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Sample records for ovine corpus luteum

  1. Ontogeny of stem cell factor receptor (c-kit) messenger ribonucleic acid in the ovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Gentry, P C; Smith, G W; Leighr, D R; Bao, B; Smith, M F

    1998-10-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) is a pleiotropic growth factor that is expressed by the ovine corpus luteum throughout its life span by both small and large steroidogenic cells. Determination of the action of SCF, however, requires localization of its receptor, c-kit; therefore, the objectives of the present study were to identify and localize c-kit within corpora lutea. Two cDNAs encoding different portions of the c-kit molecule were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. The first was a 558-base pair (bp) cDNA encoding portions of the transmembrane and tyrosine kinase domains; the second was a 632-bp cDNA encoding most of the ligand-binding domain. Expression of c-kit was quantified by RNase protection assay of total cellular RNA collected on Days 3, 7, 10, 13, and 16 (n = 4, 4, 5, 4, and 4 per group, respectively) of the estrous cycle (Day 0 = estrus). The level of c-kit mRNA was low early in the luteal phase, reached (p < 0.05) maximum levels on Day 13, and then decreased (p < 0.01) on Day 16. On Day 3 (n = 4), c-kit was expressed in a cell-specific manner throughout the corpus luteum; identity of the specific cell types expressing c-kit could not be determined at this stage. On Day 14 (n = 4), c-kit did not appear to be expressed within large luteal cells but was prominently expressed in cells that surrounded large luteal cells and that possessed the morphological characteristics of small luteal cells and endothelial cells. Given the temporal regulation of c-kit expression within the corpus luteum, these data suggest that luteal SCF may act locally. PMID:9746752

  2. Pregnancy-associated genes contribute to antiluteolytic mechanisms in ovine corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Jared J.; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q.; Smirnova, Natalia P.; Webb, Brett T.; Yu, Fang; Davis, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that ovine luteal gene expression differs due to pregnancy status and day of estrous cycle was tested. RNA was isolated from corpora lutea (CL) on days 12 and 14 of the estrous cycle (NP) or pregnancy (P) and analyzed with the Affymetrix bovine microarray. RNA also was isolated from luteal cells on day 10 of estrous cycle that were cultured for 24 h with luteolytic hormones (OXT and PGF) and secretory products of the conceptus (IFNT and PGE2). Differential gene expression (>1.5-fold, P < 0.05) was confirmed using semiquantitative real-time PCR. Serum progesterone concentrations decreased from day 12 to day 15 in NP ewes (P < 0.05) reflecting luteolysis and remained >1.7 ng/ml in P ewes reflecting rescue of the CL. Early luteolysis (days 12–14) was associated with differential expression of 683 genes in the CL, including upregulation of SERPINE1 and THBS1. Pregnancy on day 12 (55 genes) and 14 (734 genes) also was associated with differential expression of genes in the CL, many of which were ISGs (i.e., ISG15, MX1) that were induced when culturing luteal cells with IFNT, but not PGE2. Finally, many genes, such as PTX3, IL6, VEGF, and LHR, were stabilized during pregnancy and downregulated during the estrous cycle and in response to culture of luteal cells with luteolytic hormones. In conclusion, pregnancy circumvents luteolytic pathways and activates or stabilizes genes associated with interferon, chemokine, cell adhesion, cytoskeletal, and angiogenic pathways in the CL. PMID:24046284

  3. Cytokines and Angiogenesis in the Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Galvão, António M.; Ferreira-Dias, Graça; Skarzynski, Dariusz J.

    2013-01-01

    In adults, physiological angiogenesis is a rare event, with few exceptions as the vasculogenesis needed for tissue growth and function in female reproductive organs. Particularly in the corpus luteum (CL), regulation of angiogenic process seems to be tightly controlled by opposite actions resultant from the balance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors. It is the extremely rapid sequence of events that determines the dramatic changes on vascular and nonvascular structures, qualifying the CL as a great model for angiogenesis studies. Using the mare CL as a model, reports on locally produced cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF), interferon gamma (IFNG), or Fas ligand (FASL), pointed out their role on angiogenic activity modulation throughout the luteal phase. Thus, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the interaction between immune, endothelial, and luteal steroidogenic cells, regarding vascular dynamics/changes during establishment and regression of the equine CL. PMID:23840095

  4. Endocrine and Local Control of the Primate Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Stouffer, Richard L.; Bishop, Cecily V.; Bogan, Randy L.; Xu, Fuhua; Hennebold, Jon D.

    2014-01-01

    The primate corpus luteum is a transient endocrine gland that differentiates from the ovulatory follicle midway through the ovarian (menstrual) cycle. Its formation and limited lifespan is critical for fertility, as luteal-derived progesterone is the essential steroid hormone required for embryo implantation and maintenance of intra-uterine pregnancy until the placenta develops. It is well-established that LH and the LH-like hormone, CG, are the vital luteotropic hormones during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy, respectively. Recent advances, particularly through genome analyses and cellular studies, increased our understanding of various local factors and cellular processes associated with the development, maintenance and repression of the corpus luteum. These include paracrine or autocrine factors associated with angiogenesis (e.g., VEGF), and that mediate LH/CG actions (e.g., progesterone), or counteract luteotropic effects (i.e., local luteolysis; e.g., PGF2?). However, areas of mystery and controversy remain, particularly regarding the signals and events that initiate luteal regression in the non-fecund cycle. Novel approaches capable of gene “knockdown” or amplification”, in vivo as well as in vitro, should identify novel or underappreciated gene products that are regulated by or modulate LH/CG actions to control the functional lifespan of the primate corpus luteum. Further advances in our understanding of luteal physiology will help to improve or control fertility for purposes ranging from preservation of endangered primate species to designing novel ovary-based contraceptives and treating ovarian disorders in women. R01 HD020869, R01 HD042000, U54 HD018185, U54 HD055744, P51 OD011092, T32 HD007133, Bayer Schering Pharma AG. PMID:24287034

  5. Identification and physical mapping of genes expressed in the corpus luteum in cattle.

    PubMed

    Bønsdorff, T; Eggen, A; Gautier, M; Asheim, H-C; Rønningen, K; Lingaas, F; Olsaker, I

    2003-10-01

    A representational difference analysis was performed to identify genes expressed in the corpus luteum of cattle. The corpus luteum is an ovarian structure that is essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Knowledge of gene expression and function of corpus luteum will be important to improve fertility in humans and domestic animals. Housekeeping genes were removed from the corpus luteum representation (tester) using skeletal muscle as the subtracting agent (driver). A total of 80 clones of the final subtraction product were analysed by sequencing and 11 new bovine gene sequences were identified (pBTCL1-11). The sequences were mapped to segments of 10 different chromosomes using a somatic cell hybrid panel and a radiation hybrid panel. With one exception the locations are in agreement with published comparative maps of cattle and man. Expression in corpus luteum was verified by RT-PCR for all the 11 clones. PMID:14510667

  6. Macrophages regulate corpus luteum development during embryo implantation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Care, Alison S.; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Jasper, Melinda J.; Brown, Hannah M.; Ingman, Wendy V.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are prominent in the uterus and ovary at conception. Here we utilize the Cd11b-Dtr mouse model of acute macrophage depletion to define the essential role of macrophages in early pregnancy. Macrophage depletion after conception caused embryo implantation arrest associated with diminished plasma progesterone and poor uterine receptivity. Implantation failure was alleviated by administration of bone marrow–derived CD11b+F4/80+ monocytes/macrophages. In the ovaries of macrophage-depleted mice, corpora lutea were profoundly abnormal, with elevated Ptgs2, Hif1a, and other inflammation and apoptosis genes and with diminished expression of steroidogenesis genes Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b1. Infertility was rescued by exogenous progesterone, which confirmed that uterine refractoriness was fully attributable to the underlying luteal defect. In normally developing corpora lutea, macrophages were intimately juxtaposed with endothelial cells and expressed the proangiogenic marker TIE2. After macrophage depletion, substantial disruption of the luteal microvascular network occurred and was associated with altered ovarian expression of genes that encode vascular endothelial growth factors. These data indicate a critical role for macrophages in supporting the extensive vascular network required for corpus luteum integrity and production of progesterone essential for establishing pregnancy. Our findings raise the prospect that disruption of macrophage-endothelial cell interactions underpinning corpus luteum development contributes to infertility in women in whom luteal insufficiency is implicated. PMID:23867505

  7. Chemokines in the corpus luteum: Implications of leukocyte chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Townson, David H; Liptak, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    Chemokines are small molecular weight peptides responsible for adhesion, activation, and recruitment of leukocytes into tissues. Leukocytes are thought to influence follicular atresia, ovulation, and luteal function. Many studies in recent years have focused attention on the characterization of leukocyte populations within the ovary, the importance of leukocyte-ovarian cell interactions, and more recently, the mechanisms of ovarian leukocyte recruitment. Information about the role of chemokines and leukocyte trafficking (chemotaxis) during ovarian function is important to understanding paracrine-autocrine relationships shared between reproductive and immune systems. Recent advances regarding chemokine expression and leukocyte accumulation within the ovulatory follicle and the corpus luteum are the subject of this mini-review. PMID:14613530

  8. Mutant mouse models and their contribution to our knowledge of corpus luteum development, function and regression

    PubMed Central

    Henkes, Luiz E; Davis, John S; Rueda, Bo R

    2003-01-01

    The corpus luteum is a unique organ, which is transitory in nature. The development, maintenance and regression of the corpus luteum are regulated by endocrine, paracrine and autocrine signaling events. Defining the specific mediators of luteal development, maintenance and regression has been difficult and often perplexing due to the complexity that stems from the variety of cell types that make up the luteal tissue. Moreover, some regulators may serve dual functions as a luteotropic and luteolytic agent depending on the temporal and spatial environment in which they are expressed. As a result, some confusion is present in the interpretation of in vitro and in vivo studies. More recently investigators have utilized mutant mouse models to define the functional significance of specific gene products. The goal of this mini-review is to identify and discuss mutant mouse models that have luteal anomalies, which may provide some clues as to the significance of specific regulators of corpus luteum function. PMID:14613537

  9. Human corpus luteum: presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and binding characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyagari, R.R.; Khan-Dawood, F.S.

    1987-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors are present in many reproductive tissues but have not been demonstrated in the human corpus luteum. To determine the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and its binding characteristics, we carried out studies on the plasma cell membrane fraction of seven human corpora lutea (days 16 to 25) of the menstrual cycle. Specific epidermal growth factor receptors were present in human corpus luteum. Insulin, nerve growth factor, and human chorionic gonadotropin did not competitively displace epidermal growth factor binding. The optimal conditions for corpus luteum-epidermal growth factor receptor binding were found to be incubation for 2 hours at 4 degrees C with 500 micrograms plasma membrane protein and 140 femtomol /sup 125/I-epidermal growth factor per incubate. The number (mean +/- SEM) of epidermal growth factor binding sites was 12.34 +/- 2.99 X 10(-19) mol/micrograms protein; the dissociation constant was 2.26 +/- 0.56 X 10(-9) mol/L; the association constant was 0.59 +/- 0.12 X 10(9) L/mol. In two regressing corpora lutea obtained on days 2 and 3 of the menstrual cycle, there was no detectable specific epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity. Similarly no epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity could be detected in ovarian stromal tissue. Our findings demonstrate that specific receptors for epidermal growth factor are present in the human corpus luteum. The physiologic significance of epidermal growth factor receptors in human corpus luteum is unknown, but epidermal growth factor may be involved in intragonadal regulation of luteal function.

  10. Presence of Arylsulfatase A and Sulfogalactosylglycerolipid in Mouse Ovaries: Localization to the Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Anupriwan, Araya; Schenk, Matthias; Kongmanas, Kessiri; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Costa Santos, Daniela; Yaghoubian, Arman; Liu, Fang; Wu, Alexander; Berger, Trish; Faull, Kym F.; Saitongdee, Porncharn; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Tanphaichitr, Nongnuj

    2008-01-01

    Arylsulfatase A (AS-A) is a lysosomal enzyme, which catalyzes the desulfation of certain sulfogalactolipids, including sulfogalactosylglycerolipid (SGG), a molecule implicated in cell adhesion. In this report, immunocytochemistry revealed the selective presence of AS-A in the corpus luteum of mouse ovaries. Immunoblotting indicated that mouse corpus luteum AS-A had a molecular mass of 66 kDa, similar to AS-A of other tissues. Corpus luteum AS-A was active, capable of desulfating the artificial substrate, p-nitrocatechol sulfate, at the optimum pH of five. To understand further the role of AS-A in female reproduction, levels of AS-A were determined during corpus luteum development in pseudopregnant mice and during luteolysis after cessation of pseudopregnancy. Immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting and desulfation activity showed that AS-A expression was evident at the onset of pseudopregnancy in the newly formed corpora lutea, and its level increased steadily during gland development. The increase in the expression and activity of AS-A continued throughout luteolysis after the decrease in serum progesterone levels. We also observed the selective presence of SGG on the luteal cell surface in developed corpora lutea, as shown by immunofluorescence of mouse ovary sections as well as high-performance thin-layer chromatography of lipids isolated from mouse and pig corpora lutea. The identity of the “SGG” band on the thin layer silica plate was further validated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Significantly, SGG disappeared in regressing corpora lutea. Therefore, lysosomal AS-A may be involved in cell-surface remodeling during luteolysis by desulfating SGG after its endocytosis and targeting to the lysosome. PMID:18420734

  11. Rapid induction of gene expression in the corpus luteum following in vivo treatment with prostaglandin F2 alpha

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pulsatile uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF) triggers the regression of the corpus luteum (CL). Research from many laboratories has identified the early intracellular signaling events initiated by PGF (for example, activation of phospholipases, increased intracellular calcium, an...

  12. Multiple roles of TNF super family members in corpus luteum function

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Kiyoshi; Sakumoto, Ryosuke

    2003-01-01

    The main function of the corpus luteum (CL) is the production of progesterone. Adequate luteal progesterone is crucial for determining the physiological duration of the estrous cycle and for achieving a successful pregnancy. The CL is regulated not only by hypophyseal gonadotropin, but also by a number of cytokines that are locally produced. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) and its specific receptors (TNFR) are present in the CL of many species. TNF plays multiple and likely important roles in CL function throughout the estrous cycle. TNF appears to have luteotropic and luteolytic roles in the CLs. In contrast, Fas ligand (Fas L), another member of TNF super family (TNF-SF), is primarily recognized for its apoptotic actions. Presumably, Fas L binds its cognate receptor (Fas) to induce structural luteolysis. This review is designed to focus on recent studies documenting the expression of TNF and Fas L, their receptors, and intracellular signaling mechanisms in the CL. PMID:14613529

  13. Massive hemoperitoneum due to a ruptured corpus luteum cyst in a patient with congenital hypofibrinogenemia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jeong, So-Young

    2015-01-01

    Congenital afibrinogenemia/hypofibrinogenemia is a rare inherited hematologic disorder in which a patient lacks or has insufficient level of fibrinogen, the blood coagulation factor I. The incidence of this uncommon disease is 1 to 2 per 1 million individuals. Hence, massive hemoperitoneum caused by ovulation in a woman with congenital afibrogenemia is also a very rare clinical condition. Massive hemoperitoneum usually presents as acute abdominal pain with potential findings of peritonitis including abdominal distention, hypotension and tachycardia with critical consequences. We performed emergent endoscopic surgery for hemoperitoneum caused by a ruptured corpus luteum cyst in a patient with congenital hypofibrinogenemia. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first case report of such treatment in Korea. PMID:26430672

  14. Evidence that the subunit structure of gonadotropin receptor is preserved during regression of rat corpus luteum

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, J.; Menon, K.N.J.

    1986-05-29

    The level of hCG/LH receptor has been shown to undergo marked changes during the life span of rat corpus luteum. To evaluate whether these fluctuations are due to changes in the receptor subunit structure or receptor protein content, the /sup 125/I-hCG binding activity and the receptor subunit structure were determined during different time periods of pseudopregnancy. The maximum /sup 125/I-hCG binding activity was observed on day 7, after which it decreased by 20 and 45% on day 11 and day 14, respectively. The Scatchard analysis of /sup 125/I-hCG binding data showed that the decrease in binding activity was caused by a change in the number of binding sites rather than a change in the binding affinity. The LH/hCG receptor in ovarian membranes obtained on days 7, 11 and 14 were characterized by the method of affinity cross-linking. All four subunits of the LH/hCG receptor were detected in the ovarian membranes at all stages while the intensity decreased parallel to a decrease in hCG binding from day 7 to day 14.

  15. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 Is Required for Ovulation and Corpus Luteum Formation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Deady, Lylah D.; Shen, Wei; Mosure, Sarah A.; Spradling, Allan C.; Sun, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Ovulation is critical for successful reproduction and correlates with ovarian cancer risk, yet genetic studies of ovulation have been limited. It has long been thought that the mechanism controlling ovulation is highly divergent due to speciation and fast evolution. Using genetic tools available in Drosophila, we now report that ovulation in Drosophila strongly resembles mammalian ovulation at both the cellular and molecular levels. Just one of up to 32 mature follicles per ovary pair loses posterior follicle cells (“trimming”) and protrudes into the oviduct, showing that a selection process prefigures ovulation. Follicle cells that remain after egg release form a “corpus luteum (CL)” at the end of the ovariole, develop yellowish pigmentation, and express genes encoding steroid hormone biosynthetic enzymes that are required for full fertility. Finally, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2), a type of protease thought to facilitate mammalian ovulation, is expressed in mature follicle and CL cells. Mmp2 activity is genetically required for trimming, ovulation and CL formation. Our studies provide new insights into the regulation of Drosophila ovulation and establish Drosophila as a model for genetically investigating ovulation in diverse organisms, including mammals. PMID:25695427

  16. Status of autophagy, lysosome activity and apoptosis during corpus luteum regression in cattle

    PubMed Central

    ABOELENAIN, Mansour; KAWAHARA, Manabu; BALBOULA, Ahmed Zaky; MONTASSER, Abd El-monem; ZAABEL, Samy Mowaed; OKUDA, Kiyoshi; TAKAHASHI, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Corpus luteum (CL) regression is required during the estrous cycle. During CL regression, luteal cells stop producing progesterone and are degraded by apoptosis. However, the detailed mechanism of CL regression in cattle has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate autophagy, lysosome activity, and apoptosis during CL regression in cattle. The expression of autophagy-related genes (LC3?, LC3?, Atg3, and Atg7) and the protein LC3-II was significantly higher in the late CL than in the mid CL. In addition, autophagy activity was significantly increased in the late CL. Moreover, gene expression of the autophagy inhibitor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was significantly lower in the late CL than in the mid CL. Lysosome activation and expression of cathepsin-related genes (CTSB, CTSD, and CTSZ) showed significant increases in the late CL and were associated with an increase in cathepsin B protein. In addition, mRNA expression and activity of caspase 3 (CASP3), an apoptotic enzyme, were significantly higher in the late CL than in the mid CL. These results suggest simultaneous upregulation of autophagy-related factors, lysosomal enzymes and apoptotic mediators, which are involved in regression of the bovine CL. PMID:25819401

  17. Mathematical analysis of a model for the growth of the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Prokopiou, Sotiris A; Byrne, Helen M; Jeffrey, Mike R; Robinson, Robert S; Mann, George E; Owen, Markus R

    2014-12-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is an ovarian tissue that grows in the wound space created by follicular rupture. It produces the progesterone needed in the uterus to maintain pregnancy. Rapid growth of the CL and progesterone transport to the uterus require angiogenesis, the creation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, a process which is regulated by proteins that include fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). In this paper we develop a system of time-dependent ordinary differential equations to model CL growth. The dependent variables represent FGF2, endothelial cells (ECs), luteal cells, and stromal cells (like pericytes), by assuming that the CL volume is a continuum of the three cell types. We assume that if the CL volume exceeds that of the ovulated follicle, then growth is inhibited. This threshold volume partitions the system dynamics into two regimes, so that the model may be classified as a Filippov (piecewise smooth) system. We show that normal CL growth requires an appropriate balance between the growth rates of luteal and stromal cells. We investigate how angiogenesis influences CL growth by considering how the system dynamics depend on the dimensionless EC proliferation rate, ??. We find that weak (low ??) or strong (high ??) angiogenesis leads to 'pathological' CL growth, since the loss of CL constituents compromises progesterone production or delivery. However, for intermediate values of ??, normal CL growth is predicted. The implications of these results for cow fertility are also discussed. For example, inadequate angiogenesis has been linked to infertility in dairy cows. PMID:24337679

  18. In vitro developmental competence of bovine oocytes: Effect of corpus luteum and follicle size

    PubMed Central

    Karami Shabankareh, Hamed; Shahsavari, Mohammad Hamed; Hajarian, Hadi; Moghaddam, Gholamali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported many discrepancies about the effects of corpus luteum (CL) and ovarian follicle size on the developmental competence of oocytes. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CL and different size of follicle on the developmental potential of bovine oocytes. Materials and Methods: After ovarian classification based on presence or absence of CL, sample follicles were placed in three groups according to their diameter; small (S; 3–6 mm), medium (M; 6–9 mm), and large (L; 10–20 mm). Collected oocytes in each group were subjected to the in vitro embryo production processes. Results: Results showed that, the percentages of blastocyst obtained from oocytes originating from small and medium follicles of ovaries bearing a CL (CL+S-oocytes and CL+M-oocytes, respectively) were lower (p<0.001) than those of small and medium follicles of ovaries not bearing a CL (CL-S-oocytes and CL-M-oocytes, respectively) (30.8% and 33.6% vs. 36.9% and 38.7% respectively). Although, the percentages of blastocyst obtained from CL-M-oocytes and CL-L-oocytes were greater (p< 0.001) than those of CL+S-oocytes and CL+M-oocytes. There were no significant differences in the percentages of blastocyst formation between controls (C-oocytes), CL-S-oocytes and CL+L-oocytes. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the negative effect of CL on the developmental competence of bovine oocyte depends on the follicle size. Therefore, oocytes originating from large grown follicles were not influenced by negative effects of CL as much as those originating from small and medium follicles did. PMID:26644789

  19. Lipopolysaccharide enhances apoptosis of corpus luteum in isolated perfused bovine ovaries in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lüttgenau, J; Möller, B; Kradolfer, D; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M; Miyamoto, A; Ulbrich, S E; Bollwein, H

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria, has detrimental effects on the structure and function of bovine corpus luteum (CL) in vivo. The objective was to investigate whether these effects were mediated directly by LPS or via LPS-induced release of PGF2?. Bovine ovaries with a mid-cycle CL were collected immediately after slaughter and isolated perfused for 240 min. After 60 min of equilibration, LPS (0.5 ?g/ml) was added to the medium of five ovaries, whereas an additional six ovaries were not treated with LPS (control). After 210 min of perfusion, all ovaries were treated with 500 iu of hCG. In the effluent perfusate, concentrations of progesterone (P4) and PGF2? were measured every 10 and 30 min, respectively. Punch biopsies of the CL were collected every 60 min and used for RT-qPCR to evaluate mRNA expression of receptors for LPS (TLR2, -4) and LH (LHCGR); the cytokine TNFA; steroidogenic (STAR, HSD3B), angiogenic (VEGFA121, FGF2), and vasoactive (EDN1) factors; and factors of prostaglandin synthesis (PGES, PGFS, PTGFR) and apoptosis (CASP3, -8, -9). Treatment with LPS abolished the hCG-induced increase in P4 (P?0.05); however, there was a tendency (P=0.10) for increased release of PGF2? at 70 min after LPS challenge. Furthermore, mRNA abundance of TLR2, TNFA, CASP3, CASP8, PGES, PGFS, and VEGFA121 increased (P?0.05) after LPS treatment, whereas all other factors remained unchanged (P>0.05). In conclusion, reduced P4 responsiveness to hCG in LPS-treated ovaries in vitro was not due to reduced steroidogenesis, but was attributed to enhanced apoptosis. However, an impact of luteal PGF2? could not be excluded. PMID:26483517

  20. Possible role of interferon tau on the bovine corpus luteum and neutrophils during the early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shirasuna, Koumei; Matsumoto, Haruka; Matsuyama, Shuichi; Kimura, Koji; Bollwein, Heinrich; Miyamoto, Akio

    2015-09-01

    When pregnancy is established, interferon tau (IFNT), a well-known pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants, is secreted by embryonic trophoblast cells and acts within the uterus to prepare for pregnancy. IFNT acts as an endocrine factor on the corpus luteum (CL) to induce refractory ability against the luteolytic action of PGF2 ?. Hypothesising that IFNT may influence not only the uterine environment but also the CL in cows via local or peripheral circulation, we investigated qualitative changes in the CL of pregnant cows during the maternal recognition period (day 16) and the CL of non-pregnant cows. The CL of pregnant animals had a higher number of neutrophils, and the expression of interleukin 8 (IL8) mRNA and its protein was higher as well as compared with the CL of non-pregnant animals. Although IFNT did not affect progesterone (P4) secretion and neutrophil migration directly, it stimulated IL8 mRNA expression on luteal cells (LCs), influencing the neutrophils, resulting in the increased migration of IFNT-activated neutrophils. Moreover, both IFNT-activated neutrophils and IL8 increased P4 secretion from LCs in vitro. Our novel finding was the increase in neutrophils and IL8 within the CL of pregnant cows, suggesting the involvement of IFNT function within the CL toward establishment of pregnancy in cows. The present results suggest that IFNT upregulates neutrophil numbers and function via IL8 on LCs in the CL of early pregnant cows and that both neutrophils and IL8, stimulated by IFNT, are associated with an increase in P4 concentrations during the maternal recognition period in cows. PMID:26078085

  1. Induction of the Expressions of Antioxidant Enzymes by Luteinizing Hormone in the Bovine Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    KAWAGUCHI, Syota; SAKUMOTO, Ryosuke; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Luteoprotective mechanisms of luteinizing hormone (LH) involved in the maintenance of bovine corpus luteum (CL) function have not been completely clarified. Since antioxidant enzymes are well documented as antiapoptotic factors in the CL of many mammals, we hypothesized that the luteoprotective action of LH is mediated by stimulating the local production and action of antioxidant enzymes. To test the above hypothesis, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms involved in the luteoprotective actions of LH. Cultured bovine luteal cells obtained from the CL at the mid-luteal stage (days 8–12 of the estrous cycle) were treated with LH (10 ng/ml), onapristone (OP; a specific progesterone receptor antagonist, 100 ?M) and diethyldithiocarbamate [DETC; an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase (SOD), 100 ?M] for 24 h. LH in combination with or without OP significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of manganese SOD (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CATA) and SOD activity. While LH alone significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of SOD containing copper and zinc (Cu,Zn-SOD), OP in combination with or without LH significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of Cu,Zn-SOD. In addition, Cu,Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CATA mRNA expressions were higher at the mid luteal phase than the other luteal phases. LH in combination with DETC significantly decreased LH-increased cell viability. The overall results suggest that LH increases cell viability by LH-increased antioxidant enzymes, resulting in maintenance of CL function during the luteal phase in cattle. PMID:23386101

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptotic pathway is involved in corpus luteum regression in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanzhou; Sun, Miao; Shan, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Xiaomin; Ma, Huiming; Ma, Wenzhi; Wang, Zhisheng; Pei, Xiuying; Wang, Yanrong

    2015-05-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), which is a novel pathway of regulating cellular apoptosis and the function of ERS during corpus luteum (CL) regression, is explored. Early-luteal stage (day 2), mid-luteal stage (day 7), and late-luteal stage (day 14 and 20) were induced, and the apoptosis of luteal cells was detected by a terminal 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The apoptotic cells were increased with the regression of CL, especially during the late-luteal stage. The ERS markers glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), activating transcription factor 6? (ATF6?), eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?), inositol-requiring protein 1? (IRE1?), caspase 12, and apoptosis marker caspase 3 were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, in agreement with the results of the TUNEL assay; the expression levels of CHOP, caspase 12, and caspase 3 were increased during the process of CL regression. Luteal cells were isolated and cultured in vitro, and the apoptosis of luteal cells was induced by prostaglandin F2?. The ERS was attenuated by the ERS inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid, and the apoptotic rate was analyzed by flow cytometry. The ERS markers Grp78, CHOP, XBP1s, ATF6?, eIF2?, IRE1?, caspase 12, and apoptotic execute marker caspase 3 were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence, and the results suggested that the expression of CHOP, caspase 12, and caspase 3 were increased, and there was increased apoptosis of luteal cells. But the expression of IRE1?/XBP1s and eIF2? was not detected. Taken together, the ERS is involved in the CL regression of rats through the CHOP and caspase 12 pathway. PMID:25332219

  3. Case of pregnancy in two cows with unicorn horn of the uterus either by artificial insemination at ipsilateral or embryo transfer at contralateral corpus luteum in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, C; Kobayashi, I; Tani, M; Oishi, T; Kajisa, M; Horii, Y; Kamimura, S

    2008-06-01

    Two Holstein heifers and a cow were diagnosed with White Heifer Disease by ultrasonography. Case 1 was a 14 month-old heifer with aplasia of both sides of the uterine horn. In case 2, a primiparous cow and case 3, an 18 month-old heifer, both showed aplasia of the right uterine horn. Case 2 became pregnant by artificial insemination at ipsilateral ovulatory follicle and corpus luteum in the left ovary, while case 3 became pregnant by embryo transfer at 7 days after oestrus with contralateral corpus luteum in the right ovary. PMID:18179630

  4. Comparison of endocrine and cellular mechanisms regulating the corpus luteum of primates and ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Wiltbank, M.C.; Salih, S.M.; Atli, M.O.; Luo, W.; Bormann, C.L.; Ottobre, J.S.; Vezina, C.M.; Mehta, V.; Diaz, F.J.; Tsai, S.J.; Sartori, R.

    2013-01-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine organ that is essential for maintenance of pregnancy in both ruminants and primates. The cellular and endocrine mechanisms that regulate the CL in these species have commonalities and some distinct and intriguing differences. Both species have similar cellular content with large luteal cells derived from the granulosa cells of the follicle, small luteal cells from follicular thecal cells, and large numbers of capillary endothelial cells that form the vasculature that has an essential role in optimal CL function. Intriguingly, the large luteal cells in ruminants grow larger than in primates and acquire a capacity for high constitutive progesterone (P4) production that is independent of stimulation from LH. In contrast, the primate CL and the granulosa lutein cells from primates continue to require stimulation by LH/CG throughout the luteal phase. Although the preovulatory follicle of women and cows had similar size and steroidogenic output (10 to 20 mg/h), the bovine CL had about ten-fold greater P4 output compared to the human CL (17.4 vs. 1.4 mg/h), possibly due to the development of high constitutive P4 output by the bovine large luteal cells. The continued dependence of the primate CL on LH/CG/cAMP also seems to underlie luteolysis, as there seems to be a requirement for greater luteotropic support in the older primate CL than is provided by the endogenous LH pulses. Conversely, regression of the ruminant CL is initiated by PGF from the nonpregnant uterus. Consequently, the short luteal phase in ruminants is primarily due to premature secretion of PGF by the nonpregnant uterus and early CL regression, whereas CL insufficiency in primates is related to inadequate luteotropic support and premature CL regression. Thus, the key functions of the CL, pregnancy maintenance and CL regression in the absence of pregnancy, are produced by common cellular and enzymatic pathways regulated by very distinct luteotropic and luteolytic mechanisms in the CL of primates and ruminants. PMID:23750179

  5. Cellular and functional characterization of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) corpus luteum during the estrous cycle and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baithalu, Rubina Kumari; Singh, S K; Gupta, Chhavi; Raja, Anuj K; Saxena, Abhishake; Kumar, Yogendra; Singh, R; Agarwal, S K

    2013-08-01

    In the present paper, cellular composition of buffalo corpus luteum (CL) with its functional characterization based on 3?-HSD and progesterone secretory ability at different stages of estrous cycle and pregnancy was studied. Buffalo uteri along with ovaries bearing CL were collected from the local slaughter house. These were classified into different stages of estrous cycle (Stage I, II, III and IV) and pregnancy (Stage I, II and III) based on morphological appearance of CL, surface follicles on the ovary and crown rump length of conceptus. Luteal cell population, progesterone content and steroidogenic properties were studied by dispersion of luteal cells using collagenase type I enzyme, RIA and 3?-HSD activity, respectively. Large luteal cells (LLC) appeared as polyhedral or spherical in shape with a centrally placed large round nucleus and an abundance of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. However, small luteal cells (SLC) appeared to be spindle shaped with an eccentrically placed irregular nucleus and there was paucity of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. The size of SLC (range 12-23?m) and LLC (range 25-55?m) increased (P<0.01) with the advancement of stage of estrous cycle and pregnancy. The mean progesterone concentration per gram and per CL increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to III of estrous cycle with maximum concentration at Stage III of estrous cycle and pregnancy. The progesterone concentration decreased at Stage IV (day 17-20) of estrous cycle coinciding with CL regression. Total luteal cell number (LLC and SLC) also increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to III of estrous cycle and decreased (P<0.05), thereafter, at Stage IV indicating degeneration of luteal cells and regression of the CL. Total luteal cell population during pregnancy also increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to II and thereafter decreased (P>0.05) indicating cessation of mitosis. Increased (P<0.05) large luteal cell numbers from Stage I to III of estrous cycle and pregnancy coincided with the increased progesterone secretion and 3?-HSD activity of CL. Thus, proportionate increases of large compared with small luteal cells were primarily responsible for increased progesterone secretion during the advanced stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Total luteal cells and progesterone content per CL during the mid-luteal stage in buffalo as observed in the present study seem to be less than with cattle suggesting inherent luteal deficiency. PMID:23896394

  6. Neuroendocrine regulation of the corpus luteum in the human. Evidence for pulsatile progesterone secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Filicori, M; Butler, J P; Crowley, W F

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of episodic gonadotropin release was studied in 15 normal female volunteers during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle with 24 h of blood sampling for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels at 10-min intervals. Six subjects (two in the early, two in the mid-, and two in the late luteal phase) also had each of these specimens processed for progesterone levels. A progressive slowing of LH pulsations was present across the luteal phase with the mean LH pulse frequency declining from 15.2 pulses/24 h in the early to 8.4/24 h in the late luteal phase. A trend towards reduction in the amplitude of LH pulses was also observed (12.3 +/- 2.2 SD mIU/ml in the early vs. 8.6 +/- 3.4 mIU/ml in the late luteal phase; NS). In addition, LH pulses of heterogeneous amplitude were identified during the same 24-h study. The mean +/- SD of the larger and of the smaller LH pulses was 16.9 +/- 4.7 and 2.3 +/- 1.0 mIU/ml, respectively (P less than 0.001). While the slowing of the frequency of all LH pulses correlated well (r = 0.80, P less than 0.001) with the day of the luteal phase and poorly with the actual plasma progesterone levels, the incidence of the small LH pulses was highest in the mid-luteal phase and correlated well with the mean progesterone plasma levels (r = 0.63, P less than 0.01). In the early luteal phase, the pattern of progesterone secretion was stable over the 24-h studies and showed no relationship to episodic LH release. In contrast, in the mid- and late luteal phase, plasma progesterone concentrations rapidly fluctuated during the 24-h studies from levels as low as 2.3 to peaks of 40.1 ng/ml, often within the course of minutes. Progesterone increments closely attended episodes of LH release, as documented by the significant (P less than 0.05) cross-correlation between LH and progesterone levels, at time lags of 25-55 min. The results of this study indicate that in the human luteal phase: (a) the frequency of pulsatile release of LH declines progressively and correlates well with the duration of exposure to progressively and correlates well with the duration of exposure to progesterone; (b) the amplitude of LH pulses varies with the appearance of an increased percentage of smaller pulses correlating well with the acute level of progesterone; (c) in the early luteal phase, the pattern of progesterone secretion is stable; (d) in the mid- and late luteal phase, progesterone secretion is episodic, and correlates with LH pulsatile release; and (e) single progesterone estimations in the mid- and late luteal phase do not accurately reflect corpus luteum adequacy. PMID:6427277

  7. Expression of angiogenic factors and luteinizing hormone receptors in the corpus luteum of mares induced to ovulate with deslorelin acetate.

    PubMed

    Maia, Victor N; Batista, André M; Cunha Neto, Sylvio; Silva, Diogo M F; Adrião, Manoel; Wischral, Aurea

    2016-02-01

    The effects of deslorelin acetate use in inducing ovulation need to be clarified to improve the results of equine embryo transfer. The mRNA abundance for angiogenic factors and LH receptor (LHR) in corpus luteum (CL) was studied in mares with natural (control group [CG]) and induced ovulation with deslorelin acetate (treatment group [TG]; follicles: ?35 mm). Transrectal ultrasonography was used to verify the ovulation day, and on Days 4, 8, and 12 after ovulation (Day 0), CL samples were obtained through ultrasound-guided biopsy. The messenger RNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and LHR genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. A positive correlation was observed between VEGF and LHR (P < 0.00001, r = 0.78), and it was possible to detect higher LHR expression in the TG than in the CG on Day 4 (P < 0.05). Moreover, this expression was higher on Days 4 and 8 than on Day 12 in the TG. Basic fibroblast growth factor was also expressed in luteal tissue on all days for both groups; however, these differences were not significant. In conclusion, deslorelin acetate was effective for the induction of ovulation in mares, resulting in higher expression of LHR, especially on the fourth day after ovulation. In addition, VEGF expression was influenced by induced ovulation, with a lower level on Day 12, which is expected in nonpregnant mares. PMID:26476595

  8. Expression of Aldo-keto Reductase 1C23 in the Equine Corpus Luteum in Different Luteal Phases

    PubMed Central

    KOZAI, Keisuke; HOJO, Takuo; TOKUYAMA, Shota; SZÓSTEK, Anna Z; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; SAKATANI, Miki; NAMBO, Yasuo; SKARZYNSKI, Dariusz J; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Regression of the corpus luteum (CL) is characterized by a decay in progesterone (P4) production (functional luteolysis) and disappearance of luteal tissues (structural luteolysis). In mares, structural luteolysis is thought to be caused by apoptosis of luteal cells, but functional luteolysis is poorly understood. 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20?-HSD) catabolizes P4 into its biologically inactive form, 20?-hydroxyprogesterone (20?-OHP). In mares, aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C23, which is a member of the AKR superfamily, has 20?-HSD activity. To clarify whether AKR1C23 is associated with functional luteolysis in mares, we investigated the expression of AKR1C23 in the CL in different luteal phases. The luteal P4 concentration and levels of 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD) mRNA were higher in the mid luteal phase than in the late and regressed luteal phases (P<0.05), but the level of 3?-HSD protein was higher in the late luteal phase than in the regressed luteal phase (P<0.05). The luteal 20?-OHP concentration and the level of AKR1C23 mRNA were higher in the late luteal phase than in the early and mid luteal phases (P<0.05), and the level of AKR1C23 protein was also highest in the late luteal phase. Taken together, these findings suggest that metabolism of P4 by AKR1C23 is one of the processes contributing to functional luteolysis in mares. PMID:24492656

  9. Corpus luteum derived copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase serves as a luteinizing hormone-release inhibiting factor in sheep.

    PubMed

    Al-Gubory, Kaïs H; Huet, Jean-Claude; Pernollet, Jean-Claude; Martal, Jacques; Locatelli, Alain

    2003-01-31

    In the present study, we report the purification and characterization of a polypeptide from the sheep corpus luteum of pregnancy with a potent luteinizing hormone-release inhibiting factor (LH-RIF) bioactivity that stained as a single band in SDS-PAGE with an apparent molecular mass of 16000 Da. The amino acid sequences obtained after sequence analysis of peptides derived from the trypsin digestion of LH-RIF were subjected to a protein data bank search and were found to be identical with regions of sheep copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD). The measured mass of LH-RIF (15604.2+/-1.9 Da) was found to be similar to the theoretical mass of sheep Cu,Zn-SOD (15603.5 Da), with a disulfide bond and N acetylated alanine at the N-terminus. The inhibitory action of Cu,Zn-SOD on pulsatile LH secretion would suggest that this antioxidant may play an important role, either independently or in concert with some neurotransmitters, in the neuroendocrine regulation of sheep female reproductive function. PMID:12581874

  10. Effects of steroid ablation and progestin replacement on the transcriptome of the primate corpus luteum during simulated early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C V; Aazzerah, R A; Quennoz, L M; Hennebold, J D; Stouffer, R L

    2014-03-01

    Previous microarray analyses indicated that a portion of the transcriptome in the macaque corpus luteum (CL) of the menstrual cycle was regulated indirectly by luteinizing hormone via the local actions of steroid hormones, notably progesterone (P). The current study was designed to investigate this concept in the CL of early pregnancy by analyzing chorionic gonadotrophin (CG)-regulated genes that are dependent versus independent of local steroid action. Exogenous human chorionic gonadotropin treatment simulating early pregnancy (SEP) began on Day 9 of the luteal phase in female rhesus monkeys with and without concurrent administration of the 3-?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor trilostane (TRL) with or without the synthetic progestin R5020. Compared with SEP treatment alone, TRL altered 50 mRNA transcripts on Day 10, rising to 95 on Day 15 (P<0.05, ?2-fold change in gene expression). Steroid-sensitive genes were validated; notably effects of steroid ablation and P replacement varied by day. Expression of some genes previously identified as P-regulated in the macaque CL during the menstrual cycle were not significantly altered by steroid ablation and P replacement during CG exposure in SEP. These data indicate that the majority of CG-regulated luteal transcripts are differentially expressed independently of local steroid actions. However, the steroid-regulated genes in the macaque CL may be essential during early pregnancy, based on previous reports that TRL treatment initiates premature structural regression of the CL during SEP. These data reinforce the concept that the structure, function and regulation of the rescued CL in early pregnancy differs from the CL of the menstrual cycle in primates. PMID:24219889

  11. Joint MiRNA/mRNA Expression Profiling Reveals Changes Consistent with Development of Dysfunctional Corpus Luteum after Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Andrew P.; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C.; May, Margaret C.; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7–9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26258540

  12. Dynamics of Immune Cell Types Within the Macaque Corpus Luteum During the Menstrual Cycle: Role of Progesterone.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Cecily V; Xu, Fuhua; Molskness, Theodore A; Stouffer, Richard L; Hennebold, Jon D

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the current study was to characterize the immune cell types within the primate corpus luteum (CL). Luteal tissue was collected from rhesus females at discrete intervals during the luteal phase of the natural menstrual cycle. Dispersed cells were incubated with fluorescently labeled antibodies specific for the immune cell surface proteins CD11b (neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages), CD14 (monocytes/macrophages), CD16 (natural killer [NK] cells), CD20 (B-lymphocytes), and CD3epsilon (T-lymphocytes) for analysis by flow cytometry. Numbers of CD11b-positive (CD11b(+)) and CD14(+) cells increased significantly 3 to 4 days after serum progesterone (P4) concentrations declined below 0.3 ng/ml. CD16(+) cells were the most abundant immune cell type in CL during the mid and mid-late luteal phases and were 3-fold increased 3 to 4 days after serum P4 decreased to baseline levels. CD3epsilon(+) cells tended to increase 3 to 4 days after P4 decline. To determine whether immune cells were upregulated by the loss of luteotropic (LH) support or through loss of LH-dependent steroid milieu, monkeys were assigned to 4 groups: control (no treatment), the GnRH antagonist Antide, Antide plus synthetic progestin (R5020), or Antide plus the estrogen receptor agonists diarylpropionitrile (DPN)/propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT) during the mid-late luteal phase. Antide treatment increased the numbers of CD11b(+) and CD14(+) cells, whereas progestin, but not estrogen, replacement suppressed the numbers of CD11b(+), CD14(+), and CD16(+) cells. Neither Antide nor steroid replacement altered numbers of CD3epsilon(+) cells. These data suggest that increased numbers of innate immune cells in primate CL after P4 synthesis declines play a role in onset of structural regression of primate CL. PMID:26400401

  13. Dynamic Changes in Gene Expression that Occur during the Period of Spontaneous Functional Regression in the Rhesus Macaque Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Bogan, Randy L.; Murphy, Melinda J.; Hennebold, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    Luteolysis of the corpus luteum (CL) during nonfertile cycles involves a cessation of progesterone (P4) synthesis (functional regression) and subsequent structural remodeling. The molecular processes responsible for initiation of luteal regression in the primate CL are poorly defined. Therefore, a genomic approach was used to systematically identify differentially expressed genes in the rhesus macaque CL during spontaneous luteolysis. CL were collected before [d 10–11 after LH surge, mid-late (ML) stage] or during (d 14–16, late stage) functional regression. Based on P4 levels, late-stage CL were subdivided into functional-late (serum P4 > 1.5 ng/ml) and functionally regressed late (FRL) (serum P4 < 0.5 ng/ml) groups (n = 4 CL per group). Total RNA was isolated, labeled, and hybridized to Affymetrix genome microarrays that contain elements representing the entire rhesus macaque transcriptome. With the ML stage serving as the baseline, there were 681 differentially expressed transcripts (>2-fold change; P < 0.05) that could be categorized into three primary patterns of expression: 1) increasing from ML through FRL; 2) decreasing from ML through FRL; and 3) increasing ML to functional late, followed by a decrease in FRL. Ontology analysis revealed potential mechanisms and pathways associated with functional and/or structural regression of the macaque CL. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to validate microarray expression patterns of 13 genes with the results being consistent between the two methodologies. Protein levels were found to parallel mRNA profiles in four of five differentially expressed genes analyzed by Western blot. Thus, this database will facilitate the identification of mechanisms involved in primate luteal regression. PMID:18948396

  14. Signaling mechanisms in tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced death of microvascular endothelial cells of the corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    Pru, James K; Lynch, Maureen P; Davis, John S; Rueda, Bo R

    2003-01-01

    The microvasculature of the corpus luteum (CL), which comprises greater than 50% of the total number of cells in the CL, is thought to be the first structure to undergo degeneration via apoptosis during luteolysis. These studies compared the apoptotic potential of various cytokines (tumor necrosis factor ?, TNF?; interferon gamma, IFN?; soluble Fas ligand, sFasL), a FAS activating antibody (FasAb), and the luteolytic hormone prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) on CL-derived endothelial (CLENDO) cells. Neither sFasL, FasAb nor PGF2? had any effect on CLENDO cell viability. Utilizing morphological and biochemical parameters it was evident that TNF? and IFN? initiated apoptosis in long-term cultures. However, TNF? was the most potent stimulus for CLENDO cell apoptosis at early time points. Unlike many other studies described in non-reproductive cell types, TNF? induced apoptosis of CLENDO cells occurs in the absence of inhibitors of protein synthesis. TNF?-induced death is typically associated with acute activation of distinct intracellular signaling pathways (e.g. MAPK and sphingomyelin pathways). Treatment with TNF? for 5–30 min activated MAPKs (ERK, p38, and JNK), and increased ceramide accumulation. Ceramide, a product of sphingomyelin hydrolysis, can serve as an upstream activator of members of the MAPK family independently in numerous cell types, and is a well-established pro-apoptotic second messenger. Like TNF?, treatment of CLENDO cells with exogenous ceramide significantly induced endothelial apoptosis. Ceramide also activated the JNK pathway, but had no effect on ERK and p38 MAPKs. Pretreatment of CLENDO cells with glutathione (GSH), an intracellular reducing agent and known inhibitor of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or TNF?-induced apoptosis, significantly attenuated TNF?-induced apoptosis. It is hypothesized that TNF? kills CLENDO cells through elevation of reactive oxygen species, and intracellular signals that promote apoptosis. PMID:12646059

  15. Expression of vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor by human granulosa and theca lutein cells. Role in corpus luteum development.

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, B. R.; Brown, L. F.; Manseau, E. J.; Senger, D. R.; Dvorak, H. F.

    1995-01-01

    Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF) is a cytokine that is overexpressed in many tumors, in healing wounds, and in rheumatoid arthritis. VPF/VEGF is thought to induce angiogenesis and accompanying connective tissue stroma in two ways: 1), by increasing microvascular permeability, thereby modifying the extracellular matrix and 2), as an endothelial cell mitogen. VPF/VEGF has been reported in animal corpora lutea and we investigated the possibility that it might be present in human ovaries and have a role in corpus luteum formation. We here report that VPF/VEGF mRNA and protein are expressed by human ovarian granulosa and theca cells late in follicle development and, subsequent to ovulation, by granulosa and theca lutein cells. Therefore, VPF/VEGF is ideally positioned to provoke the increased permeability of thecal blood vessels that occurs shortly before ovulation. VPF/VEGF likely also contributes to the angiogenesis and connective tissue stroma generation that accompany corpus luteum/corpus albicans formation. Finally, VPF/VEGF was overexpressed in the hyperthecotic ovarian stroma of Stein-Leventhal syndrome in which it may also have a pathophysiological role. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7531945

  16. Ultrasound monitoring of blood flow and echotexture of the corpus luteum and uterus during early pregnancy of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Scully, S; Evans, A C O; Carter, F; Duffy, P; Lonergan, P; Crowe, M A

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to characterize changes in the ultrasound characteristics of the CL and uterus in pregnant, inseminated nonpregnant, and cyclic beef heifers and to correlate findings with systemic progesterone (P4) concentrations with the intention of identifying possible markers for early identification of pregnancy. Heifers were randomly selected for artificial insemination after estrus synchronization. Ultrasound examinations of the CL and uterus were carried out by transrectal ultrasonography using a high-resolution ultrasound scanner equipped with a 12 MHz linear array probe on Days 7, 11, 14, 16, and 18 after artificial insemination (Day 0; i.e., estrus). Cross-sectional B-mode images of the CL were captured for calculation of CL tissue area and echotexture. Images of the CL and associated blood flow were captured and stored for analysis of luteal blood flow area and ratio. Longitudinal B-mode images of the uterine horns were captured just beyond the bifurcation of the uterine horns and stored for analysis of contrast and homogeneity (MaZda v4.6; Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Electronics, Poland). A total of three images were captured for each structure of interest. Serum concentrations of P4 were determined from blood samples collected at each ultrasound examination. After pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasound, heifers were retrospectively allocated as being pregnant (embryonic heartbeat on Day 28; n = 14) or nonpregnant (interestrous interval 18-21 days; n = 8) and their data were compared with noninseminated cyclic heifers (n = 10). Corpus luteum tissue area did not appear to change between pregnant, nonpregnant, or cyclic control groups between Days 7 and 18 (P > 0.05). No significant differences in CL echotexture characteristics were found between groups at any time point. There were no significant differences between pregnant, nonpregnant, and cyclic control groups for CL blood flow area (P > 0.05). However, CL blood flow ratio decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in both inseminated nonpregnant and cyclic heifers between Days 14 and 18, whereas it remained unchanged in pregnant heifers (P > 0.05). Uterine homogeneity was not significantly different between groups at any time point (P > 0.05). However, uterine contrast was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in pregnant compared with cyclic control heifers on Days 16 and 18. Concentrations of P4 were lower (P < 0.05) in nonpregnant and control heifers than in pregnant heifers from Days 16 to 18. In conclusion, there were differences between nonpregnant and cyclic heifers compared with pregnant heifers in P4 concentrations from Day 16. On Day 18, the CL and uterine characteristics were different between the nonpregnant and pregnant heifers. Ultrasound measures of CL blood flow and uterine echotexture may be useful to establish pregnancy status. Further investigation is required to identify if pregnancy diagnosis can be made on Day 18 or at a later day postpartum. PMID:25459026

  17. Characterization of recombinant DNA derived-human luteinizing hormone in vitro and in vivo: efficacy in ovulation induction and corpus luteum support

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.A.; Danforth, D.R.; Hutchison, J.S.; Hodgen, G.D.

    1988-06-10

    The present data are the first, to the authors knowledge, to demonstrate the production feasibility of a commercially available medication of pure human luteinizing hormone from recombinant DNA technology (rechLH). The rechLH preparation achieved ovulation induction and corpus luteum support in the primate menstrual cycle. The observations described herein indicate the opportunity for significant improvement in the treatment of infertile women and men who require gonadal stimulation. Recombinant DNA-derived gonadotropin products, rechLH in this case, will have several therapeutic advantages compared with current medications extracted from urine. These advantages include (1) better reliability of an available supply of hormone and (2) improved treatment flexibility in determining the optimal dose ratio of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone or avoidance of the long-acting effects of human chorionic gonadotropin, as the needs of individual patients may dictate.

  18. /sup 125/I-luteinizing hormone (LH) binding to soluble receptors from the primate (Macaca mulatta) corpus luteum: effects of ethanol exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Danforth, D.R.; Stouffer, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the current study, we compared the effects of ethanol on gonadotropin receptors solubilized from macaque luteal membranes to those on receptors associated with the lipid bilayer. Treatment with 1% Triton X-100 for 30 min at 4C, followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol, resulted in recovery of 50% more binding sites for /sup 125/I-human luteinizing hormone (hLH) than were available in particulate preparations. However, the soluble receptors displayed a 3-fold lower affinity for /sup 125/I-hLH. Conditions which enhanced LH binding to particulates, i.e., 1-8% ethanol at 25C, decreased specific /sup 125/I-hLH binding to soluble receptors. Steady-state LH binding to soluble receptors during incubation at 4C was half of that observed at 25C. The presence of 8% ethanol at 4C restored LH binding to levels observed in the absence of ethanol at 25C. Thus, LH binding sites in the primate corpus luteum can be effectively solubilized with Triton X-100. The different binding characteristics of particulate and soluble receptors, including the response to ethanol exposure, suggest that the lipid environment in the luteal membrane modulates the availability and affinity of gonadotropin receptors.

  19. Differential Cellular Localization of Galectin-1 and Galectin-3 in the Regressing Corpus Luteum of Mice and Their Possible Contribution to Luteal Cell Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2010-01-01

    Galectin-1 and galectin-3, ?-galactoside–binding lectins, are predominantly expressed in the regressing corpus luteum (CL) of mouse ovary. This study revealed the expression patterns and cellular localizations of galectins during CL formation and regression by ISH and IHC. Galectin-1 mRNA expression temporarily increased in active CL, preceding the expression of progesterone degradation enzyme 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20?-HSD), which represents functional luteolysis. The expressions of both galectin-1 and galectin-3 remarkably increased in the structurally regressing CL, which vigorously expressed 20?-HSD and contained abundant apoptotic luteal cells. Ultrastructurally, galectin-1– and galectin-3–immunoreactive cells were identified as fibroblasts and infiltrating macrophages, respectively. In addition, some populations of luteal cells themselves expressed galectin-3 in regressing CL and formed unique demarcation membranes in the cytoplasm, showing a non-typical apoptotic feature. Ovary of adult mice with repeated estrus cycles contained CL of three different generations. Among them, the old CL formed during previous estrus cycles consisted of galectin-3–positive luteal cells. The galectin-3–positive old CL was resistant to apoptosis and seemed to be eliminated by a mechanism different from apoptosis. The stage- and cell-specific expression of galectin in CL suggests its differential contribution to luteolysis, and this expression may be mediated by major regulatory molecules of CL function, prolactin and/or prostaglandin F2?. (J Histochem Cytochem 58:741–749, 2010) PMID:20421595

  20. Histological characterization and immunohistochemical localization of ki-67 and VEGF factors in bitches' corpus luteum at cyclic and early and late gestational diestrous.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A A; Martin, I; Derussi, A A P; Ferioli, R B; Laufer-Amorim, R; Lopes, M D

    2012-12-01

    The luteal phase on pregnant and non-pregnant bitches is characteristic of this species and resembles significantly with respect to the growth pattern and luteal regression. Histological and immunostaining studies of the corpus luteum (CL) may help to elucidate differences between the CL of pregnant and non-pregnant bitches. The purpose of this study was to characterize histologically and localize by immunohistochemistry the cell proliferation (Ki-67) and vascular endothelial growth (VEGF) factors in the CL of pregnant and non-pregnant bitches. Eighteen bitches were analysed and distributed into three groups: In group I (gestational diestrous), seven bitches were subjected to two inseminations at 4 and 6 days after the pre-ovulatory LH surge and ovariohysterectomized (OSH) at 8-21 days after the first insemination. In group II (cyclic diestrous; control), 6 (Ki-67) or 8 (VEGF) bitches that were determined as non-pregnant were OSH at 12-25 days of the pre-ovulatory LH surge. In group III (late pregnancy), three bitches had their ovary removed during caesarean section at 62-64 days after the pre-ovulatory LH surge. Portions of the ovarian cortex containing CLs were cut and stored for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. Histological evaluation of the ovarian cortex showed a marked similarity in the morphological pattern among the CLs in all three groups. The morphology and expression pattern of VEGF and Ki-67 factors in CLs of cyclic and gestational diestrous bitches were similar but significantly lower than that of late pregnant bitches (p < 0.05). PMID:23279467

  1. Short communication: Development of the first follicular wave dominant follicle on the ovary ipsilateral to the corpus luteum is associated with decreased conception rate in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Miura, R; Haneda, S; Kayano, M; Matsui, M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of the locations of the first-wave dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) on fertility. In total, 350 artificial insemination (AI) procedures were conducted (lactating dairy cows: n=238, dairy heifers: n=112). Ovulation was confirmed 24 h after AI. The locations of the first-wave DF and CL were examined 5 to 9d after AI using rectal palpation or transrectal ultrasonography. Lactating dairy cows and dairy heifers were divided into 2 groups: (1) the ipsilateral group (IG), in which the DF was ipsilateral to the CL; and (2) the contralateral group (CG), in which the DF was contralateral to the CL. Pregnancy was diagnosed using transrectal ultrasonography 40d after AI. Conception rates were 54.0% in all cattle: 48.9% in lactating dairy cows, and 58.9% in dairy heifers. The incidence of the first-wave DF location did not differ between IG and CG (all cattle: 184 vs. 166; lactating cows: 129 vs. 109; heifers: 55 vs. 57 for IG vs. CG). Conception rates were lower in IG than in CG (all cattle: 40.2 vs. 69.3%; lactating dairy cows: 38.0 vs. 67.0%; dairy heifers: 45.5 vs. 73.7%, for IG vs. CG). Conception rate was not affected by season or live weight in heifers and lactating cows. In addition, days in milk at AI, milk production, body condition score, and parity did not affect conception in lactating cows. In summary, development of the first-wave DF in the ovary ipsilateral to the CL was associated with reduced conception rates in both lactating cows and heifers. PMID:25465564

  2. Ovulation of the preovulatory follicle originating from the first-wave dominant follicle leads to formation of an active corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    MIURA, Ryotaro; HANEDA, Shingo; MATSUI, Motozumi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to compare the characteristics of the corpus luteum (CL) formed after ovulation of the dominant follicle (DF) of the first follicular wave (W1) and those of the CL formed after ovulation of the DF of the second (induced) follicular wave (W2). Non-lactating Holstein cows were used for this study. In Experiment 1, cows were treated with PGF2? and GnRH on days 6 and 8 (day 0 = day of follicular wave emergence) for W1 (n = 6) and W2 (n = 6), respectively. Dominant follicles were aspirated on day 9 to quantify the amounts of mRNA (VEGF120, VEGF164, FGF-2, StAR, P450-scc and 3?-HSD) in granulosa cells (GC). In Experiment 2, the size and blood flow area of the CL formed after ovulation of the DF in W1 (W1CL; n = 6) and W2 (W2CL; n = 6) (the day of DF ovulation in W1 and W2 was day 10) were evaluated on days 12, 15, 18 and 21. The plasma P4 concentration was measured on days 10 to 21. The amounts of VEGF164, P450-scc and 3?-HSD mRNA were higher (P < 0.05) in the DF in W1, and those of VEGF120,FGF-2 and StAR mRNA tended to be higher (P < 0.1) in the DF in W1. The size of the CL was greater in the W1CL on days 15, 18 and 21. The blood flow area of the CL was greater in the W1CL on days 12 and 15. The plasma P4 concentrations were higher in the W1CL. These results indicate that the CL formed after ovulation of the DF in W1 was greater in terms of size, blood flow and plasma P4 concentration. PMID:26018204

  3. Changes in expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1, type-2 and glucocorticoid receptor mRNAs in porcine corpus luteum during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Ito, Shuichi; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2008-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether glucocorticoid (GC) and its receptor (GC-R) are expressed in the porcine corpus luteum (CL), and whether GC influences porcine luteal hormone production. The gene expressions of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11-HSD1), type 2 (11-HSD2), GC-R, and the concentrations of GC were determined in the CL of Chinese Meishan pigs during the estrous cycle. Moreover, the effects of GC on progesterone (P(4)), estradiol-17beta (E(2)), and prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha secretion by cultured luteal cells were investigated. Messenger RNAs of the 11-HSD1, 11-HSD2, and GC-R were clearly expressed in the CL throughout the estrous cycle. The 11-HSD1 mRNA level in the CL was higher at the regressed stage than at the other stages (P < 0.05), whereas 11-HSD2 mRNA was lower at the regressed stage than at the other stages (P < 0.05). GC-R mRNA level was higher at the regressed stages than at the other stages (P < 0.01). Concentrations of GC were lower in the regressed CL than in the other stages (P < 0.01). When the cultured luteal cells obtained from mid-stage CL (Days 8-11) were exposed to GC (50-5,000 ng/ml), P(4) and PGF2alpha secretion by the cells were reduced (P < 0.05), whereas GC had no effect on E(2) secretion by the cells. The overall results suggest that GC is regulated locally by 11-HSD1 and 11-HSD2 in the porcine CL. GC inhibits P(4) and PGF2alpha production from luteal cells via their specific receptors, implying GC plays some roles in regulating porcine CL function throughout the estrous cycle. PMID:18033680

  4. Patterns of Gene Expression in the Bovine Corpus Luteum Following Repeated Intrauterine Infusions of Low Doses of Prostaglandin F2alpha1

    PubMed Central

    Atli, Mehmet O.; Bender, Robb W.; Mehta, Vatsal; Bastos, Michele R.; Luo, Wenxiang; Vezina, Chad M.; Wiltbank, Milo C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Natural luteolysis involves multiple pulses of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF) released by the nonpregnant uterus. This study investigated expression of 18 genes from five distinct pathways, following multiple low-dose pulses of PGF. Cows on Day 9 of the estrous cycle received four intrauterine infusions of 0.25 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or PGF (0.5 mg of PGF in 0.25 ml of PBS) at 6-h intervals. A luteal biopsy sample was collected 30 min after each PBS or PGF infusion. There were four treatment groups: Control (n = 5; 4 PBS infusions), 4XPGF (4 PGF infusions; n = 5), 2XPGF-non-regressed (2 PGF infusions; n = 5; PGF-PBS-PGF-PBS; no regression after treatments), and 2XPGF-regressed (PGF-PBS-PGF-PBS; regression after treatments; n = 5). As expected, the first PGF pulse increased mRNA for the immediate early genes JUN, FOS, NR4A1, and EGR1 but unexpectedly also increased mRNA for steroidogenic (STAR) and angiogenic (VEGFA) pathways. The second PGF pulse induced immediate early genes and genes related to immune system activation (IL1B, FAS, FASLG, IL8). However, mRNA for VEGFA and STAR were decreased by the second PGF infusion. After the third and fourth PGF pulses, a distinctly luteolytic pattern of gene expression was evident, with inhibition of steroidogenic and angiogenic pathways, whereas, there was induction of pathways for immune system activation and production of PGF. The pattern of PGF-induced gene expression was similar in corpus luteum not destined for luteolysis (2X-non-regressed) after the first PGF pulse but was very distinct after the second PGF pulse. Thus, although the initial PGF pulse induced mRNA for many pathways, the second and later pulses of PGF appear to have set the distinct pattern of gene expression that result in luteolysis. PMID:22262696

  5. Gene expression profiles in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) during the estrous cycle and pregnancy: Possible roles of chemokines in regulating CL function during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    SAKUMOTO, Ryosuke; HAYASHI, Ken-Go; HOSOE, Misa; IGA, Kosuke; KIZAKI, Keiichiro; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    To determine functional differences between the corpus luteum (CL) of the estrous cycle and pregnancy in cows, gene expression profiles were compared using a 15 K bovine oligo DNA microarray. In the pregnant CL at days 20–25, 40–45 and 150–160, the expressions of 138, 265 and 455 genes differed by a factor of > 2-fold (P < 0.05) from their expressions in the cyclic CL (days 10–12 of the estrous cycle). Messenger RNA expressions of chemokines (eotaxin, lymphotactin and ENA-78) and their receptors (CCR3, XCR1 and CXCR2) were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Transcripts of eotaxin were more abundant in the CL at days 40–45 and 150–160 of pregnancy than in the cyclic CL (P < 0.01). In contrast, the mRNA expressions of lymphotactin, ENA-78 and XCR1 were lower in the CL of pregnancy (P < 0.05). Messenger RNAs of CCR3 and CXCR2 were similarly detected both in the cyclic and pregnant CL. Tissue protein levels of eotaxin were significantly higher in the CL at days 150–160 of pregnancy than in the CL at other stages, whereas the lymphotactin protein levels in the CL at days 20–25 of pregnancy were lower (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining showed that CCR3 was expressed in the luteal cells and that XCR1 was expressed in both the luteal cells and endothelial cells. Collectively, the different gene expression profiles may contribute to functional differences between the cyclic and pregnant CL, and chemokines including eotaxin and lymphotactin may regulate CL function during pregnancy in cows. PMID:25382605

  6. Ephrin B1 is expressed on human luteinizing granulosa cells in corpora lutea of the early luteal phase: the possible involvement of the B class Eph-ephrin system during corpus luteum formation.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Miho; Yoshioka, Shinya; Higuchi, Toshihiro; Sato, Yukiyasu; Tatsumi, Keiji; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Fujii, Shingo

    2003-09-01

    Ephrins and their Eph receptors are both membrane-bound proteins that function in various cell-cell recognition processes, such as morphogenesis and angiogenesis. In this study we examined the expression of B class ephrins-Ephs in the human ovary during corpus luteum formation, a process of tissue remodeling accompanied by angiogenesis. RT-PCR analysis detected mRNAs for Eph B1, B2, and B4 and ephrin B1 and B2, but not Eph B3 and B6 or ephrin B3, in human corpora lutea of the early luteal phase. By immunohistochemistry, ephrin B1 was moderately expressed on theca interna cells, but was expressed at a low level on granulosa cells in the preovulatory follicles. After ovulation, a rapid increase in ephrin B1 expression was observed on luteinizing granulosa cells, whereas its expression on luteinizing theca interna cells decreased. The mRNA expression of ephrin B1 in luteinizing granulosa cells was confirmed by Northern blotting. Flow cytometry showed that ephrin B1 was expressed on the surface of isolated luteinizing granulosa cells. Moreover, these cells had the ability to bind to recombinant Eph B2-Fc fusion protein. These findings suggest that ephrin B1-expressing granulosa cells can directly interact with Eph-bearing cells during corpus luteum formation in vivo, suggesting that Eph-ephrin system is involved in this process. PMID:12970314

  7. The effect of progesterone replacement on gene expression in the corpus luteum during induced regression and late luteal phase in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In higher primates, although LH/CG play a critical role in the control of corpus luteum (CL) function, the direct effects of progesterone (P4) in the maintenance of CL structure and function are unclear. Several experiments were conducted in the bonnet monkey to examine direct effects of P4 on gene expression changes in the CL, during induced luteolysis and the late luteal phase of natural cycles. Methods To identify differentially expressed genes encoding PR, PR binding factors, cofactors and PR downstream signaling target genes, the genome-wide analysis data generated in CL of monkeys after LH/P4 depletion and LH replacement were mined and validated by real-time RT-PCR analysis. Initially, expression of these P4 related genes were determined in CL during different stages of luteal phase. The recently reported model system of induced luteolysis, yet capable of responsive to tropic support, afforded an ideal situation to examine direct effects of P4 on structure and function of CL. For this purpose, P4 was infused via ALZET pumps into monkeys 24 h after LH/P4 depletion to maintain mid luteal phase circulating P4 concentration (P4 replacement). In another experiment, exogenous P4 was supplemented during late luteal phase to mimic early pregnancy. Results Based on the published microarray data, 45 genes were identified to be commonly regulated by LH and P4. From these 19 genes belonging to PR signaling were selected to determine their expression in LH/P4 depletion and P4 replacement experiments. These 19 genes when analyzed revealed 8 genes to be directly responsive to P4, whereas the other genes to be regulated by both LH and P4. Progesterone supplementation for 24 h during the late luteal phase also showed changes in expression of 17 out of 19 genes examined. Conclusion These results taken together suggest that P4 regulates, directly or indirectly, expression of a number of genes involved in the CL structure and function. PMID:21291521

  8. Real-time dynamics of prostaglandin F2alpha release from uterus and corpus luteum during spontaneous luteolysis in the cow.

    PubMed

    Shirasuna, Koumei; Asaoka, Hitomi; Acosta, Tomas J; Wijayagunawardane, Missaka P B; Ohtani, Masayuki; Hayashi, Ken-Go; Matsui, Motozumi; Miyamoto, Akio

    2004-08-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha released from the uterus in a pulsatile fashion is essential to induce regression of the corpus luteum (CL) in the cow. In addition to the uterus, the CL has also been recognized as a site of PGF(2alpha) production. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the detailed dynamics of the releasing profile of CL-derived PGF2alpha together with uterus-derived PGF2alpha during spontaneous luteolysis in the cow. Non-lactating Holstein cows (n = 6) were surgically implanted with a microdialysis system (MDS) on day 15 (oestrus = day 0) of the oestrous cycle. Simultaneously, catheters were implanted to collect ovarian venous plasma ipsilateral to the CL as well as jugular venous plasma. The concentrations of PGF2alpha, 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2alpha (PGFM) and progesterone in the MDS and plasma samples were determined by enzyme immunoassays. The intra-luteal PGF2alpha secretion slightly increased after the onset of luteolysis (0 h) and drastically increased from 24 h, and was maintained at high levels towards the following oestrus. Furthermore, PGF2alpha was released from the CL into the ovarian vein in a pulsatile manner during spontaneous luteolysis. Also, the fact that intra-luteal secretion of PGF2alpha and PGFM showed a positive correlation indicates the existence of a local metabolic pathway for PGF2alpha in the CL. In conclusion, the present study clarified the real-time dynamics of uterus-derived PGF2alpha and CL-derived PGF2alpha during spontaneous luteolysis in the cow, and gives the first in vivo evidence that the CL releases PGF2alpha during spontaneous luteolysis in the cow. Although the physiological relevance of CL-derived PGF2alpha appears to be restricted to a local role as an autocrine/paracrine factor in the CL, overall results support the concept that the local release of PGF2alpha within the regressing CL amplifies the luteolytic action of PGF2alpha from the uterus. PMID:15280558

  9. Effect of Decreasing Intraluteal Progesterone on Sensitivity of the Early Porcine Corpus Luteum to the Luteolytic Actions of Prostaglandin F2alpha1

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Francisco J.; Luo, Wenxiang; Wiltbank, Milo C.

    2010-01-01

    Prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF) causes luteolysis of the pig corpus luteum (CL) only after Day 12 of the estrous cycle. Recent evidence indicates that progesterone (P4) may protect the CL from cell death. The present study tested the hypothesis that acute inhibition of P4 by treatment with epostane (EPO; 3betaHSD inhibitor) in CL lacking luteolytic capacity (Day 9 CL) will allow PGF to induce responses associated with luteolysis. Multiple PGF-induced responses were evaluated, including genes involved in production of PGF and estradiol-17beta, apoptosis (caspase 3), and transcription (FOSB). These responses are associated with PGF-induced luteolysis and do not normally occur in CL lacking luteolytic capacity. Animals on Day 7 after estrus were divided into four groups: 1) control (C), 2) PGF, 3) EPO, and 4) PGF plus EPO (PGF+EPO). Treatment with EPO (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was given every 12 h for 36 h. Treatment with PGF (25 mg) or vehicle was given at 38 h, and CL were collected from all animals at 48 h. Some CL from each animal were frozen in liquid nitrogen for mRNA and protein analysis. Remaining CL were incubated in media for 2 h for determination of P4 and PGF production. EPO dramatically decreased production of P4 by luteal tissue (ng/mg tissue) by 90% and 95% in EPO and PGF+EPO groups, respectively, compared to C (P < 0.01). Low production of PGF by luteal tissue was found in C, PGF, and EPO groups; however, treatment with PGF+EPO dramatically increased (782%) luteal PGF production. Similar to intraluteal PGF production, increased mRNA for cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2) and phospholipase A2 (group IB; PLA2G1B) was found in the PGF+EPO, but not in the EPO or PGF, group. Aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA was not induced by PGF or EPO; however, PGF+EPO caused a more than 40-fold increase in CYP19A1 mRNA (P < 0.01). CASP3 mRNA was increased (P < 0.01) by EPO (3.4-fold) and by PGF (2.7-fold) but was most dramatically increased by PGF+EPO (5.3-fold), whereas caspase activity was only increased by PGF (1.5-fold) or PGF+EPO (2.2-fold). Thus, these data support the hypothesis that elimination of the protective effect of intraluteal P4 does not directly cause luteolysis of the early CL but allows PGF to induce luteolytic responses in CL lacking luteolytic capacity. PMID:20739670

  10. Roles of prostaglandin F2alpha and hydrogen peroxide in the regulation of Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase in bovine corpus luteum and luteal endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF) induces luteolysis in cow by inducing a rapid reduction in progesterone production (functional luteolysis) followed by tissue degeneration (structural luteolysis). However the mechanisms of action of PGF remain unclear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in regulating the luteolytic action of PGF. The local concentration of ROS is controlled by superoxide dismutase (SOD), the main enzyme involved in the control of intraluteal ROS. Thus SOD seems to be involved in luteolysis process induced by PGF in cow. Methods To determine the dynamic relationship between PGF and ROS in bovine corpus luteum (CL) during luteolysis, we determined the time-dependent change of Copper/Zinc SOD (SOD1) in CL tissues after PGF treatment in vivo. We also investigated whether PGF and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) modulates SOD1 expression and SOD activity in cultured bovine luteal endothelial cells (LECs) in vitro. Results Following administration of a luteolytic dose of PGF analogue (0 h) to cows at the mid-luteal stage, the expression of SOD1 mRNA and protein, and total SOD activity in CL tissues increased between 0.5 and 2 h, but fell below the initial (0 h) level at 24 h post-treatment. In cultured LECs, the expression of SOD1 mRNA was stimulated by PGF (1–10 microM) and H2O2 (10–100 microM) at 2 h (P<0.05). PGF and H2O2 increased SOD1 protein expression and total SOD activity at 2 h (P<0.05), whereas PGF and H2O2 inhibited SOD1 protein expressions and total SOD activity at 24 h (P<0.05). In addition, H2O2 stimulated PGF biosynthesis at 2 and 24 h in bovine LECs. Overall results indicate that, SOD is regulated by PGF and ROS in bovine LECs. SOD may play a role in controlling intraluteal PGF and ROS action during functional and structural luteolysis in cows. PMID:23101731

  11. Progesterone and interferon tau regulated genes in the endometrium of the ovine uterus and expression of interferon stimulated genes in the corpus luteum during early pregnancy in sheep 

    E-print Network

    Ahn, Hyo Won

    2008-10-10

    , respectively, and likely involved in uterine receptivity to conceptus implantation during early pregnancy. The second study determined expression of ISGs in the CL of pregnant ewes. MX1, MX2, ISG15, OAS1, and RSAD2 mRNAs were increased on Day 14 of pregnancy...

  12. Effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy and interferon tau on expression of cyclooxygenase two (COX-2) in ovine endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seokwoon; Choi, Youngsok; Spencer, Thomas E; Bazer, Fuller W

    2003-01-01

    In sheep, the uterus produces luteolytic pulses of prostaglandin F2? (PGF) on Days 15 to 16 of estrous cycle to regress the corpus luteum (CL). These PGF pulses are produced by the endometrial lumenal epithelium (LE) and superficial ductal glandular epithelium (sGE) in response to binding of pituitary and/or luteal oxytocin to oxytocin receptors (OTR) and liberation of arachidonic acid, the precursor of PGF. Cyclooxygenase-one (COX-1) and COX-2 are rate-limiting enzymes in PGF synthesis, and COX-2 is the major form expressed in ovine endometrium. During pregnancy recognition, interferon tau (IFN?), produced by the conceptus trophectoderm, acts in a paracrine manner to suppress development of the endometrial epithelial luteolytic mechanism by inhibiting transcription of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) (directly) and OTR (indirectly) genes. Conflicting studies indicate that IFN? increases, decreases or has no effect on COX-2 expression in bovine and ovine endometrial cells. In Study One, COX-2 mRNA and protein were detected solely in endometrial LE and sGE of both cyclic and pregnant ewes. During the estrous cycle, COX-2 expression increased from Days 10 to 12 and then decreased to Day 16. During early pregnancy, COX-2 expression increased from Days 10 to 12 and remained higher than in cyclic ewes. In Study Two, intrauterine infusion of recombinant ovine IFN? in cyclic ewes from Days 11 to 16 post-estrus did not affect COX-2 expression in the endometrial epithelium. These results clearly indicate that IFN? has no effect on expression of the COX-2 gene in the ovine endometrium. Therefore, antiluteolytic effects of IFN? are to inhibit ER? and OTR gene transcription, thereby preventing endometrial production of luteolytic pulses of PGF. Indeed, expression of COX-2 in the endometrial epithelia as well as conceptus is likely to have a beneficial regulatory role in implantation and development of the conceptus. PMID:12956885

  13. Ovine rotaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gazal, S.; Mir, I.A.; Iqbal, A.; Taku, A.K.; Kumar, B.; Bhat, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus has been recognized as a predominant cause of acute diarrhea in young animals and humans. Rotavirus has segmented genome composed of 11 segments of double stranded RNA. The virus has a triple layered protein shell consisting of a core, an inner capsid and an outer capsid. The inner capsid protein is responsible for group specificity and based on it rotaviruses are classified into seven groups. Ovine rotavirus strains have only been identified into two serogroups (A and B). The two outer capsid proteins (VP7 and VP4) are responsible for G and P typing of rotavirus, respectively. Although rotavirus has been frequently reported in many animal species, data regarding ovine rotavirus strains is very scanty and limited. Only a few ovine rotaviruses have been isolated and characterized so far. Recently, the G and P types circulating in ovines have been identified. The ovine rotavirus strain NT isolated from a diarrheic lamb in China is being considered as a promising vaccine candidate for human infants.

  14. A field study to unravel factors that are significantly associated with the secretory activity of the corpus luteum during the first three postpartum cycles in high yielding dairy cows, based on the amount of steroidogenic and endothelial cells present in the luteal tissue.

    PubMed

    Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; Bossaert, P; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

    2014-12-01

    Fourteen multi- and eight primiparous high-yielding dairy cows were followed from the first till the fourth ovulation postpartum. Cows were randomly divided into two groups and supplemented with soybean (group I; n = 11) or rapeseed meal (group II; n = 11). Both groups were subjected to a biopsy sampling of the corpus luteum (CL) at cycle day 9. The luteal capillary network (visualized by Bandeiraea simplicifolia) was denser in cycles 2 and 3 (p = 0.0005). The same was seen for the surface occupied by steroidogenic cells (visualized by 3?-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase) (p = 0.0001). The peripheral blood progesterone concentration showed an increasing trend with increasing cycle number and was higher in primiparous cows (p = 0.013), which had also larger glands on cycle day 9. The area occupied by endothelial cells was positively correlated with the area occupied by steroidogenic cells (r = 0.59; p < 0.0001). Both the areas occupied by endothelial and by steroidogenic cells were negatively correlated with the blood concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (respectively, r = -0.377; p = 0.004 and r = -0.355; p = 0.007). We can conclude that primiparous cows generally have higher peripheral progesterone levels during the first three cycles after calving which is associated with a larger CL. In comparison with those of the first post-partum cycle, corpora lutea of cycles 2 and 3 have a denser capillary network and a larger area of steroidogenic cells, while these are only associated with a trend of higher peripheral progesterone concentrations. PMID:25147002

  15. Cellular Transport of Prostaglandins in the Ovine Uterus 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Je Hoon

    2013-05-08

    In ruminants, prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2?) is released from the endometrium in a pulsatile pattern at the time of luteolysis. The luteolytic PGF2? pulses are transported from the uterus to the corpus luteum (CL) through the utero-ovarian plexus...

  16. Analysis of transcriptional control elements in the 5'-upstream region of ovine interferon-tau gene using feeder-independent caprine trophoblast cell line, HTS-1.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, F; Xu, N; Kijima, S; Tachi, C; Christenson, R K; Sakai, S; Imakawa, K

    2004-01-01

    Interferon-tau (IFNtau) is a protein secreted from the embryonic trophectoderm of ruminant ungulates during peri-implantation period. This protein acts on the uterine endometrium, which indirectly maintains corpus luteum function, and is therefore considered essential for the process of maternal recognition of pregnancy. Transcriptional regulation of IFNtau genes had been examined using human choriocarcinoma cell lines, JEG-3 or JAR, however, molecular mechanisms by which cell and term specific IFNtau expression are regulated have not been elucidated. Recently, a feeder cell free-trophoblast cell line derived from Shiba-goat placenta, termed HTS-1, was established. In the present investigation, the 5'-upstream region of ovine IFNtau (oIFNtau) gene was analysed using this cell line, which would provide a more suitable system for studies of the ovine trophoblast specific gene than human choriocarcinoma cells. Variously modified 5'-upstream sequences of the oIFNtau gene fused to a luciferase reporter gene were transiently transfected into HTS-1 cells, and human JEG-3 cells were used as a control. These results and co-transfection with expression vectors revealed that Ets-2 binding site in the promoter region was important in HTS-1, whereas AP-1 that binds to the enhancer region was a major activator in JEG-3. By electrophoretic mobility shift assay, a nuclear protein from HTS-1 cells was confirmed to bind specifically to the Ets-2 site of oIFNtau promoter region. Differences in amounts of AP-1 and Ets-2 protein were demonstrated in nuclear extracts from HTS-1, JEG-3 and ovine conceptuses. Substantial differences on oIFNtau gene transcriptions found between caprine HTS-1 and human JEG-3 cells suggest that this cell line could be valuable in the elucidation of a molecular mechanism(s) by which oIFNtau gene expression is regulated in a cell specific manner. PMID:14972449

  17. Temporal expression of type I interferon receptor in the peri-implantation ovine extra-embryonic membranes: demonstration that human IFNalpha can bind to this receptor.

    PubMed

    Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Tamura, Kazuhiro; Lee, Rita S F; Ji, Yongjie; Kogo, Hiroshi; Sakai, Senkiti; Christenson, Ronald K

    2002-04-01

    Interferon-tau (IFNtau), produced by the trophectoderm of ruminant ungulates, binds to the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) located at the uterine endometrium in a paracrine manner. Since IFNtau attenuates the secretory pattern of an endometrial luteolysin, prostaglandin F2alpha, IFNtau has been considered as a conceptus factor implicated in the process of maternal recognition of pregnancy. Here we report the presence of IFNAR subunit (IFNAR1) in ovine conceptuses during the period of peri-implantation development and demonstrate that 125I-human (h) IFNalpha binds to membrane preparations from ovine corpus luteum and conceptus. Using an antibody against hIFNAR1, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that IFNAR1 protein was present in day 14 and 16 conceptuses (day 0 = day of estrus) and luminal and glandular epithelia of the endometrium. Conceptus membrane proteins analyzed by western blot with the same antibody displayed immunoreactive bands at 95, 60 and 55 kDa while endometrial membrane proteins showed bands at 200, 95 and 55 kDa. Northern blot analysis revealed that IFNAR1 mRNA was present in days 15-19 conceptuses and day 18-19 allantoic membranes. Receptor binding studies indicated that 125I-hIFNalpha binding to day 16, but not earlier, conceptus membrane proteins could be displaced with hIFNalpha or ovine IFNtau. Based on Scatchard analysis, day 16 conceptus membranes contained 28 fmol IFNAR/mg protein with a dissociation constant of 300 pM. Cross-linking experiments demonstrated that 125I-hIFNalpha-receptor complex migrated at 120 kDa, indicating that the receptor component(s) was approximately 100 kDa. These data provide evidence that although the binding does not occur until day 16, ovine conceptuses possess IFNAR1 near or at the time of implantation, suggesting that IFNtau, a factor produced by the trophectoderm of ruminant ungulates, could act on the conceptus in an autocrine manner. In addition to functioning as an antiluteolytic factor, therefore, IFNtau may have a direct effect on conceptus development. PMID:12081239

  18. Different ovine interferon-tau genes are not expressed identically and their protein products display different activities.

    PubMed

    Ealy, A D; Green, J A; Alexenko, A P; Keisler, D H; Roberts, R M

    1998-02-01

    Interferon tau (IFN-tau) proteins are secreted by the ovine conceptus for a few days before definitive attachment of the trophoblast to the uterine epithelium and act to prolong luteal life span. Multiple genes encode for IFN-tau in sheep, but it remains unclear which genes are expressed during early pregnancy and whether the proteins encoded by these genes are equipotent. Three distinct ovine (ov) IFN-tau gene variants, p3, p6, and s4, were examined to determine whether they differed in gene expression and whether the proteins displayed different biological activities. By using RNase protection assays, full-length protected fragments were detected for p3 and p6 in approximately similar proportions in conceptuses flushed from the uterus at Days 12-13, Days 15-16, and Days 18-19 of pregnancy, but the amount of full-length protected s4 transcripts was 10% to 20% of that for p3 and p6. Partially protected probe fragments were also evident, presumably from probe hybridization to related ovIFN-tau transcripts. Recombinant proteins were generated and exhibited 34.2 (p3), 8.4 (p6), and 11.9 (s4) units (x 10(-7)) of activity per milligram of protein when tested on Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells. Antiproliferative activity on human Daudi cells varied considerably between the interferons, with p3 being 2000-fold more potent than s4. The interferons were injected into the uterine lumen of ewes from 10 to 18 days postestrus. The functional life span of the corpus luteum (CL) was increased (p = 0.02) by either 300 microg/day p3 (31.7 +/- 7.8 days) or 300 microg/day p6 (25.5 +/- 4.2 days), but not by 300 microg/day s4 (19.2 +/- 2.9 days), when compared to controls (15.8 +/- 0.6 days). Injection of 1 mg/day s4 did, however, increase (p = 0.02) CL life span (23.5 +/- 4.1 days). These data suggest that IFN-tau genes are not equally expressed in trophectoderm and that ovIFN-tau genes encode for proteins with significantly different biological potency. PMID:9475415

  19. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. 113.301 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be prepared from tissue... inoculation with virulent ovine ecthyma virus. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine is exempt from the...

  20. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. 113.301 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be prepared from tissue... inoculation with virulent ovine ecthyma virus. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine is exempt from the...

  1. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. 113.301 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be prepared from tissue... inoculation with virulent ovine ecthyma virus. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine is exempt from the...

  2. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. 113.301 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be prepared from tissue... inoculation with virulent ovine ecthyma virus. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine is exempt from the...

  3. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. 113.301 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be prepared from tissue... inoculation with virulent ovine ecthyma virus. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine is exempt from the...

  4. Activation of Gq/11 in the Mouse Corpus Luteum Is Required for Parturition

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Rachel; Waite, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Mice with a deletion of G?q/11 in granulosa cells were previously shown to be subfertile. They also have a reduced ovulatory response due to a deficiency in the ability of the activated LH receptor to fully induce the granulosa cell progesterone receptor. Because this conditional deletion of G?q/11 will interfere with the actions of any G protein-coupled receptor that activates Gq/11 in granulosa or luteal cells, we sought to determine whether the actions of other hormones that contribute to fertility were also impaired. We focused our attention on prostaglandin F2 (PGF2)?, because this hormone is known to activate phospholipase C (a prominent G?q/11 effector) in luteal cells and because the action of PGF2? on luteal cells is the first step in the murine parturition pathway. Our data show that the conditional deletion of G?q/11 from granulosa cells prevents the ability of PGF2? to induce Akr1c18 in luteal cells. Akr1c18 codes for 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an enzyme that inactivates progesterone. The PGF2?-mediated induction of this enzyme towards the end of pregnancy increases the inactivation of progesterone and precipitates parturition in mice. Thus, the conditional deletion of G?q/11 from granulosa/luteal cells prevents the progesterone withdrawal that occurs at the end of pregnancy and impairs parturition. This novel molecular defect contributes to the subfertile phenotype of the mice with a deletion of G?q/11 from granulosa cells. PMID:25495873

  5. Steroid hormones, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems during rescue of the corpus luteum in pigs.

    PubMed

    Przygrodzka, E; Kaczmarek, M M; Kaczynski, P; Ziecik, A J

    2016-02-01

    In order to characterize the transition of the corpora lutea (CL) from acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity to rescue of luteal function: i) the expression of 38 factors associated with steroids, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems and ii) concentrations of the main hormones responsible for maintenance of CL function in cyclic and pregnant pigs were examined. Additionally, the effect of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2 ? on luteal function during the estrous cycle and pregnancy was evaluated in vitro. Significantly up-regulated gene expression was revealed in CL collected on day 14 of the estrous cycle (CYP19A1, ESR2, PTGS2, HIF1A, and EDN1) and on days 12-14 of pregnancy (SCARB1, PGRMC1, STAR, HSD3B1, NR5A1, PTGFR, PTGER4, and VEGFA). Elevated concentrations of estradiol-17? and PGE2 occurred in CL on days 12 and 14 of pregnancy respectively, while an increased intraluteal PGF2 ? content was noted on day 14 of the estrous cycle. Both PGs increased the synthesis of progesterone by cultured luteal slices obtained on day 14 of pregnancy, in contrast to the action of PGF2 ? on the corresponding day of the estrous cycle. PGE2 stimulated cAMP production via PTGER2 and PTGER4, while PGF2 ? elevated the content of CREB in cultured luteal slices from CL of pregnant pigs. In silico analysis showed that infiltration of lymphocytes and apoptosis of microvascular endothelium were activated in CL on day 12 of the estrous cycle vs pregnancy. Summarizing, an abundance of E2 and PGE2 during pregnancy regulates specific pathways responsible for steroidogenesis, the prostanoid signaling system and angiogenesis during rescue from luteolysis in porcine CL. PMID:26577025

  6. Corpus luteum blood flow evaluation on Day 21 to improve the management of embryo recipient herds.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, C R B; Oliveira, M E; Rossi, J R; Fernandes, C A C; Viana, J H M; Palhao, M P

    2015-07-15

    The aim of the present study was to use blood flow evaluation of the CL at 14 days after embryo transfer to detect nonpregnant animals and optimize the management of bovine recipients. The estrous cycle was synchronized in 165 recipients, and the day of expected ovulation was considered to be Day 0. Embryo transfer was performed 7 days later, on Day 7. On Day 21, pregnancy was diagnosed on the basis of blood flow evaluation of the CL (DG21-predictive diagnostic). To validate this methodology, visual scores for blood flow were compared to objective data extracted from CL ultrasound images recorded in the Doppler mode. The size was also evaluated using recorded images of the CL in the B mode. Blood samples were also collected for further analysis of the progesterone (P4) concentration. The diagnosis of pregnancy was confirmed at 35 days after estrus (DG35-definitive diagnostic). The DG21 showed that 55.2% (90 of 163) of the animals were presumptively pregnant, and this value was higher (P < 0.04) than that obtained at DG35 (43.6%, 71 of 163). The predictive diagnostic achieved moderate specificity (79.3%) for the detection of pregnancy, but most importantly, high sensitivity (100%) for the detection of nonpregnant recipients. The overall accuracy of the diagnosis was 88.3%. The P4 concentrations were different (P < 0.02) and correlated with each visual score assigned for the CL size. Visual scores for CL blood flow were also efficient (P < 0.0001) to distinguish animals with different levels of P4; however, P4 concentrations were higher for scores 1 and 2 (high and regular blood flow, respectively) than those for score 3 (low blood flow). This technique showed high sensitivity and facilitated the early detection of nonpregnant animals. The DG21 would allow about 79.3% of nonpregnant animals to be resynchronized 9 to 14 days earlier, when compared to conventional management based on pregnancy diagnosis at Days 30 to 35. PMID:25892341

  7. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. 113.301 Section 113.301 Animals...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be...

  8. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. 113.301 Section 113.301 Animals...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be...

  9. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. 113.301 Section 113.301 Animals...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be...

  10. Corpus Christi, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This near vertical view of the south Texas coast shows the city of Corpus Christi (28.0N, 97.0W) and Corpus Christi Bay. Mustang Island and the Gulf of Mexico are seen in the Southeast corner of the view. The Nueces River flows into the bay from the west. The light toned squiggly lines in Corpus Christi Bay are mud trails caused by shrimp boats dragging their nets along the shallow bottom of the bay.

  11. Characteristics of ovine cytotoxic lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Knisley, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine characteristics of the effector cells responsible for cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the sheep. Conditions for the production and assay of ovine T cell growth factor (TCGF) activity were evaluated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) were stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) in the presence of 2% autologous serum or serum-free media. A 28 h proliferation assay with 2.5 x 10/sup 4/ h Con A blasts per well was optimal for detection of TCGF. Peak TCGF activity occurred with a 30-37kD molecular weight fraction. Ovine PBL were used for in vitro generation of genetically-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Peripheral blood leukocytes from sheep that had been previously inoculated with live vaccinia virus were stimulated by being cultured in vitro on glutaraldehyde-fixed vaccinia-infected autologous skin fibroblasts. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity was assessed in a 6 h /sup 51/Cr-release assay on autologous and allogeneic fibroblasts targets. Killing was restricted to virus-infected autologous targets. In vitro generation of both anti-vaccinia and anti-TNP CTL activity could be enhanced by the addition of TCGF containing media from ConA-stimulated PBL.

  12. Ovine pedomics: the first study of the ovine foot 16S rRNA-based microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the first study of the bacterial microbiome of ovine interdigital skin based on 16S rRNA by pyrosequencing and conventional cloning with Sanger-sequencing. Ovine foot rot is an infectious, contagious disease of sheep that causes severe lameness and economic loss from decreased flock produc...

  13. Book Reviews Corpus Linguistics

    E-print Network

    linguistics, the relative merits of qualitative versus quanti- 333 #12;Computational Linguistics Volume 24Book Reviews Corpus Linguistics Tony McEneryand Andrew Wilson (Lancaster University) Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press (Edinburgh Textbooks in Empirical Linguistics, edited by Tony McEnery and Andrew

  14. Corpus Uteri Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Corpus Uteri C540–C559 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) [SEER Note: Do not code dilation and curettage (D&C) as Surgery of Primary Site for invasive cancers] Codes 00 None; no surgery

  15. Progesterone supplementation after ovulation: effects on corpus luteum function and on fertility of dairy cows subjected to AI or ET.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Pedro L J; Nascimento, Anibal B; Pontes, Guilherme C S; Fernandes, Gabriela O; Melo, Leonardo F; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    Three experiments were done to evaluate the effects of progesterone (P4) supplementation starting during metestrus on formation of the CL and on fertility of lactating dairy cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or embryo transfer (ET). In experiment 1, 42 Holstein cows were randomly allocated to untreated (Control) or to receive an intravaginal implant containing 1.9 g of P4 from Day 3 to 20 after FTAI (controlled internal drug release [CIDR]). Blood samples were collected on Days 3, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17, 20, and 21 after FTAI to evaluate the effect of CIDR supplementation on plasma concentration of P4 using radioimmunoassay. Ultrasound scans were performed at Days 4, 7, 11, 14, and 20 to evaluate CL volume. In experiment 2, the effect on CIDR supplementation on fertility was evaluated in 668 Holstein and crossbred dairy cows that were subjected to FTAI and allocated randomly to untreated (AI-Control) or to receive a CIDR from Day 3 to 17 (AI-CIDR) after FTAI. In experiment 3, 360 Holstein cows were treated with PGF and after heat detection (Day 0), they were allocated to untreated (ET-Control) or to receive a CIDR from Day 4 ± 1 to 8 ± 1 (ET-CIDR-4) or a CIDR from 4 ± 1 to 18 ± 1 (ET-CIDR-14). In vitro-produced embryos were transferred on Day 8 ± 1. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed by ultrasound. In experiment 1, there was interaction between treatment and day in relation to plasma P4 on Days 4 and 7 due to CIDR supplementation. Independent of treatment, pregnant cows had higher plasma P4 from Day 14 to 21 than nonpregnant cows (P ? 0.05). Supplementation with CIDR did not alter CL development. In experiment 2, there was no effect of supplementation of P4 on pregnancy per AI on Day 32 (32.0% vs. 31.8%, for AI-Control and AI-CIDR, respectively) or pregnancy loss (15.6% vs. 17.6%, for AI-Control and AI-CIDR, respectively). In experiment 3, P4 supplementation compromised pregnancy per ET (P/ET) on Day 32 in both supplemented groups (39.7% vs. 21.3% vs. 15.2%, for ET-Control, ET-CIDR-4, and ET-CIDR-14, respectively), with no effect on pregnancy loss. Therefore, although CIDR insertion on Day 3 after FTAI did not affect CL function and increased circulating P4, it did not increase pregnancy per AI in lactating dairy cows submitted to FTAI. Moreover, P4 supplementation decreased pregnancy per ET in lactating recipient cows. PMID:26255222

  16. Effect of environmental pollutants on oxytocin synthesis and secretion from corpus luteum and on contractions of uterus from pregnant cows

    SciTech Connect

    Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Wrobel, Michal H.; Kotwica, Jan

    2010-09-15

    Chloro-organic compounds are persistent environmental pollutants and affect many reproductive processes. Oxytocin (OT) synthesized in luteal cells is a local regulator of ovarian activity and uterine contractions. Therefore the effect of xenobiotics on the OT prohormone synthesis, secretion of OT and progesterone (P4) from luteal cells and on myometrial contractions during early pregnancy in cows was investigated. Luteal cells and myometrial strips from a cow at early pregnancy were treated with polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB 77), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (1 or 10 ng/ml). The mRNA expression of neurophysin-I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT) and peptidyl-glycine-{alpha}-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA) and concentration of OT and P4 were determined by RT-PCR and EIA, respectively. Moreover, the effect of xenobiotics given with P4 (12 ng/ml) on the basal and OT (10{sup -7} M) stimulated contractions of myometrial strips was studied. Xenobiotics increased (P < 0.05) OT secretion but DDE only stimulated P4 secretion. The ratio of P4 to OT in culture medium was decreased by all xenobiotics during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. All xenobiotics, except HCH, increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of NP-I/OT during all stages of pregnancy and all treatments decreased (P < 0.05) expression of mRNA for PGA during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. Myometrial strips were relaxed (P < 0.01) after pre-incubation with P4, while each of the xenobiotics jointly with P4 increased (P < 0.01) myometrial contractions. In conclusion, the xenobiotics used increased both expression of mRNA for genes involved in OT synthesis and secretion of OT from luteal cells. This decreases the ratio of P4 to OT and presumably, in this manner, the chloro-organic compounds can influence uterine contractions and enhance risk of abortions in pregnant females.

  17. Variation in the ovine PRKAG3 gene.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo; Zhou, Huitong; Wang, Ruoyu; Hickford, Jon

    2015-08-10

    The 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric enzyme that controls cellular energy homeostasis in response to environmental or nutritional stress. The PRKAG3 gene (PRKAG3) encodes the ?3 subunit of the AMPK. Variation in this gene has been found to be associated with meat quality traits in pigs. In this study, we used polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) to investigate variation in exon 3 and exons 4-6 of ovine PRKAG3. In 160 New Zealand Suffolk sheep, two variant sequences (named a and b) were identified in the exon 3 region of the gene and three variant sequences (named A, B and C) were identified in the exon 4-6 region of the gene, respectively. A total of three nucleotide substitutions were revealed and these were located in intron 4, exon 4 and intron 5, respectively. The nucleotide substitution identified in the exon 4 (g.2656 C>T) could nominally lead to an amino acid substitution of tryptophan to arginine at position 230 (R230W) in ovine PRKAG3. In comparison with the PRKAG3 amino acid sequences in other species, this R230W substitution appeared to occur only in sheep. This is the first report of genetic variation in ovine PRKAG3, and the variation found in this study could be functionally important for AMPK activity, which in turn may affect meat quality traits in sheep. PMID:25967386

  18. Comparative molecular analysis of ovine and bovine Streptococcus uberis isolates.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, T L; Smith, D G E; Fitzpatrick, J L; Zadoks, R N; Fontaine, M C

    2013-02-01

    Streptococcus uberis causes clinical and subclinical mastitis in cattle and sheep, but it is unknown whether the composition of Strep. uberis populations differs between host species. To address this, we characterized a collection of bovine and ovine Strep. uberis isolates with shared geographical and temporal origins by means of an expanded multilocus sequence typing scheme. Among 14 ovine and 35 bovine isolates, 35 allelic profiles were detected. Each allelic profile was associated with a single host species and all but one were new to the multilocus sequence typing database. The median number of new alleles per isolate was higher for ovine isolates than for bovine isolates. None of the ovine isolates belonged to the global clonal complexes 5 or 143, which are commonly associated with bovine mastitis and which have a wide geographical distribution. Ovine isolates also differed from bovine isolates in carriage of plasminogen activator genes, with significantly higher prevalence of pauB in ovine isolates. Isolates that were negative for yqiL, one of the targets of multilocus sequence typing, were found among ovine and bovine isolates and were not associated with a specific sequence type or global clonal complex. One bovine isolate carried a gapC allele that was probably acquired through lateral gene transfer, most likely from Streptococcus salivarius. We conclude that ovine isolates are distinct from bovine isolates of Strep. uberis, and that recombination between isolates from different host species or bacterial species could contribute to changes in virulence gene profiles with relevance for vaccine development. PMID:23200465

  19. Corpus-Based Work Corpus-Based Work

    E-print Network

    Inkpen, Diana

    1 Corpus-Based Work (M&S Ch 4) #12;2 Corpus-Based Work · Text Corpora are usually big. They also for processing corpora (see useful links on course homepage). #12;3 Looking at Text (I) Low-Level Formatting" in "George Brown" and "brown dog" should be treated separately. #12;4 Looking at Text (II): Tokenization What

  20. [Corpus Hermeticum in history].

    PubMed

    Bugaj, R

    2001-01-01

    The originator and founder of hermetism was the mythical Hermes Trismegistos, a deity of the syncretic Hellenistic religion that came into being through the identification of the Greek god Hermes with the Egyptian god Thot. In later Hellenistsic times various hermetic writers considered Hermes Trismegistos to have been a historical personage, a king, prophet and philosopher (physician), as well as author of many widely disseminated writings that made up the so-called Corpus Hermeticum (eighteen separate treatises from the 2nd-4th centuries AD) and the so-called Emerald Table (Tabula Smaragdina). The Corpus Hermeticum is a collection of treatises of a philosophical, religious, theological as well as theosophical nature. The collection played an important role in the development of the philosophy of alchemy and hermetism, and formed the basis for an alchemist philosophy of nature. There are currently two views among scholars on the origins of hermetism. According to one, hermetism derived directly from Egypt, while according to the other it orginated in Greece. In the years 1945-46 a number of hermetic texts forming part of the now famous gnostic "library" were discovered in Nag-Hammadi (Chenosboskion) in Upper Egypt. The Coptic texts from Nag-Hammadi date from the middle of the 4th century AD, and according to experts are translations from the Greek. Some authors (R. Reitzenstein and T. Zieli?ski) have suggested that along with the appearance in Egypt of the Hermetic Books, attributed to Hermes Trismegistos, there also appeared a new god in Egypt, Poimandres, and a new religion was established, hermetism, which competed for influence with Christianity. The present article discusses the main of the hermetic treatises, including Poimandres, which contains an account of the creation of the world. The article also discusses the reasons for the decline of hermetism as a religion and stresses that in spite of this decline the doctrine managed to survive in the form of alchemic hermetism, which played an important role in the culture of the Renaissance. The article also cites the voluminous work by W. Scott and A. S. Ferguson (1924-1936), and A. D. Nock and A. -J. Festugiére (1945-1964), which contains contemporary, English and French, commentaries on and translations of the Corpus Hermeticum texts. PMID:12030267

  1. 78 FR 76276 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Ovine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...Information Collection; Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant...regulations for the importation of ovine meat from Uruguay into the United States...regulations for the importation of ovine meat from Uruguay, contact Dr. Silvia...

  2. Toxic effects of cypermethrin and methamidophos on bovine corpus luteal cells and progesterone production.

    PubMed

    Gill, Shahid Afzal; Rizvi, Farzana; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar

    2011-01-01

    This study was planned and executed with the aims to explore corpus luteal primary cell culture as an "animal alternate testing system" in toxicity studies and in vitro toxic effects of cypermethrin (CY) 90% (pyrethroid) and methamidophos (MTP) 73% (organophosphate) on morphology and progesterone secretory activity of bovine corpus luteal cells and tissue. For this purpose, primary cell cultures of bovine corpus luteum (CL) cells were maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 5% fetal calf serum (FCS). Toxicity evaluation were based on viable CL cell counts, morphological changes in CL cells, ability of CL cells to produce progesterone and histological changes in CL tissue at different hours post exposure to CY and MTP. The changes induced by both the insecticides were time and dose dependant. Viable cell counts and progesterone concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05) with the treatment of CY and MTP when compared to control. Corpus luteal cells exposed to CY showed more severe toxic effects as compared to MTP, though the difference was non-significant. Cellular or tissue alterations included degenerative changes in luteal cells, pleomorphic changes, nuclear degeneration and vacuolation, cell shrinkage and rupture, cloudy swelling and hydropic degeneration, less cytoplasmic granulation, cell elongation, hyalinization and cytoplasmic haziness and stripling and necrosis. It was concluded that both the insecticides induce toxic effects in terms of viable counts, morphological and histological changes and progesterone production of bovine CL cells. Cypermethrin exhibited more adverse toxic changes in viable cell counts, progesterone production and histological findings as compared to methamidophos. PMID:19942419

  3. 76 FR 10266 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ...CFR Part 94 Animal diseases, Imports, Livestock, Meat and meat products, Milk, Poultry and poultry products, Reporting and recordkeeping...22 for fresh (chilled or frozen) beef and ovine meat from Uruguay. * * * * * (d) Except as...

  4. 78 FR 68327 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ...CFR Part 94 Animal diseases, Imports, Livestock, Meat and meat products, Milk, Poultry and poultry products, Reporting and recordkeeping...22 for fresh (chilled or frozen) beef and ovine meat from Uruguay. * * * * * (d) Except as...

  5. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...immunity of the two vaccinates and one or more unvaccinated lambs (controls) shall be challenged in the same manner as for vaccination, using the opposite thigh. (3) If typical signs of ovine ecthyma, such as hyperemia, vesicles, and pustules...

  6. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...immunity of the two vaccinates and one or more unvaccinated lambs (controls) shall be challenged in the same manner as for vaccination, using the opposite thigh. (3) If typical signs of ovine ecthyma, such as hyperemia, vesicles, and pustules...

  7. Functional analysis of ovine herpesvirus 2 encoded microRNAs 

    E-print Network

    Riaz, Aayesha

    2014-11-28

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) is a gamma herpesvirus and is the causative agent of lymphoproliferative disease – sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in susceptible ruminants, including cattle. Sheep become persistently ...

  8. Identification and characterization of Ovine Herpesvirus 2 microRNAs 

    E-print Network

    Levy, Claire Safrai

    2012-06-30

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) is the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in susceptible ruminants. Through an unknown mechanism, presence of the virus leads to proliferation of NK-like T ...

  9. Transmissibility of caprine scrapie in ovine transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The United States control program for classical ovine scrapie is based in part on the finding that infection is typically spread through exposure to shed placentas from infected ewes. Transmission from goats to sheep is less well described. A suitable rodent model for examining the effect of caprine scrapie isolates in the ovine host will be useful in the ovine scrapie eradication effort. In this study, we describe the incubation time, brain lesion profile, glycoform pattern and PrPSc distribution patterns in a well characterized transgenic mouse line (Tg338) expressing the ovine VRQ prion allele, following inoculation with brain from scrapie infected goats. Results First passage incubation times of caprine tissue in Tg338 ovinized mice varied widely but second passage intervals were shorter and consistent. Vacuolation profiles, glycoform patterns and paraffin-embedded tissue blots from terminally ill second passage mice derived from sheep or goat inocula were similar. Proteinase K digestion products of murine tissue were slightly smaller than the original ruminant inocula, a finding consistent with passage of several ovine strains in previous reports. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that Tg338 mice propagate prions of caprine origin and provide a suitable baseline for examination of samples identified in the expanded US caprine scrapie surveillance program. PMID:22472560

  10. Precursors to glycogen in ovine fetuses

    SciTech Connect

    Levitsky, L.L.; Paton, J.B.; Fisher, D.E. )

    1988-11-01

    Postprandial hepatic glycogenesis in the adult animal is now felt to proceed largely through gluconeogenic pathways rather than directly from glucose. The ovine fetus, like the mature sheep, lacks specific hepatic glucokinase. Therefore, the authors examined the role of lactate as a fetal glycogenic precursor in seven chronically catheterized 125-day sheep fetuses. Fetuses were infused with L-(U-{sup 14}C)lactate and D-(3-{sup 3}H)glucose, while maternal glucose was maintained at 50 mg/dl. Mean fetal hepatic glycogen specific activity ({mu}Ci/mg {times} 10{sup 3}) was 0.82 {plus minus} 0.08 for {sup 14}C and 2.6 {plus minus} 0.4 for {sup 3}H, whereas fetal renal glycogen specific activity was 0.46 {plus minus} 0.22 for {sup 14}C and 0.78 {plus minus} 0.16 for {sup 3}H. In contrast, ({sup 14}C)glucose specific activity was undetectable in blood and mean ({sup 3}H)glucose specific activity was 8.9 {plus minus} 1.3 {mu}Ci/mg {times} 10{sup 3}. The least detectable specific activity of ({sup 14}C)glucose did not differ significantly from the ({sup 14}C)glycogen enrichment in liver, whereas ({sup 3}H)glucose specific activity was significantly greater than ({sup 3}H)glycogen enrichment. The authors conclude that glycogenesis from glucose is partly through the indirect gluconeogenic route and that lactate may be a glycogenic precursor in the ovine fetus.

  11. Endoscopic corpus callosotomy and hemispherotomy.

    PubMed

    Sood, Sandeep; Marupudi, Neena I; Asano, Eishi; Haridas, Abilash; Ham, Steven D

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Corpus callosotomy and hemispherotomy are conventionally performed via a large craniotomy with the aid of a microscope for children with intractable epilepsy. Primary technical considerations include completeness of disconnection and blood loss. The authors describe an endoscopic technique performed through a microcraniotomy for these procedures. METHODS Four patients with drop attacks and 2 with intractable seizures related to a neonatal stroke underwent endoscopic complete corpus callosotomy and hemispherotomy, respectively. The surgeries were performed through a 2- to 3-cm precoronal microcraniotomy. Interhemispheric dissection to the corpus callosum was done using the standard technique. Subsequently, the bimanual technique with a suction device mounted on an endoscope was used to perform a complete corpus callosotomy, including interforniceal and anterior commissure disconnection. In patients who had hemispherotomy, the fornix was resected posteriorly and lateral disconnection was done by unroofing the temporal horn. Anteriorly, endoscopic corticectomy was done along the ipsilateral anterior cerebral artery to reach the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery to complete the anterior disconnection. Postoperative MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brain were performed to confirm complete disconnection. RESULTS The procedure was accomplished successfully in all patients, with excellent visualization secured. None of the patients required a blood transfusion. Postoperative MRI and DTI confirmed completeness of the disconnection. Patients who underwent corpus callosotomy had complete resolution of drop attacks at a mean follow-up of 6 months, and patients who underwent hemispherotomy became seizure free. CONCLUSIONS Endoscopic corpus callosotomy and hemispherotomy are surgically feasible procedures associated with minimal blood loss, minimal risk, and excellent visualization. PMID:26407094

  12. Annotated web as corpus Paul Rayson

    E-print Network

    by alleviating the annotation bottle- neck for corpus data drawn from the web. We describe a framework for large). As the size of a corpus increases, a near linear increase in computing power is required to annotate the text

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anatomy of the ovine lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Nisolle, J F; Wang, X Q; Squélart, M; Hontoir, F; Kirschvink, N; Clegg, P; Vandeweerd, J M

    2014-06-01

    Although the ovine spine is a useful research model for intervertebral disc pathology and vertebral surgery, there is little peer-reviewed information regarding the MRI anatomy of the ovine spine. To describe the lumbar spine MRI anatomy, 10 lumbar segments of cadaver ewes were imaged by 1.5-Tesla MR. Sagittal and transverse sequences were performed in T1 and T2 weighting (T1W, T2W), and the images were compared to gross anatomic sagittal and transverse sections performed through frozen spines. MRI was able to define most anatomic structures of the ovine spine in a similar way as can be imaged in humans. In both T1W and T2W, the signals of ovine IVDs were similar to those observed in humans. Salient anatomic features were identified: (1) a 2- to 3-mm linear zone of hypersignal was noticed on both extremities of the vertebral body parallel to the vertebral plates in sagittal planes; (2) the tendon of the crura of the diaphragm appeared as a hypointense circular structure between hypaxial muscles and the aorta and caudal vena cava; (3) dorsal and ventral longitudinal ligaments and ligamentum flavum were poorly imaged; (4) no ilio-lumbar ligament was present; (5) the spinal cord ended between S1-S2 level, and the peripheral white matter and central grey matter were easily distinguished on T1W and T2W images. This study provides useful reference images to researchers working with ovine models. PMID:23668479

  14. Corpus-based Customization for an Ontology

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-09-14

    CCAT scans a corpus of text for terms, and computes lexical similarity between corpus terms and taxonomy terms. Based on a set of metrics and a learning algorithm, the system inserts corpus terms into the taxonomy. Conversely, terms from the taxonomy are disambiguated based on the text in the corpus. Unused terms are discarded, and infrequently used senses of terms are collapsed to make the taxonomy more manageable.

  15. Briefly Noted Les linguistiques de corpus

    E-print Network

    Briefly Noted Les linguistiques de corpus Benoit Habert, Adeline Nazarenko, and Andr4 Salem (ENS de, 240 pp; paperbound, ISBN 2-200-01775-8, FF 125.00 In Les linguistiques de corpus, newcomers as well and the annotation of a corpus. It also presents proposed applications for these corpora. The authors do not relate

  16. Structure and bioactivity of steroidal saponins isolated from the roots of Chamaelirium luteum (false unicorn).

    PubMed

    Challinor, Victoria L; Stuthe, Julia M U; Parsons, Peter G; Lambert, Lynette K; Lehmann, Reginald P; Kitching, William; De Voss, James J

    2012-08-24

    Phytochemical investigation of Chamaelirium luteum ("false unicorn") resulted in the isolation of 15 steroidal glycosides. Twelve of these (1, 2, 4-9, 11-13, and 15) are apparently unique to this species, and eight of these (6-9, 11-13, and 15) are previously unreported compounds; one (15) possesses a new steroidal aglycone. In addition, the absolute configuration of (23R,24S)-chiograsterol A (10) was defined, and its full spectroscopic characterization is reported for the first time. The structures and configurations of the saponins were determined using a combination of multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n)), 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and chemical degradation. The antiproliferative activity of nine compounds obtained in the present work, and eight related compounds generated in previous work, was compared in six human tumor cell lines, with aglycones 3 and 10 and related derivatives 16, 17, 19, and 20 all displaying significant antiproliferative activity. PMID:22880631

  17. Global distribution and diversity of ovine-associated Staphylococcus aureus?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Edward M.; Needs, Polly F.; Manley, Grace; Green, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of many species, including sheep, and impacts on both human and animal health, animal welfare, and farm productivity. Here we present the widest global diversity study of ovine-associated S. aureus to date. We analysed 97 S. aureus isolates from sheep and sheep products from the UK, Turkey, France, Norway, Australia, Canada and the USA using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing. These were compared with 196 sheep isolates from Europe (n = 153), Africa (n = 28), South America (n = 14) and Australia (n = 1); 172 bovine, 68 caprine and 433 human S. aureus profiles. Overall there were 59 STs and 87 spa types in the 293 ovine isolates; in the 97 new ovine isolates there were 22 STs and 37 spa types, including three novel MLST alleles, four novel STs and eight novel spa types. Three main CCs (CC133, CC522 and CC700) were detected in sheep and these contained 61% of all isolates. Four spa types (t002, t1534, t2678 and t3576) contained 31% of all isolates and were associated with CC5, CC522, CC133 and CC522 respectively. spa types were consistent with MLST CCs, only one spa type (t1403) was present in multiple CCs. The three main ovine CCs have different but overlapping patterns of geographical dissemination that appear to match the location and timing of sheep domestication and selection for meat and wool production. CC133, CC522 and CC700 remained ovine-associated following the inclusion of additional host species. Ovine isolates clustered separately from human and bovine isolates and those from sheep cheeses, but closely with caprine isolates. As with cattle isolates, patterns of clonal diversification of sheep isolates differ from humans, indicative of their relatively recent host-jump. PMID:24035790

  18. Radioimmunoassay for ovine, caprine and bovine prolactin in plasma and tissue extracts

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Gillian D.; Greenwood, F. C.

    1968-01-01

    1. A radioimmunoassay for ovine prolactin is described based on the inhibition of the reaction between 131I-labelled ovine prolactin and guinea-pig or rabbit antiserum to ovine prolactin. The extent of the reaction after a 4-day incubation period is determined by chromatoelectrophoresis or by adsorption of unchanged 131I-labelled ovine prolactin on charcoal. The sensitivity is equal to 5·9ng. of prolactin/ml. of plasma with chromatoelectrophoresis, or 0·2ng. of prolactin/ml. of tissue extracts with the charcoal separation. 2. A complete cross-reaction demonstrated between ovine prolactin and caprine pituitary extracts allows the assay to be used to measure caprine prolactin. The partial cross-reactions between ovine prolactin and bovine prolactin and between ovine prolactin and bovine pituitary extract differ, and an alteration in the immunological activity of bovine prolactin during its isolation is suggested. Bovine prolactin in plasma may be measured against a bovine pituitary extract as standard. No cross-reactions were demonstrated with pituitary extracts from a number of other species. The extent of the contamination of ovine and bovine growth hormone preparations by their respective prolactins is shown. 3. Dilutions of ovine and caprine plasma inhibit the reaction between 131I-labelled ovine prolactin and antiserum with the same characteristics as ovine prolactin. 4. The immunoreactive material in plasma fractionates on Sephadex G-200 and in sucrose density gradients as a single peak similar to that shown by freshly dissolved ovine prolactin. There is no evidence that ovine prolactin is bound to a plasma protein. 5. By suppressing prolactin secretion and assaying serial samples of plasma thereafter it is shown that the immunological activity of the surviving hormone becomes progressively altered with time. It is suggested that this alteration is usually not detected but introduces an element of uncertainty into the quantitative but not the qualitative value of the measurements obtained by reference to standard ovine prolactin. PMID:5696866

  19. Mirazid shows insignificant activity against ovine fascioliasis.

    PubMed

    Botros, S S; El-Lakkany, N M; Badawy, A A; Mahmoud, S S; Ebeid, F A; Fenwick, A

    2009-10-01

    In a recent study, the fasciolicidal activity of Mirazid (a myrrh-derived drug) and its effect on the function and histopathology of host liver were investigated in Egyptian sheep, with triclabendazole (TCBZ) used as the positive control. Sheep were infected with metacercariae (150/animal) and treated 3 months later, either with Mirazid (10 mg/kg/day for six consecutive days) or TCBZ (a single dose of 10 mg/kg), or left untreated, as controls. When the animals were killed 4 weeks after the end of treatment, no Fasciola flukes or eggs could be found in the animals given TCBZ but the number of flukes found in the Mirazid-treated animals was only 6% lower than that recorded in the untreated sheep (a statistically insignificant difference). In terms of their Fasciola egg loads, serum concentrations of hepatic enzymes and hepatic histopathological changes, the Mirazid-treated sheep appeared very similar to the untreated, infected animals. The TCBZ-treated animals, in contrast, showed remarkably little evidence of hepatic pathology. It therefore appears that, in the treatment of ovine fascioliasis, at least some batches of Mirazid have little, if any, value. PMID:19825282

  20. Corpus gastritis is protective against reflux oesophagitis

    PubMed Central

    El-Serag, H; Sonnenberg, A; Jamal, M; Inadomi, J; Crooks, L; Feddersen, R

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Gastric acid is important in the pathogenesis of reflux oesophagitis. Acid production by the gastric corpus is reduced in corpus gastritis.?AIMS—To determine whether corpus gastritis protects against reflux oesophagitis.?METHODS—Patients presenting for elective oesophagogastroduodenoscopy were studied. Two biopsy specimens were taken from the antrum, corpus, and cardia and stained with haematoxylin/eosin and Diff-Quick II stains. The presence and severity of gastritis were graded according to a modified updated Sydney classification.?RESULTS—Of 302 patients, 154 had endoscopic signs of reflux oesophagitis. There was no difference between patients with and controls without oesophagitis in the overall infection rates with Helicobacter pylori. Acute or chronic corpus gastritis occurred less often in patients with than those without reflux oesophagitis. Compared with controls, corpus gastritis was less severe in patients with reflux oesophagitis. The presence of acute or chronic gastritis in the corpus was significantly correlated with either type of gastritis in other areas of the stomach. In a multivariate logistic regression, age, sex, smoking status, and the presence of chronic corpus gastritis all exerted a significant influence on the presence of reflux oesophagitis. Chronic corpus gastritis was associated with a 54% reduced risk for reflux oesophagitis.?CONCLUSIONS—While infection with H pylori alone may not affect the occurrence of reflux oesophagitis, the development of chronic corpus gastritis seems to be protective.???Keywords: acid secretion; gastritis; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; Helicobacter pylori; reflux oesophagitis; Sydney system PMID:10403728

  1. DISTANCE TRANSMISSION OF OVINE HERPESVIRUS 2 FROM SHEEP TO BISON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is potentially devastating to American bison. Virtually all bison MCF cases in North America are caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a member of the gammaherpesvirus subfamily, which is carried almost exclusively by sheep. In this communication, we report transm...

  2. Ovine Reference Materials and Assays for Prion Genetic Testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Genetic predisposition to scrapie in sheep is associated with variation in the peptide sequence of the ovine prion protein encoded by Prnp. Codon variants implicated in scrapie susceptibility or disease progression include those at amino acid positions 112, 136, 141, 154, and 171. Nin...

  3. 78 FR 68327 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... effective and published in the Federal Register on May 29, 2003 (68 FR 31940-31949, Docket No. 02-109-3... FR 10266-10269, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0085), we proposed to also allow the importation of fresh ovine... only of parts of the animal's carcass that are, by standard practice, placed in a chiller...

  4. The role of ovine betaretroviruses in uteroplacental function 

    E-print Network

    Dunlap, Kathrin Anson

    2009-06-02

    in expression of enJSRVs and HYAL2 in the sheep uterus and placenta suggest the probability of a variety of physiological roles in implantation and placentation. Partial sequencing of the transcriptionally active enJSRVs from ovine uteroplacental tissues...

  5. Annotation Guide for the UCM/MIT Indications, Referential Expressions, and Coreference Corpus (UMIREC Corpus)

    E-print Network

    Hervas, Raquel

    2010-05-12

    This is the annotation guide given to the annotators who created the UCM/MIT Indications, Referring Expressions, and Coreference (UMIREC) Corpus version 1.0. The corpus comprises texts annotated for referring expressions, ...

  6. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (c) The Captain of the Port will notify the maritime community of periods during... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi Ship Channel... § 165.808 Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone. (a) The following areas...

  7. Luteal 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in the rat corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy: Effect of the deciduoma reaction

    PubMed Central

    Clementi, Marisa A; Deis, Ricardo P; Telleria, Carlos M

    2004-01-01

    Background In the rat, the maintenance of gestation is dependent on progesterone production from the corpora lutea (CL), which are under the control of pituitary, decidual and placental hormones. The luteal metabolism of progesterone during gestation has been amply studied. However, the regulation of progesterone synthesis and degradation during pseudopregnancy (PSP), in which the CL are mainly under the control of pituitary prolactin (PRL), is not well known. The objectives of this investigation were: i) to study the luteal metabolism of progesterone during PSP by measuring the activities of the enzymes 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), involved in progesterone biosynthesis, and that of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alphaHSD), involved in progesterone catabolism; and ii) to determine the role of decidualization on progesterone metabolism in PSP. Methods PSP was induced mechanically at 10:00 h on the estrus of 4-day cycling Wistar rats, and the stimulus for decidualization was provided by scratching the uterus on day 4 of PSP. 3betaHSD and 20alphaHSD activities were measured in the CL isolated from ovaries of PSP rats using a spectrophotometric method. Serum concentrations of progesterone, PRL, androstenedione, and estradiol were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results The PSP stage induced mechanically in cycling rats lasted 11.3 ± 0.09 days (n = 14). Serum progesterone concentration was high until day 10 of PSP, and declined thereafter. Serum PRL concentration was high on the first days of PSP but decreased significantly from days 6 to 9, having minimal values on days 10 and 11. Luteal 3betaHSD activities were elevated until day 6 of PSP, after which they progressively declined, reaching minimal values at the end of PSP. Luteal 20alphaHSD activities were very low until day 9, but abruptly increased at the end of PSP. When the deciduoma was induced by scratching the uterus of pseudopregnant animals on day 4 (PSP+D), PSP was extended to 18 ± 2.2 days (n = 8). In PSP + D rats, serum progesterone and PRL levels, and luteal 3betaHSD activities were higher than in pseudopregnant rats on day 11. Decidualization also prevented the increase in luteal 20alphaHSD activities observed on day 11 of PSP. Administration of the dopaminergic agonist CB154 in PSP + D rats on day 10 of PSP induced a decline in both serum PRL and progesterone on day 11 of PSP, values that were not different from that of pseudopregnant controls. Conclusions We have established that during the final period of PSP a decline in progesterone biosynthesis occurs before the increase in progesterone catabolism. We have also shown that decidualization in pseudopregnant rats extends the life of the CL by prolonging the production of pituitary PRL, and by maintaining high 3betaHSD and low 20alphaHSD activities within the CL leading to sustained production of progesterone. PMID:15140254

  8. Aglepristone (RU534) effects on luteal function of pseudopregnant rabbits: steroid receptors, enzymatic activities, and hormone productions in corpus luteum and uterus.

    PubMed

    Parillo, Francesco; Dall'Aglio, Cecilia; Brecchia, Gabriele; Maranesi, Margherita; Polisca, Angela; Boiti, Cristiano; Zerani, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    The study was designed to examine the aglepristone (RU534) mechanisms affecting the corpora lutea (CL) lifespan in pseudopregnant rabbits. Aglepristone (10 mg/kg b.w.) was injected subcutaneously twice at either early- or mid-luteal phase (Days 3 and 4, or Days 8 and 9, respectively) after induction of ovulation with GnRH (Day 0). Corpora lutea and uteri, explanted at days 6 and 11, were evaluated for immunohistochemistry and Western blotting of progesterone (PR) and estrogen (ER) receptors, cyclooxygenase 1 (COX1), COX2, and PGE2-9-ketoreductase (PGE2-9-K) enzymatic activities, and progesterone, PGF2?, and PGE2 in vitro synthesis. Independent of luteal stage, aglepristone prolonged the functional luteal phase by 3 Days over that of controls as assessed by blood progesterone profiles. Aglepristone decreased protein for ER during both luteal-stages in CL and uteri. Progesterone receptor protein was decreased by RU354 at Days 6 in the uterus and at Days 11 in CL, whereas RU534 increased PR at Days 11 in uteri. In the CL, RU534 enhanced progesterone production at Days 6 and 11, whereas it decreased PGF2? and increased PGE2 at Day 11. In the uteri, RU534 decreased PGF2? and increased PGE2 synthesis at both days. COX2 and PGE2-9K activities were decreased by RU534 in the CL at Day 11, whereas in the uteri COX2 increased and PGE2-9-K decreased at Days 6 and 11. In conclusion, these data on aglepristone effects suggest that progesterone has a regulatory role on luteal function through direct and uterine-mediated mechanisms in pseudopregnant rabbits. PMID:23517855

  9. Metritis Following Parturition: Serum Progesterone and 17?-Oestradiol Levels. The Significance of the Corpus luteum and the Advisability of using a Luteolytic Agent as a Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guay, P.; Lamothe, P.

    1980-01-01

    A group of 22 postpartum Holstein Friesian cows showing abnormal uterus were divided into two groups and treated with a) PGF2? or b) diethylstilboestrol and oxytocin. Most blood P4 values were under 0.5 ng/mL whereas E2 blood level was higher than in normal cycling cows. The report emphasizes the need for a careful clinical examination in order to apply the proper therapy. PMID:7189134

  10. The effect of repeated administrations of llama ovulation-inducing factor (OIF/NGF) during the peri-ovulatory period on corpus luteum development and function in llamas.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A; Ulloa-Leal, C; Silva, M; Norambuena, C; Adams, G P; Guerra, M; Ratto, M H

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that repeated administrations of OIF/NGF during the peri-ovulatory period (pre-ovulatory, ovulatory, early post-ovulatory), will enhance the luteotrophic effect in llamas. Female llamas were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography in B- and Doppler-mode using a scanner equipped with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer to monitor ovarian follicle and luteal dynamics. When a growing follicle ?7mm was detected, llamas were assigned randomly to one of the three groups and given 1mg of purified OIF/NGF im (intramuscular) (a) pre-ovulation (single dose; n=12), (b) pre-ovulation and at the time of ovulation (2 doses, n=10), or (c) pre-ovulation, at the time of ovulation, and 24h after ovulation (3 doses, n=10). The pre-ovulatory follicle diameter at the time of treatment, ovulation rate and the first day of CL detection did not differ (P=0.3) among groups. However, maximum CL diameter was greatest (P=0.003) in llamas in the 2-dose group, and smallest in the 3-dose group. Accordingly, the 2 dose-group had the largest day-to-day profile for CL diameter (P<0.01), area of CL vascularization (<0.01), and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.01) compared to the other groups. Interestingly, the luteal response to 3-doses of OIF/NGF during the peri-ovulatory period was not different from a single dose. In conclusion, OIF/NGF isolated from llama seminal plasma is luteotrophic and the effect on CL size and function is affected by the number and timing of treatments during the peri-ovulatory period. PMID:25176642

  11. 33 CFR 334.800 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U...REGULATIONS § 334.800 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U...The area. The waters of Corpus Christi Bay within the area described as...

  12. Enhancing Writing Pedagogy with Learner Corpus Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotos, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Learner corpora have become prominent in language teaching and learning, enhancing data-driven learning (DDL) pedagogy by promoting "learning driven data" in the classroom. This study explores the potential of a local learner corpus by investigating the effects of two types of DDL activities, one relying on a native-speaker corpus (NSC)…

  13. Network Analysis with the Enron Email Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, J. S.; Sarkis, G.; URC, P. .

    2015-01-01

    We use the Enron email corpus to study relationships in a network by applying six different measures of centrality. Our results came out of an in-semester undergraduate research seminar. The Enron corpus is well suited to statistical analyses at all levels of undergraduate education. Through this article's focus on centrality, students can explore…

  14. Enriching Language Learning through a Multimedia Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerley, Katherine; Coccetta, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, use has been made almost exclusively of text-based concordancers in the analysis of spoken corpora. This article discusses research being carried out on Padua University's Multimedia English Corpus (Padova MEC) using the multimodal concordancer "MCA "("Multimodal Corpus Authoring System," Baldry, 2005). This highly innovative…

  15. Corpus Callosum Volume and Neurocognition in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keary, Christopher J.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Bansal, Rahul; Goradia, Dhruman; Fedorov, Serguei; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2009-01-01

    The corpus callosum has recently been considered as an index of interhemispheric connectivity. This study applied a novel volumetric method to examine the size of the corpus callosum in 32 individuals with autism and 34 age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls and to investigate the relationship between this structure and cognitive measures linked to…

  16. Federal Habeas Corpus for Trial Lawyers

    E-print Network

    Cateforis, Elizabeth; Gilles Phillips, Jean K.

    2004-01-01

    stream_size 7509 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Cateforis & Gilles Phillips, Federal Habeas Corpus for Trial Lawyers.pdf.txt stream_source_info Cateforis & Gilles Phillips, Federal Habeas Corpus for Trial Lawyers... HeinOnline -- 73 J. Kan. B. Ass'n 21 2004...

  17. An optimal control problem for ovine brucellosis with culling.

    PubMed

    Nannyonga, B; Mwanga, G G; Luboobi, L S

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model is used to study the dynamics of ovine brucellosis when transmitted directly from infected individual, through contact with a contaminated environment or vertically through mother to child. The model developed by Aïnseba et al. [A model for ovine brucellosis incorporating direct and indirect transmission, J. Biol. Dyn. 4 (2010), pp. 2-11. Available at http://www.math.u-bordeaux1.fr/?pmagal100p/papers/BBM-JBD09.pdf. Accessed 3 July 2012] was modified to include culling and then used to determine important parameters in the spread of human brucellosis using sensitivity analysis. An optimal control analysis was performed on the model to determine the best way to control such as a disease in the population. Three time-dependent controls to prevent exposure, cull the infected and reduce environmental transmission were used to set up to minimize infection at a minimum cost. PMID:26105034

  18. Identification of peptides in functional Scamorza ovine milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Marino, R; Della Malva, A; Caroprese, M; Sevi, A

    2015-12-01

    Ovine bulk milk was used to produce Scamorza cheese with probiotics: either a mix of Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium lactis or Lactobacillus acidophilus as the probiotic strains. Peptides obtained from reverse phase-HPLC water-soluble extract of Scamorza cheeses were analyzed using a quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system. Identified fragments were derived from casein hydrolysis or probiotic bacterial enzymes; some of the fragments showed encrypted peptide sequences that shared structural homology with previously described bioactive peptides in ovine milk and dairy products. Bifidobacterium longum and B. lactis showed greater proteolytic potential both in terms of level of pH 4.6 water-soluble nitrogen extract and ability to generate peptides with potential biofunctionality. Fragments deriving from microbial enzymes may be regarded as tracing fragments useful for monitoring probiotic activity in functional Scamorza cheese. PMID:26409967

  19. 78 FR 76276 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Ovine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Collection; Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... regulations for the importation of ovine meat from Uruguay into the United States. ] DATES: We will consider...: For information on the regulations for the importation of ovine meat from Uruguay, contact Dr....

  20. Visual assessment of pneumonic area in ovine lungs.

    PubMed

    Valero, G; Alley, M R; Manktelow, B W

    1992-06-01

    Twelve veterinarians were asked to estimate the percentage of lung surface that appeared consolidated in eleven projected colour transparencies of pneumonic ovine lungs. The estimates were compared to the pneumonic area measured by image analysis. Although all observers had some experience in veterinary pathology there was considerable variation between individuals in the accuracy of their estimates. Large lesions were underestimated and small lesions overestimated by most observers. PMID:16031664

  1. Nutrient Signaling, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and Ovine Conceptus Development 

    E-print Network

    Gao, Haijun

    2010-07-14

    (SLC1A4, SLC1A5, SLC3A1, SLC6A14, SLC6A19, SLC7A5, SLC7A6, SLC7A8, SLC38A3, SLC38A6 and SLC43A2) and acidic amino acid transporters (SLC1A1, SLC1A2 and SLC1A3) in ovine uterine endometria from Days 10 to 16 of the estrous cycle and Days 10 to 20...

  2. On the relationship between moment and curvature for an ovine artery 

    E-print Network

    Reza, Gabriel Alejandro

    2006-10-30

    To find a relationship between moment versus curvature in a traction-free ovine artery, a pure moment was applied to a radially cut ovine artery (length 50.23 mm). The curvature of the segment opposite the cut was calculated and used to calculate...

  3. Sailing the Corpus Sea: Tools for Visual

    E-print Network

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo

    1 1 Sailing the Corpus Sea: Tools for Visual Discovery of Stories in Blogs and News Bettina Berendt "similar documents" with respect to what? #12;7 7 Solution vision: Sailing the Internet Global Analysis

  4. [Medicine and astrology in Arnau's corpus].

    PubMed

    Giralt, Sebastià

    2006-01-01

    The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology. PMID:17214132

  5. The ATIS Sign Language Corpus Jan Bungeroth

    E-print Network

    van Zijl, Lynette

    and South African sign language. The corpus can be used for different tasks like automatic statistical children's fa- bles and poetry each signed by a single signer. How- ever, they have a large vocabulary

  6. Corpus et terminologie Les liens entre ressources termino-ontologiques et corpus

    E-print Network

    Winckler, Marco Antonio Alba

    la linguistique de corpus, la terminologie, l'informatique et les sciences de l'information. A partir : Linguistique de corpus, Terminologie, Sciences de l'information, Traitement automatique des langues (TAL représentation des connaissances sous la forme de listes de termes reliés par des relations (à la sémantique plus

  7. 77 FR 2448 - Special Local Regulation; HITS Triathlon; Corpus Christi Bayfront, Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; HITS Triathlon; Corpus Christi... from portions of the Corpus Christi Bayfront area during the HITS Triathlon on February 18th and 19th, 2012. This Special Local Regulation is necessary to ensure the safety of HITS Triathlon...

  8. Evaluation of canine and ovine oviducts for maturation of canine oocytes from antral follicles 

    E-print Network

    Epple-Farmer, Jessica A

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether canine or ovine oviducts improve the maturation of canine oocytes obtained from antral follicles over an in vitro system. The objective of the first experiment was to evaluate the canine oviduct...

  9. Leptin matures aspects of lung structure and function in the ovine fetus

    E-print Network

    de Blasio, M. J.; Boije, M.; Kempster, S. L.; Smith, G. C. S.; Charnock-Jones, D. S.; Denyer, A.; Hughes, A.; Wooding, F. B. P.; Blache, D.; Fowden, A. L.; Forhead, A. J.

    2015-10-19

    In human and ovine fetuses, glucocorticoids stimulate leptin secretion, although the extent to which leptin mediates the maturation effects of glucocorticoids on pulmonary development is unclear. This study investigated the effects of leptin...

  10. Genome sequences of mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2: ovine and bovine isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica, serotype A2 isolated from pneumonic lungs of two different ruminant species, one from Ovis aries, designated as Ovine (O) and the other from Bos taurus, designated as Bovine (B)....

  11. Classical disconnection studies of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Glickstein, Mitchell; Berlucchi, Giovanni

    2008-09-01

    The corpus callosum is one of the most prominent fiber systems of the mammalian brain. Early reports of animals in which the callosum was cut, often confused the effects attributable to callosum damage with those caused by lesions of other brain structures. Early clinical reports also failed to establish the role of the callosum in humans. Two sorts of evidence began to reveal the functions of the corpus callosum. People with callosal damage cannot read text presented in the left visual field, and animals in which the callosum is divided, and sensory input restricted to one hemisphere, fail to show interhemispheric transfer of learning. These functional findings are consistent with anatomical and physiological studies of the role of the corpus callosum in communication between the hemispheres. PMID:18603234

  12. Metagenomic Insights into the RDX-Degrading Potential of the Ovine Rumen Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Robert W.; Giarrizzo, Juan Gabriel; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Duringer, Jennifer M.; Craig, A. Morrie

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX), or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB) were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies. PMID:25383623

  13. Metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen microbiome.

    PubMed

    Li, Robert W; Giarrizzo, Juan Gabriel; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Duringer, Jennifer M; Craig, A Morrie

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX), or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB) were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies. PMID:25383623

  14. 33 CFR 110.75 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. 110.75 Section 110.75 Navigation... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.75 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. (a) South area. Southward of the southernmost...

  15. Corpus annotation methodology for citation classification in scientific literature

    E-print Network

    1 Corpus annotation methodology for citation classification in scientific literature Myriam generation and testing of automatic systems for classifying the purpose or function of a citation referenced a methodology for corpus annotation for citation classification in scientific literature that facilitate

  16. Bayesian stratified sampling to assess corpus utility

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.; Scovel, C.; Thomas, T.; Hall, S.

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a method for asking statistical questions about a large text corpus. The authors exemplify the method by addressing the question, ``What percentage of Federal Register documents are real documents, of possible interest to a text researcher or analyst?`` They estimate an answer to this question by evaluating 200 documents selected from a corpus of 45,820 Federal Register documents. Bayesian analysis and stratified sampling are used to reduce the sampling uncertainty of the estimate from over 3,100 documents to fewer than 1,000. A possible application of the method is to establish baseline statistics used to estimate recall rates for information retrieval systems.

  17. Using a Corpus in a 300-Level Spanish Grammar Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavides, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the use and effectiveness of a large corpus--the Corpus del Español (Davies, 2002)--in a 300-level Spanish grammar university course. Students conducted hands-on corpus searches with the goal of finding concordances containing particular types of collocations (combinations of words that tend to co-occur) and tokens (any…

  18. Can a Graded Reader Corpus Provide "Authentic" Input?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    In addition to their intended purpose, graded reader texts can be made into a corpus appropriate for use with lower-level learners. Here I consider using such a corpus for data-driven learning (DDL), to make this approach more accessible to intermediate level students. However, how far does grading the corpus in this way compromise the…

  19. The MATCH Corpus: A Corpus of Older and Younger Users' Interactions With Spoken Dialogue Systems. 

    E-print Network

    Georgila, Kallirroi; Wolters, Maria K.; Moore, Johanna D.; Logie, Robert

    We present the MATCH corpus, a unique data set of 447 dialogues in which 26 older and 24 younger adults interact with nine different spoken dialogue systems. The systems varied in the number of options presented and the ...

  20. A corpus analysis of Pirah grammar

    E-print Network

    Makous, Walter

    A corpus analysis of Pirahã grammar: An investigation of recursion Steven T. Piantadosi (Rochester is proposed to be a core property of human language / Universal Grammar · Hauser, Chomsky & Fitch (2002) argued that the grammars for all human languages are recursive, such that "there is no longest sentence

  1. The Need for a Speech Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dermot F.; McDonnell, Ciaran; Meinardi, Marti; Richardson, Bunny

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the ongoing construction of a speech corpus for use by applied linguists and advanced EFL/ESL students. In the first part, sections 1-4, the need for improvements in the teaching of listening skills and pronunciation practice for EFL/ESL students is noted. It is argued that the use of authentic native-to-native speech is…

  2. CHAPTER NUMBER Corpus-Based Terminology

    E-print Network

    Langlais, Philippe

    1 CHAPTER NUMBER Corpus-Based Terminology Extraction ALEXANDRE PATRY AND PHILIPPE LANGLAIS that Terminology Extraction (TE), although being a noisy activity, encompasses well established techniques Terminology management is a key component of many natural language processing activities such as machine

  3. 76 FR 18395 - Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show, Oso Bay, Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show, Oso Bay, Corpus Christi, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard...safety zone on the navigable waters of Oso Bay in Corpus Christi, Texas in support of...recreational fisherman utilize this section of Oso Bay, the restriction of vessel traffic...

  4. 77 FR 34034 - Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC; Cheniere Corpus Christi Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Intent To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...Corpus Christi Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare...Project, June 26, 2012--6:00 p.m., Portland Community Center, 2000 Bill G Webb Drive, Portland, TX 78374...Corpus Christi Pipeline, L.P. (Corpus Christi...

  5. Concept annotation in the CRAFT corpus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Manually annotated corpora are critical for the training and evaluation of automated methods to identify concepts in biomedical text. Results This paper presents the concept annotations of the Colorado Richly Annotated Full-Text (CRAFT) Corpus, a collection of 97 full-length, open-access biomedical journal articles that have been annotated both semantically and syntactically to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural-language-processing (NLP) community. CRAFT identifies all mentions of nearly all concepts from nine prominent biomedical ontologies and terminologies: the Cell Type Ontology, the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest ontology, the NCBI Taxonomy, the Protein Ontology, the Sequence Ontology, the entries of the Entrez Gene database, and the three subontologies of the Gene Ontology. The first public release includes the annotations for 67 of the 97 articles, reserving two sets of 15 articles for future text-mining competitions (after which these too will be released). Concept annotations were created based on a single set of guidelines, which has enabled us to achieve consistently high interannotator agreement. Conclusions As the initial 67-article release contains more than 560,000 tokens (and the full set more than 790,000 tokens), our corpus is among the largest gold-standard annotated biomedical corpora. Unlike most others, the journal articles that comprise the corpus are drawn from diverse biomedical disciplines and are marked up in their entirety. Additionally, with a concept-annotation count of nearly 100,000 in the 67-article subset (and more than 140,000 in the full collection), the scale of conceptual markup is also among the largest of comparable corpora. The concept annotations of the CRAFT Corpus have the potential to significantly advance biomedical text mining by providing a high-quality gold standard for NLP systems. The corpus, annotation guidelines, and other associated resources are freely available at http://bionlp-corpora.sourceforge.net/CRAFT/index.shtml. PMID:22776079

  6. Characterization of a bioassay for detection of recombinant and native ovine interleukin-5.

    PubMed

    Bosward, K; Emery, D L; McWaters, P W; Husband, A J; Bendixsen, T

    1999-08-01

    In order to analyse Th2-type immune responses in sheep by the assay of interleukin (IL)-5 in biological fluids, the ovine IL-5 gene was cloned and expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells using the baculovirus expression vector system. The recombinant product was purified as BAC-OV-IL-5 from the supernatant fluid. The ovine IL-5 was biologically active in a bioassay using IL-5-dependent Baf cells, which have been used previously to specifically detect human IL-5. The specificity of Baf cells for ovine IL-5 was examined by two methods. First, Baf cells only proliferated in response to BAC-OV-IL-5 and did not respond to addition of recombinant ovine cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, IL-8, stem cell factor (SCF) or IFN-gamma at doses from 0.01 to 1 microg/well. Second, the rat monoclonal antibody to murine IL-5, TRFK-5, neutralized murine, but not ovine, IL-5. However, rabbit antisera to BAC-OV-IL-5 neutralized murine and ovine recombinant IL-5 and abolished responses of Baf cells to IL-5 activity in supernatant fluids from mesenteric lymph node cells (MLNC) of parasitized sheep. The bioassay had a sensitivity to detect 8 ng in a 200 microL assay (40 ng/mL). Thus, the specificity of Baf cells to detect human IL-5 also extends to ovine IL-5 and therefore provides a method for monitoring the production of Th2 immune reactivity in sheep. PMID:10457200

  7. Enhancer regions of ovine interferon-tau gene that confer PMA response or cell type specific transcription.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, H; Nagaoka, K; Imakawa, K; Sakai, S; Christenson, R K

    2001-02-28

    Interferon-tau (IFNtau), produced by the trophectoderm of peri-implantation conceptuses in ruminant ungulates, attenuates the uterine production of a luteolytic factor, prostaglandin F(2alpha), resulting in the maintenance of corpus luteum function. However, molecular mechanisms regulating the temporal/spatial expression of IFNtau gene are not clearly understood. The 5'-upstream region of the sheep IFNtau (oIFNtau) gene was examined for its transcriptional regulation in two different cell types; JEG3 cells supported the transactivation of oIFNtau-reporter construct, but HeLa cells did not. In a heterologous SV40 enhancer-oIFNtau promoter or oIFNtau enhancer-SV40 promoter systems, elements required for such cell specific transactivation were localized between -654 and -555 bases, the enhancer, but not the basal promoter region of the oIFNtau gene. In these combinations, high degrees of transactivation were observed in JEG3 cells and the activity was further enhanced by the addition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), while those responses were absent in HeLa cells. To identify nucleotide sequences responsible for cell specific expression, transient transfection studies with sequential point mutations in the enhancer elements were executed. Transactivation of oIFNtau enhancer-reporter constructs was primarily regulated by three regions containing AP-1 site, GATA like sequence and site(s) unidentified. In gel mobility shift assays (GMSAs), the AP-1 site located in the enhancer region was recognized by nuclear extracts from both cell types. However, one of the GMSA probes containing GATA-like sequence exhibited different DNA-protein complex patterns in JEG3 and HeLa cells. Observations, in which the same upstream sequence behaved differently due possibly to kinds of nuclear factors available in these cell lines, suggest that such a sequence may be involved in cell specific transactivation of the oIFNtau gene. Furthermore, the same enhancer sequences were also recognized by nuclear extracts from sheep trophoblasts, suggesting that the enhancer sequences between -654 and -555 bases of oIFNtau gene may be functioning in vivo. PMID:11223186

  8. Ovine Haemophilus somnus: experimental intracisternal infection and antigenic comparison with bovine Haemophilus somnus.

    PubMed Central

    Lees, V W; Yates, W D; Corbeil, L B

    1994-01-01

    Experimental infection was produced by two of four isolates of ovine Haemophilus somnus given by intracisternal inoculation into two to three-month-old lambs. Isolate 2041 (originally obtained from a septicemic lamb in Alberta) caused lethal infection in eight of nine lambs, isolate 67p from the prepuce of a normal lamb produced less acute disease in four of nine lambs, and the other two isolates (93p and 1190) caused no detectable disease. Significant lesions were limited to the brain and spinal cord. Purulent meningitis was characteristic but vasculitis or septicemia were not detected, perhaps due to the route of inoculation. Since a difference in virulence was noted among strains, we analyzed surface proteins thought to be virulence factors of bovine H. somnus. Protein profiles of bovine and ovine H. somnus done by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed similar patterns for virulent bovine isolates and ovine septicemic isolates. Preputial isolates showed a lower molecular mass major outer membrane protein than septicemic isolates. Antigenic analysis revealed that outer membrane proteins p270, p78, p76, p40, and p39 were detected in both ovine and bovine isolates except for 1190, which was probably not a true H. somnus isolate. Thus the preputial and septicemic isolates of ovine H. somnus were similar to bovine H. somnus in pathogenicity and in surface antigens. Images Fig. 1a. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:7954123

  9. Effects of storage time and temperature on ionized calcium concentration in bovine and ovine blood, plasma, and serum.

    PubMed

    Szenci, O; Németh, F; Stollár, Z; Brydl, E

    1994-04-15

    Stability of ionized calcium (Ca2+) concentration and pH values in bovine and ovine venous samples (n = 12 in each group) stored at 4 C for 3, 9, 24, and 48 hours (blood, plasma, and serum) or for 240 hours (plasma and serum), and at -20 C for 240 hours (plasma and serum), was studied. Storage of bovine and ovine blood, plasma, and serum samples at 4 C for up to 48 hours and of ovine serum samples at 4 C for up to 240 hours, despite appreciable pH changes, was associated with < 2.0% change in blood, plasma, and serum Ca2+ concentrations. Therefore, Ca2+ concentration in bovine and ovine venous blood, plasma, and serum samples stored up to 48 hours, and in ovine serum samples stored up to 240 hours, at 4 C is of diagnostic use. PMID:8014097

  10. Developing a corpus of spoken language variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, Lesley; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia Beckford

    2003-10-01

    We are developing a novel, searchable corpus as a research tool for investigating phonetic and phonological phenomena across various speech styles. Five speech styles have been well studied independently in previous work: reduced (casual), careful (hyperarticulated), citation (reading), Lombard effect (speech in noise), and ``motherese'' (child-directed speech). Few studies to date have collected a wide range of styles from a single set of speakers, and fewer yet have provided publicly available corpora. The pilot corpus includes recordings of (1) a set of speakers participating in a variety of tasks designed to elicit the five speech styles, and (2) casual peer conversations and wordlists to illustrate regional vowels. The data include high-quality recordings and time-aligned transcriptions linked to text files that can be queried. Initial measures drawn from the database provide comparison across speech styles along the following acoustic dimensions: MLU (changes in unit duration); relative intra-speaker intensity changes (mean and dynamic range); and intra-speaker pitch values (minimum, maximum, mean, range). The corpus design will allow for a variety of analyses requiring control of demographic and style factors, including hyperarticulation variety, disfluencies, intonation, discourse analysis, and detailed spectral measures.

  11. Metabolism of pyrrolizidine alkaloids by Peptostreptococcus heliotrinreducens and a mixed culture derived from ovine ruminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Hovermale, Jeannette T; Craig, A Morrie

    2002-12-10

    A mixed culture of ovine ruminal microbes metabolizes the macrocyclic pyrrolizidine alkaloids present in the plant Senecio jacobaea, including jacobine and seneciphylline. Previous attempts to identify metabolites of these alkaloids have not been successful. The objective of this study was to compare the metabolism of pyrrolizidine alkaloids by a mixed culture of ovine ruminal microbes to the metabolism of pyrrolizidine alkaloids by the known organism Peptostreptococcus heliotrinreducens. P. heliotrinreducens metabolizes the pyrrolizidine alkaloids heliotrine and lasiocarpine to 7alpha-hydroxy-1-methylene-8alpha-pyrrolizidine and 7alpha-angelyl-1-methylene-8alpha-pyrrolizidine, respectively. This organism does not metabolize the pyrrolizidine alkaloids jacobine or seneciphylline. A mixed culture of ovine ruminal microbes also metabolized heliotrine and lasiocarpine to identical methylene compounds. This mixed culture also metabolized jacobine and seneciphylline, with the production of very low levels of the corresponding 1-methylene compounds. Samples were analyzed by TLC and GC/MS. PMID:12488016

  12. Creation of a new longitudinal corpus of clinical narratives.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vishesh; Stubbs, Amber; Shaw, Stanley; Uzuner, Özlem

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 i2b2/UTHealth Natural Language Processing (NLP) shared task featured a new longitudinal corpus of 1304 records representing 296 diabetic patients. The corpus contains three cohorts: patients who have a diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in their first record, and continue to have it in subsequent records; patients who do not have a diagnosis of CAD in the first record, but develop it by the last record; patients who do not have a diagnosis of CAD in any record. This paper details the process used to select records for this corpus and provides an overview of novel research uses for this corpus. This corpus is the only annotated corpus of longitudinal clinical narratives currently available for research to the general research community. PMID:26433122

  13. The Hebrew CHILDES corpus: transcription and morphological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Aviad; MacWhinney, Brian; Nir, Bracha

    2014-01-01

    We present a corpus of transcribed spoken Hebrew that reflects spoken interactions between children and adults. The corpus is an integral part of the CHILDES database, which distributes similar corpora for over 25 languages. We introduce a dedicated transcription scheme for the spoken Hebrew data that is sensitive to both the phonology and the standard orthography of the language. We also introduce a morphological analyzer that was specifically developed for this corpus. The analyzer adequately covers the entire corpus, producing detailed correct analyses for all tokens. Evaluation on a new corpus reveals high coverage as well. Finally, we describe a morphological disambiguation module that selects the correct analysis of each token in context. The result is a high-quality morphologically-annotated CHILDES corpus of Hebrew, along with a set of tools that can be applied to new corpora. PMID:25419199

  14. Haplotypes and Sequence Variation in the Ovine Adiponectin Gene (ADIPOQ)

    PubMed Central

    An, Qing-Ming; Zhou, Hui-Tong; Hu, Jiang; Luo, Yu-Zhu; Hickford, Jon G. H.

    2015-01-01

    The adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In this study five separate regions (regions 1 to 5) of ovine ADIPOQ were analysed using PCR-SSCP. Four different PCR-SSCP patterns (A1-D1, A2-D2) were detected in region-1 and region-2, respectively, with seven and six SNPs being revealed. In region-3, three different patterns (A3-C3) and three SNPs were observed. Two patterns (A4-B4, A5-B5) and two and one SNPs were observed in region-4 and region-5, respectively. In total, nineteen SNPs were detected, with five of them in the coding region and two (c.46T/C and c.515G/A) putatively resulting in amino acid changes (p.Tyr16His and p.Lys172Arg). In region-1, -2 and -3 of 316 sheep from eight New Zealand breeds, variants A1, A2 and A3 were the most common, although variant frequencies differed in the eight breeds. Across region-1 and region-3, nine haplotypes were identified and haplotypes A1-A3, A1-C3, B1-A3 and B1-C3 were most common. These results indicate that the ADIPOQ gene is polymorphic and suggest that further analysis is required to see if the variation in the gene is associated with animal production traits. PMID:26610572

  15. 76 FR 18391 - Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show Power Boat Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show Power...zone in the Corpus Christi, Texas for North American Tri-Hull...scheduled to take place during the Texas International Boat Show. The...The rule is effective from 7 a.m. April 8, 2011 until 8...

  16. Effects of chlordecone and chlordecone alcohol on isolated ovine erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Soileau, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    Chlordecone (CHLO, 1-30 uM) and chlordecone alcohol (CHLO ALC, 1-23 uM) altered the permeability of isolated ovine erythrocytes (OE) as evidenced by a concentration- and time-dependent induction of K/sup +/ efflux and hemolysis. Hemolysis, but no K/sup +/ efflux, was markedly delayed when OE were suspended in isotonic sucrose. Low concentrations of both compounds (1-4 uM) protected OE against hypotonic hemolysis. Neither CHLO (30 uM) nor CHLO ALC (23 uM) induced the release of trapped K/sup +/ from KSCN-loaded, OE-lipid, unilamellar liposomes. CHLO- and CHLO ACL-induced hemolysis and K/sup +/ efflux were dependent upon the pH of the external media. CHLO ALC-induced K/sup +/ efflux and hemolysis showed a slight pH dependence, with increased potency of the compound detected over the pH range 8.3-9.4 CHLO ALC-induced protection against hypotonic hemolysis was pH independent. The potency of CHLO in all three assays decreased as the pH was raised from 6.4 to 9.4. (/sup 14/C)-CHLO and (/sup 14/C)-CHLO ALC binding to OE and OE membranes was pH independent. However, the binding of (/sup 14/C)-CHLO to polypropylene and glass was pH dependent. (/sup 14/C)-CHLO binding to polypropylene and glass decreased from pH 6.4 to pH 10.4. The pKa of CHLO was estimated to be 8.9. After the CHLO results were corrected for the fraction of CHLO present in the unionized form, it was estimated the ionized CHLO possessed 1/3 to 1/20 of the activity of the unionized species.

  17. Development of an Ovine Model of Pediatric Complete Heart Block

    PubMed Central

    Sill, Bjoern; Roy, Nathalie; Hammer, Peter E.; Triedman, John K.; Sigg, Daniel C.; Kelly, Mark F.; Nedder, Arthur; Dunning, Patricia S.; Cowan, Douglas B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Complete heart block is a significant clinical problem that can limit the quality of life in affected children. To understand the pathophysiology of this condition and provide for development of novel therapies, we sought to establish a large animal model of permanent, pacemaker-dependent atrioventricular block (AVB) that mimics the size and growth characteristics of pediatric patients. Materials and Methods We utilized 9 immature lambs weighing 10.5 ± 1.4 kg. After implantation of dual-chamber pacemaker devices with fixed leads, AVB was produced by interrupting His-bundle conduction using radio-frequency ablation at the base of the non-coronary cusp of the aortic valve. Ablations (30 to 60 seconds in duration) were performed under fluoroscopic guidance with electrophysiological monitoring. Interrogation of pacemakers and electrocardiography (ECG) determined the persistence of heart block. Ovine hearts were also examined immunohistochemically for localization of conduction tissue. Results AVB was produced in 8 animals using an atypical approach from the left side of the heart. One animal died due to ventricular fibrillation during ablation proximal to the tricuspid annulus and one lamb was sacrificed post-operatively due to stroke. 4 sheep were kept for long-term follow-up (109.8 ± 32.9 days) and required continuous ventricular pacing attributable to lasting AVB, despite significant increases in body weight and size. Conclusions We have created a large animal model of pediatric complete heart block that is stable and technically practicable. We anticipate that this lamb model will allow for advancement of cell-based and other innovative treatments to repair complete heart block in children. PMID:21227467

  18. Mineralocorticoid effects in the late gestation ovine fetal lung

    PubMed Central

    McCartney, Jarret; Richards, Elaine M.; Wood, Charles E.; Keller?Wood, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study was designed to determine the effects of corticosteroids at MR in the late?gestation fetal lung. Since both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are expressed at relatively high levels in the fetal lung, endogenous corticosteroids may act at MR as well as GR in the preterm fetal lung. The GR agonist, betamethasone, the MR agonist, aldosterone, or both were infused intravenously for 48 h in ovine fetuses of approximately 130 days gestation. Effects on airway pressures during stepwise inflation of the in situ lung, expression of ENaC alpha (SCNN1A), ENaC beta (SCNN1B), and Na,K ATPase (ATP1A1), and elastin and collagen content were determined after the infusions. We found that aldosterone significantly reduced the airway pressure measured during the initial step in inflation of the lung, although aldosterone had no overall effect on lung compliance, nor did aldosterone induce expression of ENaC?, ENaC? or Na,K ATPase?1. Betamethasone significantly increased expression of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunit mRNAs, and collagen and elastin content in the lungs, although this dose of betamethasone also had no effect on lung compliance. There was no synergy between effects of the MR and GR agonists. Transcriptomic analysis suggested that although aldosterone did not alter genes in pathways related to epithelial sodium transport, aldosterone did alter genes in pathways involved in cell proliferation in the lungs. The results are consistent with corticosteroid?induced fluid reabsorption at birth through GR rather than MR, but suggest that MR facilitates lung maturation, and may contribute to inflation with the first breaths via mechanisms distinct from known aldosterone effects in other epithelia. PMID:25347852

  19. Ovine herpesvirus 2 replicates initially in the lung of experimentally infected sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a rhadinovirus in the gammaherpesvirus subfamily, is the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), a frequently fatal lymphoproliferative disease primarily of ruminants worldwide. Inability to propagate the virus in vitro has made it diffi...

  20. Development of cell lines from the sheep used to construct the CHORI-243 ovine BAC library

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cell lines, designated MARC.OVSM and MARC.OKF, were initiated from the aorta and kidney, respectively, obtained from the Texel ram used to make the CHORI-243 Ovine BAC library. These cell lines have been submitted to the NIA Aging Cell Repository at the Coriell Cell Respositories, Camden, NJ, U...

  1. Amino acids, polyamines, and nitric oxide synthesis in the ovine conceptus 

    E-print Network

    Kwon, Hyuk Jung

    2005-08-29

    of polyamine and NO synthesis occured in all tissues on Day 40 of gestation. In ovine allantoic and amniotic fluids, polyamines were most abundant during early (Days 40-60) and late (Days 100-140) gestation, respectively. Activity of guanosine 5??-triphosphate...

  2. Metagenomic insights into RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, genes and biological pathways responsible for the biochemical processes in the rumen have yet to be character...

  3. INHIBIN INCREASES AND PROGESTERONE DECREASES RECEPTORS FOR GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE IN OVINE PITUITARY CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of progesterone (P4) and inhibin on gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor number (GnRH-R) and binding affinity were investigated using ovine pituitary cells in culture. ollowing treatment with P4 or porcine inhibin, GnRH binding was analyzed using a radioligand-rece...

  4. HORMONAL REGULATION OF GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE RECEPTORS AND MRNA ACTIVITY IN OVINE PITUITARY CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies demonstrate that gonadotroph responsiveness to GnRH, GnRH binding, and the apparent number of GnRH receptors are all increased by 17B-estradiol (E) or inhibin (IN) in ovine pituitary cultures. rogesterone attenuates these effects. o explore differences between th...

  5. The pathology of malignant catarrhal fever, with an emphasis on ovine herpesvirus 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enigmatic pathogenesis of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) involves dysregulated immune responses in susceptible ruminant species. Economically important outbreaks of MCF are due to two of the 10 viruses that currently comprise the malignant catarrhal fever virus group: ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-...

  6. Characterization of ovine Nectin-4, a novel peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminants infected with peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) exhibit lesions typical of epithelial infection and necrosis. However, the only established host receptor for this virus is the immune cell marker signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). We have confirmed that the ovine ...

  7. Phylogenetic clades of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) associate with sheep TMEM154 genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) is a lentivirus within the Retroviridae family that infects sheep. OPPV-induced clinical disease progresses slowly over time and manifests primarily in the lungs and central nervous system. Symptoms include weight loss, respiratory distress, and inevitably ...

  8. Development of an in vivo system to measure antibody-blocking of ovine herpesvirus 2 entry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), has never been propagated in vitro. Thus, an alternative to in vitro virus neutralization is needed to assess neutralizing antibody activity to OvHV-2 in SA-MCF vaccine development. Herein we ev...

  9. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef and ovine meat from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, NEWCASTLE DISEASE, HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA... or ovine meat from animals that have been born, raised, and slaughtered in Uruguay. (b) Foot-and... bovines or sheep that originate from premises where foot-and-mouth disease has not been present during...

  10. Influence of cellular trafficking pathway on bluetongue virus infection in ovine cells.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Bishnupriya; Celma, Cristina C; Roy, Polly

    2015-05-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), a non-enveloped arbovirus, causes hemorrhagic disease in ruminants. However, the influence of natural host cell proteins on BTV replication process is not defined. In addition to cell lysis, BTV also exits non-ovine cultured cells by non-lytic pathways mediated by nonstructural protein NS3 that interacts with virus capsid and cellular proteins belonging to calpactin and ESCRT family. The PPXY late domain motif known to recruit NEDD4 family of HECT ubiquitin E3 ligases is also highly conserved in NS3. In this study using a mixture of molecular, biochemical and microscopic techniques we have analyzed the importance of ovine cellular proteins and vesicles in BTV infection. Electron microscopic analysis of BTV infected ovine cells demonstrated close association of mature particles with intracellular vesicles. Inhibition of Multi Vesicular Body (MVB) resident lipid phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate resulted in decreased total virus titre suggesting that the vesicles might be MVBs. Proteasome mediated inhibition of ubiquitin or modification of virus lacking the PPXY in NS3 reduced virus growth. Thus, our study demonstrated that cellular components comprising of MVB and exocytic pathways proteins are involved in BTV replication in ovine cells. PMID:25984713

  11. Experimental infection of rabbits with ovine herpesvirus 2 from sheep nasal secretions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a generally fatal disease that primarily occurs in ruminants and is caused by a group of gammaherpesviruses. Outside of Africa MCF is mainly caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) which is carried subclinically by sheep. Cell-free virus is present in nasal secret...

  12. THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT OF SHEEP IS THE PREDOMINANT SITE OF OVINE HERPESVIRUS-2 REPLICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) is a member of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae, genus Rhadinovirus. OvHV-2 is the causative agent for sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) in many clinically susceptible ruminant species worldwide. Sheep are the natural carriers of OvHV-2. The inabilit...

  13. Ovine Hair Follicle Stem Cells Derived from Single Vibrissae Reconstitute Haired Skin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huishan; Zhang, Shoubing; Zhao, Huashan; Qiao, Jingqiao; Liu, Shuang; Deng, Zhili; Lei, Xiaohua; Ning, Lina; Cao, Yujing; Zhao, Yong; Duan, Enkui

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) possess fascinating self-renewal capacity and multipotency, which play important roles in mammalian hair growth and skin wound repair. Although HFSCs from other mammalian species have been obtained, the characteristics of ovine HFSCs, as well as the methods to isolate them have not been well addressed. Here, we report an efficient strategy to obtain multipotent ovine HFSCs. Through microdissection and organ culture, we obtained keratinocytes that grew from the bulge area of vibrissa hair follicles, and even abundant keratinocytes were harvested from a single hair follicle. These bulge-derived keratinocytes are highly positive for Krt15, Krt14, Tp63, Krt19 and Itga6; in addition to their strong proliferation abilities in vitro, these keratinocytes formed new epidermis, hair follicles and sebaceous glands in skin reconstitution experiments, showing that these are HFSCs from the bulge outer root sheath. Taken together, we developed an efficient in vitro system to enrich ovine HFSCs, providing enough HFSCs for the investigations about the ovine hair cycle, aiming to promote wool production in the future. PMID:26247934

  14. OVINE HERPESVIRUS 2 MRNA EXPRESSION IN CATTLE AND BISON WITH MALIGNANT CATARRHAL FEVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fulminant disease of certain susceptible ruminants caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2). The characteristic lesions of MCF include lymphoproliferation, vasculitis and mucosal ulceration. The pathogenesis of these lesions is very poorly understood, but is most ...

  15. Ovine progressive pneumonia virus is transmitted more effectively via aerosol nebulization than oral administration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new method of experimental infection of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), aerosol nebulization (Nb), was compared to intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) methods of experimental infection. Seven month old lambs were given 3.5 × 107 TCID50 of Dubois OPPV LMH19 isolate using IV, PO, or Nb methods ...

  16. Identification of novel implantation-related genes in the ovine uterus 

    E-print Network

    Song, Gwon Hwa

    2007-09-17

    indicated that IFNT induces RSAD2 and IFIH1 in a P4-independent manner in the stroma, immune cells, and glands of the ovine endometrium. These two genes are proposed to have biological roles in the establishment of uterine receptivity to the conceptus during...

  17. Expression of paracrine growth factors and their receptors in the ovine uterus 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chen

    2000-01-01

    independent roles in uterine function and conceptus development. Partial cDNAs for ovine HGF and c-met were cloned. In situ hybridization analyses demonstrated that HGF mRNA was expressed by stromal cells of the endometrium, whereas c-met mRNA was localized...

  18. Sheep (Ovis aries) airway epithelial cells support ovine herpesvirus 2 lytic replication in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we describe the development of a monospecific, polyclonal rabbit antiserum directed against the ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) major capsid protein and its use to detect lytically infected cells in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Immunofluorescent labeling using monoclonal antibodies direc...

  19. Conformational changes of ovine ?-1-proteinase inhibitor: The influence of heparin binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Gowda, Lalitha R.

    2008-11-01

    ?-1-Proteinase inhibitor (?-1-PI), the archetypal serpin causes rapid, irreversible stoichiometric inhibition of redundant circulating serine proteases and is associated with emphysema, inflammatory response and maintenance of protease-inhibitor equilibrium in vascular and peri-vascular spaces. A homogenous preparation of heparin octasaccharide binds to ovine and human ?-1-PI and enhances their protease inhibitory activity phenomenally. Size-exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering experiments reveal that ovine ?-1-PI undergoes a decrease in the Stokes' radius upon heparin binding. A strong binding; characterizes this ?-1-PI-heparin interaction as revealed by the binding constant ( K?) 1.98 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M and 2.1 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M determined by fluorescence spectroscopy and equilibrium dialysis, respectively. The stoichiometry of heparin binding to ovine ?-1-PI was 1.1 ± 0.2:1. The Stern-Volmer constants ( Ksv) for heparin activated ovine and human ?-1-PI were found to be 5.13 × 10 -6 M and 5.67 × 10 -6 M, respectively, significantly higher than the native inhibitors. FTIR and CD spectroscopy project the systematic structural reorientations that ?-1-PI undergoes upon heparin binding characterized by a decrease in ?-helical content and a concomitant increase in ?-turn and random coil elements. It is likely that these conformational changes result in the movement of the ?-1-PI reactive site loop into an extended structure that is better poised to combat the cognate protease and accelerate the inhibition.

  20. Tracking horizontal transmission of ovine lentivirus by quantitative PCR and envelope sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most transmission of ovine lentivirus (OvLV) occurs horizontally since in utero transmission is considered inefficient. However, there is no direct evidence that horizontal transmission occurs from unrelated ewes to other lambs/ewes or from ewes to progeny. One way to assess the source of horizont...

  1. Identification of CD4+CD25 high Foxp3+ T cells in ovine peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Rocchi, Mara S; Wattegedera, Sean R; Frew, David; Entrican, Gary; Huntley, John F; McNeilly, Tom N

    2011-11-15

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) are an important subset of T lymphocytes which play a key role in maintaining peripheral immunological tolerance. The most studied subpopulation of Treg in mice and humans are natural Treg, which differentiate in the thymus and are identified by expression of CD4, high levels of IL-2R? (CD25), and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), a transcription factor intimately associated with Treg function. We and others have previously identified Foxp3(+) T cells in ovine tissue, suggesting that Treg exist in this species. However, the existence of putative natural Treg in sheep, as identified by co-expression of CD4, CD25 and Foxp3, has yet to be determined. In this study we demonstrate that the anti-rat/mouse Foxp3 monoclonal antibody FJK-16s cross-reacts with ovine Foxp3. Using a transfected Chinese hamster ovary cell line that constitutively expresses recombinant ovine Foxp3 as a positive control, we have developed a sensitive triple-labelling flow cytometry protocol to simultaneously label CD4, CD25 and Foxp3. We demonstrate that Foxp3(+) T lymphocytes exist in ovine peripheral blood, and that the majority of Foxp3 expression occurs within the CD4(+)CD25(hi) population. These results are consistent with those seen in other mammalian species and indicate that putative natural Treg exist in sheep. PMID:21831456

  2. Experimental induction of malignant catarrhal fever in pigs with ovine herpesvirus 2 by intranasal nebulization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a frequently fatal herpesviral disease, has been sporadically reported in pigs. All cases of naturally-occurring porcine MCF reported to date have been linked to ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Macavirus carried by sheep. Experimental in...

  3. Evidence of proviral clearance following postpartum transmission of an ovine lentivirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentiviral transmission by transfer of infected colostrum and/or milk is considered to be highly efficient. In this study, postpartum transmission of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) from 10 naturally infected ewes to their 23 lambs was followed from the perinatal period throughout a four y...

  4. Monthly variations in ovine seminal plasma proteins analyzed by two-dimensional

    E-print Network

    Zaragoza, Universidad de

    Monthly variations in ovine seminal plasma proteins analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel.A. Cebria´n-Pe´rez a a Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary This study was conducted to evaluate monthly changes in the ram seminal plasma protein profile using two

  5. Codeswitching, Borrowing and Mixing in a Corpus of Xhosa English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Klerk, Vivian

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyses selected aspects of the codeswitching behaviour in a spoken corpus of the English of 326 people, all of them mother-tongue speakers of Xhosa (a local African language in South Africa), and all of whom would see themselves as Xhosa/English bilinguals. The corpus comprises approximately 550,000 transcribed words of spontaneous,…

  6. Recent Developments in the National Corpus of Polish

    E-print Network

    Institute of Polish Language, Polish Academy of Sciences 3 Polish Scientific Publishers PWN 4 University, which is considered to be carefully balanced, the PWN Corpus of Polish (http://korpus.pwn.pl/), contains acronym is IPI PAN, hence the name of the corpus) in Warsaw, which coordinates the project, the PWN

  7. Developing Corpus-Based Materials to Teach Pragmatic Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Mossman, Sabrina; Vellenga, Heidi E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how to develop teaching materials for pragmatics based on authentic language by using a spoken corpus. The authors show how to use the corpus in conjunction with textbooks to identify pragmatic routines for speech acts and how to extract appropriate language samples and adapt them for classroom use. They demonstrate how to…

  8. Automatically Acquiring Conceptual Patterns Without an Annotated Corpus

    E-print Network

    Slog-TS requires no manual effort beyond the preclassified training corpus. Additional experiments suggest how manual intervention is still required in this case, but AutoSlog-TS significantly reduces the amount training corpus or some other type of manually encoded training data. Annotated training corpora

  9. Colonia: Corpus of Historical Marcos Zampieri, Martin Becker

    E-print Network

    Erjavec, Toma?

    , there are only a few op- tions available. One of them is Tycho Brahe [6], which contains texts from the 16th and syntactic. Tycho Brahe texts are available for download in three versions: raw corpus, POS annotated of the most important historical Portuguese corpora to date: Tycho Brahe, GMHP4, Corpus do Português

  10. Statistical NLP: Lecture 6 Corpus-Based Work

    E-print Network

    Inkpen, Diana

    1 1 Statistical NLP: Lecture 6 Corpus-Based Work (Ch 4) 2 Corpus-Based Work · Text Corpora. · There exists some software for processing corpora (see useful links on course homepage). 3 Looking at Text (I at Text (II): Tokenization What is a Word? · An early step of processing is to divide the input text

  11. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Corpus of estate; net... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.263 Corpus of estate; net worth. (a) General. The following rules are for application in...

  12. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Corpus of estate; net... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.263 Corpus of estate; net worth. (a) General. The following rules are for application in...

  13. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus of estate; net... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.263 Corpus of estate; net worth. (a) General. The following rules are for application in...

  14. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Corpus of estate; net... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.263 Corpus of estate; net worth. (a) General. The following rules are for application in...

  15. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Corpus of estate; net... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Dependency, Income and Estate § 3.263 Corpus of estate; net worth. (a) General. The following rules are for application in...

  16. Use of "Google Scholar" in Corpus-Driven EAP Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brezina, Vaclav

    2012-01-01

    This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the "Google Scholar" search engine. These resources ("Google Scholar virtual corpus") are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. "Google Scholar", however, was not designed for linguistic searches…

  17. Unsupervised, corpus-based method for extending a biomedical terminology

    E-print Network

    Unsupervised, corpus-based method for extending a biomedical terminology Olivier Bodenreider Thomas and terminological knowledge. Methods: Adjectival modifiers are removed from terms extracted from the corpus (three million noun phrases extracted from MEDLINE), and demodified terms are searched for in the terminology

  18. Distributional stress regularity: a corpus study.

    PubMed

    Temperley, David

    2009-02-01

    The regularity of stress patterns in a language depends on distributional stress regularity, which arises from the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables, and durational stress regularity, which arises from the timing of syllables. Here we focus on distributional regularity, which depends on three factors. Lexical stress patterning refers to normal stress patterns within words; interlexical stress patterning refers to patterns that arise from word combinations; and contextual stress patterning refers to adjustments in normal lexical stress patterns (such as the well-known phenomenon of "stress clash avoidance"). A corpus study was done to assess the effect of these three factors on distributional stress regularity in conversational and formal spoken English, by comparing the degree of stress regularity in stress-annotated corpus data to randomly manipulated versions of the data and to "citation-form" stress patterns drawn from a phonetic dictionary. The results show that both lexical and interlexical patterning contribute significantly to stress regularity in English; contextual stress patterning does not, and in fact significantly reduces regularity in comparison to citation-form stress patterns. PMID:18937069

  19. Cadec: A corpus of adverse drug event annotations.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Sarvnaz; Metke-Jimenez, Alejandro; Kemp, Madonna; Wang, Chen

    2015-06-01

    CSIRO Adverse Drug Event Corpus (Cadec) is a new rich annotated corpus of medical forum posts on patient-reported Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). The corpus is sourced from posts on social media, and contains text that is largely written in colloquial language and often deviates from formal English grammar and punctuation rules. Annotations contain mentions of concepts such as drugs, adverse effects, symptoms, and diseases linked to their corresponding concepts in controlled vocabularies, i.e., SNOMED Clinical Terms and MedDRA. The quality of the annotations is ensured by annotation guidelines, multi-stage annotations, measuring inter-annotator agreement, and final review of the annotations by a clinical terminologist. This corpus is useful for studies in the area of information extraction, or more generally text mining, from social media to detect possible adverse drug reactions from direct patient reports. The corpus is publicly available at https://data.csiro.au.(1). PMID:25817970

  20. Description of a novel viral tool to identify and quantify ovine faecal pollution in the environment.

    PubMed

    Rusiñol, Marta; Carratalà, Anna; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Bach, Alex; Kern, Anita; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Girones, Rosina; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia

    2013-08-01

    Farmed animals such as sheep, cattle, swine and poultry play an important role in microbial contamination of water, crops and food, and introduce large quantities of pathogens into the environment. The ability to determine the origin of faecal pollution in water resources is essential when establishing a robust and efficient water management system. Animal-specific viruses have previously been suggested as microbial source tracking tools, but specific ovine viral markers have not been reported before now. Previous studies have shown that polyomaviruses are host-specific, highly prevalent and are commonly excreted in urine. Furthermore, they have been reported to infect several vertebrate species but not sheep. That situation encouraged the study of a new putative ovine polyomavirus (OPyV) and its use to determine whether faecal pollution originates from ovine faecal/urine contamination. Putative OPyV DNA was amplified from ovine urine and faecal samples using a broad-spectrum nested PCR (nPCR). Specific nested PCR and quantitative PCR assays were developed and applied to faecal and environmental samples, including sheep slurries, slaughterhouse wastewater effluents, urban sewage and river water samples. Successful amplification by PCR was achieved in sheep urine samples, sheep slaughterhouse wastewater and downstream sewage effluents. The assay was specific and was negative in samples of human, bovine, goat, swine and chicken origin. Ovine faecal pollution was detected in river water samples by applying the designed methods. These results provide a quantitative tool for the analysis of OPyV as a suitable viral indicator of sheep faecal contamination that may be present in the environment. PMID:23672793

  1. Isolation and Characterisation of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in the Ovine Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Deane, James A.; Ulrich, Daniela; Gurung, Shanti; Ong, Y. Rue; Gargett, Caroline E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) were recently discovered in the human endometrium. These cells possess key stem cell properties and show promising results in small animal models when used for preclinical tissue engineering studies. A small number of surface markers have been identified that enrich for MSC from bone marrow and human endometrium, including the Sushi Domain-containing 2 (SUSD2; W5C5) and CD271 markers. In preparation for developing a large animal preclinical model for urological and gynecological tissue engineering applications we aimed to identify and characterise MSC in ovine endometrium and determine surface markers to enable their prospective isolation. Materials and Methods Ovine endometrium was obtained from hysterectomised ewes following progesterone synchronisation, dissociated into single cell suspensions and tested for MSC surface markers and key stem cell properties. Purified stromal cells were obtained by flow cytometry sorting with CD49f and CD45 to remove epithelial cells and leukocytes respectively, and MSC properties investigated. Results There was a small population CD271+ stromal cells (4.5 ± 2.3%) in the ovine endometrium. Double labelling with CD271 and CD49f showed that the sorted CD271+CD49f- stromal cell population possessed significantly higher cloning efficiency, serial cloning capacity and a qualitative increased ability to differentiate into 4 mesodermal lineages (adipocytic, smooth muscle, chondrocytic and osteoblastic) than CD271-CD49f- cells. Immunolabelling studies identified an adventitial perivascular location for ovine endometrial CD271+ cells. Conclusion This is the first study to characterise MSC in the ovine endometrium and identify a surface marker profile identifying their location and enabling their prospective isolation. This knowledge will allow future preclinical studies with a large animal model that is well established for pelvic organ prolapse research. PMID:25992577

  2. Culture of Ovine IVM/IVF Zygotes in Isolated Mouse Oviduct: Effect of Basal Medium

    PubMed Central

    Farahavar, Abbas; Shirazi, Abolfazl; Kohram, Hamid; Shahneh, Ahmad Zareh; Sarvari, Ali; Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Boroujeni, Sara Borjian; Zhandi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background The basal medium that supports Isolated Mouse Oviduct (IMO) is important for supporting embryo development and quality. Methods The culture of ovine IVM/IVF zygotes was done in IMO using SOFaaciBSA and SOFaaBSA as basal medium of IMO and in SOFaaBSA alone as control. For preparation of IMO mature inbred strain C57BL/6 female mice were synchronized and mated with vasectomized males. The females with vaginal plug were sacrificed and the zygotes were transferred in to the isolated oviduct at 20 hpi. The oviducts were cultured with SOFaaciBSA and SOFaaBSA for 6 days. Another group of zygotes were cultured in SOFaaBSA alone as control. Results Culture of zygotes in the IMO with SOFaaciBSA and SOFaaBSA, did not significantly affect the development and quality of embryos (p > 0.05). The hatching rate, total and trophectoderm cells number in IMO groups’ blastocysts were significantly higher than SOFaaBSA alone. The morphological appearance of IMO blastocysts was superior to SOFaaBSA alone. When the quality of oocytes was poor, IMO could better support ovine embryo development either with SOFaaBSA or SOFaaciBSA than SOFaaBSA alone and there was a significant difference in blastocyst formation at day 6 with SOFaaBSA alone. Conclusion The culture of ovine IVM/IVF zygotes in IMO using two highly efficient ruminant embryo culture media not only could support development of ovine embryos similar to the level in non IMO culture system (SOFaaBSA alone) but also could improve the quality of resulting embryos. Additionally, IMO could better support the development of ovine embryos derived from poor quality oocytes compared to the SOFaaBSA alone. PMID:23799182

  3. 77 FR 34034 - Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC; Cheniere Corpus Christi Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Intent To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ....; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and... assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and... (LNG) export and import terminal, and a natural gas transmission pipeline in Nueces and San...

  4. Corpus Linguistics and the Design of a Response Message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwell, E.

    2002-01-01

    Most research related to SETI, the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence, is focussed on techniques for detection of possible incoming signals from extra-terrestrial intelligent sources (e.g. Turnbull et al. 1999), and algorithms for analysis of these signals to identify intelligent language-like characteristics (e.g. Elliott and Atwell 1999, 2000). However, another issue for research and debate is the nature of our response, should a signal arrive and be detected. The design of potentially the most significant communicative act in history should not be decided solely by astrophysicists; the Corpus Linguistics research community has a contribution to make to what is essentially a Corpus design and implementation project. (Vakoch 1998) advocated that the message constructed to transmit to extraterrestrials should include a broad, representative collection of perspectives rather than a single viewpoint or genre; this should strike a chord with Corpus Linguists for whom a central principle is that a corpus must be "balanced" to be representative (Meyer 2001). One idea favoured by SETI researchers is to transmit an encyclopaedia summarising human knowledge, such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, to give ET communicators an overview and "training set" key to analysis of subsequent messages. Furthermore, this should be sent in several versions in parallel: the text; page-images, to include illustrations left out of the text-file and perhaps some sort of abstract linguistic representation of the text, using a functional or logic language (Ollongren 1999, Freudenthal 1960). The idea of "enriching" the message corpus with annotations at several levels should also strike a chord with Corpus Linguists who have long known that Natural language exhibits highly complex multi-layering sequencing, structural and functional patterns, as difficult to model as sequences and structures found in more traditional physical and biological sciences. Some corpora have been annotated with several levels or layers of linguistic knowledge, for example the SEC corpus (Taylor and Knowles 1988), the ISLE corpus (Menzel et al. 2000). Tagged and parsed corpus can be used by corpus linguists as a testbed to guide their development of grammars (e.g. Souter and Atwell 1994); and they can be used to train Natural Language Learning or data-mining models of complex sequence data (e.g. Brill 1993, Hughes 1993, Atwell 1996). Corpus linguists have a range of standards and tools for design and annotation of representative corpus resources, and experience of which annotation types are more amenable to Natural Language Learning algorithms. An Advisory panel of corpus linguists could help design and implement an extended Multi-annotated Interstellar Corpus of English, incorporating ideas from Corpus Linguistics such as: - Augment the Encyclopaedia Britannica with a collection of samples representing the diversity of language in real use. - As an additional "key", transmit a dictionary aimed at language learners which has also been a rich source for NLP - Supply our ET communicators with several levels of linguistic annotation, to give them a richer training set for their - Add translations of the English text into other human languages: Humanity should not be represented by English alone, This calls for a large-scale corpus annotation project, requiring an Interstellar Corpus Advisory Panel, analogous to the BNC or MATE advisory panels, to include experts in English grammar and semantics, English language learning, computational Natural language Learning algorithms, and corpus design, implementation, annotation, standardisation, and analysis.

  5. Corpus-Based Word Sense Disambiguation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Atsushi

    1998-04-01

    Resolution of lexical ambiguity, commonly termed ``word sense disambiguation'', is expected to improve the analytical accuracy for tasks which are sensitive to lexical semantics. Such tasks include machine translation, information retrieval, parsing, natural language understanding and lexicography. Reflecting the growth in utilization of machine readable texts, word sense disambiguation techniques have been explored variously in the context of corpus-based approaches. Within one corpus-based framework, that is the similarity-based method, systems use a database, in which example sentences are manually annotated with correct word senses. Given an input, systems search the database for the most similar example to the input. The lexical ambiguity of a word contained in the input is resolved by selecting the sense annotation of the retrieved example. In this research, we apply this method of resolution of verbal polysemy, in which the similarity between two examples is computed as the weighted average of the similarity between complements governed by a target polysemous verb. We explore similarity-based verb sense disambiguation focusing on the following three methods. First, we propose a weighting schema for each verb complement in the similarity computation. Second, in similarity-based techniques, the overhead for manual supervision and searching the large-sized database can be prohibitive. To resolve this problem, we propose a method to select a small number of effective examples, for system usage. Finally, the efficiency of our system is highly dependent on the similarity computation used. To maximize efficiency, we propose a method which integrates the advantages of previous methods for similarity computation.

  6. The tolerance of feline corpus and cauda spermatozoa to cryostress.

    PubMed

    Kunkitti, Panisara; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Johannisson, Anders; Axnér, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Epididymal sperm preservation can be used to avoid the total loss of genetic material in threatened species. Spermatozoa from the corpus, as from the cauda, are motile and can undergo capacitation. Thus, they can potentially be preserved for assisted reproductive technologies. However, cryopreservation of spermatozoa has a direct detrimental effect on sperm quality. The aim of this study was to compare the chromatin stability and the survival rate of spermatozoa from the corpus and cauda epididymis after cryopreservation. Epididymal spermatozoa were collected and cryopreserved from the corpus and cauda of 12 domestic cats. Sperm motility, progressive motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and DNA integrity were evaluated before and after freezing thawing. The average total number of spermatozoa collected from the corpus was lower (10.2 × 10(6) ± 7.4) than that from the cauda epididymis (24.9 × 10(6) ± 14.4; P = 0.005). The percentage of spermatozoa with intact DNA did not differ significantly whether it was collected from the corpus or cauda regions and did not decrease after freezing thawing in either region. However, motility of spermatozoa from both regions was affected by the freezing thawing process with a significant decline in motility after thaw compared with fresh spermatozoa. A significant difference in the percentage of motile sperm between the corpus and cauda was observed after the freezing thawing process (P < 0.001). Although sperm motility was lower in postthaw spermatozoa from the corpus epididymidis than from the cauda, the rate of the reduction did not differ between regions. This study indicates that the cryopreservation process does not have a negative effect on chromatin stability of feline epididymal spermatozoa. Spermatozoa from the corpus region have a similar freezability as spermatozoa from the cauda region. Therefore, preservation of spermatozoa from the corpus and the cauda epididymidis might be of value in preserving genetic material from endangered or valuable felids. PMID:26542135

  7. The DDI corpus: an annotated corpus with pharmacological substances and drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Zazo, María; Segura-Bedmar, Isabel; Martínez, Paloma; Declerck, Thierry

    2013-10-01

    The management of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is a critical issue resulting from the overwhelming amount of information available on them. Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques can provide an interesting way to reduce the time spent by healthcare professionals on reviewing biomedical literature. However, NLP techniques rely mostly on the availability of the annotated corpora. While there are several annotated corpora with biological entities and their relationships, there is a lack of corpora annotated with pharmacological substances and DDIs. Moreover, other works in this field have focused in pharmacokinetic (PK) DDIs only, but not in pharmacodynamic (PD) DDIs. To address this problem, we have created a manually annotated corpus consisting of 792 texts selected from the DrugBank database and other 233 Medline abstracts. This fined-grained corpus has been annotated with a total of 18,502 pharmacological substances and 5028 DDIs, including both PK as well as PD interactions. The quality and consistency of the annotation process has been ensured through the creation of annotation guidelines and has been evaluated by the measurement of the inter-annotator agreement between two annotators. The agreement was almost perfect (Kappa up to 0.96 and generally over 0.80), except for the DDIs in the MedLine database (0.55-0.72). The DDI corpus has been used in the SemEval 2013 DDIExtraction challenge as a gold standard for the evaluation of information extraction techniques applied to the recognition of pharmacological substances and the detection of DDIs from biomedical texts. DDIExtraction 2013 has attracted wide attention with a total of 14 teams from 7 different countries. For the task of recognition and classification of pharmacological names, the best system achieved an F1 of 71.5%, while, for the detection and classification of DDIs, the best result was F1 of 65.1%. These results show that the corpus has enough quality to be used for training and testing NLP techniques applied to the field of Pharmacovigilance. The DDI corpus and the annotation guidelines are free for use for academic research and are available at http://labda.inf.uc3m.es/ddicorpus. PMID:23906817

  8. Using a large annotated historical corpus to study word-specific effects in sound change

    E-print Network

    been manually annotated. We interact with the corpus via our custom LaBB-CAT interface (LAnguage, Brain and Behaviour Corpus Analysis Tool). I will begin the talk by describing and demonstrating the corpus, and its associated LaBB-CAT tool. I will then focus on one particular recent study which has used the corpus, which

  9. ORIGINAL PAPER Creating a live, public short message service corpus

    E-print Network

    Stephan, Frank

    this problem. We use a battery of methodologies to collect the corpus, paying particular attention to privacy Even in China, 93.8 % of phone owners use SMS service, averaging 39.1 received messages per person

  10. Recent Developments in the National Corpus of Polish

    E-print Network

    Institute of Polish Language, Polish Academy of Sciences 3 Polish Scientific Publishers PWN 4 University, the PWN Corpus of Polish (http://korpus.pwn.pl/), contains over 100 million words, of which only 7

  11. Preliminary Inversion Mapping Results with a New EMA Corpus 

    E-print Network

    Richmond, Korin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we apply our inversion mapping method, the trajectory mixture density network (TMDN), to a new corpus of articulatory data, recorded with a Carstens AG500 electromagnetic articulograph. This new data set, mngu0, is relatively large...

  12. A specific radioimmunoassay for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) using synthetic ovine CRF. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, K.; Murakami, K.; Ohno, N.; Kageyama, J.; Aoki, Y.; Takahara, J.; Ota, Z.

    1983-02-28

    This newly developed specific radioimmunoassay for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) had a sensitivity range of 25 pg/tube to 4 ng/tube. Intra and interassay coefficients of variation were 4.6% and 9.8%, respectively. Rat median eminence extracts showed a parallel dose response curve with synthetic ovine CRF and a significant cross reaction was not evident with other tested neuropeptides. The highest mean levels of CRF were found in the median eminence (6.61 ng/mg proparaventricular nucleus, dorsomedial nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus and ventromedial nucleus. The immunoreactive CRF of the rat medial basal hypothalamus coeluted with bioassayable CRF and with iodinated CRF on Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The results indicate that rat hypothalamus contains a CRF similar to ovine CRF.

  13. Synthesis of a high molecular weight thyroglobulin dimer by two ovine thyroid cell lines: the OVNIS.

    PubMed

    Hovsépian, S; Aouani, A; Fayet, G

    1986-05-01

    The OVNIS 6H and 5H thyroid cells, 2 permanent cell lines isolated 3 years ago from ovine tissue, synthesize a high molecular weight glycosylated protein, immunologically related to ovine thyroglobulin, which is similar to the prothyroid hormone dimer (17-19) S: thyroglobulin. Using sucrose gradient centrifugation and cell labelling with [14C]Leu or [3H]GlNH2, radioactivity was observed in proteins purified from cell layers and from cell culture media. Addition of thyrotropin to or removal from the media resulted respectively in an increase (+773%) or decrease (-1090%) of the total radioactivity detected in the (17-19)S thyroglobulin fraction. Estimation of thyroglobulin by RIA gave similar though less pronounced effects. These experiments prove (1) that thyroglobulin is still expressed in these OVNIS thyroid cell lines even after 3 years of permanent culture, (2) that TSH modulates the level of this protein through a TSH-receptor functional system. PMID:3709961

  14. Regional Variation in Tissue Composition and Biomechanical Properties of Postmenopausal Ovine and Human Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Daniela; Edwards, Sharon L.; Letouzey, Vincent; Su, Kai; White, Jacinta F.; Rosamilia, Anna; Gargett, Caroline E.; Werkmeister, Jerome A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There are increasing numbers of reports describing human vaginal tissue composition in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to compare ovine and human posterior vaginal tissue in terms of histological and biochemical tissue composition and to assess passive biomechanical properties of ovine vagina to further characterise this animal model for pelvic organ prolapse research. Study Design Vaginal tissue was collected from ovariectomised sheep (n?=?6) and from postmenopausal women (n?=?7) from the proximal, middle and distal thirds. Tissue histology was analyzed using Masson's Trichrome staining; total collagen was quantified by hydroxyproline assays, collagen III/I+III ratios by delayed reduction SDS PAGE, glycosaminoglycans by dimethylmethylene blue assay, and elastic tissue associated proteins (ETAP) by amino acid analysis. Young's modulus, maximum stress/strain, and permanent strain following cyclic loading were determined in ovine vagina. Results Both sheep and human vaginal tissue showed comparable tissue composition. Ovine vaginal tissue showed significantly higher total collagen and glycosaminoglycan values (p<0.05) nearest the cervix. No significant differences were found along the length of the human vagina for collagen, GAG or ETAP content. The proximal region was the stiffest (Young's modulus, p<0.05), strongest (maximum stress, p<0.05) compared to distal region, and most elastic (permanent strain). Conclusion Sheep tissue composition and mechanical properties showed regional differences along the postmenopausal vaginal wall not apparent in human vagina, although the absolute content of proteins were similar. Knowledge of this baseline variation in the composition and mechanical properties of the vaginal wall will assist future studies using sheep as a model for vaginal surgery. PMID:25148261

  15. Developmental Expression and Glucocorticoid Control of the Leptin Receptor in Fetal Ovine Lung

    PubMed Central

    De Blasio, Miles J.; Boije, Maria; Vaughan, Owen R.; Bernstein, Brett S.; Davies, Katie L.; Plein, Alice; Kempster, Sarah L.; Smith, Gordon C. S.; Charnock-Jones, D. Stephen; Blache, Dominique; Wooding, F. B. Peter; Giussani, Dino A.; Fowden, Abigail L.; Forhead, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids on fetal lung maturation are well-established, although the role of leptin in lung development before birth is unclear. This study examined mRNA and protein levels of the signalling long-form leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) in fetal ovine lungs towards term, and after experimental manipulation of glucocorticoid levels in utero by fetal cortisol infusion or maternal dexamethasone treatment. In fetal ovine lungs, Ob-Rb protein was localised to bronchiolar epithelium, bronchial cartilage, vascular endothelium, alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes. Pulmonary Ob-Rb mRNA abundance increased between 100 (0.69 fractional gestational age) and 144 days (0.99) of gestation, and by 2–4-fold in response to fetal cortisol infusion and maternal dexamethasone treatment. In contrast, pulmonary Ob-Rb protein levels decreased near term and were halved by glucocorticoid treatment, without any significant change in phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) at Ser727, total STAT3 or the pulmonary pSTAT3:STAT3 ratio. Leptin mRNA was undetectable in fetal ovine lungs at the gestational ages studied. These findings demonstrate differential control of pulmonary Ob-Rb transcript abundance and protein translation, and/or post-translational processing, by glucocorticoids in utero. Localisation of Ob-Rb in the fetal ovine lungs, including alveolar type II pneumocytes, suggests a role for leptin signalling in the control of lung growth and maturation before birth. PMID:26287800

  16. Comparison of conventional freezing and vitrification with dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol for cryopreservation of ovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Varago, F C; Moutacas, V S; Carvalho, B C; Serapião, R V; Vieira, F; Chiarini-Garcia, H; Brandão, F Z; Camargo, L S; Henry, M; Lagares, M A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the cryoprotectants dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol for cryopreservation of ovine embryos using vitrification and conventional freezing. The recovered embryos were distributed randomly in three treatment groups: Gr. 1: conventional freezing (n = 44), Gr. 2: vitrification with ethylene glycol (n = 39) and Gr. 3: vitrification with dimethylformamide (n = 38). Quality of fresh embryos in control group as well as of frozen and vitrified embryos was examined by three methodologies: staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst 33258 and evaluation under fluorescent microscopy, evaluation of re-expansion and hatching rates after culture, and determination of apoptotic index with TUNEL technique. It was established that re-expansion rate in all treatment groups was similar. In the same time, hatching rates were higher in Gr. 1 (40.5%) and Gr. 2 (35.3%) in comparison with Gr. 3 (15.5%, p < 0.05). The number of dead cells in vitrified embryos of Gr. 2 and Gr. 3 was higher (42.6 ± 26.2 and 63.2 ± 34.65, respectively) in comparison with Gr. 1 (conventional freezing, 10.1 ± 8.5, p < 0.05). Embryos vitrified with dimethylformamide included the same quality of apoptotic cells that Gr. 1 (conventional freezing) and fresh embryos. In conclusion, the dimethylformamide and ethylene glycol used as cryoprotectant to vitrify ovine embryos, in the concentrations and exposition time tested in this work, were not as efficient as the conventional freezing for cryopreservation of ovine embryos Thus, the conventional freezing with ethylene glycol was the most efficient method to cryopreserve ovine embryos in comparison with vitrification. PMID:25131414

  17. Effect of variation in ovine WFIKKN2 on growth traits appears to be gender-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiqing; Zhou, Huitong; Fang, Qian; Liu, Xiu; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G. H.

    2015-01-01

    WFIKKN2 may play a role in the regulation of muscle growth and development, but to date there have been no reports on the effect of variation in WFIKKN2 on growth and carcass traits in livestock. In this study, the effect of variation in ovine WFIKKN2 was investigated in 800 New Zealand Romney lambs (395 male and 405 female), with five previously described variants (A to E) being identified. Variation in ovine WFIKKN2 was not found to affect various growth traits in the female lambs, but the presence of variant B was associated (P?ovine WFIKKN2 may have a differential effect on growth in male and female lambs, and hence that the gene may be expressed in, or act in, a gender-specific fashion. PMID:26197924

  18. Whole Ovine Ovaries as a Model for Human: Perfusion with Cryoprotectants In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100?IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15?M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60?min with the rate of perfusion 50?mL/h (0.8?mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

  19. The effects of Ostertagia occidentalis somatic antigens on ovine TLR2 and TLR4 expression

    PubMed Central

    BORJI, Hassan; HAGHPARAST, Alireza; SOLEIMANI, Nooshinmehr; AZIZZADEH, Mohammad; NAZEMSHIRAZI, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recognition of helminth-derived pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including toll like receptors (TLRs) is the first step towards initiating anti–helminth immune responses. Methods : Using somatic antigens of Ostertagia occidentalis, an important abomasal parasite of ruminants, the expression of ovine TLR2 and TLR4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was analyzed by real-time quatitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis were prepared to stimulate ovine PBMCs in a time and dose dependent manner. Results : A high expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was observed in PBMCs cultured with somatic antigens of the parasites specially when PBMCs were cultured with 100 µg/ml of somatic antigens and incubated for 2h. Up-regulation of TLR2 expression was more pronounced and evident in our study. Conclsusion : Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis have immunostimulatory and dominant role on peripheral immune cells. This study provide for the first time evidence of induction of TLRs in ovine PBMCs by somatic antigen of O. occidentalis PMID:26622306

  20. Angiotensin II regulation of ovine fetoplacental artery endothelial functions: interactions with nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jing; Bird, Ian M; Chen, Dong-Bao; Magness, Ronald R

    2005-01-01

    During normal pregnancy, elevated angiotensin II (Ang II) concentrations in the maternal and fetal circulations are associated with dramatic increases in placental angiogenesis and blood flow. Much is known about a local renin–angiotensin system within the uteroplacental vasculature. However, the roles of Ang II in regulating fetoplacental vascular functions are less well defined. In the fetal placenta, the overall in vivo vasoconstrictor responses of the blood vessels to Ang II infusion is thought to be less than that in its maternal counterpart, even though infused Ang II induces vasoconstriction. Recent data from our laboratories suggest that Ang II stimulates cell proliferation and increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and production of nitric oxide (NO) in ovine fetoplacental artery endothelial cells. These data imply that elevations of the known vasoconstrictor Ang II in the fetal circulation may indeed play a role in the marked increases in fetoplacental angiogenesis and that Ang II-elevated endothelial NO production may partly attenuate Ang II-induced vasoconstriction on vascular smooth muscle. Together with both of these processes, the high levels of Ang II in the fetal circulation may serve to modulate overall fetoplacental vascular resistance. In this article, we review currently available data on the expression of Ang II receptors in the ovine fetal placenta with particular emphasis on the effects of Ang II on ovine fetoplacental endothelium. The potential cellular mechanisms underlying the regulation of Ang II on endothelial growth and vasodilator production are discussed. PMID:15790666

  1. Effect of leptin on in vitro development of ovine preantral ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Kamalamma, P; Kona, S S R; Praveen Chakravarthi, V; Siva Kumar, A V N; Punyakumari, B; Rao, V H

    2016-01-15

    The influence of human or ovine leptin on in vitro culture of preantral follicles (PFs) isolated from sheep ovaries was investigated. Among the 12 different concentrations (0-1000 ng/mL) of human leptin tested, proportion of PFs exhibiting growth, mean increase in diameter, antrum formation, and maturation of the oocytes to MII stage were the best in 10 ng/mL. Culture of sheep ovarian PFs in TCM 199 supplemented with 10 ng/mL of human or ovine leptin FSH (2.5 ?g/mL), thyroxine (1 ?g/mL), insulinlike growth factor I (10 ng/mL), and GH (1 mIU/mL) resulted in significantly (P ? 0.05) greater average increase in diameter (11 and 9 vs. 6 ?m), better proportions of PFs exhibiting growth (66% and 58% vs. 48%), antrum formation (51% and 51% vs. 34%), and maturation of oocytes to MII stage (24% and 22% vs. 7%) than the control medium. It is concluded that (1) the optimum dose of leptin for the growth of sheep PFs in vitro was 10 ng/mL, (2) human or ovine leptin supported similar development in vitro of PFs in sheep, (3) inclusion of leptin along with FSH, thyroxine, insulinlike growth factor I, and GH resulted in only a marginal further improvements in in vitro development of sheep PFs'. PMID:26489908

  2. Effects of antibacterial agents on in vitro ovine ruminal biotransformation of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid jacobine.

    PubMed

    Wachenheim, D E; Blythe, L L; Craig, A M

    1992-08-01

    Ingestion of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, naturally occurring plant toxins, causes illness and death in a number of animal species. Senecio jacobaea pyrrolizidine alkaloids cause significant economic losses due to livestock poisoning, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. Some sheep are resistant to pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning, because ovine ruminal biotransformation detoxifies free pyrrolizidine alkaloids in digesta. Antibacterial agents modify ruminal fermentation. Pretreatment with antibacterial agents may account for some animal variability in resistance to pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicosis, and antibacterial agents can also be used for characterizing ruminal pyrrolizidine alkaloid-biotransforming microflora. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of antibacterial agents on biotransformation of a predominant S. jacobaea pyrrolizidine alkaloid, jacobine, in ovine ruminal contents. Ovine ruminal jacobine biotransformation was tested in vitro with 20 independent antibacterial agents. Low amounts of rifampin and erythromycin prevented jacobine biotransformation. Chlortetracycline, lasalocid, monensin, penicillin G, and tetracycline were slightly less effective at inhibiting jacobine biotransformation. Bacitracin, crystal violet, kanamycin, and neomycin were moderately inhibitory against jacobine biotransformation. Brilliant green, chloramphenicol, gramicidin, nalidixic acid, polymyxin B SO4, sodium azide, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and vancomycin had little to no effect on jacobine biotransformation. The antibiotics that were most effective at inhibiting biotransformation were those that are active against gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, gram-positive bacteria are most likely critical members of the jacobine-biotransforming consortia. PMID:1514802

  3. Effect of variation in ovine WFIKKN2 on growth traits appears to be gender-dependent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiqing; Zhou, Huitong; Fang, Qian; Liu, Xiu; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G H

    2015-01-01

    WFIKKN2 may play a role in the regulation of muscle growth and development, but to date there have been no reports on the effect of variation in WFIKKN2 on growth and carcass traits in livestock. In this study, the effect of variation in ovine WFIKKN2 was investigated in 800 New Zealand Romney lambs (395 male and 405 female), with five previously described variants (A to E) being identified. Variation in ovine WFIKKN2 was not found to affect various growth traits in the female lambs, but the presence of variant B was associated (P?ovine WFIKKN2 may have a differential effect on growth in male and female lambs, and hence that the gene may be expressed in, or act in, a gender-specific fashion. PMID:26197924

  4. Progesterone Inhibits Oxytocin- and Prostaglandin F2alpha-Stimulated Increases in Intracellular Calcium Concentrations in Small and Large Ovine Luteal Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Tracy L.; Bott, Rebecca C.; Slough, Teresa L.; Bruemmer, Jason E.; Niswender, Gordon D.

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the corpus luteum has an important role in regulating its own demise. A series of experiments was performed to study the effects of luteal concentrations of progesterone on the functions of steroidogenic luteal cells. In the first experiment, steroidogenic small luteal cells (SLCs) were separated from endothelial cells, and it was determined that it was the SLCs that contained receptors for oxytocin. Treatment with progesterone (95 ?M) for as little as 1 h decreased (P < 0.05) the percentage of SLCs responding to oxytocin (10 ?M) with an increase in intracellular concentrations of calcium, and this effect continued for the duration of the experiment. In a second experiment, the response to oxytocin was increased (P < 0.05) by 3 h (but not 1 h) following progesterone removal, with a further increase by 16 h. The ability of 1 ?M prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) to increase intracellular concentrations of calcium was also decreased (P < 0.05) by progesterone treatment. By 3 h following removal of progesterone, the percentage of steroidogenic large luteal cells (LLCs) responding to PGF2alpha was increased and not different from that observed in cells 16 h after progesterone removal. Finally, cyclodextrins (methyl-beta cyclodextrin [MbetaCD]) were used to remove cholesterol from the plasma membrane of luteal cells, and MbetaCD loaded with cholesterol was used to put cholesterol back into the plasma membrane of progesterone-treated cells. Treatment with MbetaCD reduced (P < 0.05) the responsiveness of SLCs to oxytocin and LLCs to PGF2alpha. Use of cholesterol-loaded MbetaCD returned the responsiveness of both SLCs and LLCs treated with progesterone to that observed in vehicle (no progesterone)-treated controls. In summary, intraluteal concentrations of progesterone inhibit the ability of oxytocin to increase intracellular concentrations of calcium in SLCs and the ability of PGF2alpha to increase intracellular concentrations of calcium in LLCs. The highest concentration of progesterone appears to act by influencing cholesterol content of the luteal cell membranes. PMID:19812299

  5. Incidence of infection in 39-month-old ewes with TMEM154 diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3" after natural exposure to ovine progressive pneumonia virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production and well-being of sheep and goats in many countries are harmfully impacted by small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) that cause incurable, progressive diseases. Susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), the North American form of SRLV, is influenced by variants of the ovine...

  6. Co-expression of ovine LPS receptor CD14 with Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin receptor LFA-1 or Mac-1 does not enhance leukotoxin-induced cytotoxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leukotoxin (Lkt) and LPS are the major virulence determinants of Mannheimia haemolytica that contribute to the pathogenesis of bovine and ovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. We have previously identified bovine and ovine CD18 as the functional receptor for Lkt. LPS complexes with Lkt resulting in incre...

  7. Approved Module Information for LE3028, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Corpus Linguistics Module Code: LE3028

    E-print Network

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    and terminology of corpus linguistics The use of corpus tools to research language in use Areas of appliedApproved Module Information for LE3028, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Corpus Linguistics Module Code to the theories and methods of analysis used in corpus linguistics, and to enable you to collect your own corpus

  8. A Study of Applicability of SNP Chips Developed for Bovine and Ovine Species to Whole-Genome Analysis of Reindeer Rangifer tarandus.

    PubMed

    Kharzinova, Veronika R; Sermyagin, Alexander A; Gladyr, Elena A; Okhlopkov, Innokentiy M; Brem, Gottfried; Zinovieva, Natalia A

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of commercially available single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for cattle (BovineSNP50 BeadChip) and sheep (OvineSNP50 BeadChip) have been trialed for whole-genome analysis of 4 female samples of Rangifer tarandus inhabiting Russia. We found out that 43.0% of bovine and 47.0% of Ovine SNPs could be genotyped, while only 5.3% and 2.03% of them were respectively polymorphic. The scored and the polymorphic SNPs were identified on each bovine and each ovine chromosome, but their distribution was not unique. The maximal value of runs of homozygosity (ROH) was 30.93Mb (for SNPs corresponding to bovine chromosome 8) and 80.32Mb (for SNPs corresponding to ovine chromosome 7). Thus, the SNP chips developed for bovine and ovine species can be used as a powerful tool for genome analysis in reindeer R. tarandus. PMID:26447215

  9. Morphometric Changes of the Corpus Callosum in Congenital Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D. Louis; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Sartori, Giuseppe; Pietrini, Pietro; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender. There was no overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus callosum are in line with the well-described cross-modal functional and structural neuroplastic changes in congenital blindness. PMID:25255324

  10. Platelet Activation in Ovines Undergoing Sham Surgery or Implant of the Second Generation PediaFlow™ Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Carl A.; Wearden, Peter D.; Kocyildirim, Ergin; Maul, Timothy M.; Woolley, Joshua R.; Ye, Sang-Ho; Strickler, Elise M.; Borovetz, Harvey S.; Wagner, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The PediaFlow™ pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) is a magnetically levitated turbodynamic pump under development for circulatory support of small children with a targeted flow rate range of 0.3 - 1.5 L/min. As the design of this device is refined, ensuring high levels of blood biocompatibility is essential. In this study we characterized platelet activation during the implantation and operation of a second generation prototype of the PediaFlow VAD (PF2) and also performed a series of surgical sham studies to examine purely surgical effects on platelet activation. In addition, a newly available monoclonal antibody was characterized and shown to be capable of quantifying ovine platelet activation. The PF2 was implanted in 3 chronic ovine experiments of 16, 30, and 70 days, while surgical sham procedures were performed in 5 ovines with 30 d monitoring. Blood biocompatibility in terms of circulating activated platelets was measured by flow cytometric assays with and without exogenous agonist stimulation. Platelet activation following sham surgery returned to baseline in approximately 2 weeks. Platelets in PF2 implanted ovines returned to baseline activation levels in all three animals, and showed an ability to respond to agonist stimulation. Late term platelet activation was observed in one animal corresponding with unexpected pump stoppages related to a manufacturing defect in the percutaneous cable. The results demonstrated encouraging platelet biocompatibility for the PF2 in that basal platelet activation was achieved early in the pump implant period. Furthermore, this first characterization of the effect of a major cardiothoracic procedure on temporal ovine platelet activation provides comparative data for future cardiovascular device evaluation in the ovine model. PMID:21463346

  11. Creating a Parallel Corpus from the ``Book of 2000 Tongues'' Philip Resnik, Mari Broman Olsen, Mona Diab

    E-print Network

    Daume III, Hal

    , including narrative, poetry, and correspondence. The New Testament corpus alone ``compares favourably corpus­based statistical methods in computational linguistics, the Bible is small by current standards (e

  12. Towards the National Corpus of Polish Adam Przepirkowski1,5

    E-print Network

    Polish Scientific Publishers PWN Polish Academy of Sciences Polish Academy of Sciences ul. Miodowa 10 ul corpus, which is consid- ered to be carefully balanced, the PWN Corpus of Polish (http://korpus.pwn

  13. Training and evaluation of POS taggers on the French MULTITAG corpus

    E-print Network

    , the tagger itself is a set of ma- chine learning algorithms. On the second hand, the training data consists (Paroubek, 2000) corpus, which is a by-product of the GRACE project. This large corpus (more than 840k words

  14. Quantitative analysis of mouse corpus callosum from electron microscopy images

    PubMed Central

    West, Kathryn L.; Kelm, Nathaniel D.; Carson, Robert P.; Does, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides morphometric analysis of 72 electron microscopy images from control (n=4) and hypomyelinated (n=2) mouse corpus callosum. Measures of axon diameter and g-ratio were tabulated across all brains from two regions of the corpus callosum and a non-linear relationship between axon diameter and g-ratio was observed. These data are related to the accompanying research article comparing multiple methods of measuring g-ratio entitled ‘A revised model for estimating g-ratio from MRI’ (West et al., NeuroImage, 2015). PMID:26504893

  15. Quantitative analysis of mouse corpus callosum from electron microscopy images.

    PubMed

    West, Kathryn L; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Carson, Robert P; Does, Mark D

    2015-12-01

    This article provides morphometric analysis of 72 electron microscopy images from control (n=4) and hypomyelinated (n=2) mouse corpus callosum. Measures of axon diameter and g-ratio were tabulated across all brains from two regions of the corpus callosum and a non-linear relationship between axon diameter and g-ratio was observed. These data are related to the accompanying research article comparing multiple methods of measuring g-ratio entitled 'A revised model for estimating g-ratio from MRI' (West et al., NeuroImage, 2015). PMID:26504893

  16. Localization of an antiviral site on the pregnancy recognition hormone, ovine trophoblast protein 1.

    PubMed Central

    Pontzer, C H; Ott, T L; Bazer, F W; Johnson, H M

    1990-01-01

    Ovine trophoblast protein 1 (oTP-1) is the interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) variant with potent antiviral activity and low toxicity that is responsible for maternal recognition of pregnancy in sheep. To examine the structure/function basis for the potent antiviral activity of oTP-1, we have exploited the direct approach of synthetic peptide competition with oTP-1 for receptor, using N-terminal oTP-1-(1-37) and C-terminal oTP-1-(139-172) peptides. These peptides possess structures similar to those predicted for the intact molecule on the basis of circular dichroism. oTP-1-(1-37) at 1.5 mM specifically blocked oTP-1 antiviral activity without affecting the antiviral activity of natural ovine IFN-alpha, recombinant bovine IFN-alpha, and recombinant human IFN-alpha. At concentrations as low as 0.15 mM, oTP-1-(139-172) blocked the antiviral activity of oTP-1, as well as that of natural ovine IFN-alpha, recombinant bovine IFN-alpha, and recombinant human IFN-alpha, but not recombinant bovine interferon gamma. Further, binding of radiolabeled oTP-1 to endometrial membrane preparations could be effectively inhibited by polyclonal anti-C-terminal and anti-N-terminal antisera, with the anti-C-terminal antiserum being the more effective inhibitor. Consistent with peptide and antiserum functional data, oTP-1 and recombinant bovine IFN-alpha are predicted to possess similar C-terminal structure but different N-terminal structure by composite surface profile predictions. The findings suggest that the C-terminal regions of IFN-alpha s bind to a common site on the IFN-alpha receptor while the N-terminal region binds to a site unique for the particular IFN-alpha. Images PMID:2165611

  17. Leptin Matures Aspects of Lung Structure and Function in the Ovine Fetus.

    PubMed

    De Blasio, Miles J; Boije, Maria; Kempster, Sarah L; Smith, Gordon C S; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Denyer, Alice; Hughes, Alexandra; Wooding, F B Peter; Blache, Dominique; Fowden, Abigail L; Forhead, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    In human and ovine fetuses, glucocorticoids stimulate leptin secretion, although the extent to which leptin mediates the maturational effects of glucocorticoids on pulmonary development is unclear. This study investigated the effects of leptin administration on indices of lung structure and function before birth. Chronically catheterized singleton sheep fetuses were infused iv for 5 days with either saline or recombinant ovine leptin (0.5 mg/kg · d leptin (LEP), 0.5 LEP or 1.0 mg/kg · d, 1.0 LEP) from 125 days of gestation (term ?145 d). Over the infusion, leptin administration increased plasma leptin, but not cortisol, concentrations. On the fifth day of infusion, 0.5 LEP reduced alveolar wall thickness and increased the volume at closing pressure of the pressure-volume deflation curve, interalveolar septal elastin content, secondary septal crest density, and the mRNA abundance of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) and surfactant protein (SP) B. Neither treatment influenced static lung compliance, maximal lung volume at 40 cmH2O, lung compartment volumes, alveolar surface area, pulmonary glycogen, protein content of the long form signaling Ob-Rb or phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription-3, or mRNA levels of SP-A, C, or D, elastin, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, angiotensin-converting enzyme, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, or parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Leptin administration in the ovine fetus during late gestation promotes aspects of lung maturation, including up-regulation of SP-B. PMID:26479186

  18. Postinoculation protozoan establishment and association patterns of methanogenic archaea in the ovine rumen.

    PubMed

    Ohene-Adjei, Samuel; Teather, Ronald M; Ivan, Michael; Forster, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    Association patterns between archaea and rumen protozoa were evaluated by analyzing archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from ovine rumen inoculated with different protozoa. Five protozoan inoculation treatments, fauna free (negative control), holotrich and cellulolytic protozoa, Isotricha and Dasytricha spp., Entodinium spp., and total fauna (type A) were tested. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative PCR, and phylogenetic analysis to evaluate the impact of the protozoan inoculants on the respective archaeal communities. Protozoan 18S ribosomal DNA clone libraries were also evaluated to monitor the protozoal population that was established by the inoculation. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that archaeal clones associated with the fauna-free, the Entodinium, and the type A inoculations clustered primarily with uncultured phylotypes. Polyplastron multivesiculatum was the predominant protozoan strain established by the holotrich and cellulolytic protozoan treatment, and this resulted predominantly in archaeal clones affiliated with uncultured and cultured methanogenic phylotypes (Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, and Methanobacterium bryantii). Furthermore, the Isotricha and Dasytricha inoculation treatment resulted primarily in archaeal clones affiliated with Methanobrevibacter smithii. This report provides the first assessment of the influence of protozoa on archaea within the rumen microbial community and provides evidence to suggest that different archaeal phylotypes associate with specific groups of protozoa. The observed patterns may be linked to the evolution of commensal and symbiotic relationships between archaea and protozoa in the ovine rumen environment. This report further underscores the prevalence and potential importance of a rather large group of uncultivated archaea in the ovine rumen, probably unrelated to known methanogens and undocumented in the bovine rumen. PMID:17513586

  19. Postinoculation Protozoan Establishment and Association Patterns of Methanogenic Archaea in the Ovine Rumen?

    PubMed Central

    Ohene-Adjei, Samuel; Teather, Ronald M.; Ivan, Michael; Forster, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Association patterns between archaea and rumen protozoa were evaluated by analyzing archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from ovine rumen inoculated with different protozoa. Five protozoan inoculation treatments, fauna free (negative control), holotrich and cellulolytic protozoa, Isotricha and Dasytricha spp., Entodinium spp., and total fauna (type A) were tested. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative PCR, and phylogenetic analysis to evaluate the impact of the protozoan inoculants on the respective archaeal communities. Protozoan 18S ribosomal DNA clone libraries were also evaluated to monitor the protozoal population that was established by the inoculation. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that archaeal clones associated with the fauna-free, the Entodinium, and the type A inoculations clustered primarily with uncultured phylotypes. Polyplastron multivesiculatum was the predominant protozoan strain established by the holotrich and cellulolytic protozoan treatment, and this resulted predominantly in archaeal clones affiliated with uncultured and cultured methanogenic phylotypes (Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, and Methanobacterium bryantii). Furthermore, the Isotricha and Dasytricha inoculation treatment resulted primarily in archaeal clones affiliated with Methanobrevibacter smithii. This report provides the first assessment of the influence of protozoa on archaea within the rumen microbial community and provides evidence to suggest that different archaeal phylotypes associate with specific groups of protozoa. The observed patterns may be linked to the evolution of commensal and symbiotic relationships between archaea and protozoa in the ovine rumen environment. This report further underscores the prevalence and potential importance of a rather large group of uncultivated archaea in the ovine rumen, probably unrelated to known methanogens and undocumented in the bovine rumen. PMID:17513586

  20. Markedly Increased Susceptibility to Natural Sheep Scrapie of Transgenic Mice Expressing Ovine PrP

    PubMed Central

    Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Soulier, Solange; Essalmani, Rachid; Stinnakre, Marie-George; Vaiman, Daniel; Lepourry, Laurence; Da Silva, Jose Costa; Besnard, Nathalie; Dawson, Mike; Buschmann, Anne; Groschup, Martin; Petit, Stephanie; Madelaine, Marie-Francoise; Rakatobe, Sabine; Le Dur, Annick; Vilette, Didier; Laude, Hubert

    2001-01-01

    The susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is known to involve, as a major determinant, the nature of the prion protein (PrP) allele, with the VRQ allele conferring the highest susceptibility to the disease. Transgenic mice expressing in their brains three different ovine PrPVRQ-encoding transgenes under an endogenous PrP-deficient genetic background were established. Nine transgenic (tgOv) lines were selected and challenged with two scrapie field isolates derived from VRQ-homozygous affected sheep. All inoculated mice developed neurological signs associated with a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) disease and accumulated a protease-resistant form of PrP (PrPres) in their brains. The incubation duration appeared to be inversely related to the PrP steady-state level in the brain, irrespective of the transgene construct. The survival time for animals from the line expressing the highest level of PrP was reduced by at least 1 year compared to those of two groups of conventional mice. With one isolate, the duration of incubation was as short as 2 months, which is comparable to that observed for the rodent TSE models with the briefest survival times. No survival time reduction was observed upon subpassaging of either isolate, suggesting no need for adaptation of the agent to its new host. Overexpression of the transgene was found not to be required for transmission to be accelerated compared to that observed with wild-type mice. Conversely, transgenic mice overexpressing murine PrP were found to be less susceptible than tgOv lines expressing ovine PrP at physiological levels. These data argue that ovine PrPVRQ provided a better substrate for sheep prion replication than did mouse PrP. Altogether, these tgOv mice could be an improved model for experimental studies on natural sheep scrapie. PMID:11390599

  1. TSH-induced cyclic AMP production in an ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 5H.

    PubMed

    Fayet, G; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

    1986-01-01

    The TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was studied using a 3-year-old ovine thyroid cell line TSH-independent for growth: OVNIS 5H. The kinetics of cyclic AMP production was followed both in cell layers and in cell culture media, with or without phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is noteworthy that following the first wave in cyclic AMP obtained within minutes, we observed later a sustained exponential increase in cyclic AMP during the 5 days following TSH stimulation. A bioassay of TSH was derived allowing measurement of 1 microU/ml TSH from a crude bTSH preparation. PMID:3000830

  2. Evaluating Corpus Literacy Training for Pre-Service Language Teachers: Six Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heather, Julian; Helt, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Corpus literacy is the ability to use corpora--large, principled databases of spoken and written language--for language analysis and instruction. While linguists have emphasized the importance of corpus training in teacher preparation programs, few studies have investigated the process of initiating teachers into corpus literacy with the result…

  3. Session Variability Contrasts in the MARP Corpus Keith W. Godin, John H.L. Hansen

    E-print Network

    Texas at Dallas, University of

    Session Variability Contrasts in the MARP Corpus Keith W. Godin, John H.L. Hansen Center for Robust.hansen@utdallas.edu Abstract Intra-session and inter-session variability in the Multi-session Audio Research Project (MARP) corpus are contrasted in two experiments that exploit the long-term nature of the corpus. In the first

  4. Corpus-Based Research and Pedagogy in EAP: From Lexis to Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This plenary paper showcases current corpus-based research on written academic English, illustrating the tight links that exist between corpus research and pedagogic applications. I first explicate Sinclair's concept of the "lexical approach", which underpins much corpus research and pedagogy. I then discuss studies which focus on…

  5. A Discourse Resource for Turkish: Annotating Discourse Connectives in the METU Corpus

    E-print Network

    A Discourse Resource for Turkish: Annotating Discourse Connectives in the METU Corpus Deniz Zeyrek@inf.ed.ac.uk Abstract This paper describes first steps towards extending the METU Turkish Corpus from a sentence the goals of the project and the METU Turkish corpus. We then describe how we decided what to take

  6. Using Chinese Gigaword Corpus and Chinese Word Sketch in linguistic research

    E-print Network

    Using Chinese Gigaword Corpus and Chinese Word Sketch in linguistic research Jia-Fei Hong, Chu based on corpus and computational linguistic tools in this paper. In particular, we adopt Chinese Word Sketch, the application of Word Sketch Engine to Chinese GigaWord Corpus, for linguistic research. We

  7. On Automating and Standardising Corpus Callosum Analysis in Brain MRI

    E-print Network

    Estimation The human brain consists on a coarse level of the cerebrum, the cerebellum and the brainstem. Most prominent is the cerebrum which is divided into hemispheres connected by a nervous fibre bundle; the corpus callosum. The surface partitioning this approximate bilateral symmetry of the cerebrum is typically denoted

  8. Using Corpus Statistics to Remove Redundant Words in Text Categorization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yiming; Wilbur, John

    1996-01-01

    Studies aggressive automated word removal in text categorization in large databases based on corpus statistics to reduce the noise in free texts and to enhance the computational efficiency of categorization. Topics include stop word identification, categorization methods for comparison, tests on four document collections, and evaluation…

  9. Positive correlations between corpus callosum thickness and intelligence

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    Positive correlations between corpus callosum thickness and intelligence Eileen Luders,a Katherine the presence and direction of correlations between intelligence and callosal thickness at high spatial callosal morphology and intelligence measures (full-scale, perfor- mance, and verbal). These relationships

  10. Corpus Planning for the Southern Peruvian Quechua Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronel-Molina, Serafin M.

    1997-01-01

    The discussion of corpus planning for the Southern Quechua language variety of Peru examines issues of graphization, standardization, modernization, and renovation of Quechua in the face of increasing domination by the Spanish language. The efforts of three major groups of linguists and other scholars working on language planning in Peru, and the…

  11. You Should Have the Body: Understanding Habeas Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landman, James

    2008-01-01

    English legal commentator William Blackstone described the writ of habeas corpus as a second Magna Carta, and Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall called it the "great writ." It has been part of the Anglo-American common law tradition since the Middle Ages. In the United States, it has been a source of tension between state and federal…

  12. Commissurotomy of the Corpus Callosum and the Remedial Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Elaine

    Testimony presented at a congressional hearing on illiteracy (March 1986) indicated that good readers use their myelinated corpus callosum fibers (which connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain) at millisecond speeds to coordinate the two brain hemispheres. Students taught using the whole-word recognition method (also called the…

  13. Corpus Callosum Differences Associated with Persistent Stuttering in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Ai Leen; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Olivero, William; Ambrose, Nicoline G.; Sharma, Harish; Chang, Soo-Eun; Loucks, Torrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated anatomical differences in speech-relevant brain regions of adults who stutter (AWS) compared to normally fluent adults (NFA). The present study focused on the region of the corpus callosum (CC) which is involved in interhemispheric processing between the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Two-dimensional…

  14. Analyzing Parallelism and Domain Similarities in the MAREC Patent Corpus

    E-print Network

    Riezler, Stefan

    Analyzing Parallelism and Domain Similarities in the MAREC Patent Corpus Katharina W}@cl.uni-heidelberg.de Abstract. Statistical machine translation of patents requires large a- mounts of sentence-parallel data. Translations of patent text often exist for parts of the patent document, namely title, abstract and claims

  15. A Corpus-based Approach to Finding Happiness Rada Mihalcea

    E-print Network

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    A Corpus-based Approach to Finding Happiness Rada Mihalcea Computer Science and Engineering of Technology hugo@media.mit.edu Abstract What are the sources of happiness and sadness in everyday life? In this paper, we employ `linguistic ethnography' to seek out where happiness lies in our everyday lives

  16. Corpus-Based Robotics: A Route Instruction Example.

    E-print Network

    Bugmann, Guido

    and localisation, navigable space mapping and path planning. Thus, the requirement of human-robot interaction communication lies probably in current robots' perception capabilities. Furthermore, for human-robotCorpus-Based Robotics: A Route Instruction Example. Guido Bugmann, Ewan Klein*, Stanislao Lauria

  17. Building a Sense Tagged Corpus with Open Mind Word Expert

    E-print Network

    a Senseval-3 lexical sam- ple activity where the training data is collected via Open Mind Word ExpertBuilding a Sense Tagged Corpus with Open Mind Word Expert Timothy Chklovski Artificial Intelligence University of Texas at Dallas rada@utdallas.edu Abstract Open Mind Word Expert is an imple- mented active

  18. Corpus Linguistics, Network Analysis and Co-Occurrence Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Keith; Botella, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes research undertaken in order to design a methodology for the reticular representation of knowledge of a specific discourse community. To achieve this goal, a representative corpus of the scientific production of the members of this discourse community (Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, UPV) was created. This article…

  19. Perspectives on Dichotic Listening and the Corpus Callosum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musiek, Frank E.; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The present review summarizes historic and recent research which has investigated the role of the corpus callosum in dichotic processing within the context of audiology. Examination of performance by certain clinical groups, including split brain patients, multiple sclerosis cases, and other types of neurological lesions is included. Maturational,…

  20. Autism Traits in Individuals with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Yolanda C.; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Bukshpun, Polina; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Jeremy, Rita J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have numerous etiologies, including structural brain malformations such as agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We sought to directly measure the occurrence of autism traits in a cohort of individuals with AgCC and to investigate the neural underpinnings of this association. We screened a large AgCC cohort (n =…

  1. Corpus Callosum Morphometrics in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boger-Megiddo, Inbal; Shaw, Dennis W. W.; Friedman, Seth D.; Sparks, Bobbi F.; Artru, Alan A.; Giedd, Jay N.; Dawson, Geraldine; Dager, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed digital corpus callosum cross sectional areas in 3-4 year olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to typically developing (TD) and developmentally delayed (DD) children. Though not different in absolute size compared to TD, ASD callosums were disproportionately small adjusted for increased ASD cerebral volume. ASD…

  2. Dative Alternation in Indian English: A Corpus-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cuypere, Ludovic; Verbeke, Saartje

    2013-01-01

    The dative alternation refers to the alternation between two constructions that denote some type of transfer: the double object construction ("I give my sister a book") vs. the to-dative construction ("I give a book to my sister"). We examined the motivations behind the dative alternation in Indian English. A corpus study was performed based on a…

  3. Perception of Blended Emotions: from Video Corpus to Expressive Agent

    E-print Network

    Pelachaud, Catherine

    to evaluate the affective feedback of an agent in a card game. They found that the absence of negativePerception of Blended Emotions: from Video Corpus to Expressive Agent Stéphanie Buisine1, Sarkis the effect of various models and modalities on the perception of complex emotions. 1 Introduction Affective

  4. A Dataset Search Engine for the Research Document Corpus

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Albert

    A Dataset Search Engine for the Research Document Corpus Meiyu Lu # , Srinivas Bangalore , Graham no useful tools for researchers to understand which datasets have been used for what purpose, or in what prior work. Instead, they have to manually browse through papers to find suitable datasets

  5. A Dataset Search Engine for the Research Document Corpus

    E-print Network

    Cormode, Graham

    A Dataset Search Engine for the Research Document Corpus Meiyu Lu # , Srinivas Bangalore , Graham a proposed idea or system is to evaluate over a suitable dataset. However, to this date there have been no useful tools for researchers to understand which datasets have been used for what purpose, or in what

  6. Corpus Planning and Codification in the Hebrew Revival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahir, Moshe

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the study of the unprecedented revival of the Hebrew language in Palestine during 1890-1914. The study focused on status planning but corpus planning also served as a critical component. Examines codification during the revitalization period. (Author/VWL)

  7. The Hurricane Sandy Twitter Corpus Language Technologies Institute

    E-print Network

    Dredze, Mark

    The Hurricane Sandy Twitter Corpus Haoyu Wang Language Technologies Institute Carnegie Mellon response on which researchers can compare and contrast their work. This paper describes the Hurricane Sandy Hurricane Sandy. Introduction Preparing for and responding to natural disasters is a key function of public

  8. Cleaning up and Standardizing a Folktale Corpus for Humanities Research

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    for scientific use and improving avail- ability of the data for humanities and, more specifically, folktaleCleaning up and Standardizing a Folktale Corpus for Humanities Research Iwe Everhardus Christiaan 2Human Media Interaction, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands 3Meertens Institute

  9. Building a corpus and testing speech recognition D. Bussink BSc.

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    Building a corpus and testing speech recognition D. Bussink BSc. University of Twente, Faculty@ewi.utwente.nl ABSTRACT Speech recognition is still a rapidly developing area of re- search. It is used for all kinds it for evaluating other speech recognition systems. 1. INTRODUCTION Spoken dialog systems rely heavily on a properly

  10. The Use of Corpus Examples for Language Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg-Garcia, Ana

    2014-01-01

    One of the many new features of English language learners' dictionaries derived from the technological developments that have taken place over recent decades is the presence of corpus-based examples to illustrate the use of words in context. However, empirical studies have generally not been able to produce conclusive evidence about their…

  11. Detecting Privacy Leaks Using Corpus-based Association Rules

    E-print Network

    Golle, Philippe

    that it is not enough to look for known sensitive terms like "missile" and so they begin to look for other, seemingly innocuous, terms that might allow the government's missile devel- opment activities to be inferred. That is, association rule mining analyzes the contents of the corpus to identify words closely associated with "missile

  12. COMPARISON OF OVINE HERPESVIRUS 2 GENOMES ISOLATED FROM DOMESTIC SHEEP (OVIS ARIES) AND A CLINICALLY AFFECTED COW (BOS BOVIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rhadinovirus ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) is the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). OvHV-2 affects primarily ruminants and has a worldwide distribution. In this study we determined the sequence of OvHV-2 genomic DNA isolated from sheep nasal secretions and compa...

  13. Genome-Wide association identifies multiple genomic regions associated with susceptibility to and control of ovine lentivirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is macrophage-tropic and causes lifelonginfection. OvLV infects one quarter of U.S. sheep and induces pneumonia and body condition wasting. There is no vaccine to prevent OvLV infection and no cost-effective treatment for i...

  14. REGULATION OF THE OVINE INTERFERON-TAU GENE BY A BLASTOCYST-SPECIFIC TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR, CDX2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of ovine interferon-tau (oIFNt), a factor essential for the process of maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminant ungulates, is restricted to the trophoblast. However, the molecular mechanisms by which oIFNt expression is restricted to the trophectoderm have not been fully elucidated. ...

  15. Ovine placental eluate immunoglobulins recognise isologous and third party acid-treated trophoblast microvesicle antigens in vitro.

    PubMed

    Omwandho, C A; Gruessner, S E; Falconer, J; Mala, G O; Mecha, E O; Tumbo-Oeri, A G; Tinneberg, H R; Roberts, T K

    2006-03-01

    Placental microvesicles were prepared from ovine placentae and immunoglobulins eluted with 0.5 M glycine buffer pH 2.5. The ability of eluate immunoglobulins to re-associate with isologous (self) and third party acidified microvesicles was tested by ELISA. Ovine placental immunoglobulins re-associated with isologous and third party acidified microvesicles suggesting that at least 2 types of antigenic epitopes I and II maybe expressed on the ovine placentae. Type I antigens may be present on placentae of all ovines while type II epitopes may be paternally derived, hence unique to each pregnancy. Analysis by SDS PAGE revealed the heavy and light chains of IgG at 57 and 27 kDa, respectively, together giving a relative molecular weight of 158 kDa. Results suggest that immunoglobulins produced to placental microvesicle antigens may be directed to some but not all antigenic epitopes expressed on the trophoblast, possibly defining a mechanism by which the foetus evades maternal immunological rejection. PMID:16700472

  16. EXPERIMENTAL AEROSOL INFECTION OF CATTLE (BOS TAURUS) WITH OVINE HERPESVIRUS 2 USING NASAL SECRETIONS FROM INFECTED SHEEP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of clinically susceptible ruminants, including domesticated cattle and American bison, with ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) can result in the fatal lymphoproliferative and vaculitis syndrome known as malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). A reliable experimental infection model is needed to study ...

  17. Peripheral Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Provirus Levels Correlate with and Predict Histological Tissue Lesion Severity in Naturally Infected Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether host immune responses in the form of serum anti-ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) antibody responses or virus replication in the form of peripheral OPP provirus levels associate with the degree of histological tissue lesions in naturally OPPV infec...

  18. Non-maternal transmission is the major mode of ovine lentivirus transmission in a ewe flock: A molecular epidemiology study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmission of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), a lentivirus of sheep, occurs through both maternal and non-maternal means. Currently, the contribution of each route to the overall flock OPPV prevalence is poorly understood since previous serological epidemiologic studies lacked the abilit...

  19. SUPPRESSION OF MANNHEIMIA (PASTEURELLA) HAEMOLYTICA SEROVAR 1 INFECTION IN LAMBS BY INTRAPULMONARY ADMINISTRATION OF OVINE ANTIMICROBIAL ANIONIC PEPTIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the efficacy of ovine antimicrobial anionic peptide (AP) was assessed in a lamb model of acute pneumonia. A single intratracheal dose of H-DDDDDDD-OH (0.5 mg) reduced pulmonary inflammation and the concentration of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica in infected lung tissue. Admini...

  20. Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels are unaffected by the prion 171R allele in an Idaho sheep flock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding of sheep for arginine (R) at prion gene (PRNP) codon 171 confers resistance to Scrapie. The 171R allele naturally occurs at low frequency, possibly because it imparts a deleterious trait such as impaired disease resistance. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia/Maedi-Visna virus (OPPV) is...

  1. Deletion variant near ZNF389 is associated with control of ovine lentivirus in multiple flocks of sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus found in many countries that causes interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and cachexia in sheep. There is no preventive vaccine and no cure, but breed differences suggest marker-assisted selective breeding might improve odds of infectio...

  2. Experimental nebulization of American bison (Bison bison) with low doses of ovine herpesvirus 2 from sheep nasal secretions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), is an important cause of mortality in ranched American bison (Bison bison) in North America. Detection of antibody against MCF-group viruses and OvHV-2 DNA in peripheral blood of healthy bison indicates that some are subclinic...

  3. OXIDATION OF GLUCOSE, GLUTAMATE, AND GLUTAMINE BY ISOLATED OVINE ENTEROCYTES IN VITRO IS DECREASED BY PRESENCE OF OTHER METABOLIC FUELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate oxidative metabolism of glucose, glutamate, and glutamine by isolated ovine enterocytes in presence of other metabolic fuels in vitro. Mucosal enterocytes were isolated from crossbred wether sheep (n=6) fed a mixed forage-concentrate diet, and incubated f...

  4. Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus Infects Multiple Cell Types in the Ovine Lung? †

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, Henny M.; Cousens, Chris; Imlach, Stuart; Dagleish, Mark P.; Griffiths, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a transmissible lung cancer of sheep caused by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). The details of early events in the pathogenesis of OPA are not fully understood. For example, the identity of the JSRV target cell in the lung has not yet been determined. Mature OPA tumors express surfactant protein-C (SP-C) or Clara cell-specific protein (CCSP), which are specific markers of type II pneumocytes or Clara cells, respectively. However, it is unclear whether these are the cell types initially infected and transformed by JSRV or whether the virus targets stem cells in the lung that subsequently acquire a differentiated phenotype during tumor growth. To examine this question, JSRV-infected lung tissue from experimentally infected lambs was studied at early time points after infection. Single JSRV-infected cells were detectable 10 days postinfection in bronchiolar and alveolar regions. These infected cells were labeled with anti-SP-C or anti-CCSP antibodies, indicating that differentiated epithelial cells are early targets for JSRV infection in the ovine lung. In addition, undifferentiated cells that expressed neither SP-C nor CCSP were also found to express the JSRV Env protein. These results enhance the understanding of OPA pathogenesis and may have comparative relevance to human lung cancer, for which samples representing early stages of tumor growth are difficult to obtain. PMID:21270155

  5. Therapeutic effect of hyaluronic acid on experimental osteoarthrosis of ovine temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Kim, C H; Lee, B J; Yoon, J; Seo, K M; Park, J H; Lee, J W; Cho, E S; Hong, J J; Lee, Y S; Park, J H

    2001-10-01

    A symptomatic relief by hyaluronic acid (HA, MW: 3.5 x 10(6)), which is synthesized by Streptococcus spp, was investigated in experimental ovine osteoarthrosis. Bilateral osteoarthrosis (OA) of the temporo-mandibular joints (TMJs) was induced by perforating discs and by scrapping subchondral condylar surface. HA was intra-articularly injected into the left joints of 6 sheep on 7, 10, 14, 17 and 21 days after the operation and physiological saline as the control was injected into the contralateral (right) joints on the same day. Three sheep were killed at I month post-operation (MPO) and the remaining three sheep were killed at 3 MPO. Various responses such as proliferation of fibrous tissue, denudation, erosion, osteophyte formation, subcortical cyst formation and ankylosis were observed radiographically and histopathologically. The treatment of HA ameliorated the degenerative changes and lowered the osteoarthrotic score in the left joints at I MPO (9.96 vs 5.81) and 3 MPO (10.86 vs 5.29) compared to the right joints. These results indicate that a repeated intra-articular injection of HA inhibits the progression of OA in ovine TMJs by inducing the development of articular cartilage and by reducing the proliferation of fibrotic tissue. PMID:11714023

  6. Regulation of GnRH receptors by progesterone and inhibin in ovine pituitary cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and the gonadal protein, inhibin, on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor number and binding affinity were investigated in vitro, using ovine pituitary cells in culture. Changes in GnRH binding were correlated with GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) release following pretreatment with P{sub 4} and inhibin. Ovine pituitary cells in culture were preincubated with P{sub 4} or porcine inhibin (I{sub P}) for 24 or 48 hours (h). Cells were collected and analyzed for GnRH binding using a radioligand-receptor assay. des-Gly{sup 10}-(D-Ala{sup 6})-LHRH-ethyl-amide was used as the radiolabeled GnRh superagonist analog (mono-{sup 125}I-GnRH-A) and as competing ligand. Treatment with P{sub 4} progressively decreased GnRH-A binding capacity by 44.3% and 71.8% of the control following pretreatment for 24 or 48 h, respectively. When P{sub 4} was removed from the cultures, GnRH-A binding capacity partially returned to control levels within 24 h. Decreased GnRH-A binding was closely correlated with the reduction in GnRH-stimulated LH release which was observed following 24 or 48 h pretreatment with P{sub 4}.

  7. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC

    PubMed Central

    Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation. PMID:24228035

  8. The effects of 'sleep promoting agents' on behavioural state in the ovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Morrison, J L; Carmichael, L; Homan, J; Richardson, B S

    1997-10-20

    Fetal behavioural states, with similarities to adult sleep states, exist in both the human and ovine fetus near term. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of intracerebral administration of pharmacologic agents, known to affect sleep states in the adult, on fetal behavioural states and physiologic correlates using the chronically catheterized ovine fetus near term. Each drug was infused into either the cisterna magna or lateral ventricle for 90 min in one of two doses. Carbachol (1.35 x 10(-5) and 4.25 x 10(-6) M) led to an increase in low-voltage ECOG, eye movement and FBM activities, while scopolamine (4.68 x 10(-4) and 1.56 x 10(-4) M) led to a decrease in low-voltage ECOG and eye movement activity with an increase in high-voltage ECOG activity. L-5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) (2.04 x 10(-3) and 6.81 x 10(-4) M) infusion led to an increase in FBM, while VIP (3.00 x 10(-7) and 1.00 x 10(-7) M) infusion had no effect on fetal behavioural state parameters. Study results indicate that fetal behavioural states can be altered pharmacologically and in a manner similar to that seen in the adult but with notable differences that may relate to species, developmental or dose-response issues. PMID:9370055

  9. Cortical modeling and analysis 1093 Figure 17.10: Corpus callosum in Alzheimer's disease. Midsagittal corpus callosum bound-

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    . Midsagittal corpus callosum bound- aries were averaged from patients with Alzheimer's disease and from elderly a focal shape inflection in the Alzheimer's patients relative to normal elderly subjects of the same age in the parametric space indirectly specifies a correspondence field in 3D, which drives one cortical surface

  10. Formulaic Language and Collocations in German Essays: From Corpus-Driven Data to Corpus-Based Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krummes, Cedric; Ensslin, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Whereas there exists a plethora of research on collocations and formulaic language in English, this article contributes towards a somewhat less developed area: the understanding and teaching of formulaic language in German as a foreign language. It analyses formulaic sequences and collocations in German writing (corpus-driven) and provides modern…

  11. Using Google as a Super Corpus to Drive Written Language Learning: A Comparison with the British National Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Guoquan

    2010-01-01

    Data-driven learning (DDL), or corpus-based language learning, involves the learner in an exploratory task to discover appropriate expressions or collocates regarding his writing. However, the problematic units of meaning in each learner's writing are so diverse that conventional corpora often prove futile. The search engine Google with the…

  12. THE OGI KIDS' SPEECH CORPUS AND RECOGNIZERS Khaldoun Shobaki*, John-Paul Hosom*, and Ronald A. Cole**

    E-print Network

    Hosom, John-Paul

    THE OGI KIDS' SPEECH CORPUS AND RECOGNIZERS Khaldoun Shobaki*, John-Paul Hosom*, and Ronald A. Cole describe a corpus of children's speech, called the OGI Kids' Speech corpus, and a speaker- and vocabulary and methodology used to develop the OGI Kids' Speech corpus. We then describe development and evaluation

  13. Molecular cloning of ovine and bovine type I interferon receptor subunits from uteri, and endometrial expression of messenger ribonucleic acid for ovine receptors during the estrous cycle and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Han, C S; Mathialagan, N; Klemann, S W; Roberts, R M

    1997-11-01

    Interferon-tau (IFN-tau), a type I IFN structurally related to IFN-alpha, is regarded as the major antiluteolytic factor secreted by the conceptus of ruminant ungulate species before definitive trophoblast attachment and implantation. It mediates its effects by acting on the uterine endometrium, where it blunts the normal pulsatile production of PGF2alpha, presumably as a result of its binding to type I IFN receptors. In this study, we describe the complementary DNAs for the two known subunits, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, of this receptor isolated from bovine and ovine endometrial complementary DNA libraries by homology cloning. Although there is extensive inferred amino acid sequence similarity between bovine and ovine IFNAR1 (92% identity) and between bovine and ovine IFNAR2 (88% identity), they have diverged extensively from the human receptor subunits (approximately 67% and approximately 58% identity, respectively). Despite these differences in primary structure, the respective subunits from all three species are organized similarly in their extracellular and cytoplasmic regions, and the bovine and ovine subunits have each retained a number of polypeptide motifs implicated in signal transduction. These uterine receptors also appear not to be splice variants. The cloned ovine IFNAR1 subunit, for example, possesses the expected four extracellular SD100 domains of full-length bovine and huIFNAR1, and only the homologs of the so-called long form (huIFNAR2c) of human IFNAR2 have so far been identified. RT-PCR procedures indicate that the messenger RNA for both subunits are found, not only in endometrium, but in all other tissues examined except those ofpreimplantation conceptuses, which presumably cannot respond to the IFN-tau they produce. Quantitative RNase protection assays of ovine endometrial RNA show that the expression of neither subunit changes greatly during the estrous cycle or pregnancy. These data suggest that the type I IFN receptor, which is expressed by the endometrium and binds IFN-tau, is probably not a structurally unusual form. PMID:9348203

  14. Lentivirus-induced lymphoproliferative disease. Comparative pathogenicity of phenotypically distinct ovine lentivirus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Lairmore, M. D.; Poulson, J. M.; Adducci, T. A.; DeMartini, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    For investigation of the pathogenicity of lentivirus strains, which have distinctly different cytopathic phenotypes in synovial membrane cell culture, plaque-purified, lytic, and nonlytic ovine lentivirus (OvLV) isolates were inoculated intratracheally into two groups of neonatal lambs. Twelve lambs were inoculated with a lytic OvLV isolate and 3 lambs each with two nonlytic OvLV isolates. Five control lambs were inoculated with either virus-free medium or were left uninoculated. In 8 of 12 lambs inoculated with a lytic OvLV isolate mild to severe lesions of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) and pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia developed, 6 of 12 lambs had lesions of pulmonary lymph node follicular hyperplasia, 3 of 9 female lambs had lesions of lymphoproliferative mastitis, 3 of 10 lambs had lesions of lymphocytic/plasmacytic synovitis, and 3 lambs had no lesions. In 3 of 6 lambs inoculated with nonlytic OvLV isolates only mild LIP lesions developed, without concurrent mammary gland or joint lesions. Bronchoalveolar lavage samples from OvLV-diseased lambs contained on average 1.5-fold more numbers of total leukocytes, and 4-fold more numbers of lymphocytes, compared with bronchoalveolar lavage samples of normal lambs. Monoclonal antibodies to ovine lymphocyte surface markers showed that the SBU-T8+ lymphocyte (CD 8 equivalent) was the predominant lymphocyte subset (mean of 65% of total lavaged lymphocytes) in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of 3 diseased lambs. Ovine lentivirus was reisolated from multiple tissues of both groups of OvLV-inoculated lambs, but the percentage of individual tissues infected was greater in lambs inoculated with the lytic viral isolate. Control lambs had no lesions and failed to produce OvLV-specific antibodies or yield OvLV from tissues. All OvLV-inoculated lambs produced either low or undetectable serum virus neutralizing antibodies. In contrast, lambs inoculated with either lytic or nonlytic OvLV produced precipitating antibodies to OvLV glycoprotein and group-specific protein. However, initial detection of precipitating antibodies to OvLV glycoprotein was earlier (mean, 5.8 weeks after inoculation) in OvLV-infected lambs in which severe lymphoproliferative disease developed and delayed (mean, 10.2 weeks after inoculation) in OvLV-infected lambs with mild or no lesions. Together, these results suggest that lentivirus isolates produced disease in a virus strain-dependent manner and suggest that humoral immune responses against OvLV failed to prevent lesion development in lentivirus-infected lambs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3337213

  15. Role of NO-cGMP pathway in ovine cervical relaxation induced by Erythroxylum caatingae Plowman.

    PubMed

    Santos, K C; Monte, A P O; Lima, J T; Ribeiro, L A A; Palheta Junior, R C

    2016-01-01

    Erythroxylum caatingae Plowman has a myorelaxing effect on smooth muscle tissue. We investigated the effect of the crude ethanolic extract of E. caatingae Plowman (Ec-EtOH) on the contractility of the ovine cervix. In an isometric system, circular strips were subjected to 90mM potassium (K(+)) or 30?M carbamylcholine (CCh)-induced contraction. We then exposed the tissue to cumulative concentrations of Ec-EtOH (1-729?g/ml). In other bath solutions, the tissues were exposed to l-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 100?M), l-NAME (100?M)+l-arginine (300?M), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, ODQ; 5?M), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 3mM), tetraethylammonium (TEA; 0.3mM), glybenclamide (1?M), atosiban (10?M) or verapamil (3?M), followed by the addition of Ec-EtOH (1-729?g/ml). We also evaluated the effect of cervical Ec-EtOH infusion (2mg) on cervical contractility in vivo. Ec-EtOH decreased cervical contractility induced by K(+) or CCh, and 729?g/ml Ec-EtOH decreased 85.4±5.1% the amplitude of basal contractility in vitro, with an EC50 of 17.9±3.7?g/ml. This effect of Ec-EtOH was prevented by l-NAME or ODQ. l-arginine impaired the blunting effect of l-NAME on cervical relaxation caused by Ec-EtOH. However, the potassium channel blockers 4-AP, TEA, and glybenclamide did not modify this myorelaxation triggered by Ec-EtOH. Ec-EtOH also decreased acetylcholine-induced contractions in tissue preincubated with verapamil. In addition, Ec-EtOH decreased ovine cervical contractions in vivo. Thus, Ec-EtOH had a relaxant effect on ovine cervical contractions. This may involve the nitric oxide signal, mediated by cGMP cellular transduction, and be related to intracellular calcium sequestration. PMID:26619941

  16. Frequency of Basic English Grammatical Structures: A Corpus Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Douglas; Dick, Frederic; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Many recent models of language comprehension have stressed the role of distributional frequencies in determining the relative accessibility or ease of processing associated with a particular lexical item or sentence structure. However, there exist relatively few comprehensive analyses of structural frequencies, and little consideration has been given to the appropriateness of using any particular set of corpus frequencies in modeling human language. We provide a comprehensive set of structural frequencies for a variety of written and spoken corpora, focusing on structures that have played a critical role in debates on normal psycholinguistics, aphasia, and child language acquisition, and compare our results with those from several recent papers to illustrate the implications and limitations of using corpus data in psycholinguistic research. PMID:19668599

  17. Recent Developments in Corpus Linguistics and Corpus-Based Research/Department of Linguistics and Modern Language Studies at the Hong Kong Institute of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has transformed the landscape of empirical research on languages in recent decades. The proliferation of corpus technology has enabled researchers worldwide to conduct research in their own geographical locations with few hindrances. It has become increasingly commonplace for researchers to compile their own corpora for specific…

  18. Corpus annotation for mining biomedical events from literature

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Dong; Ohta, Tomoko; Tsujii, Jun'ichi

    2008-01-01

    Background Advanced Text Mining (TM) such as semantic enrichment of papers, event or relation extraction, and intelligent Question Answering have increasingly attracted attention in the bio-medical domain. For such attempts to succeed, text annotation from the biological point of view is indispensable. However, due to the complexity of the task, semantic annotation has never been tried on a large scale, apart from relatively simple term annotation. Results We have completed a new type of semantic annotation, event annotation, which is an addition to the existing annotations in the GENIA corpus. The corpus has already been annotated with POS (Parts of Speech), syntactic trees, terms, etc. The new annotation was made on half of the GENIA corpus, consisting of 1,000 Medline abstracts. It contains 9,372 sentences in which 36,114 events are identified. The major challenges during event annotation were (1) to design a scheme of annotation which meets specific requirements of text annotation, (2) to achieve biology-oriented annotation which reflect biologists' interpretation of text, and (3) to ensure the homogeneity of annotation quality across annotators. To meet these challenges, we introduced new concepts such as Single-facet Annotation and Semantic Typing, which have collectively contributed to successful completion of a large scale annotation. Conclusion The resulting event-annotated corpus is the largest and one of the best in quality among similar annotation efforts. We expect it to become a valuable resource for NLP (Natural Language Processing)-based TM in the bio-medical domain. PMID:18182099

  19. [Wine and women: an overlooked passage in the Hippocratic corpus].

    PubMed

    Villard, L

    1997-01-01

    A passage taken from the Hippocratic Corpus states that at the beginning of pregnancy women say that they do not like the taste of wine. This passage should be added to evidence about wine drinking by women in Classical Greece. It shows that, contrary to previous opinion, women drank wine when they were in good health and corresponds with the notion that it was often prescribed by physicians in order to cure illness. PMID:17228502

  20. Intravascular Lobular Capillary Hemangioma in the Corpus Spongiosum.

    PubMed

    Gameiro, Ana; Cardoso, José Carlos; Calonje, Eduardo; Tellechea, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH) or pyogenic granuloma is a very common benign vascular tumor. However, its etiology still remains unknown. This tumor classically arises from epithelium-lined tissue, such as skin and mucosa, but subcutaneous and intravenous variants have also been described. Intravenous LCH usually arises within the lumen of large caliber veins, but other intravascular examples have been reported in association with vascular malformations, namely port-wine stains and arteriovenous fistulas. A 54-year-old man presented after the sudden appearance of a subcutaneous nodule on his penile coronal sulcus. A partial biopsy disclosed a lesion with typical features of LCH but with the particularity of being located within the dilated vascular spaces of the corpus spongiosum. After the biopsy, the lesion completely regressed. Although no causal factor could be elicited, trauma was a possible trigger considering the site. Additionally, we speculate that perhaps the normal anatomy of the corpus spongiosum may mimic a similar "slow blood flow environment" found in some vascular malformations, thus providing a possible explanation for the unusual location of the lesion in our patient. This case represents, to our knowledge, the first intravascular LCH described in the corpus spongiosum. Awareness of this unusual intravascular variant of LCH is of paramount importance to avoid misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment, because the lesion may resolve even if incompletely excised, like in this case. PMID:26730699

  1. Hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) is a growth factor for human, ovine and porcine thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Fayet, G; Amphoux-Fazekas, T; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

    1996-03-01

    Hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) provokes in murine erythroleukemia cells (MELC) a commitment to terminal differentiation leading to the activation of the expression of hemoglobin. HMBA has been tested also in other cells from colon cancer, melanoma or lung cancer. However it has not yet been tested in the thyroid. We demonstrate in this paper that HMBA in kinetics and concentration-response experiments increases the proliferation of human thyroid cells isolated from Graves'-Basedow patients. It also acts like a growth factor for ovine and porcine thyroid cells, respectively, from the OVNIS line and the ATHOS line. This molecule which is a differentiating factor in the MELC system and a growth factor in human thyroid cell cultures represents a potential to get human thyroid cell lines expressing specialized functions. PMID:8734479

  2. Determination of trace elements in goat and ovine milk from Calabria (Italy) by ICP-AES.

    PubMed

    Licata, P; Di Bella, G; Potortì, A G; Lo Turco, V; Salvo, A; Dugo, G Mo

    2012-01-01

    There are many sources of contamination to which milk could be exposed: grazing animals can ingest contaminants present in nature, such as lead in soil, or that have been deposited on grass, resulting from industrial emissions. Another possible route of contamination is represented by feed for animals, which may contain heavy and essential metals. The potential of high-resolution inductively coupled plasma spectrometry was evaluated to quantify reliably various toxic and essential elements (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Cd) in 47 samples of goat and ovine milk from various farms in Calabria (southern Italy). The results showed that concentrations of cadmium were below the limit of detection. Lead levels were below the maximum limits as set by the EC in almost all samples tested. The highest values were those of Zn followed by Fe, Cu and Se. PMID:24786408

  3. Lower apoptosis rate in ovine preantral follicles from ovaries stored in supplemented preservation media.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, R J S; Cavalcante, A Y P; Gouveia, B B; Lins, T L B; Barberino, R S; Menezes, V G; Barros, V R P; Macedo, T J S; Figueiredo, J R; Matos, M H T

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ovarian tissue transportation conditions (medium and period of time) on the morphology, apoptosis and development of ovine preantral follicles cultured in vitro. Each ovarian pair was cut into nine slices, with one fragment being fixed immediately (fresh control). The remaining fragments were placed individually in cryotubes containing conservation medium (minimal essential medium (MEM) without supplementation or MEM+ - with supplementation) and stored at 35ºC for 6 or 12 h without (non-cultured) or with subsequent culture for 5 days. Then, the fragments were processed for histological and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) examination. Preservation of ovarian slices in MEM or MEM+ (non-cultured) resulted in similar percentages of normal follicles when compared with the fresh control. Nevertheless, compared with the fresh control, a decrease in the percentage of normal follicles was observed in tissues cultured for 5 days. Only for tissues preserved in supplemented medium (MEM+) for 6 h, the percentage of TUNEL positive cells was similar between non-cultured tissues and tissues cultured for 5 days. Follicular activation and growth (follicular and oocyte diameter) were higher in cultured tissues than in fresh control or non-cultured tissues, except those from fragments preserved for 6 h in MEM and then cultured for 5 days in which no growth was observed. In conclusion, ovine ovarian tissue was successfully preserved in supplemented medium (MEM+) at a temperature close to physiological values (35°C) for up to 6 h without affecting apoptosis in the ovarian follicles and their ability to develop in vitro. PMID:25626913

  4. Anaerobic bioremediation of RDX by ovine whole rumen fluid and pure culture isolates.

    PubMed

    Eaton, H L; Duringer, J M; Murty, L D; Craig, A M

    2013-04-01

    The ability of ruminal microbes to degrade the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in ovine whole rumen fluid (WRF) and as 24 bacterial isolates was examined under anaerobic conditions. Compound degradation was monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identification of metabolites. Organisms in WRF microcosms degraded 180 ?M RDX within 4 h. Nitroso-intermediates hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX) were present as early as 0.25 h and were detected throughout the 24-h incubation period, representing one reductive pathway of ring cleavage. Following reduction to MNX, peaks consistent with m/z 193 and 174 were also produced, which were unstable and resulted in rapid ring cleavage to a common metabolite consistent with an m/z of 149. These represent two additional reductive pathways for RDX degradation in ovine WRF, which have not been previously reported. The 24 ruminal isolates degraded RDX with varying efficiencies (0-96 %) over 120 h. Of the most efficient degraders identified, Clostridium polysaccharolyticum and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. desulfuricans degraded RDX when medium was supplemented with both nitrogen and carbon, while Anaerovibrio lipolyticus, Prevotella ruminicola, and Streptococcus bovis IFO utilized RDX as a sole source of nitrogen. This study showed that organisms in whole rumen fluid, as well as several ruminal isolates, have the ability to degrade RDX in vitro and, for the first time, delineated the metabolic pathway for its biodegradation. PMID:22688904

  5. Ovine and Bovine Congenital Abnormalities Associated With Intrauterine Infection With Schmallenberg Virus.

    PubMed

    Peperkamp, N H; Luttikholt, S J; Dijkman, R; Vos, J H; Junker, K; Greijdanus, S; Roumen, M P; van Garderen, E; Meertens, N; van Maanen, C; Lievaart, K; van Wuyckhuise, L; Wouda, W

    2015-11-01

    In December 2011, a previously unknown congenital syndrome of arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in sheep and cattle appeared in the Netherlands as an emerging epizootic due to Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Gross lesions in 102 lambs and 204 calves included porencephaly, hydranencephaly, cerebellar dysplasia and dysplasia of the brainstem and spinal cord, a flattened skull with brachygnathia inferior, arthrogryposis, and vertebral column malformations. Microscopic lesions in the central nervous system showed rarefaction and cavitation in the white matter, as well as degeneration, necrosis, and loss of neurons in the gray matter. Brain and spinal cord lesions were more severe in lambs than in calves. Ovine and bovine cases examined early in the outbreak showed encephalomyelitis. SBV infection was confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in brain samples in 46 of 102 lambs (45%) and in 32 of 204 calves (16%). Immunohistochemistry, performed on tissue samples from 18 RT-qPCR-positive lambs, confirmed the presence of bunyaviral antigen in neurons of the brain in 16 cases. SBV antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in fetal blood in 56 of 61 sampled ovine cases (92%). In a virus neutralization test, all tested dams of affected newborns, 46 ewes and 190 cows, were seropositive. Compared with other teratogenic viral infections, the pathogenesis and lesions of SBV in sheep and cattle fetuses are similar to those of other ruminant orthobunyaviruses. However, the loss of spinal ventral motor neurons and their tracts, resulting in micromyelia, distinguishes SBV infection from other viral central nervous system lesions in newborn ruminants. PMID:25428409

  6. Occurrence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infections in ovine and caprine abortions.

    PubMed

    Moreno, B; Collantes-Fernández, E; Villa, A; Navarro, A; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2012-06-01

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites identified as important causes of reproductive failure in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. Protozoan abortion in small ruminants is traditionally associated with T. gondii, but the importance of N. caninum remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of N. caninum and T. gondii infections in abortion cases in small ruminants submitted for diagnosis. For this purpose, 74 ovine and 26 caprine aborted foetuses were recovered from different areas in Spain. Foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in brain. The presence of N. caninum and T. gondii was confirmed by PCR. Protozoal infection was detected in 17 out of 100 (17%) foetuses examined by at least one of the diagnostic techniques used. Lesions suggestive of protozoal infection were observed in 10.8% (8/74) and 15.4% (4/26) of the ovine and caprine abortions respectively. N. caninum and T. gondii infection was detected by PCR in 6.8% (5/74) and 5.4% (4/74) of sheep foetuses, respectively, of which five showed protozoal-associated lesions. N. caninum DNA was detected in 11.5% (3/26) of goat foetuses, of which two showed protozoal-associated lesions, whereas T. gondii DNA was detected in one goat foetus with no lesions. The simultaneous presence of N. caninum and T. gondii DNA was detected in one sheep foetus with severe lesions. This study demonstrates that N. caninum plays a significant role in abortion in small ruminants in the studied population. In addition, our results highlight the importance of differentiating between protozoa whenever characteristic lesions are observed. PMID:22260901

  7. Expansion of bubbles under a pulsatile flow regime in decompressed ovine blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Arieli, Ran; Marmur, Abraham

    2016-02-01

    After decompression of ovine large blood vessels, bubbles nucleate and expand at active hydrophobic spots on their luminal aspect. These bubbles will be in the path of the blood flow within the vessel, which might replenish the supply of gas-supersaturated plasma in their vicinity and thus, in contrast with our previous estimations, enhance their growth. We used the data from our previous study on the effect of pulsatile flow in ovine blood vessels stretched on microscope slides and photographed after decompression from hyperbaric exposure. We measured the diameter of 46 bubbles in 4 samples taken from 3 blood vessels (pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, and aorta) in which both a "multi-bubble active spot" (MBAS)-which produces several bubbles at a time, and at least one "single-bubble active spot" (SBAS)-which produces a single bubble at a time, were seen together. The linear expansion rate for diameter in SBAS ranged from 0.077 to 0.498mm/min and in MBAS from 0.001 to 0.332mm/min. There was a trend toward a reduced expansion rate for bubbles in MBAS compared with SBAS. The expansion rate for bubbles in an MBAS when it was surrounded by others was very low. Bubble growth is related to gas tension, and under a flow regime, bubbles expand from a diameter of 0.1 to 1mm in 2-24min at a gas supersaturation of 620kPa and lower. There are two phases of bubble development. The slow and disperse initiation of active spots (from nanobubbles to gas micronuclei) continues for more than 1h, whereas the fast increase in size (2-24min) is governed by diffusion. Bubble-based decompression models should not artificially reduce diffusion constants, but rather take both phases of bubble development into consideration. PMID:26592146

  8. Transgenic Rabbits Expressing Ovine PrP Are Susceptible to Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Sarradin, Pierre; Viglietta, Céline; Limouzin, Claude; Andréoletti, Olivier; Daniel-Carlier, Nathalie; Barc, Céline; Leroux-Coyau, Mathieu; Berthon, Patricia; Chapuis, Jérôme; Rossignol, Christelle; Gatti, Jean-Luc; Belghazi, Maya; Labas, Valérie; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Béringue, Vincent; Lantier, Frédéric; Laude, Hubert; Houdebine, Louis-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of neurodegenerative diseases affecting a wide range of mammalian species. They are caused by prions, a proteinaceous pathogen essentially composed of PrPSc, an abnormal isoform of the host encoded cellular prion protein PrPC. Constrained steric interactions between PrPSc and PrPC are thought to provide prions with species specificity, and to control cross-species transmission into other host populations, including humans. Transgenetic expression of foreign PrP genes has been successfully and widely used to overcome the recognized resistance of mouse to foreign TSE sources. Rabbit is one of the species that exhibit a pronounced resistance to TSEs. Most attempts to infect experimentally rabbit have failed, except after inoculation with cell-free generated rabbit prions. To gain insights on the molecular determinants of the relative resistance of rabbits to prions, we generated transgenic rabbits expressing the susceptible V136R154Q171 allele of the ovine PRNP gene on a rabbit wild type PRNP New Zealand background and assessed their experimental susceptibility to scrapie prions. All transgenic animals developed a typical TSE 6–8 months after intracerebral inoculation, whereas wild type rabbits remained healthy more than 700 days after inoculation. Despite the endogenous presence of rabbit PrPC, only ovine PrPSc was detectable in the brains of diseased animals. Collectively these data indicate that the low susceptibility of rabbits to prion infection is not enciphered within their non-PrP genetic background. PMID:26248157

  9. Npas4 Is Activated by Melatonin, and Drives the Clock Gene Cry1 in the Ovine Pars Tuberalis

    PubMed Central

    West, A.; Dupré, S.M.; Yu, L.; Paton, I.R.; Miedzinska, K.; McNeilly, A.S.; Davis, J.R.E.

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal mammals integrate changes in the duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion to drive annual physiologic cycles. Melatonin receptors within the proximal pituitary region, the pars tuberalis (PT), are essential in regulating seasonal neuroendocrine responses. In the ovine PT, melatonin is known to influence acute changes in transcriptional dynamics coupled to the onset (dusk) and offset (dawn) of melatonin secretion, leading to a potential interval-timing mechanism capable of decoding changes in day length (photoperiod). Melatonin offset at dawn is linked to cAMP accumulation, which directly induces transcription of the clock gene Per1. The rise of melatonin at dusk induces a separate and distinct cohort, including the clock-regulated genes Cry1 and Nampt, but little is known of the up-stream mechanisms involved. Here, we used next-generation sequencing of the ovine PT transcriptome at melatonin onset and identified Npas4 as a rapidly induced basic helix-loop-helix Per-Arnt-Sim domain transcription factor. In vivo we show nuclear localization of NPAS4 protein in presumptive melatonin target cells of the PT (?-glycoprotein hormone-expressing cells), whereas in situ hybridization studies identified acute and transient expression in the PT of Npas4 in response to melatonin. In vitro, NPAS4 forms functional dimers with basic helix loop helix-PAS domain cofactors aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), ARNT2, and ARNTL, transactivating both Cry1 and Nampt ovine promoter reporters. Using a combination of 5?-deletions and site-directed mutagenesis, we show NPAS4-ARNT transactivation to be codependent upon two conserved central midline elements within the Cry1 promoter. Our data thus reveal NPAS4 as a candidate immediate early-response gene in the ovine PT, driving molecular responses to melatonin. PMID:23598442

  10. Linear models of ovine IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses and predicted pepsin cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Jones, Russell G A; Martino, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Highly purified specific Fab antibody fragments derived from sheep have a long history of therapeutic use as safe and effective emergency medicines. In more recent years simple low-cost methods have been developed, which take advantage of the ability of pepsin under optimally controlled conditions to preferentially digest ovine IgG within the Fc region to produce F(ab')2 and easy to remove low MW Fc sub-fragments. Despite these developments no information is currently available on the pepsin digestion of ovine IgG at the amino acid level hindering the development of improved F(ab')2 processing methods. To gain knowledge of the fragments properties we have constructed linear models of ovine IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses, starting from the gamma-1 and gamma-2 chain amino acid sequences, which also incorporate the inter- and intra-chain disulphide bonds. Any potential pepsin cleavage site was initially predicted in silico, then high probability points identified for each of the molecules and mapped onto the individual models. A theoretical order of digestion was subsequently constructed, which appeared to agree with the experimental data, suggesting an accurate prediction model for ovine IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses. These findings lay the foundations for a more detailed analysis of pepsin cleavage fragments in the future. Additionally, the F(ab')2 generated following pepsin digestion were predicted to contain subclass unique C-terminal octapeptide neoepitopes, despite the high 89% sequence identity of the intact gamma-1 and gamma-2 chain constant regions. These neoepitopes have the potential to be utilised for identification purposes once confirmed experimentally. PMID:26350561

  11. ESTRADIOL ALTERS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GONADOTROPHIN RELEASING HORMONE (GNRH) IN OVINE PITUITARY CULTURES: GNRH RECEPTORS VERSUS RESPONSIVENESS TO GNRH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estradiol-17B (E) rapidly (5-12h) induced ovine pituitary cultures to increase their binding for des-Gly10-[D-Ala6]-GnRH ethylamide by 2.5 to 4.5-fold. he ED50 for E was near 0.1 nM. catchard analysis indicated the E increased binding by increasing receptors for gonadotrophin rel...

  12. Substantial differences between human and ovine mesenchymal stem cells in response to osteogenic media: how to explain and how to manage?

    PubMed

    Kalaszczynska, Ilona; Ruminski, Slawomir; Platek, Anna E; Bissenik, Igor; Zakrzewski, Piotr; Noszczyk, Maria; Lewandowska-Szumiel, Malgorzata

    2013-10-01

    It is expected that use of adult multipotential mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bone tissue engineering (TE) will lead to improvement of TE products. Prior to clinical application, biocompatibility of bone TE products need to be tested in vitro and in vivo. In orthopedic research, sheep are a well-accepted model due to similarities with humans and are assumed to be predictive of human outcomes. In this study we uncover differences between human and ovine bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ADSCs) in response to osteogenic media. Osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and ADSCs was monitored by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition. Mineralization of ovine BMSC was achieved in medium containing NaH2PO4 as a source of phosphate ions (Pi), but not in medium containing ?-glycerophosphate (?-GP), which is most often used. In a detailed study we found no induction of ALP activity in ovine BMSCs and ADSCs upon osteogenic stimulation, which makes ?-GP an unsuitable source of phosphate ions for ovine cells. Moreover, mineralization of human ADSCs was more efficient in osteogenic medium containing NaH2PO4. These results indicate major differences between ovine and human MSCs and suggest that standard in vitro osteogenic differentiation techniques may not be suitable for all types of cells used in cell-based therapies. Since mineralization is a widely accepted marker of the osteogenic differentiation and maturation of cells in culture, it may lead to potentially misleading results and should be taken into account at the stage of planning and interpreting preclinical observations performed in animal models. We also present a cell culture protocol for ovine ADSCs, which do not express ALP activity and do not mineralize under routine pro-osteogenic conditions in vitro. We plan to apply it in preclinical experiments of bone tissue-engineered products performed in an ovine model. PMID:24083091

  13. Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Momtaz, Hassan; Behzadnia, Asma; Baghbadorani, Zeinab Torki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. Results Using cultural method, 19 samples (7.3%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw water buffalo milk (11.8%), followed by raw bovine milk (10.6%), raw ovine milk (7.1%), and raw caprine milk (4.2%) samples. All 37 camel milk samples from 20 camel breeding farms were negative for Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria was 7.3%, in which Listeria innocua was the most recovered species (4.2%); the remaining isolates were Listeria monocytogenes (1.9%), Listeria ivanovii (0.08%) and Listeria seeligari (0.04%). The PCR assay could identify 8 Listeria-contaminated milk samples that were negative using the cultural method. Conclusions The results presented in this study indicate the potential risk of infection with Listeria in people consuming raw and unpasteurized milk.

  14. Intrafollicular expression and potential regulatory role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in the ovine ovary.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Yao, X L; Meng, J Z; Liu, Y; Jiang, X L; Chen, J W; Li, P F; Ren, Y S; Liu, W Z; Yao, J B; Folger, J K; Smith, G W; Lv, L H

    2016-01-01

    Follicular growth is regulated by a complex interaction of pituitary gonadotropins with local regulatory molecules. Previous studies demonstrated an important role for cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in regulation of granulosa cell estradiol production associated with dominant follicle selection in cattle. However, intraovarian expression and actions of CART in other species, including sheep, are not known. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of CART in sheep follicles and determine the effects of CART on indices of ovine granulosa cell function linked to follicular development. Results demonstrated the expression of CART messenger RNA and prominent intraovarian localization of CART peptide in granulosa cells of sheep follicles. Granulosa cell CART messenger RNA was lower, but follicular fluid estradiol concentrations were higher in large (>5 mm) follicles vs smaller 3- to 5-mm follicles harvested from sheep ovaries of abattoir origin. CART treatment inhibited follicle stimulating hormone-induced estradiol production by cultured ovine granulosal cells and also blocked the follicle stimulating hormone-induced increase in granulosa cell numbers. Results demonstrate expression of CART in sheep follicular tissues and suggest potential biological actions of CART, which are inhibitory to ovine follicular growth and development. PMID:26490113

  15. Differential thermal stability of human, bovine and ovine Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) quaternary structures.

    PubMed

    Haj Hassan, Maya; Cahoreau, Claire; Jégot, Gwenhael; Jouanny, Camille; Mariot, Julie; Lecompte, François; Klett, Danièle; Combarnous, Yves

    2015-02-01

    Quaternary structure of human, bovine and ovine Follicle-Stimulating Hormones (hFSH, bFSH and oFSH) and Luteinizing Hormone was assessed in sandwich ELISAs using monoclonal anti-oFSH? or anti-oLH? antibodies, respectively, for capture and a biotinylated anti-hFSH? (?4 epitope) for detection. Neither free subunit gave any signal in this assay so that it was possible to measure the residual heterodimeric fraction after thermal treatment of the gonadotropins under study. The hormones were subjected to 5-min heating between 37 and 90 °C before rapid cooling in melting ice before ELISA. The data show half-dissociation of natural and recombinant human and ovine FSH preparations between 68 and 74 °C whereas bovine FSH preparations exhibited lower stability in these conditions with half-dissociation between 61 and 64 °C. Moreover, whereas all human and bovine as well as most ovine FSH preparations were fully dissociated at temperatures above 80 °C, one natural oFSH and one recombinant hLH preparations contained an important fraction that resisted dissociation even at 93 °C and retained in vitro bioactivity. This suggests the existence of gonadotropin ?? heterodimer with covalently linked subunits. Similarly, about 20% of the recombinant hLH preparation was also found withstand heat denaturation and also probably to have cross-linked subunits. The origin and chemical nature of these inter-subunit bonds remain to be determined. PMID:24732063

  16. The truth about false unicorn (Chamaelirium luteum): total synthesis of 23R,24S-chiograsterol?B defines the structure and stereochemistry of the major saponins from this medicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Matovic, Nicholas J; Stuthe, Julia M U; Challinor, Victoria L; Bernhardt, Paul V; Lehmann, Reginald P; Kitching, William; De Voss, James J

    2011-06-27

    Chamaelirium luteum is used in traditional medicine systems and commercial botanical dietary supplements for the treatment of female reproductive health problems. Despite the wide use of this herb, only very limited phytochemical characterisation is available. Our investigation of C. luteum roots led to the isolation of two new steroidal saponins 1 and 2 that contain an unusual aglycone 3. The absolute configurations of these molecules were unable to be determined spectroscopically and thus the total synthesis of 3 was undertaken and achieved in 16 steps and 1.6?% overall yield from pregnenolone. The key step in the synthesis was the stereoselective installation of the side chain at C-17 and C-20, which employed anion-accelerated oxy-Cope methodology. The relative configuration of aglycone 3 was determined by X-ray crystallography of an advanced synthetic intermediate. The absolute configuration was based upon that of the pregnenolone-derived steroidal skeleton and determined to be 23R,24S. PMID:21598325

  17. Collective instance-level gene normalization on the IGN corpus.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Wu, Johnny Chi-Yang; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han

    2013-01-01

    A high proportion of life science researches are gene-oriented, in which scientists aim to investigate the roles that genes play in biological processes, and their involvement in biological mechanisms. As a result, gene names and their related information turn out to be one of the main objects of interest in biomedical literatures. While the capability of recognizing gene mentions has made significant progress, the results of recognition are still insufficient for direct use due to the ambiguity of gene names. Gene normalization (GN) goes beyond the recognition task by linking a gene mention to a database ID. Unlike most previous works, we approach GN on the instance-level and evaluate its overall performance on the recognition and normalization steps in abstracts and full texts. We release the first instance-level gene normalization (IGN) corpus in the BioC format, which includes annotations for the boundaries of all gene mentions and the corresponding IDs for human gene mentions. Species information, along with existing co-reference chains and full name/abbreviation pairs are also provided for each gene mention. Using the released corpus, we have designed a collective instance-level GN approach using not only the contextual information of each individual instance, but also the relations among instances and the inherent characteristics of full-text sections. Our experimental results show that our collective approach can achieve an F-score of 0.743. The proposed approach that exploits section characteristics in full-text articles can improve the F-scores of information lacking sections by up to 1.8%. In addition, using the proposed refinement process improved the F-score of gene mention recognition by 0.125 and that of GN by 0.03. Whereas current experimental results are limited to the human species, we seek to continue updating the annotations of the IGN corpus and observe how the proposed approach can be extended to other species. PMID:24282506

  18. Construction of an annotated corpus to support biomedical information extraction

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Paul; Iqbal, Syed A; McNaught, John; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Background Information Extraction (IE) is a component of text mining that facilitates knowledge discovery by automatically locating instances of interesting biomedical events from huge document collections. As events are usually centred on verbs and nominalised verbs, understanding the syntactic and semantic behaviour of these words is highly important. Corpora annotated with information concerning this behaviour can constitute a valuable resource in the training of IE components and resources. Results We have defined a new scheme for annotating sentence-bound gene regulation events, centred on both verbs and nominalised verbs. For each event instance, all participants (arguments) in the same sentence are identified and assigned a semantic role from a rich set of 13 roles tailored to biomedical research articles, together with a biological concept type linked to the Gene Regulation Ontology. To our knowledge, our scheme is unique within the biomedical field in terms of the range of event arguments identified. Using the scheme, we have created the Gene Regulation Event Corpus (GREC), consisting of 240 MEDLINE abstracts, in which events relating to gene regulation and expression have been annotated by biologists. A novel method of evaluating various different facets of the annotation task showed that average inter-annotator agreement rates fall within the range of 66% - 90%. Conclusion The GREC is a unique resource within the biomedical field, in that it annotates not only core relationships between entities, but also a range of other important details about these relationships, e.g., location, temporal, manner and environmental conditions. As such, it is specifically designed to support bio-specific tool and resource development. It has already been used to acquire semantic frames for inclusion within the BioLexicon (a lexical, terminological resource to aid biomedical text mining). Initial experiments have also shown that the corpus may viably be used to train IE components, such as semantic role labellers. The corpus and annotation guidelines are freely available for academic purposes. PMID:19852798

  19. Facial emotion recognition in agenesis of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired social functioning is a common symptom of individuals with developmental disruptions in callosal connectivity. Among these developmental conditions, agenesis of the corpus callosum provides the most extreme and clearly identifiable example of callosal disconnection. To date, deficits in nonliteral language comprehension, humor, theory of mind, and social reasoning have been documented in agenesis of the corpus callosum. Here, we examined a basic social ability as yet not investigated in this population: recognition of facial emotion and its association with social gaze. Methods Nine individuals with callosal agenesis and nine matched controls completed four tasks involving emotional faces: emotion recognition from upright and inverted faces, gender recognition, and passive viewing. Eye-tracking data were collected concurrently on all four tasks and analyzed according to designated facial regions of interest. Results Individuals with callosal agenesis exhibited impairments in recognizing emotions from upright faces, in particular lower accuracy for fear and anger, and these impairments were directly associated with diminished attention to the eye region. The callosal agenesis group exhibited greater consistency in emotion recognition across conditions (upright vs. inverted), with poorest performance for fear identification in both conditions. The callosal agenesis group also had atypical facial scanning (lower fractional dwell time in the eye region) during gender naming and passive viewing of faces, but they did not differ from controls on gender naming performance. The pattern of results did not differ when taking into account full-scale intelligence quotient or presence of autism spectrum symptoms. Conclusions Agenesis of the corpus callosum results in a pattern of atypical facial scanning characterized by diminished attention to the eyes. This pattern suggests that reduced callosal connectivity may contribute to the development and maintenance of emotion processing deficits involving reduced attention to others' eyes. PMID:25705318

  20. Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome with agenesis of corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shubhankar; Agarwalla, Sunil Kumar; Potpalle, Dnyaneshwar Ramesh; Dash, Nishant Nilotpal

    2015-01-01

    Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare genetic disorder with characteristic morphological anomaly. Our patient was a 4.5-year-old girl came with features like broad thumbs, downward slanting palpebral fissures and mental retardation. Systemic abnormalities such as repeated infection, seizure with developmental delay were also associated with it. She was having head banging behavior abnormal slurring speech, incoordination while transferring things from one hand to other. Galaxy of clinical pictures and magnetic resonance imaging report helped to clinch the diagnosis as a case of “RSTS with corpus callosal agenesis” which to the best of our knowledge has never been reported in past from India. PMID:26167229

  1. Unsupervised Chunking Based on Graph Propagation from Bilingual Corpus

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Lidia S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for unsupervised shallow parsing model trained on the unannotated Chinese text of parallel Chinese-English corpus. In this approach, no information of the Chinese side is applied. The exploitation of graph-based label propagation for bilingual knowledge transfer, along with an application of using the projected labels as features in unsupervised model, contributes to a better performance. The experimental comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms show that the proposed approach is able to achieve impressive higher accuracy in terms of F-score. PMID:24772017

  2. Use of chemiluminescence for the serological diagnosis of bovine and ovine brucellosis with indirect and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed

    Tittarelli, Manuela; Bonfini, Barbara; Salini, Romolo; Magliulo, Maria; Guardigli, Massimo; Roda, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    The official methods specified in the national bovine and ovine/caprine brucellosis eradication plan are the Rose Bengal and complement fixation tests. In the current phase of the eradication plan, it is often difficult to interpret the results obtained with the official tests. Consequently, additional tests that offer greater sensitivity and specificity are thus required. For this reason, two methods, the indirect chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA CL) and the competitive chemiluminescence ELISA (c-ELISA CL) that use a chemiluminescent substrate to determine anti-Brucella antibodies in bovine and ovine serum were validated. The methods are based on the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies in serum by catalysis of a chemiluminescent enzyme substrate (luminol/H2O2/enhancer system) by peroxidase conjugated to secondary anti IgG antibodies in i-ELISA CL and to monoclonal anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibodies in c-ELISA CL. From the results obtained, a cut-off of 60% for bovine serum and 37.5% for ovine serum, expressed as positivity rate (PR), were established using these cut-off values, for the i-ELISA CL, 100% sensitivity and specificity was obtained for bovine serum and 100% sensitivity and 99.8% specificity for ovine serum. Cut-off values of 30% for bovine serum and 40% for ovine serum, expressed as inhibition rate, were selected for c-ELISA CL, which ensured 100% sensitivity and specificity in both cases. PMID:20405441

  3. A Fully Annotated Corpus for Studying the Effect of Cognitive Ageing on Users' Interactions with Spoken Dialogue Systems 

    E-print Network

    Georgila, Kallirroi; Wolters, Maria; Karaiskos, Vasilis; Kronenthal, Melissa; Logie, Robert; Mayo, Neil; Moore, Johanna; Watson, Matt

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a corpus of interactions of older and younger users with nine different dialogue systems. The corpus has been fully transcribed and annotated with dialogue acts and “Information State Update” (ISU) ...

  4. Using Edit Distance to Analyse Errors in a Natural Language to Logic Translation Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker-Plummer, Dave; Dale, Robert; Cox, Richard; Romanczuk, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We have assembled a large corpus of student submissions to an automatic grading system, where the subject matter involves the translation of natural language sentences into propositional logic. Of the 2.3 million translation instances in the corpus, 286,000 (approximately 12%) are categorized as being in error. We want to understand the nature of…

  5. A Corpus-Based Discourse Analysis of the Vision and Mission Statements of Universities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efe, Ibrahim; Ozer, Omer

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a corpus-assisted discourse analysis of mission and vision statements of 105 state and 66 private/foundation universities in Turkey. The paper combines a corpus-based approach with critical discourse analysis to interpret the data in relation to its institutional as well as socio-political context. It argues…

  6. Compiling Taiwanese Learner Corpus of English Rebecca Hsue-Hueh Shih

    E-print Network

    ) areas who wish to find out how people in Taiwan learn English and how to help them learn better87 Compiling Taiwanese Learner Corpus of English Rebecca Hsue-Hueh Shih * Abstract This paper presents the mechanisms of and criteria for compiling a new learner corpus of English, the quantitative

  7. Evaluating Factors Impacting the Accuracy of Forced Alignments in a Multimodal Corpus

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yang

    Evaluating Factors Impacting the Accuracy of Forced Alignments in a Multimodal Corpus Lei Chen1. The construction of computer models of multimodal human communication would be enabled by the availability of multimodal communication corpus annotated with synchronized gesture and speech features. To investigate

  8. Lexical Properties of Slovene Sign Language: A Corpus-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vintar, Špela

    2015-01-01

    Slovene Sign Language (SZJ) has as yet received little attention from linguists. This article presents some basic facts about SZJ, its history, current status, and a description of the Slovene Sign Language Corpus and Pilot Grammar (SIGNOR) project, which compiled and annotated a representative corpus of SZJ. Finally, selected quantitative data…

  9. The English Definite Article: What ESL/EFL Grammars Say and What Corpus Findings Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WonHo Yoo, Isaiah

    2009-01-01

    To ascertain whether what ESL/EFL grammars say is informed by what scholars discuss in the literature and supported by what corpus findings actually show, this paper first presents a brief overview of the literature on the English definite article and then compares popular ESL/EFL grammars' coverage of "the" and corpus findings on definite article…

  10. Corpus Callosum and Prefrontal Functions in Adolescents with History of Very Preterm Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narberhaus, Ana; Segarra, Dolors; Caldu, Xavier; Gimenez, Monica; Pueyo, Roser; Botet, Francesc; Junque, Carme

    2008-01-01

    Very preterm (VPT) birth can account for thinning of the corpus callosum and poorer cognitive performance. Research findings about preterm and VPT adolescents usually describe a small posterior corpus callosum, although our research group has also found reductions of the anterior part, specifically the genu. The aim of the present study was to…

  11. English Collocation Learning through Corpus Data: On-Line Concordance and Statistical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtake, Hiroshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Morren, Brian; Ugawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We developed an English Collocations On Demand system offering on-line corpus and concordance information to help Japanese researchers acquire a better command of English collocation patterns. The Life Science Dictionary Corpus consists of approximately 90,000,000 words collected from life science related research papers published in academic…

  12. Corpus Linguistics: Readings in a Widening Discipline Geoffrey Sampson and Diana McCarthy (editors)

    E-print Network

    in computational linguistics. Some of the classics in this group include Gale and Church on smoothing corpus counts Geoffrey Leech. #12;Computational Linguistics Volume 32, Number 1 Beyond the selection of papersCorpus Linguistics: Readings in a Widening Discipline Geoffrey Sampson and Diana McCarthy (editors

  13. Categorial Type Logic meets Dependency Grammar to annotate an Italian Corpus

    E-print Network

    Categorial Type Logic meets Dependency Grammar to annotate an Italian Corpus R. Bernardi KRDB, Free on the annotation of an Italian Corpus (CORIS) devel- oped at CILTA (University of Bologna). We in- duce categorial categories with an- notated dependency relations to study the dis- tributional behavior of Italian words

  14. Capturing L2 Accuracy Developmental Patterns: Insights from an Error-Tagged EFL Learner Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thewissen, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The present article addresses the issue of second language accuracy developmental trajectories and shows how they can be captured via an error-tagged version of an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learner corpus. The data used in this study were extracted from the International Corpus of Learner English (Granger et al., 2009) and consist of a…

  15. International Scientific Conference Computer Science'2006 Compiling a Turkish-English Bilingual Corpus and

    E-print Network

    Güngör, Tunga

    International Scientific Conference Computer Science'2006 Compiling a Turkish-English Bilingual discuss the compilation of a bilingual Turkish-English corpus and propose a method for sentence alignment-fold: First, we aim at compiling a reliable and comprehensive bilingual Turkish-English corpus

  16. Identifying Synonymous Expressions from a Bilingual Corpus for Example-Based Machine Translation

    E-print Network

    Identifying Synonymous Expressions from a Bilingual Corpus for Example-Based Machine Translation, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0288, Japan fmitsuo.shimohata , eiichiro.sumitag@atr.co.jp Abstract Example-based machine translation (EBMT) is based on a bilingual corpus. In EBMT, sen- tences similar

  17. An Empirical Study on Corpus-Driven English Vocabulary Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkai, Jiao

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the autonomous English vocabulary learning in corpus-based contexts. Language teaching practice is becoming more learner-centered in the field of language teaching, learner autonomy has been an ongoing concern of foreign language educators in china. As an assistant tool in language learning, corpus makes an easy and quick…

  18. A Corpus-Based Hybrid Approach to Music Analysis and Composition Bill Manaris1

    E-print Network

    Roos, Patrick

    Art Critics The process of music composition depends highly on the ability to perform aestheticA Corpus-Based Hybrid Approach to Music Analysis and Composition Bill Manaris1 , Patrick Roos2@udc.es Abstract We present a corpus-based hybrid approach to music analysis and composition, which incorporates

  19. An Evaluation of an Online Bilingual Corpus for the Self-Learning of Legal English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, May; Xunfeng, Xu

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a bilingual corpus of legal and documentary texts in English and Chinese and reports a study that sought to evaluate the usefulness of the corpus in the self-learning of legal English. Subjects were Chinese students doing a degree in translation at a university in Hong Kong, where English common law is still used since the handover of…

  20. A Corpus-Based Approach to Online Materials Development for Writing Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ching-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hua

    2011-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the possible applications of corpora to both linguistic research and pedagogy. This study takes a corpus-based, genre-analytic approach to discipline-specific materials development. Combining corpus analysis with genre analysis makes it possible to develop teaching materials that are not only authentic but…

  1. Distinct regional atrophy in the corpus callosum of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    Distinct regional atrophy in the corpus callosum of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy Bernd epilepsy on the thickness of the corpus callosum (CC) in a large sample of well-characterized patients (n are differentially affected depending on the affected hemisphere and age of epilepsy onset. Overall, we observed

  2. Proceedings of EACL '99 Encoding a Parallel Corpus for Automatic Terminology

    E-print Network

    Proceedings of EACL '99 Encoding a Parallel Corpus for Automatic Terminology Extraction Johann-)automatic terminology acquisi- tion at the European Academy Bolzano. The main focus will be on encoding a text corpus resources in all areas dealing with natural language processing in one form or another. Terminology is one

  3. Balancing SoNaR: IPR versus Processing Issues in a 500-Million-Word Written Dutch Reference Corpus

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    Balancing SoNaR: IPR versus Processing Issues in a 500-Million-Word Written Dutch Reference Corpus during the creation of the SoNaR Corpus. Based on recent developments in traditional corpus compiling and new web harvesting approaches, SoNaR is designed to contain 500 million words, balanced over 36 text

  4. Assessment of transthoracic ultrasound diagnosis of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma in adult sheep.

    PubMed

    Cousens, C; Scott, P R

    2015-10-10

    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA), caused by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), is a disease of increasing concern in the sheep industry. There is no commercial antemortem test for OPA; therefore, an early evaluation phase study was undertaken to examine the accuracy of transthoracic ultrasound examination using a 5-6.5?MHz sector ultrasound machine widely available in veterinary practice in the UK to diagnose OPA. Restraint, preparation and examination time was restricted to five minutes per sheep to represent the cost limitations of commercial sheep farming. One hundred sheep were examined. All 41 cases identified with suspect OPA lesions during transthoracic ultrasound examination had the diagnosis confirmed at postmortem examination, while sheep without ultrasonographic changes characteristic of OPA had no gross lesions of OPA at postmortem examination. This demonstrates the specificity of transthoracic ultrasound for diagnosis of OPA. The authors propose that, in the absence of any other reliable preclinical diagnostic test, the use of transthoracic ultrasound examination should be considered for a second opinion on an initial diagnosis of OPA, for screening purchased adult flock replacements for OPA, or for screening sheep in a known OPA-affected flock. However, the authors emphasise that a negative scan cannot provide a guarantee that the animal is free of JSRV infection nor early OPA. PMID:26442526

  5. Development and Validation of an Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus Quantitative PCR?

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M.; White, Stephen N.; Lewis, Gregory S.; Mousel, Michelle R.; Knowles, Donald P.

    2007-01-01

    Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) infects at least one sheep in 81% of U.S. sheep flocks, as determined by serology, and can cause viral mastitis, arthritis, dyspnea, and cachexia. Diagnostic tests that quantify OPPV proviral load in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) provide an additional method for identification of infected sheep and may help to further understanding of the pathogenesis of OPPV-induced disease. In this study, we compared a new OPPV real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay specific for the transmembrane region of the envelope gene (tm) with a competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) using 396 PBL samples and sera from Idaho sheep. The OPPV qPCR had a positive concordance of 96.2% ± 2.3% and a negative concordance of 97.7% ± 2.5% compared to the cELISA, with a kappa value of 0.93, indicating excellent agreement between the two tests. In addition, the presence of tm in the three OPPV qPCR-positive and cELISA-negative sheep and in 15 sheep with different OPPV proviral loads was confirmed by cloning and sequencing. These data indicate that the OPPV qPCR may be used as a supplemental diagnostic tool for OPPV infection and for measurement of viral load in PBLs of infected sheep. PMID:17699832

  6. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the measurement of specific antibodies in experimentally induced ovine toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, R. A.; Joynson, D. H.; Wilsmore, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Tachyzoites of the RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii were inoculated intravenously into sheep following which serum samples were collected at approximately weekly intervals for 9 months. The sera were examined by the toxoplasma dye test and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) specifically developed for investigations of ovine toxoplasmosis. One was an antibody class capture assay for the detection of anti-toxoplasma specific IgM, the other an indirect assay which detected anti-toxoplasma IgG. Some of the sheep had antibodies to toxoplasma prior to inoculation but none had specific IgM. Sera collected 17 days after inoculation showed that all had raised specific antibody levels but the only sheep that produced specific antitoxoplasma IgM were those that were initially without any antibody. Specific IgM could be detected in all these particular sheep for at least 1 month after infection and up to 3 months in some. Specific IgG persisted at high levels for at least 3 months and could still be detected at moderate levels for at least 9 months. The ELISA methods described are simple to perform and could clearly distinguish between previous infection and this experimental infection with Toxoplasma gondii. PMID:3356219

  7. Effect of Human Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Regeneration of Ovine Articular Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Zorzi, Alessandro R; Amstalden, Eliane M I; Plepis, Ana Maria G; Martins, Virginia C A; Ferretti, Mario; Antonioli, Eliane; Duarte, Adriana S S; Luzo, Angela C M; Miranda, João B

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapy is a promising approach to improve cartilage healing. Adipose tissue is an abundant and readily accessible cell source. Previous studies have demonstrated good cartilage repair results with adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells in small animal experiments. This study aimed to examine these cells in a large animal model. Thirty knees of adult sheep were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: CELLS (scaffold seeded with human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells), SCAFFOLD (scaffold without cells), or EMPTY (untreated lesions). A partial thickness defect was created in the medial femoral condyle. After six months, the knees were examined according to an adaptation of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS 1) score, in addition to a new Partial Thickness Model scale and the ICRS macroscopic score. All of the animals completed the follow-up period. The CELLS group presented with the highest ICRS 1 score (8.3 ± 3.1), followed by the SCAFFOLD group (5.6 ± 2.2) and the EMPTY group (5.2 ± 2.4) (p = 0.033). Other scores were not significantly different. These results suggest that human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells promoted satisfactory cartilage repair in the ovine model. PMID:26569221

  8. The use of preserved tissue in finite element modelling of fresh ovine vertebral behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Sarrawat; Garner, Philippa E; Aaron, Jean E; Wilcox, Ruth K

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the predicted finite element (FE) stiffness of vertebral bone is altered when using images of preserved rather than fresh tissue to generate specimen-specific FE models. Fresh ovine vertebrae were used to represent embalmed (n = 3) and macerated dry-bone (n = 3) specimens and treated accordingly. Specimens were scanned pre- and post-treatment using micro-computed tomography. A constant threshold level derived from these images was used to calculate the respective bone volume fraction (BV/TV) from which the conversion factor validated for fresh tissue was used to determine material properties that were assigned to corresponding FE models. Results showed a definite change in the BV/TV between the fresh and the preserved bone. However, the changes in the predicted FE stiffness were not generally greater than the variations expected from assignment of loading and boundary conditions. In conclusion, images of preserved tissue can be used to generate FE models that are representative of fresh tissue with a tolerable level of error. PMID:22292536

  9. Ontogeny of tight junction protein expression in the ovine cerebral cortex during development.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, G B; Ahmedli, N; Chen, X; Stonestreet, B S

    2015-12-01

    Tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier are composed of transmembrane and associated cytoplasmic proteins. The transmembrane claudin proteins form the primary seal between endothelial cells and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) regulate tight junction formation. We have previously shown that claudin-1, claudin-5, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, and ZO-2 exhibit differential developmental regulation from 60% of gestation up to maturity in adult sheep. The purpose of the current study was to examine developmental changes in claudin-3, -12, and JAM-A protein expression in cerebral cortices of fetuses at 60%, 80%, and 90% gestation, and in newborn and adult sheep. We also examined correlations between changes in endogenous cortisol levels and tight junction protein expression in cerebral cortices of the fetuses. Claudin-3, -12 and JAM-A expressions were determined by Western immunoblot. Claudin-3 and -12 were lower (P<0.01) at 60%, 80%, 90% and in newborns than in adults, and JAM-A was lower in adults than in fetuses at 80% and 90% gestation. Claudin-3 expression demonstrated a direct correlation with increasing plasma cortisol levels (r=0.60, n=15, P<0.02) in the fetuses. We conclude that: claudin-3, -12 and JAM-A are expressed as early as 60% of gestation in ovine cerebral cortices, exhibit differential developmental regulation, and that increasing endogenous glucocorticoids modulate claudin-3 expression in the fetus. PMID:26424381

  10. The in vitro formation of sulfates and glucuronides of estrogens by adult and fetal ovine tissues.

    PubMed

    Hobkirk, R; Cardy, C A

    1985-08-01

    Incubation of nanomolar concentrations of [3H]estrone with ovine liver slices from adult and fetal animals demonstrated, in particular, the production of estrogen sulfates together with smaller amounts of glucuronides, even although microsomal estrogen glucuronyltransferase (GT) and sulfatase activities were high, especially in adult tissue. [3H]Estriol was conjugated almost exclusively as sulfate under the same experimental conditions. Slices of maternal and fetal kidney medulla were also strikingly active in promoting estrogen sulfate production as were slices of fetal kidney cortex. Adult kidney cortex conjugated estrogen only in the glucuronide form. These data indicate the possibility that maternal and fetal liver and kidney might contribute to the high circulating level of estrone sulfate in the pregnant sheep. Through the use of [3H]estrone and [3H]estrone sulfate as substrates, it was possible to demonstrate that adult slices of kidney medulla possessed relatively low sulfatase, considerable sulfotransferase (ST), and virtually no GT activity, whereas cortex had high sulfatase, little or no ST, and low, though demonstrable, GT activity. The ST activity of kidney high-speed supernatants was stimulated by the presence of sulfhydryl groups, whereas that in liver was not. Enzymic reduction of estrone and (or) estrone sulfate by liver and kidney slices indicated that, in the former, 17 alpha-reduction prevailed and, in the latter with the exception of the maternal medulla, 17 beta-reduction was the main pathway, particularly in the fetus. PMID:2998578

  11. Secretory granules and progesterone secretion by ovine corpora lutea in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, H R; Abel, J H; McClellan, M C; Schmitz, M; Niswender, G D

    1979-02-01

    To study the relationship between formation and release of Golgi-derived secretory granules and progesterone secretion, slices of ovine luteal tissue were incubated in the presence of LH and/or calcium ionophore A23187. Increases in progesterone secretion in response to LH and/or ionophore were accompanied by a concomitant release of secretory granules. In contrast, in the presence of colchicine, LH-stimulated progesterone secretion was significantly reduced (P less than 0.01), granule formation appeared to be blocked, and there was little evidence of exocytosis. In addition, unusual pleomorphic membrane-bounded saccules containing an electron-dense material were abundant throughout the centrospheric region of cells treated with colchicine. Because of the close parallelism between formation and release of Golgi-derived secretory granules and progesterone secretion, it appears that progesterone secretion may be coupled to exocytosis of secretory granules. Although the exact content and function of the secretory granules described remains to be elucidated, the data obtained are compatible with the notion that they may contain a progesterone carrier protein. PMID:376288

  12. Interleukin-1? Modulates Melatonin Secretion in Ovine Pineal Gland: Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Herman, A. P.; Bochenek, J.; Skipor, J.; Król, K.; Krawczy?ska, A.; Antushevich, H.; Pawlina, B.; Marciniak, E.; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D.

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the effect of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin- (IL-) 1?, on melatonin release and expression enzymes essential for this hormone synthesis: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in ovine pineal gland, taking into account the immune status of animals before sacrificing. Ewes were injected by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400?ng/kg) or saline, two hours after sunset during short day period (December). Animals were euthanized three hours after the injection. Next, the pineal glands were collected and divided into four explants. The explants were incubated with (1) medium 199 (control explants), (2) norepinephrine (NE; 10?µM), (3) IL-1? (75?pg/mL), or (4) NE + IL-1?. It was found that IL-1? abolished (P < 0.05) NE-induced increase in melatonin release. Treatment with IL-1? also reduced (P < 0.05) expression of AA-NAT enzyme compared to NE-treated explants. There was no effect of NE or IL-1? treatment on gene expression of HIOMT; however, the pineal fragments isolated from LPS-treated animals were characterized by elevated (P < 0.05) expression of HIOMT mRNA and protein compared to the explants from saline-treated ewes. Our study proves that IL-1? suppresses melatonin secretion and its action seems to be targeted on the reduction of pineal AA-NAT protein expression. PMID:26339621

  13. Elevated Intracranial Pressure and Cerebral Edema following Permanent MCA Occlusion in an Ovine Model

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Adam J.; Vink, Robert; Helps, Stephen C.; Knox, Steven J.; Blumbergs, Peter C.; Turner, Renée J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke has a disproportionately high mortality due to the rapid development of refractory space-occupying cerebral edema. Animal models are essential in developing successful anti-edema therapies; however to date poor clinical translation has been associated with the predominately used rodent models. As such, large animal gyrencephalic models of stroke are urgently needed. The aim of the study was to characterize the intracranial pressure (ICP) response to MCA occlusion in our recently developed ovine stroke model. Materials and Methods 30 adult female Merino sheep (n = 8–12/gp) were randomized to sham surgery, temporary or permanent proximal MCA occlusion. ICP and brain tissue oxygen were monitored for 24 hours under general anesthesia. MRI, infarct volume with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and histology were performed. Results No increase in ICP, radiological evidence of ischemia within the MCA territory but without space-occupying edema, and TTC infarct volumes of 7.9+/-5.1% were seen with temporary MCAO. Permanent MCAO resulted in significantly elevated ICP, accompanied by 30% mortality, radiological evidence of space-occupying cerebral edema and TTC infarct volumes of 27.4+/-6.4%. Conclusions Permanent proximal MCAO in the sheep results in space-occupying cerebral edema, raised ICP and mortality similar to human malignant MCA stroke. This animal model may prove useful for pre-clinical testing of anti-edema therapies that have shown promise in rodent studies. PMID:26121036

  14. Survey of the Parasite Toxoplasma gondii in Human Consumed Ovine Meat in Tunis City

    PubMed Central

    Boughattas, Sonia; Ayari, Khaled; Sa, Tongmin; Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis has been recognized as parasitic zoonosis with the highest human incidence. The human infection by the parasite can lead to severe clinical manifestations in congenital toxoplasmosis and immunocompromised patients. Contamination occurs mainly by foodborne ways especially consumption of raw or undercooked meat. In contrast to other foodborne infections, toxoplasmosis is a chronic infection which would make its economic and social impact much higher than even previously anticipated. Ovine meat was advanced as a major risk factor, so we investigated its parasite survey, under natural conditions. Serological MAT technique and touchdown PCR approaches were used for prevalence determination of the parasite in slaughtered sheep intended to human consumption in Tunis City. The genotyping was carried by SNPs analysis of SAG3 marker. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were present in 38.2% of young sheep and in 73.6% of adult sheep. Molecular detection revealed the contamination of 50% of ewes’ tissue. Sequencing and SNPs analysis enabled unambiguous typing of meat isolates and revealed the presence of mixed strains as those previously identified from clinical samples in the same area. Our findings conclude that slaughtered sheep are highly infected, suggesting them as a major risk factor of Toxoplasma gondii transmission by meat consumption. Special aware should target consequently this factor when recommendations have to be established by the health care commanders. PMID:24427300

  15. A Novel Ovine ex vivo Arteriovenous Shunt Model to Test Vascular Implantability

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Haofan; Schlaich, Evan M.; Row, Sindhu; Andreadis, Stelios T.; Swartz, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    The major objective of successful development of tissue-engineered vascular grafts is long-term in vivo patency. Optimization of matrix, cell source, surface modifications, and physical preconditioning are all elements of attaining a compatible, durable, and functional vascular construct. In vitro model systems are inadequate to test elements of thrombogenicity and vascular dynamic functional properties while in vivo implantation is complicated, labor-intensive, and cost-ineffective. We proposed an ex vivo ovine arteriovenous shunt model in which we can test the patency and physical properties of vascular grafts under physiologic conditions. The pressure, flow rate, and vascular diameter were monitored in real-time in order to evaluate the pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and dynamic elastic modulus, all indicators of graft stiffness. Carotid arteries, jugular veins, and small intestinal submucosa-based grafts were tested. SIS grafts demonstrated physical properties between those of carotid arteries and jugular veins. Anticoagulation properties of grafts were assessed via scanning electron microscopy imaging, en face immunostaining, and histology. Luminal seeding with endothelial cells greatly decreased the attachment of thrombotic components. This model is also suture free, allowing for multiple samples to be stably processed within one animal. This tunable (pressure, flow, shear) ex vivo shunt model can be used to optimize the implantability and long-term patency of tissue-engineered vascular constructs. PMID:22005667

  16. Effect of Human Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Regeneration of Ovine Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Zorzi, Alessandro R.; Amstalden, Eliane M. I.; Plepis, Ana Maria G.; Martins, Virginia C. A.; Ferretti, Mario; Antonioli, Eliane; Duarte, Adriana S. S.; Luzo, Angela C. M.; Miranda, João B.

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapy is a promising approach to improve cartilage healing. Adipose tissue is an abundant and readily accessible cell source. Previous studies have demonstrated good cartilage repair results with adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells in small animal experiments. This study aimed to examine these cells in a large animal model. Thirty knees of adult sheep were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: CELLS (scaffold seeded with human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells), SCAFFOLD (scaffold without cells), or EMPTY (untreated lesions). A partial thickness defect was created in the medial femoral condyle. After six months, the knees were examined according to an adaptation of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS 1) score, in addition to a new Partial Thickness Model scale and the ICRS macroscopic score. All of the animals completed the follow-up period. The CELLS group presented with the highest ICRS 1 score (8.3 ± 3.1), followed by the SCAFFOLD group (5.6 ± 2.2) and the EMPTY group (5.2 ± 2.4) (p = 0.033). Other scores were not significantly different. These results suggest that human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells promoted satisfactory cartilage repair in the ovine model. PMID:26569221

  17. Elevated maternal cortisol leads to relative maternal hyperglycemia and increased stillbirth in ovine pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E.; Richards, Elaine; Anthony, Russell V.; Dahl, Geoffrey E.; Tao, Sha

    2014-01-01

    In normal pregnancy, cortisol increases; however, further pathological increases in cortisol are associated with maternal and fetal morbidities. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that increased maternal cortisol would increase maternal glucose concentrations, suppress fetal growth, and impair neonatal glucose homeostasis. Ewes were infused with cortisol (1 mg·kg?1·day?1) from day 115 of gestation to term; maternal glucose, insulin, ovine placental lactogen, estrone, progesterone, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and electrolytes were measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal glucose concentration and slowed the glucose disappearance after injection of glucose; maternal infusion of cortisol also increased the incidence of fetal death at or near parturition. The design of the study was altered to terminate the study prior to delivery, and post hoc analysis of the data was performed to test the hypothesis that maternal metabolic factors predict the fetal outcome. In cortisol-infused ewes that had stillborn lambs, plasma insulin was increased relative to control ewes or cortisol-infused ewes with live lambs. Maternal cortisol infusion did not alter maternal food intake or plasma NEFA, BHB, estrone, progesterone or placental lactogen concentrations, and it did not alter fetal body weight, ponderal index, or fetal organ weights. Our study suggests that the adverse effect of elevated maternal cortisol on pregnancy outcome may be related to the effects of cortisol on maternal glucose homeostasis, and that chronic maternal stress or adrenal hypersecretion of cortisol may create fetal pathophysiology paralleling some aspects of maternal gestational diabetes. PMID:24920731

  18. Ultrastructural characterization of in vivo-produced ovine morulae and blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, E M V; Bettencourt, C M V; Chagas e Silva, J N; Ferreira, P; Oliveira, E; Romão, R; Rocha, A; Sousa, M

    2015-08-01

    The ultrastructure of in vivo-produced ovine embryos, at the morula, early blastocyst and late blastocyst stages, was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Embryonic cells were characterized by the presence of intact intercellular junctions, numerous mitochondria, smooth endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and light vesicles. Polyribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, secondary lysosomes, Golgi complexes and lipid droplets were also observed in the cytoplasm. The nucleus was well defined and organized, with an intact envelope rich in nuclear pore complexes, and one or more reticular nucleoli. Microvilli were present in external blastomeres of morulae and became more abundant in trophectoderm cells of early and late blastocysts. Light vesicles seemed to be associated with small cisternae of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum origin. These cisternae fused and created light vesicles with engulfed heterogeneous cytosolic structures, small cisternae and vesicles. Their labile membrane enabled them to rapidly coalesce into medium-sized vesicles that began to engulf mitochondria and lipid droplets, forming giant vacuoles mostly filled with fat. Incomplete matured secretory vesicles were observed to exocytose into the perivitelline space of morulae, whereas fully matured secretory vesicles appeared only in trophectoderm cells, being exocytosed into the blastocoelic cavity. These observations suggested that these endoplasmic-/Golgi-derived vesicles behave as active autophagic organelles presenting probably a maturation process from compact morulae to blastocyst. PMID:25076424

  19. Corpus callosal microstructure influences intermanual transfer in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Schaeffer, Jennifer A.; Hopkins, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Learning a new motor skill with one hand typically results in performance improvements in the alternate hand. The neural substrates involved with this skill acquisition are poorly understood. We combined behavioral testing and non-invasive brain imaging to study how the organization of the corpus callosum was related to intermanual transfer performance in chimpanzees. Fifty-three chimpanzees were tested for intermanual transfer of learning using a bent-wire task. Magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor images were collected from 39 of these subjects. The dominant hand showed greater performance benefits than the nondominant hand. Further, performance was associated with structural integrity of the motor and sensory regions of the CC. Subjects with better intermanual transfer of learning had lower fractional anisotropy values. The results are consistent with the callosal access model of motor programming. PMID:24427118

  20. Corpus callosal microstructure influences intermanual transfer in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kimberley A; Schaeffer, Jennifer A; Hopkins, William D

    2013-01-01

    Learning a new motor skill with one hand typically results in performance improvements in the alternate hand. The neural substrates involved with this skill acquisition are poorly understood. We combined behavioral testing and non-invasive brain imaging to study how the organization of the corpus callosum was related to intermanual transfer performance in chimpanzees. Fifty-three chimpanzees were tested for intermanual transfer of learning using a bent-wire task. Magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor images were collected from 39 of these subjects. The dominant hand showed greater performance benefits than the nondominant hand. Further, performance was associated with structural integrity of the motor and sensory regions of the CC. Subjects with better intermanual transfer of learning had lower fractional anisotropy values. The results are consistent with the callosal access model of motor programming. PMID:24427118

  1. Prolactin messenger ribonucleic acid concentrations throughout the ovine estrous cycle: Assessment relative to prolactin serum and pituitary amounts

    SciTech Connect

    Landefeld, T.; Roulia, V.; Bagnell, T.; Ballard, T.; Levitan, I. )

    1991-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) mRNA concentrations were assessed by nucleic acid hybridization assays in pituitaries of ewes representing the defined stages of the ovine estrous cycle. Concomitantly, pituitary and serum PRL concentrations were measured in these ewes using radioimmunoassays. It was observed that PRL serum, pituitary and mRNA concentrations tended to increase near the time of the gonadotropin preovulatory surge, particularly between 24 hrs before behavioral estrus to 5 hours after estrus. However, the changes in PRL mRNA, serum and pituitary concentrations were shown not to be statistically significant. These data suggest that PRL production during the sheep estrous cycle is maintained without dramatic changes in synthesis or secretion.

  2. First documented case of human infection with ovine Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli serotype O52:H45.

    PubMed

    Bekal, Sadjia; Ramsay, Danielle; Rallu, Fabien; Pilon, Pierre; Gilmour, Matthew; Johnson, Roger; Tremblay, Cécile

    2014-06-01

    We report a concurrent case of infection with non-O157 Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strain in an 8-month-old child. Laboratory and epidemiological investigations indicated child exposure to contaminated sheep meat following the Muslim feast of sacrifice (Eid al-Adha). Microbiological and molecular typing confirmed that the ovine strain O52:H45 (stx1+, eae-, hlyA-) was the causal agent. This is the first documented case of human infection to this STEC serotype. PMID:24849211

  3. A method for determining the number of documents needed for a gold standard corpus.

    PubMed

    Juckett, David

    2012-06-01

    The unstructured narratives in medicine have been increasingly targeted for content extraction using the techniques of natural language processing (NLP). In most cases, these efforts are facilitated by creating a manually annotated set of narratives containing the ground truth; commonly referred to as a gold standard corpus. This corpus is used for modeling, fine-tuning, and testing NLP software as well as providing the basis for training in machine learning. Determining the number of annotated documents (size) for this corpus is important, but rarely described; rather, the factors of cost and time appear to dominate decision-making about corpus size. In this report, a method is outlined to determine gold standard size based on the capture probabilities for the unique words within a target corpus. To demonstrate this method, a corpus of dictation letters from the Michigan Pain Consultant (MPC) clinics for pain management are described and analyzed. A well-formed working corpus of 10,000 dictations was first constructed to provide a representative subset of the total, with no more than one dictation letter per patient. Each dictation was divided into words and common words were removed. The Poisson function was used to determine probabilities of word capture within samples taken from the working corpus, and then integrated over word length to give a single capture probability as a function of sample size. For these MPC dictations, a sample size of 500 documents is predicted to give a capture probability of approximately 0.95. Continuing the demonstration of sample selection, a provisional gold standard corpus of 500 documents was selected and examined for its similarity to the MPC structured coding and demographic data available for each patient. It is shown that a representative sample, of justifiable size, can be selected for use as a gold standard. PMID:22245601

  4. Expression of interferon receptor subunits, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2, in the ovine uterus.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Han, Chun-Sheng; Alexenko, Andrei P; Spencer, Thomas E; Roberts, R Michael

    2002-09-01

    Interferon-tau (IFN-tau) is the antiluteolytic factor released by concepti of ruminant ungulate species prior to implantation. All type I interferons, including IFN-tau, exert their action through a common receptor, which consists of two subunits, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2c, but the distribution of the two polypeptides in uterine endometrium has not been examined. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry on sections from pregnant and nonpregnant ovine uteri at Days 14 and 15 after estrus and mating showed that both IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 mRNA and protein were strongly expressed in endometrial luminal epithelium (LE), superficial glandular epithelium (GE), and stromal cells, within but not outside caruncles. Similar staining patterns were noted in pregnant and nonpregnant uteri for both subunits. Western blot analysis of membrane fractions from cell lines derived from endometrial LE, GE, and stromal cells, and affinity cross-linking experiments with radioactively labeled IFN-tau performed on crude endometrial membranes indicated the presence of both high ( approximately 110 kDa) and low (75-80 kDa) molecular mass forms of the two receptor subunits. To localize where IFN-tau binds when it is introduced into the uterine lumen, immunohistochemistry with an antiserum against IFN-tau was performed on sections of uteri from Day 14 nonpregnant ewes whose uteri had previously been infused with IFN-tau. Staining was concentrated on the LE and superficial GE cells, and was absent from the deeper regions of the glands and from the stromal tissues. These studies demonstrate the heavy concentration of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 in cells of the LE and superficial GE, which appear to be the main targets for IFN-tau. PMID:12193393

  5. Evidence of proviral clearance following postpartum transmission of an ovine lentivirus.

    PubMed

    Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Palmer, Guy H; Knowles, Donald P

    2007-05-25

    Lentiviral transmission by transfer of infected colostrum and/or milk is considered to be highly efficient. In this study, postpartum transmission of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) from 10 naturally infected ewes to their 23 lambs was followed from the perinatal period throughout a four-year period. The lambs were allowed to suckle from their dam from birth through 32 weeks of age. Virus was tracked by virus isolation, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and anti-OPPV antibody responses as measured by cELISA. Cell-associated OPPV was isolated from colostrum/milk cells in 7 out of 10 ewes and provirus envelope (env) loads ranged 8 to 10(5) copies/mug DNA in colostrum/milk cells from the 10 ewes using qPCR. Provirus env loads were also detected in the peripheral circulation of 21 lambs at 8 weeks and two lambs at 22 weeks. The qPCR product at 8 weeks was confirmed as the transmembrane (tm) gene of OPPV by cloning and sequencing. Both cELISA titers ranging from 325 to 3125 and cross-neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 6 to 162 to seven different OPPV strains were found in the colostrum of the 10 ewes. Furthermore, cELISA titers in serum from lambs remained detectable through 32 weeks following the clearance of provirus at 24 weeks. After 32 weeks, both provirus and anti-OPPV antibody responses have subsequently remained undetectable through 4 years of age. These data suggest the clearance of cell-associated lentiviruses from lamb circulation after passive transfer of antibody via colostrum. PMID:17267002

  6. Shedding of Ovine Herpesvirus 2 in Sheep Nasal Secretions: the Predominant Mode for Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Taus, Naomi S.; Lewis, Gregory S.; Kim, Okjin; Traul, Donald L.; Crawford, Timothy B.

    2004-01-01

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), the major causative agent of malignant catarrhal fever in ruminant species worldwide, has never been propagated in vitro. Using real-time PCR, a striking, short-lived, peak of viral DNA, ranging from 105 to over 108 copies/2 ?g of DNA, was detected in nasal secretions from over 60.7% of adolescent sheep (n = 56) at some point during the period from 6 to 9 months of age. In contrast, only about 18% of adult sheep (n = 33) experienced a shedding episode during the study period. The general pattern of the appearance of viral DNA in nasal secretions was a dramatic rise and subsequent fall within 24 to 36 h, implying a single cycle of viral replication. These episodes occurred sporadically and infrequently, but over the 3-month period most of the 56 lambs (33, or 60.7%) experienced at least one episode. No corresponding fluctuations in DNA levels were found in either peripheral blood leukocytes or plasma. In a DNase protection assay, complete, enveloped OvHV-2 virions were demonstrated in the nasal secretions of all sheep examined during the time when they were experiencing an intense shedding episode. OvHV-2 infectivity in nasal secretions was also demonstrated by aerosolization of the secretions into OvHV-2-negative sheep. The data herein show that nasal shedding is the major mode of OvHV-2 transmission among domestic sheep and that adolescents represent the highest risk group for transmission. PMID:15583281

  7. Internalization and degradation of human chorionic gonadotropin in ovine luteal cells: Kinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, C.E.; Sawyer, H.R.; Niswender, G.D.

    1981-11-01

    Ovine luteal cells grown in suspensions and/or monolayer culture were used to study the rates of internalization and degradation of (/sup 125/I)hCG. At specified times after a 5- to 7-min exposure to (/sup 125/I)hCG, cells were treated with acidic buffer (pH 3.9) to elute membrane-bound hormone, which left the internalized radioactivity associated with the cell pellet. Radioactivity released into the medium during the incubation periods was subjected to 20% trichloroacetic acid and/or thin layer chromatography to monitor the extent of degradation of the radioactive hormone. Secretion of progesterone into the medium and exclusion of trypan blue were used to monitor the viability of the cells in each experiment. Radioactivity was lost from the plasma membrane with a tsub1/2 of 9.6 h, with approximately 85% of the radioactivity being lost within 24 h. Cell-associated radioactivity increased linearly with time to a plateau at 4 h, remained stable until 12 h, and then decreased between 12-24 h. The plateau between 4-12 h reflected an equilibrium between the (/sup 125/I)hCG which was internalized and degraded and the (/sup 125/I)hCG which was released into the medium. The degraded (/sup 125/I)hCG increased essentially linearly up to 24 h. These data suggest that the majority of (/sup 125/I)hCG bound to receptors in luteal cells is internalized and degraded. Less than 20% of the radioactivity bound initially to cells dissociated into the incubation medium and was trichloroacetic acid precipitable within 24 h. The internalization and degradation of (/sup 125/I)hCG was temperature dependent, with essentially no hCG internalized and/or degraded at 4C.

  8. Intra-amniotic pharmacological blockade of inflammatory signalling pathways in an ovine chorioamnionitis model.

    PubMed

    Ireland, D J; Kemp, M W; Miura, Y; Saito, M; Newnham, J P; Keelan, J A

    2015-05-01

    Intrauterine inflammation (IUI) associated with infection is the major cause of preterm birth (PTB) at <32 weeks' gestation and accounts for ?40% of all spontaneous PTBs. Pharmacological strategies to prevent PTB and improve fetal outcomes will likely require both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory therapies. Here we investigated the effects of two cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs (CSAIDs), compounds that specifically target inflammatory signalling pathways, in an ovine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced chorioamnionitis. Chronically catheterized ewes at 116 days gestation (n = 7/group) received an intra-amniotic (IA) bolus of LPS (10 mg) plus vehicle or CSAIDS: TPCA-1 (1.2 mg/kg fetal weight) or 5z-7-oxozeaenol (OxZnl; 0.4 mg/kg fetal weight); controls received vehicle (dimethylsulphoxide). Amniotic fluid (AF), fetal and maternal blood samples were taken 0, 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h later; tissues were taken at autopsy (48 h). Administration of TPCA-1 or OxZnl abrogated the stimulatory effects of LPS (P < 0.01 versus vehicle control) on production of PGE2 in AF, with lesser (non-significant) effects on IL-6 production. Fetal membrane polymorphonuclear cell infiltration score was significantly higher in LPS versus vehicle control animals (P < 0.01), and this difference was absent with TPCA-1 and OxZnl treatment. LPS-induced systemic fetal inflammation was highly variable, with no significant effects of CSAIDs observed. Lung inflammation was evident with LPS exposure, but unaffected by CSAID treatment. We have shown in a large animal model that IA administration of a single dose of CSAIDs can suppress LPS-induced IA inflammatory responses, while fetal effects were minimal. Further development and investigation of these compounds in infectious models is warranted. PMID:25648771

  9. Waddlia chondrophila Infects and Multiplies in Ovine Trophoblast Cells Stimulating an Inflammatory Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Wheelhouse, Nick; Coyle, Christopher; Barlow, Peter G.; Mitchell, Stephen; Greub, Gilbert; Baszler, Tim; Rae, Mick T.; Longbottom, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Waddlia chondrophila (W. chondrophila) is an emerging abortifacient organism which has been identified in the placentae of humans and cattle. The organism is a member of the order Chlamydiales, and shares many similarities at the genome level and in growth studies with other well-characterised zoonotic chlamydial abortifacients, such as Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus). This study investigates the growth of the organism and its effects upon pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a ruminant placental cell line which we have previously utilised in a model of C. abortus pathogenicity. Methodology/Principal Findings Using qPCR, fluorescent immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy, we characterised the infection and growth of W. chondrophila within the ovine trophoblast AH-1 cell line. Inclusions were visible from 6 h post-infection (p.i.) and exponential growth of the organism could be observed over a 60 h time-course, with significant levels of host cell lysis being observed only after 36 h p.i. Expression of CXCL8, TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-1? were determined 24 h p.i. A statistically significant response in the expression of CXCL8, TNF-? and IL-1? could be observed following active infection with W. chondrophila. However a significant increase in IL-1? expression was also observed following the exposure of cells to UV-killed organisms, indicating the stimulation of multiple innate recognition pathways. Conclusions/Significance W. chondrophila infects and grows in the ruminant trophoblast AH-1 cell line exhibiting a complete chlamydial replicative cycle. Infection of the trophoblasts resulted in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner similar to that observed with C. abortus in previous studies, suggesting similarities in the pathogenesis of infection between the two organisms. PMID:25010668

  10. Induction of micronuclei with ochratoxin A in ovine seminal vesicle cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Degen, G H; Gerber, M M; Obrecht-Pflumio, S; Dirheimer, G

    1997-01-01

    The genotoxic potential of the carcinogenic mycotoxin of ochratoxin A (OTA) has been investigated by means of an in vitro micronucleus assay, an endpoint for genotoxicity which has not been studied previously for OTA. OTA was found to induce dose-dependently micronuclei (MN) in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated ovine seminal vesicle (OSV) cell cultures, which had been treated with mycotoxin (12-30 microM) for 6 h in medium containing 10% fetal calf serum. For comparison, OSV cells were treated with colcemid (0.02-0.06 micrograms/ml), or 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide (NQO; 0.5 microM), a typical aneugen and clastogen, respectively. All test compounds increased the frequency of MN in OSV cells, the highest level being induced by 10 microM OTA. When MN were characterized by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-kinetochore (CREST) antibodies, the majority of MN in colcemid-treated cells was CREST-reactive (> 70% kinetochore positive); as expected, this fraction was < 10% for the NQO-treatment group. In cells treated with OTA the fraction of kinetochore positive MN was similar (33-40%) to that observed in solvent controls (38%). These data indicate that OTA induces MN apparently by a mixed, although predominantly clastogenic mode of action. OSV cells lack monooxygenase activity but express high prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) activity. When cells were treated with OTA in the presence of indomethacin (10 and 10 microM), a well known inhibitor of PGHS, the frequency of MN induced by OTA was not decreased, but rather increased. This indicates that metabolic activation of OTA by PGHS seems not to be required for genotoxicity. The increased MN induction in OSV cell cultures is most likely due to competition in indomethacin with OTA for binding to serum proteins thus raising the fraction of free mycotoxin. PMID:9195018

  11. The ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus, aromatase, and sexual partner preferences in sheep.

    PubMed

    Roselli, C E; Stormshak, F

    2010-02-28

    We are using the domestic ram as an experimental model to examine the role of aromatase in the development of sexual partner preferences. This interest has arisen because of the observation that as many as 8% of domestic rams are sexually attracted to other rams (male-oriented) in contrast to the majority of rams that are attracted to estrous ewes (female-oriented). Our findings demonstrate that aromatase expression is enriched in a cluster of neurons in the medial preoptic nucleus called the ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN). The size of the oSDN is associated with a ram's sexual partner preference, such that the nucleus is 2-3 times larger in rams that are attracted to females (female-oriented) than in rams that are attracted to other rams (male-oriented). Moreover, the volume of the oSDN in male-oriented rams is similar to the volume in ewes. These volume differences are not influenced by adult concentrations of serum testosterone. Instead, we found that the oSDN is already present in late gestation lamb fetuses (approximately day 135 of gestation) when it is approximately 2-fold greater in males than in females. Exposure of genetic female fetuses to exogenous testosterone during the critical period for sexual differentiation masculinizes oSDN volume and aromatase expression when examined subsequently on day 135. The demonstration that the oSDN is organized prenatally by testosterone exposure suggests that the brain of the male-oriented ram may be under-androgenized during development. PMID:19883759

  12. In an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Prenatal Androgens Suppress Female Fetal Renal Gluconeogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Späth, Katharina; Boswell, Lyndsey; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

    2015-01-01

    Increased maternal androgen exposure during pregnancy programmes a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like condition, with metabolic dysfunction, in adult female offspring. Other in utero exposures associated with the development of insulin resistance, such as intrauterine growth restriction and exposure to prenatal glucocorticoids, are associated with altered fetal gluconeogenesis. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of maternal androgenisation on the expression of PEPCK and G6PC in the ovine fetus. Pregnant Scottish Greyface sheep were treated with twice weekly testosterone propionate (TP; 100mg) or vehicle control from day 62 to day102 of gestation. At day 90 and day 112 fetal plasma and liver and kidney tissue was collected for analysis. PEPCK and G6PC expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. PEPCK and G6PC were localised to fetal hepatocytes but maternal androgens had no effect on female or male fetuses. PEPCK and G6PC were also localised to the renal tubules and renal PEPCK (P<0.01) and G6PC (P = 0.057) were lower in females after prenatal androgenisation with no change in male fetuses. These tissue and sex specific observations could not be explained by alterations in fetal insulin or cortisol. The sexual dimorphism may be related to the increase in circulating estrogen (P<0.01) and testosterone (P<0.001) in females but not males. The tissue specific effects may be related to the increased expression of ESR1 (P<0.01) and AR (P<0.05) in the kidney when compared to the fetal liver. After discontinuation of maternal androgenisation female fetal kidney PEPCK expression normalised. These data further highlight the fetal and sexual dimorphic effects of maternal androgenisation, an antecedent to adult disease and the plasticity of fetal development. PMID:26148093

  13. Ovine induced pluripotent stem cells are resistant to reprogramming after nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    German, Sergio D; Campbell, Keith H S; Thornton, Elisabeth; McLachlan, Gerry; Sweetman, Dylan; Alberio, Ramiro

    2015-02-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) share similar characteristics of indefinite in vitro growth with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and may therefore serve as a useful tool for the targeted genetic modification of farm animals via nuclear transfer (NT). Derivation of stable ESC lines from farm animals has not been possible, therefore, it is important to determine whether iPSCs can be used as substitutes for ESCs in generating genetically modified cloned farm animals. We generated ovine iPSCs by conventional retroviral transduction using the four Yamanaka factors. These cells were basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)- and activin A-dependent, showed persistent expression of the transgenes, acquired chromosomal abnormalities, and failed to activate endogenous NANOG. Nonetheless, iPSCs could differentiate into the three somatic germ layers in vitro. Because cloning of farm animals is best achieved with diploid cells (G1/G0), we synchronized the iPSCs in G1 prior to NT. Despite the cell cycle synchronization, preimplantation development of iPSC-NT embryos was lower than with somatic cells (2% vs. 10% blastocysts, p<0.01). Furthermore, analysis of the blastocysts produced demonstrated persistent expression of the transgenes, aberrant expression of endogenous SOX2, and a failure to activate NANOG consistently. In contrast, gene expression in blastocysts produced with the parental fetal fibroblasts was similar to those generated by in vitro fertilization. Taken together, our data suggest that the persistent expression of the exogenous factors and the acquisition of chromosomal abnormalities are incompatible with normal development of NT embryos produced with iPSCs. PMID:25513856

  14. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of benzimidazole resistance in the ovine parasite Nematodirus battus.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Alison A; Mitchell, Sian; Mearns, Rebecca; Richards, Iain; Matthews, Jacqui B; Bartley, David J

    2014-01-01

    Benzimidazole resistance is common amongst many ovine trichostrongylid nematodes species globally. Although anthelmintics have been used for over half a century in some areas of the world for the control of Nematodirus battus, resistance has never been detected. Veterinary investigations conducted in 2010 demonstrated reduced efficacy in a flock that had been treated previously with fenbendazole (FBZ), suggesting probable resistance in N. battus. Infective larvae (L3; designated MNba2) were generated from the original material to conduct a controlled efficacy test (CET). Faecal egg counts showed an average of 37% reduction in the FBZ treated group 7 days post treatment compared to the untreated lambs. Average worm burden results showed no reduction after FBZ treatment compared to the untreated group (3850 and 3850 worms respectively). A molecular assay to assess the frequency of the commonly associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the ?-tubulin isotype 1 gene, F200Y and E198A, was developed. Larval genotypes were predominantly homozygous resistant at codon 200 SNP, ranging from 56%-83% and remained stable at 70% for adult worm populations taken from treated and control lambs in the CET. Only susceptible genotypes were found at codon 198. The allele frequency for F200Y ranged between 80-83% in adult worms taken from the CET from treated and control lambs. The results confirmed initial findings and demonstrated the first report of FBZ resistance in N. battus whilst providing evidence that the P200 point mutation in the ?-tubulin isotype 1 gene is a potential mechanism of resistance in the species. PMID:25487605

  15. Kinetics of exsheathment of infective ovine and bovine strongylid larvae in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, H; Huwyler, U; Kohler, L; Rehbein, St; Wanner, M

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the longitudinal changes of exsheathment of ovine and bovine 3rd-stage strongylid larvae in an artificial rumen (RUSITEC) and to compare the results with in vivo data obtained from rumen-fistulated sheep. Infective larvae were incubated in nylon mesh bags in the sheep rumen or the RUSITEC apparatus for periods of 1, 6 and 12 h, respectively. The 12 h exsheathment rates in the rumen and the RUSITEC apparatus (in parentheses) were as follows: Haemonchus contortus: 100% (100%), Ostertagia circumcincta: 100% (76%), O. leptospicularis: 100%. (100%), O. ostertagi: 53% (59%), Trichostrongylus axei: 100% (100%), T. colubriformis: 37% (36%), Cooperia curticei: 94% (76%), C. oncophora: 95% (89%), Nematodirusfilicollis: 0% (N.D.), N. spathiger: 11% (15%), N. battus: 7% (5%), Oesophagostomum venulosum: 17% (9%), Chabertia ovina: 7% (2%), Dictyocaulusfilaria: 1% (N.D.). Larvae of Nematodirus spp. and T. colubriformis showed a quick rise of the exsheathment rate 2 h after transfer into the abomasum. These results confirm that exsheathment generally occurs in the part of the gastrointestinal tract immediately anterior to the habitat of the adult parasite. The overall similar course of exsheathment in both systems indicates that the essential stimuli for exsheathment were generated and maintained under in vitro conditions of the artificial rumen. In both systems, the bicarbonate concentration and the pH reflected a similar status of the H2CO3/HC-3 buffer system, which is known to provide the essential stimuli for larval exsheathment of the abomasal species. These results give evidence that the RUSITEC system represents a valid system for studying the kinetics of exsheathment of strongylid nematodes under in vitro conditions. For 7 of the species investigated the obtained results represent the first data on larval exsheathment in vivo and in vitro. PMID:12166522

  16. Orexigenic Gene Expression in Late Gestation Ovine Foetal Hypothalamus is Sensitive to Maternal Undernutrition and Realimentation.

    PubMed

    Adam, C L; Williams, P A; Milne, J S; Aitken, R P; Wallace, J M

    2015-10-01

    Adverse nutritional effects on developing foetal hypothalamic appetitive pathways may contribute to programmed hyperphagia and obesity in intra-uterine growth-restricted, low birth weight offspring. In the present study, for the first time, hypothalamic gene expression for primary orexigenic and anorexigenic genes was examined in late gestation ovine foetuses (130 days; term=145 days) whose mothers were undernourished (UN) or well-nourished (C) throughout pregnancy, or transferred from UN to C on day 90 (UN-C). Pregnancies resulted from singleton embryo transfer into adolescent growing ewes. Body weight, carcass fat content and perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) mass were all lower for UN (n=9) than C (n=7) and intermediate for UN-C foetuses (n=6), with no effect of sex. PAT leptin gene expression (by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) was lower in UN than C and UN-C groups, and lower in males than females. Gene expression (by in situ hybridisation with radiolabelled riboprobes) in the arcuate nucleus was greater in UN than C foetuses for neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AGRP) and leptin receptor (OBRb) but not different for pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript. Gene expression in UN-C foetuses was intermediate for NPY and AGRP and not different from C foetuses for OBRb. Gene expression for NPY, AGRP and OBRb correlated negatively with foetal carcass fat content and with PAT leptin gene expression across all groups. Males had greater mRNA expression for AGRP than females, with NPY and OBRb showing similar trends. Therefore, maternal undernutrition throughout pregnancy increased orexigenic gene expression in the late gestation foetal hypothalamus, and expression levels were largely normalised by improved maternal nutrition in the last third of pregnancy. These findings may have implications for avoiding or correcting prenatal programming of postnatal hyperphagia and obesity. PMID:26212239

  17. Ovine herpesvirus 2 infection in american bison: virus and host dynamics in the development of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) is a gammaherpesvirus that causes sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), a frequently fatal disease mainly of ruminants. This study was designed to define virus-host dynamics following experimental OvHV-2 infection in bison. A transient peak in viral DNA ac...

  18. Intra-nasal Inoculation of American Bison (Bison bison) with Ovine Herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) Reliably Reproduces Malignant Catarrhal Fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever due to infection with ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) is common in commercial herds of American bison (Bison bison). Inability to propagate OvHV-2 in vitro constrains experimental studies of the disease. We sought to establish whether nasal secretions from s...

  19. OVINE PROGRESSIVE PNEUMONIA VIRUS CAPSID IS B-CELL IMMUNODOMINANT USING WESTERN BLOT ANALYSIS: A COMPARISON OF SENSITIVITY BETWEEN WESTERN BLOT ANALYSIS AND IMMUNOPRECIPITATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A western blot assay (WB) was developed and analyzed against the comparable standard, immunoprecipitation of 35[S] methionine/cysteine-labeled ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) proteins (IP), for its ability to detect anti-OPPV antibodies using endpoint titers. WB is 12-fold more sensitive i...

  20. Detection of ovine herpesvirus 2 major capsid gene transcripts as an indicator of virus replication in shedding sheep and clinically affected animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to identify tissues where Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) replication occurs in vivo. A reverse-transcriptase PCR targeting the OvHV-2 major capsid protein gene (ORF 25) was developed and the presence of transcripts used as an indicator of virus replication in naturally infect...

  1. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus Capsid Antigen as Found in CD163- and CD172a-Positive Alveolar Macrophages of Persistently Infected Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In situ detection of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) and the phenotypic identification of the cells which harbor OPPV have not been described for the OPPV affected tissues which include lung, mammary gland, synovial membranes of the carpal joint, and choroid plexus of the brain. In this st...

  2. Trends in the microbial contamination of bovine, ovine and swine carcasses in three small-scale abattoirs in central Italy: A four-year monitoring.

    PubMed

    Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Osimani, Andrea; Pasquini, Marina; Clementi, Francesca; Vetrano, Vittorio; Paolini, Francesca; Foglini, Martina; Micci, Eleonora; Paoloni, Alberto; Tonucci, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The microbial contamination of animal carcasses with respect to the limits established by Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 was investigated. Bovine, ovine, and swine carcasses (n=536 samples) from three small-scale abattoirs were sampled using abrasive sponges and tested for aerobic colony counts (ACC) and Enterobacteriaceae in the period 2010-2013. Mean ACC values reached 1.96logcfu/cm(2) on bovine carcasses and 2.27logcfu/cm(2) on both swine and ovine carcasses; Enterobacteriaceae counts of 0.01, 0.20 and 0.27logcfu/cm(2) were found for bovine, swine and ovine carcasses, respectively. Abattoir 1 showed the highest values of ACC; no differences among abattoirs were highlighted for Enterobacteriaceae. Compared with swine and ovine carcasses, bovine carcasses showed significantly lower means for both ACC and Enterobacteriaceae. The data collected indicated that the management of the three abattoirs met high quality standards, thereby proving that it is feasible to achieve good microbiological quality in abattoirs when adequate Good Hygiene Practices are applied. PMID:26340741

  3. Two proximal activating protein-1-binding sites are sufficient to stimulate transcription of the ovine follicle-stimulating hormone-beta gene

    EPA Science Inventory

    FSH is an important regulator of mammalian gametogenesis and the female reproductive cycle. Although little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the beta-subunit (the rate-limiting subunit of FSH synthesis), sequence analysis of the ovine FSHbeta promoter has revealed...

  4. Regeneration of nucleus pulposus tissue in an ovine intervertebral disc degeneration model by cell-free resorbable polymer scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Woiciechowsky, Christian; Abbushi, Alexander; Zenclussen, Maria L; Casalis, Pablo; Krüger, Jan Philipp; Freymann, Undine; Endres, Michaela; Kaps, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Degeneration of intervertebral discs (IVDs) occurs frequently and is often associated with lower back pain. Recent treatment options are limited and treat the symptoms rather than regenerate the degenerated disc. Cell-free, freeze-dried resorbable polyglycolic acid (PGA)-hyaluronan implants were used in an ovine IVD degeneration model. The nucleus pulposus of the IVD was partially removed, endoscopically. PGA-hyaluronan implants were immersed in autologous sheep serum and implanted into the disc defect. Animals with nucleotomy only served as controls. The T2-weighted/fat suppression sequence signal intensity index of the operated discs, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), showed that implantation of the PGA-hyaluronan implant improved (p = 0.0066) the MRI signal compared to controls at 6 months after surgery. Histological analysis by haematoxylin and eosin and safranin O staining showed the ingrowth of cells with typical chondrocytic morphology, even cell distribution, and extracellular matrix rich in proteoglycan. Histomorphometric analyses confirmed that the implantation of the PGA-hyaluronan scaffolds improved (p = 0.027) the formation of regenerated tissue after nucleotomy. Disc heights remained stable in discs with nucleotomy only as well as after implantation of the implant. In conclusion, implantation of cell-free polymer-based implants after nucleotomy induces nucleus pulposus tissue regeneration and improves disc water content in the ovine model. PMID:22865642

  5. A gene duplication affecting expression of the ovine ASIP gene is responsible for white and black sheep

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Belinda J.; Whan, Vicki A.

    2008-01-01

    Agouti signaling protein (ASIP) functions to regulate pigmentation in mice, while its role in many other animals and in humans has not been fully determined. In this study, we identify a 190-kb tandem duplication encompassing the ovine ASIP and AHCY coding regions and the ITCH promoter region as the genetic cause of white coat color of dominant white/tan (AWt) agouti sheep. The duplication 5? breakpoint is located upstream of the ASIP coding sequence. Ubiquitous expression of a second copy of the ASIP coding sequence regulated by a duplicated copy of the nearby ITCH promoter causes the white sheep phenotype. A single copy ASIP gene with a silenced ASIP promoter occurs in recessive black sheep. In contrast, a single copy functional wild-type (A+) ASIP is responsible for the ancient Barbary sheep coat color phenotype. The gene duplication was facilitated by homologous recombination between two non-LTR SINE sequences flanking the duplicated segment. This is the first sheep trait attributable to gene duplication and shows nonallelic homologous recombination and gene conversion events at the ovine ASIP locus could have an important role in the evolution of sheep pigmentation. PMID:18493018

  6. Syntactic Complexity induces Explicit Grounding in the MapTask corpus 

    E-print Network

    Tietze, Martin; Demberg, Vera; Moore, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides evidence for theories of grounding and dialogue management in human conversation. For each utterance in a corpus of task-oriented dialogues, we calculated integration costs, which are based on syntactic ...

  7. The Blizzard Challenge 2005: Evaluating corpus-based speech synthesis on common datasets

    E-print Network

    Black, Alan W

    The Blizzard Challenge ­ 2005: Evaluating corpus-based speech synthesis on common datasets Alan W to the result- ing synthetic voice quality. 2. A common dataset The key aspect of the Blizzard Challenge [2

  8. xGENIA: A comprehensive OWL ontology based on the GENIA corpus

    PubMed Central

    Rak, Rafal; Kurgan, Lukasz; Reformat, Marek

    2007-01-01

    The GENIA ontology is a taxonomy that was developed as a result of manual annotation of a subset of MEDLINE, the GENIA corpus. Both the ontology and corpus have been used as a benchmark to test and develop biological information extraction tools. Recent work shows, however, that there is a demand for a more comprehensive ontology that would go along with the corpus. We propose a complete OWL ontology built on top of the GENIA ontology utilizing the GENIA corpus. The proposed ontology includes elements such as the original taxonomy of categories, biological entities as individuals, relations between individuals using verbs and verb nominalizations as object properties, and links to the UMLS® Metathesaurus concepts. Availability http://www.ece.ualberta.ca/~rrak/ontology/xGENIA/ PMID:17597921

  9. Corpus-based annotated test set for Machine Translation evaluation by an IndustrialUser

    E-print Network

    of the maintenance manual of the Super Puma helicopter made it possible to identify the pragmatic characteristics structured documentation The corpus we chose to study is the maintenance manual for the Super Puma helicopter

  10. Web Text Corpus for Natural Language Processing Vinci Liu and James R. Curran

    E-print Network

    Curran, James R.

    Web Text Corpus for Natural Language Processing Vinci Liu and James R. Curran School of Information Technologies University of Sydney NSW 2006, Australia {vinci,james}@it.usyd.edu.au Abstract Web text has been

  11. Isolation and analysis of the 3 -untranslated regions of the human relaxin H1 and H2 genes

    E-print Network

    Bryant-Greenwood, Gillian D.

    and co- expressed in the decidua, placenta and prostate; in the corpus luteum, the main source (A)+ RNA from human decidua, placenta, prostate and corpus luteum. The sequences obtained for each 3), placenta (Sakbun et al. 1990), breast (Tashima et al. 1994), and gastrointestinal tract (Stemmerman et al

  12. The CHEMDNER corpus of chemicals and drugs and its annotation principles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The automatic extraction of chemical information from text requires the recognition of chemical entity mentions as one of its key steps. When developing supervised named entity recognition (NER) systems, the availability of a large, manually annotated text corpus is desirable. Furthermore, large corpora permit the robust evaluation and comparison of different approaches that detect chemicals in documents. We present the CHEMDNER corpus, a collection of 10,000 PubMed abstracts that contain a total of 84,355 chemical entity mentions labeled manually by expert chemistry literature curators, following annotation guidelines specifically defined for this task. The abstracts of the CHEMDNER corpus were selected to be representative for all major chemical disciplines. Each of the chemical entity mentions was manually labeled according to its structure-associated chemical entity mention (SACEM) class: abbreviation, family, formula, identifier, multiple, systematic and trivial. The difficulty and consistency of tagging chemicals in text was measured using an agreement study between annotators, obtaining a percentage agreement of 91. For a subset of the CHEMDNER corpus (the test set of 3,000 abstracts) we provide not only the Gold Standard manual annotations, but also mentions automatically detected by the 26 teams that participated in the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER chemical mention recognition task. In addition, we release the CHEMDNER silver standard corpus of automatically extracted mentions from 17,000 randomly selected PubMed abstracts. A version of the CHEMDNER corpus in the BioC format has been generated as well. We propose a standard for required minimum information about entity annotations for the construction of domain specific corpora on chemical and drug entities. The CHEMDNER corpus and annotation guidelines are available at: http://www.biocreative.org/resources/biocreative-iv/chemdner-corpus/ PMID:25810773

  13. MRI evaluation of pathologies affecting the corpus callosum: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Kazi, Aamish Z; Joshi, Priscilla C; Kelkar, Abhimanyu B; Mahajan, Mangal S; Ghawate, Amit S

    2013-01-01

    The corpus callosum is a midline cerebral structure and has a unique embryological development pattern. In this article, we describe the pathophysiology and present imaging findings of various typical/atypical conditions affecting the corpus callosum. Since many of these pathologies have characteristic appearances on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their therapeutic approaches are poles apart, ranging from medical to surgical, the neuroradiologist should be well aware of them. PMID:24604936

  14. The CHEMDNER corpus of chemicals and drugs and its annotation principles.

    PubMed

    Krallinger, Martin; Rabal, Obdulia; Leitner, Florian; Vazquez, Miguel; Salgado, David; Lu, Zhiyong; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Yanan; Ji, Donghong; Lowe, Daniel M; Sayle, Roger A; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Rak, Rafal; Huber, Torsten; Rocktäschel, Tim; Matos, Sérgio; Campos, David; Tang, Buzhou; Xu, Hua; Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Ryu, Keun Ho; Ramanan, S V; Nathan, Senthil; Žitnik, Slavko; Bajec, Marko; Weber, Lutz; Irmer, Matthias; Akhondi, Saber A; Kors, Jan A; Xu, Shuo; An, Xin; Sikdar, Utpal Kumar; Ekbal, Asif; Yoshioka, Masaharu; Dieb, Thaer M; Choi, Miji; Verspoor, Karin; Khabsa, Madian; Giles, C Lee; Liu, Hongfang; Ravikumar, Komandur Elayavilli; Lamurias, Andre; Couto, Francisco M; Dai, Hong-Jie; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Ata, Caglar; Can, Tolga; Usié, Anabel; Alves, Rui; Segura-Bedmar, Isabel; Martínez, Paloma; Oyarzabal, Julen; Valencia, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The automatic extraction of chemical information from text requires the recognition of chemical entity mentions as one of its key steps. When developing supervised named entity recognition (NER) systems, the availability of a large, manually annotated text corpus is desirable. Furthermore, large corpora permit the robust evaluation and comparison of different approaches that detect chemicals in documents. We present the CHEMDNER corpus, a collection of 10,000 PubMed abstracts that contain a total of 84,355 chemical entity mentions labeled manually by expert chemistry literature curators, following annotation guidelines specifically defined for this task. The abstracts of the CHEMDNER corpus were selected to be representative for all major chemical disciplines. Each of the chemical entity mentions was manually labeled according to its structure-associated chemical entity mention (SACEM) class: abbreviation, family, formula, identifier, multiple, systematic and trivial. The difficulty and consistency of tagging chemicals in text was measured using an agreement study between annotators, obtaining a percentage agreement of 91. For a subset of the CHEMDNER corpus (the test set of 3,000 abstracts) we provide not only the Gold Standard manual annotations, but also mentions automatically detected by the 26 teams that participated in the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER chemical mention recognition task. In addition, we release the CHEMDNER silver standard corpus of automatically extracted mentions from 17,000 randomly selected PubMed abstracts. A version of the CHEMDNER corpus in the BioC format has been generated as well. We propose a standard for required minimum information about entity annotations for the construction of domain specific corpora on chemical and drug entities. The CHEMDNER corpus and annotation guidelines are available at: http://www.biocreative.org/resources/biocreative-iv/chemdner-corpus/. PMID:25810773

  15. MRI and MR spectroscopy findings of a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis affecting the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Mehmet; S???rc?, Ahmet; Yak?nc?, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, slowly progressive, fatal, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease that is seen mostly in children and young adolescents, and primarily affects the parieto-occipital lobes. The corpus callosum, cerebellum and basal ganglia are less frequently involved. MR spectroscopy (MRS) may illustrate the pathophysiological features of SSPE. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report of MRS findings of corpus callosum involvement in a stage 3 SSPE case. PMID:26163552

  16. Occurrence of bilaterally independent epileptic spasms after a corpus callosotomy in West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Endoh, Fumika; Toda, Yoshihiro; Oka, Makio; Baba, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Yoko; Yoshinaga, Harumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with intractable West syndrome whose epileptic spasms (ESs) were initially bilaterally synchronous, as is typical; after a complete corpus callosotomy, however, bilaterally independent ESs originated in either hemisphere. Activity of probable cortical origin associated with ESs was detected by observing ictal gamma oscillations. Brain MRI revealed no structural abnormality before surgery. This case suggests that ESs with a hemispheric origin may appear generalized because of synchronizing effects in the corpus callosum in some patients. PMID:25998967

  17. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Schemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For long it was believed that a particular population of enteric neurons, referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPAN)s, encodes mechanical stimulation. We recently proposed a new concept suggesting that there are in addition mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) that are multifunctional. Based on firing pattern MEN behaved as rapidly, slowly, or ultra-slowly adapting RAMEN, SAMEN, or USAMEN, respectively. We aimed to validate this concept in the myenteric plexus of the gastric corpus, a region where IPANs were not identified and existence of enteric sensory neurons was even questioned. The gastric corpus is characterized by a particularly dense extrinsic sensory innervation. Neuronal activity was recorded with voltage sensitive dye imaging after deformation of ganglia by compression (intraganglionic volume injection or von Fry hair) or tension (ganglionic stretch). We demonstrated that 27% of the gastric neurons were MEN and responded to intraganglionic volume injection. Of these 73% were RAMEN, 25% SAMEN, and 2% USAMEN with a firing frequency of 1.7 (1.1/2.2), 5.1 (2.2/7.7), and of 5.4 (5.0/15.5) Hz, respectively. The responses were reproducible and stronger with increased stimulus strength. Even after adaptation another deformation evoked spike discharge again suggesting a resetting mode of the mechanoreceptors. All MEN received fast synaptic input. Fifty five percent of all MEN were cholinergic and 45% nitrergic. Responses in some MEN significantly decreased after perfusion of TTX, low Ca++/high Mg++ Krebs solution, capsaicin induced nerve defunctionalization and capsazepine indicating the involvement of TRPV1 expressing extrinsic mechanosensitive nerves. Half of gastric MEN responded to intraganglionic volume injection as well as to ganglionic stretch and 23% responded to stretch only. Tension-sensitive MEN were to a large proportion USAMEN (44%). In summary, we demonstrated for the first time compression and tension-sensitive MEN in the stomach; many of them responded to one stimulus modality only. Their proportions and the basic properties were similar to MEN previously identified by us in other intestinal region and species. Unlike in the intestine, the responsiveness of some gastric MEN is enhanced by extrinsic TRPV1 expressing visceral afferents. PMID:26578888

  18. Transcriptome signatures in Helicobacter pylori-infected mucosa identifies acidic mammalian chitinase loss as a corpus atrophy marker

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The majority of gastric cancer cases are believed to be caused by chronic infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, and atrophic corpus gastritis is a predisposing condition to gastric cancer development. We aimed to increase understanding of the molecular details of atrophy by performing a global transcriptome analysis of stomach tissue. Methods Biopsies from patients with different stages of H. pylori infection were taken from both the antrum and corpus mucosa and analyzed on microarrays. The stages included patients without current H. pylori infection, H. pylori-infected without corpus atrophy and patients with current or past H. pylori-infection with corpus-predominant atrophic gastritis. Results Using clustering and integrated analysis, we found firm evidence for antralization of the corpus mucosa of atrophy patients. This antralization harbored gain of gastrin expression, as well as loss of expression of corpus-related genes, such as genes associated with acid production, energy metabolism and blood clotting. The analyses provided detailed molecular evidence for simultaneous intestinal metaplasia (IM) and spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in atrophic corpus tissue. Finally, acidic mammalian chitinase, a chitin-degrading enzyme produced by chief cells, was shown to be strongly down-regulated in corpus atrophy. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis revealed several gene groups which are related to development of corpus atrophy, some of which were increased also in H. pylori-infected non-atrophic patients. Furthermore, loss of acidic chitinase expression is a promising marker for corpus atrophy. PMID:24119614

  19. Electrode-Skin contact impedance: In vivo measurements on an ovine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, D. T.; Kosobrodov, R.; Barry, M. A.; Chik, W.; Jin, C.; Oh, T. I.; Thiagalingam, A.; McEwan, A.

    2013-04-01

    The problem of electrical impedance between the skin and the electrode is an on-going challenge in bio-electronics. This is particularly true in the case of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), which uses a large number of skin-contact electrodes and is very sensitive to noise. In the present article, contact impedance is measured and compared for a range of electrodes placed on the thorax of an ovine model. The study has been approved by the Westmead Hospital Animal Ethics Committee. The electrode models that were employed in the research are Ag/AgCl electrodes (E1), commonly used for ECG and EIT measurements in both humans and animal models, stainless steel crocodile clips (E2), typically used on animal models, and novel multi-point dry electrodes in two modifications: bronze plated (E3) and nickel plated (E4). Further, since the contact impedance is mostly attributed to the acellular outer layer of the skin, in our experiment, we attempted to study the effect of this layer by comparing the results when the skin is intact and when electrodes are introduced underneath the skin through small cuts. This boundary effect was assessed by comparison of measurements obtained during E2 skin surface contact, and sub-cutaneous contact (E5). Twelve gauge intradermal needles were also tested as an electrode (E6). The full impedance spectrum, from 500 Hz to 300 kHz, was recorded, analysed and compared. As expected, the contact impedance in the more invasive cases, i.e the electrodes under the skin, is significantly lower than in the non-invasive cases. At the frequency of 50 kHz which is commonly used in lung EIT acquisition, electrodes E3, E4 and E6 demonstrated contact impedance of less than 200 ?, compared to more than 400 ? measured for electrodes E1, E2 and E5. In conclusion, the novel multipoint electrodes proved to be best suited for EIT purposes, because they are non-invasive and have lower contact impedance than Ag/AgCl and crocodile clips, in both invasive and non-invasive cases. This further prompted us to design a flexible electrode belt using the novel multi-point electrodes for lung EIT on animal models.

  20. Calcification in the ovine intervertebral disc: a model of hydroxyapatite deposition disease

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, D.; Taylor, T. K. F.; Dillon, C. T.; Read, R.; Cake, M.; Little, C. B.

    2009-01-01

    The study design included a multidisciplinary examination of the mineral phase of ovine intervertebral disc calcifications. The objective of the study was to investigate the mineral phase and its mechanisms of formation/association with degeneration in a naturally occurring animal model of disc calcification. The aetiology of dystrophic disc calcification in adult humans is unknown, but occurs as a well-described clinical disorder with hydroxyapatite as the single mineral phase. Comparable but age-related pathology in the sheep could serve as a model for the human disorder. Lumbar intervertebral discs (n = 134) of adult sheep of age 6 years (n = 4), 8 years (n = 12) and 11 years (n = 2) were evaluated using radiography, morphology, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, histology, immunohistology and proteoglycan analysis. Half of the 6-year, 84% of the 8-year and 86% of the 11-year-old discs had calcific deposits. These were not well delineated by plain radiography. They were either: (a) punctate deposits in the outer annulus, (b) diffuse deposits in the transitional zone or inner annulus fibrosus with occasional deposits in the nucleus, or (c) large deposits in the transitional zone extending variably into the nucleus. Their maximal incidence was in the lower lumbar discs (L4/5–L6/7) with no calcification seen in the lumbosacral or lower thoracic discs. All deposits were hydroxyapatite with large crystallite sizes (800–1,300 Å) compared to cortical bone (300–600 Å). No type X-collagen, osteopontin or osteonectin were detected in calcific deposits, although positive staining for bone sialoprotein was evident. Calcified discs had less proteoglycan of smaller hydrodynamic size than non-calcified discs. Disc calcification in ageing sheep is due to hydroxyapatite deposition. The variable, but large, crystal size and lack of protein markers indicate that this does not occur by an endochondral ossification-like process. The decrease in disc proteoglycan content and size suggests that calcification may precede or predispose to disc degeneration in ageing sheep. PMID:19165512

  1. Corpus et dictionnaires de langues de spcialit, Lyon 2, 28-29 septembre 2006 Corpus spcialis et ressource de spcialit : l'information forme

    E-print Network

    Institut des Sciences Cognitives, CNRS

    statistique de représentation visuelle de la sémantique lexicale basé sur l'examen des relations entre les mots. Une application de ce modèle à des relations de proximité contextuelle dans un corpus a permis de, approche mixte, linguistique, statistique 1. Introduction Depuis quelques années, les disciplines liées à

  2. Analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Survival in Ovine or Bovine Manure and Manure Slurry

    PubMed Central

    Kudva, Indira T.; Blanch, Kathryn; Hovde, Carolyn J.

    1998-01-01

    Farm animal manure or manure slurry may disseminate, transmit, or propagate Escherichia coli O157:H7. In this study, the survival and growth of E. coli O157:H7 in ovine or bovine feces under various experimental and environmental conditions were determined. A manure pile collected from experimentally inoculated sheep was incubated outside under fluctuating environmental conditions. E. coli O157:H7 survived in the manure for 21 months, and the concentrations of bacteria recovered ranged from <102 to 106 CFU/g at different times over the course of the experiment. The DNA fingerprints of E. coli O157:H7 isolated at month 1 and month 12 were identical or very similar. A second E. coli O157:H7-positive ovine manure pile, which was periodically aerated by mixing, remained culture positive for 4 months. An E. coli O157:H7-positive bovine manure pile was culture positive for 47 days. In the laboratory, E. coli O157:H7 was inoculated into feces, untreated slurry, or treated slurry and incubated at ?20, 4, 23, 37, 45, and 70°C. E. coli O157:H7 survived best in manure incubated without aeration at temperatures below 23°C, but it usually survived for shorter periods of time than it survived in manure held in the environment. The bacterium survived at least 100 days in bovine manure frozen at ?20°C or in ovine manure incubated at 4 or 10°C for 100 days, but under all other conditions the length of time that it survived ranged from 24 h to 40 days. In addition, we found that the Shiga toxin type 1 and 2 genes in E. coli O157:H7 had little or no influence on bacterial survival in manure or manure slurry. The long-term survival of E. coli O157:H7 in manure emphasizes the need for appropriate farm waste management to curtail environmental spread of this bacterium. This study also highlights the difficulties in extrapolating laboratory data to on-farm conditions. PMID:9726855

  3. Nicotine in High Concentration Causes Contraction of Isolated Strips of Rabbit Corpus Cavernosum

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hoai Bac; Lee, Shin Young; Park, Soo Hyun; Han, Jun Hyun

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that cigarette smoke can cause erectile dysfunction by affecting the penile vascular system. However, the exact effects of nicotine on the corpus cavernosum remains poorly understood. Nicotine has been reported to cause relaxation of the corpus cavernosum; it has also been reported to cause both contraction and relaxation. Therefore, high concentrations of nicotine were studied in strips from the rabbit corpus cavernosum to better understand its effects. The proximal penile corpus cavernosal strips from male rabbits weighing approximately 4 kg were used in organ bath studies. Nicotine in high concentrations (10-5~10-4 M) produced dose-dependent contractions of the corpus cavernosal strips. The incubation with 10-5 M hexamethonium (nicotinic receptor antagonist) significantly inhibited the magnitude of the nicotine associated contractions. The nicotine-induced contractions were not only significantly inhibited by pretreatment with 10-5 M indomethacin (nonspecific cyclooxygenase inhibitor) and with 10-6 M NS-398 (selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor), but also with 10-6 M Y-27632 (Rho kinase inhibitor). Ozagrel (thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor) and SQ-29548 (highly selective TP receptor antagonist) pretreatments significantly reduced the nicotine-induced contractile amplitude of the strips. High concentrations of nicotine caused contraction of isolated rabbit corpus cavernosal strips. This contraction appeared to be mediated by activation of nicotinic receptors. Rho-kinase and cyclooxygenase pathways, especially cyclooxygenase-2 and thromboxane A2, might play a pivotal role in the mechanism associated with nicotine-induced contraction of the rabbit corpus cavernosum. PMID:25954131

  4. Characterizing the Google Books Corpus: Strong Limits to Inferences of Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Evolution.

    PubMed

    Pechenick, Eitan Adam; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-01-01

    It is tempting to treat frequency trends from the Google Books data sets as indicators of the "true" popularity of various words and phrases. Doing so allows us to draw quantitatively strong conclusions about the evolution of cultural perception of a given topic, such as time or gender. However, the Google Books corpus suffers from a number of limitations which make it an obscure mask of cultural popularity. A primary issue is that the corpus is in effect a library, containing one of each book. A single, prolific author is thereby able to noticeably insert new phrases into the Google Books lexicon, whether the author is widely read or not. With this understood, the Google Books corpus remains an important data set to be considered more lexicon-like than text-like. Here, we show that a distinct problematic feature arises from the inclusion of scientific texts, which have become an increasingly substantive portion of the corpus throughout the 1900s. The result is a surge of phrases typical to academic articles but less common in general, such as references to time in the form of citations. We use information theoretic methods to highlight these dynamics by examining and comparing major contributions via a divergence measure of English data sets between decades in the period 1800-2000. We find that only the English Fiction data set from the second version of the corpus is not heavily affected by professional texts. Overall, our findings call into question the vast majority of existing claims drawn from the Google Books corpus, and point to the need to fully characterize the dynamics of the corpus before using these data sets to draw broad conclusions about cultural and linguistic evolution. PMID:26445406

  5. Magnetic resonance findings of the corpus callosum in canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Tamura, Shinji; Nakamoto, Yuya; Matsuki, Naoaki; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Fujita, Michio; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yamato, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have described magnetic resonance (MR) findings in canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases such as gangliosidoses and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Although most of those studies described the signal intensities of white matter in the cerebrum, findings of the corpus callosum were not described in detail. A retrospective study was conducted on MR findings of the corpus callosum as well as the rostral commissure and the fornix in 18 cases of canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases. This included 6 Shiba Inu dogs and 2 domestic shorthair cats with GM1 gangliosidosis; 2 domestic shorthair cats, 2 familial toy poodles, and a golden retriever with GM2 gangliosidosis; and 2 border collies and 3 chihuahuas with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, to determine whether changes of the corpus callosum is an imaging indicator of those diseases. The corpus callosum and the rostral commissure were difficult to recognize in all cases of juvenile-onset gangliosidoses (GM1 gangliosidosis in Shiba Inu dogs and domestic shorthair cats and GM2 gangliosidosis in domestic shorthair cats) and GM2 gangliosidosis in toy poodles with late juvenile-onset. In contrast, the corpus callosum and the rostral commissure were confirmed in cases of GM2 gangliosidosis in a golden retriever and canine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses with late juvenile- to early adult-onset, but were extremely thin. Abnormal findings of the corpus callosum on midline sagittal images may be a useful imaging indicator for suspecting lysosomal storage diseases, especially hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the corpus callosum in juvenile-onset gangliosidoses. PMID:24386203

  6. Magnetic Resonance Findings of the Corpus Callosum in Canine and Feline Lysosomal Storage Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Tamura, Shinji; Nakamoto, Yuya; Matsuki, Naoaki; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Fujita, Michio; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yamato, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have described magnetic resonance (MR) findings in canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases such as gangliosidoses and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Although most of those studies described the signal intensities of white matter in the cerebrum, findings of the corpus callosum were not described in detail. A retrospective study was conducted on MR findings of the corpus callosum as well as the rostral commissure and the fornix in 18 cases of canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases. This included 6 Shiba Inu dogs and 2 domestic shorthair cats with GM1 gangliosidosis; 2 domestic shorthair cats, 2 familial toy poodles, and a golden retriever with GM2 gangliosidosis; and 2 border collies and 3 chihuahuas with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, to determine whether changes of the corpus callosum is an imaging indicator of those diseases. The corpus callosum and the rostral commissure were difficult to recognize in all cases of juvenile-onset gangliosidoses (GM1 gangliosidosis in Shiba Inu dogs and domestic shorthair cats and GM2 gangliosidosis in domestic shorthair cats) and GM2 gangliosidosis in toy poodles with late juvenile-onset. In contrast, the corpus callosum and the rostral commissure were confirmed in cases of GM2 gangliosidosis in a golden retriever and canine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses with late juvenile- to early adult-onset, but were extremely thin. Abnormal findings of the corpus callosum on midline sagittal images may be a useful imaging indicator for suspecting lysosomal storage diseases, especially hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the corpus callosum in juvenile-onset gangliosidoses. PMID:24386203

  7. Characterizing the Google Books Corpus: Strong Limits to Inferences of Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Pechenick, Eitan Adam; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-01-01

    It is tempting to treat frequency trends from the Google Books data sets as indicators of the “true” popularity of various words and phrases. Doing so allows us to draw quantitatively strong conclusions about the evolution of cultural perception of a given topic, such as time or gender. However, the Google Books corpus suffers from a number of limitations which make it an obscure mask of cultural popularity. A primary issue is that the corpus is in effect a library, containing one of each book. A single, prolific author is thereby able to noticeably insert new phrases into the Google Books lexicon, whether the author is widely read or not. With this understood, the Google Books corpus remains an important data set to be considered more lexicon-like than text-like. Here, we show that a distinct problematic feature arises from the inclusion of scientific texts, which have become an increasingly substantive portion of the corpus throughout the 1900s. The result is a surge of phrases typical to academic articles but less common in general, such as references to time in the form of citations. We use information theoretic methods to highlight these dynamics by examining and comparing major contributions via a divergence measure of English data sets between decades in the period 1800–2000. We find that only the English Fiction data set from the second version of the corpus is not heavily affected by professional texts. Overall, our findings call into question the vast majority of existing claims drawn from the Google Books corpus, and point to the need to fully characterize the dynamics of the corpus before using these data sets to draw broad conclusions about cultural and linguistic evolution. PMID:26445406

  8. Genetics of Microstructure of the Corpus Callosum in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kanchibhotla, Sri C.; Mather, Karen A.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Zhuang, Lin; Schofield, Peter R.; Kwok, John B. J.; Ames, David; Wright, Margaret J.; Trollor, Julian N.; Wen, Wei; Sachdev, Perminder S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to examine the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on corpus callosum (CC) microstructure in a community sample of older adult twins. Analyses were undertaken in 284 healthy older twins (66% female; 79 MZ and 63 DZ pairs) from the Older Australian Twins Study. The average age of the sample was 69.82 (SD?=?4.76) years. Brain imaging scans were collected and DTI measures were estimated for the whole CC as well as its five subregions. Parcellation of the CC was performed using Analyze. In addition, white matter lesion (WMLs) burden was estimated. Heritability and genetic correlation analyses were undertaken using the SOLAR software package. Age, sex, scanner, handedness and blood pressure were considered as covariates. Heritability (h2) analysis for the DTI metrics of whole CC, indicated significant h2 for fractional anisotropy (FA) (h2?=?0.56; p?=?2.89×10?10), mean diffusivity (MD) (h2?=?0.52; p?=?0.30×10?6), radial diffusivity (RD) (h2?=?0.49; p?=?0.2×10?6) and axial diffusivity (AD) (h2?=?0.37; p?=?8.15×10?5). We also performed bivariate genetic correlation analyses between (i) whole CC DTI measures and (ii) whole CC DTI measures with total brain WML burden. Across the DTI measures for the whole CC, MD and RD shared 84% of the common genetic variance, followed by MD- AD (77%), FA - RD (52%), RD - AD (37%) and FA – MD (11%). For total WMLs, significant genetic correlations indicated that there was 19% shared common genetic variance with whole CC MD, followed by CC RD (17%), CC AD (16%) and CC FA (5%). Our findings suggest that the CC microstructure is under moderate genetic control. There was also evidence of shared genetic factors between the CC DTI measures. In contrast, there was less shared genetic variance between WMLs and the CC DTI metrics, suggesting fewer common genetic variants. PMID:25514436

  9. Structural changes of the corpus callosum in tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Diesch, Eugen; Schummer, Verena; Kramer, Martin; Rupp, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: In tinnitus, several brain regions seem to be structurally altered, including the medial partition of Heschl's gyrus (mHG), the site of the primary auditory cortex. The mHG is smaller in tinnitus patients than in healthy controls. The corpus callosum (CC) is the main interhemispheric commissure of the brain connecting the auditory areas of the left and the right hemisphere. Here, we investigate whether tinnitus status is associated with CC volume. Methods: The midsagittal cross-sectional area of the CC was examined in tinnitus patients and healthy controls in which an examination of the mHG had been carried out earlier. The CC was extracted and segmented into subregions which were defined according to the most common CC morphometry schemes introduced by Witelson (1989) and Hofer and Frahm (2006). Results: For both CC segmentation schemes, the CC posterior midbody was smaller in male patients than in male healthy controls and the isthmus, the anterior midbody, and the genou were larger in female patients than in female controls. With CC size normalized relative to mHG volume, the normalized CC splenium was larger in male patients than male controls and the normalized CC splenium, the isthmus and the genou were larger in female patients than female controls. Normalized CC segment size expresses callosal interconnectivity relative to auditory cortex volume. Conclusion: It may be argued that the predominant function of the CC is excitatory. The stronger callosal interconnectivity in tinnitus patients, compared to healthy controls, may facilitate the emergence and maintenance of a positive feedback loop between tinnitus generators located in the two hemispheres. PMID:22470322

  10. Use of eukaryotic mitochondrial DNA to differentiate human, bovine, porcine and ovine sources in fecally contaminated surface water.

    PubMed

    Martellini, Anouk; Payment, Pierre; Villemur, Richard

    2005-02-01

    A molecular method based on the detection of mitochondrial DNA from various animal species was developed to track the origin of surface water pollutions, and to differentiate human and animal sources. Mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to design PCR primers specific for human, bovine, ovine and porcine DNA using single, multiplex and nested PCR protocols. The primers were tested with DNA extracted from untreated domestic sewage, agricultural soils run-off, swine farm effluents and water from two rivers with known pollution sources. At least one of the four species was detected in most of these samples. The limit of detection in wastewater was 10(3)-10(4) cells L(-1) with a multiplex PCR protocol. This is the first report of a method using eukaryotic genetic DNA to detect and differentiate animal DNA from fecal sources in water. This innovative method is simple and could be used to quickly differentiate sources of pollution in a watershed. PMID:15707626

  11. High-throughput assessment of bacterial ecology in hog, cow and ovine casings used in sausages production.

    PubMed

    Rebecchi, Annalisa; Pisacane, Vincenza; Miragoli, Francesco; Polka, Justyna; Falasconi, Irene; Morelli, Lorenzo; Puglisi, Edoardo

    2015-11-01

    Natural casings derived from different intestine portions have been used for centuries in the production of fresh and dry-fermented sausages. Here we analysed by means of culture-dependent methods and Illumina high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons the bacterial ecology of hog, cow and ovine casings at different stages of their preparation for sausages production. Several strains of Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Vagococcus and Clostridium were counted, isolated and characterised at phylogenetic level. High-throughput sequencing analyses revealed a high bacterial diversity, which differed strongly between casings of different animal species. The technological processes involved in the preparation for casing had also a strong impact on the casings bacterial ecology, with a significant reduction of undesired microorganisms, and an increase in the proportion of lactobacilli and staphylococci. Natural casings were demonstrated to be complex ecological environments, whose role as microbiological inoculants in the production of sausages should not be underestimated. PMID:26003605

  12. Metabolism of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) in ovine ruminal fluid under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Craig, A M; Latham, C J; Blythe, L L; Schmotzer, W B; O'Connor, O A

    1992-01-01

    The ability of ovine ruminal fluid to metabolize pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) from Senecio jacobaea under anaerobic conditions was evaluated. Four fistulated sheep fed PA served as individual sources of ruminal fluid, which was incubated in a defined minimal salts medium under two different anaerobic conditions, denitrifying and methanogenic. Anaerobic cultures amended with ovine ruminal fluids (20%), PA (100 micrograms/ml), and a defined minimal salts medium were monitored for a period of several days. These cultures revealed that while PA was not depleted in sterile, autoclaved controls or under denitrifying conditions, it was metabolized during periods of active methanogenesis under methanogenic conditions. In addition, samples of ruminal fluid were separated by differential centrifugation under anaerobic conditions, and the resultant supernatants were tested for their ability to metabolize PA as compared with those of the respective uncentrifuged control fluids. Uncentrifuged controls exhibited a PA depletion rate of -4.04 +/- 0.17 micrograms of PA per ml per h. Supernatants 1 (centrifuged at 41 x g for 2 min), 2 (centrifuged at 166 x g for 5 min), and 3 (centrifuged at 1,500 x g for 10 min) exhibited significantly slower depletion rates, with slopes of data representing -1.64 +/- 0.16, -1.44 +/- 0.16, and -1.48 +/- 0.16 micrograms of PA metabolized per ml per h, respectively, demonstrating no statistically significant difference among the supernatant cultures. Microscopic evaluations revealed that protozoa were present in the control whole ruminal fluid and to a lesser extent in supernatant 1, while supernatants 2 and 3 contained only bacteria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1444382

  13. Chronic Hypoxia Inhibits Sex Steroid Hormone-Mediated Attenuation of Ovine Uterine Arterial Myogenic Tone in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Katherine; Xiao, DaLiao; Huang, Xiaohui; Xue, Zhice; Yang, Shumei; Longo, Lawrence D.; Zhang, Lubo

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in ovine uterine arteries have demonstrated that sex steroid hormones upregulate ERK1/2 expression and downregulate PKC signaling pathway, resulting in the attenuated myogenic tone in pregnancy. The present study tested the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia during gesttation inhibits the sex steroid-mediated adaptation of ERK1/2 and PKC signaling pathways and increases the myogenic tone of uterine arteries. Uterine arteries were isolated from nonpregnant and near-term pregnant sheep that had been maintained at sea level (~300 m) or exposed to high altitude (3,801 m) hypoxia for 110 days. In contrast to the previous findings in normoxic animals, 17?-estradiol and progesterone failed to suppress PKC-induced contractions and the pressure-induced myogenic tone in uterine arteries from hypoxic animals. Western analyses showed that the sex steroids lost their effects on ERK1/2 expression and phospho-ERK1/2 levels, as well as the activation of PKC isozymes in uterine arteries of hypoxic ewes. In normoxic animals, pregnancy and the sex steroid treatments significantly increased uterine artery estrogen receptor ? and progesterone receptor B expression. Chronic hypoxia selectively downregulated estrogen receptor ? expression in uterine arteries of pregnant animals, and eliminated the upregulation of estrogen receptor ? in pregnancy or by the steroid treatments observed in normoxic animals. The results demonstrate that in the ovine uterine artery chronic hypoxia in pregnancy inhibits the sex steroid hormone-mediated adaptation of decreased myogenic tone by downregulating estrogen receptor ? expression, providing a mechanism linking hypoxia and maladaptation of uteroplacental circulation, and an increased risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy. PMID:20660818

  14. Platelet-activating factor induces ovine fetal pulmonary venous smooth muscle cell proliferation: role of epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weilin; Ibe, Basil O; Raj, J Usha

    2007-06-01

    We have previously reported that platelet-activating factor (PAF) is present in very high levels in the ovine fetal lung and circulation and that PAF serves as an important physiological vasoconstrictor of the pulmonary circulation in utero. However, it is not known whether PAF stimulates pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation. In this study, we used ovine fetal pulmonary venous SMCs as our model system to study the effects and mechanisms of action of PAF on SMC proliferation. We found that PAF induced SMC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. PAF also stimulated activation of both ERK and p38 but not c-Jun NH(2) terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways. PAF (10 nM) induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Specific inhibition of EGFR by AG-1478 and by the expression of a dominant-negative EGFR mutant in SMCs attenuated PAF-stimulated cell proliferation. Inhibition of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) release by CRM-197 and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) by GM-6001 abolished PAF-induced MAP kinase activation and cell proliferation. Increased alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity after PAF treatment in AP-HB-EGF fusion construct-transfected SMCs indicated that PAF induced the release of HB-EGF within 1 min. Gelatin zymography data showed that PAF stimulated MMP-2 activity and MMP-9 activity within 1 min. These results suggest that PAF promotes pulmonary vascular SMC proliferation via transactivation of EGFR through MMP activation and HB-EGF, resulting in p38 and ERK activation and that EGFR transactivation is essential for the mitogenic effect of PAF in pulmonary venous SMC. PMID:17322418

  15. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes

    PubMed Central

    Nitzsche, Björn; Frey, Stephen; Collins, Louis D.; Seeger, Johannes; Lobsien, Donald; Dreyer, Antje; Kirsten, Holger; Stoffel, Michael H.; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Boltze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs, and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM) that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams) were acquired on a 1.5 T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight (BW), age, and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM) and white (WM) matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and BW explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species. PMID:26089780

  16. Metabolism of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) in ovine ruminal fluid under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Craig, A M; Latham, C J; Blythe, L L; Schmotzer, W B; O'Connor, O A

    1992-09-01

    The ability of ovine ruminal fluid to metabolize pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) from Senecio jacobaea under anaerobic conditions was evaluated. Four fistulated sheep fed PA served as individual sources of ruminal fluid, which was incubated in a defined minimal salts medium under two different anaerobic conditions, denitrifying and methanogenic. Anaerobic cultures amended with ovine ruminal fluids (20%), PA (100 micrograms/ml), and a defined minimal salts medium were monitored for a period of several days. These cultures revealed that while PA was not depleted in sterile, autoclaved controls or under denitrifying conditions, it was metabolized during periods of active methanogenesis under methanogenic conditions. In addition, samples of ruminal fluid were separated by differential centrifugation under anaerobic conditions, and the resultant supernatants were tested for their ability to metabolize PA as compared with those of the respective uncentrifuged control fluids. Uncentrifuged controls exhibited a PA depletion rate of -4.04 +/- 0.17 micrograms of PA per ml per h. Supernatants 1 (centrifuged at 41 x g for 2 min), 2 (centrifuged at 166 x g for 5 min), and 3 (centrifuged at 1,500 x g for 10 min) exhibited significantly slower depletion rates, with slopes of data representing -1.64 +/- 0.16, -1.44 +/- 0.16, and -1.48 +/- 0.16 micrograms of PA metabolized per ml per h, respectively, demonstrating no statistically significant difference among the supernatant cultures. Microscopic evaluations revealed that protozoa were present in the control whole ruminal fluid and to a lesser extent in supernatant 1, while supernatants 2 and 3 contained only bacteria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1444382

  17. Antenatal Maternal Long-Term Hypoxia: Acclimatization Responses with Altered Gene Expression in Ovine Fetal Carotid Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Ravi; Van Wickle, Jonathan; Goyal, Dipali; Matei, Nathanael; Longo, Lawrence D.

    2013-01-01

    In humans and other species, long-term hypoxia (LTH) during pregnancy can lead to intrauterine growth restriction with reduced body/brain weight, dysregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF), and other problems. To identify the signal transduction pathways and critical molecules, which may be involved in acclimatization to high altitude LTH, we conducted microarray with advanced bioinformatic analysis on carotid arteries (CA) from the normoxic near-term ovine fetus at sea-level and those acclimatized to high altitude for 110+ days during gestation. In response to LTH acclimatization, in fetal CA we identified mRNA from 38 genes upregulated >2 fold (P<0.05) and 9 genes downregulated >2-fold (P<0.05). The major genes with upregulated mRNA were SLC1A3, Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein 3, IGF type 2 receptor, transforming growth factor (TGF) Beta-3, and genes involved in the AKT and BCL2 signal transduction networks. Most genes with upregulated mRNA have a common motif for Pbx/Knotted homeobox in the promoter region, and Sox family binding sites in the 3? un translated region (UTR). Genes with downregulated mRNA included those involved in the P53 pathway and 5-lipoxygenase activating proteins. The promoter region of all genes with downregulated mRNA, had a common 49 bp region with a binding site for DOT6 and TOD6, components of the RPD3 histone deacetylase complex RPD3C(L). We also identified miRNA complementary to a number of the altered genes. Thus, the present study identified molecules in the ovine fetus, which may play a role in the acclimatization response to high-altitude associated LTH. PMID:24367503

  18. Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine from corpus of guinea pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Shichijo, K; Sakurai-Yamashita, Y; Sekine, I; Taniyama, K

    1997-11-01

    Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine was identified in mucosa-free preparations (muscle layer including intramural plexus) from guinea pig stomach corpus by measuring tissue dopamine content and dopamine release and by immunohistochemical methods using a dopamine antiserum. Dopamine content in mucosa-free preparations of guinea pig gastric corpus was one-tenth of norepinephrine content. Electrical transmural stimulation of mucosa-free preparations of gastric corpus increased the release of endogenous dopamine in a frequency-dependent (3-20 Hz) manner. The stimulated release of dopamine was prevented by either removal of external Ca2+ or treatment with tetrodotoxin. Dopamine-immunopositive nerve fibers surrounding choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive ganglion cells were seen in the myenteric plexus of whole mount preparations of gastric corpus even after bilateral transection of the splanchnic nerve proximal to the junction with the vagal nerve (section of nerves between the celiac ganglion and stomach). Domperidone and sulpiride potentiated the stimulated release of acetylcholine and reversed the dopamine-induced inhibition of acetylcholine release from mucosa-free preparations. These results indicate that dopamine is physiologically released from neurons and from possible dopaminergic nerve terminals and regulates cholinergic neuronal activity in the corpus of guinea pig stomach. PMID:9374701

  19. The Nationwide Speech Project: A new corpus of American English dialects?

    PubMed Central

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual and acoustic research on dialect variation in the United States requires an appropriate corpus of spoken language materials. Existing speech corpora that include dialect variation are limited by poor recording quality, small numbers of talkers, and/or small samples of speech from each talker. The Nationwide Speech Project corpus was designed to contain a large amount of speech produced by male and female talkers representing the primary regional varieties of American English. Five male and five female talkers from each of six dialect regions in the United States were recorded reading words, sentences, passages, and in interviews with an experimenter, using high quality digital recording equipment in a sound-attenuated booth. The resulting corpus contains nearly an hour of speech from each of the 60 talkers that can be used in future research on the perception and production of dialect variation. PMID:21423815

  20. Genetics of microstructure of the corpus callosum in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kanchibhotla, Sri C; Mather, Karen A; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Zhuang, Lin; Schofield, Peter R; Kwok, John B J; Ames, David; Wright, Margaret J; Trollor, Julian N; Wen, Wei; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to examine the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on corpus callosum (CC) microstructure in a community sample of older adult twins. Analyses were undertaken in 284 healthy older twins (66% female; 79 MZ and 63 DZ pairs) from the Older Australian Twins Study. The average age of the sample was 69.82 (SD?=?4.76) years. Brain imaging scans were collected and DTI measures were estimated for the whole CC as well as its five subregions. Parcellation of the CC was performed using Analyze. In addition, white matter lesion (WMLs) burden was estimated. Heritability and genetic correlation analyses were undertaken using the SOLAR software package. Age, sex, scanner, handedness and blood pressure were considered as covariates. Heritability (h(2)) analysis for the DTI metrics of whole CC, indicated significant h(2) for fractional anisotropy (FA) (h(2)?=?0.56; p?=?2.89×10(-10)), mean diffusivity (MD) (h(2)?=?0.52; p?=?0.30×10(-6)), radial diffusivity (RD) (h(2)?=?0.49; p?=?0.2×10(-6)) and axial diffusivity (AD) (h(2)?=?0.37; p?=?8.15×10(-5)). We also performed bivariate genetic correlation analyses between (i) whole CC DTI measures and (ii) whole CC DTI measures with total brain WML burden. Across the DTI measures for the whole CC, MD and RD shared 84% of the common genetic variance, followed by MD-AD (77%), FA-RD (52%), RD-AD (37%) and FA-MD (11%). For total WMLs, significant genetic correlations indicated that there was 19% shared common genetic variance with whole CC MD, followed by CC RD (17%), CC AD (16%) and CC FA (5%). Our findings suggest that the CC microstructure is under moderate genetic control. There was also evidence of shared genetic factors between the CC DTI measures. In contrast, there was less shared genetic variance between WMLs and the CC DTI metrics, suggesting fewer common genetic variants. PMID:25514436

  1. The scale-up of a tissue engineered porous hydroxyapatite polymer composite scaffold for use in bone repair: an ovine femoral condyle defect study.

    PubMed

    Tayton, Edward; Purcell, Matthew; Smith, James O; Lanham, Stuart; Howdle, Steven M; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Goodship, Allen; Blunn, Gordon; Fowler, Darren; Dunlop, Douglas G; Oreffo, Richard O C

    2015-04-01

    The development of an osteogenic bone graft substitute has important practical and cost implications in many branches of medicine where bone regeneration is required. Previous in vitro and small animal (murine) in vivo studies highlighted a porous hydroxyapatite/poly (DL-lactic acid) composite scaffold in combination with skeletal stem cells (SSCs) as a potential bone graft substitute candidate. The aim of the current study was to scale up the bone cell-scaffold construct to large animals and examine the potential for repair of a critical-sized defect via an ovine model. SSC seeded scaffolds (and unseeded scaffold controls) were implanted bilaterally into ovine femoral condyle critical defects for 3 months. A parallel in vitro analysis of ovine SSC seeded scaffolds was also performed. Post mortem mechanical indentation testing showed the bone strengths of the defect sites were 20% (controls) and 11% (SSC seeded scaffolds) those of normal cancellous bone (p < 0.01). MicroCT analysis demonstrated new bone formation within all defects with a mean increase of 13.4% in the control scaffolds over the SSC seeded scaffolds (p = 0.14). Histological examination confirmed these findings, with enhanced quality new bone within the control defects. This study highlights important issues and steps to overcome in scale-up and translation of tissue engineered products. The scaffold demonstrated encouraging results as an osteoconductive matrix; however, further work is required with cellular protocols before any human trials. PMID:25044983

  2. Corpus Callosum Area and Brain Volume in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Quantitative Analysis of Structural MRI from the ABIDE Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucharsky Hiess, R.; Alter, R.; Sojoudi, S.; Ardekani, B. A.; Kuzniecky, R.; Pardoe, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced corpus callosum area and increased brain volume are two commonly reported findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated these two correlates in ASD and healthy controls using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE). Automated methods were used to segment the corpus callosum and intracranial…

  3. The Most Frequently-Used Multi-Word Constructions in Academic Written English: A Multi-Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dilin

    2012-01-01

    Using the academic writing sub-corpora of the Corpus of Contemporary American English and the British National Corpus as data and building on previous research, this study strives to identify the most frequently-used multi-word constructions (MWCs) of various types (e.g., idioms, lexical bundles, and phrasal/prepositional verbs) in general…

  4. The Prosodic Transcription of a Corpus of Hong Kong English: Collection Criteria, Transcription System and Preliminary Findings

    E-print Network

    understanding of Hong Kong English and help the development of English language learning and teaching materials Kong Chinese have been recorded as a first step to build up the Hong Kong Corpus of Spoken EnglishThe Prosodic Transcription of a Corpus of Hong Kong English: Collection Criteria, Transcription

  5. A Corpus-driven Pattern Analysis in Locative Phrases: A Statistical Comparison of Co-appearing Concepts in Fixed Frames

    E-print Network

    (Information Theory) ( ) Chinese Giga-word Corpus " /P21 _Na _DE /Ncb /Ng" "" 41612 ( Sketch Engine ) "" 25 A Corpus-driven Pattern Analysis in Locative Phrases: A Statistical Comparison of Co@nccu.edu.tw ()() () Sketch Engine [1] (Point-wise Mutual Information, PMI) (Multivariate Mutual Information, MMI)[2

  6. Approved Module Information for LEM009, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Corpus Linguistics Module Code: LEM009

    E-print Network

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    analysis) ? enable participants to apply these disciplines to the analysis of linguistic data ? developApproved Module Information for LEM009, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Corpus Linguistics Module Code the history, methodology, and academic and practical goals of corpus linguistics ? give participants insights

  7. Variation in Citational Practice in a Corpus of Student Biology Papers: From Parenthetical Plonking to Intertextual Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swales, John M.

    2014-01-01

    This is a corpus-based study of a key aspect of academic writing in one discipline (biology) by final-year undergraduates and first-, second-, and third-year graduate students. The papers come from the Michigan Corpus of Upper-level Student Papers, a freely available electronic database. The principal aim of the study is to examine the extent of…

  8. A Corpus-Based Evaluation of Syntactic Complexity Measures as Indices of College-Level ESL Writers' Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Xiaofei

    2011-01-01

    This article reports results of a corpus-based evaluation of 14 syntactic complexity measures as objective indices of college-level English as a second language (ESL) writers' language development. I analyzed large-scale ESL writing data from the Written English Corpus of Chinese Learners (Wen, Wang, & Liang, 2005) using a computational system…

  9. Spontaneous Corpus Cavernosum Abscess in a Healthy Man Using Long-Term Androgenic Anabolic Steroids

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abscess formation of the corpus cavernosum is very rare. Here, we report a case of long-term anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse that is suspected to have facilitated the development of a corpus cavernosum abscess in a healthy bodybuilder. Cultures obtained from the abscess contained Staphylococcus epidermidis, a microorganism that almost exclusively affects immunocompromised patients. Therefore, prompt drainage of pus from cavernosal bodies should be the primary aim of the treatment. This case illustrates the potential danger of AAS suppressing the immune system and causing a serious infection. PMID:25927061

  10. NCBI disease corpus: a resource for disease name recognition and concept normalization.

    PubMed

    Do?an, Rezarta Islamaj; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-02-01

    Information encoded in natural language in biomedical literature publications is only useful if efficient and reliable ways of accessing and analyzing that information are available. Natural language processing and text mining tools are therefore essential for extracting valuable information, however, the development of powerful, highly effective tools to automatically detect central biomedical concepts such as diseases is conditional on the availability of annotated corpora. This paper presents the disease name and concept annotations of the NCBI disease corpus, a collection of 793 PubMed abstracts fully annotated at the mention and concept level to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural language processing community. Each PubMed abstract was manually annotated by two annotators with disease mentions and their corresponding concepts in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®) or Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM®). Manual curation was performed using PubTator, which allowed the use of pre-annotations as a pre-step to manual annotations. Fourteen annotators were randomly paired and differing annotations were discussed for reaching a consensus in two annotation phases. In this setting, a high inter-annotator agreement was observed. Finally, all results were checked against annotations of the rest of the corpus to assure corpus-wide consistency. The public release of the NCBI disease corpus contains 6892 disease mentions, which are mapped to 790 unique disease concepts. Of these, 88% link to a MeSH identifier, while the rest contain an OMIM identifier. We were able to link 91% of the mentions to a single disease concept, while the rest are described as a combination of concepts. In order to help researchers use the corpus to design and test disease identification methods, we have prepared the corpus as training, testing and development sets. To demonstrate its utility, we conducted a benchmarking experiment where we compared three different knowledge-based disease normalization methods with a best performance in F-measure of 63.7%. These results show that the NCBI disease corpus has the potential to significantly improve the state-of-the-art in disease name recognition and normalization research, by providing a high-quality gold standard thus enabling the development of machine-learning based approaches for such tasks. The NCBI disease corpus, guidelines and other associated resources are available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Dogan/DISEASE/. PMID:24393765

  11. Towards a bilingual Alzheimer's disease terminology acquisition using a parallel corpus.

    PubMed

    Drame, Khadim; Diallo, Gayo; Mougin, Fleur

    2012-01-01

    We present in this paper a method for acquiring a bilingual terminology concerning the Alzheimer's disease using a parallel corpus. NLP techniques are used for parsing English and French texts in order to extract candidate terms. These terms are then matched automatically using an approach that combines two alignment techniques: one based on the calculation of an association score between two terms, and another technique based on the calculation of morphological similarity. This method provided good results on an Alzheimer's disease related corpus with a precision of 73%. PMID:22874176

  12. Using text mining techniques to extract phenotypic information from the PhenoCHF corpus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Phenotypic information locked away in unstructured narrative text presents significant barriers to information accessibility, both for clinical practitioners and for computerised applications used for clinical research purposes. Text mining (TM) techniques have previously been applied successfully to extract different types of information from text in the biomedical domain. They have the potential to be extended to allow the extraction of information relating to phenotypes from free text. Methods To stimulate the development of TM systems that are able to extract phenotypic information from text, we have created a new corpus (PhenoCHF) that is annotated by domain experts with several types of phenotypic information relating to congestive heart failure. To ensure that systems developed using the corpus are robust to multiple text types, it integrates text from heterogeneous sources, i.e., electronic health records (EHRs) and scientific articles from the literature. We have developed several different phenotype extraction methods to demonstrate the utility of the corpus, and tested these methods on a further corpus, i.e., ShARe/CLEF 2013. Results Evaluation of our automated methods showed that PhenoCHF can facilitate the training of reliable phenotype extraction systems, which are robust to variations in text type. These results have been reinforced by evaluating our trained systems on the ShARe/CLEF corpus, which contains clinical records of various types. Like other studies within the biomedical domain, we found that solutions based on conditional random fields produced the best results, when coupled with a rich feature set. Conclusions PhenoCHF is the first annotated corpus aimed at encoding detailed phenotypic information. The unique heterogeneous composition of the corpus has been shown to be advantageous in the training of systems that can accurately extract phenotypic information from a range of different text types. Although the scope of our annotation is currently limited to a single disease, the promising results achieved can stimulate further work into the extraction of phenotypic information for other diseases. The PhenoCHF annotation guidelines and annotations are publicly available at https://code.google.com/p/phenochf-corpus. PMID:26099853

  13. Introducing the Geneva Multimodal expression corpus for experimental research on emotion perception.

    PubMed

    Bänziger, Tanja; Mortillaro, Marcello; Scherer, Klaus R

    2012-10-01

    Research on the perception of emotional expressions in faces and voices is exploding in psychology, the neurosciences, and affective computing. This article provides an overview of some of the major emotion expression (EE) corpora currently available for empirical research and introduces a new, dynamic, multimodal corpus of emotion expressions, the Geneva Multimodal Emotion Portrayals Core Set (GEMEP-CS). The design features of the corpus are outlined and justified, and detailed validation data for the core set selection are presented and discussed. Finally, an associated database with microcoded facial, vocal, and body action elements, as well as observer ratings, is introduced. PMID:22081890

  14. Primary cervical and uterine corpus lymphoma; a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Anagnostopoulos, Antonios; Mouzakiti, Niki; Ruthven, Stuart; Herod, Jonathan; Kotsyfakis, Michail

    2013-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the uterine corpus and cervix is rare. We present a case of primary non-Hodgkin follicular lymphoma isolated to uterine corpus and parametria with focal spread to ovaries and fallopian tubes, incidentally found on the background of endometrial malignancy. A summary of the published cases focusing on the presentation and prognosis as well as a review of current management are discussed. The rising incidence of extra-nodal lymphoma and recent changes in classification and therapeutic approach, require clinical vigilance. In the absence of prospective studies assessing the value of the available therapeutic options, data from retrospective series and scattered case reports are presented in this review. PMID:23641308

  15. Spontaneous corpus cavernosum abscess in a healthy man using long-term androgenic anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Tüzel, Emre

    2015-04-01

    Abscess formation of the corpus cavernosum is very rare. Here, we report a case of long-term anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse that is suspected to have facilitated the development of a corpus cavernosum abscess in a healthy bodybuilder. Cultures obtained from the abscess contained Staphylococcus epidermidis, a microorganism that almost exclusively affects immunocompromised patients. Therefore, prompt drainage of pus from cavernosal bodies should be the primary aim of the treatment. This case illustrates the potential danger of AAS suppressing the immune system and causing a serious infection. PMID:25927061

  16. Copper induces increased beta-sheet content in the scrapie-susceptible ovine prion protein PrPVRQ compared with the resistant allelic variant PrPARR.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Edmond; Thackray, Alana M; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by conformational change in the copper-binding protein PrP (prion protein). Polymorphisms in ovine PrP at amino acid residues 136, 154 and 171 are associated with variation in susceptibility to scrapie. PrPVRQ [PrP(Val136/Arg154/Gln171)] or PrPARQ [PrP(Ala136/Arg154/Gln171)] animals show susceptibility to scrapie, whereas those that express Ala136/Arg154/Arg171 (PrPARR) show resistance. Results are presented here that show PrPVRQ and PrPARR display different conformational responses to metal-ion interaction. At 37 degrees C copper induced different levels of b-sheet content in the allelic variants of ovine full-length prion protein (amino acid 25-232). PrPVRQ showed a significant increase in b-sheet content when exposed to copper at 37 degrees C, whereas PrPARR remained relatively unchanged. The conversion of a-helical PrPVRQ to b-sheet form was shown by CD spectroscopy and the decreased binding of C-terminal specific monoclonal anti-PrP antibodies. This conversion to an increased b-sheet form did not occur with truncated PrPVRQ (amino acids 89-233), which demonstrates that additional metal-binding sites outside of the N-terminus may not overtly influence the overall structure of ovine PrP. Despite the difference in b-sheet content, both the scrapie-susceptible and -resistant allelic forms of ovine PrP acquired resistance to proteinase K digestion following exposure to copper at 37 degrees C, suggesting the potential for disease-associated PrPARR to accumulate in vivo. Our present study demonstrates that allelic variants of ovine PrP differ in their structure and response to the interaction with copper. These observations will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of susceptibility and resistance to prion disease. PMID:14969585

  17. Student Union Section Name Email Area of responsibility Corpus Medicum MF HSSO Emma Svensson studenthalsa@mfskane.se StudentHealthmanager,BMC(SHSO)

    E-print Network

    studenthalsa@mfskane.se StudentHealthmanager,BMC(SHSO) Corpus Medicum MF Malin Kihlberg skyddsombud.lund@mfskane.se; lak11mki@student.lu.se MedicaldegreeprogrammeLund,BMC Corpus Medicum MF skyddsombud.log@mfskane.se Speechtherapyprogramme(LAUR) Corpus Medicum MF Lucas Berglund skyddsombud.hbg@mfskane.se Medical degree programme HBG

  18. On the Application of Corpus of Contemporary American English in Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusu, Xu

    2014-01-01

    The development of corpus linguistics has laid theoretical foundation and provided technical support for breaking the bottleneck in traditional vocabulary instruction in China. Corpora allow access to authentic data and show frequency patterns of words and grammar construction. Such patterns can be used to improve language materials or to directly…

  19. Moebius syndrome with Dandy-Walker variant and agenesis of corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    John, Jomol Sara; Vanitha, R.

    2013-01-01

    Moebius syndrome is a rare congenital neurological disorder. The most frequent mode of presentation is facial diplegia with bilateral lateral rectus palsy, but there are variations. Here, we report a rare case of Moebius syndrome in a 15-month-old child with unilateral facial palsy, bilateral abducens nerve palsy with Dandy Walker variant, and complete agenesis of corpus callosum. PMID:24470815

  20. Quantitative Analysis of the Shape of the Corpus Callosum in Patients with Autism and Comparison Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanova, Manuel F.; El-Baz, Ayman; Elnakib, Ahmed; Switala, Andrew E.; Williams, Emily L.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Conturo, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple studies suggest that the corpus callosum in patients with autism is reduced in size. This study attempts to elucidate the nature of this morphometric abnormality by analyzing the shape of this structure in 17 high-functioning patients with autism and an equal number of comparison participants matched for age, sex, IQ, and handedness. The…

  1. Capturing the Dynamics of Second Language Development via Learner Corpus Research: A Very Long Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasko, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This introductory paper highlights the promising potential of learner corpora to facilitate investigations of the developmental processes underlying L2 learning. It offers a critical discussion of the aspects in which the disciplines of learner corpus (LC) research and SLA would benefit from closer interdisciplinary engagement and introduces the…

  2. AUTOLEX: An Automatic Lexicon Builder for Minority Languages Using an Open Corpus

    E-print Network

    evaluation shows an accuracy of 97.84% and only 2.16% error rate. The error was based on incorrectly spelled of human language technolog systems, such as word database, word processesors, software for read back it is a system that automatically builds a minority language corpus. We extended the resource builder to retrieve

  3. Amharic English Cross-lingual Information Retrieval: A Corpus Based Approach

    E-print Network

    Scannell, Kevin Patrick

    the development of a corpus-based cross language information retrieval system for Amharic- English, language pairs of a bilingual information retrieval system that accepts Amharic queries and retrieves documents in English, in conventional monolingual information retrieval systems the user must enter a search query in the language

  4. A unified approach for development of Urdu Corpus for OCR and demographic purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Prakash; Nain, Neeta; Ahmed, Mushtaq

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the development of an Urdu handwritten text image Corpus and application of Corpus linguistics in the field of OCR and information retrieval from handwritten document. Compared to other language scripts, Urdu script is little bit complicated for data entry. To enter a single character it requires a combination of multiple keys entry. Here, a mixed approach is proposed and demonstrated for building Urdu Corpus for OCR and Demographic data collection. Demographic part of database could be used to train a system to fetch the data automatically, which will be helpful to simplify existing manual data-processing task involved in the field of data collection such as input forms like Passport, Ration Card, Voting Card, AADHAR, Driving licence, Indian Railway Reservation, Census data etc. This would increase the participation of Urdu language community in understanding and taking benefit of the Government schemes. To make availability and applicability of database in a vast area of corpus linguistics, we propose a methodology for data collection, mark-up, digital transcription, and XML metadata information for benchmarking.

  5. Using the Web as Corpus for Un-supervised Learning in Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Using the Web as Corpus for Un-supervised Learning in Question Answering Yi-Chia Wang1 , Jian-Cheng Wu2 , Tyne Liang1 and Jason S. Chang2 1. Dep. of Computer and Information Science, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan, R.O.C. 2. Dep. of Computer Science, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan, R

  6. A Text Corpus Approach to an Analysis of the Shared Use of Core Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Timothy B.; Sievert, MaryEllen; Reid, John C.; Rice, Frances Ellis; Gigantelli, James W.; Schiffman, Jade S.; Shelton, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the shared use of core Ophthalmology terms in the domains of Ophthalmology, Family Practice and Radiology. Core terms were searched for in a text corpus of 38,695 MEDLINE abstracts covering 1970-1999 from journals representing the three domains. Findings indicated core Ophthalmology terms were used significantly more by Ophthalmology…

  7. An analysis of a French as a Foreign language corpus for readability assessment

    E-print Network

    An analysis of a French as a Foreign language corpus for readability assessment Thomas François IL-Assisted Language Learning). For CALL, readability tools could be used to help the retrieval of educational of French as a foreign language texts with the purpose of training a readability model. We follow

  8. Appendix B: Attendance List, Evening Session 1 Corpus Christi, TX, November 4, 2010

    E-print Network

    radiological and non-radiological risk Facilities proposed in states outside existing uranium mining Review of Standards for Uranium and Thorium Milling Facilities PUBLIC INFORMATION MEETING Corpus Christi invited to provide five-minute presentations on the following topics: Changes in uranium industry

  9. Utilizing Lexical Data from a Web-Derived Corpus to Expand Productive Collocation Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Shaoqun; Witten, Ian H.; Franken, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Collocations are of great importance for second language learners, and a learner's knowledge of them plays a key role in producing language fluently (Nation, 2001: 323). In this article we describe and evaluate an innovative system that uses a Web-derived corpus and digital library software to produce a vast concordance and present it in a way…

  10. Be Wary of What Your Computer Reads: The Effects of Corpus Selection on Measuring Semantic Relatedness

    E-print Network

    Gray, Wayne

    . In addition, a child exposed exclusively to Shakespeare might be able to converse about love and war depends on the corpus on which it is trained. Imagine if a child learning the English language were only allowed to read Shakespeare. Although the child would certainly learn English, he or she would undoubtedly

  11. Analyzing Idioms and Their Frequency in Three Advanced ILI Textbooks: A Corpus-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Sepideh; Rajabpoor, Aboozar

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at identifying and quantifying the idioms used in three ILI "Advanced" level textbooks based on three different English corpora; MICASE, BNC and the Brown Corpus, and comparing the frequencies of the idioms across the three corpora. The first step of the study involved searching the books to find multi-word…

  12. Chinese-English Parallel Corpus Construction and its Application CHANG Baobao

    E-print Network

    Chinese-English Parallel Corpus Construction and its Application CHANG Baobao Institute of Computational Linguistics Peking University Beijing, P.R.China chbb@pku.edu.cn Abstract Chinese-English parallel corpora are key resources for Chinese-English cross-language information processing, Chinese

  13. Psychological Correlates of Handedness and Corpus Callosum Asymmetry in Autism: The Left Hemisphere Dysfunction Theory Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floris, Dorothea L.; Chura, Lindsay R.; Holt, Rosemary J.; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Spencer, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Rightward cerebral lateralization has been suggested to be involved in the neuropathology of autism spectrum conditions. We investigated functional and neuroanatomical asymmetry, in terms of handedness and corpus callosum measurements in male adolescents with autism, their unaffected siblings and controls, and their associations with executive…

  14. K.Stock et al. Creating a corpus of geospatial language

    E-print Network

    Stock, Kristin

    K.Stock et al. Creating a corpus of geospatial language Kristin Stock* , Robert C Pasley, Zoe of Nottingham, United Kingdom Abstract The description of location using natural language is of interest of methods for automated interpretation and generation of natural language to ease interaction

  15. Expressions of Gratitude in Corpus and DCT Data: Vocabulary, Formulaic Sequences, and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schauer, Gila A.; Adolphs, Svenja

    2006-01-01

    Our study explores the similarities and differences between a discourse completion task (DCT) and corpus data and discusses potential implications for using the two in a pedagogic context. The DCT has traditionally been used as an instrument for the study of interlanguage pragmatics while both spoken and written corpora have mainly been used to…

  16. Specific Syntactic Complexity: Developmental Profiling of Individuals Based on an Annotated Learner Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2013-01-01

    This study tracks the development of syntactic complexity in the writing of two beginning German as a second language learners with English as a first language over four semesters of collegiate language study by using developmental profiling techniques applied to an annotated learner corpus. The focus of the investigation is on individual…

  17. The Audio-Video Australian English Speech Data Corpus AVOZES Roland Goecke1,3

    E-print Network

    Millar, J. Bruce

    This paper presents the Audio-Video Australian English Speech data corpus AVOZES. It contains recordings for AV ASR, but many of these corpora lack a general design which makes the comparison of the results with earlier recordings is an important issue that needs to be addressed by explicit description. Mixing

  18. Corpus and Evaluation Measures for Automatic Plagiarism Detection Alberto Barrn-Cedeo1

    E-print Network

    Rosso, Paolo

    Corpus and Evaluation Measures for Automatic Plagiarism Detection Alberto Barrón-Cedeño1 , Martin of plagiarism cases in recent years, which renders manual plagiarism detection infeasible at large. Various methods for automatic plagiarism detection have been developed whose objective is to assist human experts

  19. Writing/Thinking in Real Time: Digital Video and Corpus Query Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kwanghyun; Kinginger, Celeste

    2010-01-01

    The advance of digital video technology in the past two decades facilitates empirical investigation of learning in real time. The focus of this paper is the combined use of real-time digital video and a networked linguistic corpus for exploring the ways in which these technologies enhance our capability to investigate the cognitive process of…

  20. Linguistic Markers of Stance in Early and Advanced Academic Writing: A Corpus-Based Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aull, Laura L.; Lancaster, Zak

    2014-01-01

    This article uses corpus methods to examine linguistic expressions of stance in over 4,000 argumentative essays written by incoming first-year university students in comparison with the writing of upper-level undergraduate students and published academics. The findings reveal linguistic stance markers shared across the first-year essays despite…

  1. The Genre of Instructor Feedback in Doctoral Programs: A Corpus Linguistic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Kelley Jo; Henry, Patricia; Vinella, Michael; Wells, Steve; Shaw, Melanie; Miller, James

    2015-01-01

    Providing transparent written feedback to doctoral students is essential to the learning process and preparation for the capstone. The purpose of this study was to conduct a qualitative exploration of faculty feedback on benchmark written assignments across multiple, online doctoral programs. The Corpus for this analysis included 236 doctoral…

  2. Issues Related to the Construction of a Purpose-Built Domain-Specific Word Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa; Pfister, H. Peter; Peterson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of semantic collections in order to identify and analyse domain knowledge. This paper describes some technical issues to consider when contemplating research which incorporates small-to-medium domain-specific word sets. The purpose of the corpus construction described was to provide an external word collection…

  3. Helicobacter pylori in gastric corpus of patients 20 years after partial gastric resection

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Christian; Madisch, Ahmed; Piehler, Petja; Bayerdörffer, Ekkehard; Stolte, Manfred; Miehlke, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the long-term prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) gastritis in patients after partial gastric resection due to peptic ulcer, and to compare the severity of H pylori-positive gastritis in the corpus mucosa between partial gastrectomy patients and matched controls. METHODS: Endoscopic biopsies were obtained from 57 patients after partial gastric resection for histological examination using hematoxylin/eosin and Warthin-Starry staining. Gastritis was graded according to the updated Sydney system. Severity of corpus gastritis was compared between H pylori-positive partial gastrectomy patients and H pylori-positive duodenal ulcer patients matched for age and gender. RESULTS: In partial gastrectomy patients, surgery was performed 20 years (median) prior to evaluation. In 25 patients (43.8%) H pylori was detected histologically in the gastric remnant. Gastric atrophy was more common in H pylori-positive compared to H pylori-negative partial gastrectomy patients (P < 0.05). The severity of corpus gastritis was significantly lower in H pylori-positive partial gastrectomy patients compared to duodenal ulcer patients (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the activity of gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The long-term prevalence of H pylori gastritis in the gastric corpus of patients who underwent partial gastric resection due to peptic ulcer disease is comparable to the general population. The expression of H pylori gastritis in the gastric remnant does not resemble the gastric cancer phenotype. PMID:15300905

  4. AUTOMATIC CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF CORPUS CALLOSUM SUBDIVISIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: A DIFFUSION TENSOR IMAGING STUDY

    E-print Network

    an important role in relaying sensory, cognitive, and motor information throughout the brain. While MRI studies, and 12 normal controls, mean age 40, were scanned on a 3T magnet using a high resolution DTI protocol. DT for the Corpus Callosum. Figure 6 DTI ACQUSITION: · 3 Tesla GE system (General Electric Medical Systems

  5. "Wireless": Some Facts and Figures from a Corpus-Driven Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzo, Camino Rea

    2009-01-01

    "Wireless" is the word selected to illustrate a model of analysis designed to determine the specialized character of a lexical unit. "Wireless" belongs to the repertoire of specialized vocabulary automatically extracted from a corpus of telecommunication engineering English (TEC). This paper describes the procedure followed in the analysis which…

  6. A Study of Composition/Correction System with Corpus Retrieval Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Song; Liu, Peng; Urano, Yoshiyori

    2013-01-01

    Practice and research in the composition education that is using computer and network have been more and more active. Through online composition system, a large amount of written texts produced by students and teachers can be collected. This kind of information is called a learner corpus, which is important in second language education because the…

  7. Exploiting a Corpus of Business Letters from a Phraseological, Functional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates how a freely available online corpus has been exploited in a module on teaching business letters covering the following four speech acts (functions) commonly found in business letters: invitations, requests, complaints and refusals. It is proposed that different strategies are required for teaching potentially…

  8. Tractography of the Spider Monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) Corpus Callosum Using Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Platas-Neri, Diana; Hidalgo-Tobón, Silvia; da Celis Alonso, Benito; de León, Fernando Chico-Ponce; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo; Phillips, Kimberley A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to describe the organization, connectivity and microstructure of the corpus callosum of the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi). Non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-tensor imaging were obtained from three subjects using a 3T Philips scanner. We hypothesized that the arrangement of fibers in spider monkeys would be similar to that observed in other non-human primates. A repeated measure (n = 3) of fractional anisotropy values was obtained of each subject and for each callosal subdivision. Measurements of the diffusion properties of corpus callosum fibers exhibited a similar pattern to those reported in the literature for humans and chimpanzees. No statistical difference was reached when comparing this parameter between the different CC regions (p = 0.066). The highest fractional anisotropy values corresponded to regions projecting from the corpus callosum to the posterior cortical association areas, premotor and supplementary motor cortices. The lowest fractional anisotropy corresponded to projections to motor and sensory cortical areas. Analyses indicated that approximately 57% of the fibers projects to the frontal cortex and 43% to the post-central cortex. While this study had a small sample size, the results provided important information concerning the organization of the corpus callosum in spider monkeys. PMID:25693078

  9. Corpus-driven Lexical Analysis: Norms and Exploitations in Word Use Patrick Hanks

    E-print Network

    exploitations of normal contexts by ordinary language users far exceed anything dreamed up in speculative linguistic theory. Human linguistic behaviour is indeed rule-governed, but in recent years, corpus analysis compared with the theory of construction gram- mar (Goldberg 1995). An important different

  10. The BladeMistress Corpus: From Talk to Action in Virtual Worlds

    E-print Network

    . They are at once very similar to, and very different from the real world. These worlds are populated by the same. Far from being a niche phenomenon, the population and mon- etary power of today's virtual worldsThe BladeMistress Corpus: From Talk to Action in Virtual Worlds Anton Leuski , Carsten Eickhoff

  11. Corpus Evidence for Age Effects on Priming in Child Language Jeffrey Gerard (jeffreygerard@gmail.com)

    E-print Network

    Keller, Frank

    Corpus Evidence for Age Effects on Priming in Child Language Jeffrey Gerard (jeffreygerard effect decreases with age, is also tested. We fit mixed-effects logistic regression models on data from- creases with age, but fail to confirm the hypothesis that the lexical boost effect decreases with age

  12. The Development of Second Language Writing Complexity in Groups and Individuals: A Longitudinal Learner Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the development of multiple dimensions of linguistic complexity in the writing of beginning learners of German both as a group and as individuals. The data come from an annotated, longitudinal learner corpus. The development of lexicogrammatical complexity is explored at 2 intersections: (a) between cross-sectional trendlines…

  13. Corpus Study of Tense, Aspect, and Modality in Diglossic Speech in Cairene Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moshref, Ola Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Morpho-syntactic features of Modern Standard Arabic mix intricately with those of Egyptian Colloquial Arabic in ordinary speech. I study the lexical, phonological and syntactic features of verb phrase morphemes and constituents in different tenses, aspects, moods. A corpus of over 3000 phrases was collected from religious, political/economic and…

  14. Establishment of a corpus of Hong Kong Sign Language acquisition data: from ELAN to CLAN

    E-print Network

    Wong, Patrick

    program, on the other hand, has a wide range of well-developed functions such as auto programs. On the other hand, researchers can compare signed and spoken acquisition data with ease usingEstablishment of a corpus of Hong Kong Sign Language acquisition data: from ELAN to CLAN Cat Fung H

  15. Corpus Callosum Size is Linked to Dichotic Deafness and Hemisphericity, Not Sex or Handedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Bruce E.; Rafto, Stein E.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals differ in the number of corpus callosum (CC) nerve fibers interconnecting their cerebral hemispheres by about threefold. Early reports suggested that males had smaller CCs than females. This was often interpreted to support the concept that the male brain is more "lateralized" or "specialized," thus accounting for presumed male…

  16. Automatic Corpus-Based Thai Word Extraction with the C4.5 Learning Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Automatic Corpus-Based Thai Word Extraction with the C4.5 Learning Algorithm VIRACH@nectec.or.th, tanapong@nectec.or.th, thatsanee@nectec.or.th Abstract "Word" is difficult to define in the languages that do not exhibit explicit word boundary, such as Thai. Traditional methods on defining words

  17. IMPACT OF STORM-WATER OUTFALLS ON SEDIMENT QUALITY IN CORPUS CHRISTI BAY, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the quality of sediments and extent of contaminant impacts, a Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) study was conducted at 36 sites in the Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, system. Fifteen of the 36 sites were located near storm-water outfalls, but 13 other sites (i.e., industr...

  18. A Two-Year Longitudinal MRI Study of the Corpus Callosum in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature has identified size reductions of the corpus callosum (CC) in autism. However, to our knowledge, no published studies have reported on the growth of CC volumes in youth with autism. Volumes of the total CC and its sub-divisions were obtained from 23 male children with autism and 23 age- and gender-matched controls at…

  19. Tag Questions across Irish English and British English: A Corpus Analysis of Form and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Anne; Pandarova, Irina; Muderack, Karoline

    2015-01-01

    The present study, situated in the area of variational pragmatics, contrasts tag question (TQ) use in Ireland and Great Britain using spoken data from the Irish and British components of the International Corpus of English (ICE). Analysis is on the formal and functional level and also investigates form-functional relationships. Findings reveal…

  20. Cognitive Genre Structures in Methods Sections of Research Articles: A Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Ian

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a corpus investigation of the Methods sections of research-reporting articles in academic journals. In published pedagogic materials, Swales and Feak [Swales, J. M., & Feak, C. (1994). Academic writing for graduate students. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press; Swales, J. M., & Feak, C. (2000). English in today's research…

  1. Knowledge Acqulsition= Classification of Terms in a thesaurus from~a Corpus

    E-print Network

    of these resources (e.g., terminologies, thesauri, glossaries, etd~~) from a corpus. Various linguistic. Introduction In documentation, terminologies, thesauri and other terminological lists are reference systems (general language dictionaries) are fairly stable, whereas terminologies evolve dynamically with the fields

  2. Tracking Learners' Progress: Adopting a Dual "Corpus cum Experimental Data" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Fanny; Littre, Damien

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the potential of combining learner corpus research with experimental studies in order to fine-tune the understanding of learner language development. It illustrates the complementarity of the two methodological approaches with data from an ongoing study of the acquisition of the English tense and aspect system by French…

  3. Creating a Test Corpus of Clinical Notes Manually Tagged for Part-of-Speech Information

    E-print Network

    PAKHOMOV Division of Medical Informatics Research, Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN Pakhomov.Serguei@mayo.edu Anni of Medical Informatics Research, Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN Chute@mayo.edu Abstract This paper presentsCreating a Test Corpus of Clinical Notes Manually Tagged for Part-of-Speech Information Serguei

  4. Reduced White Matter Connectivity in the Corpus Callosum of Children with Tourette Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plessen, Kerstin J.; Gruner, Renate; Lundervold, Arvid; Hirsch, Jochen G.; Xu, Dongrong; Bansal, Ravi; Hammar, Asa; Lundervold, Astri J.; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Lie, Stein Atle; Gass, Achim; Peterson, Bradley S.; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Background: Brain imaging studies have revealed anatomical anomalies in the brains of individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS). Prefrontal regions have been found to be larger and the corpus callosum (CC) area smaller in children and young adults with TS compared with healthy control subjects, and these anatomical features have been understood to…

  5. Quantitative Analysis of the Shape of the Corpus Callosum in Autistic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Manuel F.; El-Baz, Ayman; Elnakib, Ahmed; Switala, Andrew E.; Williams, Emily L.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Conturo, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple studies suggest that the corpus callosum in patients with autism is reduced in size. This study attempts to elucidate the nature of this morphometric abnormality by analyzing the shape of this structure in 17 high-functioning patients with autism and an equal number of comparison participants matched for age, sex, IQ, and handedness. The corpus callosum was segmented from T1 weighted images acquired with a Siemens 1.5 T scanner. Transformed coordinates of the curvilinear axis were aggregated into a parametric map and compared across series to derive regions of statistical significance. Our results indicate that in subjects with autism reduction in size of the corpus callosum occurs over all of its subdivisions (genu, body, splenium) with a small area of overgrowth at its caudal pole. Since the commisural fibers that traverse the different anatomical compartments of the corpus callosum originate in disparate brain regions our results suggest the presence of widely distributed cortical abnormalities in people with autism. PMID:21363871

  6. Introducing the Webb Spam Corpus: Using Email Spam to Identify Web Spam Automatically

    E-print Network

    Caverlee, James

    Introducing the Webb Spam Corpus: Using Email Spam to Identify Web Spam Automatically Steve Webb as email spam has negatively impacted the user mes- saging experience, the rise of Web spam is threatening to severely degrade the quality of information on the World Wide Web. Fundamentally, Web spam is designed

  7. The indusium griseum and the longitudinal striae of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Di Ieva, Antonio; Fathalla, Hussein; Cusimano, Michael D; Tschabitscher, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    In the eighteenth century, Lancisi described the indusium griseum (IG) and the longitudinal striae (LS) of the corpus callosum. The IG is a thin neuronal lamina above the corpus callosum, covered on each side of the midline by the medial and lateral LS. The medial LS (nerves of Lancisi) and lateral LS are two pairs of myelinated fiber bands found in the gray matter of the IG on the dorsal aspect of the corpus callosum. Embryologically, the IG and LS are dorsal remnants of the archicortex of the hippocampus and fornix and thus they are considered components of the limbic system. Recent studies using immunohistochemistry reported that acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine and GABA neurons innervate the IG. Newer imaging techniques, such as high field MRI and diffusion tensor imaging, provide new tools for studying these structures, whose true function remains still unclear. The present paper reviews the history of the discovery of the IG and LS of the corpus callosum, with a holistic overview on these interesting structures from the anatomical, embryological, neurochemical, radiological and clinical perspective. PMID:25091482

  8. Contrastive Textology and Corpus Linguistics: On the Value of Parallel Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, R. R. K.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the intricacies of text analysis as approached by computer-assisted corpus linguistics, focusing on meaning relations in the text. The article points out that it is possible to distinguish several different approaches, according to whether the focus is on intralingual or interlingual parallel texts. (12 references) (Author/CK)

  9. Listen, Listen, Listen and Listen: Building a Comprehension Corpus and Making It Comprehensible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mordaunt, Owen G.; Olson, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    Listening comprehension input is necessary for language learning and acculturation. One approach to developing listening comprehension skills is through exposure to massive amounts of naturally occurring spoken language input. But exposure to this input is not enough; learners also need to make the comprehension corpus meaningful to their learning…

  10. Discourse Particles in Corpus Data and Textbooks: The Case of "Well"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Phoenix W. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Discourse particles are ubiquitous in spoken discourse. Yet despite their pervasiveness very few studies attempt to look at their use in the pedagogical setting. Drawing on data from an intercultural corpus of speech and a textbook database, the present study compares the use of discourse particles by expert users of English in Hong Kong with…

  11. High accuracy citation extraction and named entity recognition for a heterogeneous corpus of academic papers

    E-print Network

    Dale, Robert

    High accuracy citation extraction and named entity recognition for a heterogeneous corpus, NSW 2109, Australia {bpowley,rdale}@ics.mq.edu.au Abstract Citation indices are increasingly being citations and con- struct such indices is becoming more crit- ical; however, existing approaches to cita

  12. Corpus Linguistics for Korean Language Learning and Teaching. NFLRC Technical Report No. 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bley-Vroman, Robert, Ed.; Ko, Hyunsook, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Dramatic advances in personal computer technology have given language teachers access to vast quantities of machine-readable text, which can be analyzed with a view toward improving the basis of language instruction. Corpus linguistics provides analytic techniques and practical tools for studying language in use. This volume includes both an…

  13. Academic Vocabulary in Agriculture Research Articles: A Corpus-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Iliana A.; Beck, Silvia C.; Panza, Carolina B.

    2009-01-01

    Recent critical views on the usefulness of a general academic vocabulary have heightened the relevance of developing discipline specific academic wordlists to meet the needs of non-native English writers who must read and publish articles in English. Using Coxhead's (2000) Academic Word List, we set out to identify the academic words in a corpus

  14. Building an Annotated Japanese-Chinese Parallel Corpus A Part of NICT Multilingual Corpora

    E-print Network

    and Communications Technology 3-5 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto, Japan, 619-0289 (yujie, uchimoto, and the tools we developed in the corpus construction. The experience we obtained and points we paid special at different level of constituents, it is a critical resource for extracting translation knowledge in machine

  15. Multilingual Aligned Parallel Treebank Corpus Reflecting Contextual Information and Its Applications

    E-print Network

    Institute of Information and Communications Technology 3-5 Hikari-dai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619 treebank corpus. 1 Introduction Recently, accurate machine translation systems can be constructed by using parallel corpora (Och and Ney, 2000; Germann et al., 2001). However, almost all existing machine transla

  16. Hallermann-Streiff syndrome associated with complete agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Sigirci, Ahmet; Alkan, Alpay; Bicak, Ugur; Yakinci, Cengiz

    2005-08-01

    Hallermann-Streiff syndrome is a rare clinical entity with unknown etiology characterized by a birdlike face, microphthalmia, a beaked nose, hypotrichosis, and proportional small stature. We present a 4-year-old boy in whom magnetic resonance imaging showed complete agenesis of the corpus callosum, which has not been presented in the literature. PMID:16225817

  17. A Pedagogic Corpus Analysis: Modal Auxiliary Verbs in Malaysian English Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Laleh; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2011-01-01

    Using corpus approach, over the past two decades, a growing number of researchers started to blame textbooks for neglecting important information on the use of grammatical structures in real language use and provided ample information about the mismatch between language used in textbooks and real language in use. Likewise, the prescribed Malaysian…

  18. MRI findings of coexistence of ectopic neurohypophysis, corpus callosum dysgenesis, and periventricular neuronal heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Harun; Sayl?k, Metin; Akdeniz, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic neurohypophysis is a pituitary gland abnormality, which can accompany growth hormone deficiency associated with dwarfism. Here we present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a rare case of ectopic neurohypophysis, corpus callosum dysgenesis, and periventricular neuronal heterotopia coexisting, with a review of the literature. PMID:24987569

  19. MRI Findings of Coexistence of Ectopic Neurohypophysis, Corpus Callosum Dysgenesis, and Periventricular Neuronal Heterotopia

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Harun; Sayl?k, Metin; Akdeniz, Hüseyin

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic neurohypophysis is a pituitary gland abnormality, which can accompany growth hormone deficiency associated with dwarfism. Here we present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a rare case of ectopic neurohypophysis, corpus callosum dysgenesis, and periventricular neuronal heterotopia coexisting, with a review of the literature. PMID:24987569

  20. The THIS-NPs Hypothesis: A Corpus-Based Investigation Massimo Poesio

    E-print Network

    Poesio, Massimo

    The THIS-NPs Hypothesis: A Corpus-Based Investigation Massimo Poesio and Natalia N. Modjeska on an analysis of the use of THIS-NPs, i.e., noun phrases with the determiner this and the demonstrative pro of a systematic analysis of the uses of these NPs in two different genres. In order to do this, we devised