and almost the whole corpus of Hiberno-Norman French poetry.



Emotion Cause Events: Corpus Construction and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion processing has always been a great challenge. Given the fact that an emotion is triggered by cause events and that cause events are an integral part of emotion, this paper constructs a Chinese emotion cause corpus as a first step towards automatic inference of cause-emotion correlation. The corpus focuses on five primary emotions, namely happiness, sadness, fear, anger, and

Sophia Yat Mei Lee; Ying Chen; Shoushan Li; Chu-Ren Huang



Polarity Shifting: Corpus Construction and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polarity shifting has been a challenge to automatic sentiment classification. In this paper, we create a corpus which consists of polarity-shifted sentences in various kinds of product reviews. In the corpus, both the sentimental words and shifting trigger words are annotated. Furthermore, we analyze all the polarity shifted sentences and categorize them into five categories: opinion-itself, holder, target, time and

Xiaoqian Zhang; Shoushan Li; Guodong Zhou; Hongxia Zhao



The CHAINS corpus: CHAracterizing INdividual Speakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel speech corpus collected with the primary aim of facilitating research in speaker identification. The corpus features approximately 36 speakers recorded under a variety of speaking conditions, allowing comparison of the same speaker across different well-defined speech styles. Speakers read a va- riety of texts alone, in synchrony with a dialect-matched co- speaker, in imitation of a

Fred Cummins; Marco Grimaldi; Thomas Leonard; Juraj Simko



Sexual Dimorphism in the Human Corpus Callosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary observations suggest a sex difference in the shape and surface area of the human corpus callosum. The sexual dimorphism is striking in the splenium, the caudal or posterior portion of the corpus callosum. The female splenium is both more bulbous and larger than the male counterpart. Since peristriate, parietal, and superior temporal fibers course through the splenium, this finding

Christine de Lacoste-Utamsing; Ralph L. Holloway



Syntactic Priming: A Corpus-Based Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is a corpus-based investigation of syntactic priming, i.e. the tendency to reuse syntactic constructions. On the basis of data from the ICE-GB corpus, I analyze two different pairs of syntactic patterns, the so-called dative alternation and particle placement of transitive phrasal verbs. Although it has sometimes been argued that…

Gries, Stefan Th.



Corpus Callosum Size in Delphinid Cetaceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The midsagittal surface area of the corpus callosum was determined by computer-assisted morphometry in juvenile and adult members of 13 species of the cetacean family Delphinidae. In 57 brains, absolute callosal areas ranged from 104 to 829 mm2. When compared to other mammal groups possessing a corpus callosum, callosal area in dolphins was smaller in relation to brain mass with

Raymond J. Tarpley; Sam H. Ridgway



9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma...prepared from tissue culture fluids or virus-bearing tissues obtained from...



Ovine TRIM5? Can Restrict Visna/Maedi Virus  

PubMed Central

The restrictive properties of tripartite motif-containing 5 alpha (TRIM5?) from small ruminant species have not been explored. Here, we identify highly similar TRIM5? sequences in sheep and goats. Cells transduced with ovine TRIM5? effectively restricted the lentivirus visna/maedi virus DNA synthesis. Proteasome inhibition in cells transduced with ovine TRIM5? restored restricted viral DNA synthesis, suggesting a conserved mechanism of restriction. Identification of TRIM5? active molecular species may open new prophylactic strategies against lentiviral infections.

Jauregui, P.; Crespo, H.; Glaria, I.; Lujan, L.; Contreras, A.; Rosati, S.; de Andres, D.; Amorena, B.; Towers, G. J.



A functional comparison of ovine and porcine trypsins.  


Trypsin was isolated from ovine and porcine pancreas using affinity chromatography on immobilized p-aminobenzamidine. Molecular masses of the two proteins were 23900 and 23435 Da, determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The purified trypsins were compared using the kinetic properties K(m) and k(cat) which were determined at pH 8.0 and between 25 and 55 degrees C. Comparison of the Michaelis constants for ovine and porcine trypsins toward N-alpha-benzoyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BapNA) indicated that ovine trypsin had higher affinity for this substrate than the porcine enzyme. The rates of the reactions catalysed by the two enzymes correlated strongly over the range of temperatures and substrate concentrations tested, as did the k(cat) values. The specific activity of ovine trypsin for BapNA was, on average, approximately 10% higher than that of the porcine enzyme over the range of conditions tested. Porcine trypsin was less susceptible to denaturation at low pH or high temperature than was ovine trypsin. Porcine and ovine trypsin produced seven identically sized fragments from auto-catalytic hydrolysis. Proposed regions of identity between ovine and porcine trypsins were I(54)-K(77), L(98)-R(107), S(134)-K(178) and N(209)-K(116). Hydrolysis of beta-lactoglobulin, egg white lysozyme or casein by ovine or porcine trypsin yielded virtually identical patterns of fragments although the rate at which fragments were produced, in the case of beta-lactoglobulin, differed between the two enzymes. On balance the two enzymes appear to be functionally identical in their action. PMID:11959024

Dallas Johnson, Keryn; Clark, Alan; Marshall, Sue



Transmissibility of caprine scrapie in ovine transgenic mice  

PubMed Central

Background The United States control program for classical ovine scrapie is based in part on the finding that infection is typically spread through exposure to shed placentas from infected ewes. Transmission from goats to sheep is less well described. A suitable rodent model for examining the effect of caprine scrapie isolates in the ovine host will be useful in the ovine scrapie eradication effort. In this study, we describe the incubation time, brain lesion profile, glycoform pattern and PrPSc distribution patterns in a well characterized transgenic mouse line (Tg338) expressing the ovine VRQ prion allele, following inoculation with brain from scrapie infected goats. Results First passage incubation times of caprine tissue in Tg338 ovinized mice varied widely but second passage intervals were shorter and consistent. Vacuolation profiles, glycoform patterns and paraffin-embedded tissue blots from terminally ill second passage mice derived from sheep or goat inocula were similar. Proteinase K digestion products of murine tissue were slightly smaller than the original ruminant inocula, a finding consistent with passage of several ovine strains in previous reports. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that Tg338 mice propagate prions of caprine origin and provide a suitable baseline for examination of samples identified in the expanded US caprine scrapie surveillance program.



Antimicrobial susceptibility of microflora from ovine cheese.  


Strains identified in ovine cheese and bryndza by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis belonged to ten species of non-enterococcal lactic acid bacteria and included Lactobacillus casei/Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus acidilactici. The susceptibility toward antibiotics was determined in lactobacilli, lactococci and pediococci and also in Escherichia coli for comparison. Analysis of L. fermentum and pediococci revealed the presence of non-wild-type epidemiological cut-offs in streptomycin, clindamycin or gentamicin. E. coli were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, enrofloxacin and florfenicol. No extended spectrum ?-lactamases were detected. PMID:22491987

Kme?, V; Drugdová, Z



Structure and bioactivity of steroidal saponins isolated from the roots of Chamaelirium luteum (false unicorn).  


Phytochemical investigation of Chamaelirium luteum ("false unicorn") resulted in the isolation of 15 steroidal glycosides. Twelve of these (1, 2, 4-9, 11-13, and 15) are apparently unique to this species, and eight of these (6-9, 11-13, and 15) are previously unreported compounds; one (15) possesses a new steroidal aglycone. In addition, the absolute configuration of (23R,24S)-chiograsterol A (10) was defined, and its full spectroscopic characterization is reported for the first time. The structures and configurations of the saponins were determined using a combination of multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n)), 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and chemical degradation. The antiproliferative activity of nine compounds obtained in the present work, and eight related compounds generated in previous work, was compared in six human tumor cell lines, with aglycones 3 and 10 and related derivatives 16, 17, 19, and 20 all displaying significant antiproliferative activity. PMID:22880631

Challinor, Victoria L; Stuthe, Julia M U; Parsons, Peter G; Lambert, Lynette K; Lehmann, Reginald P; Kitching, William; De Voss, James J



32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A...



Corpus callosum volume and neurocognition in autism  

PubMed Central

The corpus callosum has recently been considered as an index of interhemispheric connectivity. This study applied a novel volumetric method to examine the size of the corpus callosum in 32 individuals with autism and 34 age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls and to investigate the relationship between this structure and cognitive measures linked to interhemispheric functioning. Participants with autism displayed reductions in total corpus callosum volume and in several of its subdivisions. Relationships were also observed between volumetric alterations and performance on several cognitive tests including the Tower of Hanoi test. These findings provide further evidence for volumetric alterations in the corpus callosum in autism, but warrant additional studies examining the relationship of this structure and specific measures of interhemispheric connectivity.

Keary, Christopher J.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Bansal, Rahul; Goradia, Dhruman; Fedorov, Serguei; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Hardan, Antonio Y.



Communication Networks from the Enron Email Corpus \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Enron email corpus is appealing to researchers because it represents a rich temporal record of internal communication\\u000a within a large, real-world organization facing a severe and survival-threatening crisis. We describe how we enhanced the original\\u000a corpus database and present findings from our investigation undertaken with a social network analytic perspective. We explore\\u000a the dynamics of the structure and properties

Jana Diesner; Terrill L. Frantz; Kathleen M. Carley



The UTEP Corpus of Iraqi Arabic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rules governing turn-taking phenomena are not well understood in general and almost completely undocumented for Arabic. As the first step to modeling these phenomena, we have collected a small corpus of Iraqi Arabic spoken dialogs. The corpus is in three parts. Part A is 110 minutes of unstructured conversations. Parts B1 and B2 are 176 minutes of direction-giving dialogs,

Nigel G. Ward; David G. Novick; Salamah I. Salamah




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To determine if a transient increase in uterine blood flow (BF) and estradiol-173 (E23) secretion occurs during maternal recognition of pregnancy in ewes (as previously observed for sows and cows), 40 nonpregnant (NP) ewes were assigned in equal numbers to surgery on d 9, 11, 13 or 15 postestrus (d 0 = day of estrus). For 20 NP ewes

L. P. Reynolds; R. R. Magness; S. P. Ford



Placental lactogen and somatotropin: hormone binding to the corpus luteum and effects on the growth and functions of the ovary in heifers.  


The effects of recombinant bovine placental lactogen (rbPL) and recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on development of ovarian follicles and CL were tested in heifers. Estrus (day = 0) was synchronized and heifers were treated (Days 0-21) with either saline (control; n = 7), rbST (25 mg/day; n = 6), or rbPL. (50 mg/day; n = 8). Blood was collected daily for analyses of progesterone, estradiol, ST, PL, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I; ultrasound was performed daily for measurement of follicles and CL. PL in plasma (mean +/- SE; ng/ml) averaged 4.1 +/- 0.2 for rbPL-treated heifers, and ST in plasma (ng/ml) averaged 2.7 +/- 0.3 for rbST-treated heifers. IGF-I in plasma (ng/ml) was increased for rbST-treated (198 +/- 10; p < 0.001) and rbPL-treated (143 +/- 9; p < 0.06) heifers compared to controls (117 +/- 9). After Day 9 of the estrous cycle, heifers treated with rbPL had larger CL (p < 0.001) and more progesterone in plasma (p < 0.001) than controls, whereas rbST-treated heifers were intermediate for these measures. Largest follicles were decreased in size (mm) throughout the estrous cycle for rbPL-treated heifers (12.9 +/- 0.4) compared to controls (14.2 +/- 0.5; p < 0.06) or heifers given rbST (14.0 +/- 0.5; p < 0.11). After Day 17 (preovulatory period), concentrations of estradiol in serum (pg/ml) were decreased for rbST-treated (2.7 +/- 0.3; p < 0.01) and rbPL-treated (2.9 +/- 0.2; p < 0.02) heifers compared to controls (3.8 +/- 0.3).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8025170

Lucy, M C; Byatt, J C; Curran, T L; Curran, D F; Collier, R J



Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake.  


Seventy-four Angus and Angus × Hereford heifers were used in 2 successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if luteal function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed intake was determined for heifers beginning at 12.3 ± 0.1 mo of age in yr 1 and at 9.1 ± 0.1 mo of age in yr 2. Heifers were assigned to dry-lot pens (n = 6 to 9 heifers/pen) with electronic gates to measure individual feed intake of a total mixed ration for 70 and 72 d in yr 1 and 2, respectively. Residual feed intake was calculated as the difference between actual DMI and expected DMI from linear regression of DMI on mid-test BW(0.75) and ADG. At 14.4 ± 0.1 mo of age, all heifers were provided a restricted amount of feed to supply 40% of their maintenance energy requirements for 21 d. Estrous cycles of heifers were synchronized with PGF(2?) on d -10, 0, and 11 relative to start of restriction. Concentrations of progesterone in plasma on d 14 to 21 of restriction were used to determine if heifers ovulated. Overall ADG and ADFI were 0.83 ± 0.02 and 7.37 ± 0.67 kg/d, respectively, for yr 1; and 0.50 ± 0.02 and 5.66 ± 0.09 kg/d, respectively, for yr 2. There was no correlation between RFI and BW, ADG, ADFI, or ultrasound measure of backfat, nor was RFI related to concentrations of IGF-I in plasma. All heifers lost BW and had reduced backfat (P < 0.001) at the end of restricted feeding. All heifers had reproductive cycles before dietary restriction started. During acute nutritional restriction, 4 heifers became anovulatory. Sixteen heifers had concentrations of progesterone in plasma during restricted feeding that were atypical of normal luteal function. There was no relationship between luteal function during nutrient restriction and RFI of heifers. Circulating IGF-1 was greater at weaning and after restricted feeding in heifers with a smaller RFI (>0.5 SD below the mean) than heifers with a greater RFI (>0.5 SD above the mean). It is concluded that RFI is not related to luteal function during acute submaintenance feeding, but that short-term restriction of nutrient intake can alter luteal function that may compromise fertility, even in heifers that exhibit estrus and ovulate. PMID:21764836

Lents, C A; Randel, R D; Stelzleni, A M; Caldwell, L C; Welsh, T H



Expression of Steroid Receptors and Steroidogenic Enzymes in the Baboon (Papio anubis) Corpus Luteum during the Menstrual Cycle and Early Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

As estrogen and progesterone are proposed regulators of luteal function, this study was undertaken to correlate the presence of re- ceptorsforthesesteroidswithlutealfunctionduringearlypregnancy. Corpora lutea (CL) were obtained from nonpregnant baboons during the midluteal (ML; days 7-8 postovulation (PO)) and late luteal (LL; days 11-12 PO) phases of the menstrual cycle or from pregnant baboons on days 18, 25, 29, or 31-33



Contralateral ovarian location between the future ovulatory follicle and extant corpus luteum increases the length of the luteal phase and number of follicular waves in heifers.  


Location of the future ovulatory follicle and CL in the same ovary (ipsilateral) or opposite ovaries (contralateral) and number of major follicular waves (two or three) per interovulatory interval (IOI) was studied in 14 heifers. Follicle diameter and a blood sample for progesterone (P4) assay were obtained each day throughout an IOI. Heifers were partitioned into three groups: ipsilateral follicle/CL relationship and two follicular waves (Ipsi-2W, N = 5), contralateral relationship and two follicular waves (Contra-2W, N = 5), and contralateral relationship and three waves (Contra-3W, N = 4). Only one heifer had an ipsilateral relationship and three waves and was not included in the analyses. An unexpected observation was slower growth of the dominant follicle of Wave 1 in the Ipsi-2W group than in the Contra-2W and Contra-3W groups. Increased P4 production in the Contra-3W group compared with the Ipsi-2W and Contra-2W groups was indicated by significantly greater P4 concentration averaged over Days 0 to 20 (Day 0 = ovulation), longer interval from ovulation to the beginning of a decrease in P4 and to the beginning of postluteolysis (P4 <1 ng/mL), and longer IOI. The interval from the beginning of postluteolysis to ovulation was not different among groups, indicating that the prolonged IOI reflected the prolonged luteal phase. An effect of the follicle/CL relationship on length of the IOI was not detected in mares. Results supported the hypothesis that the prolonged luteal phase of the contralateral follicle/CL relationship favors the development of three follicular waves/IOI in heifers. PMID:23499416

Ginther, O J; Bashir, S T; Santos, V G; Beg, M A



Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seventy-four Angus and Angus x Hereford heifers were used in two successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if ovarian function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed in...


Caffeine and dithiothreitol delay ovine oocyte ageing.  


The intracellular glutathione levels and developmental competence of aged oocytes after parthenogenetic activation, somatic cell nuclear transfer and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in the presence or absence of caffeine or dithiothreitol (DTT) were examined. The following results were found: (1) ovine oocytes were fully aged 30 h post-onset of maturation culture; (2) the appropriate concentrations of caffeine and DTT for oocyte culture were 5 mM and 1 mM, respectively; (3) when nuclear transfer-reconstructed embryos were treated with caffeine or DTT following fusion, no increase in the frequency of development to blastocyst was observed (P > 0.05), but the cell numbers of blastocysts increased (P < 0.05); (4) both caffeine and DTT increased the blastocyst formation rates of intracytoplasmic sperm-injected embryos (P < 0.05); (5) caffeine increased the glutathione content of aged oocytes (P < 0.05). The glutathione content of DTT-treated aged oocytes was higher than that of oocytes matured for 36 h (P < 0.05). In conclusion, caffeine and dithiothreitol delay oocyte ageing but only to a limited extent. PMID:20883651

Ye, Xiao-Fang; Chen, Shi-Bin; Wang, Li-Qin; Zhao, Yun-Cheng; Lv, Xue-Feng; Liu, Ming-Jun; Huang, Jun-Cheng



Grading the lesions of ovine footrot.  


Sixteen methods of grading the lesions of ovine footrot were assessed on the basis of the effect of the lesions on the humoral immune response of the host to a causative bacterium, Dichelobacter nodosus. Methods that allowed for qualitative and quantitative differences in lesion scores between sheep were the best predictors of host response, and methods that assessed the lesions in each of the eight digits were more efficient than methods that did not grade the digits within feet. Weighting the scores for lesions that involved underrunning of the keratin of the hoof provided the most powerful means of predicting host response. The correlations between host response and the more elaborate weighted scores were close to the highest possible among additive linear estimators. Total weighted footscore, which is the sum of the footscores of the four feet weighted for underrun lesions, is proposed as a simple and effective grading system for sheep with lesions of footrot. There was a significant association within sheep between the number of underrun feet and the severity of lesions in individual feet. PMID:7709056

Whittington, R J; Nicholls, P J



An Annotated Corpus Outside Its Original Context: A Corpus-Based Exercise Book  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the STYX system, which is de- signed as an electronic corpus-based exercise book of Czech morphology and syntax with sentences directly selected from the Prague Dependency Treebank, the largest annotated corpus of the Czech language. The exercise book offers complex sentence processing with respect to both morphological and syntactic phenomena, i.e. the exercises allow students of basic and

Barbora Hladk


76 FR 18391 - Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show Power Boat Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show...the Corpus Christi, Texas for North American Tri-Hull...take place during the Texas International Boat Show...Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room will encompass all waters of the Corpus...



Corpus callosum morphology in children who stutter  

PubMed Central

Multiple studies have reported both functional and neuroanatomical differences between adults who stutter and their normally fluent peers. However, the reasons for these differences remain unclear although some developmental data suggest that structural brain differences may be present in school-age children who stutter. In the present study, the corpus callosum of children with persistent stuttering, children who recovered from stuttering and typically developing children between 9 and 12 years of age was compared to test if the presence of aberrant callosal morphology is implicated in this disorder. The total corpus callosum midsagittal area and area of each subsection consisting of the rostrum, anterior midbody, posterior midbody and splenium were measured using MIPAV (Medical Image Processing, Analysis, and Visualization). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was also used to compare white matter volume. No differences were detected in the corpus callosum area or white matter volume between children with persistent stuttering, children who recovered from stuttering and typically developing children. These results agree with dichotic listening studies that indicate children who stutter show the typical right ear advantage. Therefore, the neural reorganization across the midline shown in adults who stutter may be the result of long-term adaptations to persistent stuttering. Learning outcomes Educational objectives: After reading this article, the reader will be able to: (1) summarize research findings on corpus callosum development; and (2) discuss the characteristics of corpus callosum anatomy in stuttering.

Choo, Ai Leen; Chang, Soo-Eun; Zengin-Bolatkale, Hatun; Ambrose, Nicoline G.; Loucks, Torrey M.



A functional extracellular matrix biomaterial derived from ovine forestomach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular matrix (ECM) based biomaterials have an established place as medical devices for wound healing and tissue regeneration. In the search for biomaterials we have identified ovine forestomach matrix (OFM), a thick, large format ECM which is biochemically diverse and biologically functional. OFM was purified using an osmotic process that was shown to reduce the cellularity of the ECM and

Stan Lun; Sharleen M. Irvine; Keryn D. Johnson; Neil J. Fisher; Evan W. Floden; Leonardo Negron; Sandi G. Dempsey; Rene J. McLaughlin; Madhusudan Vasudevamurthy; Brian R. Ward; Barnaby C. H. May



Immunomodulatory effects of ovine serum immunoglobulin in the growing rat.  


This study aimed to determine whether orally administered ovine serum immunoglobulin (Ig) modulates aspects of immunity such as phagocytosis, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production, intestinal and plasma Ig concentrations in growing rats. Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 15/group) were used in the 21-day study, and fed a basal control diet (BD; no Ig) or two test diets: freeze-dried ovine Ig (FDOI) and inactivated ovine Ig (IOI). Phagocytic activity of peripheral blood leukocytes and lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of the mitogen concanavalin A (ConA) was greater (P < 0.05) for the FDOI-fed rats than for the BD- and IOI-fed groups. ConA-stimulated and unstimulated spleen cell culture produced higher (P < 0.05) interferon-? and interleukin-4, respectively, from rats fed the FDOI than rats fed the BD diet. In the jejunum, ileum and plasma, rats fed FDOI produced higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of secretory IgA (sIgA) than rats fed IOI or BD. Rats fed the FDOI diet had greater jejunal (P = 0.037) and lower plasma (P = 0.025) rat IgG concentrations than rats fed either BD or IOI. In conclusion, an ovine Ig fraction selectively modulated various indices of immune function. PMID:22445124

Balan, P; Han, K S; Rutherfurd-Markwick, K; Singh, H; Moughan, P J



Optimizing Aerosol Gene Delivery and Expression in the Ovine Lung  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed the sheep as a large animal model for optimizing cystic fibrosis gene therapy protocols. We administered aerosolized gene transfer agents (GTAs) to the ovine lung in order to test the delivery, efficacy, and safety of GTAs using a clinically relevant nebulizer. A preliminary study demonstrated GTA distribution and reporter gene expression throughout the lung after aerosol administration

Gerry McLachlan; Alison Baker; Peter Tennant; Catherine Gordon; Christina Vrettou; Louise Renwick; Richard Blundell; Seng H Cheng; Ron K Scheule; Lee Davies; Hazel Painter; Rebecca L Coles; Anna E Lawton; Chris Marriott; Deborah R Gill; Stephen C Hyde; Uta Griesenbach; Eric W F W Alton; A Christopher Boyd; David J Porteous; D David S Collie



A potential autocrine role for interferon tau in ovine trophectoderm.  


Interferon tau (IFNT), a type I IFN produced by the conceptus trophectoderm, is the signal for maternal pregnancy recognition in ruminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether IFNT effected on the proliferation of ovine trophectoderm cells in an autocrine manner. Elongated ovine conceptuses (Days 15, Day 0 = day of mating) were collected for isolation of mononuclear ovine trophectoderm (oTr-1) cells, and conceptuses (Days 15 and 20, n = 4 and 3, respectively) were collected for RNA extraction. We demonstrated that the IFNT receptor, IFNAR1, was expressed in trophectoderm of day 15 and 20 conceptuses. Interestingly, the ovine trophectoderm cell line oTr-1 cultured in the presence of recombinant bovine IFNT (rbIFNT) displayed increased expressions of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), such as IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), 2-5-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) and bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2). Meanwhile, the presence of rbIFNT in the culture media could promote the cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the connective tissue growth factor, which has diverse functions in cell proliferation and is involved in conceptus elongation, was upregulated in oTr-1 cell by rbIFNT treatment in vitro. These data indicated that IFNT could act as an autocrine factor to regulate trophectoderm cell proliferation. PMID:23551360

Wang, X-L; Wang, K; Han, G-C; Zeng, S-M



Ovine Reference Materials and Assays for Prion Genetic Testing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Genetic predisposition to scrapie in sheep is associated with variation in the peptide sequence of the ovine prion protein encoded by Prnp. Codon variants implicated in scrapie susceptibility or disease progression include those at amino acid positions 112, 136, 141, 154, and 171. Nin...


Bayesian stratified sampling to assess corpus utility  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method for asking statistical questions about a large text corpus. The authors exemplify the method by addressing the question, ``What percentage of Federal Register documents are real documents, of possible interest to a text researcher or analyst?`` They estimate an answer to this question by evaluating 200 documents selected from a corpus of 45,820 Federal Register documents. Bayesian analysis and stratified sampling are used to reduce the sampling uncertainty of the estimate from over 3,100 documents to fewer than 1,000. A possible application of the method is to establish baseline statistics used to estimate recall rates for information retrieval systems.

Hochberg, J.; Scovel, C.; Thomas, T.; Hall, S.



Corpus Tools for Retrieving and Deriving Termhood Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The necessity of integrating a set of corpus processing tools into a general architecture for computing in humanities has recently been recognised, as demand for corpus processing is growing beyond what existing tools can handle. It is pointed out that \\

Chunyu Kit


Obsessive Patient with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agenesis of the corpus callosum is an uncommon congenital anomaly. The following is a report of a patient with agenesis of the corpus callosum with cavum septum pellucidum and colpocephaly. This patient has also been diagnosed with anankastic personality disorder.




A German Sign Language Corpus of the Domain Weather Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

All systems for automatic sign language translation and recognition, in particular statistical systems, rely on adequately sized corpora. For this purpose, we created the Phoenix corpus that is based on German television weather reports translated into German Sign Language. It comes with a rich annotation of the video data, a bilingual text-based sentence corpus and a monolingual German corpus. The

Jan Bungeroth; Daniel Stein; Philippe Dreuw; Morteza Zahedi; Hermann Ney


Meta-analysis of corpus callosum size in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies with MRI have shown differences in corpus callosum size between schizophrenic patients and controls. Most have found that the corpus callosum is smaller in schizophrenic patients, but in only a minority was this finding statistically significant, perhaps due to small sample sizes. Therefore a meta-analysis of 11 published studies of corpus callosum morphology in schizophrenia was conducted to ascertain

P. W. R. Woodruff; I. C. Mcmanus; A. S. David



Corpus Callosum Area in Children and Adults with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite repeated findings of abnormal corpus callosum structure in autism, the developmental trajectories of corpus callosum growth in the disorder have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined corpus callosum size from a developmental perspective across a 30-year age range in a large cross-sectional sample of individuals with autism…

Prigge, Molly B. D.; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Neeley, E. Shannon; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.



Viewing Web Search Engines as Corpus Query Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine whether a web search engine can function as a corpus management system, by describing the similarities between corpus query systems and web search engines and we present a prototype implementation of a corpus management system incorporated in a Greek web search engine. We target our research towards the examination of common features that exist among

Alexandros Ntoulas; Sofia Stamou; Manolis Tzagarakis; Ioanna Tsakou; Dimitris Christodoulakis


Toward a Knowledge Representation Corpus of Historical Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research communities need a large corpus of representative, rel- evant and interesting problems to evaluate their proposed solutions; unfortunately the KR&R community lacks such a corpus. We there- fore propose to construct a large corpus of knowledge representation and reasoning problems, drawing upon readily available historical real- world events for contents, in a highly expressive representation lan- guage such as

Robert C. Kahlert; Jennifer Sullivan



CMU PRF using a Comparable Corpus: CLEF Working Notes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied a PRF (Pseudo-Relevance Feedback) system, for both the monolingual task and the German(->English task. We focused on the effects of extracting a comparable corpus from the given newspaper data; our corpus doubled the average precision when used together with the provided parallel corpus. The PRF performance was lower for the queries with few relevant documents. We also examined

Monica Rogati


Federal Habeas Corpus: A Brief Legal Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Federal habeas corpus is a procedure under which a federal court may review the legality of an individual's incarceration. It is most often the stage of the criminal appellate process that follows direct appeal and any available state collateral review. T...

C. Doyle



Federal Habeas Corpus: An Abridged Sketch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Federal habeas corpus as we know it is by and large a procedure under which a federal court may review the legality of an individual's incarceration. It is most often invoked after conviction and the exhaustion of the ordinary means of appeal. It is at on...

C. Doyle



Spontaneous speech collection for the CSR corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a pilot data collection for DARPA's Continuous Speech Recognition (CSR) speech corpus, SRI International experimented with the collection of spontaneous speech material. The bulk of the CSR pilot data was read versions of news articles from the (WSJ), and the spontaneous sentences were to be similar material, but spontaneously dictated. In the first pilot portion of the

Jared Bernstein; Denise Danielson



Corpus Callosum Size in Deiphinid Cetaceans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The midsagittal surface area of the corpus callosum was determined by computer-assisted morphometry in juvenile and adult members of 13 species of the cetacean family Delphinidae. In 57 brains, absolute callosal areas ranged from 104 to 829 mm2. When comp...

R. J. Tarpley S. H. Ridgway



Increased corpus callosum size in musicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using in-vivo magnetic resonance morphometry it was investigated whether the midsagittal area of the corpus callosum (CC) would differ between 30 professional musicians and 30 age-, sex- and handedness-matched controls. Our analyses revealed that the anterior half of the CC was significantly larger in musicians. This difference was due to the larger anterior CC in the subgroup of musicians who

Gottfried Schlaug; Lutz Jäncke; Yanxiong Huang; Jochen F. Staiger; Helmuth Steinmetz



Habeas Corpus and Freedom of Speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussion concerning the proper scope of federal habeas corpus for state prisoners usually focuses upon the use of the writ as a federal remedy for procedural errors of constitutional magnitude in state criminal trials. Proponents of “liberal” habeas argue that only federal courts can adequately protect the federal procedural rights of state criminal defendants, while critics contend that the states'

Michael L. Wells



Corpus callosum and simple visuomotor integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malcolm Jeeves was the first to demonstrate lengthened interhemispheric transmission times in subjects with agenesis of the corpus callosum by using a simple reaction time paradigm with lateralized unstructured light stimuli and crossed and uncrossed hand responses. Uncrossed responses can be integrated within one hemisphere, whereas crossed responses require a communication between the two hemispheres. In the normal brain this

G. Berlucchi; S. Aglioti; C. A. Marzi; G. Tassinari



Integrating Corpus Consultation in Language Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alongside developments in language research, the potential of corpora as a resource in language learning and teaching has been evident to researchers and teachers since the late 1960s. Despite publications which emphasise the benefits of corpus consultation for language learners (Bernardini, 2002; Kennedy & Miceli, 2001), there is little evidence…

Chambers, Angela



The MATCH corpus: a corpus of older and younger users' interactions with spoken dialogue systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the MATCH corpus, a unique data set of 447 dialogues in which 26 older and 24 younger adults interact with nine\\u000a different spoken dialogue systems. The systems varied in the number of options presented and the confirmation strategy used.\\u000a The corpus also contains information about the users’ cognitive abilities and detailed usability assessments of each dialogue\\u000a system. The

Kallirroi Georgila; Maria Wolters; Johanna D. Moore; Robert H. Logie



Developing a Disease Outbreak Event Corpus  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, there has been a growth in work on the use of information extraction technologies for tracking disease outbreaks from online news texts, yet publicly available evaluation standards (and associated resources) for this new area of research have been noticeably lacking. Objective This study seeks to create a “gold standard” data set against which to test how accurately disease outbreak information extraction systems can identify the semantics of disease outbreak events. Additionally, we hope that the provision of an annotation scheme (and associated corpus) to the community will encourage open evaluation in this new and growing application area. Methods We developed an annotation scheme for identifying infectious disease outbreak events in news texts. An event?in the context of our annotation scheme?consists minimally of geographical (eg, country and province) and disease name information. However, the scheme also allows for the rich encoding of other domain salient concepts (eg, international travel, species, and food contamination). Results The work resulted in a 200-document corpus of event-annotated disease outbreak reports that can be used to evaluate the accuracy of event detection algorithms (in this case, for the BioCaster biosurveillance online news information extraction system). In the 200 documents, 394 distinct events were identified (mean 1.97 events per document, range 0-25 events per document). We also provide a download script and graphical user interface (GUI)-based event browsing software to facilitate corpus exploration. Conclusion In summary, we present an annotation scheme and corpus that can be used in the evaluation of disease outbreak event extraction algorithms. The annotation scheme and corpus were designed both with the particular evaluation requirements of the BioCaster system in mind as well as the wider need for further evaluation resources in this growing research area.

Kawazoe, Ai; Chanlekha, Hutchatai; Collier, Nigel



Concept annotation in the CRAFT corpus  

PubMed Central

Background Manually annotated corpora are critical for the training and evaluation of automated methods to identify concepts in biomedical text. Results This paper presents the concept annotations of the Colorado Richly Annotated Full-Text (CRAFT) Corpus, a collection of 97 full-length, open-access biomedical journal articles that have been annotated both semantically and syntactically to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural-language-processing (NLP) community. CRAFT identifies all mentions of nearly all concepts from nine prominent biomedical ontologies and terminologies: the Cell Type Ontology, the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest ontology, the NCBI Taxonomy, the Protein Ontology, the Sequence Ontology, the entries of the Entrez Gene database, and the three subontologies of the Gene Ontology. The first public release includes the annotations for 67 of the 97 articles, reserving two sets of 15 articles for future text-mining competitions (after which these too will be released). Concept annotations were created based on a single set of guidelines, which has enabled us to achieve consistently high interannotator agreement. Conclusions As the initial 67-article release contains more than 560,000 tokens (and the full set more than 790,000 tokens), our corpus is among the largest gold-standard annotated biomedical corpora. Unlike most others, the journal articles that comprise the corpus are drawn from diverse biomedical disciplines and are marked up in their entirety. Additionally, with a concept-annotation count of nearly 100,000 in the 67-article subset (and more than 140,000 in the full collection), the scale of conceptual markup is also among the largest of comparable corpora. The concept annotations of the CRAFT Corpus have the potential to significantly advance biomedical text mining by providing a high-quality gold standard for NLP systems. The corpus, annotation guidelines, and other associated resources are freely available at



Factors affecting the antimicrobial activity of ovine-derived cathelicidins against E. coli 0157:H7  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial peptides extracted from ovine neutrophils have potential to be high-value by-products of the lamb industry as, for example, a biopreservative for chilled lamb products. This work was carried out to determine the conditions in which ovine peptides are most effective and to assist in product development. The activities of three synthetic ovine-derived antimicrobial peptides tested were not significantly affected

Rachel C. Anderson; Pak-Lam Yu



76 FR 18395 - Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show, Oso Bay, Corpus Christi, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the navigable waters of Oso Bay in Corpus Christi, Texas in support of...West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140...Corpus Christi, Texas. The safety zone...encompasses all waters within the points...Corpus Christi, Texas. An environmental...Navigation (water),...



Molecular cloning and characterisation of ovine dual oxidase 2.  


The dual oxidases (DUOX1 and DUOX2) are NADPH-dependent hydrogen peroxide-producing enzymes that are reported to function in a physiological capacity and as a component of the mucosal immune response. We have previously reported increased expression of the DUOX2 gene in the gut mucosa of sheep in response to gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) challenge. In this paper, we report the cloning of the full-length ovine DUOX2 transcript, using a PCR based strategy. The ovine DUOX2 transcript includes an ORF of 4644 bases, and encodes a protein with 97% identity to the bovine sequence. We also cloned a fragment of DUOX1 (encompassing nucleotides 2692-2829), and the proximal promoter sequence of DUOX2. Through analysis of sequence data we have confirmed that DUOX1 and DUOX2 are co-located in a head to tail arrangement conserved across many species. Alignment of the sequences to the ovine genome predicts a location of this gene cluster on ovine chromosome 7. We quantified the expression of ovine DUOX1 and DUOX2 transcripts in 24 different sheep tissues, and discovered tissue specific expression signatures. DUOX2 was found to be most highly expressed in tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, while expression of DUOX1 predominated in the bladder. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) analysis identified the existence of multiple 5' UTR variants in DUOX2, ranging in size from 32 to 242 nucleotides, with 3 distinct transcribed regions. Real time PCR quantification of the DUOX2 UTR variants revealed that these were differentially expressed between tissues, and at various stages of the response to GIN parasite infection. The collective evidence suggested a complex regulation of DUOX2, prompting a bioinformatic analysis of the proximal promoter regions of ovine DUOX2 to identify potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) that may explain the differences in the observed expression of the transcript variants of DUOX2. Possible transcription factor families that may regulate this process were identified as Kruppel-like factors (KLF), ETS-factors, erythroid growth receptor factors (EGRF) and myogenic differentiation factors (MYOD). PMID:22465529

Lees, M S; H Nagaraj, Shivashankar; Piedrafita, D M; Kotze, A C; Ingham, A B



Ovine PrP transgenic Drosophila show reduced locomotor activity and decreased survival.  


Drosophila have emerged as a model system to study mammalian neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study we have generated Drosophila transgenic for ovine PrP (prion protein) to begin to establish an invertebrate model of ovine prion disease. We generated Drosophila transgenic for polymorphic variants of ovine PrP by PhiC31 site-specific germ-line transformation under expression control by the bi-partite GAL4/UAS (upstream activating sequence) system. Site-specific transgene insertion in the fly genome allowed us to test the hypothesis that single amino acid codon changes in ovine PrP modulate prion protein levels and the phenotype of the fly when expressed in the Drosophila nervous system. The Arg(154) ovine PrP variants showed higher levels of PrP expression in neuronal cell bodies and insoluble PrP conformer than did His(154) variants. High levels of ovine PrP expression in Drosophila were associated with phenotypic effects, including reduced locomotor activity and decreased survival. Significantly, the present study highlights a critical role for helix-1 in the formation of distinct conformers of ovine PrP, since expression of His(154) variants were associated with decreased survival in the absence of high levels of PrP accumulation. Collectively, the present study shows that variants of the ovine PrP are associated with different spontaneous detrimental effects in ovine PrP transgenic Drosophila. PMID:22435640

Thackray, Alana M; Muhammad, Farooq; Zhang, Chang; Di, Ying; Jahn, Thomas R; Landgraf, Matthias; Crowther, Damian C; Evers, Jan Felix; Bujdoso, Raymond



Effects of recombinant interferon-tau on ovine lentivirus replication.  


As a pregnancy recognition signal, sheep trophoblast cells secrete a type I interferon, ovine interferon-tau (OvIFN-tau), which has potent antiviral activity. We studied the effects of a recombinant protein (rOv-IFN-tau) on the replication of ovine lentivirus (OvLV) in goat synovial membrane cells. The amount of provirus DNA, as measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the virus titers, and the number of OvLV-induced syncytia were 76.5%, 82%, and 95%, respectively, lower in cultures treated with rOv-IFN-tau than in placebo-treated controls (p < 0.01). rOv-IFN-tau also reduced OvLV reverse transcriptase activity and protected cells from OvLV-induced cell lysis, but the effect was less dramatic. The antiviral activity increased with the concentration up to a maximum with 256 antiviral units of rOv-IFN-tau per ml. PMID:8973999

Juste, R A; Ott, T L; Kwang, J; Bazer, F W; de la Concha-Bermejillo, A



Prevalence of ovine and caprine oestrosis in Ambo, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to estimate the prevalence, larval burden and risk factors of ovine and caprine oestrosis from December\\u000a 2007 to May 2008 on 554 heads of randomly selected sheep and goat slaughtered at Ambo town, Western Shoa, Ethiopia. The results\\u000a show an overall prevalence of 59.9% with infection rate of 69.8% and 47.3% in sheep and goats

Endrias Zewdu Gebremedhin



Localisation of receptors for prolactin in ovine skin.  


Although prolactin (PRL) receptors are found in many mammalian tissues, specific PRL binding to mammalian skin has not been demonstrated. In view of the temporal relationships observed between photoperiod, circulating PRL and pelage replacement in seasonally responsive mammals, we sought to provide evidence of PRL receptors in ovine skin. Cryosections of skin from New Zealand Wiltshire ewes were incubated with radiolabelled human GH (125I-hGH) and ovine PRL (125I-oPRL) in the presence and absence of excess unlabelled hormones (hGH, oPRL or ovine GH (oGH)). Binding was inhibited by unlabelled oPRL and hGH but not by oGH. In microautoradiographs, both radioligands were localised most strongly in the dermal papillae of wool follicles in the anagen (growth) phase of the hair cycle and in apocrine sweat glands. Higher levels of specific binding to dermal papilla cells, compared with the follicle epithelial matrix and the surrounding dermis, were confirmed by measurement of microautoradiograph silver grain density (respectively, 34.1 +/- 3.0, 11.4 +/- 1.0 and 5.5 +/- 0.5 grains per 100 microns2 (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 10)). Total binding for 125I-hGH and 125I-oPRL radioligands to follicle dermal papilla was not significantly different (34.1 +/- 3.0 vs 43.6 +/- 2.5 grains per 100 microns2, n = 10) but the level of non-specific binding of 123I-oPRL was higher than for 125I-hGH (18.9 +/- 1.4 vs 6.1 +/- 0.6 grains per 100 microns2, n = 10; P < 0.001). Binding assays of receptors in crude microsomal membranes extracted from ovine skin were used to ascertain binding capacity and specificity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7891016

Choy, V J; Nixon, A J; Pearson, A J



Heat and motion stability of polyvalent Crotalidae antivenin, ovine Fab  

Microsoft Academic Search

W. W. Decker, G. M. Bogdan, R. A. Garcia, P. Wollen and R. C. Dart. Heat and motion stability of polyvalent Crotalidae antivenin, ovine Fab. Toxicon36, 377–382, 1998.—This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that a Fab-based crotalid antivenin (FabAV) in commercially packaged vials will remain effective under more extreme heat and motion conditions than would be expected in

Wyatt W. Decker; Gregory M. Bogdan; Ray A. Garcia; Peter Wollen; Richard C. Dart



Human Motion Simulation and Action Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquisition of large scale good quality training samples is becoming a major issue in machine learning based human motion\\u000a analysis. This paper presents a method to simulate continuous gross human body motion with the intention to establish a human\\u000a motion corpus for learning and recognition. The simulation is achieved by a temporal-spatialtemporal decomposition of human\\u000a motion into actions, joint actions

Gang Zheng; Wanqing Li; Philip Ogunbona; Liju Dong; Igor Kharitonenko



The JOS Linguistically Tagged Corpus of Slovene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The JOS language resources are meant to facilitate developments of HLT and corpus linguistics for the Slovene language and consist of the morphosyntactic specifications, defining the Slovene morphosyntactic features and tagset; two annotated corpora (jos100k and jos1M); and two web services (a concordancer and text annotation tool). The paper introduces these components, and concentrates on jos100k, a 100,000 word sampled

Tomaz Erjavec; Darja Fiser; Simon Krek; Nina Ledinek



Annotating Sanskrit Corpus: Adapting IL-POSTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we present an experiment on the use of the hierarchical Indic Languages POS\\u000a Tagset (IL-POSTS) (Baskaran et al 2008 a&b), developed by Microsoft Research India (MSRI) for tagging Indian languages, for\\u000a annotating Sanskrit corpus. Sanskrit is a language with richer morphology and relatively free word-order. The authors have\\u000a included and excluded certain tags according to the requirements

Girish Nath Jha; Madhav Gopal; Diwakar Mishra



Creating a Persian-English Comparable Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Multilingual corpora are valuable resources for cross-language information retrieval and are available in many language pairs.\\u000a However the Persian language does not have rich multilingual resources due to some of its special features and difficulties\\u000a in constructing the corpora. In this study, we build a Persian-English comparable corpus from two independent news collections:\\u000a BBC News in English and Hamshahri news

Homa Baradaran Hashemi; Azadeh Shakery; Heshaam Feili



Necrotising granulomas of the uterine corpus.  

PubMed Central

Necrotising granulomatous inflammation of the uterine corpus associated with transcervical laser ablation of the endometrium occurred in four patients. The abnormalities seen, including extensive necrosis and hyalinisation with foreign body giant cells containing black foreign material, and eosinophilic homogenisation around blood vessels, were due to the effects of tissue fulguration. The presence of black foreign material in loosely organised histiocytes should alert the pathologist even in the absence of clinical information; stains for organisms are negative. Images

Akosa, A B; Boret, F



Developing a corpus of spoken language variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a novel, searchable corpus as a research tool for investigating phonetic and phonological phenomena across various speech styles. Five speech styles have been well studied independently in previous work: reduced (casual), careful (hyperarticulated), citation (reading), Lombard effect (speech in noise), and ``motherese'' (child-directed speech). Few studies to date have collected a wide range of styles from a single set of speakers, and fewer yet have provided publicly available corpora. The pilot corpus includes recordings of (1) a set of speakers participating in a variety of tasks designed to elicit the five speech styles, and (2) casual peer conversations and wordlists to illustrate regional vowels. The data include high-quality recordings and time-aligned transcriptions linked to text files that can be queried. Initial measures drawn from the database provide comparison across speech styles along the following acoustic dimensions: MLU (changes in unit duration); relative intra-speaker intensity changes (mean and dynamic range); and intra-speaker pitch values (minimum, maximum, mean, range). The corpus design will allow for a variety of analyses requiring control of demographic and style factors, including hyperarticulation variety, disfluencies, intonation, discourse analysis, and detailed spectral measures.

Carmichael, Lesley; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia Beckford



Development and Characterization of Recombinant Ovine Coagulation Factor VIII  

PubMed Central

Animal models of the bleeding disorder, hemophilia A, have been an integral component of the biopharmaceutical development process and have facilitated the development of recombinant coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) products capable of restoring median survival of persons with hemophilia A to that of the general population. However, there remain several limitations to recombinant fVIII as a biotherapeutic, including invasiveness of intravenous infusion, short half-life, immunogenicity, and lack of availability to the majority of the world's population. The recently described ovine model of hemophilia A is the largest and most accurate phenocopy. Affected sheep die prematurely due to bleeding-related pathogenesis and display robust adaptive humoral immunity to non-ovine fVIII. Herein, we describe the development and characterization of recombinant ovine fVIII (ofVIII) to support further the utility of the ovine hemophilia A model. Full-length and B-domain deleted (BDD) ofVIII cDNAs were generated and demonstrated to facilitate greater biosynthetic rates than their human fVIII counterparts while both BDD constructs showed greater expression rates than the same-species full-length versions. A top recombinant BDD ofVIII producing baby hamster kidney clone was identified and used to biosynthesize raw material for purification and biochemical characterization. Highly purified recombinant BDD ofVIII preparations possess a specific activity nearly 2-fold higher than recombinant BDD human fVIII and display a differential glycosylation pattern. However, binding to the carrier protein, von Willebrand factor, which is critical for stability of fVIII in circulation, is indistinguishable. Decay of thrombin-activated ofVIIIa is 2-fold slower than human fVIII indicating greater intrinsic stability. Furthermore, intravenous administration of ofVIII effectively reverses the bleeding phenotype in the murine model of hemophilia A. Recombinant ofVIII should facilitate the maintenance of the ovine hemophilia A herd and their utilization as a relevant large animal model for the research and development of novel nucleic acid and protein-based therapies for hemophilia A.

Zakas, Philip M.; Gangadharan, Bagirath; Almeida-Porada, Graca; Porada, Christopher D.; Spencer, H. Trent; Doering, Christopher B.



Performance of Blue-Yellow Screening Test for Antimicrobial Detection in Ovine Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugresiduesinmilkareimportantbecauseofpublic health and industrial implications. The detection limits of 25 antimicrobialagents were determined bythe blue- yellow screening method in ovine milk. For each drug, 8 concentrations were tested on 20 ovine milk samples from individual ewes in midlactation. Detection limits determined by means of logistic regression were below European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRL) for penicillin G (3 to 4

B. Linage; C. Gonzalo; J. A. Carriedo; J. A. Asensio; M. A. Blanco; L. F. De La Fuente; F. San Primitivo



Ovine antimicrobial peptides: new products from an age-old industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Antimicrobial peptides are part of the natural immune system,of all plants and animals. This review focusses on ovine ,antimicrobial peptides because of the importance ,of the ,lamb industry in Australasia. The epithelial tissue ?-defensins, respiratory surfactant-associated anionic peptides (SAAPs), and neutrophil cathelicidins are all described, and possible applications for these peptides are looked at, including use in ovine medicine,

Rachel C. Anderson; Brian Wilkinson; Pak-Lam Yu



Data in Your Language: The ECI Multilingual Corpus 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the contents and the method of production of the ACL EuropeanCorpus Initiative Multilingual Corpus 1 (ECI\\/MC1). This is a large multilingual electronic textcorpus, containing 97 million words in 27 (mainly European) languages. It is available cheaply onCDROM. Most of the texts in the corpus are marked up using a fully-validated SGML documenttype description based on

Susan Armstrong-warwick; Henry S. Thompson; David Mckelvie; Dominique Petitpierre


What's In a Note: Construction of a Suicide Note Corpus.  


This paper reports on the results of an initiative to create and annotate a corpus of suicide notes that can be used for machine learning. Ultimately, the corpus included 1,278 notes that were written by someone who died by suicide. Each note was reviewed by at least three annotators who mapped words or sentences to a schema of emotions. This corpus has already been used for extensive scientific research. PMID:23170067

Pestian, John P; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Linn-Gust, Michelle



Arginine Vasopressin Is a Much More Potent Stimulus to ACTH Release from Ovine Anterior Pituitary Cells than Ovine Corticotropin-Releasing Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured rat and ovine anterior pituitary cells were treated with a range of doses (0.01–1,000 nM) of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and ovine corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), alone or in combination, and medium and cell content of immunoreactive (ir-)ACTH determined. In rat cells, a dose-response curve to CRF was obtained, with a threshold dose of 0.1 nM; AVP was much less effective

Mary Familari; Ian Smith; Robin Smith; John W. Funder



Selective gene expression by rat gastric corpus epithelium  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is divided into several segments that have distinct functional properties, largely absorptive. The gastric corpus is the only segment thought of as largely secretory. Microarray hybridization of the gastric corpus mucosal epithelial cells was used to compare gene expression with other segments of the columnar GI tract followed by statistical data subtraction to identify genes selectively expressed by the rat gastric corpus mucosa. This provides a means of identifying less obvious specific functions of the corpus in addition to its secretion-related genes. For example, important properties found by this GI tract comparative transcriptome reflect the energy demand of acid secretion, a role in lipid metabolism, the large variety of resident neuroendocrine cells, responses to damaging agents and transcription factors defining differentiation of its epithelium. In terms of overlap of gastric corpus genes with the rest of the GI tract, the distal small bowel appears to express many of the gastric corpus genes in contrast to proximal small and large bowel. This differential map of gene expression by the gastric corpus epithelium will allow a more detailed description of major properties of the gastric corpus and may lead to the discovery of gastric corpus cell differentiation genes and those mis-regulated in gastric carcinomas.

Goebel, M.; Stengel, A.; Sachs, G.



La Richesse Referentielle dans le Corpus (Referential Resources in the Corpus)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on a corpus made up of written descriptions of comic strips done by elementary level children. Elements most frequently mentioned by the children are identified in order to relate referential content to sociocultural factors. (Text is in French.) (CDSH/AM)|

Cohen-Scali, M.; And Others



Corpus-Assisted Creative Writing: Introducing Intermediate Italian Learners to a Corpus as a Reference Resource  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In much of the literature on the exploitation of corpora for language learning, the learners are viewed as researchers, who formulate and test their own hypotheses about language use. Having identified difficulties encountered in corpus investigations by our intermediate-level students of Italian in a previous study, we have designed a…

Kennedy, Claire; Miceli, Tiziana



Epidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ovine breeding.  


An outbreak of toxoplasmosis occurring in a typical farm of 524 ovines was monitored for 1 year after the occurrence of 31 abortions. Abortion events involved 7.2% of 430 pregnant sheep. Presence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sheep sera was investigated by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT). A total of 422 ewes were bled four times during the year, and an epidemiological analysis was performed on all serology data collected in this subgroup. The prevalence of IgG positives ranged from 31.52% (133/422) at the first sampling to 62.56% (264/422) at the fourth sampling. Incidence of IgG antibodies was 38.75% at the second sampling, 14.92% at the third and 29.28% at the fourth sampling. At the beginning of the study, prevalence was 70.7% in primiparous sheep and 20.9% in sheep older than 5 years; at the third sampling, prevalence was stable at 70% in pluriparous sheep. The mean prevalence of IgM antibodies was 14.87%. A total of 147 out of all 524 ovines of the flock tested positive for IgM in more than one sampling. After an initial positivity, 60 sheep tested negative for IgG at the following serological controls (4 between the first and the second sampling, 30 between the second and the third and 28 between the third and the fourth sampling). One stray cat was positive for IgG, with a titre of 1 : 320. Moreover, one of the farmers was also positive, with a titre of 1 : 160 for IgG. A positive PCR result for T. gondii DNA was also observed in aliquots of grain and pellets taken from feed stocks amassed inside the sheds without protection, suggesting that an adequate management of the farm might be useful, if not essential, for controlling T. gondii outbreaks in ovine flocks. PMID:19968848

Zedda, M T; Rolesu, S; Pau, S; Rosati, I; Ledda, S; Satta, G; Patta, C; Masala, G



Secretion of platelet-activating factor by periovulatory ovine follicles  

SciTech Connect

Secretion of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in vitro by ovine follicles and ovarian interstitium obtained at various times before, during and after the endogenous preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) and ovulation was quantified by radioimmunoassay. Release of PAF by the preovulatory follicle increased within 2 h after initiation of the surge of LH. Capacity for secretion of PAF was greatest at the time of ovulation, then declined thereafter. Production of PAF by ovarian interstitium throughout the periovulatory period was relatively low and did not change with time. It appears that PAF could act as an intrafollicular mediator in the mechanisms of ovulation and(or) luteinization.

Alexander, B.M.; Van Kirk, E.A.; Murdoch, W.J. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie (USA))



Immunohistochemical identification of Campylobacter fetus in natural cases of bovine and ovine abortions.  


An immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure for the detection of Campylobacter fetus antigens using an avidin-biotin complex technique was performed on formalin fixed bovine and ovine fetal tissues from 26 natural cases of Campylobacter spp. abortion (four ovine and 22 bovine). The species of Campylobacter isolated included C. fetus ssp. venerealis from 13 bovine fetuses, C. fetus ssp. fetus from two ovine and one bovine fetus, Campylobacter jejuni from seven bovine fetuses, Campylobacter lari from two ovine fetuses and an unspeciated Campylobacter species in one bovine fetus. Histologic lesions identified in the aborted fetuses included placentitis, serositis, pneumonia, gastroenteritis, hepatitis and encephalitis. Campylobacter fetus antigens were identified by IHC in 13 of 13 bovine fetuses from which C. fetus ssp. venerealis was isolated and in two of two ovine fetuses from which C. fetus ssp. fetus was isolated. The IHC stains were negative in tissues from seven bovine fetuses from which C. jejuni was isolated, one bovine fetus infected with C. fetus ssp. fetus, one bovine fetus infected with the unspeciated Campylobacter and two ovine fetuses infected with C. lari. In positive cases, the IHC stain most frequently identified bacteria in the lung and gastrointestinal tract. The C. fetus IHC procedure performed on formalin fixed tissues is a practical tool for the diagnosis of natural cases of ovine and bovine abortion caused by C. fetus. PMID:15876227

Campero, C M; Anderson, M L; Walker, R L; Blanchard, P C; Barbano, L; Chiu, P; Martínez, A; Combessies, G; Bardon, J C; Cordeviola, J



Corpus callosum and P300 in schizophrenia.  


Functional abnormalities in the interhemispheric transfer via the corpus callosum in schizophrenia may result in filtering problems and information processing problems, which may in turn be related to the synchronization of cortical event-related activity. To explore whether a relationship exists between corpus callosum (CC) size, measured with in-vivo magnetic resonance imaging, and late auditory event-related P300 potentials, 50 patients with schizophrenia as well as 50 healthy controls were examined. The absolute CC size and subregional areas, as well as the CC areas adjusted for total brain volume, were not significantly different between patients with schizophrenia and controls. While no significant group differences were observed for P3a-, P3b-, PSW-amplitudes and P3b-latencies, P3a- and PSW-latencies were significantly prolonged for patients with schizophrenia. Absolute CC total size was significantly correlated with P3b-amplitudes in healthy controls (r=0.29; P=0.044). In patients with schizophrenia, significant correlations were observed between the subregion of the posterior body of the CC and positive slow wave (PSW; r=0.47; P=0.001). P3a-, P3b- and PSW-latencies were not significantly correlated to CC size in either patients with schizophrenia or healthy controls. The results are discussed in terms of the possibility that abnormalities in interhemispheric transfer may underlie the mechanisms of schizophrenia. PMID:11343870

Frodl, T; Meisenzahl, E M; Müller, D; Greiner, J; Juckel, G; Leinsinger, G; Hahn, H; Möller, H J; Hegerl, U



Solid-phase synthesis of ovine Leydig cell insulin-like peptide--a putative ovine relaxin?  


The primary structure of ovine Leydig cell insulin-like peptide (Ley I-L) was recently deduced from the corresponding cDNA sequence. It consists of two peptide chains and three disulphide bonds in an arrangement similar to both relaxin and insulin. As in relaxin B-chain, an Arg-X-X-X-Arg sequence exists within the Ley I-L B-chain although it is located four residues towards the C-terminus from the corresponding position within relaxin. This sequence of amino acids is known to be essential for relaxin biological activity and its presence in Ley I-L suggested that the peptide might possess a relaxin-like function. Ovine Ley I-L was assembled by Fmoc-solid-phase synthesis of the separate chains followed by their combination in solution at high pH. The purity and identity of the chain-combined peptide was confirmed by chemical characterization including mass spectrometry. At physiological concentrations, the peptide was shown not to possess relaxin-like activity in the rat isolated atrial chronotropic and inotropic assay. This strongly suggests that Ley I-L is not a relaxin in the sheep. In order to explore further a possible structural relationship between Ley I-L and relaxin, we prepared a synthetic analogue of ovine Ley I-L containing a single replacement of B-chain residue 12, His, with Arg. This was found to possess significant relaxin-like chronotropic and inotropic activity demonstrating that the tertiary structure of Ley I-L is similar to that of relaxin and highlighting the key requirement for the five-residue sequence, Arg-X-X-X-Arg, to be present in position B12-16 for characteristic relaxin activity. PMID:10424349

Dawson, N F; Tan, Y Y; Macris, M; Otvos, L; Summers, R J; Tregear, G W; Wade, J D



Diffusion tensor imaging of the corpus callosum in Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corpus callosum is the largest commissural white matter pathway that connects the hemispheres of the human brain. In this study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on subject groups with high-functioning autism and controls matched for age, handedness, IQ, and head size. DTI and volumetric measurements of the total corpus callosum and subregions (genu, body and splenium) were made

Andrew L. Alexander; Jee Eun Lee; Mariana Lazar; Rebecca Boudos; Molly B. DuBray; Terrence R. Oakes; Judith N. Miller; Jeffrey Lu; Eun-Kee Jeong; William M. McMahon; Erin D. Bigler; Janet E. Lainhart



Agenesis and lipoma of corpus callosum. Case report.  


The agenesis and lipoma of the corpus callosum is a very rare association. We report the case of a 18-years old woman with rare epileptic seizures since the age of 6 years, normal neurological examination, as well as normal electroencephalogram. The brain computed tomography scanning and the magnetic resonance showed the lipoma and the agenesis of the corpus callosum. PMID:8585829

Silva, D F; Lima, M M; Oliveira, C O; Oliveira, W N; Anghinah, R; Lima, J G



Acceptable bias? Using corpus linguistics methods with critical discourse analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the proposal that corpus linguistics approaches can improve the objectivity of critical discourse analysis research, resulting in a more robust and valid set of findings. Taking a recent project which examined the representation of Islam and Muslims in the British press, corpus-driven procedures identified that Muslims tended to be linked to the concept of extreme belief much

Paul Baker



The Military Commissions Act, Habeas Corpus, and the Geneva Conventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay considers the constitutionality of both the habeas corpus and Geneva Convention provisions in the Military Commissions Act of 2006 (MCA). The MCA purports to preclude federal court jurisdiction over habeas corpus applications filed by detainees in the war on terrorism, providing them instead with D.C. Circuit review of their status determinations and military commission judgments. The MCA also

Curtis Bradley



The ISLE corpus of non-native spoken English1  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the purpose of developing pronunciation trainin g tools for second language learning a corpus of no n-native speech data has been collected, which consists of almost 18 hours of ann otated speech signals spoken by Italian and German learners of English. The corpus is based on 250 utterances selected from typical se cond language learning exercises. It has been

Wolfgang Menzel; Eric Atwell; Patrizia Bonaventura; Daniel Herron; Peter Howarth; Rachel Morton; Clive Souter



Low-risk corpus cancer: Is lymphadenectomy or radiotherapy necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective of this study was to find readily ascertainable intraoperative pathologic indicators that would discriminate a subgroup of early corpus cancers that would not require lymphadenectomy or adjuvant radiotherapy. Study Design: Between 1984 and 1993, a total of 328 patients with endometrioid corpus cancer, grade 1 or 2 tumor, myometrial invasion ?50%, and no intraoperative evidence of macroscopic

Andrea Mariani; Maurice J Webb; Gary L Keeney; Michael G Haddock; Giliola Calori; Karl C Podratz



Use of "Google Scholar" in Corpus-Driven EAP Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the "Google Scholar" search engine. These resources ("Google Scholar virtual corpus") are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. "Google Scholar", however, was not designed for linguistic searches…

Brezina, Vaclav



Educational Implications for Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study evaluates the case of a 20-year-old young Australian adult born with agenesis of the corpus callosum, the area of the brain uniting the hemispheres. Deficits commonly associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum are mental retardation, motor involvement, seizure activity, and lateral transfer difficulties. The report: (1)…

Ritter, Shirley A.


A Corpus-based Approach to Finding Happiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the sources of happiness and sadness in everyday life? In this paper, we employ 'linguistic ethnography' to seek out where happiness lies in our everyday lives by considering a corpus of blogposts from the LiveJournal community annotated with happy and sad moods. By analyzing this corpus, we derive lists of happy and sad words and phrases annotated by

Rada Mihalcea; Hugo Liu



Reduced area of the corpus callosum in posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have revealed decreases in the mid-sagittal area of the corpus callosum (CC) in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but at present no data are available in adult PTSD patients. We have previously reported decreased whole-brain white matter (WM) volume in adults with PTSD and now report corpus callosum area from the same sample. MRI was

Gerardo Villarreal; Derek A. Hamilton; David P. Graham; Ira Driscoll; Clifford Qualls; Helen Petropoulos; William M. Brooks



Corpus-based CLIR in retrieval of highly relevant documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

IR systems' ability to retrieve highly relevant documents has become more and more important in the age of extremely large collec- tions, such as the WWW. Our aim was to find out how corpus-based CLIR manages in retrieving highly relevant documents. We created a Finnish- Swedish comparable corpus and used it as a source of knowledge for query translation. Finnish

Tuomas Talvensaari; Martti Juhola; Jorma Laurikkala; Kalervo Järvelin


Comparing Set-Covering Strategies for Optimal Corpus Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is interested in the problem of the linguistic content of a speech corpus. Depending on the target task, the phonological and linguistic content of the corpus is controlled by collecting a set of sentences which covers a preset description of phonological attributes under the constraint of an overall duration as small as possible. This goal is classically achieved

Jonathan Chevelu; Nelly Barbot; Olivier Boëffard; Arnaud Delhay



Spontaneous periodic hypothermia with lipoma of the corpus callosum  

PubMed Central

A patient with spontaneous periodic hypothermia who had both a lipoma and agenesis of the corpus callosum is described. Spontaneous periodic hypothermia associated with corpus callosum abnormalities is a distinct entity and although the mechanism underlying the hypothermic episodes is unexplained, the term “diencephalic autonomic epilepsy” does not seem appropriate. Images

Summers, GD; Young, AC; Little, RA; Stoner, HB; Forbes, WSTC; Jones, Rac



The treatment of variation in corpus-based translation studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corpus-based research in translation studies initially focused on similarities and differences between translated and non-translated text, in an attempt to demonstrate that translations form a distinctive textual system within any target culture. More recently, researchers have begun to turn their attention to the question of individual variation within any corpus of translations. This article focuses on the latter strand of

Mona Baker



Time-varying inter-hemispheric coherence during corpus callosotomy.  


OBJECTIVE: Corpus callosotomy limits the bilateral synchrony of epileptic discharges. However, the instantaneous changes in bilateral synchrony during corpus callosotomy are unclear. The present study investigated how and when bilateral synchrony is suppressed in the anterior and then posterior steps of corpus callosotomy. METHODS: Intra-operative scalp electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded simultaneously with surgical video for six patients who underwent total corpus callosotomy for medically intractable drop attacks. The time-varying EEG inter-hemispheric coherence was quantified by wavelet transform coherence and trend analysis. RESULTS: The 4-13Hz coherence decreased after corpus callosotomy in five patients. Significant decrease in coherence was observed only during the posterior step of callosal sectioning in three patients, but throughout both steps in two patients. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in inter-hemispheric coherence is not always correlated with the stages of callosal sectioning. Inter-hemispheric coherence is decreased during the final stage of corpus callosotomy and the effect is maximized after sectioning is completed. SIGNIFICANCE: Various patterns of coherence decrease suggest individual variations in the participation of the corpus callosum in the genesis of bilateral synchrony. Time-varying inter-hemispheric EEG coherence is useful to monitor the physiological completeness of corpus callosotomy. PMID:23756060

Okumura, Eiichi; Iwasaki, Masaki; Sakuraba, Rie; Itabashi, Izumi; Osawa, Shin-Ichiro; Jin, Kazutaka; Itabashi, Hisashi; Kato, Kazuhiro; Kanno, Akitake; Tominaga, Teiji; Nakasato, Nobukazu



Clinical and Diagnostic Profile of Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the clinical profile, etiologies identified, and outcomes for a consecutive series of children with partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. Children with agenesis of the corpus callosum were identified in a comprehensive computerized database of all patients seen in a single pediatric neurology practice over an 11-year interval. Medical records were then systematically reviewed. Twenty-four

Michael I. Shevell



Agenesis of Corpus Callosum: Clinical Description and Etiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 135 children (aged 3 months to 15 years) with structural defects of the central nervous system found on magnetic resonance imaging, agenesis of the corpus callosum was evident in 7. The etiology of agenesis of the corpus callosum has been established in four children: partial trisomy of chromosome 13, partial duplication of the long arm of chromosome 10, Aicardi's

Elzbieta Marszal; Ewa Jamroz; Jacek Pilch; Ewa Kluczewska; Halina Jablecka-Deja; Robert Krawczyk



An Evaluation of Intermediate Students' Approaches to Corpus Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on experiences using the Contemporary Written Italian Corpus in teaching intermediate students at Griffith University in Australia. Evaluates the effectiveness of students' investigations of the corpus, how they go about their investigations, and how successful they are at extracting information without help from a teacher. Outlines…

Kennedy, Claire; Miceli, Tiziana



Photoperiod regulates clock gene rhythms in the ovine liver.  


To investigate the photoperiodic entrainment of peripheral rhythms in ruminants, we studied the expression of clock genes in the liver in the highly seasonal Soay sheep. Animals were kept under long (LD 16:8) or short photoperiod (LD 8:16). Daily rhythms in locomotor activity were recorded, and blood concentrations of melatonin and cortisol were measured by RIA. Per2, Bmal1, and Cry1 gene expression was determined by Northern blot analyses using ovine RNA probes in liver collected every 4h for 24h. Liver Per2 and Bmal1, but not Cry1, expression was rhythmic in all treatments. Under long days, peak Per2 expression occurred at end of the night with a similar timing to Bmal1, whereas, under short days the Per2 maximum was in the early night with an inverse pattern to Bmal1. There was a photoperiodxtime interaction for only Per2 (P < 0.001). The 24-h pattern in plasma cortisol matched the observed phasing of Per2 expression, suggesting that it may act as an endocrine entraining factor. The clock gene rhythms in the peripheral tissues were different in timing compared with the ovine suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, central pacemaker) and pars tuberalis (melatonin target tissue), and the hepatic rhythms were of lower amplitude compared with photoperiodic rodents. Thus, there are likely to be important species differences in the way the central and peripheral clockwork encodes external photoperiod. PMID:15935162

Andersson, Håkan; Johnston, Jonathan D; Messager, Sophie; Hazlerigg, David; Lincoln, Gerald



Minimum intravenous infectious dose of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV).  


The minimum intravenous infectious dose for ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) WLC1 was determined using twenty-four 6month-old lambs. Twelve groups of two 6month-old lambs were inoculated intravenously (i.v.) with tissue culture fluid containing ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) WLC1 titers ranging from 10(7.6) TCID(50)/lamb down to 10(-3.4) TCID(50)/lamb and were monitored for seroconversion using the OPPV agar gel immunodiffusion assay (AGID). Fifteen of the 16 lambs given equal or greater than 10(0.6) TCID(50) seroconverted, and virus could be isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes in 13 out of the 15 of these lambs. None of the eight lambs receiving less than 10(0.6) TCID(50) seroconverted during the 12months. The results of this study indicated that 10(0.6) or 4 TCID(50)/lamb given i.v. was capable of establishing infection. PMID:19246063

Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Lehmkuhl, Howard D; Cutlip, Randall C



The ovine placenta and placentitis-A review.  


An appreciation of the complexities of placental structure and function is essential to understanding the pathogenesis of infectious placentitis and abortion. This review aims to illustrate aspects of ovine pregnancy and placentation that will assist both the research worker and the diagnostic pathologist. Morphologically, the ovine placenta is classified as being chorioallantoic, villous, cotyledonary and synepitheliochorial. Apposition of foetal and maternal tissues in early pregnancy eventually leads to the formation of the definitive placenta. Physiological features of placentation that are essential to normal pregnancy and foetal development include modulation of immune responses at the placental interface, increasing placental bloodflow to allow for increasing foetal demand and the secretion of hormones for the recognition and maintenance of pregnancy. Descriptions of the morphology of the near-term placenta in a normal pregnancy and of the foetal membranes that are voided during normal parturition provide the proper context for understanding the morphological changes associated with placentitis and how these changes are likely to affect placental function. PMID:18980813

Sammin, D; Markey, B; Bassett, H; Buxton, D



Biomechanical characterisation of ovine spinal facet joint cartilage.  


The spinal facet joints are known to be an important component in the kinematics and the load transmission of the spine. The articular cartilage in the facet joint is prone to degenerative changes which lead to back pain and treatments for the condition have had limited long term success. There is currently a lack of information on the basic biomechanical properties of the facet joint cartilage which is needed to develop tissue substitution or regenerative interventions. In the present study, the thickness and biphasic properties of ovine facet cartilage were determined using a combination of indentation tests and computational modelling. The equilibrium biphasic Young's modulus and permeability were derived to be 0.76±0.35 MPa and 1.61±1.10×10?¹? m?/(Ns) respectively, which were within the range of cartilage properties characterised from the human synovial joints. The average thickness of the ovine facet cartilage was 0.52±0.10 mm, which was measured using a needle indentation test. These properties could potentially be used for the development of substitution or tissue engineering interventions and for computational modelling of the facet joint. Furthermore, the developed method to characterise the facet cartilage could be used for other animals or human donors. PMID:22483055

Abd Latif, Mohd Juzaila; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth K



Verb subcategorization frequencies: American English corpus data, methodological studies, and cross-corpus comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verb subcategorization frequencies (verb biases) have been widely studied in psycholinguistics and play an important role\\u000a in human sentence processing. Yet available resources on subcategorization frequencies suffer from limited coverage, limited\\u000a ecological validity, and divergent coding criteria. Prior estimates of verb transitivity, for example, vary widely with corpus\\u000a size, coverage, and coding criteria. This article provides norming data for 281

Susanne Gahl; Dan Jurafsky; Douglas Roland



Corpus callosum agenesis and rehabilitative treatment.  


Corpus callosum agenesis is a relatively common brain malformation. It can be isolated or included in a complex alteration of brain (or sometimes even whole body) morphology. It has been associated with a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, from subtle neuropsychological deficits to Pervasive Developmental Disorders.Etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms have been better understood in recent years, due to the availability of more adequate animal models and the relevant progresses in developmental neurosciences. These recent findings are reviewed (through a MedLine search including papers published in the last 5 years and most relevant previously published papers) in view of the potential impact on children's global functioning and on the possible rehabilitative treatment, with an emphasis on the possibility to exploit brain plasticity and on the use of the ICF-CY framework. PMID:20849621

Chiappedi, Matteo; Bejor, Maurizio



Genome sequences of mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2: ovine and bovine isolates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This report describes the genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica, serotype A2 isolated from pneumonic lungs of two different ruminant species, one from Ovis aries, designated as Ovine (O) and the other from Bos taurus, designated as Bovine (B)....


Proteolysis of Ovine and Caprine Caseins in Solution by Enzymatic Extracts from Flowers of Cynara cardunculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary proteolysis of ovine and caprine Na-caseinate at 30°C in phosphate buffer at pH 6.5 or 5.5 in the absence of NaCl and at pH 5.2 with 5% (w\\/v) NaCl by cardosins in aqueous extracts of Cynara cardunculus flowers was investigated using urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Caprine caseinate underwent more extensive degradation than ovine caseinate

M. José Sousa; F. Xavier Malcata



Construction of Ovine Adenovirus Recombinants by Gene Insertion or Deletion of Related Terminal Region Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ovine adenovirus which may be the prototype for a new group of adenoviruses has been engineered as a gene transfer vector. One recombinant containing a 0.95-kb insertion expressed a sheep parasite antigen from the ovine adenovirus major late promoter and tripartite leader sequences. It was shown that insertions of at least 4.3 kb were tolerated at either one of

Zheng Zhou Xu; Alex Hyatt; David B. Boyle; Gerald W. Both



Comparative anatomical measurements of osseous structures in the ovine and human knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ovine stifle has been increasingly used as a large animal model for the human knee. Still, comparative anatomical measurements of the knee in sheep and humans are missing. Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe and measure the osseous anatomy of the ovine stifle in comparison to the human knee. Twenty-four stifles of skeletal-mature merino-sheep and 24

Georg Osterhoff; Sabine Löffler; Hanno Steinke; Christine Feja; Christoph Josten; Pierre Hepp



Insights into the functional specificity of the human corpus callosum.  


Patient VP underwent complete callosotomy for the control of intractable epilepsy at the age of 27 years. Subsequent MRI, however, revealed spared callosal fibres in the rostral and splenial ends of the corpus callosum. We report a series of experiments designed to determine whether these fibres support functional transfer of information between the two cerebral hemispheres. Although we found no evidence for transfer of colour, shape or size information, there is good evidence for transfer of word information. This suggests that the spared splenial fibres in VP's corpus callosum are material-specific. The results of these experiments illustrate the remarkable degree of functional specificity within the corpus callosum PMID:10775537

Funnell, M G; Corballis, P M; Gazzaniga, M S



The ovine melatonin-related receptor: cloning and preliminary distribution and binding studies.  


A melatonin-related receptor was cloned from an ovine genomic library. The sequenced gene has a similar structure to that of the melatonin receptor gene family and consists of two exons separated by an intron of approximately 3 kb. Exon 1 and exon 2 of the ovine melatonin-related receptor encode a protein of 575 amino acids which is 73.8% homologous to the human melatonin-related receptor and shows 40.9% homology with the ovine Mel1a melatonin receptor. COS-7 cells transiently expressing ovine melatonin-related receptors did not bind 2-[125]iodomelatonin or 3H-melatonin. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization studies revealed expression of the ovine melatonin-related receptor in the hypothalamus, pituitary, retina and retinal pigment epithelium. Furthermore, expression of the ovine melatonin-related receptor is shown to be coincident with Mel1a and 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding in the pituitary and serotonin N-acetyl transferase (arylalkylamine N-acetyl transferase, AANAT) expression in the retina. Expression patterns and similarity with the melatonin receptor gene family suggest a role for this novel G protein-coupled receptor in control and regulation of endocrine function and retinal physiology. PMID:9744482

Drew, J E; Barrett, P; Williams, L M; Conway, S; Morgan, P J



Apport d'un corpus comparable déséquilibré à l'extraction de lexiques bilingues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé. Les principaux travaux en extraction de lexiques bilingues à partir de corpus comparables reposent sur l'hypothèse implicite que ces corpus sont équilibrés. Cependant, les différentes méthodes computationnelles associées sont relativement insensibles à la taille de chaque partie du corpus. Dans ce contexte, nous étudions l'influence que peut avoir un corpus comparable déséquilibré sur la qualité des terminologies bilingues extraites

Emmanuel Morin



Biophysical characterization of ovine forestomach extracellular matrix biomaterials.  


Ovine forestomach matrix (OFM) is a native and functional decellularized extracellular matrix biomaterial that supports cell adhesion and proliferation and is remodeled during the course of tissue regeneration. Small angle X-ray scattering demonstrated that OFM retains a native collagen architecture (d spacing = 63.5 ± 0.2 nm, orientation index = 20°). The biophysical properties of OFM were further defined using ball-burst, uniaxial and suture retention testing, as well as a quantification of aqueous permeability. OFM biomaterial was relatively strong (yield stress = 10.15 ± 1.81 MPa) and elastic (modulus = 0.044 ± 0.009 GPa). Lamination was used to generate new OFM-based biomaterials with a range of biophysical properties. The resultant multi-ply OFM biomaterials had suitable biophysical characteristics for clinical applications where the grafted biomaterial is under load. PMID:21053262

Floden, Evan W; Malak, Sharif F F; Basil-Jones, Melissa M; Negron, Leonardo; Fisher, James N; Lun, Stan; Dempsey, Sandi G; Haverkamp, Richard G; Ward, Brian R; May, Barnaby C H



A functional extracellular matrix biomaterial derived from ovine forestomach.  


Extracellular matrix (ECM) based biomaterials have an established place as medical devices for wound healing and tissue regeneration. In the search for biomaterials we have identified ovine forestomach matrix (OFM), a thick, large format ECM which is biochemically diverse and biologically functional. OFM was purified using an osmotic process that was shown to reduce the cellularity of the ECM and aid tissue delamination. OFM produced using this technique was shown to retain residual basement membrane components, as evidence by the presence of laminin and collagen IV. The collagenous microarchitecture of OFM retained many components of native ECM including fibronectin, glycosaminoglycans, elastin and fibroblast growth factor basic. OFM was non-toxic to mammalian cells and supported fibroblast and keratinocyte migration, differentiation and infiltration. OFM is a culturally acceptable alternative to current collagen-based biomaterials and has immediate clinical applications in wound healing and tissue regeneration. PMID:20226520

Lun, Stan; Irvine, Sharleen M; Johnson, Keryn D; Fisher, Neil J; Floden, Evan W; Negron, Leonardo; Dempsey, Sandi G; McLaughlin, Rene J; Vasudevamurthy, Madhusudan; Ward, Brian R; May, Barnaby C H



Efficacy of extracts of immature mango on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.  


The principal health problem in small ruminants is helminthiasis and the rapid development of nematode resistance to anthelminthics has limited the success of control in several countries, stimulating the search for alternatives. In this study, extracts of immature fruits of the mango Mangifera indica L. var Ubá were evaluated for inhibition of larval development and fecal egg count reduction in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. In the phytochemical analyses, tannins and flavonoids were the metabolites identified. Aqueous extracts of immature fruits at 100 mg ml(-1) showed 100 % inhibition of larval development. The LC(90) of the extract was 35.9 mg ml(-1) and the in vivo anthelminthic efficacy at 0.740 g kg(-1) (BW, orally) was 53 %. The identification of larvae showed that 99.8 % were Haemonchus spp. In vitro and in vivo results indicate that this fruit could assist ovine nematode control. PMID:22773010

Nery, Patrícia S; Nogueira, Flávia A; Oliveira, Neide J F; Martins, Ernane R; Duarte, Eduardo R



Ovine ceroid-lipofuscinosis is a proteolipid proteinosis.  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of the ceroid-lipofuscinoses, inherited storage diseases of children, was studied in an ovine model. This was shown to have clinical and pathological features most in common with the late infantile and juvenile human forms of the disease. The ability to study sequential changes allowed the retinal lesions to be described as a dystrophy of photoreceptor outer segments which preceded loss of the photoreceptor cells. An early decrease in amplitude of the c-wave electroretinograph was attributed to a decrease in the transpigment epithelial component. The decreased a- and b-wave amplitudes were attributed to the changes in and loss of, photoreceptor cells. The chemical components of isolated storage cytosomes were analyzed and shown to consist mostly of protein. Sequence analysis of the dominantly stored protein showed that it was identical to the DCCD reactive proteolipid or subunit c of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthase and that it comprised approximately 50% of storage material. Based on the adage that the dominantly stored species should reflect the underlying biochemical anomaly, it was concluded that it was of pathogenic significance. This highly hydrophobic protein tends to extract with lipids in chloroform/methanol and is thus known as a proteolipid. Some of the remainder of the stored proteins also had this characteristic. It was concluded that ovine ceroid-lipofuscinosis was a proteinosis, more specifically a proteolipid proteinosis and as such it forms the prototype of a new class of storage diseases. Recognition of the nature of the dominantly stored chemical species has helped understanding of a variety of chemical and physical characteristics attributed to the whole pigment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 7.

Jolly, R D; Martinus, R D; Shimada, A; Fearnley, I M; Palmer, D N



Molecular and Biomorphometrical Identification of Ovine Babesiosis in Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Ovine babesiosis is the most important haemoparasitic tick-borne disease of small ruminants in Iran caused by Babesia ovis, B. motasi, and B. crassa. The aim of this study was to characterize the species of ovine Babesia species isolated from different geographical region of Iran. Methods One hundred fifty four blood samples collected from animals, which demonstrated the pale mucous membranes or hyperthermia. The specimens were transferred to the laboratory and the blood smears stained with Geimsa, the morphological and biometrical data of parasite in any infected erythrocyte have been considered. Extracted DNA from each blood samples were used in PCR and semi nested- PCR in order to confirm the presence of the species. Results Microscopical observation on 154 blood smears determined 38 (24.67%) and 40 (26%) samples were infected by Babesia and Theileria respectively. The mixed infections occurred in four (2.6%) samples. The results of the PCR assays showed nine (5.85%), 81 (53%) and 18 (11.7%) were distinguished as Babesia, Theileria and mixed infection, respectively. Semi nested- PCR did not confirm the presence of B. motasi. Conclusion The causative organism of many cases of haemoprotozoal diseases, which recorded in previous studies, could be B. ovis or Theileria lestoquardi. The result confirmed that B. ovis was only species which causes babesiosis in the study areas. It seems that the biometrical polymorphisms could exist in B. ovis in Iran. This polymorphism could be a main problem in differentiation between B. ovis and B. motasi and it could be dissolved by specific PCR analysis.

Dehkordi, Z Sadeghi; Zakeri, S; Nabian, S; Bahonar, A; Ghasemi, F; Noorollahi, F; Rahbari, S



Corpus Callosum Shape Analysis with Application to Dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Morphometric studies of the corpus callosum suggest its involvement in a number of psychiatric conditions. In the present study we introduce a novel pattern recognition technique that offers a point-by-point shape descriptor of the corpus callosum. The method uses arc lengths of electric field lines in order to avoid discontinuities caused by folding anatomical contours. We tested this technique by comparing the shape of the corpus callosum in a series of dyslexic men (n = 16) and age-matched controls (n = 14). The results indicate a generalized increase in size of the corpus callosum in dyslexia with a concomitant diminution at its rostral and caudal poles. The reported shape analysis and 2D-reconstruction provide information of anatomical importance that would otherwise passed unnoticed when analyzing size information alone.

Casanova, Manuel F.; El-Baz, Ayman; Elnakib, Ahmed; Giedd, Jay; Rumsey, Judith M.; Williams, Emily L.; Switala, Andrew E.



Quantitative Corpus-based Research: Much More than Bean Counting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that important insights about language use are gained through examination of quantitative linguistic data. Discusses corpus-based research and examines common lexical verbs across registers, aspect across registers, and co-occurrence. (Author/VWL)|

Biber, Douglas; Conrad, Susan



Anatomy of corpus callosum in prenatally malnourished rats.  


The effect of prenatal malnutrition on the anatomy of the corpus callosum was assessed in adult rats (45-52 days old). In the prenatally malnourished animals we observed a significant reduction of the corpus callosum total area, partial areas, and perimeter, as compared with normal animals. In addition, the splenium of corpus callosum (posterior fifth) showed a significant decrease of fiber diameters in the myelinated fibers without changing density. There was also a significant decrease in diameter and a significant increase in density of unmyelinated fibers. Measurements of perimeter's fractal dimensions from sagittal sections of the brain and corpus callosum did not show significant differences between malnourished and control animals. These findings indicate that cortico-cortical connections are vulnerable to the prenatal malnutrition, and suggest this may affect interhemispheric conduction velocity, particularly in visual connections (splenium). PMID:22688989

Olivares, Ricardo; Morgan, Carlos; Pérez, Hernán; Hernández, Alejandro; Aboitiz, Francisco; Soto-Moyano, Rubén; Gil, Julio; Ortiz, Alexis; Flores, Osvaldo; Gimeno, Miguel; Laborda, Jesús



Quantitative Corpus-based Research: Much More than Bean Counting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that important insights about language use are gained through examination of quantitative linguistic data. Discusses corpus-based research and examines common lexical verbs across registers, aspect across registers, and co-occurrence. (Author/VWL)

Biber, Douglas; Conrad, Susan



Projecting Corpus-Based Semantic Links on a Thesaurus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypernym links acquired through an infor- mation extraction procedure are projected on multi-word terms through the recognition of se- mantic variations. The quality of the projected links resulting from corpus-based acquisition is compared with projected links extracted from a technical thesaurus. 1 Motivation In the domain of corpus-based terminology, there are two main topics of research: term acquisition--the discovery of

Emmanuel Morin; Christian Jacquemin



Segment an image by looking into an image corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates how to segment an image into semantic regions by harnessing an unlabeled image corpus. First, the image segmentation task is recast as a smallsize patch grouping problem. Then, we discover two novel patch-pair priors, namely the first-order patch-pair density prior and the second-order patch-pair co-occurrence prior, founded on two statistical observations from the natural image corpus. The

Xiaobai Liu; Jiashi Feng; Shuicheng Yan; Liang Lin; Hai Jin



Sex Differences in the Human Corpus Callosum: Myth or Reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BISHOP, K.M. AND WAHLSTEN, D. Sex differences in the human corpus callosum: myth or reality? NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV 21(5) 581-601 1997.—It has been claimed that the human corpus callosum shows sex differences, and in particular that the splenium (the posterior portion) is larger in women than in men. Data collected before 1910 from cadavers indicate that, on average, males have




Classification of acquired lesions of the corpus callosum with MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

MRI has facilitated diagnostic assessment of the corpus callosum. Diagnostic classification of solitary or multiple lesions\\u000a of the corpus callosum has not attracted much attention, although signal abnormalities are not uncommon. Our aim was to identify\\u000a characteristic imaging features of lesions frequently encountered in practice. We reviewed the case histories of 59 patients\\u000a with lesions shown on MRI. The nature

S. A. Friese; M. Bitzer; D. Freudenstein; K. Voigt; W. Küker



Corpus callosotomy for treatment of pediatric refractory status epilepticus  

PubMed Central

Medically refractory status epilepticus (RSE) causes high morbidity and mortality in children. There are no evidence-based guidelines for treatment. Epilepsy surgery is a treatment option for RSE. We describe a 9-year-old boy treated successfully for RSE with complete corpus callosotomy (CC). Epilepsy surgery should be considered for prolonged RSE. In the absence of evidence of focal epileptogenesis, complete corpus callosotomy may be effective in select cases.

Greiner, Hansel M.; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Hallinan, Barbara E.; Holland, Katherine; Lee, Ki-Hyeong; Crone, Kerry R.



Corpus callosotomy for treatment of pediatric refractory status epilepticus.  


Medically refractory status epilepticus (RSE) causes high morbidity and mortality in children. There are no evidence-based guidelines for treatment. Epilepsy surgery is a treatment option for RSE. We describe a 9-year-old boy treated successfully for RSE with complete corpus callosotomy (CC). Epilepsy surgery should be considered for prolonged RSE. In the absence of evidence of focal epileptogenesis, complete corpus callosotomy may be effective in select cases. PMID:22326839

Greiner, Hansel M; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Hallinan, Barbara E; Holland, Katherine; Lee, Ki-Hyeong; Crone, Kerry R



Identifying Idiomatic Expressions Using Phrase Alignments in Bilingual Parallel Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Previous efforts to identify idiomatic expressions using a bilingual parallel corpus have focused on the method of using word\\u000a alignments to catch the sense of individual words. In this paper, we propose a method of using phrase alignments rather than\\u000a word alignments in a parallel corpus to recognize the sense of phrases as well as words. Our proposed scoring functions

Hyoung-Gyu Lee; Min-Jeong Kim; Gum-Won Hong; Sang-Bum Kim; Young-Sook Hwang; Hae-Chang Rim



Sexual Dimorphism of Human Corpus Callosum Using Quantitative MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background : To investigate the sexual dimorphism in human corpus callosum (CC), we measured the mid-sagittal area of corpus callosum and its seven sub-regions. Methods : Eighteen men (23.0±9.1 years) and 16 women (27.3±11.3 years) underwent 1.6 mm thickness SPGR (spoiled gradient recalled in the steady state) MRI. All subjects are right handed and had no neurological or psychiatric diseases.

Woo Suk Tae; Seung Bong Hong



Building a multi-modal Arabic corpus (MMAC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, a corpus is a large structured set of text, electronically stored and processed. Corpora have become very important\\u000a in the study of languages. They have opened new areas of linguistic research, which were unknown until recently. Corpora are\\u000a also key to the development of optical character recognition (OCR) applications. Access to a corpus of both language and images\\u000a is

Ashraf AbdelRaouf; Colin A. Higgins; Tony P. Pridmore; Mahmoud I. Khalil



The OGI multi-language telephone speech corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The OGI Multi-language Telephone Speech Corpus is designed to support research onautomatic language identification and multi-language speech recognition. The corpus consistsof up to nine separate responses from each caller, ranging from single words to shorttopic-specific descriptions to 60 seconds of unconstrained spontaneous speech. The utteranceswere spoken over commercial telephone lines by speakers of English, Farsi (Persian),French, German, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin

Yeshwant K. Muthusamy; Ronald A. Cole; Beatrice T. Oshika



Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum Is Associated With Feeding Difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to characterize the common occurrence of feeding and swallowing disorders noticed by our speech therapy department among patients with agenesis of the corpus callosum. All patients with suspected or presumed agenesis of the corpus callosum undergoing therapy for feeding and\\/or swallowing disorders, including oral and\\/or pharyngeal dysphagia and oral-sensory disorder, were identified. Their brain magnetic resonance imaging

Yu-tze Ng; Colleen M. McCarthy; Theodore J. Tarby; John B. Bodensteiner



X linked recessive inheritance of agenesis of the corpus callosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-year-old boy with psychomotor retardation, congenital unilateral ptosis, bilateral adducted thumbs, weakness of upper limbs, and Hirschsprung's disease (aganglionosis), with complete agenesis of the corpus callosum and hypoplasia of the inferior vermis and cerebellum is reported. His 24-year-old maternal uncle, with severe psychomotor retardation but none of the other physical problems, also has agenesis of the corpus callosum demonstrated

P Kaplan



Corpus Callosum Area in Children and Adults with Autism.  


Despite repeated findings of abnormal corpus callosum structure in autism, the developmental trajectories of corpus callosum growth in the disorder have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined corpus callosum size from a developmental perspective across a 30-year age range in a large cross-sectional sample of individuals with autism compared to a typically developing sample. Midsagittal corpus callosum area and the 7 Witelson subregions were examined in 68 males with autism (mean age 14.1 years; range 3-36 years) and 47 males with typical development (mean age 15.3 years; range 4-29 years). Controlling for total brain volume, increased variability in total corpus callosum area was found in autism. In autism, increased midsagittal areas were associated with reduced severity of autism behaviors, higher intelligence, and faster speed of processing (p=0.003, p=0.011, p=0.013, respectively). A trend toward group differences in isthmus development was found (p=0.029, uncorrected). These results suggest that individuals with autism benefit functionally from increased corpus callosum area. Our cross-sectional examination also shows potential maturational abnormalities in autism, a finding that should be examined further with longitudinal datasets. PMID:23130086

Prigge, Molly B D; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D; Merkley, Tricia L; Neeley, E Shannon; Abildskov, Tracy J; Froehlich, Alyson L; Nielsen, Jared A; Cooperrider, Jason R; Cariello, Annahir N; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Alexander, Andrew L; Lainhart, Janet E



[Identification of contraction related proteins in corpus myometrium at labor].  


Objective: To explore the molecular mechanism of human corpus myometrium contraction related proteins and parturition. Methods: The proteins of human corpus of myometrium tissues from full term non-in labor (38- 41 weeks amenorrhea) and full term in labor (38-41weeks amenorrhea) gravidas were separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-GE), respectively. Then gels were stained by Coomassie brilliant blue G250, scanned by Image scanner and analyzed with PDQuest software. The differentially expressed protein spots of corpus myometrium between the 2 groups were identified by peptide mass finger print based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and database searching. Three identified differentially expressed proteins were confirmed by Western blot. Results: Well resolved and reproducible 2D-GE maps of human corpus myometrium from non-in labor and in-labor gravidas were acquired. Twenty more than 2-fold differentially expressed protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. These proteins were involved in cell structure, calciumbinding, chaperone, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and antioxidant. Conclusion: Twenty contraction related proteins of human corpus myometrium have been identified, indicating that cell structure and calcium-binding are important reasons for the contraction of human corpus myometrium. PMID:24164878

Ma, Wei; Zhou, Changju



Neuronal fiber composition of the corpus callosum within some odontocetes.  


Odontocetes (toothed whales) evolved from terrestrial mammals approximately 55 million years ago and have since remained on a unique evolutionary trajectory. This study used formalin-fixed tissue and light microscopy to quantify the size and number of fibers along the corpus callosum of the bottlenose dolphin (n = 8). Two other species, the Amazon River dolphin (n = 1) and the killer whale (n = 1), were included for comparison. A large amount of variation in the shape and area of the corpus callosum was observed. The odontocete corpus callosum is a heterogeneous structure with variation in fiber size and density along the length of the corpus callosum in all specimens examined. Using the species with the largest sample size, the bottlenose dolphin, comparisons by sex and age (sexually mature verses immature) were made for the area of the corpus callosum, five subregions, and fiber densities. Although no sex differences were detected, age appeared to affect the size, shape, and fiber composition of the bottlenose dolphin corpus callosum. PMID:18493931

Keogh, Mandy J; Ridgway, Sam H



Effect of porcine and ovine FSH on nuclear maturation of pig oocytes in vitro.  


The effect of porcine or ovine FSH on the maturation rate of porcine oocytes and on the time course of meiotic progression was studied. Groups of 20 grade-A cumulus oocyte complexes, aspirated from slaughterhouse cycling-gilt ovaries, were cultured in vitro in 400 mul of Modified Parker's Medium supplemented with oestrous cow serum and porcine FSH (Folltropin(R)-V, 0.50 mg/ml) or ovine FSH (Ovagen(TM), 0.44 iu/ml), in four-well dishes under mineral oil, at 38.5 degrees C, 5% CO(2) in humidified air. At the end of each 3-h interval, from 3 to 42 h of culture, the nuclear status of oocytes was assessed microscopically (1000x), after fixation (methanol/acetic acid: 3/1) and orcein (2%) staining. Oocytes were classified as (i) immature (IMM), i.e. oocytes at germinal vesicle stage, germinal vesicle break down and prophase I, (ii) metaphase I (MI) and (iii) metaphase II (MII), i.e. oocytes at anaphase I, telophase I and metaphase II. Data were analysed using regression analysis, chi-square and t-test. Nuclear status was assessed in 1610 oocytes (porcine FSH: 787, ovine FSH: 823). Most of the oocytes were at MI from 24 to 33 h (porcine FSH 60.27%, ovine FSH 42.80%, p < 0.001) and at MII from 36 to 42 h (porcine FSH 80.38%, ovine FSH 67.45%, p < 0.01) of culture. Significantly higher maturation rate was observed in porcine FSH than in ovine FSH treated oocytes (86.69 +/- 12.97%, 71.34 +/- 9.86%, mean +/- SD, p < 0.05), after 42 h of culture. In conclusion, under the specific culture conditions, porcine FSH seems to support pig oocyte maturation better than ovine FSH. PMID:18325004

Samartzi, F; Tsakmakidis, I; Theodosiadou, E; Vainas, E



Gastrin\\/CCK-like immunoreactivity in the corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae  

Microsoft Academic Search

By use of immunocytochemistry, a gastrin\\/CCK-like material has been demonstrated in the corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae. Reactivity toward gastrin and CCK with region-specific antisera suggests that the gastrin\\/CCK-like peptide of this insect contains the COOH-terminal tetrapeptide sequence which is common to gastrin and CCK, and that the material is more gastrin-like than CCK-like. The results

Georg Nørgaard Hansen; Bente Langvad Hansen; Berta Scharrer



Lectin labelling of amoeboid and ramified microglial cells in the telencephalon of ovine fetuses with the B4 isolectin from Griffonia simplicifolia.  


The topographical distribution of amoeboid and ramified microglial cells in the telencephalon of sheep fetuses at 60-149 days of gestation was examined by lectin histochemistry. Biotinylated B4 isolectin from Griffonia simplicifolia labelled both types of cell in coronal paraffin wax sections fixed in different fixatives. The most intense staining was seen in sections fixed in Bouin's fluid. Pretrypsinization of formaldehyde- and paraformaldehyde-fixed sections resulted in marked enhancement of staining affinity. In fetuses aged 60 to 96 days numerous amoeboid microglial cells were present in subependymal regions of the lateral ventricles, in the septum pellucidum, within the cavum septum pellucidum, in the corpus callosum, and in the internal and external capsule. From 84 days of gestational age onwards the occurrence of ramified microglial cells was noted. Thereafter, amoeboid microglia gradually disappeared and, in two fetuses examined at term, lectin-positive amoeboid microglial cells were no longer detectable in the telencephalic parenchyma. The distribution of amoeboid microglial cells was similar to that described in rodent brain, but the earlier disappearance of this cell type from the ovine telencephalon was interpreted as a reflection of the more rapidly proceeding brain development in the sheep than in other vertebrates. PMID:7962724

Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Schultheis, G



Rapid communication: The ovine cDNA encoding interferon-stimulated gene product 17 (ISG17)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Name of the Sequence. Ovine interferon-stimulated gene product 17 (oISG17). Genus and Species, Breed. Ovis aries, Purebred Ro- manov and Hampshire, crossbred Columbia × Ram- bouillet and Romanov × Hampshire. Origin of the Clone. Ovine endometrial RNA was pooled from nonpregnant and pregnant ewes (d 7, 8, and 10 nonpregnant; d 13, 15, and 16 pregnant and nonpregnant; and d

A. M. Nighswonger; K. J. Austin; A. D. Ealy; C.-S. Han; T. R. Hansen


The effects of HNE on ovine oxymyoglobin redox stability in a microsome model.  


The effect of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a secondary lipid oxidation product, on ovine myoglobin (Mb) redox stability was investigated. HNE increased oxymyoglobin (OxyMb) oxidation under all pH/temperature conditions studied. Mono-, di- and tri-HNE adducts were detected by ESI-Q-TOF MS analysis. Sites of adduction, His 120, His 25 and His 65, were determined by ESI-CID-MS/MS analysis. The relationship between ovine Mb (with/without HNE) and lipid oxidation was also studied in a microsome model in the presence of ?-tocopherol. Surprisingly, preincubation of Mb with HNE did not affect subsequent Mb redox stability in the microsome model (P<0.05). Microsomes with elevated concentrations of ?-tocopherol delayed lipid and Mb oxidations relative to controls. HNE-treated ovine Mb caused greater lipid oxidation compared to control ovine Mb in control microsomes (P<0.05). This study demonstrated an interaction between ovine Mb oxidation and lipid oxidation. PMID:23747615

Yin, Shuang; Faustman, Cameron; Tatiyaborworntham, Nantawat; Ramanathan, Ranjith; Sun, Qun



Covariate selection in multivariate spatial analysis of ovine parasitic infection.  


Gastrointestinal (GI) strongyle and fluke infections remain one of the main constraints on health and productivity in sheep dairy production. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004-2005 on ovine farms in the Campania region of southern Italy in order to evaluate the prevalence of Haemonchus contortus, Fasciola hepatica, Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Calicophoron daubneyi from among other parasitic infections. In the present work, we focused on the role of the ecological characteristics of the pasture environment while accounting for the underlying long range geographical risk pattern. Bayesian multivariate spatial statistical analysis was used. A systematic grid (10 km×10 km) sampling approach was used. Laboratory procedures were based on the FLOTAC technique to detect and count eggs of helminths. A Geographical Information System (GIS) was constructed by using environmental data layers. Data on each of these layers were then extracted for pasturing areas that were previously digitalized aerial images of the ovine farms. Bayesian multivariate statistical analyses, including improper multivariate conditional autoregressive models, were used to select covariates on a multivariate spatially structured risk surface. Out of the 121 tested farms, 109 were positive for H. contortus, 81 for D. dendriticum, 17 for C. daubneyi and 15 for F. hepatica. The statistical analysis highlighted a north-south long range spatially structured pattern. This geographical pattern is treated here as a confounder, because the main interest was in the causal role of ecological covariates at the level of each pasturing area. A high percentage of pasture and impermeable soil were strong predictors of F. hepatica risk and a high percentage of wood was a strong predictor of C. daubneyi. A high percentage of wood, rocks and arable soil with sparse trees explained the spatial distribution of D. dendriticum. Sparse vegetation, river, mixed soil and permeable soil explained the spatial distribution of the H. contortus. Bayesian multivariate spatial analysis of parasitic infections with covariates from remote sensing at a very small geographical level allowed us to identify relevant risk predictors. All the covariates selected are consistent with the life cycles of the helminths investigated. This research showed the utility of appropriate GIS-driven surveillance systems. Moreover, spatial features can be used to tailor sampling design where the sampling fraction can be a function of remote sensing covariables. PMID:21167615

Musella, V; Catelan, D; Rinaldi, L; Lagazio, C; Cringoli, G; Biggeri, A



Epizootic of ovine congenital malformations associated with Schmallenberg virus infection.  


Epizootic outbreaks of congenital malformations in sheep are rare and have, to the best of our knowledge, never been reported before in Europe. This paper describes relevant preliminary findings from the first epizootic outbreak of ovine congenital malformations in the Netherlands. Between 25 November and 20 December 2011, congenital malformations in newborn lambs on sheep farms throughout the country were reported to the Animal Health Service in Deventer. Subsequently, small ruminant veterinary specialists visited these farms and collected relevant information from farmers by means of questionnaires. The deformities varied from mild to severe, and ewes were reported to have given birth to both normal and deformed lambs; both male and female lambs were affected. Most of the affected lambs were delivered at term. Besides malformed and normal lambs, dummy lambs, unable to suckle, were born also on these farms. None of the ewes had shown clinical signs during gestation or at parturition. Dystocia was common, because of the lambs' deformities. Lambs were submitted for post-mortem examination, and samples of brain tissue were collected for virus detection. The main macroscopic findings included arthrogryposis, torticollis, scoliosis and kyphosis, brachygnathia inferior, and mild-to-marked hypoplasia of the cerebrum, cerebellum and spinal cord. Preliminary data from the first ten affected farms suggest that nutritional deficiencies, intoxication, and genetic factors are not likely to have caused the malformations. Preliminary diagnostic analyses of precolostral serum samples excluded border disease virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, and bluetongue virus. In December 2011, samples of brain tissue from 54 lambs were sent to the Central Veterinary Institute of Wageningen University Research, Lelystad. Real-time PCR detected the presence of a virus, provisionally named the Schmallenberg virus, in brain tissue from 22 of the 54 lambs, which originated from seven of eight farms that had submitted lambs for post-mortem examination. This Schmallenberg virus was first reported in Germany and seems to be related to the Shamonda, Aino, and Akabane viruses, all of which belong to the Simbu serogroup of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae. These preliminary findings suggest that the Schmallenberg virus is the most likely cause of this epizootic of ovine congenital malformations, which is the first such outbreak reported in Europe. PMID:22393844

van den Brom, R; Luttikholt, S J M; Lievaart-Peterson, K; Peperkamp, N H M T; Mars, M H; van der Poel, W H M; Vellema, P



Interaction of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis with ovine cells in vitro.  


Caseous lymphadenitis is an infectious and contagious disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, with a worldwide distribution and high prevalence in small ruminant populations. This disease causes significant economic loss in small ruminants through reduced meat, wool, and milk production. C. pseudotuberculosis can also affect horses, domestic and wild large ruminants, swine, and man. It is considered an occupational zoonosis for humans. As part of in vitro investigations of the pathogenesis of C. pseudotuberculosis, this study analyzed its capacity to adhere to and invade the FLK-BLV-044 cell line, derived from ovine embryonic kidney cells. C. pseudotuberculosis showed a measurable capacity to adhere to and invade this cell line with no significant differences between the four strains assessed. The incubation of the cell line at 4ºC, pre-incubation with sugars, complete and heat inactivated antiserum, and heat-killed and ultraviolet-killed bacteria produced a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the invasion efficiency or inability to invade the cell line. Plate counting and fluorescence studies showed intracellular bacteria for up to 6 days. Non-phagocytic cells may therefore act as a suitable environment for C. pseudotuberculosis survival and play a role in the spread of infection and/or maintenance of a carrier state. PMID:22732360

Valdivia, J; Real, F; Acosta, F; Acosta, B; Déniz, S; Ramos-Vivas, J; Elaamri, F; Padilla, D



Biocompatibility and osseointegration of reconstituted keratin in an ovine model.  


Reconstituted keratin has potential as a raw material for orthopaedic applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo biocompatibility and osseointegration of keratin materials in an ovine model. Six different modifications of the keratin polymer, based on porous or dense constructs, regenerated by either neutral or acidic treatment, with or without hydroxyapatite, were made as small rods and inserted into drilled round defects in the femur and tibia of sheep. Histology was carried out on samples taken at different time points up to 24 weeks postsurgery. All keratin implants showed similar histological profiles, which included granulation tissue surrounding and infiltrating the implants, followed by new bone formation radiating from the existing bone. By 8 weeks, new bone had grown to within a short distance of the implant surface, and in some places was in direct apposition to the keratin implant. In the 12 to 24-week period, there was peripheral resorption and infiltration of bony trabeculae with regard to the porous constructs only. The tissue reaction appeared to model that of a fairly inert material. Further work on improving the extent of osseointegration and acceleration of the biodegradation rate of reconstituted keratin is underway. PMID:19213058

Dias, George J; Peplow, Philip V; McLaughlin, Andrew; Teixeira, Fernanda; Kelly, Robert J



Corpus callosum in aging and dementia.  


The overarching objective of the thesis was to investigate the morphological changes in the corpus callosum (CC) in aging and dementia in relation to its role in cognitive and motor decline. The CC is the largest white matter tract in the brain, containing upwards of 200 million axons, and is believed important for communication and interaction between the two cerebral hemispheres. Historically, the role of white matter, including the CC, in relation to cognitive function has often been eclipsed by the predominance of the cortex, and led to a "corticocentric" view of the brain and cognitive function. However, from the 1960s and onwards, the role of lesions in the white matter in the appearence of cognitive deficits and diseases such as dementia has become increasingly evident. Many studies have indicated that AD is associated with CC atrophy, but the precise pattern of subregional CC atrophy in different disease stages remains undetermined. In study I, we establish that atrophy is present primarily in the posterior CC early in AD, and that atrophy of the CC is associated with faster disease progression. This finding supports a model where posterior atrophy is the earliest changes in the CC in AD patients, with atrophy of anterior CC being a later pathological event. To further elucidate the role of CC atrophy in dementia, we examined a population of 329 elderly subjects, and found that a higher rate of tissue loss in posterior CC is associated with an increased risk of dementia. This study represents the first to examine CC in elderly subjects longitudinally. In the same cohort, we investigated whether impairment in specific cognitive domains was associated with CC tissue loss. Previous studies had shown that processing speed and executive functions may be particularly reliant on the CC. Our findings indicated that CC tissue loss leads to selective impairment of processing speed but not memory or executive function deficits. Finally, CC tissue loss was also associated with impairment of motor function. Overall, the present findings confirm and extend the role of the CC in dementia and age-associated cognitive and motor deficits. PMID:24083533

Frederiksen, Kristian Steen



Osteoblastoma of C2 Corpus: 4 Years Follow-up  

PubMed Central

Osteoblastomas are rare neoplasms of the spine. The majority of the spinal lesions arise from the posterior elements and involvement of the corpus is usually by extension through the pedicles. An extremely rare case of isolated C2 corpus osteoblastoma is presented herein. A 9-year-old boy who presented with neck pain and spasmodic torticollis was shown to have a lesion within the corpus of C2. He underwent surgery via an anterior cervical approach and the completely-resected mass was reported to be an osteoblastoma. The pain resolved immediately after surgery and he had radiologic assessments on a yearly basis. He was symptom-free 4 years post-operatively with benign radiologic findings. Although rare, an osteoblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neck pain and torticollis, especially in patients during the first two decades of life. The standard treatment for osteoblastomas is radical surgical excision because the recurrence rate is high following incomplete resection.

Yilmaz, Cem; Caner, Hakan; Aydin, Erdinc; Gerilmez, Aydin; Altinors, Nur



Lateral Surgical Approach to Lumbar Intervertebral Discs in an Ovine Model  

PubMed Central

The sheep is becoming increasingly used as a large animal model for preclinical spine surgery studies. Access to the ovine lumbar intervertebral discs has traditionally been via an anterior or anterolateral approach, which requires larger wound incisions and, at times, significant abdominal retraction. We present a new minimally invasive operative technique for a far-lateral approach to the ovine lumbar spine that allows for smaller incisions, excellent visualisation of intervertebral discs, and minimal abdominal retraction and is well tolerated by animals with minimal morbidity.

Oehme, David; Goldschlager, Tony; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Danks, Andrew; Ghosh, Peter; Gibbon, Anne; Jenkin, Graham



Discourse and identity in a corpus of lesbian erotica.  


This article uses corpus linguistic methodologies to explore representations of lesbian desires and identities in a corpus of lesbian erotica from the 1980s and 1990s. We provide a critical examination of the ways in which "lesbian gender," power, and desire are represented, (re-)produced, and enacted, often in ways that challenge hegemonic discourses of gender and sexuality. By examining word frequencies and collocations, we critically analyze some of the themes, processes, and patterns of representation in the texts. Although rooted in linguistics, we hope this article provides an accessible, interdisciplinary, and timely contribution toward developing understandings of discursive practices surrounding gender and sexuality. PMID:21279918

Morrish, Liz; Sauntson, Helen



40 CFR 81.136 - Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.136 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.136 Corpus...



Collagen fibril orientation in ovine and bovine leather affects strength: a small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) study.  


There is a large difference in strength between ovine and bovine leather. The structure and arrangement of fibrous collagen in leather and the relationship between collagen structure and leather strength has until now been poorly understood. Synchrotron based SAXS is used to characterize the fibrous collagen structure in a series of ovine and bovine leathers and to relate it to tear strength. SAXS gives quantitative information on the amount of fibrous collagen, the orientation (direction and spread) of the collagen microfibrils, and the d-spacing of the collagen. The amount of collagen varies through the thickness of the leather from the grain to the corium, with a greater concentration of crystalline collagen measured toward the corium side. The orientation index (OI) is correlated strongly with strength in ovine leather and between ovine and bovine leathers. Stronger leather has the fibrils arranged mostly parallel to the plane of the leather surface (high OI), while weaker leather has more out-of-plane fibrils (low OI). With the measurement taken parallel to the animal's backbone, weak (19.9 N/mm) ovine leather has an OI of 0.422 (0.033), stronger (39.5 N/mm) ovine leather has an OI of 0.452 (0.033), and bovine leather with a strength of (61.5 N/mm) has an OI of 0.493 (0.016). The d-spacing profile through leather thickness also varies according to leather strength, with little variation being detected in weak ovine leather (average=64.3 (0.5) nm), but with strong ovine leather and bovine leather (which is even stronger) exhibiting a dip in d-spacing (from 64.5 nm at the edges dropping to 62 nm in the center). This work provides a clear understanding of a nanostructural characteristic of ovine and bovine leather that leads to differences in strength. PMID:21854072

Basil-Jones, Melissa M; Edmonds, Richard L; Cooper, Sue M; Haverkamp, Richard G



Ovine lentivirus lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Rapid induction in neonatal lambs.  

PubMed Central

For examination of the characteristics of lentivirus-induced pulmonary disease in an animal model, neonatal lambs were given intratracheal injections of high-and low-passage ovine lentivirus (OvLV) isolates. In 6 of 6 lambs inoculated with low-passage OvLV or OvLV from lung lavage fluid, lesions of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) developed. In none of 7 lambs inoculated with a high-passage OvLV or 4 control lambs inoculated with medium alone or ultrafiltered lung fluid did lung lesions develop. Systemic distribution of lentivirus was greater and development of lentivirus antibody was more rapid in lambs inoculated with low-passage OvLV, compared with lambs inoculated with high passage OvLV. The number of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage samples was increased in lambs with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. The development of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia was markedly accelerated, in comparison with previous reports of experimentally induced lentivirus pneumonia in sheep. In lentivirus-inoculated lambs pulmonary lesions developed comparable to lymphoid interstitial pneumonia associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and other human benign lymphoid disorders of the lung. Similarities between the disease manifestations and virologic properties of OvLV and human T-cell lymphotropic virus III argue for the relevance of OvLV-induced disease as a model for human retrovirus diseases. The ability of OvLV to cause accelerated pulmonary disease in neonates may be due to age-related susceptibility factors that enhance the pathogenicity of lentiviruses. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Lairmore, M. D.; Rosadio, R. H.; DeMartini, J. C.



Review of clinical experience with digoxin immune Fab (ovine).  


Following the development of methods for eliciting and purifying digoxin-specific Fab fragments with high affinity and specificity for cardiac glycosides, clinical studies were undertaken as a multicenter, open-label trial to test safety and efficacy in patients with advanced and potentially life-threatening digitalis toxicity that failed to respond to conventional therapeutic measures. One-hundred fifty such patients were treated with digoxin-specific antibody fragments purified from immunoglobulin G (IgG) produced in sheep. Doses of Fab were equivalent to the amount of digoxin or digitoxin in the patient's body, as estimated from the medical history or serum concentration measurements. Of 150 patients included in this trial, detailed information is available on 148. One-hundred nineteen (80%) had resolution of all signs and symptoms of digitalis toxicity following specific Fab fragment infusions, 14 (10%) improved, and 15 (10%) showed no response. Among 14 patients with adverse events possibly or probably caused by Fab, the most common events were development of hypokalemia and exacerbation of congestive heart failure. Analysis of the available clinical data indicates that a treatment response was observed in at least 90% of patients with convincing evidence of advanced and potentially life-threatening digitalis toxicity. The data from this multicenter trial have been augmented by findings from an observational surveillance study conducted to monitor the safety and effectiveness of treatment with digoxin immune Fab (ovine) following commercial availability. In this experience, 74% of patients were judged to have a complete or partial response to treatment, and 12% no response. The response for the remaining 14% was not reported or reported as uncertain. In this clinical experience, digoxin-specific Fab was generally well tolerated and clinically effective in patients with potentially life-threatening digitalis toxicity. PMID:1997014

Smith, T W



Structure of carbohydrate units of ovine luteinizing hormone.  


The detailed structures of the three asparagine-linked carbohydrate units of ovine lutropin subunits alpha and beta (oLH-alpha and oLH-beta) have been determined by carrying out the structural analysis on the three glycopeptides alpha GP-1, alpha GP-2, and beta GP-3, and the oligosaccharide obtained by alkaline sodium borohydride treatment of oLH and the individual subunits. Based on the results of methylation, periodate oxidation, deamination, acetolysis, and enzymatic studies with exoglycosidases, the following structure is proposed for the carbohydrate units of oLH. Methylation studies indicated that the 3 N-acetylglucosaminyl residues were substituted at 1-, 1,4-, and 1,4,6-positions. Two of the three mannosyl residues were 1,2-linked and 3rd mannosyl residue was 1,3,6-linked. Fucose and galactose were terminally located and N-acetylgalactosamine was substituted at C-4. Periodate oxidation studies were consistent with the methylation data. The isolation of (formula, see text) 2,5-anhydromannose by the deamination of the oLH oligosaccharide established the branched structure for the mannosyl residues as well as the linkage of the trimannose unit to N-acetylglucosamine. The nonreducing terminal position of N-acetylgalactosamine was indicated by the formation of N-acetylgalactosaminyl glyceraldehyde on Smith degradation of oLH. The presence of a substituent "X" on N-acetylgalactosamine was established by the isolation of X-2,5-anhydrotalitol from the deamination products of oLH oligosaccharide. X was found to be an acid-labile substituent and was identified as a sulfate ester. Last but not least, since oLH oligosaccharide, obtained by hydrolysis of the hormone with NaOH + NaBH4, contained N-acetylglucosaminitol at the reducing end, the carbohydrate must be linked to the protein through N-acetylglucosamine. PMID:7068639

Bedi, G S; French, W C; Bahl, O P



A comparative study of bovine and ovine Haemophilus somnus isolates.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial isolates (including 17 Haemophilus somnus isolates and an H. somnus-like isolate) from asymptomatic or diseased cattle and sheep, were evaluated for markers associated with virulence and host predilection. The isolates were separated into 6 distinct biovariants, 3 for sheep and 3 for cattle, based on reactions in a battery of 21 test media. Three bovine isolates associated with disease caused hemolysis of bovine blood. The rest of the isolates did not hemolyze either bovine or ovine erythrocytes. Protein profiles of all H. somnus isolates were similar with the exception of the major outer membrane proteins (MOMPs). The MOMPs of isolates associated with disease in cattle had a relative molecular weight of approximately 41 kDa compared with 33 kDa for the MOMPs of isolates from asymptomatic cattle. The MOMPs from sheep isolates were either slightly higher or lower than the 41 kDa MOMPs of bovine isolates. Major antigens detected by Western blotting were similar in all isolates except the H. somnus-like isolate. An immunodominant 40 kDa antigen was conserved in all H. somnus isolates. Antibodies to this antigen have previously been found to be protective in cattle and may also be protective for sheep. Marked differences between cattle and sheep isolates were revealed by use of restriction enzyme analysis, which separated the isolates into 12 ribotypes and 15 unique DNA profiles. Thus, cattle and sheep isolates in this collection had distinctive differences in biochemical reactions, MOMP profiles, and DNA analyses. Such differences have potential value for epidemiological studies and may also be used to evaluate host specificity of H. somnus isolates. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4.

Ward, A C; Jaworski, M D; Eddow, J M; Corbeil, L B



Characterization of ovine utero-placental interface tensile failure.  


Data on the strength of the utero-placental interface (UPI) would help improve understanding of the mechanisms of placental abruption (premature separation of the placenta from the uterus) during motor-vehicle crashes involving pregnant occupants. An ovine model was selected for study because like the human, its placenta has a villous attachment structure. Uteri with intact placentas were obtained from three sheep as by-products of another research study. The samples were harvested between 102 and 119 days of the 145-day gestational period. Rectangular specimens with areas measuring 15 mm × 5 mm were cut through the thickness of the placenta and uterus. Each subject provided eight samples, of which four were tested at a nominal strain rate of 0.10 strains/sec and the remainder was tested at a nominal strain rate of 1.0 strains/sec. Sutures were used to secure the uterine side of the specimens to the test fixture, while mechanical clamps were used to attach the placenta side. A FARO arm scanner recorded the initial geometry of the tissue, and a random dot pattern applied to the placenta and uterus tissue allowed visualization of displacement. For the structure of the UPI, mean tensile failure strain and standard deviations are 0.37 (0.11) and 0.37 (0.18) for the 0.10 and 1.0 strain rates, respectively (p-value = 0.970) while the associated failure stresses are 6.5 (1.37) and 15.0 (5.08) kPa, (p-value = 0.064). The results from sheep UPI testing provide the first estimate of the human UPI structural failure tolerance. PMID:22809672

Klinich, K D; Miller, C S; Hu, J; Samorezov, J E; Pearlman, M D; Schneider, L W; Rupp, J D



Tubuloglomerular feedback response in the prenatal and postnatal ovine kidney.  


The tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism (TGF) plays an important role in regulating single-nephron glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by coupling distal tubular flow to arteriolar tone. It is not known whether TGF is active in the developing kidney or whether it can regulate renal vascular tone and thus GFR during intrauterine life. TGF characteristics were examined in late-gestation ovine fetuses and lambs under normovolemic and volume-expanded (VE) conditions. Lambs and pregnant ewes were anesthetized and the fetuses were delivered via a caesarean incision into a heated water bath, with the umbilical cord intact. Under normovolemic conditions, mean arterial pressure of the fetuses was lower than lambs (51 ± 1 vs. 64 ± 3 mmHg). The maximum TGF response (?P(SFmax)) was found to be lower in fetuses than lambs when tubular perfusion was increased from 0 to 40 nl/min (5.4 ± 0.7 vs. 10.6 ± 0.4 mmHg). Furthermore, the flow rate eliciting half-maximal response [turning point (TP)] was 15.7 ± 0.9 nl/min in fetuses compared with 19.3 ± 1.0 nl/min in lambs, indicating a greater TGF sensitivity of the prenatal kidney. VE decreased ?P(SFmax) (4.2 ± 0.4 mmHg) and increased TP to 23.7 ± 1.3 nl/min in lambs. In fetuses, VE increased stop-flow pressure from 26.6 ± 1.5 to 30.3 ± 0.8 mmHg, and reset TGF sensitivity so that TP increased to 21.3 ± 0.7 nl/min, but it had no effect on ?P(SFmax). This study provides direct evidence that the TGF mechanism is active during fetal life and responds to physiological stimuli. Moreover, reductions in TGF sensitivity may contribute to the increase in GFR at birth. PMID:21454250

Brown, Russell D; Turner, Anita J; Carlström, Mattias; Persson, A Erik G; Gibson, Karen J



Role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in ovine sepsis model.  


Smoke inhalation injury is often complicated with pneumonia, which frequently leads to subsequent development of sepsis. Excessive NO has been shown to mediate many sepsis-related pathological responses. In the present study, we used our well-established ovine smoke inhalation and pneumonia/sepsis model to examine the hypothesis that neuronal NO synthase (NOS) may be primarily responsible for these pathological alterations. We report the beneficial effects of the specific neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibitor ZK234238. Adult female sheep were surgically prepared for the study. After 5 to 7 days' recovery, sheep were anesthetized and given double injury: insufflation of 48 breaths of cotton smoke (<40 degrees C) into the airway of each animal and subsequent instillation of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5 x 10(11) colony-forming units) into each sheep's lung via tracheostomy tube. All sheep were mechanically ventilated and fluid resuscitated by lactated Ringer's solution. Sheep were randomly allocated into groups: control (injured not treated, n = 6) and treated (injured, but treated with ZK234238, n = 4). Continuous infusion of ZK234238 (100 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1)) was started 1 h after insult. ZK234238 attenuated the hypotension (at 18 and 24 h) and fall in systemic vascular resistance (at 24 h) seen in control animals. ZK234238 significantly inhibited increased fluid accumulation as well as increased plasma nitrate/nitrite 24 h after injury. Neuronal NOS inhibition significantly reduced lung water content and attenuated inflammatory indices such as lung tissue myeloperoxidase activity, IL-6 mRNA, and reactive nitrogen species. The above results suggest that the nNOS-derived NO may be involved in the pathophysiology of sepsis-related multiorgan dysfunction. PMID:19008779

Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Lange, Matthias; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Hamahata, Atsumori; Jonkam, Collette; Wang, Jianpu; Jaroch, Stefan; Traber, Lillian; Herndon, David; Traber, Daniel



Rescue of corpus luteum function with peri-ovulatory HCG supplementation in IVF\\/ICSI GnRH antagonist cycles in which ovulation was triggered with a GnRH agonist: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies found a poor clinical outcome when a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) was used to trigger ovulation in GnRH antagonist IVF\\/ICSI cycles. This study aimed to determine the clinical and endocrine effects as well the optimal timing of HCG supplementation. Forty-five normogonadotrophic IVF\\/ICSI patients following a flexible antagonist protocol were prospectively randomized (sealed envelopes) to triggering of ovulation with a

P Humaidan; L Bungum; M Bungum; C Yding Andersen



Evaluating Corpus Literacy Training for Pre-Service Language Teachers: Six Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Corpus literacy is the ability to use corpora--large, principled databases of spoken and written language--for language analysis and instruction. While linguists have emphasized the importance of corpus training in teacher preparation programs, few studies have investigated the process of initiating teachers into corpus literacy with the result…

Heather, Julian; Helt, Marie



The corpus callosum, interhemisphere interactions, and the function of the right hemisphere of the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complex clinical-neuropsychological study was performed by the Luriya method before and after surgery in 36 patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVM) of the corpus callosum. The symptoms of local lesions to the various parts of the corpus callosum are described. Symptoms of partial lesioning of the corpus callosum were found to be modality-specific, though only relatively. The symptoms of dyscopia

S. B. Buklina




Microsoft Academic Search

A syntactically annotated corpus is a type of language re- sources, which can be used in many different ways. One possible use of the corpus is deriving a context-free gram- mar (CFG), and there have been quite a few studies con- cerning this type of grammar derivation. However, a CFG derived from a syntactically annotated corpus often has a shortcoming:

Tomoya Noro; Taiichi Hashimoto; Takenobu Tokunaga; Hozumi Tanaka


Corpus Callosum Morphology and Its Relationship to Cognitive Function in Neurofibromatosis Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is associated with cognitive dysfunction and structural brain abnormalities such as an enlarged corpus callosum. This study aimed to determine the relationship between corpus callosum morphology and cognitive function in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 using quantitative neuroanatomic imaging techniques. Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (n = 46) demonstrated a significantly larger total corpus callosum and

Natalie Pride; Jonathan M. Payne; Richard Webster; E. Arthur Shores; Caroline Rae; Kathryn N. North



Marchiafava-Bignami disease: serial changes in corpus callosum on MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serial MRI findings of changes in corpus callosum lesions in two cases of Marchiafava-Bignami disease are presented. In both, MRI displayed diffuse swelling of the corpus callosum in the acute stage, thought to represent oedema and demyelination. In the chronic stage, in addition to atrophy of the corpus callosum with presumed focal necrosis, previously undescribed focal hypointensity on T2-weighted images,

K. H. Changl; S. H. Chal; M. H. Han; S. H. Park; D. L. Nah; J. H. Hong




Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new concatenative TTS system under development at ATR. The system, named XIMERA, is based on corpus-based technologies, as was the case for the preceding TTS systems from ATR, namely ?-talk and CHATR. The prominent features of XIMERA are (1) large corpora (a 110- hours corpus of a Japanese male, a 60-hours corpus of a Japanese female,

Hisashi Kawai; Tomoki Toda; Jinfu Ni; Minoru Tsuzaki; Keiichi Tokuda


Characterization of the corpus callosum in very preterm and full-term infants utilizing MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corpus callosum is the largest white matter tract, important for interhemispheric communication. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare corpus callosum size, shape and diffusion characteristics in 106 very preterm infants and 22 full-term infants. Structural and diffusion magnetic resonance images were obtained at term equivalent. The corpus callosum was segmented, cross-sectional areas were calculated, and

Deanne K. Thompson; Terrie E. Inder; Nathan Faggian; Leigh Johnston; Simon K. Warfield; Peter J. Anderson; Lex W. Doyle; Gary F. Egan



An empirical study on a computer-based corpus approach to English vocabulary teaching and learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effectiveness of a computer-based corpus approach to English vocabulary teaching and learning. The empirical study in this paper illustrates that corpus does benefit English vocabulary teaching and learning but there are some problems of its application. Pedagogical implications are then provided to enhance the effective integration of corpus and English vocabulary teaching and learning: 1) teachers

Song Yunxia; Yang Min; Sun Zhuo



Computer-assisted Lemmatisation of a Cornish Text Corpus for Lexicographical Purposes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This project sets out to discover and develop techniques for the lemmatisation of a historical corpus of the Cornish language in order that a lemmatised dictionary macrostructure can be generated from the corpus. The system should be capable of uniquely identifying every lexical item that is attested in the corpus. A survey of published and…

Mills, Jon



Perspectives on Dichotic Listening and the Corpus Callosum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present review summarizes historic and recent research which has investigated the role of the corpus callosum in dichotic processing within the context of audiology. Examination of performance by certain clinical groups, including split brain patients, multiple sclerosis cases, and other types of neurological lesions is included.…

Musiek, Frank E.; Weihing, Jeffrey



Sex differences in the corpus callosum of patients with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corpus callosum (CC) has been of interest in schizophrenia research because of its possible role in reduced lateralization and because of its sexually dimorphic characteristics. The literature has been replete with structural brain studies that have yielded equivocal results because of failure to address sex differences, handedness, and overall reductions in total brain volume (TBV) associated with schizophrenia. We

Matthew S. Panizzon; Anne L. Hoff; Thomas E. Nordahl; William S. Kremen; Barbara Reisman; Mary Wieneke; Debra Harris; Chris Goodman; Scott Espinoza; William Liu; Kelvin Lim



Social cognition in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has revealed that individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) have deficits in interhemispheric transfer, complex novel problem-solving, and the comprehension of paralinguistic aspects of language. Case studies and family reports also suggest problems in social cognition. The performance of 11 individuals with complete ACC and with normal intelligence was compared to that of 13 IQ- and

Scott H. Symington; Lynn K. Paul; Melissa F. Symington; Makoto Ono; Warren S. Brown



The design of a corpus of Contemporary Arabic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corpora are an important resource for both teaching and research. Arabic lacks sufficient resources in this field, so a research project has been designed to compile a corpus, which represents the state of the Arabic language at the present time and the needs of end-users. This report presents the result of a survey of the needs of teachers of Arabic

Latifa Al-Sulaiti; Eric Steven Atwell



Corpus Callosum Differences Associated with Persistent Stuttering in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent studies have implicated anatomical differences in speech-relevant brain regions of adults who stutter (AWS) compared to normally fluent adults (NFA). The present study focused on the region of the corpus callosum (CC) which is involved in interhemispheric processing between the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Two-dimensional…

Choo, Ai Leen; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Olivero, William; Ambrose, Nicoline G.; Sharma, Harish; Chang, Soo-Eun; Loucks, Torrey M.



A factor analysis of the rat's corpus callosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work from our laboratory (Berrebi et al., Brain Research, 438 (1988) 216-224) demonstrated region-specific sexual dimorphisms in the size of the rat's corpus callosum, which are modifiable by extra stimulation in early life. These differences are assumed to reflect regional corticocortical fibers of passage which are altered differentially by gender and our experimental manipulations. In this paper, we report

Victor H. Denenberg; Albert S. Berrebi; Roslyn H. Fitch



Perspectives on Dichotic Listening and the Corpus Callosum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present review summarizes historic and recent research which has investigated the role of the corpus callosum in dichotic processing within the context of audiology. Examination of performance by certain clinical groups, including split brain patients, multiple sclerosis cases, and other types of neurological lesions is included. Maturational,…

Musiek, Frank E.; Weihing, Jeffrey



Tagging a Hebrew Corpus: the Case of Participles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on an effort to build a corpus of Modern Hebrew tagged with parts of speech and morphology. We designed a tagset spe- cific to Hebrew while focusing on 4 aspects: the tagset should be consistent with common linguistic knowledge; there should be maxi- mal agreement among taggers as to the tags assigned to maintain consistency; the tagset should

Meni Adler; Yael Dahan Netzer; Yoav Goldberg; David Gabay; Michael Elhadad



XML Text Interchange Format in the National Corpus of Polish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to describe and justify the XML encoding of texts within the National Corpus of Polish. Basic text encoding, rather than linguistic annotation, is considered here: the encoding of the primary data, the structural markup and the metadata. A set of schemata conformant with the Text Encoding Initiative Guidelines P5 is presented.

Adam Przepiórkowski


Corpus Linguistics, Network Analysis and Co-Occurrence Matrices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes research undertaken in order to design a methodology for the reticular representation of knowledge of a specific discourse community. To achieve this goal, a representative corpus of the scientific production of the members of this discourse community (Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, UPV) was created. This article…

Stuart, Keith; Botella, Ana



A Computerized Approach for Morphological Analysis of the Corpus Callosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. A new technique for analyzing the morphology of the corpus callosumis presented, and it is applied to a group of elderly subjects.Methods. The proposed approach normalizes subject data into the Talairachspace using an elastic deformation transformation. The properties of thistransformation are used as a quantitative description of the callosal shape withrespect to the Talairach atlas, which is treated as

Chris Davatzikos; Marc Vaillant; Susan M. Resnick; Jerry L. Prince



Corpus Callosum Morphometrics in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed digital corpus callosum cross sectional areas in 3-4 year olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to typically developing (TD) and developmentally delayed (DD) children. Though not different in absolute size compared to TD, ASD callosums were disproportionately small adjusted for increased ASD cerebral volume. ASD…

Boger-Megiddo, Inbal; Shaw, Dennis W. W.; Friedman, Seth D.; Sparks, Bobbi F.; Artru, Alan A.; Giedd, Jay N.; Dawson, Geraldine; Dager, Stephen R.



A computerized approach for morphological analysis of the corpus callosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique for analyzing the morphology of the corpus callosum is presented, and it is applied to a group of elderly subjects. The proposed approach normalizes subject data into the Talairach space using an elastic deformation transformation. The properties of this transformation are used as a quantitative description of the callosal shape with respect to the Talairach atlas, which

C. Davatzikos; M. Vaillant; S. Letovsky; J. L. Prince; S. M. Resnick



Commissurotomy of the Corpus Callosum and the Remedial Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Testimony presented at a congressional hearing on illiteracy (March 1986) indicated that good readers use their myelinated corpus callosum fibers (which connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain) at millisecond speeds to coordinate the two brain hemispheres. Students taught using the whole-word recognition method (also called the…

Albert, Elaine


Dative Alternation in Indian English: A Corpus-Based Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dative alternation refers to the alternation between two constructions that denote some type of transfer: the double object construction ("I give my sister a book") vs. the to-dative construction ("I give a book to my sister"). We examined the motivations behind the dative alternation in Indian English. A corpus study was performed based on a…

De Cuypere, Ludovic; Verbeke, Saartje



BREF, a large vocabulary spoken corpus for French  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some of the design considerations of BREF, a large read-speech corpus for French. BREF was designed to provide continuous speech data for the development of dictation machines, for the evaluation of continuous speech recognition systems (both speaker-dependent and speaker- independent), and for the study of phonological variations . The texts to be read were selected from 5

Lori F. Larnel; Jean-Luc Gauvain; Maxine Eskenazi



Autism Traits in Individuals with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have numerous etiologies, including structural brain malformations such as agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We sought to directly measure the occurrence of autism traits in a cohort of individuals with AgCC and to investigate the neural underpinnings of this association. We screened a large AgCC cohort (n =…

Lau, Yolanda C.; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Bukshpun, Polina; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Jeremy, Rita J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa J.



A Multidimensional Analysis of a Written L2 Spanish Corpus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study adds to our understanding of how learners employ lexical and grammatical phenomena to communicate in writing in different types of interlanguage discourse. A multidimensional (factor) analysis of a corpus of L2 Spanish writing (202,241 words) generated by second- and third-year, university-level learners was performed. The…

Asencion-Delaney, Yuly; Collentine, Joseph



Interactive Corpus Annotation of Anaphor Using NLP Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pronouns occur with a relatively high frequency in all forms English discourse. The nature of Greek as an inflected language means that pronouns and zero anaphora in verbs occur with an even greater frequency. Resolving this anaphora is fundamental to the understanding of any language but is generally unresolved in corpus data and therefore a large amount of potentially useful

Catherine Smith; Matthew Brook O'Donnell


Corpus Callosum Morphometrics in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study assessed digital corpus callosum cross sectional areas in 3-4 year olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to typically developing (TD) and developmentally delayed (DD) children. Though not different in absolute size compared to TD, ASD callosums were disproportionately small adjusted for increased ASD cerebral volume. ASD…

Boger-Megiddo, Inbal; Shaw, Dennis W. W.; Friedman, Seth D.; Sparks, Bobbi F.; Artru, Alan A.; Giedd, Jay N.; Dawson, Geraldine; Dager, Stephen R.



Modifying Corpus Annotation to Support the Analysis of Learner Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A crucial question for automatically analyzing learner language is to determine which grammatical information is relevant and useful for learner feedback. Based on knowledge about how learner language varies in its grammatical properties, we propose a framework for reusing analyses found in corpus annotation and illustrate its applicability to…

Dickinson, Markus; Lee, Chong Min



Combining text clustering and retrieval for corpus adaptation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application-relevant text data are very useful in various natural language applications. Using them can achieve significantly better performance for vocabulary selection, language modeling, which are widely employed in automatic speech recognition, intelligent input method etc. In some situations, however, the relevant data is hard to collect. Thus, the scarcity of application-relevant training text brings difficulty upon these natural language processing. In this paper, only using a small set of application specific text, by combining unsupervised text clustering and text retrieval techniques, the proposed approach can find the relevant text from unorganized large scale corpus, thereby, adapt training corpus towards the application area of interest. We use the performance of n-gram statistical language model, which is trained from the text retrieved and test on the application-specific text, to evaluate the relevance of the text acquired, accordingly, to validate the effectiveness of our corpus adaptation approach. The language models trained from the ranked text bundles present well discriminated perplexities on the application-specific text. The preliminary experiments on short message text and unorganized large corpus demonstrate the performance of the proposed methods.

He, Feng; Ding, Xiaoqing



Histophysiological studies on the corpus allatum of Leucophaea maderae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural evidence is presented for the manufacture, storage, and release of a distinctive cellular product in the corpus allatum of the insect Leucophaea. This product (C body material) originates in the Golgi zone and acquires a characteristic, regularly structured appearance of exceptionally high electron density.

Berta Scharrer



Bilateral disruption of corpus cavernosum with complete urethral rupture.  


Penile fracture is a relatively rare condition. We report an unusual case of the bilateral disruption of the corpus cavernosum with complete urethral rupture resulting from blunt trauma during sexual intercourse. The subject underwent emergency surgery with preservation of erectile and voiding functions in the follow-up. PMID:15379954

Soylu, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Ugur; Davarci, Mursel; Baydinc, Can



Characterization of sexual dimorphism in the human corpus callosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite decades of research, there is still no agreement over the presence of gender-based morphologic differences in the human corpus callosum. We approached the problem using a highly precise computational technique for shape comparison. Starting with a prospectively acquired sample of cranial MRIs of healthy volunteers (age ranges 18–84), the variations of individual callosa are quantified with respect to a

Abraham Dubb; Ruben Gur; Brian Avants; James Gee



SWITCHBOARD: telephone speech corpus for research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

SWITCHBOARD is a large multispeaker corpus of conversational speech and text which should be of interest to researchers in speaker authentication and large vocabulary speech recognition. About 2500 conversations by 500 speakers from around the US were collected automatically over T1 lines at Texas Instruments. Designed for training and testing of a variety of speech processing algorithms, especially in speaker

John J. Godfrey; Edward C. Holliman; Jane McDaniel



Support Vector Machines for Paraphrase Identification and Corpus Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of readily-available large corpora of aligned monolingual sentence pairs is a major obstacle to the development of Statistical Machine Translation-based paraphrase models. In this paper, we describe the use of annotated datasets and Support Vector Machines to induce larger monolingual paraphrase corpora from a comparable corpus of news clusters found on the World Wide Web. Features include: morphological

Chris Brockett; William B. Dolan



Learner Corpus Analysis and the Development of Foreign Language Proficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper makes a methodological contribution to the emerging field of learner corpus analysis [Granger, S., 1998. Learner English on Computer. Longman, London, 1998; Granger, S., 2002. Computer Learner corpora, Second Language Acquisition, and Foreign Language Teaching. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2002] and to Second Language Acquisition (SLA)…

Belz, Julie A.



Corpus annotation for mining biomedical events from literature  

PubMed Central

Background Advanced Text Mining (TM) such as semantic enrichment of papers, event or relation extraction, and intelligent Question Answering have increasingly attracted attention in the bio-medical domain. For such attempts to succeed, text annotation from the biological point of view is indispensable. However, due to the complexity of the task, semantic annotation has never been tried on a large scale, apart from relatively simple term annotation. Results We have completed a new type of semantic annotation, event annotation, which is an addition to the existing annotations in the GENIA corpus. The corpus has already been annotated with POS (Parts of Speech), syntactic trees, terms, etc. The new annotation was made on half of the GENIA corpus, consisting of 1,000 Medline abstracts. It contains 9,372 sentences in which 36,114 events are identified. The major challenges during event annotation were (1) to design a scheme of annotation which meets specific requirements of text annotation, (2) to achieve biology-oriented annotation which reflect biologists' interpretation of text, and (3) to ensure the homogeneity of annotation quality across annotators. To meet these challenges, we introduced new concepts such as Single-facet Annotation and Semantic Typing, which have collectively contributed to successful completion of a large scale annotation. Conclusion The resulting event-annotated corpus is the largest and one of the best in quality among similar annotation efforts. We expect it to become a valuable resource for NLP (Natural Language Processing)-based TM in the bio-medical domain.

Kim, Jin-Dong; Ohta, Tomoko; Tsujii, Jun'ichi



The Enron Corpus: A New Dataset for Email Classification Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated classication of email messages into user-specic folders and information extraction from chronologically ordered email streams have become interesting areas in text learning research. However, the lack of large benchmark collections has been an obstacle for studying the problems and evaluating the solutions. In this paper, we introduce the Enron corpus as a new test bed. We analyze its suitability

Bryan Klimt; Yiming Yang



Interhemispheric Neuroepithelial Cyst Associated with Agenesis of the Corpus callosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a neonatal case in whom a large interhemispheric cyst associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum was revealed by fetal ultrasonography and demonstrated by MRI to be multilobulated. Endoscopic fenestration of cysts was initially designed in view of the development of the patient’s brain and surgical invasiveness. One year later, when motor paresis of the left arm

Yuji Uematsu; Kenji Kubo; Toshiki Nishibayashi; Fuminori Ozaki; Kunio Nakai; Toru Itakura



Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum in Two Sisters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sisters are described. They are offspring of Arabic parents who are both first and second cousins, through both sets of grandparents; additionally the father's parents are first cousins. The diagnosis of agenesis of the corpus callosum in the propositae was made by the characteristic picture on the pneumoencephalogram.The clinical symptoms in the two sisters varied considerably. The older sister

Yehuda Shapira; Tirza Cohen



Outcome in Prenatally Diagnosed Fetal Agenesis of the Corpus callosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of the outcome and prognostic factors in prenatally diagnosed agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) was undertaken to see if there are any differences between subgroups, what relationship they have to neurodevelopmental outcome and whether this information aids the counselling of parents of fetuses with the condition. The outcome of 14 prenatally diagnosed fetuses with ACC and 61

P. W. A. Goodyear; C. M. Bannister; S. Russell; S. Rimmer



Congenital asymmetric crying facies and agenesis of corpus callosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although association of congenital asymmetric crying facies (CACF) with major congenital anomalies of central nervous system (CNS) has been described, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have not been reported. Two children who had CACF associated with agenesis of corpus callosum (ACC) diagnosed by MRI are described. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) was diagnosed in one case. Both patients had developmental

Konstantinos A Voudris; Angeliki Skardoutsou; Eleni A Vagiakou



An integrated pharmacokinetics ontology and corpus for text mining  

PubMed Central

Background Drug pharmacokinetics parameters, drug interaction parameters, and pharmacogenetics data have been unevenly collected in different databases and published extensively in the literature. Without appropriate pharmacokinetics ontology and a well annotated pharmacokinetics corpus, it will be difficult to develop text mining tools for pharmacokinetics data collection from the literature and pharmacokinetics data integration from multiple databases. Description A comprehensive pharmacokinetics ontology was constructed. It can annotate all aspects of in vitro pharmacokinetics experiments and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies. It covers all drug metabolism and transportation enzymes. Using our pharmacokinetics ontology, a PK-corpus was constructed to present four classes of pharmacokinetics abstracts: in vivo pharmacokinetics studies, in vivo pharmacogenetic studies, in vivo drug interaction studies, and in vitro drug interaction studies. A novel hierarchical three level annotation scheme was proposed and implemented to tag key terms, drug interaction sentences, and drug interaction pairs. The utility of the pharmacokinetics ontology was demonstrated by annotating three pharmacokinetics studies; and the utility of the PK-corpus was demonstrated by a drug interaction extraction text mining analysis. Conclusions The pharmacokinetics ontology annotates both in vitro pharmacokinetics experiments and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies. The PK-corpus is a highly valuable resource for the text mining of pharmacokinetics parameters and drug interactions.



Suitability of Human, Bovine, Equine, and Ovine Tooth Enamel for Studies of Artificial Bacterial Carious Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress of artificial caries-like lesions created in human, bovine, equine, and ovine enamel has been studied. Lesions were produced by exposure to an acid gel system or by 5-day exposure to a sequential batch culture technique using Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10832. Longitudinal ground sections were prepared. The lesions were of similar appearance in all species when examined in polarized

D. H. Edmunds; D. K. Whittaker; R. M. Green



Development of cell lines from the sheep used to construct the CHORI-243 ovine BAC library  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two cell lines, designated MARC.OVSM and MARC.OKF, were initiated from the aorta and kidney, respectively, obtained from the Texel ram used to make the CHORI-243 Ovine BAC library. These cell lines have been submitted to the NIA Aging Cell Repository at the Coriell Cell Respositories, Camden, NJ, U...


Clinical outcomes following the use of ovine forestomach matrix (endoform dermal template) to treat chronic wounds.  


The suitability of the ovine forestomach matrix (OFM) for the treatment of recalcitrant wounds was evaluated in 19 patients. At 12 weeks, 50% of wounds had closed, and the average reduction in surface area was 73.4%. Promising outcomes of this initial series support the clinical consideration of OFM. PMID:23507693

Liden, Brock A; May, Barnaby C H




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) is the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in clinically susceptible ruminants, including cattle, bison, and deer. Studies of OvHV-2 have been hampered by the lack of an in vitro propagation system. We examined the use of nasal secretions coll...


Experimental induction of malignant catarrhal fever in pigs with ovine herpesvirus 2 by intranasal nebulization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a frequently fatal herpesviral disease, has been sporadically reported in pigs. All cases of naturally-occurring porcine MCF reported to date have been linked to ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Macavirus carried by sheep. Experimental in...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), the major causative agent of malignant catarrhal fever in ruminant species worldwide, has never been propagated in vitro. Using real-time PCR, a striking, short-lived, peak of viral DNA, ranging from 10,000 to over 100,000,000 copies/2 ug DNA, was detected in nasal sec...


Inhibin Increases and Progesterone Decreases Receptors for Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone in Ovine Pituitary Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Treatments (48 h) with highly purified bovine or porcine inhibins (10 ng/ml) induced ovine pituitary cells to increase their binding for des-Gly(to the tenth power)-(D-Ala(to the sixth power))LHRH-ethylamide by 3.6- and 5-fold, respectively. Studies with ...

S. C. Laws M. J. Beggs J. C. Webster W. L. Miller



Hormonal Regulation of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors and Messenger RNA Activity in Ovine Pituitary Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous studies demonstrate that gonadotroph responsiveness to GnRH, GnRH binding, and the apparent number of GnRH receptors are all increased by 17 beta-estradiol (E) or inhibin (IN) in ovine pituitary cultures. Progesterone attenuates these effects. To...

S. C. Sealfon S. C. Laws J. C. Wu G. Boaz W. L. Miller



Interactions of indole acetic acid with EGF and FSH in the culture of ovine preantral follicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms that regulate the gradual exit of ovarian follicles from the non-growing, primordial pool are very poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding indole acetic acid (IAA), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) to the media for in vitro culture of ovine ovarian fragments and determine their effects on

Evelyn Rabelo Andrade; Marcelo Marcondes Seneda; Amauri Alcindo Alfieri; João Ademir de Oliveira; Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro Bracarense; José Ricardo Figueiredo; Ricardo Toniolli




PubMed Central

Osmotic stress results in the accumulation of osmolytes in tissues. Synthesis of these osmolytes is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT5/TonEBP in the human kidney. We tested for the presence of NFAT5 mRNA and protein in the human and ovine placenta and confirmed sorbitol and inositol osmolyte concentrations in these tissues. To determine NFAT5 protein, human and ovine placentae were tested for inositol, sorbitol and glucose using HPLC. Additionally, RNA was extracted and cDNA was made from these tissues. PCR was performed and products were sequenced. Western blotting was used to assess the expression of the NFAT5 protein. Human and ovine placentae demonstrated: 1) high concentrations of sorbitol and inositol, 2) presence of NFAT5 mRNA, 3) matched NFAT5 sequence identity, and 4) presence of NFAT5 protein. NFAT5 is present in the ovine and human placenta at the RNA and protein levels which suggest a role for this protein in the induction of these osmolytes. Further trophoblast studies of osmotic stress effects on osmolytes are planned.

ARROYO, Juan A.; TENG, Cecilia; BATTAGLIA, Frederick C.; GALAN, Henry L.



Metal levels in fodder, milk, dairy products, and tissues sampled in ovine farms of Southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, and Pb levels in samples of fodder, milk, dairy products, and tissues collected from 12 ovine farms in the regions of Campania and Calabria (Southern Italy). The areas in which the farms are located show different levels of anthropogenic pressure. The main purpose of this study is the identification and the analysis of relationships

Rosa Caggiano; Serena Sabia; Mariagrazia D’Emilio; Maria Macchiato; Aniello Anastasio; Maria Ragosta; Salvatore Paino



Ultrasonographic assessment of fetal growth: Comparison between human and ovin fetus  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the rate of ovine fetal growth for several body parameters by serial ultrasonographic measurements and to compare them with analogous data in the human fetus.STUDY DESIGN: Forty-three ewes with singleton gestations were studied. Four parameters were measured: biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, femur length, and tibia length. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed weekly from 50 to

Antonio Barbera; Oliver W Jones; Gary O Zerbe; John C Hobbins; Frederick C Battaglia; Giacomo Meschia



Relationship of fetal growth to duration of heat stress in an ovine model of placental insufficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Intrauterine growth restriction in an ovine model occurs after exposure to environmental heat stress for 80 days beginning at 35 days’ gestation. Our objective was to determine whether intrauterine growth restriction is reversible on removal of the heat stress after only 55 days of exposure; that is, does a brief exposure at a critical point of development suffice? Study

Henry L. Galan; Michael J. Hussey; Antonio Barbera; Enrico Ferrazzi; Misoo Chung; John C. Hobbins; Frederick C. Battaglia



Ovine atadenovirus: a review of its biology, biosafety profile and application as a gene delivery vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ovine adenovirus isolate OAdV287 is the prototype of the newly recognized genus of atadenoviruses. Although not as well studied as human mastadenoviruses, a substantial amount of work has now been carried out with this virus and an understanding of its interesting and unique properties is beginning to emerge. In this article the biology and biosafety profile of the virus

Gerald W Both



TGF? and EGFR in ovine preimplantation embryos and effects on development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to assess location and relative amounts of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF?) and its receptor (EGFR) in ovine oocytes and preimplantation embryos by using immunohistochemical technique that was graded on a relative scale of 0–3, with 0 representing absence of staining, and 3 exhibiting prominent staining, and to evaluate the effects of TGF?\\/EGF on in vitro

P. Zhou; D. J. Liu; M. Cang; Y. Z. Ma; D. S. Yang; H. J. Li; L. M. Wang; S. Bou; H. L. Feng



Ovine white liver disease — an hepatic dysfunction associated with vitamin B12 deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovine white liver disease is an economically important hepatic dysfunction which occurs in the wanner parts of New Zealand. Acute, chronic and recovered phases can be recognised clinically, histologically and biochemically. The condition is associated with severe ill-thrift and, in the acute phase, with photosensitivity. Acute and chronic cases show elevations of serumenzymes (GOT, GGT) and copper and, sometimes, bilirubin.

R. J. Sutherland; D. O. Cordes; G. C. Carthew



Ovine and Bovine Metallothioneins: Accumulation and Depletion of Zinc in Various Tissues1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation and depletion of zinc in hepatic metallo- thionein (MT) and the accumulation of zinc with MT in various tissues were studied in the ovine and bovine species. It took 8 weeks for the accumulation of zinc to reach a plateau level of 270 \\/ngin MT per gram liver when a bull was fed a diet containing 2,000 ppm



Attenuation of Theileria lestoquardi infected cells and immunization of sheep against malignant ovine theileriosis.  


Malignant ovine theileriosis caused by Theileria lestoquardi is an economically important disease infecting small ruminants in the Sudan. The disease causes massive losses among sheep in many regions of Northern Sudan. The present studies were done to isolate lymphoblastiod cells infected with malignant ovine theileriosis and attenuate them by passage using culture media to develop and produce schizonts candidate vaccine, then test its efficacy and safety by exposing immunized lambs to field challenge in an area endemic with T. lestoquardi. In the present experiments we isolated and established an in vitro culture of T. lestoquardi infected lymphoblast cell line. Long-term culture of T. lestoquardi infected lymphoplastoid cells was shown to result in attenuation of their virulence and lambs inoculated with different doses of such cells at passage 105 exhibited very mild reactions with fever that lasted for 1-5 days and parasitaemia of <0.2%. The experimental lambs immunized with this candidate vaccine were immune and protected when exposed to field challenge in an area endemic of ovine theileriosis, while morbidity and mortality among non-immunized animals reached 76.9% and 46.15%, respectively, and they exhibited the clinical signs of malignant ovine theileriosis that included, high fever, loss of appetite, enlargement of lymph nodes, jaundice, loss of weight and death. The present study demonstrates the efficacy and the safety of this attenuated cell line as a live attenuated candidate vaccine. PMID:23954382

Ahmed, Bukhari M; Taha, Khalid M; Enan, Khalid A; Elfahal, Abdelghafar M; El Hussein, Abdel Rahim M




EPA Science Inventory

Previous studies demonstrate that gonadotroph responsiveness to GnRH, GnRH binding, and the apparent number of GnRH receptors are all increased by 17B-estradiol (E) or inhibin (IN) in ovine pituitary cultures. rogesterone attenuates these effects. o explore differences between th...


Affinity-Purified, Mixed Monospecific Crotalid Antivenom Ovine Fab for the Treatment of Crotalid Venom Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To test the efficacy and safety of a new antivenom, affinity-purified, mixed monospecific crotalid antivenom ovine Fab, in human subjects with minimal or moderate crotalid envenomation. Methods: We conducted a prospective multicenter clinical trial of 11 patients 10 years or older with progressive manifestations after mild to moderate crotalid snakebite. After giving their consent, subjects received four to

Richard C Dart; Steve A Seifert; Leslie Carroll; Richard F Clark; Edward Hall; Leslie V Boyer-Hassen; Steven C Curry; Craig S Kitchens; Ray A Garcia



Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels associate with breed and Ovar-DRB1  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies have suggested that host genetics influence both lung histopathology and seroprevalence in sheep infected with ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV). As a first start, a genetic association study was conducted in 383 Idaho sheep of the Columbia, Polypay and Rambouillet breeds ut...


Characterization of ovine Nectin-4, a novel peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) receptor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Small ruminants infected with peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) exhibit lesions typical of epithelial infection and necrosis. However, the only established host receptor for this virus is the immune cell marker signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). We have confirmed that the ovine ...


Evidence of proviral clearance following postpartum transmission of an ovine lentivirus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lentiviral transmission by transfer of infected colostrum and/or milk is considered to be highly efficient. In this study, postpartum transmission of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) from 10 naturally infected ewes to their 23 lambs was followed from the perinatal period throughout a four y...


Residual alkaline phosphatase activity after heat treatment of ovine and caprine milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to study the decrease of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity during heat treatment of ovine and caprine milk in comparison to that of bovine milk. For this purpose, different samples from the three milk kinds were subjected to heat treatment at 59°C under different time conditions and the residual ALP activity was determined using the

A.-N. Vamvakaki; E. Zoidou; G. Moatsou; M. Bokari; E. Anifantakis



Comparison of Coxiella burnetii Shedding in Milk of Dairy Bovine, Caprine, and Ovine Herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shedding of Coxiella burnetii in bovine, caprine, and ovine milk was measured using PCR, in 3 herds for each species, the bulk tank milk samples of which were positive at the time of their selection. Milk sam- ples of 95 cows, 120 goats, and 90 ewes were sampled over 16 wk, as was the bulk tank milk. The shedding

A. Rodolakis; M. Berri; C. Héchard; C. Caudron; A. Souriau; C. C. Bodier; B. Blanchard; P. Camuset; P. Devillechaise; J. C. Natorp



Gastrin-Releasing Peptide (GRP) in the Ovine Uterus: Regulation by Interferon Tau and Progesterone1  

PubMed Central

Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is abundantly expressed by endometrial glands of the ovine uterus and processed into different bioactive peptides, including GRP1-27, GRP18-27, and a C-terminus, that affect cell proliferation and migration. However, little information is available concerning the hormonal regulation of endometrial GRP and expression of GRP receptors in the ovine endometrium and conceptus. These studies determined the effects of pregnancy, progesterone (P4), interferon tau (IFNT), placental lactogen (CSH1), and growth hormone (GH) on expression of GRP in the endometrium and GRP receptors (GRPR, NMBR, BRS3) in the endometrium, conceptus, and placenta. In pregnant ewes, GRP mRNA and protein were first detected predominantly in endometrial glands after Day 10 and were abundant from Days 18 through 120 of gestation. Treatment with IFNT and progesterone but not CSH1 or GH stimulated GRP expression in the endometrial glands. Western blot analyses identified proGRP in uterine luminal fluid and allantoic fluid from Day 80 unilateral pregnant ewes but not in uterine luminal fluid of either cyclic or early pregnant ewes. GRPR mRNA was very low in the Day 18 conceptus and undetectable in the endometrium and placenta; NMBR and BRS3 mRNAs were undetectable in ovine uteroplacental tissues. Collectively, the present studies validate GRP as a novel IFNT-stimulated gene in the glands of the ovine uterus, revealed that IFNT induction of GRP is dependent on P4, and found that exposure of the ovine uterus to P4 for 20 days induces GRP expression in endometrial glands.

Song, Gwonhwa; Satterfield, M. Carey; Kim, Jinyoung; Bazer, Fuller W.; Spencer, Thomas E.



Effects of maturation on adrenergic neurotransmission in ovine cerebral arteries.  


The present studies examine the hypothesis that multiple adrenergic neuroeffector mechanisms are not fully developed in fetal, compared with adult, ovine middle cerebral arteries. In arteries denuded of endothelium and pretreated with 1 microM atropine to block involvement of muscarinic receptors, 10 microM capsaicin to deplete sensory peptidergic neurons, and 10 microM nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) to block possible influences from nitric oxidergic innervation, transmural stimulation at 16 Hz increased contractile tensions to 9.5 +/- 3.7% (n = 6) of the potassium maximum in adult arteries. Corresponding values in fetal arteries, however, were significantly less and averaged only 1.1 +/- 0.6% (n =10). However, postsynaptic sensitivity to norepinephrine (NE) was similar in the two age groups; NE pD(2) values (-log EC(50)) averaged 6.11 +/- 0.12 (n = 6) and 6.33 +/- 0.09 M (n = 9) in fetal and adult arteries, respectively. Similarly, NE content measured via HPLC was also similar in the two age groups and averaged 32.4 +/- 5.0 (n = 17) and 32.5 +/- 3.9 ng/ng wet wt (n = 13) in fetal and adult middle cerebral arteries, respectively. In contrast, stimulation-induced NE release was greater in fetal than in adult arteries, whether calculated as total mass released [883 +/- 184 (n = 17) vs. 416 +/- 106 pg NE/mg wet wt (n = 13)] or as fractional release [51.1 +/- 5.3 (n = 17) vs. 22.8 +/- 3.8 pg/pg NE content per pulse x 10(-6)]. Measured as an index of synaptic density, neuronal cocaine-sensitive NE uptake was similar in fetal and adult arteries [1.55 +/- 0.40 (n = 10) and 1.84 +/- 0.51 pmol/mg wet wt (n = 7), respectively]. Overall, age-related differences in postsynaptic sensitivity to NE, NE release, and NE uptake capacity cannot explain the corresponding age-related differences in response to stimulation. The data thus suggest that total synaptic volume and cleft width, in particular, are probably greater and/or that adrenergic corelease of vasoactive substances other than NE is altered in fetal compared with adult middle cerebral arteries. PMID:10516229

Pearce, W J; Duckles, S P; Buchholz, J



Ovis aries Papillomavirus 3: A prototype of a novel genus in the family Papillomaviridae associated with ovine squamous cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papillomaviruses play an important role in human cancer development, and have been isolated from a number of animal malignancies. However, the association of papillomaviruses with tumors has been poorly investigated in sheep. In this study, a novel ovine Papillomavirus, OaPV3, was cloned from sheep squamous cell carcinoma. Unlike the already known ovine papillomaviruses, belonging to the Delta genus, OaPV3 lacks

Alberto Alberti; Salvatore Pirino; Francesca Pintore; Maria Filippa Addis; Bernardo Chessa; Carla Cacciotto; Tiziana Cubeddu; Antonio Anfossi; Gavino Benenati; Elisabetta Coradduzza; Roberta Lecis; Elisabetta Antuofermo; Laura Carcangiu; Marco Pittau



Human-Specific Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Antibodies Detect In Vivo Gene Transfer to Ovine Airways  

Microsoft Academic Search

A panel of 11 human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (hCFTR) antibodies were tested in ovine nasal, tracheal, and bronchial epithelial brushings. Two of these, G449 (polyclonal) and MATG1104 (monoclonal), recognized hCFTR but did not cross react with endogenous sheep CFTR. This specificity allows immuno- logic detection of hCFTRexpressed in genetransfer studiesin sheep against the background of endogenous ovine CFTR,

Heather Davidson; Gerry McLachlan; Abigail Wilson; A. Christopher Boyd; Ann Doherty; Gordon MacGregor; Lee Davies; Hazel A. Painter; Rebecca Coles; Stephen C. Hyde; Deborah R. Gill; Margarida D. Amaral; David D. S. Collie; David J. Porteous; Deborah Penque



Frequency of Basic English Grammatical Structures: A Corpus Analysis  

PubMed Central

Many recent models of language comprehension have stressed the role of distributional frequencies in determining the relative accessibility or ease of processing associated with a particular lexical item or sentence structure. However, there exist relatively few comprehensive analyses of structural frequencies, and little consideration has been given to the appropriateness of using any particular set of corpus frequencies in modeling human language. We provide a comprehensive set of structural frequencies for a variety of written and spoken corpora, focusing on structures that have played a critical role in debates on normal psycholinguistics, aphasia, and child language acquisition, and compare our results with those from several recent papers to illustrate the implications and limitations of using corpus data in psycholinguistic research.

Roland, Douglas; Dick, Frederic; Elman, Jeffrey L.



Complete Corpus Callosum Agenesis: Can It Be Mild?  

PubMed Central

Corpus callosum agenesis is a relatively common brain malformation. It can be isolated or included in a complex alteration of brain (or sometimes even whole body) morphology. Etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms have been better understood in recent years due to the availability of more adequate animal models and the relevant progresses in developmental neurosciences. We present the case of a girl with a complete agenesis of the corpus callosum discovered at birth. She had mild learning difficulties, but reached satisfactory levels of autonomy after an individually tailored rehabilitative treatment. Her story is discussed in light of recent findings, which emphasize the possibility to exploit brain plasticity and the utility of an individually tailored approach, defined on the basis of a dialogue with the family and the patient.

Chiappedi, Matteo; Fresca, Anna; Baschenis, Ilaria Maria Carlotta



Corpus-Based Lexical Choice in Natural Language Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choosing the best lexeme to realize a meaning in natural language generation is a hard task. We investigate different tree-based stochastic models for lexical choice. Because of the difficulty of obtaining a sense-tagged corpus, we generalize the notion of synonymy. We show that a tree-based model can achieve a word-bag based accuracy of 90%, representing an improvement over the baseline.

Srinivas Bangalore; Owen Rambow



Learning An English-Chinese Lexicon From A Parallel Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report experiments on automatic learning of an English-Chinese translation lexicon, through statistical training on a large parallel corpus. The learned vocabulary size is nontrivial at 6,517 English words averaging 2.33 Chinese translations per entry, with a manuallyfiltered precision of 95.1% and a single-most-probable precision of 91.2%. We then introduce a significance filtering method that is fully automatic, yet still

Dekai Wu



Corpus - based Generation of Easy Help - desk Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We present a corpus-based approach for the automatic generation of email responses to helpdeskrequests. This is largely an extractive multi-document summarization task. However, in ourapplication users have a very low tolerance for responses that contain incongruous sentences. Toaddress this problem, we propose a method for extracting high-precision sentences for inclusionin a response, and a measure for predicting the completeness

Yuval Marom; Ingrid Zukerman



A longitudinal study of the corpus callosum in chronic schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Decreased callosal size and anisotropy have been described in schizophrenia patients but their longitudinal progression remains poorly understood. Methods We performed diffusion-tensor and structural magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and at follow-up four years later in 49 chronic schizophrenia patients and 16 healthy comparison subjects. Schizophrenia patients were subdivided into good-outcome (n=23) and poor-outcome (n=26) groups. Baseline-to-follow-up changes in size, shape, position and fractional anisotropy of the corpus callosum, divided into five sagittal sections and five rostro-caudal segments, were assessed. Results At baseline scan and in comparison to healthy subjects, schizophrenia patients displayed 1) smaller callosal size, 2) lower average anisotropy in all sagittal sections except the midline, 3) more dorsal average coordinate position. During the four years after the baseline scan, patients with schizophrenia exhibited a more pronounced decline in absolute size of the corpus callosum than healthy comparison subjects. As compared with the good-outcome group, the corpus callosum in poor-outcome patients at baseline was of smaller size and lower average anisotropy, more elongated and posteriorly positioned. During the follow-up interval, poor-outcome patients displayed a more pronounced decline in size but less pronounced decline in anisotropy of the corpus callosum than patients with good outcomes. Conclusions Differences in callosal size between schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects seen at baseline continue to widen in the chronic phase of the illness, especially in patients with poor functional outcome. Baseline differences in callosal anisotropy among patients with different outcomes, however, diminish over time.

Mitelman, Serge A.; Nikiforova, Yekaterina K.; Canfield, Emily L.; Hazlett, Erin A.; Brickman, Adam M.; Shihabuddin, Lina; Buchsbaum, Monte S.



5HT4 receptors in isolated human corpus cavernosum?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The novel serotonin subtype-4 (5-HT4) receptor agonist, SC53116 (SC), produced a limited relaxation of noradrenaline (NA) pre-contracted human corpus cavernosum (CC) smooth muscle in vitro. This effect was not significantly attenuated by the 5-HT4 antagonist SDZ250557 (SDZ). In the presence of (±) pindolol (1 ?M) and methysergide (1 ?M), employed to mask 5-HT1 and ?-adrenergic, and 5-HT2 receptors respectively, SC

ES Hayes; PG Adaikan; SS Ratnam; SC Ng



Turkish Language Resources: Morphological Parser, Morphological Disambiguator and Web Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a set of language resources for building Turkish language processing applications. Specifically,\\u000a we present a finite-state implementation of a morphological parser, an averaged perceptron-based morphological disambiguator,\\u000a and compilation of a web corpus. Turkish is an agglutinative language with a highly productive inflectional and derivational\\u000a morphology. We present an implementation of a morphological parser based on

Hasim Sak; Tunga Güngör; Murat Saraclar



Linguistic complexity: English vs. Polish, text vs. corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the rank-frequency distributions of words in selected English and\\u000aPolish texts. We show that for the lemmatized (basic) word forms the\\u000ascale-invariant regime breaks after about two decades, while it might be\\u000aconsistent for the whole range of ranks for the inflected word forms. We also\\u000afind that for a corpus consisting of texts written by different authors

Jaroslaw Kwapien; Stanislaw Drozdz; Adam Orczyk



A comparative evaluation of modern English corpus grammatical annotation schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many English Corpus Linguistics projects reported in ICAME Journal and else-where involve grammatical analysis or tagging of English texts (eg Atwell 1983, Leech et al 1983, Booth 1985, Owen 1987, Souter 1989a, O'Donoghue 1991, Belmore 1991, Kyt? and Voutilainen 1995, Aarts 1996, Qiao and Huang 1998). Each new project has to review existing tagging schemes, and decide which to adopt

Eric Atwell; George Demetriou; John Hughes; Amanda Schiffrin; Clive Souter; Sean Wilcock


Agenesis of corpus callosum: prenatal diagnosis and prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAgenesis of corpus callosum (ACC) is commonly diagnosed prenatally. When isolated, it appears to carry a good prognosis but studies are often retrospective and follow-up short. We report a prospective study of 17 children (11 boys, 6 girls) with prenatally diagnosed isolated ACC.MethodsNeuropsychological evaluation was performed each year and results at the ages of 2, 4, and 6 years were compared.ResultsFebrile

Marie-Laure Moutard; Virginie Kieffer; Josué Feingold; François Kieffer; Fanny Lewin; Catherine Adamsbaum; Antoinette Gélot; Jaume Campistol i Plana; Patrick van Bogaert; Monique André; Gérard Ponsot



Comparing English Vocabulary in a Spoken Learner Corpus with a Native Speaker Corpus: Pedagogical Implications Arising from an Empirical Study in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Insights from corpus linguistics have come to be seen as having a significant impact in second language pedagogy. Learner corpora, or collections of texts spoken or written by non-native speakers (NNS) of a language, are now being used for the purposes of enhancing language teaching. Specifically, by comparing the corpus of NNS with native…

Shirato, Junko; Stapleton, Paul



Immunoreactive material resembling vertebrate neuropeptides in the corpus cardiacum and corpus allatum of the insect Leucophaea moderae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence and differential distribution of substances antigenically related to known vertebrate neuropeptides demonstrated within the corpus cardiacum of the insect Leucophaea are as follows: Of ten mammalian antisera tested, six yielded substantial immunoreactive deposits resembling oxytocin, somatostatin, Substance P, met-enkephalin, bombesin, and neurotensin, respectively. In the remaining four, the reaction was moderate (vasopressin, ß-endorphin) or marginal (LH-RF, calcitonin). With

Bente Langvad Hansen; Georg Nørgaard Hansen; Berta Scharrer



Synthesis of a high molecular weight thyroglobulin dimer by two ovine thyroid cell lines: the OVNIS.  


The OVNIS 6H and 5H thyroid cells, 2 permanent cell lines isolated 3 years ago from ovine tissue, synthesize a high molecular weight glycosylated protein, immunologically related to ovine thyroglobulin, which is similar to the prothyroid hormone dimer (17-19) S: thyroglobulin. Using sucrose gradient centrifugation and cell labelling with [14C]Leu or [3H]GlNH2, radioactivity was observed in proteins purified from cell layers and from cell culture media. Addition of thyrotropin to or removal from the media resulted respectively in an increase (+773%) or decrease (-1090%) of the total radioactivity detected in the (17-19)S thyroglobulin fraction. Estimation of thyroglobulin by RIA gave similar though less pronounced effects. These experiments prove (1) that thyroglobulin is still expressed in these OVNIS thyroid cell lines even after 3 years of permanent culture, (2) that TSH modulates the level of this protein through a TSH-receptor functional system. PMID:3709961

Hovsépian, S; Aouani, A; Fayet, G



Monitoring of oxytetracycline in ovine milk by high-performance liquid chromatography.  


A method for 'in vivo' determination of the oxytetracyclin residues in ovine milk at low levels is described. Two groups of Sardinian breed sheep were treated with a dose of oxytetracycline by intramammary infusion and intramuscular administration, respectively. Oxytetracycline residues in extracts obtained from a preliminary cleanup procedure, were detected by an isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Linear calibration plots were obtained over a large concentration range of 1 mg ml(-1)-10 ng ml(-1), with correlation coefficients higher than 0.996. Recoveries between 85.8 and 98.9% were obtained. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of determination (LOQ) were 5.2 and 17.5 ng ml(-1), respectively. This method would be useful for routine monitoring of oxytetracycline residues in ovine dairy milk. PMID:10704038

Boatto, G; Pau, A; Palomba, M; Arenare, L; Cerri, R



Comparison of erythromycin and oxytetracycline for the treatment of ovine footrot.  


A microbiological study of 25 cases of ovine footrot was performed. Cultures belonging to Dichelobacter nodosus were isolated in 48% of the sampled animals. The sensitivity of the 99 strict anaerobic bacterial isolates to 5 antibiotics (penicillin G, amoxycillin, spiramycin, erythromycin and oxytetracycline) was studied. The percentage of resistant cultures was in all cases higher than 30%. The efficacy of erythromycin and oxytetracycline in the treatment of ovine footrot was studied. To conduct this test, an intramuscular injection was applied, of one antimicrobial or the other, at the beginning of the treatment. The tolerance of animals to the antimicrobials, the success rate of treatment and the severity of lameness were evaluated. The percentage of animals cured within 15 days was around 75%. In contrast, only 44% improvement was achieved in the lameness. No differences were found between the two antimicrobials in the above indices. PMID:11402641

Píriz, S; Pobel, T; Jiménez, R; Mateos, E M; Martín-Palomino, P; Vila, P; Vadillo, S



Development of a sandwich ELISA for ovine granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor.  


Recombinant ovine granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rOv GM-CSF) has been expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. A stable, cloned line of these cells has been established which secretes high levels (40 mu g ml(-1)) of rOv GM-CSF. Three murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced which reacted with rOv GM-CSF on Western blots. These mAbs also neutralised the activity of both recombinant and native Ov GM-CSF in a bone marrow haemopoietic progenitor cell assay. Two of the mAbs, which recognise mutually exclusive epitopes, were selected for the development of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure GM-CSF in biological samples of ovine origin. PMID:9157676

Entrican, G; Deane, D; MacLean, M; Inglis, L; Thomson, J; McInnes, C; Haig, D M



Impaction grafting with morsellised allograft and tricalcium phosphate–hydroxyapatite: incorporation within ovine metaphyseal bone defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ovine model was used to investigate the in vivo properties of impacted tricalcium phosphate–hydroxyapatite (TCP–HA) aggregates, varying in chemical composition (ratio of TCP to HA) and particle size distribution (8 versus 3 particle size ranges). All pellets were impacted to a standard compactive effort.Eight sheep underwent implantation of pellets in 4 metaphyseal defects in both rear limbs. Treatment groups

J. N. J. Pratt; D. J. Griffon; D. G. Dunlop; N. Smith; C. R. Howie



Safety and side effects of human and ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone administration in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Synthetic human and ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (hCRH, oCRH) are commonly used as a diagnostic tool of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this paper reports about side effects after various modes of CRH-application are analyzed and compared to our corresponding data of human studies with hCRH and oCRH. Generally, CRH is well tolerated after single administration and interval-application of standard doses,

M. Nink; U. Krause; H. Lehnert; J. Beyer



Bioactive Peptides in Ovine and Caprine Cheeselike Systems Prepared with Proteases from Cynara cardunculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)- inhibitory and antioxidant activities of peptides in wa- ter-soluble extracts, obtained from raw and sterilized ovine and caprine cheeselike systems coagulated with enzymes from the plant Cynara cardunculus, were as- sessed. Prior to the assay, the 3,000-Da permeate from 45-d-old cheeselike systems was fractionated by tan- dem chromatographic techniques. Several peaks were obtained in each

S. V. Silva; A. Pihlanto; F. X. Malcata



Allelic variants of ovine prion protein gene (PRNP) in Oklahoma sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

1,144 sheep belonging to 21 breeds and known crosses were sequence analyzed for polymorphisms in the ovine PRNP gene. Genotype and allele frequencies of polymorphisms in PRNP known to confer resistance to scrapie, a fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep, are reported. Known polymorphisms at codons 136 (A\\/V), 154 (H\\/R) and 171 (Q\\/R\\/H\\/K) were identified. The frequency of the171R allele known

U. DeSilva; X. Guo; D. M. Kupfer; S. C. Fernando; A. T. V. Pillai; F. Z. Najar; S. So; G. Q. Fitch; B. A. Roe



Acellular vaccines for ovine brucellosis: a safer alternative against a worldwide disease.  


Ovine brucellosis is a very contagious zoonotic disease distributed worldwide and constitutes a very important zoosanitary and economic problem. The control of the disease includes animal vaccination and slaughter of infected flocks. However, the commercially available vaccine in most countries is based on the attenuated strain Brucella melitensis Rev 1, which presents important safety drawbacks. This review is focused on the most recent and promising acellular vaccine proposals. PMID:22149711

Martins, Raquel Da Costa; Irache, Juan M; Gamazo, Carlos



Maternal Glucocorticoid Treatment Programs Alterations in the Renin-Angiotensin System of the Ovine Fetal Kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovine fetuses exposed to high concentrations of synthetic (dexamethasone, D) or naturally occurring glucocorticoids (cortisol, F) in utero during early gestation develop high blood pressure in adulthood. To investigate potential mechanisms involved, we examined the role of the renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ewes were infused with isotonic saline (S, n 11), D (n 12, 0.48 mg\\/h), or F (n 5,




The in vitro effect of leptin on growth hormone secretion from primary cultured ovine somatotrophs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although existing data suggest an influence of leptin on circulating levels of growth hormone (GH), the action site and properties\\u000a of leptin are still controversial. Using primary cultured ovine pituitary cells, we studied the direct effect of leptin on\\u000a the secretion of GH. Pituitary cells were dissociated by collagenase and subjected to Percoll gradient centrifugation to enrich\\u000a the somatotroph population

Chen Chen; Sang-Gun Roh; Gui-Ying Nie; Kylie Loneragan; Ru-Wei Xu; Ming Ruan; Iain J. Clarke; James W. Goding; Arieh Gertler



Ovine serum immunoglobulin has immunomodulatory effects in growing rats gavaged with Salmonella enteritidis.  


In this study, we aimed to determine whether orally administered ovine serum Ig modulate aspects of immunity and associated gut microflora in growing rats challenged with Salmonella enteritidis. The 4 groups consisted of rats fed a casein-based control diet (BD; ungavaged) and 3 groups of rats gavaged with 1 × 10(7) viable Salmonella enteritidis and fed a BD diet, a BD diet containing freeze-dried ovine Ig (FDOI), or a BD diet containing inactivated ovine Ig (IOI). The rats were randomly allocated to 1 of the 4 diets (n = 15) and consumed it for 18 d. They were orally gavaged on d 15. Phagocytic activity of peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of the concanavalin A (ConA) were greater (P < 0.05) in the ungavaged BD- and gavaged FDOI-fed rats than in the gavaged rats fed either the BD or IOI diet. ConA-stimulated Peyer's patch cells and splenocytes from the gavaged rats fed the FDOI diet produced more IFN?, IgA, and IgG than the gavaged rats fed either the BD or IOI diet (P < 0.05). The gavaged FDOI-fed rats had higher ileal and colonic digesta and plasma concentrations of anti-Salmonella secretory sIgA and secretory sIgG (P < 0.05). DNA analysis of a denatured gradient gel electrophoresis profile revealed that 6 of 10 bands had sequence similarity to probiotic strains of bacteria in the ileum and colon of the gavaged FDOI-fed rats. In conclusion, an ovine Ig fraction modulated various indices of immune function and associated gut microflora in growing rats inoculated with Salmonella. PMID:21411611

Balan, Prabhu; Han, Kyoung-Sik; Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay; Singh, Harjinder; Moughan, Paul J



Molecular study of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene expression in respect to different energy intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) plays an important role in a ruminant's metabolism catalyzing the first committed reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway as it provides necessary compounds of NADPH for the synthesis of fatty acids. The cloning of ovine (Ovis aries) G6PD gene revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (oG6PDA and oG6PDB), with oG6PDB being a product of alternative

George P. Laliotis; Alkistis Vitsa; Iosif Bizelis; Maria A. Charismiadou; Emmanuel Rogdakis



Molecular cloning and characterisation of the CD18 partner in ovine ( Ovis aries) ? 2-integrins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leukocyte integrins play a critical role in a number of cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. We describe here the isolation and characterization of the ovine ?2 (CD18) subunit, common to the leukocyte ?2-integrin family. The deduced 770-amino-acid sequence reveals a transmembrane protein with 81%, 83% and 95% identity with its murine, human and bovine homologues, respectively. Comparisons

L Zecchinon; T Fett; E Baise; D Desmecht



Secretion of IGF-1 by ovine granulosa cells: effects of growth hormone and follicle stimulating hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is implicated in follicle development and is considered to mediate the actions of growth hormone (GH) and gonadotrophins at the ovarian level. However, the expression and secretion of IGF-1 by the ovary are controversial, partly because of species and cell-type specificity. The present study investigated whether IGF-1 is produced by ovine granulosa cells and whether its

M Khalid; W Haresign; M. R Luck



Effect of extraction buffer on estimating calpain and calpastatin activity in postmortem ovine muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of extraction buffer on extractable calpain and calpastatin activity in postmortem muscles was examined. Muscles were removed from ovine carcasses 24 h after slaughter and extracted with three volumes of two extraction buffers containing 20 (pH 7.5) and 100 (pH 8.3) mM Tris. There was a significant difference in pH of the muscle homogenates, having a pH of 5.84

E Veiseth; M Koohmaraie



Characterization of ovine Nectin-4, a novel peste des petits ruminants virus receptor.  


Small ruminants infected with peste des petits ruminants virus exhibit lesions typical of epithelial infection and necrosis. However, the only established host receptor for this virus is the immune cell marker signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). We have confirmed that the ovine Nectin-4 protein, when overexpressed in epithelial cells, permits efficient replication of PPRV. Furthermore, this gene was predominantly expressed in epithelial tissues and encoded by multiple haplotypes in sheep breeds from around the world. PMID:23388720

Birch, Jamie; Juleff, Nicholas; Heaton, Michael P; Kalbfleisch, Ted; Kijas, James; Bailey, Dalan



Enterococcus faecalis affects the proliferation and differentiation of ovine osteoblast-like cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) is a Gram-positive bacterium, mostly recovered from root-filled teeth with persistent periapical lesions. Bacterial contamination\\u000a of root canals inevitably results in interaction between E. faecalis and periapical tissues during the dynamic process of periapical inflammation. This study investigated the impact of heat-inactivated\\u000a endodontic E. faecalis on the proliferation and the differentiation of ovine osteoblast-like cells, in

Lamprini Karygianni; Margit Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad; Günter Finkenzeller; Sebastian Sauerbier; Martin Wolkewitz; Elmar Hellwig; Ali Al-Ahmad


Ovine Adenovirus Vectors Overcome Preexisting Humoral Immunity against Human Adenoviruses In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human adenoviruses (hAd) have become widely used as tools to achieve efficient gene transfer. However, successful application of hAd-derived vectors in clinical trials is limited due to immunological and potential safety problems inherent in their human origin. In this study, we describe a recombinant ovine adenovirus (OAV) as an alternative vector for gene transfer in vivo. In contrast to




No parietal cell hypertrophy of the metaplastic corpus mucosa in the distal esophagus under PPI treatment.  


When biopsies obtained from short tongues of columnar epithelium in the distal esophagus show only corpus or cardia-corpus transitional mucosa, it remains uncertain whether we are dealing with columnar epithelium metaplasia or a sampling error. In 50 patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease receiving proton pump inhibitor (PPI) with such tongues of columnar epithelium, we noted that under this treatment, PPI-typical hypertrophy of the parietal cells in the corpus can be found, but not in the corpus or cardia/corpus transitional mucosa in biopsy material obtained from tongues of columnar epithelium in the distal esophagus. These observations may by an indication that in short segments of columnar epithelium corpus, mucosa with no PPI-induced hyperplasia of the parietal cells may be interpreted as metaplastic mucosa. PMID:19664886

Stolte, Manfred



Development of bovine-ovine interspecies cloned embryos and mitochondria segregation in blastomeres during preimplantation.  


The objective of the study was to investigate interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryonic potential and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) segregation during preimplantation development. We generated bovine-ovine reconstructed embryos via iSCNT using bovine oocytes as recipient cytoplasm and ovine fetal fibroblast as donor cells. Chromosome composition, the total cell number of blastocyst and embryonic morphology were analyzed. In addition, mtDNA copy numbers both from donor cell and recipient cytoplasm were assessed by real-time PCR in individual blastocysts and blastomeres from 1- to 16-cell stage embryos. The results indicated the following: (1) cell nuclei of ovine fetal fibroblasts can dedifferentiate in enucleated bovine ooplasm, and the reconstructed embryos can develop to blastocysts. (2) 66% of iSCNT embryos had the same number of chromosome as that of donor cell, and the total cell number of iSCNT blastocysts was comparable to that of sheep parthenogenetic blastocysts. (3) RT-PCR analysis in individual blastomeres revealed that the ratio of donor cell mtDNA: recipient cytoplasm mtDNA remained constant (1%) from the one- to eight-cell stage. However, the ratio decreased from 0.6% at the 16-cell stage to 0.1% at the blastocyst stage. (4) Both donor cell- and recipient cytoplasm-derived mitochondria distributed unequally in blastomeres with progression of cell mitotic division. Considerable unequal mitochondrial segregation occurred between blastomeres from the same iSCNT embryos. PMID:17399920

Hua, Song; Zhang, Yong; Song, Kai; Song, Jimei; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Chi; Cao, Junwei; Ma, Libing



Evaluation of gene targeting by homologous recombination in ovine somatic cells.  


Mouse models for some human genetic diseases are limited in their applications since they do not accurately reproduce the phenotype of the human disease. It has been suggested that larger animals, for example sheep, might produce more useful models, as some aspects of sheep physiology and anatomy are more similar to those of humans. The development of methods to clone animals from somatic cells provides a potential novel route to generate such large animal models following gene targeting. Here, we assess targeting of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene in ovine somatic cells using homologous recombination (HR) of targeting constructs with extensive (>11 kb) homology. Electroporation of these constructs into ovine fetal and post-natal fibroblasts generated G418-resistant clones, but none analyzed had undergone HR, suggesting that at least for this locus, it is an extremely inefficient process. Karyotyping of targeted ovine fetal fibroblasts showed them to be less chromosomally stable than post-natal fibroblasts, and, moreover, extended culture periods caused them to senesce, adversely affecting their viability for use as nuclear transfer donor cells. These data stress the importance of donor cell choice in somatic cell cloning and suggest that culture time be kept to a minimum prior to nuclear transfer in order to maximize cell viability. PMID:12950098

Williams, Sarah H; Sahota, Virender; Palmai-Pallag, Timea; Tebbutt, Scott J; Walker, Jean; Harris, Ann



Effects of antibacterial agents on in vitro ovine ruminal biotransformation of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid jacobine.  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, naturally occurring plant toxins, causes illness and death in a number of animal species. Senecio jacobaea pyrrolizidine alkaloids cause significant economic losses due to livestock poisoning, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. Some sheep are resistant to pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning, because ovine ruminal biotransformation detoxifies free pyrrolizidine alkaloids in digesta. Antibacterial agents modify ruminal fermentation. Pretreatment with antibacterial agents may account for some animal variability in resistance to pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicosis, and antibacterial agents can also be used for characterizing ruminal pyrrolizidine alkaloid-biotransforming microflora. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of antibacterial agents on biotransformation of a predominant S. jacobaea pyrrolizidine alkaloid, jacobine, in ovine ruminal contents. Ovine ruminal jacobine biotransformation was tested in vitro with 20 independent antibacterial agents. Low amounts of rifampin and erythromycin prevented jacobine biotransformation. Chlortetracycline, lasalocid, monensin, penicillin G, and tetracycline were slightly less effective at inhibiting jacobine biotransformation. Bacitracin, crystal violet, kanamycin, and neomycin were moderately inhibitory against jacobine biotransformation. Brilliant green, chloramphenicol, gramicidin, nalidixic acid, polymyxin B SO4, sodium azide, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and vancomycin had little to no effect on jacobine biotransformation. The antibiotics that were most effective at inhibiting biotransformation were those that are active against gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, gram-positive bacteria are most likely critical members of the jacobine-biotransforming consortia.

Wachenheim, D E; Blythe, L L; Craig, A M




PubMed Central

Due to its proximity to the mitral valve, the coronary sinus (CS) vessel serves as a conduit for the deployment and implantation of the percutaneous transvenous mitral annuloplasty (PTMA) devices that can potentially reduce the mitral regurgitation. Because CS vessel is a venous tissue and seldom diseased, its mechanical properties have not been well studied. In this study, we performed the multi-axial mechanical test and histological analysis to characterize the mechanical and structural properties of the aged human, porcine and ovine CS tissues. The results showed that the aged human CS tissues exhibited much stiffer and highly anisotropic behaviors compared to the porcine and ovine. Both of the porcine and ovine CS vessel walls were thicker and mainly composed of striated muscle fibers (SMF), whereas the thinner aged human CS had higher collagen, lesser SMF, and more fragmented elastin fibers, which are possibly due to the aging effects. We also observed that the anatomical features of porcine CS vessel might be not suitable for the PTMA deployment. These differences between animal and human models raise questions for the validity of using animal models to investigate the biomechanics involved in the PTMA intervention. Therefore, caution must be taken in future studies of PTMA stents using animal models.

Pham, Thuy; Sun, Wei



The prion-like protein Doppel enhances ovine spermatozoa fertilizing ability.  


The function of prion-like protein Doppel was suggested to be related to male fertility. In this study, the importance of ovine Doppel polypeptide on spermatozoa capacitation and fertilization was evaluated. After refolding, recombinant Doppel (rDpl) was supplemented with different concentrations (40, 80 or 190 ng/ml) to ovine spermatozoa during the capacitation process. In experiment 1, post-thawed ovine spermatozoa were incubated with different concentrations of rDpl during 1 h for swim-up, and changes in sperm motility, concentration, vigour, viability and capacitation were monitored (10 replicates). In experiment 2, the fertilization ability of post-swim-up spermatozoa incubated as above was tested through heterologous fertilization of bovine in vitro matured oocytes (n = 423, three replicates). Regardless of dosage, rDpl improved (p ? 0.03) spermatozoa viability. Sperm individual motility and vigour were the highest (p ? 0.04) for the group receiving 190?ng/ml rDpl. Sperm supplemented with the highest doses of rDpl achieved higher (p = 0.02) fertilization rates (56.0 ± 3.0%) than control (39.1 ± 2.2%) and 40 ng/ml rDpl (39.8 ± 2.7%). Preliminary data suggest that Doppel protein may enhance in vitro spermatozoa fertilizing ability. PMID:21806689

Pimenta, J; Dias, F M V; Marques, C C; Baptista, M C; Vasques, M I; Horta, A E M; Barbas, J P; Soares, R; Mesquita, P; Cabrita, E; Fontes, C M G A; Prates, J A; Pereira, R M



Catalan-English Statistical Machine Translation without Parallel Corpus: Bridging through Spanish  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a full experiment on large-vocabulary Catalan-English statistical machine translation without an English-Catalan parallel corpus, in the context of the debates of the European Parliament. For this, we make use of an English-Spanish European Parliament Proceedings parallel corpus and a Spanish-Catalan general newspaper parallel corpus, both of which of more than 30 M words. Given the language proximity

Adrià de Gispert; José B. Mariño


A critical re-examination of sexual dimorphism in the corpus callosum microstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) studies suggest sexual dimorphism in the micro-structural architecture of the corpus callosum. However, the corpus callosum is also found to be larger in males than in females, a fact that might introduce a systematic bias to the analysis of DTI parameters. Diffusion parameters obtained in the larger male corpus callosum could be less affected by partial-volume

René Westerhausen; Kristiina Kompus; Margaretha Dramsdahl; Liv E. Falkenberg; Renate Grüner; Helene Hjelmervik; Karsten Specht; Kerstin Plessen; Kenneth Hugdahl



Lipoma of corpus callosum associated with dysraphic lesions and trisomy 13  

SciTech Connect

We report on a further case of corpus callosal lipoma and frontal cranial defects. Most cases in the literature of corpus callosal lipoma in association with {open_quotes}dysraphic{close_quotes} lesions have been frontal in location. Malformation of the corpus callosum is said to be associated with 50% of these lipomas. Trisomy 13 was confirmed by the 13q14 cosmid probe on paraffin-embedded liver tissue. 19 refs., 5 figs.

Wainwright, H.; Bowen, R.; Radcliffe, M. [Univ. of Cape Town Medical School (South Africa)



Prognosis of uterine corpus cancer after tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamoxifen increases the risk of uterine corpus cancer. Since only few, mostly small, studies have examined prognosis of uterine\\u000a corpus cancer following tamoxifen, we conducted a large retrospective cohort study to further investigate this. We examined\\u000a histopathologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of 332 patients with uterine corpus cancer following breast cancer,\\u000a according to tamoxifen use. Survival was examined in the same

Wilhelmina E. Hoogendoorn; Harry Hollema; Hester H. van Boven; Elisabeth Bergman; Geri de Leeuw-Mantel; Inge Platteel; Renske Fles; Petra M. Nederlof; Marian J. E. Mourits; Flora E. van Leeuwen



Cross Sentence Alignment for Structurally Dissimilar Corpus Based on Singular Value Decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracting the alignment pairs is a critical step for constructing bilingual corpus knowledge base for Example Based Machine\\u000a Translation Systems. Different methods have been proposed in aligning parallel corpus between two different languages. However,\\u000a most of them focus on structurally similar languages like English-French. This paper presents a method of cross aligning Portuguese-Chinese\\u000a bilingual comparable corpus. The proposed approach is

Anna Ho; Fai Wong; Francisco Oliveira; Yiping Li



Cross-Lingual Pseudo-Relevance Feedback Using a Comparable Corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied a Cross-Lingual PRF (Pseudo-Relevance Feedback) system to both the monolingual task and the German->English task.\\u000a We focused on the effects of extracting a comparable corpus from the given newspaper data; our corpus doubled the average\\u000a precision when used together with a parallel corpus made available to participants. The PRF performance was lower for the\\u000a queries with few relevant

Monica Rogati; Yiming Yang



A web-based Bengali news corpus for named entity recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development of language resources and tools using machine learning techniques for less computerized languages requires\\u000a appropriately tagged corpus. A tagged Bengali news corpus has been developed from the web archive of a widely read Bengali\\u000a newspaper. A web crawler retrieves the web pages in Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) format from the news archive. At present,\\u000a the corpus

Asif Ekbal; Sivaji Bandyopadhyay




EPA Science Inventory

The study described here examined effects on mortality, growth, reproduction, and behavior of Americamysis bahi exposed under extended static conditions to bedded sediments from Corpus Christi Bay. ...


Allergic sensitization to domestic mites in Corpus Christi, Texas.  


Corpus Christi, TX, is a Gulf Coast city with high humidity levels year-round. There is little available data on mite species in mattress dust, allergen levels, and sensitization to different mite species in allergic patients. This study was designed to determine skin sensitization and specific serum IgE to Dermatophagoides spp. and Blomia tropicalis in patients attending an allergy clinic and to explore the mite fauna and allergen content of their mattresses. Skin-prick tests to Dermatophagoides spp. and B. tropicalis along with mite-specific IgE in the serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and ImmunoCAP tests were performed in allergic patients attending an outpatient allergy clinic in Corpus Christi, TX. Mite species and allergen levels were determined in mattress dust. Forty-five consecutive patients were evaluated; 10 patients had positive skin tests to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and B. tropicalis, 32 patients reacted only to D. pteronyssinus, and 3 patients reacted exclusively to B. tropicalis. Increased titers of D. pteronyssinus- and D. farinae-specific IgE were present and B. tropicalis-specific IgE titers were lower. Significant amounts of mites were observed in 79.5% of dust samples, with a predominance of D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. Other mite species, such as B. tropicalis, Euroglyphus maynei, Tarsonemus spp., Tyrophagus putrescientiae, Cheyletus spp., and Oribatidae were also observed. Greater levels of Der p and Der f 1 than of Blo t 5 were present in the mattresses. D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae are the prevalent mite species in houses of allergic patients from Corpus Christi, TX. Other mite species are also found. PMID:19463206

Caplin, James; Capriles-Hulett, Arnaldo; Iraola, Victor; Pinto, Helder; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; de los Santos, Gloria; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique


Polyvinyl alcohol as a defined substitute for serum in vitrification and warming solutions to cryopreserve ovine embryos at different stages of development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the viability of ovine embryos after replacing fetal calf serum (FCS) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in vitrification and warming solutions. Ovine embryos were obtained from superovulated Sardinian breed ewes at 4, 5, 6, and 7 days after insemination. All vitrification and warming solutions were prepared using buffered saline solution with 20% FCS

S. Naitana; S. Ledda; P. Loi; G. Leoni; L. Bogliolo; M. Dattena; P. Cappai



Coexpression of ovine LPS receptor CD14 with Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin receptor LFA-1 or Mac1 does not enhance leukotoxin-induced cytotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukotoxin (Lkt) and LPS are the major virulence determinants of Mannheimia haemolytica that contribute to the pathogenesis of bovine and ovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. We have previously identified bovine and ovine CD18 as the functional receptor for Lkt. LPS complexes with Lkt resulting in increased thermal stability and enhanced cytotoxic activity of Lkt. Cellular recognition of LPS involves several different molecules

Rohana P. Dassanayake; Paulraj K. Lawrence; Donald P. Knowles; William C. Davis; William J. Foreyt; Subramaniam Srikumaran



Four text classification algorithms compared on a Dutch corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an experiment in applying text classification\\u000a algorithms to Dutch texts. Four well known learning\\u000a algorithms: Rocchio's algorithm (W.W. Cohen and Y. Singer,\\u000a 1995), the Simple Bayesian Classifier (SEC) (R.O. Duda and\\u000a P.E. Hart, 1973), the Sleeping Experts (SE) and Winnow (I.\\u000a Dagan et al., 1997) were implemented. They were tested on\\u000a a corpus of articles from the Dutch

Hein Ragas; Cornelis H. A. Koster



A human language corpus for interstellar message construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of HuLCC (the human language chorus corpus), is to provide a resource of sufficient size to facilitate inter-language analysis by incorporating languages from all the major language families: for the first time all aspects of typology will be incorporated within a single corpus, adhering to a consistent grammatical classification and granularity, which historically adopt a plethora of disparate schemes. An added feature will be the inclusion of a common text element, which will be translated across all languages, to provide a precise comparable thread for detailed linguistic analysis for translation strategies and a mechanism by which these mappings can be explicitly achieved. Methods developed to solve unambiguous mappings across these languages can then be adopted for any subsequent message authored by the SETI community. Initially, it is planned to provide at least 20,000 words for each chosen language, as this amount of text exceeds the point where randomly generated text can be disambiguated from natural language and is of sufficient size useful for message transmission [1] (Elliot, 2002). This paper details the design of this resource, which ultimately will be made available to SETI upon its completion, and discusses issues 'core' to any message construction.

Elliott, John



Corpus Callosum Differences associated with Persistent Stuttering in Adults  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have implicated anatomical differences in speech-relevant brain regions of adults who stutter (AWS) compared to normally fluent adults (NFA). The present study focused on the region of the corpus callosum (CC) which is involved in interhemispheric processing between the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Two-dimensional segmentation of area and voxel based morphometry were used to evaluate the corpus callosum. Results revealed that the rostrum and anterior midbody of the CC was larger in AWS than NFA. In addition, the overall callosa area was larger in AWS than NFA. The group comparison of white matter volume showed a cluster of increased white matter volume predominantly encompassing the rostrum across the midline portion in AWS. These results potentially reflect anatomical changes associated with differences in the hemispheric distribution of language processes that has been reported previously in AWS. Educational objectives After reading this article, the reader will be able to: (1) summarize research findings on functional and anatomical differences between AWS and NFA; (2) summarize research findings on anatomical anomalies observed in AWS; (3) discuss the possible relationships between functional and anatomical aberrations in AWS; and (4) discuss how the findings of the present study may support results of previous behavioral investigations (e.g. dichotic listening) in AWS.

Choo, Ai Leen; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Olivero, William; Ambrose, Nicoline G.; Sharma, Harish; Chang, Soo-Eun; Loucks, Torrey



Corpus callosotomy in a patient with startle epilepsy.  


Startle epilepsy is a syndrome of reflex epilepsy in which the seizures are precipitated by a sudden and surprising, usually auditory, stimulus. We describe herein a girl who had been suffering with startle-induced seizures since 2 years of age. She had focal, tonic and tonic-clonic seizures, refractory to antiepileptic treatment. Daily tonic seizures led to very frequent falls and morbidity. Neurologically, she had no deficit. Interictal EEG showed slow waves and epileptiform discharges in central and fronto-central regions. Video-polygraphic recordings of seizures, triggered by stimuli, showed generalised symmetric tonic posturing with ictal EEG, characterised by an abrupt and diffuse electrodecremental pattern of fast activity, followed by alpha-theta rhythm superimposed by epileptic discharges predominantly over the vertex and anterior regions. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormalities. Corpus callosotomy was performed when the patient was 17. Since surgery, the patient (one year follow-up) has remained seizure-free. Corpus callosotomy may be considered in patients with startle epilepsy and tonic seizures, in the absence of focal lesions amenable to surgery. [Published with video sequences]. PMID:23531553

Gómez, Nicolás Garófalo; Hamad, Ana Paula; Marinho, Murilo; Tavares, Igor M; Carrete, Henrique; Caboclo, Luís Otávio; Yacubian, Elza Márcia; Centeno, Ricardo



Reduced area of the corpus callosum in posttraumatic stress disorder.  


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have revealed decreases in the mid-sagittal area of the corpus callosum (CC) in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but at present no data are available in adult PTSD patients. We have previously reported decreased whole-brain white matter (WM) volume in adults with PTSD and now report corpus callosum area from the same sample. MRI was used to obtain whole-brain images in 12 adult patients with PTSD and 10 matched controls. Total parenchyma (white matter plus gray matter [GM]) volume, mid-sagittal area of the CC and seven sub-regions of this structure were calculated. In PTSD patients, the total CC area, absolute and normalized to total brain parenchyma, was smaller compared with control values. Several absolute and normalized CC sub-regions were also smaller in PTSD patients: genu (region 2), mid-body (region 5) and isthmus (region 6). There was also a trend for the anterior mid-body (area 4) to be smaller in PTSD patients. No differences were found in the rostrum (region 1), rostral body (region 3) or splenium (region 7). Adult patients with PTSD had decreased CC area after correcting for total brain tissue, indicating that these differences are not attributable to generalized white matter atrophy. These findings are similar to previous results in children with PTSD and suggest specific changes in the CC. PMID:15465292

Villarreal, Gerardo; Hamilton, Derek A; Graham, David P; Driscoll, Ira; Qualls, Clifford; Petropoulos, Helen; Brooks, William M



Quantitative analysis of [Dmt(1)]DALDA in ovine plasma by capillary liquid chromatography-nanospray ion-trap mass spectrometry.  


The synthetic opioid peptide analog Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH(2) ([Dmt(1)]DALDA; [Dmt= 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) is a highly potent and selective mu opioid-receptor agonist. A very sensitive and robust capillary liquid chromatography/nanospray ion-trap (IT) mass spectrometry method has been developed to quantify [Dmt(1)]DALDA in ovine plasma, using deuterated [Dmt(1)]DALDA as the internal standard. The standard MS/MS spectra of d(0)- and d(5)-[Dmt(1)]DALDA were obtained, and the collision energy was experimentally optimized to 25%. The product ion [ M + 2H-NH(3)](2+) (m/z 312.2) was used to identify and to quantify the synthetic opioid peptide analog in ovine plasma samples. The MS/MS detection sensitivity for [Dmt(1)]DALDA was 625 amol. A calibration curve was constructed, and quantitative analysis was performed on a series of ovine plasma samples. PMID:15026001

Wan, Haibao; Umstot, Edward S; Szeto, Hazel H; Schiller, Peter W; Desiderio, Dominic M



The Virtual Corpus Approach to Deriving Ngram Statistics from Large Scale Corpora  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports our implementation of the Virtual Corpus approach to deriving ngram statistics for ngrams of any length from large-scale corpora based on the suffix ar- ray data structure. In order to enable the VC to accommodate corpora with a vocabulary of different size, we first convert corpus tokens into integer codes. To accelerate the pro- cessing, we employ

Chunyu Kit; Yorick Wilks



A Corpus-Based Study on Mapping Principles of Metaphors in Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes a corpus-based method to generate Mapping Principle of metaphors. In particular, Ahrens's (2002) Mapping Principle in the Conceptual Mapping Model (CM model) is simply based on the native speakers' intuition instead of analyzing it from huge linguistic data. In order to provide more convincing evidence to support the CM model, we adopt the corpus method to extract

Shu-Ping Gong


An Evaluation of an Online Bilingual Corpus for the Self-Learning of Legal English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a bilingual corpus of legal and documentary texts in English and Chinese and reports a study that sought to evaluate the usefulness of the corpus in the self-learning of legal English. Subjects were Chinese students doing a degree in translation at a university in Hong Kong, where English common law is still used since the handover of…

Fan, May; Xunfeng, Xu



The Role of Corpus Callosum Development in Functional Connectivity and Cognitive Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corpus callosum is hypothesized to play a fundamental role in integrating information and mediating complex behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that lack of normal callosal development can lead to deficits in functional connectivity that are related to impairments in specific cognitive domains. We examined resting-state functional connectivity in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) and matched controls using

Leighton B. N. Hinkley; Elysa J. Marco; Anne M. Findlay; Susanne Honma; Rita J. Jeremy; Zoe Strominger; Polina Bukshpun; Mari Wakahiro; Warren S. Brown; Lynn K. Paul; A. James Barkovich; Pratik Mukherjee; Srikantan S. Nagarajan; Elliott H. Sherr



Annotating a corpus to develop and evaluate discourse entity realization algorithms: issues and preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are annotating a corpus with information relevant to discourse entity realization, and especially the information n eeded to decide which type of NP to use. The corpus is being used to study correlations between NP type and certain semantic or discourse features, to evaluate hand-coded algorithms, and to train statistical m odels. We report on the development of our

Massimo Poesio



Regional Pattern of Increased Water Diffusivity in Hippocampus and Corpus Callosum in Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Corpus callosum atrophy possibly indicates neuronal degeneration in association cortex in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Water diffusivity allows detecting physiological changes that probably occur earlier than structural shrinkage in cerebral regions during the development of AD. Objective: To simultaneously investigate the focal volumetric and early structural changes with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of corpus callosum in mild cognitive impairment (MCI),

Huali Wang; Min-Ying Su



Building and annotating a corpus for the study of journalistic text reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the METER Corpus, a novel resource for the study and analysis of journalistic text reuse. The corpus consists of a set of news stories written by the Press Association (PA), the major UK news agency, and a set of stories about the same news events, as published in various British newspapers. In some cases the

Paul Clough; Robert Gaizauskas; Scott Piao



English Collocation Learning through Corpus Data: On-Line Concordance and Statistical Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We developed an English Collocations On Demand system offering on-line corpus and concordance information to help Japanese researchers acquire a better command of English collocation patterns. The Life Science Dictionary Corpus consists of approximately 90,000,000 words collected from life science related research papers published in academic…

Ohtake, Hiroshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Morren, Brian; Ugawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Shuji



Verb-Noun Collocations in Second Language Writing: A Corpus Analysis of Learners' English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigates the use of English verb-noun collocations in the writing of native speakers of Hebrew at three proficiency levels. For this purpose, we compiled a learner corpus that consists of about 300,000 words of argumentative and descriptive essays. For comparison purposes, we selected LOCNESS, a corpus of young adult native…

Laufer, Batia; Waldman, Tina



More than a Linguistic Reference: The Infuence of Corpus Technology on L2 Academic Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a qualitative study that investigated the changes in students' writing process associated with corpus use over an extended period of time. The primary purpose of this study was to examine how corpus technology affects students' development of competence as second language (L2) writers. The research was mainly based on case…

Yoon, Hyunsook



Corpus Callosum and Prefrontal Functions in Adolescents with History of Very Preterm Birth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very preterm (VPT) birth can account for thinning of the corpus callosum and poorer cognitive performance. Research findings about preterm and VPT adolescents usually describe a small posterior corpus callosum, although our research group has also found reductions of the anterior part, specifically the genu. The aim of the present study was to…

Narberhaus, Ana; Segarra, Dolors; Caldu, Xavier; Gimenez, Monica; Pueyo, Roser; Botet, Francesc; Junque, Carme



A quantitative MRI study of the corpus callosum in children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total midsagittal area and seven subdivisions of the corpus callosum were measured on magnetic resonance images of 114 healthy boys and girls, aged 4 to 18. Striking variability of size was noted for all measures. Total midsagittal corpus callosum area increased in a robust and linear fashion from ages 4 to 18 (slope = 13.1 mm2\\/year, P = 0.0001 and

Jay N. Giedd; Judith M. Rumsey; F. Xavier Castellanos; Jagath C. Rajapakse; Debra Kaysen; A. Catherine Vaituzis; Yolanda C. Vauss; Susan D. Hamburger; Judith L. Rapoport



The design for the wall street journal-based CSR corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DARPA Spoken Language System (SLS) community has long taken a leadership position in designing, implementing, and globally distributing significant speech corpora widely used for advancing speech recognition research. The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) CSR Corpus described here is the newest addition to this valuable set of resources. In contrast to previous corpora, the WSJ corpus will provide DARPA its

Douglas B. Paul; Janet M. Baker



The JRC-Acquis: A multilingual aligned parallel corpus with 20+ languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new, unique and freely available parallel corpus containing European Union (EU) documents of mostly legal nature. It is available in all 20 official EU languages, with additional documents being available in the languages of the EU candidate countries. The corpus consists of almost 8,000 documents per language, with an average size of nearly 9 million words per

Ralf Steinberger; Bruno Pouliquen; Anna Widiger; Camelia Ignat; Tomaz Erjavec; Dan Tufis; Daniel Varga



The English Definite Article: What ESL/EFL Grammars Say and What Corpus Findings Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To ascertain whether what ESL/EFL grammars say is informed by what scholars discuss in the literature and supported by what corpus findings actually show, this paper first presents a brief overview of the literature on the English definite article and then compares popular ESL/EFL grammars' coverage of "the" and corpus findings on definite…

WonHo Yoo, Isaiah



Reduced Interhemispheric Connectivity in Schizophrenia- Tractography Based Segmentation of the Corpus Callosum  

PubMed Central

Background A reduction in interhemispheric connectivity is thought to contribute to the etiology of schizophrenia. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) measures the diffusion of water and can be used to describe the integrity of the corpus callosum white matter tracts, thereby providing information concerning possible interhemispheric connectivity abnormalities. Previous DTI studies in schizophrenia are inconsistent in reporting decreased Fractional Anisotropy (FA), a measure of anisotropic diffusion, within different portions of the corpus callosum. Moreover, none of these studies has investigated corpus callosum systematically, using anatomical subdivisions. Methods DTI and structural MRI scans were obtained from 32 chronic schizophrenic subjects and 42 controls. Corpus callosum cross sectional area and its probabilistic subdivisions were determined automatically from structural MRI scans using a model based deformable contour segmentation. These subdivisions employ a previously generated probabilistic subdivision atlas, based on fiber tractography and anatomical lobe subdivision. The structural scan was then co-registered with the DTI scan and the anatomical corpus callosum subdivisions were propagated to the associated FA map. Results Results revealed decreased FA within parts of the corpus interconnecting frontal regions in schizophrenia compared with controls, but no significant changes for callosal fibers interconnecting parietal and temporo-occipital brain regions. In addition, integrity of the anterior corpus was statistically significantly correlated with negative as well as positive symptoms, while posterior measures correlated with positive symptoms only. Conclusions This study provides quantitative evidence for a reduction of interhemispheric brain connectivity in schizophrenia, involving corpus callosum, and further points to frontal connections as possibly disrupted in schizophrenia.

Kubicki, M.; Styner, M.; Bouix, S.; Gerig, G.; Markant, D.; Smith, K.; Kikinis, R.; McCarley, R.W.; Shenton, M.E.



Now I am alone : A corpus stylistic approach to Shakespearian soliloquies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A popular interest in Shakespeare has been matched in recent years by an increasing number of computer-assisted analyses of the plays. Although not without their critics, corpus stylistic studies have offered scope and reliability in the study of literary texts, particularly through key word analyses. In this paper, I show how Wmatrix , a web-based corpus processing environment (Rayson, 2003,

Sean Murphy


Three sibs with microcephaly, clubfeet and agenesis of corpus callosum: a new genetic syndrome?  


Clubfoot is a common birth deformity, and agenesis of the corpus callosum is one of the most prevalent brain malformations. We describe three sibs of Arab origin, who were born with clubfeet, agenesis of corpus callosum, and minor anomalies. Two of them were born with microcephaly. This phenotype may represent a novel autosomal recessive genetic condition. PMID:21465661

Shkalim, Vered; Ben-Sira, Liat; Inbar, Dov; Kaadan, Walid; Basel-Vanagaite, Lina; Straussberg, Rachel



Sexual dimorphism in the human corpus callosum? A comparison of methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mid-sagittal magnetic resonance images of 104 normal individuals were analyzed to assess whether or not the corpus callosum or parts thereof is sexually dimorphic in favor of females. Subjects were 56 males and 48 females, both groups being closely age matched. The outline of the corpus callosum was divided into seven sub-areas, using three different orientations. A comparison was made

Deborah Constant; Heinz Ruther



Conversational Telephone Speech Corpus Collection for the NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluation 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses some of the factors that should be considered when designing a speech corpus collection to be used for text- independent speaker recognition evaluation. The factors include telephone handset type, telephone transmission type, language, and (non-telephone) microphone type. The paper describes the design of the new corpus collection being undertaken by the Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) to support

Alvin Martin; David Miller; Mark Przybocki; Joseph Campbell; Hirotaka Nakasone



‘I just couldn't do it’: representations of constraint in an oral history corpus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corpus linguistic techniques are increasingly being used by discourse analysts whose interest is in the ‘critical’ issues of inequality and the representation of disadvantaged groups. This paper reports an extension of these approaches, where concordancing was used to analyse a corpus of 144 transcribed oral history interviews in order to explore the issue of constraint on the speakers’ goals and

Alison Sealey



Surgical treatment of induratio penis plastica (Peyronie's disease) with a corpus cavernosum graft.  


Four patients with induratio penis plastica, involving the corpus cavernosum, have been treated by excision of the affected tissue and filling of the defect by a transplant of corpus cavernosum bulbi urethrae. Cavernosograms and a histological study indicate that the operative results were good, but the case histories stress the need of extreme care in the selection of patients. PMID:444774

Medgyesi, S



Formulaic Language in Native and Second Language Speakers: Psycholinguistics, Corpus Linguistics, and TESOL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Natural language makes considerable use of recurrent formulaic patterns of words. This article triangulates the construct of "formula" from corpus linguistic, psycholinguistic, and educational perspectives. It describes the corpus linguistic extraction of pedagogically useful formulaic sequences for academic speech and writing. It determines…

Ellis, Nick C.; Simpson-Vlach, Rita; Maynard, Carson



Word Statistics of Turkish Language on a Large Scale Text Corpus - TurCo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of the statistical properties of a natural language is one of the most important part of the language analysis. Number of different words (NODW), and different word usage ratio (DWUR) concepts are some of the general characteristics of a corpus. These values are described and calculated for the Turkish corpus (TurCo). Also, word n-grams are calculated for Turkish which

Gökhan Dalkiliç; Yalçin Çebi



Evaluations of NLG Systems: common corpus and tasks or common dimensions and metrics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this position paper, we argue that a common task and corpus are not the only ways to evaluate Natural Language Gen- eration (NLG) systems. It might be, in fact, too narrow a view on evaluation and thus not be the best way to evaluate these systems. The aim of a common task and corpus is to allow for a

Cécile Paris; Nathalie Colineau; Ross Wilkinson



Cross-sectional area of the elephant corpus callosum: comparison to other eutherian mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study reports our findings of the relationship between cross-sectional area of the corpus callosum and brain mass in over 100 eutherian mammal species. We were specifically interested in determining whether the elephant had a corpus callosum the size that would be expected for eutherian mammal with a brain mass of approximately 5000 g, or whether a different morphology

P. R. Manger; J. Hemingway; M. Haagensen; E. Gilissen



Interface Conditions on Postverbal Subjects: A Corpus Study of L2 English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates how syntactic knowledge interfaces with other cognitive systems by analysing the production of postverbal subjects, V(erb)-S(ubject) order, in an L1 Spanish-L2 English corpus and a comparable English native corpus. VS order in both native and L2 English is shown to be constrained by properties operating at three interfaces:…

Lozano, Cristobal; Mendikoetxea, Amaya



Creating and exploiting a comparable corpus in cross-language information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for creating a comparable text corpus from two document collections in different languages. The collections can be very different in origin: in this study we build a comparable corpus from articles by a Swedish news agency and a U.S. newspaper. The keys with best resolution power were extracted from the documents of one collection, the source

Tuomas Talvensaari; Jorma Laurikkala; Kalervo Järvelin; Martti Juhola; Heikki Keskustalo



A corpus-based error typology: towards a more objective approach to measuring quality in localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines current localization quality assessment through a product-based analysis of error typologies and the role they play in producing reliable and valid measurements. In order to provide a more objective foundation for localization quality, the methodology used is based on a monolingual comparable corpus of original and localized Spanish corporate websites. The contrastive analysis of this corpus highlighted

Miguel A. Jimenez-Crespo



Comparison of corpus callosotomy and vagus nerve stimulation in children with Lennox–Gastaut syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To compare the efficacy of corpus callosotomy and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for long-term adjunctive therapy in children with Lennox–Gastaut syndrome (LGS). Method: Fourteen patients underwent a total corpus callosotomy and 10 patients received VNS implantation. The patients were monitored for more than 12 months after treatment, and seizure rates and complications were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Seizure types among

Su Jeong You; Hoon-Chul Kang; Tae-Sung Ko; Heung Dong Kim; Mi-Sun Yum; Yong Soon Hwang; Jung-Kyo Lee; Dong Suk Kim; Sang Keun Park



Developmental Dyslexia: ReEvaluation of the Corpus callosum in Male Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a new method based upon the measurement of four angles, we analyzed the corpus callosum of 23 adult male dyslexics and 25 age-matched controls on MRI sagittal scans. Two out of the four angles measured showed significant differences between the groups that are consistent with previous findings concerning the size of the corpus callosum in dyslexics. In particular, posterior

Fabrice Robichon; Pascal Bouchard; Jean-François Démonet; Michel Habib



The prognosis of agenesis of the corpus callosum might mostly be favourable  

Microsoft Academic Search

The post-natal development of 6 patients with complete agenesis of the corpus callosum was as- sessed. The diagnosis of agenesis of the corpus cal- losum had been suspected prenatally in 3 cases. In the remaining 3 cases diagnostic neuro-imaging was performed because of partial seizures (n = 2) and pendular nystagmus (n = 1). The neurological examination was normal in

G. P. Ramelli; N. Zanda; M. Wyttenbach; L. Bronz; A. Schnider


Spatial attention in agenesis of the corpus callosum: shifting attention between visual fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the corpus callosum in spatially selective visual attention is uncertain. Research using commissurotomy and callosotomy patients has attempted to determine if the corpus callosum plays a role in reorienting attention between visual fields, as if spatial attention is unitary or divisible between the cerebral hemispheres. Reorienting of selective visuospatial attention within versus between visual fields was tested

Robert J Hines; Lynn K Paul; Warren S Brown



Hypoplasia of the Corpus Callosum: A Study of 445 Consecutive MRI Scans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size of the corpus callosum was assessed visually and by computer-assisted image analysis in a series of 445 consecutive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in children under 17 years of age. Fifty individuals were subjectively identified with small corpora callosa on visual inspection of the MRI scans. Seven patients had true hypoplasia of the corpus callosum after comparing the

John Bodensteiner; G. B. Schaefer; Lisa Breeding; Linda Cowan



A Case of Schizophrenia with Complete Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the case of a person with schizophrenia and agenesis of the corpus callosum.Conclusion: A 24-year-old Caucasian woman with schizophrenia was incidentally found to have complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. A comprehensive neuropsychiatric assessment allowed management to be specifically tailored to the patient's unique clinical profile.

Dhamodharan Chinnasamy; Rebecca Rudd; Dennis Velakoulis



Gelastic epilepsy, hypothalamic hamartoma, precocious puberty, and agenesis of the corpus callosum: a new association  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a boy who has gelastic epilepsy, precocious puberty, hypothalamic hamartoma, and agenesis of the corpus callosum. We believe that this is the first documented case in which agenesis of the corpus callosum has been associated with hypothalamic hamartoma and gelastic epileptic syndrome in a child.

Alikchan A Alikchanov; Andrey S Petrukhin; Konstantin Yu Mukhin; Alexander Yu Nikanorov



A case of hypocontractile neurogenic bladder associated with agenesis of corpus callosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of hypocontractile neurogenic bladder associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum is presented. Not only detrusor pressure but the urethral and anal pressures were also very weak. Although no abnormality could be detected on cervical, thoracic and lumbar magnetic resonance imaging and myelography, dysgenesis of the spinal cord or peripheral nerves associated with agenesis of corpus callosum was

Hirofumi Oyama; Shigeaki Yokoi; Yoshinari Ono; Yoshihisa Kida



Antenatal ultrasonographic findings differentiating complete from partial agenesis of the corpus callosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four cases of complete (three) and partial (one) agenesis were evaluated ultrasonographically. The frontal lobe\\/biparietal diameter ratio were evaluated in 113 normal fetuses and compared with those ratios in fetuses with corpus callosum agenesis. In the presence of the classic ultrasonographic features of agenesis of the corpus callosum, frontal lobe shortening, along with absence of the cavum septi pellucidi, might

Ron Tepper; Yaron Zalel; Eti Gaon; Moshe Fejgin; Y. Beyth



Electroanatomy of the corpus callosum radiation according to the facts of stereotactic stimulation in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following exploratory electrical stimulation varying portions of fibres of the Corpus callosum were coagulated in a group of epileptic patients in order to interrupt the interhemispheric spreading of electrical discharges. The stimulation experiments revealed that the central fibres of the Corpus callosum are arranged according to a somatotopic pattern somewhat similar to the topology of the second motor region. The

G. SCtIALTENBRAND; H. Spuler; W. Wahren



Effects of integrin-linked kinase on human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cell cytoskeletal organisation.  


We investigated the effects of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) on the in vitro attachment, spreading, migration and microfilament dynamics of human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells. ILK small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to transfect human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells; and cell attachment, spreading and migration were assessed. Additionally, microfilament dynamics were evaluated using Alexa Fluor 488 and phalloidin staining. We found that ILK gene knock-down significantly inhibited human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cell attachment, spreading and migration. Moreover, blocking the expression of ILK disturbed actin cytoskeleton reorganisation and morphology in human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells. These results show that the targeting of ILK with siRNA significantly inhibited cell attachment, spreading, migration and microfilament dynamics in human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells. These findings indicate that ILK might be a potential therapeutic molecular target for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. PMID:22616551

Hao, Y-C; Yu, L-P; Li, Q; Zhang, X-W; Zhao, Y-P; He, P-Y; Xu, T; Wang, X-F



A survey of aflatoxin M1 contamination in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran.  


A total of 150 bovine (60), ovine (42), and caprine (48) bulk milk samples were analyzed using a commercially available competitive ELISA kit. Overall, AFM1 was found in 46.7 % of the analyzed samples by an average concentration of 40.3 ± 22.2 ng/L. The incidence rates of AFM1 contamination in bovine, ovine, and caprine bulk milk samples were 66.7, 31.0, and 35.4 %, respectively. The concentration of AFM1 in 37.5 % of AFM1-positive bovine milk samples and 5.9 % of AFM1-positive caprine milk samples were higher than 50 ng/L. PMID:22526986

Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad



The potent relaxant effect of resveratrol in rat corpus cavernosum and its underlying mechanisms.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the relaxant effect of resveratrol (RVT), one of the most commonly employed dietary polyphenols, in rat corpus cavernosum, and to further investigate the contribution of possible underlying mechanisms. Strips of corpus cavernosum were used in organ baths for isometric tension studies. RVT (10(-6)-10(-4) M) produced concentration-dependent relaxation responses in rat corpus cavernosum precontracted by phenylephrine. The relaxant responses to RVT partially, but significantly inhibited by removal of endothelium. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) blocker N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10(-4) M) or soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10(-5) M) caused a significant inhibition on relaxation response to RVT, whereas cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10(-5) M) did not significantly alter relaxant responses of corpus cavernosum strips to RVT. Corpus cavernosum contractions induced by stepwise addition to Ca(2+) to high KCl solution with no Ca(2+) were significantly inhibited by RVT incubation. The treatment of corpus cavernosum tissues with non-specific potassium channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium (TEA, 10(-2) M) did also significantly affect the relaxant activity of RVT. Otherwise, the relaxation response of corpus cavernosum induced by the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil increased significantly in the group pretreated with 10(-5) M RVT. These results demonstrated that RVT has a potent relaxant effect on rat corpus cavernosum via endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of corpus cavernosum to RVT is thought to be mediated primarily through NO/cGMP signaling pathway, and possibly an additional mechanism, endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization factor (EDHF). The residual endothelium-independent corpus cavernosum relaxation induced by RVT is uncertain but seems to depend on the interactions of RVT with Ca(2+) entry mechanism from the extracellular space and also other undefined direct effects in this tissue. PMID:23466662

Dalaklioglu, S; Ozbey, G



Ovine pulmonary surfactant induces killing of Pasteurella haemolytica, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae by normal serum.  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary surfactant has been shown to play an increasingly important role in bacterial clearance at the alveolar surface in the lung. This study describes a bactericidal mechanism in which ovine pulmonary surfactant induces killing of Pasteurella haemolytica by normal serum. To demonstrate killing, six bacterial species were incubated first with pulmonary surfactant for 60 min at 37 degrees C and then with serum for an additional 60 min at 37 degrees C. P. haemolytica type A1 strains 82-25 and L101, a P. haemolytica type 2 strain, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were susceptible and Pasteurella multocida, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not susceptible to killing by ovine pulmonary surfactant and normal serum. No bacteria incubated with bovine pulmonary surfactant were killed by normal serum. Although the species origin of pulmonary surfactant was selective, the species origin of serum was not. P. haemolytica incubated with ovine pulmonary surfactant was killed by fetal calf serum, gnotobiotic calf serum, pooled normal sheep serum, pooled normal rabbit serum, and pooled guinea pig serum. Ultrastructurally, killed P. haemolytica suspensions contained dead cells and cells distorted with vacuoles between the cytoplasmic membrane and the cytoplasm. The mechanism of killing did not correlate with concentrations of complement or lysozyme or titers of residual antibody in either the pulmonary surfactant or the serum, and killing was reduced by preincubation of surfactant with P. haemolytica lipopolysaccharide. Preliminary characterization of both surfactant and serum implicate a low-molecular-weight proteinaceous component in the surfactant and serum albumin in the serum. This mechanism may help clear certain gram-negative bacteria from the lungs of sheep as a part of the pulmonary innate defense system. Images

Brogden, K A



Postinoculation Protozoan Establishment and Association Patterns of Methanogenic Archaea in the Ovine Rumen?  

PubMed Central

Association patterns between archaea and rumen protozoa were evaluated by analyzing archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from ovine rumen inoculated with different protozoa. Five protozoan inoculation treatments, fauna free (negative control), holotrich and cellulolytic protozoa, Isotricha and Dasytricha spp., Entodinium spp., and total fauna (type A) were tested. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative PCR, and phylogenetic analysis to evaluate the impact of the protozoan inoculants on the respective archaeal communities. Protozoan 18S ribosomal DNA clone libraries were also evaluated to monitor the protozoal population that was established by the inoculation. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that archaeal clones associated with the fauna-free, the Entodinium, and the type A inoculations clustered primarily with uncultured phylotypes. Polyplastron multivesiculatum was the predominant protozoan strain established by the holotrich and cellulolytic protozoan treatment, and this resulted predominantly in archaeal clones affiliated with uncultured and cultured methanogenic phylotypes (Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, and Methanobacterium bryantii). Furthermore, the Isotricha and Dasytricha inoculation treatment resulted primarily in archaeal clones affiliated with Methanobrevibacter smithii. This report provides the first assessment of the influence of protozoa on archaea within the rumen microbial community and provides evidence to suggest that different archaeal phylotypes associate with specific groups of protozoa. The observed patterns may be linked to the evolution of commensal and symbiotic relationships between archaea and protozoa in the ovine rumen environment. This report further underscores the prevalence and potential importance of a rather large group of uncultivated archaea in the ovine rumen, probably unrelated to known methanogens and undocumented in the bovine rumen.

Ohene-Adjei, Samuel; Teather, Ronald M.; Ivan, Michael; Forster, Robert J.



High levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy modify the development of ovine-bovine interspecies nuclear transferred embryos.  


To investigate the effect of mitochondrial heteroplasmy on embryo development, cloned embryos produced using bovine oocytes as the recipient cytoplasm and ovine granulosa cells as the donor nuclei were complemented with 2pL mitochondrial suspension isolated from ovine (BOOMT embryos) or bovine (BOBMT embryos) granulosa cells; cloned embryos without mitochondrial injection served as the control group (BO embryos). Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and sodium bisulfite genomic sequencing were used to analyse mRNA and methylation levels of pluripotency genes (OCT4, SOX2) and mitochondrial genes (TFAM, POLRMT) in the early developmental stages of cloned embryos. The number of mitochondrial DNA copies in 2pL ovine-derived and bovine-derived mitochondrial suspensions was 960±110 and 1000±120, respectively. The blastocyst formation rates were similar in BOBMT and BO embryos (P>0.05), but significantly higher than in BOOMT embryos (P<0.01). Expression of OCT4 and SOX2, as detected by RT-qPCR, decreased significantly in BOOMT embryos (P<0.05), whereas the expression of TFAM and POLRMT increased significantly, compared with expression in BOOMT and BO embryos (P<0.05). In addition, methylation levels of OCT4 and SOX2 were significantly greater (P<0.05), whereas those of TFAM and POLRMT were significantly lower (P<0.01), in BOOMT embryos compared with BOBMT and BO embryos. Together, the results of the present study suggest that the degree of mitochondrial heteroplasmy may affect embryonic development. PMID:22401282

Hua, Song; Lu, Chenglong; Song, Yakun; Li, Ruizhe; Liu, Xu; Quan, Fusheng; Wang, Yongsheng; Liu, Jun; Su, Feng; Zhang, Yong



Taming the Tiger Topic: An XCES Compliant Corpus Portal to Generate Subcorpora Based on Automatic Text-Topic Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-corpus projects generally use a rich header to describe their texts allowing several types of text searching to create study subcorpora. They normally use TEI (Text Encoding Initiative) or XCES (Corpus Encoding Standard for XML) as encoding standards. TEI was a very early initiative on standardizing text encoding. XCES is currently being largely used in corpus-based work in natural language

Marcelo Muniz; Fernando V. Paulovich; Rosane Minghim; Kleber Infante; Fernando Muniz; Renata Vieira; Sandra Aluísio


A magnetic resonance imaging study of corpus callosum size in familial schizophrenic subjects,their relatives, and normal controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corpus callosum is one of several brain regions thought to be abnormal in schizophrenia. We sought to investigate whether the size of the corpus callosum would be abnormally small in schizophrenic subjects from families with familial schizophrenia and their healthy relatives. We wished to determine whether an abnormal corpus callosum size is found in healthy relatives who are genetically

S. E. Chua; T. Sharma; N. Takei; R. M. Murray; P. W. R. Woodruff



TSH-induced cyclic AMP production in an ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 5H.  


The TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was studied using a 3-year-old ovine thyroid cell line TSH-independent for growth: OVNIS 5H. The kinetics of cyclic AMP production was followed both in cell layers and in cell culture media, with or without phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is noteworthy that following the first wave in cyclic AMP obtained within minutes, we observed later a sustained exponential increase in cyclic AMP during the 5 days following TSH stimulation. A bioassay of TSH was derived allowing measurement of 1 microU/ml TSH from a crude bTSH preparation. PMID:3000830

Fayet, G; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S



Antimicrobial Activity and Bacterial-Membrane Interaction of Ovine-Derived Cathelicidins  

PubMed Central

Three ovine-derived cathelicidins, SMAP29, OaBac5mini, and OaBac7.5mini, were compared with respect to their antibacterial activities and interactions with membranes. SMAP29 was confirmed to be ?-helical, broad spectrum, and able to disrupt both the outer and the cytoplasmic membranes at relatively low concentrations. In contrast, the two proline- and arginine-rich OaBac peptides had more-modest antibacterial activities, reduced levels of lipopolysaccharide binding, and a lesser ability to depolarize the cytoplasmic membrane, consistent with a cytoplasmic target.

Anderson, Rachel C.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Yu, Pak-Lam



Characterization of a 41Residue Ovine Hypothalamic Peptide that Stimulates Secretion of Corticotropin and beta -endorphin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A peptide with high potency and intrinsic activity for stimulating the secretion of corticotropin-like and beta -endorphin-like immunoactivities by cultured anterior pituitary cells has been purified from ovine hypothalamic extracts. The primary structure of this 41-residue corticotropin- and beta -endorphin-releasing factor has been determined to be: H-Ser-Gln-Glu-Pro-Pro-Ile-Ser-Leu-Asp-Leu-Thr-Phe-His-Leu-Leu-Arg-Glu- Val-Leu-Glu-Met-Thr-Lys-Ala-Asp-Gln-Leu-Ala-Gln-Gln-Ala-His-Ser-Asn-Arg- Lys-Leu-Leu-Asp-Ile-Ala-NH2 The synthetic peptide is active in vitro and in vivo.

Wylie Vale; Joachim Spiess; Catherine Rivier; Jean Rivier



Localization of an Antiviral Site on the Pregnancy Recognition Hormone, Ovine Trophoblast Protein I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovine trophoblast protein 1 (oTP-1) is the interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) variant with potent antiviral activity and low toxicity that is responsible for maternal recognition of pregnancy in sheep. To examine the structure\\/function basis for the potent antiviral activity of oTP-1, we have exploited the direct approach of synthetic peptide competition with oTP-1 for receptor, using N-terminal oTP-1-(1-37) and C-terminal oTP-1-(139-172)

Carol H. Pontzer; Troy L. Ott; Fuller W. Bazer; Howard M. Johnson



Epidemiological surveillance of ovine hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina, 1997-1999.  


Cystic echinococcosis is the most prevalent zoonosis in Tierra del Fuego province, Argentina, with important economic, productive and public health consequences. The present work was performed to determine the ovine prevalence in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, as well as to evaluate the quality of diagnostic systems in slaughterhouses. Moreover, genetic analyses to characterize the strain of Echinococcus granulosus involved in the region were done. The first actions to perform a diagnosis of the epidemiological situation of hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego were done between 1976 and 1977. A canine prevalence of 80% and an ovine prevalence of 55% results were obtained. Since 1979 the control program of Hydatidosis of Tierra del Fuego was implemented. It was based on semiannual canine anthelmintic treatment with praziquantel at dose of 5mg/kg, and complemented with sanitary education and canine and ovine epidemiological surveillance. During May 1997-January 1999: 5,916 sheep coming from 20 farms of the programmatic area were evaluated. In the lamb category, hydatid cysts were not found. In the adults category, 62 infected animals were found (3.2%). The ovine prevalence was 1.1% and there was 100% of coincidence between diagnosis in the slaughterhouse, re-inspection in the laboratory and histopathological study. The marked decrease in the prevalence observed for sheep infection evidenced a destabilization of the biological cycle of the parasite. This could be explained by the application of a control program with uninterrupted systematic actions. Polymerase chain reaction-ribosomal ITS-1 DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were used to characterize E. granulosus isolates collected from different regions of Tierra del Fuego to determine which genotypes occurred in this region. The results revealed the presence of the G1 genotype (sheep-dog strain). This is the first time that a molecular analysis was performed for the E. granulosus isolates from Tierra del Fuego. PMID:16504405

Zanini, Fabián; Gonzalo, Roberto; Pérez, Héctor; Aparici, Inés; Soto, Ximena; Guerrero, Juvenal; Cerrone, Gloria; Elissondo, Celina



Age, scrapie status, PrP genotype and follicular dendritic cells in ovine ileal Peyer's patches.  


Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) residing within ileal Peyer's patches (PPs) are of crucial relevance for sheep scrapie early pathogenesis and subsequent scrapie prion neuroinvasion. In this study, ileal PP follicles were significantly more numerous in lambs than in adult Sarda breed sheep, with significant differences being also found in lymphoid follicle area, perimeter and FDC density. Furthermore, PrPd deposition within ileal PPs and host's PrP genotype did not significantly influence these parameters. We conclude that age significantly affects FDC density in ileal PPs from Sarda breed ovines, independently from host's scrapie status and PrP genotype. PMID:21962485

Marruchella, Giuseppe; Ligios, Ciriaco; Di Guardo, Giovanni



Aetiology of ovine footrot in the Portuguese region of Alto Alentejo.  


In this work, we found it appropriate to carry out a study directed towards isolating and identifying the entailed microorganisms which trigger off footrot in sheep, placing special emphasis on the serotipification of the different Dichelobacter nodosus species. With this goal in mind four flocks from the Portuguese region of 'Alto Alentejo' were selected, all of them had one common feature: their main health problem was ovine footrot. We also set out to determine the elastolitic capacity of isolated strict-anaerobic bacteria, in order to be able to clarify the direct involvement of these microorganisms in the outbreak of this infectious process. PMID:12667188

Jiménez, R; Píriz, S; Martín-Palomino, P; Mateos, E; Vadillo, S



Recovery of intact IgG in the gastrointestinal tract of the growing rat following ingestion of an ovine serum immunoglobulin.  


The aim of this study was to determine whether orally ingested ovine serum IgG partly resists digestion in the growing rat. Fifteen Sprague-Dawley male rats were allocated to one of three diets for a 3-week study: a control diet (CON) and two test diets containing either freeze-dried ovine serum immunoglobulin (FDOI) or inactivated ovine serum immunoglobulin (IOI). Samples of stomach chyme and intestinal digesta from the ad libitum-fed rats were subjected to ELISA and Western blot analysis. Amounts of intact ovine IgG for the FDOI diet were found to be 13.9, 20.0, 34.1, 13.0 and 36.9 ?g in the total wet digesta from the stomach chyme, duodenal, jejunal, ileal and colonic digesta respectively. Qualitative detection by Western blot revealed the presence of intact ovine serum IgG with a ~150 kDa MW. This was detected in all of the gut segments (stomach chyme, duodenal, jejunal, ileal and colonic digesta) for growing rats fed the FDOI diet. No ovine IgG was detected in the chyme or digesta from rats fed the CON or the IOI diets. Ovine serum IgG partly resisted digestion in the growing rat fed the FDOI diet and was found throughout the digestive tract. These results provide a basis to explain the reported biological effects of orally administered immunoglobulin. PMID:23441910

Balan, P; Han, K S; Dukkipati, V S R; Moughan, P J



Building an efficient curation workflow for the Arabidopsis literature corpus  

PubMed Central

TAIR (The Arabidopsis Information Resource) is the model organism database (MOD) for Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant with a literature corpus of about 39 000 articles in PubMed, with over 4300 new articles added in 2011. We have developed a literature curation workflow incorporating both automated and manual elements to cope with this flood of new research articles. The current workflow can be divided into two phases: article selection and curation. Structured controlled vocabularies, such as the Gene Ontology and Plant Ontology are used to capture free text information in the literature as succinct ontology-based annotations suitable for the application of computational analysis methods. We also describe our curation platform and the use of text mining tools in our workflow. Database URL:

Li, Donghui; Berardini, Tanya Z.; Muller, Robert J.; Huala, Eva



Corpus amylaceum (polyglucosan body) in the peripheral olfactory system.  


Peripheral part of the olfactory system (bulb and tract) was investigated for the occurrence of corpus amylaceum (CA) (polyglucosan body) in 296 (281 pathological and 15 control cases) autopsied human brains. No significant differences were found in the incidence between the various age groups above 40 years or between different disease groups and the controls. The predominance of CA in the olfactory tract and its loose correlation with age at this localization over 40 years of age could be resulted by various factors, including the extremely rich astrocytic and capillary network in the intermediate zone, and the proximity of the olfactory tract to the external environment, which may result in the protective role of CA. The role of stress was proved by the HSP-60 positivity of CA. PMID:9761940

Leel-Ossy, L; Gáti, I



Corpus callosum size and shape alterations in adolescent inhalant users.  


Inhalants, frequently abused during adolescence, are neurotoxic to white matter. We investigated the impact of inhalant misuse on the morphology of the corpus callosum (CC), the largest white matter bundle in the brain, in an adolescent sample of inhalant users [n = 14; mean age = 17.3; standard deviation (SD) = 1.7], cannabis users (n = 11; mean age = 19.7; SD = 1.7) and community controls (n = 9; mean age = 19.5; SD = 2.6). We identified significant morphological differences in the CC among inhalant users compared with community controls. There were no morphological differences between inhalant and cannabis users. Our findings may represent the early stages of neurobiological damage associated with chronic inhalant misuse. PMID:21955104

Takagi, Michael; Lubman, Dan I; Walterfang, Mark; Barton, Sarah; Reutens, David; Wood, Amanda; Yücel, Murat




PubMed Central

Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a condition associated with mutations in the PHOX2B gene, is characterized by loss of breathing drive during sleep, insensitivity to CO2 and O2, and multiple somatomotor, autonomic, neuropsychological, and ophthalmologic deficits, including impaired intrinsic and extrinsic eye muscle control. Brain structural studies show injury in peri-callosal regions and the corpus callosum (CC), which has the potential to affect functions disturbed in the syndrome; however, the extent of CC injury in CCHS is unclear. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based fiber tractography procedures display fiber directional information and allow quantification of fiber integrity. We performed DTI in 13 CCHS children (age, 18.2±4.7 years; 8 male) and 31 control (17.4±4.9 years; 18 male) subjects using a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner; CC fibers were assessed globally and regionally with tractography procedures, and fiber counts and densities compared between groups using analysis-of-covariance (covariates; age and sex). Global CC evaluation showed reduced fiber counts and densities in CCHS over control subjects (CCHS vs controls; fiber-counts, 4490±854 vs 5232±777, p<0.001; fiber-density, 10.0±1.5 vs 10.8±0.9 fibers/mm2, p<0.020), and regional examination revealed that these changes are localized to callosal axons projecting to prefrontal (217±47 vs 248±32, p<0.005), premotor (201±51 vs 241±47, p<0.012), parietal (179±64 vs 238±54, p<0.002), and occipital regions (363±46 vs 431±82, p<0.004). Corpus callosum fibers in CCHS are compromised in motor, cognitive, speech, and ophthalmologic regulatory areas. The mechanisms of fiber injury are unclear, but may result from hypoxia or perfusion deficits accompanying the syndrome, or from consequences of PHOX2B action.

Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M.



Selectively diminished corpus callosum fibers in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.  


Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a condition associated with mutations in the PHOX2B gene, is characterized by loss of breathing drive during sleep, insensitivity to CO2 and O2, and multiple somatomotor, autonomic, neuropsychological, and ophthalmologic deficits, including impaired intrinsic and extrinsic eye muscle control. Brain structural studies show injury in peri-callosal regions and the corpus callosum (CC), which has the potential to affect functions disturbed in the syndrome; however, the extent of CC injury in CCHS is unclear. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based fiber tractography procedures display fiber directional information and allow quantification of fiber integrity. We performed DTI in 13 CCHS children (age, 18.2±4.7 years; eight male) and 31 control (17.4±4.9 years; 18 male) subjects using a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner; CC fibers were assessed globally and regionally with tractography procedures, and fiber counts and densities compared between groups using analysis-of-covariance (covariates; age and sex). Global CC evaluation showed reduced fiber counts and densities in CCHS over control subjects (CCHS vs. controls; fiber-counts, 4490±854 vs. 5232±777, P<0.001; fiber-density, 10.0±1.5 vs. 10.8±0.9 fibers/mm2, P<0.020), and regional examination revealed that these changes are localized to callosal axons projecting to prefrontal (217±47 vs. 248±32, P<0.005), premotor (201±51 vs. 241±47, P<0.012), parietal (179±64 vs. 238±54, P<0.002), and occipital regions (363±46 vs. 431±82, P<0.004). Corpus callosum fibers in CCHS are compromised in motor, cognitive, speech, and ophthalmologic regulatory areas. The mechanisms of fiber injury are unclear, but may result from hypoxia or perfusion deficits accompanying the syndrome, or from consequences of PHOX2B action. PMID:21256194

Kumar, R; Macey, P M; Woo, M A; Harper, R M



Agenesis of corpus callosum and emotional information processing in schizophrenia.  


Corpus callosum (CC) is essential in providing the integration of information related to perception and action within a subcortico-cortical network, thus supporting the generation of a unified experience about and reaction to changes in the environment. Its role in schizophrenia is yet to be fully elucidated, but there is accumulating evidence that there could be differences between patients and healthy controls regarding the morphology and function of CC, especially when individuals face emotionally laden information. Here, we report a case study of a patient with partial agenesis of corpus callosum (agCC patient with agenesis of the anterior aspect, above the genu) and we provide a direct comparison with a group of patients with no apparent callosal damage (CC group) regarding the brain activity during the processing of emotionally laden information. We found that although the visual cortex activation in response to visual stimuli regardless of their emotional content was comparable in agCC patient and CC group both in terms of localization and intensity of activation, we observed a very large, non-specific and non-lateralized cerebral activation in the agCC patient, in contrast with the CC group, which showed a more lateralized and spatially localized activation, when the emotional content of the stimuli was considered. Further analysis of brain activity in the regions obtained in the CC group revealed that the agCC patient actually had an opposite activation pattern relative to most participants with no CC agenesis, indicating a dysfunctional response to these kind of stimuli, consistent with the clinical presentation of this particular patient. Our results seem to give support to the disconnection hypothesis which posits that the core symptoms of schizophrenia are related to aberrant connectivity between distinct brain areas, especially when faced with emotional stimuli, a fact consistent with the clinical tableau of this particular patient. PMID:22347194

Lungu, Ovidiu; Stip, Emmanuel



Corpus callosum signal intensity in patients with bipolar and unipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Background: Anatomical abnormalities in the corpus callosum have been reported in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in patients with bipolar but not unipolar disorder. MRI signal intensity can be used as a putative index of corpus callosum myelination. Objectives: To measure MRI signal intensity in patients with bipolar and unipolar disorder to investigate abnormalities of corpus callosum myelination. Methods: The study involved 29 DSM-IV bipolar patients (mean (SD) age, 35 (11) years; 16 male, 13 female), 23 DSM-IV unipolar patients (41 (10) years; 4 male, 19 female), and 36 healthy controls (37 (10) years; 23 male, 13 female). A 1.5T GE Signa magnet was employed, with a fast spin echo sequence. Corpus callosum signal intensity was obtained blindly using the semiautomated software NIH Image 1.62. Results: Bipolar patients had lower corpus callosum signal intensity for all callosal subregions (genu, anterior and posterior body, isthmus, splenium) than healthy controls (ANCOVA, age and sex as covariates, p<0.05). No significant differences were found between unipolar and healthy subjects (ANCOVA, age and sex as covariates, p>0.05). Conclusions: The findings suggest abnormalities in corpus callosum white matter in bipolar but not unipolar patients, possibly because of altered myelination. Such abnormalities could lead to impaired interhemispheric communication in bipolar disorder. Longitudinal MRI studies involving first episode and early onset bipolar patients will be necessary for a better understanding of the potential role of abnormalities of corpus callosum myelination in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder.

Brambilla, P; Nicoletti, M; Sassi, R; Mallinger, A; Frank, E; Keshavan, M; Soares, J



Emergence of a Tetracycline-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Clone Associated with Outbreaks of Ovine Abortion in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Campylobacter infection is one of the major causes of ovine abortions worldwide. Historically, Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus was the major cause of Campylobacter-associated abortion in sheep; however, Campylobacter jejuni is increasingly associated with sheep abortions. We examined the species distribution, genotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of abortion-associated Campylobacter isolates obtained from multiple lambing seasons on different farms in Iowa, Idaho, South

Orhan Sahin; Paul J. Plummer; Dianna M. Jordan; Kapllan Sulaj; Sonia Pereira; Suelee Robbe-Austerman; Liping Wang; Michael J. Yaeger; Lorraine J. Hoffman; Qijing Zhang



Peripheral Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Provirus Levels Correlate with and Predict Histological Tissue Lesion Severity in Naturally Infected Sheep  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies were undertaken to determine whether host immune responses in the form of serum anti-ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) antibody responses or virus replication in the form of peripheral OPP provirus levels associate with the degree of histological tissue lesions in naturally OPPV infec...


Effect of cysteamine and epidermal growth factor supplementation on the in vitro maturation rate of ovine oocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovaries of slaughtered ewes (n=78) were collected from abattoirs in Srinagar city, India and transported to the laboratory in a normal saline solution containing 50?g Gentamicin sulphate per ml—to study the effect of cysteamine and epidermal growth factor (EGF) supplementation in the maturation medium on the in vitro maturation rate of ovine oocytes. The slicing technique was used to recover

K. A. Sofi; M. Z. Khan; R. Islam; F. A. Lone




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to evaluate oxidative metabolism of glucose, glutamate, and glutamine by isolated ovine enterocytes in presence of other metabolic fuels in vitro. Mucosal enterocytes were isolated from crossbred wether sheep (n=6) fed a mixed forage-concentrate diet, and incubated f...


Use of eukaryotic mitochondrial DNA to differentiate human, bovine, porcine and ovine sources in fecally contaminated surface water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular method based on the detection of mitochondrial DNA from various animal species was developed to track the origin of surface water pollutions, and to differentiate human and animal sources. Mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to design PCR primers specific for human, bovine, ovine and porcine DNA using single, multiplex and nested PCR protocols. The primers were tested with

Anouk Martellini; Pierre Payment; Richard Villemur



Ovine placental eluate immunoglobulins recognise isologous and third party acid-treated trophoblast microvesicle antigens in vitro.  


Placental microvesicles were prepared from ovine placentae and immunoglobulins eluted with 0.5 M glycine buffer pH 2.5. The ability of eluate immunoglobulins to re-associate with isologous (self) and third party acidified microvesicles was tested by ELISA. Ovine placental immunoglobulins re-associated with isologous and third party acidified microvesicles suggesting that at least 2 types of antigenic epitopes I and II maybe expressed on the ovine placentae. Type I antigens may be present on placentae of all ovines while type II epitopes may be paternally derived, hence unique to each pregnancy. Analysis by SDS PAGE revealed the heavy and light chains of IgG at 57 and 27 kDa, respectively, together giving a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa. Results suggest that immunoglobulins produced to placental microvesicle antigens may be directed to some but not all antigenic epitopes expressed on the trophoblast, possibly defining a mechanism by which the foetus evades maternal immunological rejection. PMID:16700472

Omwandho, C A; Gruessner, S E; Falconer, J; Mala, G O; Mecha, E O; Tumbo-Oeri, A G; Tinneberg, H R; Roberts, T K



Outgrowth inhibition of Clostridium beijerinckii spores by a bacteriocin-producing lactic culture in ovine milk cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the manufacture of model cheeses, ovine milk was deliberately contaminated with spores of Clostridium beijerinckii INIA 63, a wild isolate from Manchego cheese with late blowing defect, and inoculated with nisin- and lacticin 481-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis INIA 415 as starter, to test its potential to prevent the late blowing defect, or with L. lactis subsp. lactis INIA

Sonia Garde; Marta Ávila; Ramón Arias; Pilar Gaya; Manuel Nuñez