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Sample records for ovine corpus luteum

  1. Effects of the purine biosynthesis pathway inhibitors azaserine, hadacidin, and mycophenolic acid on the developing ovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Miller-Patrick, K; Vincent, D L; Early, R J; Weems, Y S; Tanaka, Y; Ashimine, D T; Nusser, K D; Lee, C N; Ledgerwood, K S; Weems, C W

    1993-01-01

    De novo synthesis precursors of the purine second messengers adenosine, guanosine and inosine are adenosine, guanosine and inosine monophosphate (AMP, GMP, IMP), respectively. Inhibitors of the de novo purinergic synthesis pathways for AMP, GMP and IMP by hadacidin, mycophenolic acid and azaserine, respectively, or adenosine, guanosine or inosine alone or in combination were given every 4 or 6 hours in vivo. Treatments were given into the ovarian vascular pedicle sheath adjacent to the luteal-bearing ovary in three separate experiments to determine whether purines were involved in development of the corpus luteum. Hadacidin lowered AMP (p < or = 0.01) and azaserine tended to lower IMP and the GMP: AMP ratio (p < or = 01) while mycophenolic acid tended to lower the GMP:AMP ratio (p < or = 0.1) in luteal tissue. Azaserine (150 mg) increased progesterone (p < or = 0.01) on some days but guanosine or inosine had no effect on profiles of progesterone in jugular blood of the developing corpus luteum (p > or = 0.1). Azaserine (500 micrograms) tended to lower progesterone in jugular blood (p < or = 0.1) while profiles of progesterone did not differ among guanosine or inosine or adenosine, guanosine and inosine plus hadacidin, mycophenolic acid and azaserine treatment groups compared to controls (p > or = 0.1). Weights of corpora lutea or composition of cell types in the corpus luteum or their viability were not affected by adenosine, guanosine, inosine, hadacidin, mycophenolic acid or azaserine (p > or = 0.1). Since profiles of jugular progesterone did not differ between treatments during development of the corpus luteum, these results suggest that progesterone production by the developing corpus luteum is a) less dependent on de novo synthesized purines or b) there may be a non-purinergic-dependent second messenger system controlling biosynthesis of steroids in the developing ovine corpus luteum. PMID:8020339

  2. Pregnancy-associated genes contribute to antiluteolytic mechanisms in ovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Romero, Jared J; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q; Smirnova, Natalia P; Webb, Brett T; Yu, Fang; Davis, John S; Hansen, Thomas R

    2013-11-15

    The hypothesis that ovine luteal gene expression differs due to pregnancy status and day of estrous cycle was tested. RNA was isolated from corpora lutea (CL) on days 12 and 14 of the estrous cycle (NP) or pregnancy (P) and analyzed with the Affymetrix bovine microarray. RNA also was isolated from luteal cells on day 10 of estrous cycle that were cultured for 24 h with luteolytic hormones (OXT and PGF) and secretory products of the conceptus (IFNT and PGE2). Differential gene expression (>1.5-fold, P < 0.05) was confirmed using semiquantitative real-time PCR. Serum progesterone concentrations decreased from day 12 to day 15 in NP ewes (P < 0.05) reflecting luteolysis and remained >1.7 ng/ml in P ewes reflecting rescue of the CL. Early luteolysis (days 12-14) was associated with differential expression of 683 genes in the CL, including upregulation of SERPINE1 and THBS1. Pregnancy on day 12 (55 genes) and 14 (734 genes) also was associated with differential expression of genes in the CL, many of which were ISGs (i.e., ISG15, MX1) that were induced when culturing luteal cells with IFNT, but not PGE2. Finally, many genes, such as PTX3, IL6, VEGF, and LHR, were stabilized during pregnancy and downregulated during the estrous cycle and in response to culture of luteal cells with luteolytic hormones. In conclusion, pregnancy circumvents luteolytic pathways and activates or stabilizes genes associated with interferon, chemokine, cell adhesion, cytoskeletal, and angiogenic pathways in the CL. PMID:24046284

  3. Mucometra with Persistent Corpus Luteum in Goats

    PubMed Central

    El-Shafey, Samir; Fathalla, M.; Habib, I.; Al-Dahash, S.

    1980-01-01

    Ovaries of two goats with persistent corpus luteum were studied by histochemical methods. Lutein cells showed moderate alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activity associated with strong delta 5-3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and succinic tetrazolium reductase activity. The results are interpreted as an indication that the corpus luteum was functioning. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7427841

  4. Microvascular endothelial cells of the corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    Davis, John S; Rueda, Bo R; Spanel-Borowski, Katherina

    2003-01-01

    The cyclic nature of the capillary bed in the corpus luteum offers a unique experimental model to examine the life cycle of endothelial cells, involving discrete physiologically regulated steps of angiogenesis, blood vessel maturation and blood vessel regression. The granulosa cells and theca cells of the developing antral follicle and the steroidogenic cells of the corpus luteum produce and respond to angiogenic factors and vasoactive peptides. Following ovulation the neovascularization during the early stages of corpus luteum development has been compared to the rapid angiogenesis observed during tumor formation. On the other end of the spectrum, the microvascular endothelial cells are the first cells to undergo apoptosis at the onset of corpus luteum regression. Important insights on the morphology and function of luteal endothelial cells have been gained from a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies on endothelial cells. Endothelial cells communicate with cells comprising the functional unit of the corpus luteum, i.e., other vascular cells, steroidogenic cells, and immune cells. This review is designed to provide an overview of the types of endothelial cells present in the corpus luteum and their involvement in corpus luteum development and regression. Available evidence indicates that microvascular endothelial cells of the corpus luteum are not alike, and may differ during the process of angiogenesis and angioregression. The contributions of vasoactive peptides generated by the luteal endothelin-1 and the renin-angiotensin systems are discussed in context with the function of endothelial cells during corpus luteum formation and regression. The ability of two cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma, are evaluated as paracrine mediators of endothelial cell function during angioregression. Finally, chemokines are discussed as a vital endothelial cell secretory products that contribute to the recruitment of eosinophils and macrophages. The review highlights areas for future investigation of ovarian microvascular endothelial cells. The potential clinical applications of research directed on corpus luteum endothelial cells are intriguing considering reproductive processes in which vascular dysfunctions may play a role such as ovarian failure, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). PMID:14613535

  5. Effects of progesterone on expression of messenger RNA encoding oxytocin-neurophysin, oxytocin receptor and prostaglandin G/H synthase-1 and -2 during the early oestrous cycle in the ovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Al-Matubsi, H Y; Frazer, S; Fairclough, R J; Jenkin, G

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether early progesterone treatment plays a role in the regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression for oxytocin-neurophysin, oxytocin receptor, prostaglandin G/H synthase (PGHS)-1 and PGHS-2 in the ovine corpus luteum. The expression of ovarian oxytocin, oxytocin receptor, PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 mRNA was investigated in control, progesterone- or RU486-treated ewes. Fifteen ewes were randomly assigned to three groups to receive intramuscular injections of progesterone (12.5 mg; n = 5), RU486, (2.5 mg kg(-1) bodyweight; n = 4) or corn oil (1 mL; n = 6) twice daily from Day 1 to Day 3 post oestrus. On the morning of Day 4 post oestrus, the corpora lutea were collected and analysed for oxytocin-neurophysin mRNA by Northern blot using a labelled cDNA probe, and for the expressions of the oxytocin receptor, PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 mRNA using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Administration of progesterone or suppression of progesterone activity with RU486 did not affect expression of oxytocin-neurophysin mRNA (P>0.05). Pretreatment of the ewes with progesterone resulted in the enhancement of luteal oxytocin receptor mRNA expression and suppression of PGHS-1 and PGHS-2 mRNA (P<0.001). These results indicate that early progesterone treatment does not control the expression of oxytocin-neurophysin mRNA in the ovine ovary but may be involved in the regulation of ovarian oxytocin receptor and PGHS expression. It is proposed, on the basis of these results, that progesterone may play a role in premature corpus luteum regression through an intra-ovarian mechanism involving the induction of ovarian oxytocin receptor mRNA expression. PMID:11101280

  6. CORPUS LUTEUM: ANIMAL MODELS OF POSSIBLE RELEVANCE TO REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of a normally functioning corpus luteum is an essential requirement for the maintenance of gestation in mammals. he chief function of the corpus luteum in all species is to synthesize the steroid hormone progesterone that is necessary for implantation and for the sub...

  7. Corpus luteum function in successful in vitro fertilization cycles.

    PubMed

    Shamma, F N; Penzias, A S; Thatcher, S; DeCherney, A H; Lavy, G

    1992-05-01

    The function of the corpus luteum in early pregnancy has been subject to some controversy. The purpose of our study was to determine the life span of the corpus luteum in early pregnancy after successful GnRH-a/hMG stimulation in IVF-ET. The study consisted of a retrospective analysis of patients after 12 successful singleton intrauterine IVF-ET cycles. Serum samples were obtained during early pregnancy beginning 14 days after hCG administration. The levels of 17 alpha-OHP, hCG, P, and E2 were measured in each sample. A significant negative correlation was noted between 17 alpha-OHP and date from hCG. The x-intercept of the regression line allowed estimation of the life span of the corpus luteum to be 72 +/- 25 days. In conclusion, in GnRH-a/hMG-stimulated IVF-ET cycles that result in a singleton pregnancy, the functional life span of the corpus luteum averages 72 days. PMID:1572481

  8. Endocrine and local control of the primate corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Stouffer, Richard L; Bishop, Cecily V; Bogan, Randy L; Xu, Fuhua; Hennebold, Jon D

    2013-12-01

    The primate corpus luteum is a transient endocrine gland that differentiates from the ovulatory follicle midway through the ovarian (menstrual) cycle. Its formation and limited lifespan is critical for fertility, as luteal-derived progesterone is the essential steroid hormone required for embryo implantation and maintenance of intra-uterine pregnancy until the placenta develops. It is well-established that LH and the LH-like hormone, CG, are the vital luteotropic hormones during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy, respectively. Recent advances, particularly through genome analyses and cellular studies, increased our understanding of various local factors and cellular processes associated with the development, maintenance and repression of the corpus luteum. These include paracrine or autocrine factors associated with angiogenesis (e.g., VEGF), and that mediate LH/CG actions (e.g., progesterone), or counteract luteotropic effects (i.e., local luteolysis; e.g., PGF2α). However, areas of mystery and controversy remain, particularly regarding the signals and events that initiate luteal regression in the non-fecund cycle. Novel approaches capable of gene "knockdown" or amplification", in vivo as well as in vitro, should identify novel or underappreciated gene products that are regulated by or modulate LH/CG actions to control the functional lifespan of the primate corpus luteum. Further advances in our understanding of luteal physiology will help to improve or control fertility for purposes ranging from preservation of endangered primate species to designing novel ovary-based contraceptives and treating ovarian disorders in women. PMID:24287034

  9. Endocrine and Local Control of the Primate Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Stouffer, Richard L.; Bishop, Cecily V.; Bogan, Randy L.; Xu, Fuhua; Hennebold, Jon D.

    2014-01-01

    The primate corpus luteum is a transient endocrine gland that differentiates from the ovulatory follicle midway through the ovarian (menstrual) cycle. Its formation and limited lifespan is critical for fertility, as luteal-derived progesterone is the essential steroid hormone required for embryo implantation and maintenance of intra-uterine pregnancy until the placenta develops. It is well-established that LH and the LH-like hormone, CG, are the vital luteotropic hormones during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy, respectively. Recent advances, particularly through genome analyses and cellular studies, increased our understanding of various local factors and cellular processes associated with the development, maintenance and repression of the corpus luteum. These include paracrine or autocrine factors associated with angiogenesis (e.g., VEGF), and that mediate LH/CG actions (e.g., progesterone), or counteract luteotropic effects (i.e., local luteolysis; e.g., PGF2α). However, areas of mystery and controversy remain, particularly regarding the signals and events that initiate luteal regression in the non-fecund cycle. Novel approaches capable of gene “knockdown” or amplification”, in vivo as well as in vitro, should identify novel or underappreciated gene products that are regulated by or modulate LH/CG actions to control the functional lifespan of the primate corpus luteum. Further advances in our understanding of luteal physiology will help to improve or control fertility for purposes ranging from preservation of endangered primate species to designing novel ovary-based contraceptives and treating ovarian disorders in women. R01 HD020869, R01 HD042000, U54 HD018185, U54 HD055744, P51 OD011092, T32 HD007133, Bayer Schering Pharma AG. PMID:24287034

  10. Macrophages regulate corpus luteum development during embryo implantation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Care, Alison S.; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Jasper, Melinda J.; Brown, Hannah M.; Ingman, Wendy V.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are prominent in the uterus and ovary at conception. Here we utilize the Cd11b-Dtr mouse model of acute macrophage depletion to define the essential role of macrophages in early pregnancy. Macrophage depletion after conception caused embryo implantation arrest associated with diminished plasma progesterone and poor uterine receptivity. Implantation failure was alleviated by administration of bone marrow–derived CD11b+F4/80+ monocytes/macrophages. In the ovaries of macrophage-depleted mice, corpora lutea were profoundly abnormal, with elevated Ptgs2, Hif1a, and other inflammation and apoptosis genes and with diminished expression of steroidogenesis genes Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b1. Infertility was rescued by exogenous progesterone, which confirmed that uterine refractoriness was fully attributable to the underlying luteal defect. In normally developing corpora lutea, macrophages were intimately juxtaposed with endothelial cells and expressed the proangiogenic marker TIE2. After macrophage depletion, substantial disruption of the luteal microvascular network occurred and was associated with altered ovarian expression of genes that encode vascular endothelial growth factors. These data indicate a critical role for macrophages in supporting the extensive vascular network required for corpus luteum integrity and production of progesterone essential for establishing pregnancy. Our findings raise the prospect that disruption of macrophage-endothelial cell interactions underpinning corpus luteum development contributes to infertility in women in whom luteal insufficiency is implicated. PMID:23867505

  11. Isolation of endothelial cells and pericytes from swine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Basini, G; Falasconi, I; Bussolati, S; Grolli, S; Ramoni, R; Grasselli, F

    2014-07-01

    From an angiogenesis perspective, the ovary offers a unique opportunity to study the physiological development of blood vessels. The first purpose of this work was to set up a protocol for the isolation of pig corpus luteum endothelial cells, which were characterized by both morphologic parameters and the expression of typical molecular markers; we also verified their ability to form capillary-like structures in a 3-dimensional matrix, their response to hypoxia and their migration in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The effectiveness of our isolation protocol was confirmed by the characteristic "cobblestone shape" of isolated cells at confluence as well as their expression of all the examined endothelial markers. Our data also showed a significant cell production of VEGF and nitric oxide. Isolated endothelial cells were also responsive to hypoxia by increasing the expression and production of VEGF and decreasing that of nitric oxide. In the angiogenesis bioassay, cells displayed the ability of forming capillary-like structures and also exhibited a significant migration in the scratch test. Our data suggest that the isolation of luteal endothelial cells represents a promising tool in experiments designed to clarify the biology of the angiogenic process. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the isolated population comprises a subset of cells with a multidifferentiative capacity toward the chondrocytic and adipocytic phenotypes. These data suggest the presence of a perivascular or adventitial cell niche in the vascular wall of the corpus luteum populated with cells showing mesenchymal stem cell-like features, as already demonstrated for the adipose tissue and endometrium. PMID:24906935

  12. Estradiol-17beta is produced in bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Okuda, K; Uenoyama, Y; Berisha, B; Lange, I G; Taniguchi, H; Kobayashi, S; Kobayashi, S; Miyamoto, A; Schams, D

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase (aromatase) mRNA, its activity, and estradiol-17beta (estradiol) secretion in bovine corpus luteum (CL) during the estrous cycle. Expression of aromatase mRNA was examined in CL at the early, mid, late, and regressed luteal stages by using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Aromatase mRNA was detected in all luteal stages examined, although aromatase expression was significantly lower during the early and regressed luteal phases compared to the mid and late luteal phases. Moreover, cultured midluteal cells clearly converted exogenous [(3)H]androstenedione into estradiol, and an aromatase inhibitor significantly inhibited this conversion. To characterize the local release of estradiol within the CL during the estrous cycle, an in vitro microdialysis system (MDS) of CL was conducted. Estradiol in MDS perfusate was confirmed by a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with enzyme immunoassays. Basal release of estradiol from microdialyzed CL did not change during the estrous cycle. Additionally, when freshly prepared midluteal cells were exposed to estradiol (10(-14) to 10(-9) M), estradiol stimulated prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) secretion (P < 0.05), although it did not affect progesterone and oxytocin secretion. The overall results indicate that estradiol is produced locally in bovine CL throughout the estrous cycle, and they suggest that estradiol plays a role in regulating PGF(2alpha) production in CL as an autocrine/paracrine factor. PMID:11717122

  13. Hypothyroidism prolongs corpus luteum function in the pregnant rat.

    PubMed

    Hapon, María Belén; Motta, Alicia B; Ezquer, Marcelo; Bonafede, Melisa; Jahn, Graciela A

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that hypothyroidism in the rat produces a prolongation of pregnancy associated with a delay in the fall of circulating progesterone (P4) at term. The aim of the present work is to determine whether the delayed P4 decline in hypothyroid mother rats is due to a retarded induction of P4 degradation to 20alphaOH P4 or to a stimulation of its synthesis, and to investigate the possible mechanisms that may underlie the altered luteal function. We determined by RIA the circulating profile of the hormones (TSH, PRL, LH, P4, PGF2alpha, and PGE2) involved in luteal regulation at the end of pregnancy and, by semiquantitative RT-PCR, the expression of factors involved in P4 synthesis (CytP450scc, StAR, 3betaHSD, PRLR) and metabolism (20alphaHSD, PGF2alphaR, iNOS and COX2). Our results show that the delay in P4 decline and parturition is the resultant of retarded luteal regression, caused by a combination of decreases in luteolytic factors, mainly luteal PGF2alpha, iNOS mRNA expression and also circulating LH, and increased synthesis or action of luteotrophic factors, such as luteal and circulating PGE2 and circulating PRL. All these changes may be direct causes of the decreased 20alphaHSD mRNA and protein (measured by western blot analysis) expression, which in the presence of unchanged expression of the factors involved in P4 synthesis results in elevated luteal and circulating P4 that prolonged pregnancy and also may favor longer survival of the corpus luteum. PMID:17244746

  14. Pituitary regulation of corpus luteum progesterone secretion in cyclic rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Criado, J E; López, F; Aguilar, E

    1986-09-01

    Pituitary LH and PRL secretion during the early postovulatory period of the rat estrous cycle seem to affect the corpus luteum (CL) autonomy to secrete progesterone. Thus, while PRL would act luteotropically, LH would be luteolytic. To further investigate these facts, 4-day cyclic rats, treated with either 1 mg bromocriptine (CB) or 0.25 ml 70% ethanol (ETOH) at 1600 h on estrus, were injected with 0.5 ml of either an anti-LH serum (LHAS) or normal horse serum (NHS) at 0800 h on metestrus. Rats treated at 0800 h on metestrus with both, CB and LHAS, were also used. To verify through a different procedure the effect of LH and/or PRL deprivation in estrous cycle CL progesterone secretion, hypophysectomy (HYPOX) and sham HYPOX (SHAM) were done at 0800 h on metestrus in either CB- or ETOH-injected rats at 1600 h on estrus. Hypophysectomized rats at 1600 h on estrus were also used. Progesterone secretion was prolonged up to 0800 h on diestrus in those rats deprived of LH from 0800 h on metestrus (ETOH/LHAS, -/CB + LHAS, ETOH/HYPOX) compared with controls (ETOH/NHS, ETOH/SHAM). This luteotropic effect was absent in those rats lacking estrous afternoon PRL (CB/LHAS, CB/HYPOX, HYPOX/-). No effect on CL progesterone secretion was detected in those rats exclusively deprived of PRL on the afternoon of estrus (CB/NHS, CB/SHAM). These results suggest that in the absence of the protective effects of PRL secretion on the afternoon of estrus, rat CL become extremely sensitive to the luteolytic effects of early diestrous LH levels, and this results in 4-day estrous cycles. PMID:3732156

  15. A role for LH in the regulation of expression of mRNAs encoding components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in the ovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Hastie, P M; Haresign, W

    2006-11-01

    Evidence suggests the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system may be involved in luteal maintenance and regression. However, previous studies have only investigated a few components of the system, primarily in bovine and non-ruminant species. The present study investigated gene expression for the components of the IGF system in ovine corpora lutea (CL) at various key stages of the oestrous cycle (Experiment 1), and the possible regulatory effects of LH on IGF gene expression in ovine CL using a GnRH antagonist model system (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 revealed that IGF-I (P<0.001), type I (P=0.008) and II (P=0.005) IGF-Rs and IGFBP-5 (P<0.05) mRNA levels were significantly elevated in early regressing CL. In contrast, IGF-II levels were high in CL but did not vary throughout the oestrous cycle, while IGFBP-2, -3, -4 and -6 mRNA levels were highest throughout the luteal phase but lower in regressing CL (P<0.05). IGFBP-1 mRNA could not be detected in any CL. Abrogation of LH action following GnRH antagonist administration (Experiment 2) resulted in a significant increase in expression for IGF-I (P<0.001), type II IGF-R (P=0.004) and IGFBP-5 (P<0.05) after only 12h, but these increases were transient. IGF-II, type I IGF-R and IGFBP-2, -3, -4 and -6 mRNA levels remained unaffected by GnRH antagonist treatment. These data highlight the role that LH plays in regulating IGF-I gene expression and lends further support that IGF-I may be a key luteotrophic factor in sheep. PMID:16442244

  16. Progesterone as a mediator of gonadotrophin action in the corpus luteum: beyond steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Stouffer, R L

    2003-01-01

    Studies using newer, potent GnRH antagonists and pure gonadotrophins have clarified the importance of: (i) the strength-duration of the midcycle surge of pituitary gonadotrophins (LH, FSH) in follicle rupture and conversion to the corpus luteum; (ii) the continued requirement for pituitary LH throughout development and the functional lifespan of the primate corpus luteum in the menstrual cycle; and (iii) the exponential secretion of chorionic gonadotrophin (CG) by the developing placenta to extend the functional lifespan of the primate corpus luteum in early pregnancy. Although studies continue to increase current understanding of the cellular and molecular actions of LH/CG to stimulate luteal steroidogenesis, knowledge of the processes whereby these gonadotrophins promote the development and maintenance of the functional corpus luteum remains limited. This review summarizes evidence that the primate ovulatory follicle and corpus luteum is a target for the primary steroid produced by luteinizing/luteal tissue (i.e. progesterone). With evidence for dynamic expression of genomic progesterone receptors (PRA/B), and possibly other progesterone-receptor systems, recent studies addressed the hypothesis that progesterone is a critical 'local luteotrophin' that promotes luteal development and sustains luteal structure-function during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. Specific progesterone actions to regulate tissue remodelling (via protease expression), health (anti-apoptotic effects) and sensitivity to other local factors (e.g. via estrogen receptor expression) are discussed. The collective data suggest that there are gonadotrophin-stimulated, progesterone-dependent processes that promote luteotrophic and suppress luteolytic pathways in the primate corpus luteum. However, further studies are needed to verify their role in normal ovarian function and relevance to possible ovarian defects in natural and assisted reproduction technique-related cycles. PMID:12751773

  17. ATF3 Expression in the corpus luteum: possible role in luteal regression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the induction and possible role of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in the corpus luteum. Postpubertal cattle were treated at midcycle with prostaglandin F2alpha(PGF) for 0–4 hours. Luteal tissue was processed for immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, an...

  18. Human corpus luteum: presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and binding characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyagari, R.R.; Khan-Dawood, F.S.

    1987-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors are present in many reproductive tissues but have not been demonstrated in the human corpus luteum. To determine the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and its binding characteristics, we carried out studies on the plasma cell membrane fraction of seven human corpora lutea (days 16 to 25) of the menstrual cycle. Specific epidermal growth factor receptors were present in human corpus luteum. Insulin, nerve growth factor, and human chorionic gonadotropin did not competitively displace epidermal growth factor binding. The optimal conditions for corpus luteum-epidermal growth factor receptor binding were found to be incubation for 2 hours at 4 degrees C with 500 micrograms plasma membrane protein and 140 femtomol /sup 125/I-epidermal growth factor per incubate. The number (mean +/- SEM) of epidermal growth factor binding sites was 12.34 +/- 2.99 X 10(-19) mol/micrograms protein; the dissociation constant was 2.26 +/- 0.56 X 10(-9) mol/L; the association constant was 0.59 +/- 0.12 X 10(9) L/mol. In two regressing corpora lutea obtained on days 2 and 3 of the menstrual cycle, there was no detectable specific epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity. Similarly no epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity could be detected in ovarian stromal tissue. Our findings demonstrate that specific receptors for epidermal growth factor are present in the human corpus luteum. The physiologic significance of epidermal growth factor receptors in human corpus luteum is unknown, but epidermal growth factor may be involved in intragonadal regulation of luteal function.

  19. Presence of Arylsulfatase A and Sulfogalactosylglycerolipid in Mouse Ovaries: Localization to the Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Anupriwan, Araya; Schenk, Matthias; Kongmanas, Kessiri; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Costa Santos, Daniela; Yaghoubian, Arman; Liu, Fang; Wu, Alexander; Berger, Trish; Faull, Kym F.; Saitongdee, Porncharn; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Tanphaichitr, Nongnuj

    2008-01-01

    Arylsulfatase A (AS-A) is a lysosomal enzyme, which catalyzes the desulfation of certain sulfogalactolipids, including sulfogalactosylglycerolipid (SGG), a molecule implicated in cell adhesion. In this report, immunocytochemistry revealed the selective presence of AS-A in the corpus luteum of mouse ovaries. Immunoblotting indicated that mouse corpus luteum AS-A had a molecular mass of 66 kDa, similar to AS-A of other tissues. Corpus luteum AS-A was active, capable of desulfating the artificial substrate, p-nitrocatechol sulfate, at the optimum pH of five. To understand further the role of AS-A in female reproduction, levels of AS-A were determined during corpus luteum development in pseudopregnant mice and during luteolysis after cessation of pseudopregnancy. Immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting and desulfation activity showed that AS-A expression was evident at the onset of pseudopregnancy in the newly formed corpora lutea, and its level increased steadily during gland development. The increase in the expression and activity of AS-A continued throughout luteolysis after the decrease in serum progesterone levels. We also observed the selective presence of SGG on the luteal cell surface in developed corpora lutea, as shown by immunofluorescence of mouse ovary sections as well as high-performance thin-layer chromatography of lipids isolated from mouse and pig corpora lutea. The identity of the “SGG” band on the thin layer silica plate was further validated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Significantly, SGG disappeared in regressing corpora lutea. Therefore, lysosomal AS-A may be involved in cell-surface remodeling during luteolysis by desulfating SGG after its endocytosis and targeting to the lysosome. PMID:18420734

  20. Recovery of large preantral follicles from buffalo ovary: effect of season and corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P S P; Ramesh, H S; Nandi, S; Ravindra, J P

    2007-09-01

    Preantral follicle can be considered as an alternative source of oocyte for in vitro production of embryos. The objective of the present study was to standardize a procedure for the isolation of large preantral follicles (>150-500 microm) from buffalo ovaries and to determine the effect of season and the presence of corpus luteum on the recovery rate of the large preantral follicles. A combined enzymatic cum mechanical approach was adopted to recover the large preantral follicles. In the first experiment, the ovarian cortical pieces were suspended in trypsin (1000-1500 BAEE units for milligrams of solid) and incubated at various temperatures for different periods, i.e. (1) trypsin (1%), 37 degrees C for 10 min; (2) trypsin (1%), 37 degrees C for 10 min + 4 degrees C for 3 h; (3) trypsin (0.5%), 37 degrees C for 20 min; (4) trypsin (0.25%), 37 degrees C for 20 min. Although there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among the different protocols, the first protocol yielded more follicles (3.2, 2.6, 1.8 and 1.5 per ovary, respectively). Hence, the first protocol was selected and used in the second and third experiments. In the second experiment, the effect of season, i.e. peak breeding season (October-March) versus low breeding season (April-September) was evaluated on the recovery rate of the large preantral follicles. The recovery rate of large preantral follicles from the ovaries during the peak breeding season was significantly (P<0.05) greater (9.92+/-0.85 per ovary) than that of the low breeding season (4.95+/-0.27 per ovary). In the third experiment, effect of the presence of corpus luteum on the recovery rate of large preantral follicles was studied. There was a significantly (P<0.05) higher yield of large preantral follicles from the ovaries with corpus luteum (8.05+/-0.88 per ovary) than for the ovaries without corpus luteum (4.57+/-0.43 per ovary). This study confirms that the large preantral follicles can be isolated from buffalo ovaries using a combination of enzymatic cum mechanical methods and that more large preantral follicles can be recovered during the peak breeding season and from the ovaries having corpus luteum. PMID:17174490

  1. The corpus luteum: an ovarian structure with maternal instincts and suicidal tendencies.

    PubMed

    Davis, John S; Rueda, Bo R

    2002-09-01

    The corpus luteum is a unique hormone-regulated, transient reproductive gland that produces progesterone, a required product for the establishment and maintenance of early pregnancy. In the absence of pregnancy the corpus luteum will cease to produce progesterone and the structure itself will regress in size over time. Although the process of luteal regression has been studied for several decades, many of the regulatory mechanisms involved in loss of function and involution of the structure are incompletely understood. More importantly, we are far from understanding how these complex mechanisms function in unison. The factor or factors responsible for initiating and mediating luteolysis are no doubt more complex than originally envisioned. Further, efforts to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for luteolysis have been complicated by different interpretations of what is 'luteolysis', discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo studies, and subsequent biases which are associated with the different methods of analyses. Moreover, the complexity of the mechanisms which regulate the life span of the corpus luteum are compounded by the presence of a heterogeneous population of cells which often respond differentially to the same ligand or stimuli. Attempts to isolate specific luteal cell types for the intention of defining intracellular signaling mechanisms have yielded valuable information. However, studies of a specific cell type taken out of context are often subject to criticism. The most obvious being that the cells are no longer maintained within their three dimensional environment. Evaluation of the corpus luteum in vivo, is not without its criticisms either. A subtle change evoked within a subpopulation of cells can be overlooked if measured in whole tissue or in mixed cell preparations. Furthermore, treatment in vivo with a single agent/ligand (i.e., prostaglandin F2 alpha) may induce a secondary ligand that is ultimately responsible for the biological response. All arguments are valid and cannot be ignored. There are secondary levels of complexity in the corpus luteum brought about by the pleiotropic actions of specific ligands. For example, one ligand can be luteotropic to a steroid producing cell and cytotoxic to a luteal endothelial cell. Furthermore, a specific cell type within the corpus luteum may respond differentially depending on the developmental stage of the luteal phase (i.e., early, mid, or late luteal phase) suggesting that the intracellular signaling pathways are key to defining ligand-induced biological responses. The purpose of this review is to culminate what is known regarding signal transduction pathways activated by initiator(s) and/or mediators of luteolysis. We recognize that an all-inclusive review describing the molecular mechanisms involved in the development, maintenance and regression of the corpus luteum would be impossible within the context of this review. There are a number of recent reviews that discuss luteal development, luteal maintenance and luteolysis with emphasis on neuroendocrine events (1-3). Consequently, we have focused our review primarily on potential intracellular signaling events of proposed regulators and mediators of luteal regression. Where possible we have attempted to incorporate references that represent rodents, domestic farm animals and primates. PMID:12161347

  2. Rapid induction of gene expression in the corpus luteum following in vivo treatment with prostaglandin F2 alpha

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pulsatile uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF) triggers the regression of the corpus luteum (CL). Research from many laboratories has identified the early intracellular signaling events initiated by PGF (for example, activation of phospholipases, increased intracellular calcium, an...

  3. Characterization of EST Gene in the Bovine Corpus Luteum during the Estrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunyoung; Kim, Sang Hwan; Kim, Byung-Gak; Yoon, Jong Taek

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of bovine luteum expressed sequence tags (ESTs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and the presence of functional ESTs in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) during different stages of the estrus cycle. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed a difference in the expression of ESTs during the CL stage. Concentration of ESTs in the CL tissue increased significantly from the mid-luteal stage and decreased thereafter. RT-PCR analysis showed higher levels of the EST genes in the CL of the mid-luteal stage than in other stages, and the same level of expression of VEGF. Immunohistochemistry analysis of the tissue from CL formation to regression showed low cytosol and aggregation of the nucleus. And activity caspase 3 (apoptosis detector) was most strongly detected in the CL1 stage of bovine. During the estrous cycle, the cytosol was magnified and differentiation of the nucleus was clearly manifested. The ESTs affected the CL, and the relationship between VEGF and TNFR1 played a pivotal role for CL development and activation, dependent on the stage of CL. These results suggest local production of ESTs, the presence of functional ESTs in the bovine CL, and that ESTs play a role in regulating the function of cell death in bovine CL. PMID:26973974

  4. Effect of local or parenteral application of ACTH or hydrocortisone on bovine corpus luteum function.

    PubMed

    Wagner, W C; Strohbehn, R E; Larson, P A

    1977-05-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect on corpus luteum (CL) function of ACTH or hydrocortisone administered by ovarian perfusion on day 11 of the oestrous cycle or by carotid infusion on days 2-9 of the oestrous cycle. No significant local effects on CL function were observed during the ovarian perfusion study. Continuous carotid infusion of ACTH or hydrocortisone on days 2-9 resulted in a decreased slope of the progesterone increase during the infusion period. However, no difference in plasma progesterone level on days 9-11 between control and treated cycles was detected and there was no difference between treated and control CL at day 11 with regard to CL weight or progesterone content. The data suggest a possible direct effect of hydrocortisone on either the hypothalamus or pituitary which results in decreased progesterone secretion but not CL development. No residual effect was observed. PMID:193336

  5. Multiple roles of TNF super family members in corpus luteum function.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Kiyoshi; Sakumoto, Ryosuke

    2003-11-10

    The main function of the corpus luteum (CL) is the production of progesterone. Adequate luteal progesterone is crucial for determining the physiological duration of the estrous cycle and for achieving a successful pregnancy. The CL is regulated not only by hypophyseal gonadotropin, but also by a number of cytokines that are locally produced. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and its specific receptors (TNFR) are present in the CL of many species. TNF plays multiple and likely important roles in CL function throughout the estrous cycle. TNF appears to have luteotropic and luteolytic roles in the CLs. In contrast, Fas ligand (Fas L), another member of TNF super family (TNF-SF), is primarily recognized for its apoptotic actions. Presumably, Fas L binds its cognate receptor (Fas) to induce structural luteolysis. This review is designed to focus on recent studies documenting the expression of TNF and Fas L, their receptors, and intracellular signaling mechanisms in the CL. PMID:14613529

  6. Multiple roles of TNF super family members in corpus luteum function

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Kiyoshi; Sakumoto, Ryosuke

    2003-01-01

    The main function of the corpus luteum (CL) is the production of progesterone. Adequate luteal progesterone is crucial for determining the physiological duration of the estrous cycle and for achieving a successful pregnancy. The CL is regulated not only by hypophyseal gonadotropin, but also by a number of cytokines that are locally produced. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) and its specific receptors (TNFR) are present in the CL of many species. TNF plays multiple and likely important roles in CL function throughout the estrous cycle. TNF appears to have luteotropic and luteolytic roles in the CLs. In contrast, Fas ligand (Fas L), another member of TNF super family (TNF-SF), is primarily recognized for its apoptotic actions. Presumably, Fas L binds its cognate receptor (Fas) to induce structural luteolysis. This review is designed to focus on recent studies documenting the expression of TNF and Fas L, their receptors, and intracellular signaling mechanisms in the CL. PMID:14613529

  7. Massive hemoperitoneum due to a ruptured corpus luteum cyst in a patient with congenital hypofibrinogenemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jeong, So-Young; Cho, Dong-Hyu

    2015-09-01

    Congenital afibrinogenemia/hypofibrinogenemia is a rare inherited hematologic disorder in which a patient lacks or has insufficient level of fibrinogen, the blood coagulation factor I. The incidence of this uncommon disease is 1 to 2 per 1 million individuals. Hence, massive hemoperitoneum caused by ovulation in a woman with congenital afibrogenemia is also a very rare clinical condition. Massive hemoperitoneum usually presents as acute abdominal pain with potential findings of peritonitis including abdominal distention, hypotension and tachycardia with critical consequences. We performed emergent endoscopic surgery for hemoperitoneum caused by a ruptured corpus luteum cyst in a patient with congenital hypofibrinogenemia. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first case report of such treatment in Korea. PMID:26430672

  8. DNA Methylation and Histone Modifications Are Associated with Repression of the Inhibin α Promoter in the Rat Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Meldi, Kristen M.; Gaconnet, Georgia A.

    2012-01-01

    The transition from follicle to corpus luteum after ovulation is associated with profound morphological and functional changes and is accompanied by corresponding changes in gene expression. The gene encoding the α subunit of the dimeric reproductive hormone inhibin is maximally expressed in the granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicle, is rapidly repressed by the ovulatory LH surge, and is expressed at only very low levels in the corpus luteum. Although previous studies have identified transient repressors of inhibin α gene transcription, little is known about how this repression is maintained in the corpus luteum. This study examines the role of epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation and histone modification, in silencing of inhibin α gene expression. Bisulfite sequencing reveals that methylation of the inhibin α proximal promoter is low in preovulatory and ovulatory follicles but is elevated in the corpus luteum. Increased methylation during luteinization is observed within the cAMP response element in the promoter, and EMSA demonstrate that methylation of this site inhibits cAMP response element binding protein binding in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals that repressive histone marks H3K9 and H3K27 trimethylation are increased on the inhibin α promoter in primary luteal cells, whereas the activation mark H3K4 trimethylation is decreased. The changes in histone modification precede the alterations in DNA methylation, suggesting that they facilitate the recruitment of DNA methyltransferases. We show that the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a is present in the ovary and in luteal cells when the inhibin α promoter becomes methylated and observe recruitment of DNMT3a to the inhibin promoter during luteinization. PMID:22865368

  9. Progesterone receptor is not required for progesterone action in the rat corpus luteum of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Telleria, C M; Stocco, C O; Stati, A O; Deis, R P

    1999-11-01

    In this study, we investigated whether progesterone exerts a local action regulating the function of the corpus luteum of pregnancy in rats. The luteal activities of the enzymes 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD), involved in progesterone biosynthesis, and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD), that catabolizes progesterone and reduces progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum, were evaluated after intrabursal ovarian administration of progesterone in pregnant rats that had received a luteolytic dose of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). Luteal 3beta-HSD activity decreased and 20alpha-HSD activity increased after PGF2alpha treatment (100 microg x 2 intraperitoneally on Day 19 of pregnancy at 12:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m.) when compared with controls sacrificed at 8:00 p.m. on Day 20 of pregnancy. This effect of PGF2alpha on the luteal 3beta-HSD and 20alpha-HSD activities was abolished in animals that also received an intraovarian dose of progesterone (3 microg/ovary on Day 19 of pregnancy at 8:00-9:00 a.m.). In a second functional study, luteal cells obtained from 19-day pregnant rats responded to the synthetic progestin promegestone (R5020) in a dose-dependent manner, with an increase in the progesterone output. In addition, the glucocorticoid agent hydrocortisone did not affect progesterone accumulation in the same luteal cell culture. We also examined by immunocytochemistry the expression of progesterone receptors (PR) in the corpora lutea during pregnancy and demonstrated the absence of PR in this endocrine gland in all the days of pregnancy studied. In the same pregnant rats, positive staining for PR was observed in cells within the uteroplacental unit, such as cells of the decidua basalis and trophoblast giant cells of the junctional zone. In addition, positive PR staining was observed in the ovarian granulosa and theca cells of growing follicles, but not in corpora lutea of ovaries obtained from cycling rats at proestrus. In summary, this report provides further evidence of a local action of progesterone regulating luteal function in the rat despite the absence of a classic PR. PMID:10577832

  10. Endocrine delivery of interferon tau protects the corpus luteum from prostaglandin F2 alpha-induced luteolysis in ewes.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q; Webb, Brett T; Romero, Jared J; Ashley, Ryan L; Smirnova, Natalia P; Henkes, Luiz E; Bott, Rebecca C; Oliveira, João F; Niswender, Gordon D; Bazer, Fuller W; Hansen, Thomas R

    2013-06-01

    Paracrine release of ovine interferon tau (oIFNT) from the conceptus alters release of endometrial prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF) and prevents luteolysis. Endocrine release of oIFNT into the uterine vein occurs by Day 15 of pregnancy and may impart resistance of the corpus luteum (CL) to PGF. It was hypothesized that infusion of recombinant oIFNT (roIFNT) into the uterine or jugular veins on Day 10 of the estrous cycle would protect the CL against exogenous PGF-induced luteolysis. Osmotic pumps were surgically installed in 24 ewes to deliver bovine serum albumin (BSA; n = 12) or roIFNT (200 μg/day; n = 12) for 24 h into the uterine vein. Six ewes in each treatment group received a single injection of PGF (4 mg/58 kg body weight) 12 h after pump installation. In a second experiment, BSA or roIFNT was delivered at 20 or 200 μg/day into the uterine vein or 200 μg/day into the jugular vein for 72 h in 30 ewes. One half of these ewes received an injection of PGF 24 h after pump installation. Concentrations of progesterone in serum declined in BSA-treated ewes injected with PGF, but were sustained in all ewes infused with 20 μg/day of roIFNT into the uterine vein and 200 μg of roIFNT into the jugular vein followed 24 h later with injection of PGF. All concentrations of roIFNT and modes of delivery (uterine or jugular vein) increased luteal concentrations of IFN-stimulated gene (i.e., ISG15) mRNA. Infusion of 200 μg of IFNT over 24 h induced greater mRNA concentrations for cell survival genes, such as BCL2-like 1 (BCL2L1 or Bcl-xL), serine/threonine kinase (AKT), and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and decreased prostaglandin F receptor (PTGFR) mRNA concentrations, when compared to controls. It is concluded that endocrine delivery of roIFNT, regardless of route (uterine or jugular vein), effectively protects CL from the luteolytic actions of PGF by mechanisms that involve ISGs and stabilization of cell survival genes. PMID:23616594

  11. Formation and regression of the corpus luteum of the American alligator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guillette, L.J.; Woodward, A.R.; You-Xiang, Q.; Cox, M.C.; Matter, J.H.; Gross, T.S.

    1995-01-01

    Luteal morphology of the American alligator is unique when compared to other reptiles but is similar to that of its phylogenetic relatives, the birds. The theca is extensively hypertrophied, but the granulosa never fills the cavity formed following the ovulation of the ovum. The formation of the corpus luteum (CL) is correlated with elevated plasma progesterone concentrations, which decline dramatically after oviposition with the onset of luteolysis. Unlike those of most other reptiles, the central luteal cell mass is composed of two cell types; one presumably is derived from the granulosa, whereas the other is from the theca interna. Both cell types are present throughout gravidity but only one cell type is seen during mid to late luteolysis. A significant decline in luteal volume occurs following oviposition and continues throughout the post-oviposition period. The fastest decline in luteal volume occurs in the month immediately after oviposition; this rate then slows. Luteolysis appears to continue for a year or more following oviposition, as distinct structures of luteal origin can still be identified in animals 9 months after oviposition. The size of persistent CL can be used to determine whether a given female oviposited during the previous nesting season. Females with CL having volumes greater than 0.2 cm2 or CL diameters greater than 0.4 cm were active the previous season. 

  12. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 Is Required for Ovulation and Corpus Luteum Formation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Deady, Lylah D.; Shen, Wei; Mosure, Sarah A.; Spradling, Allan C.; Sun, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Ovulation is critical for successful reproduction and correlates with ovarian cancer risk, yet genetic studies of ovulation have been limited. It has long been thought that the mechanism controlling ovulation is highly divergent due to speciation and fast evolution. Using genetic tools available in Drosophila, we now report that ovulation in Drosophila strongly resembles mammalian ovulation at both the cellular and molecular levels. Just one of up to 32 mature follicles per ovary pair loses posterior follicle cells (“trimming”) and protrudes into the oviduct, showing that a selection process prefigures ovulation. Follicle cells that remain after egg release form a “corpus luteum (CL)” at the end of the ovariole, develop yellowish pigmentation, and express genes encoding steroid hormone biosynthetic enzymes that are required for full fertility. Finally, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2), a type of protease thought to facilitate mammalian ovulation, is expressed in mature follicle and CL cells. Mmp2 activity is genetically required for trimming, ovulation and CL formation. Our studies provide new insights into the regulation of Drosophila ovulation and establish Drosophila as a model for genetically investigating ovulation in diverse organisms, including mammals. PMID:25695427

  13. Status of autophagy, lysosome activity and apoptosis during corpus luteum regression in cattle

    PubMed Central

    ABOELENAIN, Mansour; KAWAHARA, Manabu; BALBOULA, Ahmed Zaky; MONTASSER, Abd El-monem; ZAABEL, Samy Mowaed; OKUDA, Kiyoshi; TAKAHASHI, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Corpus luteum (CL) regression is required during the estrous cycle. During CL regression, luteal cells stop producing progesterone and are degraded by apoptosis. However, the detailed mechanism of CL regression in cattle has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate autophagy, lysosome activity, and apoptosis during CL regression in cattle. The expression of autophagy-related genes (LC3α, LC3β, Atg3, and Atg7) and the protein LC3-II was significantly higher in the late CL than in the mid CL. In addition, autophagy activity was significantly increased in the late CL. Moreover, gene expression of the autophagy inhibitor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was significantly lower in the late CL than in the mid CL. Lysosome activation and expression of cathepsin-related genes (CTSB, CTSD, and CTSZ) showed significant increases in the late CL and were associated with an increase in cathepsin B protein. In addition, mRNA expression and activity of caspase 3 (CASP3), an apoptotic enzyme, were significantly higher in the late CL than in the mid CL. These results suggest simultaneous upregulation of autophagy-related factors, lysosomal enzymes and apoptotic mediators, which are involved in regression of the bovine CL. PMID:25819401

  14. Follicle growth, corpus luteum function and their effects on embryo development in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wathes, D C; Taylor, V J; Cheng, Z; Mann, G E

    2003-01-01

    Absent or irregular ovarian cycles in lactating dairy cows are caused by failure to ovulate the dominant follicle at the appropriate time. The follicle then either regresses or develops into a cyst. This process can be triggered by a variety of metabolic and disease factors that act at the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to inhibit pulsatile LH secretion and the LH surge, and at the ovary to reduce follicular growth and oestradiol production. Cows of poor energy status have low circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Predisposing factors include calving difficulties, inappropriate diet, reduced intake of dry matter and a high rate of body condition score loss. Various stressors predispose the follicle to cyst development by inhibiting the LH surge and ovulation; these include common infections, such as mastitis. Even when ovulation does occur, poor follicular development may result in production of an inadequate corpus luteum. The timing of the increase in progesterone in the early luteal phase (days 4-5) appears to be a key determinant of fertility, probably because it alters the secretory activity of the reproductive tract, thus influencing embryonic growth and interferon-tau production. A period of negative energy balance after calving can reduce fertility even though metabolic parameters have apparently improved at the time of service. PMID:14635938

  15. Opposing Roles of Leptin and Ghrelin in the Equine Corpus Luteum Regulation: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Galvão, António; Tramontano, Angela; Rebordão, Maria Rosa; Amaral, Ana; Bravo, Pedro Pinto; Szóstek, Anna; Skarzynski, Dariusz; Mollo, Antonio; Ferreira-Dias, Graça

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic hormones have been associated with reproductive function modulation. Thus, the aim of this study was: (i) to characterize the immunolocalization, mRNA and protein levels of leptin (LEP), Ghrelin (GHR) and respective receptors LEPR and Ghr-R1A, throughout luteal phase; and (ii) to evaluate the role of LEP and GHR on progesterone (P4), prostaglandin (PG) E2 and PGF2α, nitric oxide (nitrite), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF); macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) secretion, and on angiogenic activity (BAEC proliferation), in equine corpus luteum (CL) from early and mid-luteal stages. LEPR expression was decreased in late CL, while GHR/Ghr-R1A system was increased in the same stage. Regarding secretory activity, GHR decreased P4 in early CL, but increased PGF2α, nitrite and TNF in mid CL. Conversely, LEP increased P4, PGE2, angiogenic activity, MIF, TNF and nitrite during early CL, in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro effect of LEP on secretory activity was reverted by GHR, when both factors acted together. The present results evidence the presence of LEP and GHR systems in the equine CL. Moreover, we suggest that LEP and GHR play opposing roles in equine CL regulation, with LEP supporting luteal establishment and GHR promoting luteal regression. Finally, a dose-dependent luteotrophic effect of LEP was demonstrated. PMID:25125800

  16. Identification of optimal housekeeping genes for examination of gene expression in bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Rekawiecki, Robert; Rutkowska, Joanna; Kotwica, Jan

    2012-12-01

    The selection of proper housekeeping genes for studies requiring genes expression normalization is an important step in the appropriate interpretation of results. The expression of housekeeping genes is regulated by many factors including age, gender, type of tissue or disease. The aim of the study was to identify optimal housekeeping genes in the corpus luteum obtained from cyclic or pregnant cows. The mRNA expression of thirteen housekeeping genes: C2orf29, SUZ12, TBP, TUBB2B, ZNF131, HPRT1, 18s RNA, GAPDH, SF3A1, SDHA, MRPL12, B2M and ACTB was measured by Real-time PCR. Range of cycle threshold (C(t)) values of the tested genes varied between 12 and 30 cycles, and 18s RNA had the highest coefficient of variation, whereas C2orf29 had the smallest coefficient. GeNorm software demonstrated C2orf29 and TBP as the most stable and 18s RNA and B2M as the most unstable housekeeping genes. Using the proposed cut-off value (0.15), no more than two of the best GeNorm housekeeping genes are proposed to be used in studies requiring gene expression normalization. NormFinder software demonstrated C2orf29 and SUZ12 as the best and 18s RNA and B2M as the worst housekeeping genes. The study indicates that selection of housekeeping genes may essentially affect the quality of the gene expression results. PMID:23229008

  17. Effect of dietary energy restriction on the expression of insulin-like growth factor-I in liver and corpus luteum of heifers.

    PubMed

    Vandehaar, M J; Sharma, B K; Fogwell, R L

    1995-04-01

    The effects of energy balance on the corpus luteum may be mediated by IGF-I. Our objective was to determine whether negative energy balance decreases expression of IGF-I mRNA in the liver or corpus luteum of heifers. For four consecutive estrous cycles, 14 Holstein heifers were maintained in negative or positive energy balance to lose 510 g/d of BW or gain 560 g/d of BW, respectively. The liver was biopsied and the corpus luteum was collected 7 d after fourth estrus. Heifers fed below maintenance had a smaller corpus luteum than did control heifers. Compared with that of controls, negative energy balance increased growth hormone in serum but decreased IGF-I in serum and the abundance of mRNA for growth hormone receptor and IGF-I in liver. In contrast, diet did not affect the abundance of mRNA for the growth hormone receptor or IGF-I in luteal tissue. Negative energy balance increased IGF binding protein-2 in serum but did not affect IGF binding protein-3. We conclude that negative energy balance of cattle decreases IGF-I mRNA abundance in the liver but not in the 7-d corpus luteum. If decreased IGF-I mediates the adverse effect of negative energy balance on luteal growth, the mode of action is likely endocrine, not autocrine or paracrine. PMID:7540633

  18. Early pregnancy modulates survival and apoptosis pathways in the corpus luteum in sheep.

    PubMed

    Lee, JeHoon; Banu, Sakhila K; McCracken, John A; Arosh, Joe A

    2016-03-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine gland. Functional and structural demise of the CL allows a new estrous cycle. On the other hand, survival of CL and its secretion of progesterone are required for the establishment of pregnancy. Survival or apoptosis of the luteal cells is precisely controlled by interactions between survival and apoptosis pathways. Regulation of these cell signaling components during natural luteolysis and establishment of pregnancy is largely unknown in ruminants. The objective of the present study was to determine the regulation of survival and apoptosis signaling protein machinery in the CL on days 12, 14, and 16 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy in sheep. Results indicate that: i) expressions of p-ERK1/2, p-AKT, β-catenin, NFκB -p65, -p50, -p52, p-Src, p-β -arrestin, p-GSK3β, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and p-CREB proteins are suppressed during natural luteolysis; in contrast, their expressions are sustained or increased during establishment of pregnancy; ii) expressions of cleaved caspase-3, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), c-Fos, c-Jun, and EGR-1 proteins are increased during natural luteolysis; in contrast, their expressions are decreased during establishment of pregnancy; and iii) expressions of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bad, and Bax proteins are not modulated during natural luteolysis while expressions of Bcl2 and Bcl-XL proteins are increased during establishment of pregnancy in sheep. These proteomic changes are evident in both large and small luteal cells. These results together indicate that regression of the CL during natural luteolysis or survival of the CL during establishment of pregnancy is precisely controlled by distinct programmed suppression or activation of intraluteal cell survival and apoptosis pathways in sheep/ruminants. PMID:26585285

  19. ATF3 Expression in the Corpus Luteum: Possible Role in Luteal Regression†

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Dagan; Hou, Xiaoying; Talbott, Heather; Cushman, Robert; Cupp, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the induction and possible role of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in the corpus luteum. Postpubertal cattle were treated at midcycle with prostaglandin F2α(PGF) for 0–4 hours. Luteal tissue was processed for immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and isolation of protein and RNA. Ovaries were also collected from midluteal phase and first-trimester pregnant cows. Luteal cells were prepared and sorted by centrifugal elutriation to obtain purified small (SLCs) and large luteal cells (LLCs). Real-time PCR and in situ hybridization showed that ATF3 mRNA increased within 1 hour of PGF treatment in vivo. Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that ATF3 protein was expressed in the nuclei of LLC within 1 hour and was maintained for at least 4 hours. PGF treatment in vitro increased ATF3 expression only in LLC, whereas TNF induced ATF3 in both SLCs and LLCs. PGF stimulated concentration- and time-dependent increases in ATF3 and phosphorylation of MAPKs in LLCs. Combinations of MAPK inhibitors suppressed ATF3 expression in LLCs. Adenoviral-mediated expression of ATF3 inhibited LH-stimulated cAMP response element reporter luciferase activity and progesterone production in LLCs and SLCs but did not alter cell viability or change the expression or activity of key regulators of progesterone synthesis. In conclusion, the action of PGF in LLCs is associated with the rapid activation of stress-activated protein kinases and the induction of ATF3, which may contribute to the reduction in steroid synthesis during luteal regression. ATF3 appears to affect gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone secretion at a step or steps downstream of PKA signaling and before cholesterol conversion to progesterone. PMID:24196350

  20. Induction of the Expressions of Antioxidant Enzymes by Luteinizing Hormone in the Bovine Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    KAWAGUCHI, Syota; SAKUMOTO, Ryosuke; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Luteoprotective mechanisms of luteinizing hormone (LH) involved in the maintenance of bovine corpus luteum (CL) function have not been completely clarified. Since antioxidant enzymes are well documented as antiapoptotic factors in the CL of many mammals, we hypothesized that the luteoprotective action of LH is mediated by stimulating the local production and action of antioxidant enzymes. To test the above hypothesis, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms involved in the luteoprotective actions of LH. Cultured bovine luteal cells obtained from the CL at the mid-luteal stage (days 8–12 of the estrous cycle) were treated with LH (10 ng/ml), onapristone (OP; a specific progesterone receptor antagonist, 100 μM) and diethyldithiocarbamate [DETC; an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase (SOD), 100 μM] for 24 h. LH in combination with or without OP significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of manganese SOD (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CATA) and SOD activity. While LH alone significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of SOD containing copper and zinc (Cu,Zn-SOD), OP in combination with or without LH significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of Cu,Zn-SOD. In addition, Cu,Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CATA mRNA expressions were higher at the mid luteal phase than the other luteal phases. LH in combination with DETC significantly decreased LH-increased cell viability. The overall results suggest that LH increases cell viability by LH-increased antioxidant enzymes, resulting in maintenance of CL function during the luteal phase in cattle. PMID:23386101

  1. In vitro developmental competence of bovine oocytes: Effect of corpus luteum and follicle size

    PubMed Central

    Karami Shabankareh, Hamed; Shahsavari, Mohammad Hamed; Hajarian, Hadi; Moghaddam, Gholamali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported many discrepancies about the effects of corpus luteum (CL) and ovarian follicle size on the developmental competence of oocytes. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CL and different size of follicle on the developmental potential of bovine oocytes. Materials and Methods: After ovarian classification based on presence or absence of CL, sample follicles were placed in three groups according to their diameter; small (S; 3–6 mm), medium (M; 6–9 mm), and large (L; 10–20 mm). Collected oocytes in each group were subjected to the in vitro embryo production processes. Results: Results showed that, the percentages of blastocyst obtained from oocytes originating from small and medium follicles of ovaries bearing a CL (CL+S-oocytes and CL+M-oocytes, respectively) were lower (p<0.001) than those of small and medium follicles of ovaries not bearing a CL (CL-S-oocytes and CL-M-oocytes, respectively) (30.8% and 33.6% vs. 36.9% and 38.7% respectively). Although, the percentages of blastocyst obtained from CL-M-oocytes and CL-L-oocytes were greater (p< 0.001) than those of CL+S-oocytes and CL+M-oocytes. There were no significant differences in the percentages of blastocyst formation between controls (C-oocytes), CL-S-oocytes and CL+L-oocytes. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the negative effect of CL on the developmental competence of bovine oocyte depends on the follicle size. Therefore, oocytes originating from large grown follicles were not influenced by negative effects of CL as much as those originating from small and medium follicles did. PMID:26644789

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its receptor in bovine corpus luteum throughout the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Sakumoto, R; Berisha, B; Kawate, N; Schams, D; Okuda, K

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, the presence of functional TNF-alpha receptors, and expression of TNF receptor type I (TNF-RI) mRNA in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) during different stages of the estrous cycle. Reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed no difference in TNF-alpha mRNA expression during the estrous cycle. Concentrations of TNF-alpha in the CL tissue increased significantly from the mid to the late luteal stage and decreased thereafter (P < 0.05). An RT-PCR analysis showed higher levels of TNF-RI mRNA in CL of Days 3-7 than of other stages (P < 0.05). (125)I-TNF-alpha binding to the membranes of bovine CL was maximal after incubation at 38 degrees C for 48 h. The binding was much greater for TNF-alpha than for related peptides. A Scatchard analysis revealed the presence of a high-affinity binding site in the CL membranes collected at each phase of the estrous cycle (dissociation constant: 3.60 +/- 0.58-5.79 +/- 0.19 nM). In contrast to TNF-RI mRNA expression, the levels of receptor protein were similar at each stage of the estrous cycle. When cultured cells of all luteal stages were exposed to TNF-alpha (1-100 ng/ml), TNF-alpha stimulated prostaglandin F(2alpha) and prostaglandin E(2) secretion by the cells in a dose-dependent fashion (P < 0.01), especially during the early luteal phase, although it did not affect progesterone secretion. These results indicate the local production of TNF-alpha and the presence of functional TNF-RI in bovine CL throughout the estrous cycle, and suggest that TNF-alpha plays some roles in regulating bovine CL function throughout the estrous cycle. PMID:10611085

  3. Lipopolysaccharide enhances apoptosis of corpus luteum in isolated perfused bovine ovaries in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lttgenau, J; Mller, B; Kradolfer, D; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M; Miyamoto, A; Ulbrich, S E; Bollwein, H

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria, has detrimental effects on the structure and function of bovine corpus luteum (CL) in vivo. The objective was to investigate whether these effects were mediated directly by LPS or via LPS-induced release of PGF2?. Bovine ovaries with a mid-cycle CL were collected immediately after slaughter and isolated perfused for 240 min. After 60 min of equilibration, LPS (0.5 ?g/ml) was added to the medium of five ovaries, whereas an additional six ovaries were not treated with LPS (control). After 210 min of perfusion, all ovaries were treated with 500 iu of hCG. In the effluent perfusate, concentrations of progesterone (P4) and PGF2? were measured every 10 and 30 min, respectively. Punch biopsies of the CL were collected every 60 min and used for RT-qPCR to evaluate mRNA expression of receptors for LPS (TLR2, -4) and LH (LHCGR); the cytokine TNFA; steroidogenic (STAR, HSD3B), angiogenic (VEGFA121, FGF2), and vasoactive (EDN1) factors; and factors of prostaglandin synthesis (PGES, PGFS, PTGFR) and apoptosis (CASP3, -8, -9). Treatment with LPS abolished the hCG-induced increase in P4 (P?0.05); however, there was a tendency (P=0.10) for increased release of PGF2? at 70 min after LPS challenge. Furthermore, mRNA abundance of TLR2, TNFA, CASP3, CASP8, PGES, PGFS, and VEGFA121 increased (P?0.05) after LPS treatment, whereas all other factors remained unchanged (P>0.05). In conclusion, reduced P4 responsiveness to hCG in LPS-treated ovaries in vitro was not due to reduced steroidogenesis, but was attributed to enhanced apoptosis. However, an impact of luteal PGF2? could not be excluded. PMID:26483517

  4. Leptin in the bovine corpus luteum: receptor expression and effects on progesterone production.

    PubMed

    Nicklin, L T; Robinson, R S; Marsters, P; Campbell, B K; Mann, G E; Hunter, M G

    2007-06-01

    In cattle, leptin has been implicated in the control of ovarian function and has been shown to modulate steroid production by theca and granulosa cells in a number of species. However, a direct effect of leptin on bovine luteal function has not been demonstrated. This study was conducted to determine if the leptin receptor (OB-R) is expressed in the bovine corpus luteum (CL), and to examine the effects of leptin on progesterone production by dispersed luteal cells in vitro. RT-PCR was used to detect the presence of OB-R and, more specifically, the long, biologically active isoform (OB-Rb), in CL, collected on days 2-18 of the oestrous cycle (n=18). The effects of leptin on progesterone production were investigated in dispersed luteal cells prepared from CL collected on days 5 and 8 (n=14) of the cycle. The dispersed luteal cells were cultured for 24 hr with recombinant human leptin and/or LR3-IGF-1 and/or LH. OB-Rs, in particular, OB-Rb, were expressed in the CL at all stages of development. Progesterone production by luteal cells was increased (P<0.001) by treatment with LH (10 ng/ml) but treatment with leptin alone had no effect. However, in the presence of IGF-1 (100 ng/ml), leptin (10 ng/ml) caused a significant (P<0.005) increase in progesterone production. In conclusion, we have shown that the leptin receptor is expressed in the bovine CL and have demonstrated a modulatory effect of leptin on luteal progesterone production in vitro. PMID:17154301

  5. Case of pregnancy in two cows with unicorn horn of the uterus either by artificial insemination at ipsilateral or embryo transfer at contralateral corpus luteum in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, C; Kobayashi, I; Tani, M; Oishi, T; Kajisa, M; Horii, Y; Kamimura, S

    2008-06-01

    Two Holstein heifers and a cow were diagnosed with White Heifer Disease by ultrasonography. Case 1 was a 14 month-old heifer with aplasia of both sides of the uterine horn. In case 2, a primiparous cow and case 3, an 18 month-old heifer, both showed aplasia of the right uterine horn. Case 2 became pregnant by artificial insemination at ipsilateral ovulatory follicle and corpus luteum in the left ovary, while case 3 became pregnant by embryo transfer at 7 days after oestrus with contralateral corpus luteum in the right ovary. PMID:18179630

  6. Intramammary lipopolysaccharide infusion alters gene expression but does not induce lysis of the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Lüttgenau, J; Wellnitz, O; Kradolfer, D; Kalaitzakis, E; Ulbrich, S E; Bruckmaier, R M; Bollwein, H

    2016-05-01

    Data from various studies indicate that the ovarian function in dairy cows can be compromised during intramammary infections. Therefore, in this study, we investigated if an experimentally induced mastitis has an effect on corpus luteum (CL) function in 14 lactating cows. On d 9 of the estrous cycle (d 1=ovulation), cows received a single dose of 200 μg of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; dissolved in 10 mL of NaCL; n=8) or 10 mL of saline (control; n=6) into one quarter of the mammary gland. Measurements included plasma cortisol, haptoglobin, and progesterone (P4) concentrations, as well as luteal size (LTA) and relative luteal blood flow (rLBF). Sampling was performed on d 1, 4, and 8. On d 9, the main examination day, sampling was performed immediately before (0 h), every 1h (or at 3-h intervals for LTA and rLBF) until 9 h, as well as 12 and 24 h after treatment. Thereafter, measurements were taken on d 12, 15, 18, and then every 2 d until ovulation. Luteal tissue was collected for biopsy 24 h before and 6 h after treatment. Quantitative real-time PCR was applied to assess mRNA expression of steroidogenic factors (STAR, HSD3B), caspase 3, toll-like receptors (TLR2, -4), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFA), and prostaglandin-related factors (PGES, PGFS, PTGFR). Intramammary LPS infusion caused considerable inflammatory responses in the treated udder quarters. No decrease in plasma P4 concentrations was noted after LPS-challenge, and P4 levels did not differ between LPS-treated and control cows. Furthermore, LTA and rLBF values were not decreased after LPS challenge compared with the values obtained immediately before treatment. However, LPS infusion increased plasma levels of cortisol and haptoglobin compared with the control group. In the CL, mRNA abundance of TLR2 and TNFA was increased in cows after LPS-challenge (but not in control cows), whereas TLR4, steroidogenic, and prostaglandin-related factors remained similar to the mRNA abundance before treatment. In conclusion, intramammary LPS challenge induces systemic inflammatory reactions which alter the luteal mRNA abundance of TLR2 and TNFA but does not induce lysis of the CL. PMID:26923046

  7. Defective secretion of Prostaglandin F2α during development of idiopathic persistent corpus luteum in mares.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Castro, T; Baldrighi, J M; Wolf, C A; Santos, V G

    2016-04-01

    Five mares that developed idiopathic persistent corpus luteum (PCL) were compared with 5 mares with apparently normal interovulatory intervals (IOIs). Progesterone (P4) and a metabolite of prostaglandin F2α (PGFM) were assayed daily beginning on the day of ovulation (Day 0). Transition between the end of an initial progressive P4 increase and the beginning of a gradual decrease in P4 occurred on mean Day 6. The gradual decrease in P4 between Days 6 and 12 was less (approached significance, P < 0.06) in the PCL group than in the IOI group. The P4 concentration on Day 12 (before luteolysis in IOI group) was greater (P < 0.05) in the PCL group than in the IOI group. In a post hoc comparison, an interaction (P < 0.04) of group by day for Days 4 to 7 indicated that the end of the progressive increase in P4 was temporally associated with a transient increase in concentration of PGFM in IOI mares but not in PCL mares. Complete luteolysis (P4 < 1 ng/mL) occurred in the IOI mares on Days 13 to 15. Partial luteolysis (mean P4 decrease, 62%) occurred in 3 of the 5 PCL mares. Normalization to the day at the end of the most pronounced P4 decrease in the IOI mares and in the 3 PCL mares with partial luteolysis resulted in a day-by-group interaction (P < 0.05) for PGFM concentration. The interaction was partly from lower PGFM concentration on the day at the end of the pronounced P4 decrease in the 3 PCL mares than in the IOI mares. The peak of a transient PGFM increase and the day at the end of the most pronounced decrease in P4 were synchronized in each IOI mare but not in any of the 3 PCL mares. In the other 2 PCL mares, partial luteolysis did not occur, and a transient increase in PGFM was not apparent. Results tentatively indicated that the relationship between P4 and PGFM may be altered as early as Day 6 in PCL mares and supported the hypothesis that prostaglandin F2α secretion is defective in mares with idiopathic PCL. PMID:26773369

  8. Endothelin-1 receptors and biosynthesis in the corpus luteum: molecular and physiological implications.

    PubMed

    Meidan, Rina; Levy, Nitzan

    2002-07-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a 21-amino acid peptide was initially identified as a potent vasoconstrictor, ET-1 plays an important role in the female reproductive cycle: its quick ascent during luteal regression, ability to inhibit steroidogenesis in vitro and in vivo, combined with the observation that the luteolytic effects of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) were delayed by pretreatment with ET-1 receptors type A (ETA) antagonists suggest that this peptide functions as an important element of the luteolytic cascade. The observation that ETA receptor expression was inversely correlated with steroidogenesis in luteal cells; namely factors which stimulated steroidogenesis inhibited ETA receptor levels is also in accord with the inhibitory role of ET-1 in corpus luteum (CL) function. Contrary to the mature mid cycle CL, the CL of early cycle is refractory to PGF2alpha-induced luteolysis. PGF2alpha administered at early luteal phase (day 4 of the cycle) failed to increase luteal ET-1 gene expression or its ETA receptors. In contrast, both genes were markedly induced in mid cycle CL exposed to PGF2alpha. ET-1 gene is transcribed as prepro ET-1 (ppET-1) and the active form of peptide is derived from the inactive intermediate big ET-1, by endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1), therefore alterations in mature ET-1 levels can be achieved by modulating the expression of ppET-1 and/or ECE-1. Analysis using in situ hybridization and enriched luteal cell subpopulations showed that both steroidogenic and endothelial cells of the CL expressed high levels of ECE-1 mRNA. The ppET-1 mRNA, on the other hand, was only expressed by resident endothelial cells, suggesting that luteal parenchymal and endothelial cells cooperate in the biosynthesis of mature bioactive ET-1. A significant, four-fold elevation in ECE-1 expression (mRNA and protein levels) occurred during the transition of the CL from early to mid luteal phase. This increase was accompanied by a significant rise in ET-1 peptide. Surprisingly however, ppET-1 mRNA levels remained similar during early and mid luteal phase. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that: (a) the various components of ET-1 system (ET-1/ECE-1/ETA) are dynamically and independently regulated during bovine luteal life span. (b) The CL becomes PGF2alpha-responsive only when both ppET-1 and ECE-1 genes are expressed at a level which enable an uninterrupted ET-1 biosynthesis. PMID:12142245

  9. Evaluating blood perfusion of the corpus luteum in beef cows during fescue toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Cline, G F; Muth-Spurlock, A M; Voelz, B E; Lemley, C O; Larson, J E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if fescue toxicosis altered blood perfusion in the corpus luteum (CL) and peripheral concentrations of progesterone in cattle. The estrous cycles of 36 nonpregnant Angus or Charolais cows were synchronized in 2 replicates using the CO-Synch+CIDR protocol. Seven days after initiation of the protocol, cows were assigned (d 0) to 1 of 2 dietary treatments: 2.5 kg of 1) Kentucky-31 endophyte-infected (KY31; = 14) or 2) MaxQ novel endophyte (MaxQ; = 12) tall fescue seed. On d 7, ovaries were examined using ultrasonography, and only cows that had 1 CL present remained on the study ( = 26). Images of blood perfusion of CL, blood samples, rectal temperatures, and blood pressure of tails were collected on d 10, 13, 15, and 18. Images of CL blood perfusion were analyzed using ImageJ software for pixel density, and scored visually (0 to 9 with 0 = no perfusion, 9 = complete perfusion) by 2 independent technicians. The MIXED procedure of SAS was used with day as a repeated measure. Least squares means and SEM are reported. Cows receiving KY31 had greater rectal temperatures ( 0.003; 38.76 ± 0.08°C) than those receiving MaxQ (38.44 ± 0.08°C), providing evidence that the cows treated with KY31 were influenced by fescue toxicosis. Pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure were decreased ( < 0.01) in cows receiving KY31 (55.26 ± 2.81 and 80.06 ± 2.72 mmHg, respectively) than MaxQ (66.58 ± 3.03 and 91.38 ± 2.93 mmHg, respectively). Concentrations of progesterone were similar ( = 0.54) between cows receiving KY31 (6.04 ± 0.53 ng/mL) or MaxQ (6.36 ± 0.63 ng/mL). Pixel densities ( = 0.14) and visual perfusion scores were similar ( = 0.11) between cows receiving KY31 (1477.20 ± 655.62 pixels and 2.23 ± 0.34, respectively) or MaxQ (2934.70 ± 718.20 pixels and 3.00 ± 0.36, respectively). Mean CL volume was similar ( 0.95) between treatments. In conclusion, blood perfusion of CL or peripheral concentrations of progesterone were not altered at the onset of fescue toxicosis in this short-term study, indicating that a decrease in blood perfusion of the CL may not be a primary mechanism involved in decreased reproductive efficiency of cattle during fescue toxicosis. PMID:26812315

  10. Analysis of microarray data from the macaque corpus luteum; the search for common themes in primate luteal regression

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, C.V.; Bogan, R.L.; Hennebold, J.D.; Stouffer, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The factors and processes involved in regression of the primate corpus luteum (CL) are complex and not fully understood. Systemic identification of those genes that are differentially expressed utilizing macaque model systems of luteal regression could help clarify some of the important molecular events involved in loss of primate luteal structure and function during luteolysis. In addition, examining gene pathways involved in luteal regression may help elucidate novel approaches for overcoming infertility or designing ovary-based contraceptives. This review provides an overview of the current published microarray experiments evaluating the transcriptome of the macaque CL, and compares and contrasts the data from spontaneous, GnRH antagonist and prostaglandin F2?-induced luteal regression. In addition, further uses of these databases are discussed, as well as limitations of both array technology and the rhesus macaque genome array. PMID:20855453

  11. Prostaglandin F2-alpha receptor (FPr) expression on porcine corpus luteum microvascular endothelial cells (pCL-MVECs)

    PubMed Central

    Zannoni, Augusta; Bernardini, Chiara; Rada, Tommaso; Ribeiro, Luciana A; Forni, Monica; Bacci, Maria L

    2007-01-01

    Background The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine gland and prostaglandin F2-alpha is considered to be the principal luteolysin in pigs. In this species, the in vivo administration of prostaglandin F2-alpha induces apoptosis in large vessels as early as 6 hours after administration. The presence of the prostaglandin F2-alpha receptor (FPr) on the microvascular endothelial cells (pCL-MVECs) of the porcine corpus luteum has not yet been defined. The aim of the study was to assess FPr expression in pCL-MVECs in the early and mid-luteal phases (EL-p, ML-p), and during pregnancy (P-p). Moreover, the effectiveness of prostaglandin F2-alpha treatment in inducing pCL-MVEC apoptosis was tested. Methods Porcine CLs were collected in the EL and ML phases and during P-p. All CLs from each animal were minced together and the homogenates underwent enzymatic digestion. The pCL-MVECs were then positively selected by an immunomagnetic separation protocol using Dynabeads coated with anti-CD31 monoclonal antibody and seeded in flasks in the presence of EGM 2-MV (Microvascular Endothelial Cell Medium-2). After 4 days of culture, the cells underwent additional immunomagnetic selection and were seeded in flasks until the confluent stage. PCR Real time, western blot and immunodetection assays were utilized to assess the presence of FPr on pCL-MVEC primary cultures. Furthermore, the influence of culture time (freshly isolated, cultured overnight and at confluence) and hormonal treatment (P4 and E2) on FPr expression in pCL-MVECs was also investigated. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay of pCL-MVECs exposed to prostaglandin F2-alpha. Results We obtained primary cultures of pCL-MVECs from all animals. FPr mRNA and protein levels showed the highest value (ANOVA) in CL-MVECs derived from the early-luteal phase. Moreover, freshly isolated MVECs showed a higher FPr mRNA value than those cultured overnight and confluent cells (ANOVA). prostaglandin F2-alpha treatment failed to induce an apoptotic response in all the pCL-MVEC cultures. Conclusion Our data showing the presence of FPr on MVECs and the inability of prostaglandin F2-alpha to evoke an in vitro apoptotic response suggest that other molecules or mechanisms must be considered in order to explain the in vivo direct pro-apoptotic effect of prostaglandin F2-alpha at the endothelial level. PMID:17659079

  12. The lncRNA Neat1 is required for corpus luteum formation and the establishment of pregnancy in a subpopulation of mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Shimada, Masayuki; Yanaka, Kaori; Mito, Mari; Arai, Takashi; Takahashi, Eiki; Fujita, Youko; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Standaert, Laura; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Hirose, Tetsuro

    2014-01-01

    Neat1 is a non-protein-coding RNA that serves as an architectural component of the nuclear bodies known as paraspeckles. Although cell-based studies indicate that Neat1 is a crucial regulator of gene expression, its physiological relevance remains unclear. Here, we find that Neat1 knockout (KO) mice stochastically fail to become pregnant despite normal ovulation. Unilateral transplantation of wild-type ovaries or the administration of progesterone partially rescued the phenotype, suggesting that corpus luteum dysfunction and concomitant low progesterone were the primary causes of the decreased fertility. In contrast to the faint expression observed in most of the adult tissues, Neat1 was highly expressed in the corpus luteum, and the formation of luteal tissue was severely impaired in nearly half of the Neat1 KO mice. These observations suggest that Neat1 is essential for the formation of the corpus luteum and for the subsequent establishment of pregnancy under a suboptimal condition that has not yet been identified. PMID:25359727

  13. Influence of dopamine as noradrenaline precursor on the secretory function of the bovine corpus luteum in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Kotwica, J.; Skarzynski, D.; Bogacki, M.; Miszkiel, G.

    1996-01-01

    1. Dopamine is assumed to affect the ovary function after its conversion into noradrenaline (NA). 2. To study this bovine luteal slices from 11-14 days of the oestrous cycle were preincubated for 24 h to recover beta-receptors and next they were incubated for 1, 2 or 4 h with (a) different doses of dopamine; (b) dopamine together with a beta-antagonist (propranolol) or with a dopamine receptor blocker (droperidol); (c) dopamine with a dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor. 3. Dopamine stimulated the luteal content of oxytocin (OT) and progesterone. This effect was inhibited by propanolol but not by droperidol. 4. Dopamine added to the medium was followed by an increase of noradrenaline there. This rise was dose and time-dependent. 5. The dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibitor, inhibited the stimulating effect of dopamine on luteal progesterone and OT content. 6. Bovine corpus luteum can synthesize de novo NA from dopamine as a precursor. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8842430

  14. Expression of angiogenic factors and luteinizing hormone receptors in the corpus luteum of mares induced to ovulate with deslorelin acetate.

    PubMed

    Maia, Victor N; Batista, Andr M; Cunha Neto, Sylvio; Silva, Diogo M F; Adrio, Manoel; Wischral, Aurea

    2016-02-01

    The effects of deslorelin acetate use in inducing ovulation need to be clarified to improve the results of equine embryo transfer. The mRNA abundance for angiogenic factors and LH receptor (LHR) in corpus luteum (CL) was studied in mares with natural (control group [CG]) and induced ovulation with deslorelin acetate (treatment group [TG]; follicles: ?35mm). Transrectal ultrasonography was used to verify the ovulation day, and on Days 4, 8, and 12 after ovulation (Day 0), CL samples were obtained through ultrasound-guided biopsy. The messenger RNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and LHR genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. A positive correlation was observed between VEGF and LHR (P<0.00001, r=0.78), and it was possible to detect higher LHR expression in the TG than in the CG on Day 4 (P<0.05). Moreover, this expression was higher on Days 4 and 8 than on Day 12 in the TG. Basic fibroblast growth factor was also expressed in luteal tissue on all days for both groups; however, these differences were not significant. In conclusion, deslorelin acetate was effective for the induction of ovulation in mares, resulting in higher expression of LHR, especially on the fourth day after ovulation. In addition, VEGF expression was influenced by induced ovulation, with a lower level on Day 12, which is expected in nonpregnant mares. PMID:26476595

  15. Quantification of dynamic changes to blood volume and vascular flow in the primate corpus luteum during the menstrual cycle

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, C.V.; Molskness, T.A.; Xu, F.; Belcik, J.T.; Lindner, J.R.; Slayden, O.D.; Stouffer, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) with intravenous microbubble infusion was performed on the rhesus macaque ovary bearing the pre-ovulatory follicle and corpus luteum (CL) sequentially during the natural luteal phase (n=8) and GnRH antagonist (Antide)-induced luteal regression (n=6). Changes in luteal blood volume (BV) and vascular flow (VF) were observed between stages of the luteal phase Luteal BV was highest in early stage CL, before decreasing 2.5-fold in late stage CL (P<0.06); in contrast, luteal VF peaked at mid luteal stage (P<0.01). Two females identified with luteal insufficiency trended toward lower peak BV, compared to typical CLs. Another female was identified with a luteal cyst on the contralateral ovary, and a CL that regressed before P levels declined. After 72 hours of Antide exposure, BV was reduced 2.3-fold (P=0.03). DCE-US provides a sensitive, non-invasive measurement of the dynamics of blood volume and flow in dominant ovarian structures. PMID:24948037

  16. Joint MiRNA/mRNA Expression Profiling Reveals Changes Consistent with Development of Dysfunctional Corpus Luteum after Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Andrew P.; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C.; May, Margaret C.; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7–9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26258540

  17. LPS-mediated effects and spatio-temporal expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Lüttgenau, J; Herzog, K; Strüve, K; Latter, S; Boos, A; Bruckmaier, R M; Bollwein, H; Kowalewski, M P

    2016-04-01

    When given intravenously (iv), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) transiently suppresses the structure and function of the bovine corpus luteum (CL). This is associated with increased release of prostaglandin (PG) F2α metabolite. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of this process remain, however, obscure. Therefore, the aims of this study were: i) to investigate the expression of the LPS receptor toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and 2 (TLR2) in the bovine CL during early, mid- and late luteal phases; and ii) to further dissect the mechanisms of LPS-mediated suppression of luteal function. As revealed by semi-quantitative qPCR and immunohistochemistry, both receptors were detectable throughout the luteal lifespan. Their mRNA levels increased from the early toward the mid-luteal phase; no further changes were observed thereafter. The TLR4 protein seemed more highly represented than TLR2. The cellular localization of TLRs was in blood vessels; weaker signals were observed in luteal cells. Additionally, cows were treated either with LPS (iv, 0.5 μg/kg BW) or with saline on Day 10 after ovulation. Samples were collected 1200 h after treatment and on Day 10 of the respective subsequent (untreated) cycle. The mRNA expression of several possible regulatory factors was investigated, revealing the suppression of PGF2α receptor (PTGFR), STAR protein and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, compared with controls and subsequent cycles. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4, interleukin 1α (IL1A) and 1β (IL1B) and of PGF2α and PGE2 synthases (HSD20A and mPTGES respectively) was increased. The results demonstrate the presence of TLR2 and TLR4 in the bovine CL, and implicate their possible involvement in the deleterious effects of LPS on its function. PMID:26762400

  18. Expression of vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor by human granulosa and theca lutein cells. Role in corpus luteum development.

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, B. R.; Brown, L. F.; Manseau, E. J.; Senger, D. R.; Dvorak, H. F.

    1995-01-01

    Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF) is a cytokine that is overexpressed in many tumors, in healing wounds, and in rheumatoid arthritis. VPF/VEGF is thought to induce angiogenesis and accompanying connective tissue stroma in two ways: 1), by increasing microvascular permeability, thereby modifying the extracellular matrix and 2), as an endothelial cell mitogen. VPF/VEGF has been reported in animal corpora lutea and we investigated the possibility that it might be present in human ovaries and have a role in corpus luteum formation. We here report that VPF/VEGF mRNA and protein are expressed by human ovarian granulosa and theca cells late in follicle development and, subsequent to ovulation, by granulosa and theca lutein cells. Therefore, VPF/VEGF is ideally positioned to provoke the increased permeability of thecal blood vessels that occurs shortly before ovulation. VPF/VEGF likely also contributes to the angiogenesis and connective tissue stroma generation that accompany corpus luteum/corpus albicans formation. Finally, VPF/VEGF was overexpressed in the hyperthecotic ovarian stroma of Stein-Leventhal syndrome in which it may also have a pathophysiological role. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7531945

  19. Cultured microvascular endothelial cells derived from the bovine corpus luteum possess NCAM-140.

    PubMed

    Mayerhofer, A; Spanel-Borowski, K; Watkins, S; Gratzl, M

    1992-08-01

    Previously, five phenotypically different, stable types of microvascular endothelial cells (MVE) were isolated from the bovine corpus and cultured successfully. We found that three out of these five types of MVE express the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). As shown by immunocytochemistry, weak NCAM immunoreactivity occurred mainly in the perinuclear area of cell type 1. Monolayers of types 2 and 5 revealed heavy NCAM immunoreactivity, which was localized predominantly at the lateral cell surface outlining the contact zones of adjacent cells. In contrast, cell types 3 and 4 were not NCAM immunoreactive. Western blot analyses substantiated these results: While cell type 1 showed a weak immunoreactive band, cell types 2 and 5 displayed strong NCAM-immunoreactive bands of a molecular weight of approximately 140 kDa (NCAM-140), which was absent in cell types 3 and 4. These results reveal for the first time that NCAM can be expressed by cultured MVE and may serve in mediating endothelial cell contacts. Since luteal cells also express NCAM-140, this adhesion molecule could in addition be involved in the interactions of luteal cells with MVE. PMID:1639148

  20. Differences in progesterone concentrations and mRNA expressions of progesterone receptors in bovine endometrial tissue between the uterine horns ipsilateral and contralateral to the corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroto; Haneda, Shingo; Kayano, Mitsunori; Matsui, Motozumi

    2016-05-01

    Because the establishment of pregnancy begins at the uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum (ipsi-horn) in cattle, levels of progesterone (P4) and receptor expression in the endometrial tissue, which regulate the intrauterine environment for embryo development, may differ between the ipsi-horn and the uterine horn contralateral to corpus luteum (contra-horn). The aim of the present study was to determine the endometrial tissue P4 concentrations and nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR), progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) and PGRMC2 mRNA expressions in the cranial and middle parts of the uterine horns during the luteal phase. The results showed higher endometrial tissue P4 concentrations in the cranial part of the ipsi-horn than in that of the contra-horn (P<0.01); however, no change in the endometrial tissue P4 concentrations was evident during the luteal phase. The PGR mRNA expression was higher during the early luteal phase (P<0.05), but no differences between the horns were evident. However, PGRMC1 mRNA expression during the early luteal phase was higher in the cranial part of the ipsi-horn than in that of the contra-horn (P<0.05). In the middle part, there were no changes in the endometrial tissue P4 concentrations and P4 receptor expressions during the luteal phase. In conclusion, the differences in dynamics of endometrial tissue P4 concentrations and P4 receptor expressions between the uterine horns ipsilateral and contralateral to the ovary containing a corpus luteum may cause differences in the intrauterine environment for both the ipsi- and contra-horns. PMID:26782011

  1. Differences in progesterone concentrations and mRNA expressions of progesterone receptors in bovine endometrial tissue between the uterine horns ipsilateral and contralateral to the corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Hiroto; HANEDA, Shingo; KAYANO, Mitsunori; MATSUI, Motozumi

    2016-01-01

    Because the establishment of pregnancy begins at the uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum (ipsi-horn) in cattle, levels of progesterone (P4) and receptor expression in the endometrial tissue, which regulate the intrauterine environment for embryo development, may differ between the ipsi-horn and the uterine horn contralateral to corpus luteum (contra-horn). The aim of the present study was to determine the endometrial tissue P4 concentrations and nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR), progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) and PGRMC2 mRNA expressions in the cranial and middle parts of the uterine horns during the luteal phase. The results showed higher endometrial tissue P4 concentrations in the cranial part of the ipsi-horn than in that of the contra-horn (P<0.01); however, no change in the endometrial tissue P4 concentrations was evident during the luteal phase. The PGR mRNA expression was higher during the early luteal phase (P<0.05), but no differences between the horns were evident. However, PGRMC1 mRNA expression during the early luteal phase was higher in the cranial part of the ipsi-horn than in that of the contra-horn (P<0.05). In the middle part, there were no changes in the endometrial tissue P4 concentrations and P4 receptor expressions during the luteal phase. In conclusion, the differences in dynamics of endometrial tissue P4 concentrations and P4 receptor expressions between the uterine horns ipsilateral and contralateral to the ovary containing a corpus luteum may cause differences in the intrauterine environment for both the ipsi- and contra-horns. PMID:26782011

  2. The microvasculature of the corpus luteum in pregnant rabbit. A scanning electron microscopy study of corrosion casts.

    PubMed

    Macchiarelli, G; Nottola, S A; Picucci, K; Stallone, T; Motta, P M

    1998-01-01

    The vascular network of pregnant rabbit ovaries was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of corrosion casts, in order to evaluate the morphofunctional changes of the microcirculation of corpus luteum (CL). Pregnant rabbit ovary showed an overwhelming vascularization. Ovarian hilus displayed an increase in the arterial spirallisation. The arterial spiral pattern was present along the entire vessel course, up to CL tissues. The CL of pregnancy was supplied by wide vascular plexuses (2-5 plexuses were found in each pregnant ovary) whose major axis was about 2 mm. Luteal capillaries showed a tortuous course and were arranged in a three-dimensional, wide and rounded-meshed network. Postcapillary venoconstrictions were present. The venous drainage appeared more developed then the arterial supply. Tight artero-venous contacts in hilar, juxtamedullar and medullar regions of the ovary were observed. These results clearly show that the morphofunctional expression of CL of pregnancy is greatly dependent on its hemodynamic control. In particular, the increase of spirallisation exhibited by the arteries during pregnancy is likely to be considered a significant functional change. The spirallisation likely is a device for reducing the blood pressure through the CL. The artero-venous contacts, also previously described in hCG stimulated (pseudopregnant) ovaries, may support a counter-current like system that may allow a veno-arterial exchange of small molecules through the wall of the facing vessels. In addition, in 10-day pregnant rabbit CL the consolidation of a well-developed capillary network was revealed, which is a sign that the CL of pregnancy reached the full morphofunctional maturation. Furthermore, the CL of 10-day pregnant rabbit did not present significant capillary permeabilization and dilation or angiogenic processes, aspects that were previously found in stimulated periovulatory ovaries. Indeed, changes of the arterial supply and venous drainage of the CL of pregnancy were demonstrated. This suggests that the control of the blood flow through the CL of pregnancy may be transferred from the local capillary microcirculation to the regional artero/venous circulation. This may be probably related to the significant increase of the ovarian blood flow necessary for the maintenance of CL endocrine functions during pregnancy. PMID:11315950

  3. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Brogan, P T; Henning, H; Stout, T A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M

    2016-03-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between CL size and vascularity, and circulating [P4] during early pregnancy in mares, and to determine whether luteal blood flow was a useful aid for selecting an embryo transfer recipient. Equine embryos (n=48) were recovered 8 days after ovulation and were transferred to available recipient mares as part of a commercial program with the degree of synchrony in timing of recipient ovulation ranging from 1 day before to 4 days after the donor. Immediately prior to embryo transfer (ET), maximum CL cross-section and blood vessel areas were assessed sonographically, and jugular blood was collected to measure plasma [P4]. Sonographic measurements and jugular blood collection were repeated at day 4 after ET for all mares, and again at days 11, 18 and 25 after ET in mares that were pregnant. The number of grey-scale and colour pixels within the CL was subsequently quantified using ImageJ software. The CL blood flow correlated significantly but weakly with plasma [P4] on the day of transfer and on day 4 after ET in all mares, and on days 11 and 25 after ET in pregnant mares (r=0.30-0.36). The CL area and plasma [P4] were also correlated on each day until day 11 after ET (r=0.49-0.60). The CL colour pixel area decreased significantly after day 18, whereas CL area was already decreasing by day 4 after ET. The CL area, area of blood flow, or [P4] was predictive of pregnancy. Findings in the present study suggest that both CL area and blood flow are correlated with circulating [P4] at the time of transfer and in early pregnancy. Evaluation of the CL using B-mode or CF sonography, although practical, provides no improvement in the selection of recipients or prediction of pregnancy outcomes than methods employed currently. PMID:26778451

  4. Size of ovulatory follicles in cattle expressing multiple ovulations naturally and its influence on corpus luteum development and fertility.

    PubMed

    Echternkamp, S E; Cushman, R A; Allan, M F

    2009-11-01

    Long-term genetic selection of cattle for fraternal twins has increased the frequency of twin and triplet ovulations. In contrast, the ratio of fetal numbers to ovulation sites in pregnant females with twin (0.83) or triplet (0.73) ovulations is <1.0 and the number of calves per parturition is 1.6 and 2.0, respectively. Failure of individual twin or triplet ovulations to yield a conceptus in fertile females indicates a significant contribution of ovulation or oocyte anomalies to increased fertilization failure or early embryonic mortality. The present objective was to identify physiological traits affecting conception in cyclic cattle expressing multiple ovulations naturally, including the effect of ovulation rate on follicle or corpus luteum (CL) size, and their relationship to conception. Diameter of the individual ovulatory follicles was measured by transrectal ultrasonography at AI and ranged from 8 to 30 mm, with a trend for diameter of the individual follicles, and associated CL, to decrease with increasing ovulation rate. Independent of ovulation rate, ovulatory follicles were smaller (P < 0.05) for nulliparous heifers (1.5 yr) compared with parous cows (> or =2.5 yr). Pregnancy and fetal status were diagnosed by transrectal ultrasonography between 42 and 72 d after AI. Fertility was reduced (P < 0.01) for small twin or triplet ovulatory follicles (8 to 8.9 mm vs. 10 to 17.9 mm diam.), whereas fertility in monovular females was reduced (P < 0.01) for large ovulatory follicles (> or =22 vs. 14 to 17.9 mm). Plasma progesterone concentrations increased with ovulation rate and were correlated positively with total CL or ovulatory follicle volume per female, indicating that CL size and function were influenced by the size of the follicle of origin. Progesterone was greater (P < 0.05) in the blood of nulliparous heifers compared with parous cows. The increased proportion of small ovulatory follicles associated with twin and triplet ovulations indicates that some ovulatory follicles were either selected to ovulate at a lesser stage of maturity or rescued while undergoing atresia, thus compromising oocyte competency or ovulation. Of greatest importance for reduced fertility was the greater incidence of pregnancy losses occurring in the middle of gestation in females gestating 2 or more fetuses as an apparent effect of uterine crowding, especially when 2 or more fetuses were contained within 1 uterine horn. PMID:19684271

  5. Immunohistochemical localization of steroidogenic enzymes in the corpus luteum and the placenta of the ribbon seal (Phoca fasciata) and steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus).

    PubMed

    Ishinazaka, T; Suzuki, M; Yamamoto, Y; Isono, T; Harada, N; Mason, J I; Watabe, M; Tsunokawa, M; Ohtaishi, N

    2001-09-01

    To study the luteal and placental function of pinnipeds, we analyzed the localization of steroidogenic enzymes (P450scc, 3 beta HSD and P450arom) in the corpus luteum and the placenta of ribbon seals (Phoca fasciata) and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) immunohistochemically. P450scc and 3 beta HSD were present in all luteal cells of both species. Almost all of the luteal cells were immunostained for P450arom, while P450scc and 3 beta HSD were negatively immunostained in placentae and P450arom was present in the syncytiotrophoblast of placentae. These findings suggest that 1) corpora lutea of both species synthesize pregnenolone, progesterone and estrogen during the entire pregnancy period, and 2) like other terrestrial carnivores in the suborder Caniformia, placentae of both species do not have the capability for synthesizing progesterone in the latter half of active pregnancy period. PMID:11642282

  6. Characterization of recombinant DNA derived-human luteinizing hormone in vitro and in vivo: efficacy in ovulation induction and corpus luteum support

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.A.; Danforth, D.R.; Hutchison, J.S.; Hodgen, G.D.

    1988-06-10

    The present data are the first, to the authors knowledge, to demonstrate the production feasibility of a commercially available medication of pure human luteinizing hormone from recombinant DNA technology (rechLH). The rechLH preparation achieved ovulation induction and corpus luteum support in the primate menstrual cycle. The observations described herein indicate the opportunity for significant improvement in the treatment of infertile women and men who require gonadal stimulation. Recombinant DNA-derived gonadotropin products, rechLH in this case, will have several therapeutic advantages compared with current medications extracted from urine. These advantages include (1) better reliability of an available supply of hormone and (2) improved treatment flexibility in determining the optimal dose ratio of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone or avoidance of the long-acting effects of human chorionic gonadotropin, as the needs of individual patients may dictate.

  7. Differentially Expressed Genes in Endometrium and Corpus Luteum of Holstein Cows Selected for High and Low Fertility Are Enriched for Sequence Variants Associated with Fertility.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephen G; Pryce, Jennie E; Hayes, Ben J; Chamberlain, Amanda J; Kemper, Kathryn E; Berry, Donagh P; McCabe, Matt; Cormican, Paul; Lonergan, Pat; Fair, Trudee; Butler, Stephen T

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of fertility in humans and livestock, there has been little success dissecting the genetic basis of fertility. Our hypothesis was that genes differentially expressed in the endometrium and corpus luteum on Day 13 of the estrous cycle between cows with either good or poor genetic merit for fertility would be enriched for genetic variants associated with fertility. We combined a unique genetic model of fertility (cattle that have been selected for high and low fertility and show substantial difference in fertility) with gene expression data from these cattle and genome-wide association study (GWAS) results in ∼20,000 cattle to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions and sequence variants associated with genetic variation in fertility. Two hundred and forty-five QTL regions and 17 sequence variants associated primarily with prostaglandin F2alpha, steroidogenesis, mRNA processing, energy status, and immune-related processes were identified. Ninety-three of the QTL regions were validated by two independent GWAS, with signals for fertility detected primarily on chromosomes 18, 5, 7, 8, and 29. Plausible causative mutations were identified, including one missense variant significantly associated with fertility and predicted to affect the protein function of EIF4EBP3. The results of this study enhance our understanding of 1) the contribution of the endometrium and corpus luteum transcriptome to phenotypic fertility differences and 2) the genetic architecture of fertility in dairy cattle. Including these variants in predictions of genomic breeding values may improve the rate of genetic gain for this critical trait. PMID:26607721

  8. Expression of mRNA encoding insulin-like growth factors I and II and the type 1 IGF receptor in the bovine corpus luteum at defined stages of the oestrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Woad, K J; Baxter, G; Hogg, C O; Bramley, T A; Webb, R; Armstrong, D G

    2000-11-01

    Previous studies have implicated insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and -II), in the regulation of ovarian function. The present study investigated the localization of mRNA encoding IGF-I and -II and the type 1 IGF receptor using in situ hybridization to determine further the roles of the IGFs within the bovine corpus luteum at precise stages of the oestrous cycle. Luteal expression of mRNA encoding IGF-I and -II and the type 1 IGF receptor was detected throughout the oestrous cycle. The expression of IGF-I mRNAvaried significantly during the oestrous cycle. IGF-I mRNA concentrations were significantly higher on day 15 than on day 10, and IGF-I mRNA in the regressing corpus luteum at 48 h after administration of exogenous prostaglandin was significantly greater than in the early or mid-luteal phase (days 5 and 10). In contrast, there was no significant effect of day of the oestrous cycle on expression of mRNA for IGF-II and the type 1 IGF receptor in the corpus luteum. Expression of IGF-II mRNA was localized to a subset of steroidogenic luteal cells and was also associated with cells of the luteal vasculature. mRNA encoding the type 1 IGF receptor was widely expressed in a pattern indicative of expression in large and small luteal cells. These data demonstrate that the bovine corpus luteum is a site of IGF production and reception throughout the luteal phase. Furthermore, this study highlights the potential of IGF-II in addition to IGF-I in the autocrine and paracrine regulation of luteal function. PMID:11058445

  9. /sup 125/I-luteinizing hormone (LH) binding to soluble receptors from the primate (Macaca mulatta) corpus luteum: effects of ethanol exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Danforth, D.R.; Stouffer, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the current study, we compared the effects of ethanol on gonadotropin receptors solubilized from macaque luteal membranes to those on receptors associated with the lipid bilayer. Treatment with 1% Triton X-100 for 30 min at 4C, followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol, resulted in recovery of 50% more binding sites for /sup 125/I-human luteinizing hormone (hLH) than were available in particulate preparations. However, the soluble receptors displayed a 3-fold lower affinity for /sup 125/I-hLH. Conditions which enhanced LH binding to particulates, i.e., 1-8% ethanol at 25C, decreased specific /sup 125/I-hLH binding to soluble receptors. Steady-state LH binding to soluble receptors during incubation at 4C was half of that observed at 25C. The presence of 8% ethanol at 4C restored LH binding to levels observed in the absence of ethanol at 25C. Thus, LH binding sites in the primate corpus luteum can be effectively solubilized with Triton X-100. The different binding characteristics of particulate and soluble receptors, including the response to ethanol exposure, suggest that the lipid environment in the luteal membrane modulates the availability and affinity of gonadotropin receptors.

  10. Prostaglandin F2α induces expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) and activates MAPK signaling in the rat corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Nannan; Meng, Chenling; Bai, Wujiao; Wei, Quanwei; Shi, Fangxiong; Davis, John S; Mao, Dagan

    2015-03-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the expression of ATF3, in association with the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) during prostaglandin F2α analog (PGF)-induced luteal regression in rats. A sequential PMSG/hCG treatment paradigm was used to obtain a single, well-defined generation of corpora lutea (CL) in rats. Rats were treated with PGF for 0-4h on day 7 of pseudopregnancy. Results showed that serum progesterone (P4) concentrations declined in a time dependent manner. Western blot results revealed that ATF3 increased within 2h post-PGF injection. Phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK) and JNK (p-JNK) increased within 30min and then were gradually reduced in response to PGF. In contrast, the levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK (p-p38) were not significantly altered. The immunostaining density for p-ERK decreased from the periphery to the center of the corpus luteum following treatment with PGF, while ATF3 was expressed uniformly in the nuclei of luteal steroidogenic cells. These results indicated that treatment with PGF in vivo could induce increases in MAPK phosphorylation, especially in p-ERK, which might be correlated with the increases in ATF3 expression and the decline in P4 concentrations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence for temporal relationships between MAPK activation and ATF3 expression during PGF-induced luteal regression in the rat. PMID:25614048

  11. The effects of luteinizing hormone ablation/replacement versus steroid ablation/replacement on gene expression in the primate corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Cecily V.; Hennebold, Jon D.; Stouffer, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to provide a genome-wide analysis of the effects of luteinizing hormone (LH) versus steroid ablation/replacement on gene expression in the developed corpus luteum (CL) in primates during the menstrual cycle. On Days 9–11 of the luteal phase, female rhesus monkeys were left untreated (control) or received a GnRH antagonist Antide (A), A + LH, A + LH + the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor Trilostane (TRL) or A + LH + TRL + a progestin R5020. On Day 12 of the luteal phase, CL were removed and samples of RNA from individual CL were hybridized to Affymetrix™ rhesus macaque total genome microarrays. The greatest number of altered transcripts was associated with the ablation/replacement of LH, while steroid ablation/progestin replacement affected fewer transcripts. Replacement of LH during Antide treatment restored the expression of most transcripts to control levels. Validation of a subset of transcripts revealed that the expression patterns were similar between microarray and real-time PCR. Analyses of protein levels were subsequently determined for two transcripts. This is the first genome-wide analysis of LH and steroid regulation of gene transcription in the developed primate CL. Further analysis of novel transcripts identified in this data set can clarify the relative role for LH and steroids in CL maintenance and luteolysis. PMID:19168862

  12. Expression and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in the corpus luteum during oestrous cycle in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Chouhan, V S; Panda, R P; Yadav, V P; Babitha, V; Khan, F A; Das, G K; Gupta, M; Dangi, S S; Singh, G; Bag, S; Sharma, G T; Berisha, B; Schams, D; Sarkar, M

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to document the expression and localization of VEGF system comprising of VEGF isoforms (VEGF 120, VEGF 164 and VEGF 188) and their receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) in buffalo corpus luteum (CL) obtained from different stages of the oestrous cycle. Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry were applied to investigate mRNA expression, protein expression and localization of examined factors. In general, all the components of VEGF system (the VEGF isoforms and their receptors) were found in the water buffalo CL during the oestrous cycle. The mRNA as well as protein expression of VEGF system was highest during the early and mid-luteal phase, which later steadily decreased (p < 0.05) after day 10 to reach the lowest level in regressed CL. As demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, VEGF protein was localized predominantly in luteal cells; however, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 were localized in luteal cells as well as in endothelial cells. In conclusion, the dynamics of expression and localization of VEGF system in buffalo corpora lutea during the luteal phase were demonstrated in this study, indicating the possible role of VEGF system in the regulation of luteal angiogenesis and proliferation of luteal as well as endothelial cells through their non-angiogenic function. PMID:23551326

  13. Inhibitory effect of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) on in vitro angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells in the rat corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Kazuhiro; YOSHIE, Mikihiro; HASHIMOTO, Keisuke; TACHIKAWA, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis in the developing corpus luteum (CL) is a prerequisite for establishment and maintenance of an early pregnancy. To explore the physiological significance of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) in the developing CL, the effects of IGFBP7 on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA)- and luteinizing hormone (LH)-induced in vitro tube formation were tested using isolated luteal microvascular endothelial cells (LECs). Capillary-like tube formation of LECs and their proliferation were stimulated by both VEGFA and LH. IGFBP7 treatment suppressed VEGFA- or LH-induced tube formation. The proliferation and migration of LECs, and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 were inhibited by IGFBP7. Furthermore, IGFBP7 attenuated VEGFA-enhanced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA expression and prostaglandin E2 secretion. These findings suggest the possibility that luteal IGFBP7 secretion may suppress the stimulatory effect of VEGFA on angiogenesis in the early CL. PMID:25212428

  14. Effect of energy balance and somatotropin on insulin-like growth factor I in serum and on weight and progesterone of corpus luteum in heifers.

    PubMed

    Yung, M C; VandeHaar, M J; Fogwell, R L; Sharma, B K

    1996-09-01

    Holstein heifers (approximately 1 yr old) were fed to be in negative energy balance (n = 14; NEB) or positive energy balance (n = 15; PEB) during four estrous cycles. Each heifer was given PGF2 alpha to control the timing of fourth estrus. From 1 d after PGF2 alpha injection until 10 d after estrus, half of the heifers were injected daily with 14 mg of somatotropin (bST), and the corpus luteum (CL) was collected on d 10. Heifers in NEB had less IGF-I in serum (P < .01), smaller CL (P < .01), and less progesterone in CL (P < .01) than heifers in PEB. Exogenous bST increased (P < .01) IGF-I in serum, but this increase was greater in heifers in PEB than those in NEB (P < .01 for interaction of energy balance and bST). Nonetheless, bST did not alter weight or progesterone content of the CL in either energy balance group. In addition, serum IGF-I during the first 10 d after estrus was not correlated to luteal weight and only weakly correlated (r = .3) with luteal progesterone content. We conclude that exogenous bST given during luteal development does not alter growth or progesterone content of the CL in heifers. Reduced concentration of IGF-I in serum during luteal development does not account for suppressed luteal growth and progesterone synthesis of heifers in NEB. PMID:8880428

  15. Nodal Promotes Functional Luteolysis via Down-Regulation of Progesterone and Prostaglandins E2 and Promotion of PGF2α Synthetic Pathways in Mare Corpus Luteum.

    PubMed

    Galvão, António; Skarzynski, Dariusz; Ferreira-Dias, Graça

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, we investigated the role of Nodal, an embryonic morphogen from the TGFβ superfamily in corpus luteum (CL) secretory activity using cells isolated from equine CL as a model. Expression pattern of Nodal and its receptors activin receptor A type IIB (ACVR2B), activin receptor-like kinase (Alk)-7, and Alk4, as well as the Nodal physiological role, demonstrate the involvement of this pathway in functional luteolysis. Nodal and its receptors were immune localized in small and large luteal cells and endothelial cells, except ACVR2B, which was not detected in the endothelium. Nodal mRNA in situ hybridization confirmed its transcription in steroidogenic and endothelial cells. Expression analysis of the aforementioned factors evidenced that Nodal and Alk7 proteins peaked at the mid-CL (P < .01), the time of luteolysis initiation, whereas Alk4 and ACVR2B proteins increased from mid- to late CL (P < .05). The Nodal treatment of luteal cells decreased progesterone and prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations in culture media (P < .05) as well as mRNA and protein of secretory enzymes steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytosolic PGE2 synthase, and microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (P < .05). Conversely, PGF2α secretion and gene expression of PG-endoperoxidase synthase 2 and PGF2α synthase were increased after Nodal treatment (P < .05). Mid-CL cells cultured with PGF2α had increased Nodal protein expression (P < .05) and phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic-3 phosphorylation (P < .05). Finally, the supportive interaction between Nodal and PGF2α on luteolysis was shown to its greatest extent because both factors together more significantly inhibited progesterone (P < .05) and promoted PGF2α (P < .05) synthesis than Nodal or PGF2α alone. Our results neatly pinpoint the sites of action of the Nodal signaling pathway toward functional luteolysis in the mare. PMID:26653568

  16. Effects of varying doses of β-nerve growth factor on the timing of ovulation, plasma progesterone concentration and corpus luteum size in female alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Stuart, C C; Vaughan, J L; Kershaw-Young, C M; Wilkinson, J; Bathgate, R; de Graaf, S P

    2015-11-01

    Ovulation in camelids is induced by the seminal plasma protein ovulation-inducing factor (OIF), recently identified as β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF). The present study measured the total protein concentration in alpaca seminal plasma using a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein quantification assay and found it to be 22.2±2.0mgmL(-1). To measure the effects of varying doses of β-NGF on the incidence and timing of ovulation, corpus luteum (CL) size and plasma progesterone concentration, 24 female alpacas were synchronised and treated with either: (1) 1mL 0.9% saline (n=5); (2) 4µg buserelin (n=5); (3) 1mg β-NGF protein (n=5); (4) 0.1mg β-NGF (n=5); or (5) 0.01mg β-NGF (n=4). Females were examined by transrectal ultrasonography at 1-2-h intervals between 20 and 45h after treatment or until ovulation occurred, as well as on Day 8 to observe the size of the CL, at which time blood was collected to measure plasma progesterone concentrations. Ovulation was detected in 0/5, 5/5, 5/5, 3/5 and 0/4 female alpacas treated with saline, buserelin, 1, 0.1 and 0.01mg β-NGF, respectively. Mean ovulation interval (P=0.76), CL diameter (P=0.96) and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.96) did not differ between treatments. Mean ovulation interval overall was 26.2±1.0h. In conclusion, buserelin and 1mg β-NGF are equally effective at inducing ovulation in female alpacas, but at doses ≤0.1mg, β-NGF is not a reliable method for the induction of ovulation. PMID:24965784

  17. Ovulation of the preovulatory follicle originating from the first-wave dominant follicle leads to formation of an active corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    MIURA, Ryotaro; HANEDA, Shingo; MATSUI, Motozumi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to compare the characteristics of the corpus luteum (CL) formed after ovulation of the dominant follicle (DF) of the first follicular wave (W1) and those of the CL formed after ovulation of the DF of the second (induced) follicular wave (W2). Non-lactating Holstein cows were used for this study. In Experiment 1, cows were treated with PGF2? and GnRH on days 6 and 8 (day 0 = day of follicular wave emergence) for W1 (n = 6) and W2 (n = 6), respectively. Dominant follicles were aspirated on day 9 to quantify the amounts of mRNA (VEGF120, VEGF164, FGF-2, StAR, P450-scc and 3?-HSD) in granulosa cells (GC). In Experiment 2, the size and blood flow area of the CL formed after ovulation of the DF in W1 (W1CL; n = 6) and W2 (W2CL; n = 6) (the day of DF ovulation in W1 and W2 was day 10) were evaluated on days 12, 15, 18 and 21. The plasma P4 concentration was measured on days 10 to 21. The amounts of VEGF164, P450-scc and 3?-HSD mRNA were higher (P < 0.05) in the DF in W1, and those of VEGF120,FGF-2 and StAR mRNA tended to be higher (P < 0.1) in the DF in W1. The size of the CL was greater in the W1CL on days 15, 18 and 21. The blood flow area of the CL was greater in the W1CL on days 12 and 15. The plasma P4 concentrations were higher in the W1CL. These results indicate that the CL formed after ovulation of the DF in W1 was greater in terms of size, blood flow and plasma P4 concentration. PMID:26018204

  18. Different phenotypes of cultured microvessel endothelial cells obtained from bovine corpus luteum. Study by light microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

    PubMed

    Spanel-Borowski, K; van der Bosch, J

    1990-07-01

    Morphological heterogeneity has not been documented for cultured endothelial cells isolated from the microvascular bed of any organ. As the corpus luteum depends on a rich microvascularization, endothelial cells were dislodged from developing corpora lutea by mechanical dissection followed either by collagenase digestion or by no digestion. Cell separation was carried out by Percoll density centrifugation. Although the yield of intact cells was higher with collagenase treatment than without, successful endothelial cell cultures were only established when cells remained untreated. Viewed by light microscopy after an average lag phase of 10 days, five different phenotypes of endothelial cells were found under similar simple culture conditions: isomorphic epithelioid, polymorphic epithelioid, spindle-shaped, round, and phase-dense phenotypes. Monolayers appeared within 2-4 weeks. After an additional period of 2-4 weeks, tubular forms with a specific pattern were noted for types 1-3, the so-called pseudotubular forms for type 4, and none for type 5. Cell types differed in their cytochemical and immunocytochemical responses. Examined by SEM, type 1 displayed a more conspicuous surface anatomy than type 2. Types 3-5 demonstrated striking cell processes that were characteristic of each type. Tubular forms of types 1 and 2 showed cell borders and a marked increase in surface specializations, whereas tubular forms of type 3 lacked detectable cell borders in the absence of a striking surface anatomy. Pseudotubular forms of type 4 developed no particular spatial organization. Thus, for the first time, morphological evidence is provided that different endothelial cell types are obtained from diverse segments of the microvascular bed. PMID:1696523

  19. Expression and localization of apelin and its receptor APJ in the bovine corpus luteum during the estrous cycle and prostaglandin F2alpha-induced luteolysis.

    PubMed

    Shirasuna, Koumei; Shimizu, Takashi; Sayama, Kohei; Asahi, Takayuki; Sasaki, Motoki; Berisha, Bajram; Schams, Dieter; Miyamoto, Akio

    2008-04-01

    Angiogenesis, changes in blood flow, and extracellular matrix remodeling are the processes associated with the development and demise of the bovine corpus luteum (CL) during the estrous cycle. APJ (putative receptor protein related to angiotensin type 1 receptor) is a G-protein-coupled receptor, and its ligand, apelin, has been identified as a novel regulator of blood pressure and as an angiogenic factor. We hypothesized that the apelin-APJ system is involved in luteal function. This study investigated whether apelin-APJ exists in bovine CL and determined their expression profiles and localization during luteal phase and prostaglandin F(2)(alpha) (PGF(2)(alpha))-induced luteolysis. During the luteal phase, apelin mRNA expression increased from early to late CL and decreased in regressed CL. APJ mRNA expression increased from early to mid-CL and remained elevated in late and regressed CL. Apelin and APJ proteins were immunohistochemically detected only in the smooth muscle cells of intraluteal arterioles during the luteal phase. PGF(2)(alpha) stimulated apelin and APJ mRNA expression at 0.5-2 and 2 h respectively, and then the mRNA expression of apelin-APJ was inhibited from 4 h during PGF(2)(alpha)-induced luteolysis. Additionally, apelin mRNA and protein were stimulated at 1 h after PGF(2)(alpha) injection only in the periphery of mid- but not early CL. The present study indicated that the apelin-APJ was localized in the smooth muscle cells of intraluteal arterioles, and responded to PGF(2)(alpha) at the periphery of mid-CL in the cow. Thus, the apelin-APJ system may be involved in the maturation of CL and the luteolytic cascade as a regulator of intraluteal arterioles in cow. PMID:18367512

  20. Effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha on local luteotropic and angiogenic factors during induced functional luteolysis in the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Bajram; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Schams, Dieter

    2010-05-01

    The essential role of endometrial prostaglandin F2 alpha (PTGF) for induction of the corpus luteum (CL) regression is well documented in the cow. However, the acute effects of PTGF on known local luteotropic factors (oxytocin [OXT] and its receptor, insulin-like growth factor [IGF] 1, and progesterone and its receptor), the principal angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A and the capillary destabilization factor angiopoietin (ANGPT) 2 were not thoroughly studied in detail. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the tissue concentration of these factors during PTGF induced luteolysis. In addition the mRNA expression of progesterone receptor (PGR), OXT receptor (OXTR), IGF1, IGFBP1, ANGPT1, and ANGPT2 was determined at different times after PTGF treatment. Cows (n = 5 per group) in the mid-luteal phase (Days 8-12, control group) were injected with the PTGF analog (cloprostenol), and CL were collected by transvaginal ovariectomy at 0.5, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, and 64 h after injection. The mRNA expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, and the protein concentration was evaluated by enzyme immunoassay or radioimmunoassay. Progesterone concentrations, as well as mRNA expression of PGR, in CL tissue were significantly down-regulated by 12 h after PTGF. Tissue OXT peptide and OXTR mRNA decreased significantly after 2 h, followed by a continuous decrease of OXT mRNA. IGF1 and VEGFA protein already decreased after 0.5 h. By contrast, the IGFBP1 mRNA was up-regulated significantly after 2 h to a high plateau. ANGPT2 protein and mRNA significantly increased during the first 2 h, followed by a steep decrease after 4 h. The acute decrease of local luteotropic activity and acute changes of ANGPT2 and VEGFA suggest that modulation of vascular stability may be a key component in the cascade of events leading to functional luteolysis. PMID:20056670

  1. The absence of corpus luteum formation alters the endocrine profile and affects follicular development during the first follicular wave in cattle.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ken-Go; Matsui, Motozumi; Shimizu, Takashi; Sudo, Natsuko; Sato, Ayako; Shirasuna, Koumei; Tetsuka, Masa; Kida, Katsuya; Schams, Dieter; Miyamoto, Akio

    2008-12-01

    We previously established a bovine experimental model showing that the corpus luteum (CL) does not appear following aspiration of the preovulatory follicle before the onset of LH surge. Using this model, the present study aimed to determine the profile of follicular development and the endocrinological environment in the absence of CL with variable nadir circulating progesterone (P(4)) concentrations during the oestrous cycle in cattle. Luteolysis was induced in heifers and cows and they were assigned either to have the dominant follicle aspirated (CL-absent) or ovulation induced (CL-present). Ultrasound scanning to observe the diameter of each follicle and blood collection was performed from the day of follicular aspiration or ovulation and continued for 6 days. The CL-absent cattle maintained nadir circulating P(4) throughout the experimental period and showed a similar diameter between the largest and second largest follicle, resulting in co-dominant follicles. Oestradiol (E(2)) concentrations were greater in the CL-absent cows than in the CL-present cows at day -1, day 1 and day 2 from follicular deviation. The CL-absent cows had a higher basal concentration, area under the curve (AUC), pulse amplitude and pulse frequency of LH than the CL-present cows. After follicular deviation, the CL-absent cows showed a greater basal concentration, AUC and pulse amplitude of growth hormone (GH) than the CL-present cows. These results suggest that the absence of CL accompanying nadir circulating P(4) induces an enhancement of LH pulses, which involves the growth of the co-dominant follicles. Our results also suggest that circulating levels of P(4) and E(2) affect pulsatile GH secretion in cattle. PMID:18715982

  2. Expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3, and the effects of IGFBP-2 and -3 in the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Brown, T A; Braden, T D

    2001-04-01

    The present study was conducted to gain insight into the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in the bovine corpus luteum (CL). Specific aims were to measure the levels of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and RNA encoding IGFBP-3 in the CL throughout diestrus, and to investigate the effects of IGFBP-2 and -3 on IGF-I-stimulated progesterone (P4) production and IGF-I-receptor binding. Bovine CL were collected from a local abattoir and classified according to stage of diestrus based on anatomical characteristics. Corpora lutea from early, mid and late diestrus were each analyzed for the presence of IGFBP-3 by ligand blot analysis, and for RNA encoding IGFBP-3 by Northern blot analysis. Dissociated cells from mid-cycle CL were treated with IGF-I, IGFBP-2 or -3, or a combination of IGF-I and IGFBP-2 or -3. The effect of IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 on [(125)I] IGF-I binding to its receptor on CL plasma membranes also was investigated. IGFBP-3 protein and RNA expression were higher in early CL, compared to mid or late CL (p < 0.05). IGF-I stimulated P4 production in a dose-dependant manner (p < 0.05). IGFBP-2 and -3 blocked the stimulatory effect of IGF-I on P4 production (p < 0.05). Both IGFBP-2 and -3 inhibited [(125)I]-IGF-I binding to its receptor in a dose-dependant manner. These results demonstrate that IGFBP-3 protein and RNA are expressed predominantly during early diestrus in the bovine CL. Moreover, both IGFBP-2 and -3 can modulate IGF-I actions in the CL by interfering with binding of IGF-I to its receptor. PMID:11438401

  3. VEGF system expression in different stages of estrous cycle in the corpus luteum of non-treated and superovulated water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Papa, P C; Moura, C E B; Artoni, L P; Fátima, L A; Campos, D B; Marques, J E B; Baruselli, P S; Binelli, M; Pfarrer, C; Leiser, R

    2007-11-01

    Water buffaloes are easily adaptable animals, whose raising and economical exploitation have been growing in the last three decades all over the world. Hyperstimulation of ovarian function in this species is a common technique aiming to improve reproductive performance. Superovulatory treatment affects corpus luteum (CL) function, which is highly correlated to angiogenic process. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the temporal protein and mRNA expression of VEGF and its receptors in the CL of non-treated and superovulated buffaloes. For that purpose blood samples and CL from 36 healthy (30 untreated, groups 1-5, and 6 superovulated, group 6) non-pregnant buffaloes were collected and the samples were divided into 6 groups according to the age of CL. Plasma samples were submitted to RIA to measure progesterone concentration and CL were subjected to immunohistochemistry and real time PCR for VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 1) and KDR (kinase insert domain containing region). The VEGF system protein and mRNA expression during CL life span of untreated animals showed a specific time-dependent profile, although protein did not always reflect mRNA concentrations. VEGF expression in luteal cells was high correlated to plasma progesterone levels. Superovulated CL showed a significant increase of the VEGF-system protein and a significant decrease of mRNA expression compared to untreated animals in the same stage of the oestrous cycle. We conclude that VEGF, Flt-1 and KDR protein and mRNA expression in buffalo CL is dependent of estrous cycle stage and superovulatory treatment is able to increase the translation rate of this system. PMID:17014980

  4. Prostaglandin F2alpha represses IGF-I-stimulated IRS1/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT signaling in the corpus luteum: role of ERK and P70 ribosomal S6 kinase.

    PubMed

    Arvisais, Edward; Hou, Xiaoying; Wyatt, Todd A; Shirasuna, Koumei; Bollwein, Heinrich; Miyamoto, Akio; Hansen, Thomas R; Rueda, Bo R; Davis, John S

    2010-03-01

    Little is known about the early intracellular events that contribute to corpus luteum regression. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) on phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling in the corpus luteum in vivo and in vitro. Treatment of midluteal-phase cows with a luteolytic dose of PGF2alpha resulted in a rapid increase in ERK and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K1) signaling and a rapid suppression of Akt phosphorylation in luteal tissue. In vitro treatment of primary cultures of luteal cells with PGF2alpha also resulted in an increase in ERK and mTOR/p70S6K1 signaling and a diminished capacity of IGF-I to stimulate PI3K, Akt, and protein kinase C zeta activation. Accounting for the reductions in PI3K and Akt activation observed in response to PGF2alpha treatment, we found that PGF2alpha promoted the phosphorylation of serine residues (307, 612, 636) in the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) peptide sequence in vivo and in vitro. Serine phosphorylation of IRS1 was associated with reduced formation of IGF-I-stimulated IRS1/PI3Kp85 complexes. Furthermore, treatment with inhibitors of the MAPK kinase 1/ERK or mTOR/p70S6K1 signaling pathways prevented PGF2alpha-induced serine phosphorylation of IRS1 and abrogated the inhibitory actions of PGF2alpha on Akt activation. Taken together, these experiments provide compelling evidence that PGF2alpha treatment stimulates IRS1 serine phosphorylation, which may contribute to a diminished capacity to respond to IGF-I. It seems likely that the rapid changes in phosphorylation events are among the early events that mediate PGF2alpha-induced corpus luteum regression. PMID:20160123

  5. ERK1/2 is involved in luteal cell autophagy regulation during corpus luteum regression via an mTOR-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, JongYeob; Jo, MinWha; Lee, EunYoung; Choi, DooSeok

    2014-10-01

    Autophagy is known to be regulated by the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (AKT) and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways, leading to activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a major negative regulator of autophagy. However, some reports have also suggested that autophagic regulation by the PI3K-AKT and/or MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathways may not be mediated by mTOR activity, and there is no direct evidence of the involvement of these pathways in luteal cell autophagy regulation. To elucidate the luteal cell-specific regulatory mechanisms of autophagy induction during corpus luteum (CL) regression, we evaluated whether luteal cell autophagy is regulated by the PI3K-AKT pathway and/or MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway and if this regulation is mediated by mTOR. We found that autophagy induction increased despite mTOR activation in luteal cells cultured with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), an important mediator of CL regression, suggesting that PGF2α-induced autophagy is independent of mTOR regulation. We also found that PGF2α-induced autophagy was not mediated by AKT activity, because AKT inhibition using a PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) did not change autophagy induction or mTOR activity. In contrast, ERK1/2 activity increased in PGF2α-treated luteal cells, as did the levels of autophagy induction despite increased mTOR activity. Furthermore, PGF2α-mediated up-regulation of luteal cell autophagy was reversed by addition of ERK1/2 inhibitors, despite a decrease in mTOR activity. These in vitro results suggest that luteal cell autophagy is induced by increased ERK1/2 activity during CL regression, and is independent of mTOR activity. This finding was further supported by in vivo experiments in a pseudo-pregnant rat model, which showed that induction of luteal cell autophagy increased during luteal stage progression and that this was accompanied by increased ERK1/2 and mTOR activity. Taken together, our findings indicate that activation of ERK1/2 is a key event in the induction of luteal cell autophagy during CL regression which is not associated with mTOR regulation. PMID:25107837

  6. Systemic effect of follicle-stimulating hormone and intraovarian effect of the corpus luteum on complete regression vs recovery of regressing wave-2 follicles in heifers.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Siddiqui, M A R; Baldrighi, J M; Wolf, C A

    2016-04-01

    Each subordinate of the second follicular wave (wave 2) was monitored, and the outcome was classified as fully regressed (decreased in diameter to 2 mm) or recovered (decreased initially and then increased to become a growing follicle of the subsequent wave 1). The changing diameter of each follicle after emergence at 2 mm and plasma concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone were determined every 12 h from the day of ovulation (Day 0) to 4 d after the subsequent ovulation in heifers with 2 follicular waves per interovulatory interval (n = 10). The number and percentage of wave-2 subordinates that initially regressed and then recovered (7.2 ± 1.0 follicles; 33.2 ± 5.1%) were less (P < 0.0008) than the number and percentage that completely regressed (15.0 ± 1.7; 66.8 ± 5.1%). Follicles that later recovered initially reached maximal diameter on a later day (P < 0.0001) after emergence at 2 mm (4.3 ± 0.2 d) and at a larger (P < 0.0001) diameter (5.8 ± 0.2 mm) than follicles that completely regressed (3.2 ± 0.1 d; 4.7 ± 0.1 mm). The follicle-stimulating hormone surge that stimulated wave 2 began earlier and was more sustained in a subgroup with a high percentage of recovered follicles (61%) than in a subgroup with a low percentage (24%). Recovery began on Day -1.0 ± 0.1 when the follicles had regressed to 3.7 ± 0.1 mm. Diameter of subordinate follicles on Day -6 or before the expected days of luteolysis was greater (P < 0.05) when in the corpus luteum (CL) ovary than when in the non-CL ovary. During expected luteolysis, more follicles (P < 0.008) per ovary continued to regress when ipsilateral to the CL (9.2 ± 1.1 follicles) than when contralateral (5.8 ± 1.1), and more follicles (P < 0.02) recovered from regression when contralateral to the CL (5.0 ± 0.8) than when ipsilateral (2.2 ± 0.6). The hypothesis that the CL has a local effect on the development, regression, and recovery of the subordinate follicles of wave 2 was supported. PMID:26773368

  7. Involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines, mediators of inflammation, and basic fibroblast growth factor in prostaglandin F2alpha-induced luteolysis in bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Neuvians, T P; Schams, D; Berisha, B; Pfaffl, M W

    2004-02-01

    The process of luteolysis requires very subtly modulated coordination of different factors and regulation systems. Immune cells and cytokines were shown to be relevant for bovine luteolysis. The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed pattern of mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), TNF receptor type 1 (TNF-R1), interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), and interferon gamma (IFNgamma), and of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) during prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha)-induced luteolysis in the bovine corpus luteum (CL). In addition, the mRNA expression for the LH-receptor (LH-R) and the steroidogenic enzyme p450scc was determined. Cows in the midluteal phase (Days 8-12) were injected with the PGF(2alpha) analogue cloprostenol, and CL were collected by transvaginal ovariectomy before and 2, 4, 12, 48, and 64 h after PGF(2alpha) injection. Conventional and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR (LightCycler) using SYBR Green I detection were employed to determine the mRNA expression for the investigated factors. All cytokines were significantly up-regulated during induced luteolysis. LH-R and p450scc mRNA were down-regulated (P < 0.05) during structural luteolysis (after 12 h), and p450scc in addition at 2 h after PGF(2alpha) (P < 0.05). FGF-2 expression increased (P < 0.001) during functional luteolysis (until 12 h after PGF(2alpha)) and diminished thereafter. The mRNA expression for iNOS decreased (P < 0.05) after induction of luteolysis. In conclusion, cytokines may be involved not only in structural but also in functional luteolysis and the deprivation of luteal survival factors, leading to a situation where apoptosis can occur. FGF-2 may participate in the suppression of cytokine-induced iNOS mRNA expression and in the prevention of an inflammatory reaction in the surrounding tissues. PMID:14561657

  8. Effect of pregnancy and foetal number on diameter of corpus luteum, maternal progesterone concentration and oxidant/antioxidant balance in ewes.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Gr S; Trk G; Demirci E; Yce A; Snmez M; Ozer S; Aksu E

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the changes in diameter of corpus luteum (CL), maternal progesterone (P) concentration, lipid peroxidation and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels along with enzymatic antioxidant activities in pregnant ewes bearing single and twin foetuses. The ewes were selected from healthy animals that were brought to the abattoir for slaughtering. The ewes were divided into three groups: Group 1 (non-pregnant, non-oestrous, n = 30), Group 2 (pregnant bearing a single foetus, n = 30) and Group 3 (pregnant bearing twin foetuses, n = 12) after they were slaughtered. Pregnant ewes were in the first half of the pregnancy. The diameter of CL and P concentration of pregnant ewes bearing a single foetus or twin foetuses were found higher than that found in non-pregnant ewes. Similarly, the P concentration of pregnant ewes bearing twin foetuses was higher than that found in pregnant ewes bearing a single foetus. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level in pregnant ewes bearing twin foetuses was higher than that found in both non-pregnant and pregnant ewes bearing a single foetus. The serum glutathione (GSH) level and glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of pregnant ewes bearing twin foetuses were found lower than that found in non-pregnant ewes. Additionally, the GSH-Px activity of pregnant ewes bearing twin foetuses was found lower than that found in pregnant ewes bearing a single foetus. No significant difference was found between pregnant ewes bearing female and male foetus with respect to diameter of CL, P concentration and oxidative stress parameters. There were significant positive correlations between foetal number (0, 1, 2) and diameter of CL, P concentration, MDA level, and between P concentration and diameter of CL, MDA level. However, significant negative correlations were found between foetal number (0, 1, 2) and GSH level, GSH-Px activity, and between P concentration and GSH-Px activity. In conclusion, the diameter of CL enlarges, P production increases and oxidant/antioxidant balance impairs because of the gestation stress in ewes during pregnancy.

  9. Effects of local growth factors on the secretory function of bovine corpus luteum during the oestrous cycle and pregnancy in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liebermann, J; Schams, D; Miyamoto, A

    1996-01-01

    The impact of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on the release of progesterone (P4) and oxytocin (OT) from individual bovine corpora lutea at different stages of the oestrous cycle and pregnancy was evaluated with a microdialysis system (MDS) in vitro. IGF-I (1 microgram mL-1) induced significantly the acute effects on P4 release at the late luteal stage (Days 15-18) and early pregnancy (Days 60-120), whereas bFGF (100 ng mL-1) was extremely effective in stimulating P4 release particularly during the mid-luteal stage (Days 8-12). Both peptides stimulated (P < 0.05) the release of OT throughout the three luteal stages and during early and late pregnancy (Days 30-60 and Days 150-210). ET-1 (100 ng mL-1) clearly inhibited P4 release during the early (Days 5-7) and mid-luteal phase and stimulated OT release only during the mid-luteal stage (P < 0.001). TNF-alpha (100 ng mL-1) stimulated the release of P4 exclusively at the early luteal phase (P < 0.05), whereas OT secretion was increased by TNF-alpha during all stages of the oestrous cycle (P < 0.001). TGF-alpha and PDGF (100 ng mL-1) were effective in stimulating P4 release particularly during late pregnancy (P < 0.05). In contrast, stimulation of OT secretion by TGF-alpha was maximal during the late-luteal stage (P < 0.001), whereas PDGF significantly increased OT secretion during the oestrous cycle (except the early luteal stage) and pregnancy (P < 0.001). The data demonstrate distinct and stage-specific effects of growth factors on P4 and OT secretion in vitro. IGF-I, bFGF and TGF-alpha may play an important role in corpus luteum (CL) function during the oestrous cycle and pregnancy since they are locally expressed and synthesized, there are receptors for these growth factors, and they have been demonstrated to exert biological effects on the CL. PMID:8896036

  10. Concentrations of progesterone, a metabolite of PGF2α, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone during development of idiopathic persistent corpus luteum in mares.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Baldrighi, J M; Castro, T; Wolf, C A; Santos, V G

    2016-04-01

    In experiment 1, daily blood samples were available from Days 0 to 20 (Day 0 = ovulation) in mares with an interovulatory interval (IOI, n = 5) and in mares that developed idiopathic persistent corpus luteum (PCL, n = 5). The PCL was confirmed by maintenance of progesterone (P4) concentration until end of the experiment (Day 20). Significant interactions of group and day revealed the novel findings that luteinizing hormone (LH) was lower (P < 0.05) in the PCL group than that in the IOI group on Days 0 to 4, and prolactin was lower (P < 0.05) on Days 1, 4, 6, and 7. In experiment 2, treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (n = 6) significantly reduced LH on Days 1 to 6 compared with the controls (n = 6) but did not support the hypothesis that low LH during the postovulatory period increases the frequency of PCL. In experiment 3, P4, PGFM (a PGF2α metabolite), and prolactin concentrations on Days 12 to 20 from 2 reported experiments were combined to increase the number of mares with an IOI (n = 11) or a PCL (n = 11). An abrupt and complete decrease in P4 (luteolysis) began on Day 13 in the IOI group compared with a gradual and partial P4 decline after Day 12 in the PCL group. Concentrations of PGFM and prolactin were lower (P < 0.05) in the PCL group than those in the IOI group on the day at the end of the most pronounced decrease in P4. The PCL mares were subgrouped into those with an abrupt but incomplete P4 decrease (partial luteolysis; n = 5) at the expected time and those without partial luteolysis (n = 6). There were no significant differences between the 2 subgroups in concentrations of PGFM and prolactin, but on a tentative basis (P < 0.10), the concentration of PGFM seemed more focused on the day of the most pronounced decrease in P4 in the subgroup with partial luteolysis. Results for PCL compared with IOI indicated (1) postovulatory LH and prolactin were lower, (2) treatment to reduce postovulatory LH did not increase the incidence, and (3) both PGFM and prolactin were lower on the day of the most pronounced decrease in P4. PMID:26808976

  11. The mRNA expression of insulin receptor isoforms (IR-A and IR-B) and IGFR-2 in the bovine corpus luteum during the estrous cycle, pregnancy, and induced luteolysis.

    PubMed

    Neuvians, Tanja Pascale; Pfaffl, Michael Walter; Berisha, Bajram; Schams, Dieter

    2003-11-01

    Isoform A of the human insulin receptor and the IGF-receptor type 2 (IGFR-2) are both receptors for insulin- like growth factor II (IGF II), which plays a major role in luteal development and function in bovine species. The objective of this study was to determine if both insulin receptor isoforms and IGFR-2 were expressed in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) and if they were regulated during the estrous cycle, pregnancy, and induced luteolysis. CL were collected at the slaughterhouse. For induced luteolysis, CL were obtained by transvaginal ovariectomy at 2, 4, 12, 48, and 64 h after prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha-injection. Real-time RT-PCR was applied to investigate mRNA expression. Two alternatively spliced transcripts encoding the insulin receptor were detected in bovine CL. These two isoforms corresponded to the known isoforms A (IR-A) and B (IR-B) in humans. IR-A mRNA predominated in bovine CL and was significantly down-regulated on d 5-7. IR-B mRNA was significantly up-regulated in the late luteal stage and during early pregnancy. IR-A showed a significant down-regulation at 48 h after PGF2. IGFR-2 mRNA was significantly up-regulated in mid and late luteal stages (d 8-18). It is proposed that the differential mRNA expression of IR-A and IGFR-2, both binding IGF II, may play a role in the development and function of the bovine corpus luteum. PMID:14665712

  12. The expression of the nuclear receptors NR5A1 and NR5A2 and transcription factor GATA6 correlates with steroidogenic gene expression in the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Komiyama, Junichi; Viger, Robert S; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2009-09-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is the major site of progesterone (P4) production during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in cattle. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying P4 production, we compared the mRNA and protein expression profiles of key components of the steroidogenic pathway (StAR, CYP11A, and 3beta-HSD) during the bovine CL luteal phase with that of several transcription factors (NR5A1, NR5A2, GATA4, GATA6) known for their roles in the control of steroidogenic gene expression. In the bovine CL, StAR, CYP11A, and 3beta-HSD mRNA and protein levels remained constant at the mid and late luteal phases but markedly declined at the regressed luteal stage. NR5A1 and NR5A2 exhibited a similar pattern with a significant decrease in expression at the regressed luteal stage. Both GATA4 and GATA6 mRNA and proteins could be detected in bovine CL; GATA6 levels, however, were generally higher. Although GATA4 expression did not change during the luteal phase, GATA6 showed a marked decrease at the regressed luteal stage, like NR5A1, NR5A2, and the other steroidogenic markers. Thus, we suggest that NR5A1, NR5A2, and GATA6, but not GATA4, contribute to the transcriptional regulation of steroidogenic gene expression, and hence P4 production, in the bovine CL. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the association of NR5A1 and NR5A2 with the bovine StAR promoter in the mid-luteal CL using chromatin immunoprecipitation, suggesting that these factors have definitive roles in the regulation of StAR gene transcription in vivo. PMID:19455657

  13. Convergence of 3′,5′-Cyclic Adenosine 5′-Monophosphate/Protein Kinase A and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β/β-Catenin Signaling in Corpus Luteum Progesterone Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Lynn; McDonald, Claudia A.; Jiang, Chao; Maroni, Dulce; Zeleznik, Anthony J.; Wyatt, Todd A.; Hou, Xiaoying; Davis, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Progesterone secretion by the steroidogenic cells of the corpus luteum (CL) is essential for reproduction. Progesterone synthesis is under the control of LH, but the exact mechanism of this regulation is unknown. It is established that LH stimulates the LH receptor/choriogonadotropin receptor, a G-protein coupled receptor, to increase cAMP and activate cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that cAMP/PKA-dependent regulation of the Wnt pathway components glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β and β-catenin contributes to LH-dependent steroidogenesis in luteal cells. We observed that LH via a cAMP/PKA-dependent mechanism stimulated the phosphorylation of GSK3β at N-terminal Ser9 causing its inactivation and resulted in the accumulation of β-catenin. Overexpression of N-terminal truncated β-catenin (Δ90 β-catenin), which lacks the phosphorylation sites responsible for its destruction, significantly augmented LH-stimulated progesterone secretion. In contrast, overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of GSK3β (GSK-S9A) reduced β-catenin levels and inhibited LH-stimulated steroidogenesis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated the association of β-catenin with the proximal promoter of the StAR gene, a gene that expresses the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, which is a cholesterol transport protein that controls a rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis. Collectively these data suggest that cAMP/PKA regulation of GSK3β/β-catenin signaling may contribute to the acute increase in progesterone production in response to LH. PMID:19819952

  14. Analysis of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression in the corpus luteum of the buffalo cow: effect of prostaglandin F2-alpha treatment on circulating 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone levels

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During female reproductive cycles, a rapid fall in circulating progesterone (P4) levels is one of the earliest events that occur during induced luteolysis in mammals. In rodents, it is well recognized that during luteolysis, P4 is catabolized to its inactive metabolite, 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (20alpha-OHP) by the action of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD) enzyme and involves transcription factor, Nur77. Studies have been carried out to examine expression of 20alpha-HSD and its activity in the corpus luteum (CL) of buffalo cow. Methods The expression of 20alpha-HSD across different bovine tissues along with CL was examined by qPCR analysis. Circulating P4 levels were monitored before and during PGF2alpha treatment. Expression of 20alpha-HSD and Nur77 mRNA was determined in CL at different time points post PGF2alpha treatment in buffalo cows. The chromatographic separation of P4 and its metabolite, 20alpha-OHP, in rat and buffalo cow serum samples were performed on reverse phase HPLC system. To further support the findings, 20alpha-HSD enzyme activity was quantitated in cytosolic fraction of CL of both rat and buffalo cow. Results Circulating P4 concentration declined rapidly in response to PGF2alpha treatment. HPLC analysis of serum samples did not reveal changes in circulating 20alpha-OHP levels in buffalo cows but serum from pseudo pregnant rats receiving PGF2alpha treatment showed an increased 20alpha-OHP level at 24 h post treatment with accompanying decrease in P4 concentration. qPCR expression of 20alpha-HSD in CL from control and PGF2alpha-treated buffalo cows showed higher expression at 3 and 18 h post treatment, but its specific activity was not altered at different time points post PGF2alpha treatment. The Nur77 expression increased several fold 3 h post PGF2alpha treatment similar to the increased expression observed in the PGF2alpha-treated pseudo pregnant rats which perhaps suggest initiation of activation of apoptotic pathways in response to PGF2alpha treatment. Conclusions The results taken together suggest that synthesis of P4 appears to be primarily affected by PGF2alpha treatment in buffalo cows in contrast to increased metabolism of P4 in rodents. PMID:24330451

  15. Administration of prostaglandin f(2 alpha) during the early bovine luteal phase does not alter the expression of ET-1 and of its type A receptor: a possible cause for corpus luteum refractoriness.

    PubMed

    Levy, N; Kobayashi, S; Roth, Z; Wolfenson, D; Miyamoto, A; Meidan, R

    2000-08-01

    Luteal regression is initiated by prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (PGF(2 alpha)). In domestic species and primates, demise of the corpus luteum (CL) enables development of a new preovulatory follicle. However, during early stages of the cycle, which are characterized by massive neovascularization, the CL is refractory to PGF(2 alpha). Our previous studies showed that endothelin-1 (ET-1), which is produced by the endothelial cells lining these blood vessels, plays a crucial role during PGF(2 alpha)-induced luteolysis. Therefore, in this study, we compared the effects of PGF(2 alpha) administered at the early and mid luteal phases on ET-1 and its type A receptors (ETA-R) along with plasma ET-1 and progesterone concentrations, and the mRNA levels of PGF(2 alpha) receptors (PGF(2 alpha)-R) and steroidogenic genes. As expected, ET-1 and ETA-R mRNA levels were markedly induced in midcycle CL exposed to luteolytic dose of PGF(2 alpha) analogue (Cloprostenol). In contrast, neither ET-1 mRNA nor its receptors were elevated when the same dose of PGF(2 alpha) analogue was administered on Day 4 of the cycle. In accordance with ET-1 expression within the CL, plasma ET-1 concentrations were significantly elevated 24 h after PGF(2 alpha) injection only on Day 10 of the cycle. The steroidogenic capacity of the CL (plasma progesterone as well as the mRNA levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome P450(scc)) was only affected when PGF(2 alpha) was administered during midcycle. Nevertheless, PGF(2 alpha) elicited certain responses in the early CL: progesterone and oxytocin secretion were elevated, and PGF(2 alpha)-R was transiently affected. Such effects probably result from PGF(2 alpha) acting on luteal steroidogenic cells. These findings may suggest, however, that the cell type mediating the luteolytic actions of PGF(2 alpha), possibly the endothelium, could yet be nonresponsive during the early luteal phase. PMID:10906040

  16. Corpus luteum (CL) function: local control mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Webb, R; Woad, K J; Armstrong, D G

    2002-07-01

    LH and PGF(2alpha) are the principal luteotrophic and luteolytic hormones in domestic animals, however, it is becoming increasingly apparent that intra-ovarian factors can modulate luteal function. For example, the insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and -II) can regulate ovarian function, and have direct effects on ovarian cells. An important role for the IGFs in regulating ovarian function is suggested by the multiple effects of IGFs on both follicular and luteal steroidogenesis. Expression of mRNA encoding IGF-I, IGF-II and the type 1 IGF receptor has also been detected in the ruminant CL and is suggestive of autocrine/paracrine roles for both IGF-I and -II in the regulation of luteal function. The actions of the IGFs are further modulated by their association with specific binding proteins (IGFBPs), which regulate the transport of IGFs and their presentation to specific receptors. IGFBPs have been detected in the CL of domestic animals, and inhibitory effects on IGF-I-stimulated progesterone production have been demonstrated. The rapid cyclical changes in luteal growth and regression are associated with rapid changes in vasculature. The principle angiogenic factors include the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the angiopoietins (Ang). Other locally produced factors include cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. One such factor is monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), which increases after exogenous PGF(2alpha). An influx of macrophages takes place in the CL around luteolysis, possibly in response to MCP-1 release, but these changes are not observed in cattle when luteolysis is inhibited. In conclusion locally produced factors are important in the control of luteal function, although their roles have yet to fully elucidated. PMID:12142244

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of prostaglandin (PG) transporter in ovine endometrium: role for multiple cell signaling pathways in transport of PGF2alpha.

    PubMed

    Banu, S K; Lee, J; Satterfield, M C; Spencer, T E; Bazer, F W; Arosh, J A

    2008-01-01

    In ruminants, endometrial prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) is the luteolytic hormone. Cellular transport of PGF(2alpha) in the uterine endometrium is critical for regulation of the estrous cycle. Molecular mechanisms responsible for control of PGF(2alpha) transport in endometrium during luteolysis are largely unknown. In the present study, we characterized the prostaglandin transporter (PGT) in ovine endometrium. Ovine PGT cDNA consists of 1935 nucleotides that encode 644 amino acids. In ovine endometria, PGT is highly expressed during the period of luteolysis, between d 14 and 16 of the estrous cycle, in luminal and glandular epithelia. Pharmacological and genomic inhibition of PGT indicates that it is responsible for influx and efflux of PGF(2alpha) in ovine endometrial epithelial cells. Inhibition of PGT during the period of luteolysis prevents the release of oxytocin-induced PGF(2alpha) pulses, and maintains functional corpus luteum and its secretion of progesterone. In ovine endometrial epithelial cells, protein kinase A and protein kinase C pathways are involved in regulating the influx of PGF(2alpha), whereas epidermal growth factor receptor pathways are implicated in regulation of influx and efflux of PGF(2alpha.) The ERK1/2 pathway is associated with efflux of PGF(2alpha), whereas Jun-amino-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase pathways are involved in both efflux and influx of PGF(2alpha.) Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways are not involved in either influx or efflux of PGF(2alpha) in ovine endometrial epithelial cells. These are the first results to demonstrate a functional role for PGT in regulation of PGF(2alpha) efflux and influx in ovine endometrial cells that influence luteolytic mechanisms in ruminants. PMID:17901226

  18. Effects of recombinant ovine interferon tau, placental lactogen, and growth hormone on the ovine uterus.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T E; Gray, A; Johnson, G A; Taylor, K M; Gertler, A; Gootwine, E; Ott, T L; Bazer, F W

    1999-12-01

    Studies were conducted to determine effects of intrauterine administration of recombinant ovine interferon tau (IFNtau), placental lactogen (PL), and growth hormone (GH) on endometrial function. In the first study, administration of IFNtau to cyclic ewes for one period (Days 11-15) resulted in an interestrous interval (IEI) of approximately 30 days, whereas administration for two periods (Days 11-15 and Days 21-25) extended the IEI to greater than 50 days. Administration of IFNtau from Days 11 to 15 and of PL or GH from Days 21 to 25 failed to extend the IEI more than for IFNtau alone. In the second study, effects of IFNtau, PL, and GH on endometrial differentiation and function were determined in ovariectomized ewes receiving ovarian steroid replacement therapy. Endometrial expression of mRNAs for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and oxytocin receptor (OTR) were not affected by PL or GH treatment; however, uterine milk protein mRNA levels and stratum spongiosum gland density were increased by both PL and GH treatments. Collectively, results indicated that 1) PL and GH do not regulate endometrial PR, ER, and OTR expression or affect corpus luteum life span; 2) down-regulation of epithelial PR expression is requisite for progesterone induction of secretory gene expression in uterine glandular epithelium; 3) effects of PL and GH on endometrial function require IFNtau; and 4) PL and GH regulate endometrial gland proliferation and perhaps differentiated function. PMID:10569983

  19. Ovine interferon tau suppresses transcription of the estrogen receptor and oxytocin receptor genes in the ovine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T E; Bazer, F W

    1996-03-01

    Tau interferons (IFNtau) are a unique subclass of the omega interferons that are transiently produced by the trophectoderm of the conceptus (embryo and associated membranes) during early pregnancy in ruminants. IFNtau acts as an antiestrogen on the endometrium to suppress increases in estrogen receptor (ER) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) gene expression which prevents pulsatile production of prostaglandin F2alpha and regression of the corpus luteum or luteolysis. In this study, steady-state levels of ER mRNA and transcription rates of the ER and OTR genes were two-fold lower in the endometrium of pregnant as compared to cyclic ewes on day 15. Levels of ER mRNA and ER and OTR gene transcription were also two-fold lower in the endometrium of day 15 cyclic ewes receiving intrauterine injections of recombinant ovine IFNtau from day 11 to day 14 compared to control ewes. Results suggest that the antiluteolytic action of IFNtau is to suppress transcription of the ER gene by a negative-acting transcriptional mechanism which prevents estrogen-induced increases in OTR gene expression in the endometrium. The novel antiestrogenic effects of IFNtau, combined with its Type I IFN characteristics and low cytotoxicity, suggest that this trophoblast IFN may have potential value as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of infertility, viral disease and estrogen-dependent malignant disorders. PMID:8603586

  20. Effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy and interferon tau on expression of cyclooxygenase two (COX-2) in ovine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seokwoon; Choi, Youngsok; Spencer, Thomas E; Bazer, Fuller W

    2003-08-20

    In sheep, the uterus produces luteolytic pulses of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF) on Days 15 to 16 of estrous cycle to regress the corpus luteum (CL). These PGF pulses are produced by the endometrial lumenal epithelium (LE) and superficial ductal glandular epithelium (sGE) in response to binding of pituitary and/or luteal oxytocin to oxytocin receptors (OTR) and liberation of arachidonic acid, the precursor of PGF. Cyclooxygenase-one (COX-1) and COX-2 are rate-limiting enzymes in PGF synthesis, and COX-2 is the major form expressed in ovine endometrium. During pregnancy recognition, interferon tau (IFNtau), produced by the conceptus trophectoderm, acts in a paracrine manner to suppress development of the endometrial epithelial luteolytic mechanism by inhibiting transcription of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) (directly) and OTR (indirectly) genes. Conflicting studies indicate that IFNtau increases, decreases or has no effect on COX-2 expression in bovine and ovine endometrial cells. In Study One, COX-2 mRNA and protein were detected solely in endometrial LE and sGE of both cyclic and pregnant ewes. During the estrous cycle, COX-2 expression increased from Days 10 to 12 and then decreased to Day 16. During early pregnancy, COX-2 expression increased from Days 10 to 12 and remained higher than in cyclic ewes. In Study Two, intrauterine infusion of recombinant ovine IFNtau in cyclic ewes from Days 11 to 16 post-estrus did not affect COX-2 expression in the endometrial epithelium. These results clearly indicate that IFNtau has no effect on expression of the COX-2 gene in the ovine endometrium. Therefore, antiluteolytic effects of IFNtau are to inhibit ERalpha and OTR gene transcription, thereby preventing endometrial production of luteolytic pulses of PGF. Indeed, expression of COX-2 in the endometrial epithelia as well as conceptus is likely to have a beneficial regulatory role in implantation and development of the conceptus. PMID:12956885

  1. Expression and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and its two receptors (VEGFR1/FLT1 and VEGFR2/FLK1/KDR) in the canine corpus luteum and utero-placental compartments during pregnancy and at normal and induced parturition.

    PubMed

    Gram, Aykut; Hoffmann, Bernd; Boos, Alois; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2015-11-01

    VEGFA is one of the most potent known inducers of angiogenesis. However, the function of angiogenic factors in the canine corpus luteum (CL) of pregnancy and in the pregnant uterus and placenta has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, here we investigated the expression and localization of VEGFA and its receptors (VEGFR1/FLT1 and VEGFR2/FLK1/KDR) in the canine CL and utero-placental compartments (ut-pl) throughout pregnancy until prepartum luteolysis. Antigestagen-mediated effects on expression of VEGF system in ut-pl were elucidated in mid-pregnant dogs. While displaying high individual variation, the luteal VEGFA was elevated during pre-implantation and post-implantation, followed by a decrease during mid-gestation, which was more pronounced at the mRNA level, and showed constant expression afterwards. Within the uterus, it increased following implantation and during mid-gestation in ut-pl compartments, but was downregulated at prepartum luteolysis. Luteal VEGFR1 expression resembled that of VEGFA; VEGFR2 remained unaffected throughout pregnancy. In ut-pl compartments, both receptors increased gradually towards mid-gestation; a prepartum decrease was observed for VEGFR1. Antigestagen-treatment resulted in decreased expression of ut-pl VEGFR1. In the CL, VEGFA stained in luteal cells. Uterine signals of VEGFA and its two receptors were observed in epithelial and vascular compartments, and in myometrium. In placental labyrinth, additionally, trophoblast stained positively. Luteal VEGFR1 was localized to the luteal cells and tunica media of blood vessels, whereas VEGFR2 stained only in capillary endothelial cells. The upregulation of luteal and the ut-pl VEGF system during early gestational stages supports the increased vascularization rate during this time. The diminishing effects of the prepartum endocrine milieu on VEGFA function seem to be more pronounced in the ut-pl units. PMID:26414127

  2. Ovine rotaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gazal, S.; Mir, I.A.; Iqbal, A.; Taku, A.K.; Kumar, B.; Bhat, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus has been recognized as a predominant cause of acute diarrhea in young animals and humans. Rotavirus has segmented genome composed of 11 segments of double stranded RNA. The virus has a triple layered protein shell consisting of a core, an inner capsid and an outer capsid. The inner capsid protein is responsible for group specificity and based on it rotaviruses are classified into seven groups. Ovine rotavirus strains have only been identified into two serogroups (A and B). The two outer capsid proteins (VP7 and VP4) are responsible for G and P typing of rotavirus, respectively. Although rotavirus has been frequently reported in many animal species, data regarding ovine rotavirus strains is very scanty and limited. Only a few ovine rotaviruses have been isolated and characterized so far. Recently, the G and P types circulating in ovines have been identified. The ovine rotavirus strain NT isolated from a diarrheic lamb in China is being considered as a promising vaccine candidate for human infants. PMID:26623281

  3. A microarray analysis for genes regulated by interferon-tau in ovine luminal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yizhen; Antoniou, Eric; Liu, Zhilin; Hearne, Leonard B; Roberts, R Michael

    2007-07-01

    Interferon-tau (IFNT) is released by preimplantation conceptuses of ruminant species and prepares the mother for pregnancy. Although one important function is to protect the corpus luteum from the luteolytic activity of prostaglandin-F 2alpha, IFNT most likely regulates a range of other physiological processes in endometrium. Here, an immortalized cell line from ovine uterine luminal epithelial cells was treated with IFNT for either 8 or 24 h. RNA was subjected to cDNA microarray analysis, with RNA from untreated cells as the reference standard. Of 15 634 genes, 1274 (8%) were IFNT responsive at P<0.01 and 585 at P<0.001 to at least one treatment. Of the latter, 356 were up-regulated and 229 down-regulated. Increasing IFNT concentrations from 10 ng/ml to 10 microg/ml had minor effects, and most genes up- or down-regulated at 8 h were regulated similarly at 24 h. Although IFNT influences many genes implicated in antiviral activity and apoptosis, its action also likely regulates prostaglandin metabolism, growth factors and their receptors, apoptosis and the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB cascade, extracellular matrix accretion, angiogenesis, blood coagulation, and inflammation. In particular, it increased mRNA concentrations of genes related to the vascular endothelial growth factor R2 pathway of angiogenesis and down-regulated ones associated with hypoxia. Two genes implicated in the antiluteolytic actions of IFNT (encoding cyclooxygenase-2 and the oxytocin receptor respectively) were down-regulated in response to all treatments. IFNT targets a complex range of physiological processes during the establishment of pregnancy. PMID:17641094

  4. Characterization of carotenoid biosynthesis in Rhododendron luteum.

    PubMed

    De Keyser, E; Dendauw, J; De Riek, J; Van Bockstaele, E

    2001-01-01

    In the color chart of Rhododendron simsii hybrids (Belgian pot azalea), yellow is not yet present, although this color is wanted by growers and consumers. Carotenoid pigments, which are absent in azalea, are responsible for this yellow color of the flower petals. The first objective of this project is characterizing the pathway of carotenoid biosynthesis in the yellow flowers of Rhododendron luteum. PMID:15954632

  5. Differential effects of intrauterine and subcutaneous administration of recombinant ovine interferon tau on the endometrium of cyclic ewes.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T E; Stagg, A G; Ott, T L; Johnson, G A; Ramsey, W S; Bazer, F W

    1999-08-01

    Interferon tau (IFNtau) is the antiluteolytic signal produced by the conceptus of ruminants. Intrauterine administration of recombinant ovine IFNtau suppresses expression of endometrial estrogen receptor (ER) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) in the luminal and superficial glandular epithelia to abrogate the production of luteolytic prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) pulses. Subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of recombinant ovine (o) IFNtau appear to extend the interestrous interval by altering uterine PGF(2alpha) response to oxytocin. The present study tested the hypothesis that antiluteolytic effects of roIFNtau injected into the uterine lumen (paracrine) or s.c. (endocrine) are equivalent in suppressing expression of endometrial ER and OTR and inducing uterine expression of type I IFN-regulated Mx and ubiquitin cross-reactive proteins (UCRP). Sixteen cyclic ewes were fitted with uterine catheters on Day 5 (Day 0 = estrus), were assigned randomly to receive treatment with control proteins or roIFNtau (2 x 10(7) antiviral units/day) by either intrauterine or s.c. injections from Days 11 to 15, and were ovariohysterectomized on Day 16. Results indicated that expression of ER and OTR mRNAs in endometrial epithelium was suppressed by intrauterine but not by s.c. injections of roIFNtau. Intrauterine injections of roIFNtau increased expression of Mx and UCRP mRNA in the endometrium. Subcutaneous injections of roIFNtau increased endometrial Mx mRNA levels but not UCRP mRNA. Unexpectedly, intrauterine and s.c. injections of roIFNtau were equally effective in inducing expression of Mx and UCRP mRNA in the corpus luteum. Although s.c. injections of roIFNtau induced Mx mRNA in the endometrial epithelium, s.c. injections of roIFNtau did not abrogate activation of the uterine luteolytic mechanism by suppressing epithelial ER and OTR expression. Therefore, results of this study failed to support the assumption that endocrine roIFNtau mimics antiluteolytic effects of paracrine IFNtau to improve pregnancy rates in sheep. PMID:10411528

  6. Ovine interferon-tau inhibits estrogen receptor up-regulation and estrogen-induced luteolysis in cyclic ewes.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T E; Becker, W C; George, P; Mirando, M A; Ogle, T F; Bazer, F W

    1995-11-01

    This study determined whether intrauterine injection of interferon-tau (IFN tau) could block luteolysis in cyclic ewes treated with a luteolytic dose of 17 beta-estradiol benzoate (E) on day 12 of the estrous cycle. Thirty-two ewes were fitted with uterine catheters on day 5 of the estrous cycle and treated with recombinant ovine IFN tau (2 x 10(7) antiviral units/ewe/day) or control proteins (6 mg/day) by intrauterine injection from day 10 until hysterectomy. At 1900 h on day 12, all ewes received 750 micrograms E, im, and were hysterectomized 12, 24, 36, or 48 h post-E administration. Plasma concentrations of progesterone declined in control animals but increased in IFN tau-treated ewes after E injection (P < 0.01, treatment x day interaction). Likewise, total corpus luteum weight decreased in control but not IFN tau-treated ewes after E administration (P < 0.02, treatment x time interaction). In control ewes, endometrial estrogen receptor (ER) messenger RNA (mRNA; P < 0.03) and progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA (P < 0.10) increased after 12 h, whereas concentrations of ER protein (P < 0.02) and PR protein (P < 0.04) increased after 24 h. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses indicated that ER gene expression increased first in the epithelium at 12 h and then in the stroma by 48 h, whereas PR gene expression first increased in the stroma and then in the epithelium. In control ewes, endometrial oxytocin receptor (OTR) density increased (P < 0.10) after 12 h, with the largest increase occurring between 36-48 h. In IFN tau-treated ewes, endometrial ER mRNA and protein and OTR density did not increase after E administration. Levels of PR mRNA increased (P < 0.01) between 12-36 h, but decreased after 36 h. PR mRNA abundance increased between 12-36 h in the stroma, but not in the epithelium. Concentrations of PR protein were low and did not change in IFN tau-treated ewes. Immunoreactive PR protein was present at low levels in the stroma of all IFN tau-treated ewes. The results indicate that induction of luteolysis by E in control ewes involved sequential increases in endometrial ER mRNA and ER protein in the epithelium that preceded maximal increases in OTR density. Intrauterine injection of recombinant ovine IFN tau prevented luteolysis by inhibiting estrogen-induced increases in endometrial ER and OTR gene expression. PMID:7588227

  7. Antibodies against the beta-subunit of ovine luteinizing hormone can decrease the clearance of human chorionic gonadotropin in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Gunsalus, G L; Sundaram, K; Thau, R B

    1984-06-01

    Contraceptive vaccines based on active immunization against gonadotropic hormones are being investigated in humans and other primates. Immunization against the beta-subunit of ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH beta) reduces fertility in rhesus monkeys by inducing inadequate luteal phases and preventing corpus luteum rescue by rhesus chorionic gonadotropin (rhCG). These effects result from the cross-reactions of the oLH beta-antibodies with rhCG and rhLH. We used human CG (hCG), which also cross-reacts strongly with anti-oLH beta to examine how the circulating oLH beta-antibodies affect the metabolic clearance rates (MCR) of hCG in rhesus monkeys. 125I-hCG was injected into four nonimmunized and seven immunized monkeys and blood was collected at frequent intervals over 7 days. Total and immunoprecipitable radioactivity did not differ significantly, suggesting that the radioactivity in the plasma consisted almost entirely of 125I-hCG. This was confirmed by column chromatography. The MCR (mean +/- SE) was significantly lower (p less than 0.001) in six immunized monkeys (0.35 +/- 0.06 liters/day) as compared to controls (1.19 +/- 0.09 liters/day). The hCG disappearance curve in control monkeys was best described by a two-compartmental system (slow and fast) while an additional third (intermediate) compartment of distribution was typical for immunized animals. The half-lives of hCG for the two exponentials corresponding to the slow and fast components of distribution were not significantly different between the two groups. One immunized monkey had a MCR (1.44 liters/day) that was much greater than the MCR of the other six.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6507705

  8. Steroid hormones, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems during rescue of the corpus luteum in pigs.

    PubMed

    Przygrodzka, E; Kaczmarek, M M; Kaczynski, P; Ziecik, A J

    2016-02-01

    In order to characterize the transition of the corpora lutea (CL) from acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity to rescue of luteal function: i) the expression of 38 factors associated with steroids, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems and ii) concentrations of the main hormones responsible for maintenance of CL function in cyclic and pregnant pigs were examined. Additionally, the effect of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2 α on luteal function during the estrous cycle and pregnancy was evaluated in vitro. Significantly up-regulated gene expression was revealed in CL collected on day 14 of the estrous cycle (CYP19A1, ESR2, PTGS2, HIF1A, and EDN1) and on days 12-14 of pregnancy (SCARB1, PGRMC1, STAR, HSD3B1, NR5A1, PTGFR, PTGER4, and VEGFA). Elevated concentrations of estradiol-17β and PGE2 occurred in CL on days 12 and 14 of pregnancy respectively, while an increased intraluteal PGF2 α content was noted on day 14 of the estrous cycle. Both PGs increased the synthesis of progesterone by cultured luteal slices obtained on day 14 of pregnancy, in contrast to the action of PGF2 α on the corresponding day of the estrous cycle. PGE2 stimulated cAMP production via PTGER2 and PTGER4, while PGF2 α elevated the content of CREB in cultured luteal slices from CL of pregnant pigs. In silico analysis showed that infiltration of lymphocytes and apoptosis of microvascular endothelium were activated in CL on day 12 of the estrous cycle vs pregnancy. Summarizing, an abundance of E2 and PGE2 during pregnancy regulates specific pathways responsible for steroidogenesis, the prostanoid signaling system and angiogenesis during rescue from luteolysis in porcine CL. PMID:26577025

  9. Production of prostaglandins in placentae and corpus luteum in pregnant hinds of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Korzekwa, A J; Szczepańska, A; Bogdaszewski, M; Nadolski, P; Malż, P; Giżejewski, Z

    2016-03-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are synthesized from arachidonic acid by prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) and specific terminal PG synthases such as PGES and PGFS. The role of PGs in the reproductive processes of domestic ruminants is well recognized, whereas in cervidae, it is almost unknown, although it is noteworthy because some species of this family are valued in meat production and trophies. The aim of this study was to determine an effective marker of pregnancy and investigate the production and secretion of PGs in placenta and CL tissue in pregnancy. In the preliminary experiment, the levels of progesterone and 17-β estradiol (RIA; N = 14 divided into seven pregnant and seven nonpregnant hinds) were measured in the peripheral blood. In the main experiment, a comparison of messenger RNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and protein expression (Western blotting) of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS, the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGF2α in the placentae and CL in pregnant hinds (aged 3-4 years, ca. 100 days of pregnancy, N = 6). In pregnant hinds, the level of progesterone in the blood was higher than that in nonpregnant hinds (P < 0.05), whereas the level of E2 was similar in all animals (P > 0.05). The highest messenger RNA expression of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS was observed in the placentae than in the CL (P < 0.05). The protein expression of PTGS2 and PGES was elevated in the placentae compared with the CL (P < 0.05). The PGE2 output was the highest in cotyledonary tissue (P < 0.05). Pregnancy development in hinds around 100 days is regulated by arachidonic acid metabolites, especially PGE2 produced by the placentae, which production increases in pregnancy. Further studies are required to unravel the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PG and biosynthetic enzymes in uteroplacental and ovarian tissues during pregnancy in red deer females. PMID:26553568

  10. Long-term characteristics of idiopathic persistent corpus luteum in the mare.

    PubMed

    Santos, V G; Bettencourt, E M V; Ginther, O J

    2015-07-15

    Persistent CL (PCL; n = 10) in mares was studied daily from Day 20 (Day 0 = ovulation) to the ending ovulation. In addition, the 10 days before ovulation at the end of a PCL were compared with the end of an interovulatory interval (IOI; n = 28) during the same months. Concentration of P4, cross-sectional area of CL, and percentage of CL with Doppler signals of blood flow during PCLs remained constant from 64 to about 33 days before the end of luteolysis and then decreased linearly. Concentration of LH between Day 20 and beginning of the ovulatory LH surge increased linearly. A dominant follicle developed on average every 15 days throughout each PCL. Novel transient P4 depressions were detected with the P4 nadir at a day of maximal diameter of a dominant follicle. At the apparent beginning of luteolysis before the ending ovulation, P4 concentration in PCLs (5.0 ± 0.5 ng/mL) was less (P < 0.0001) than that in IOIs (9.3 ± 0.6 ng/mL). Concentration of LH began to increase 2 days before the end of luteolysis in each group, but concentration on the day of the ending ovulation in PCLs (3.7 ± 0.3 ng/mL) was less (P < 0.005) than that in IOIs (8.9 ± 1.8 ng/mL). In a separate survey of PCLs (n = 23) and IOIs (n = 352), frequency of PCL (6.1%) differed significantly among mares indicating repeatability. These original and critical comparisons between PCLs and IOIs should provide hypotheses for further study. PMID:25922171

  11. Diversity of ultrastructure in different phenotypes of cultured microvessel endothelial cells isolated from bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Spanel-Borowski, K

    1991-10-01

    Five different types of cultured microvessel endothelial cells defined by use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy in a preceding study were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Type-1 cells displayed a deep invagination of the cell membrane or a single cilium. Granules of low electron density were abundant. A perinuclear ring of intermediate filaments occurred. Cultures of type-2 cells were subdivided into phenotype A, reminiscent of cell-type 1, and into phenotype B, assumed to be vascular smooth muscle cells. Many highly electron-dense granules appeared in late postconfluent cultures of both phenotypes. Cell-type 3 was conspicuous because of a large intracytoplasmic vacuole. Lysosomes with curvilinear bodies were found in cell-types 3 and 4. Both cell types developed a peripheral regular network of microfilaments. Cell-type 5 showed vesiculation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, lipid droplets and a peripheral felt-like belt of microfilaments. Tubular forms seen in late postconfluent cultures of cell-types 1 to 3 displayed a core of extracellular matrix. Pseudotubular forms of cell-type 4 contained apoptotic bodies. Thus, as seen at the ultrastructural level, different features are maintained by cultured microvessel endothelial cells, suggesting that they have different inherent properties. PMID:1747913

  12. Expression of lymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor family members in bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Berisha, B; Schilffarth, S; Kenngott, R; Sinowatz, F; Meyer, H H D; Schams, D

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate mRNA expression, protein concentration and localization of the assumedly important lymphangiogenic factors VEGFC and VEGFD and the receptor FLT4 in bovine corpora lutea (CL) during different physiological stages. In experiment 1, CL were collected in a slaughterhouse and stages (days 1-2, 3-4, 5-7, 8-12, 13-16, >18) of oestrous cycle and month <3, 3-5, 6-7 and >8 of pregnancy. In experiment 2, prostaglandin F2α (PGF)-induced luteolysis was performed in 30 cows, which were injected with PGF analogue on day 8-12 (mid-luteal phase), and CL were collected before and 0.5, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48 and 64 h after PGF injection. The mRNA expression was characterized by RT-qPCR. All three factors were clearly expressed and showed significant changes during different groups and periods examined in both experiments. Protein concentrations of VEGFD and FLT4 measured by ELISA were not detectable in early cyclic CL but increased to higher plateau levels during pregnancy. After PGF-induced luteolysis FLT4 protein showed an increase within 2-24 h after the injection. FLT4 localization by immunohistochemistry in the cytoplasm of luteal cells was relatively weak in early CL. It increased in late CL and especially in CL during pregnancy. During pregnancy, a positive FLT4 staining in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of lymphatic endothelial cells in peripheral tissue was observed. In conclusion, our results lead to the assumption that lymphangiogenic factors are produced and regulated in CL and may be involved in mechanisms regulating CL function, especially during pregnancy. PMID:23126445

  13. Molecular determinants of a competent bovine corpus luteum: first- vs final-wave dominant follicles.

    PubMed

    Gregson, E; Webb, R; Sheldrick, E L; Campbell, B K; Mann, G E; Liddell, S; Sinclair, K D

    2016-06-01

    Reproductive management in cattle requires the synchrony of follicle development and oestrus before insemination. However, ovulation of follicles that have not undergone normal physiological maturation can lead to suboptimal luteal function. Here, we investigated the expression of a targeted set of 47 genes in (a) a first-wave vs final-wave dominant follicle (DF; the latter destined to ovulate spontaneously) and (b) 6-day-old corpora lutea (CLs) following either spontaneous ovulation or induced ovulation of a first-wave DF to ascertain their functional significance for competent CL development. Both the mass and progesterone-synthesising capacity of a CL formed following induced ovulation of a first-wave DF were impaired. These impaired CLs had reduced expression of steroidogenic enzymes (e.g. STAR and HSD3B1), luteotrophic receptors (LHCGR) and angiogenic regulators (e.g. VEGFA) and increased expression of BMP2 (linked to luteolysis). Relative to final-wave DFs, characteristic features of first-wave DFs included reduced oestradiol concentrations and a reduced oestradiol:progesterone ratio in the face of increased expression of key steroidogenic enzymes (i.e. CYP11A1, HSD3B1 and CYP19A1) in granulosa cells and reduced expression of the HDL receptor SCARB1 in thecal cells. Transcripts for further components of the TGF and IGF systems (e.g. INHA, INHBA, IGF2R and IGFBP2) varied between the first- and final-wave DFs. These results highlight the importance of hormones such as progesterone interacting with local components of both the TGF and IGF systems to affect the maturation of the ovulatory follicle and functional competency of the subsequent CL. PMID:26940100

  14. Immunohistochemical aspects of insulin-like growth factors I and II in the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Amselgruber, W; Sinowatz, F; Schams, D; Skottner, A

    1994-07-01

    The cellular distribution of insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and -II) was examined in bovine corpora lutea at different stages of the luteal phase using specific antibodies and the avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase technique. At the cellular level, intense immunostaining for IGF-I was exclusively observed in large and small luteal cells and in a limited number of endothelial cells. Positive IGF-I immunoreactivity in luteal cells was thereby distributed in a distinct topographical, lobule-specific manner. Immunoreactivity in central areas of luteal lobules was most abundant in large luteal cells, whereas in peripheral zones significantly (P < 0.05) more small luteal cells exhibited IGF-I immunoreactivity. This distribution pattern was evident from day 4 of the cycle onwards and occurred at all the stages investigated. The percentage of positive small (SLC) and large (LLC) luteal cells revealed by semiquantitative analysis depended on the stage of the cycle as follows: days 4-7: 34% LLC versus 21.3% SLC in central areas and 25.1% LLC versus 32.7% SLC in peripheral zones; days 8-12: 42.9% LLC versus 19.9% SLC in central areas and 23.5% LLC versus 35.2% SLC in peripheral zones; days 13-16: 47.7% LLC versus 19.4% SLC in central areas and 19.2% LLC versus 41.4% SLC in peripheral zones. In contrast to IGF-I, no expression of IGF-II immunoreactivity was seen in large or small luteal cells. Positive immunoreactivity was restricted to the perivascular fibroblasts of large blood vessels and to the pericytes of capillaries.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7932380

  15. Progesterone supplementation to lactating dairy cows without a corpus luteum at initiation of the Ovsynch protocol.

    PubMed

    Bisinotto, R S; Castro, L O; Pansani, M B; Narciso, C D; Martinez, N; Sinedino, L D P; Pinto, T L C; Van de Burgwal, N S; Bosman, H M; Surjus, R S; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2015-04-01

    The objectives were to determine the effect of progesterone supplementation on fertility responses in lactating dairy cows without corpora lutea (CL) at initiation of the timed artificial insemination (AI) program. Holstein cows from 5 commercial dairy farms were subjected to the Ovsynch-56 protocol (d -10 GnRH, d -3 PGF2α, d -0.7 GnRH, d 0 AI). Ovaries were scanned by ultrasonography on d -10. Within farm, cows without CL were blocked by pen and assigned randomly to remain as nonsupplemented controls (CON; n = 652) or to receive 2 controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) inserts containing 1.38 g of progesterone each from d -10 to -3 (2CIDR; n = 642). Cows with CL were randomly selected within pen and used as positive controls as cows in diestrus at the initiation of the Ovsynch protocol (DIEST; n = 640). Signs of estrus were detected beginning on d -9 based on removal of tail chalk, and cows in estrus received AI on the same day. Blood samples from subsets of cows on d -10, -9, -7, -5, -3, and 0 (n = 109) and on d 6, 13, and 19 (n = 156) were analyzed for progesterone concentrations. Pregnancy was diagnosed on d 32 and 60 after AI. The average progesterone concentration during the timed AI program was lowest for CON, intermediate for 2CIDR, and highest for DIEST (0.92, 2.77, and 4.93 ng/mL, respectively). The proportions of cows that ovulated in response to the first GnRH (63.6, 61.1, and 47.2%, respectively) and that had a new CL on d -3 at PGF2α injection (72.4, 67.9, and 47.4%, respectively) were greater for CON and 2CIDR compared with DIEST, respectively. The diameter of the ovulatory follicle and the proportion of cows that ovulated in response to the second GnRH did not differ among treatments. A greater proportion of CON and 2CIDR cows were detected in estrus at AI compared with DIEST cows (35.8, 39.6, and 30.6%, respectively). Pregnancy per AI was less for CON compared with 2CIDR and DIEST on d 32 (31.3, 42.2, and 38.4%, respectively) and d 60 after AI (28.9, 37.2, and 33.9%, respectively), indicating that progesterone supplementation reestablished fertility in cows lacking a CL similar to that of cows in diestrus at the initiation of the timed AI program. Treatment did not affect pregnancy loss between d 32 and 60 of gestation. Pregnancy from a subset of cows with plasma progesterone concentrations indicated that a minimum concentration of 2.0 ng/mL was needed to optimize fertility. A single ultrasound examination effectively identified a low-fertility cohort of cows based on the absence of CL at the first GnRH injection of the Ovsynch protocol. Supplementation with 2 CIDR inserts increased progesterone in plasma by an additional 1.85 ng/mL compared with CON, resulting in concentrations of 2.77 ng/mL during development of the ovulatory follicle, which restored fertility in dairy cows lacking CL to a level similar to that of cows in diestrus. PMID:25682137

  16. Activation of Gq/11 in the Mouse Corpus Luteum Is Required for Parturition

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Rachel; Waite, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Mice with a deletion of Gαq/11 in granulosa cells were previously shown to be subfertile. They also have a reduced ovulatory response due to a deficiency in the ability of the activated LH receptor to fully induce the granulosa cell progesterone receptor. Because this conditional deletion of Gαq/11 will interfere with the actions of any G protein-coupled receptor that activates Gq/11 in granulosa or luteal cells, we sought to determine whether the actions of other hormones that contribute to fertility were also impaired. We focused our attention on prostaglandin F2 (PGF2)α, because this hormone is known to activate phospholipase C (a prominent Gαq/11 effector) in luteal cells and because the action of PGF2α on luteal cells is the first step in the murine parturition pathway. Our data show that the conditional deletion of Gαq/11 from granulosa cells prevents the ability of PGF2α to induce Akr1c18 in luteal cells. Akr1c18 codes for 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an enzyme that inactivates progesterone. The PGF2α-mediated induction of this enzyme towards the end of pregnancy increases the inactivation of progesterone and precipitates parturition in mice. Thus, the conditional deletion of Gαq/11 from granulosa/luteal cells prevents the progesterone withdrawal that occurs at the end of pregnancy and impairs parturition. This novel molecular defect contributes to the subfertile phenotype of the mice with a deletion of Gαq/11 from granulosa cells. PMID:25495873

  17. Bilingual Corpus Callosum Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Porter E., III.; Kennedy, Teresa J.; Armstrong, Terry A.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to produce midsagittal images of the corpus callosum of 19 right-handed adult male and female subjects. The preliminary findings of this study indicate that significant adaptation in the anterior midbody of the corpus callosum has occurred to accommodate multiple language capacity in bilingual individuals…

  18. Developing Software for Corpus Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Despite the central role of the computer in corpus research, programming is generally not seen as a core skill within corpus linguistics. As a consequence, limitations in software for text and corpus analysis slow down the progress of research while analysts often have to rely on third party software or even manual data analysis if no suitable…

  19. Characteristics of ovine cytotoxic lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Knisley, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine characteristics of the effector cells responsible for cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the sheep. Conditions for the production and assay of ovine T cell growth factor (TCGF) activity were evaluated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) were stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) in the presence of 2% autologous serum or serum-free media. A 28 h proliferation assay with 2.5 x 10/sup 4/ h Con A blasts per well was optimal for detection of TCGF. Peak TCGF activity occurred with a 30-37kD molecular weight fraction. Ovine PBL were used for in vitro generation of genetically-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Peripheral blood leukocytes from sheep that had been previously inoculated with live vaccinia virus were stimulated by being cultured in vitro on glutaraldehyde-fixed vaccinia-infected autologous skin fibroblasts. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity was assessed in a 6 h /sup 51/Cr-release assay on autologous and allogeneic fibroblasts targets. Killing was restricted to virus-infected autologous targets. In vitro generation of both anti-vaccinia and anti-TNP CTL activity could be enhanced by the addition of TCGF containing media from ConA-stimulated PBL.

  20. Ovine pedomics: the first study of the ovine foot 16S rRNA-based microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the first study of the bacterial microbiome of ovine interdigital skin based on 16S rRNA by pyrosequencing and conventional cloning with Sanger-sequencing. Ovine foot rot is an infectious, contagious disease of sheep that causes severe lameness and economic loss from decreased flock produc...

  1. Progesterone supplementation after ovulation: effects on corpus luteum function and on fertility of dairy cows subjected to AI or ET.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Pedro L J; Nascimento, Anibal B; Pontes, Guilherme C S; Fernandes, Gabriela O; Melo, Leonardo F; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    Three experiments were done to evaluate the effects of progesterone (P4) supplementation starting during metestrus on formation of the CL and on fertility of lactating dairy cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or embryo transfer (ET). In experiment 1, 42 Holstein cows were randomly allocated to untreated (Control) or to receive an intravaginal implant containing 1.9 g of P4 from Day 3 to 20 after FTAI (controlled internal drug release [CIDR]). Blood samples were collected on Days 3, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17, 20, and 21 after FTAI to evaluate the effect of CIDR supplementation on plasma concentration of P4 using radioimmunoassay. Ultrasound scans were performed at Days 4, 7, 11, 14, and 20 to evaluate CL volume. In experiment 2, the effect on CIDR supplementation on fertility was evaluated in 668 Holstein and crossbred dairy cows that were subjected to FTAI and allocated randomly to untreated (AI-Control) or to receive a CIDR from Day 3 to 17 (AI-CIDR) after FTAI. In experiment 3, 360 Holstein cows were treated with PGF and after heat detection (Day 0), they were allocated to untreated (ET-Control) or to receive a CIDR from Day 4 ± 1 to 8 ± 1 (ET-CIDR-4) or a CIDR from 4 ± 1 to 18 ± 1 (ET-CIDR-14). In vitro-produced embryos were transferred on Day 8 ± 1. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed by ultrasound. In experiment 1, there was interaction between treatment and day in relation to plasma P4 on Days 4 and 7 due to CIDR supplementation. Independent of treatment, pregnant cows had higher plasma P4 from Day 14 to 21 than nonpregnant cows (P ≤ 0.05). Supplementation with CIDR did not alter CL development. In experiment 2, there was no effect of supplementation of P4 on pregnancy per AI on Day 32 (32.0% vs. 31.8%, for AI-Control and AI-CIDR, respectively) or pregnancy loss (15.6% vs. 17.6%, for AI-Control and AI-CIDR, respectively). In experiment 3, P4 supplementation compromised pregnancy per ET (P/ET) on Day 32 in both supplemented groups (39.7% vs. 21.3% vs. 15.2%, for ET-Control, ET-CIDR-4, and ET-CIDR-14, respectively), with no effect on pregnancy loss. Therefore, although CIDR insertion on Day 3 after FTAI did not affect CL function and increased circulating P4, it did not increase pregnancy per AI in lactating dairy cows submitted to FTAI. Moreover, P4 supplementation decreased pregnancy per ET in lactating recipient cows. PMID:26255222

  2. Effect of environmental pollutants on oxytocin synthesis and secretion from corpus luteum and on contractions of uterus from pregnant cows

    SciTech Connect

    Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Wrobel, Michal H.; Kotwica, Jan

    2010-09-15

    Chloro-organic compounds are persistent environmental pollutants and affect many reproductive processes. Oxytocin (OT) synthesized in luteal cells is a local regulator of ovarian activity and uterine contractions. Therefore the effect of xenobiotics on the OT prohormone synthesis, secretion of OT and progesterone (P4) from luteal cells and on myometrial contractions during early pregnancy in cows was investigated. Luteal cells and myometrial strips from a cow at early pregnancy were treated with polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB 77), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (1 or 10 ng/ml). The mRNA expression of neurophysin-I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT) and peptidyl-glycine-{alpha}-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA) and concentration of OT and P4 were determined by RT-PCR and EIA, respectively. Moreover, the effect of xenobiotics given with P4 (12 ng/ml) on the basal and OT (10{sup -7} M) stimulated contractions of myometrial strips was studied. Xenobiotics increased (P < 0.05) OT secretion but DDE only stimulated P4 secretion. The ratio of P4 to OT in culture medium was decreased by all xenobiotics during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. All xenobiotics, except HCH, increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of NP-I/OT during all stages of pregnancy and all treatments decreased (P < 0.05) expression of mRNA for PGA during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. Myometrial strips were relaxed (P < 0.01) after pre-incubation with P4, while each of the xenobiotics jointly with P4 increased (P < 0.01) myometrial contractions. In conclusion, the xenobiotics used increased both expression of mRNA for genes involved in OT synthesis and secretion of OT from luteal cells. This decreases the ratio of P4 to OT and presumably, in this manner, the chloro-organic compounds can influence uterine contractions and enhance risk of abortions in pregnant females.

  3. The mRNA expression of the members of the IGF-system in bovine corpus luteum during induced luteolysis.

    PubMed

    Neuvians, T P; Pfaffl, M W; Berisha, B; Schams, D

    2003-11-01

    The components of the IGF-system were shown to be differentially regulated in bovine antral follicles and corpora lutea (CL) during different stages of the estrous cycle, and to have important functions for specific stages. The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed pattern of mRNA expression of most constituents of the IGF-system and their possible involvement in prostaglandin (PG)F2alpha-induced luteolysis in the bovine CL. Therefore, cows in the mid-luteal phase (days 8-12) were injected with the PGF2alpha-analogue Cloprostenol, and CL were collected by transvaginal ovariectomy at 2, 4, 12, 48 and 64 h after PGF2alpha-injection. Real-time RT-PCR using SYBR Green I detection was employed to determine mRNA expressions of the following factors: ubiquitin (UBQ), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I), IGF II, IGF-receptor type 1 (IGFR-1), growth hormone receptor (GH-R) and IGF-binding proteins-1-6 (IGFBP-1-6). Total extractable RNA decreased with ongoing luteolysis. IGFBP-1 mRNA was significantly up-regulated at 2h after PGF2alpha and maximal at 4h with a 34-fold increase. IGFBP-5 mRNA was significantly up-regulated after 12h with a maximum of an 11-fold increase at 64 h. For GH-R, IGFR-1, IGF II, IGFBP-3 and -4 mRNA expression, we found a significant down-regulation in certain stages. There was a significant up-regulation for IGFBP-2 and -6 mRNA at 64 h after induced luteolysis. There were no significant changes in IGF I mRNA expression. In conclusion, the IGF-system with all its components seems to play an important role in the very complex process of PGF2alpha-induced luteolysis in bovine CL. PMID:14652136

  4. The relationship between periovulatory endocrine and follicular activity on corpus luteum size, function, and subsequent embryo survival.

    PubMed

    Lynch, C O; Kenny, D A; Childs, S; Diskin, M G

    2010-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to examine the relationships between periovulatory endocrine events, ovarian activity, and embryo survival after artificial insemination (AI) in cattle (Bos taurus). Eighty-four reproductively normal beef heifers were estrus synchronized using a prostaglandin-based regimen. Artificial insemination was performed between 5 and 21h after heat onset. Ultrasonic examination of ovarian structures began 12h after the onset of heat and continued every 6h until confirmed ovulation. Blood samples were collected for measurement of estradiol, progesterone, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Pregnancy diagnosis was conducted on Days 30 and 100 after AI. Embryo survival was defined as the presence of an embryo with a detectable heartbeat in a clear amniotic sac at Day 30 postinsemination. There was no effect of the intervals from the onset of heat to AI or ovulation or from AI to ovulation on embryo survival (P>0.10). There was a tendency (P=0.09) of an inverse relationship between preovulatory follicle size and embryo survival that was unrelated to concentrations of estradiol or IGF-1 during the periovulatory period (P>0.05). There was evidence (P=0.08) of a positive association between embryo survival and concentrations of progesterone on Day 7; however, this relationship was independent (P<0.05) of hormonal and follicular measurements during the periovulatory period. This study shows that heifers could be inseminated up to 31.5h before ovulation without compromising the probability of embryo survival. This study suggests that there is an optimum range of follicle size within which high embryo survival rates can be achieved. PMID:19932503

  5. Size of Ovulatory Follicles in Cattle Expressing Multiple Ovulations Naturally and Its Influence on Corpus Luteum Development and Fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term genetic selection of cattle for fraternal twins has increased the frequency of twin and triplet ovulations. Although twin and triplet ovulations increased pregnancy rates initially, ratio of fetal number:ovulation site in pregnant females with twin (0.83) or triplet (0.73) ovulations was <...

  6. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 113.301 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be prepared from tissue culture fluids or virus-bearing tissues obtained from sheep that have developed ovine ecthyma...

  7. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 113.301 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be prepared from tissue culture fluids or virus-bearing tissues obtained from sheep that have developed ovine ecthyma...

  8. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 113.301 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be prepared from tissue culture fluids or virus-bearing tissues obtained from sheep that have developed ovine ecthyma...

  9. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 113.301 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be prepared from tissue culture fluids or virus-bearing tissues obtained from sheep that have developed ovine ecthyma...

  10. Habeas Corpus and "Enemy Combatants"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Carolyn; Chavkin, Nisan

    2008-01-01

    The writ of habeas corpus has been a critical tool for balancing the rights of individuals with the government's responsibility to protect the nation's welfare. In this article, the authors discuss the writ of habeas corpus and how it affects the federal government and hundreds of prisoners who are held as enemy combatants. Elementary, middle, and

  11. [Corpus Hermeticum in history].

    PubMed

    Bugaj, R

    2001-01-01

    The originator and founder of hermetism was the mythical Hermes Trismegistos, a deity of the syncretic Hellenistic religion that came into being through the identification of the Greek god Hermes with the Egyptian god Thot. In later Hellenistsic times various hermetic writers considered Hermes Trismegistos to have been a historical personage, a king, prophet and philosopher (physician), as well as author of many widely disseminated writings that made up the so-called Corpus Hermeticum (eighteen separate treatises from the 2nd-4th centuries AD) and the so-called Emerald Table (Tabula Smaragdina). The Corpus Hermeticum is a collection of treatises of a philosophical, religious, theological as well as theosophical nature. The collection played an important role in the development of the philosophy of alchemy and hermetism, and formed the basis for an alchemist philosophy of nature. There are currently two views among scholars on the origins of hermetism. According to one, hermetism derived directly from Egypt, while according to the other it orginated in Greece. In the years 1945-46 a number of hermetic texts forming part of the now famous gnostic "library" were discovered in Nag-Hammadi (Chenosboskion) in Upper Egypt. The Coptic texts from Nag-Hammadi date from the middle of the 4th century AD, and according to experts are translations from the Greek. Some authors (R. Reitzenstein and T. Zieliński) have suggested that along with the appearance in Egypt of the Hermetic Books, attributed to Hermes Trismegistos, there also appeared a new god in Egypt, Poimandres, and a new religion was established, hermetism, which competed for influence with Christianity. The present article discusses the main of the hermetic treatises, including Poimandres, which contains an account of the creation of the world. The article also discusses the reasons for the decline of hermetism as a religion and stresses that in spite of this decline the doctrine managed to survive in the form of alchemic hermetism, which played an important role in the culture of the Renaissance. The article also cites the voluminous work by W. Scott and A. S. Ferguson (1924-1936), and A. D. Nock and A. -J. Festugiére (1945-1964), which contains contemporary, English and French, commentaries on and translations of the Corpus Hermeticum texts. PMID:12030267

  12. Universum Inference and Corpus Homogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Carl; Lynch, Gerard; Janssen, Jerom

    Universum Inference is re-interpreted for assessment of corpus homogeneity in computational stylometry. Recent stylometric research quantifies strength of characterization within dramatic works by assessing the homogeneity of corpora associated with dramatic personas. A methodological advance is suggested to mitigate the potential for the assessment of homogeneity to be achieved by chance. Baseline comparison analysis is constructed for contributions to debates by nonfictional participants: the corpus analyzed consists of transcripts of US Presidential and Vice-Presidential debates from the 2000 election cycle. The corpus is also analyzed in translation to Italian, Spanish and Portuguese. Adding randomized categories makes assessments of homogeneity more conservative.

  13. Variation in the ovine PRKAG3 gene.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo; Zhou, Huitong; Wang, Ruoyu; Hickford, Jon

    2015-08-10

    The 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric enzyme that controls cellular energy homeostasis in response to environmental or nutritional stress. The PRKAG3 gene (PRKAG3) encodes the γ3 subunit of the AMPK. Variation in this gene has been found to be associated with meat quality traits in pigs. In this study, we used polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) to investigate variation in exon 3 and exons 4-6 of ovine PRKAG3. In 160 New Zealand Suffolk sheep, two variant sequences (named a and b) were identified in the exon 3 region of the gene and three variant sequences (named A, B and C) were identified in the exon 4-6 region of the gene, respectively. A total of three nucleotide substitutions were revealed and these were located in intron 4, exon 4 and intron 5, respectively. The nucleotide substitution identified in the exon 4 (g.2656 C>T) could nominally lead to an amino acid substitution of tryptophan to arginine at position 230 (R230W) in ovine PRKAG3. In comparison with the PRKAG3 amino acid sequences in other species, this R230W substitution appeared to occur only in sheep. This is the first report of genetic variation in ovine PRKAG3, and the variation found in this study could be functionally important for AMPK activity, which in turn may affect meat quality traits in sheep. PMID:25967386

  14. Corpus-based Customization for an Ontology

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-09-14

    CCAT scans a corpus of text for terms, and computes lexical similarity between corpus terms and taxonomy terms. Based on a set of metrics and a learning algorithm, the system inserts corpus terms into the taxonomy. Conversely, terms from the taxonomy are disambiguated based on the text in the corpus. Unused terms are discarded, and infrequently used senses of terms are collapsed to make the taxonomy more manageable.

  15. Developing an International Corpus of Creative English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassall, Peter John

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an International Corpus of Creative English (ICCE) as a worldwide corpus particularly suitable for implementation in countries which have tertiary institutions with well-defined populations of students possessing similar cultural and/or linguistic backgrounds. The ICCE is contextualized as a world Englishes corpus with

  16. Developing an International Corpus of Creative English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassall, Peter John

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an International Corpus of Creative English (ICCE) as a worldwide corpus particularly suitable for implementation in countries which have tertiary institutions with well-defined populations of students possessing similar cultural and/or linguistic backgrounds. The ICCE is contextualized as a world Englishes corpus with…

  17. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. 113.301 Section 113.301 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine...

  18. Minimum intravenous infectious dose of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The minimum intravenous infectious dose for ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) WLC1 was determined using twenty-four 6 month-old lambs. Twelve groups of two 6 month-old lambs were inoculated intravenously with tissue culture fluid containing ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) WLC1 titer...

  19. Mutations in ovine TMEM154 associated with reduced risk of ovine lentivirus infection are also associated with reduced proviral concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine lentivirus (OVLV), also called ovine progressive pneumonia virus or maedi-visna, is present in 24% of US sheep. Like human immunodeficiency virus, OVLV is macrophage-tropic lentivirus that causes lifelong infection. The adverse economic impact on the sheep industry is due to a range of disease...

  20. An ovine transgenic Huntington's disease model.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Jessie C; Bawden, C Simon; Rudiger, Skye R; McLaughlan, Clive J; Reid, Suzanne J; Waldvogel, Henry J; MacDonald, Marcy E; Gusella, James F; Walker, Simon K; Kelly, Jennifer M; Webb, Graham C; Faull, Richard L M; Rees, Mark I; Snell, Russell G

    2010-05-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin (HTT) gene [Huntington's Disease Collaborative Research Group (1993) A novel gene containing a trinucleotide repeat that is expanded and unstable on Huntington's disease chromosomes. The Huntington's Disease Collaborative Research Group. Cell, 72, 971-983]. Despite identification of the gene in 1993, the underlying life-long disease process and effective treatments to prevent or delay it remain elusive. In an effort to fast-track treatment strategies for HD into clinical trials, we have developed a new large-animal HD transgenic ovine model. Sheep, Ovis aries L., were selected because the developmental pattern of the ovine basal ganglia and cortex (the regions primarily affected in HD) is similar to the analogous regions of the human brain. Microinjection of a full-length human HTT cDNA containing 73 polyglutamine repeats under the control of the human promotor resulted in six transgenic founders varying in copy number of the transgene. Analysis of offspring (at 1 and 7 months of age) from one of the founders showed robust expression of the full-length human HTT protein in both CNS and non-CNS tissue. Further, preliminary immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the organization of the caudate nucleus and putamen and revealed decreased expression of medium size spiny neuron marker DARPP-32 at 7 months of age. It is anticipated that this novel transgenic animal will represent a practical model for drug/clinical trials and surgical interventions especially aimed at delaying or preventing HD initiation. New sequence accession number for ovine HTT mRNA: FJ457100. PMID:20154343

  1. Oxytocin and progesterone release from bovine corpus luteal cells in culture: effects of insulin-like growth factor I, insulin, and prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    McArdle, C A; Holtorf, A P

    1989-03-01

    The ruminant corpus luteum synthesizes and secretes oxytocin, but little is known of the regulation of these processes in the ovary. In the present work we describe a method for the preparation of cells from the early bovine corpus luteum (1-5 days postovulation) and their maintenance in serum-free culture. The release of oxytocin and progesterone from these cells was increased by the addition of insulin or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), but not by IGF-II. Hormone release (measured between 60 and 84 h of culture) was increased approximately 5-fold (oxytocin) and 2.5-fold (progesterone) by maximally effective concentrations of IGF-I (EC50, 0.27 nM) and insulin (EC50, 1.94 nM). Sustained exposure (0-84 h) to prostaglandins (PGs) caused a dose-dependent reduction in oxytocin release in the presence of IGF-I (PGF2 alpha EC50, 31 nM; rank order of potency, PGF2 alpha greater than PGE2 greater than PGE1), but did not markedly reduce progesterone release. The inhibitory effect of PG on oxytocin production was mimicked by sustained exposure to a protein kinase-C activator (phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate), supporting the proposed role for this enzyme as a mediator of PG action. These data provide the first demonstration that oxytocin release from early bovine corpus luteal cell cultures can be regulated by insulin, IGF-I, and PGs. Since granulosa and/or luteal cells produce and respond to IGF-I and PGF2 alpha, our data indicate functional interaction of these compounds in the regulation of luteal cell activity. PMID:2645114

  2. Proteomics-Driven Analysis of Ovine Whey Colostrum

    PubMed Central

    Scumaci, Domenica; Trimboli, Francesca; Dell’Aquila, Ludovica; Concolino, Antonio; Pappaianni, Giusi; Tammè, Laura; Vignola, Giorgio; Luciani, Alessia; Morelli, Daniela; Cuda, Giovanni; Boari, Andrea; Britti, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light in to the complexity of the ovine colostrum proteome, with a specific focus on the low abundance proteins. The ovine colostrum is characterized by a few dominating proteins, as the immunoglobulins, but it also contains less represented protein species, equally important for the correct development of neonates. Ovine colostrum, collected immediately after lambing, was separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Proteins bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, a total of 343 unique proteins were identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of ovine colostrum proteome. PMID:25643159

  3. Proteomics-driven analysis of ovine whey colostrum.

    PubMed

    Scumaci, Domenica; Trimboli, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Ludovica; Concolino, Antonio; Pappaianni, Giusi; Tammè, Laura; Vignola, Giorgio; Luciani, Alessia; Morelli, Daniela; Cuda, Giovanni; Boari, Andrea; Britti, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light in to the complexity of the ovine colostrum proteome, with a specific focus on the low abundance proteins. The ovine colostrum is characterized by a few dominating proteins, as the immunoglobulins, but it also contains less represented protein species, equally important for the correct development of neonates. Ovine colostrum, collected immediately after lambing, was separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Proteins bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, a total of 343 unique proteins were identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of ovine colostrum proteome. PMID:25643159

  4. Network Analysis with the Enron Email Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, J. S.; Sarkis, G.; URC, P. .

    2015-01-01

    We use the Enron email corpus to study relationships in a network by applying six different measures of centrality. Our results came out of an in-semester undergraduate research seminar. The Enron corpus is well suited to statistical analyses at all levels of undergraduate education. Through this article's focus on centrality, students can explore…

  5. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Habeas Corpus. 516.20 Section 516.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier...

  6. Corpus Callosum Volume and Neurocognition in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keary, Christopher J.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Bansal, Rahul; Goradia, Dhruman; Fedorov, Serguei; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2009-01-01

    The corpus callosum has recently been considered as an index of interhemispheric connectivity. This study applied a novel volumetric method to examine the size of the corpus callosum in 32 individuals with autism and 34 age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls and to investigate the relationship between this structure and cognitive measures linked to…

  7. Enhancing Writing Pedagogy with Learner Corpus Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotos, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Learner corpora have become prominent in language teaching and learning, enhancing data-driven learning (DDL) pedagogy by promoting "learning driven data" in the classroom. This study explores the potential of a local learner corpus by investigating the effects of two types of DDL activities, one relying on a native-speaker corpus (NSC)…

  8. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Habeas Corpus. 516.20 Section 516.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier...

  9. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Habeas Corpus. 516.20 Section 516.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier...

  10. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Habeas Corpus. 516.20 Section 516.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier...

  11. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Habeas Corpus. 516.20 Section 516.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier...

  12. Structure and bioactivity of steroidal saponins isolated from the roots of Chamaelirium luteum (false unicorn).

    PubMed

    Challinor, Victoria L; Stuthe, Julia M U; Parsons, Peter G; Lambert, Lynette K; Lehmann, Reginald P; Kitching, William; De Voss, James J

    2012-08-24

    Phytochemical investigation of Chamaelirium luteum ("false unicorn") resulted in the isolation of 15 steroidal glycosides. Twelve of these (1, 2, 4-9, 11-13, and 15) are apparently unique to this species, and eight of these (6-9, 11-13, and 15) are previously unreported compounds; one (15) possesses a new steroidal aglycone. In addition, the absolute configuration of (23R,24S)-chiograsterol A (10) was defined, and its full spectroscopic characterization is reported for the first time. The structures and configurations of the saponins were determined using a combination of multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n)), 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and chemical degradation. The antiproliferative activity of nine compounds obtained in the present work, and eight related compounds generated in previous work, was compared in six human tumor cell lines, with aglycones 3 and 10 and related derivatives 16, 17, 19, and 20 all displaying significant antiproliferative activity. PMID:22880631

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anatomy of the ovine lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Nisolle, J F; Wang, X Q; Squélart, M; Hontoir, F; Kirschvink, N; Clegg, P; Vandeweerd, J M

    2014-06-01

    Although the ovine spine is a useful research model for intervertebral disc pathology and vertebral surgery, there is little peer-reviewed information regarding the MRI anatomy of the ovine spine. To describe the lumbar spine MRI anatomy, 10 lumbar segments of cadaver ewes were imaged by 1.5-Tesla MR. Sagittal and transverse sequences were performed in T1 and T2 weighting (T1W, T2W), and the images were compared to gross anatomic sagittal and transverse sections performed through frozen spines. MRI was able to define most anatomic structures of the ovine spine in a similar way as can be imaged in humans. In both T1W and T2W, the signals of ovine IVDs were similar to those observed in humans. Salient anatomic features were identified: (1) a 2- to 3-mm linear zone of hypersignal was noticed on both extremities of the vertebral body parallel to the vertebral plates in sagittal planes; (2) the tendon of the crura of the diaphragm appeared as a hypointense circular structure between hypaxial muscles and the aorta and caudal vena cava; (3) dorsal and ventral longitudinal ligaments and ligamentum flavum were poorly imaged; (4) no ilio-lumbar ligament was present; (5) the spinal cord ended between S1-S2 level, and the peripheral white matter and central grey matter were easily distinguished on T1W and T2W images. This study provides useful reference images to researchers working with ovine models. PMID:23668479

  14. Metritis Following Parturition: Serum Progesterone and 17β-Oestradiol Levels. The Significance of the Corpus luteum and the Advisability of using a Luteolytic Agent as a Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guay, P.; Lamothe, P.

    1980-01-01

    A group of 22 postpartum Holstein Friesian cows showing abnormal uterus were divided into two groups and treated with a) PGF2α or b) diethylstilboestrol and oxytocin. Most blood P4 values were under 0.5 ng/mL whereas E2 blood level was higher than in normal cycling cows. The report emphasizes the need for a careful clinical examination in order to apply the proper therapy. PMID:7189134

  15. Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-four Angus and Angus x Hereford heifers were used in two successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if ovarian function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed in...

  16. Luteal 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in the rat corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy: Effect of the deciduoma reaction

    PubMed Central

    Clementi, Marisa A; Deis, Ricardo P; Telleria, Carlos M

    2004-01-01

    Background In the rat, the maintenance of gestation is dependent on progesterone production from the corpora lutea (CL), which are under the control of pituitary, decidual and placental hormones. The luteal metabolism of progesterone during gestation has been amply studied. However, the regulation of progesterone synthesis and degradation during pseudopregnancy (PSP), in which the CL are mainly under the control of pituitary prolactin (PRL), is not well known. The objectives of this investigation were: i) to study the luteal metabolism of progesterone during PSP by measuring the activities of the enzymes 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), involved in progesterone biosynthesis, and that of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alphaHSD), involved in progesterone catabolism; and ii) to determine the role of decidualization on progesterone metabolism in PSP. Methods PSP was induced mechanically at 10:00 h on the estrus of 4-day cycling Wistar rats, and the stimulus for decidualization was provided by scratching the uterus on day 4 of PSP. 3betaHSD and 20alphaHSD activities were measured in the CL isolated from ovaries of PSP rats using a spectrophotometric method. Serum concentrations of progesterone, PRL, androstenedione, and estradiol were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results The PSP stage induced mechanically in cycling rats lasted 11.3 ± 0.09 days (n = 14). Serum progesterone concentration was high until day 10 of PSP, and declined thereafter. Serum PRL concentration was high on the first days of PSP but decreased significantly from days 6 to 9, having minimal values on days 10 and 11. Luteal 3betaHSD activities were elevated until day 6 of PSP, after which they progressively declined, reaching minimal values at the end of PSP. Luteal 20alphaHSD activities were very low until day 9, but abruptly increased at the end of PSP. When the deciduoma was induced by scratching the uterus of pseudopregnant animals on day 4 (PSP+D), PSP was extended to 18 ± 2.2 days (n = 8). In PSP + D rats, serum progesterone and PRL levels, and luteal 3betaHSD activities were higher than in pseudopregnant rats on day 11. Decidualization also prevented the increase in luteal 20alphaHSD activities observed on day 11 of PSP. Administration of the dopaminergic agonist CB154 in PSP + D rats on day 10 of PSP induced a decline in both serum PRL and progesterone on day 11 of PSP, values that were not different from that of pseudopregnant controls. Conclusions We have established that during the final period of PSP a decline in progesterone biosynthesis occurs before the increase in progesterone catabolism. We have also shown that decidualization in pseudopregnant rats extends the life of the CL by prolonging the production of pituitary PRL, and by maintaining high 3betaHSD and low 20alphaHSD activities within the CL leading to sustained production of progesterone. PMID:15140254

  17. Angiogenesis in The Ovary - The Most Important Regulatory Event for Follicle and Corpus Luteum Development and Function in Cow - An Overview.

    PubMed

    Berisha, B; Schams, D; Rodler, D; Pfaffl, M W

    2016-04-01

    In the ovary, the development of new capillaries from pre-existing ones (angiogenesis) is a complex event regulated by numerous local factors. The dominant regulators of angiogenesis in ovarian follicles and corpora lutea are the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), angiopoietin (ANPT) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family members. Antral follicles in our study were classified according to the oestradiol-17-beta (E2) content in follicular fluid (FF) and were divided into five classes (E2 < 0.5, 0.5-5, 5-20, 20-180 and >180 ng/ml FF). The corresponding sizes of follicles were 5-7, 8-10, 10-13, 12-14 and >14 mm, respectively. Follicle tissue was separated in theca interna (TI) and granulosa cells (GC). The corpora lutea (CL) in our study were assigned to the following stages: days 1-2, 3-4, 5-7, 8-12 13-16 and >18 of the oestrous cycle and months 1-2, 3-4, 6-7 and >8 of pregnancy. The dominant regulators were measured at mRNA and protein expression levels; mRNA was quantified by RT-qPCR, hormone concentrations by RIA or EIA and their localization by immunohistochemistry. The highest expression for VEGF-A, FGF-2, IGF-1 and IGF-2, ANPT-2/ANPT-1 and HIF-1-alpha was found during final follicle maturation and in CL during the early luteal phase (days 1-4) followed by a lower plateau afterwards. The results suggest the importance of these factors for angiogenesis and maintenance of capillary structures for final follicle maturation, CL development and function. PMID:25951313

  18. Real-time changes of the local vasoactive peptide systems (angiotensin, endothelin) in the bovine corpus luteum after induced luteal regression.

    PubMed

    Schams, Dieter; Berisha, Bajram; Neuvians, Tanja; Amselgruber, Werner; Kraetzl, Wolf-Dieter

    2003-05-01

    There is evidence that angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) may interact in an additive or synergistic way during luteal regression. The aim of the study was to investigate real time changes in luteal tissue of angiotensin and endothelin system members in mRNA expression, tissue concentrations, tissue localization, and ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) antagonist application after prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PG) induced (days 8-12) luteal regression in cow. Corpora lutea (CL) were collected by transvaginal ovaryectomy before and 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, and 64 hr (n = 5/time point) after PG injection. ACE mRNA expression (RT-PCR) increased continuously and peaked at 12, 24 hr; ECE-1 (endothelin converting enzyme) peaked at 12 hr, and both peptides in tissue (Ang II and ET-1) increased significantly and peaked at 24 hr. The expression of receptors for Ang II (AT1R and AT2R) did not change in contrast to ET receptors (ETR-A and ETR-B), which were up-regulated. Localization in tissue revealed very weak staining for Ang II and ET-1 before PG application followed by a clear increase of staining predominantly in large luteal cells, but also in endothelial cells. In two experiments, the attempt was made to block ACE by the antagonist captopril with two different doses. In both experiments with captopril, progesterone levels were not significantly different from controls. Ang II alone seems to be not essential for functional luteolysis in bovine system. In conclusion, the results suggest that both Ang II and ET-1 are in parallel up-regulated during luteal regression and may act as vasoconstrictors during functional luteolysis, but also as apoptosis inducer during functional/structural luteolysis. PMID:12658634

  19. Progesterone exposure of the preovulatory follicle in the seasonally anestrous ewe alters the expression of angiogenic growth factors in the early corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Christensen, A C M; Haresign, W; Khalid, M

    2012-05-01

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced ovulation in seasonally anestrous ewes is associated with a high incidence of defective corpora lutea (CL), which can be completely eliminated by priming ewes with progesterone before GnRH treatment, but the physiological basis of this has remained elusive. This study tested the hypothesis that progesterone priming eliminates defective luteal function by altering the expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), its receptor VEGFR-2, and angiopoietin (ANG)-1, ANG-2 and their receptor TIE-2 in the early CL. Fifteen seasonally anestrous ewes were treated by i.m. injection with 20 mg of progesterone 3 days before the start of GnRH treatment, while another 15 animals served as controls. Intravenous injections of 500 ng GnRH were given to all the ewes every 2 h for 28 h, followed by a 300 μg GnRH bolus injection to synchronize the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Corpora lutea were collected 1, 2 and 4 days after ovulation and analyzed for protein and mRNA expression of VEGF, VEGFR-2, ANG-1, ANG-2 and Tie-2 using Western Immunoblotting and in situ hybridization. VEGF, VEGFR-2 and ANG-1 expression was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in the CL of progesterone-primed animals compared to non-primed ones. However, no differences were observed in the ANG-2 or Tie-2 expression levels between the two treatment groups. These data suggest that progesterone priming of the preovulatory follicle alters the expression of some angiogenic growth factors in the early CL, leading to greater vascular stability and thereby normal luteal function. PMID:22365696

  20. Placental lactogen and somatotropin: hormone binding to the corpus luteum and effects on the growth and functions of the ovary in heifers.

    PubMed

    Lucy, M C; Byatt, J C; Curran, T L; Curran, D F; Collier, R J

    1994-05-01

    The effects of recombinant bovine placental lactogen (rbPL) and recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on development of ovarian follicles and CL were tested in heifers. Estrus (day = 0) was synchronized and heifers were treated (Days 0-21) with either saline (control; n = 7), rbST (25 mg/day; n = 6), or rbPL. (50 mg/day; n = 8). Blood was collected daily for analyses of progesterone, estradiol, ST, PL, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I; ultrasound was performed daily for measurement of follicles and CL. PL in plasma (mean +/- SE; ng/ml) averaged 4.1 +/- 0.2 for rbPL-treated heifers, and ST in plasma (ng/ml) averaged 2.7 +/- 0.3 for rbST-treated heifers. IGF-I in plasma (ng/ml) was increased for rbST-treated (198 +/- 10; p < 0.001) and rbPL-treated (143 +/- 9; p < 0.06) heifers compared to controls (117 +/- 9). After Day 9 of the estrous cycle, heifers treated with rbPL had larger CL (p < 0.001) and more progesterone in plasma (p < 0.001) than controls, whereas rbST-treated heifers were intermediate for these measures. Largest follicles were decreased in size (mm) throughout the estrous cycle for rbPL-treated heifers (12.9 +/- 0.4) compared to controls (14.2 +/- 0.5; p < 0.06) or heifers given rbST (14.0 +/- 0.5; p < 0.11). After Day 17 (preovulatory period), concentrations of estradiol in serum (pg/ml) were decreased for rbST-treated (2.7 +/- 0.3; p < 0.01) and rbPL-treated (2.9 +/- 0.2; p < 0.02) heifers compared to controls (3.8 +/- 0.3).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8025170

  1. Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Lents, C A; Randel, R D; Stelzleni, A M; Caldwell, L C; Welsh, T H

    2011-12-01

    Seventy-four Angus and Angus Hereford heifers were used in 2 successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if luteal function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed intake was determined for heifers beginning at 12.3 0.1 mo of age in yr 1 and at 9.1 0.1 mo of age in yr 2. Heifers were assigned to dry-lot pens (n = 6 to 9 heifers/pen) with electronic gates to measure individual feed intake of a total mixed ration for 70 and 72 d in yr 1 and 2, respectively. Residual feed intake was calculated as the difference between actual DMI and expected DMI from linear regression of DMI on mid-test BW(0.75) and ADG. At 14.4 0.1 mo of age, all heifers were provided a restricted amount of feed to supply 40% of their maintenance energy requirements for 21 d. Estrous cycles of heifers were synchronized with PGF(2?) on d -10, 0, and 11 relative to start of restriction. Concentrations of progesterone in plasma on d 14 to 21 of restriction were used to determine if heifers ovulated. Overall ADG and ADFI were 0.83 0.02 and 7.37 0.67 kg/d, respectively, for yr 1; and 0.50 0.02 and 5.66 0.09 kg/d, respectively, for yr 2. There was no correlation between RFI and BW, ADG, ADFI, or ultrasound measure of backfat, nor was RFI related to concentrations of IGF-I in plasma. All heifers lost BW and had reduced backfat (P < 0.001) at the end of restricted feeding. All heifers had reproductive cycles before dietary restriction started. During acute nutritional restriction, 4 heifers became anovulatory. Sixteen heifers had concentrations of progesterone in plasma during restricted feeding that were atypical of normal luteal function. There was no relationship between luteal function during nutrient restriction and RFI of heifers. Circulating IGF-1 was greater at weaning and after restricted feeding in heifers with a smaller RFI (>0.5 SD below the mean) than heifers with a greater RFI (>0.5 SD above the mean). It is concluded that RFI is not related to luteal function during acute submaintenance feeding, but that short-term restriction of nutrient intake can alter luteal function that may compromise fertility, even in heifers that exhibit estrus and ovulate. PMID:21764836

  2. Effect of progesterone supplementation on fertility responses of lactating dairy cows with corpus luteum at the initiation of the Ovsynch protocol.

    PubMed

    Bisinotto, R S; Pansani, M B; Castro, L O; Narciso, C D; Sinedino, L D P; Martinez, N; Carneiro, P E; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2015-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of supplemental progesterone on fertility responses of lactating dairy cows with a CL at the initiation of the timed artificial insemination (AI) program. Holstein cows were subjected to the Ovsynch protocol (Day -10 GnRH, Day -3 PGF2α, Day -0.7 GnRH, and Day 0 timed AI). Ovaries were scanned by ultrasonography on Day -10 and cows with CL were blocked by pen and assigned randomly to receive no supplemental progesterone (control, n = 863) or to receive a controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) insert containing progesterone from Days -10 to -3 (1CIDR, n = 862). Cows were observed for signs of estrus beginning on Day -9 based on removal of tail chalk and those in estrus received AI on the same day. Blood sampled from a subset of cows was analyzed for progesterone concentrations on Days -10, -9, -7, -5, -3, 0, 6, 13, and 19. Pregnancy was diagnosed on Days 32 and 60 after AI. Supplementation increased (P < 0.01) progesterone concentrations between Day -9 and -3 compared with control (7.5 vs. 6.2 ng/mL). Treatment had no effect on the ovulatory response to the first and final GnRH injections of the Ovsynch protocol, the proportion of cows that maintained their CL until the day of PGF2α injection, or the diameter of the ovulatory follicle before AI. Although the overall proportion of cows in estrus at AI did not differ between treatments, progesterone supplementation prevented (P < 0.01) cows from coming into estrus from Days -9 to -3 (0.0% vs. 4.7%), whereas it increased (P = 0.02) the proportion of cows inseminated in estrus from Days -2 to -1 (7.1% vs. 4.5%). Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) tended to be reduced (P = 0.06) by supplemental progesterone on Day 32 (40.5% vs. 45.0%), but not on Day 60 after AI (36.6% vs. 39.7%). A tendency for an interaction (P = 0.09) between treatment and the presence of CL at the PGF2α injection was observed for P/AI on Day 32 in cows that received timed AI because progesterone supplementation reduced P/AI in cows that maintained their CL until Day -3 (40.3% vs. 46.7%); however, it increased P/AI in those that did not have a CL at PGF2α (38.1% vs. 27.7%). Treatment did not affect pregnancy loss between Days 32 and 60 of gestation. In conclusion, incorporating a single intravaginal insert to the timed AI program increased progesterone concentrations in plasma by 1.3 ng/mL, but did not benefit fertility in dairy cows that have CL at the initiation of the synchronization protocol. PMID:25442385

  3. Contagious ovine digital dermatitis: an emerging disease.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J S; Angell, J W; Carter, S D; Evans, N J; Sullivan, L E; Grove-White, D H

    2014-09-01

    The novel sheep disease, contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) was first described in the UK in 1997. The disease is characterised by severe lameness associated with initial inflammation at the coronary band, followed by progressive separation of the hoof capsule from the underlying tissue. On microbiological examination, treponeme bacteria have been frequently isolated from cases of CODD, including treponemes phylogenetically identical to those associated with bovine digital dermatitis (BDD). Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum have also been isolated from CODD lesions although their role in the pathogenesis remains uncertain. While epidemiological data indicate that the prevalence of CODD is increasing in the UK, the routes of transmission and associated risk factors have not been clearly elucidated. Evidenced-based treatment trials indicate that parenteral administration of long-acting amoxicillin is an efficacious treatment for CODD, while anecdotal evidence suggests other antibiotics, given locally and/or parenterally, may also be beneficial. Further microbiological and epidemiological research is urgently required to develop sustainable control strategies, including the development of vaccines and appropriate biosecurity and farm management protocols. In this review current knowledge of the clinical, aetiological, and epidemiological aspects of CODD is assessed as well as approaches to its control. PMID:24973004

  4. [Medicine and astrology in Arnau's corpus].

    PubMed

    Giralt, Sebastià

    2006-01-01

    The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology. PMID:17214132

  5. Global distribution and diversity of ovine-associated Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Edward M; Needs, Polly F; Manley, Grace; Green, Laura E

    2014-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of many species, including sheep, and impacts on both human and animal health, animal welfare, and farm productivity. Here we present the widest global diversity study of ovine-associated S. aureus to date. We analysed 97 S. aureus isolates from sheep and sheep products from the UK, Turkey, France, Norway, Australia, Canada and the USA using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing. These were compared with 196 sheep isolates from Europe (n=153), Africa (n=28), South America (n=14) and Australia (n=1); 172 bovine, 68 caprine and 433 human S. aureus profiles. Overall there were 59 STs and 87 spa types in the 293 ovine isolates; in the 97 new ovine isolates there were 22 STs and 37 spa types, including three novel MLST alleles, four novel STs and eight novel spa types. Three main CCs (CC133, CC522 and CC700) were detected in sheep and these contained 61% of all isolates. Four spa types (t002, t1534, t2678 and t3576) contained 31% of all isolates and were associated with CC5, CC522, CC133 and CC522 respectively. spa types were consistent with MLST CCs, only one spa type (t1403) was present in multiple CCs. The three main ovine CCs have different but overlapping patterns of geographical dissemination that appear to match the location and timing of sheep domestication and selection for meat and wool production. CC133, CC522 and CC700 remained ovine-associated following the inclusion of additional host species. Ovine isolates clustered separately from human and bovine isolates and those from sheep cheeses, but closely with caprine isolates. As with cattle isolates, patterns of clonal diversification of sheep isolates differ from humans, indicative of their relatively recent host-jump. PMID:24035790

  6. Global distribution and diversity of ovine-associated Staphylococcus aureus☆

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Edward M.; Needs, Polly F.; Manley, Grace; Green, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of many species, including sheep, and impacts on both human and animal health, animal welfare, and farm productivity. Here we present the widest global diversity study of ovine-associated S. aureus to date. We analysed 97 S. aureus isolates from sheep and sheep products from the UK, Turkey, France, Norway, Australia, Canada and the USA using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing. These were compared with 196 sheep isolates from Europe (n = 153), Africa (n = 28), South America (n = 14) and Australia (n = 1); 172 bovine, 68 caprine and 433 human S. aureus profiles. Overall there were 59 STs and 87 spa types in the 293 ovine isolates; in the 97 new ovine isolates there were 22 STs and 37 spa types, including three novel MLST alleles, four novel STs and eight novel spa types. Three main CCs (CC133, CC522 and CC700) were detected in sheep and these contained 61% of all isolates. Four spa types (t002, t1534, t2678 and t3576) contained 31% of all isolates and were associated with CC5, CC522, CC133 and CC522 respectively. spa types were consistent with MLST CCs, only one spa type (t1403) was present in multiple CCs. The three main ovine CCs have different but overlapping patterns of geographical dissemination that appear to match the location and timing of sheep domestication and selection for meat and wool production. CC133, CC522 and CC700 remained ovine-associated following the inclusion of additional host species. Ovine isolates clustered separately from human and bovine isolates and those from sheep cheeses, but closely with caprine isolates. As with cattle isolates, patterns of clonal diversification of sheep isolates differ from humans, indicative of their relatively recent host-jump. PMID:24035790

  7. Ovine TRIM5α Can Restrict Visna/Maedi Virus

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui, P.; Crespo, H.; Glaria, I.; Luján, L.; Contreras, A.; Rosati, S.; de Andrés, D.; Amorena, B.; Towers, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    The restrictive properties of tripartite motif-containing 5 alpha (TRIM5α) from small ruminant species have not been explored. Here, we identify highly similar TRIM5α sequences in sheep and goats. Cells transduced with ovine TRIM5α effectively restricted the lentivirus visna/maedi virus DNA synthesis. Proteasome inhibition in cells transduced with ovine TRIM5α restored restricted viral DNA synthesis, suggesting a conserved mechanism of restriction. Identification of TRIM5α active molecular species may open new prophylactic strategies against lentiviral infections. PMID:22696640

  8. Metmyoglobin reducing activity and colour stability of ovine longissimus muscle.

    PubMed

    Bekhit, A E; Geesink, G H; Morton, J D; Bickerstaffe, R

    2001-04-01

    Characteristics of metmyoglobin reducing activity in ovine longissimus were determined, and its effect on colour and colour stability of muscle was investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment vacuum packed ovine longissimus samples were incubated at 5-35°C during the first 16 h post mortem (n=8 per treatment). Metmyoglobin reducing activity was negatively affected by incubation temperatures above 30°C, but colour and colour stability were little affected at 24 h post mortem and after 2 weeks of vacuum storage at 2°C. In the second experiment the effects of pre-slaughter stress and electrical stimulation on metmyoglobin reducing activity, colour and colour stability of ovine longissimus (n=40) with an ultimate pH below 5.8 were investigated. Neither of the treatments had an effect on metmyoglobin reducing activity or colour parameters. The relatively large variation in metmyoglobin activity and colour parameters allowed correlation analysis. Metmyoglobin reducing activity was not correlated to colour or the colour stability parameters. The results of the present study indicate that metmyoglobin reducing activity is not the primary determinant of colour or colour stability of ovine longissimus muscle. PMID:22061716

  9. [Femoropopliteal vascular replacement: vein, ePTFE or ovine collagen?].

    PubMed

    Koch, G; Gutschi, S; Pascher, O; Fruhwirth, J; Hauser, H

    1996-01-01

    In an eight year-period from 1988 to 1995 653 femoropopliteal and femorocrural bypasses were performed. 347 above-knee reconstructions 206 below-knee reconstructions and at last 100 femorocrural bypasses were analysed. The cumulative patency rate after a follow up of three years for above-knee vein bypasses was 90%, patency rate for PTFE grafts in the same period was 52%, for ovine collagen grafts 56%. For below-knee bypasses with autologous saphenous vein a function rate of 76% could be observed in the same period, the rate of PTFE grafts in this position was only 30%. In this position 3-year patency rates of 50% were achieved with ovine collagen grafts. This difference was statistically significant. Three years cumulative patency rate for femorocrural reconstructions with greater saphenous vein was 72%, the function rate for PTFE in this position was below 30% after a follow up of one year, with ovine grafts below 40%. Graft infection, aneurysm formation and postoperative mortality were low in all groups. Our data demonstrate, that patency rates of autologous vein bypasses could not be achieved with PTFE or ovine collagen prosthesis in any femoropopliteal the femorocrural position. We therefore cannot confirm the recommendation to use alloplastic grafts as primary choice for above knee bypasses to spare the saphenous vein. PMID:9012236

  10. Effect of maternal ketoacidosis on the ovine fetus

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Diego E.; Kuthiala, Shikha; Liu, Hai L.; Durosier, Daniel L.; Cao, Mingju; Burns, Patrick; Desrochers, André; Fecteau, Gilles; Frasch, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    Ketoacidosis during pregnancy carries significant risk of intrauterine fetal demise, but little is known about the impact of ketoacids on the ovine fetus. We report a case series of maternal ketoacidosis in ewes. Maternal ketoacidosis may result in biochemical and acid-base fetal abnormalities associated with changes in feto-placental unit perfusion. PMID:26246634

  11. Oligopeptide-based enzyme immunoassay for ovine lentivirus antibody detection.

    PubMed Central

    Kwang, J; Torres, J V

    1994-01-01

    Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) is a lentivirus which causes a progressive disease in sheep. Immunodominant epitopes have been identified in the envelope gp40 glycoprotein. Synthetic peptides representing these regions are able to detect the presence of OPPV antibodies in 96% of infected sheep. PMID:7929780

  12. Effect of maternal ketoacidosis on the ovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Diego E; Kuthiala, Shikha; Liu, Hai L; Durosier, Daniel L; Cao, Mingju; Burns, Patrick; Desrochers, André; Fecteau, Gilles; Frasch, Martin G

    2015-08-01

    Ketoacidosis during pregnancy carries significant risk of intrauterine fetal demise, but little is known about the impact of ketoacids on the ovine fetus. We report a case series of maternal ketoacidosis in ewes. Maternal ketoacidosis may result in biochemical and acid-base fetal abnormalities associated with changes in feto-placental unit perfusion. PMID:26246634

  13. 78 FR 68327 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... effective and published in the Federal Register on May 29, 2003 (68 FR 31940-31949, Docket No. 02-109-3... FR 10266-10269, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0085), we proposed to also allow the importation of fresh ovine... / Thursday, November 14, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and...

  14. Ovine Reference Materials and Assays for Prion Genetic Testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Genetic predisposition to scrapie in sheep is associated with variation in the peptide sequence of the ovine prion protein encoded by Prnp. Codon variants implicated in scrapie susceptibility or disease progression include those at amino acid positions 112, 136, 141, 154, and 171. Nin...

  15. DISTANCE TRANSMISSION OF OVINE HERPESVIRUS 2 FROM SHEEP TO BISON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is potentially devastating to American bison. Virtually all bison MCF cases in North America are caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a member of the gammaherpesvirus subfamily, which is carried almost exclusively by sheep. In this communication, we report transm...

  16. Purification, characterisation and distribution of ovine neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Crack, P J; Tetaz, T; Smith, A I

    1998-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an ubiquitous intercellular messenger molecule synthesised from the amino acid L-arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). A number of NOS iso-enzymes have been identified, varying in molecular size, tissue distribution and possible biological role. To further understand the role of NO in the regulation of neuroendocrine function in the sheep, we have purified and characterised ovine neuronal NOS (nNOS) using anion exchange, affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. SDS-PAGE reveals that ovine nNOS has an apparent denatured molecular weight of 150 kDa which correlates well with the other purified nNOS forms such as rat, bovine and porcine. The native molecular weight predicted by size-exclusion chromatography was 200 kD which is in close agreement with that found for porcine and rat nNOS. Internal amino acid sequences generated from tryptic digests of the purified ovine nNOS are highly homologous to rat nNOS. There was no significant difference in the cofactor dependence and kinetic characteristics of ovine nNOS when compared to rat and bovine nNOS, (K(m) for L-arginine 2.8, 2.0 and 2.3 microM respectively). A polyclonal anti-peptide antibody directed toward the C-terminal end of the rat nNOS sequence showed full cross-reactivity with the purified ovine nNOS. Immunohistochemical and Western analysis using this antiserum demonstrate the expression of nNOS in the cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus and pituitary of the sheep. The lack of staining in the neural and anterior lobes of the pituitary seems to suggest that NOS plays a varied role in the control of endocrine systems between species. PMID:9854819

  17. Etiological factors in invasive corpus uteri carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zemła, B; Gumiński, S; Franek, K; Kołosza, Z; Banasik, R

    1991-01-01

    The case-control method was applied in order to test how various types of diet as well as past diseases, tobacco smoking and occupational exposure may affect the risk of incidence of corpus uteri cancer in the population of natives and among immigrant women. The highest risk of incidence was noted in the group of natives persistently using a diet rich in meat, animal fat, amylum meals and sugar but lacking raw vegetables. Such a high risk was not observed in the group of immigrant women what might be caused by more frequent change of the type of diet. Some past diseases (arterial hypertension, diabetes, diseases of organs of reproduction and urinary system) do affect a relatively high risk of corpus uteri carcinoma in both populations. However, no noteworthy results have been obtained in the risk of corpus uteri carcinoma as far as tobacco smoking and occupational exposure are concerned. PMID:2041575

  18. Bayesian stratified sampling to assess corpus utility

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.; Scovel, C.; Thomas, T.; Hall, S.

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a method for asking statistical questions about a large text corpus. The authors exemplify the method by addressing the question, ``What percentage of Federal Register documents are real documents, of possible interest to a text researcher or analyst?`` They estimate an answer to this question by evaluating 200 documents selected from a corpus of 45,820 Federal Register documents. Bayesian analysis and stratified sampling are used to reduce the sampling uncertainty of the estimate from over 3,100 documents to fewer than 1,000. A possible application of the method is to establish baseline statistics used to estimate recall rates for information retrieval systems.

  19. Molecular cloning and characterisation of ovine dual oxidase 2.

    PubMed

    Lees, M S; H Nagaraj, Shivashankar; Piedrafita, D M; Kotze, A C; Ingham, A B

    2012-05-25

    The dual oxidases (DUOX1 and DUOX2) are NADPH-dependent hydrogen peroxide-producing enzymes that are reported to function in a physiological capacity and as a component of the mucosal immune response. We have previously reported increased expression of the DUOX2 gene in the gut mucosa of sheep in response to gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) challenge. In this paper, we report the cloning of the full-length ovine DUOX2 transcript, using a PCR based strategy. The ovine DUOX2 transcript includes an ORF of 4644 bases, and encodes a protein with 97% identity to the bovine sequence. We also cloned a fragment of DUOX1 (encompassing nucleotides 2692-2829), and the proximal promoter sequence of DUOX2. Through analysis of sequence data we have confirmed that DUOX1 and DUOX2 are co-located in a head to tail arrangement conserved across many species. Alignment of the sequences to the ovine genome predicts a location of this gene cluster on ovine chromosome 7. We quantified the expression of ovine DUOX1 and DUOX2 transcripts in 24 different sheep tissues, and discovered tissue specific expression signatures. DUOX2 was found to be most highly expressed in tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, while expression of DUOX1 predominated in the bladder. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) analysis identified the existence of multiple 5' UTR variants in DUOX2, ranging in size from 32 to 242 nucleotides, with 3 distinct transcribed regions. Real time PCR quantification of the DUOX2 UTR variants revealed that these were differentially expressed between tissues, and at various stages of the response to GIN parasite infection. The collective evidence suggested a complex regulation of DUOX2, prompting a bioinformatic analysis of the proximal promoter regions of ovine DUOX2 to identify potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) that may explain the differences in the observed expression of the transcript variants of DUOX2. Possible transcription factor families that may regulate this process were identified as Kruppel-like factors (KLF), ETS-factors, erythroid growth receptor factors (EGRF) and myogenic differentiation factors (MYOD). PMID:22465529

  20. Peripheral and ovarian IGF-I concentrations during the ovine oestrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Leeuwenberg, B R; Hudson, N L; Moore, L G; Hurst, P R; McNatty, K P

    1996-02-01

    IGF-I was measured by RIA in plasma samples collected 8-hourly for 24 days which included two consecutive preovulatory surges of LH. In a separate study, ovarian venous blood was collected from animals undergoing ovariectomy on day 10 of the oestrous cycle, or 36 h later after being treated with prostaglandin with or without steroid-free bovine follicular fluid. Jugular venous blood samples were collected before, during and after surgery. Follicles were dissected from ovaries of these animals and sorted into categories of small, intermediate and large, non-atretic or atretic, and the follicular fluid was pooled and assayed for IGF-I. From another population of ovaries recovered from the slaughterhouse, granulosa, theca and corpora lutea were isolated, homogenized and assayed for IGF-I. Finally ovarian corpora lutea and granulosa cells were each incubated with tritiated amino acids overnight at 37 degrees C. Thereafter the tissues and media were sonicated, IGF-I extracted from the supernatant and tritiated IGF-I precipitated using a specific IGF-I antibody. The absence of any significant change in peripheral IGF-I concentrations following ovariectomy and the finding that the ovarian venous IGF-I concentrations (161 +/- 10 micrograms/l) were not significantly different from levels seen in peripheral blood (157 +/- 10 microgram/l) indicated that the ovary is not a net exporter of IGF-I. However, the ovary does synthesize IGF-I, as evidenced by granulosa and luteal synthesis, but probably not in quantities in excess of that utilized by ovarian tissues per se. Although the plasma IGF-I levels increased around the second preovulatory LH surge, the results overall indicated that the IGF-I concentrations in plasma are not strictly related to any major ovarian event during the oestrous cycle in the sheep. This view is based on the findings that the concentration of IGF-I in follicular fluid was not related to follicular health but correlated with those in peripheral plasma and that the ovarian venous concentrations did not vary between left and right ovaries irrespective of whether the ovaries contained a corpus luteum, dominant follicle or neither. Collectively, these results are consistent with the notion that IGF-I of ovarian origin fulfils an autocrine/paracrine function and does not have an endocrine role. Moreover, the results show that the concentrations of IGF-I in follicular fluid reflect those in peripheral plasma. PMID:8699142

  1. Inflation Metaphor in the TIME Magazine Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chunyu; Liu, Huijie

    2016-01-01

    A historical perspective on economy metaphor can shed new lights on economic thoughts. Based on the TIME Magazine Corpus (TMC), this paper investigates inflation metaphor over 83 years and compares findings against the economic data over the relatively corresponding period. The results show how inflation, an abstract concept and a normal economic…

  2. Can a Graded Reader Corpus Provide "Authentic" Input?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    In addition to their intended purpose, graded reader texts can be made into a corpus appropriate for use with lower-level learners. Here I consider using such a corpus for data-driven learning (DDL), to make this approach more accessible to intermediate level students. However, how far does grading the corpus in this way compromise the…

  3. Using a Corpus in a 300-Level Spanish Grammar Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavides, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the use and effectiveness of a large corpus--the Corpus del Español (Davies, 2002)--in a 300-level Spanish grammar university course. Students conducted hands-on corpus searches with the goal of finding concordances containing particular types of collocations (combinations of words that tend to co-occur) and tokens (any…

  4. EFL Students' Perceptions of Corpus-Tools as Writing References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Shu-Li

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have suggested the potentials of corpus tools in vocabulary learning. However, there are still some concerns. Corpus tools might be too complicated to use; example sentences retrieved from corpus tools might be too difficult to understand; processing large number of sample sentences could be challenging and time-consuming;…

  5. Corpus Callosum Area in Children and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Neeley, E. Shannon; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated findings of abnormal corpus callosum structure in autism, the developmental trajectories of corpus callosum growth in the disorder have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined corpus callosum size from a developmental perspective across a 30-year age range in a large cross-sectional sample of individuals with autism

  6. Corpus Callosum Area in Children and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Neeley, E. Shannon; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated findings of abnormal corpus callosum structure in autism, the developmental trajectories of corpus callosum growth in the disorder have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined corpus callosum size from a developmental perspective across a 30-year age range in a large cross-sectional sample of individuals with autism…

  7. Concept annotation in the CRAFT corpus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Manually annotated corpora are critical for the training and evaluation of automated methods to identify concepts in biomedical text. Results This paper presents the concept annotations of the Colorado Richly Annotated Full-Text (CRAFT) Corpus, a collection of 97 full-length, open-access biomedical journal articles that have been annotated both semantically and syntactically to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural-language-processing (NLP) community. CRAFT identifies all mentions of nearly all concepts from nine prominent biomedical ontologies and terminologies: the Cell Type Ontology, the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest ontology, the NCBI Taxonomy, the Protein Ontology, the Sequence Ontology, the entries of the Entrez Gene database, and the three subontologies of the Gene Ontology. The first public release includes the annotations for 67 of the 97 articles, reserving two sets of 15 articles for future text-mining competitions (after which these too will be released). Concept annotations were created based on a single set of guidelines, which has enabled us to achieve consistently high interannotator agreement. Conclusions As the initial 67-article release contains more than 560,000 tokens (and the full set more than 790,000 tokens), our corpus is among the largest gold-standard annotated biomedical corpora. Unlike most others, the journal articles that comprise the corpus are drawn from diverse biomedical disciplines and are marked up in their entirety. Additionally, with a concept-annotation count of nearly 100,000 in the 67-article subset (and more than 140,000 in the full collection), the scale of conceptual markup is also among the largest of comparable corpora. The concept annotations of the CRAFT Corpus have the potential to significantly advance biomedical text mining by providing a high-quality gold standard for NLP systems. The corpus, annotation guidelines, and other associated resources are freely available at http://bionlp-corpora.sourceforge.net/CRAFT/index.shtml. PMID:22776079

  8. Production and purification of ovine anti-tetanus antibody.

    PubMed

    Redwan, El-Rashdy M; Khalil, Ahmed; El-Dardiri, Zeinab Z

    2005-05-01

    We used the ovine as bioreactor for the production and optimization of anti-tetanus toxin antibody. Four female sheep were immunized with human tetanus vaccine (TT-alum) every two weeks for 16 weeks, after which serum was collected and its titer was estimated by ELISA. The highest titer obtained was 39,000 IU ml-1. To optimize a purification protocol for ovine anti-tetanus toxin, we used four procedures; weak anion (DEAE-Sephadex), weak cation (CM-Sephadex), ammonium sulfate precipitation alone or in combination with caprylic acid. Fifty percent saturation with ammonium sulfate combined with caprylic acid gave us the highest yield of protein with specific activity and the purest Fab product. PMID:15857656

  9. Conformational Similarity of Ovine Prolactin and Bovine Growth Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Aloj, S. M.; Edelhoch, H.

    1970-01-01

    The behavior and properties of ovine prolactin have been evaluated by measurements of fluorescence, polarization of fluorescence, absorption, optical rotation, and circular dichroism. The helical content of the native molecule at pH 8 is 60 per cent as determined by circular dichroism. Three molecular transitions have been followed. The one in acid affects only 20 per cent of the helical residues. More profound conformational changes occur in urea solutions (pH 5.2 and 8.0) where most of the helical residues are randomized. There is a close parallel between the behavior of ovine prolactin and bovine growth hormone both in aqueous solutions between pH 2 and 11.5 and in urea solutions at pH 5.2 and 8.0. Based on the similarities in behavior it is proposed that the conformations of these two hormones are homologous. PMID:5269246

  10. Identification of peptides in functional Scamorza ovine milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Marino, R; Della Malva, A; Caroprese, M; Sevi, A

    2015-12-01

    Ovine bulk milk was used to produce Scamorza cheese with probiotics: either a mix of Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium lactis or Lactobacillus acidophilus as the probiotic strains. Peptides obtained from reverse phase-HPLC water-soluble extract of Scamorza cheeses were analyzed using a quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system. Identified fragments were derived from casein hydrolysis or probiotic bacterial enzymes; some of the fragments showed encrypted peptide sequences that shared structural homology with previously described bioactive peptides in ovine milk and dairy products. Bifidobacterium longum and B. lactis showed greater proteolytic potential both in terms of level of pH 4.6 water-soluble nitrogen extract and ability to generate peptides with potential biofunctionality. Fragments deriving from microbial enzymes may be regarded as tracing fragments useful for monitoring probiotic activity in functional Scamorza cheese. PMID:26409967

  11. Myostatin gene targeting in cultured China Han ovine myoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Yang, X; An, X; Chen, Y

    2007-11-01

    Myostatin (MSTN), a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, has been shown to be a negative regulator of myogenesis. Natural mutation in beef cattle causes double-muscling phenotypes. We report an investigation designed to knockout the MSTN gene by gene targeting in ovine myoblast cells. Two promoter-trap targeting vectors MSTN-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and MSTN-neo were constructed and used to transfect foetal and neonatal ovine primary myoblast cells. Both GFP-expressing cells and drug-resistant cells were obtained. Targeted cells expressing GFP were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and drug-resistant cells were characterised by PCR and Southern blot after growing into cell clones. PMID:22444913

  12. 76 FR 18395 - Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show, Oso Bay, Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show..., Texas in support of the 2011 Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show. This temporary safety zone is... necessary to ensure the safety of participants and spectators in the Naval Air Station Corpus Christi...

  13. 33 CFR 334.800 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... follows: Beginning at a point on the south shore of Corpus Christi Bay at the “North Gate” of the U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.800 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval...

  14. 33 CFR 334.800 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... follows: Beginning at a point on the south shore of Corpus Christi Bay at the “North Gate” of the U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.800 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval...

  15. 33 CFR 334.800 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... follows: Beginning at a point on the south shore of Corpus Christi Bay at the “North Gate” of the U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.800 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval...

  16. 33 CFR 334.800 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... follows: Beginning at a point on the south shore of Corpus Christi Bay at the “North Gate” of the U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.800 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval...

  17. 33 CFR 334.800 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... follows: Beginning at a point on the south shore of Corpus Christi Bay at the “North Gate” of the U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.800 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval...

  18. Temporal Release, Paracrine and Endocrine Actions of Ovine Conceptus-Derived Interferon-Tau During Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Romero, Jared J; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q; Nett, Terry M; Ashley, Ryan L; Webb, Brett T; Smirnova, Natalia P; Bott, Rebecca C; Bruemmer, Jason E; Bazer, Fuller W; Anthony, Russell V; Hansen, Thomas R

    2015-12-01

    The antiviral activity of interferon (IFN) increases in uterine vein serum (UVS) during early pregnancy in sheep. This antiviral activity in UVS collected on Day 15 of pregnancy is blocked by anti-IFN-tau (anti-IFNT) antibodies. Conceptus-derived IFNT was hypothesized to induce IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression in endometrium and extrauterine tissues during pregnancy. To test this hypothesis, blood was collected from ewes on Days 12-16 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. Serum progesterone was >1.7 ng/ml in pregnant (P) and nonpregnant (NP) ewes until Day 13, then declined to <0.6 ng/ml by Day 15 in NP ewes. A validated IFNT radioimmunoassay detected IFNT in uterine flushings (UFs) on Days 13-16 and in UVS on Days 15-16 of pregnancy. IFNT detection in UF correlated with paracrine induction of ISGs in the endometrium and occurred prior to the inhibition of estrogen receptor 1 and oxytocin receptor expression in uterine epithelia on Day 14 of pregnancy. Induction of ISG mRNAs in corpus luteum (CL) and liver tissue occurred by Day 14 and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by Day 15 in P ewes. Expression of mRNAs for IFN signal transducers and ISGs were greater in the CL of P than that of NP ewes on Day 14. It is concluded that: 1) paracrine actions of IFNT coincide with detection of IFNT in UF; 2) endocrine action of IFNT ensues through induction of ISGs in peripheral tissues; and 3) IFNT can be detected in UVS, but not until Days 15-16 of pregnancy, which may be limited by the sensitivity of the IFNT radioimmunoassay. PMID:26559679

  19. 78 FR 76276 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Ovine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Collection; Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... regulations for the importation of ovine meat from Uruguay into the United States. ] DATES: We will consider...: For information on the regulations for the importation of ovine meat from Uruguay, contact Dr....

  20. Corpus Christi, Nueces, and Aransas Bays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor; Thatcher, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay and Nueces Bay comprise the middle estuarine portion of Texas Coastal Bend region (Figure 1; Burgan and Engle, 2006). Aransas Bay is part of the upper estuarine portion of the region. These bays make up part of the Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, one of the many estuarine areas in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys National Estuary Program (Holt, 1998). The Coastal Bend region is sub-humid and sub-tropical. Summers are long, hot, and humid, and winters are short and mild. The landscape around the estuaries is dominated by row crops, pastures, and brushy rangeland (Handley and others, 2007). The Nueces River, along with other smaller rivers and creeks, provides freshwater inflowalong with essential nutrients and sediment into Nueces Bay, which feeds into Corpus Christi Bay (Holt, 1998). Freshwater inflow into the Aransas Bay comes from Mission River, Aransas River, and Copano Creek. The region is relatively dry otherwise and prone to droughts. Corpus Christi receives an average of 76.2 cm (30 in) of rain annually; evaporation usually exceeds 177.8 cm (70 in) (Holt, 1998; Handley and others, 2007). The San Antonio-Nueces Coastal Basin drains into Aransas Bay. The Nueces River basin covers 43,253 km2 (16,700 miles2 ), from northwest of San Antonio, flowing southeast to where it drains into Nueces and Corpus Christi Bays (Holt, 1998). The Nueces-Rio Grande basin covers approximately 18,648 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 km2 (7,200 miles2 ) and flows partially into Corpus Christi Bay (as well as the upper Laguna Madre). The inflow from Nueces River has declined by approximately 20 percent over the past several decades, partly due to construction of lakes and reservoirs, particularly Lake Corpus Christi and Choke Canyon reservoir. The Corpus Christi Estuary receives approximately 35 percent of the total freshwater inflow of 1,480,178,205 cubic meters (m3 ) (1.2 million acre-feet) in the region; the Aransas Estuary receives about 53 percent. Tidal range is only 0.46 m (1.5 ft) on the Gulf shoreline and 0.15 m (0.5 ft) in Nueces Bay. Strong winds are the primary force behind water circulation in the Coastal Bend estuaries. The estuaries in Coastal Bend provide habitat and nutrition for many species of plants and animals, water purification, protection from storms, recreation and seafood, education, and maritime commerce (Holt, 1998). Coastal marshes comprise 45,729 hectares (113,000 acres), or 11 percent, of the aquatic habitats in Coastal Bend. There are 835 species of plants and 2,340 species of animals, including nearly 500 species of birds, in the Coastal Bend Bays area, not including those species that remain unidentified. Nineteen of these species are threatened or endangered. The only remaining natural population of the endangered whooping crane winters at Aransas National Wildlife Refuge. As the population of the Coastal Bend region grows, the amount of use and stress on the estuaries increases. Approximately 3 percent of Texas population560,000 people in 2000live in Coastal Bend (Holt, 1998; Handley and others, 2007). Corpus Christi, whose population was estimated at over 316,000 in 2013 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010), is the only city in Coastal Bend with a population greater than 20,000. 3 Agriculture, oil and gas production, manufacturing and shipping, national defense, and tourism dominate the economy in the Coastal Bend Bay area. Petroleum and chemical industries generate the most revenue, whereas tourism and military activities provide the most jobs. Oil production generates over $300 million, and gas production generates nearly $700 million each year. Approximately 25 percent of the jobs held in the Coastal Bend are related to tourism. Livestock and row crops such as cotton, sorghum, and corn dominate the agricultural sector in Coastal Bend. The Port of Corpus Christi was dredged to 13.7 m (45 ft) deep in 1990; it is the nations sixth largest port. The port generates more than $1 billion in revenue, $60 million in taxes, and 31,000 local jobs. Military facilities in the area, employing nearly 12,000 people with a payroll over $300 million, include Corpus Christi Army Depot, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Naval Station Ingleside, and Naval Air Station Kingsville. Tourism generates over $20 billion annually. Nature tourism is the fastest growing element of this sector. Nearly one-third of both the states commercial and recreational fishing harvest comes from the Coastal Bend area. Recreational fishing yields $37 million in taxes annually and a $546 million regional impact. Commercial fishing yields an average of over 3,628,739 kg (8 million lbs) of harvest per year (Burgan and Engle, 2006).

  1. Outcome of corpus callosotomy in adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Michael S; Nakagawa, Emily; Schoenberg, Mike R; Benbadis, Selim R; Vale, Fernando L

    2013-08-01

    We present, to our knowledge, the first published series of corpus callosotomy (CC) in adults with medically intractable symptomatic generalized epilepsy (SGE). Fifteen adults were followed for the outcome measures of seizure and antiepileptic drug (AED) burden and quality of life (QoL). Five (33%) patients reported >60%, one (7%) reported between 30 and 60%, and nine (60%) reported <30% reduction in the total number of seizures after CC. Seven (47%) patients reported >60%, three (20%) experienced between 30 and 60%, and five (33%) reported <30% atonic seizure reduction. Twelve patients had no change in AED burden. Nine (60%) patients had no change in QoL, while six (40%) reported some improvement. Corpus callosotomy should be considered as a safe option for adults with medically intractable SGE with demonstrated reduction in the frequency of atonic seizures, and some patients experience a meaningful improvement in quality of life. PMID:23747503

  2. Creation of a new longitudinal corpus of clinical narratives.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vishesh; Stubbs, Amber; Shaw, Stanley; Uzuner, Özlem

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 i2b2/UTHealth Natural Language Processing (NLP) shared task featured a new longitudinal corpus of 1304 records representing 296 diabetic patients. The corpus contains three cohorts: patients who have a diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in their first record, and continue to have it in subsequent records; patients who do not have a diagnosis of CAD in the first record, but develop it by the last record; patients who do not have a diagnosis of CAD in any record. This paper details the process used to select records for this corpus and provides an overview of novel research uses for this corpus. This corpus is the only annotated corpus of longitudinal clinical narratives currently available for research to the general research community. PMID:26433122

  3. The Hebrew CHILDES corpus: transcription and morphological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Aviad; MacWhinney, Brian; Nir, Bracha

    2014-01-01

    We present a corpus of transcribed spoken Hebrew that reflects spoken interactions between children and adults. The corpus is an integral part of the CHILDES database, which distributes similar corpora for over 25 languages. We introduce a dedicated transcription scheme for the spoken Hebrew data that is sensitive to both the phonology and the standard orthography of the language. We also introduce a morphological analyzer that was specifically developed for this corpus. The analyzer adequately covers the entire corpus, producing detailed correct analyses for all tokens. Evaluation on a new corpus reveals high coverage as well. Finally, we describe a morphological disambiguation module that selects the correct analysis of each token in context. The result is a high-quality morphologically-annotated CHILDES corpus of Hebrew, along with a set of tools that can be applied to new corpora. PMID:25419199

  4. Corpus cavernosum abscess after Winter procedure performance

    PubMed Central

    Paladino, Joao Roberto; Nascimento, Fabio Jose; Gromatsky, Celso; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima

    2014-01-01

    A 23-year-old male patient with sickle-cell disease reported his third episode of priapism complicated by the presence of a corpus cavernosum abscess after the performance of a Winter procedure 20 days prior to his presentation. While in hospital for 11 days, two penile needle aspirations and three surgical drainages were performed with associated antibiotic therapy. He evolved with erectile dysfunction refractory to drug therapy and his infectious condition improved. An early penile prosthesis implantation followed after the use of a vacuum pump in an attempt to decrease the fibrotic process of the corpora cavernosa. Final results were positive. PMID:24515231

  5. Corpus-Assisted Creative Writing: Introducing Intermediate Italian Learners to a Corpus as a Reference Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Claire; Miceli, Tiziana

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on the exploitation of corpora for language learning, the learners are viewed as researchers, who formulate and test their own hypotheses about language use. Having identified difficulties encountered in corpus investigations by our intermediate-level students of Italian in a previous study, we have designed a…

  6. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Petroleum Gas, the waters within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving facility. The safety zone remains in effect until the LPG vessel... within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel departs the LPG facility and transits...

  7. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Petroleum Gas, the waters within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving facility. The safety zone remains in effect until the LPG vessel... within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel departs the LPG facility and transits...

  8. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Petroleum Gas, the waters within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving facility. The safety zone remains in effect until the LPG vessel... within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel departs the LPG facility and transits...

  9. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Petroleum Gas, the waters within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving facility. The safety zone remains in effect until the LPG vessel... within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel departs the LPG facility and transits...

  10. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Petroleum Gas, the waters within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving facility. The safety zone remains in effect until the LPG vessel... within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel departs the LPG facility and transits...

  11. Ovine anti-rabies antibody production and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Redwan, El-Rashdy M; Fahmy, Ali; El Hanafy, Amr; Abd El-Baky, Nawal; Sallam, Sobhy M A

    2009-01-01

    In view of the disadvantages of human and equine rabies immunoglobulin still there is urgent needs for safe and cost-control anti-rabies immunoglobulins especially for person who have been severely exposed (categories III) to the virus. Our attempt to produce a less immunogenic and cheaper anti-rabies immunoglobulin affordable for those people living in developing countries, has been harnessed the ovine as a bioreactor instead the horse. The animals have been intramuscular immunized, and the plasma processed with 5% caprylic acid to yield IgG with purity of 95%. Moreover, antibody apparently indicated that the titer and neutralizing indexes were harmonized, especially at higher antibody dilution. The results showed that three immunized sheep were produced about 7000 IU of purified anti-rabies antibody. Sheep's IgG has low immunogenic effect than human and horse antibodies when injected into the mouse. Pure concentrated ovine antibody may serve as a possible alternative to currently available anti-rabies human or equine immunoglobulin. PMID:18242705

  12. Strain-rate sensitivity of porcine and ovine corneas.

    PubMed

    Elsheikh, Ahmed; Kassem, Wael; Jones, Stephen W

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of strain-rate sensitivity of corneal tissue is important for improving the understanding of the tissue's response to mechanical actions and the accurate numerical simulation of corneal biomechanical behaviour under the effects of disease and surgery. In the study, fresh and well-preserved porcine and ovine corneal buttons were subjected to uniaxial tension loads with seven different strain rates ranging between 0.8 and 420% per minute. All specimens exhibited increased stiffness (as measured by the tangent modulus) with higher strain rates. However, clear differences in their behaviour were observed. While ovine corneas showed gradual, consistent and mostly statistically significant increases in stiffness with all elevations in strain rate, porcine corneas' response was significant over only a limited range of low strain rates. The effect of strain rate on the material's stress-strain behaviour was considered in the formation of three sets of constitutive models including: (i) a model based on a simple exponential stress-strain relationship, (ii) the Ogden model that considers the tissue's hyperelasticity but not anisotropy, and (iii) a third model by Holzapfel, Gasser and Ogden that considers both hyperelasticity and anisotropy. The three models are introduced to enable consideration of the strain rate effects in simulations employing finite element programs with varying capabilities or in modelling applications in corneal biomechanics which may or may not require consideration of mechanical anisotropy. PMID:21761808

  13. Production of eosinophil chemoattractant activity by ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Wildblood, Louise A; Kerr, Karen; Clark, Douglas A S; Cameron, Alisdair; Turner, Darryl G; Jones, Douglas G

    2005-08-15

    Eosinophilia is a well documented feature of helminth infections but the precise nature of the interaction between parasite and eosinophil remains an enigma. This paper describes experiments demonstrating that ruminant gastrointestinal trichostrongyles produce potent chemoattractant activity for ovine bone marrow-derived eosinophils in vitro. This activity was initially identified as a constituent of whole worm extracts of third and fourth larval (L3, L4), and adult stages of Teladorsagia circumcincta, and adult Haemonchus contortus. Similar activity was detected in excretory/secretory (E/S) material derived from live T. circumcincta L3. Subsequently, by adapting the assay technique to incorporate live worms directly into the system, it was shown that L3 of both T. circumcincta and H. contortus produced eosinophil chemoattractant activity. In contrast, neither whole worm extracts, or E/S preparations from mixed stages of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contained eosinophil chemoattractant activity, and there was no evidence of chemoattractant production by live C. elegans. The results described are challenging to the traditional dogma that eosinophils are host-protective effector cells, and raise the intriguing possibility that ovine nematodes actively encourage recruitment of eosinophils. Local eosinophil-mediated mucosal damage, comparable to that seen in the asthmatic lung, may then provide a permissive local microenvironment for the parasite. Moreover, if they prove important for pathogenicity, nematode chemoattractants could offer future potential as novel therapeutic targets. PMID:15982478

  14. Infarction of the Corpus Callosum: A Retrospective Clinical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yu-meng; Qin, Hua-min; Wu, Xiao-mei; Zhang, Xiao; Jolkkonen, Jukka; Boltze, Johannes; Wang, Su-ping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate patients with ischemic infarctions in the territory of the corpus callosum to advance our understanding of this rare stroke subtype by providing comprehensive descriptive and epidemiological data. Methods From January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2014, all cases of acute ischemic stroke diagnosed by clinical manifestation and diffusion weighted imaging in Dalian Municipal Central Hospital were investigated. The patients presenting with corpus callosum infarctions were selected and further allocated into genu and/or body and splenium infarction groups. Proportion, lesion patterns, clinical features, risk factors and etiology of corpus callosum infarction were analyzed. Results Out of 1,629 cases, 59 patients (3.6%) with corpus callosum infarctions were identified by diffusion weighted imaging, including 7 patients who had ischemic lesions restricted to the corpus callosum territory. Thirty six patients had lesions in the splenium (61.0%). Corpus callosum infarction patients suffered from a broad spectrum of symptoms including weakness and/or numbness of the limbs, clumsy speech, and vertigo, which could not be explained by lesions in corpus callosum. A classical callosal disconnection syndrome was found in 2 out of all patients with corpus callosum infarctions. Statistical differences in the risk factor and infarct pattern between the genu and/or body group and splenium group were revealed. Conclusion Corpus callosum infarction and the callosal disconnection syndrome were generally rare. The most susceptible location of ischemic corpus callosum lesion was the splenium. Splenium infarctions were often associated with bilateral cerebral hemisphere involvement (46.2%). The genu and/or body infarctions were associated with atherosclerosis. The most common cause of corpus callosum infarction probably was embolism. PMID:25785450

  15. Developing Corpus-Based Materials to Teach Pragmatic Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Mossman, Sabrina; Vellenga, Heidi E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how to develop teaching materials for pragmatics based on authentic language by using a spoken corpus. The authors show how to use the corpus in conjunction with textbooks to identify pragmatic routines for speech acts and how to extract appropriate language samples and adapt them for classroom use. They demonstrate how to…

  16. Corpus-Supported Academic Writing: How Can Technology Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitez, Madalina; Rapp, Christian; Kruse, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Phraseology has long been used in L2 teaching of academic writing, and corpus linguistics has played a major role in the compilation and assessment of academic phrases. However, there are only a few interactive academic writing tools in which corpus methodology is implemented in a real-time design to support formulation processes. In this paper,…

  17. 33 CFR 110.75 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. 110.75 Section 110.75 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.75 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. (a) South area. Southward...

  18. 33 CFR 110.75 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. 110.75 Section 110.75 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.75 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. (a) South area. Southward...

  19. 33 CFR 110.75 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. 110.75 Section 110.75 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.75 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. (a) South area. Southward...

  20. 33 CFR 110.75 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. 110.75 Section 110.75 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.75 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. (a) South area. Southward...

  1. 33 CFR 110.75 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. 110.75 Section 110.75 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.75 Corpus Christi Bay, Tex. (a) South area. Southward...

  2. Use of "Google Scholar" in Corpus-Driven EAP Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brezina, Vaclav

    2012-01-01

    This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the "Google Scholar" search engine. These resources ("Google Scholar virtual corpus") are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. "Google Scholar", however, was not designed for linguistic searches…

  3. Corpus-Based Learning of Cantonese for Mandarin Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John; Wong, Tak-Sum

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports our experience in using a parallel corpus to teach Cantonese, a variety of Chinese spoken in Hong Kong, as a second language. The parallel corpus consists of pairs of word-aligned sentences in Cantonese and Mandarin Chinese, drawn from television programs in Hong Kong (Lee, 2011). We evaluated our pedagogical approach with…

  4. Cadec: A corpus of adverse drug event annotations.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Sarvnaz; Metke-Jimenez, Alejandro; Kemp, Madonna; Wang, Chen

    2015-06-01

    CSIRO Adverse Drug Event Corpus (Cadec) is a new rich annotated corpus of medical forum posts on patient-reported Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). The corpus is sourced from posts on social media, and contains text that is largely written in colloquial language and often deviates from formal English grammar and punctuation rules. Annotations contain mentions of concepts such as drugs, adverse effects, symptoms, and diseases linked to their corresponding concepts in controlled vocabularies, i.e., SNOMED Clinical Terms and MedDRA. The quality of the annotations is ensured by annotation guidelines, multi-stage annotations, measuring inter-annotator agreement, and final review of the annotations by a clinical terminologist. This corpus is useful for studies in the area of information extraction, or more generally text mining, from social media to detect possible adverse drug reactions from direct patient reports. The corpus is publicly available at https://data.csiro.au.(1). PMID:25817970

  5. Genome sequences of mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2: ovine and bovine isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica, serotype A2 isolated from pneumonic lungs of two different ruminant species, one from Ovis aries, designated as Ovine (O) and the other from Bos taurus, designated as Bovine (B)....

  6. Differentiating ovine BSE from CH1641 scrapie by serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification.

    PubMed

    Taema, Maged M; Maddison, Ben C; Thorne, Leigh; Bishop, Keith; Owen, Jonathan; Hunter, Nora; Baker, Claire A; Terry, Linda A; Gough, Kevin C

    2012-07-01

    Whilst ovine BSE displays distinct pathological characteristics to ovine CH1641-like scrapie upon passage in rodents, they have very similar molecular phenotypes. As such, the in vitro differentiation of these strains in routine surveillance programmes presents a significant diagnostic challenge. In this study, using serial protein-misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA), ovine BSE was readily amplified in vitro in brain substrates from sheep with V₁₃₆R₁₅₄Q₁₇₁/V₁₃₆R₁₅₄Q₁₇₁ or AHQ/AHQ PRNP genotypes. In contrast, the CH1641 strain was refractory to such amplification. This method allowed for complete and unequivocal differentiation of experimental BSE from CH1641 prion strains within an ovine host. PMID:21987099

  7. Corpus callosum involvement and postoperative outcomes of patients with gliomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ko-Ting; Wu, Tai-Wei Erich; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Hsu, Yung-Hsin; Hsu, Peng-Wei; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Lin, Tzu-Kang; Chang, Chen-Nen; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Pai, Ping-Ching; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Chen, Pin-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Corpus callosum involvement is associated with poorer survival in high grade glioma (HGG), but the prognostic value in low grade glioma (LGG) is unclear. To determine the prognostic impact of corpus callosum involvement on progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in HGG and LGG, the records of 233 glioma patients treated from 2008 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images were used to identify corpus callosum involvement. Age, sex, preoperative Karnofsky performance scale, postoperative Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score and extent of resection (EOR) were evaluated with respect to PFS and OS. The incidence of corpus callosum involvement was similar among HGG (14%) and LGG (14.5%). Univariate analysis revealed that PFS and OS were significantly shorter in both WHO grade II and grade IV glioma with corpus callosum involvement (both, p<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that grade II glioma with corpus callosum involvement have shorter PFS (p=0.03), while EOR, instead of corpus callosum involvement (p=0.16), was an independent factor associated with PFS in grade IV glioma (p<0.05). Corpus callosum involvement was no longer significantly associated with OS after adjusting age, gender, EOR, preoperative and postoperative performance status (p=0.16, 0.17 and 0.56 in grade II, III and IV gliomas, respectively). Corpus callosum involvement happened in both LGG and HGG, and is associated with lower EOR and higher postoperative ECOG score both in LGG and HGG. Corpus callosum involvement tends to be an independent prognostic factor for PFS in LGG, but not for OS in LGG or in HGG. PMID:26033546

  8. Insights from a Learner Corpus as Opposed to a Native Corpus about Cohesive Devices in an Academic Writing Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the insights from an EFL learner corpora (a total of 151 essays and 49,690 words) generated from essays collected over the years in a Turkish state university from freshmen students enrolling in the Advanced Writing course. The comparison of cohesive devices in the non-native corpus (NNC) with those in a native corpus (NC)…

  9. 77 FR 34034 - Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC; Cheniere Corpus Christi Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Intent To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ....; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and... assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and... (LNG) export and import terminal, and a natural gas transmission pipeline in Nueces and San...

  10. In vitro culture medium (IVC) supplementation with sericin improves developmental competence of ovine zygotes.

    PubMed

    Aghaz, Faranak; Hajarian, Hadi; KaramiShabankareh, Hamed

    2016-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of supplementation of potassium simplex optimized medium (KSOM-aa) with various sericin concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2.5%) on ovine zygotes. The results indicate that the supplementation of oocyte in vitro culture medium with optimal concentration of sericin (0.1 and 0.5%) may have beneficial effects on developmental competence of in vitro-derived ovine embryos. PMID:26952758

  11. Metagenomic Insights into the RDX-Degrading Potential of the Ovine Rumen Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Robert W.; Giarrizzo, Juan Gabriel; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Duringer, Jennifer M.; Craig, A. Morrie

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX), or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB) were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies. PMID:25383623

  12. Novel in vitro systems for prediction of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    González-Lobato, L; Real, R; Herrero, D; de la Fuente, A; Prieto, J G; Marqués, M M; Alvarez, A I; Merino, G

    2014-01-01

    A new in vitro tool was developed for the identification of veterinary substrates of the main drug transporter in the mammary gland. These drugs have a much higher chance of being concentrated into ovine milk and thus should be detectable in dairy products. Complementarily, a cell model for the identification of compounds that can inhibit the secretion of drugs into ovine milk, and thus reduce milk residues, was also generated. The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) is responsible for the concentration of its substrates into milk. The need to predict potential drug residues in ruminant milk has prompted the development of in vitro cell models over-expressing ABCG2 for these species to detect veterinary drugs that interact with this transporter. Using these models, several substrates for bovine and caprine ABCG2 have been found, and differences in activity between species have been reported. However, despite being of great toxicological relevance, no suitable in vitro model to predict substrates of ovine ABCG2 was available. New MDCKII and MEF3.8 cell models over-expressing ovine ABCG2 were generated for the identification of substrates and inhibitors of ovine ABCG2. Five widely used veterinary antibiotics (marbofloxacin, orbifloxacin, sarafloxacin, danofloxacin and difloxacin) were discovered as new substrates of ovine ABCG2. These results were confirmed for the bovine transporter and its Y581S variant using previously generated cell models. In addition, the avermectin doramectin was described as a new inhibitor of ruminant ABCG2. This new rapid assay to identify veterinary drugs that can be concentrated into ovine milk will potentially improve detection and monitoring of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products. PMID:24679113

  13. Steroid hormone modulation of 3H-prostaglanding E1 binding to bovine corpus leteum cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Rao, C V

    1975-04-01

    The specific binding of 3H-prostaglandin E1 (3H-PGE1) to bovine corpus luteum cell membranes was not affected by cholesterol or various progestins at concentrations of up to 9.0x10-minus-6M. At concentrations above 2.5 x 10-minus-6M; estrone, 17beta-estradiol (but not 17alpha-estradiol or 17beta-estradiol glucuronide), estroil, equilin, D-equilenin, 17-ethynyl estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, cortisol, corticosterone, deoxycorticosterone and aldosterone inhibited specific binding of 3H-PGE1. On the other hand, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (but not androstenedione) significantly enhanced 3H-PGE1 binding. These findings permitted the following correlations between steroid structure and modulation of 3H-PGE1 binding: steroids with a free phenolic ring and a 17beta-hydroxyl or 17-keto group or C-21 steroids with a C-20 ketone and a C-21 hydroxy group decrease, whereas C-19 steroids with a C-17 hydroxy group enhance specific binding of 3H-PGE1. PGE receptors are heterogeneous with respect to affinity for 3H-PGE1. The steroids that decreased 3H-PGE1 binding caused a lowering to a complete loss of low affinity PGE receptors. Steroids that increased 3H-PGE1 binding caused appearance of new low affinity PGE receptors. Association rate constants for 3H-PGE1 binding were decreased by 17beta-estradiol (61%) and increased by DHT (59%). PMID:168618

  14. Corpus-Based Word Sense Disambiguation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Atsushi

    1998-04-01

    Resolution of lexical ambiguity, commonly termed ``word sense disambiguation'', is expected to improve the analytical accuracy for tasks which are sensitive to lexical semantics. Such tasks include machine translation, information retrieval, parsing, natural language understanding and lexicography. Reflecting the growth in utilization of machine readable texts, word sense disambiguation techniques have been explored variously in the context of corpus-based approaches. Within one corpus-based framework, that is the similarity-based method, systems use a database, in which example sentences are manually annotated with correct word senses. Given an input, systems search the database for the most similar example to the input. The lexical ambiguity of a word contained in the input is resolved by selecting the sense annotation of the retrieved example. In this research, we apply this method of resolution of verbal polysemy, in which the similarity between two examples is computed as the weighted average of the similarity between complements governed by a target polysemous verb. We explore similarity-based verb sense disambiguation focusing on the following three methods. First, we propose a weighting schema for each verb complement in the similarity computation. Second, in similarity-based techniques, the overhead for manual supervision and searching the large-sized database can be prohibitive. To resolve this problem, we propose a method to select a small number of effective examples, for system usage. Finally, the efficiency of our system is highly dependent on the similarity computation used. To maximize efficiency, we propose a method which integrates the advantages of previous methods for similarity computation.

  15. Expression of interferon regulatory factors one and two in the ovine endometrium: effects of pregnancy and ovine interferon tau.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T E; Ott, T L; Bazer, F W

    1998-05-01

    Availàble evidence suggests that interferon tau (IFNtau), the signal for pregnancy recognition in ruminants, suppresses transcription of the estrogen receptor (ER) gene in the endometrial lumenal epithelium (LE) and superficial glandular epithelium (sGE) to prevent oxytocin receptor (OTR) expression and pulsatile release of luteolytic prostaglandin F2alpha. The IFN regulatory factors one (IRF-1) and two (IRF-2) are transcription factors induced by type I IFNs that activate and silence gene expression, respectively. The objectives of these studies were to determine effects of pregnancy and IFNtau on expression of immunoreactive IRF-1 and IRF-2 proteins in the ovine endometrium. In study one, IRF-1 and IRF-2 were not detected in the LE or sGE of cyclic ewes. In pregnant ewes, IRF-1 expression was detected transiently in the LE and sGE only on Days 11 and 13, and IRF-2 was detected in these same epithelia on Days 13, 15, 17, and 20. In study two, 36 ewes were fitted with uterine catheters on Day 5 of the estrous cycle, and one uterine horn was double-ligated at the base. Uterine horns of each ewe received twice-daily injections of either recombinant ovine IFNtau or control proteins beginning on Day 11 until hysterectomy at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, or 120 h after initial injection. The IRF-1 was detected transiently in the endometrial LE and sGE only at 12 and 24 h in the uterine horn receiving IFNtau but not in those tissues receiving control proteins. The IRF-2 was expressed in the LE and sGE at 24 h and thereafter in the IFNtau-treated, but not control uterine horns. In control uterine horns, ER and OTR were first detected in the LE at 48 h and 72 h, respectively, and remained abundant thereafter. In horns receiving IFNtau, ER and OTR expression was not detected in the endometrial LE and sGE. Results suggest that IFNtau acts directly on the LE and sGE during pregnancy to sequentially induce IRF-1 and then IRF-2 gene expression, which is correlated temporally with an absence of ER and OTR. The ovine ER gene may contain an IFNtau-responsive element(s) that binds negative-acting, IFNtau-inducible transcription factors, such as IRF-2, which silences transcription of the ER gene in the endometrial epithelium during maternal recognition of pregnancy. PMID:9603248

  16. Corpus Linguistics and the Design of a Response Message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwell, E.

    2002-01-01

    Most research related to SETI, the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence, is focussed on techniques for detection of possible incoming signals from extra-terrestrial intelligent sources (e.g. Turnbull et al. 1999), and algorithms for analysis of these signals to identify intelligent language-like characteristics (e.g. Elliott and Atwell 1999, 2000). However, another issue for research and debate is the nature of our response, should a signal arrive and be detected. The design of potentially the most significant communicative act in history should not be decided solely by astrophysicists; the Corpus Linguistics research community has a contribution to make to what is essentially a Corpus design and implementation project. (Vakoch 1998) advocated that the message constructed to transmit to extraterrestrials should include a broad, representative collection of perspectives rather than a single viewpoint or genre; this should strike a chord with Corpus Linguists for whom a central principle is that a corpus must be "balanced" to be representative (Meyer 2001). One idea favoured by SETI researchers is to transmit an encyclopaedia summarising human knowledge, such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, to give ET communicators an overview and "training set" key to analysis of subsequent messages. Furthermore, this should be sent in several versions in parallel: the text; page-images, to include illustrations left out of the text-file and perhaps some sort of abstract linguistic representation of the text, using a functional or logic language (Ollongren 1999, Freudenthal 1960). The idea of "enriching" the message corpus with annotations at several levels should also strike a chord with Corpus Linguists who have long known that Natural language exhibits highly complex multi-layering sequencing, structural and functional patterns, as difficult to model as sequences and structures found in more traditional physical and biological sciences. Some corpora have been annotated with several levels or layers of linguistic knowledge, for example the SEC corpus (Taylor and Knowles 1988), the ISLE corpus (Menzel et al. 2000). Tagged and parsed corpus can be used by corpus linguists as a testbed to guide their development of grammars (e.g. Souter and Atwell 1994); and they can be used to train Natural Language Learning or data-mining models of complex sequence data (e.g. Brill 1993, Hughes 1993, Atwell 1996). Corpus linguists have a range of standards and tools for design and annotation of representative corpus resources, and experience of which annotation types are more amenable to Natural Language Learning algorithms. An Advisory panel of corpus linguists could help design and implement an extended Multi-annotated Interstellar Corpus of English, incorporating ideas from Corpus Linguistics such as: - Augment the Encyclopaedia Britannica with a collection of samples representing the diversity of language in real use. - As an additional "key", transmit a dictionary aimed at language learners which has also been a rich source for NLP - Supply our ET communicators with several levels of linguistic annotation, to give them a richer training set for their - Add translations of the English text into other human languages: Humanity should not be represented by English alone, This calls for a large-scale corpus annotation project, requiring an Interstellar Corpus Advisory Panel, analogous to the BNC or MATE advisory panels, to include experts in English grammar and semantics, English language learning, computational Natural language Learning algorithms, and corpus design, implementation, annotation, standardisation, and analysis.

  17. Ovine Proinflammatory Cytokines Cross the Murine Blood-Brain Barrier by a Common Saturable Transport Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Threlkeld, Steven W.; Lynch, Jessica L.; Lynch, Kristin M.; Sadowska, Grazyna B.; Banks, William A.; Stonestreet, Barbara S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 are modulators of the neuroimmune axis and have been implicated in neuronal cell death cascades after ischemia or infection. Previous work has shown that some cross-species conservation exists between human and rodent blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport systems. To further assess cross-species conservation of cytokine transport across the BBB, the current studies investigated permeability and inhibition of ovine IL-1β and IL-6 in the mouse. Methods IL-1β or IL-6 was radioactively labeled with 131I and injected into the jugular vein at time zero. A subset of mice received 1 or 3 μg/mouse of an unlabeled ovine or murine cytokine (IL-1β or IL-6) to assess self- and/or cross-inhibition of transport. Permeability was assessed using multiple-regression analysis. Results There was a significant linear relationship for both ovine 131I-IL-1β and 131I-IL-6 between brain/serum ratios and exposure time, indicating BBB permeability. Inclusion of 3 μg/mouse unlabeled ovine IL-1β or IL-6 significantly reduced the transport of ovine 131I-IL-1β or 131I-IL-6, respectively, across the BBB. Transport of both ovine 131I-IL-1β and 131I-IL-6 was significantly inhibited by 1 μg/mouse of murine IL-1β or IL-6, respectively. In contrast, 1 μg/mouse of unlabeled ovine IL-1β or IL-6 did not inhibit the transport of murine 131I-IL-1β or 131I-IL-6. Conclusions Ovine IL-1β and IL-6 cross the mouse BBB by saturable transport. Inhibition of transport by murine homologs indicates that both species use the same transport mechanisms. Conversely, an inability of ovine cytokines to significantly inhibit the transport of murine cytokines indicates that mouse BBB has a lower affinity for ovine than murine cytokines. Knowledge of species-conserved BBB transport mechanisms may facilitate the development of novel animal models of central nervous system pathogenesis. PMID:20516722

  18. Anti-inflammatory and proliferative responses in human and ovine ovarian surface epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gubbay, O; Guo, W; Rae, M T; Niven, D; Howie, A F; McNeilly, A S; Xu, L; Hillier, S G

    2004-11-01

    The majority of ovarian cancers (>90%) are believed to derive from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE); a single layer covering the entire surface of the ovary. At ovulation, the OSE cell layer undergoes an inflammatory response, involving cell death and growth, in order to overcome ovarian surface rupture. Abnormalities during these processes are believed to contribute to the development of tumours. Using primary cultures of OSE cells, we have compared anti-inflammatory and proliferative responses directly between human and ovine OSE cells to further establish the use of ovine OSE cells as a suitable model system for the study of human OSE cells. In order to compare effects of inflammatory stimulation, expression and activity of 11betahydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11betaHSD) type 1 was measured in OSE cells in response to interleukin (IL)-1alpha. As previously identified in human OSE cells, treatment of ovine OSE cells with IL-1alpha stimulated a concomitant increase of 11betaHSD type 1 mRNA (31-fold; P <0.05) and oxoreductase activity, indicating an increased production of anti-inflammatory cortisol. To compare the growth of human and ovine OSE cells, OSE cell number was measured in response to treatment with gonadotropins or growth factors. In the presence of FSH, LH or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), ovine and human OSE cell growth was similarly stimulated >1.2-fold (P <0.05). In the presence of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and more significantly insulin growth factor I (IGF-I), human and ovine OSE cell growth was also similarly stimulated >1.2-fold (P <0.05) and >1.5-fold (P <0.01), respectively. The induction of both human and ovine OSE cell growth by IGF-I or hCG was further shown to be dependent on activation of the MAP kinase/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Stimulation of ovine OSE cell growth by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was similarly shown to be ERK-dependent; however, for human OSE cells, HGF only mildly stimulated ERK phosphorylation and failed to stimulate OSE cell growth. The demonstration that human and ovine OSE cells share similarities at the level of cell signalling, gene expression and cellular growth supports the use of ovine OSE cells as a suitable model for the study of human OSE cells. PMID:15509706

  19. Bilateral intracranial electroencephalographic monitoring immediately following corpus callosotomy.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Alyson; Parker-Menzer, Kimberly; Devinsky, Orrin; Doyle, Werner; Carlson, Chad

    2010-10-01

    Although many patients with medically refractory focal epilepsy are candidates for resective surgery, patients with multifocal epilepsy and symptomatic generalized epilepsy remain difficult to treat medically and surgically. Corpus callosotomy has been utilized since 1940 for the treatment of seizures, with reports of efficacy in multiple seizure types. Previous studies have demonstrated subsequent lateralization of bilateral/bisynchronous epileptiform activity following callosotomy. To investigate the efficacy of bilateral intracranial electroencephalographic studies immediately following corpus callosotomy, we retrospectively identified 26 patients who underwent corpus callosotomy at our center, 18 of whom had intracranial monitoring following corpus callosotomy. Five of the 18 had focal resections following intracranial electroencephalography (EEG). No patients were seizure free following callosotomy or resection. No differences in postoperative outcomes were seen between patients with intracranial EEG versus those without. PMID:20384766

  20. Interleukin-6, Age, and Corpus Callosum Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Bettcher, Brianne M.; Watson, Christa L.; Walsh, Christine M.; Lobach, Iryna V.; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Joshua W.; Green, Ralph; Patel, Nihar; Dutt, Shubir; Busovaca, Edgar; Rosen, Howard J.; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce L.; Kramer, Joel H.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of inflammation to deleterious aging outcomes is increasingly recognized; however, little is known about the complex relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and brain structure, or how this association might change with increasing age. We examined the association between IL-6, white matter integrity, and cognition in 151 community dwelling older adults, and tested whether age moderated these associations. Blood levels of IL-6 and vascular risk (e.g., homocysteine), as well as health history information, were collected. Processing speed assessments were administered to assess cognitive functioning, and we employed tract-based spatial statistics to examine whole brain white matter and regions of interest. Given the association between inflammation, vascular risk, and corpus callosum (CC) integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA) of the genu, body, and splenium represented our primary dependent variables. Whole brain analysis revealed an inverse association between IL-6 and CC fractional anisotropy. Subsequent ROI linear regression and ridge regression analyses indicated that the magnitude of this effect increased with age; thus, older individuals with higher IL-6 levels displayed lower white matter integrity. Finally, higher IL-6 levels were related to worse processing speed; this association was moderated by age, and was not fully accounted for by CC volume. This study highlights that at older ages, the association between higher IL-6 levels and lower white matter integrity is more pronounced; furthermore, it underscores the important, albeit burgeoning role of inflammatory processes in cognitive aging trajectories. PMID:25188448

  1. Interleukin-6, age, and corpus callosum integrity.

    PubMed

    Bettcher, Brianne M; Watson, Christa L; Walsh, Christine M; Lobach, Iryna V; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Joshua W; Green, Ralph; Patel, Nihar; Dutt, Shubir; Busovaca, Edgar; Rosen, Howard J; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of inflammation to deleterious aging outcomes is increasingly recognized; however, little is known about the complex relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and brain structure, or how this association might change with increasing age. We examined the association between IL-6, white matter integrity, and cognition in 151 community dwelling older adults, and tested whether age moderated these associations. Blood levels of IL-6 and vascular risk (e.g., homocysteine), as well as health history information, were collected. Processing speed assessments were administered to assess cognitive functioning, and we employed tract-based spatial statistics to examine whole brain white matter and regions of interest. Given the association between inflammation, vascular risk, and corpus callosum (CC) integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA) of the genu, body, and splenium represented our primary dependent variables. Whole brain analysis revealed an inverse association between IL-6 and CC fractional anisotropy. Subsequent ROI linear regression and ridge regression analyses indicated that the magnitude of this effect increased with age; thus, older individuals with higher IL-6 levels displayed lower white matter integrity. Finally, higher IL-6 levels were related to worse processing speed; this association was moderated by age, and was not fully accounted for by CC volume. This study highlights that at older ages, the association between higher IL-6 levels and lower white matter integrity is more pronounced; furthermore, it underscores the important, albeit burgeoning role of inflammatory processes in cognitive aging trajectories. PMID:25188448

  2. Corpus callosotomy for treatment of pediatric refractory status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Hansel M; Tillema, Jan-Mendelt; Hallinan, Barbara E; Holland, Katherine; Lee, Ki-Hyeong; Crone, Kerry R

    2012-05-01

    Medically refractory status epilepticus (RSE) causes high morbidity and mortality in children. There are no evidence-based guidelines for treatment. Epilepsy surgery is a treatment option for RSE. We describe a 9-year-old boy treated successfully for RSE with complete corpus callosotomy (CC). Epilepsy surgery should be considered for prolonged RSE. In the absence of evidence of focal epileptogenesis, complete corpus callosotomy may be effective in select cases. PMID:22326839

  3. A Corpus Investigation of Syntactic Embedding in Pirahã.

    PubMed

    Futrell, Richard; Stearns, Laura; Everett, Daniel L; Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The Pirahã language has been at the center of recent debates in linguistics, in large part because it is claimed not to exhibit recursion, a purported universal of human language. Here, we present an analysis of a novel corpus of natural Pirahã speech that was originally collected by Dan Everett and Steve Sheldon. We make the corpus freely available for further research. In the corpus, Pirahã sentences have been shallowly parsed and given morpheme-aligned English translations. We use the corpus to investigate the formal complexity of Pirahã syntax by searching for evidence of syntactic embedding. In particular, we search for sentences which could be analyzed as containing center-embedding, sentential complements, adverbials, complementizers, embedded possessors, conjunction or disjunction. We do not find unambiguous evidence for recursive embedding of sentences or noun phrases in the corpus. We find that the corpus is plausibly consistent with an analysis of Pirahã as a regular language, although this is not the only plausible analysis. PMID:26934636

  4. A Corpus Investigation of Syntactic Embedding in Pirahã

    PubMed Central

    Futrell, Richard; Stearns, Laura; Everett, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    The Pirahã language has been at the center of recent debates in linguistics, in large part because it is claimed not to exhibit recursion, a purported universal of human language. Here, we present an analysis of a novel corpus of natural Pirahã speech that was originally collected by Dan Everett and Steve Sheldon. We make the corpus freely available for further research. In the corpus, Pirahã sentences have been shallowly parsed and given morpheme-aligned English translations. We use the corpus to investigate the formal complexity of Pirahã syntax by searching for evidence of syntactic embedding. In particular, we search for sentences which could be analyzed as containing center-embedding, sentential complements, adverbials, complementizers, embedded possessors, conjunction or disjunction. We do not find unambiguous evidence for recursive embedding of sentences or noun phrases in the corpus. We find that the corpus is plausibly consistent with an analysis of Pirahã as a regular language, although this is not the only plausible analysis. PMID:26934636

  5. Orally administered ovine serum immunoglobulins modulate the intestinal levels of Lactobacillus and enterobacteria in the growing rat.

    PubMed

    Balan, P; Han, K-S; Lawley, B; Moughan, P J

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to determine whether orally administered ovine serum immunoglobulins modulate the gut microbiota in the growing rat. Thirty Sprague-Dawley male rats were used in a 21-d study and fed either a basal control diet (control; no immunoglobulin) or a similar diet containing freeze-dried ovine immunoglobulin (ovine Ig) with 15 individually fed rats per diet. Bacterial DNA isolated from ileal and colonic digesta were subjected to PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). In the ileum, the DGGE band number and diversity index were greater (P < 0.05) for rats fed the ovine Ig than those fed the control diet. The DNA sequencing of a selected DGGE band in the ovine Ig-fed rats revealed 99% similarity to the Lactobacillus strains. The quantitative PCR data revealed that supplementation of the diet with the ovine Ig fraction supported the growth of Lactobacillus and conversely decreased the number of enterobacteria in ileal and colonic digesta. Inclusion of the ovine Ig fraction led to a greater (P < 0.05) ratio for total Lactobacillus to total bacteria and total Lactobacillus to enterobacteria. The results from the present study show that dietary supplementation with ovine Ig may alter the intestinal environment by a specific enrichment of Lactobacillus strains and depletion of enterobacteria. PMID:23658346

  6. In-vitro Validation of Cytokine Neutralizing Antibodies by testing with Ovine Mononuclear Splenocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X.; Threlkeld, S. W.; Cummings, E. E; Sadowska, G. B.; Lim, Y.-P.; Padbury, J. F.; Sharma, S.; Stonestreet, B. S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Cytokines have gained increasing attention as therapeutic targets in inflammation-related disorders and inflammatory conditions have been investigated in sheep. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the ovine pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 could be used to study the effects of blocking pro-inflammatory cytokines in sheep. Ovine-specific IL-1β and IL-6 proteins and mAbs specific for these molecules were produced and the ability of the mAbs to neutralize the proteins was tested in cultures of ovine splenic mononuclear cells. Expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κβ and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 was evaluated by western blotting and densitometric quantification. Treatment with purified IL-1β and IL-6 proteins increased NF-κβ (P <0.001) and STAT-3 P <0.01) expression,(respectively, in cell culture. Treatment with these proteins that were pre-incubated with IL-1β and IL-6 mAbs attenuated (P <0.01) these effects. These results confirm the bioactivity of ovine IL-1β and IL-6 proteins and neutralizing capacity of anti-ovine-IL-1β and -IL-6 mAbs in vitro. These mAbs could be used to investigate anti-inflammatory strategies for attenuation of the effects of these pro-inflammatory cytokines in sheep. PMID:22819013

  7. In-vitro validation of cytokine neutralizing antibodies by testing with ovine mononuclear splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Threlkeld, S W; Cummings, E E; Sadowska, G B; Lim, Y-P; Padbury, J F; Sharma, S; Stonestreet, B S

    2013-02-01

    Cytokines have gained increasing attention as therapeutic targets in inflammation-related disorders and inflammatory conditions have been investigated in sheep. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the ovine pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 could be used to study the effects of blocking pro-inflammatory cytokines in sheep. Ovine-specific IL-1β and IL-6 proteins and mAbs specific for these molecules were produced and the ability of the mAbs to neutralize the proteins was tested in cultures of ovine splenic mononuclear cells. Expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κβ and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 was evaluated by western blotting and densitometric quantification. Treatment with purified IL-1β and IL-6 proteins increased NF-κβ (P < 0.001) and STAT-3 (P < 0.01) expression, respectively, in cell culture. Treatment with these proteins that were pre-incubated with IL-1β and IL-6 mAbs attenuated (P < 0.01) these effects. These results confirm the bioactivity of ovine IL-1β and IL-6 proteins and the neutralizing capacity of anti-ovine-IL-1β and -IL-6 mAbs in vitro. These mAbs could be used to investigate anti-inflammatory strategies for attenuation of the effects of these pro-inflammatory cytokines in sheep. PMID:22819013

  8. Covariate selection in multivariate spatial analysis of ovine parasitic infection.

    PubMed

    Musella, V; Catelan, D; Rinaldi, L; Lagazio, C; Cringoli, G; Biggeri, A

    2011-05-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) strongyle and fluke infections remain one of the main constraints on health and productivity in sheep dairy production. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004-2005 on ovine farms in the Campania region of southern Italy in order to evaluate the prevalence of Haemonchus contortus, Fasciola hepatica, Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Calicophoron daubneyi from among other parasitic infections. In the present work, we focused on the role of the ecological characteristics of the pasture environment while accounting for the underlying long range geographical risk pattern. Bayesian multivariate spatial statistical analysis was used. A systematic grid (10 km×10 km) sampling approach was used. Laboratory procedures were based on the FLOTAC technique to detect and count eggs of helminths. A Geographical Information System (GIS) was constructed by using environmental data layers. Data on each of these layers were then extracted for pasturing areas that were previously digitalized aerial images of the ovine farms. Bayesian multivariate statistical analyses, including improper multivariate conditional autoregressive models, were used to select covariates on a multivariate spatially structured risk surface. Out of the 121 tested farms, 109 were positive for H. contortus, 81 for D. dendriticum, 17 for C. daubneyi and 15 for F. hepatica. The statistical analysis highlighted a north-south long range spatially structured pattern. This geographical pattern is treated here as a confounder, because the main interest was in the causal role of ecological covariates at the level of each pasturing area. A high percentage of pasture and impermeable soil were strong predictors of F. hepatica risk and a high percentage of wood was a strong predictor of C. daubneyi. A high percentage of wood, rocks and arable soil with sparse trees explained the spatial distribution of D. dendriticum. Sparse vegetation, river, mixed soil and permeable soil explained the spatial distribution of the H. contortus. Bayesian multivariate spatial analysis of parasitic infections with covariates from remote sensing at a very small geographical level allowed us to identify relevant risk predictors. All the covariates selected are consistent with the life cycles of the helminths investigated. This research showed the utility of appropriate GIS-driven surveillance systems. Moreover, spatial features can be used to tailor sampling design where the sampling fraction can be a function of remote sensing covariables. PMID:21167615

  9. A physical map of a BAC clone contig covering the entire autosome insertion between ovine MHC Class IIa and IIb

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ovine Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) harbors genes involved in overall resistance/susceptibility of the host to infectious diseases. Compared to human and mouse, the ovine MHC is interrupted by a large piece of autosome insertion via a hypothetical chromosome inversion that constitutes ~25% of ovine chromosome 20. The evolutionary consequence of such an inversion and an insertion (inversion/insertion) in relation to MHC function remains unknown. We previously constructed a BAC clone physical map for the ovine MHC exclusive of the insertion region. Here we report the construction of a high-density physical map covering the autosome insertion in order to address the question of what the inversion/insertion had to do with ruminants during the MHC evolution. Results A total of 119 pairs of comparative bovine oligo primers were utilized to screen an ovine BAC library for positive clones and the orders and overlapping relationships of the identified clones were determined by DNA fingerprinting, BAC-end sequencing, and sequence-specific PCR. A total of 368 positive BAC clones were identified and 108 of the effective clones were ordered into an overlapping BAC contig to cover the consensus region between ovine MHC class IIa and IIb. Therefore, a continuous physical map covering the entire ovine autosome inversion/insertion region was successfully constructed. The map confirmed the bovine sequence assembly for the same homologous region. The DNA sequences of 185 BAC-ends have been deposited into NCBI database with the access numbers HR309252 through HR309068, corresponding to dbGSS ID 30164010 through 30163826. Conclusions We have constructed a high-density BAC clone physical map for the ovine autosome inversion/insertion between the MHC class IIa and IIb. The entire ovine MHC region is now fully covered by a continuous BAC clone contig. The physical map we generated will facilitate MHC functional studies in the ovine, as well as the comparative MHC evolution in ruminants. PMID:22897909

  10. Development and application of ovine reproductive technologies: an Indian experience.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, S M.K.; Joshi, A; Das, G K.; Mittal, J P.

    2001-03-01

    Sheep play an important role in the Indian economy by providing employment to a large population of marginal and landless farmers. The production from native breeds is relatively low due to their poor reproductive efficiency. Embryo transfer technology can be utilised for faster multiplication of elite animal to increase the genetic gain. A great deal of research is involved to overcome the constraints in the technology, i.e. expensive and complicated nature of the technology and low success rate. In order to avoid surgical involvement, procedures of laparoscope aided embryo collection and transfer have been developed. Although the use of FSH of ovine origin has given more consistent superovulatory response, but it is still too low to get sufficient numbers of progeny from a donor ewe. The progress made in cryopreservation of ram semen has opened the possibility for conservation and utilisation of frozen semen of elite rams in sheep improvement programme. The lambing rate obtained after laparoscope aided intrauterine artificial insemination with frozen semen is encouraging but the impetus is now to develop the non-invasive transcervical insemination technique. PMID:11230955

  11. Dynamic dorsoventral stiffness assessment of the ovine lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Keller, Tony S; Colloca, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    Posteroanterior spinal stiffness assessments are common in the evaluating patients with low back pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mechanical excitation frequency on dynamic lumbar spine stiffness. A computer-controlled voice coil actuator equipped with a load cell and LVDT was used to deliver an oscillatory dorsoventral (DV) mechanical force to the L3 spinous process of 15 adolescent Merino sheep. DV forces (48 N peak, approximately 10% body weight) were randomly applied at periodic excitation frequencies of 2.0, 6.0, 11.7 and a 0.5-19.7 Hz sweep. Force and displacement were recorded over a 13-22 s time interval. The in vivo DV stiffness of the ovine spine was frequency dependent and varied 3.7-fold over the 0.5-19.7 Hz mechanical excitation frequency range. Minimum and maximum DV stiffness (force/displacement) were 3.86+/-0.38 and 14.1+/-9.95 N/mm at 4.0 and 19.7 Hz, respectively. Stiffness values based on the swept-sine measurements were not significantly different from corresponding periodic oscillations (2.0 and 6.0 Hz). The mean coefficient of variation in the swept-sine DV dynamic stiffness assessment method was 15%, which was similar to the periodic oscillation method (10-16%). The results indicate that changes in mechanical excitation frequency and animal body mass modulate DV spinal stiffness. PMID:16376350

  12. Effects of fasting on gluconeogenic enzymes in the ovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Lemons, J A; Moorehead, H C; Hage, G P

    1986-07-01

    Fetal and maternal sheep were studied to determine whether changes in gluconeogenic enzyme activities could be detected in the liver and/or kidney associated with maternal nutritional deprivation. Thirteen ewes and 16 fetuses were sacrificed in the fed state, while 13 ewes with 17 fetuses were sacrificed after 5 days of fasting, all at 125 days gestation (term = 147 days). Fetal weight was decreased in the fasted versus fed group (2.86 +/- 0.56 versus 3.61 +/- 0.58 kg, p less than 0.001). Tissues were analyzed for glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-diphosphatase, pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase, and glutamate pyruvate aminotransferase. In maternal liver, four of the six enzymes increased significantly during fasting, whereas none of the enzymes increased in maternal kidney. In fetal hepatic tissue, five of the six enzymes (with the exception of pyruvate carboxylase) increased during maternal fasting and three of the enzymes increased in renal tissue. These data are consistent with the potential for increased rates of gluconeogenesis in the ovine fetus during periods of compromised maternal nutrition. PMID:3725467

  13. sup 77 Se NMR studies on ovine erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Gettins, P.; Crews, B.C. )

    1991-03-11

    To facilitate {sup 77}Se NMR observation of the endogenous active site selenium in ovine erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), lambs have been maintained on an artificial diet deficient in selenium and supplemented with 0.2 ppm 92atom% {sup 77}Se , as selenite. After 5 months, preparations of GSHPx showed that incorporation of selenium from the artificial diet represented 88% of the GSHPx selenium. Each monthly bleeding of two sheep routinely yielded 20mg of pure {sup 77}Se-enriched GSHPx. Limitations on the solubility of the enzyme have so far prevented observation of {sup 77}Se resonances from the intact enzyme. Upon denaturation, a broad resonance is observed at 277 ppm, indicating that the selenium is involved in mixed selenide sulfide bonds both inter and intramolecularly. Reduction of the SeS bonds with dithiothreitol resulted in an upfield shift of the {sup 77}Se resonance to {minus}212 ppm at pH 8 and {minus}55ppm at pH4.2, consistent with formation of Se- and SeH respectively. It is concluded that the selenium is most probably in the SeS or Se{sup {minus}} form in the intact enzyme. Relaxation time measurements were made at field strengths of 4.7 and 9.4T, which demonstrated the dominance of chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) relaxation for the selenium in GSHPx. A value of {le} 262 ppm was determined for the CSA of the iodoacetamide derivative of GSHPx.

  14. Interaction of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis with ovine cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, J; Real, F; Acosta, F; Acosta, B; Déniz, S; Ramos-Vivas, J; Elaamri, F; Padilla, D

    2013-03-01

    Caseous lymphadenitis is an infectious and contagious disease caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, with a worldwide distribution and high prevalence in small ruminant populations. This disease causes significant economic loss in small ruminants through reduced meat, wool, and milk production. C. pseudotuberculosis can also affect horses, domestic and wild large ruminants, swine, and man. It is considered an occupational zoonosis for humans. As part of in vitro investigations of the pathogenesis of C. pseudotuberculosis, this study analyzed its capacity to adhere to and invade the FLK-BLV-044 cell line, derived from ovine embryonic kidney cells. C. pseudotuberculosis showed a measurable capacity to adhere to and invade this cell line with no significant differences between the four strains assessed. The incubation of the cell line at 4ºC, pre-incubation with sugars, complete and heat inactivated antiserum, and heat-killed and ultraviolet-killed bacteria produced a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the invasion efficiency or inability to invade the cell line. Plate counting and fluorescence studies showed intracellular bacteria for up to 6 days. Non-phagocytic cells may therefore act as a suitable environment for C. pseudotuberculosis survival and play a role in the spread of infection and/or maintenance of a carrier state. PMID:22732360

  15. Haplotypes and Sequence Variation in the Ovine Adiponectin Gene (ADIPOQ)

    PubMed Central

    An, Qing-Ming; Zhou, Hui-Tong; Hu, Jiang; Luo, Yu-Zhu; Hickford, Jon G. H.

    2015-01-01

    The adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In this study five separate regions (regions 1 to 5) of ovine ADIPOQ were analysed using PCR-SSCP. Four different PCR-SSCP patterns (A1-D1, A2-D2) were detected in region-1 and region-2, respectively, with seven and six SNPs being revealed. In region-3, three different patterns (A3-C3) and three SNPs were observed. Two patterns (A4-B4, A5-B5) and two and one SNPs were observed in region-4 and region-5, respectively. In total, nineteen SNPs were detected, with five of them in the coding region and two (c.46T/C and c.515G/A) putatively resulting in amino acid changes (p.Tyr16His and p.Lys172Arg). In region-1, -2 and -3 of 316 sheep from eight New Zealand breeds, variants A1, A2 and A3 were the most common, although variant frequencies differed in the eight breeds. Across region-1 and region-3, nine haplotypes were identified and haplotypes A1-A3, A1-C3, B1-A3 and B1-C3 were most common. These results indicate that the ADIPOQ gene is polymorphic and suggest that further analysis is required to see if the variation in the gene is associated with animal production traits. PMID:26610572

  16. Prosody meets syntax: the role of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Sammler, Daniela; Kotz, Sonja A; Eckstein, Korinna; Ott, Derek V M; Friederici, Angela D

    2010-09-01

    Contemporary neural models of auditory language comprehension proposed that the two hemispheres are differently specialized in the processing of segmental and suprasegmental features of language. While segmental processing of syntactic and lexical semantic information is predominantly assigned to the left hemisphere, the right hemisphere is thought to have a primacy for the processing of suprasegmental prosodic information such as accentuation and boundary marking. A dynamic interplay between the hemispheres is assumed to allow for the timely coordination of both information types. The present event-related potential study investigated whether the anterior and/or posterior portion of the corpus callosum provide the crucial brain basis for the online interaction of syntactic and prosodic information. Patients with lesions in the anterior two-thirds of the corpus callosum connecting orbital and frontal structures, or the posterior third of the corpus callosum connecting temporal, parietal and occipital areas, as well as matched healthy controls, were tested in a paradigm that crossed syntactic and prosodic manipulations. An anterior negativity elicited by a mismatch between syntactically predicted phrase structure and prosodic intonation was analysed as a marker for syntax-prosody interaction. Healthy controls and patients with lesions in the anterior corpus callosum showed this anterior negativity demonstrating an intact interplay between syntax and prosody. No such effect was found in patients with lesions in the posterior corpus callosum, although they exhibited intact, prosody-independent syntactic processing comparable with healthy controls and patients with lesions in the anterior corpus callosum. These data support the interplay between the speech processing streams in the left and right hemispheres via the posterior portion of the corpus callosum, building the brain basis for the coordination and integration of local syntactic and prosodic features during auditory speech comprehension. PMID:20802205

  17. The tolerance of feline corpus and cauda spermatozoa to cryostress.

    PubMed

    Kunkitti, Panisara; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Johannisson, Anders; Axnér, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Epididymal sperm preservation can be used to avoid the total loss of genetic material in threatened species. Spermatozoa from the corpus, as from the cauda, are motile and can undergo capacitation. Thus, they can potentially be preserved for assisted reproductive technologies. However, cryopreservation of spermatozoa has a direct detrimental effect on sperm quality. The aim of this study was to compare the chromatin stability and the survival rate of spermatozoa from the corpus and cauda epididymis after cryopreservation. Epididymal spermatozoa were collected and cryopreserved from the corpus and cauda of 12 domestic cats. Sperm motility, progressive motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and DNA integrity were evaluated before and after freezing thawing. The average total number of spermatozoa collected from the corpus was lower (10.2 × 10(6) ± 7.4) than that from the cauda epididymis (24.9 × 10(6) ± 14.4; P = 0.005). The percentage of spermatozoa with intact DNA did not differ significantly whether it was collected from the corpus or cauda regions and did not decrease after freezing thawing in either region. However, motility of spermatozoa from both regions was affected by the freezing thawing process with a significant decline in motility after thaw compared with fresh spermatozoa. A significant difference in the percentage of motile sperm between the corpus and cauda was observed after the freezing thawing process (P < 0.001). Although sperm motility was lower in postthaw spermatozoa from the corpus epididymidis than from the cauda, the rate of the reduction did not differ between regions. This study indicates that the cryopreservation process does not have a negative effect on chromatin stability of feline epididymal spermatozoa. Spermatozoa from the corpus region have a similar freezability as spermatozoa from the cauda region. Therefore, preservation of spermatozoa from the corpus and the cauda epididymidis might be of value in preserving genetic material from endangered or valuable felids. PMID:26542135

  18. Corpus callosum in sexually dimorphic and nondimorphic primates.

    PubMed

    Holloway, R L; Heilbroner, P

    1992-03-01

    The midsagittal area and other morphological measures were taken on the corpus callosum of four different species of primate: Macaca mulatta, M. fascicularis, Callithrix jacchus, and Saguinus oedipus. The first two species are strongly dimorphic, whereas the New World forms show little dimorphism with regard to overall body size, canines, and brain weight. Neither total corpus callosal area (TOTALCC), or other parts of the corpus callosum (CC) showed any significant sexual dimorphism in any of the primate species sampled. Only in M. mulatta did a sexual dimorphism appear to be significant. In males of this species, the dorsoventral width of the splenium was larger than in females. In addition, the anterior commissure (ANTCOMM) evinced no sexual dimorphism in the different species. Brain weight was significantly dimorphic in only M. mulatta, and when ratio data were used to correct for brain weight, no significant differences were found in the corpus callosum. This is in contrast to Homo sapiens, where the relative size of the CC has been reported to be larger in females, and particularly so in the posterior, or splenial portion of the CC. Correlation coefficients were calculated for the various variables within each species. In general, most of the callosal measures are significantly inter-correlated, although the exact pattern varies for each species. Thus, unlike Homo sapiens, or pongids such as Gorilla and Pan, neither New nor Old World monkeys show any striking evidence for sexual dimorphism in the corpus callosum. PMID:1562061

  19. Morphometric Changes of the Corpus Callosum in Congenital Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D. Louis; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Sartori, Giuseppe; Pietrini, Pietro; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender. There was no overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus callosum are in line with the well-described cross-modal functional and structural neuroplastic changes in congenital blindness. PMID:25255324

  20. Corpus callosum in aging and dementia.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen

    2013-10-01

    The overarching objective of the thesis was to investigate the morphological changes in the corpus callosum (CC) in aging and dementia in relation to its role in cognitive and motor decline. The CC is the largest white matter tract in the brain, containing upwards of 200 million axons, and is believed important for communication and interaction between the two cerebral hemispheres. Historically, the role of white matter, including the CC, in relation to cognitive function has often been eclipsed by the predominance of the cortex, and led to a "corticocentric" view of the brain and cognitive function. However, from the 1960s and onwards, the role of lesions in the white matter in the appearence of cognitive deficits and diseases such as dementia has become increasingly evident. Many studies have indicated that AD is associated with CC atrophy, but the precise pattern of subregional CC atrophy in different disease stages remains undetermined. In study I, we establish that atrophy is present primarily in the posterior CC early in AD, and that atrophy of the CC is associated with faster disease progression. This finding supports a model where posterior atrophy is the earliest changes in the CC in AD patients, with atrophy of anterior CC being a later pathological event. To further elucidate the role of CC atrophy in dementia, we examined a population of 329 elderly subjects, and found that a higher rate of tissue loss in posterior CC is associated with an increased risk of dementia. This study represents the first to examine CC in elderly subjects longitudinally. In the same cohort, we investigated whether impairment in specific cognitive domains was associated with CC tissue loss. Previous studies had shown that processing speed and executive functions may be particularly reliant on the CC. Our findings indicated that CC tissue loss leads to selective impairment of processing speed but not memory or executive function deficits. Finally, CC tissue loss was also associated with impairment of motor function. Overall, the present findings confirm and extend the role of the CC in dementia and age-associated cognitive and motor deficits. PMID:24083533

  1. hTERT-immortalized ovine microglia propagate natural scrapie isolates.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Juan F; Schneider, David A; Baszler, Timothy V; Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M; Stanton, James B

    2015-02-16

    Ex vivo propagation of natural prion isolates (i.e., propagated solely in the natural host) is crucial for the characterization and study of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several well-established, prion-permissive cell culture systems are available; however, only a few cell lines are permissive to natural prion isolates and these cells are not pathophysiologically relevant (e.g., renal epithelium and fibroblast-like cells). Therefore, a pathophysiologically relevant cell line derived from a natural TSE host could be used for propagation of natural prion isolates. In this study, ovine brain macrophages (microglia) were immortalized by transfection with the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene to identify cell lines (hTERT-microglia) permissive to natural scrapie prion isolates. Following transfection, hTERT-microglia were passaged up to 100 times and their lifespan was significantly longer compared to parental cells (Fisher's exact test, P<0.001). Multiple sublines were permissive to cell culture-adapted prions; two sublines were also permissive to natural scrapie isolates (i.e., derived from brain homogenates of sheep infected with scrapie). Prion infectivity and partial protease resistance of the prion protein were maintained in hTERT-microglia. Comparisons between scrapie-permissive and non-permissive hTERT-microglia sublines revealed that overall quantity of the normal cellular prion protein was not associated with prion permissiveness. The use of hTERT-microglia in future TSE studies may be more germane to the characterization of the cellular and subcellular pathophysiology of natural scrapie prion isolates and to investigate host-specific factors involved in prion replication. PMID:25592246

  2. A comparative study of bovine and ovine Haemophilus somnus isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, A C; Jaworski, M D; Eddow, J M; Corbeil, L B

    1995-01-01

    Bacterial isolates (including 17 Haemophilus somnus isolates and an H. somnus-like isolate) from asymptomatic or diseased cattle and sheep, were evaluated for markers associated with virulence and host predilection. The isolates were separated into 6 distinct biovariants, 3 for sheep and 3 for cattle, based on reactions in a battery of 21 test media. Three bovine isolates associated with disease caused hemolysis of bovine blood. The rest of the isolates did not hemolyze either bovine or ovine erythrocytes. Protein profiles of all H. somnus isolates were similar with the exception of the major outer membrane proteins (MOMPs). The MOMPs of isolates associated with disease in cattle had a relative molecular weight of approximately 41 kDa compared with 33 kDa for the MOMPs of isolates from asymptomatic cattle. The MOMPs from sheep isolates were either slightly higher or lower than the 41 kDa MOMPs of bovine isolates. Major antigens detected by Western blotting were similar in all isolates except the H. somnus-like isolate. An immunodominant 40 kDa antigen was conserved in all H. somnus isolates. Antibodies to this antigen have previously been found to be protective in cattle and may also be protective for sheep. Marked differences between cattle and sheep isolates were revealed by use of restriction enzyme analysis, which separated the isolates into 12 ribotypes and 15 unique DNA profiles. Thus, cattle and sheep isolates in this collection had distinctive differences in biochemical reactions, MOMP profiles, and DNA analyses. Such differences have potential value for epidemiological studies and may also be used to evaluate host specificity of H. somnus isolates. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:8521348

  3. Decellularized ovine arteries as small-diameter vascular grafts.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, L; Gualerzi, A; Boschetti, F; Loy, F; Cao, G

    2014-08-01

    Atherosclerosis and its complications still represent the leading cause of death in the developed countries. While autologous blood vessels may be regarded as the best solution for peripheral and coronary bypass, they are unavailable in most patients. Even though tissue engineering techniques are often applied to the development of small-diameter vascular grafts, limiting factors of this approach are represented by the lack of essential extracellular matrix proteins and/or poor biomechanical properties of the scaffolds used. Along these lines, the aim of this study was to develop a decellularization protocol for ovine carotids to be used as suitable small-diameter vascular grafts. Samples were treated either with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) or with Trypsin and Triton X-100; a final nuclease digestion was performed for both protocols. Morphological analyses demonstrate complete removal of nuclei and cellular components in treated vessels, also confirmed by significant reduction in wall thickness and DNA content. Essential extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, elastin, and fibronectin are well preserved after decellularization. From a mechanical point of view, Trypsin and Triton X-100 treated arteries show elastic modules and compliance comparable to native carotids, whereas the use of SDS makes samples stiffer, with a significant decrease in the compliance mean value and an increase in longitudinal and circumferential Young's modules. It is demonstrated that the treatment where Trypsin and Triton X-100 are combined guarantees complete decellularization of carotids, with no significant alteration of biomechanical and structural properties, thus preserving a suitable environment for adhesion, proliferation, and migration of cells. PMID:25050540

  4. Three-dimensional architecture of the ovine oviductal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Yániz, J L; Carretero, T; Recreo, P; Arceiz, E; Santolaria, P

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this work was to establish for the first time a complete three-dimensional model of the ovine oviductal mucosa. The oviducts of 15 cyclic ewes were examined combining the direct examination of the mucosa, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histology, with the SEM observation of resin moulds of the oviductal lumen. Around the ostium abdominale, all longitudinal primary folds and wide secondary are seen to form cul-de-sacs, with their opening pointing in the ovarian direction were observed. At the connection of the ampulla to the isthmus, there is a sharp change in the morphology, from a high folded structure to a smoother one. In the utero-tubal junction, the primary folds broaden and become more voluminous, the lumen has a slit-like appearance, and secondary folds form cul-de-sacs with their opening oriented towards the uterus. The areas between the folds throughout the lumen of the oviduct show a high degree of complexity. The presence of crypts was observed in all the regions studied, branched in the ampulla and spiniform in the isthmus. Marked variations were observed in the oviductal epithelium depending on the oviductal segment and the basal or apical areas of the folds. The variations found regarding the phase of the oestrous cycle were similar to those described in studies of other species. The anatomy of the oviductal mucosa provides a complex system that seems to be designed to regulate the movement of fluids and the passage of cells within the oviductal canal. PMID:23848134

  5. Transcriptomic Determinants of Scrapie Prion Propagation in Cultured Ovine Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Juan F.; Aguilar Pierlé, Sebastián; Schneider, David A.; Baszler, Timothy V.; Stanton, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility to infection by prions is highly dependent on the amino acid sequence and host expression of the cellular prion protein (PrPC); however, cellular expression of a genetically susceptible PrPC is insufficient. As an example, it has been shown in cultured cells that permissive and resistant sublines derived from the same parental population often have similar expression levels of PrPC. Thus, additional cellular factors must influence susceptibility to prion infection. The aim of this study was to elucidate the factors associated with relative permissiveness and resistance to scrapie prions in cultured cells derived from a naturally affected species. Two closely related ovine microglia clones with different prion susceptibility, but no detectable differences in PrPC expression levels, were inoculated with either scrapie-positive or scrapie-negative sheep brainstem homogenates. Five passages post-inoculation, the transcriptional profiles of mock and infected clones were sequenced using Illumina technology. Comparative transcriptional analyses identified twenty-two differentially transcribed genes, most of which were upregulated in poorly permissive microglia. This included genes encoding for selenoprotein P, endolysosomal proteases, and proteins involved in extracellular matrix remodeling. Furthermore, in highly permissive microglia, transforming growth factor β–induced, retinoic acid receptor response 1, and phosphoserine aminotranspherase 1 gene transcripts were upregulated. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified proteolysis, translation, and mitosis as the most affected pathways and supported the upregulation trend of several genes encoding for intracellular proteases and ribosomal proteins in poorly permissive microglia. This study identifies new genes potentially involved in scrapie prion propagation, corroborates results from other studies, and extends those results into another cell culture model. PMID:26807844

  6. Mineralocorticoid effects in the late gestation ovine fetal lung

    PubMed Central

    McCartney, Jarret; Richards, Elaine M.; Wood, Charles E.; Keller‐Wood, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study was designed to determine the effects of corticosteroids at MR in the late‐gestation fetal lung. Since both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are expressed at relatively high levels in the fetal lung, endogenous corticosteroids may act at MR as well as GR in the preterm fetal lung. The GR agonist, betamethasone, the MR agonist, aldosterone, or both were infused intravenously for 48 h in ovine fetuses of approximately 130 days gestation. Effects on airway pressures during stepwise inflation of the in situ lung, expression of ENaC alpha (SCNN1A), ENaC beta (SCNN1B), and Na,K ATPase (ATP1A1), and elastin and collagen content were determined after the infusions. We found that aldosterone significantly reduced the airway pressure measured during the initial step in inflation of the lung, although aldosterone had no overall effect on lung compliance, nor did aldosterone induce expression of ENaCα, ENaCβ or Na,K ATPaseα1. Betamethasone significantly increased expression of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunit mRNAs, and collagen and elastin content in the lungs, although this dose of betamethasone also had no effect on lung compliance. There was no synergy between effects of the MR and GR agonists. Transcriptomic analysis suggested that although aldosterone did not alter genes in pathways related to epithelial sodium transport, aldosterone did alter genes in pathways involved in cell proliferation in the lungs. The results are consistent with corticosteroid‐induced fluid reabsorption at birth through GR rather than MR, but suggest that MR facilitates lung maturation, and may contribute to inflation with the first breaths via mechanisms distinct from known aldosterone effects in other epithelia. PMID:25347852

  7. Effects of chlordecone and chlordecone alcohol on isolated ovine erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Soileau, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    Chlordecone (CHLO, 1-30 uM) and chlordecone alcohol (CHLO ALC, 1-23 uM) altered the permeability of isolated ovine erythrocytes (OE) as evidenced by a concentration- and time-dependent induction of K/sup +/ efflux and hemolysis. Hemolysis, but no K/sup +/ efflux, was markedly delayed when OE were suspended in isotonic sucrose. Low concentrations of both compounds (1-4 uM) protected OE against hypotonic hemolysis. Neither CHLO (30 uM) nor CHLO ALC (23 uM) induced the release of trapped K/sup +/ from KSCN-loaded, OE-lipid, unilamellar liposomes. CHLO- and CHLO ACL-induced hemolysis and K/sup +/ efflux were dependent upon the pH of the external media. CHLO ALC-induced K/sup +/ efflux and hemolysis showed a slight pH dependence, with increased potency of the compound detected over the pH range 8.3-9.4 CHLO ALC-induced protection against hypotonic hemolysis was pH independent. The potency of CHLO in all three assays decreased as the pH was raised from 6.4 to 9.4. (/sup 14/C)-CHLO and (/sup 14/C)-CHLO ALC binding to OE and OE membranes was pH independent. However, the binding of (/sup 14/C)-CHLO to polypropylene and glass was pH dependent. (/sup 14/C)-CHLO binding to polypropylene and glass decreased from pH 6.4 to pH 10.4. The pKa of CHLO was estimated to be 8.9. After the CHLO results were corrected for the fraction of CHLO present in the unionized form, it was estimated the ionized CHLO possessed 1/3 to 1/20 of the activity of the unionized species.

  8. Androgen receptor and histone lysine demethylases in ovine placenta.

    PubMed

    Cleys, Ellane R; Halleran, Jennifer L; Enriquez, Vanessa A; da Silveira, Juliano C; West, Rachel C; Winger, Quinton A; Anthony, Russell V; Bruemmer, Jason E; Clay, Colin M; Bouma, Gerrit J

    2015-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones regulate developmental programming in many tissues, including programming gene expression during prenatal development. While estradiol is known to regulate placentation, little is known about the role of testosterone and androgen signaling in placental development despite the fact that testosterone rises in maternal circulation during pregnancy and in placenta-induced pregnancy disorders. We investigated the role of testosterone in placental gene expression, and focused on androgen receptor (AR). Prenatal androgenization decreased global DNA methylation in gestational day 90 placentomes, and increased placental expression of AR as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and growth. As AR complexes with histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) to regulate AR target genes in human cancers, we also investigated if the same mechanism is present in the ovine placenta. AR co-immunoprecipitated with KDM1A and KDM4D in sheep placentomes, and AR-KDM1A complexes were recruited to a half-site for androgen response element (ARE) in the promoter region of VEGFA. Androgenized ewes also had increased cotyledonary VEGFA. Finally, in human first trimester placental samples KDM1A and KDM4D immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast, with nuclear KDM1A and KDM4D immunostaining also present in the villous stroma. In conclusion, placental androgen signaling, possibly through AR-KDM complex recruitment to AREs, regulates placental VEGFA expression. AR and KDMs are also present in first trimester human placenta. Androgens appear to be an important regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, and aberrant androgen signaling may contribute to the development of placental disorders. PMID:25675430

  9. Androgen Receptor and Histone Lysine Demethylases in Ovine Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Cleys, Ellane R.; Halleran, Jennifer L.; Enriquez, Vanessa A.; da Silveira, Juliano C.; West, Rachel C.; Winger, Quinton A.; Anthony, Russell V.; Bruemmer, Jason E.; Clay, Colin M.; Bouma, Gerrit J.

    2015-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones regulate developmental programming in many tissues, including programming gene expression during prenatal development. While estradiol is known to regulate placentation, little is known about the role of testosterone and androgen signaling in placental development despite the fact that testosterone rises in maternal circulation during pregnancy and in placenta-induced pregnancy disorders. We investigated the role of testosterone in placental gene expression, and focused on androgen receptor (AR). Prenatal androgenization decreased global DNA methylation in gestational day 90 placentomes, and increased placental expression of AR as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and growth. As AR complexes with histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) to regulate AR target genes in human cancers, we also investigated if the same mechanism is present in the ovine placenta. AR co-immunoprecipitated with KDM1A and KDM4D in sheep placentomes, and AR-KDM1A complexes were recruited to a half-site for androgen response element (ARE) in the promoter region of VEGFA. Androgenized ewes also had increased cotyledonary VEGFA. Finally, in human first trimester placental samples KDM1A and KDM4D immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast, with nuclear KDM1A and KDM4D immunostaining also present in the villous stroma. In conclusion, placental androgen signaling, possibly through AR-KDM complex recruitment to AREs, regulates placental VEGFA expression. AR and KDMs are also present in first trimester human placenta. Androgens appear to be an important regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, and aberrant androgen signaling may contribute to the development of placental disorders. PMID:25675430

  10. Discourse and identity in a corpus of lesbian erotica.

    PubMed

    Morrish, Liz; Sauntson, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This article uses corpus linguistic methodologies to explore representations of lesbian desires and identities in a corpus of lesbian erotica from the 1980s and 1990s. We provide a critical examination of the ways in which "lesbian gender," power, and desire are represented, (re-)produced, and enacted, often in ways that challenge hegemonic discourses of gender and sexuality. By examining word frequencies and collocations, we critically analyze some of the themes, processes, and patterns of representation in the texts. Although rooted in linguistics, we hope this article provides an accessible, interdisciplinary, and timely contribution toward developing understandings of discursive practices surrounding gender and sexuality. PMID:21279918

  11. Corpus-based identification and refinement of semantic classes.

    PubMed Central

    Nazarenko, A.; Zweigenbaum, P.; Bouaud, J.; Habert, B.

    1997-01-01

    Medical Language Processing (MLP), especially in specific domains, requires fine-grained semantic lexica. We examine whether robust natural language processing tools used on a representative corpus of a domain help in building and refining a semantic categorization. We test this hypothesis with ZELLIG, a corpus analysis tool. The first clusters we obtain are consistent with a model of the domain, as found in the SNOMED nomenclature. They correspond to coarse-grained semantic categories, but isolate as well lexical idiosyncrasies belonging to the clinical sub-language. Moreover, they help categorize additional words. PMID:9357693

  12. Expression of factors associated with apoptosis in the porcine corpus luteum throughout the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy: their possible involvement in acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Przygrodzka, E; Witek, K J; Kaczmarek, M M; Andronowska, A; Ziecik, A J

    2015-03-01

    The studies on the acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity have been focused mainly on molecular changes induced in the luteal tissue after treatment with exogenous PGF2α or on physiological changes occurring during the estrous cycle. The comparison of changes leading to the acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity after Day 12 of the estrous cycle and corresponding days of pregnancy has not been investigated in the pig. The present study was undertaken to evaluate (1) apoptosis measured as the proportions of early apoptotic, late apoptotic, and viable cells; (2) expression of factors involved in the extrinsic (TNFA/TNFα, TNFRSF1A/TNFR1, TNFRSF1B/TNFR2, FAS/Fas, and FASLG/FasL) and intrinsic (CASP3/Casp3, TP53/p-53, BAX/Bax, and BCL2/Bcl-2) apoptotic pathways, with two components of the activating protein-1 complex, i.e., FOS/Fos and JUN/Jun and IFNG/IFNγ; and (3) concentrations of luteal and blood plasma progesterone (P4) throughout the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Corpora lutea (CL) were collected postmortem on Days 8, 10, 12, and 14 of the estrous cycle and the corresponding days of pregnancy. The luteal tissue was subjected to RNA and/or protein isolation and disaggregation of CL cells followed by flow cytometry analysis aimed to determine apoptotic changes. Luteal and blood plasma P4 concentrations decreased on Day 14 of the estrous cycle versus pregnancy (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). A significant increase in the number of early apoptotic cells and a decrease in the number of viable cells were observed on Day 14 of the estrous cycle (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Increase (P < 0.05) of TNFA messenger RNA (mRNA) level coincided with that of IFNG on Day 12 of the estrous cycle but not on the corresponding day of pregnancy. The content of FAS mRNA and protein increased on Day 14 of the estrous cycle versus pregnancy (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of CASP3, BCL-2 and BAX was unchanged in cyclic and pregnant CL, while level of TP53 increased (P < 0.05) on Day 12 of the estrous cycle versus Day 8. The level of FOS and JUN mRNA increased (P < 0.05) on Day 14 of the estrous cycle versus the remaining days. The level of FOS and JUN mRNA was significantly higher (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) on Day 14 of the estrous cycle than that on the corresponding day of pregnancy. In summary, the simultaneous increase of TNFA and IFNG transcript in cyclic CL suggests the crucial role of both cytokines in sensitization of porcine CL to further luteolytic action of PGF2α. The upregulated expression of FAS, FOS, and JUN mRNA in the late luteal phase in cyclic CL can indicate their involvement in structural luteolysis. The increased viability of luteal cells and elevated P4 concentrations in pregnant CL confirm the protective role of luteal P4 against apoptosis. PMID:25457680

  13. Induction of chemokines and prostaglandin synthesis pathways in luteinized human granulosa cells: potential role of luteotropin withdrawal and prostaglandin F2α in regression of the human corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenxiang; Salih, Sana M; Bormann, Charles L; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2015-12-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and withdrawal of luteotropic stimulants (forskolin or hCG) on expression of chemokines and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) in luteinized human granulosa cells. Human granulosa cells were collected from 12 women undergoing oocyte retrieval and were luteinized in vitro with forskolin or hCG. In first experiment, granulosa-lutein cells were treated with PGF2α, the primary luteolytic hormone in most species. In second experiment, granulosa cells that had been luteinized for 8 d had luteotropins withdrawn for 1, 2, or 3 d. Treatment with PGF2α induced mRNA for chemokine (c-x-c motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) and CXC ligand 8 (CXCL8; also known as interleukin-8) in granulosa cells luteinized for 8 d but not in cells that were only luteinized for 2 d. Similarly, luteinization of human granulosa cells for 8 d with forskolin or hCG followed by withdrawal of luteotropic stimulants, not only decreased P4 production, but also increased mRNA concentrations for CXCL8, CXCL-2 (after forskolin withdrawal), and PTGS2. These results provide evidence for two key steps in differentiation of luteolytic capability in human granulosa cells. During 8 d of luteinization, granulosa cells acquire the ability to respond to luteolytic factors, such as PGF2α, with induction of genes involved in immune function and PG synthesis. Finally, a decline in luteotropic stimuli triggers similar pathways leading to induction of PTGS2 and possibly intraluteal PGF2α production, chemokine expression, leukocyte infiltration and activation, and ultimately luteal regression. PMID:26679166

  14. The pathology of malignant catarrhal fever, with an emphasis on ovine herpesvirus 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enigmatic pathogenesis of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) involves dysregulated immune responses in susceptible ruminant species. Economically important outbreaks of MCF are due to two of the 10 viruses that currently comprise the malignant catarrhal fever virus group: ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-...

  15. Ovine herpesvirus 2 replicates initially in the lung of experimentally infected sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a rhadinovirus in the gammaherpesvirus subfamily, is the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), a frequently fatal lymphoproliferative disease primarily of ruminants worldwide. Inability to propagate the virus in vitro has made it diffi...

  16. [The gene ontology and electro localization of ovine skin derived EST-SSR markers].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zun-Bao; Zhao, Zong-Sheng; Yu, Peng; Wu, Hong-Bin; Ban, Qian; Liang, Yao-Wei; Zheng, Wei

    2011-07-01

    Abstract: In order to study the potential gene function of ovine EST-SSR markers, nine original EST of Ovine Skin Derived polymorphic EST-SSR loci, which were developed in an early study by our lab, were ontology annotated and Electro localized. The results revealed that the original ESTs of the six loci had high homology with known genes and three of them probably played an important role in wool traits. Compared with its cDNA library, 8 loci were located on chromosomes of cattle. The homology of chromosomes between cattle and sheep was estimated based on the similarity coefficients calculated by positioning markers. Additionally, NJ clustering tree was establishedto serve for electro localization of ovine EST-SSR markers. Finally, 8 EST-SSR markers were successfully positioned on ovine chromosomes. The results from this study not only provide references for further studies on genetic mapping, in silico cloning of key genes for wool traits, but also are helpful to the researchs of chromosome evolution in animal. PMID:22049686

  17. Tracking horizontal transmission of ovine lentivirus by quantitative PCR and envelope sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most transmission of ovine lentivirus (OvLV) occurs horizontally since in utero transmission is considered inefficient. However, there is no direct evidence that horizontal transmission occurs from unrelated ewes to other lambs/ewes or from ewes to progeny. One way to assess the source of horizont...

  18. Experimental induction of malignant catarrhal fever in pigs with ovine herpesvirus 2 by intranasal nebulization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a frequently fatal herpesviral disease, has been sporadically reported in pigs. All cases of naturally-occurring porcine MCF reported to date have been linked to ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Macavirus carried by sheep. Experimental in...

  19. Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels associate with breed and Ovar-DRB1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have suggested that host genetics influence both lung histopathology and seroprevalence in sheep infected with ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV). As a first start, a genetic association study was conducted in 383 Idaho sheep of the Columbia, Polypay and Rambouillet breeds ut...

  20. Development of cell lines from the sheep used to construct the CHORI-243 ovine BAC library

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cell lines, designated MARC.OVSM and MARC.OKF, were initiated from the aorta and kidney, respectively, obtained from the Texel ram used to make the CHORI-243 Ovine BAC library. These cell lines have been submitted to the NIA Aging Cell Repository at the Coriell Cell Respositories, Camden, NJ, U...

  1. Metagenomic insights into RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, genes and biological pathways responsible for the biochemical processes in the rumen have yet to be character...

  2. Ovine Hair Follicle Stem Cells Derived from Single Vibrissae Reconstitute Haired Skin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huishan; Zhang, Shoubing; Zhao, Huashan; Qiao, Jingqiao; Liu, Shuang; Deng, Zhili; Lei, Xiaohua; Ning, Lina; Cao, Yujing; Zhao, Yong; Duan, Enkui

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) possess fascinating self-renewal capacity and multipotency, which play important roles in mammalian hair growth and skin wound repair. Although HFSCs from other mammalian species have been obtained, the characteristics of ovine HFSCs, as well as the methods to isolate them have not been well addressed. Here, we report an efficient strategy to obtain multipotent ovine HFSCs. Through microdissection and organ culture, we obtained keratinocytes that grew from the bulge area of vibrissa hair follicles, and even abundant keratinocytes were harvested from a single hair follicle. These bulge-derived keratinocytes are highly positive for Krt15, Krt14, Tp63, Krt19 and Itga6; in addition to their strong proliferation abilities in vitro, these keratinocytes formed new epidermis, hair follicles and sebaceous glands in skin reconstitution experiments, showing that these are HFSCs from the bulge outer root sheath. Taken together, we developed an efficient in vitro system to enrich ovine HFSCs, providing enough HFSCs for the investigations about the ovine hair cycle, aiming to promote wool production in the future. PMID:26247934

  3. Development of an in vivo system to measure antibody-blocking of ovine herpesvirus 2 entry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), has never been propagated in vitro. Thus, an alternative to in vitro virus neutralization is needed to assess neutralizing antibody activity to OvHV-2 in SA-MCF vaccine development. Herein we ev...

  4. Characterization of ovine Nectin-4, a novel peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminants infected with peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) exhibit lesions typical of epithelial infection and necrosis. However, the only established host receptor for this virus is the immune cell marker signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). We have confirmed that the ovine ...

  5. Phylogenetic clades of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) associate with sheep TMEM154 genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) is a lentivirus within the Retroviridae family that infects sheep. OPPV-induced clinical disease progresses slowly over time and manifests primarily in the lungs and central nervous system. Symptoms include weight loss, respiratory distress, and inevitably ...

  6. Ovine progressive pneumonia virus is transmitted more effectively via aerosol nebulization than oral administration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new method of experimental infection of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), aerosol nebulization (Nb), was compared to intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) methods of experimental infection. Seven month old lambs were given 3.5 × 107 TCID50 of Dubois OPPV LMH19 isolate using IV, PO, or Nb methods ...

  7. Evidence of proviral clearance following postpartum transmission of an ovine lentivirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentiviral transmission by transfer of infected colostrum and/or milk is considered to be highly efficient. In this study, postpartum transmission of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) from 10 naturally infected ewes to their 23 lambs was followed from the perinatal period throughout a four y...

  8. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef and ovine meat from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restrictions on importation of beef and ovine meat from Uruguay. 94.22 Section 94.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST,...

  9. Experimental infection of rabbits with ovine herpesvirus 2 from sheep nasal secretions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a generally fatal disease that primarily occurs in ruminants and is caused by a group of gammaherpesviruses. Outside of Africa MCF is mainly caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) which is carried subclinically by sheep. Cell-free virus is present in nasal secret...

  10. Comparative anatomical measurements of osseous structures in the ovine and human knee.

    PubMed

    Osterhoff, Georg; Löffler, Sabine; Steinke, Hanno; Feja, Christine; Josten, Christoph; Hepp, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    The ovine stifle has been increasingly used as a large animal model for the human knee. Still, comparative anatomical measurements of the knee in sheep and humans are missing. Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe and measure the osseous anatomy of the ovine stifle in comparison to the human knee. Twenty-four stifles of skeletal-mature merino-sheep and 24 human cadaver knees were obtained and distances between selected anatomical structures of the distal femur, the proximal tibia, and the patella were measured digitally and documented. Based on these, intercondylar ratio, tibial aspect ratio, patella aspect ratio and the cortical index were calculated. Regarding epicondylar width, lateral condylar width, medial condylar width and the tibial dimensions, the ovine stifle can be considered as a human knee scaled down by one third. However, sheep have a smaller trochlear width and a narrower femoral intercondylar notch than humans resulting in lower relative values for intercondylar width and intercondylar height. The distal femur's cortical index is the same in both species. In contrast, sheep have a massive bone stock below their tibial plateau and a proximal tibial shaft with remarkably thick cortical bone. The ovine stifle can be regarded as a useful model for the human knee. However, future studies should consider the differences in the femoral intercondylar notch width, the patellofemoral joint's biomechanics and the proximal tibia's cortical bone stock. PMID:20188573

  11. Characterization of ovine herpesvirus 2-induced malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a frequently fatal lymphoproliferative disease syndrome primarily of ruminant species, caused by gammaherpesviruses in the genus Macavirus. Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2),carried by sheep,causes sheep-associated MCF worldwide,while Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1)...

  12. Development and Validation of an Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus Quantitative PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) infects at least one sheep in eighty-one percent of U.S. sheep flocks as measured by serological diagnostic tests and can cause viral-induced mastitis, arthritis, dypsnea, and cachexia. Diagnostic tests that quantify OPP proviral load in peripheral blood leu...

  13. SHEDDING OF OVINE HERPESVIRUS 2 IN SHEEP NASAL SECRETIONS: THE PREDOMINANT MODE OF TRANSMISSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), the major causative agent of malignant catarrhal fever in ruminant species worldwide, has never been propagated in vitro. Using real-time PCR, a striking peak of viral genomic copies, ranging from 100,000 to over 100,000,000 copies/2 ug DNA, was detected in nasal secre...

  14. Sheep (Ovis aries) airway epithelial cells support ovine herpesvirus 2 lytic replication in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we describe the development of a monospecific, polyclonal rabbit antiserum directed against the ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) major capsid protein and its use to detect lytically infected cells in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Immunofluorescent labeling using monoclonal antibodies direc...

  15. OVINE HERPESVIRUS 2 MRNA EXPRESSION IN CATTLE AND BISON WITH MALIGNANT CATARRHAL FEVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fulminant disease of certain susceptible ruminants caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2). The characteristic lesions of MCF include lymphoproliferation, vasculitis and mucosal ulceration. The pathogenesis of these lesions is very poorly understood, but is most ...

  16. Description of a novel viral tool to identify and quantify ovine faecal pollution in the environment.

    PubMed

    Rusiol, Marta; Carratal, Anna; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Bach, Alex; Kern, Anita; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Girones, Rosina; Bofill-Mas, Slvia

    2013-08-01

    Farmed animals such as sheep, cattle, swine and poultry play an important role in microbial contamination of water, crops and food, and introduce large quantities of pathogens into the environment. The ability to determine the origin of faecal pollution in water resources is essential when establishing a robust and efficient water management system. Animal-specific viruses have previously been suggested as microbial source tracking tools, but specific ovine viral markers have not been reported before now. Previous studies have shown that polyomaviruses are host-specific, highly prevalent and are commonly excreted in urine. Furthermore, they have been reported to infect several vertebrate species but not sheep. That situation encouraged the study of a new putative ovine polyomavirus (OPyV) and its use to determine whether faecal pollution originates from ovine faecal/urine contamination. Putative OPyV DNA was amplified from ovine urine and faecal samples using a broad-spectrum nested PCR (nPCR). Specific nested PCR and quantitative PCR assays were developed and applied to faecal and environmental samples, including sheep slurries, slaughterhouse wastewater effluents, urban sewage and river water samples. Successful amplification by PCR was achieved in sheep urine samples, sheep slaughterhouse wastewater and downstream sewage effluents. The assay was specific and was negative in samples of human, bovine, goat, swine and chicken origin. Ovine faecal pollution was detected in river water samples by applying the designed methods. These results provide a quantitative tool for the analysis of OPyV as a suitable viral indicator of sheep faecal contamination that may be present in the environment. PMID:23672793

  17. Isolation and Characterisation of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in the Ovine Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Deane, James A.; Ulrich, Daniela; Gurung, Shanti; Ong, Y. Rue; Gargett, Caroline E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) were recently discovered in the human endometrium. These cells possess key stem cell properties and show promising results in small animal models when used for preclinical tissue engineering studies. A small number of surface markers have been identified that enrich for MSC from bone marrow and human endometrium, including the Sushi Domain-containing 2 (SUSD2; W5C5) and CD271 markers. In preparation for developing a large animal preclinical model for urological and gynecological tissue engineering applications we aimed to identify and characterise MSC in ovine endometrium and determine surface markers to enable their prospective isolation. Materials and Methods Ovine endometrium was obtained from hysterectomised ewes following progesterone synchronisation, dissociated into single cell suspensions and tested for MSC surface markers and key stem cell properties. Purified stromal cells were obtained by flow cytometry sorting with CD49f and CD45 to remove epithelial cells and leukocytes respectively, and MSC properties investigated. Results There was a small population CD271+ stromal cells (4.5 ± 2.3%) in the ovine endometrium. Double labelling with CD271 and CD49f showed that the sorted CD271+CD49f- stromal cell population possessed significantly higher cloning efficiency, serial cloning capacity and a qualitative increased ability to differentiate into 4 mesodermal lineages (adipocytic, smooth muscle, chondrocytic and osteoblastic) than CD271-CD49f- cells. Immunolabelling studies identified an adventitial perivascular location for ovine endometrial CD271+ cells. Conclusion This is the first study to characterise MSC in the ovine endometrium and identify a surface marker profile identifying their location and enabling their prospective isolation. This knowledge will allow future preclinical studies with a large animal model that is well established for pelvic organ prolapse research. PMID:25992577

  18. Corpus Planning and Codification in the Hebrew Revival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahir, Moshe

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the study of the unprecedented revival of the Hebrew language in Palestine during 1890-1914. The study focused on status planning but corpus planning also served as a critical component. Examines codification during the revitalization period. (Author/VWL)

  19. Perspectives on Dichotic Listening and the Corpus Callosum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musiek, Frank E.; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The present review summarizes historic and recent research which has investigated the role of the corpus callosum in dichotic processing within the context of audiology. Examination of performance by certain clinical groups, including split brain patients, multiple sclerosis cases, and other types of neurological lesions is included. Maturational,…

  20. Touch. Talking About Non-Verbal Communication: A Corpus Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Xiaotian

    1999-01-01

    Presents the third and final report of an analysis of nonverbal communication. In this report, the phrase "touch wood" is investigated using the Bank of English Corpus. The first two phrases examined were "shrug" and "hold one's gaze." Each of these phrases relates to an aspect of communication that may hold particular difficulties for someone…

  1. Shrug! Talking About Non-Verbal Communication: A Corpus Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Xiaotin

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the phrase "shrug" is investigated using the Bank of English Corpus. The report is the first of three; the other two will focus on the phrases "hold one's gaze" and "touch wood." Each of these phrases relates to an aspect of communications that may hold particular difficulties for someone from another culture: gesture, eye contact,…

  2. Autism Traits in Individuals with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Yolanda C.; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Bukshpun, Polina; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Jeremy, Rita J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have numerous etiologies, including structural brain malformations such as agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We sought to directly measure the occurrence of autism traits in a cohort of individuals with AgCC and to investigate the neural underpinnings of this association. We screened a large AgCC cohort (n =…

  3. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Vietnam veteran or a child of a veteran with covered service in Korea. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1833(c)) (h.... chapter 18 for certain individuals who are children of Vietnam veterans or children of veterans with covered service in Korea.There shall be excluded from the corpus of estate or net worth of a claimant...

  4. The Dependency Structure of Coordinate Phrases: A Corpus Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temperley, David

    2005-01-01

    Hudson (1990) proposes that each conjunct in a coordinate phrase forms dependency relations with heads or dependents outside the coordinate phrase (the "multi-head" view). This proposal is tested through corpus analysis of Wall Street Journal text. For right-branching constituents (such as direct-object NPs), a short-long preference for conjunct…

  5. You Should Have the Body: Understanding Habeas Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landman, James

    2008-01-01

    English legal commentator William Blackstone described the writ of habeas corpus as a second Magna Carta, and Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall called it the "great writ." It has been part of the Anglo-American common law tradition since the Middle Ages. In the United States, it has been a source of tension between state and federal…

  6. You Should Have the Body: Understanding Habeas Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landman, James

    2008-01-01

    English legal commentator William Blackstone described the writ of habeas corpus as a second Magna Carta, and Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall called it the "great writ." It has been part of the Anglo-American common law tradition since the Middle Ages. In the United States, it has been a source of tension between state and federal

  7. Parenting, corpus callosum, and executive function in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Kok, Rianne; Lucassen, Nicole; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Roza, Sabine J; Govaert, Paul; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal population-based study (N = 544), we investigated whether early parenting and corpus callosum length predict child executive function abilities at 4 years of age. The length of the corpus callosum in infancy was measured using postnatal cranial ultrasounds at 6 weeks of age. At 3 years, two aspects of parenting were observed: maternal sensitivity during a teaching task and maternal discipline style during a discipline task. Parents rated executive function problems at 4 years of age in five domains of inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory, and planning/organizing, using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version. Maternal sensitivity predicted less executive function problems at preschool age. A significant interaction was found between corpus callosum length in infancy and maternal use of positive discipline to determine child inhibition problems: The association between a relatively shorter corpus callosum in infancy and child inhibition problems was reduced in children who experienced more positive discipline. Our results point to the buffering potential of positive parenting for children with biological vulnerability. PMID:24028215

  8. Dative Alternation in Indian English: A Corpus-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cuypere, Ludovic; Verbeke, Saartje

    2013-01-01

    The dative alternation refers to the alternation between two constructions that denote some type of transfer: the double object construction ("I give my sister a book") vs. the to-dative construction ("I give a book to my sister"). We examined the motivations behind the dative alternation in Indian English. A corpus study was performed based on a…

  9. The Use of Corpus Examples for Language Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg-Garcia, Ana

    2014-01-01

    One of the many new features of English language learners' dictionaries derived from the technological developments that have taken place over recent decades is the presence of corpus-based examples to illustrate the use of words in context. However, empirical studies have generally not been able to produce conclusive evidence about their

  10. A Corpus-Based Comparative Study of "Learn" and "Acquire"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    As an important yet intricate linguistic feature in English language, synonymy poses a great challenge for second language learners. Using the 100 million-word British National Corpus (BNC) as data and the software Sketch Engine (SkE) as an analyzing tool, this article compares the usage of "learn" and "acquire" used in natural…

  11. Corpus Callosum Anatomy in Chronically Treated and Stimulant Naive ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnoebelen, Sarah; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Pliszka, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of chronic stimulant treatment on corpus callosum (CC) size in children with ADHD using volumetric and area measurements. Previously published research indicated possible medication effects on specific areas of the CC. Method: Measurements of the CC from anatomical MRIs were obtained from children aged 9-16 in…

  12. Corpus Linguistics, Network Analysis and Co-Occurrence Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Keith; Botella, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes research undertaken in order to design a methodology for the reticular representation of knowledge of a specific discourse community. To achieve this goal, a representative corpus of the scientific production of the members of this discourse community (Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, UPV) was created. This article…

  13. Using On-line Corpus To Facilitate Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    The potential for on-line corpus in language teaching and learning has been the focus of attention on the part of teachers and researchers for some time now. The purpose of this study is to report on an Internet-based concordance approach to language learning and to investigate both qualitatively and quantitatively Taiwanese

  14. Pointing out Frequent Phrasal Verbs: A Corpus-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Dee; Davies, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This study attempts to shed new light on one of the most notoriously challenging aspects of English language instruction--the English phrasal verbs. The highest frequency phrasal verb constructions in the 100-million-word British National Corpus are identified and analyzed. The findings indicate that a small subset of 20 lexical verbs combines…

  15. Corpus Callosum Differences Associated with Persistent Stuttering in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Ai Leen; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Olivero, William; Ambrose, Nicoline G.; Sharma, Harish; Chang, Soo-Eun; Loucks, Torrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated anatomical differences in speech-relevant brain regions of adults who stutter (AWS) compared to normally fluent adults (NFA). The present study focused on the region of the corpus callosum (CC) which is involved in interhemispheric processing between the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Two-dimensional…

  16. Corpus Callosum Morphometrics in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boger-Megiddo, Inbal; Shaw, Dennis W. W.; Friedman, Seth D.; Sparks, Bobbi F.; Artru, Alan A.; Giedd, Jay N.; Dawson, Geraldine; Dager, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed digital corpus callosum cross sectional areas in 3-4 year olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to typically developing (TD) and developmentally delayed (DD) children. Though not different in absolute size compared to TD, ASD callosums were disproportionately small adjusted for increased ASD cerebral volume. ASD…

  17. An integrated pharmacokinetics ontology and corpus for text mining

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug pharmacokinetics parameters, drug interaction parameters, and pharmacogenetics data have been unevenly collected in different databases and published extensively in the literature. Without appropriate pharmacokinetics ontology and a well annotated pharmacokinetics corpus, it will be difficult to develop text mining tools for pharmacokinetics data collection from the literature and pharmacokinetics data integration from multiple databases. Description A comprehensive pharmacokinetics ontology was constructed. It can annotate all aspects of in vitro pharmacokinetics experiments and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies. It covers all drug metabolism and transportation enzymes. Using our pharmacokinetics ontology, a PK-corpus was constructed to present four classes of pharmacokinetics abstracts: in vivo pharmacokinetics studies, in vivo pharmacogenetic studies, in vivo drug interaction studies, and in vitro drug interaction studies. A novel hierarchical three level annotation scheme was proposed and implemented to tag key terms, drug interaction sentences, and drug interaction pairs. The utility of the pharmacokinetics ontology was demonstrated by annotating three pharmacokinetics studies; and the utility of the PK-corpus was demonstrated by a drug interaction extraction text mining analysis. Conclusions The pharmacokinetics ontology annotates both in vitro pharmacokinetics experiments and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies. The PK-corpus is a highly valuable resource for the text mining of pharmacokinetics parameters and drug interactions. PMID:23374886

  18. Semantic Associations in Business English: A Corpus-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the semantic associations of words found in the business lexical environment by using a one-million word corpus of both spoken and written Business English. The key method of analysis is that of semantic prosody or semantic association; the notion that words associate with collocates that are themselves related, often either

  19. Agenesis of the corpus callosum. An autopsy study in fetuses.

    PubMed

    Kidron, Debora; Shapira, Daniel; Ben Sira, Liat; Malinger, Gustavo; Lev, Dorit; Cioca, Andreea; Sharony, Reuven; Lerman Sagie, Tally

    2016-02-01

    Agenesis of the corpus callosum is currently diagnosed prenatally with ultrasound and MRI. While the diagnostic aspects of callosal defects are widely addressed, anatomo-histological data from fetal autopsies are sparse. Callosal defects were present in 50 fetal autopsies. Four distinct groups of complete, partial, hypoplastic, and mixed defects were determined by the gross and histologic details of the corpus callosum. These details helped to rule out other midline defects such as holoprosencephaly. Additional autopsy findings enabled specific diagnoses and suggested etiopathogeneses. Hypoplastic and mixed defects were associated with more abnormalities of the cerebral hemispheres and internal organs. The four groups did not differ according to gender, external dysmorphism, or cerebellar and brainstem anomalies. Defects were classified as syndromic (68 %), encephaloclastic (8 %), undetermined (14 %), or isolated (10 %) based on the autopsy findings. Isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum was diagnosed in only 10 % of the cases in this series, compared to higher numbers diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography and MRI. Therefore, the autopsy, through its detailed, careful evaluation of external, as well as gross and histological internal features, can elucidate the etiopathogenesis of agenesis of the corpus callosum and suggest specific diagnoses which cannot be ascertained by prenatal imaging. PMID:26573426

  20. The Use of Corpus Examples for Language Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg-Garcia, Ana

    2014-01-01

    One of the many new features of English language learners' dictionaries derived from the technological developments that have taken place over recent decades is the presence of corpus-based examples to illustrate the use of words in context. However, empirical studies have generally not been able to produce conclusive evidence about their…

  1. Computer-assisted Lemmatisation of a Cornish Text Corpus for Lexicographical Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jon

    2002-01-01

    This project sets out to discover and develop techniques for the lemmatisation of a historical corpus of the Cornish language in order that a lemmatised dictionary macrostructure can be generated from the corpus. The system should be capable of uniquely identifying every lexical item that is attested in the corpus. A survey of published and…

  2. 76 FR 31821 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX AGENCY... amends Class D airspace within the Corpus Christi, TX, area by updating the geographic coordinates for... the geographic coordinates, within Class D airspace, of the Cabaniss NOLF, Corpus Christi, TX,...

  3. Separating Fact and Fiction: The Real Story of Corpus Use in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates uses of corpora in language learning ("data-driven learning") through analysis of a 600K-word corpus of empirical research papers in the field. The corpus can tell us much--the authors and the countries the studies are conducted in, the types of publication, and so on. The corpus investigation itself starts with…

  4. Motivating College Students' Learning English for Specific Purposes Courses through Corpus Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Lin-Fang

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine how to motivate technical college students to learn English for specific purposes (ESP) courses through corpus building and enhance their language proficiency during the coursework for their majors. This study explores corpus building skills, how to simplify ESP courses by corpus building for English as second…

  5. Corpus-Based Research and Pedagogy in EAP: From Lexis to Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This plenary paper showcases current corpus-based research on written academic English, illustrating the tight links that exist between corpus research and pedagogic applications. I first explicate Sinclair's concept of the "lexical approach", which underpins much corpus research and pedagogy. I then discuss studies which focus on…

  6. Evaluating Corpus Literacy Training for Pre-Service Language Teachers: Six Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heather, Julian; Helt, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Corpus literacy is the ability to use corpora--large, principled databases of spoken and written language--for language analysis and instruction. While linguists have emphasized the importance of corpus training in teacher preparation programs, few studies have investigated the process of initiating teachers into corpus literacy with the result

  7. Development of ovine chorionic somatomammotropin hormone-deficient pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Baker, Callie M; Goetzmann, Lindsey N; Cantlon, Jeremy D; Jeckel, Kimberly M; Winger, Quinton A; Anthony, Russell V

    2016-05-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Chorionic somatomammotropin hormone (CSH), a placenta-specific secretory product found at high concentrations in maternal and fetal circulation throughout gestation, is significantly reduced in human and sheep IUGR pregnancies. The objective of this study was to knock down ovine CSH (oCSH) expression in vivo using lentiviral-mediated short-hairpin RNA to test the hypothesis that oCSH deficiency would result in IUGR of near-term fetal lambs. Three different lentiviral oCSH-targeting constructs were used and compared with pregnancies (n = 8) generated with a scrambled control (SC) lentiviral construct. Pregnancies were harvested at 135 days of gestation. The most effective targeting sequence, "target 6" (tg6; n = 8), yielded pregnancies with significant reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in oCSH mRNA (50%) and protein (38%) concentrations, as well as significant reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in placental (52%) and fetal (32%) weights compared with the SC pregnancies. Fetal liver weights were reduced 41% (P ≤ 0.05), yet fetal liver insulin-like growth factor-I (oIGF1) and -II mRNA concentrations were reduced (P ≤ 0.05) 82 and 71%, respectively, and umbilical artery oIGF1 concentrations were reduced 62% (P ≤ 0.05) in tg6 pregnancies. Additionally, fetal liver oIGF-binding protein (oIGFBP) 2 and oIGFBP3 mRNA concentrations were reduced (P ≤ 0.05), whereas fetal liver oIGFBP1 mRNA concentration was not impacted nor was maternal liver oIGF and oIGFBP mRNA concentrations or uterine artery oIGF1 concentrations (P ≥ 0.10). Based on our results, it appears that oCSH deficiency does result in IUGR, by impacting placental development as well as fetal liver development and function. PMID:26887431

  8. Using Google as a Super Corpus to Drive Written Language Learning: A Comparison with the British National Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Guoquan

    2010-01-01

    Data-driven learning (DDL), or corpus-based language learning, involves the learner in an exploratory task to discover appropriate expressions or collocates regarding his writing. However, the problematic units of meaning in each learner's writing are so diverse that conventional corpora often prove futile. The search engine Google with the…

  9. Using Google as a Super Corpus to Drive Written Language Learning: A Comparison with the British National Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Guoquan

    2010-01-01

    Data-driven learning (DDL), or corpus-based language learning, involves the learner in an exploratory task to discover appropriate expressions or collocates regarding his writing. However, the problematic units of meaning in each learner's writing are so diverse that conventional corpora often prove futile. The search engine Google with the

  10. Formulaic Language and Collocations in German Essays: From Corpus-Driven Data to Corpus-Based Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krummes, Cedric; Ensslin, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Whereas there exists a plethora of research on collocations and formulaic language in English, this article contributes towards a somewhat less developed area: the understanding and teaching of formulaic language in German as a foreign language. It analyses formulaic sequences and collocations in German writing (corpus-driven) and provides modern…

  11. Human-, Ovine-, and Bovine-Specific Viral Source Tracking Tools to Discriminate Between the Major Fecal Sources in Agricultural Waters.

    PubMed

    Rusiñol, Marta; Moriarty, Elaine; Lin, Susan; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Gilpin, Brent

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the sources of fecal contamination in different river catchments, using a combination of microbial source tracking tools, for human, ruminant, ovine and bovine livestock, in order to define appropriate water management strategies. Every source of waterway pollution was evaluated in river water samples from one urban river catchment and two important farming regions in New Zealand. Fecal pollution was initially measured by testing Escherichia coli and evaluating the presence of human- and ruminant-associated DNA markers of Bacteroidales (BiAdo, BacHum-UCD, BacH, and BacR) and human and ruminant fecal sterols/stanols ratios. Then specific fecal pollution sources were assessed with previously reported quantitative PCR assays targeting human-, bovine-, and ovine-specific viruses: human adenoviruses (HAdV), human JC polyomaviruses, bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV), and ovine polyomaviruses (OPyV). High level of ruminant fecal contamination was detected all over the farming areas, whereas no ruminant sources were identified in the urban river sampling sites. BacR was the most frequently observed ruminant marker and OPyV and BPyV allowed the identification of ovine and bovine fecal sources. The human fecal viral marker (HAdV) was the most frequently observed human marker, highly abundant in the urban sites, and also present in farming areas. This is the first study using simultaneously the ovine and the bovine viral markers to identify and quantify both bovine and ovine fecal pollution. PMID:26607578

  12. Cholinergic neurotransmission in human corpus cavernosum. II. Acetylcholine synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, R.; De Tejada, S.; Goldstein, I.; Krane, R.J.; Wotiz, H.H.; Cohen, R.A. )

    1988-03-01

    Physiological and histochemical evidence indicates that cholinergic nerves may participate in mediating penile erection. Acetylcholine synthesis and release was studied in isolated human corporal tissue. Human corpus cavernosum incubated with ({sup 3}H)choline accumulated ({sup 3}H)choline and synthesized ({sup 3}H)acethylcholine in an concentration-dependent manner. ({sup 3}H)Acetylcholine accumulation by the tissue was inhibited by hemicholinium-3, a specific antagonist of the high-affinity choline transport in cholinergic nerves. Transmural electrical field stimulation caused release of ({sup 3}H)acetylcholine which was significantly diminished by inhibiting neurotransmission with calcium-free physiological salt solution or tetrodotoxin. These observations provide biochemical and physiological evidence for the existence of cholinergic innervation in human corpus cavernosum.

  13. Frequency of Basic English Grammatical Structures: A Corpus Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Douglas; Dick, Frederic; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Many recent models of language comprehension have stressed the role of distributional frequencies in determining the relative accessibility or ease of processing associated with a particular lexical item or sentence structure. However, there exist relatively few comprehensive analyses of structural frequencies, and little consideration has been given to the appropriateness of using any particular set of corpus frequencies in modeling human language. We provide a comprehensive set of structural frequencies for a variety of written and spoken corpora, focusing on structures that have played a critical role in debates on normal psycholinguistics, aphasia, and child language acquisition, and compare our results with those from several recent papers to illustrate the implications and limitations of using corpus data in psycholinguistic research. PMID:19668599

  14. Prenatal PCB exposure, the corpus callosum, and response inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Paul; Fitzgerald, Susan; Reihman, Jacqueline; Gump, Brooks; Lonky, Edward; Darvill, Thomas; Pagano, Jim; Hauser, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The present study reports the association between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the corpus callosum, and response inhibition in children who are 4.5 years old. Children (n = 189) enrolled in the Oswego study were tested using a continuous performance test. We measured (square millimeters) the splenium of the corpus callosum, a pathway implicated in the regulation of response inhibition, using magnetic resonance imaging. Results indicated a dose-dependent association between cord blood PCBs and errors of commission. Splenium size but not other brain areas predicted errors of commission (r(2) = 0.20), with smaller size associated with more errors of commission. There was an interaction between splenium size and PCB exposure. The smaller the splenium, the larger the association between PCBs and errors of commission. If the association between PCBs and response inhibition is indeed causal, then children with suboptimal development of the splenium are particularly vulnerable to these effects. These data await replication. PMID:14527849

  15. The CLEF Corpus: Semantic Annotation of Clinical Text

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Angus; Gaizauskas, Robert; Hepple, Mark; Davis, Neil; Demetriou, George; Guo, Yikun; Kola, Jay (Subbarao); Roberts, Ian; Setzer, Andrea; Tapuria, Archana; Wheeldin, Bill

    2007-01-01

    The Clinical E-Science Framework (CLEF) project is building a framework for the capture, integration and presentation of clinical information: for clinical research, evidence-based health care and genotype-meets-phenotype informatics. A significant portion of the information required by such a framework originates as text, even in EHR-savvy organizations. CLEF uses Information Extraction (IE) to make this unstructured information available. An important part of IE is the identification of semantic entities and relationships. Typical approaches require human annotated documents to provide both evaluation standards and material for system development. CLEF has a corpus of clinical narratives, histopathology reports and imaging reports from 20 thousand patients. We describe the selection of a subset of this corpus for manual annotation of clinical entities and relationships. We describe an annotation methodology and report encouraging initial results of inter-annotator agreement. Comparisons are made between different text subgenres, and between annotators with different skills. PMID:18693911

  16. Gastric corpus polyps associated with Proton Pump Inhibitors therapy.

    PubMed

    Yakoob, Javed; Abbas, Zaigham; Jafri, Wasim; Ahmad, Zubair

    2008-03-01

    The prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is rapidly rising in Asia. We describe here a case of 51 years old man who had surgery for esophageal leiomyoma and received long-term therapy with Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) for persisting reflux symptoms. On Esophago-Gastroduodenoscopy (EGD) several sessile polyps were seen in the gastric corpus. Earlier EGD done 15 years back had not demonstrated those polyps. Sections revealed polypoid fragments of glandular epithelium with dilated glands and negative histology for H. pylori. Polymerase chain reaction for 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA PCR) of H. pylori was also negative. This is the first report originating from an Asian country describing Fundal Gland Polyps (FGPs) in the corpus of stomach rather than fundus in a patient on long-term PPI therapy. PMID:18460247

  17. Autism traits in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Yolanda C.; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Bukshpun, Polina; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Jeremy, Rita J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have numerous etiologies, including structural brain malformations such as agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We sought to directly measure the occurrence of autism traits in a cohort of individuals with AgCC and to investigate the neural underpinnings of this association. We screened a large AgCC cohort (n = 106) with the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and found that 45% of children, 35% of adolescents, and 18% of adults exceeded the predetermined autism-screening cut-off. Interestingly, performance on the AQ’s imagination domain was inversely correlated with magnetoencephalography measures of resting-state functional connectivity in the right superior temporal gyrus. Individuals with AgCC should be screened for ASD and disorders of the corpus callosum should be considered in autism diagnostic evaluations as well. PMID:23054201

  18. Anterior commissure versus corpus callosum: A quantitative comparison across mammals.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2016-04-01

    Mammals rely on two major pathways to transfer information between the two hemispheres of the brain: the anterior commissure and the corpus callosum. Metatheria and monotremes rely exclusively on the anterior commissure for interhemispheric transfer between the isocortices and olfactory allocortices of each side, whereas Eutheria use a combination of the anterior commissure and an additional pathway exclusive to Eutheria, the corpus callosum. Midline cross-sectional area of the anterior commissure and corpus callosum were measured in a range of mammals from all three infraclasses and plotted against brain volume to determine how midline anterior commissure area and its size relative to the corpus callosum vary with brain size and taxon. In Metatheria, the square root of anterior commissure area rises in almost direct proportion with the cube root of brain volume (i.e. the ratio of the two is relatively constant), whereas among Eutheria the ratio of the square root of anterior commissure area to the cube root of brain volume declines slightly with increasing brain size. The total of isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissure area rises more rapidly with increasing brain volume among Eutheria than among Metatheria. This means that the midline isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area of metatherians with large brains (about 70ml) is only about 50% of that among eutherians with similarly sized brains. On the other hand, isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area is similar in Metatheria and Eutheria at brain volumes around 1ml. Among the Eutheria, some groups make less use of the anterior commissure pathway than do others: soricomorphs, rodents and cetaceans have smaller anterior commissures for their brain size than do afrosoricids, erinaceomorphs and proboscideans. The findings suggest that use of the anterior commissural route for isocortical commissural connections may have placed limitations on interhemispheric transfer of information among the metatherians, but only when brain size reaches 50ml or more. PMID:26961186

  19. Corpus annotation for mining biomedical events from literature

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Dong; Ohta, Tomoko; Tsujii, Jun'ichi

    2008-01-01

    Background Advanced Text Mining (TM) such as semantic enrichment of papers, event or relation extraction, and intelligent Question Answering have increasingly attracted attention in the bio-medical domain. For such attempts to succeed, text annotation from the biological point of view is indispensable. However, due to the complexity of the task, semantic annotation has never been tried on a large scale, apart from relatively simple term annotation. Results We have completed a new type of semantic annotation, event annotation, which is an addition to the existing annotations in the GENIA corpus. The corpus has already been annotated with POS (Parts of Speech), syntactic trees, terms, etc. The new annotation was made on half of the GENIA corpus, consisting of 1,000 Medline abstracts. It contains 9,372 sentences in which 36,114 events are identified. The major challenges during event annotation were (1) to design a scheme of annotation which meets specific requirements of text annotation, (2) to achieve biology-oriented annotation which reflect biologists' interpretation of text, and (3) to ensure the homogeneity of annotation quality across annotators. To meet these challenges, we introduced new concepts such as Single-facet Annotation and Semantic Typing, which have collectively contributed to successful completion of a large scale annotation. Conclusion The resulting event-annotated corpus is the largest and one of the best in quality among similar annotation efforts. We expect it to become a valuable resource for NLP (Natural Language Processing)-based TM in the bio-medical domain. PMID:18182099

  20. Isolation and morphological characterization of ovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yunyun; Tao, Li; Zhao, Siriguleng; Tai, Dapeng; Liu, Dongjun; Liu, Pengxia

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the most promising cell populations for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Of utmost importance to MSC research is identification of MSC sources that are easily obtainable and stable. Several studies have shown that MSCs can be isolated from amniotic fluid. The sheep is one of the main types of farm animal, and it has many biophysical and biochemical similarities to humans. Here, we obtained MSCs from ovine amniotic fluid and determined the expansion capacity, surface and intracellular marker expression, karyotype, and multilineage differentiation ability of these ovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (oAF-MSCs). Moreover, expression levels of differentiation markers were measured using reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR). Our phenotypic analysis shows that the isolated oAF-MSCs are indeed MSCs. PMID:26616638

  1. Synthesis of a high molecular weight thyroglobulin dimer by two ovine thyroid cell lines: the OVNIS.

    PubMed

    Hovsépian, S; Aouani, A; Fayet, G

    1986-05-01

    The OVNIS 6H and 5H thyroid cells, 2 permanent cell lines isolated 3 years ago from ovine tissue, synthesize a high molecular weight glycosylated protein, immunologically related to ovine thyroglobulin, which is similar to the prothyroid hormone dimer (17-19) S: thyroglobulin. Using sucrose gradient centrifugation and cell labelling with [14C]Leu or [3H]GlNH2, radioactivity was observed in proteins purified from cell layers and from cell culture media. Addition of thyrotropin to or removal from the media resulted respectively in an increase (+773%) or decrease (-1090%) of the total radioactivity detected in the (17-19)S thyroglobulin fraction. Estimation of thyroglobulin by RIA gave similar though less pronounced effects. These experiments prove (1) that thyroglobulin is still expressed in these OVNIS thyroid cell lines even after 3 years of permanent culture, (2) that TSH modulates the level of this protein through a TSH-receptor functional system. PMID:3709961

  2. Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.

    PubMed

    Akhondi, Saber A; Klenner, Alexander G; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A R P; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org. PMID:25268232

  3. Statistical shape analysis of the corpus callosum in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shantanu H.; Narr, Katherine L.; Philips, Owen R.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Asarnow, Robert F.; Toga, Arthur W.; Woods, Roger P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a statistical shape-analysis framework for characterizing and comparing morphological variation of the corpus callosum. The midsagittal boundary of the corpus callosum is represented by a closed curve and analyzed using an invariant shape representation. The shape space of callosal curves is endowed with a Riemannian metric. Shape distances are given by the length of shortest paths (geodesics) that are invariant to shape-confounding transformations. The statistical framework enables computation of shape averages and covariances on the shape space in an intrinsic manner (unique to the shape space). The statistical framework makes use of the tangent principal component approach to achieve dimension reduction on the space of corpus callosum shapes. The advantages of this approach are – it is fully automatic, invariant, and avoids the use of landmarks to define shapes. We applied our method to determine the effects of sex, age, schizophrenia and schizophrenia-related genetic liability on callosal shape in a large sample of patients and controls and their first-degree relatives (N=218). Results showed significant age, sex, and schizophrenia effects on both global and local callosal shape structure. PMID:23000788

  4. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and the establishment of handedness.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Silvia; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Fagard, Jacqueline

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this study was to check whether an isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum, detected in utero with ultrasound recording, would impair the early development of unimanual and bimanual handedness. Twelve infants with isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum, either total (TACC) or partial (PACC) were tested for handedness at the end of their first year, and were compared to infants with typical development (TD), matched for age and sex. A majority of infants showed right-handedness at the unimanual grasping tasks, with no significant difference between the TD and ACC groups. When the object was presented to the left, the TACC infants were more likely to grasp the object with their right hand (with or without the left hand) than both the TD and the PACC infants who used mostly the ipsilateral left hand. The only significant difference between TD and ACC infants concerned bimanual coordination, as less ACC infants (especially TACC) succeeded at the bimanual task, compared with TD infants. In addition, the strategy of the former tended to be less right-handed than that of the latter. Our results confirm the role of the CC in bimanual coordination, indicating that the early emergence of bimanual coordination and, if confirmed, bimanual handedness, are likely to be delayed in the absence of corpus callosum, especially if agenesis is total. They do not support the idea that the CC is necessary for the early onset of handedness. PMID:16886185

  5. Statistical shape analysis of the corpus callosum in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Shantanu H; Narr, Katherine L; Philips, Owen R; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Asarnow, Robert F; Toga, Arthur W; Woods, Roger P

    2013-01-01

    We present a statistical shape-analysis framework for characterizing and comparing morphological variation of the corpus callosum. The midsagittal boundary of the corpus callosum is represented by a closed curve and analyzed using an invariant shape representation. The shape space of callosal curves is endowed with a Riemannian metric. Shape distances are given by the length of shortest paths (geodesics) that are invariant to shape-confounding transformations. The statistical framework enables computation of shape averages and covariances on the shape space in an intrinsic manner (unique to the shape space). The statistical framework makes use of the tangent principal component approach to achieve dimension reduction on the space of corpus callosum shapes. The advantages of this approach are - it is fully automatic, invariant, and avoids the use of landmarks to define shapes. We applied our method to determine the effects of sex, age, schizophrenia and schizophrenia-related genetic liability on callosal shape in a large sample of patients and controls and their first-degree relatives (N=218). Results showed significant age, sex, and schizophrenia effects on both global and local callosal shape structure. PMID:23000788

  6. Developmental Expression and Glucocorticoid Control of the Leptin Receptor in Fetal Ovine Lung

    PubMed Central

    De Blasio, Miles J.; Boije, Maria; Vaughan, Owen R.; Bernstein, Brett S.; Davies, Katie L.; Plein, Alice; Kempster, Sarah L.; Smith, Gordon C. S.; Charnock-Jones, D. Stephen; Blache, Dominique; Wooding, F. B. Peter; Giussani, Dino A.; Fowden, Abigail L.; Forhead, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids on fetal lung maturation are well-established, although the role of leptin in lung development before birth is unclear. This study examined mRNA and protein levels of the signalling long-form leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) in fetal ovine lungs towards term, and after experimental manipulation of glucocorticoid levels in utero by fetal cortisol infusion or maternal dexamethasone treatment. In fetal ovine lungs, Ob-Rb protein was localised to bronchiolar epithelium, bronchial cartilage, vascular endothelium, alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes. Pulmonary Ob-Rb mRNA abundance increased between 100 (0.69 fractional gestational age) and 144 days (0.99) of gestation, and by 2–4-fold in response to fetal cortisol infusion and maternal dexamethasone treatment. In contrast, pulmonary Ob-Rb protein levels decreased near term and were halved by glucocorticoid treatment, without any significant change in phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) at Ser727, total STAT3 or the pulmonary pSTAT3:STAT3 ratio. Leptin mRNA was undetectable in fetal ovine lungs at the gestational ages studied. These findings demonstrate differential control of pulmonary Ob-Rb transcript abundance and protein translation, and/or post-translational processing, by glucocorticoids in utero. Localisation of Ob-Rb in the fetal ovine lungs, including alveolar type II pneumocytes, suggests a role for leptin signalling in the control of lung growth and maturation before birth. PMID:26287800

  7. Isolation and Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii Strains in Ovine Aborted Fetuses in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Danehchin, Leila; Razmi, Gholamreza; Naghibi, Abolghasem

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonotic disease that can cause abortion in humans and animals. The aim of this study was isolation and subsequent genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in ovine aborted fetuses. During 2012-2013, 39 ovine aborted fetuses were collected from sheep flocks in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The brain samples were screened for detection of the parasite DNA by nested PCR. The positive brain samples were bioassayed in Webster Swiss mice. The serum samples of mice were examined for T. gondii antibodies by IFAT at 6 weeks post inoculation, and T. gondii cysts were searched in brain tissue samples of seropositive mice. The positive samples were genotyped by using a PCR-RLFP method. Subsequently, GRA6 sequences of isolates were analyzed using a phylogenetic method. The results revealed that T. gondii DNA was detected in 54% (20/37, 95% CI 38.4-69.0%) brain samples of ovine aborted fetuses. In bioassay of mice, only 2 samples were virulent and the mice were killed at 30 days post inoculation, while the others were non-virulent to mice. The size of cysts ranged 7-22 µm. Complete genotyping data for GRA6 locus were observed in 5 of the 20 samples. PCR-RLFP results and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the isolated samples were closely related to type I. For the first time, we could genotype and report T. gondii isolates from ovine aborted fetuses in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The results indicate that the T. gondii isolates are genetically related to type I, although most of them were non-virulent for mice. PMID:26951974

  8. Conformational changes of ovine α-1-proteinase inhibitor: The influence of heparin binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Gowda, Lalitha R.

    2008-11-01

    α-1-Proteinase inhibitor (α-1-PI), the archetypal serpin causes rapid, irreversible stoichiometric inhibition of redundant circulating serine proteases and is associated with emphysema, inflammatory response and maintenance of protease-inhibitor equilibrium in vascular and peri-vascular spaces. A homogenous preparation of heparin octasaccharide binds to ovine and human α-1-PI and enhances their protease inhibitory activity phenomenally. Size-exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering experiments reveal that ovine α-1-PI undergoes a decrease in the Stokes' radius upon heparin binding. A strong binding; characterizes this α-1-PI-heparin interaction as revealed by the binding constant ( Kα) 1.98 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M and 2.1 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M determined by fluorescence spectroscopy and equilibrium dialysis, respectively. The stoichiometry of heparin binding to ovine α-1-PI was 1.1 ± 0.2:1. The Stern-Volmer constants ( Ksv) for heparin activated ovine and human α-1-PI were found to be 5.13 × 10 -6 M and 5.67 × 10 -6 M, respectively, significantly higher than the native inhibitors. FTIR and CD spectroscopy project the systematic structural reorientations that α-1-PI undergoes upon heparin binding characterized by a decrease in α-helical content and a concomitant increase in β-turn and random coil elements. It is likely that these conformational changes result in the movement of the α-1-PI reactive site loop into an extended structure that is better poised to combat the cognate protease and accelerate the inhibition.

  9. Isolation and Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii Strains in Ovine Aborted Fetuses in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Danehchin, Leila; Razmi, Gholamreza; Naghibi, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonotic disease that can cause abortion in humans and animals. The aim of this study was isolation and subsequent genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in ovine aborted fetuses. During 2012-2013, 39 ovine aborted fetuses were collected from sheep flocks in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The brain samples were screened for detection of the parasite DNA by nested PCR. The positive brain samples were bioassayed in Webster Swiss mice. The serum samples of mice were examined for T. gondii antibodies by IFAT at 6 weeks post inoculation, and T. gondii cysts were searched in brain tissue samples of seropositive mice. The positive samples were genotyped by using a PCR-RLFP method. Subsequently, GRA6 sequences of isolates were analyzed using a phylogenetic method. The results revealed that T. gondii DNA was detected in 54% (20/37, 95% CI 38.4-69.0%) brain samples of ovine aborted fetuses. In bioassay of mice, only 2 samples were virulent and the mice were killed at 30 days post inoculation, while the others were non-virulent to mice. The size of cysts ranged 7-22 µm. Complete genotyping data for GRA6 locus were observed in 5 of the 20 samples. PCR-RLFP results and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the isolated samples were closely related to type I. For the first time, we could genotype and report T. gondii isolates from ovine aborted fetuses in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The results indicate that the T. gondii isolates are genetically related to type I, although most of them were non-virulent for mice. PMID:26951974

  10. Developmental Expression and Glucocorticoid Control of the Leptin Receptor in Fetal Ovine Lung.

    PubMed

    De Blasio, Miles J; Boije, Maria; Vaughan, Owen R; Bernstein, Brett S; Davies, Katie L; Plein, Alice; Kempster, Sarah L; Smith, Gordon C S; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Blache, Dominique; Wooding, F B Peter; Giussani, Dino A; Fowden, Abigail L; Forhead, Alison J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids on fetal lung maturation are well-established, although the role of leptin in lung development before birth is unclear. This study examined mRNA and protein levels of the signalling long-form leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) in fetal ovine lungs towards term, and after experimental manipulation of glucocorticoid levels in utero by fetal cortisol infusion or maternal dexamethasone treatment. In fetal ovine lungs, Ob-Rb protein was localised to bronchiolar epithelium, bronchial cartilage, vascular endothelium, alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes. Pulmonary Ob-Rb mRNA abundance increased between 100 (0.69 fractional gestational age) and 144 days (0.99) of gestation, and by 2-4-fold in response to fetal cortisol infusion and maternal dexamethasone treatment. In contrast, pulmonary Ob-Rb protein levels decreased near term and were halved by glucocorticoid treatment, without any significant change in phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) at Ser727, total STAT3 or the pulmonary pSTAT3:STAT3 ratio. Leptin mRNA was undetectable in fetal ovine lungs at the gestational ages studied. These findings demonstrate differential control of pulmonary Ob-Rb transcript abundance and protein translation, and/or post-translational processing, by glucocorticoids in utero. Localisation of Ob-Rb in the fetal ovine lungs, including alveolar type II pneumocytes, suggests a role for leptin signalling in the control of lung growth and maturation before birth. PMID:26287800

  11. Regional Variation in Tissue Composition and Biomechanical Properties of Postmenopausal Ovine and Human Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Daniela; Edwards, Sharon L.; Letouzey, Vincent; Su, Kai; White, Jacinta F.; Rosamilia, Anna; Gargett, Caroline E.; Werkmeister, Jerome A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There are increasing numbers of reports describing human vaginal tissue composition in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to compare ovine and human posterior vaginal tissue in terms of histological and biochemical tissue composition and to assess passive biomechanical properties of ovine vagina to further characterise this animal model for pelvic organ prolapse research. Study Design Vaginal tissue was collected from ovariectomised sheep (n = 6) and from postmenopausal women (n = 7) from the proximal, middle and distal thirds. Tissue histology was analyzed using Masson's Trichrome staining; total collagen was quantified by hydroxyproline assays, collagen III/I+III ratios by delayed reduction SDS PAGE, glycosaminoglycans by dimethylmethylene blue assay, and elastic tissue associated proteins (ETAP) by amino acid analysis. Young's modulus, maximum stress/strain, and permanent strain following cyclic loading were determined in ovine vagina. Results Both sheep and human vaginal tissue showed comparable tissue composition. Ovine vaginal tissue showed significantly higher total collagen and glycosaminoglycan values (p<0.05) nearest the cervix. No significant differences were found along the length of the human vagina for collagen, GAG or ETAP content. The proximal region was the stiffest (Young's modulus, p<0.05), strongest (maximum stress, p<0.05) compared to distal region, and most elastic (permanent strain). Conclusion Sheep tissue composition and mechanical properties showed regional differences along the postmenopausal vaginal wall not apparent in human vagina, although the absolute content of proteins were similar. Knowledge of this baseline variation in the composition and mechanical properties of the vaginal wall will assist future studies using sheep as a model for vaginal surgery. PMID:25148261

  12. Comparing English Vocabulary in a Spoken Learner Corpus with a Native Speaker Corpus: Pedagogical Implications Arising from an Empirical Study in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirato, Junko; Stapleton, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Insights from corpus linguistics have come to be seen as having a significant impact in second language pedagogy. Learner corpora, or collections of texts spoken or written by non-native speakers (NNS) of a language, are now being used for the purposes of enhancing language teaching. Specifically, by comparing the corpus of NNS with native

  13. Recent Developments in Corpus Linguistics and Corpus-Based Research/Department of Linguistics and Modern Language Studies at the Hong Kong Institute of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has transformed the landscape of empirical research on languages in recent decades. The proliferation of corpus technology has enabled researchers worldwide to conduct research in their own geographical locations with few hindrances. It has become increasingly commonplace for researchers to compile their own corpora for specific

  14. Recent Developments in Corpus Linguistics and Corpus-Based Research/Department of Linguistics and Modern Language Studies at the Hong Kong Institute of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has transformed the landscape of empirical research on languages in recent decades. The proliferation of corpus technology has enabled researchers worldwide to conduct research in their own geographical locations with few hindrances. It has become increasingly commonplace for researchers to compile their own corpora for specific…

  15. Effect of variation in ovine WFIKKN2 on growth traits appears to be gender-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiqing; Zhou, Huitong; Fang, Qian; Liu, Xiu; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G. H.

    2015-01-01

    WFIKKN2 may play a role in the regulation of muscle growth and development, but to date there have been no reports on the effect of variation in WFIKKN2 on growth and carcass traits in livestock. In this study, the effect of variation in ovine WFIKKN2 was investigated in 800 New Zealand Romney lambs (395 male and 405 female), with five previously described variants (A to E) being identified. Variation in ovine WFIKKN2 was not found to affect various growth traits in the female lambs, but the presence of variant B was associated (P < 0.05) with decreased birth weight, tailing weight, weaning weight and pre-weaning growth rate; and increased post-weaning growth rate in male lambs. In male lambs, the presence of variant B was associated (P < 0.05) with an increased shoulder yield and proportion shoulder yield. No associations with growth or carcass traits were detected for the presence (or absence) of the other variants. These results suggest that variation in ovine WFIKKN2 may have a differential effect on growth in male and female lambs, and hence that the gene may be expressed in, or act in, a gender-specific fashion. PMID:26197924

  16. Whole Ovine Ovaries as a Model for Human: Perfusion with Cryoprotectants In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100 IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15 M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60 min with the rate of perfusion 50 mL/h (0.8 mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

  17. Ovine luteinizing hormone heterogeneity: androgens increase the percentage of less basic isohormones.

    PubMed

    Christianson, S L; Zalesky, D D; Grotjan, H E

    1998-03-01

    The heterogeneity of luteinizing (LH) is hormonally regulated with androgens having been reported to increase the percentage of extremely basic LH isohormones in the ovine pituitary. This study re-examined the effects of androgens on the heterogeneity of LH in the ovine pituitary because the extremely basic isoforms of LH reported previously were subsequently demonstrated to be artifacts resulting from the conditions used for chromatofocusing. Pituitary extracts from wethers, rams, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-implanted wethers were desalted by flow dialysis and chromatofocused on pH 10.5 to 7.0 gradients. LH was quantitated by radioimmunoassays. When compared with rams, wethers had increased percentages of LH isoforms eluting between pH 9.6 and 10. Patterns of intrapituitary LH isohormones were comparable in rams and DHT-implanted wethers except that rams had a higher percentage of LH eluting at pH 9.2 (20.9 +/- 2.1% vs. 13.3 +/- 1.3%). In contrast to what was previously reported, rams and DHT-implanted wethers had higher percentages of ovine LH isoforms eluting at pH's 9.4 or lower. Thus, androgens alter LH heterogeneity yielding increased percentages of isohormones eluting at pH's of 9.4 or lower. PMID:9532422

  18. Primary and secondary restraints of human and ovine knees for simulated in vivo gait kinematics.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Rebecca J; Herfat, Safa T; Boguszewski, Daniel V; Engel, Andrew J; Galloway, Marc T; Shearn, Jason T

    2014-06-27

    Knee soft tissue structures are frequently injured, leading to the development of osteoarthritis even with treatment. Understanding how these structures contribute to knee function during activities of daily living (ADLs) is crucial in creating more effective treatments. This study was designed to determine the role of different knee structures during a simulated ADL in both human knees and ovine stifle joints. A six degree-of-freedom robot was used to reproduce each species' in vivo gait while measuring three-dimensional joint forces and torques. Using a semi-randomized selective cutting method, we determined the primary and secondary structures contributing to the forces and torques along and about each anatomical axis. In both species, the bony interaction, ACL, and medial meniscus provided most of the force contributions during stance, whereas the ovine MCL, human bone, and ACLs of both species were the key contributors during swing. This study contributes to our overarching goal of establishing functional tissue engineering parameters for knee structures by further validating biomechanical similarities between the ovine model and the human to provide a platform for measuring biomechanics during an in vivo ADL. These parameters will be used to develop more effective treatments for knee injuries to reduce or eliminate the incidence of osteoarthritis. PMID:24326097

  19. Primary and Secondary Restraints of Human and Ovine Knees for Simulated In Vivo Gait Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, Rebecca J.; Herfat, Safa T.; Boguszewski, Daniel V.; Engel, Andrew J.; Galloway, Marc T.; Shearn, Jason T.

    2014-01-01

    Knee soft tissue structures are frequently injured, leading to the development of osteoarthritis even with treatment. Understanding how these structures contribute to knee function during activities of daily living (ADLs) is crucial in creating more effective treatments. This study was designed to determine the role of different knee structures during a simulated ADL in both human knees and ovine stifle joints. A six degree-of-freedom robot was used to reproduce each species’ in vivo gait while measuring three-dimensional joint forces and torques. Using a semi-randomized selective cutting method, we determined the primary and secondary structures contributing to the forces and torques along and about each anatomical axis. In both species, the bony interaction, ACL, and medial meniscus provided most of the force contributions during stance, whereas the ovine MCL, human bone, and ACLs of both species were the key contributors during swing. This study contributes to our overarching goal of establishing functional tissue engineering parameters for knee structures by further validating biomechanical similarities between the ovine model and the human to provide a platform for measuring biomechanics during an in vivo ADL. These parameters will be used to develop more effective treatments for knee injuries to reduce or eliminate the incidence of osteoarthritis. PMID:24326097

  20. Comparison of biaxial mechanical properties of coronary sinus tissues from porcine, ovine and aged human species.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thuy; Sun, Wei

    2012-02-01

    Due to its proximity to the mitral valve, the coronary sinus (CS) vessel serves as a conduit for the deployment and implantation of the percutaneous transvenous mitral annuloplasty (PTMA) devices that can potentially reduce the mitral regurgitation. Because CS vessel is a venous tissue and seldom diseased, its mechanical properties have not been well studied. In this study, we performed a multi-axial mechanical test and histological analysis to characterize the mechanical and structural properties of the aged human, porcine and ovine CS tissues. The results showed that the aged human CS tissues exhibited much stiffer and highly anisotropic behaviors compared to the porcine and ovine. Both of the porcine and ovine CS vessel walls were thicker and mainly composed of striated muscle fibers (SMF), whereas the thinner aged human CS had higher collagen, less SMF, and more fragmented elastin fibers, which are possibly due to aging effects. We also observed that the anatomical features of porcine CS vessel might be not suitable for PTMA deployment. These differences between animal and human models raise questions for the validity of using animal models to investigate the biomechanics involved in the PTMA intervention. Therefore, caution must be taken in future studies of PTMA stents using animal models. PMID:22301170

  1. Large-scale preparation and characterization of non-pegylated and pegylated superactive ovine leptin antagonist.

    PubMed

    Niv-Spector, Leonora; Shpilman, Michal; Boisclair, Yves; Gertler, Arieh

    2012-02-01

    Superactive ovine leptin antagonist (SOLA) was prepared by rational mutagenesis of the ovine leptin antagonist L39A/D40A/F41A mutant prepared previously in our lab by mutating wild type leptin to D23L/L39A/D40A/F41A. SOLA was expressed in Escherichia coli as insoluble inclusion bodies, refolded and purified to homogeneity (as evidenced by SDS-PAGE and analytical gel filtration) by ion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was mono-pegylated at its N terminus by 20-kDa linear pegylation reagent. The D23L mutation resulted in ca. 5- to 6-fold increased affinity toward soluble human leptin binding domain and 6- to 8-fold increased inhibitory activity in two different in vitro bioassays. This increase was similar, though not identical, to our previous results with superactive mouse and human leptin antagonists. Pegylation decreased overall activity by 5- to 8-fold, but as shown previously for superactive mouse leptin antagonist, the prolonged half life in the circulation will likely result in higher activity in vivo. As amino acids 6-31 (VQDDTKTLIKTIVTRINDISHTQSVS), making up a main part of the first α-helix, are identical in human, mouse, rat, ovine, bovine and pig leptins, we anticipate that D23L mutations of the respective leptins will result in similar increases in affinity and consequent activity of other leptin antagonists. PMID:22040607

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of ovine IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta.

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, A E; Barcham, G J; Brandon, M R; Nash, A D

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a cytokine with a wide range of effects on a variety of cell types. By hybridization with human IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta cDNA probes, the corresponding ovine cDNAs were isolated from a stimulated alveolar macrophage cDNA library. The sequences of these cDNAs showed that ovine IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta encode proteins of 268 and 266 amino acids, respectively, with both the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showing a high degree of homology with their human, mouse and bovine equivalents. In a mammalian COS cell-expression system these cDNAs produced biologically active IL-1. Further experiments demonstrated the importance of sequences within the 3' untranslated portion of the cDNAs in determining the level of expression of these molecules. The analysis of expression of IL-1 alpha- and IL-1 beta-specific mRNA in response to endotoxin, phorbol myristic acid (PMA) or PMA plus ionomycin revealed a distinct pattern of differential regulation of the two genes. From genomic analysis both IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta appear to exist as single copies in the ovine genome. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1769692

  3. The effects of Ostertagia occidentalis somatic antigens on ovine TLR2 and TLR4 expression

    PubMed Central

    BORJI, Hassan; HAGHPARAST, Alireza; SOLEIMANI, Nooshinmehr; AZIZZADEH, Mohammad; NAZEMSHIRAZI, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recognition of helminth-derived pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including toll like receptors (TLRs) is the first step towards initiating anti–helminth immune responses. Methods : Using somatic antigens of Ostertagia occidentalis, an important abomasal parasite of ruminants, the expression of ovine TLR2 and TLR4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was analyzed by real-time quatitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis were prepared to stimulate ovine PBMCs in a time and dose dependent manner. Results : A high expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was observed in PBMCs cultured with somatic antigens of the parasites specially when PBMCs were cultured with 100 µg/ml of somatic antigens and incubated for 2h. Up-regulation of TLR2 expression was more pronounced and evident in our study. Conclsusion : Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis have immunostimulatory and dominant role on peripheral immune cells. This study provide for the first time evidence of induction of TLRs in ovine PBMCs by somatic antigen of O. occidentalis PMID:26622306

  4. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and autism: a comprehensive comparison

    PubMed Central

    Corsello, Christina; Kennedy, Daniel P.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The corpus callosum, with its ∼200 million axons, remains enigmatic in its contribution to cognition and behaviour. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a congenital condition in which the corpus callosum fails to develop; such individuals exhibit localized deficits in non-literal language comprehension, humour, theory of mind and social reasoning. These findings together with parent reports suggest that behavioural and cognitive impairments in subjects with callosal agenesis may overlap with the profile of autism spectrum disorders, particularly with respect to impairments in social interaction and communication. To provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis, we directly compared a group of 26 adults with callosal agenesis to a group of 28 adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder but no neurological abnormality. All participants had full-scale intelligence quotient scores >78 and groups were matched on age, handedness, and gender ratio. Using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule together with current clinical presentation to assess autistic symptomatology, we found that 8/26 (about a third) of agenesis subjects presented with autism. However, more formal diagnosis additionally involving recollective parent-report measures regarding childhood behaviour showed that only 3/22 met complete formal criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (parent reports were unavailable for four subjects). We found no relationship between intelligence quotient and autism symptomatology in callosal agenesis, nor evidence that the presence of any residual corpus callosum differentiated those who exhibited current autism spectrum symptoms from those who did not. Relative to the autism spectrum comparison group, parent ratings of childhood behaviour indicated children with agenesis were less likely to meet diagnostic criteria for autism, even for those who met autism spectrum criteria as adults, and even though there was no group difference in parent report of current behaviours. The findings suggest two broad conclusions. First, they support the hypothesis that congenital disruption of the corpus callosum constitutes a major risk factor for developing autism. Second, they quantify specific features that distinguish autistic behaviour associated with callosal agenesis from autism more generally. Taken together, these two findings also leverage specific questions for future investigation: what are the distal causes (genetic and environmental) determining both callosal agenesis and its autistic features, and what are the proximal mechanisms by which absence of the callosum might generate autistic symptomatology? PMID:24771497

  5. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and autism: a comprehensive comparison.

    PubMed

    Paul, Lynn K; Corsello, Christina; Kennedy, Daniel P; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-06-01

    The corpus callosum, with its ∼200 million axons, remains enigmatic in its contribution to cognition and behaviour. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a congenital condition in which the corpus callosum fails to develop; such individuals exhibit localized deficits in non-literal language comprehension, humour, theory of mind and social reasoning. These findings together with parent reports suggest that behavioural and cognitive impairments in subjects with callosal agenesis may overlap with the profile of autism spectrum disorders, particularly with respect to impairments in social interaction and communication. To provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis, we directly compared a group of 26 adults with callosal agenesis to a group of 28 adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder but no neurological abnormality. All participants had full-scale intelligence quotient scores >78 and groups were matched on age, handedness, and gender ratio. Using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule together with current clinical presentation to assess autistic symptomatology, we found that 8/26 (about a third) of agenesis subjects presented with autism. However, more formal diagnosis additionally involving recollective parent-report measures regarding childhood behaviour showed that only 3/22 met complete formal criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (parent reports were unavailable for four subjects). We found no relationship between intelligence quotient and autism symptomatology in callosal agenesis, nor evidence that the presence of any residual corpus callosum differentiated those who exhibited current autism spectrum symptoms from those who did not. Relative to the autism spectrum comparison group, parent ratings of childhood behaviour indicated children with agenesis were less likely to meet diagnostic criteria for autism, even for those who met autism spectrum criteria as adults, and even though there was no group difference in parent report of current behaviours. The findings suggest two broad conclusions. First, they support the hypothesis that congenital disruption of the corpus callosum constitutes a major risk factor for developing autism. Second, they quantify specific features that distinguish autistic behaviour associated with callosal agenesis from autism more generally. Taken together, these two findings also leverage specific questions for future investigation: what are the distal causes (genetic and environmental) determining both callosal agenesis and its autistic features, and what are the proximal mechanisms by which absence of the callosum might generate autistic symptomatology? PMID:24771497

  6. Co-expression of ovine LPS receptor CD14 with Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin receptor LFA-1 or Mac-1 does not enhance leukotoxin-induced cytotoxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leukotoxin (Lkt) and LPS are the major virulence determinants of Mannheimia haemolytica that contribute to the pathogenesis of bovine and ovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. We have previously identified bovine and ovine CD18 as the functional receptor for Lkt. LPS complexes with Lkt resulting in incre...

  7. Incidence of infection in 39-month-old ewes with TMEM154 diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3" after natural exposure to ovine progressive pneumonia virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production and well-being of sheep and goats in many countries are harmfully impacted by small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) that cause incurable, progressive diseases. Susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), the North American form of SRLV, is influenced by variants of the ovine...

  8. Lipoma of corpus callosum associated with dysraphic lesions and trisomy 13

    SciTech Connect

    Wainwright, H.; Bowen, R.; Radcliffe, M.

    1995-05-22

    We report on a further case of corpus callosal lipoma and frontal cranial defects. Most cases in the literature of corpus callosal lipoma in association with {open_quotes}dysraphic{close_quotes} lesions have been frontal in location. Malformation of the corpus callosum is said to be associated with 50% of these lipomas. Trisomy 13 was confirmed by the 13q14 cosmid probe on paraffin-embedded liver tissue. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  9. A corpus-based approach for automated LOINC mapping

    PubMed Central

    Fidahussein, Mustafa; Vreeman, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the knowledge contained in a rich corpus of local terms mapped to LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes) could be leveraged to help map local terms from other institutions. Methods We developed two models to test our hypothesis. The first based on supervised machine learning was created using Apache's OpenNLP Maxent and the second based on information retrieval was created using Apache's Lucene. The models were validated by a random subsampling method that was repeated 20 times and that used 80/20 splits for training and testing, respectively. We also evaluated the performance of these models on all laboratory terms from three test institutions. Results For the 20 iterations used for validation of our 80/20 splits Maxent and Lucene ranked the correct LOINC code first for between 70.5% and 71.4% and between 63.7% and 65.0% of local terms, respectively. For all laboratory terms from the three test institutions Maxent ranked the correct LOINC code first for between 73.5% and 84.6% (mean 78.9%) of local terms, whereas Lucene's performance was between 66.5% and 76.6% (mean 71.9%). Using a cut-off score of 0.46 Maxent always ranked the correct LOINC code first for over 57% of local terms. Conclusions This study showed that a rich corpus of local terms mapped to LOINC contains collective knowledge that can help map terms from other institutions. Using freely available software tools, we developed a data-driven automated approach that operates on term descriptions from existing mappings in the corpus. Accurate and efficient automated mapping methods can help to accelerate adoption of vocabulary standards and promote widespread health information exchange. PMID:23676247

  10. Construction of an annotated corpus to support biomedical information extraction

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Paul; Iqbal, Syed A; McNaught, John; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Background Information Extraction (IE) is a component of text mining that facilitates knowledge discovery by automatically locating instances of interesting biomedical events from huge document collections. As events are usually centred on verbs and nominalised verbs, understanding the syntactic and semantic behaviour of these words is highly important. Corpora annotated with information concerning this behaviour can constitute a valuable resource in the training of IE components and resources. Results We have defined a new scheme for annotating sentence-bound gene regulation events, centred on both verbs and nominalised verbs. For each event instance, all participants (arguments) in the same sentence are identified and assigned a semantic role from a rich set of 13 roles tailored to biomedical research articles, together with a biological concept type linked to the Gene Regulation Ontology. To our knowledge, our scheme is unique within the biomedical field in terms of the range of event arguments identified. Using the scheme, we have created the Gene Regulation Event Corpus (GREC), consisting of 240 MEDLINE abstracts, in which events relating to gene regulation and expression have been annotated by biologists. A novel method of evaluating various different facets of the annotation task showed that average inter-annotator agreement rates fall within the range of 66% - 90%. Conclusion The GREC is a unique resource within the biomedical field, in that it annotates not only core relationships between entities, but also a range of other important details about these relationships, e.g., location, temporal, manner and environmental conditions. As such, it is specifically designed to support bio-specific tool and resource development. It has already been used to acquire semantic frames for inclusion within the BioLexicon (a lexical, terminological resource to aid biomedical text mining). Initial experiments have also shown that the corpus may viably be used to train IE components, such as semantic role labellers. The corpus and annotation guidelines are freely available for academic purposes. PMID:19852798

  11. Collective Instance-Level Gene Normalization on the IGN Corpus

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Wu, Johnny Chi-Yang; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han

    2013-01-01

    A high proportion of life science researches are gene-oriented, in which scientists aim to investigate the roles that genes play in biological processes, and their involvement in biological mechanisms. As a result, gene names and their related information turn out to be one of the main objects of interest in biomedical literatures. While the capability of recognizing gene mentions has made significant progress, the results of recognition are still insufficient for direct use due to the ambiguity of gene names. Gene normalization (GN) goes beyond the recognition task by linking a gene mention to a database ID. Unlike most previous works, we approach GN on the instance-level and evaluate its overall performance on the recognition and normalization steps in abstracts and full texts. We release the first instance-level gene normalization (IGN) corpus in the BioC format, which includes annotations for the boundaries of all gene mentions and the corresponding IDs for human gene mentions. Species information, along with existing co-reference chains and full name/abbreviation pairs are also provided for each gene mention. Using the released corpus, we have designed a collective instance-level GN approach using not only the contextual information of each individual instance, but also the relations among instances and the inherent characteristics of full-text sections. Our experimental results show that our collective approach can achieve an F-score of 0.743. The proposed approach that exploits section characteristics in full-text articles can improve the F-scores of information lacking sections by up to 1.8%. In addition, using the proposed refinement process improved the F-score of gene mention recognition by 0.125 and that of GN by 0.03. Whereas current experimental results are limited to the human species, we seek to continue updating the annotations of the IGN corpus and observe how the proposed approach can be extended to other species. PMID:24282506

  12. Facial emotion recognition in agenesis of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired social functioning is a common symptom of individuals with developmental disruptions in callosal connectivity. Among these developmental conditions, agenesis of the corpus callosum provides the most extreme and clearly identifiable example of callosal disconnection. To date, deficits in nonliteral language comprehension, humor, theory of mind, and social reasoning have been documented in agenesis of the corpus callosum. Here, we examined a basic social ability as yet not investigated in this population: recognition of facial emotion and its association with social gaze. Methods Nine individuals with callosal agenesis and nine matched controls completed four tasks involving emotional faces: emotion recognition from upright and inverted faces, gender recognition, and passive viewing. Eye-tracking data were collected concurrently on all four tasks and analyzed according to designated facial regions of interest. Results Individuals with callosal agenesis exhibited impairments in recognizing emotions from upright faces, in particular lower accuracy for fear and anger, and these impairments were directly associated with diminished attention to the eye region. The callosal agenesis group exhibited greater consistency in emotion recognition across conditions (upright vs. inverted), with poorest performance for fear identification in both conditions. The callosal agenesis group also had atypical facial scanning (lower fractional dwell time in the eye region) during gender naming and passive viewing of faces, but they did not differ from controls on gender naming performance. The pattern of results did not differ when taking into account full-scale intelligence quotient or presence of autism spectrum symptoms. Conclusions Agenesis of the corpus callosum results in a pattern of atypical facial scanning characterized by diminished attention to the eyes. This pattern suggests that reduced callosal connectivity may contribute to the development and maintenance of emotion processing deficits involving reduced attention to others' eyes. PMID:25705318

  13. Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome with agenesis of corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shubhankar; Agarwalla, Sunil Kumar; Potpalle, Dnyaneshwar Ramesh; Dash, Nishant Nilotpal

    2015-01-01

    Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare genetic disorder with characteristic morphological anomaly. Our patient was a 4.5-year-old girl came with features like broad thumbs, downward slanting palpebral fissures and mental retardation. Systemic abnormalities such as repeated infection, seizure with developmental delay were also associated with it. She was having head banging behavior abnormal slurring speech, incoordination while transferring things from one hand to other. Galaxy of clinical pictures and magnetic resonance imaging report helped to clinch the diagnosis as a case of “RSTS with corpus callosal agenesis” which to the best of our knowledge has never been reported in past from India. PMID:26167229

  14. Unsupervised chunking based on graph propagation from bilingual corpus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Wong, Derek F; Chao, Lidia S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for unsupervised shallow parsing model trained on the unannotated Chinese text of parallel Chinese-English corpus. In this approach, no information of the Chinese side is applied. The exploitation of graph-based label propagation for bilingual knowledge transfer, along with an application of using the projected labels as features in unsupervised model, contributes to a better performance. The experimental comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms show that the proposed approach is able to achieve impressive higher accuracy in terms of F-score. PMID:24772017

  15. Corpus analysis and automatic detection of emotion-including keywords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bo; He, Xiangqing; Liu, Ying

    2013-12-01

    Emotion words play a vital role in many sentiment analysis tasks. Previous research uses sentiment dictionary to detect the subjectivity or polarity of words. In this paper, we dive into Emotion-Inducing Keywords (EIK), which refers to the words in use that convey emotion. We first analyze an emotion corpus to explore the pragmatic aspects of EIK. Then we design an effective framework for automatically detecting EIK in sentences by utilizing linguistic features and context information. Our system outperforms traditional dictionary-based methods dramatically in increasing Precision, Recall and F1-score.

  16. Platelet Activation in Ovines Undergoing Sham Surgery or Implant of the Second Generation PediaFlow™ Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Carl A.; Wearden, Peter D.; Kocyildirim, Ergin; Maul, Timothy M.; Woolley, Joshua R.; Ye, Sang-Ho; Strickler, Elise M.; Borovetz, Harvey S.; Wagner, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The PediaFlow™ pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) is a magnetically levitated turbodynamic pump under development for circulatory support of small children with a targeted flow rate range of 0.3 - 1.5 L/min. As the design of this device is refined, ensuring high levels of blood biocompatibility is essential. In this study we characterized platelet activation during the implantation and operation of a second generation prototype of the PediaFlow VAD (PF2) and also performed a series of surgical sham studies to examine purely surgical effects on platelet activation. In addition, a newly available monoclonal antibody was characterized and shown to be capable of quantifying ovine platelet activation. The PF2 was implanted in 3 chronic ovine experiments of 16, 30, and 70 days, while surgical sham procedures were performed in 5 ovines with 30 d monitoring. Blood biocompatibility in terms of circulating activated platelets was measured by flow cytometric assays with and without exogenous agonist stimulation. Platelet activation following sham surgery returned to baseline in approximately 2 weeks. Platelets in PF2 implanted ovines returned to baseline activation levels in all three animals, and showed an ability to respond to agonist stimulation. Late term platelet activation was observed in one animal corresponding with unexpected pump stoppages related to a manufacturing defect in the percutaneous cable. The results demonstrated encouraging platelet biocompatibility for the PF2 in that basal platelet activation was achieved early in the pump implant period. Furthermore, this first characterization of the effect of a major cardiothoracic procedure on temporal ovine platelet activation provides comparative data for future cardiovascular device evaluation in the ovine model. PMID:21463346

  17. Corpus callosum thickness in children: an MR pattern-recognition approach on the midsagittal image.

    PubMed

    Andronikou, Savvas; Pillay, Tanyia; Gabuza, Lungile; Mahomed, Nasreen; Naidoo, Jaishree; Hlabangana, Linda Tebogo; du Plessis, Vicci; Prabhu, Sanjay P

    2015-02-01

    Thickening of the corpus callosum is an important feature of development, whereas thinning of the corpus callosum can be the result of a number of diseases that affect development or cause destruction of the corpus callosum. Corpus callosum thickness reflects the volume of the hemispheres and responds to changes through direct effects or through Wallerian degeneration. It is therefore not only important to evaluate the morphology of the corpus callosum for congenital anomalies but also to evaluate the thickness of specific components or the whole corpus callosum in association with other findings. The goal of this pictorial review is raise awareness that the thickness of the corpus callosum can be a useful feature of pathology in pediatric central nervous system disease and must be considered in the context of the stage of development of a child. Thinning of the corpus callosum can be primary or secondary, and generalized or focal. Primary thinning is caused by abnormal or failed myelination related to the hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies, metabolic disorders affecting white matter, and microcephaly. Secondary thinning of the corpus callosum can be caused by diffuse injury such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, dysmyelinating conditions and demyelinating conditions. Focal disturbance of formation or focal injury also causes localized thinning, e.g., callosal dysgenesis, metabolic disorders with localized effects, hypoglycemia, white matter injury of prematurity, HIV-related atrophy, infarction and vasculitis, trauma and toxins. The corpus callosum might be too thick because of a primary disorder in which the corpus callosum finding is essential to diagnosis; abnormal thickening can also be secondary to inflammation, infection and trauma. PMID:25173405

  18. Verbal learning and memory in agenesis of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Roger L.; Paul, Lynn K.; Brown, Warren S.

    2015-01-01

    The role of interhemispheric interactions in the encoding, retention, and retrieval of verbal memory can be clarified by assessing individuals with complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), but who have normal intelligence. This study assessed verbal learning and memory in AgCC using the California Verbal Learning Test—Second Edition (CVLT-II). Twenty-six individuals with AgCC were compared to 24 matched controls on CVLT-II measures, as well as Donders’ four CVLT-II factors (i.e., Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory, and Inaccurate Memory). Individuals with AgCC performed significantly below healthy controls on the Delayed Memory factor, confirmed by significant deficits in short and long delayed free recall and cued recall. They also performed less well in original learning. Deficient performance by individuals with AgCC during learning trials, as well as deficits in all forms of delayed memory, suggest that the corpus callosum facilitates interhemispheric elaboration and encoding of verbal information. PMID:24933663

  19. Case Series of Lipid Accumulation in the Human Corpus Cavernosum

    PubMed Central

    Alwaal, Amjad; Wang, Lin; Zaid, Uwais B.; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Erectile dysfunction is a prevalent problem affecting millions of men in the United States and around the world. There have been no reports of the presence of lipids within the human penile corporal bodies, whether in normal or diseased states. We present here a case series of 9 patients who underwent penile corporal tissue biopsy during penile prosthesis insertion with severe intracorporal fibrosis and difficulties during insertion. Oil Red O staining was done to identify lipids; LipidTOX and phalloidin double staining was used to identify lipid location within the corpora, and Masson's trichrome staining was done to assess fibrosis. We identified lipid accumulation in those 9 corporal tissue samples, and further analysis showed the distribution to be 10% intramyocellular lipids and 90% extramyocellular lipids. These 9 specimens contained increased amount of collagen when compared with controls. In addition, we analyzed corporal samples from 10 random erectile dysfunction patients presenting for penile prosthesis insertion and identified no lipid accumulation in those control patients. This is the first report of lipid accumulation in the human corpus cavernosum. Possible mechanisms of lipid accumulation include androgen deficiency and dedifferentiation of corpus smooth muscle cells into other phenotypes; however, the exact mechanism is unknown and further research is needed. PMID:25674764

  20. Distinguishing 3 classes of corpus callosal abnormalities in consanguineous families

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, R.M.; Marsh, S.E.; Swistun, D.; Al-Gazali, L.; Zaki, M.S.; Abdel-Salam, G.M.; Al-Tawari, A.; Bastaki, L.; Kayserili, H.; Rajab, A.; Boglárka, B.; Dietrich, R.B.; Dobyns, W.B.; Truwit, C.L.; Sattar, S.; Chuang, N.A.; Sherr, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We sought to create a classification system for pediatric corpus callosal abnormalities (CCA) based upon midline sagittal brain MRI. We used the term CCA for patients with structural variants of the corpus callosum, excluding patients with interhemispheric cyst variant or pure dysplasia without hypoplasia. Currently, no system exists for nonsyndromic forms of CCA, and attempts to create such a system have been hampered by highly variable morphology in patients with sporadic CCA. We reasoned that any useful strategy should classify affected family members within the same type, and that phenotypic variability should be minimized in patients with recessive disease. Methods: We focused recruitment toward multiplex consanguineous families, ascertained 30 patients from 19 consanguineous families, and analyzed clinical features together with brain imaging. Results: We identified 3 major CCA classes, including hypoplasia, hypoplasia with dysplasia, and complete agenesis. Affected individuals within a given multiplex family usually displayed the same variant of the class of abnormality and they always displayed the same class of abnormality within each family, or they displayed complete agenesis. The system was validated among a second cohort of 10 sporadic patients with CCA. Conclusions: The data suggest that complete agenesis may be a common end-phenotype, and implicate multiple overlapping pathways in the etiology of CCA. PMID:21263138

  1. Corpus callosotomy in a patient with startle epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Nicolás Garófalo; Hamad, Ana Paula; Marinho, Murilo; Tavares, Igor M; Carrete, Henrique; Caboclo, Luís Otávio; Yacubian, Elza Márcia; Centeno, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Startle epilepsy is a syndrome of reflex epilepsy in which the seizures are precipitated by a sudden and surprising, usually auditory, stimulus. We describe herein a girl who had been suffering with startle-induced seizures since 2 years of age. She had focal, tonic and tonic-clonic seizures, refractory to antiepileptic treatment. Daily tonic seizures led to very frequent falls and morbidity. Neurologically, she had no deficit. Interictal EEG showed slow waves and epileptiform discharges in central and fronto-central regions. Video-polygraphic recordings of seizures, triggered by stimuli, showed generalised symmetric tonic posturing with ictal EEG, characterised by an abrupt and diffuse electrodecremental pattern of fast activity, followed by alpha-theta rhythm superimposed by epileptic discharges predominantly over the vertex and anterior regions. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormalities. Corpus callosotomy was performed when the patient was 17. Since surgery, the patient (one year follow-up) has remained seizure-free. Corpus callosotomy may be considered in patients with startle epilepsy and tonic seizures, in the absence of focal lesions amenable to surgery. [Published with video sequences]. PMID:23531553

  2. Postoperative seizure outcome after corpus callosotomy in reflex epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kwan, S Y; Wong, T T; Chang, K P; Yang, T F; Lee, Y C; Guo, W Y; Su, M S

    2000-03-01

    Flickering light and color patterns, reading, language, movement, decision making, eating, tapping and touching, hot water immersion and auditory stimulation can induce seizures in some epileptic patients. These are known as the "reflex epilepsies". The mechanism of reflex epilepsy is not clear. Recently, we performed anterior two-thirds corpus callosotomies in two reflex epilepsy patients (ages 12 and 14 years), with follow-up for more than three years. Patient 1 had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome with auditory-induced generalized atonic or tonic seizures (startle epilepsy), which decreased by 60% after callosotomy. Patient 2 had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome with somatosensory-induced generalized tonic seizures (tap epilepsy). He was seizure-free for one year immediately after callosotomy, but his seizures recurred with the same degree and frequency as before surgery. The nonsignificant postoperative seizure outcome suggests that the corpus callosum only plays a partial role in seizure generation. Our report also discusses the possible mechanisms of generation of reflex seizures. PMID:10746422

  3. A human language corpus for interstellar message construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John

    2011-02-01

    The aim of HuLCC (the human language chorus corpus), is to provide a resource of sufficient size to facilitate inter-language analysis by incorporating languages from all the major language families: for the first time all aspects of typology will be incorporated within a single corpus, adhering to a consistent grammatical classification and granularity, which historically adopt a plethora of disparate schemes. An added feature will be the inclusion of a common text element, which will be translated across all languages, to provide a precise comparable thread for detailed linguistic analysis for translation strategies and a mechanism by which these mappings can be explicitly achieved. Methods developed to solve unambiguous mappings across these languages can then be adopted for any subsequent message authored by the SETI community. Initially, it is planned to provide at least 20,000 words for each chosen language, as this amount of text exceeds the point where randomly generated text can be disambiguated from natural language and is of sufficient size useful for message transmission [1] (Elliot, 2002). This paper details the design of this resource, which ultimately will be made available to SETI upon its completion, and discusses issues 'core' to any message construction.

  4. Interpretations of the Healer's Touch in the Hippocratic Corpus.

    PubMed

    Kosak, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses gender as an aspect of the role of touch in the relationship between doctors and patients, as represented in the Hippocratic Corpus. Touch is an essential aspect of the ancient doctor's art, but one potentially fraught with concerns over gender: while seeing, hearing, and smelling are also central to the medical encounter, touching is the act that places the greatest demands on the privacy and bodily integrity of the patient. This paper shows--perhaps counterintuitively--that, despite the multiple assertions of gender differences put forward by the authors of the Hippocratic Corpus, these authors make little distinction between touching male and female patients. At the same time, the paper argues that ancient physicians were anxious to avoid the charge that they were harming their patients when they touched them. It demonstrates that male doctors, sensitive as they were to the problems posed by their interactions with female patients, were challenged in different ways when engaging in intimate contact with male patients. PMID:26946680

  5. The history of nephrology in the Talmudic corpus.

    PubMed

    Dvorjetski, Estée

    2002-07-01

    The kidneys, the bladder and nephrology in general were discussed in the Talmudic literature from their anatomical, pathological and philological aspects. The Sages' deliberations were based on the Biblical texts. The characteristic phraseology of the scriptures uses the kidneys as symbols of the human emotions, contrary to the heart, which is regarded as the location of wisdom. The kidney is considered to be the individual's seat of their deepest desires--perhaps because it is an "internal" organ, well hidden, surrounded by a capsule and by a layer of perinephric fat. The Talmudic corpus considers the kidneys to be the origin of secret counsels--"the kidneys advise". An injury to the kidneys is used symbolically as an example of a cruel and serious injury. The sages were concerned with nephrological problems such as a diseased kidney of small size, fluid and pus in the kidney, injuries, perforations and more. Fascinating advice is given regarding micturition, its timing, characteristics and significance. The Halakhah is concerned with the kidneys during the examination of an animal after slaughter for the fitness for its ritual consumption. The paper presents various nephrological diseases from the Talmudic corpus. Among them are, for example, "Tzemirtha"--urolithiasis; "Hydrakon"--hydronephrosis; "Suskhinta"--urinary retention; "Tzinit"--podagra, gout, and "Yerakon"--icterus. A survey of some Talmudic personalities will exemplify the existence of these conditions. PMID:12097728

  6. Morphological changes in the ovine carotid artery wall induced by cold storage.

    PubMed

    Smardencas, Arthur; Birchall, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Blood vessels obtained from cadavers and amputated limbs stored at 4°C (i.e., cold stored) potentially represent an economical and readily sourced alternative to autologous vessels and synthetic prostheses for vascular reconstructive surgery. However, cold-stored vessels would need to have a reduced antigenicity and an antithrombogenic autologous endothelial cell (EC) lining before they could function as patent vascular allografts. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cold storage for 1-16 weeks on the morphology of the ovine carotid artery wall. Ovine carotid arteries (n = 6) were rinsed and flushed with 0.9% saline, cut into segments, wrapped in 0.9% saline-soaked gauze, and stored at 4°C for 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 weeks. Following storage, the segments were sampled and the samples fixed and sectioned for light microscopic, immunohistochemical, or transmission electron microscopic examination. After 1 and 2 weeks the ECs were karyolitic or contained pyknotic nuclei. After 4 weeks the EC layer was depleted, the subendothelial matrix exposed, and the number of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and fibroblasts reduced. The 8- and 16-week samples demonstrated complete loss of the EC lining and only occasional remnants of SMCs or fibroblasts. The subendothelial basement membrane appeared to undergo degradative changes as early as 1 week following cold storage. At each time point examined, the subendothelial connective tissue stroma, the internal elastic lamina (IEL), and the collagenous and elastic extracellular framework were retained. These results demonstrate that the ovine carotid artery wall progressively loses its cells but retains its extracellular components during cold storage for up to 16 weeks. They suggest that cold-stored vessels may function as allografts with a reduced antigenicity for vascular reconstructive surgery. It is conceivable that seeded autologous ECs may be used to restore the antithrombogenic EC lining prior to graft implantation. PMID:21396174

  7. Leptin Matures Aspects of Lung Structure and Function in the Ovine Fetus

    PubMed Central

    De Blasio, Miles J.; Boije, Maria; Kempster, Sarah L.; Smith, Gordon C. S.; Charnock-Jones, D. Stephen; Denyer, Alice; Hughes, Alexandra; Wooding, F. B. Peter; Blache, Dominique; Fowden, Abigail L.

    2016-01-01

    In human and ovine fetuses, glucocorticoids stimulate leptin secretion, although the extent to which leptin mediates the maturational effects of glucocorticoids on pulmonary development is unclear. This study investigated the effects of leptin administration on indices of lung structure and function before birth. Chronically catheterized singleton sheep fetuses were infused iv for 5 days with either saline or recombinant ovine leptin (0.5 mg/kg · d leptin (LEP), 0.5 LEP or 1.0 mg/kg · d, 1.0 LEP) from 125 days of gestation (term ∼145 d). Over the infusion, leptin administration increased plasma leptin, but not cortisol, concentrations. On the fifth day of infusion, 0.5 LEP reduced alveolar wall thickness and increased the volume at closing pressure of the pressure-volume deflation curve, interalveolar septal elastin content, secondary septal crest density, and the mRNA abundance of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) and surfactant protein (SP) B. Neither treatment influenced static lung compliance, maximal lung volume at 40 cmH2O, lung compartment volumes, alveolar surface area, pulmonary glycogen, protein content of the long form signaling Ob-Rb or phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription-3, or mRNA levels of SP-A, C, or D, elastin, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, angiotensin-converting enzyme, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, or parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Leptin administration in the ovine fetus during late gestation promotes aspects of lung maturation, including up-regulation of SP-B. PMID:26479186

  8. Ovine aquaporin-2: cDNA cloning, ontogeny and control of renal gene expression.

    PubMed

    Butkus, A; Earnest, L; Jeyaseelan, K; Moritz, K; Johnston, H; Tenis, N; Wintour, E M

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the relative insensitivity of the ovine fetal kidney to arginine vasopressin (AVP) is due to low levels of expression of the gene for aquaporin-2 (AQP2) which encodes the AVP-regulated water channel. We report the cloning of the cDNA for the ovine AQP2 which has a major transcript at 4.2 kilobases (kb) and a minor transcript at 1.5 kb, resembling the human gene transcripts. At 40-60 days' (term = 145-150 days'), mRNA levels are very low, detectable only by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). By Northern blot analysis AQP2 mRNA is detectable at 75 days'. The ratio of AQP2/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA increases approximately 2.4-fold between 100 and 140 days' when it is about 41% of adult values. Both glucocorticoids and the renin-angiotensin system are involved in maturation of renal function. When fetuses at 75 or 85 days of gestation were exposed to high levels of dexamethasone for 2-3 days, mRNAs for both GAPDH and AQP2 doubled, but the ratio was unchanged. Angiotensin I, infused for 3 days at 115-120 days' gestation, increased the AQP2/GAPDH mRNA ratios by twofold (major transcript) and sixfold (minor transcript), which were highly significant (P<0.001). The increasing sensitivity of the ovine fetal kidney to AVP, from 100-140 days of gestation, is largely due to increasing AQP2 gene expression over this period. PMID:10412857

  9. Leptin Matures Aspects of Lung Structure and Function in the Ovine Fetus.

    PubMed

    De Blasio, Miles J; Boije, Maria; Kempster, Sarah L; Smith, Gordon C S; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Denyer, Alice; Hughes, Alexandra; Wooding, F B Peter; Blache, Dominique; Fowden, Abigail L; Forhead, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    In human and ovine fetuses, glucocorticoids stimulate leptin secretion, although the extent to which leptin mediates the maturational effects of glucocorticoids on pulmonary development is unclear. This study investigated the effects of leptin administration on indices of lung structure and function before birth. Chronically catheterized singleton sheep fetuses were infused iv for 5 days with either saline or recombinant ovine leptin (0.5 mg/kg · d leptin (LEP), 0.5 LEP or 1.0 mg/kg · d, 1.0 LEP) from 125 days of gestation (term ∼145 d). Over the infusion, leptin administration increased plasma leptin, but not cortisol, concentrations. On the fifth day of infusion, 0.5 LEP reduced alveolar wall thickness and increased the volume at closing pressure of the pressure-volume deflation curve, interalveolar septal elastin content, secondary septal crest density, and the mRNA abundance of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) and surfactant protein (SP) B. Neither treatment influenced static lung compliance, maximal lung volume at 40 cmH2O, lung compartment volumes, alveolar surface area, pulmonary glycogen, protein content of the long form signaling Ob-Rb or phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription-3, or mRNA levels of SP-A, C, or D, elastin, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, angiotensin-converting enzyme, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, or parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Leptin administration in the ovine fetus during late gestation promotes aspects of lung maturation, including up-regulation of SP-B. PMID:26479186

  10. TSH-induced cyclic AMP production in an ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 5H.

    PubMed

    Fayet, G; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

    1986-01-01

    The TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was studied using a 3-year-old ovine thyroid cell line TSH-independent for growth: OVNIS 5H. The kinetics of cyclic AMP production was followed both in cell layers and in cell culture media, with or without phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is noteworthy that following the first wave in cyclic AMP obtained within minutes, we observed later a sustained exponential increase in cyclic AMP during the 5 days following TSH stimulation. A bioassay of TSH was derived allowing measurement of 1 microU/ml TSH from a crude bTSH preparation. PMID:3000830

  11. Effect of diet on microRNA expression in ovine subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Meale, S J; Romao, J M; He, M L; Chaves, A V; McAllister, T A; Guan, L L

    2014-08-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that regulate ovine adipogenesis is very limited. MicroRNAs (miRNA) have been reported as one of the regulatory mechanisms of adipogenesis. This study aimed to compare the expression of miRNA related to ovine adipogenesis in different adipose depots and to investigate whether their expression is affected by dietary fatty acid composition. We also investigated the role of miRNA in adipogenic gene regulation. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples were collected at slaughter from 12 Canadian Arcott lambs fed a barley-based finishing diet where an algae meal (DHA-Gold; Schizochytrium spp.) replaced flax oil and barley grain at 0 or 3% DM (n = 6). Total RNA from each tissue was subjected to quantitative real time (qRT-) PCR analysis to determine the expression of 15 selected miRNA including 11 identified from bovine adipose tissues and 4 conserved between bovine and ovine species. MicroRNAs were differentially expressed according to diet in each tissue depot (miR-142-5p and miR-376d) in visceral and miR-142-5p, miR-92a, and miR-378 in subcutaneous adipose tissue; P ≤ 0.05) and in each tissue depot depending on diet (miR-101, miR-106, miR-136, miR-16b, miR-196a-1, miR-2368*, miR-2454, miR-296, miR-376d, miR-378, and miR-92a in both control and DHA-G diets and miR-478 in control; P ≤ 0.05). Six miRNA were subjected to functional analysis and 3 genes of interest (ACSL1, PPARα, and C/EBPα) were validated by qRT-PCR. Both diet and tissue depot affected expression levels of all 3 genes (P < 0.05). miR-101, miR-106, and miR-136 were negatively correlated with their respective predicted gene targets C/EBPα, PPARα, and ACSL1 in subcutaneous adipose tissue of lambs fed DHA-G. Yet miR-142-5p and miR-101 showed no correlation with ACSL1 or C/EBPα. The variability in expression patterns of miRNA across adipose depots reflects the tissue specific nature of adipogenic regulation. Although the examined miRNA appear to be conserved across ruminant species, our results indicate the presence of ovine specific regulatory mechanisms that can be influenced by diet. PMID:24893997

  12. Effect of single-chain ovine gonadotropins with dual activity on ovarian function in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Adams, Betty M; Jablonka-Shariff, Albina; Boime, Irving; Adams, Thomas E

    2014-08-01

    We examined the half-life and biological activity of two single-chain proteins that combined portions of ovine FSH and LH. We proposed the hypothesis that these chimeric proteins would display LH and FSH activities and would promote follicle maturation in ewes. Estrus activity was synchronized using progestogen-impregnated vaginal pessaries. To negate the impact of endogenous LH and FSH, animals received serum-containing antibodies against GNRH 1 day before pessary removal (PR). At PR sheep (five animals per group) received a single injection (10 IU/kg, i.v.) of either the ovine-based (oFcLcα) gonadotropin analog, an ovine-based analog containing oLHβ truncated at the carboxyl terminus (oFcL(ΔT)cα), or a human-based gonadotropin analog (hFcLcα). Control animals received a comparable amount of gonadotropin-free protein. Ovulation was induced 3 days after PR using human chorionic gonadotropin (1000 IU, i.v.). Ovaries were collected 11 days after PR. Neither estradiol (E2) or progesterone (P4) production, development of preovulatory follicles or corpora lutea (CL) were noted in control animals receiving gonadotropin-free protein. Significant increase in the synthesis of E2 and P4 was noted in sheep receiving the dually active gonadotropin analogs. The number of CLs present 11 days after PR was significantly increased in sheep receiving the chimeric glycoproteins compared with control animals. The magnitude of the secretory and ovarian responses did not differ between hFcLcα and oFcLcα or between oFcLcα and oFcL(ΔT)cα. Immunoactivity of LH and FSH was low in control animals, but was significantly elevated in sheep receiving the gonadotropin analogs. In conclusion, ovine-based gonadotropin analogs are functionally active in sheep and a single injection is adequate to induce the development of multiple ovulatory follicles. PMID:24811780

  13. Use of Corpus in the Business English Classroom: From Lesser to More Specific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Alejandro Curado; Rokowski, Patricia Edwards

    The integration of a corpus-based approach in the English for Specific Purposes (ESP) syllabus is one possible course design step in university settings. This paper describes a situation in which Business English is taught by incorporating corpus-driven knowledge and communicative task feedback. Two main goals are pursued in this reciprocal…

  14. Textual, Genre and Social Features of Spoken Grammar: A Corpus-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Llantada, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a corpus-based approach to teaching and learning spoken grammar for English for Academic Purposes with reference to Bhatia's (2002) multi-perspective model for discourse analysis: a textual perspective, a genre perspective and a social perspective. From a textual perspective, corpus-informed instruction helps students identify

  15. More than a Linguistic Reference: The Infuence of Corpus Technology on L2 Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hyunsook

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study that investigated the changes in students' writing process associated with corpus use over an extended period of time. The primary purpose of this study was to examine how corpus technology affects students' development of competence as second language (L2) writers. The research was mainly based on case

  16. Language with Character: A Stratified Corpus Comparison of Individual Differences in E-Mail Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberlander, Jon; Gill, Alastair J.

    2006-01-01

    To what extent does the wording and syntactic form of people's writing reflect their personalities? Using a bottom-up stratified corpus comparison, rather than the top-down content analysis techniques that have been used before, we examine a corpus of e-mail messages elicited from individuals of known personality, as measured by the Eysenck…

  17. 76 FR 49285 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX AGENCY... Register June 2, 2011, ] amending Class D airspace at Cabaniss Navy Outlying Field (NOLF), Corpus Christi... 2, 2011, the FAA published in the Federal Register a final rule amending Class D airspace...

  18. A Quantitative Corpus-Based Approach to English Spatial Particles: Conceptual Symmetry and Its Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Alvin Cheng-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate how conceptual symmetry plays a role in the use of spatial particles in English and to further examine its pedagogical implications via a corpus-based evaluation of the course books in senior high schools in Taiwan. More specifically, we adopt a quantitative corpus-based approach to investigate whether bipolar…

  19. Formulaic Language in Native and Second Language Speakers: Psycholinguistics, Corpus Linguistics, and TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.; Simpson-Vlach, Rita; Maynard, Carson

    2008-01-01

    Natural language makes considerable use of recurrent formulaic patterns of words. This article triangulates the construct of "formula" from corpus linguistic, psycholinguistic, and educational perspectives. It describes the corpus linguistic extraction of pedagogically useful formulaic sequences for academic speech and writing. It determines…

  20. The Use of Corpus Concordancing for Second Language Learners' Self Error-Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Hui-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Corpus concordancing has been utilized in second language (L2) writing classrooms for a few decades. Some studies have shown that this application is helpful, to a certain degree, to learners' writing process. However, how corpus concordancing is utilized for nonnative speakers' (NNSs) self error-correction in writing, especially the

  1. Attitudes towards English in Norway: A Corpus-Based Study of Attitudinal Expressions in Newspaper Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graedler, Anne-Line

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some dimensions of how the role of the English language in Norway has been discursively constructed in newspapers during recent years, based on the analysis of data from the five-year period 2008-2012. The analysis is conducted using a specialised corpus containing 3,743 newspaper articles which were subjected to corpus-based…

  2. An Empirical Study on Corpus-Driven English Vocabulary Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkai, Jiao

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the autonomous English vocabulary learning in corpus-based contexts. Language teaching practice is becoming more learner-centered in the field of language teaching, learner autonomy has been an ongoing concern of foreign language educators in china. As an assistant tool in language learning, corpus makes an easy and quick…

  3. Textual, Genre and Social Features of Spoken Grammar: A Corpus-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Llantada, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a corpus-based approach to teaching and learning spoken grammar for English for Academic Purposes with reference to Bhatia's (2002) multi-perspective model for discourse analysis: a textual perspective, a genre perspective and a social perspective. From a textual perspective, corpus-informed instruction helps students identify…

  4. Lexical Properties of Slovene Sign Language: A Corpus-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vintar, Špela

    2015-01-01

    Slovene Sign Language (SZJ) has as yet received little attention from linguists. This article presents some basic facts about SZJ, its history, current status, and a description of the Slovene Sign Language Corpus and Pilot Grammar (SIGNOR) project, which compiled and annotated a representative corpus of SZJ. Finally, selected quantitative data…

  5. The Use of Corpus Concordancing for Second Language Learners' Self Error-Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Hui-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Corpus concordancing has been utilized in second language (L2) writing classrooms for a few decades. Some studies have shown that this application is helpful, to a certain degree, to learners' writing process. However, how corpus concordancing is utilized for nonnative speakers' (NNSs) self error-correction in writing, especially the…

  6. A Corpus-Based Study on English Prepositions of Place, "In" and "On"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arjan, Asmeza; Abdullah, Noor Hayati; Roslim, Norwati

    2013-01-01

    This corpus-based study examined the usage, mastery and developmental pattern (Norwati, 2004) of English prepositions of place, "in" and "on" across three different academic levels namely Form 4, Form 5 and College students. The Malaysian Corpus of Students Argumentative Writing (MCSAW) was used as the source of data in…

  7. A Corpus-Based Discourse Analysis of the Vision and Mission Statements of Universities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efe, Ibrahim; Ozer, Omer

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a corpus-assisted discourse analysis of mission and vision statements of 105 state and 66 private/foundation universities in Turkey. The paper combines a corpus-based approach with critical discourse analysis to interpret the data in relation to its institutional as well as socio-political context. It argues…

  8. 75 FR 43886 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ...This action proposes to amend Class E airspace in the Corpus Christi, TX area. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Corpus Christi International Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at the...

  9. A Corpus-Based Approach to Online Materials Development for Writing Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ching-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hua

    2011-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the possible applications of corpora to both linguistic research and pedagogy. This study takes a corpus-based, genre-analytic approach to discipline-specific materials development. Combining corpus analysis with genre analysis makes it possible to develop teaching materials that are not only authentic but…

  10. The English Definite Article: What ESL/EFL Grammars Say and What Corpus Findings Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WonHo Yoo, Isaiah

    2009-01-01

    To ascertain whether what ESL/EFL grammars say is informed by what scholars discuss in the literature and supported by what corpus findings actually show, this paper first presents a brief overview of the literature on the English definite article and then compares popular ESL/EFL grammars' coverage of "the" and corpus findings on definite article…

  11. "Nice Things Get Said": Corpus Evidence and the National Literacy Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey, Alison; Thompson, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The article compares evidence from an electronic corpus of texts written for a child audience with specifications in the National Literacy Strategy. The concepts and terminology associated with corpus linguistics are introduced and explained, and the research study from which the findings derive is summarised. Results of the analysis are presented…

  12. Capturing L2 Accuracy Developmental Patterns: Insights from an Error-Tagged EFL Learner Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thewissen, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The present article addresses the issue of second language accuracy developmental trajectories and shows how they can be captured via an error-tagged version of an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learner corpus. The data used in this study were extracted from the International Corpus of Learner English (Granger et al., 2009) and consist of a…

  13. Using Edit Distance to Analyse Errors in a Natural Language to Logic Translation Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker-Plummer, Dave; Dale, Robert; Cox, Richard; Romanczuk, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We have assembled a large corpus of student submissions to an automatic grading system, where the subject matter involves the translation of natural language sentences into propositional logic. Of the 2.3 million translation instances in the corpus, 286,000 (approximately 12%) are categorized as being in error. We want to understand the nature of…

  14. Productive Vocabulary Knowledge and Evaluation of ESL Writing in Corpus-Based Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Daehyeon

    2010-01-01

    Since Sinclair (1991) concretized the possibilities of processing and analyzing large quantities of text data through corpus linguistic techniques, the applications of corpus linguistic approaches employing authentic language data and empirical evidence have been widely accepted in language teaching and research. As the applications of corpus…

  15. A Corpus-Based View of Lexical Gender in Written Business English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates lexical gender in specialized communication. The key method of analysis is that of forms of address, professional titles, and "generic man" in a 10 million word corpus of written Business English. After a brief introduction and literature review on both gender in specialized communication and similar corpus-based views of

  16. English Collocation Learning through Corpus Data: On-Line Concordance and Statistical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtake, Hiroshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Morren, Brian; Ugawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We developed an English Collocations On Demand system offering on-line corpus and concordance information to help Japanese researchers acquire a better command of English collocation patterns. The Life Science Dictionary Corpus consists of approximately 90,000,000 words collected from life science related research papers published in academic

  17. Attitudes towards English in Norway: A Corpus-Based Study of Attitudinal Expressions in Newspaper Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graedler, Anne-Line

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some dimensions of how the role of the English language in Norway has been discursively constructed in newspapers during recent years, based on the analysis of data from the five-year period 2008-2012. The analysis is conducted using a specialised corpus containing 3,743 newspaper articles which were subjected to corpus-based

  18. Corpus Callosum and Prefrontal Functions in Adolescents with History of Very Preterm Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narberhaus, Ana; Segarra, Dolors; Caldu, Xavier; Gimenez, Monica; Pueyo, Roser; Botet, Francesc; Junque, Carme

    2008-01-01

    Very preterm (VPT) birth can account for thinning of the corpus callosum and poorer cognitive performance. Research findings about preterm and VPT adolescents usually describe a small posterior corpus callosum, although our research group has also found reductions of the anterior part, specifically the genu. The aim of the present study was to…

  19. Interface Conditions on Postverbal Subjects: A Corpus Study of L2 English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Cristobal; Mendikoetxea, Amaya

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates how syntactic knowledge interfaces with other cognitive systems by analysing the production of postverbal subjects, V(erb)-S(ubject) order, in an L1 Spanish-L2 English corpus and a comparable English native corpus. VS order in both native and L2 English is shown to be constrained by properties operating at three interfaces:

  20. Applying Corpus-Based Findings to Form-Focused Instruction: The Case of Reported Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Federica; Eckhardt, Suzanne E. B.

    2007-01-01

    Arguing that the introduction of corpus linguistics in teaching materials and the language classroom should be informed by theories and principles of SLA, this paper presents a case study illustrating how corpus-based findings on reported speech can be integrated into a form-focused model of instruction. After overviewing previous work which…

  1. Verb-Noun Collocations in Second Language Writing: A Corpus Analysis of Learners' English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laufer, Batia; Waldman, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the use of English verb-noun collocations in the writing of native speakers of Hebrew at three proficiency levels. For this purpose, we compiled a learner corpus that consists of about 300,000 words of argumentative and descriptive essays. For comparison purposes, we selected LOCNESS, a corpus of young adult native…

  2. English Collocation Learning through Corpus Data: On-Line Concordance and Statistical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtake, Hiroshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Morren, Brian; Ugawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We developed an English Collocations On Demand system offering on-line corpus and concordance information to help Japanese researchers acquire a better command of English collocation patterns. The Life Science Dictionary Corpus consists of approximately 90,000,000 words collected from life science related research papers published in academic…

  3. Characterization and function of histamine receptors in corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y C; Davies, M G; Lee, T H; Hagen, P O; Carson, C C

    1995-02-01

    Widespread clinical use of H2 antagonists for peptic ulcer disease has been associated with reports of impotence. Histamine is a vasoactive amine which is endogenously produced in many organs including the penis. To date, 3 histamine receptor subtypes (H1, H2 and H3) have been identified. However, the role and function of histamine in the corpus cavernosal physiology are poorly understood. This study evaluates the in vitro functional characteristics of the 3 histamine receptor subtypes in the isolated corpus cavernosal strips from New Zealand White rabbits. The isometric responses to histamine and specific histamine receptor subtype agonists were assessed, following cyclooxygenase (indomethacin, 10(-5) M.), adrenergic (guanethidine, 5 x 10(-6) M.) and cholinergic (atropine, 5 x 10(-6) M.) blockade, at resting tension and after submaximal precontraction with norepinephrine (NE, 2 x 10(-5) M.). Histamine (10(-8) M. to 10(-3) M.) produced concentration-dependent contraction from basal and precontracted states and did not relax precontracted tissue. The H1 agonist, 2-(2-thiazolyl)ethylamine (10(-8) M. to 10(-3) M.), produced a contractile response from both basal and precontracted states, while the corporal tissue did not respond to either dimaprit, an H2 agonist (10(-8) M. to 10(-5) M.) or R(-)-alpha-methyl-histamine, an H3 agonist (10(-8) M. to 10(-5) M.). The response to histamine was progressively attenuated by an H1 antagonist (mepyramine; 10(-8) M. to 10(-5) M.), while neither an H2 antagonist (cimetidine; 10(-4)M.) nor an H3 antagonist (thioperamide; 10(-4)M.) had any inhibitory effects. H1 antagonism enhanced relaxation induced by electrical field stimulation (neurally mediated). Such relaxation increased after preincubation with 10(-6) M. or greater of mepyramine (p < 0.05). This study suggests that the principal histamine receptor subtype that mediates smooth muscle cell contraction in the corpus cavernosum is the H1 subtype. Since histamine H1 receptor antagonism increased NANC neurally mediated corporal relaxation, it possesses potential as an intracavernosal pharmacotherapeutic agent for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. This study, therefore, strongly indicates that H2 receptor antagonists are unlikely to have direct effects on penile erection. PMID:7815635

  4. An MRI review of acquired corpus callosum lesions.

    PubMed

    Renard, Dimitri; Castelnovo, Giovanni; Campello, Chantal; Bouly, Stephane; Le Floch, Anne; Thouvenot, Eric; Waconge, Anne; Taieb, Guillaume

    2014-09-01

    Lesions of the corpus callosum (CC) are seen in a multitude of disorders including vascular diseases, metabolic disorders, tumours, demyelinating diseases, trauma and infections. In some diseases, CC involvement is typical and sometimes isolated, while in other diseases CC lesions are seen only occasionally in the presence of other typical extra-callosal abnormalities. In this review, we will mainly discuss the MRI characteristics of acquired lesions involving the CC. Identification of the origin of the CC lesion depends on the exact localisation of the lesion(s) inside the CC, presence of other lesions seen outside the CC, signal changes on different MRI sequences, evolution over time of the radiological abnormalities, history and clinical state of the patient, and other radiological and non-radiological examinations. PMID:24563521

  5. [The succession of the Hippocratic corpus in modern Greece].

    PubMed

    Sugano, Yukiko; Honda, Katsuya

    2010-03-01

    This paper examines how the Hippocratic corpus was passed on during the Enlightenment of modern Greece, introducing part of the latest Greek research on the history of medicine. Although classical studies at large had stagnated at the time under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, with the movement toward independence in the second half of the 18th century the Greeks raised their consciousness of the fact that they were the successors to their ancestral great achievements. From that time classical studies, including the history of medicine, had been activated. From some medical dissertations and books written by Greek doctors or researchers of those days, we will recognize that they made efforts to deepen the substance of modern Greek medicine, seeking the principles of medical practice from the ancient heritage. PMID:20614734

  6. Axon position within the corpus callosum determines contralateral cortical projection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Wen, Yunqing; She, Liang; Sui, Ya-Nan; Liu, Lu; Richards, Linda J; Poo, Mu-Ming

    2013-07-16

    How developing axons in the corpus callosum (CC) achieve their homotopic projection to the contralateral cortex remains unclear. We found that axonal position within the CC plays a critical role in this projection. Labeling of nearby callosal axons in mice showed that callosal axons were segregated in an orderly fashion, with those from more medial cerebral cortex located more dorsally and subsequently projecting to more medial contralateral cortical regions. The normal axonal order within the CC was grossly disturbed when semaphorin3A/neuropilin-1 signaling was disrupted. However, the order in which axons were positioned within the CC still determined their contralateral projection, causing a severe disruption of the homotopic contralateral projection that persisted at postnatal day 30, when the normal developmental refinement of contralateral projections is completed in wild-type (WT) mice. Thus, the orderly positioning of axons within the CC is a primary determinant of how homotopic interhemispheric projections form in the contralateral cortex. PMID:23812756

  7. An Analysis of the Application of Wikipedia Corpus on the Lexical Learning in the Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has transformed linguistic research but has a slightly moderate impact on the ESL teaching and learning. The Wikipedia Corpus, designed by Mark Davis is introduced in this essay. The corpus allows teachers to search Wikipedia in a powerful way: they can search by word, phrase, part of speech, and synonyms. Teachers can also find…

  8. A Corpus-Based Study of the Misuse of Tenses in the English Composition of Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duan, Manfu

    2011-01-01

    Chinese Students' English has its own characteristics. It is of significance to analyze and study these characteristics. The paper uses the corpus approach to study the misuse of tenses in Chinese College students' CET-4 compositions of the sub-corpus of "Non-major College Students" in the Chinese Learner English Corpus (CLEC). Nine…

  9. Nuclear transfer procedures in the ovine can induce early embryo fragmentation and compromise cloned embryo development.

    PubMed

    Xue, Lian; Cheng, Lei; Su, Guanghua; Kang, Feng; Wu, Xia; Bai, Chunling; Zhang, Li; Li, Guang-Peng

    2011-07-01

    Cytoplasmic fragmentations are frequently observed in early mammalian embryos, and especially in the human. In our research we have observed subtle clues that the occurrence of fragmentation was most likely a result of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) protocols, and in particular, the in vitro culture system. In this study we examined various putative factors that might induce early embryo fragmentation in the ovine. The results indicate that nuclear transfer protocols such as the fusion parameter, activation treatment, and especially the choice of culture medium affected embryo cleavage rates and resulted in a higher incidence of fragmented embryos. Upon using the same fusion parameter, activation parameters that were based upon amino acids containing synthetic oviduct fluids (SOFaa) culture system resulted in significantly lower fragmentation rates than when utilizing a Charles Rosenkrans 1 (CR1aa) culture system. Fragmented embryos typically exhibited irregular numbers of blastomeres with the majority of blastomeres devoid of chromatin. Factors such as fusion DC pulse, activation treatment and culture system led to higher fragmentation and also affected in vitro and in vivo embryo development. The SOFaa based culture system produced a higher number of quality NT embryos resulting in higher pregnancy rates and the birth of live lambs as compared to the CR1aa based system (P<0.05). We conclude that early embryo fragmentation in the ovine is caused by suboptimal cloning protocols, and NT embryo development is especially affected by the culture system used. PMID:21700405

  10. Technical note: Isolation and characterization of ovine brown adipocyte precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, X; Hou, Y Q; Dahanayaka, S; Satterfield, M C; Burghardt, R C; Bazer, F W; Wu, G

    2015-05-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a critical role in regulating body temperature in newborn lambs. Availability of a stable BAT cell line would be invaluable for biochemical studies to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for nutritional regulation of fetal BAT growth and development. Ovine brown adipocyte precursor cells (BAPC) were isolated from fetal lambs at d 90 of gestation and cultured to establish a stable cell line. These cells were characterized by adipogenic differentiation and expression of a hallmark gene, (). The BAPC doubled every 24 h. After a 9-d induction with a serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle Ham/F12 medium, BAPC differentiated into brown adipocytes with large lipid droplets. The differentiation medium induced expression of mRNA and protein in BAPC. Furthermore, after BAPC were passaged 30 times, they maintained similar cell morphology, the potential for adipogenic differentiation, and the ability to express . Taken together, we have established a stable ovine BAPC cell line for studying nutritional regulation of BAT growth and development in the fetus. PMID:26020305

  11. Determination of imidocarb residues in bovine and ovine liver and milk by immunobiosensor.

    PubMed

    Traynor, I M; Thompson, C S; Armstrong, L; Fodey, T; Danaher, M; Jordan, K; Kennedy, D G; Crooks, S R H

    2013-01-01

    Imidocarb (IMD) is a veterinary drug that has been used for more than 30 years to treat and prevent parasitic diseases. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that substantial levels of IMD residues are retained in the edible tissues and milk of cattle and sheep for up to 6 months after administration. This has led to concern regarding the potential adverse effects posed through human consumption of edible tissue or milk from treated animals if the recommended withdrawal periods for the drug are not properly implemented. While MRLs have been established by the European Union, it is important that analytical methods are available to monitor food samples for potentially violative levels of IMD residues. A qualitative biosensor-based immunoassay was developed to allow the detection of IMD at less than the European Union MRLs of 50 μg kg(-1) for milk and 2 mg kg(-1) for bovine and ovine liver. Validation of the developed methods provided a detection capability of <25 μg kg(-1) in milk and <0.75 mg kg(-1) in liver. A comparison study was undertaken, with IMD incurred milk and ovine liver samples analysed by the newly developed procedures and results compared with those obtained by LC-MS/MS. The newly developed screening method was applied to both incurred milk and liver samples. This faster, cheaper and reliable screening method has potential use in sample analysis to ensure compliance with legislative requirements. PMID:23656364

  12. In silico analysis of regulatory and structural motifs of the ovine HSP90AA1 gene.

    PubMed

    González, Carmen; Salces-Ortiz, Judit; Calvo, Jorge H; Serrano, M Magdalena

    2016-05-01

    Gene promoters are essential regions of DNA where the transcriptional molecular machinery to produce RNA molecules is recruited. In this process, DNA epigenetic modifications can acquire a fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression. Recently, in a previous work of our group, functional features and DNA methylation involved in the ovine HSP90AA1 gene expression regulation have been observed. In this work, we report a combination of methylation analysis by bisulfite sequencing in several tissues and at different developmental stages together with in silico bioinformatic analysis of putative regulating factors in order to identify regulative mechanisms both at the promoter and gene body. Our results show a "hybrid structure" (TATA box + CpG island) of the ovine HSP90AA1 gene promoter both in somatic and non-differentiated germ tissues, revealing the ability of the HSP90AA1 gene to be regulated both in an inducible and constitutive fashion. In addition, in silico analysis showed that several putative alternative spliced regulatory motifs, exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs), and G-quadruplex secondary structures were somehow related to the DNA methylation pattern found. The results obtained here could help explain the differences in cell-type transcripts, tissue expression rate, and transcription silencing mechanisms found in this gene. PMID:26810179

  13. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC

    PubMed Central

    Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation. PMID:24228035

  14. Prevalence and risk factors associated to ovine toxoplasmosis in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Carlos Eduardo D'Alencar; Barros, Sílvia Letícia Bomfim; Guimarães, Vitor Andrade Accioly; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Munhoz, Alexandre Dias

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep from northeastern Brazil. A total of 932 ovine serum samples from 54 properties in 19 municipalities of the state of Sergipe were collected and assayed using indirect fluorescent antibody test. The assay used antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii (IFAT-IgG) with a cutoff point of 1:64. We observed that 28.22% (263/932) of the ovine samples were serum-reactive. In a logistic regression, factors such as consumption of water directly from the source, consumption of water from a deep well, and age below 12 months were associated with protection; whereas factors such as presence of cats on the property, presence of slatted floor, and use of exchanged or borrowed breeding males were associated with infection. The studied area can be considered endemic for toxoplasmosis, so it is necessary to adopt preventive and control measures because this zoonotic infection poses risks to public health. PMID:23856735

  15. Recent studies of ovine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses from BARN, the Batten Animal Research Network.

    PubMed

    Palmer, David N; Neverman, Nicole J; Chen, Jarol Z; Chang, Chia-Tien; Houweling, Peter J; Barry, Lucy A; Tammen, Imke; Hughes, Stephanie M; Mitchell, Nadia L

    2015-10-01

    Studies on naturally occurring New Zealand and Australian ovine models of the neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (Batten disease, NCLs) have greatly aided our understanding of these diseases. Close collaborations between the New Zealand groups at Lincoln University and the University of Otago, Dunedin, and a group at the University of Sydney, Australia, led to the formation of BARN, the Batten Animal Research Network. This review focusses on presentations at the 14th International Conference on Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease), recent relevant background work, and previews of work in preparation for publication. Themes include CLN5 and CLN6 neuronal cell culture studies, studies on tissues from affected and control animals and whole animal in vivo studies. Topics include the effect of a CLN6 mutation on endoplasmic reticulum proteins, lysosomal function and the interactions of CLN6 with other lysosomal activities and trafficking, scoping gene-based therapies, a molecular dissection of neuroinflammation, identification of differentially expressed genes in brain tissue, an attempted therapy with an anti-inflammatory drug in vivo and work towards gene therapy in ovine models of the NCLs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Current Research on the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease)". PMID:26073432

  16. Ovine middle cerebral artery characterization and quantification of ultrastructure and other features: changes with development.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ravi; Henderson, David A; Chu, Nina; Longo, Lawrence D

    2012-02-15

    Regulation of tone, blood pressure, and blood flow in the cerebral vasculature is of vital importance, particularly in the developing infant. We tested the hypothesis that, in addition to accretion of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in cell layers with vessel thickening, significant changes in smooth muscle structure, as well as phenotype, extracellular matrix, and membrane proteins, in the media of cerebral arteries (CAs) during the course of late fetal development account for associated changes in contractility. Using transmission electron, confocal, wide-field epifluorescence, and light microscopy, we examined the structure and ultrastructure of CAs. Also, we utilized wire myography, Western immunoblotting, and real-time quantitative PCR to examine several other features of these arteries. We compared the main branch ovine middle CAs of 95- and 140-gestational day (GD) fetuses with those of adults (n = 5 for each experimental group). We observed a graded increase in phenylephrine- and KCl-induced contractile responses with development. Structurally, lumen diameter, media thickness, and media cross-sectional area increased dramatically from one age group to the next. With maturation, the cross-sectional profiles of CA SMCs changed from flattened bands in the 95-GD fetus to irregular ovoid-shaped fascicles in the 140-GD fetus and adult. We also observed a change in the type of collagen, specific integrin molecules, and several other parameters of SMC morphology with maturation. Ovine CAs at 95 GD appeared morphologically immature and poorly equipped to respond to major hemodynamic adjustments with maturation. PMID:22116510

  17. mRNA Expression of Ovine Angiopoietin-like Protein 4 Gene in Adipose Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Jing, Jiong-Jie; Jia, Xia-Li; Qiao, Li-Ying; Liu, Jian-Hua; Liang, Chen; Liu, Wen-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is involved in a variety of functions, including lipoprotein metabolism and angiogenesis. To reveal the role of ANGPTL4 in fat metabolism of sheep, ovine ANGPTL4 mRNA expression was analyzed in seven adipose tissues from two breeds with distinct tail types. Forty-eight animals with the gender ratio of 1:1 for both Guangling Large Tailed (GLT) and Small Tailed Han (STH) sheep were slaughtered at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from greater and lesser omental, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, perirenal, mesenteric, and tail fats. Ontogenetic mRNA expression of ANGPTL4 in these adipose tissues from GTL and STH was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that ANGPTL4 mRNA expressed in all adipose tissues studied with the highest in subcutaneous and the lowest in mesenteric fat depots. Months of age, tissue and breed are the main factors that significantly influence the mRNA expression. These results provide new insights into ovine ANGPTL4 gene expression and clues for its function mechanism. PMID:26954186

  18. Application of small angle X-ray scattering synchrotron technology for measuring ovine meat quality.

    PubMed

    Hoban, J M; Hopkins, D L; Kirby, N; Collins, D; Dunshea, F R; Kerr, M G; Bailes, K; Cottrell, J J; Holman, B W B; Brown, W; Ponnampalam, E N

    2016-07-01

    A small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) synchrotron was used to evaluate 100 ovine m. longissimus lumborum, representing lamb (n=50) and sheep (n=50). The diffraction of X-rays gives information on muscle myofibril structure and fat content. The linear relationships between SAXS measures with measures such as, shear force, intramuscular fat content (IMF) and collagen content/solubility, were investigated. A relationship was found between the d-spacing of the actin/myosin fibril spacing (SAX1 and SAX2) and the cross sectional area of the rhombohedral unit cell (Cell area) and shear force after 1 and 5day ageing. There was a positive relationship between IMF and a SAXS Fat area measure. There was a muscle site effect on SAX1, SAX2 and Cell area, with the cranial site having a larger distance between myofibrils. The potential of SAXS as a powerful research tool to determine not only the structural components of ovine tenderness, but also the fat content related to IMF is evident. PMID:26971308

  19. A 57-bp deletion in the ovine KAP6-1 gene affects wool fibre diameter.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H; Gong, H; Li, S; Luo, Y; Hickford, J G H

    2015-08-01

    High glycine-tyrosine keratin-associated proteins (HGT-KAPs) are predominantly present in the orthocortex of wool fibres. They vary in abundance in different wools and have been implicated in regulating wool fibre properties, but little is known about the functional roles of these proteins in the fibre matrix. In this study, we used polymerase chain reaction--single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis to screen for variation in a gene encoding the ovine HGT-KAP6-1 protein. We identified three gene variants (A, B and C). Variants A and B were similar to each other, with only three nucleotide differences occurring downstream of the coding sequence. However, variant C had a 57-bp deletion that would notionally result in a loss of 19 amino acids in the protein. The presence of C was found to be associated with an increase in mean fibre diameter (MFD), fibre diameter standard deviation (FDSD), coefficient of variation of fibre diameter (CVFD) and prickle factor (percentage of fibres over 30 microns; PF). Sheep of genotype BC produced wool of greater MFD, FDSD and PF than sheep of genotypes AA, AB and BB. The CVFD was greater in the BC sheep than the AB sheep. The results suggest that variation in ovine KRTAP6-1 affects wool fibre diameter-associated traits and that the 57-bp deletion in this gene would lead to coarser wool with greater FDSD, CVFD and PF. PMID:25782086

  20. mRNA Expression of Ovine Angiopoietin-like Protein 4 Gene in Adipose Tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Jing, Jiong-Jie; Jia, Xia-Li; Qiao, Li-Ying; Liu, Jian-Hua; Liang, Chen; Liu, Wen-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is involved in a variety of functions, including lipoprotein metabolism and angiogenesis. To reveal the role of ANGPTL4 in fat metabolism of sheep, ovine ANGPTL4 mRNA expression was analyzed in seven adipose tissues from two breeds with distinct tail types. Forty-eight animals with the gender ratio of 1:1 for both Guangling Large Tailed (GLT) and Small Tailed Han (STH) sheep were slaughtered at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from greater and lesser omental, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, perirenal, mesenteric, and tail fats. Ontogenetic mRNA expression of ANGPTL4 in these adipose tissues from GTL and STH was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that ANGPTL4 mRNA expressed in all adipose tissues studied with the highest in subcutaneous and the lowest in mesenteric fat depots. Months of age, tissue and breed are the main factors that significantly influence the mRNA expression. These results provide new insights into ovine ANGPTL4 gene expression and clues for its function mechanism. PMID:26954186

  1. The effect of Psoroptes ovis infestation on ovine epidermal barrier function

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sheep scab is an intensively pruritic, exudative and allergic dermatitis of sheep caused by the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of P. ovis infestation on different components of the ovine epidermal barrier within the first 24 hours post-infestation (hpi). To achieve this, the expression of epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) genes and epidermal barrier proteins, the nature and severity of epidermal pathology and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were evaluated. By 1 hpi a significant dermal polymorphonuclear infiltrate and a significant increase in TEWL with maximal mean TEWL (598.67 g/m2h) were observed. Epidermal pathology involving intra-epidermal pustulation, loss of epidermal architecture and damage to the basement membrane was seen by 3 hpi. Filaggrin and loricrin protein levels in the stratum corneum declined significantly in the first 24 hpi and qPCR validation confirmed the decrease in expression of the key EDC genes involucrin, filaggrin and loricrin observed by microarray analysis, with 5.8-fold, 4.5-fold and 80-fold decreases, respectively by 24 hpi. The present study has demonstrated that early P. ovis infestation disrupts the ovine epidermal barrier causing significant alterations in the expression of critical barrier components, epidermal pathology, and TEWL. Many of these features have also been documented in human and canine atopic dermatitis suggesting that sheep scab may provide a model for the elucidation of events occurring in the early phases of atopic sensitisation. PMID:23398847

  2. Bioconversion of ovine scotta into lactic acid with pure and mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Secchi, Nicola; Giunta, Daniela; Pretti, Luca; García, Mónica Ruiz; Roggio, Tonina; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Catzeddu, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    Scotta is the main by-product in the making of ricotta cheese. It is widely produced in southern Europe and particularly in Italy where it represents a serious environmental pollutant due to its high lactose content. With the aim of evaluating whether scotta bioconversion into lactic acid can be considered as an alternative to its disposal, besides providing it with an added value, here the growth, fermentative performances, and lactic acid productions of pure and mixed cultures of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Streptococcus thermophilus were evaluated on ovine scotta-based media, without and with the addition of nutritional supplements. The outcomes indicate that ovine scotta can be utilized for the biotechnological production of lactic acid with yields up to 92%, comparable to those obtained on cheese-whey. Indeed, the addition of nutritional supplements generally improves the fermentative performances of lactic acid bacteria leading to about 2 g l(-1) h(-1) of lactic acid. Moreover, the use of mixed cultures for scotta bioconversion reduces the need for nutritional supplements, with no detrimental effects on the productive parameters compared to pure cultures. Finally, by using L. casei and S. thermophilus in pure and mixed cultures, up to 99% optically pure L: -lactic acid can be obtained. PMID:21739193

  3. The neuropathologic phenotype of experimental ovine BSE is maintained after blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Sisó, Sílvia; González, Lorenzo; Houston, Fiona; Hunter, Nora; Martin, Stuart; Jeffrey, Martin

    2006-07-15

    Iatrogenic transmission by blood transfusion has been described in cases of human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), experimental ovine bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and natural sheep scrapie, demonstrating that blood in these prion diseases is infectious. However, the possible effect of the transfusion, derived from differences in the inoculum (blood) and the route of infection (intravenous), on the pathologic phenotype of the disease in the recipients is not known. This study describes the neuropathologic phenotype of PrP(d) accumulation in sheep succumbing to neurologic disease after blood transfusion from donors experimentally infected with BSE; these were either clinically or subclinically affected at the time of donation. We demonstrate that blood can become infectious at early stages of ovine BSE infection and that the PrP(d) immunohistochemical phenotype is maintained after transfusion. This suggests that a change in the pathologic phenotype of vCJD would not be expected as a result of exposure to infected blood. PMID:16569766

  4. Antibodies to ovine herpesvirus 2 glycoprotein antibodies decrease virus infectivity and prevent malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) is the etiological agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), a generally fatal lymphoproliferative disease of many species in the order Artiodactyla. Development of a vaccine is critical to prevent mortality. Because OvHV-2 has not been cultured in vi...

  5. OXIDATION OF GLUCOSE, GLUTAMATE, AND GLUTAMINE BY ISOLATED OVINE ENTEROCYTES IN VITRO IS DECREASED BY PRESENCE OF OTHER METABOLIC FUELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate oxidative metabolism of glucose, glutamate, and glutamine by isolated ovine enterocytes in presence of other metabolic fuels in vitro. Mucosal enterocytes were isolated from crossbred wether sheep (n=6) fed a mixed forage-concentrate diet, and incubated f...

  6. REGULATION OF THE OVINE INTERFERON-TAU GENE BY A BLASTOCYST-SPECIFIC TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR, CDX2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of ovine interferon-tau (oIFNt), a factor essential for the process of maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminant ungulates, is restricted to the trophoblast. However, the molecular mechanisms by which oIFNt expression is restricted to the trophectoderm have not been fully elucidated. ...

  7. Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels are unaffected by the prion 171R allele in an Idaho sheep flock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding of sheep for arginine (R) at prion gene (PRNP) codon 171 confers resistance to Scrapie. The 171R allele naturally occurs at low frequency, possibly because it imparts a deleterious trait such as impaired disease resistance. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia/Maedi-Visna virus (OPPV) is...

  8. Effects of TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3 on susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus following natural exposure in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) adversely affect production and well-being of sheep and goats throughout much of the world. The SRLVs, including ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in North America, cause lifetime infections and management procedures to eradicate or reduce disease prevalenc...

  9. Deletion variant near ZNF389 is associated with control of ovine lentivirus in multiple flocks of sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus found in many countries that causes interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and cachexia in sheep. There is no preventive vaccine and no cure, but breed differences suggest marker-assisted selective breeding might improve odds of infectio...

  10. SUPPRESSION OF MANNHEIMIA (PASTEURELLA) HAEMOLYTICA SEROVAR 1 INFECTION IN LAMBS BY INTRAPULMONARY ADMINISTRATION OF OVINE ANTIMICROBIAL ANIONIC PEPTIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the efficacy of ovine antimicrobial anionic peptide (AP) was assessed in a lamb model of acute pneumonia. A single intratracheal dose of H-DDDDDDD-OH (0.5 mg) reduced pulmonary inflammation and the concentration of Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica in infected lung tissue. Admini...

  11. Non-maternal transmission is the major mode of ovine lentivirus transmission in a ewe flock: A molecular epidemiology study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmission of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), a lentivirus of sheep, occurs through both maternal and non-maternal means. Currently, the contribution of each route to the overall flock OPPV prevalence is poorly understood since previous serological epidemiologic studies lacked the abilit...

  12. Genome-Wide association identifies multiple genomic regions associated with susceptibility to and control of ovine lentivirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is macrophage-tropic and causes lifelonginfection. OvLV infects one quarter of U.S. sheep and induces pneumonia and body condition wasting. There is no vaccine to prevent OvLV infection and no cost-effective treatment for i...

  13. Peripheral Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Provirus Levels Correlate with and Predict Histological Tissue Lesion Severity in Naturally Infected Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether host immune responses in the form of serum anti-ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) antibody responses or virus replication in the form of peripheral OPP provirus levels associate with the degree of histological tissue lesions in naturally OPPV infec...

  14. OVINE HERPESVIRUS-2 GLYCOPROTEIN B SEQUENCES FROM TISSUES OF RUMINANT MALIGNANT CATARRHAL FEVER AND HEALTHY SHEEP ARE HIGHLY CONSERVED.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2) infection has been associated with malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in susceptible ruminants. In order to further investigate whether OHV-2 is an aetiological agent for sheep-associated (SA) MCF in cattle and bison, the entire sequences of OHV-2 glycoprotein B (gB) from di...

  15. Experimental nebulization of American bison (Bison bison) with low doses of ovine herpesvirus 2 from sheep nasal secretions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), is an important cause of mortality in ranched American bison (Bison bison) in North America. Detection of antibody against MCF-group viruses and OvHV-2 DNA in peripheral blood of healthy bison indicates that some are subclinic...

  16. A method for determining the number of documents needed for a gold standard corpus.

    PubMed

    Juckett, David

    2012-06-01

    The unstructured narratives in medicine have been increasingly targeted for content extraction using the techniques of natural language processing (NLP). In most cases, these efforts are facilitated by creating a manually annotated set of narratives containing the ground truth; commonly referred to as a gold standard corpus. This corpus is used for modeling, fine-tuning, and testing NLP software as well as providing the basis for training in machine learning. Determining the number of annotated documents (size) for this corpus is important, but rarely described; rather, the factors of cost and time appear to dominate decision-making about corpus size. In this report, a method is outlined to determine gold standard size based on the capture probabilities for the unique words within a target corpus. To demonstrate this method, a corpus of dictation letters from the Michigan Pain Consultant (MPC) clinics for pain management are described and analyzed. A well-formed working corpus of 10,000 dictations was first constructed to provide a representative subset of the total, with no more than one dictation letter per patient. Each dictation was divided into words and common words were removed. The Poisson function was used to determine probabilities of word capture within samples taken from the working corpus, and then integrated over word length to give a single capture probability as a function of sample size. For these MPC dictations, a sample size of 500 documents is predicted to give a capture probability of approximately 0.95. Continuing the demonstration of sample selection, a provisional gold standard corpus of 500 documents was selected and examined for its similarity to the MPC structured coding and demographic data available for each patient. It is shown that a representative sample, of justifiable size, can be selected for use as a gold standard. PMID:22245601

  17. Preparing an Annotated Gold Standard Corpus to Share with Extramural Investigators for De-identification Research

    PubMed Central

    Deleger, Louise; Kaiser, Megan; Stoutenborough, Laura; Marsolo, Keith; Kouril, Michal; Molnar, Katalin; Solti, Imre

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study aims to fill the gap in available healthcare de-identification resources by creating a new sharable dataset with realistic Protected Health Information (PHI) without reducing the value of the data for de-identification research. By releasing the annotated gold standard corpus with Data Use Agreement we would like to encourage other Computational Linguists to experiment with our data and develop new machine learning models for de-identification. This paper describes: (1) the modifications required by the Institutional Review Board before sharing the de-identification gold standard corpus; (2) our efforts to keep the PHI as realistic as possible; (3) and the tests to show the effectiveness of these efforts in preserving the value of the modified data set for machine learning model development. Material and Methods In a previous study we built an original de-identification gold standard corpus annotated with true Protected Health Information (PHI) from 3,503 randomly selected clinical notes for the 22 most frequent clinical note types of our institution. In the current study we modified the original gold standard corpus to make it suitable for external sharing by replacing HIPAA-specified PHI with newly generated realistic PHI. Finally, we evaluated the research value of this new dataset by comparing the performance of an existing published in-house de-identification system, when trained on the new de-identification gold standard corpus, with the performance of the same system, when trained on the original corpus. We assessed the potential benefits of using the new de-identification gold standard corpus to identify PHI in the i2b2 and PhysioNet datasets that were released by other groups for de-identification research. We also measured the effectiveness of the i2b2 and PhysioNet de-identification gold standard corpora in identifying PHI in our original clinical notes. Results Performance of the de-identification system using the new gold standard corpus as a training set was very close to training on the original corpus (92.56 vs. 93.48 overall F-measures). Best i2b2/PhysioNet/CCHMC cross-training performances were obtained when training on the new shared CCHMC gold standard corpus, although performances were still lower than corpus-specific trainings. Discussion and conclusion We successfully modified a de-identification dataset for external sharing while preserving the de-identification research value of the modified gold standard corpus with limited drop in machine learning de-identification performance. PMID:24556292

  18. Identification and quantification of ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in fresh and stored tissues of pigs with symptoms of porcine malignant catarrhal fever.

    PubMed

    Albini, Sarah; Zimmermann, Werner; Neff, Felix; Ehlers, Bernhard; Häni, Hansjürg; Li, Hong; Hüssy, Daniela; Engels, Monika; Ackermann, Mathias

    2003-02-01

    Cases of porcine malignant catarrhal fever were analyzed by a combination of identification and quantitation of ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in a variety of paraffin-embedded tissues from diseased pigs, serology, and exclusion of primary porcine gammaherpesviruses. In spite of reduced signal due to fixation and paraffin embedding, ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in pig brains exceeded the amounts found in sheep brains by orders of magnitude. PMID:12574312

  19. Identification and Quantification of Ovine Gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in Fresh and Stored Tissues of Pigs with Symptoms of Porcine Malignant Catarrhal Fever

    PubMed Central

    Albini, Sarah; Zimmermann, Werner; Neff, Felix; Ehlers, Bernhard; Häni, Hansjürg; Li, Hong; Hüssy, Daniela; Engels, Monika; Ackermann, Mathias

    2003-01-01

    Cases of porcine malignant catarrhal fever were analyzed by a combination of identification and quantitation of ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in a variety of paraffin-embedded tissues from diseased pigs, serology, and exclusion of primary porcine gammaherpesviruses. In spite of reduced signal due to fixation and paraffin embedding, ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in pig brains exceeded the amounts found in sheep brains by orders of magnitude. PMID:12574312

  20. Cellular and molecular maturation in fetal and adult ovine calcaneal tendons

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Valentina; Mauro, Annunziata; Martelli, Alessandra; Di Giacinto, Oriana; Di Marcantonio, Lisa; Nardinocchi, Delia; Berardinelli, Paolo; Barboni, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Processes of development during fetal life profoundly transform tendons from a plastic tissue into a highly differentiated structure, characterised by a very low ability to regenerate after injury in adulthood. Sheep tendon is frequently used as a translational model to investigate cell-based regenerative approaches. However, in contrast to other species, analytical and comparative baseline studies on the normal developmental maturation of sheep tendons from fetal through to adult life are not currently available. Thus, a detailed morphological and biochemical study was designed to characterise tissue maturation during mid- (2 months of pregnancy: 14 cm of length) and late fetal (4 months: 40 cm of length) life, through to adulthood. The results confirm that ovine tendon morphology undergoes profound transformations during this period. Endotenon was more developed in fetal tendons than in adult tissues, and its cell phenotype changed through tendon maturation. Indeed, groups of large rounded cells laying on smaller and more compacted ones expressing osteocalcin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) were identified exclusively in fetal mid-stage tissues, and not in late fetal or adult tendons. VEGF, NGF as well as blood vessels and nerve fibers showed decreased expression during tendon development. Moreover, the endotenon of mid- and late fetuses contained identifiable cells that expressed several pluripotent stem cell markers [Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT), SRY Determining Region Y Box-2 (SOX2), Nanog Homeobox (NANOG) and Octamer Binding Transcription Factor-4A (OCT-4A)]. These cells were not identifiable in adult specimens. Ovine tendon development was also accompanied by morphological modifications to cell nuclei, and a progressive decrease in cellularity, proliferation index and expression of connexins 43 and 32. Tendon maturation was similarly characterised by modulation of several other gene expression profiles, including Collagen type I, Collagen type III, Scleraxis B, Tenomodulin, Trombospondin 4 and Osteocalcin. These gene profiles underwent a dramatic reduction in adult tissues. Transforming growth factor-1 expression (involved in collagen synthesis) underwent a similar decrease. In conclusion, these morphological studies carried out on sheep tendons at different stages of development and aging offer normal structural and molecular baseline data to allow accurate evaluation of data from subsequent interventional studies investigating tendon healing and regeneration in ovine experimental models. PMID:25546075

  1. Role of NO-cGMP pathway in ovine cervical relaxation induced by Erythroxylum caatingae Plowman.

    PubMed

    Santos, K C; Monte, A P O; Lima, J T; Ribeiro, L A A; Palheta Junior, R C

    2016-01-01

    Erythroxylum caatingae Plowman has a myorelaxing effect on smooth muscle tissue. We investigated the effect of the crude ethanolic extract of E. caatingae Plowman (Ec-EtOH) on the contractility of the ovine cervix. In an isometric system, circular strips were subjected to 90mM potassium (K(+)) or 30μM carbamylcholine (CCh)-induced contraction. We then exposed the tissue to cumulative concentrations of Ec-EtOH (1-729μg/ml). In other bath solutions, the tissues were exposed to l-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 100μM), l-NAME (100μM)+l-arginine (300μM), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, ODQ; 5μM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 3mM), tetraethylammonium (TEA; 0.3mM), glybenclamide (1μM), atosiban (10μM) or verapamil (3μM), followed by the addition of Ec-EtOH (1-729μg/ml). We also evaluated the effect of cervical Ec-EtOH infusion (2mg) on cervical contractility in vivo. Ec-EtOH decreased cervical contractility induced by K(+) or CCh, and 729μg/ml Ec-EtOH decreased 85.4±5.1% the amplitude of basal contractility in vitro, with an EC50 of 17.9±3.7μg/ml. This effect of Ec-EtOH was prevented by l-NAME or ODQ. l-arginine impaired the blunting effect of l-NAME on cervical relaxation caused by Ec-EtOH. However, the potassium channel blockers 4-AP, TEA, and glybenclamide did not modify this myorelaxation triggered by Ec-EtOH. Ec-EtOH also decreased acetylcholine-induced contractions in tissue preincubated with verapamil. In addition, Ec-EtOH decreased ovine cervical contractions in vivo. Thus, Ec-EtOH had a relaxant effect on ovine cervical contractions. This may involve the nitric oxide signal, mediated by cGMP cellular transduction, and be related to intracellular calcium sequestration. PMID:26619941

  2. Estradiol induces and hyperglycosylates the receptor for ovine gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D B; Sebastian, J; Miller, W L

    2000-01-01

    The crucial first link between GnRH and its pleiotropic stimulation of the reproductive system is its receptor (GnRHRec). In mammals, 17beta-estradiol is a major regulator of GnRH action, and part of its regulation occurs at the level of the GnRHRec. In ovine pituitary cultures, estradiol simultaneously increases GnRHRec and GnRH-stimulated LH secretion (the LH response), but after 6-15 h the effect of estradiol becomes paradoxical, and the LH response rapidly decreases to control levels (by 24 h), whereas GnRHRec remains elevated. A preliminary study used photoaffinity labeling of the GnRHRec to show that estradiol can induce 38- and 43-kDa GnRHRec. The photoaffinity technique has been used here to 1) further investigate estradiol-mediated induction of GnRHRec, 2) define the nature of the different sized GnRHRecs, and 3) determine whether the larger size is related to degradation of the LH response. The effect of estradiol is compared with that of inhibin, which only induces the 38-kDa GnRHRec and always increases the LH response to GnRH treatment. Receptors for GnRH in ovine pituitary cultures were photoaffinity labeled with [125I](azidobenzoyl-D-Lys6-des-Gly10)-GnRH-N-ethylamide and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Treatment with estradiol or inhibin for 6-24 h induced a 38-kDa GnRHRec only. Further treatment with estradiol (>24 h), but not inhibin, shifted the apparent Mr of the GnRHRec to 43 kDa. Phosphatase treatment did not reverse this apparent Mr change. Analysis of receptor glycosylation using N-glycosidase F or tunicamycin showed that the 43-kDa GnRHRec was a hyperglycosylated form of the 38-kDa GnRHRec. The 38-kDa GnRHRec, in turn, was a glycosylated form of the 29-kDa GnRHRec. The studies presented here define several glycosylated intermediates of the ovine GnRHRec that are induced by estradiol and/or inhibin. The function of estrogen-mediated hyperglycosylation is unclear, but kinetic studies dissociate it from degeneration of the LH response to GnRH. PMID:10614627

  3. Evidence for gene transcription of adenohypophyseal hormones in the ovine pars tuberalis.

    PubMed

    Böckers, T M; Bockmann, J; Fauteck, J D; Wittkowski, W; Sabel, B A; Kreutz, M R

    1996-01-01

    Specific cells of the hypophyseal pars tuberalis (PT) have been associated with the transmission of photoperiodic stimuli to the endocrine system. However, their principal secretory products have not been identified yet. Therefore we studied the expression of several adenohypophyseal hormones and their subunits (TSH, FSH, LH, common alpha-chain, GH, ACTH, PRL, alpha- and gamma-MSH, beta-lipotropin) by immunocytochemistry, Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization in the sheep pituitary. Only the common alpha-chain of glycoprotein hormones could be detected in ovine PT-specific cells by immunocytochemistry while antibodies directed against the beta-chains of LH, FSH, TSH and beta-lipotropin labeled single cells in the PT but failed to detect these antigens in PT-specific cells. In situ hybridization and Northern blot analysis with antisense oligonucleotides against the common alpha-chain, beta-LH, beta-FSH, beta-TSH, PRL and POMC revealed the expression of these subunits in the ovine PT. The mRNA of the common alpha-chain, beta-TSH and, to a far lower extent, PRL and POMC were found throughout the entire pars tuberalis while beta-FSH and beta-LH could only be detected in cells of the caudal PT. Hence, GH-mRNA and GH immunoreactivity were exclusively found in the pituitary pars distalis. Compared to these results--obtained under the short photoperiod (winter)--we found clear ultrastructural signs of altered secretory activity in PT-specific cells of animals exposed to the long photoperiod (summer); the common alpha-chain immunoreactivity was nearly absent in PT-specific cells of summer animals. However, no seasonal influence on gene transcription or translation for other adenohypophyseal hormone was observed. These findings suggest that ovine PT-specific cells, which are only immunopositive for the common alpha-chain, are capable to express different mRNAs of adenohypophyseal hormones. Although it remains elusive how gene transcription and translation are related in this cell type, the presence of an mRNA pool for hormone subunits leads to the speculation that--at least in the sheep--hormone synthesis is mainly regulated at the translational level and that secretion of hormones may be primarily constitutive. PMID:8839351

  4. SELECTIVELY DIMINISHED CORPUS CALLOSUM FIBERS IN CONGENITAL CENTRAL HYPOVENTILATION SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a condition associated with mutations in the PHOX2B gene, is characterized by loss of breathing drive during sleep, insensitivity to CO2 and O2, and multiple somatomotor, autonomic, neuropsychological, and ophthalmologic deficits, including impaired intrinsic and extrinsic eye muscle control. Brain structural studies show injury in peri-callosal regions and the corpus callosum (CC), which has the potential to affect functions disturbed in the syndrome; however, the extent of CC injury in CCHS is unclear. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based fiber tractography procedures display fiber directional information and allow quantification of fiber integrity. We performed DTI in 13 CCHS children (age, 18.2±4.7 years; 8 male) and 31 control (17.4±4.9 years; 18 male) subjects using a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner; CC fibers were assessed globally and regionally with tractography procedures, and fiber counts and densities compared between groups using analysis-of-covariance (covariates; age and sex). Global CC evaluation showed reduced fiber counts and densities in CCHS over control subjects (CCHS vs controls; fiber-counts, 4490±854 vs 5232±777, p<0.001; fiber-density, 10.0±1.5 vs 10.8±0.9 fibers/mm2, p<0.020), and regional examination revealed that these changes are localized to callosal axons projecting to prefrontal (217±47 vs 248±32, p<0.005), premotor (201±51 vs 241±47, p<0.012), parietal (179±64 vs 238±54, p<0.002), and occipital regions (363±46 vs 431±82, p<0.004). Corpus callosum fibers in CCHS are compromised in motor, cognitive, speech, and ophthalmologic regulatory areas. The mechanisms of fiber injury are unclear, but may result from hypoxia or perfusion deficits accompanying the syndrome, or from consequences of PHOX2B action. PMID:21256194

  5. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Schemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For long it was believed that a particular population of enteric neurons, referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPAN)s, encodes mechanical stimulation. We recently proposed a new concept suggesting that there are in addition mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) that are multifunctional. Based on firing pattern MEN behaved as rapidly, slowly, or ultra-slowly adapting RAMEN, SAMEN, or USAMEN, respectively. We aimed to validate this concept in the myenteric plexus of the gastric corpus, a region where IPANs were not identified and existence of enteric sensory neurons was even questioned. The gastric corpus is characterized by a particularly dense extrinsic sensory innervation. Neuronal activity was recorded with voltage sensitive dye imaging after deformation of ganglia by compression (intraganglionic volume injection or von Fry hair) or tension (ganglionic stretch). We demonstrated that 27% of the gastric neurons were MEN and responded to intraganglionic volume injection. Of these 73% were RAMEN, 25% SAMEN, and 2% USAMEN with a firing frequency of 1.7 (1.1/2.2), 5.1 (2.2/7.7), and of 5.4 (5.0/15.5) Hz, respectively. The responses were reproducible and stronger with increased stimulus strength. Even after adaptation another deformation evoked spike discharge again suggesting a resetting mode of the mechanoreceptors. All MEN received fast synaptic input. Fifty five percent of all MEN were cholinergic and 45% nitrergic. Responses in some MEN significantly decreased after perfusion of TTX, low Ca++/high Mg++ Krebs solution, capsaicin induced nerve defunctionalization and capsazepine indicating the involvement of TRPV1 expressing extrinsic mechanosensitive nerves. Half of gastric MEN responded to intraganglionic volume injection as well as to ganglionic stretch and 23% responded to stretch only. Tension-sensitive MEN were to a large proportion USAMEN (44%). In summary, we demonstrated for the first time compression and tension-sensitive MEN in the stomach; many of them responded to one stimulus modality only. Their proportions and the basic properties were similar to MEN previously identified by us in other intestinal region and species. Unlike in the intestine, the responsiveness of some gastric MEN is enhanced by extrinsic TRPV1 expressing visceral afferents. PMID:26578888

  6. Evaluation of pore-water samplers at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used innovative sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report evaluates a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. The new type of pore-water sampler appears to be an effective approach for long-term monitoring of ground water in the sand and organic-rich mud beneath the drainage ditch.

  7. 33 CFR 165.809 - Security Zones; Port of Port Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zones; Port of Port Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX. 165... Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX....

  8. xGENIA: A comprehensive OWL ontology based on the GENIA corpus

    PubMed Central

    Rak, Rafal; Kurgan, Lukasz; Reformat, Marek

    2007-01-01

    The GENIA ontology is a taxonomy that was developed as a result of manual annotation of a subset of MEDLINE, the GENIA corpus. Both the ontology and corpus have been used as a benchmark to test and develop biological information extraction tools. Recent work shows, however, that there is a demand for a more comprehensive ontology that would go along with the corpus. We propose a complete OWL ontology built on top of the GENIA ontology utilizing the GENIA corpus. The proposed ontology includes elements such as the original taxonomy of categories, biological entities as individuals, relations between individuals using verbs and verb nominalizations as object properties, and links to the UMLS® Metathesaurus concepts. Availability http://www.ece.ualberta.ca/~rrak/ontology/xGENIA/ PMID:17597921

  9. Ovine congenital myotonia associated with a mutation in the muscle chloride channel gene.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Luis Vicente; Tejedor, María Teresa; Ramos, Juan José; Lacasta, Delia; Ferrer, Luis Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Congenital myotonia (CM) is characterised by a delay in muscular relaxation after sudden contractions. In a recent outbreak of ovine CM affecting 1% of new-born lambs in a Spanish flock of Rasa Aragonesa sheep, a comparative pathology approach was taken: because a mutation in the muscle chloride channel gene (CLCN1) was identified as responsible for CM in goats, the same gene was sequenced in the affected lambs. A non-synonymous single nucleotide variation (SNV) in the second exon of CLCN1 was associated with this pathology. Rams carrying this SNV heterozygously were thereafter identified and replaced by wild-type homozygous young males. No additional CM cases were detected in subsequent lambing seasons. PMID:25744800

  10. Hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) is a growth factor for human, ovine and porcine thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Fayet, G; Amphoux-Fazekas, T; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

    1996-03-01

    Hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) provokes in murine erythroleukemia cells (MELC) a commitment to terminal differentiation leading to the activation of the expression of hemoglobin. HMBA has been tested also in other cells from colon cancer, melanoma or lung cancer. However it has not yet been tested in the thyroid. We demonstrate in this paper that HMBA in kinetics and concentration-response experiments increases the proliferation of human thyroid cells isolated from Graves'-Basedow patients. It also acts like a growth factor for ovine and porcine thyroid cells, respectively, from the OVNIS line and the ATHOS line. This molecule which is a differentiating factor in the MELC system and a growth factor in human thyroid cell cultures represents a potential to get human thyroid cell lines expressing specialized functions. PMID:8734479

  11. Unlocked and locked elastic stable intramedullary nailing in an ovine tibia fracture model: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Berger, Leopold; Fischerauer, Stefan; Weiß, Barbara; Celarek, Anna; Castellani, Christoph; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina; Tschegg, Elmar

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, four different systems of elastic stable intramedullary nails (unlocked, Ender stainless steel nails locked with 3-mm screws, titanium nails locked with end caps, titanium nails locked with plugs and 3-mm screws) were implanted in cadaveric ovine tibiae. Fractures were simulated by a transverse diaphyseal osteotomy. The specimens were subjected to simultaneous axial and torsional fatigue loading of 5000 and 1000 cycles, respectively. The unlocked systems failed at an axial load of 200 N peak amplitude. End caps systems withstood axial loads up to 800 N for 1000 cycles, and ender nails and plugs lasted up to 1000 N for 1000 cycles. All systems showed a decrease of axial stiffness with higher loads and endured cycles. Ender nails and nails locked with plugs failed by penetration of the distal epiphysis rather than by loosening of the interlocking system. Overall, the titanium nails locked with plugs and 3-mm screws exhibited superior test results. PMID:24857493

  12. Electrically evoked potentials in an ovine model for the evaluation of visual prosthesis efficacy.

    PubMed

    Barriga-Rivera, Alejandro; Eiber, Calvin D; Dodds, Christopher W D; Fung, Adrian T; Tatarinoff, Veronica; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J

    2015-08-01

    Visual prostheses are becoming a reality as a therapy to restore functional vision to the blind. New stimulation strategies and novel electrode designs are contributing to accelerate the development of such devices triggering the interest of scientists, clinicians and the blind community worldwide. In this scenario, there is a need for large animal models that are suitable for preclinical testing of retinal neuroprostheses. This study presents an electrophysiology assessment of an ovine model for single and simultaneous electrode stimulation from the suprachoroidal space, using symmetric biphasic current pulses with a monopolar return configuration. Visually and electrically evoked potentials were recorded using supradural surface electrodes, showing charge thresholds comparable to those in humans. This model represents an alternative to feline or canine models with analogous activation levels and an eye anatomy similar to that of humans. PMID:26737012

  13. Indentation experiments and simulation of ovine bone using a viscoelastic-plastic damage model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Wu, Ziheng; Turner, Simon; MacLeay, Jennifer; Niebur, Glen L.; Ovaert, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    Indentation methods have been widely used to study bone at the micro- and nanoscales. It has been shown that bone exhibits viscoelastic behavior with permanent deformation during indentation. At the same time, damage due to microcracks is induced due to the stresses beneath the indenter tip. In this work, a simplified viscoelastic-plastic damage model was developed to more closely simulate indentation creep data, and the effect of the model parameters on the indentation curve was investigated. Experimentally, baseline and 2-year postovariectomized (OVX-2) ovine (sheep) bone samples were prepared and indented. The damage model was then applied via finite element analysis to simulate the bone indentation data. The mechanical properties of yielding, viscosity, and damage parameter were obtained from the simulations. The results suggest that damage develops more quickly for OVX-2 samples under the same indentation load conditions as the baseline data. PMID:26136623

  14. Production of bacteriocin-like substances by lactic acid bacteria isolated from regional ovine cheese

    PubMed Central

    Nespolo, Cssia Regina; Brandelli, Adriano

    2010-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from ovine milk and cheeses manufactured in the South Region of Brazil. Among 112 bacterial isolates investigated, 59 were chosen through a screening for LAB. Among these 59 strains of LAB, 21% showed antimicrobial, proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Based on this screening, Lactobacillus plantarum LCN 17 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LCN 43 were selected and tested for the production of bacteriocin-like substances (BLS). The BLS produced by both isolates showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, whereas that produced by L. plantarum LCN 17 presented higher stability to different temperature, pH and enzyme treatments. These strains present potential for production of BLS, and for use as starter cultures. PMID:24031581

  15. Biomechanical performance of an ovine model of intradural spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    Safayi, S; Jeffery, N D; Fredericks, D C; Viljoen, S; Dalm, B D; Reddy, C G; Wilson, S; Gillies, G T; Howard, M A

    2014-07-01

    The authors are developing a novel type of spinal cord stimulator, designed to be placed directly on the pial surface of the spinal cord, for more selective activation of target tissues within the dorsal columns. For pre-clinical testing of the device components, an ovine model has been implemented which utilizes the agility and flexibility of a sheep's cervical and upper thoracic regions, thus providing an optimal environment of accelerated stress-cycling on small gauge lead wires implanted along the dorsal spinal columns. The results are presented of representative biomechanical measurements of the angles of rotation and the angular velocities and accelerations associated with the relevant head, neck and upper back motions, and these findings are interpreted in terms of their impact on assessing the robustness of the stimulator implant systems. PMID:24841845

  16. Fracture properties of growth plate cartilage compared to cortical and trabecular bone in ovine femora.

    PubMed

    Tschegg, E K; Celarek, A; Fischerauer, S F; Stanzl-Tschegg, S; Weinberg, A M

    2012-10-01

    Fracture mechanical parameters (notch tensile strength, specific fracture energy/crack resistance and specific crack initiation energy) of epiphyseal plate cartilage, trabecular bone (metaphysis) and cortical bone (diaphysis) were determined on ovine femur specimens. The fracture behaviour before and after crack initiation was recorded in force-displacement diagrams from wedge splitting tests. Crack propagation was stable both during and after the formation of a principal crack. This is the main advantage of the wedge-splitting method by Tschegg in comparison with tensile tests. Microscopy of the epiphyseal plate during fracture showed fibre elongation and tearing in the crack tip region. The results of this study can help to understand the mechanics of epiphyseal plate injuries and the obtained values can be used for computational simulations and models. PMID:23022566

  17. Vaccination against ovine footrot using a live bacterial vector to deliver basic protease antigen.

    PubMed

    Moore, R J; Stewart, D J; Lund, K; Hodgson, A L

    2001-01-15

    A strain of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, designated Toxminus, that has been rationally attenuated by deletion of the phospholipase D gene, is being developed as a live vaccine vector for the delivery of veterinary vaccine antigens. In the present study a recombinant form of the basic protease gene of the ovine footrot causative bacterium, Dichelobacter nodosus, was introduced into the vector strain using the high copy number plasmid pEP2. This strain secreted the basic protease protein. Vaccination trials in sheep with the recombinant strain demonstrated that, although an IgG immune response was elicited, the animals were not protected from footrot following artificial challenge under pen conditions. Although the sheep were not protected there was evidence that the progression of the disease was slowed. PMID:11164307

  18. Comparative host-parasite relationships in ovine toxoplasmosis and bovine neosporosis and strategies for vaccination.

    PubMed

    Innes, Elisabeth A; Bartley, Paul M; Maley, Stephen W; Wright, Stephen E; Buxton, David

    2007-07-26

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are important causes of reproductive loss in ruminant species worldwide. Both parasites cause disease during pregnancy that may result in foetal death or birth of live congenitally infected offspring. T. gondii is also an important human pathogen with the main risk groups including pregnant women and immuno-compromised individuals, although clinical disease has also been observed in outbreaks among immuno-competent people. While the two parasites are closely related there are distinct differences between the two in their interactions with different host species and subsequent clinical outcome. This paper discusses the respective host-parasite relationships in ovine toxoplasmosis and bovine neosporosis and how the immune response may be host-protective, parasite-protective or contribute to disease pathogenesis, and how this knowledge may help in the development of more effective and targeted vaccination strategies. PMID:17367899

  19. Ovine Paratuberculosis: A Seroprevalence Study in Dairy Flocks Reared in the Marche Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Anna Rita, Attili; Victor, Ngu Ngwa; Silvia, Preziuso; Luciana, Pacifici; Anastasia, Domesi; Vincenzo, Cuteri

    2011-01-01

    In order to fulfil the seroprevalence gap on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in ovine dairy farms of Marche region (central Italy), a stratified study was carried out on 2086 adult female sheep randomly chosen from 38 herds selected in Ancona and Macerata provinces. 73.7% flocks resulted infected by a commercial ELISA test (Pourquier, France), with a mean seroprevalence of 6.29% of sampled sheep in both provinces. A higher number of MAP seropositive ewes was recorded in the large herds' consistence than in the small and medium herds' consistence (P = 0.0269), and a greater percentage of infected sheep was obtained among female at early/late than in peak lactation stage (P = 0.0237). MAP infection was confirmed in 12.6% of infected farms by faecal culture. The true sheep-level seroprevalence was 15.1% ± 7.3%. PMID:21876850

  20. Effect of avanafil on rat and human corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Gur, S; Sikka, S C; Pankey, E A; Lasker, G F; Chandra, S; Kadowitz, P J; Hellstrom, W J G

    2015-10-01

    We compared the activity of a new phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5i) avanafil with sildenafil and tadalafil in human and rat corpus cavernosum (CC) tissues. The effect of avanafil with several inhibitors and electrical field stimulation (EFS) was evaluated on CC after pre-contraction with phenylephrine. With the PDE5i, sildenafil and tadalafil, concentration-response curves were obtained and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels were measured in tissues. Avanafil induced relaxation with maximum response of 74 ± 5% in human CC. This response was attenuated by NOS inhibitor and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor. Avanafil potentiated relaxation responses to acetylcholine and EFS in human CC and enhanced SNP-induced relaxation and showed 3-fold increase in cGMP levels. When compared with sildenafil, avanafil and tadalafil were effective at lower concentrations in human CC. In addition, Sprague-Dawley rats underwent in vivo intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) measurements. Avanafil increased ICP/MAP that was enhanced by SNP and cavernous nerve (CN) stimulation in rat CC tissues. Also avanafil showed maximum relaxation response of 83 ± 7% in rat CC with 3-fold increase in cGMP concentration. Taken together, these results of our in vivo and in vitro studies in human and rat suggest that avanafil promotes the CC relaxation and penile erection via NO-cGMP pathway. PMID:25233953

  1. Agenesis of the corpus callosum: a clinical approach to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Elizabeth Emma; Mowat, David

    2014-06-01

    This review article aims to guide the clinician in establishing a diagnosis in patients with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC), presenting antenatally or postnatally. ACC may be isolated, or occur in association with other neuroanatomical lesions and/or congenital anomalies, and has many different genetic causes. Neuropsychological outcome varies considerably from normal to profound intellectual disability depending on the etiology. Approximately 25% of individuals with antenatally diagnosed apparently isolated ACC have intellectual disability. Subtle neurological, social, and learning deficits may still occur in those with normal intelligence and longitudinal neurocognitive follow-up is recommended for all children with ACC. The finding of ACC should prompt detailed clinical assessment in order to determine and manage the underlying condition. It is recognized that genetic factors contribute to ACC in the vast majority of cases. Less commonly ACC can result from antenatal infections, vascular or toxic insults, and it is increasingly recognized that ACC, particularly isolated ACC, may be due to an interaction of a number of "modifier" genetic and environmental factors. There are a large number of genetic conditions in which ACC may be a feature. We suggest a diagnostic algorithm to help guide the clinician towards diagnosis, to provide outcome advice and to aid in genetic counseling. PMID:24866859

  2. Corpus-based intention recognition in cooperation dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Han, The Anh; Pereira, Luís Moniz; Santos, Francisco C

    2012-01-01

    Intention recognition is ubiquitous in most social interactions among humans and other primates. Despite this, the role of intention recognition in the emergence of cooperative actions remains elusive. Resorting to the tools of evolutionary game theory, herein we describe a computational model showing how intention recognition coevolves with cooperation in populations of self-regarding individuals. By equipping some individuals with the capacity of assessing the intentions of others in the course of a prototypical dilemma of cooperation-the repeated prisoner's dilemma-we show how intention recognition is favored by natural selection, opening a window of opportunity for cooperation to thrive. We introduce a new strategy (IR) that is able to assign an intention to the actions of opponents, on the basis of an acquired corpus consisting of possible plans achieving that intention, as well as to then make decisions on the basis of such recognized intentions. The success of IR is grounded on the free exploitation of unconditional cooperators while remaining robust against unconditional defectors. In addition, we show how intention recognizers do indeed prevail against the best-known successful strategies of iterated dilemmas of cooperation, even in the presence of errors and reduction of fitness associated with a small cognitive cost for performing intention recognition. PMID:22938562

  3. Tractography of the Corpus Callosum in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Owen; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Elifani, Francesca; Maglione, Vittorio; Di Pardo, Alba; Caltagirone, Carlo; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2013-01-01

    White matter abnormalities have been shown in presymptomatic and symptomatic Huntington’s disease (HD) subjects using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) methods. The largest white matter tract, the corpus callosum (CC), has been shown to be particularly vulnerable; however, little work has been done to investigate the regional specificity of tract abnormalities in the CC. Thus, this study examined the major callosal tracts by applying DTI-based tractography. Using TrackVis, a previously defined region of interest tractography method parcellating CC into seven major tracts based on target region was applied to 30 direction DTI data collected from 100 subjects: presymptomatic HD (Pre-HD) subjects (n = 25), HD patients (n = 25) and healthy control subjects (n = 50). Tractography results showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD) across broad regions of the CC in Pre-HD subjects. Similar though more severe deficits were seen in HD patients. In Pre-HD and HD, callosal FA and RD were correlated with Disease Burden/CAG repeat length as well as motor (UHDRSI) and cognitive (URDRS2) assessments. These results add evidence that CC pathways are compromised prior to disease onset with possible demyelination occurring early in the disease and suggest that CAG repeat length is a contributing factor to connectivity deficits. Furthermore, disruption of these callosal pathways potentially contributes to the disturbances of motor and cognitive processing that characterize HD. PMID:24019913

  4. Genetic Contributions to the Midsagittal Area of the Corpus Callosum

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Barrett, Elizabeth A.; Glahn, David C; Kochunov, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The degree to which genes and environment determine variations in brain structure and function is fundamentally important to understanding normal and disease-related patterns of neural organization and activity. We studied genetic contributions to the midsagittal area of the corpus callosum (CC) in pedigreed baboons (68 males/112 females) to replicate findings of high genetic contribution to area of the CC, reported in humans, and to determine if the heritability of the CC midsaggital area in adults was modulated by fetal development rate. Measurements of callosal area were obtained from high-resolution MRI scans. Heritability was estimated from pedigree based maximum likelihood estimation of genetic and non-genetic variance components as implemented in SOLAR. Our analyses revealed significant heritability for the total area of the CC and all of its subdivisions, with h2 = 0.46 for the total CC and h2 = .54, .37, .62, .56, and 0.29 for genu, anterior midbody, medial midbody, posterior midbody and splenium, respectively. Genetic correlation analysis demonstrated that the individual subdivisions shared between 41% and 98% of genetic variability. Combined with previous research reporting high heritability of other brain structures in baboons, these results reveal a consistent pattern of high heritability for brain morphometric measures in baboons. PMID:22856367

  5. Data modelling in corpus linguistics: how low may we go?

    PubMed

    van Velzen, Marjolein H; Nanetti, Luca; de Deyn, Peter P

    2014-06-01

    Corpus linguistics allows researchers to process millions of words. However, the more words we analyse, i.e., the more data we acquire, the more urgent the call for correct data interpretation becomes. In recent years, a number of studies saw the light attempting to profile some prolific authors' linguistic decline, linking this decline to pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, in line with the nature of the (literary) work that was analysed, numbers alone do not suffice to 'tell the story'. The one and only objective of using statistical methods for the analysis of research data is to tell a story--what happened, when, and how. In the present study we describe a computerised but individualised approach to linguistic analysis--we propose a unifying approach, with firm grounds in Information Theory, that, independently from the specific parameter being investigated, guarantees to produce a robust model of the temporal dynamics of an author's linguistic richness over his or her lifetime. We applied this methodology to six renowned authors with an active writing life of four decades or more: Iris Murdoch, Gerard Reve, Hugo Claus, Agatha Christie, P.D. James, and Harry Mulisch. The first three were diagnosed with probable Alzheimer Disease, confirmed post-mortem for Iris Murdoch; this same condition was hypothesized for Agatha Christie. Our analysis reveals different evolutive patterns of lexical richness, in turn plausibly correlated with the authors' different conditions. PMID:24332294

  6. Automatic corpus callosum segmentation for standardized MR brain scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qing; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.

    2007-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) brain scanning is often planned manually with the goal of aligning the imaging plane with key anatomic landmarks. The planning is time-consuming and subject to inter- and intra- operator variability. An automatic and standardized planning of brain scans is highly useful for clinical applications, and for maximum utility should work on patients of all ages. In this study, we propose a method for fully automatic planning that utilizes the landmarks from two orthogonal images to define the geometry of the third scanning plane. The corpus callosum (CC) is segmented in sagittal images by an active shape model (ASM), and the result is further improved by weighting the boundary movement with confidence scores and incorporating region based refinement. Based on the extracted contour of the CC, several important landmarks are located and then combined with landmarks from the coronal or transverse plane to define the geometry of the third plane. Our automatic method is tested on 54 MR images from 24 patients and 3 healthy volunteers, with ages ranging from 4 months to 70 years old. The average accuracy with respect to two manually labeled points on the CC is 3.54 mm and 4.19 mm, and differed by an average of 2.48 degrees from the orientation of the line connecting them, demonstrating that our method is sufficiently accurate for clinical use.

  7. The CHEMDNER corpus of chemicals and drugs and its annotation principles.

    PubMed

    Krallinger, Martin; Rabal, Obdulia; Leitner, Florian; Vazquez, Miguel; Salgado, David; Lu, Zhiyong; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Yanan; Ji, Donghong; Lowe, Daniel M; Sayle, Roger A; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Rak, Rafal; Huber, Torsten; Rocktäschel, Tim; Matos, Sérgio; Campos, David; Tang, Buzhou; Xu, Hua; Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Ryu, Keun Ho; Ramanan, S V; Nathan, Senthil; Žitnik, Slavko; Bajec, Marko; Weber, Lutz; Irmer, Matthias; Akhondi, Saber A; Kors, Jan A; Xu, Shuo; An, Xin; Sikdar, Utpal Kumar; Ekbal, Asif; Yoshioka, Masaharu; Dieb, Thaer M; Choi, Miji; Verspoor, Karin; Khabsa, Madian; Giles, C Lee; Liu, Hongfang; Ravikumar, Komandur Elayavilli; Lamurias, Andre; Couto, Francisco M; Dai, Hong-Jie; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Ata, Caglar; Can, Tolga; Usié, Anabel; Alves, Rui; Segura-Bedmar, Isabel; Martínez, Paloma; Oyarzabal, Julen; Valencia, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The automatic extraction of chemical information from text requires the recognition of chemical entity mentions as one of its key steps. When developing supervised named entity recognition (NER) systems, the availability of a large, manually annotated text corpus is desirable. Furthermore, large corpora permit the robust evaluation and comparison of different approaches that detect chemicals in documents. We present the CHEMDNER corpus, a collection of 10,000 PubMed abstracts that contain a total of 84,355 chemical entity mentions labeled manually by expert chemistry literature curators, following annotation guidelines specifically defined for this task. The abstracts of the CHEMDNER corpus were selected to be representative for all major chemical disciplines. Each of the chemical entity mentions was manually labeled according to its structure-associated chemical entity mention (SACEM) class: abbreviation, family, formula, identifier, multiple, systematic and trivial. The difficulty and consistency of tagging chemicals in text was measured using an agreement study between annotators, obtaining a percentage agreement of 91. For a subset of the CHEMDNER corpus (the test set of 3,000 abstracts) we provide not only the Gold Standard manual annotations, but also mentions automatically detected by the 26 teams that participated in the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER chemical mention recognition task. In addition, we release the CHEMDNER silver standard corpus of automatically extracted mentions from 17,000 randomly selected PubMed abstracts. A version of the CHEMDNER corpus in the BioC format has been generated as well. We propose a standard for required minimum information about entity annotations for the construction of domain specific corpora on chemical and drug entities. The CHEMDNER corpus and annotation guidelines are available at: http://www.biocreative.org/resources/biocreative-iv/chemdner-corpus/. PMID:25810773

  8. Occurrence of bilaterally independent epileptic spasms after a corpus callosotomy in West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Endoh, Fumika; Toda, Yoshihiro; Oka, Makio; Baba, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Yoko; Yoshinaga, Harumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with intractable West syndrome whose epileptic spasms (ESs) were initially bilaterally synchronous, as is typical; after a complete corpus callosotomy, however, bilaterally independent ESs originated in either hemisphere. Activity of probable cortical origin associated with ESs was detected by observing ictal gamma oscillations. Brain MRI revealed no structural abnormality before surgery. This case suggests that ESs with a hemispheric origin may appear generalized because of synchronizing effects in the corpus callosum in some patients. PMID:25998967

  9. MRI evaluation of pathologies affecting the corpus callosum: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Kazi, Aamish Z; Joshi, Priscilla C; Kelkar, Abhimanyu B; Mahajan, Mangal S; Ghawate, Amit S

    2013-01-01

    The corpus callosum is a midline cerebral structure and has a unique embryological development pattern. In this article, we describe the pathophysiology and present imaging findings of various typical/atypical conditions affecting the corpus callosum. Since many of these pathologies have characteristic appearances on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their therapeutic approaches are poles apart, ranging from medical to surgical, the neuroradiologist should be well aware of them. PMID:24604936

  10. The CHEMDNER corpus of chemicals and drugs and its annotation principles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The automatic extraction of chemical information from text requires the recognition of chemical entity mentions as one of its key steps. When developing supervised named entity recognition (NER) systems, the availability of a large, manually annotated text corpus is desirable. Furthermore, large corpora permit the robust evaluation and comparison of different approaches that detect chemicals in documents. We present the CHEMDNER corpus, a collection of 10,000 PubMed abstracts that contain a total of 84,355 chemical entity mentions labeled manually by expert chemistry literature curators, following annotation guidelines specifically defined for this task. The abstracts of the CHEMDNER corpus were selected to be representative for all major chemical disciplines. Each of the chemical entity mentions was manually labeled according to its structure-associated chemical entity mention (SACEM) class: abbreviation, family, formula, identifier, multiple, systematic and trivial. The difficulty and consistency of tagging chemicals in text was measured using an agreement study between annotators, obtaining a percentage agreement of 91. For a subset of the CHEMDNER corpus (the test set of 3,000 abstracts) we provide not only the Gold Standard manual annotations, but also mentions automatically detected by the 26 teams that participated in the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER chemical mention recognition task. In addition, we release the CHEMDNER silver standard corpus of automatically extracted mentions from 17,000 randomly selected PubMed abstracts. A version of the CHEMDNER corpus in the BioC format has been generated as well. We propose a standard for required minimum information about entity annotations for the construction of domain specific corpora on chemical and drug entities. The CHEMDNER corpus and annotation guidelines are available at: http://www.biocreative.org/resources/biocreative-iv/chemdner-corpus/ PMID:25810773

  11. The truth about false unicorn (Chamaelirium luteum): total synthesis of 23R,24S-chiograsterol B defines the structure and stereochemistry of the major saponins from this medicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Matovic, Nicholas J; Stuthe, Julia M U; Challinor, Victoria L; Bernhardt, Paul V; Lehmann, Reginald P; Kitching, William; De Voss, James J

    2011-06-27

    Chamaelirium luteum is used in traditional medicine systems and commercial botanical dietary supplements for the treatment of female reproductive health problems. Despite the wide use of this herb, only very limited phytochemical characterisation is available. Our investigation of C. luteum roots led to the isolation of two new steroidal saponins 1 and 2 that contain an unusual aglycone 3. The absolute configurations of these molecules were unable to be determined spectroscopically and thus the total synthesis of 3 was undertaken and achieved in 16 steps and 1.6 % overall yield from pregnenolone. The key step in the synthesis was the stereoselective installation of the side chain at C-17 and C-20, which employed anion-accelerated oxy-Cope methodology. The relative configuration of aglycone 3 was determined by X-ray crystallography of an advanced synthetic intermediate. The absolute configuration was based upon that of the pregnenolone-derived steroidal skeleton and determined to be 23R,24S. PMID:21598325

  12. Induction of the heat shock response and translational thermotolerance in day 15 ovine trophectoderm.

    PubMed

    Williams, J H; Moss, G E; Hunnicutt, L K; Petersen, N S

    1997-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of trophectoderm from preimplantation ovine embryos to synthesize hsp70 in response to heat shock and to identify conditions which induce translational thermotolerance in this tissue. Day 15 embryos were collected, and proteins synthesized in 1.5-mm sections of trophectoderm were radioactively labeled with (35)S-methionine. One-dimensional SDS-PAGE gels, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western blots were utilized to characterize the heat shock response and to examine the induction of translational thermotolerance. Increased synthesis of the 70 kDa heat shock proteins and a protein with an approximate molecular weight of 15 to 20 kDa was observed with heat shock (> or = 42 degrees C). Total protein synthesis decreased (P < 0.05) with increased intensity of heat shock. At 45 degrees C, protein synthesis was suppressed with little or no synthesis of all proteins including hsp70. Recovery of protein synthesis following a severe heat shock (45 degrees C for 20 min) occurred faster (P < 0.05) in trophectoderm pretreated with a mild heat shock (42 degrees C for 30 min) than trophectoderm not pretreated with mild heat. In summary, trophoblastic tissue obtained from ovine embryos exhibit the characteristic "heatshock" response similar to that described for other mammalian systems. In addition, a sublethal heat shock induced the ability of the tissue to resume protein synthesis following severe heat stress. Since maintaining protein synthesis is crucial to embryonic survival, manipulation of the heat-shock response may provide a method to enhance embryonic survival. PMID:16728062

  13. Lower apoptosis rate in ovine preantral follicles from ovaries stored in supplemented preservation media.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, R J S; Cavalcante, A Y P; Gouveia, B B; Lins, T L B; Barberino, R S; Menezes, V G; Barros, V R P; Macedo, T J S; Figueiredo, J R; Matos, M H T

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ovarian tissue transportation conditions (medium and period of time) on the morphology, apoptosis and development of ovine preantral follicles cultured in vitro. Each ovarian pair was cut into nine slices, with one fragment being fixed immediately (fresh control). The remaining fragments were placed individually in cryotubes containing conservation medium (minimal essential medium (MEM) without supplementation or MEM+ - with supplementation) and stored at 35ºC for 6 or 12 h without (non-cultured) or with subsequent culture for 5 days. Then, the fragments were processed for histological and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) examination. Preservation of ovarian slices in MEM or MEM+ (non-cultured) resulted in similar percentages of normal follicles when compared with the fresh control. Nevertheless, compared with the fresh control, a decrease in the percentage of normal follicles was observed in tissues cultured for 5 days. Only for tissues preserved in supplemented medium (MEM+) for 6 h, the percentage of TUNEL positive cells was similar between non-cultured tissues and tissues cultured for 5 days. Follicular activation and growth (follicular and oocyte diameter) were higher in cultured tissues than in fresh control or non-cultured tissues, except those from fragments preserved for 6 h in MEM and then cultured for 5 days in which no growth was observed. In conclusion, ovine ovarian tissue was successfully preserved in supplemented medium (MEM+) at a temperature close to physiological values (35°C) for up to 6 h without affecting apoptosis in the ovarian follicles and their ability to develop in vitro. PMID:25626913

  14. Occurrence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infections in ovine and caprine abortions.

    PubMed

    Moreno, B; Collantes-Fernández, E; Villa, A; Navarro, A; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2012-06-01

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites identified as important causes of reproductive failure in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. Protozoan abortion in small ruminants is traditionally associated with T. gondii, but the importance of N. caninum remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of N. caninum and T. gondii infections in abortion cases in small ruminants submitted for diagnosis. For this purpose, 74 ovine and 26 caprine aborted foetuses were recovered from different areas in Spain. Foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in brain. The presence of N. caninum and T. gondii was confirmed by PCR. Protozoal infection was detected in 17 out of 100 (17%) foetuses examined by at least one of the diagnostic techniques used. Lesions suggestive of protozoal infection were observed in 10.8% (8/74) and 15.4% (4/26) of the ovine and caprine abortions respectively. N. caninum and T. gondii infection was detected by PCR in 6.8% (5/74) and 5.4% (4/74) of sheep foetuses, respectively, of which five showed protozoal-associated lesions. N. caninum DNA was detected in 11.5% (3/26) of goat foetuses, of which two showed protozoal-associated lesions, whereas T. gondii DNA was detected in one goat foetus with no lesions. The simultaneous presence of N. caninum and T. gondii DNA was detected in one sheep foetus with severe lesions. This study demonstrates that N. caninum plays a significant role in abortion in small ruminants in the studied population. In addition, our results highlight the importance of differentiating between protozoa whenever characteristic lesions are observed. PMID:22260901

  15. Ovine-Based Collagen Matrix Dressing: Next-Generation Collagen Dressing for Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Gregory; Liden, Brock; Schultz, Gregory; Yang, Qingping; Gibson, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Broad-spectrum metalloproteinase (MMP) reduction along with inherent aspects of an extracellular matrix (ECM) dressing can bring about improved wound healing outcomes and shorter treatment duration. Initial reports of clinical effectiveness of a new ovine-based collagen extracellular matrix (CECM) dressing demonstrate benefits in chronic wound healing. Recent Advances: CECM dressings are processed differently than oxidized regenerated cellulose/collagen dressings. CECM dressings consist primarily of collagens I and III arranged as native fibers that retain the three-dimensional architecture present in tissue ECM. As such, ovine-based ECM dressings represent a new generation of collagen dressings capable of impacting a broad spectrum of MMP excess known to be present in chronic wounds. Critical Issues: While MMPs are essential in normal healing, elevated presence of MMPs has been linked to wound failure. Collagen has been shown to reduce levels of MMPs, acting as a sacrificial substrate for excessive proteases in a chronic wound. Preserving collagen dressings in a more native state enhances bioactivity in terms of the ability to affect the chronic wound environment. Clinical observation and assessment may not be sufficient to identify a wound with elevated protease activity that can break down ECM, affect wound fibroblasts, and impair growth factor response. Future Directions: Collagen dressings that target broad-spectrum excessive MMP levels and can be applied early in the course of care may positively impact healing rates in difficult wounds. Next-generation collagen dressings offer broader MMP reduction capacity while providing a provisional dermal matrix or ECM. PMID:26858910

  16. Central cholinergic signal-mediated neuroendocrine regulation of vasopressin and oxytocin in ovine fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lijun; Mao, Caiping; Zeng, Fanxing; Zhang, Yuying; Xu, Zhice

    2008-01-01

    Background The hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of body fluid homeostasis by secreting arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) in response to a variety of signals, including osmotic and nonosmotic stimuli. It is well established that central cholinergic mechanisms are critical in the regulation of cardiovascular responses and maintenance of body fluid homeostasis in adults. Our recent study demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of carbachol elicited an increase of blood pressure in the near-term ovine fetuses. However, in utero development of brain cholinergic mechanisms in the regulation of the hypothalamic neuropeptides is largely unknown. This study investigated AVP and OT neural activation in the fetal hypothalamus induced by central carbachol. Results Chronically prepared near-term ovine fetuses (0.9 gestation) received an i.c.v. carbachol (3 μg/kg). Fetal blood samples were collected for AVP and OT assay, and brains were used for c-fos mapping studies. I.c.v. carbachol significantly increased fetal plasma AVP and OT concentrations. Intense FOS immunoreactivity (FOS-ir) was observed in the fetal supraoptic nuclei (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in the hypothalamus. Double labeling demonstrated that a number of AVP- and OT-containing neurons in the fetal SON and PVN were expressing c-fos in response to central carbachol. Conclusion The results indicate that the central cholinergic mechanism is established and functional in the regulation of the hypothalamic neuropeptides during the final trimester of pregnancy. This provides evidence for a functional link between the development of central cholinergic mechanisms and hypothalamic neuropeptide systems in the fetus. PMID:18828925

  17. Expansion of bubbles under a pulsatile flow regime in decompressed ovine blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Arieli, Ran; Marmur, Abraham

    2016-02-01

    After decompression of ovine large blood vessels, bubbles nucleate and expand at active hydrophobic spots on their luminal aspect. These bubbles will be in the path of the blood flow within the vessel, which might replenish the supply of gas-supersaturated plasma in their vicinity and thus, in contrast with our previous estimations, enhance their growth. We used the data from our previous study on the effect of pulsatile flow in ovine blood vessels stretched on microscope slides and photographed after decompression from hyperbaric exposure. We measured the diameter of 46 bubbles in 4 samples taken from 3 blood vessels (pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, and aorta) in which both a "multi-bubble active spot" (MBAS)-which produces several bubbles at a time, and at least one "single-bubble active spot" (SBAS)-which produces a single bubble at a time, were seen together. The linear expansion rate for diameter in SBAS ranged from 0.077 to 0.498mm/min and in MBAS from 0.001 to 0.332mm/min. There was a trend toward a reduced expansion rate for bubbles in MBAS compared with SBAS. The expansion rate for bubbles in an MBAS when it was surrounded by others was very low. Bubble growth is related to gas tension, and under a flow regime, bubbles expand from a diameter of 0.1 to 1mm in 2-24min at a gas supersaturation of 620kPa and lower. There are two phases of bubble development. The slow and disperse initiation of active spots (from nanobubbles to gas micronuclei) continues for more than 1h, whereas the fast increase in size (2-24min) is governed by diffusion. Bubble-based decompression models should not artificially reduce diffusion constants, but rather take both phases of bubble development into consideration. PMID:26592146

  18. Ovine and Bovine Congenital Abnormalities Associated With Intrauterine Infection With Schmallenberg Virus.

    PubMed

    Peperkamp, N H; Luttikholt, S J; Dijkman, R; Vos, J H; Junker, K; Greijdanus, S; Roumen, M P; van Garderen, E; Meertens, N; van Maanen, C; Lievaart, K; van Wuyckhuise, L; Wouda, W

    2015-11-01

    In December 2011, a previously unknown congenital syndrome of arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly in sheep and cattle appeared in the Netherlands as an emerging epizootic due to Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Gross lesions in 102 lambs and 204 calves included porencephaly, hydranencephaly, cerebellar dysplasia and dysplasia of the brainstem and spinal cord, a flattened skull with brachygnathia inferior, arthrogryposis, and vertebral column malformations. Microscopic lesions in the central nervous system showed rarefaction and cavitation in the white matter, as well as degeneration, necrosis, and loss of neurons in the gray matter. Brain and spinal cord lesions were more severe in lambs than in calves. Ovine and bovine cases examined early in the outbreak showed encephalomyelitis. SBV infection was confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in brain samples in 46 of 102 lambs (45%) and in 32 of 204 calves (16%). Immunohistochemistry, performed on tissue samples from 18 RT-qPCR-positive lambs, confirmed the presence of bunyaviral antigen in neurons of the brain in 16 cases. SBV antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in fetal blood in 56 of 61 sampled ovine cases (92%). In a virus neutralization test, all tested dams of affected newborns, 46 ewes and 190 cows, were seropositive. Compared with other teratogenic viral infections, the pathogenesis and lesions of SBV in sheep and cattle fetuses are similar to those of other ruminant orthobunyaviruses. However, the loss of spinal ventral motor neurons and their tracts, resulting in micromyelia, distinguishes SBV infection from other viral central nervous system lesions in newborn ruminants. PMID:25428409

  19. Transgenic Rabbits Expressing Ovine PrP Are Susceptible to Scrapie.

    PubMed

    Sarradin, Pierre; Viglietta, Céline; Limouzin, Claude; Andréoletti, Olivier; Daniel-Carlier, Nathalie; Barc, Céline; Leroux-Coyau, Mathieu; Berthon, Patricia; Chapuis, Jérôme; Rossignol, Christelle; Gatti, Jean-Luc; Belghazi, Maya; Labas, Valérie; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Béringue, Vincent; Lantier, Frédéric; Laude, Hubert; Houdebine, Louis-Marie

    2015-08-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of neurodegenerative diseases affecting a wide range of mammalian species. They are caused by prions, a proteinaceous pathogen essentially composed of PrPSc, an abnormal isoform of the host encoded cellular prion protein PrPC. Constrained steric interactions between PrPSc and PrPC are thought to provide prions with species specificity, and to control cross-species transmission into other host populations, including humans. Transgenetic expression of foreign PrP genes has been successfully and widely used to overcome the recognized resistance of mouse to foreign TSE sources. Rabbit is one of the species that exhibit a pronounced resistance to TSEs. Most attempts to infect experimentally rabbit have failed, except after inoculation with cell-free generated rabbit prions. To gain insights on the molecular determinants of the relative resistance of rabbits to prions, we generated transgenic rabbits expressing the susceptible V136R154Q171 allele of the ovine PRNP gene on a rabbit wild type PRNP New Zealand background and assessed their experimental susceptibility to scrapie prions. All transgenic animals developed a typical TSE 6-8 months after intracerebral inoculation, whereas wild type rabbits remained healthy more than 700 days after inoculation. Despite the endogenous presence of rabbit PrPC, only ovine PrPSc was detectable in the brains of diseased animals. Collectively these data indicate that the low susceptibility of rabbits to prion infection is not enciphered within their non-PrP genetic background. PMID:26248157

  20. How do Annuloplasty Rings Affect Mitral Annular Strains in the Normal Beating Ovine Heart?

    PubMed Central

    Bothe, Wolfgang; Rausch, Manuel K.; Kvitting, John P.; Echtner, Dominique K.; Walther, Mario; Ingels, Neil B.; Kuhl, Ellen; Miller, D. Craig

    2012-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that annuloplasty ring implantation alters mitral annular strains in a normal beating ovine heart preparation. Methods and Results Sheep had 16 radiopaque markers sewn equally spaced around the mitral annulus. Edwards Cosgrove partial flexible band (COS, n=12), St. Jude complete rigid saddle-shaped annuloplasty ring (RSA, n=10), Carpentier-Edwards Physio (PHY, n=11), IMR ETlogix (ETL, n=11), and GeoForm (GEO, n=12) annuloplasty rings were implanted in a releasable fashion. Four-dimensional marker coordinates were obtained using biplane videofluoroscopy with the ring inserted (Ring) and after ring release (Control). From marker coordinates, a functional spatio-temporal representation of each annulus was generated through a best fit using 16 piecewise cubic Hermitian splines. Absolute total mitral annular strains were calculated from the relative change in length of the tangent vector to the annular curve as strains occurring from Control to Ring state at end-systole. In addition, average Green-Lagrange strains occurring from Control to Ring state at end-systole along the annulus were calculated. Absolute total mitral annular ring strains were smallest for COS and greatest for ETL. Strains for RSA, PHY and GEO were similar. Except for COS in the septal mitral annular segment, all rings induced compressive strains along the entire annulus with greatest values occurring at the lateral mitral annular segment. Conclusions In healthy, beating ovine hearts, annuloplasty rings (COS; RSA, PHY, ETL and GEO) induce compressive strains that are: 1.) Predominate in the lateral annular region; 2.) Smallest for flexible partial bands (COS) and greatest for an asymmetric rigid ring type with intrinsic septal-lateral downsizing (ETL). However, the ring type with the most drastic intrinsic septal-lateral downsizing (GEO) introduced strains similar to physiologically shaped rings (RSA and PHY) indicating that rings effects on annular strain profiles cannot be estimated from the degree of septal-lateral downsizing. PMID:22965988