Sample records for ovine corpus luteum

  1. Evidence for a potential role of neuropeptide Y in ovine corpus luteum function.

    PubMed

    Keator, C S; Custer, E E; Hoagland, T A; Schreiber, D T; Mah, K; Lawson, A M; Slayden, O D; McCracken, J A

    2010-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neurohormone that is typically associated with food intake, but it has also been reported to affect the production of progesterone from luteal tissue in vitro. However, NPY has not been previously immunolocalized in the ovine ovary or in the corpus luteum (CL) of any species, and the effects of this neurohormone on luteal function in vivo are not known. Thus, we performed fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC) to localize NPY in the ovine ovary and used avidin-biotin immunocytochemistry (ICC) to further define the intracellular localization within follicles and the CL. We then infused NPY directly into the arterial supply of the autotransplanted ovaries of sheep to determine the in vivo effect of exogenous NPY on ovarian blood flow and on the luteal secretion rate of progesterone and oxytocin. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the NPY antigen was localized to cells within the follicles and CL, in the nerve fibers of the ovarian stroma, and in the vessels of the ovarian hilus. In the follicle, the NPY antigen was localized to nerves and vessels within the theca interna layer, and strong staining was observed in the granulosal cells of antral follicles. In the CL, NPY was localized in large luteal cells and in the vascular pericytes and/or endothelial cells of blood vessels, found dispersed throughout the gland and within the luteal capsule. In vivo incremental infusions of NPY at 1, 10, 100, and 1,000 ng/min, each for a 30-min period, into the arterial supply of the transplanted ovary of sheep bearing a CL 11 d of age increased (P< or =0.05) ovarian blood flow. The intra-arterial infusions of NPY also increased (P< or =0.05) in a dose-dependent manner the secretion rate of oxytocin, which was positively correlated (P< or =0.05) with the observed increase in ovarian blood flow. The infusions of NPY had a minimal effect on the secretion rate of progesterone, and similar intra-arterial infusions of NPY into sheep with ovarian transplants bearing a CL over 30 d of age had no significant effect on ovarian blood flow or on the secretion rate of progesterone. These results suggest that NPY acts on the luteal vascular system and the large luteal cells to rapidly stimulate blood flow and the secretion of oxytocin, respectively, which collectively implies a putative role for NPY during the process of luteolysis when increasing amounts of oxytocin are secreted from the ovine CL in response to uterine pulses of prostaglandin F2alpha. PMID:19782503

  2. Ontogeny of stem cell factor receptor (c-kit) messenger ribonucleic acid in the ovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Gentry, P C; Smith, G W; Leighr, D R; Bao, B; Smith, M F

    1998-10-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) is a pleiotropic growth factor that is expressed by the ovine corpus luteum throughout its life span by both small and large steroidogenic cells. Determination of the action of SCF, however, requires localization of its receptor, c-kit; therefore, the objectives of the present study were to identify and localize c-kit within corpora lutea. Two cDNAs encoding different portions of the c-kit molecule were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. The first was a 558-base pair (bp) cDNA encoding portions of the transmembrane and tyrosine kinase domains; the second was a 632-bp cDNA encoding most of the ligand-binding domain. Expression of c-kit was quantified by RNase protection assay of total cellular RNA collected on Days 3, 7, 10, 13, and 16 (n = 4, 4, 5, 4, and 4 per group, respectively) of the estrous cycle (Day 0 = estrus). The level of c-kit mRNA was low early in the luteal phase, reached (p < 0.05) maximum levels on Day 13, and then decreased (p < 0.01) on Day 16. On Day 3 (n = 4), c-kit was expressed in a cell-specific manner throughout the corpus luteum; identity of the specific cell types expressing c-kit could not be determined at this stage. On Day 14 (n = 4), c-kit did not appear to be expressed within large luteal cells but was prominently expressed in cells that surrounded large luteal cells and that possessed the morphological characteristics of small luteal cells and endothelial cells. Given the temporal regulation of c-kit expression within the corpus luteum, these data suggest that luteal SCF may act locally. PMID:9746752

  3. [Corpus luteum bleeding, mistaken for acute appendicitis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Alawneh, I

    1977-01-01

    Bleeding out of a ruptured corpus luteum can be misinterpreted as acute appendicitis. When an appendectomy is done because of this false diagnosis the tear in the ovary should only be closed by sutures. No ovarectomy. PMID:883438

  4. Mutant mouse models and their contribution to our knowledge of corpus luteum development, function and regression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz E Henkes; John S Davis; Bo R Rueda

    2003-01-01

    The corpus luteum is a unique organ, which is transitory in nature. The development, maintenance and regression of the corpus luteum are regulated by endocrine, paracrine and autocrine signaling events. Defining the specific mediators of luteal development, maintenance and regression has been difficult and often perplexing due to the complexity that stems from the variety of cell types that make

  5. [Role of luteinizing hormone in follicular and corpus luteum physiology].

    PubMed

    Hugues, J N; Cedrin-Durnerin, I

    2000-10-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is an hypophyseal glycoprotein involved in both follicular maturation and corpus luteum function. During the follicular phase, effects of LH must be considered according to the stages of follicular development: in the early follicular phase, LH acts through specific receptors, constitutively present on thecal cells, for stimulating androgen production. Androgens seem to be positively involved in the folliculogenesis in primates. Indeed, a positive correlation has been recently established between androgen receptor expression and follicular cell proliferation. Furthermore, androgens are active through a conversion to estrogens in granulosa cells. Estrogens are needed for achieving pregnancy. Thus, a question remains: what in the minimal amount of endogenous LH required for an optimal production of oestradiol? Several models have been investigated in clinical situations with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism: WHO type I anovulation or GnRH analog-induced hypogonadisms. A large majority of these studies conclude that the minimal amount of LH needed during the follicular phase is probably low (< 1.5 IU/L of plasma LH level). Recent availability of GnRH antagonist will give a new opportunity for evaluating this minimal LH threshold. During the late follicular phase, LH plays a biphasic role, with a positive effect on steroidogenesis but a negative effect on cell proliferation. As suggested by S. Hillier, this negative effect on cell proliferation may be relevant to control the rate of follicular growth. One study, performed in WHO type I anovulatory patients, seems to confirm this assumption but further evaluation is needed to give support to this concept. Finally, LH is also involved in corpus luteum function. Due to the short half-life of LH as compared to hCG, the role of LH must be evaluated according to the adjunct therapies. For example, following a long-term GnRH aganist administration that constantly induces a profound hypophyseal desensitization, LH administration must be repeated to adequately sustain the corpus luteum function. This conclusion must be reconsidered with the recent introduction of GnRH antagonists. Indeed, according to their short-term effects on LH secretion, it may be presumed that a single injection of LH may be effective to maintain an adequate corpus luteum function. PMID:11244636

  6. Bovine corpus luteum regression, estrus response and subsequent corpus luteum formation and function following treatment with Alfaprostol 

    E-print Network

    Hansen, Thomas Ross

    1984-01-01

    Luteum Function (Day 13 Post-Estrus). . . . . . . . . Luteal Cell Characteristics. 2 5 7 8 12 14 15 19 22 26 29 30 35 36 38 42 44 46 V RESULTS-TRIAL 2: SIMMENTAL-CROSS HEIFERS. . Estrus Response Data. Serum Progesterone During Corpus... the P4: E2 ratio whi ch may play a role in the ovulatory mechanism. LeMair e and Marsh (29) suggested two possible roles for LH induced steriod- ogenesis in the ovulatory process: the initial increase in steri odogeni si s in the follicle may...

  7. Hypothyroidism prolongs corpus luteum function in the pregnant rat.

    PubMed

    Hapon, María Belén; Motta, Alicia B; Ezquer, Marcelo; Bonafede, Melisa; Jahn, Graciela A

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that hypothyroidism in the rat produces a prolongation of pregnancy associated with a delay in the fall of circulating progesterone (P4) at term. The aim of the present work is to determine whether the delayed P4 decline in hypothyroid mother rats is due to a retarded induction of P4 degradation to 20alphaOH P4 or to a stimulation of its synthesis, and to investigate the possible mechanisms that may underlie the altered luteal function. We determined by RIA the circulating profile of the hormones (TSH, PRL, LH, P4, PGF2alpha, and PGE2) involved in luteal regulation at the end of pregnancy and, by semiquantitative RT-PCR, the expression of factors involved in P4 synthesis (CytP450scc, StAR, 3betaHSD, PRLR) and metabolism (20alphaHSD, PGF2alphaR, iNOS and COX2). Our results show that the delay in P4 decline and parturition is the resultant of retarded luteal regression, caused by a combination of decreases in luteolytic factors, mainly luteal PGF2alpha, iNOS mRNA expression and also circulating LH, and increased synthesis or action of luteotrophic factors, such as luteal and circulating PGE2 and circulating PRL. All these changes may be direct causes of the decreased 20alphaHSD mRNA and protein (measured by western blot analysis) expression, which in the presence of unchanged expression of the factors involved in P4 synthesis results in elevated luteal and circulating P4 that prolonged pregnancy and also may favor longer survival of the corpus luteum. PMID:17244746

  8. Effect of the relative locations of embryo and corpus luteum on embryo survival in cattle

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of the relative locations of embryo and corpus luteum on embryo survival in cattle M. R. DEL in gestation ( embryo in the ipsilateral '10m increases the survival rate of an embryo in the contralateral horn and if later in gestation (> day 30) the presence of two embryos adversely affects

  9. Electron microscopic observations on the involution of the human corpus luteum of menstruation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernest W. Lennep; Lesley M. Madden

    1965-01-01

    The involution of the granulosa lutein cell in the human corpus luteum is characterized by a dilatation of agranular endoplasmic reticulum vesicles and tubules. This process continues until the whole cell is filled with large vacuoles and the cytoplasm is reduced to thin strands between the vacuoles. The contents of the latter are of low electron density in contrast to

  10. Human corpus luteum: presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and binding characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyagari, R.R.; Khan-Dawood, F.S.

    1987-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors are present in many reproductive tissues but have not been demonstrated in the human corpus luteum. To determine the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and its binding characteristics, we carried out studies on the plasma cell membrane fraction of seven human corpora lutea (days 16 to 25) of the menstrual cycle. Specific epidermal growth factor receptors were present in human corpus luteum. Insulin, nerve growth factor, and human chorionic gonadotropin did not competitively displace epidermal growth factor binding. The optimal conditions for corpus luteum-epidermal growth factor receptor binding were found to be incubation for 2 hours at 4 degrees C with 500 micrograms plasma membrane protein and 140 femtomol /sup 125/I-epidermal growth factor per incubate. The number (mean +/- SEM) of epidermal growth factor binding sites was 12.34 +/- 2.99 X 10(-19) mol/micrograms protein; the dissociation constant was 2.26 +/- 0.56 X 10(-9) mol/L; the association constant was 0.59 +/- 0.12 X 10(9) L/mol. In two regressing corpora lutea obtained on days 2 and 3 of the menstrual cycle, there was no detectable specific epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity. Similarly no epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity could be detected in ovarian stromal tissue. Our findings demonstrate that specific receptors for epidermal growth factor are present in the human corpus luteum. The physiologic significance of epidermal growth factor receptors in human corpus luteum is unknown, but epidermal growth factor may be involved in intragonadal regulation of luteal function.

  11. Bovine corpus luteum regression, estrus response and subsequent corpus luteum formation and function following treatment with Alfaprostol

    E-print Network

    Hansen, Thomas Ross

    1984-01-01

    of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ronald D. Randel Two experiments evaluated bovine corpus 1 uteum (CL) regres- sion, estrus response and subsequent CL formation and function Fol I owing treatment with five doses of Al Faprostol (AP), a prostaglandin F2 alpha... analogue. The efficacy of AP to synchr o- nize standing estrus was evaluated in Brahman cows versus heifers (Trial 1) and in Simmental -cross hei fera that were injected with AP on day 8-10 versus day 11-13 (Trial 2). AP (0. 00, 0. 38, 0. 75, 1. 50 or 2...

  12. Influence of noradrenaline on progesterone synthesis and posttranslational processing of oxytocin synthesis in the bovine corpus luteum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bogacki; J. Kotwica

    1999-01-01

    Noradrenaline (NA) influences secretory function of the bovine corpus luteum (CL), stimulating secretion of progesterone and ovarian oxytocin (OT). To study whether NA is able to stimulate progesterone synthesis and to affect post-translational OT processing, different doses of NA alone or in combination with different doses of OT were added to bovine CL slices from 8 to 13 d of

  13. Implication of ligand modified spectra of cytochrome P-450 associated with pregnenolone synthesis in mitochondria from corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Uzgiris, V I; McIntosh, E N; Graves, P; Salhanick, H A

    1975-01-01

    The implications of ligand modified spectra of cytochrome P-450 in mitochondria from corpus luteum are considered. Mitochondria from bovine corpus luteum contain a single cytochrome P-450 which oxidizes cholesterol to pregnenolone and isocaproaldehyde. These mitochondria and the cytochrome P-450 purified from these mitochondria yield Type I spectral changes with substrates, reverse Type I spectral changes with certain steroid substrates, steroid products and unrelated steroid ligands. Nitrogenous ligands yield Type II spectral changes. Mitochondrial and purified cytochrome P-450 preparations are equivalent in this study. The inhibitory effects on the cholesterol monooxygenase are directly related to the spectral changes induced by Type II ligands. Lastly, it is suggested that a similar relationship exists with reverse Type I ligands. PMID:1155251

  14. Equol and para-ethyl-phenol stimulate prostaglandin F 2? secretion in bovine corpus luteum: Intracellular mechanisms of action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Izabela Woclawek-Potocka; Aleksandra Bober; Anna Korzekwa; Kiyoshi Okuda; Dariusz J. Skarzynski

    2006-01-01

    Corpus luteum (CL) is a reproductive gland that plays a crucial endocrine role in the regulation of the estrous cycle, fertility, and pregnancy in cattle. The main function of CL is secretion of progesterone (P4), an important hormone for establishment a successful pregnancy, whereas prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?), 17?-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) are implicated in the regulation of luteolysis. It

  15. Ultrasound image attributes of the bovine corpus luteum: structural and functional correlates.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Pierson, R A; Adams, G P

    1997-01-01

    Nulliparous heifers (n = 58) were studied to determine whether computer-assisted quantitative echotexture analysis of ultrasound images reflects the functional and histomorphological characteristics of the corpus luteum. The ovaries of heifers were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography from day -2 (day 0 = ovulation) until the day of ovariectomy during metoestrus (day 3; n = 8), early dioestrus (day 6; n = 9), mid-dioestrus (mean, day 10; n = 7), or pro-oestrus (mean, day 18; n = 8; Expt 1). High resolution ultrasound images of corpora lutea were obtained in vitro, and were digitized and analysed using custom-developed computer algorithms optimized for ultrasonography. Cryostat sections of corpora lutea were examined for lipid distribution, and corpora lutea were homogenized to determine the content of progesterone, total protein, cholesterol and triglyceride. In Expt 2, heifers (n = 26) were ovariectomized as in Expt 1, and ovaries were prepared for histomorphometric evaluation. Pixel values (brightness of picture elements) of ultrasound images of corpora lutea were characterized as high during metoestrus, low during early and mid-dioestrus, and increasing again during pro-oestrus (P < 0.05). Changes (P < 0.001) in volume density of luteal cells were characterized as increasing from metoestrus (40.7 +/- 0.4%) to mid-dioestrus (55.8 +/- 2.8%) and decreasing again at pro-oestrus (41.5 +/- 0.9%). The proportion of blood vascular components decreased (P < 0.001) progressively from 31.0 +/- 1.0% in metoestrus to 15.6 +/- 1.1% in pro-oestrus. Pixel values of ultrasound images of corpora lutea were correlated with luteal (r = -0.72, P < 0.05) and plasma (r = -0.71, P < 0.03) progesterone concentration, and to the volume densities of luteal cells (r = -0.75, P < 0.02) and connective tissue (r = 0.69, P < 0.03). Estimates of triglyceride, protein and cholesterol content of corpora lutea were not correlated with pixel values of ultrasound images. Protein and cholesterol content did not change while triglyceride concentration increased during pro-oestrus (P < 0.05). Results support the hypothesis that ultrasound images reflect luteal and plasma progesterone content, and histomorphological characteristics of the corpus luteum. PMID:9068411

  16. Status of autophagy, lysosome activity and apoptosis during corpus luteum regression in cattle

    PubMed Central

    ABOELENAIN, Mansour; KAWAHARA, Manabu; BALBOULA, Ahmed Zaky; MONTASSER, Abd El-monem; ZAABEL, Samy Mowaed; OKUDA, Kiyoshi; TAKAHASHI, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Corpus luteum (CL) regression is required during the estrous cycle. During CL regression, luteal cells stop producing progesterone and are degraded by apoptosis. However, the detailed mechanism of CL regression in cattle has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate autophagy, lysosome activity, and apoptosis during CL regression in cattle. The expression of autophagy-related genes (LC3?, LC3?, Atg3, and Atg7) and the protein LC3-II was significantly higher in the late CL than in the mid CL. In addition, autophagy activity was significantly increased in the late CL. Moreover, gene expression of the autophagy inhibitor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was significantly lower in the late CL than in the mid CL. Lysosome activation and expression of cathepsin-related genes (CTSB, CTSD, and CTSZ) showed significant increases in the late CL and were associated with an increase in cathepsin B protein. In addition, mRNA expression and activity of caspase 3 (CASP3), an apoptotic enzyme, were significantly higher in the late CL than in the mid CL. These results suggest simultaneous upregulation of autophagy-related factors, lysosomal enzymes and apoptotic mediators, which are involved in regression of the bovine CL. PMID:25819401

  17. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 Is Required for Ovulation and Corpus Luteum Formation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Deady, Lylah D.; Shen, Wei; Mosure, Sarah A.; Spradling, Allan C.; Sun, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Ovulation is critical for successful reproduction and correlates with ovarian cancer risk, yet genetic studies of ovulation have been limited. It has long been thought that the mechanism controlling ovulation is highly divergent due to speciation and fast evolution. Using genetic tools available in Drosophila, we now report that ovulation in Drosophila strongly resembles mammalian ovulation at both the cellular and molecular levels. Just one of up to 32 mature follicles per ovary pair loses posterior follicle cells (“trimming”) and protrudes into the oviduct, showing that a selection process prefigures ovulation. Follicle cells that remain after egg release form a “corpus luteum (CL)” at the end of the ovariole, develop yellowish pigmentation, and express genes encoding steroid hormone biosynthetic enzymes that are required for full fertility. Finally, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2), a type of protease thought to facilitate mammalian ovulation, is expressed in mature follicle and CL cells. Mmp2 activity is genetically required for trimming, ovulation and CL formation. Our studies provide new insights into the regulation of Drosophila ovulation and establish Drosophila as a model for genetically investigating ovulation in diverse organisms, including mammals. PMID:25695427

  18. Auto-amplification system for prostaglandin F2? in bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Asuka; Yoshioka, Shin; Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2014-07-01

    The bovine corpus luteum (CL) is hypothesized to utilize a local auto-amplification system for prostaglandin (PG) F2? production. The objective of the present study was to determine if such a PGF2? auto-amplification system exists in the bovine CL, and if so, which factors regulate it. PGF2? significantly stimulated intra-luteal PGF2? production in all luteal phases, but did not affect PGE2 production. The stimulatory effect of exogenous PGF2? on CL PGF2? production was lower at the early luteal phase. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), significantly suppressed the PGF2?-stimulated PGF2? production by luteal tissue, indicating that the PGF2? in the medium was of luteal origin. Consistent with these secreted-PGF2? profiles, PGF2? receptor (PTGFR) protein expression was higher during the mid and late luteal phases than at early and developing luteal phases. Treatment of cultured bovine luteal cells obtained from the mid-luteal phase with PGF2? (1?µM) significantly increased the expressions of PTGS2, PGF synthase (PGFS), and carbonyl reductase1 (CBR1) at 24?hr post-treatment. Together, these results suggest the presence of a local auto-amplification system for PGF2? mediated by PTGS2, PGFS, and CBR1 in the bovine CL, which may play an important role in luteolysis. PMID:24733743

  19. Mathematical analysis of a model for the growth of the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Prokopiou, Sotiris A; Byrne, Helen M; Jeffrey, Mike R; Robinson, Robert S; Mann, George E; Owen, Markus R

    2014-12-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is an ovarian tissue that grows in the wound space created by follicular rupture. It produces the progesterone needed in the uterus to maintain pregnancy. Rapid growth of the CL and progesterone transport to the uterus require angiogenesis, the creation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, a process which is regulated by proteins that include fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). In this paper we develop a system of time-dependent ordinary differential equations to model CL growth. The dependent variables represent FGF2, endothelial cells (ECs), luteal cells, and stromal cells (like pericytes), by assuming that the CL volume is a continuum of the three cell types. We assume that if the CL volume exceeds that of the ovulated follicle, then growth is inhibited. This threshold volume partitions the system dynamics into two regimes, so that the model may be classified as a Filippov (piecewise smooth) system. We show that normal CL growth requires an appropriate balance between the growth rates of luteal and stromal cells. We investigate how angiogenesis influences CL growth by considering how the system dynamics depend on the dimensionless EC proliferation rate, ??. We find that weak (low ??) or strong (high ??) angiogenesis leads to 'pathological' CL growth, since the loss of CL constituents compromises progesterone production or delivery. However, for intermediate values of ??, normal CL growth is predicted. The implications of these results for cow fertility are also discussed. For example, inadequate angiogenesis has been linked to infertility in dairy cows. PMID:24337679

  20. Opposing Roles of Leptin and Ghrelin in the Equine Corpus Luteum Regulation: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Galvão, António; Tramontano, Angela; Rebordão, Maria Rosa; Amaral, Ana; Bravo, Pedro Pinto; Szóstek, Anna; Skarzynski, Dariusz; Mollo, Antonio; Ferreira-Dias, Graça

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic hormones have been associated with reproductive function modulation. Thus, the aim of this study was: (i) to characterize the immunolocalization, mRNA and protein levels of leptin (LEP), Ghrelin (GHR) and respective receptors LEPR and Ghr-R1A, throughout luteal phase; and (ii) to evaluate the role of LEP and GHR on progesterone (P4), prostaglandin (PG) E2 and PGF2?, nitric oxide (nitrite), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF); macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) secretion, and on angiogenic activity (BAEC proliferation), in equine corpus luteum (CL) from early and mid-luteal stages. LEPR expression was decreased in late CL, while GHR/Ghr-R1A system was increased in the same stage. Regarding secretory activity, GHR decreased P4 in early CL, but increased PGF2?, nitrite and TNF in mid CL. Conversely, LEP increased P4, PGE2, angiogenic activity, MIF, TNF and nitrite during early CL, in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro effect of LEP on secretory activity was reverted by GHR, when both factors acted together. The present results evidence the presence of LEP and GHR systems in the equine CL. Moreover, we suggest that LEP and GHR play opposing roles in equine CL regulation, with LEP supporting luteal establishment and GHR promoting luteal regression. Finally, a dose-dependent luteotrophic effect of LEP was demonstrated. PMID:25125800

  1. Bone morphogenetic proteins are mediators of luteolysis in the human corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Trendell, Jennifer; Giakoumelou, Sevasti; Boswell, Lyndsey; Nicol, Linda; Kudo, Masataka; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Duncan, William Colin

    2015-04-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) superfamily, play important roles in folliculogenesis in various species; however, little is known about their role in luteal function. In this study, we investigated the expression, regulation, and effects of BMP2, BMP4, and BMP6 in carefully dated human corpora lutea and cultured human luteinized granulosa cells. The mRNA abundance of BMPs was increased in the regressing corpus luteum in vivo (P<.01-.001). Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) down-regulated BMP2, BMP4, and BMP6 transcripts both in vivo (P=.05-.001) and in vitro (P<.001), and decreased the mRNA abundance of BMP receptors (BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2; P<.05-.01) in vitro. Three BMPs were regulated by differential signaling pathways. H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, increased the expression of both BMP2 (P<.05) and BMP4 (P<.05) while decreasing BMP6 (P<.01). PMA, a protein kinase C activator, decreased both BMP4 and BMP6 expression (P<.0001) while enhancing the mRNA abundance of BMP2 (P<.01). BMPs significantly down-regulated transcripts for LH/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR; P<.001) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR; P<.001), whereas up-regulating those of follicular stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR; P<.01) and aromatase (CYP19A1; P<.05-.01) in vitro, possessing an effect opposite to hCG but similar to Activin A. Like Activin A, BMP4 and BMP6 stimulated the expression of Inhibin/Activin subunits with a marked effect on INHBB expression (P<.05-.01). These data confirm that BMPs are increased during luteal regression and negatively regulated by hCG via differential mechanisms, suggesting that BMPs are one of the mediators of luteolysis in women. PMID:25635621

  2. The influence of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF) on the secretory function of bovine corpus luteum: TNF and its receptors expression during the estrous cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Korzekwa; Shuko Murakami; Izabela Woc?awek-Potocka; Mamadou M. Bah; Kiyoshi Okuda; Dariusz J. Skarzynski

    SUMMARY Tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF) inversely regulates the function of bovine corpus luteum (CL). Whereas the low doses of TNF induce luteolysis, the high doses prolong CL lifespan and prevent luteolysis in vivo. We suggest that the varying effects of TNF may be caused by its action exerted on CL via multiple signaling pathways involving two distinct receptors: TNFR-I

  3. The effect of progesterone replacement on gene expression in the corpus luteum during induced regression and late luteal phase in the bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Padmanaban S Suresh; Kadthur C Jayachandra; Rudraiah Medhamurthy

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In higher primates, although LH\\/CG play a critical role in the control of corpus luteum (CL) function, the direct effects of progesterone (P4) in the maintenance of CL structure and function are unclear. Several experiments were conducted in the bonnet monkey to examine direct effects of P4 on gene expression changes in the CL, during induced luteolysis and the

  4. Expression and regulation of Sprouty-2 in the granulosa-lutein cells of the corpus luteum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronit Haimov-Kochman; Amir Ravhon; Diana Prus; Caryn Greenfield; Zvesdana Finci-Yeheskel; Debra S. Goldman-Wohl; Shira Natanson-Yaron; Reuven Reich; Simcha Yagel; Arye Hurwitz

    2005-01-01

    Growth factor signalling has important modulatory roles in the process of human follicular growth, oocyte maturation and cor- pus luteum (CL) formation. Recently, Sprouty-2, an inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling pathway was advo- cated as a marker of oocyte competence in the bovine ovary. We sought to study Sprouty-2 expression and regulation in the human ovary. RT-PCR was

  5. ADAMTS-1\\/METH1 and TIMP-3 expression in the primate corpus luteum: divergent patterns and stage-dependent regulation during the natural menstrual cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly A. Young; Barton Tumlinson; Richard L. Stouffer

    2004-01-01

    Studies were designed to determine if ADAMTS-1 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin repeats-1) is expressed in the rhesus monkey corpus luteum (CL), is regulated by endocrine (LH) or local (progesterone) factors, and is cor- related with tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3), an inhibitor of ADAMTS-1. PCR analyses indicated that ADAMTS-1 mRNA is expressed in luteinized granulosa cells during

  6. Prostaglandin F2alpha- and FAS-activating antibody-induced regression of the corpus luteum involves caspase-8 and is defective in caspase-3 deficient mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia F Carambula; James K Pru; Maureen P Lynch; Tiina Matikainen; Paulo Bayard D Gonçalves; Richard A Flavell; Jonathan L Tilly; Bo R Rueda

    2003-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that caspase-3 is important for apoptosis during spontaneous involution of the corpus luteum (CL). These studies tested if prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) or FAS regulated luteal regression, utilize a caspase-3 dependent pathway to execute luteal cell apoptosis, and if the two receptors work via independent or potentially shared intracellular signaling components\\/pathways to activate caspase-3. Wild-type (WT) or caspase-3

  7. Titrating Luteinizing Hormone Replacement to Sustain the Structure and Function of the Corpus Luteum after Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonist Treatment in Rhesus Monkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DIANE M. DUFFY; DENNIS R. STEWART; RICHARD L. STOUFFER

    These studies were designed to identify 1) a regimen of a third generation GnRH antagonist that abolishes primate luteal function, and 2) the amount of LH replacement required to maintain the struc- ture and functional life span of the corpus luteum of the menstrual cycle after GnRH antagonist treatment. A single injection of antide at 3 or 5 mg\\/kg BW

  8. Ligand modification of corpus luteum mitochondrial cytochrome P-450 spectra and cholesterol monooxygenation: an assay of enzyme-specific inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Uzgiris, V I; Graves, P E; Salhanick, H A

    1977-02-22

    Absorbance changes in the spectrum of cytochrome P-450 were related to the inhibition of [26-14C]cholesterol oxidation to [14C]isocaproate and pregnenolone in mitochondria from bovine corpus luteum produced by two types of ligands. Nitrogenous inhibitors, such as aminoglutethimide, elicit an absorption maximum at about 427 nm and a minimum at about 393 nm (type II), while steroidal inhibitors, such as (20R)-20-(p-tolyl)-5-pregnene-3beta,20-diol (20-tolyl-pregnenediol), cause difference spectra with maximum at about 420 nm and minimum at about 390 nm (reverse type I). The magnitude of spectral change and the amount of inhibition of pregnenolone synthesis by aminoglutethimide are closely correlated at concentrations ranging from 5 to 750 muM and by the model steroid, 20-tolyl-pregnenediol, at concentrations from 0.5 to 25 muM. The responses are concentration dependent and linear over the range of effective concentrations. The concentrations of inhibitors for the half-maximal inhibition of pregnenolone biosynthesis are identical with the concentrations producing half-maximal spectral changes within experimental error. Displacement of substrate from cytochrome P-450 and/or stabilization of the redox potential subsequent to to the ligation of heme iron is proposed as the specific mechanism of cholesterol side chain cleavage inhibition. Finding, together, the two procedures offer a sensitive, specific, and accurate means of screening inhibitors of the cholesterol side chain cleavage system. PMID:836802

  9. Androgen Deficiency During Mid- and Late Pregnancy Alters Progesterone Production and Metabolism in the Porcine Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Knapczyk-Stwora, Katarzyna; Ciereszko, Renata E.; Golas, Aniela; Wieciech, Iwona; Slomczynska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We determined whether androgen deficiency induced by flutamide treatment during mid- and late pregnancy affects the functions of the porcine corpus luteum (CL). Pregnant gilts were injected with flutamide between days 43 and 49 (gestation day [GD] 50F), days 83 and 89 (GD90F), or days 101 and 107 (GD108F) of gestation. Antiandrogen treatment increased the luteal progesterone concentration in the GD50F group and decreased progesterone content in the GD90F and GD108F groups. Luteal levels of side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (CYP11A1) mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated in the GD90F and GD108F groups as compared with the respective controls. The 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/?5-?4 isomerase (HSD3B) mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced only in the GD108F group as compared with the control. Decreased luteal 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C1) mRNA and protein levels were observed in the GD50F group. Thus, androgen deficiency during pregnancy in pigs led to CL dysfunction that is marked by decreased progesterone production. Furthermore, exposure to flutamide during late pregnancy downregulated steroidogenic enzymes (CYP11A1 and HSD3B) in pigs. We conclude that androgens are important regulators of CL function during pregnancy. PMID:24429677

  10. Androgen deficiency during mid- and late pregnancy alters progesterone production and metabolism in the porcine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Grzesiak, Malgorzata; Knapczyk-Stwora, Katarzyna; Ciereszko, Renata E; Golas, Aniela; Wieciech, Iwona; Slomczynska, Maria

    2014-06-01

    We determined whether androgen deficiency induced by flutamide treatment during mid- and late pregnancy affects the functions of the porcine corpus luteum (CL). Pregnant gilts were injected with flutamide between days 43 and 49 (gestation day [GD] 50F), days 83 and 89 (GD90F), or days 101 and 107 (GD108F) of gestation. Antiandrogen treatment increased the luteal progesterone concentration in the GD50F group and decreased progesterone content in the GD90F and GD108F groups. Luteal levels of side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (CYP11A1) mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated in the GD90F and GD108F groups as compared with the respective controls. The 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/?5-?4 isomerase (HSD3B) mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced only in the GD108F group as compared with the control. Decreased luteal 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C1) mRNA and protein levels were observed in the GD50F group. Thus, androgen deficiency during pregnancy in pigs led to CL dysfunction that is marked by decreased progesterone production. Furthermore, exposure to flutamide during late pregnancy downregulated steroidogenic enzymes (CYP11A1 and HSD3B) in pigs. We conclude that androgens are important regulators of CL function during pregnancy. PMID:24429677

  11. Unfolding protein response signaling is involved in development, maintenance, and regression of the corpus luteum during the bovine estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo-Jin; Park, Sun-Ji; Koo, Deog-Bon; Kong, Il-Keun; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Jin-Man; Choi, Myung-Sook; Park, Young-Ho; Kim, Sun-Uk; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Park, Choon-Keun; Chae, Jung-Il; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2013-11-15

    The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine organ. Development, maintenance, and regression of CL are effectively controlled by dynamic changes in gene expression. However, it is unknown what types of gene are affected during the CL life span of the estrous cycle in bovine. Here, we determined whether unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling via eIF2?/ATF4/GADD34, p90ATF6/p50ATF6, and IRE1/XBP1, which is a cellular stress response associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is involved in the bovine CL life span. Our results indicated that expression of Grp78/Bip, the master UPR regulator, was increased during the maintenance stage and rapidly decreased at the regression stage. Additionally, UPR signaling pathways genes were found to be involved in luteal phase progression during the estrous cycle. Our findings suggested that Grp78/Bip, ATF6, and XBP1 act as ER chaperones for initiating CL development and maintaining the CL. In addition, we investigated whether ER stress-mediated apoptosis is occurred through three UPR signaling pathways in CL regression stage. Interestingly, pIRE1 and CHOP were found to be involved in both the adaptive response and ER stress-mediated apoptosis. During the CL regression stage, increased expression of pJNK and CHOP, two components of ER stress-mediated apoptotic cascades, occurred before increased level of cleaved caspase 3 were observed. The present investigation was performed to identify a functional link between UPR signaling and CL life span during the bovine estrous cycle. Taken together, results from this study demonstrated that UPR protein/gene expression levels were different at various stages of the bovine CL life span. Variations in the expression of these protein/genes may play important roles in luteal stage progression during the estrous cycle. PMID:24161737

  12. Characterization of recombinant DNA derived-human luteinizing hormone in vitro and in vivo: efficacy in ovulation induction and corpus luteum support

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.A.; Danforth, D.R.; Hutchison, J.S.; Hodgen, G.D.

    1988-06-10

    The present data are the first, to the authors knowledge, to demonstrate the production feasibility of a commercially available medication of pure human luteinizing hormone from recombinant DNA technology (rechLH). The rechLH preparation achieved ovulation induction and corpus luteum support in the primate menstrual cycle. The observations described herein indicate the opportunity for significant improvement in the treatment of infertile women and men who require gonadal stimulation. Recombinant DNA-derived gonadotropin products, rechLH in this case, will have several therapeutic advantages compared with current medications extracted from urine. These advantages include (1) better reliability of an available supply of hormone and (2) improved treatment flexibility in determining the optimal dose ratio of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone or avoidance of the long-acting effects of human chorionic gonadotropin, as the needs of individual patients may dictate.

  13. Galectins in the mouse ovary: concomitant expression of galectin-3 and progesterone degradation enzyme (20alpha-HSD) in the corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Nio, Junko; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2007-05-01

    Galectin, an animal lectin that recognizes beta-galactosides of glycoconjugates, is involved in multiple biological functions such as cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and signal transduction. The present study using in situ hybridization revealed the predominant expression of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in the mouse ovary. Galectin-1 mRNA was diffusely expressed in the ovarian stroma, including the interstitial glands and theca interna, and intensely expressed in the corpus luteum (CL) at particular stages of regression. Transcripts of galectin-3 were restricted to CL and always coincident to the expression of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD), a progesterone degradation enzyme. In the non-pregnant ovary, signals for both galectin-1 and -3 were intense in the old, regressing CL formed at previous estrous cycles. In the newly formed CL, the signal intensity of galectin-1 first increased at the starting point of regression followed by increasing galectin-3/20alpha-HSD expressions. Under gestation with active progesterone production, signals for both galectin-1 and -3 in CL completely disappeared. At the perinatal stage, intense expressions of galectin-3/20alpha-HSD recovered in the remaining CL of gestation with the temporal expression of galectin-1 and continued until weaning. These findings suggest that galectin-1 and -3 may mediate progesterone production and metabolism in luteal cells via different mechanisms. PMID:17242467

  14. Gene expression profiles in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) during the estrous cycle and pregnancy: Possible roles of chemokines in regulating CL function during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    SAKUMOTO, Ryosuke; HAYASHI, Ken-Go; HOSOE, Misa; IGA, Kosuke; KIZAKI, Keiichiro; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    To determine functional differences between the corpus luteum (CL) of the estrous cycle and pregnancy in cows, gene expression profiles were compared using a 15 K bovine oligo DNA microarray. In the pregnant CL at days 20–25, 40–45 and 150–160, the expressions of 138, 265 and 455 genes differed by a factor of > 2-fold (P < 0.05) from their expressions in the cyclic CL (days 10–12 of the estrous cycle). Messenger RNA expressions of chemokines (eotaxin, lymphotactin and ENA-78) and their receptors (CCR3, XCR1 and CXCR2) were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Transcripts of eotaxin were more abundant in the CL at days 40–45 and 150–160 of pregnancy than in the cyclic CL (P < 0.01). In contrast, the mRNA expressions of lymphotactin, ENA-78 and XCR1 were lower in the CL of pregnancy (P < 0.05). Messenger RNAs of CCR3 and CXCR2 were similarly detected both in the cyclic and pregnant CL. Tissue protein levels of eotaxin were significantly higher in the CL at days 150–160 of pregnancy than in the CL at other stages, whereas the lymphotactin protein levels in the CL at days 20–25 of pregnancy were lower (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining showed that CCR3 was expressed in the luteal cells and that XCR1 was expressed in both the luteal cells and endothelial cells. Collectively, the different gene expression profiles may contribute to functional differences between the cyclic and pregnant CL, and chemokines including eotaxin and lymphotactin may regulate CL function during pregnancy in cows. PMID:25382605

  15. Ovulation-inducing factor (OIF/NGF) from seminal plasma origin enhances Corpus Luteum function in llamas regardless the preovulatory follicle diameter.

    PubMed

    Silva, M; Ulloa-Leal, C; Norambuena, C; Fernández, A; Adams, G P; Ratto, M H

    2014-08-01

    Ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) is a protein present in llama seminal plasma that has recently been identified as ?-Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and it induces not only a high rate of ovulation but also appears to have luteotrophic properties in this species. A 2-by-2 experimental design was used to determine the effect of treatments (OIF/NGF vs GnRH) and categories of preovulatory follicle diameter (7-10 vs >10mm) on ovulation rate, CL diameter and function in llamas. Llamas (n=32 llamas per group) were randomly assigned to receive an intramuscular dose of: (a) 1mg purified OIF/NGF in the presence of a follicle of 7-10mm in diameter; (b) 50 ?g of GnRH in the presence of a follicle of 7-10mm in diameter; (c) 1mg purified OIF/NGF in the presence of a follicle >10mm in diameter; (d) 50 ?g of GnRH in the presence of a follicle >10mm in diameter. Llamas were examined by ultrasonography every 12h from treatment to Day 2 (Day 0=treatment) to detect ovulation, and again on Day 8 to determine CL diameter. Ovulation rates did not differ among groups. There was an effect of preovulatory follicle size on Corpus Luteum diameter at Day 8 (P<0.001), however plasma progesterone concentration (n=15/per group) was higher (P<0.05) in the OIF/NGF - than that of the GnRH - treated group by the same day. We conclude that OIF/NGF treatment enhances CL function regardless preovulatory follicle size at the time of treatment. PMID:24950997

  16. Effects of varying doses of ?-nerve growth factor on the timing of ovulation, plasma progesterone concentration and corpus luteum size in female alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Stuart, C C; Vaughan, J L; Kershaw-Young, C M; Wilkinson, J; Bathgate, R; de Graaf, S P

    2014-06-26

    Ovulation in camelids is induced by the seminal plasma protein ovulation-inducing factor (OIF), recently identified as ?-nerve growth factor (?-NGF). The present study measured the total protein concentration in alpaca seminal plasma using a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein quantification assay and found it to be 22.2±2.0mgmL-1. To measure the effects of varying doses of ?-NGF on the incidence and timing of ovulation, corpus luteum (CL) size and plasma progesterone concentration, 24 female alpacas were synchronised and treated with either: (1) 1mL 0.9% saline (n=5); (2) 4µg buserelin (n=5); (3) 1mg ?-NGF protein (n=5); (4) 0.1mg ?-NGF (n=5); or (5) 0.01mg ?-NGF (n=4). Females were examined by transrectal ultrasonography at 1-2-h intervals between 20 and 45h after treatment or until ovulation occurred, as well as on Day 8 to observe the size of the CL, at which time blood was collected to measure plasma progesterone concentrations. Ovulation was detected in 0/5, 5/5, 5/5, 3/5 and 0/4 female alpacas treated with saline, buserelin, 1, 0.1 and 0.01mg ?-NGF, respectively. Mean ovulation interval (P=0.76), CL diameter (P=0.96) and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.96) did not differ between treatments. Mean ovulation interval overall was 26.2±1.0h. In conclusion, buserelin and 1mg ?-NGF are equally effective at inducing ovulation in female alpacas, but at doses ?0.1mg, ?-NGF is not a reliable method for the induction of ovulation. PMID:24965784

  17. The induction of a secondary corpus luteum on day 12 post-ovulation can delay the time of luteolysis in high-producing Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Saint-Dizier, M; Legendre, A-C; Driancourt, M-A; Chastant-Maillard, S

    2014-12-01

    Luteolysis before the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy is one cause of low fertility in high-producing dairy cows. The objective of this study was to assess whether induction of a secondary corpus luteum (CL) late in the luteal phase would delay the time of luteolysis. Twenty high-producing Holstein cows were synchronized to ovulation (Day 0) with the Ovsynch protocol and received hCG (1500 IU im) on Day 12. Corpora lutea formation (as evaluated by ultrasonography) and plasma P4 concentrations were monitored from Days 4 to 36. hCG treatment induced the formation of one secondary CL (CL2) in 11 of 20 cows (55%) from the dominant follicle (mean diameter: 14.2 ± 0.9 mm) of two-wave (3/11) and three-wave (8/11) cycles. The maximal diameter of the CL2 (23.3 ± 1.9 mm) was reached approximately 6 days after hCG treatment and was correlated with its structural lifespan (p < 0.01). Cows that formed a CL2 after hCG had higher mean plasma P4 concentrations on Day 14 (+4.5 ng/ml) and Day 18 (+3.0 ng/ml) compared with cows without CL2 (p < 0.05). The structural regression of CL2 begun approximately 8 days after that of the CL1, and the median time at which the first drop in circulating P4 levels occurred was later in cows that formed a CL2 than in those that did not (Day 26 vs Day 18; p < 0.01). Thus, the induction of a CL2 by hCG on Day 12 might reduce the risk of premature luteolysis in high-producing dairy cows after insemination. PMID:25219366

  18. Relationship between dose of cloprostenol and age of corpus luteum on the luteolytic response of early dioestrous mares: a field study.

    PubMed

    Cuervo-Arango, J; Newcombe, J R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish and characterize the relationship between the dose of cloprostenol (37.5, 250, 500 and 750 ?g) and the age of the early corpus luteum (CL) (80, 88, 96, 104 and 112 h) on the luteolytic response of mares. Behavioural oestrus and ultrasonographic signs of return to oestrus were considered as the occurrence of full luteolysis. A total of 298 mares were divided into groups according to dose of cloprostenol and CL age. There was an effect of dose of cloprostenol (p < 0.001) and age of the CL at the time of treatment (p < 0.001) on the percentage of mares with full luteolysis. The efficacy of 37.5 ?g of d-cloprostenol was similar to that of 250 ?g of d,l-cloprostenol (p > 0.05); and that of 500 similar to that of 750 ?g (p > 0.05). The higher dose groups (500 and 750 ?g) induced full luteolysis more frequently than the lower dose groups (37.5 and 250 ?g) 96-104 h post-ovulation. There was no effect of CL age or cloprostenol dose on the interovulatory interval (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the effect of cloprostenol on the percentage of mares undergoing full luteolysis is dose-dependent. However, this effect is only evident in mares with CLs aged between 96 and 104 h. There is no advantage of administering more than 500 ?g of d,l-cloprostenol (Estrumate(®)), to obtain a higher percentage of mares with full luteolysis in mares with CLs aged 80-112 h. PMID:22050446

  19. CELL BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM: perspectives: possible roles of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the corpus luteum during development and early pregnancy in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, A; Shirasuna, K; Haneda, S; Shimizu, T; Matsui, M

    2014-05-01

    The establishment of pregnancy requires well-balanced regulation of the endocrine and immune systems and involves interactions among the conceptus, oviduct-uterus, and corpus luteum (CL). In particular, a rapid increase in plasma progesterone during the first week after ovulation is critical for the growth of the conceptus and successful pregnancy in cattle. Events involved in maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) may commence within 1 wk from AI, when interferon-stimulated gene expression in circulating polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) increases in pregnant cows. To regulate optimal endocrine conditions within this time, the CL must develop rapidly, with active angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. The major angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2, contribute to the development of the CL but may also act as chemoattractants for PMN. Indeed, the number of PMN is greatest in the new CL, where PMN together with IL-8 induce active angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. During MRP, the conceptus secretes interferon tau (IFNT), which prevents CL regression by inhibiting luteolytic release of PGF2? from uterine endometrium. In addition, IFNT and PGE2 reach the CL and may contribute to desensitizing the CL to the luteolytic effects of PGF2?. In the bovine CL, lymphangiogenesis, stimulated by IFNT, may occur during MRP, and thus a shift of local immunity might occur at this timing. The aforementioned evidence supports the possible involvement of PMN in the establishment of pregnancy via CL regulation. Further investigation could expand our understanding of the communication between zygotes, PMN, and reproductive organs during early pregnancy. This should provide new insight into the contribution of neutrophils to CL function and immune tolerance during early pregnancy in ruminants. PMID:24663155

  20. Progesterone and interferon tau regulated genes in the endometrium of the ovine uterus and expression of interferon stimulated genes in the corpus luteum during early pregnancy in sheep 

    E-print Network

    Ahn, Hyo Won

    2008-10-10

    the uterus and the skin, giving tensile strength (Aumailley & Gayraud, 1998, Burgeson & Nimni, 1992, van der Rest & Garrone, 1991). Mutation in COL3A1 causes Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), especially Type III (vascular type), with symptoms of bruising... During Early Pregnancy in Sheep. (May 2008) Hyo Won Ahn, B.S., Konkuk University Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Fuller W. Bazer Dr. Thomas E. Spencer During early pregnancy...

  1. Progesterone and interferon tau regulated genes in the endometrium of the ovine uterus and expression of interferon stimulated genes in the corpus luteum during early pregnancy in sheep

    E-print Network

    Ahn, Hyo Won

    2008-10-10

    with fertilization, which is fusion of gametes that occurs in the oviduct. Fusion of male and female pronuclei results in a zygote that is surrounded by the zona pellucida, a glycoprotein membrane surrounding the vitelline membrane. Then, the zygote undergoes... pellucida and expansion of the blastocoel enables shedding of the zona pellucida in the uterus (Hafez, 1993). Zona hatching is followed by a rapid phase of blastocyst development and growth. In domestic ruminants and pigs, the blastocyst elongates...

  2. The influence of the ovulation rate on ultrasonically determined ovine corpus luteum morphometry and progesterone concentrations in cyclic and early pregnant sheep.

    PubMed

    Kaulfuss, K H; Moritz, S; Giucci, E

    2003-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to describe morphology and function of the Corpora lutea (CL) during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy in sheep with different ovulation rates. In total 40 Booroola. Mutton Merino crosses [heterozygous carriers (FecBFec+) and non-carriers (Fec+Fec+) of the Booroola-fecundity gene (FecB)] with ovulation rates 1 to 4 were examined. During the oestrous cycle (n = 20) and the first month of pregnancy (n = 20) blood samples were taken daily (radioimmunoassay of progesterone) and an ultrasonic ovary diagnosis was conducted. The ewes were scanned transrectally with a 7.5 MHz linear probe lying in a dorsal position. During every examination the CL could be detected. The number and the diameter of the CL were documented and the total volume of luteal tissue per ewe was calculated. The effect of the ovulation rate on CL-morphology (diameter and total volume of luteal tissue per ewe) and peripheral progesterone concentrations were assessed by one-way ANOVA. On day 6 and 7 post ovulationem in cyclic and early pregnant sheep 42% of the diagnosed CL had a cavity. On day 11 (cyclic sheep) and day 10 post ovulationem (early pregnant sheep) this number decreased to 22% (p < 0.05). Both conditions of the CL (compact or with a central cavity) are similar in function and should be regarded as appearances of the same basic process. From the third day onwards the ovulation rate influenced significantly (p < 0.05) the development of the outside diameters of the CL. However, the ovulation rate had no effect on the total volume of the luteal tissue per sheep and on the progesterone concentrations. Yet, in sheep with the ovulation rate 1 significantly lower progesterone concentrations were determined than in sheep with the ovulation rates 2 to 4. In sheep with the ovulation rates 2 to 4 the peripheral progesterone concentrations did not differ significantly. In cyclic and pregnant sheep there is a positive correlation (r = 0.75, p < 0.05) between the progesterone concentration and the total volume of luteal tissue. Considering the smaller diameters of the preovulatory follicles it seems that the development of the CL continues until a threshold-value of progesterone and/or of the total luteal tissue is exceeded. Ewes with low ovulation rates reach this threshold-value with only a few but large CL. With increasing ovulation rate the CL tend to have smaller diameters. PMID:12866258

  3. Ultrastructural development of the rat corpus luteum

    E-print Network

    Bailey, John Franklin

    1971-01-01

    obser ved. the formation oi tne zona pellucida and commented about its origin. . e noted that there seemed to be a means of exchange between the follicle cells themselves and o tween the follicle cells and. the ovum via the microvilli. Ti... noted that the zona pellucida forms during the period of most rapid growth of the follicle. Through a close study of the inclusions of both the ovum and follicular cells during zona pellucida development he discovered several important changes: (1...

  4. Ultrastructural development of the rat corpus luteum 

    E-print Network

    Bailey, John Franklin

    1971-01-01

    , :ailey, fo- her selfless d. evotion and sacrifice in r"d. in. , this end. eavor possible; and ho her he d. cd. icatcs i;hi" thesis. vii OF CONTE!TS Far;e Ti~. T LOB'O& T ' f . . ' Ti. ssue ='repar-tion ~ ~ ~ Tissue Observation. . i'i&RTLR ILLS l... ". J *. . T . 'OBi ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 'I ~ Anr'~aJ, -~r n ' aI Jo" : issue "reparation foi. Bl . ctron i. icroscony. Tissue 'reparation for Light Li croscopy. . . . Elec'ron Licroscopy Technicue. . . . , . . ?. . . , . . l9 2) 2 'R ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 27 Ligi t i...

  5. Cellular Transport of Prostaglandins in the Ovine Uterus

    E-print Network

    Lee, Je Hoon

    2013-05-08

    In ruminants, prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2?) is released from the endometrium in a pulsatile pattern at the time of luteolysis. The luteolytic PGF2? pulses are transported from the uterus to the corpus luteum (CL) through the utero-ovarian plexus...

  6. Immunocytochemical localization of oxytocin in the equine corpus luteum 

    E-print Network

    Murray, Melanie Ann

    1991-01-01

    demonstrated in the goat (Cooke and Knifton, 1981). Milne (1963) was unable to get a premature return to estrus in ewes with doses of oxytocin ranging from 15 to 50 IU administered on various days of the estrous cycle; however, he did note the formation... et al. (1987) or by Betteridge et al. (1985). Estrogen and progesterone values may be variable enough in the mare to influence the response 31 to exogenous oxytocin, perhaps by influencing oxytocin receptor formation. Exogenous doses of oxytocin...

  7. Immunocytochemical localization of oxytocin in the equine corpus luteum

    E-print Network

    Murray, Melanie Ann

    1991-01-01

    ovarian venoarterial concentrations of neurophysin I/II, a pro-hormone needed for the synthesis of oxytocin. The radioimmunoassay data found a molar ratio of neurophysin to oxytocin close to 1. 0 as is seen in the pituitary production of oxytocin... and neurophysin (Moore and Watkins, 1981). Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) was used to determine the molecular mass of the isolate and verified the ovarian peptide as oxytocin (Flint and Sheldrick, 1985). Watkins et al. (1985) performed a...

  8. Structural features of Rhododendron luteum flower

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Sawidis; Theano Theodoridou; Elzbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Artemios M. Bosabalidis

    2011-01-01

    The flower of Rhododendron luteum (L.) Sweet has a pentamerous structure with radial symmetry. The anthers filament surface is covered by dense non-glandular\\u000a hairs to the half of the height. The tubular anther dehisces along creating two openings in the anther-sac walls and the viscous\\u000a pollen is released through two splits along the anther lobes. The pistil is pentamerous and

  9. Different ovine interferon-tau genes are not expressed identically and their protein products display different activities.

    PubMed

    Ealy, A D; Green, J A; Alexenko, A P; Keisler, D H; Roberts, R M

    1998-02-01

    Interferon tau (IFN-tau) proteins are secreted by the ovine conceptus for a few days before definitive attachment of the trophoblast to the uterine epithelium and act to prolong luteal life span. Multiple genes encode for IFN-tau in sheep, but it remains unclear which genes are expressed during early pregnancy and whether the proteins encoded by these genes are equipotent. Three distinct ovine (ov) IFN-tau gene variants, p3, p6, and s4, were examined to determine whether they differed in gene expression and whether the proteins displayed different biological activities. By using RNase protection assays, full-length protected fragments were detected for p3 and p6 in approximately similar proportions in conceptuses flushed from the uterus at Days 12-13, Days 15-16, and Days 18-19 of pregnancy, but the amount of full-length protected s4 transcripts was 10% to 20% of that for p3 and p6. Partially protected probe fragments were also evident, presumably from probe hybridization to related ovIFN-tau transcripts. Recombinant proteins were generated and exhibited 34.2 (p3), 8.4 (p6), and 11.9 (s4) units (x 10(-7)) of activity per milligram of protein when tested on Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells. Antiproliferative activity on human Daudi cells varied considerably between the interferons, with p3 being 2000-fold more potent than s4. The interferons were injected into the uterine lumen of ewes from 10 to 18 days postestrus. The functional life span of the corpus luteum (CL) was increased (p = 0.02) by either 300 microg/day p3 (31.7 +/- 7.8 days) or 300 microg/day p6 (25.5 +/- 4.2 days), but not by 300 microg/day s4 (19.2 +/- 2.9 days), when compared to controls (15.8 +/- 0.6 days). Injection of 1 mg/day s4 did, however, increase (p = 0.02) CL life span (23.5 +/- 4.1 days). These data suggest that IFN-tau genes are not equally expressed in trophectoderm and that ovIFN-tau genes encode for proteins with significantly different biological potency. PMID:9475415

  10. Gene expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1, 3 and 4 in bovine follicle and corpus luteum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Nishimoto; R Matsutani; S Yamamoto; T Takahashi; K-G Hayashi; A Miyamoto; S Hamano; M Tetsuka

    2006-01-01

    Glucose is the main energy substrate in the bovine ovary, and a sufficient supply of it is necessary to sustain the ovarian activity. Glucose cannot permeate the plasma membrane, and its uptake is mediated by a number of glucose transporters (GLUT). In the present study, we investigated the gene expression of GLUT1, 3 and 4 in the bovine follicle and

  11. Ovarian VEGF165b expression regulates follicular development, corpus luteum function and fertility

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Y; Seager, M; Osman, A; Castle-Miller, J; Bevan, H; Tortonese, D J; Murphy, D; Harper, S J; Fraser, H M; Donaldson, L F; Bates, D O

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis and vascular regression are critical for the female ovulatory cycle. They enable progression and regression of follicular development, and corpora lutea formation and regression. Angiogenesis in the ovary occurs under the control of the vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA) family of proteins, which are generated as both pro-(VEGF165) and anti(VEGF165b)-angiogenic isoforms by alternative splicing. To determine the role of the VEGF165b isoforms in the ovulatory cycle, we measured VEGF165b expression in marmoset ovaries by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, and used transgenic mice over-expressing VEGF165b in the ovary. VEGF165b was expressed in the marmoset ovaries in granulosa cells and theca, and the balance of VEGF165b:VEGF165 was regulated during luteogenesis. Mice over-expressing VEGF165b in the ovary were less fertile than wild-type littermates, had reduced secondary and tertiary follicles after mating, increased atretic follicles, fewer corpora lutea and generated fewer embryos in the oviduct after mating, and these were more likely not to retain the corona radiata. These results indicate that the balance of VEGFA isoforms controls follicle progression and luteogenesis, and that control of isoform expression may regulate fertility in mammals, including in primates. PMID:22232745

  12. Immunolocalization of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in human ovarian follicles and corpus luteum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Forges; A. Gérard; P. Monnier-Barbarino; H. Gérard

    2005-01-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), a hepatic carrier protein for sex steroids is expressed in different steroid-sensitive\\u000a tissues, including Sertoli cells of the testis. It has been suggested that this protein may be one of the local regulators\\u000a of spermatogenesis. The expression of SHBG in the ovary is currently unknown. We have previously demonstrated the synthesis\\u000a of SHBG in granulosa-lutein cells

  13. Long-term characteristics of idiopathic persistent corpus luteum in the mare.

    PubMed

    Santos, V G; Bettencourt, E M V; Ginther, O J

    2015-07-15

    Persistent CL (PCL; n = 10) in mares was studied daily from Day 20 (Day 0 = ovulation) to the ending ovulation. In addition, the 10 days before ovulation at the end of a PCL were compared with the end of an interovulatory interval (IOI; n = 28) during the same months. Concentration of P4, cross-sectional area of CL, and percentage of CL with Doppler signals of blood flow during PCLs remained constant from 64 to about 33 days before the end of luteolysis and then decreased linearly. Concentration of LH between Day 20 and beginning of the ovulatory LH surge increased linearly. A dominant follicle developed on average every 15 days throughout each PCL. Novel transient P4 depressions were detected with the P4 nadir at a day of maximal diameter of a dominant follicle. At the apparent beginning of luteolysis before the ending ovulation, P4 concentration in PCLs (5.0 ± 0.5 ng/mL) was less (P < 0.0001) than that in IOIs (9.3 ± 0.6 ng/mL). Concentration of LH began to increase 2 days before the end of luteolysis in each group, but concentration on the day of the ending ovulation in PCLs (3.7 ± 0.3 ng/mL) was less (P < 0.005) than that in IOIs (8.9 ± 1.8 ng/mL). In a separate survey of PCLs (n = 23) and IOIs (n = 352), frequency of PCL (6.1%) differed significantly among mares indicating repeatability. These original and critical comparisons between PCLs and IOIs should provide hypotheses for further study. PMID:25922171

  14. Corpus luteum blood flow evaluation on Day 21 to improve the management of embryo recipient herds.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, C R B; Oliveira, M E; Rossi, J R; Fernandes, C A C; Viana, J H M; Palhao, M P

    2015-07-15

    The aim of the present study was to use blood flow evaluation of the CL at 14 days after embryo transfer to detect nonpregnant animals and optimize the management of bovine recipients. The estrous cycle was synchronized in 165 recipients, and the day of expected ovulation was considered to be Day 0. Embryo transfer was performed 7 days later, on Day 7. On Day 21, pregnancy was diagnosed on the basis of blood flow evaluation of the CL (DG21-predictive diagnostic). To validate this methodology, visual scores for blood flow were compared to objective data extracted from CL ultrasound images recorded in the Doppler mode. The size was also evaluated using recorded images of the CL in the B mode. Blood samples were also collected for further analysis of the progesterone (P4) concentration. The diagnosis of pregnancy was confirmed at 35 days after estrus (DG35-definitive diagnostic). The DG21 showed that 55.2% (90 of 163) of the animals were presumptively pregnant, and this value was higher (P < 0.04) than that obtained at DG35 (43.6%, 71 of 163). The predictive diagnostic achieved moderate specificity (79.3%) for the detection of pregnancy, but most importantly, high sensitivity (100%) for the detection of nonpregnant recipients. The overall accuracy of the diagnosis was 88.3%. The P4 concentrations were different (P < 0.02) and correlated with each visual score assigned for the CL size. Visual scores for CL blood flow were also efficient (P < 0.0001) to distinguish animals with different levels of P4; however, P4 concentrations were higher for scores 1 and 2 (high and regular blood flow, respectively) than those for score 3 (low blood flow). This technique showed high sensitivity and facilitated the early detection of nonpregnant animals. The DG21 would allow about 79.3% of nonpregnant animals to be resynchronized 9 to 14 days earlier, when compared to conventional management based on pregnancy diagnosis at Days 30 to 35. PMID:25892341

  15. Accuracy of Predicting Stages of Bovine Estrous Cycle by Gross Appearance of the Corpus Luteum1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Ireland; R. L. Murphee; P. B. Coulson

    1980-01-01

    Four readily identifiable changes in appearance of corpora lutea (Stages I to IV) occur during a bovine estrous cycle. Accuracy of estimating the stage of an estrous cycle by appearance of corpora lutea was determined in a double-blind study. One investigator observed estrus in a group of heifers while another with no prior knowledge of reproductive histories of the heifers

  16. Prostaglandin moieties that determine receptor binding specificity in the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L E; Schultz, M K; Wiltbank, M C

    1999-05-01

    This study provided a pharmacological evaluation of prostaglandin binding to bovine luteal plasma membrane. It was found that [3H]PGF2 alpha' [3H]PGE2' [3H]PGE1 and [3H]PGD2 all bound with high affinity to luteal plasma membrane but had different specificities. Binding of [3H]PGF2 alpha and [3H]PGD2 was inhibited by non-radioactive PGF2 alpha (IC50 values of 21 and 9 nmol l-1, respectively), PGD2 (35 and 21 nmol l-1), and PGE2 (223 and 81 nmol l-1), but not by PGE1 (> 10,000 and 5616 nmol l-1). In contrast, [3H]PGE1 was inhibited by non-radioactive PGE1 (14 nmol l-1) and PGE2 (7 nmol l-1), but minimally by PGD2 (2316 nmol l-1) and PGF2 alpha (595 nmol l-1). Binding of [3H]PGE2 was inhibited by all four prostaglandins, but slopes of the dissociation curves indicated two binding sites. Binding of [3H]PGE1 was inhibited, resulting in low IC50 values, by pharmacological agonists that are specific for EP3 receptor and possibly EP2 receptor. High affinity binding of [3H]PGF2 alpha required a C15 hydroxyl group and a C1 carboxylic acid that are present on all physiological prostaglandins. Specificity of binding for the FP receptor depended on the C9 hydroxyl group and the C5/C6 double bond. Alteration of the C11 position had little effect on affinity for the FP receptor. In conclusion, there is a luteal EP receptor with high affinity for PGE1' PGE2' agonists of EP3 receptors, and some agonists of EP2 receptors. The luteal FP receptor binds PGF2 alpha' PGD2 (high affinity), and PGE2 (moderate affinity) but not PGE1 due to affinity determination by the C9 and C5/C6 moieties, but not the C11 moiety. PMID:10505064

  17. Reverse engineering the ovine gene network under

    E-print Network

    Painter, Kevin

    Reverse engineering the ovine gene network under Psoroptes Ovis infestation. Supervisor: Dr. Pier.....................................................................10 2.2 Reverse Engineering the Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs

  18. CALBC silver standard corpus.

    PubMed

    Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Jimeno Yepes, Antonio José; Van Mulligen, Erik M; Kang, Ning; Kors, Jan; Milward, David; Corbett, Peter; Buyko, Ekaterina; Beisswanger, Elena; Hahn, Udo

    2010-02-01

    The CALBC initiative aims to provide a large-scale biomedical text corpus that contains semantic annotations for named entities of different kinds. The generation of this corpus requires that the annotations from different automatic annotation systems be harmonized. In the first phase, the annotation systems from five participants (EMBL-EBI, EMC Rotterdam, NLM, JULIE Lab Jena, and Linguamatics) were gathered. All annotations were delivered in a common annotation format that included concept identifiers in the boundary assignments and that enabled comparison and alignment of the results. During the harmonization phase, the results produced from those different systems were integrated in a single harmonized corpus ("silver standard" corpus) by applying a voting scheme. We give an overview of the processed data and the principles of harmonization--formal boundary reconciliation and semantic matching of named entities. Finally, all submissions of the participants were evaluated against that silver standard corpus. We found that species and disease annotations are better standardized amongst the partners than the annotations of genes and proteins. The raw corpus is now available for additional named entity annotations. Parts of it will be made available later on for a public challenge. We expect that we can improve corpus building activities both in terms of the numbers of named entity classes being covered, as well as the size of the corpus in terms of annotated documents. PMID:20183881

  19. Corpus Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbhour, Georgette

    Corpus-based instruction, also referred to as corpus-based linguistics, is essentially the study of genre texts for the production of materials that fit a specific group of second language learners. For example, if a group of students is learning the language in order to read medical articles, a specific teaching program can be set up based on the…

  20. Chryseobacterium luteum sp. nov., associated with the phyllosphere of grasses.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Undine; Ulrich, Andreas; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter

    2007-08-01

    Three isolates obtained from grass samples were investigated by means of a polyphasic taxonomic study and were shown to represent a novel species within the genus Chryseobacterium. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences and phenotypic features indicated that the three isolates belonged to a single species. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the closest phylogenetic neighbours were Chryseobacterium shigense and Chryseobacterium vrystaatense, which formed a stable cluster with the isolates; this phylogeny was supported by a high bootstrap value and was obtained using different treeing methods. A DNA-DNA hybridization study with the closest neighbour, C. shigense DSM 17126(T) (98.3 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), clearly demonstrated a separate species status for the grass isolate strain P 456/04(T). Comparisons involving physiological properties and whole-cell fatty acid profiles confirmed this result at the phenotypic level. On the basis of these results, strain P 456/04(T) represents a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium luteum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P 456/04(T) (=DSM 18605(T) =LMG 23785(T)). PMID:17684275

  1. Cellular Transport of Prostaglandins in the Ovine Uterus 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Je Hoon

    2013-05-08

    ............................................ 32 3.1 Proposed transmembrane model of ovine PGT based on structural and hydropathy analysis of amino acid sequences ..................... 49 3.2 RT-PCR/ Southern blot quantitation of ovine PGT and validation of human PGT antibody...

  2. GENIA corpus - a semantically annotated corpus for bio-textmining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-dong Kim; Tomoko Ohta; Yuka Tateisi; Jun-ichi Tsujii

    2003-01-01

    Motivation: Natural language processing (NLP) methods are regarded as being useful to raise the potential of text mining from biological literature. The lack of an extensively annotated corpus of this literature, however, causes a major bottleneck for applying NLP techniques. GENIA corpus is being developed to provide reference materials to let NLP techniques work for bio-textmining. Results: GENIA corpus version

  3. Effect of environmental pollutants on oxytocin synthesis and secretion from corpus luteum and on contractions of uterus from pregnant cows.

    PubMed

    Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Wrobel, Michal H; Kotwica, Jan

    2010-09-15

    Chloro-organic compounds are persistent environmental pollutants and affect many reproductive processes. Oxytocin (OT) synthesized in luteal cells is a local regulator of ovarian activity and uterine contractions. Therefore the effect of xenobiotics on the OT prohormone synthesis, secretion of OT and progesterone (P4) from luteal cells and on myometrial contractions during early pregnancy in cows was investigated. Luteal cells and myometrial strips from a cow at early pregnancy were treated with polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB 77), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (1 or 10 ng/ml). The mRNA expression of neurophysin-I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT) and peptidyl-glycine-alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA) and concentration of OT and P4 were determined by RT-PCR and EIA, respectively. Moreover, the effect of xenobiotics given with P4 (12 ng/ml) on the basal and OT (10(-7)M) stimulated contractions of myometrial strips was studied. Xenobiotics increased (P<0.05) OT secretion but DDE only stimulated P4 secretion. The ratio of P4 to OT in culture medium was decreased by all xenobiotics during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. All xenobiotics, except HCH, increased (P<0.05) mRNA expression of NP-I/OT during all stages of pregnancy and all treatments decreased (P<0.05) expression of mRNA for PGA during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. Myometrial strips were relaxed (P<0.01) after pre-incubation with P4, while each of the xenobiotics jointly with P4 increased (P<0.01) myometrial contractions. In conclusion, the xenobiotics used increased both expression of mRNA for genes involved in OT synthesis and secretion of OT from luteal cells. This decreases the ratio of P4 to OT and presumably, in this manner, the chloro-organic compounds can influence uterine contractions and enhance risk of abortions in pregnant females. PMID:20633573

  4. Angiogenesis in the human corpus luteum: simulated early pregnancy by HCG treatment is associated with both angiogenesis and vessel stabilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Wulff; Sarah E. Dickson; W. Colin Duncan; Hamish M. Fraser

    BACKGROUND: This study examined changes in the luteal vasculature throughout the menstrual cycle and during simulated pregnancy with human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) in the human. METHODS: Endothelial cell and pericyte area were assessed by quantitative immunocytochemistry for CD34 and ?-smooth muscle actin respectively, taking into consideration the dynamics of lutein cell hypertrophy and atrophy throughout the cycle and after HCG

  5. Follicular growth and corpus luteum function in women with unexplained infertility, monitored by ultrasonography and measurement of daily salivary progesterone.

    PubMed

    Finn, M M; Gosling, J P; Tallon, D F; Joyce, L A; Meehan, F P; Fottrell, P F

    1989-12-01

    Ovarian function was evaluated over a minimum of 3 consecutive menstrual cycles from each of 41 women with unexplained infertility. Follicular development and ovulation were monitored using real time ultrasonography and luteal function was evaluated by daily salivary progesterone measurement. In 129 spontaneous cycles, normal single ovulations were detected in 121 (93.8%). Luteal phase insufficiency was identified in 21 (17.4%) of these 121 cycles and this was a recurrent phenomenon in the cycles of 5 of the 41 women (12.2%). A successful pregnancy was seen only in association with consistently normal salivary progesterone profiles or where the empirical use of clomiphene citrate therapy had corrected previously diagnosed luteal phase insufficiency. Basal body temperature records or mid-luteal serum progesterone measurements were less satisfactory indices of luteal function than a salivary progesterone profile. PMID:2626978

  6. Size of Ovulatory Follicles in Cattle Expressing Multiple Ovulations Naturally and Its Influence on Corpus Luteum Development and Fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term genetic selection of cattle for fraternal twins has increased the frequency of twin and triplet ovulations. Although twin and triplet ovulations increased pregnancy rates initially, ratio of fetal number:ovulation site in pregnant females with twin (0.83) or triplet (0.73) ovulations was <...

  7. OVINE INTERLEUKIN 12 HAS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY ON OVINE AND HUMAN ACTIVATED PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah J Swinburne; Graeme R Russ; Ravi Krishnan

    2000-01-01

    Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of two subunits that form the biologically active p70 molecule, and is a potent inducer of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-?. In this study the coding sequence for ovine interleukin 12 p35 and p40 subunits was derived by RT-PCR cloning. Ovine p35 and p40 cDNA sequences show a high level of similarity at

  8. LE CORPUS ABJECT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Houston Jones

    2000-01-01

    La notion du corpus littéraire de Beckett se complexifie radicalement en vue de la préoccupation beckettienne d'une physicalité dégradée, voire 'abjecte'. L'imagerie d'un être 'assasiné' avant la naissance ou d'une entité 'qui n'est jamais née' s'opère sur le plan structurel ainsi que sur celui de la thématique: elle se trouve invariablement dans le texte qui serait, de son propre aveu,

  9. Do calcium-mediated cellular signalling pathways, prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2), estrogen or progesterone receptor antagonists, or bacterial endotoxins affect bovine placental function in vitro?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S Weems; R. D Randel; G. E Carstens; T. H Welsh; C. W Weems

    2004-01-01

    The major objective of this experiment was to determine whether the bovine placenta could be stimulated to secrete progesterone, since the bovine placenta secretes little progesterone when the corpus luteum is functional. Secondly, we wanted to determine whether reported abortifacients or progesterone or estrogen receptor antagonists affected bovine placental prostaglandin secretion. The ovine placenta secretes half of the circulating progesterone

  10. Bioconcentration of lipophilic organochlorines in ovine dentine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Jan; M Vrecl; A Poga?nik; D Gašperši?

    2001-01-01

    The bioconcentration of lipophilic organochlorines in ovine dentine in comparison to adipose tissue was examined. Sheep were given a single dose (0.2–1.4 mg\\/kg body wt) of individual polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) congeners (tetrachlorobiphenyls IUPAC Nos. 54 and 80, and hexachlorobiphenyls IUPAC Nos. 155 and 169) and organochlorine pesticides 1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene) (4,4?-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). They were killed 2 months after the dose and

  11. Variation in the ovine PRKAG3 gene.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo; Zhou, Huitong; Wang, Ruoyu; Hickford, Jon

    2015-08-10

    The 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric enzyme that controls cellular energy homeostasis in response to environmental or nutritional stress. The PRKAG3 gene (PRKAG3) encodes the ?3 subunit of the AMPK. Variation in this gene has been found to be associated with meat quality traits in pigs. In this study, we used polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) to investigate variation in exon 3 and exons 4-6 of ovine PRKAG3. In 160 New Zealand Suffolk sheep, two variant sequences (named a and b) were identified in the exon 3 region of the gene and three variant sequences (named A, B and C) were identified in the exon 4-6 region of the gene, respectively. A total of three nucleotide substitutions were revealed and these were located in intron 4, exon 4 and intron 5, respectively. The nucleotide substitution identified in the exon 4 (g.2656 C>T) could nominally lead to an amino acid substitution of tryptophan to arginine at position 230 (R230W) in ovine PRKAG3. In comparison with the PRKAG3 amino acid sequences in other species, this R230W substitution appeared to occur only in sheep. This is the first report of genetic variation in ovine PRKAG3, and the variation found in this study could be functionally important for AMPK activity, which in turn may affect meat quality traits in sheep. PMID:25967386

  12. Variation in the ovine WFIKKN2 gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiqing; Zhou, Huitong; Fang, Qian; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G H

    2014-06-10

    WFIKKN2 may play a role in the regulation of muscle growth and development through its interaction with growth and differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), but to date research into the function of the protein has been focused on mice, even though the WFIKKN2 gene (WFIKKN2) was first identified in humans in 2001. In this study two regions (intron 1 and the 3' UTR) of ovine WFIKKN2 were investigated, using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Stranded Conformational Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). Two different PCR-SSCP patterns, representing two unique DNA sequences (designated a and b) were detected in a 399-bp amplicon derived from the 3' UTR, with sequence analysis revealing one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). In a 421-bp amplicon from intron 1, five different PCR-SSCP patterns (designated A-E) were observed and twelve SNPs were detected. Either one or two different sequences were detected in individual sheep and all the sequences identified shared homology with the WFIKKN2 sequences from cattle and other animal species, suggesting that these sequences represent variants of the ovine WFIKKN2 gene. In intron 1 of 487 sheep from eight breeds, variants B and C were the most common, followed by A, D and E. These results indicate that ovine WFIKKN2 is polymorphic and suggest that further analysis is required to see if variation in the gene is associated with variation in growth and muscle traits in sheep. PMID:24704001

  13. Nucleotide diversity on the ovine Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Meadows, J R S; Hawken, R J; Kijas, J W

    2004-10-01

    To investigate the impact of male-mediated introgression during the evolution of sheep breeds, a sequencing approach was used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the male-specific region of the ovine Y chromosome (MSY). A total of 4380 bp, which comprised nine fragments from five MSY genes was sequenced within a panel of 14 males from seven breeds. Sequence alignment identified a single segregating site, an A/G SNP located approximately 1685 bp upstream of the ovine SRY gene. The resulting estimation of nucleotide diversity (piY = 0.90 +/- 0.50 x 10(-4)) falls towards the lower end of estimates from other species. This was compared with the nucleotide diversity estimated from the autosomal component of the genome. Sequence analysis of 2933 bp amplified from eight autosomal genes revealed a nucleotide diversity (piA = 2.15 +/- 0.27 x 10(-3)) higher than previously reported for sheep. Following adjustment for the contrasting influence of effective population size and a male biased mutation rate, comparison revealed that approximately 10% of the expected nucleotide diversity is present on the ovine Y chromosome. PMID:15373741

  14. Original article The hormonal control of ovine ?-lactoglobulin gene

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    under the influence of gluco- corticoids (Gaye et al, 1986). Moreover, ovine (3-lactoglobulin geneOriginal article The hormonal control of ovine ?-lactoglobulin gene in cultured ewe mammary. [3-lactoglobulin gene in ewes, is therefore, controlled by the lactogenic hormones which also induce

  15. Original article The development of the ovine fetal adrenal gland

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the sheep and its regu- lation by the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and other factors. ovine fetal modalités du développement de la surrénale foetale ovine et sa régulation par l'ACTH et d'autres facteurs stimulation of the gland by the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and to an important development of the abil

  16. Review article Recent advances on ovine chlamydial abortion

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Recent advances on ovine chlamydial abortion Annie Rodolakisa Jesus Salinasb John on ovine chlamydial abortion. Concerning chlamy- dial taxonomy, with the recent advances due, with the kinetics of placental col- onization and placental pathology leading to abortion in ruminants. Studies

  17. Original article Induced differentiation of ovine foetal gonocytes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of Nude mice MT Hochereau-de-Reviers C Perreau Centre de recherches de Tours, Inra, PRMD-URA 1291, 37380 ovine testes into the scrotum of immunotol- erant adult Nude mice. Forty days after grafting, nine ovins foetaux dans le scrotum de souris Nude. Ce travail avait pour but de vérifier si l'absence de

  18. 78 FR 76276 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Ovine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...Collection; Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...for the importation of ovine meat from Uruguay into the United States. [[Page 76277...for the importation of ovine meat from Uruguay, contact Dr. Silvia Kreindel,...

  19. Functional analysis of ovine herpesvirus 2 encoded microRNAs 

    E-print Network

    Riaz, Aayesha

    2014-11-28

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) is a gamma herpesvirus and is the causative agent of lymphoproliferative disease – sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in susceptible ruminants, including cattle. Sheep become persistently ...

  20. Proteomics-Driven Analysis of Ovine Whey Colostrum

    PubMed Central

    Scumaci, Domenica; Trimboli, Francesca; Dell’Aquila, Ludovica; Concolino, Antonio; Pappaianni, Giusi; Tammè, Laura; Vignola, Giorgio; Luciani, Alessia; Morelli, Daniela; Cuda, Giovanni; Boari, Andrea; Britti, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light in to the complexity of the ovine colostrum proteome, with a specific focus on the low abundance proteins. The ovine colostrum is characterized by a few dominating proteins, as the immunoglobulins, but it also contains less represented protein species, equally important for the correct development of neonates. Ovine colostrum, collected immediately after lambing, was separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Proteins bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, a total of 343 unique proteins were identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of ovine colostrum proteome. PMID:25643159

  1. Ovine pedomics: the first study of the ovine foot 16S rRNA-based microbiome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leo A Calvo-Bado; Brian B Oakley; Scot E Dowd; Laura E Green; Graham F Medley; Atiya Ul-Hassan; Vicky Bateman; William Gaze; Luci Witcomb; Rose Grogono-Thomas; Jasmeet Kaler; Claire L Russell; Elizabeth MH Wellington

    2011-01-01

    We report the first study of the bacterial microbiome of ovine interdigital skin based on 16S rRNA by pyrosequencing and conventional cloning with Sanger-sequencing. Three flocks were selected, one a flock with no signs of footrot or interdigital dermatitis, a second flock with interdigital dermatitis alone and a third flock with both interdigital dermatitis and footrot. The sheep were classified

  2. The Sheffield Wargames Corpus Charles Fox1

    E-print Network

    Barker, Jon

    The Sheffield Wargames Corpus Charles Fox1 , Yulan Liu1 , Erich Zwyssig2,3 , Thomas Hain1 1-top wargame. The Sheffield Wargames Corpus comprises 7 hours of data from 10 recording sessions, obtained from

  3. Developing an International Corpus of Creative English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassall, Peter John

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an International Corpus of Creative English (ICCE) as a worldwide corpus particularly suitable for implementation in countries which have tertiary institutions with well-defined populations of students possessing similar cultural and/or linguistic backgrounds. The ICCE is contextualized as a world Englishes corpus with…

  4. Cystic periventricular leukomalacia of the corpus callosum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian D. Coley; Mark J. Hogan

    1997-01-01

    Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a common finding during neurosonography of preterm infants. Secondary thinning of the\\u000a corpus callosum is seen following PVL, typically from loss of hemispheric white matter tracts. We report a case of direct\\u000a involvement of the corpus callosum with PVL, its pathogenesis, and its potential as a cause of corpus callosal thinning.

  5. Corpus studies in word prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Trnka; Kathleen F. Mccoy

    2007-01-01

    Word prediction can be used to enhance the communication rate of people with disabilities who use Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) devices. We use statis- tical methods in a word prediction system, which are trained on a corpus, and then measure the ecacy of the resulting system by calculating the theoretical keystroke savings on some held out data. Ideally training

  6. Expression of paracrine growth factors and their receptors in the ovine uterus 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chen

    2000-01-01

    the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. An ovine FGF-10 cDNA was cloned from an ovine endometrial cDNA library. The ovine FGF-10 cDNA encodes a protein of 213 amino acids and possesses an unusually long 5' untranslated region (UTR). In situ hybridization...

  7. EFFICACY OF A LONG-ACTING OXYTETRACYCLINE* AGAINST CHLAMYDIAL OVINE ABORTION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EFFICACY OF A LONG-ACTING OXYTETRACYCLINE* AGAINST CHLAMYDIAL OVINE ABORTION Annie RODOLAKIS1 A ABORTIVE OVINE. ― Le traitement de la chlamydiose abortive ovine par la Terramycine/L A 200 a été-bas. La transposition d'un tel traitement à la pratique et son intérêt sont discutés. Chlamydial abortion

  8. Expression of paracrine growth factors and their receptors in the ovine uterus

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chen

    2000-01-01

    the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. An ovine FGF-10 cDNA was cloned from an ovine endometrial cDNA library. The ovine FGF-10 cDNA encodes a protein of 213 amino acids and possesses an unusually long 5' untranslated region (UTR). In situ hybridization...

  9. The Stockholm EPR Corpus - Characteristics and Some Initial Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hercules Dalianis; Martin Hassel; Sumithra Velupillai

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of the Stockholm Electronic Patient Record Corpus (the SEPR Corpus), an important resource for performing research on clinical data. The whole SEPR corpus contains over one million patient records from over 2 000 clinics. We compare parts of the SEPR corpus with the Swedish PAROLE Corpus and describe the differences and similarities. We also describe

  10. Annotation Guide for the UCM/MIT Indications, Referential Expressions, and Coreference Corpus (UMIREC Corpus)

    E-print Network

    Hervas, Raquel

    2010-05-12

    This is the annotation guide given to the annotators who created the UCM/MIT Indications, Referring Expressions, and Coreference (UMIREC) Corpus version 1.0. The corpus comprises texts annotated for referring expressions, ...

  11. Global distribution and diversity of ovine-associated Staphylococcus aureus?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Edward M.; Needs, Polly F.; Manley, Grace; Green, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of many species, including sheep, and impacts on both human and animal health, animal welfare, and farm productivity. Here we present the widest global diversity study of ovine-associated S. aureus to date. We analysed 97 S. aureus isolates from sheep and sheep products from the UK, Turkey, France, Norway, Australia, Canada and the USA using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing. These were compared with 196 sheep isolates from Europe (n = 153), Africa (n = 28), South America (n = 14) and Australia (n = 1); 172 bovine, 68 caprine and 433 human S. aureus profiles. Overall there were 59 STs and 87 spa types in the 293 ovine isolates; in the 97 new ovine isolates there were 22 STs and 37 spa types, including three novel MLST alleles, four novel STs and eight novel spa types. Three main CCs (CC133, CC522 and CC700) were detected in sheep and these contained 61% of all isolates. Four spa types (t002, t1534, t2678 and t3576) contained 31% of all isolates and were associated with CC5, CC522, CC133 and CC522 respectively. spa types were consistent with MLST CCs, only one spa type (t1403) was present in multiple CCs. The three main ovine CCs have different but overlapping patterns of geographical dissemination that appear to match the location and timing of sheep domestication and selection for meat and wool production. CC133, CC522 and CC700 remained ovine-associated following the inclusion of additional host species. Ovine isolates clustered separately from human and bovine isolates and those from sheep cheeses, but closely with caprine isolates. As with cattle isolates, patterns of clonal diversification of sheep isolates differ from humans, indicative of their relatively recent host-jump. PMID:24035790

  12. CANCER OF THE CORPUS UTERI 19. CANCER OF THE CORPUS UTERI

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    CANCER OF THE CORPUS UTERI 171 19. CANCER OF THE CORPUS UTERI 19.1. SUMMARY Cancer of the uterus of the corpus uteri (uterine cancer; discussed in this chapter), and cancer of the uterus, part unspecified. "Part unspecified" cases make up less than 5% of all cancers of the uterus and are not considered here

  13. CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CELT, an "online database of contemporary and historical topics from many areas, including literature and the other arts," is aimed at the greatest possible range of readers, from academic scholars to the general public. Texts at the site can be searched, read on-screen, or downloaded. Other works available at CELT include essays by Michael Collins, the Dail debates on the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty, works by James Connolly and Padraic Pearse, and almost the whole corpus of Hiberno-Norman French poetry.

  14. Expression of Steroid Receptors and Steroidogenic Enzymes in the Baboon (Papio anubis) Corpus Luteum during the Menstrual Cycle and Early Pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHERI HILD-PETITO; ASGERALLY T. FAZLEABAS

    As estrogen and progesterone are proposed regulators of luteal function, this study was undertaken to correlate the presence of re- ceptorsforthesesteroidswithlutealfunctionduringearlypregnancy. Corpora lutea (CL) were obtained from nonpregnant baboons during the midluteal (ML; days 7-8 postovulation (PO)) and late luteal (LL; days 11-12 PO) phases of the menstrual cycle or from pregnant baboons on days 18, 25, 29, or 31-33

  15. Second messenger systems and progesterone secretion in the small cells of the bovine corpus luteum: effects of gonadotropins and prostaglandin F2a.

    PubMed

    Davis, J S; Alila, H W; West, L A; Corradino, R A; Weakland, L L; Hansel, W

    1989-05-01

    The present studies were conducted to determine the effects of gonadotropins (LH and hCG) and prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) on the production of "second messengers" and progesterone synthesis in purified preparations of bovine small luteal cells. Corpora lutea were removed from heifers during the luteal phase of the normal estrous cycle. Small luteal cells were isolated by unit-gravity sedimentation and were 95-99% pure. LH provoked rapid and sustained increases in the levels of [3H]inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphates (IP, IP2, IP3, respectively), cAMP and progesterone in small luteal cells. LiCl (10 mM) enhanced inositol phosphate accumulation in response to LH but had no effect on LH-stimulated cAMP or progesterone accumulation. Time course studies revealed that LH-induced increases in IP3 and cAMP occurred simultaneously and preceded the increases in progesterone secretion. Similar dose-response relationships were observed for inositol phosphate and cAMP accumulation with maximal increases observed with 1-10 micrograms/ml of LH. Progesterone accumulation was maximal at 1-10 ng/ml of LH. LH (1 microgram/ml) and hCG (20 IU/ml) provoked similar increases in inositol phosphate, cAMP and progesterone accumulation in small luteal cells. 8-Bromo-cAMP (2.5 mM) and forskolin (1 microM) increased progesterone synthesis but did not increase inositol phosphate accumulation in 30 min incubations. PGF2a (1 microM) was more effective than LH (1 microgram/ml) at stimulating increases in inositol phosphate accumulation (4.4-fold vs 2.2-fold increase for PGF2a and LH, respectively). The combined effects of LH and PGF2a on accumulation of inositol phosphates were slightly greater than the effects of PGF2a alone. In 30 min incubations, PGF2a had no effect on cAMP accumulation and provoked small increases in progesterone secretion. Additionally, PGF2a treatment had no significant effect on LH-induced cAMP or progesterone accumulation in 30 min incubations of small luteal cells. These findings provide the first evidence that gonadotropins stimulate the cAMP and IP3-diacylglycerol transmembrane signalling systems in bovine small luteal cells. PGF2a stimulated phospholipase C activity in small cells but did not reduce LH-stimulated cAMP or progesterone accumulation. These results also demonstrate that induction of functional luteolysis in vitro requires more than the activation of the phospholipase C-IP3/calcium and -diacylglycerol/protein kinase C transmembrane signalling system. PMID:2544770

  16. The effect of repeated administrations of llama ovulation-inducing factor (OIF/NGF) during the peri-ovulatory period on corpus luteum development and function in llamas.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A; Ulloa-Leal, C; Silva, M; Norambuena, C; Adams, G P; Guerra, M; Ratto, M H

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that repeated administrations of OIF/NGF during the peri-ovulatory period (pre-ovulatory, ovulatory, early post-ovulatory), will enhance the luteotrophic effect in llamas. Female llamas were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography in B- and Doppler-mode using a scanner equipped with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer to monitor ovarian follicle and luteal dynamics. When a growing follicle ?7mm was detected, llamas were assigned randomly to one of the three groups and given 1mg of purified OIF/NGF im (intramuscular) (a) pre-ovulation (single dose; n=12), (b) pre-ovulation and at the time of ovulation (2 doses, n=10), or (c) pre-ovulation, at the time of ovulation, and 24h after ovulation (3 doses, n=10). The pre-ovulatory follicle diameter at the time of treatment, ovulation rate and the first day of CL detection did not differ (P=0.3) among groups. However, maximum CL diameter was greatest (P=0.003) in llamas in the 2-dose group, and smallest in the 3-dose group. Accordingly, the 2 dose-group had the largest day-to-day profile for CL diameter (P<0.01), area of CL vascularization (<0.01), and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.01) compared to the other groups. Interestingly, the luteal response to 3-doses of OIF/NGF during the peri-ovulatory period was not different from a single dose. In conclusion, OIF/NGF isolated from llama seminal plasma is luteotrophic and the effect on CL size and function is affected by the number and timing of treatments during the peri-ovulatory period. PMID:25176642

  17. Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-four Angus and Angus x Hereford heifers were used in two successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if ovarian function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed in...

  18. Syntactic Priming: A Corpus-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gries, Stefan Th.

    2005-01-01

    The present study is a corpus-based investigation of syntactic priming, i.e. the tendency to reuse syntactic constructions. On the basis of data from the ICE-GB corpus, I analyze two different pairs of syntactic patterns, the so-called dative alternation and particle placement of transitive phrasal verbs. Although it has sometimes been argued that…

  19. Corpus Linguistics: Discovering How We Use language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, John

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the use of corpus linguistics--or the the study of language through the use of a large collection of naturally-occurring written and spoken texts. Discusses corpora with computers, applications of corpus linguistics, and the University of Pennsylvania's Linguistic data Consortium, which is conducting a speech study to support linguistic…

  20. Judicial Policy Making and Habeas Corpus Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher E. Smith

    1995-01-01

    After Chief Justice William Rehnquist failed in his efforts to persuade Congress to reform habeas corpus procedures, a majority of justices on the Rehnquist Court used judicial decisions to reshape habeas procedures in a manner that made it more difficult for convicted offenders to have their cases successfully reviewed by federal judges. A purported justification for habeas corpus reform is

  1. The Multimedia Adult ESL Learner Corpus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reder, Stephen; Harris, Kathryn; Setzler, Kristen

    2003-01-01

    Describes what may be the first of a new generation of corpora: the Multimedia Adult ESOL (English as a Second or Other Language) Learner Corpus. The corpus is notable for containing language produced by very low level learners in language classrooms and for the fact that the transcribed language remains linked to video recordings. (Author/VWL)

  2. Corpus representativeness for syntactic information acquisition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Núria BEL

    This paper refers to part of our research in the area of automatic acquisition of computational lexicon information from corpus. The present paper reports the ongoing research on corpus representativeness. For the task of inducing information out of text, we wanted to fix a certain degree of confidence on the size and composition of the collection of documents to be

  3. Article de Synthse SALMONELLOSE OVINE DUE A SALMONELLA ABORTUSOVIS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Article de Synthèse SALMONELLOSE OVINE DUE A SALMONELLA ABORTUSOVIS P PARDON R SANCHIS J MARLY F SALMONELLA ABORTION IN SHEEP. - Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ser. Abortusovis, a sheep- adapted-placental unit, the principal site of salmonella multiplication. Peripartum vaginal excretion, coming

  4. Epidemiology of ovine theileriosis in Ganan region, Gansu Province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuzhen Guo; Zhengphu Yuan; Guoxue Wu; Wenbiao Wang; Denglu Ma; Hongde Du

    2002-01-01

    The epidemiology of ovine theilreiosis in Gannan Tibet Autonomous Region was investigated. The results of these studies indicate that this disease is endemic in the following counties of Gannan where the vector tick was identified as Haemaphysalis qighaiensis : Luqu, Xiahe, Hezuo, Zhuoni, Lintan, Diebu, Maqu. The disease mainly occurred from March to May and some cases also occurred in

  5. Original article Expression and characterisation of the ovine

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    such as parainfluenza-3 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus, a common cause of BRDC in Australia. protéine G de l'ORSV dans le but d'étudier la relation de ce virus avec le RSV humain et bovin (HRSV, BRSVOriginal article Expression and characterisation of the ovine respiratory syncytial virus (ORSV) G

  6. A cold-active extracellular metalloprotease from Curtobacterium luteum (MTCC 7529): enzyme production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Kuddus, Mohammed; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2008-12-01

    A novel psychro-tolerant bacterium, Curtobacterium luteum, secreting an extracellular protease was isolated from the soil of Gangotri glacier, Western Himalaya. Maximum enzyme production was achieved when the strain was grown in a pH-neutral medium containing skim milk at 15 degrees C over 120 h. The metal ions such as Zn(2+) and Cr(2+) enhanced enzyme production. The specific activity of purified enzyme was 8,090 units/mg after 34.1-fold purification. The 115 kDa enzyme was a metalloprotease (activity inhibited by EDTA and EGTA) and showed maximum activity at 20 degrees C and pH 7. The enzyme was active over a broad pH range and retained 84% of its original activity between pH 6 and 8. There was no loss in enzyme activity when exposed for 3 h at 4-20 degrees C. However, the enzyme lost 65% of activity at 30 degrees C, and was almost inactivated at 50 degrees C, but was resistant to repeated freezing and thawing. The enzyme activity was stimulated by manganese ions; however, it was inactivated by copper ions. PMID:19164881

  7. Corpus of Electronic Texts (CELT)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed at University College Cork, the Corpus of Electronic Texts project is intended "to bring the wealth of Irish literary and historical culture (in Irish, Latin, Anglo-Norman French, and English) to the Internet in a rigorously scholarly project." Additionally, the project is designed to be utilized by a wide group of interested parties, including students, academics, and the general public. Visitors may peruse the documents by language of original publication, or by viewing a complete list of all the works currently available (many in HTML or pdf format) from the project's website. Some of the rather compelling works available here include the complete works of Oscar Wilde, the political writings of Michael Collins, and various historical documents regarding the struggle for Irish independence. [KMG

  8. The IPI PAN Corpus in Numbers Adam Przepirkowski

    E-print Network

    Przepiórkowski, Adam

    The IPI PAN Corpus in Numbers Adam Przepiórkowski Institute of Computer Science Polish Academy the IPI PAN Corpus (cf. http://korpus.pl/), a large morphosyntactically annotated XML encoded corpus and frequencies of grammatical classes and some grammatical categories. 1. Introduction The IPI PAN Corpus

  9. CASS: A PHONETICALLY TRANSCRIBED CORPUS OF MANDARIN SPONTANEOUS SPEECH 1

    E-print Network

    Byrne, William

    CASS: A PHONETICALLY TRANSCRIBED CORPUS OF MANDARIN SPONTANEOUS SPEECH 1 LI Aijun (1), ZHENG Fang speech and language effects. The Chinese Annotated Spontaneous Speech (CASS) corpus contains phonetically. 2. CORPUS INFORMATION The speech in the CASS corpus was provided by the Broadcast Station

  10. Communication Networks from the Enron Email Corpus \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Diesner; Terrill L. Frantz; Kathleen M. Carley

    2005-01-01

    The Enron email corpus is appealing to researchers because it represents a rich temporal record of internal communication\\u000a within a large, real-world organization facing a severe and survival-threatening crisis. We describe how we enhanced the original\\u000a corpus database and present findings from our investigation undertaken with a social network analytic perspective. We explore\\u000a the dynamics of the structure and properties

  11. An optimal control problem for ovine brucellosis with culling.

    PubMed

    Nannyonga, B; Mwanga, G G; Luboobi, L S

    2015-12-01

    A mathematical model is used to study the dynamics of ovine brucellosis when transmitted directly from infected individual, through contact with a contaminated environment or vertically through mother to child. The model developed by Aïnseba et al. [A model for ovine brucellosis incorporating direct and indirect transmission, J. Biol. Dyn. 4 (2010), pp. 2-11. Available at http://www.math.u-bordeaux1.fr/?pmagal100p/papers/BBM-JBD09.pdf . Accessed 3 July 2012] was modified to include culling and then used to determine important parameters in the spread of human brucellosis using sensitivity analysis. An optimal control analysis was performed on the model to determine the best way to control such as a disease in the population. Three time-dependent controls to prevent exposure, cull the infected and reduce environmental transmission were used to set up to minimize infection at a minimum cost. PMID:26105034

  12. Lysophosphatidic acid receptors in ovine uterus during estrous cycle and early pregnancy and their regulation by progesterone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Liszewska; P. Reinaud; O. Dubois; G. Charpigny

    In the present study, we examined the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) pathway in the ovine uterus during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. With the use of quantitative reverse transcription PCR, expression of LPAR1 and LPAR3 was analyzed. Both receptors were present in the ovine uterus. Immunolocalization showed that LPAR1 was mainly present in the stroma of the ovine endometrium, whereas

  13. Distribution of organochlorine pollutants in ovine dental tissues and bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janja Jan; Vrecl Milka; Poga?nik Azra; Gašperši? Dominik; Zorko Matjaž

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of selected lipophilic organochlorine pollutants, including two pairs of tetra- and hexa-chlorobiphenyl isomers (PCB-54, -80, -155, -169) and organochlorine pesticides [hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and 1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (4,4?-DDE)], in ovine dental pulp, dentine, enamel and mandibular bone was examined. Sheeps were given a single dose of individual organochlorine (1–4?mol\\/kg) in olive oil by intramuscular injection and sacrificed 2 months later. Organochlorine

  14. Nutrient Signaling, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin and Ovine Conceptus Development

    E-print Network

    Gao, Haijun

    2010-07-14

    , SLC7A 2, SLC1 A4, SLC1 A5, SLC43A 2 and SLC1 A3 changed dynamically in ovine uterine endometria according to day of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Expression of mRNAs for SLC2 A 1, SLC5A11 and SLC7A 1 in endometria was induced by P4 and further...

  15. Odorous Constituents of Ovine Milk in Relationship to Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Moio; L. Rillo; A. Ledda; F. Addeo

    1996-01-01

    ABSTRACT The neutral volatile compounds,of ovine milk from ewes fed. on natural pasture, grass meadow, and on mixed,grain rations were isolated by distillation un- der vacuum,and then,collected in traps that were cooled with,liquid nitrogen. The distillate was,ex- tracted with dichloromethane, and the extract ob- tained was,analyzed,using high resolution gas chro- matography,and high resolution gas chromatography coupled,to mass,spectrometry. Seventy compounds were,identified

  16. Transcriptional feedback loops in the ovine circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Dardente, Hugues; Fustin, Jean-Michel; Hazlerigg, David G

    2009-08-01

    In mammals circadian time measurement depends on interlocked feedback loops involving clock genes and their protein products. The model of the mammalian circadian clock mostly rests on findings in the mouse. In comparison, little information is available in diurnal non-rodent species. In this respect, the sheep constitutes an excellent animal model. We cloned ovine clock components and proximal gene promoters and tested in-vitro, in NIH3T3 and COS7 cells, salient molecular characteristics of the circadian clock. We show that transcriptional features of the ovine circadian clock recapitulate those described for the mouse. These include (1) coordinated phasing of expression of Rev-erb alpha, Per1, Cry1 and Bmal1 as assessed by real-time luciferase assays, (2) CLOCK/BMAL1 transactivation at the Per1 and Rev-erb alpha promoters, (3) repression of CLOCK/BMAL1 by CRY1-2 and CIPC, (4) a role for REV-ERB alpha in inhibiting Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha transcription. DEC1 has bidirectional transcriptional effects, repressor or activator, according to the promoter. We further show that some phosphorylation events affecting clock proteins appear conserved within the ovine clock. Taken together, these data are consistent with a broad conservation of transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms in the circadian clock of diurnal and nocturnal mammals. PMID:19341811

  17. Ovine Fetal Immune Response to Cache Valley Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dorniak, Piotr; Filant, Justyna; Dunlap, Kathrin A.; Bazer, Fuller W.; de la Concha-Bermejillo, Andres; Welsh, Christabel Jane; Varner, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Cache Valley virus (CVV)-induced malformations have been previously reproduced in ovine fetuses. To evaluate the development of the antiviral response by the early, infected fetus, before the development of immunocompetency, ovine fetuses at 35 days of gestation were inoculated in utero with CVV and euthanized at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days postinfection. The antiviral immune response in immature fetuses infected with CVV was evaluated. Gene expression associated with an innate, immune response was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. The upregulated genes in infected fetuses included ISG15, Mx1, Mx2, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-?, TLR-7, and TLR-8. The amount of Mx1 protein, an interferon-stimulated GTPase capable of restricting growth of bunyaviruses, was elevated in the allantoic and amniotic fluid in infected fetuses. ISG15 protein expression was significantly increased in target tissues of infected animals. B lymphocytes and immunoglobulin-positive cells were detected in lymphoid tissues and in the meninges of infected animals. These results demonstrated that the infected ovine fetus is able to initiate an innate and adaptive immune response much earlier than previously known, which presumably contributes to viral clearance in infected animals. PMID:23468505

  18. Ovine fetal immune response to Cache Valley virus infection.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Hoffmann, Aline; Dorniak, Piotr; Filant, Justyna; Dunlap, Kathrin A; Bazer, Fuller W; de la Concha-Bermejillo, Andres; Welsh, Christabel Jane; Varner, Patricia; Edwards, John Francis

    2013-05-01

    Cache Valley virus (CVV)-induced malformations have been previously reproduced in ovine fetuses. To evaluate the development of the antiviral response by the early, infected fetus, before the development of immunocompetency, ovine fetuses at 35 days of gestation were inoculated in utero with CVV and euthanized at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days postinfection. The antiviral immune response in immature fetuses infected with CVV was evaluated. Gene expression associated with an innate, immune response was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. The upregulated genes in infected fetuses included ISG15, Mx1, Mx2, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-?, TLR-7, and TLR-8. The amount of Mx1 protein, an interferon-stimulated GTPase capable of restricting growth of bunyaviruses, was elevated in the allantoic and amniotic fluid in infected fetuses. ISG15 protein expression was significantly increased in target tissues of infected animals. B lymphocytes and immunoglobulin-positive cells were detected in lymphoid tissues and in the meninges of infected animals. These results demonstrated that the infected ovine fetus is able to initiate an innate and adaptive immune response much earlier than previously known, which presumably contributes to viral clearance in infected animals. PMID:23468505

  19. On the relationship between moment and curvature for an ovine artery 

    E-print Network

    Reza, Gabriel Alejandro

    2006-10-30

    To find a relationship between moment versus curvature in a traction-free ovine artery, a pure moment was applied to a radially cut ovine artery (length 50.23 mm). The curvature of the segment opposite the cut was calculated ...

  20. LIPOGENESIS IN OVINE ADIPOSE TISSUE IN TISSUE CULTURE R.G. VERNON

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LIPOGENESIS IN OVINE ADIPOSE TISSUE IN TISSUE CULTURE R.G. VERNON Hannah Research Institute, Ayr KA6 5HL, Scotland Ovine adipose tissue remains metabolically active for at least 3 days when a system for studying the long- term regulation of ruminant adipose tissue metabolism, and greatly reduces

  1. Spontaneous secretion of lipoprotein lipase by bovine and ovine adipose tissue incubated for 7 days

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Spontaneous secretion of lipoprotein lipase by bovine and ovine adipose tissue incubated for 7 days was to measure the secretion of LPL activity by bovine and ovine adipose tissue (AT) explants incubated for 7 Ruminants, 63122 St-Genès-Champanelle, France The secretion of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) by adipose cells

  2. Functional Properties of Whey Protein Concentrates from Caprine and Ovine Specialty Cheese Wheys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Casper; W. L. Wendorff; D. L. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Whey protein concentrates were prepared from two caprine and one ovine specialty cheese wheys by ultrafiltration-diafiltration and freeze-drying pro- cesses. The whey protein concentrates were compared with a bovine whey protein concentrate prepared by the same method for differences in composition and functional properties (foam overrun, foam stability, gelation, and emulsifying capability). Ovine whey protein concentrate showed significantly better foam

  3. Identification of tick vectors of ovine theileriosis in an endemic region of Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Razmi; M. Hosseini; M. R. Aslani

    2003-01-01

    This study was made to determine the population of ticks in infected sheep and attempting to identify the tick vectors of ovine theileriosis in an endemic area of Iran from 2000 to 2001. A total of 188 suspected cases of ovine theileriosis from 28 flocks were clinically examined and investigated for the presence of Theileria lestoquardi in appropriate blood smears

  4. A new homologous radioimmunoassay for ovine follicle stimu-lating hormone : development and characterization

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    (LH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (Kerdelhu6 et al., 1972 ; Hopkinson and Pant, 1973A new homologous radioimmunoassay for ovine follicle stimu- lating hormone : development with a purified ovine LH preparation, these antisera measured similar FSH activities in the plasma. Cross

  5. 77 FR 2448 - Special Local Regulation; HITS Triathlon; Corpus Christi Bayfront, Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ...USCG-2011-0785] RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; HITS Triathlon; Corpus Christi...Guard is establishing a temporary Special Local Regulation in the Corpus Christi Bayfront...Captain of the Port Zone. This Special Local Regulation will restrict vessels from...

  6. Learner-Corpus Interaction: A Locus of Microgenesis in Corpus-Assisted L2 Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kwanghyun

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the processes through which learners interact with a corpus system and microgenetic development emerges from the interaction. The corpus system described in this paper is capable of retrieving highly relevant textual examples tailored to individual needs. Data were collected from an undergraduate ESL composition course in North…

  7. 76 FR 18391 - Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show Power Boat Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...Texas International Boat Show Power Boat Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus Christi...will consist of a series of power boat races for approximately 8-12 vessels that are...safety zone is necessary for the safety of race participants, spectators and the...

  8. Development and Characterization of Recombinant Ovine Coagulation Factor VIII

    PubMed Central

    Zakas, Philip M.; Gangadharan, Bagirath; Almeida-Porada, Graca; Porada, Christopher D.; Spencer, H. Trent; Doering, Christopher B.

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of the bleeding disorder, hemophilia A, have been an integral component of the biopharmaceutical development process and have facilitated the development of recombinant coagulation factor VIII (fVIII) products capable of restoring median survival of persons with hemophilia A to that of the general population. However, there remain several limitations to recombinant fVIII as a biotherapeutic, including invasiveness of intravenous infusion, short half-life, immunogenicity, and lack of availability to the majority of the world's population. The recently described ovine model of hemophilia A is the largest and most accurate phenocopy. Affected sheep die prematurely due to bleeding-related pathogenesis and display robust adaptive humoral immunity to non-ovine fVIII. Herein, we describe the development and characterization of recombinant ovine fVIII (ofVIII) to support further the utility of the ovine hemophilia A model. Full-length and B-domain deleted (BDD) ofVIII cDNAs were generated and demonstrated to facilitate greater biosynthetic rates than their human fVIII counterparts while both BDD constructs showed greater expression rates than the same-species full-length versions. A top recombinant BDD ofVIII producing baby hamster kidney clone was identified and used to biosynthesize raw material for purification and biochemical characterization. Highly purified recombinant BDD ofVIII preparations possess a specific activity nearly 2-fold higher than recombinant BDD human fVIII and display a differential glycosylation pattern. However, binding to the carrier protein, von Willebrand factor, which is critical for stability of fVIII in circulation, is indistinguishable. Decay of thrombin-activated ofVIIIa is 2-fold slower than human fVIII indicating greater intrinsic stability. Furthermore, intravenous administration of ofVIII effectively reverses the bleeding phenotype in the murine model of hemophilia A. Recombinant ofVIII should facilitate the maintenance of the ovine hemophilia A herd and their utilization as a relevant large animal model for the research and development of novel nucleic acid and protein-based therapies for hemophilia A. PMID:23152911

  9. Polymorphisms at Amino Acid Residues 141 and 154 Influence Conformational Variation in Ovine PrP

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sujeong; Thackray, Alana M.; Hopkins, Lee; Monie, Tom P.; Burke, David F.; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms in ovine PrP at amino acid residues 141 and 154 are associated with susceptibility to ovine prion disease: Leu141Arg154 with classical scrapie and Phe141Arg154 and Leu141His154 with atypical scrapie. Classical scrapie is naturally transmissible between sheep, whereas this may not be the case with atypical scrapie. Critical amino acid residues will determine the range or stability of structural changes within the ovine prion protein or its functional interaction with potential cofactors, during conversion of PrPC to PrPSc in these different forms of scrapie disease. Here we computationally identified that regions of ovine PrP, including those near amino acid residues 141 and 154, displayed more conservation than expected based on local structural environment. Molecular dynamics simulations showed these conserved regions of ovine PrP displayed genotypic differences in conformational repertoire and amino acid side-chain interactions. Significantly, Leu141Arg154 PrP adopted an extended beta sheet arrangement in the N-terminal palindromic region more frequently than the Phe141Arg154 and Leu141His154 variants. We supported these computational observations experimentally using circular dichroism spectroscopy and immunobiochemical studies on ovine recombinant PrP. Collectively, our observations show amino acid residues 141 and 154 influence secondary structure and conformational change in ovine PrP that may correlate with different forms of scrapie. PMID:25126555

  10. A General-Purpose Monitor Corpus of Written Pashto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Abid Khan; Fatima Tuz Zuhra

    This paper provides an overview of the development of a general-purpose reference corpus for Pashto. It is an open-ended (monitor) corpus. The corpus currently contains 10,000 words. It has two cells, one containing essays and the other letters. This corpus represents Yousafzai group of dialects and the data for it has been provided by the Pashto Academy, Peshawar University. The

  11. A corpus of Australian contract language: description, profiling and analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Curtotti; Eric C. McCreath

    2011-01-01

    Written contracts are a fundamental framework for economic and cooperative transactions in society. Little work has been reported on the application of natural language processing or corpus linguistics to contracts. In this paper we report the design, profiling and initial analysis of a corpus of Australian contract language. This corpus enables a quantitative and qualitative characterisation of Australian contract language

  12. Macrocephaly, Corpus Callosum Morphology, and Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara A. Rice; Erin D. Bigler; Howard B. Cleavinger; David F. Tate; Jamie Sayer; William McMahon; Sally Ozonoff; Jeff Lu; Janet E. Lainhart

    2005-01-01

    Although the cause of autism is undetermined, a general consensus has been that some type of early aberrant neural development underlies the disorder. Given the increased prevalence of macrocephaly in autism, one theory of abnormal neural development implicates early brain growth resulting in larger brain and head size in autism. Surface area measurements of the midsagittal section of the corpus

  13. The Need for a Speech Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dermot F.; McDonnell, Ciaran; Meinardi, Marti; Richardson, Bunny

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the ongoing construction of a speech corpus for use by applied linguists and advanced EFL/ESL students. In the first part, sections 1-4, the need for improvements in the teaching of listening skills and pronunciation practice for EFL/ESL students is noted. It is argued that the use of authentic native-to-native speech is…

  14. Federal Habeas Corpus Reform: The State's Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher E. Smith

    1995-01-01

    Utilizing a national survey of assistant state attorneys general, this article examines the effects of the Rehnquist Court's judicially initiated habeas corpus reforms upon the justice system. Although the Court's initiatives were directed at the branch of government about which the justices presumably possess their greatest knowledge and expertise, the reforms generated unanticipated consequences. Contrary to the justices' goal of

  15. Corpus Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debbie Orpin

    2005-01-01

    Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) has often proved fruitful in providing insights into the relationship between language and ideology. However, CDA is not without its critics. Constructive criticism has been offered by Stubbs, who suggests bolstering CDA by using a large corpus as the basis on which to make reliable generalisations about language use. Taking up that suggestion, this paper reports

  16. Habeas Corpus and Freedom of Speech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Wells

    1979-01-01

    Discussion concerning the proper scope of federal habeas corpus for state prisoners usually focuses upon the use of the writ as a federal remedy for procedural errors of constitutional magnitude in state criminal trials. Proponents of “liberal” habeas argue that only federal courts can adequately protect the federal procedural rights of state criminal defendants, while critics contend that the states'

  17. Genome sequences of mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2: ovine and bovine isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica, serotype A2 isolated from pneumonic lungs of two different ruminant species, one from Ovis aries, designated as Ovine (O) and the other from Bos taurus, designated as Bovine (B)....

  18. Evaluation of canine and ovine oviducts for maturation of canine oocytes from antral follicles 

    E-print Network

    Epple-Farmer, Jessica A

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether canine or ovine oviducts improve the maturation of canine oocytes obtained from antral follicles over an in vitro system. The objective of the first experiment was to evaluate the canine oviduct...

  19. Maternal adrenocorticotropin, cortisol and thyroid hormone responses to chronic binge alcohol exposure throughout gestation: ovine model 

    E-print Network

    Tress, Ursula

    2009-05-15

    This study investigated the effect of chronic alcohol exposure on the responses of the maternal hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and thyroid hormones throughout gestation using an ovine model. Maternal plasma concentrations of ACTH...

  20. Metagenomic Insights into the RDX-Degrading Potential of the Ovine Rumen Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Robert W.; Giarrizzo, Juan Gabriel; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Duringer, Jennifer M.; Craig, A. Morrie

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX), or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB) were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies. PMID:25383623

  1. Effect of ureaplasma upon the development of zona pellucida intact ovine embryos

    E-print Network

    Kapp, Jennifer Lynne

    1989-01-01

    EFFECT OF UREAPLASMA UPON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ZONA PELLUCIDA INTACT OVINE EMBRYOS A Thesis by Jenni f e r Lynne Ka pp Submitted to the office of Graduate Studies of Texas MM University in partial ful fi1 lment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989 Major Subject; Physiology of Reproduction EFFECT OF UREAPLASMA UPON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ZONA PELLUCIDA INTACT OVINE EMBRYOS A Thesis by Jennifer Lynne Kapp Approved as to style and content by: Duane C...

  2. Creating a Persian-English Comparable Corpus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Homa Baradaran Hashemi; Azadeh Shakery; Heshaam Feili

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Multilingual corpora are valuable resources for cross-language information retrieval and are available in many language pairs.\\u000a However the Persian language does not have rich multilingual resources due to some of its special features and difficulties\\u000a in constructing the corpora. In this study, we build a Persian-English comparable corpus from two independent news collections:\\u000a BBC News in English and Hamshahri news

  3. The need for a Speech Corpus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DERMOT F. CAMPBELL; Ciaran McDonnell; Marty Meinardi; Bunny Richardson

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the ongoing construction of a speech corpus for use by applied linguists and advanced EFL\\/ESL students. The first section establishes the need for improvements in the teaching of listening skills and pronunciation practice for EFL\\/ESL students. It argues for the need to use authentic native-to-native speech in the teaching\\/learning process so as to promote social inclusion and

  4. Annotating Sanskrit Corpus: Adapting IL-POSTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Girish Nath Jha; Madhav Gopal; Diwakar Mishra

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a In this paper we present an experiment on the use of the hierarchical Indic Languages POS\\u000a Tagset (IL-POSTS) (Baskaran et al 2008 a&b), developed by Microsoft Research India (MSRI) for tagging Indian languages, for\\u000a annotating Sanskrit corpus. Sanskrit is a language with richer morphology and relatively free word-order. The authors have\\u000a included and excluded certain tags according to the requirements

  5. The Hebrew CHILDES corpus: transcription and morphological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Aviad; MacWhinney, Brian; Nir, Bracha

    2014-01-01

    We present a corpus of transcribed spoken Hebrew that reflects spoken interactions between children and adults. The corpus is an integral part of the CHILDES database, which distributes similar corpora for over 25 languages. We introduce a dedicated transcription scheme for the spoken Hebrew data that is sensitive to both the phonology and the standard orthography of the language. We also introduce a morphological analyzer that was specifically developed for this corpus. The analyzer adequately covers the entire corpus, producing detailed correct analyses for all tokens. Evaluation on a new corpus reveals high coverage as well. Finally, we describe a morphological disambiguation module that selects the correct analysis of each token in context. The result is a high-quality morphologically-annotated CHILDES corpus of Hebrew, along with a set of tools that can be applied to new corpora. PMID:25419199

  6. Purification and properties of cold-active metalloprotease from Curtobacterium luteum and effect of culture conditions on production.

    PubMed

    Kuddus, Mohammed; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2008-12-01

    Curtobacterium luteum, a gram-positive psychrotrophic bacterium, secreting an extracellular protease was isolated from the soil of Gangotri glacier, Western Himalaya. The maximum enzyme production was achieved when isolate was grown in a pH-neutral medium containing skim milk at 15 degrees C over 120 hour. The metal ions such as Zn2+ and Cr2+ enhanced enzyme production. The specific activity of purified enzyme was 8090 u/mg after 34.1 fold purification. The 115 kD enzyme was a metalloprotease (activity inhibited by EDTA and EGTA) and showed maximum activity at 20 degrres C and pH 7. The enzyme was active over a broad pH range and retained 84% of its original activity between pH 6-8. There was no loss in enzyme activity when exposed for 3 hours at 4 degrees C-20 degrees C. However, lost 65% of activity at 30 degrees C, and was almost inactivated at 50 dgrees C, but was resistant to repeated freezing and thawing. The enzyme activity was stimulated by manganese ions; however, it was inactivated by copper ions. PMID:19306578

  7. Selective gene expression by rat gastric corpus epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, M.; Stengel, A.; Sachs, G.

    2011-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is divided into several segments that have distinct functional properties, largely absorptive. The gastric corpus is the only segment thought of as largely secretory. Microarray hybridization of the gastric corpus mucosal epithelial cells was used to compare gene expression with other segments of the columnar GI tract followed by statistical data subtraction to identify genes selectively expressed by the rat gastric corpus mucosa. This provides a means of identifying less obvious specific functions of the corpus in addition to its secretion-related genes. For example, important properties found by this GI tract comparative transcriptome reflect the energy demand of acid secretion, a role in lipid metabolism, the large variety of resident neuroendocrine cells, responses to damaging agents and transcription factors defining differentiation of its epithelium. In terms of overlap of gastric corpus genes with the rest of the GI tract, the distal small bowel appears to express many of the gastric corpus genes in contrast to proximal small and large bowel. This differential map of gene expression by the gastric corpus epithelium will allow a more detailed description of major properties of the gastric corpus and may lead to the discovery of gastric corpus cell differentiation genes and those mis-regulated in gastric carcinomas. PMID:21177383

  8. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Gas, the waters within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving facility. The safety zone remains in effect until the LPG vessel is moored at the LPG receiving...

  9. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Gas, the waters within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving facility. The safety zone remains in effect until the LPG vessel is moored at the LPG receiving...

  10. La Richesse Referentielle dans le Corpus (Referential Resources in the Corpus)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Scali, M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Based on a corpus made up of written descriptions of comic strips done by elementary level children. Elements most frequently mentioned by the children are identified in order to relate referential content to sociocultural factors. (Text is in French.) (CDSH/AM)

  11. 40 CFR 81.136 - Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region...Regions § 81.136 Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality...

  12. The effects of HNE on ovine oxymyoglobin redox stability in a microsome model.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shuang; Faustman, Cameron; Tatiyaborworntham, Nantawat; Ramanathan, Ranjith; Sun, Qun

    2013-10-01

    The effect of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a secondary lipid oxidation product, on ovine myoglobin (Mb) redox stability was investigated. HNE increased oxymyoglobin (OxyMb) oxidation under all pH/temperature conditions studied. Mono-, di- and tri-HNE adducts were detected by ESI-Q-TOF MS analysis. Sites of adduction, His 120, His 25 and His 65, were determined by ESI-CID-MS/MS analysis. The relationship between ovine Mb (with/without HNE) and lipid oxidation was also studied in a microsome model in the presence of ?-tocopherol. Surprisingly, preincubation of Mb with HNE did not affect subsequent Mb redox stability in the microsome model (P<0.05). Microsomes with elevated concentrations of ?-tocopherol delayed lipid and Mb oxidations relative to controls. HNE-treated ovine Mb caused greater lipid oxidation compared to control ovine Mb in control microsomes (P<0.05). This study demonstrated an interaction between ovine Mb oxidation and lipid oxidation. PMID:23747615

  13. Educational Implications for Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Shirley A.

    This case study evaluates the case of a 20-year-old young Australian adult born with agenesis of the corpus callosum, the area of the brain uniting the hemispheres. Deficits commonly associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum are mental retardation, motor involvement, seizure activity, and lateral transfer difficulties. The report: (1)…

  14. Use of "Google Scholar" in Corpus-Driven EAP Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brezina, Vaclav

    2012-01-01

    This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the "Google Scholar" search engine. These resources ("Google Scholar virtual corpus") are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. "Google Scholar", however, was not designed for linguistic searches…

  15. Using Corpus Tools To Highlight Academic Vocabulary in SCLT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Kate M.; Reppen, Randi

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how corpus tools can be used for identifying and integrating useful English for academic vocabulary instruction and can offer sustained-content language teaching (CSLT) a balanced approach for preparing students for the linguistic demands of regular classes. Advocates using techniques from corpus linguistics as a tool for highlighting…

  16. English Corpus Linguistics: An Introduction. Studies in English Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Charles F.

    This book is a step-by-step guide to creating and analyzing linguistic corpora. It defines a corpus as a collection of texts or parts of texts upon which some general linguistic analysis can be conducted. It begins with a discussion of the role that corpus linguistics plays in linguistic theory, demonstrating that corpora have proven to be very…

  17. The Coru~na Corpus Tool Javier Parapar

    E-print Network

    Barreiro, Alvaro

    un sistema de recuperaci´on de informaci´on que permite compilar conoci- miento sobre el corpus. Palabras clave: Ling¨u´istica de corpus, ingl´es cient´ifico-t´ecnico, recuperaci´on de informaci´on

  18. Discourse and Identity in a Corpus of Lesbian Erotica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liz Morrish; Helen Sauntson

    2011-01-01

    This article uses corpus linguistic methodologies to explore representations of lesbian desires and identities in a corpus of lesbian erotica from the 1980s and 1990s. We provide a critical examination of the ways in which “lesbian gender,” power, and desire are represented, (re-)produced, and enacted, often in ways that challenge hegemonic discourses of gender and sexuality. By examining word frequencies

  19. Semantic Similarity Based on Corpus Statistics and Lexical Taxonomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay J. Jiang; David W. Conrath

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for measuring semantic similarity\\/distance between words and concepts. It combines a lexical taxonomy structure with corpus statistical information so that the semantic distance between nodes in the semantic space constructed by the taxonomy can be better quantified with the computational evidence derived from a distributional analysis of corpus data. Specifically, the proposed measure is

  20. Annotating the MASC Corpus with BabelNet Andrea Moro

    E-print Network

    Navigli, Roberto

    annotating, with both word senses and named entities, the MASC 3.0 corpus, a large English corpus covering which integrates both lexicographic and encyclopedic knowledge, as our sense/entity inventory together have been around for more than twenty years, helping the development of Word Sense Disambiguation

  1. Building a multi-modal Arabic corpus (MMAC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashraf AbdelRaouf; Colin A. Higgins; Tony P. Pridmore; Mahmoud I. Khalil

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, a corpus is a large structured set of text, electronically stored and processed. Corpora have become very important in the study of languages. They have opened new areas of linguistic research, which were unknown until recently. Corpora are also key to the development of optical character recognition (OCR) applications. Access to a corpus of both language and images is

  2. Citrimicrobium luteum gen. nov., sp. nov., aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium isolated from the gut of a sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hong-Joo; Cha, In-Tae; Yim, Kyung June; Song, Hye Seon; Cho, Kichul; Kim, Daekyung; Lee, Hae-Won; Lee, Jae Kook; Seo, Myung-Ji; Roh, Seong Woon; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2014-10-01

    A Gram-stain negative, yellow-pigmented, motile, pleomorphic bacterium, designated strain CBA4602(T), was isolated from the gut of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus, which was collected from Jeju Island in the Republic of Korea. In a phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene, strain CBA4602(T) belonged to the order Sphingomonadales in the class Alphaproteobacteria. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain CBA4602(T) and 'Citromicrobium bathyomarinum' JF-1, the most closely related strain having nonvalidly published name, was 98.4%, followed by 95.2-96.7% identities with sequence of the other closest strains in the genus Erythrobacter. Strain CBA4602(T) had bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids. Strain CBA4602(T) grew in 0-10% (w/v) NaCl, at 10-42°C and pH 6.0-8.0, with optimal growth in 1-2% NaCl, at 30-37°C and pH 7.0. Strain CBA4602(T) was positive for catalase and oxidase activities and was able to hydrolyse gelatine and Tween 20 and 40, but not starch, Tween 80 or L-tyrosine. The G+C content of genomic DNA from strain CBA4602(T) was 68.0 mol% and Q-10 was the major detected isoprenoid quinone. The polar lipids were three unidentified phospholipids, three unidentified glycolipids, and two unidentified lipids. The dominant fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, anteiso-C17:0 and C18:0. As considering the current taxonomic status of the genus 'Citromicrobium' and polyphasic taxonomic analyses, strain CBA4602(T) represents a novel genus and species. The name Citrimicrobium luteum is proposed for the type strain CBA4602(T) (=KACC 17668(T) =JCM 19530(T)). PMID:25163838

  3. Cadec: A corpus of adverse drug event annotations.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Sarvnaz; Metke-Jimenez, Alejandro; Kemp, Madonna; Wang, Chen

    2015-06-01

    CSIRO Adverse Drug Event Corpus (Cadec) is a new rich annotated corpus of medical forum posts on patient-reported Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). The corpus is sourced from posts on social media, and contains text that is largely written in colloquial language and often deviates from formal English grammar and punctuation rules. Annotations contain mentions of concepts such as drugs, adverse effects, symptoms, and diseases linked to their corresponding concepts in controlled vocabularies, i.e., SNOMED Clinical Terms and MedDRA. The quality of the annotations is ensured by annotation guidelines, multi-stage annotations, measuring inter-annotator agreement, and final review of the annotations by a clinical terminologist. This corpus is useful for studies in the area of information extraction, or more generally text mining, from social media to detect possible adverse drug reactions from direct patient reports. The corpus is publicly available at https://data.csiro.au.(1). PMID:25817970

  4. 77 FR 34034 - Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC; Cheniere Corpus Christi Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Intent To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...Assessment for the Planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and Pipeline Project, Request for Comments...impacts of the planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and Pipeline Project (Project). The...natural gas (LNG) export and import terminal, and a natural gas transmission...

  5. [Epidemiological and clinical studies of ovine caseous lymphadenitis].

    PubMed

    Ben Saïd, M S; Ben Maitigue, H; Benzarti, M; Messadi, L; Rejeb, A; Amara, A

    2002-01-01

    A field survey was undertaken, to determine epidemiological, clinical and biological data on Ovine Caseous Lymphadenitis disease in 54 flocks originated from Sfax area in Tunisia. The mean morbidity rate of the cutaneous form was 5.1%. This form affected sheep over 3 months and under 2 years old. On the other hand, the mean morbidity rate of the visceral form, encountered in abattoirs, was 11.02%. The clinical aspect of the superficial (or cutaneous) form was often corresponding to one abscess, located particularly in the lymphatic nodes of the animal's head; while visceral (or internal) form of the disease was represented by the presence of a unique abscess found in the pulmonary lymphatic nodes. The macroscopic aspect of lesions showed that the size of abscess was comprised between 4 and 10 cm in diameter. At the cut, colour of the pus was white yellowish to yellow greyish with a fluid or a thick aspect like onion peels; pus was microscopic. Lesions were characterised by a fibrous shell, a pyogenic membrane and a necrotic center. Bacteriological research revealed that Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was the pathogen the most frequently isolated, followed by Staphylococcus aureus subsp anaerobius which was particularly found in sheep aged between 3 months and 2 years old. PMID:15072245

  6. sup 77 Se NMR studies on ovine erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Gettins, P.; Crews, B.C. (Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States))

    1991-03-11

    To facilitate {sup 77}Se NMR observation of the endogenous active site selenium in ovine erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), lambs have been maintained on an artificial diet deficient in selenium and supplemented with 0.2 ppm 92atom% {sup 77}Se , as selenite. After 5 months, preparations of GSHPx showed that incorporation of selenium from the artificial diet represented 88% of the GSHPx selenium. Each monthly bleeding of two sheep routinely yielded 20mg of pure {sup 77}Se-enriched GSHPx. Limitations on the solubility of the enzyme have so far prevented observation of {sup 77}Se resonances from the intact enzyme. Upon denaturation, a broad resonance is observed at 277 ppm, indicating that the selenium is involved in mixed selenide sulfide bonds both inter and intramolecularly. Reduction of the SeS bonds with dithiothreitol resulted in an upfield shift of the {sup 77}Se resonance to {minus}212 ppm at pH 8 and {minus}55ppm at pH4.2, consistent with formation of Se- and SeH respectively. It is concluded that the selenium is most probably in the SeS or Se{sup {minus}} form in the intact enzyme. Relaxation time measurements were made at field strengths of 4.7 and 9.4T, which demonstrated the dominance of chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) relaxation for the selenium in GSHPx. A value of {le} 262 ppm was determined for the CSA of the iodoacetamide derivative of GSHPx.

  7. Lateral surgical approach to lumbar intervertebral discs in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Oehme, David; Goldschlager, Tony; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Danks, Andrew; Ghosh, Peter; Gibbon, Anne; Jenkin, Graham

    2012-01-01

    The sheep is becoming increasingly used as a large animal model for preclinical spine surgery studies. Access to the ovine lumbar intervertebral discs has traditionally been via an anterior or anterolateral approach, which requires larger wound incisions and, at times, significant abdominal retraction. We present a new minimally invasive operative technique for a far-lateral approach to the ovine lumbar spine that allows for smaller incisions, excellent visualisation of intervertebral discs, and minimal abdominal retraction and is well tolerated by animals with minimal morbidity. PMID:23028255

  8. Growth of ovine granulocyte-macrophage precursors in vitro without exogenous colony-stimulating activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, P.; Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.

    1983-11-01

    Ovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) from peripheral blood and bone marrow were cultured in vitro. The colony-stimulating activity (CSA) was provided by various conditioned-media previously reported to contain CSA and by homologous sheep serum (SS). The maximum number of CFU-GM was observed in the cultures containing SS without the addition of exogenous CSA. The CFU-GM appeared earlier in the cultures containing bone marrow cells when compared to the peripheral blood CFU-GM. Replacement of SS by bovine fetal serum resulted in suboptimal growth of ovine CFU-GM.

  9. Lateral Surgical Approach to Lumbar Intervertebral Discs in an Ovine Model

    PubMed Central

    Oehme, David; Goldschlager, Tony; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Danks, Andrew; Ghosh, Peter; Gibbon, Anne; Jenkin, Graham

    2012-01-01

    The sheep is becoming increasingly used as a large animal model for preclinical spine surgery studies. Access to the ovine lumbar intervertebral discs has traditionally been via an anterior or anterolateral approach, which requires larger wound incisions and, at times, significant abdominal retraction. We present a new minimally invasive operative technique for a far-lateral approach to the ovine lumbar spine that allows for smaller incisions, excellent visualisation of intervertebral discs, and minimal abdominal retraction and is well tolerated by animals with minimal morbidity. PMID:23028255

  10. EEAP lighting survey study at the Corpus Christi Army Depot, Corpus Christi, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-04-05

    This energy conservation study was performed by Huitt-Zollars Inc, for the U.S. Army Engineer District (USAED), Fort Worth, under contract number DACAC63-94-D-0015. The study was conducted at Corpus Christi Army Depot (CCAD) in Corpus Christi, Texas, between October 3, 1994 and April 5, 1995. The site survey and data collection was performed by C.A. Pieper, P.E. and Tom Luckett, Lighting Designer. The purpose of the study was to perform a limited site survey of specific buildings at the facility, identify specific Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs) that exist, and then evaluate these ECOs for technical and economic feasibility. These ECOs were limited to building interior lighting and it`s effects on the heating, ventilating and air conditioning.

  11. EEAP-lighting survey study at the Corpus Christi Army Depot Corpus Christi, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-04-05

    This energy conservation study was performed by Huitt-Zollars Inc, for the U.S. Army Engineer District (USAED), Fort Worth, under contract number DACAC63-94-D-00l5. The study was conducted at Corpus Christi Army Depot (CCAD) in Corpus Christi, Texas, between October 3, 1994 and April 5, 1995. The site survey and data collection was performed by C.A. Pieper, P.E. and Tom Luckett, Lighting Designer. The purpose of the study was to perform a limited site survey of specific buildings at the facility, identify specific Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs) that exist, and then evaluate these ECOs for technical and economic feasibility. These ECOs were limited to building interior lighting and its effects on the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

  12. Corpus callosum agenesis and rehabilitative treatment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Corpus callosum agenesis is a relatively common brain malformation. It can be isolated or included in a complex alteration of brain (or sometimes even whole body) morphology. It has been associated with a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, from subtle neuropsychological deficits to Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms have been better understood in recent years, due to the availability of more adequate animal models and the relevant progresses in developmental neurosciences. These recent findings are reviewed (through a MedLine search including papers published in the last 5 years and most relevant previously published papers) in view of the potential impact on children's global functioning and on the possible rehabilitative treatment, with an emphasis on the possibility to exploit brain plasticity and on the use of the ICF-CY framework. PMID:20849621

  13. Corpus-Based Word Sense Disambiguation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Atsushi

    1998-04-01

    Resolution of lexical ambiguity, commonly termed ``word sense disambiguation'', is expected to improve the analytical accuracy for tasks which are sensitive to lexical semantics. Such tasks include machine translation, information retrieval, parsing, natural language understanding and lexicography. Reflecting the growth in utilization of machine readable texts, word sense disambiguation techniques have been explored variously in the context of corpus-based approaches. Within one corpus-based framework, that is the similarity-based method, systems use a database, in which example sentences are manually annotated with correct word senses. Given an input, systems search the database for the most similar example to the input. The lexical ambiguity of a word contained in the input is resolved by selecting the sense annotation of the retrieved example. In this research, we apply this method of resolution of verbal polysemy, in which the similarity between two examples is computed as the weighted average of the similarity between complements governed by a target polysemous verb. We explore similarity-based verb sense disambiguation focusing on the following three methods. First, we propose a weighting schema for each verb complement in the similarity computation. Second, in similarity-based techniques, the overhead for manual supervision and searching the large-sized database can be prohibitive. To resolve this problem, we propose a method to select a small number of effective examples, for system usage. Finally, the efficiency of our system is highly dependent on the similarity computation used. To maximize efficiency, we propose a method which integrates the advantages of previous methods for similarity computation.

  14. The Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act in England

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Clarence Cory

    1903-01-01

    . Jacobite Uprieing,1722-23. • 37-43. • 6. Uprising of 1745. • 43-49* " 7. Attempted Re forms, 1758. " 49-67, • 8. American Revolution,1777-81. • 67-63, • 9. French Revolution,1794-95. • 64-73, • 10. French Revolutlon,I798-I80I. • 73-81. • II.... Habeas Corpus with Practices and Forms.(An exhaustive treatment of Habeas Corpus in Amorioa.) Clous, J.W. Suspension of the Habeas Corpus* Un Col* 1075. Clampitt, John V. (See Laior.) Coxe, villiam. Memoirs of Sir Robert Walpele. 1798* Dicey, v...

  15. Effects of chlordecone and chlordecone alcohol on isolated ovine erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Soileau, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    Chlordecone (CHLO, 1-30 uM) and chlordecone alcohol (CHLO ALC, 1-23 uM) altered the permeability of isolated ovine erythrocytes (OE) as evidenced by a concentration- and time-dependent induction of K/sup +/ efflux and hemolysis. Hemolysis, but no K/sup +/ efflux, was markedly delayed when OE were suspended in isotonic sucrose. Low concentrations of both compounds (1-4 uM) protected OE against hypotonic hemolysis. Neither CHLO (30 uM) nor CHLO ALC (23 uM) induced the release of trapped K/sup +/ from KSCN-loaded, OE-lipid, unilamellar liposomes. CHLO- and CHLO ACL-induced hemolysis and K/sup +/ efflux were dependent upon the pH of the external media. CHLO ALC-induced K/sup +/ efflux and hemolysis showed a slight pH dependence, with increased potency of the compound detected over the pH range 8.3-9.4 CHLO ALC-induced protection against hypotonic hemolysis was pH independent. The potency of CHLO in all three assays decreased as the pH was raised from 6.4 to 9.4. (/sup 14/C)-CHLO and (/sup 14/C)-CHLO ALC binding to OE and OE membranes was pH independent. However, the binding of (/sup 14/C)-CHLO to polypropylene and glass was pH dependent. (/sup 14/C)-CHLO binding to polypropylene and glass decreased from pH 6.4 to pH 10.4. The pKa of CHLO was estimated to be 8.9. After the CHLO results were corrected for the fraction of CHLO present in the unionized form, it was estimated the ionized CHLO possessed 1/3 to 1/20 of the activity of the unionized species.

  16. Prenatal Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Exposure Disrupts Ovine Testes Development

    PubMed Central

    Bormann, Charles L.; Smith, Gary D.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Lee, Theresa M.

    2014-01-01

    Androgens play important roles during the first trimester of intrauterine life, coinciding with genital tract differentiation, during virilization and maintenance of secondary male characteristics and during initiation of spermatogenesis. Little is known about the impact of inappropriate exposure to excess androgens during fetal development on male sexual maturation and reproduction. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of prenatal 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone (T) treatment during ovine sexual differentiation on post-pubertal testicular formation and subsequent potential for fertility as assessed by epididymal sperm characteristics. Rams prenatally treated with T exhibited increased testicular weight relative to age-matched controls (C) and prenatal DHT-treated rams (P<0.05), as well as elevated total and free T concentrations compared to DHT-treated rams (P=0.07 and P<0.05, respectively). The percentage of progressively motile sperm from the epididymis was significantly reduced in prenatal DHT-treated but not T-treated rams compared to C rams (P<0.05). The T-treated rams had a greater number of germ cell layers than DHT-treated rams, but comparable to the controls. Prenatal T-treated rams had significantly larger seminiferous tubule diameter, and lumen diameter compared to prenatal DHT-treated (P<0.05). Significantly more prenatal DHT- and T-treated rams (P<0.05) had occluded tubule lumen than C rams. Findings from this study demonstrate that exposure to excess T/DHT during male fetal sexual differentiation have differential effects on post-pubertal testicular size, seminiferous tubule size and function, sperm motility, and T concentrations. PMID:21493716

  17. Phylogenetic clades of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) associate with sheep TMEM154 genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) is a lentivirus within the Retroviridae family that infects sheep. OPPV-induced clinical disease progresses slowly over time and manifests primarily in the lungs and central nervous system. Symptoms include weight loss, respiratory distress, and inevitably ...

  18. Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels associate with breed and Ovar-DRB1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have suggested that host genetics influence both lung histopathology and seroprevalence in sheep infected with ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV). As a first start, a genetic association study was conducted in 383 Idaho sheep of the Columbia, Polypay and Rambouillet breeds ut...

  19. Influence of cellular trafficking pathway on bluetongue virus infection in ovine cells.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Bishnupriya; Celma, Cristina C; Roy, Polly

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), a non-enveloped arbovirus, causes hemorrhagic disease in ruminants. However, the influence of natural host cell proteins on BTV replication process is not defined. In addition to cell lysis, BTV also exits non-ovine cultured cells by non-lytic pathways mediated by nonstructural protein NS3 that interacts with virus capsid and cellular proteins belonging to calpactin and ESCRT family. The PPXY late domain motif known to recruit NEDD4 family of HECT ubiquitin E3 ligases is also highly conserved in NS3. In this study using a mixture of molecular, biochemical and microscopic techniques we have analyzed the importance of ovine cellular proteins and vesicles in BTV infection. Electron microscopic analysis of BTV infected ovine cells demonstrated close association of mature particles with intracellular vesicles. Inhibition of Multi Vesicular Body (MVB) resident lipid phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate resulted in decreased total virus titre suggesting that the vesicles might be MVBs. Proteasome mediated inhibition of ubiquitin or modification of virus lacking the PPXY in NS3 reduced virus growth. Thus, our study demonstrated that cellular components comprising of MVB and exocytic pathways proteins are involved in BTV replication in ovine cells. PMID:25984713

  20. Retinal Pigment Epithelial Dysfunction in Early Ovine Ceroid Lipofuscinosis: Electrophysiologic and Pathologic Correlates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald Samuelson; William W. Dawson; A. I. Webb; Jonathan Dowson; Robert Jolly; Donald Armstrong

    1985-01-01

    Retinal degeneration is a major finding in the human and ovine ceroid lipofuscinosis. Sequential electroretinographic (ERG) studies in a young, asymptomatic, affected lamb are presented here, which demonstrate a progressive loss of the scotopic b-wave and unrecordable c-waves under halothane anesthesia. Even at this initial stage of disease, lesions were evident in the form of dystrophic retinal pigment epithelial (RPE)

  1. Affinity-Purified, Mixed Monospecific Crotalid Antivenom Ovine Fab for the Treatment of Crotalid Venom Poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C Dart; Steve A Seifert; Leslie Carroll; Richard F Clark; Edward Hall; Leslie V Boyer-Hassen; Steven C Curry; Craig S Kitchens; Ray A Garcia

    1997-01-01

    Study objective: To test the efficacy and safety of a new antivenom, affinity-purified, mixed monospecific crotalid antivenom ovine Fab, in human subjects with minimal or moderate crotalid envenomation. Methods: We conducted a prospective multicenter clinical trial of 11 patients 10 years or older with progressive manifestations after mild to moderate crotalid snakebite. After giving their consent, subjects received four to

  2. Initial experience with Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom in the treatment of copperhead snakebite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric J Lavonas; Charles J Gerardo; Gerald O'Malley; Thomas C Arnold; Sean P Bush; William Banner; Mark Steffens; William P Kerns

    2004-01-01

    Study objectiveCrotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) (CroFab; FabAV) effectively treats patients bitten by rattlesnakes. The copperhead snake (Agkistrodon contortrix) caused 37% of venomous snakebites reported to US poison centers in 2001 and is the major envenomating reptile in the southeastern United States. FabAV has not been tested in human beings envenomated by copperhead snakes.

  3. UREA AND GLUCOSE FORMATION IN OVINE LIVER AFTER AMMONIA AND LACTATE LOADING IN VIVO

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    from those in rat. However, the ruminant liver is highly loaded with ammonia, volatile fatty acidsUREA AND GLUCOSE FORMATION IN OVINE LIVER AFTER AMMONIA AND LACTATE LOADING IN VIVO BAREJ W sécré- tion d'adrénaline. The ability of liver to bind ammonia delivered with portal blood

  4. Metagenomic insights into RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, genes and biological pathways responsible for the biochemical processes in the rumen have yet to be character...

  5. The ovine somatostatin receptor subtype 1 (osst1): partial cloning and tissue distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Debus; A Dutour; V Vuaroqueaux; C Oliver; L’H Ouafik

    2001-01-01

    The sheep is a valuable model to study GH neuroregulation since its GH secretion pattern is close to that in human. Somatostatin receptor subtype 1 (sst1) appears to be important in central regulation of GH but ovine sst1 (osst1) has not yet been cloned. We report here the cloning of the major part of sst1 in that species. Using human

  6. Conformational changes of ovine ?-1-proteinase inhibitor: The influence of heparin binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Gowda, Lalitha R.

    2008-11-01

    ?-1-Proteinase inhibitor (?-1-PI), the archetypal serpin causes rapid, irreversible stoichiometric inhibition of redundant circulating serine proteases and is associated with emphysema, inflammatory response and maintenance of protease-inhibitor equilibrium in vascular and peri-vascular spaces. A homogenous preparation of heparin octasaccharide binds to ovine and human ?-1-PI and enhances their protease inhibitory activity phenomenally. Size-exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering experiments reveal that ovine ?-1-PI undergoes a decrease in the Stokes' radius upon heparin binding. A strong binding; characterizes this ?-1-PI-heparin interaction as revealed by the binding constant ( K?) 1.98 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M and 2.1 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M determined by fluorescence spectroscopy and equilibrium dialysis, respectively. The stoichiometry of heparin binding to ovine ?-1-PI was 1.1 ± 0.2:1. The Stern-Volmer constants ( Ksv) for heparin activated ovine and human ?-1-PI were found to be 5.13 × 10 -6 M and 5.67 × 10 -6 M, respectively, significantly higher than the native inhibitors. FTIR and CD spectroscopy project the systematic structural reorientations that ?-1-PI undergoes upon heparin binding characterized by a decrease in ?-helical content and a concomitant increase in ?-turn and random coil elements. It is likely that these conformational changes result in the movement of the ?-1-PI reactive site loop into an extended structure that is better poised to combat the cognate protease and accelerate the inhibition.

  7. Attenuation of Theileria lestoquardi infected cells and immunization of sheep against malignant ovine theileriosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Bukhari M; Taha, Khalid M; Enan, Khalid A; Elfahal, Abdelghafar M; El Hussein, Abdel Rahim M

    2013-10-01

    Malignant ovine theileriosis caused by Theileria lestoquardi is an economically important disease infecting small ruminants in the Sudan. The disease causes massive losses among sheep in many regions of Northern Sudan. The present studies were done to isolate lymphoblastoid cells infected with malignant ovine theileriosis and attenuate them by passage using culture media to develop and produce schizonts candidate vaccine, then test its efficacy and safety by exposing immunized lambs to field challenge in an area endemic with T. lestoquardi. In the present experiments we isolated and established an in vitro culture of T. lestoquardi infected lymphoblast cell line. Long-term culture of T. lestoquardi infected lymphoplastoid cells was shown to result in attenuation of their virulence and lambs inoculated with different doses of such cells at passage 105 exhibited very mild reactions with fever that lasted for 1-5 days and parasitaemia of <0.2%. The experimental lambs immunized with this candidate vaccine were immune and protected when exposed to field challenge in an area endemic of ovine theileriosis, while morbidity and mortality among non-immunized animals reached 76.9% and 46.15%, respectively, and they exhibited the clinical signs of malignant ovine theileriosis that included, high fever, loss of appetite, enlargement of lymph nodes, jaundice, loss of weight and death. The present study demonstrates the efficacy and the safety of this attenuated cell line as a live attenuated candidate vaccine. PMID:23954382

  8. DETERMINATION OF THE NFAT5/ TonEBP TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR IN THE HUMAN AND OVINE PLACENTA

    PubMed Central

    ARROYO, Juan A.; TENG, Cecilia; BATTAGLIA, Frederick C.; GALAN, Henry L.

    2010-01-01

    Osmotic stress results in the accumulation of osmolytes in tissues. Synthesis of these osmolytes is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT5/TonEBP in the human kidney. We tested for the presence of NFAT5 mRNA and protein in the human and ovine placenta and confirmed sorbitol and inositol osmolyte concentrations in these tissues. To determine NFAT5 protein, human and ovine placentae were tested for inositol, sorbitol and glucose using HPLC. Additionally, RNA was extracted and cDNA was made from these tissues. PCR was performed and products were sequenced. Western blotting was used to assess the expression of the NFAT5 protein. Human and ovine placentae demonstrated: 1) high concentrations of sorbitol and inositol, 2) presence of NFAT5 mRNA, 3) matched NFAT5 sequence identity, and 4) presence of NFAT5 protein. NFAT5 is present in the ovine and human placenta at the RNA and protein levels which suggest a role for this protein in the induction of these osmolytes. Further trophoblast studies of osmotic stress effects on osmolytes are planned. PMID:19886771

  9. Development and Validation of an Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus Quantitative PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) infects at least one sheep in eighty-one percent of U.S. sheep flocks as measured by serological diagnostic tests and can cause viral-induced mastitis, arthritis, dypsnea, and cachexia. Diagnostic tests that quantify OPP proviral load in peripheral blood leu...

  10. Characterization of ovine Nectin-4, a novel peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminants infected with peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) exhibit lesions typical of epithelial infection and necrosis. However, the only established host receptor for this virus is the immune cell marker signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). We have confirmed that the ovine ...

  11. Biochemical modifications involved in the maturation of the ovine fetal adrenal gland in late gestation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -uterine life, the steroidogenic response of the ovine fetal adrenal glands to ACTH increases and becomes to produce cAMP is related to at least three factors : an increased number of ACTH receptors, increased/isomerase and 17a-hydroxylase are mainly enhanced in the steroidogenic pathway. The infusion of ACTH for 5 days

  12. Differential expression of Toll-like receptors and inflammatory cytokines in ovine interdigital dermatitis and footrot

    E-print Network

    Davenport, Rebecca; Heawood, Christopher; Sessford, Kate; Baker, Melissa; Baiker, Kerstin; Blacklaws, Barbara; Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, Laura; Tötemeyer, Sabine

    2014-07-24

    –105. cCarthy, A.J., Illot, N.E., Smith, J.E., Shaw, M.A., 2011. Novel hisms in ovine immune response genes and their associa- abortion. Anim. Genet. 42, 535–543. artin, W., Stryhn, H., 2009. Veterinary Epidemiologic 2nd ed. VER Inc., Charlottetown. rove...

  13. The pathology of malignant catarrhal fever, with an emphasis on ovine herpesvirus 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enigmatic pathogenesis of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) involves dysregulated immune responses in susceptible ruminant species. Economically important outbreaks of MCF are due to two of the 10 viruses that currently comprise the malignant catarrhal fever virus group: ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-...

  14. Determination of tilmicosin in ovine milk using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Parker, R M; Patel, R K

    1994-12-01

    Tilmicosin is a novel macrolide antibiotic with a wide range of therapeutic uses against gram positive (+ve) and gram negative (-ve) bacteria and mycoplasmae causing pneumonia and mastitis and can be used to treat these diseases in sheep. After its use there may be residues present in ovine milk that interfere with cheese making and processing of other milk products. It is important to monitor for the presence of tilmicosin in ovine milk and a method has been optimized and validated for its determination. Tilmicosin is extracted from milk into methanol. The methanol extract is acidified and non-polar co-extractives removed using hexane followed by carbon tetrachloride. The pH is adjusted to 9.0 and the tilmicosin partitioned into chloroform. The chloroform extract is evaporated to dryness and the residue resuspended in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) mobile phase. Tilmicosin is determined using reversed-phase HPLC and ultraviolet (UV) detection at 280 nm. Recovery of tilmicosin from ovine milk fortified over the range 50 to 250 micrograms l-1 is in the range 84.3-104.8%, with a relative standard deviation ranging from 6.6 to 12.9%. The proposed procedure allows the determination of residues of tilmicosin in ovine milk at levels less that 50 micrograms l-1 and satisfies the quality criteria specified in European Commission Decision 93/526/EEC with the exception of reproducibility data from interlaboratory trials. PMID:7879857

  15. Influence of Cellular Trafficking Pathway on Bluetongue Virus Infection in Ovine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Bishnupriya; Celma, Cristina C.; Roy, Polly

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), a non-enveloped arbovirus, causes hemorrhagic disease in ruminants. However, the influence of natural host cell proteins on BTV replication process is not defined. In addition to cell lysis, BTV also exits non-ovine cultured cells by non-lytic pathways mediated by nonstructural protein NS3 that interacts with virus capsid and cellular proteins belonging to calpactin and ESCRT family. The PPXY late domain motif known to recruit NEDD4 family of HECT ubiquitin E3 ligases is also highly conserved in NS3. In this study using a mixture of molecular, biochemical and microscopic techniques we have analyzed the importance of ovine cellular proteins and vesicles in BTV infection. Electron microscopic analysis of BTV infected ovine cells demonstrated close association of mature particles with intracellular vesicles. Inhibition of Multi Vesicular Body (MVB) resident lipid phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate resulted in decreased total virus titre suggesting that the vesicles might be MVBs. Proteasome mediated inhibition of ubiquitin or modification of virus lacking the PPXY in NS3 reduced virus growth. Thus, our study demonstrated that cellular components comprising of MVB and exocytic pathways proteins are involved in BTV replication in ovine cells. PMID:25984713

  16. OVINE HERPESVIRUS 2 MRNA EXPRESSION IN CATTLE AND BISON WITH MALIGNANT CATARRHAL FEVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fulminant disease of certain susceptible ruminants caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2). The characteristic lesions of MCF include lymphoproliferation, vasculitis and mucosal ulceration. The pathogenesis of these lesions is very poorly understood, but is most ...

  17. Evidence of proviral clearance following postpartum transmission of an ovine lentivirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentiviral transmission by transfer of infected colostrum and/or milk is considered to be highly efficient. In this study, postpartum transmission of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) from 10 naturally infected ewes to their 23 lambs was followed from the perinatal period throughout a four y...

  18. Tracking horizontal transmission of ovine lentivirus by quantitative PCR and envelope sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most transmission of ovine lentivirus (OvLV) occurs horizontally since in utero transmission is considered inefficient. However, there is no direct evidence that horizontal transmission occurs from unrelated ewes to other lambs/ewes or from ewes to progeny. One way to assess the source of horizont...

  19. Building a Document Corpus for Manufacturing Knowledge Retrieval

    E-print Network

    Liu, Y.

    When faced with challenging technical problems, R&D personnel would often turn to technical papers to seek inspiration for a solution. The building of a corpus of such papers and the easy retrieval of relevant papers by ...

  20. Corpus Callosum Shape Analysis with Application to Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Manuel F.; El-Baz, Ayman; Elnakib, Ahmed; Giedd, Jay; Rumsey, Judith M.; Williams, Emily L.; Switala, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    Morphometric studies of the corpus callosum suggest its involvement in a number of psychiatric conditions. In the present study we introduce a novel pattern recognition technique that offers a point-by-point shape descriptor of the corpus callosum. The method uses arc lengths of electric field lines in order to avoid discontinuities caused by folding anatomical contours. We tested this technique by comparing the shape of the corpus callosum in a series of dyslexic men (n = 16) and age-matched controls (n = 14). The results indicate a generalized increase in size of the corpus callosum in dyslexia with a concomitant diminution at its rostral and caudal poles. The reported shape analysis and 2D-reconstruction provide information of anatomical importance that would otherwise passed unnoticed when analyzing size information alone. PMID:22545196

  1. BioSec baseline corpus: A multimodal biometric database

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    -Garcia, Doroteo Torre-Toledano, Joaquin Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Biometrics Research Lab. - ATVS, Escuela Politecnica. Fierrez, J. Ortega-Garcia, D. Torre-Toledano and J. Gonzalez-Rodriguez, "BioSec baseline corpus

  2. Mouse-Adapted Ovine Scrapie Prion Strains Are Characterized by Different Conformers of PrPSc?

    PubMed Central

    Thackray, Alana M.; Hopkins, Lee; Klein, Michael A.; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    The agent responsible for prion disease may exist in different forms, commonly referred to as strains, with each carrying the specific information that determines its own distinct biological properties, such as incubation period and lesion profile. Biological strain typing of ovine scrapie isolates by serial passage in conventional mice has shown some diversity in ovine prion strains. However, this biological diversity remains poorly supported by biochemical prion strain typing. The protein-only hypothesis predicts that variation between different prion strains in the same host is manifest in different conformations adopted by PrPSc. Here we have investigated the molecular properties of PrPSc associated with two principal Prnpa mouse-adapted ovine scrapie strains, namely, RML and ME7, in order to establish biochemical prion strain typing strategies that may subsequently be used to discriminate field cases of mouse-passaged ovine scrapie isolates. We used a conformation-dependent immunoassay and a conformational stability assay, together with Western blot analysis, to demonstrate that RML and ME7 PrPSc proteins show distinct biochemical and physicochemical properties. Although RML and ME7 PrPSc proteins showed similar resistance to proteolytic digestion, they differed in their glycoform profiles and levels of proteinase K (PK)-sensitive and PK-resistant isoforms. In addition, the PK-resistant core (PrP27-30) of ME7 was conformationally more stable following exposure to guanidine hydrochloride or Sarkosyl than was RML PrP27-30. Our data show that mouse-adapted ovine scrapie strains can be discriminated by their distinct conformers of PrPSc, which provides a basis to investigate their diversity at the molecular level. PMID:17728226

  3. Culture of Ovine IVM/IVF Zygotes in Isolated Mouse Oviduct: Effect of Basal Medium

    PubMed Central

    Farahavar, Abbas; Shirazi, Abolfazl; Kohram, Hamid; Shahneh, Ahmad Zareh; Sarvari, Ali; Naderi, Mohammad Mehdi; Boroujeni, Sara Borjian; Zhandi, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background The basal medium that supports Isolated Mouse Oviduct (IMO) is important for supporting embryo development and quality. Methods The culture of ovine IVM/IVF zygotes was done in IMO using SOFaaciBSA and SOFaaBSA as basal medium of IMO and in SOFaaBSA alone as control. For preparation of IMO mature inbred strain C57BL/6 female mice were synchronized and mated with vasectomized males. The females with vaginal plug were sacrificed and the zygotes were transferred in to the isolated oviduct at 20 hpi. The oviducts were cultured with SOFaaciBSA and SOFaaBSA for 6 days. Another group of zygotes were cultured in SOFaaBSA alone as control. Results Culture of zygotes in the IMO with SOFaaciBSA and SOFaaBSA, did not significantly affect the development and quality of embryos (p > 0.05). The hatching rate, total and trophectoderm cells number in IMO groups’ blastocysts were significantly higher than SOFaaBSA alone. The morphological appearance of IMO blastocysts was superior to SOFaaBSA alone. When the quality of oocytes was poor, IMO could better support ovine embryo development either with SOFaaBSA or SOFaaciBSA than SOFaaBSA alone and there was a significant difference in blastocyst formation at day 6 with SOFaaBSA alone. Conclusion The culture of ovine IVM/IVF zygotes in IMO using two highly efficient ruminant embryo culture media not only could support development of ovine embryos similar to the level in non IMO culture system (SOFaaBSA alone) but also could improve the quality of resulting embryos. Additionally, IMO could better support the development of ovine embryos derived from poor quality oocytes compared to the SOFaaBSA alone. PMID:23799182

  4. Isolation and Characterisation of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in the Ovine Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Deane, James A.; Ulrich, Daniela; Gurung, Shanti; Ong, Y. Rue; Gargett, Caroline E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) were recently discovered in the human endometrium. These cells possess key stem cell properties and show promising results in small animal models when used for preclinical tissue engineering studies. A small number of surface markers have been identified that enrich for MSC from bone marrow and human endometrium, including the Sushi Domain-containing 2 (SUSD2; W5C5) and CD271 markers. In preparation for developing a large animal preclinical model for urological and gynecological tissue engineering applications we aimed to identify and characterise MSC in ovine endometrium and determine surface markers to enable their prospective isolation. Materials and Methods Ovine endometrium was obtained from hysterectomised ewes following progesterone synchronisation, dissociated into single cell suspensions and tested for MSC surface markers and key stem cell properties. Purified stromal cells were obtained by flow cytometry sorting with CD49f and CD45 to remove epithelial cells and leukocytes respectively, and MSC properties investigated. Results There was a small population CD271+ stromal cells (4.5 ± 2.3%) in the ovine endometrium. Double labelling with CD271 and CD49f showed that the sorted CD271+CD49f- stromal cell population possessed significantly higher cloning efficiency, serial cloning capacity and a qualitative increased ability to differentiate into 4 mesodermal lineages (adipocytic, smooth muscle, chondrocytic and osteoblastic) than CD271-CD49f- cells. Immunolabelling studies identified an adventitial perivascular location for ovine endometrial CD271+ cells. Conclusion This is the first study to characterise MSC in the ovine endometrium and identify a surface marker profile identifying their location and enabling their prospective isolation. This knowledge will allow future preclinical studies with a large animal model that is well established for pelvic organ prolapse research. PMID:25992577

  5. The OGI multi-language telephone speech corpus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeshwant K. Muthusamy; Ronald A. Cole; Beatrice T. Oshika

    1992-01-01

    The OGI Multi-language Telephone Speech Corpus is designed to support research onautomatic language identification and multi-language speech recognition. The corpus consistsof up to nine separate responses from each caller, ranging from single words to shorttopic-specific descriptions to 60 seconds of unconstrained spontaneous speech. The utteranceswere spoken over commercial telephone lines by speakers of English, Farsi (Persian),French, German, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin

  6. Corpus Callosum Area in Children and Adults with Autism.

    PubMed

    Prigge, Molly B D; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D; Merkley, Tricia L; Neeley, E Shannon; Abildskov, Tracy J; Froehlich, Alyson L; Nielsen, Jared A; Cooperrider, Jason R; Cariello, Annahir N; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Alexander, Andrew L; Lainhart, Janet E

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated findings of abnormal corpus callosum structure in autism, the developmental trajectories of corpus callosum growth in the disorder have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined corpus callosum size from a developmental perspective across a 30-year age range in a large cross-sectional sample of individuals with autism compared to a typically developing sample. Midsagittal corpus callosum area and the 7 Witelson subregions were examined in 68 males with autism (mean age 14.1 years; range 3-36 years) and 47 males with typical development (mean age 15.3 years; range 4-29 years). Controlling for total brain volume, increased variability in total corpus callosum area was found in autism. In autism, increased midsagittal areas were associated with reduced severity of autism behaviors, higher intelligence, and faster speed of processing (p=0.003, p=0.011, p=0.013, respectively). A trend toward group differences in isthmus development was found (p=0.029, uncorrected). These results suggest that individuals with autism benefit functionally from increased corpus callosum area. Our cross-sectional examination also shows potential maturational abnormalities in autism, a finding that should be examined further with longitudinal datasets. PMID:23130086

  7. Corpus Callosum Area in Children and Adults with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Neeley, E. Shannon; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Despite repeated findings of abnormal corpus callosum structure in autism, the developmental trajectories of corpus callosum growth in the disorder have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined corpus callosum size from a developmental perspective across a 30-year age range in a large cross-sectional sample of individuals with autism compared to a typically developing sample. Midsagittal corpus callosum area and the 7 Witelson subregions were examined in 68 males with autism (mean age 14.1 years; range 3–36 years) and 47 males with typical development (mean age 15.3 years; range 4–29 years). Controlling for total brain volume, increased variability in total corpus callosum area was found in autism. In autism, increased midsagittal areas were associated with reduced severity of autism behaviors, higher intelligence, and faster speed of processing (p=0.003, p=0.011, p=0.013, respectively). A trend toward group differences in isthmus development was found (p=0.029, uncorrected). These results suggest that individuals with autism benefit functionally from increased corpus callosum area. Our cross-sectional examination also shows potential maturational abnormalities in autism, a finding that should be examined further with longitudinal datasets. PMID:23130086

  8. Interleukin-6, age, and corpus callosum integrity.

    PubMed

    Bettcher, Brianne M; Watson, Christa L; Walsh, Christine M; Lobach, Iryna V; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Joshua W; Green, Ralph; Patel, Nihar; Dutt, Shubir; Busovaca, Edgar; Rosen, Howard J; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce L; Kramer, Joel H

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of inflammation to deleterious aging outcomes is increasingly recognized; however, little is known about the complex relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and brain structure, or how this association might change with increasing age. We examined the association between IL-6, white matter integrity, and cognition in 151 community dwelling older adults, and tested whether age moderated these associations. Blood levels of IL-6 and vascular risk (e.g., homocysteine), as well as health history information, were collected. Processing speed assessments were administered to assess cognitive functioning, and we employed tract-based spatial statistics to examine whole brain white matter and regions of interest. Given the association between inflammation, vascular risk, and corpus callosum (CC) integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA) of the genu, body, and splenium represented our primary dependent variables. Whole brain analysis revealed an inverse association between IL-6 and CC fractional anisotropy. Subsequent ROI linear regression and ridge regression analyses indicated that the magnitude of this effect increased with age; thus, older individuals with higher IL-6 levels displayed lower white matter integrity. Finally, higher IL-6 levels were related to worse processing speed; this association was moderated by age, and was not fully accounted for by CC volume. This study highlights that at older ages, the association between higher IL-6 levels and lower white matter integrity is more pronounced; furthermore, it underscores the important, albeit burgeoning role of inflammatory processes in cognitive aging trajectories. PMID:25188448

  9. Interleukin-6, Age, and Corpus Callosum Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Bettcher, Brianne M.; Watson, Christa L.; Walsh, Christine M.; Lobach, Iryna V.; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Joshua W.; Green, Ralph; Patel, Nihar; Dutt, Shubir; Busovaca, Edgar; Rosen, Howard J.; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce L.; Kramer, Joel H.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of inflammation to deleterious aging outcomes is increasingly recognized; however, little is known about the complex relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and brain structure, or how this association might change with increasing age. We examined the association between IL-6, white matter integrity, and cognition in 151 community dwelling older adults, and tested whether age moderated these associations. Blood levels of IL-6 and vascular risk (e.g., homocysteine), as well as health history information, were collected. Processing speed assessments were administered to assess cognitive functioning, and we employed tract-based spatial statistics to examine whole brain white matter and regions of interest. Given the association between inflammation, vascular risk, and corpus callosum (CC) integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA) of the genu, body, and splenium represented our primary dependent variables. Whole brain analysis revealed an inverse association between IL-6 and CC fractional anisotropy. Subsequent ROI linear regression and ridge regression analyses indicated that the magnitude of this effect increased with age; thus, older individuals with higher IL-6 levels displayed lower white matter integrity. Finally, higher IL-6 levels were related to worse processing speed; this association was moderated by age, and was not fully accounted for by CC volume. This study highlights that at older ages, the association between higher IL-6 levels and lower white matter integrity is more pronounced; furthermore, it underscores the important, albeit burgeoning role of inflammatory processes in cognitive aging trajectories. PMID:25188448

  10. Functional properties of ovine whey protein concentrates produced by membrane technology after clarification of cheese manufacture by-products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga D??az; Carlos D. Pereira; Angel Cobos

    2004-01-01

    Functionality (solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties) of ovine cheese whey and deproteinized whey (Sorelho) protein concentrates was evaluated. Both by-products of ovine cheese manufacture were clarified by thermocalcic precipitation and microfiltration using two pore size membranes (0.65 and 0.20 ?m). Next, they were ultrafiltrated\\/diafiltrated, and then, the liophilization of the corresponding retentates was carried out. The functionality of these powders,

  11. Ovis aries Papillomavirus 3: A prototype of a novel genus in the family Papillomaviridae associated with ovine squamous cell carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Alberti; Salvatore Pirino; Francesca Pintore; Maria Filippa Addis; Bernardo Chessa; Carla Cacciotto; Tiziana Cubeddu; Antonio Anfossi; Gavino Benenati; Elisabetta Coradduzza; Roberta Lecis; Elisabetta Antuofermo; Laura Carcangiu; Marco Pittau

    2010-01-01

    Papillomaviruses play an important role in human cancer development, and have been isolated from a number of animal malignancies. However, the association of papillomaviruses with tumors has been poorly investigated in sheep. In this study, a novel ovine Papillomavirus, OaPV3, was cloned from sheep squamous cell carcinoma. Unlike the already known ovine papillomaviruses, belonging to the Delta genus, OaPV3 lacks

  12. Evaluation of the Overall Accuracy of the DeLaval Cell Counter for Somatic Cell Counts in Ovine Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Gonzalo; B. Linage; J. A. Carriedo; F. de la Fuente; F. San Primitivo

    2006-01-01

    The DeLaval cell counter (DCC) is a portable device designed for on-farm somatic cell count (SCC) analysis in bovine milk. This study evaluated the performance of the DCC when analyzing ovine milk. A total of 29 composite ovine milk samples, ranging between 20 × 103 and 2,200 × 103 cells\\/mL, were divided into 15 aliquots\\/ milk sample corresponding to 5

  13. White matter injury after cerebral ischemia in ovine fetuses.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Katherine H; Pinar, Halit; Stopa, Edward G; Faris, Ronald A; Sadowska, Grazyna B; Hanumara, R Choudry; Stonestreet, Barbara S

    2002-06-01

    The effects of cerebral ischemia on white matter changes in ovine fetuses were examined after exposure to bilateral carotid artery occlusion. Fetal sheep were exposed to 30 min of ischemia followed by 48 (I/R-48, n = 8) or 72 (I/R-72, n = 10) h of reperfusion or control sham treatment (control, n = 4). Serial coronal sections stained with Luxol fast blue/hematoxylin and eosin were scored for white matter, cerebral cortical, and hippocampal lesions. All areas received graded pathologic scores of 0 to 5, reflecting the degree of injury where 0 = 0%, 1 = 1% to 25%, 2 = 26% to 50%, 3 = 51% to 75%, 4 = 76% to 95%, and 5 = 96% to 100% of the area damaged. Dual-label immunofluorescence using antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and myelin basic protein (MBP) were used to characterize white matter lesions. Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) was measured in the frontal cortex by ELISA. Results of the pathologic scores showed that the white matter of the I/R-72 (2.74 +/- 0.53, mean +/- SEM) was more (p < 0.05) damaged when compared with the control (0.80 +/- 0.33) group. Cortical lesions were greater (p < 0.05) in the I/R-48 (2.12 +/- 0.35) than the control (0.93 +/- 0.09) group. White matter lesions were characterized by reactive GFAP-positive astrocytes and a loss of MBP in oligodendrocytes. The ratio of MBP to GFAP decreased (p < 0.05) as a function of ischemia, indicative of a proportionally greater loss of MBP than GFAP. FGF-2 concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) in the I/R-72 than the control group and there was a direct correlation between the pathologic scores (PS) and FGF-2 concentrations (FGF-2 = e((1.6 PS-0.90)) + 743, n = 17, r = 0.73, p < 0.001). We conclude that carotid artery occlusion results in quantifiable white matter lesions that are associated with a loss of MBP from myelin, and that FGF-2, a purported mediator of recovery from brain injury in adult subjects, increases in concentration in proportion to the severity of brain damage in the fetus. PMID:12032276

  14. Expression and localization of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 and 2 and serpine mRNA binding protein 1 in the bovine corpus luteum during the estrous cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kowalik, Magdalena K; Rekawiecki, Robert; Kotwica, Jan

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression and the localization of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1), PGRMC2, and the PGRMC1 partner serpine mRNA binding protein 1 (SERBP1) in the bovine CL on Days 2 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 16, and 17 to 20 of the estrous cycle as well as during Weeks 3 to 5, 6 to 8, and 9 to 12 of pregnancy (n = 5-6 per each period). The highest levels of PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA expression were found on Days 6 to 16 (P < 0.05) and 11 to 16, respectively, of the estrous cycle and during pregnancy (P < 0.001). The level of PGRMC1 protein was the highest (P < 0.05) on Days 11 to 16 of the estrous cycle compared with the other stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, whereas PGRMC2 protein expression (P < 0.001) was the highest on Days 17 to 20 and also during pregnancy. The mRNA expression of SERBP1 was increased (P < 0.05) on Days 11 to 16, whereas the level of its protein product was decreased (P < 0.05) on Days 6 to 10 of the estrous cycle and was at its lowest (P < 0.001) on Days 17 to 20. In pregnant cows, the patterns of SERBP1 mRNA and protein expression remained constant and were comparable with those observed during the estrous cycle. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 and PGRMC2 localized to both large and small luteal cells, whereas SERBP1 was observed mainly in small luteal cells and much less frequently in large luteal cells. All proteins were also localized in the endothelial cells of blood vessels. The data obtained indicate the variable expression of PGRMC1, PGRMC2, and SERBP1 mRNA and protein in the bovine CL and suggest that progesterone may regulate CL function via its membrane receptors during both the estrous cycle and pregnancy. PMID:25168721

  15. Sensitivity of the early luteal phase ovine cervix to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and expression of EP3 receptor mRNA.

    PubMed

    Audicana, L; Aughey, E; O'Shaughnessy, P J

    1998-01-01

    The effects and mechanism of action of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the ovine cervix are largely unknown in the luteal phase. In these studies we have shown that low levels of EP3-receptor (EP3R) mRNA are present in the ovine cervix and that the PGE2 induces activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the ovine cervix on day 6 of the oestrous cycle. It is possible, therefore, that PGE2 acts on the ovine cervix through coupling to EP3 receptors. PMID:9625477

  16. ELIMINATION OF (14C) HEPTACHLOR FROM BODY STORES OF LACTATING EWES TREATED WITH OVINE GROWTH HORMONE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Holcombe; G. S. Smith; M. F. Khan; D. M. Hallford; K. Rozman

    2010-01-01

    Elimination of ( 14 C) heptachlor from body burdens of sheep was measured using mature ewes nursing single offspring, and the influence of exogenous ovine growth hormone (oGH) on elimination was studied. Six ewes (62 -+ 2.5 kg BW) were dosed (i.p.) once with ( 14C) hep- tachlor (2.04 mg\\/kg BW; .88 gCi\\/mg heptachlor) and three were treated additionally with

  17. Regional Variation in Tissue Composition and Biomechanical Properties of Postmenopausal Ovine and Human Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Daniela; Edwards, Sharon L.; Letouzey, Vincent; Su, Kai; White, Jacinta F.; Rosamilia, Anna; Gargett, Caroline E.; Werkmeister, Jerome A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There are increasing numbers of reports describing human vaginal tissue composition in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to compare ovine and human posterior vaginal tissue in terms of histological and biochemical tissue composition and to assess passive biomechanical properties of ovine vagina to further characterise this animal model for pelvic organ prolapse research. Study Design Vaginal tissue was collected from ovariectomised sheep (n?=?6) and from postmenopausal women (n?=?7) from the proximal, middle and distal thirds. Tissue histology was analyzed using Masson's Trichrome staining; total collagen was quantified by hydroxyproline assays, collagen III/I+III ratios by delayed reduction SDS PAGE, glycosaminoglycans by dimethylmethylene blue assay, and elastic tissue associated proteins (ETAP) by amino acid analysis. Young's modulus, maximum stress/strain, and permanent strain following cyclic loading were determined in ovine vagina. Results Both sheep and human vaginal tissue showed comparable tissue composition. Ovine vaginal tissue showed significantly higher total collagen and glycosaminoglycan values (p<0.05) nearest the cervix. No significant differences were found along the length of the human vagina for collagen, GAG or ETAP content. The proximal region was the stiffest (Young's modulus, p<0.05), strongest (maximum stress, p<0.05) compared to distal region, and most elastic (permanent strain). Conclusion Sheep tissue composition and mechanical properties showed regional differences along the postmenopausal vaginal wall not apparent in human vagina, although the absolute content of proteins were similar. Knowledge of this baseline variation in the composition and mechanical properties of the vaginal wall will assist future studies using sheep as a model for vaginal surgery. PMID:25148261

  18. Immediate and delayed allergic reactions to Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard F. Clark; Patrick E. McKinney; Peter B. Chase; Frank G. Walter

    2002-01-01

    Allergic reactions are the most commonly reported adverse events after administration of antivenoms. Conventional horse serum-based crotalid antivenom used in the United States (Antivenin [Crotalidae] polyvalent) can lead to both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) (CroFab; FabAV) has recently been approved for use in the United States. Experience from premarketing trials of this product and

  19. Cloning and characterizing of the ovine MX1 gene promoter\\/enhancer region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Assiri; T. L. Ott

    2007-01-01

    Ovine MX1 (MX1) is expressed in the uterus during the estrous cycle and is strongly up-regulated during early pregnancy in the uterus and peripheral blood leukocytes. In this study we cloned the MX1 gene promoter\\/enhancer, and tested its response to interferon tau (IFN-tau). To address the role of IFN tau in regulating MX1 expression, serial deletion mutants were prepared along

  20. Catastrophic acute ischemic stroke after Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine)-treated rattlesnake envenomation.

    PubMed

    Bush, Sean P; Mooy, Graham G; Phan, Tammy H

    2014-06-01

    We report 2 cases of catastrophic ischemic stroke after Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine)-treated rattlesnake envenomation, 1 fatal and the other resulting in significant permanent disability. It is possible these serious adverse events may have been related to venom factor(s), an interaction between venom and antivenom, occult patient blood dyscrasia, or to random unrelated events. We present the rationale for each possibility, and submit the experiences to elicit alternate postulation and communication of similar presentations. PMID:24864067

  1. Serological investigation of ovine theileriosis by ELISA in Gannan Tibet Region of Gansu Province in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuzhen Guo; Yongjuan Mu; Zhijie Liu; Denlu Ma; Shumen Yang; Guihua Ge; Baiqian Fang; Danji Ga; Miling Ma; Jianxun Luo; Hong Yin; Ulrike Seitzer; Jabbar S. Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    The Gannan Tibet Autonomous Region is the biggest and most important stock-raising region of Gansu Province, People’s Republic\\u000a of China. Many sheep and goats from this region suffer from Theileria challenge each year, resulting in inestimable economical losses. A first large-scale serological investigation by enzyme-linked\\u000a immunosorbent assay of ovine theileriosis in this region was performed by testing a total of

  2. Isolation and Morphological Characterisation of Ovine Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Grzesiak, Jakub; Krzysztof, Marycz; Karol, Wrzeszcz; Joanna, Czoga?a

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: AD-MSCs (adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells), as an easy obtainable population of multipotent cells, have been successfully applied in many diseases in animals. Having very similar properties and morphology to these collected from bone marrow, are very attractive object for regenerative medicine. Conclusions: Ovine subcutaneous fat from many regions of the body is rich source of stem cells, which could be used in locomotive system disorders experimental therapy on sheep models. PMID:24298341

  3. Characterization of ovine Nectin-4, a novel peste des petits ruminants virus receptor.

    PubMed

    Birch, Jamie; Juleff, Nicholas; Heaton, Michael P; Kalbfleisch, Ted; Kijas, James; Bailey, Dalan

    2013-04-01

    Small ruminants infected with peste des petits ruminants virus exhibit lesions typical of epithelial infection and necrosis. However, the only established host receptor for this virus is the immune cell marker signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). We have confirmed that the ovine Nectin-4 protein, when overexpressed in epithelial cells, permits efficient replication of PPRV. Furthermore, this gene was predominantly expressed in epithelial tissues and encoded by multiple haplotypes in sheep breeds from around the world. PMID:23388720

  4. Characterization of Ovine Nectin-4, a Novel Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Jamie; Juleff, Nicholas; Heaton, Michael P.; Kalbfleisch, Ted; Kijas, James

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminants infected with peste des petits ruminants virus exhibit lesions typical of epithelial infection and necrosis. However, the only established host receptor for this virus is the immune cell marker signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). We have confirmed that the ovine Nectin-4 protein, when overexpressed in epithelial cells, permits efficient replication of PPRV. Furthermore, this gene was predominantly expressed in epithelial tissues and encoded by multiple haplotypes in sheep breeds from around the world. PMID:23388720

  5. Effects of chronological age and physiological maturity on palatability traits of ovine carcasses 

    E-print Network

    Stout, Bobby Ray

    1974-01-01

    revealed that there was little if any decrease in tender- ness with progressive increases in chronological age. Lamb carcasses in the combined sex class which were 220 days to 580 days of age produced the most satisfactory loin chops. Muscle color... . . . . . . . . . ~ . ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ 12 12 13 14 32 34 34 Experimental Procedure Results and Discussion 37 39 Summary and Conclusions STRATIFICATION OF OVINE CARCASSES INTO PALATABILITY GROUPS BY USE OF CHRONOLOGICAL AGE, SEX AND SKELETAL OR MUSCLE MATURITY INDICATORS...

  6. Rick factors for seroprevalence of ovine lentivirus in breeding ewe flocks in Nebraska, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. E. Keen; L. L. Hungerford; T. E. Wittum; J. Kwang; E. T. Littledike

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of and risk factors for ovine lentivirus (OLV) infection in 1466 breeding ewes in nine US Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) flocks were determined using a recombinant transmembrane protein (rTM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum anti-OLV antibodies and define infection. Based on multivariable logistic regression, confinement birth and rearing (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6), older weaning

  7. Whole Ovine Ovaries as a Model for Human: Perfusion with Cryoprotectants In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100?IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15?M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60?min with the rate of perfusion 50?mL/h (0.8?mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

  8. Whole ovine ovaries as a model for human: perfusion with cryoprotectants in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100 IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15 M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60 min with the rate of perfusion 50 mL/h (0.8 mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

  9. A multimodal corpus of speech to infant and adult listeners.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth K; Lahey, Mybeth; Ernestus, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2013-12-01

    An audio and video corpus of speech addressed to 28 11-month-olds is described. The corpus allows comparisons between adult speech directed toward infants, familiar adults, and unfamiliar adult addressees as well as of caregivers' word teaching strategies across word classes. Summary data show that infant-directed speech differed more from speech to unfamiliar than familiar adults, that word teaching strategies for nominals versus verbs and adjectives differed, that mothers mostly addressed infants with multi-word utterances, and that infants' vocabulary size was unrelated to speech rate, but correlated positively with predominance of continuous caregiver speech (not of isolated words) in the input. PMID:25669300

  10. Conversational Telephone Speech Corpus Collection for the NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluation 2004

    E-print Network

    Conversational Telephone Speech Corpus Collection for the NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluation 2004. The factors include telephone handset type, telephone transmission type, language, and (non-telephone recognition evaluation on conversational telephone speech has involved a corpus with hundreds of speakers

  11. Evaluating Corpus Literacy Training for Pre-Service Language Teachers: Six Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heather, Julian; Helt, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Corpus literacy is the ability to use corpora--large, principled databases of spoken and written language--for language analysis and instruction. While linguists have emphasized the importance of corpus training in teacher preparation programs, few studies have investigated the process of initiating teachers into corpus literacy with the result…

  12. Corpus-Based Research and Pedagogy in EAP: From Lexis to Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This plenary paper showcases current corpus-based research on written academic English, illustrating the tight links that exist between corpus research and pedagogic applications. I first explicate Sinclair's concept of the "lexical approach", which underpins much corpus research and pedagogy. I then discuss studies which focus on…

  13. Productive Vocabulary Knowledge and Evaluation of ESL Writing in Corpus-Based Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Daehyeon

    2010-01-01

    Since Sinclair (1991) concretized the possibilities of processing and analyzing large quantities of text data through corpus linguistic techniques, the applications of corpus linguistic approaches employing authentic language data and empirical evidence have been widely accepted in language teaching and research. As the applications of corpus…

  14. Where did we go wrong? A retrospective look at the British National Corpus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lou Burnard

    The British National Corpus (BNC) has been a major influence on the construction of language corpora during the last decade, if only as a major reference point. This corpus may be seen as the culmination of a research tradition going back to the one-million word Brown corpus of 1964, but its constitution and its industrial-scale production techniques look forward to

  15. Clause patterns in Modern British English: A corpus-based (quantitative) study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelleke Oostdijk; Pieter de Haan

    1989-01-01

    In the Department of Language and Speech (Corpus Linguistics Section) of Nijmegen University a research project is being carried out which aims to provide a survey of the frequency of occurrence and the distribution of a range of syntactic structures in Modern British English. The project makes use of the Nijmegen Corpus. This computerized corpus, comprising approximately 130,000 words, has

  16. Digital Editions for Corpus Linguistics: Representing manuscript reality in electronic corpora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alpo Honkapohja; Samuli Kaislaniemi; Ville Marttila

    This paper introduces a new project, Digital Editions for Corpus Linguistics (DECL), which aims to create a framework for producing online editions of historical manuscripts suited for both corpus linguistic and historical research. Up to now, few digital editions of historical texts have been designed with corpus linguistics in mind. Equally, few historical corpora have been compiled from original manuscripts.

  17. Extraction terminologique et corpus aligns Anglais Grec. Tita Kyriacopoulou1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'Institut Gaspard Monge et de l'Université Aristote de Thessalonique. Mots clés : extraction, terminologie, corpus Gaspard-Monge, Université Paris-Est Marne-La-Vallée tita@frl.auth.gr 2 Institut Gaspard-Monge, Université the immediate context. These grammars contain several graphs that have been constructed at the Institut Gaspard

  18. Building a linguistic corpus from bee dance data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Paijmans

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems and possibility of collecting bee dance data in a linguistic corpus and use linguistic instruments such as Zipf's law and entropy statistics to decide on the question whether the dance carries information of any kind. We describe this against the historical background of attempts to analyse nonhuman communication systems.

  19. Corpus Callosum Morphometrics in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boger-Megiddo, Inbal; Shaw, Dennis W. W.; Friedman, Seth D.; Sparks, Bobbi F.; Artru, Alan A.; Giedd, Jay N.; Dawson, Geraldine; Dager, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed digital corpus callosum cross sectional areas in 3-4 year olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to typically developing (TD) and developmentally delayed (DD) children. Though not different in absolute size compared to TD, ASD callosums were disproportionately small adjusted for increased ASD cerebral volume. ASD…

  20. Toward a Name Entity Aligned Bilingual Corpus Linguistic Data Consortium

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    be scaled up easily, which makes automatic creation of these corpora a very attractive approach, givenToward a Name Entity Aligned Bilingual Corpus Xiaoyi Ma Linguistic Data Consortium 3600 Market St. Suite 810 Philadelphia, PA 19104 E-mail: xma@ldc.upenn.edu Abstract This paper describes a co

  1. AUTOMATIC LEXICON ENHANCEMENT BY MEANS OF CORPUS TAGGING

    E-print Network

    Béchet, Frédéric

    which are found in the cor- pus processed. These OOV words generally occur several times in the corpus- ure can affect the processing of the word as well as the processing of the contextual words. It would and Natural Language Processing. The enhancement of these lex- icons can be made automatic as big corpora

  2. From corpus-based collocation frequencies to readability measure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaos K Anagnostou; George R S Weir

    This paper provides a broad overview of three separate but related areas of research. Firstly, corpus linguistics is a growing discipline that applies analytical results from large language corpora to a wide variety of problems in linguistics and related disciplines. Secondly, readability research, as the name suggests, seeks to understand what makes texts more or less comprehensible to readers, and

  3. The Dependency Structure of Coordinate Phrases: A Corpus Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temperley, David

    2005-01-01

    Hudson (1990) proposes that each conjunct in a coordinate phrase forms dependency relations with heads or dependents outside the coordinate phrase (the "multi-head" view). This proposal is tested through corpus analysis of Wall Street Journal text. For right-branching constituents (such as direct-object NPs), a short-long preference for conjunct…

  4. Dative Alternation in Indian English: A Corpus-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cuypere, Ludovic; Verbeke, Saartje

    2013-01-01

    The dative alternation refers to the alternation between two constructions that denote some type of transfer: the double object construction ("I give my sister a book") vs. the to-dative construction ("I give a book to my sister"). We examined the motivations behind the dative alternation in Indian English. A corpus study was performed based on a…

  5. Modifying Corpus Annotation to Support the Analysis of Learner Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Markus; Lee, Chong Min

    2009-01-01

    A crucial question for automatically analyzing learner language is to determine which grammatical information is relevant and useful for learner feedback. Based on knowledge about how learner language varies in its grammatical properties, we propose a framework for reusing analyses found in corpus annotation and illustrate its applicability to…

  6. The CHAINS corpus: CHAracterizing INdividual Speakers Fred Cummins, Marco Grimaldi,

    E-print Network

    Cummins, Fred

    often disguise their voice with the obvious goal of making identification very hard. As discussed a novel speech corpus collected with the primary aim of facilitating research in speaker identification. The CHAINS project [1] is motivated by the dual goals of iden- tifying those properties of a voice which

  7. The Enron Corpus: A New Dataset for Email Classification Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan Klimt; Yiming Yang

    2004-01-01

    Automated classication of email messages into user-specic folders and information extraction from chronologically ordered email streams have become interesting areas in text learning research. However, the lack of large benchmark collections has been an obstacle for studying the problems and evaluating the solutions. In this paper, we introduce the Enron corpus as a new test bed. We analyze its suitability

  8. A Dataset Search Engine for the Research Document Corpus

    E-print Network

    Cormode, Graham

    A Dataset Search Engine for the Research Document Corpus Meiyu Lu # , Srinivas Bangalore , Graham a proposed idea or system is to evaluate over a suitable dataset. However, to this date there have been no useful tools for researchers to understand which datasets have been used for what purpose, or in what

  9. A Dataset Search Engine for the Research Document Corpus

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Kathleen

    A Dataset Search Engine for the Research Document Corpus Meiyu Lu # , Srinivas Bangalore , Graham no useful tools for researchers to understand which datasets have been used for what purpose, or in what prior work. Instead, they have to manually browse through papers to find suitable datasets

  10. A Corpus-Based Finite State Morphological Analyzer for Pashto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatima Tuz Zuhra; Mohammad Abid Khan

    This paper provides details of the development of an inflectional morphological analyzer that can analyze different inflections of a Pashto verb, noun or adjective. The system is corpus-based. The developed system is capable to accept input in the form of a transliterated Pashto verbal, nominal or adjectival inflection; convert it to an Arabic-scripted Pashto equivalent; morphologically analyze the word and

  11. Claws4: The Tagging Of The British National Corpus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey Leech; Roger Garside; Michael Bryant

    1994-01-01

    this paper is to describethe CLAWS4 general-purpose grammatical tagger,used for the tagging of the 100-million-word BritishNational Corpus, of which c.70 million words havebeen tagged at the time of writing (April 1994). 1We will empbasise the goals of (a) generd-purposeadaptability, (b) incorporation of linguistic knowledgeto improve qu,\\

  12. Outcome in Prenatally Diagnosed Fetal Agenesis of the Corpus callosum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. A. Goodyear; C. M. Bannister; S. Russell; S. Rimmer

    2001-01-01

    This study of the outcome and prognostic factors in prenatally diagnosed agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) was undertaken to see if there are any differences between subgroups, what relationship they have to neurodevelopmental outcome and whether this information aids the counselling of parents of fetuses with the condition. The outcome of 14 prenatally diagnosed fetuses with ACC and 61

  13. The Use of Corpus Examples for Language Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg-Garcia, Ana

    2014-01-01

    One of the many new features of English language learners' dictionaries derived from the technological developments that have taken place over recent decades is the presence of corpus-based examples to illustrate the use of words in context. However, empirical studies have generally not been able to produce conclusive evidence about their…

  14. TTC Web Platform1 : from Corpus Compilation to Bilingual

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    TTC Web Platform1 : from Corpus Compilation to Bilingual Terminologies for MT and CAT Tools Helena describes the TTC Web platform, an online demonstrator to show the whole pipeline to compile bilingual for both monolingual term extraction and bilingual term alignment, tools for monolingual term extraction

  15. An integrated pharmacokinetics ontology and corpus for text mining

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug pharmacokinetics parameters, drug interaction parameters, and pharmacogenetics data have been unevenly collected in different databases and published extensively in the literature. Without appropriate pharmacokinetics ontology and a well annotated pharmacokinetics corpus, it will be difficult to develop text mining tools for pharmacokinetics data collection from the literature and pharmacokinetics data integration from multiple databases. Description A comprehensive pharmacokinetics ontology was constructed. It can annotate all aspects of in vitro pharmacokinetics experiments and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies. It covers all drug metabolism and transportation enzymes. Using our pharmacokinetics ontology, a PK-corpus was constructed to present four classes of pharmacokinetics abstracts: in vivo pharmacokinetics studies, in vivo pharmacogenetic studies, in vivo drug interaction studies, and in vitro drug interaction studies. A novel hierarchical three level annotation scheme was proposed and implemented to tag key terms, drug interaction sentences, and drug interaction pairs. The utility of the pharmacokinetics ontology was demonstrated by annotating three pharmacokinetics studies; and the utility of the PK-corpus was demonstrated by a drug interaction extraction text mining analysis. Conclusions The pharmacokinetics ontology annotates both in vitro pharmacokinetics experiments and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies. The PK-corpus is a highly valuable resource for the text mining of pharmacokinetics parameters and drug interactions. PMID:23374886

  16. SWITCHBOARD: telephone speech corpus for research and development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Godfrey; Edward C. Holliman; Jane McDaniel

    1992-01-01

    SWITCHBOARD is a large multispeaker corpus of conversational speech and text which should be of interest to researchers in speaker authentication and large vocabulary speech recognition. About 2500 conversations by 500 speakers from around the US were collected automatically over T1 lines at Texas Instruments. Designed for training and testing of a variety of speech processing algorithms, especially in speaker

  17. Perception of Blended Emotions: from Video Corpus to Expressive Agent

    E-print Network

    Pelachaud, Catherine

    Perception of Blended Emotions: from Video Corpus to Expressive Agent Stéphanie Buisine1, Sarkis of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Perugia, Italy Abstract. Real life emotions are often blended and involve several simultane- ous superposed or masked emotions. This paper reports on a study on the per

  18. Corpus Consultation and Advanced Learners' Writing Skills in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Angela; O'Sullivan, Ide

    2004-01-01

    In the rapidly changing environment of language learning and teaching, electronic literacies have an increasingly important role to play. While much research on new literacies focuses on the World Wide Web, the aim in this study is to investigate the importance of corpus consultation as a new type of literacy which is of particular relevance in…

  19. Perspectives on Dichotic Listening and the Corpus Callosum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musiek, Frank E.; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The present review summarizes historic and recent research which has investigated the role of the corpus callosum in dichotic processing within the context of audiology. Examination of performance by certain clinical groups, including split brain patients, multiple sclerosis cases, and other types of neurological lesions is included. Maturational,…

  20. A Corpus-based Study of Mandarin Verbs of Doing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie Fu-mei Wang

    Adopting a corpus-based approach, this paper aims to explore the different usages of the Mandarin verbs of doing zuo, nong, and gao. Though often employed to define one another in dictionaries, these three verbs are not always interchangeable. Rather, they exhibit different patterns of use and selectional preferences of the complements, and display different semantic prosodies. Zuo emphasizes the action

  1. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of DQB and DRB class II genes of the ovine major histocompatibility complex.

    PubMed

    Grain, F; Nain, M C; Labonne, M P; Lantier, F; Lechopier, P; Gebuhrer, L; Asso, J; Maddox, J; Betuel, H

    1993-10-01

    The ovine major histocompatibility complex (MhcOvar) class II region was investigated by Southern blot hybridizations using ovine probes specific for the second exons of Ovar-DRB and Ovar-DQB genes. Multiple bands were revealed when genomic DNA was digested with each of five restriction enzymes (BamHI, EcoRI, HindIII, PvuII and TaqI), and successively hybridized with the two radiolabelled ovine probes. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were analysed in 89 sheep originating from six inbred families and the inheritance of the fragment patterns was determined. Forty-one fragments were recorded with the DQB probe; 32 were detected with the DRB probe. They constituted 9 DQB and 10 DRB allelic patterns. Twelve DQB-DRB haplotypes were resolved in this study. PMID:7904802

  2. Incubation of ovine scrapie with environmental matrix results in biological and biochemical changes of PrP(Sc) over time.

    PubMed

    Maddison, Ben C; Spiropoulos, John; Vickery, Christopher M; Lockey, Richard; Owen, Jonathan P; Bishop, Keith; Baker, Claire A; Gough, Kevin C

    2015-01-01

    Ovine scrapie can be transmitted via environmental reservoirs. A pool of ovine scrapie isolates were incubated on soil for one day or thirteen months and eluted prion was used to challenge tg338 mice transgenic for ovine PrP. After one-day incubation on soil, two PrP(Sc) phenotypes were present: G338 or Apl338ii. Thirteen months later some divergent PrP(Sc) phenotypes were seen: a mixture of Apl338ii with either G338 or P338, and a completely novel PrP(Sc) deposition, designated Cag338. The data show that prolonged ageing of scrapie prions within an environmental matrix may result in changes in the dominant PrP(Sc) biological/biochemical properties. PMID:25928902

  3. Formulaic Language and Collocations in German Essays: From Corpus-Driven Data to Corpus-Based Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krummes, Cedric; Ensslin, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Whereas there exists a plethora of research on collocations and formulaic language in English, this article contributes towards a somewhat less developed area: the understanding and teaching of formulaic language in German as a foreign language. It analyses formulaic sequences and collocations in German writing (corpus-driven) and provides modern…

  4. Using Google as a Super Corpus to Drive Written Language Learning: A Comparison with the British National Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Guoquan

    2010-01-01

    Data-driven learning (DDL), or corpus-based language learning, involves the learner in an exploratory task to discover appropriate expressions or collocates regarding his writing. However, the problematic units of meaning in each learner's writing are so diverse that conventional corpora often prove futile. The search engine Google with the…

  5. 33 CFR 334.800 - Corpus Christi Bay, Tex.; seaplane restricted area, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Christi Bay at the “North Gate” of the U.S. Naval Air Station at longitude 97°17?15.0? W...regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Chief of Naval Air Training, U.S. Naval Air Station, Corpus Christi, Tex., and...

  6. Platelet Activation in Ovines Undergoing Sham Surgery or Implant of the Second Generation PediaFlow™ Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Carl A.; Wearden, Peter D.; Kocyildirim, Ergin; Maul, Timothy M.; Woolley, Joshua R.; Ye, Sang-Ho; Strickler, Elise M.; Borovetz, Harvey S.; Wagner, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The PediaFlow™ pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) is a magnetically levitated turbodynamic pump under development for circulatory support of small children with a targeted flow rate range of 0.3 - 1.5 L/min. As the design of this device is refined, ensuring high levels of blood biocompatibility is essential. In this study we characterized platelet activation during the implantation and operation of a second generation prototype of the PediaFlow VAD (PF2) and also performed a series of surgical sham studies to examine purely surgical effects on platelet activation. In addition, a newly available monoclonal antibody was characterized and shown to be capable of quantifying ovine platelet activation. The PF2 was implanted in 3 chronic ovine experiments of 16, 30, and 70 days, while surgical sham procedures were performed in 5 ovines with 30 d monitoring. Blood biocompatibility in terms of circulating activated platelets was measured by flow cytometric assays with and without exogenous agonist stimulation. Platelet activation following sham surgery returned to baseline in approximately 2 weeks. Platelets in PF2 implanted ovines returned to baseline activation levels in all three animals, and showed an ability to respond to agonist stimulation. Late term platelet activation was observed in one animal corresponding with unexpected pump stoppages related to a manufacturing defect in the percutaneous cable. The results demonstrated encouraging platelet biocompatibility for the PF2 in that basal platelet activation was achieved early in the pump implant period. Furthermore, this first characterization of the effect of a major cardiothoracic procedure on temporal ovine platelet activation provides comparative data for future cardiovascular device evaluation in the ovine model. PMID:21463346

  7. Comparative biochemical evolution during ripening of bovine, ovine and caprine cheeses manufactured with extracts of flowers of Cynara cardunculus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria J. Sousa; F. Xavier Malcata

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the main physicochemical and biochemical characteristics of bovine, ovine and caprine milk cheeses manufactured\\u000a with aqueous extracts of flowers of Cynara cardunculus were studied throughout ripening (0?–?68 days). At the end of ripening the pH in the centre was (mean ± ISD) 5.05±0.07, 5.15±0.21\\u000a and 4.91±0.07 for bovine, ovine and caprine milk cheeses, respectively; whereas the pH at

  8. THE OGI KIDS' SPEECH CORPUS AND RECOGNIZERS Khaldoun Shobaki*, John-Paul Hosom*, and Ronald A. Cole**

    E-print Network

    Hosom, John-Paul

    THE OGI KIDS' SPEECH CORPUS AND RECOGNIZERS Khaldoun Shobaki*, John-Paul Hosom*, and Ronald A. Cole describe a corpus of children's speech, called the OGI Kids' Speech corpus, and a speaker- and vocabulary and methodology used to develop the OGI Kids' Speech corpus. We then describe development and evaluation

  9. Conformational variation between allelic variants of cell-surface ovine prion protein

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of prion infectivity and PrPSc between peripheral lymphoid tissues suggests their possible haematogenic spread during the progression of natural scrapie in susceptible sheep. Since ovine PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) express PrPC, they have the potential to carry or harbour disease-associated forms of PrP. To detect the possible presence of disease-associated PrP on the surface of blood cells, an understanding is required of the conformations that normal ovine cell-surface PrPC may adopt. In the present study, we have used monoclonal antibodies that recognize epitopes in either the N- or C-terminal portions of PrP to probe the conformations of PrPC on ovine PBMCs by flow cytometry. Although PBMCs from scrapie-susceptible and -resistant genotypes of sheep expressed similar levels of cell-surface PrPC, as judged by their reactivity with N-terminal-specific anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies, there was considerable genotypic heterogeneity in the region between helix-1 and residue 171. Cells from PrP-VRQ (V136R154Q171) sheep showed uniform reactivity with monoclonal antibodies that bound to epitopes around helix-1, whereas cells from PrP-ARQ (A136R154Q171) and PrP-ARR (A136R154R171) sheep showed variable binding. The region between ?-strand-2 and residue 171, which includes a YYR motif, was buried or obscured in cell-surface PrPC on PBMCs from scrapie-susceptible and -resistant sheep. However, an epitope of PrPC that is influenced by residue 171 was more exposed on PBMCs from PrP-VRQ sheep than on PBMCs from the PrP-ARQ genotype. Our results highlight conformational variation between scrapie-susceptible and -resistant forms of cell-surface PrPC and also between allelic variants of susceptible genotypes. PMID:15070397

  10. Characterization of a 41Residue Ovine Hypothalamic Peptide that Stimulates Secretion of Corticotropin and beta -endorphin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wylie Vale; Joachim Spiess; Catherine Rivier; Jean Rivier

    1981-01-01

    A peptide with high potency and intrinsic activity for stimulating the secretion of corticotropin-like and beta -endorphin-like immunoactivities by cultured anterior pituitary cells has been purified from ovine hypothalamic extracts. The primary structure of this 41-residue corticotropin- and beta -endorphin-releasing factor has been determined to be: H-Ser-Gln-Glu-Pro-Pro-Ile-Ser-Leu-Asp-Leu-Thr-Phe-His-Leu-Leu-Arg-Glu- Val-Leu-Glu-Met-Thr-Lys-Ala-Asp-Gln-Leu-Ala-Gln-Gln-Ala-His-Ser-Asn-Arg- Lys-Leu-Leu-Asp-Ile-Ala-NH2 The synthetic peptide is active in vitro and in vivo.

  11. Malignant catarrhal fever associated with ovine herpesvirus-2 in free-ranging mule deer in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Patricia C; Van Campen, Hana; Spraker, Terry R; Bishop, Chad; Wolfe, Lisa; Podell, Brendan

    2007-07-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed in four free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in January and February of 2003. Diagnosis was based on typical histologic lesions of lymphocytic vasculitis and PCR identification of ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2) viral genetic sequences in formalin-fixed tissues. The animals were from the Uncompahgre Plateau of southwestern Colorado. Deer from these herds occasionally resided in close proximity to domestic sheep (Ovis aries), the reservoir host of OHV-2, in agricultural valleys adjacent to their winter range. These cases indicate that fatal OHV-2 associated MCF can occur in free-ranging mule deer exposed to domestic sheep that overlap their range. PMID:17699095

  12. Autism traits in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Yolanda C.; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Bukshpun, Polina; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Jeremy, Rita J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have numerous etiologies, including structural brain malformations such as agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We sought to directly measure the occurrence of autism traits in a cohort of individuals with AgCC and to investigate the neural underpinnings of this association. We screened a large AgCC cohort (n = 106) with the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and found that 45% of children, 35% of adolescents, and 18% of adults exceeded the predetermined autism-screening cut-off. Interestingly, performance on the AQ’s imagination domain was inversely correlated with magnetoencephalography measures of resting-state functional connectivity in the right superior temporal gyrus. Individuals with AgCC should be screened for ASD and disorders of the corpus callosum should be considered in autism diagnostic evaluations as well. PMID:23054201

  13. An Integration of Corpus-Based and Genre-Based Approaches to Text Analysis in Eap/esp: Countering Criticisms against Corpus-Based Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, L.

    2005-01-01

    In the past few years, several corpus-based studies have been carried out which either explicitly in some cases, but more subtly in others, draw on aspects of genre theory for their analyses. The purpose of this paper is to review those corpus studies which specifically draw on either the English for Specific Purposes (following the Swales…

  14. Comparing English Vocabulary in a Spoken Learner Corpus with a Native Speaker Corpus: Pedagogical Implications Arising from an Empirical Study in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirato, Junko; Stapleton, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Insights from corpus linguistics have come to be seen as having a significant impact in second language pedagogy. Learner corpora, or collections of texts spoken or written by non-native speakers (NNS) of a language, are now being used for the purposes of enhancing language teaching. Specifically, by comparing the corpus of NNS with native…

  15. A Corpus-Based Approach to Language Learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Brill

    1993-01-01

    A CORPUS-BASED APPROACH TO LANGUAGE LEARNINGEric BrillSupervisor: Mitchell MarcusOne goal of computational linguistics is to discover a method for assigning a rich structural annotation to sentences that are presented as simple linear strings of words; meaning can be much more readily extracted from a structurally annotated sentence than from asentence with no structural information. Also, structure allows for a more

  16. Icariin on relaxation effect of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongcheng Xin; Kim Euikyung; Zhenji Tian; Guiting Lin; Yinglu Guo

    2001-01-01

    NO-cGMP pathway in penile corpus cavernosal smooth muscle plays an important role in penile erection. The level of cGMP is\\u000a regulated by a balance between the rate of synthesis by guanylate cyclase and the rate of hydrolytic breakdown to guanosine\\u000a 5? monophosphate (GMP) by phosphodiesterase 5(PDE5). Icariin is isolated from natural drug Epimedii herba, it is shown to\\u000a have the

  17. Implicit causality bias in English: a corpus of 300 verbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn C. Ferstl; Alan Garnham; Christina Manouilidou

    2011-01-01

    This study provides implicit verb causality norms for a corpus of 305 English verbs. A web-based sentence completion study\\u000a was conducted, with 96 respondents completing fragments such as “John liked Mary because...” The resulting bias scores are\\u000a provided as supplementary material in the Psychonomic Society Archive, where we also present lexical and semantic verb features,\\u000a such as the frequency, semantic

  18. The NIST Meeting Room Corpus 2 Phase 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martial Michel; Jerome Ajot; Jonathan G. Fiscus

    2006-01-01

    The Speech Group and Smart Spaces Lab of National Institute of Standards and Technology’s Information Technology Laboratory\\u000a have collaborated to collect a second phase of meetings in the NIST Meeting Data Collection Laboratory. The meeting laboratory,\\u000a which was used to collect a 15 hour pilot corpus beginning in 2001, was updated with 7 HDV cameras and new head microphones\\u000a for

  19. Statistical shape analysis of the corpus callosum in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shantanu H.; Narr, Katherine L.; Philips, Owen R.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Asarnow, Robert F.; Toga, Arthur W.; Woods, Roger P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a statistical shape-analysis framework for characterizing and comparing morphological variation of the corpus callosum. The midsagittal boundary of the corpus callosum is represented by a closed curve and analyzed using an invariant shape representation. The shape space of callosal curves is endowed with a Riemannian metric. Shape distances are given by the length of shortest paths (geodesics) that are invariant to shape-confounding transformations. The statistical framework enables computation of shape averages and covariances on the shape space in an intrinsic manner (unique to the shape space). The statistical framework makes use of the tangent principal component approach to achieve dimension reduction on the space of corpus callosum shapes. The advantages of this approach are – it is fully automatic, invariant, and avoids the use of landmarks to define shapes. We applied our method to determine the effects of sex, age, schizophrenia and schizophrenia-related genetic liability on callosal shape in a large sample of patients and controls and their first-degree relatives (N=218). Results showed significant age, sex, and schizophrenia effects on both global and local callosal shape structure. PMID:23000788

  20. Annotated Chemical Patent Corpus: A Gold Standard for Text Mining

    PubMed Central

    Akhondi, Saber A.; Klenner, Alexander G.; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K.; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A. R. P.; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A.; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org. PMID:25268232

  1. ABSORPTION AND HALF-LIFE OF BOVINE, CAPRINE AND OVINE IgG1 IN THE NEWBORN LAMB.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ont été nourris au biberon avec un colostrum bovin identique pendant les 32 premières heures de la vie, alors que six agneaux à terme et sept prématurés ont reçu le même colostrum, un colostrum caprin, puis un colostrum ovin, respecti- vement 2 h, 8 h et 16 h post-partum. Dans le premier groupe, les taux

  2. Ovine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis: a large animal model syntenic with the human neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis variant CLN6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M F Broom; C Zhou; J E Broom; K J Barwell; R D Jolly; D F Hill

    1998-01-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of inherited degenerative neurological diseases affecting children. A number of non-allelic variants have been identified within the human population and the genes for some of these have recently been identified. The underlying mechanism for the neuropathology remains an enigma; however, pioneering studies with the naturally occurring ovine model (OCL) have led to

  3. CONTAMINATION OF A LIVE VIRUS VACCINE AGAINST PSEUDORABIES (AUJESZKY'S DISEASE) BY AN OVINE PESTIVIRUS PATHOGEN FOR THE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    vaccination contre la maladie d'Aujeszky (pseudo-rage), la qualité d'un lot de vaccin a été mise en cause . LCONTAMINATION OF A LIVE VIRUS VACCINE AGAINST PSEUDORABIES (AUJESZKY'S DISEASE) BY AN OVINE Curie, 94701 Maisons-Alfort, France Résumé CONTAMINATION D'UN VACCIN VIVANT CONTRE LA MALADIE D

  4. Experimental aerosol infection of cattle ( Bos taurus) with ovine herpesvirus 2 using nasal secretions from infected sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naomi S. Taus; J. Lindsay Oaks; Katherine Gailbreath; Donald L. Traul; Donal O’Toole; Hong Li

    2006-01-01

    Infection of clinically susceptible ruminants, including domesticated cattle and American bison, with ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) can result in the fatal lymphoproliferative and vasculitis syndrome known as malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). A reliable experimental infection model is needed to study the pathogenesis of MCF and to develop effective vaccination strategies to control the disease. An experimental aerosol infection model using

  5. REGULATION OF THE OVINE INTERFERON-TAU GENE BY A BLASTOCYST-SPECIFIC TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR, CDX2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of ovine interferon-tau (oIFNt), a factor essential for the process of maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminant ungulates, is restricted to the trophoblast. However, the molecular mechanisms by which oIFNt expression is restricted to the trophectoderm have not been fully elucidated. ...

  6. Experimental nebulization of American bison (Bison bison) with low doses of ovine herpesvirus 2 from sheep nasal secretions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), is an important cause of mortality in ranched American bison (Bison bison) in North America. Detection of antibody against MCF-group viruses and OvHV-2 DNA in peripheral blood of healthy bison indicates that some are subclinic...

  7. Impact of Ovine Whey Protein Concentrates and Clarification By-Products on the Yield and Quality of Whey Cheese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos D. Pereira; Olga Díaz; Angel Cobos

    Summary The effects of the addition of whey protein concentrates and clarification by-products obtained from ovine cheese whey and deproteinized whey (Sorelho) on the yield and qua- lity of the whey cheese (Requeijão) have been evaluated. Whey protein concentrates were obtained by ultrafiltration of skimmed whey and Sorelho. The clarification by-products were obtained after the treatment of the skimmed whey

  8. Deletion variant near ZNF389 is associated with control of ovine lentivirus in multiple flocks of sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus found in many countries that causes interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and cachexia in sheep. There is no preventive vaccine and no cure, but breed differences suggest marker-assisted selective breeding might improve odds of infectio...

  9. Effects of interferon-[] on activation of the Jak/Stat signal transduction pathway and regulation of ovine endometrial gene expression 

    E-print Network

    Stewart, Milton David

    2001-01-01

    expression. IFN[] induced persistent tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Stats 1 and 2 in ovine LE cells. However, Stats 3, 5a/b and 6 were transiently activated and did not bind DNA. IFN[] elicited formation of IFN-stimulated gene factor...

  10. Antibodies to ovine herpesvirus 2 glycoprotein antibodies decrease virus infectivity and prevent malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) is the etiological agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), a generally fatal lymphoproliferative disease of many species in the order Artiodactyla. Development of a vaccine is critical to prevent mortality. Because OvHV-2 has not been cultured in vi...

  11. COMPARISON OF OVINE HERPESVIRUS 2 GENOMES ISOLATED FROM DOMESTIC SHEEP (OVIS ARIES) AND A CLINICALLY AFFECTED COW (BOS BOVIS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rhadinovirus ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) is the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). OvHV-2 affects primarily ruminants and has a worldwide distribution. In this study we determined the sequence of OvHV-2 genomic DNA isolated from sheep nasal secretions and compa...

  12. Close Phylogenetic Relationship between Egg Drop Syndrome Virus, Bovine Adenovirus Serotype 7, and Ovine Adenovirus Strain 287

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Balázs Harrach; Brian M Meehan; Mária Benkö; Brian M Adair; Daniel Todd

    1997-01-01

    A cloned egg drop syndrome (EDS) virus genomic DNA fragment containing the protease gene has been identified and the complete nucleotide sequence of the protease and partial nucleotide sequence of the hexon genes has been determined. Phylogenetic analysis of the protease gene has revealed EDS virus to be genetically more closely related to bovine adenovirus type 7 (BAV-7) and ovine

  13. A comparison of six methods for genomic DNA extraction suitable for PCR-based genotyping applications using ovine milk samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Androniki Psifidi; Chrysostomos I. Dovas; Georgios Banos

    2010-01-01

    Isolation of amplifiable genomic DNA is a prerequisite for the genetic assessment of diseases and disease susceptibility in farm animals. Milk somatic cells are a practical, animal friendly and cost-effective source of genomic DNA in milking ruminants. In this study, six different DNA extraction methods were optimized, evaluated and compared for the isolation of DNA from ovine milk samples. Methods

  14. Effect of biopsy and vitrification on in vitro survival of ovine embryos at different stages of development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Naitana; P. Loi; S. Ledda; P. Cappai; M. Dattena; L. Bogliolo; G. Leoni

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the in vitro viability of ovine embryos at different stages of development after combining cell sampling and vitrification. Precompacted morulae, compacted morulae and blastocysts were obtained from superovulated Sarda ewes at 4, 5 or 6 d following insemination. Embryo cell biopsy was carried out in a 100-?l drop of PBS +

  15. Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels are unaffected by the prion 171R allele in an Idaho sheep flock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding of sheep for arginine (R) at prion gene (PRNP) codon 171 confers resistance to Scrapie. The 171R allele naturally occurs at low frequency, possibly because it imparts a deleterious trait such as impaired disease resistance. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia/Maedi-Visna virus (OPPV) is...

  16. Enucleated ovine oocyte supports human somatic cells reprogramming back to the embryonic stage.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, S Morteza; Hajian, Mehdi; Forouzanfar, Mohsen; Moulavi, Fariba; Abedi, Parvaneh; Asgari, Vajiheh; Tanhaei, Somayyeh; Abbasi, Hassan; Jafarpour, Farnoosh; Ostadhosseini, Soamyyeh; Karamali, Fereshteh; Karbaliaie, Khadijeh; Baharvand, Hossein; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad H

    2012-04-01

    Increased possibility of universality of ooplasmic reprogramming factors resulted in a parallel increased interest to use interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) to address basic questions of developmental biology and to improve the feasibility of cell therapy. In this study, the interactions between human somatic cells and ovine oocytes were investigated. Nuclear remodeling events were first observed 3 h post-iSCNT as nuclear swelling, chromosome condensation, and spindle formation. A time-dependent decrease in maturation promoting activity of inactivated reconstructs coincided with increased aberrations in chromosome and spindle organization of the newly developed embryos. The sequence and duration of nuclear remodeling events were irrespective of donor cell type used. Although the majority of the reconstituted embryos arrested before embryonic genome activation (8-16-cell) stage, less than 5% of them could progress beyond transcription-requiring developmental stage and formed blastocyst-like structures with distinct inner cell mass and trophectoderm at days 7 and 8 post-SCNT. Importantly, real-time assessment of three developmentally important genes (Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog) indicated their upregulation in iSCNT blastocysts. Blastocyst-derived outgrowths had alkaline phosphatase activity that was lost upon passage. Collectively, this study introduced ovine oocyte as a credible cytoplast for remodeling and reprogramming of human somatic cells back to the embryonic stage and provided a platform for further studies to unravel possible differences exist between reprogramming ability of oocytes of different mammalian species. PMID:22384929

  17. Ovine Forestomach Matrix as a Substrate for Single-Stage Split-Thickness Graft Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Simcock, Jeremy; May, Barnaby C. H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Split skin graft reconstruction of scalp defects often leaves an obvious contour defect. Here, we aimed to demonstrate the use of a decellularized extracellular matrix biomaterial, termed ovine forestomach matrix (OFM), as a substrate for split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs) for scalp reconstruction. Methods: Following full-thickness tumor excision, OFM was applied directly to skull periosteum, and then an STSG was applied. Participants were monitored for graft take, epithelialization, and cosmetic outcomes. Results: Participants responded well to the procedure with more than 95% graft take in 4 participants, and 100% epithelialization of the grafts after 2 weeks. A 30% graft take was observed in the fifth participant due to local infection and partial necrosis of the graft. Ovine forestomach matrix was remodelled with time and the regenerated dermis was well vascularized and had robust and ordered collagen deposition. Conclusions: This series demonstrates that OFM can serve as a temporary dermal scaffold to support an overlying STSG and allow for a single-stage grafting procedure. PMID:24570766

  18. Examination of osteoarthritis and subchondral bone alterations within the stifle joint of an ovariectomised ovine model

    PubMed Central

    Holland, J C; Brennan, O; Kennedy, O D; Mahony, N J; Rackard, S; O'Brien, F J; Lee, T C

    2013-01-01

    The exact relationship between osteoporosis and osteoarthritis is still a matter for debate for many. The ovariectomised ewe is frequently used as a model for osteoporosis, resulting in significant alterations in bone morphometry and turnover in both trabecular and subchondral bone after 1 year. This study examines whether ovariectomy has any impact on development of osteoarthritis within the ovine stifle joint at the same time point. In addition, we investigate whether there are any significant correlations present between articular cartilage degeneration and alterations in microstructural parameters or turnover rates in the underlying bone. Twenty-two sheep were examined in this study; 10 of the sheep underwent ovariectomy and 12 were kept as controls. Five distinctive fluorochrome dyes were administered intravenously at 12-week intervals to both groups, to label sites of bone turnover. All animals were then sacrificed 12 months postoperatively. Although most specimens showed some evidence of osteoarthritis, no measurable difference between the two study groups was detected. Osteoarthritis was associated with a thinning of the subchondral plate, specifically the subchondral cortical bone; however, whereas previous studies have suggested a link between trabecular thinning and osteoarthritis, this was not confirmed. No correlation was found between osteoarthritis and bone turnover rates of either the subchondral trabecular bone or bone plate. In conclusion, despite the fact that ovariectomy results in marked morphological and structural changes in the ovine stifle joint at 1-year postoperatively, no evidence was found to suggest that it plays a direct role in the aetiology of osteoarthritis. PMID:23634692

  19. Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus infects multiple cell types in the ovine lung.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Henny M; Cousens, Chris; Imlach, Stuart; Dagleish, Mark P; Griffiths, David J

    2011-04-01

    Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a transmissible lung cancer of sheep caused by Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). The details of early events in the pathogenesis of OPA are not fully understood. For example, the identity of the JSRV target cell in the lung has not yet been determined. Mature OPA tumors express surfactant protein-C (SP-C) or Clara cell-specific protein (CCSP), which are specific markers of type II pneumocytes or Clara cells, respectively. However, it is unclear whether these are the cell types initially infected and transformed by JSRV or whether the virus targets stem cells in the lung that subsequently acquire a differentiated phenotype during tumor growth. To examine this question, JSRV-infected lung tissue from experimentally infected lambs was studied at early time points after infection. Single JSRV-infected cells were detectable 10 days postinfection in bronchiolar and alveolar regions. These infected cells were labeled with anti-SP-C or anti-CCSP antibodies, indicating that differentiated epithelial cells are early targets for JSRV infection in the ovine lung. In addition, undifferentiated cells that expressed neither SP-C nor CCSP were also found to express the JSRV Env protein. These results enhance the understanding of OPA pathogenesis and may have comparative relevance to human lung cancer, for which samples representing early stages of tumor growth are difficult to obtain. PMID:21270155

  20. Mesenchymal stromal cells overexpressing vascular endothelial growth factor in ovine myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, P; Olea, F D; Hnatiuk, A; De Lorenzi, A; Cerdá, M; Giménez, C S; Sepúlveda, D; Laguens, R; Crottogini, A

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are cardioprotective in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Besides, we have shown that intramyocardial injection of plasmid-VEGF165 (pVEGF) in ovine AMI reduces infarct size and improves left ventricular (LV) function. We thus hypothesized that MSCs overexpressing VEGF165 (MSCs-pVEGF) would afford greater cardioprotection than non-modified MSCs or pVEGF alone. Sheep underwent an anteroapical AMI and, 1 week later, received intramyocardial MSCs-pVEGF in the infarct border. One month post treatment, infarct size (magnetic resonance) decreased by 31% vs pre-treatment. Of note, myocardial salvage occurred predominantly at the subendocardium, the myocardial region displaying the largest contribution to systolic performance. Consistently, LV ejection fraction recovered to almost its baseline value because of marked decrease in end-systolic volume. None of these effects were observed in sheep receiving non-transfected MSCs or pVEGF. Although myocardial retention of MSCs decreased steeply over time, the treatment induced significant capillary and arteriolar proliferation, which reduced subendocardial fibrosis. We conclude that in ovine AMI, allogeneic VEGF-overexpressing MSCs induce subendocardial myocardium salvage through microvascular proliferation, reducing infarct size and improving LV function more than non-transfected MSCs or the naked plasmid. Importantly, the use of a plasmid rather than a virus allows for repeated treatments, likely needed in ischemic heart disease. PMID:25789461

  1. Specificity Protein-1 and -3 Trans-Activate the Ovine Placental Lactogen Gene Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Jeckel, K. M.; Limesand, S.W.; Anthony, R.V.

    2009-01-01

    The proximal promoter (-383/+16) of the ovine placental lactogen (oPL) gene provides trophoblast-specific expression in vitro. Footprint 6 (FP6; -319/-349) lies within this region, and transfection of two-base pair mutations across FP6 into BeWo cells identified potential binding sites for CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (CEBP) and Specificity Proteins (Sp). Transfection of CEBP dominant negative or over-expression constructs did not impact transactivation of the proximal promoter. However, Sp1 and Sp3 over-expression constructs increased (p ? 0.05) transactivation. Additionally, Sp1 and Sp3 short-hairpin RNA constructs reduced (p ? 0.01) transactivation of the proximal promoter. In EMSA supershift assays, Sp1 and Sp3 antibodies were able to inhibit migration of the complexes formed with nuclear extracts from BeWo cells and ovine chorionic binucleate cells (oBNC). Furthermore, Southwestern analysis of oBNC nuclear extracts identified a nuclear protein corresponding with Sp3, identified by Western analysis. In conclusion, these results indicate that Sp1 and Sp3 are capable of interacting with FP6 of the oPL gene proximal promoter and function to enhance its transactivation. PMID:19389461

  2. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and autism: a comprehensive comparison

    PubMed Central

    Corsello, Christina; Kennedy, Daniel P.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The corpus callosum, with its ?200 million axons, remains enigmatic in its contribution to cognition and behaviour. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a congenital condition in which the corpus callosum fails to develop; such individuals exhibit localized deficits in non-literal language comprehension, humour, theory of mind and social reasoning. These findings together with parent reports suggest that behavioural and cognitive impairments in subjects with callosal agenesis may overlap with the profile of autism spectrum disorders, particularly with respect to impairments in social interaction and communication. To provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis, we directly compared a group of 26 adults with callosal agenesis to a group of 28 adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder but no neurological abnormality. All participants had full-scale intelligence quotient scores >78 and groups were matched on age, handedness, and gender ratio. Using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule together with current clinical presentation to assess autistic symptomatology, we found that 8/26 (about a third) of agenesis subjects presented with autism. However, more formal diagnosis additionally involving recollective parent-report measures regarding childhood behaviour showed that only 3/22 met complete formal criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (parent reports were unavailable for four subjects). We found no relationship between intelligence quotient and autism symptomatology in callosal agenesis, nor evidence that the presence of any residual corpus callosum differentiated those who exhibited current autism spectrum symptoms from those who did not. Relative to the autism spectrum comparison group, parent ratings of childhood behaviour indicated children with agenesis were less likely to meet diagnostic criteria for autism, even for those who met autism spectrum criteria as adults, and even though there was no group difference in parent report of current behaviours. The findings suggest two broad conclusions. First, they support the hypothesis that congenital disruption of the corpus callosum constitutes a major risk factor for developing autism. Second, they quantify specific features that distinguish autistic behaviour associated with callosal agenesis from autism more generally. Taken together, these two findings also leverage specific questions for future investigation: what are the distal causes (genetic and environmental) determining both callosal agenesis and its autistic features, and what are the proximal mechanisms by which absence of the callosum might generate autistic symptomatology? PMID:24771497

  3. INFLUENCIA DE LOS DILUTORES TRIS Y OVINE FREEZING SOBRE LA INTEGRIDAD DE LA MEMBRANA CITOPLASMÁTICA DURANTE LA CONGELACIÓN DE SEMEN DE OVINOS EN PAJILLAS DE 0.5 ML EFFECT OF TRIS AND OVINE FREEZING SEMEN EXTENDERS ON CYTOPLASMATIC MEMBRANE INTEGRITY DURING OVINE SEMEN FREEZING IN 0.5 ML STRAWS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The effect of two semen extenders: Glucose Tris and Ovine Freezing Buffer (UA 466\\/ 005238) on the motility and cytoplasmic membrane integrity of spermatozoa during the freezing process was evaluated. Five rams (2 Assaf, 2 Cinnamon and 1 Black Belly) were used. The fresh semen was of good quality and values of seminal characteristics were within the normal range for

  4. What’s In a Note: Construction of a Suicide Note Corpus

    PubMed Central

    Pestian, John P.; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Linn-Gust, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of an initiative to create and annotate a corpus of suicide notes that can be used for machine learning. Ultimately, the corpus included 1,278 notes that were written by someone who died by suicide. Each note was reviewed by at least three annotators who mapped words or sentences to a schema of emotions. This corpus has already been used for extensive scientific research. PMID:23170067

  5. Collective Instance-Level Gene Normalization on the IGN Corpus

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Wu, Johnny Chi-Yang; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han

    2013-01-01

    A high proportion of life science researches are gene-oriented, in which scientists aim to investigate the roles that genes play in biological processes, and their involvement in biological mechanisms. As a result, gene names and their related information turn out to be one of the main objects of interest in biomedical literatures. While the capability of recognizing gene mentions has made significant progress, the results of recognition are still insufficient for direct use due to the ambiguity of gene names. Gene normalization (GN) goes beyond the recognition task by linking a gene mention to a database ID. Unlike most previous works, we approach GN on the instance-level and evaluate its overall performance on the recognition and normalization steps in abstracts and full texts. We release the first instance-level gene normalization (IGN) corpus in the BioC format, which includes annotations for the boundaries of all gene mentions and the corresponding IDs for human gene mentions. Species information, along with existing co-reference chains and full name/abbreviation pairs are also provided for each gene mention. Using the released corpus, we have designed a collective instance-level GN approach using not only the contextual information of each individual instance, but also the relations among instances and the inherent characteristics of full-text sections. Our experimental results show that our collective approach can achieve an F-score of 0.743. The proposed approach that exploits section characteristics in full-text articles can improve the F-scores of information lacking sections by up to 1.8%. In addition, using the proposed refinement process improved the F-score of gene mention recognition by 0.125 and that of GN by 0.03. Whereas current experimental results are limited to the human species, we seek to continue updating the annotations of the IGN corpus and observe how the proposed approach can be extended to other species. PMID:24282506

  6. Facial emotion recognition in agenesis of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired social functioning is a common symptom of individuals with developmental disruptions in callosal connectivity. Among these developmental conditions, agenesis of the corpus callosum provides the most extreme and clearly identifiable example of callosal disconnection. To date, deficits in nonliteral language comprehension, humor, theory of mind, and social reasoning have been documented in agenesis of the corpus callosum. Here, we examined a basic social ability as yet not investigated in this population: recognition of facial emotion and its association with social gaze. Methods Nine individuals with callosal agenesis and nine matched controls completed four tasks involving emotional faces: emotion recognition from upright and inverted faces, gender recognition, and passive viewing. Eye-tracking data were collected concurrently on all four tasks and analyzed according to designated facial regions of interest. Results Individuals with callosal agenesis exhibited impairments in recognizing emotions from upright faces, in particular lower accuracy for fear and anger, and these impairments were directly associated with diminished attention to the eye region. The callosal agenesis group exhibited greater consistency in emotion recognition across conditions (upright vs. inverted), with poorest performance for fear identification in both conditions. The callosal agenesis group also had atypical facial scanning (lower fractional dwell time in the eye region) during gender naming and passive viewing of faces, but they did not differ from controls on gender naming performance. The pattern of results did not differ when taking into account full-scale intelligence quotient or presence of autism spectrum symptoms. Conclusions Agenesis of the corpus callosum results in a pattern of atypical facial scanning characterized by diminished attention to the eyes. This pattern suggests that reduced callosal connectivity may contribute to the development and maintenance of emotion processing deficits involving reduced attention to others' eyes. PMID:25705318

  7. Collective instance-level gene normalization on the IGN corpus.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Wu, Johnny Chi-Yang; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han

    2013-01-01

    A high proportion of life science researches are gene-oriented, in which scientists aim to investigate the roles that genes play in biological processes, and their involvement in biological mechanisms. As a result, gene names and their related information turn out to be one of the main objects of interest in biomedical literatures. While the capability of recognizing gene mentions has made significant progress, the results of recognition are still insufficient for direct use due to the ambiguity of gene names. Gene normalization (GN) goes beyond the recognition task by linking a gene mention to a database ID. Unlike most previous works, we approach GN on the instance-level and evaluate its overall performance on the recognition and normalization steps in abstracts and full texts. We release the first instance-level gene normalization (IGN) corpus in the BioC format, which includes annotations for the boundaries of all gene mentions and the corresponding IDs for human gene mentions. Species information, along with existing co-reference chains and full name/abbreviation pairs are also provided for each gene mention. Using the released corpus, we have designed a collective instance-level GN approach using not only the contextual information of each individual instance, but also the relations among instances and the inherent characteristics of full-text sections. Our experimental results show that our collective approach can achieve an F-score of 0.743. The proposed approach that exploits section characteristics in full-text articles can improve the F-scores of information lacking sections by up to 1.8%. In addition, using the proposed refinement process improved the F-score of gene mention recognition by 0.125 and that of GN by 0.03. Whereas current experimental results are limited to the human species, we seek to continue updating the annotations of the IGN corpus and observe how the proposed approach can be extended to other species. PMID:24282506

  8. Rapid quantitative assessment of gastric corpus atrophy in tissue sections

    PubMed Central

    van Grieken, N C T; Weiss, M; Meijer, G; Bloemena, E; Lindeman, J; Offerhaus, G; Meuwissen, S; Baak, J; Kuipers, E

    2001-01-01

    Background/Aims—Grading of Helicobacter pylori induced atrophic gastritis using the updated Sydney system is severely limited by high interobserver variability. The aim of this study was to set up a quantitative test of gastric corpus mucosal atrophy in tissue sections and test its reproducibility and correlation with the Sydney scores of atrophy. Method—Mucosal atrophy was assessed in 124 haematoxylin and eosin stained corpus biopsy specimens by two experienced gastrointestinal pathologists (EB, JL) according to the updated Sydney system as none (n = 33), mild (n = 33), moderate (n = 33), or pronounced (n = 25). In each specimen, the proportions of glands, stroma, infiltrate, and intestinal metaplasia in the glandular zone were measured as volume percentages using a point counting method. The optimal point sample size, intra-observer and interobserver reproducibility, discriminative power for degrees of atrophy, and correlations with H pylori status were evaluated. Results—Counting 400 points in 200 fields of vision provided the smallest sample size that still had excellent intra-observer and interobserver reproducibility (r ? 0.96). Overall, the volume percentage of glands (VPGL), infiltrate (VPI), and stroma (VPS) correlated well with the Sydney scores for atrophy (p ? 0.003). However, no differences were found between non-atrophic mucosa and mild atrophy. No correlation was found between age and either the Sydney grade of atrophy or the VPGL or VPS. In non-atrophic mucosa and mild atrophy, H pylori positive cases showed a significantly higher VPI than did H pylori negative cases. A lower VPGL was seen in H pylori positive cases than in H pylori negative cases in the mild atrophy group. VPS did not correlate with H pylori status within each grade of atrophy. Conclusion—Point counting is a powerful and reproducible tool for the quantitative analysis of mucosal corpus atrophy in tissue sections. These data favour the combination of "none" and "mild" atrophy into one category, resulting in a three class grading system for corpus atrophy, when using the updated Sydney system. Key Words: gastric atrophy • Sydney classification • point counting PMID:11271791

  9. Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome with agenesis of corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shubhankar; Agarwalla, Sunil Kumar; Potpalle, Dnyaneshwar Ramesh; Dash, Nishant Nilotpal

    2015-01-01

    Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare genetic disorder with characteristic morphological anomaly. Our patient was a 4.5-year-old girl came with features like broad thumbs, downward slanting palpebral fissures and mental retardation. Systemic abnormalities such as repeated infection, seizure with developmental delay were also associated with it. She was having head banging behavior abnormal slurring speech, incoordination while transferring things from one hand to other. Galaxy of clinical pictures and magnetic resonance imaging report helped to clinch the diagnosis as a case of “RSTS with corpus callosal agenesis” which to the best of our knowledge has never been reported in past from India.

  10. Effect of maternal fasting on ovine fetal and maternal branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities.

    PubMed

    Liechty, E A; Barone, S; Nutt, M

    1987-01-01

    Activities of branched-chain amino acid transaminase were assayed in maternal skeletal muscle, liver and fetal skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, liver, kidney and placenta obtained from fed and 5-day-fasted late gestation ewes. Very high activities were found in placenta; fetal skeletal muscle also had high activity. Fetal brain had intermediate activity, followed by cardiac muscle and kidney. Fetal liver possessed negligible activity. Activities were low in both maternal liver and skeletal muscle. Trends were seen for fasting to increase activities in fetal placenta, skeletal muscle, brain, kidney, heart and maternal liver, but these changes were statistically significant only for fetal brain and placental tissue. Fetal skeletal muscle activity was 100 times that of maternal skeletal muscle. These data imply differences in the metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids by fetal and adult ruminants and expand the thesis that branched-chain amino acids are important to the metabolism of the ovine fetus. PMID:3651524

  11. Ovine congenital myotonia associated with a mutation in the muscle chloride channel gene.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Luis Vicente; Tejedor, María Teresa; Ramos, Juan José; Lacasta, Delia; Ferrer, Luis Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Congenital myotonia (CM) is characterised by a delay in muscular relaxation after sudden contractions. In a recent outbreak of ovine CM affecting 1% of new-born lambs in a Spanish flock of Rasa Aragonesa sheep, a comparative pathology approach was taken: because a mutation in the muscle chloride channel gene (CLCN1) was identified as responsible for CM in goats, the same gene was sequenced in the affected lambs. A non-synonymous single nucleotide variation (SNV) in the second exon of CLCN1 was associated with this pathology. Rams carrying this SNV heterozygously were thereafter identified and replaced by wild-type homozygous young males. No additional CM cases were detected in subsequent lambing seasons. PMID:25744800

  12. Pregnancy-associated changes in the physical and microscopic characteristics of the ovine cervix.

    PubMed

    Aughey, E; Calder, A A; Coutts, J R; Fleming, R; McManus, T J; Munro, C D

    1983-03-01

    Ovine cervices were obtained at slaughter from 18 sheep comprising six groups of three--cycling ewe lambs, non-pregnant, and four groups of pregnant animals of progressively longer gestation PI to PIV. Physical and microscopic analyses carried out on these cervices showed consistent results throughout any individual tissue. A number of factors changed with increasing gestational age and some of these changes were noted from early gestation. No significant change in water content was observed through pregnancy. With increasing length of gestation the cervix increased in length and width, there were relative increases in fibroblasts, smooth muscle and softening of the tissue, and relative decreases in collagen and fibrocytes. An increased vascularity was observed in the tissues from late gestation sheep, and a change in the nature of the epithelial secretion, from neutral to acidic mucins, was also associated with late pregnancy. PMID:6853351

  13. Pregnancy-associated changes in the physical and microscopic characteristics of the ovine cervix.

    PubMed Central

    Aughey, E; Calder, A A; Coutts, J R; Fleming, R; McManus, T J; Munro, C D

    1983-01-01

    Ovine cervices were obtained at slaughter from 18 sheep comprising six groups of three--cycling ewe lambs, non-pregnant, and four groups of pregnant animals of progressively longer gestation PI to PIV. Physical and microscopic analyses carried out on these cervices showed consistent results throughout any individual tissue. A number of factors changed with increasing gestational age and some of these changes were noted from early gestation. No significant change in water content was observed through pregnancy. With increasing length of gestation the cervix increased in length and width, there were relative increases in fibroblasts, smooth muscle and softening of the tissue, and relative decreases in collagen and fibrocytes. An increased vascularity was observed in the tissues from late gestation sheep, and a change in the nature of the epithelial secretion, from neutral to acidic mucins, was also associated with late pregnancy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5a Fig. 5b Fig. 6 PMID:6853351

  14. Indentation experiments and simulation of ovine bone using a viscoelastic-plastic damage model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Wu, Ziheng; Turner, Simon; MacLeay, Jennifer; Niebur, Glen L.; Ovaert, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    Indentation methods have been widely used to study bone at the micro- and nanoscales. It has been shown that bone exhibits viscoelastic behavior with permanent deformation during indentation. At the same time, damage due to microcracks is induced due to the stresses beneath the indenter tip. In this work, a simplified viscoelastic-plastic damage model was developed to more closely simulate indentation creep data, and the effect of the model parameters on the indentation curve was investigated. Experimentally, baseline and 2-year postovariectomized (OVX-2) ovine (sheep) bone samples were prepared and indented. The damage model was then applied via finite element analysis to simulate the bone indentation data. The mechanical properties of yielding, viscosity, and damage parameter were obtained from the simulations. The results suggest that damage develops more quickly for OVX-2 samples under the same indentation load conditions as the baseline data.

  15. Changes in meat quality of ovine longissimus dorsi muscle in response to repeated freeze and thaw.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jun; Li, Chunbao; Chen, Yinji; Gao, Feifei; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2012-12-01

    Changes in eating and technological quality attributes of ovine longissimus dorsi muscle during repeated freeze and thaw were investigated. Shear force value, L* value, a* value and fiber diameter decreased (P<0.05) but lipid oxidation increased (P<0.05) with repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Sarcomere length and pH decreased (P<0.05) within the first 10 freeze-thaw cycles but increased (P<0.05) after 5 further cycles. Total and myofibrillar protein solubility, and intramuscular free fatty acids concentration decreased (P<0.05) after 1 cycle of freeze and thaw but then increased (P<0.05) gradually with further cycles. Hardness, chewiness, cohesiveness and resilience of comminuted lamb products decreased (P<0.05) with increased freeze-thaw cycles. And therefore, repeated freeze and thaw should be minimized in terms of meat color for commercial value and water holding capacity for further processing. PMID:22749539

  16. Ovine Paratuberculosis: A Seroprevalence Study in Dairy Flocks Reared in the Marche Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Anna Rita, Attili; Victor, Ngu Ngwa; Silvia, Preziuso; Luciana, Pacifici; Anastasia, Domesi; Vincenzo, Cuteri

    2011-01-01

    In order to fulfil the seroprevalence gap on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in ovine dairy farms of Marche region (central Italy), a stratified study was carried out on 2086 adult female sheep randomly chosen from 38 herds selected in Ancona and Macerata provinces. 73.7% flocks resulted infected by a commercial ELISA test (Pourquier, France), with a mean seroprevalence of 6.29% of sampled sheep in both provinces. A higher number of MAP seropositive ewes was recorded in the large herds' consistence than in the small and medium herds' consistence (P = 0.0269), and a greater percentage of infected sheep was obtained among female at early/late than in peak lactation stage (P = 0.0237). MAP infection was confirmed in 12.6% of infected farms by faecal culture. The true sheep-level seroprevalence was 15.1% ± 7.3%. PMID:21876850

  17. The levels of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone in follicular fluid in healthy and atretic ovine follicles.

    PubMed

    Tetsuka, Masa; Nancarrow, Colin D

    2007-10-01

    Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) induces follicular atresia under experimental conditions. However, whether it causes any antagonistic effect under natural condition is not known. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of DHT in follicular fluid and correlated them with concentrations of estradiol-17beta (E2) and its androgen substrates, androstenedione (A4) and testosterone (T), in healthy and atretic follicles of sheep. Merino ewes were treated twice with PGF2alpha (PG) to synchronize estrus. The ovaries were recovered at 14 days after the second PG (luteal phase) or 24h after the third PG given 14 days after the second PG (follicular phase). Follicles were dissected and their size and appearance were recorded. Follicular fluid was collected from follicles larger than 3.5mm and concentrations of E2, progesterone (P4), A4, T and DHT were determined by RIA. The inhibitory effect of DHT on conversion of T to E2 was tested in cultured granulosa cells. Appreciable levels of DHT were observed in the follicular fluid of ovine preovulatory follicles. The levels of DHT were much lower than those of E2, A4 and T, irrespective of physiological conditions of follicles. No difference was found in DHT concentration between healthy and atretic follicles. Dihydrotestosterone marginally inhibited aromatization of T in granulosa cells but this effect was only observed when the levels of DHT were 10 times higher than that of T in culture medium. These results indicate that DHT is present in ovine preovulatory follicles but its levels are not sufficient to exert any antagonistic effect on follicular development. PMID:16962281

  18. Influence of Reproductive Status on Tissue Composition and Biomechanical Properties of Ovine Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Daniela; Edwards, Sharon L.; Su, Kai; White, Jacinta F.; Ramshaw, John A. M.; Jenkin, Graham; Deprest, Jan; Rosamilia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To undertake a comprehensive analysis of the biochemical tissue composition and passive biomechanical properties of ovine vagina and relate this to the histo-architecture at different reproductive stages as part of the establishment of a large preclinical animal model for evaluating regenerative medicine approaches for surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. Methods Vaginal tissue was collected from virgin (n?=?3), parous (n?=?6) and pregnant sheep (n?=?6; mean gestation; 132 d; term?=?145 d). Tissue histology was analyzed using H+E and Masson's Trichrome staining. Biochemical analysis of the extracellular matrix proteins used a hydroxyproline assay to quantify total collagen, SDS PAGE to measure collagen III/I+III ratios, dimethylmethylene blue to quantify glycosaminoglycans and amino acid analysis to quantify elastin. Uniaxial tensiometry was used to determine the Young's modulus, maximum stress and strain, and permanent strain following cyclic loading. Results Vaginal tissue of virgin sheep had the lowest total collagen content and permanent strain. Parous tissue had the highest total collagen and lowest elastin content with concomitant high maximum stress. In contrast, pregnant sheep had the highest elastin and lowest collagen contents, and thickest smooth muscle layer, which was associated with low maximum stress and poor dimensional recovery following repetitive loading. Conclusion Pregnant ovine vagina was the most extensible, but the weakest tissue, whereas parous and virgin tissues were strong and elastic. Pregnancy had the greatest impact on tissue composition and biomechanical properties, compatible with significant tissue remodeling as demonstrated in other species. Biochemical changes in tissue protein composition coincide with these altered biomechanical properties. PMID:24709913

  19. Calcium concentration in vitrification medium affects the developmental competence of in vitro matured ovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Succu, Sara; Berlinguer, Fiammetta; Leoni, Giovanni G; Bebbere, Daniela; Satta, Valentina; Marco-Jimenez, Francisco; Pasciu, Valeria; Naitana, Salvatore

    2011-03-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether different calcium concentrations in the vitrification solutions could improve the developmental competence of in vitro matured ovine oocytes after cryopreservation. In vitro matured oocytes were vitrified with 16.5% ethylene glycol (EG) + 16.5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) vitrification media. The base media contain different calcium concentrations, so that five experimental groups were obtained: TCM/FCS (TCM 199 + 20% fetal calf serum (FCS), [Ca(2+)] 9.9 mg/dl); PBS/FCS (Dulbecco Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) + 20% FCS, [Ca(2+)] 4.4 mg/dl); PBS(CaMg free)/FCS (PBS without Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) + 20% FCS [Ca(2+)] 2.2 mg/dl); PBS/BSA (PBS + 0.4% bovine serum albumin (BSA), [Ca(2+)] 3.2 mg/dl) and PBS(CaMg free)/BSA (PBS without Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) +0.4% BSA, [Ca(2+)] 0.4 mg/dl). After warming, the oocytes from the five experimental groups were assessed for survival, spontaneous parthenogenetic activation and developmental capacity via in vitro fertilization. Oocyte survival after vitrification procedures was better preserved in group PBS(CaMg free)/FCS compared to the others (P < 0.05). In addition, a positive correlation was found between calcium concentration in vitrification solutions and spontaneous parthenogenetic activation (correlation index 0,82; P < 0.001). Development of vitrified oocytes was significantly affected by vitrification media composition (P < 0.01). In particular, oocytes from group PBS(CaMg free)/FCS led to higher cleavage rates and blastocyst rate compared to the others. Our data showed that lowering calcium concentration in the vitrification medium improves the blastocyst rate of vitrified ovine oocytes, probably reducing the effect of EG + DMSO during vitrification. On the contrary, the replacement of FCS with BSA dramatically reduces the developmental potential of these oocytes. PMID:21144566

  20. Pim-1 Mediated Signaling during the Process of Cardiac Remodeling Following Myocardial Infarction in Ovine Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Li, Tieluo; Wu, Changfu; Bittle, Gregory J.; Chen, Shengxi; Wu, Zhongjun J.; Griffith, Bartley P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The serine/threonine kinase Pim-1 was recently identified as a cardiomyocyte survival regulator downstream of Akt. The present study aims to examine Pim-1 activity and its association with the post MI remodeling myocardium in a clinically relevant large animal model. Methods Apical myocardial infarction of approximately 25% left ventricular mass was created in an ovine model. Regional post-infarction deformation of the left ventricle was monitored by sonomicrometry and quantified using areal remodeling strain (i.e., areal expansion). Myocardial tissues were harvested at 12 weeks from the adjacent and remote regions of the infarct for analysis of Pim-1 mediated survival signaling proteins as well as apoptotic activity. Results The cDNA coding sequences of two ovine Pim-1 kinase isoforms, 44 and 33 kDa, were identified. Both isoforms were detected in heart tissue and the overall Pim-1 expression was found to be tightly controlled at multiple molecular levels. Pim-1 as well as the Pim-1 mediated survival signaling proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and phospho-Bad (Ser112), were upregulated in the adjacent region at 12 weeks post-infarction and their expression correlated positively with the degree of the remodeling, which was accompanied by significant upregulations of the PP2A/BAD mediated apoptotic signaling proteins. However these upregulations were imbalanced, such that p-BAD (Ser112)/BAD decreased in the adjacent region of the infarcted hearts. Apoptotic activity also increased with remodeling strain. Conclusions Despite an observed intrinsic upregulation of survival proteins, the imbalanced activation of apoptotic pathways resulted in evident apoptosis in the adjacent region. PMID:23899906

  1. Effect of synthetic ovine corticotropin-releasing factor. Dose response of plasma adrenocorticotropin and cortisol.

    PubMed Central

    Orth, D N; Jackson, R V; DeCherney, G S; DeBold, C R; Alexander, A N; Island, D P; Rivier, J; Rivier, C; Spiess, J; Vale, W

    1983-01-01

    Synthetic ovine corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was administered to normal male volunteer subjects as an intravenous bolus or 30-s infusion. Doses of CRF ranging from 0.001 to 30 micrograms/kg body wt were administered, and plasma immunoreactive (IR)-ACTH and IR-cortisol concentrations were measured. The threshold dose appeared to be 0.01-0.03 micrograms/kg, the half-maximal dose 0.3-1 micrograms/kg, and the maximally effective dose 3-10 micrograms/kg. Basal concentrations of IR-ACTH and IR-cortisol were 14 +/- 7.6 pg/ml (mean +/- SD) and 5.6 +/- 2.2 micrograms/dl, respectively. IR-ACTH rose as early as 2 min after CRF injection, reached peak levels in 10-15 min, and declined slowly thereafter. IR-cortisol rose at 10 min or later and reached peak levels in 30-60 min. At a dose of 30 micrograms/kg, neither IR-ACTH nor IR-cortisol fell from peak levels of 82 +/- 21 pg/ml (mean +/- SE) and 23 +/- 1.4 micrograms/dl, respectively, during the 2-h course of the experiment, indicating that CRF has a sustained effect on ACTH release and/or a prolonged circulating plasma half-life. There was little or no increase in the levels of other anterior pituitary hormones. At doses of 1 microgram/kg and higher, facial flushing, tachycardia, and, in some subjects, a 15-29-mmHg decline in systemic arterial blood pressure were observed, even though blood volume was replaced and the subjects remained supine. These data indicate that synthetic ovine CRF is a very potent and specific ACTH secretagogue in man. Administered with caution until its vasomotor effects are more fully defined, CRF promises to be a safe and very useful investigative, diagnostic, and, possibly, therapeutic agent in man. Images PMID:6298280

  2. Occurrence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infections in ovine and caprine abortions.

    PubMed

    Moreno, B; Collantes-Fernández, E; Villa, A; Navarro, A; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2012-06-01

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites identified as important causes of reproductive failure in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. Protozoan abortion in small ruminants is traditionally associated with T. gondii, but the importance of N. caninum remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of N. caninum and T. gondii infections in abortion cases in small ruminants submitted for diagnosis. For this purpose, 74 ovine and 26 caprine aborted foetuses were recovered from different areas in Spain. Foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in brain. The presence of N. caninum and T. gondii was confirmed by PCR. Protozoal infection was detected in 17 out of 100 (17%) foetuses examined by at least one of the diagnostic techniques used. Lesions suggestive of protozoal infection were observed in 10.8% (8/74) and 15.4% (4/26) of the ovine and caprine abortions respectively. N. caninum and T. gondii infection was detected by PCR in 6.8% (5/74) and 5.4% (4/74) of sheep foetuses, respectively, of which five showed protozoal-associated lesions. N. caninum DNA was detected in 11.5% (3/26) of goat foetuses, of which two showed protozoal-associated lesions, whereas T. gondii DNA was detected in one goat foetus with no lesions. The simultaneous presence of N. caninum and T. gondii DNA was detected in one sheep foetus with severe lesions. This study demonstrates that N. caninum plays a significant role in abortion in small ruminants in the studied population. In addition, our results highlight the importance of differentiating between protozoa whenever characteristic lesions are observed. PMID:22260901

  3. The Local Effects of Ovarian Diathermy in an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30–100 gestation. Their female offspring (n?=?12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n?=?4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n?=?4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n?=?4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P?=?0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles. PMID:25343339

  4. Isolation of an ovine pulmonary surfactant-associated anionic peptide bactericidal for Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Brogden, K A; De Lucca, A J; Bland, J; Elliott, S

    1996-01-01

    Ovine pulmonary surfactant is bactericidal for Pasteurella haemolytica when surfactant and bacteria mixtures are incubated with normal ovine serum. To isolate this component, surfactant (1 mg/ml) was centrifuged at 100,000 x gav, and the supernatant was fractionated by HPLC. Fractions were eluted with acetonitrile (10-100%)/0.1% trifluoracetic acid and tested for bactericidal activity. Amino acid and sequence analysis of three bactericidal fractions showed that fraction 2 contained H-GDDDDDD-OH, fraction 3 contained H-DDDDDDD-OH, and fraction 6 contained H-GADDDDD-OH. Peptides in 0.14 M NaCl/10 microM ZnCl2 (zinc saline solution) induced killing of P. haemolytica and other bacteria comparable to defensins and beta-defensins [minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC)50 range, 0.01-0.06 mM] but not in 0.14 M NaCl/10 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.2/0.5 mM CaCl2/0.15 mM MgCl2 (MBC50 range, 2.8-11.5 mM). Bactericidal activity resided in the core aspartate hexapeptide homopolymeric region, and MBC50 values of aspartate dipeptide-to-heptapeptide homopolymers were inversely proportional to the number of aspartate residues in the peptide. P. haemolytica incubated with H-DDDDDD-OH in zinc saline solution was killed within 30 min. Ultrastructurally, cells contained flocculated intracellular constituents. In contrast to cationic defensins and beta-defensins, surfactant-associated anionic peptides are smaller in size, opposite in charge, and are bactericidal in zinc saline solution. They are members of another class of peptide antibiotics containing aspartate, which when present in pulmonary secretions may help clear bacteria as a part of the innate pulmonary defense system. PMID:8552650

  5. Influence of storage and preservation on microbiological quality of silo ovine milk.

    PubMed

    de Garnica, M L; Santos, J A; Gonzalo, C

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to analyze the effects of the storage and preservation conditions on counts of mesophilic, thermoduric, psychotrophic, coliform, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Staphylococcus aureus organisms in silo ovine milk. A total of 910 analytical determinations were conducted from aliquots of 10 silo ovine milks. The conditions tested were unpreserved and azidiol-preserved milk stored at 4°C, and unpreserved milk stored at -20°C. Milk aged 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-collection for refrigerated aliquots, and 7, 15, and 30 d post-collection for frozen aliquots. The factors silo and storage conditions significantly contributed to variation of all microbiological variables, although milk age effect within storage was only significant for mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and coliform bacteria counts. In refrigerated raw milk, mesophile, psychrotroph, and coliform counts significantly increased over 96 h post-collection, whereas the other groups and bacteria species tested maintained their initial concentration. In all cases, azidiol preservation maintained the initial bacterial concentration in raw sheep milk under refrigeration throughout 96 h. Thus, azidiol was a suitable preservative for microbiological studies in sheep milk. Smallest counts were registered for frozen samples, particularly for coliforms, E. coli, Strep. agalactiae and Staph. aureus. Estimates of mesophilic, thermoduric and psychrotrophic organisms showed similar values on both azidiol-preserved and frozen milk samples. Coliforms and E. coli counts significantly decrease over time after freezing. Consequently, freezing at -20°C could also be appropriate for analysis of mesophilic, thermoduric, and psychrotrophic bacterial groups, but not for coliforms or mammary pathogens. PMID:21426983

  6. Unexpected maturation of PI3K and MAPK-ERK signaling in fetal ovine cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Chattergoon, N N; Louey, S; Stork, P J; Giraud, G D; Thornburg, K L

    2014-10-15

    In the first two-thirds of gestation, ovine fetal cardiomyocytes undergo mitosis to increase cardiac mass and accommodate fetal growth. Thereafter, some myocytes continue to proliferate while others mature and terminally differentiate into binucleated cells. At term (145 days gestational age; dGA) about 60% of cardiomyocytes become binucleated and exit the cell cycle under hormonal control. Rising thyroid hormone (T3) levels near term (135 dGA) inhibit proliferation and stimulate maturation. However, the degree to which intracellular signaling patterns change with age in response to T3 is unknown. We hypothesized that in vitro activation of ERK, Akt, and p70(S6K) by two regulators of cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity, T3 and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), would be similar in cardiomyocytes at gestational ages 100 and 135 dGA. IGF-1 and T3 each independently stimulated phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, and p70(S6K) in cells at both ages. In the younger mononucleated myocytes, the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt was reduced in the presence of IGF-1 and T3. However, the same hormone combination led to a dramatic twofold increase in the phosphorylation of these signaling proteins in the 135 dGA cardiomyocytes-even in cells that were not proliferating. In the older cells, both mono- and binucleated cells were affected. In conclusion, fetal ovine cardiomyocytes undergo profound maturation-related changes in signaling in response to T3 and IGF-1, but not to either factor alone. Differences in age-related response are likely to be related to milestones in fetal cardiac development as the myocardium prepares for ex utero life. PMID:25128174

  7. Emotional structure of jokes: a corpus-based investigation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Although considerable attention has been paid to the cognitive structure of humor, its emotional structure tends to be overlooked. Humor is often associated with the single emotion of mirth or amusement, while other aspects of its rich emotional structure are ignored. The purpose of the present study was to explore this structure by analyzing the content of a Taiwanese corpus of 204 'negative' jokes to identify the basic emotion was induced and the emotional shift pattern of the joke. Additionally, the corpus might be used to compare emotional reversal jokes (negative to positive emotion) and regular jokes (neutral to positive emotion) as an aid when preparing materials for use in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) investigations on the neural substrates of humor. In terms of basic emotions, 82 fear jokes, 61 disgust jokes, 42 sadness jokes and 19 anger jokes were found. The most common type of emotional shift was from negative to positive, with the punch lines of 114 jokes providing relief from the negative emotion by either diverting attention away from it or dissolving it entirely. PMID:25227017

  8. Organising white matter in a brain without corpus callosum fibres.

    PubMed

    Bénézit, Audrey; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Monzalvo, Karla; Germanaud, David; Duclap, Delphine; Guevara, Pamela; Mangin, Jean-François; Poupon, Cyril; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Dubois, Jessica

    2015-02-01

    Isolated corpus callosum dysgenesis (CCD) is a congenital malformation which occurs during early development of the brain. In this study, we aimed to identify and describe its consequences beyond the lack of callosal fibres, on the morphology, microstructure and asymmetries of the main white matter bundles with diffusion imaging and fibre tractography. Seven children aged between 9 and 13 years old and seven age- and gender-matched control children were studied. First, we focused on bundles within the mesial region of the cerebral hemispheres: the corpus callosum, Probst bundles and cingulum which were selected using a conventional region-based approach. We demonstrated that the Probst bundles have a wider connectivity than the previously described rostrocaudal direction, and a microstructure rather distinct from the cingulum but relatively close to callosal remnant fibres. A sigmoid bundle was found in two partial ageneses. Second, the corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations and association bundles were extracted automatically via an atlas of adult white matter bundles to overcome bias resulting from a priori knowledge of the bundles' anatomical morphology and trajectory. Despite the lack of callosal fibres and the colpocephaly observed in CCD, all major white matter bundles were identified with a relatively normal morphology, and preserved microstructure (i.e. fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity) and asymmetries. Consequently the bundles' organisation seems well conserved in brains with CCD. These results await further investigations with functional imaging before apprehending the cognition variability in children with isolated dysgenesis. PMID:25282054

  9. Verbal learning and memory in agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Roger L; Paul, Lynn K; Brown, Warren S

    2014-07-01

    The role of interhemispheric interactions in the encoding, retention, and retrieval of verbal memory can be clarified by assessing individuals with complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), but who have normal intelligence. This study assessed verbal learning and memory in AgCC using the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II). Twenty-six individuals with AgCC were compared to 24 matched controls on CVLT-II measures, as well as Donders? four CVLT-II factors (i.e., Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory, and Inaccurate Memory). Individuals with AgCC performed significantly below healthy controls on the Delayed Memory factor, confirmed by significant deficits in short and long delayed free recall and cued recall. They also performed less well in original learning. Deficient performance by individuals with AgCC during learning trials, as well as deficits in all forms of delayed memory, suggest that the corpus callosum facilitates interhemispheric elaboration and encoding of verbal information. PMID:24933663

  10. The Size of the Corpus Callosum in Males and Females: Implications of a Lack of Allometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Peters

    1988-01-01

    There is much disagreement in the literature about whether or not certain parts of the corpus callosum show a sexual dimorphism. Amidst this debate, a rather surprising area of agreement is neglected: Even though there are dramatic overall sex differences in brain size (brain size being quite directly related to body surface), the corpus callosum of males and females shows

  11. Introducing the Webb Spam Corpus: Using Email Spam to Identify Web Spam Automatically

    E-print Network

    Caverlee, James

    College of Computing Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332 webb@cc.gatech.edu James CaverleeIntroducing the Webb Spam Corpus: Using Email Spam to Identify Web Spam Automatically Steve Webb the Web. Then, we present the Webb Spam Corpus ­ a first-of-its-kind, large-scale, and publicly available

  12. Prosodic cues for perceptual emotion detection in task-oriented Human-Human corpus

    E-print Network

    of perceptual detec- tion and prosodic cues analysis of emotional behavior in a spontaneous speech corpusProsodic cues for perceptual emotion detection in task-oriented Human-Human corpus Laurence of real Human-Human dialogs. Detecting real emotions should be a clear fo- cus for research on modeling

  13. AUDIOVISUAL CORPUS TO ANALYZE WHISPER SPEECH Tam Tran, Soroosh Mariooryad and Carlos Busso

    E-print Network

    Busso, Carlos

    accuracy. ASR systems are trained with neutral speech, which have significant acoustic differences corpus of whisper speech. While we are targeting over 40 speakers, the current corpus has recordings from systems such as au- tomatic speech recognition (ASR) [1], speaker identification (SID) [4, 5] or keyword

  14. Towards a Balanced Named Entity Corpus for Dutch Bart Desmet1,2

    E-print Network

    Hoste, Véronique

    Towards a Balanced Named Entity Corpus for Dutch Bart Desmet1,2 and V´eronique Hoste1,2 1 LT3), 9000 Gent, Belgium bart.desmet, veronique.hoste@hogent.be Abstract This paper introduces a new named annotated corpus to be trained on. Such corpora exist for English, but not for Dutch. The STEVIN-funded So

  15. Reduced Interhemispheric Connectivity in Schizophrenia- Tractography Based Segmentation of the Corpus Callosum

    PubMed Central

    Kubicki, M.; Styner, M.; Bouix, S.; Gerig, G.; Markant, D.; Smith, K.; Kikinis, R.; McCarley, R.W.; Shenton, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Background A reduction in interhemispheric connectivity is thought to contribute to the etiology of schizophrenia. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) measures the diffusion of water and can be used to describe the integrity of the corpus callosum white matter tracts, thereby providing information concerning possible interhemispheric connectivity abnormalities. Previous DTI studies in schizophrenia are inconsistent in reporting decreased Fractional Anisotropy (FA), a measure of anisotropic diffusion, within different portions of the corpus callosum. Moreover, none of these studies has investigated corpus callosum systematically, using anatomical subdivisions. Methods DTI and structural MRI scans were obtained from 32 chronic schizophrenic subjects and 42 controls. Corpus callosum cross sectional area and its probabilistic subdivisions were determined automatically from structural MRI scans using a model based deformable contour segmentation. These subdivisions employ a previously generated probabilistic subdivision atlas, based on fiber tractography and anatomical lobe subdivision. The structural scan was then co-registered with the DTI scan and the anatomical corpus callosum subdivisions were propagated to the associated FA map. Results Results revealed decreased FA within parts of the corpus interconnecting frontal regions in schizophrenia compared with controls, but no significant changes for callosal fibers interconnecting parietal and temporo-occipital brain regions. In addition, integrity of the anterior corpus was statistically significantly correlated with negative as well as positive symptoms, while posterior measures correlated with positive symptoms only. Conclusions This study provides quantitative evidence for a reduction of interhemispheric brain connectivity in schizophrenia, involving corpus callosum, and further points to frontal connections as possibly disrupted in schizophrenia. PMID:18829262

  16. An Evaluation of an Online Bilingual Corpus for the Self-Learning of Legal English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, May; Xunfeng, Xu

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a bilingual corpus of legal and documentary texts in English and Chinese and reports a study that sought to evaluate the usefulness of the corpus in the self-learning of legal English. Subjects were Chinese students doing a degree in translation at a university in Hong Kong, where English common law is still used since the handover of…

  17. The NITE XML Toolkit Meets the ICSI Meeting Corpus: Import, Annotation, and Browsing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Carletta; Jonathan Kilgour

    2004-01-01

    The NITE XML Toolkit (NXT) provides library support for working with multimodal language corpora. We describe work in progress to explore its potential for the AMI project by applying it to the ICSI Meeting Corpus. We discuss converting existing data into the NXT data format; using NXT's query facility to explore the corpus; hand-annotation and automatic indexing; and the integration

  18. The Language Learner as Language Researcher: Putting Corpus Linguistics on the Timetable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Winnie; Warren, Martin; Xun-Feng, Xu

    2003-01-01

    Describes an attempt to make room for the subject corpus linguistics in an already packed English language major undergraduate program. Describes the rationale for bringing together two existing subjects--information technology and discourse analysis--to more systematically and meaningfully introduce students to corpus-based language study in…

  19. Interpreting the Discourse of H.G. Widdowson: A Corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beaugrande, Robert

    2001-01-01

    The discourse of a recent position paper by H.G. Widdowson is analyzed by using three methods criticized in Widdowson's paper. The paper was converted into a miniature data corpus and analyzed with the concepts of systemic functional linguistics, corpus linguistics, and critical discourse analysis. (Author/VWL)

  20. "Nice Things Get Said": Corpus Evidence and the National Literacy Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey, Alison; Thompson, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The article compares evidence from an electronic corpus of texts written for a child audience with specifications in the National Literacy Strategy. The concepts and terminology associated with corpus linguistics are introduced and explained, and the research study from which the findings derive is summarised. Results of the analysis are presented…

  1. Distinct regional atrophy in the corpus callosum of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    Distinct regional atrophy in the corpus callosum of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy Bernd epilepsy on the thickness of the corpus callosum (CC) in a large sample of well-characterized patients (n are differentially affected depending on the affected hemisphere and age of epilepsy onset. Overall, we observed

  2. Using Edit Distance to Analyse Errors in a Natural Language to Logic Translation Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker-Plummer, Dave; Dale, Robert; Cox, Richard; Romanczuk, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We have assembled a large corpus of student submissions to an automatic grading system, where the subject matter involves the translation of natural language sentences into propositional logic. Of the 2.3 million translation instances in the corpus, 286,000 (approximately 12%) are categorized as being in error. We want to understand the nature of…

  3. The Use of Corpus Concordancing for Second Language Learners' Self Error-Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Hui-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Corpus concordancing has been utilized in second language (L2) writing classrooms for a few decades. Some studies have shown that this application is helpful, to a certain degree, to learners' writing process. However, how corpus concordancing is utilized for nonnative speakers' (NNSs) self error-correction in writing, especially the…

  4. The English Definite Article: What ESL/EFL Grammars Say and What Corpus Findings Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WonHo Yoo, Isaiah

    2009-01-01

    To ascertain whether what ESL/EFL grammars say is informed by what scholars discuss in the literature and supported by what corpus findings actually show, this paper first presents a brief overview of the literature on the English definite article and then compares popular ESL/EFL grammars' coverage of "the" and corpus findings on definite article…

  5. Applying Corpus-Based Findings to Form-Focused Instruction: The Case of Reported Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Federica; Eckhardt, Suzanne E. B.

    2007-01-01

    Arguing that the introduction of corpus linguistics in teaching materials and the language classroom should be informed by theories and principles of SLA, this paper presents a case study illustrating how corpus-based findings on reported speech can be integrated into a form-focused model of instruction. After overviewing previous work which…

  6. Building a Bio-Event Annotated Corpus for the Acquisition of Semantic Frames from Biomedical Corpora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Thompson; Philip Cotter; John McNaught; Sophia Ananiadou; Simonetta Montemagni; Andrea Trabucco; Giulia Venturi

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and construction of a bio-event annotated corpus which was developed with a specific view to the acquisition of semantic frames from biomedical corpora. We describe the adopted annotation scheme and the annotation process, which is supported by a dedicated annotation tool. The annotated corpus contains 677 abstracts of biomedical research articles.

  7. Base de Donnes annotes et Wiki pour la constitution du corpus numrique CARE Pascale Chevalier14

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Base de Données annotées et Wiki pour la constitution du corpus numérique-forme collaborative, WikiBridge, gérant les connaissances du corpus CARE. Cette plate-forme offre modélisée par une ontologie. La plate-forme est basée sur une interface wiki

  8. The Pedagogical Mediation of a Developmental Learner Corpus for Classroom-Based Language Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belz, Julie A.; Vyatkina, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Although corpora have been used in language teaching for some time, few empirical studies explore their impact on learning outcomes. We provide a microgenetic account of learners' responses to corpus-driven instructional units for German modal particles and pronominal "da"-compounds. The units are based on developmental corpus data produced by…

  9. English Collocation Learning through Corpus Data: On-Line Concordance and Statistical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtake, Hiroshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Morren, Brian; Ugawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We developed an English Collocations On Demand system offering on-line corpus and concordance information to help Japanese researchers acquire a better command of English collocation patterns. The Life Science Dictionary Corpus consists of approximately 90,000,000 words collected from life science related research papers published in academic…

  10. A Multi-Dialect, Multi-Genre Corpus of Informal Written Arabic Ryan Cotterell,1

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    A Multi-Dialect, Multi-Genre Corpus of Informal Written Arabic Ryan Cotterell,1 Chris Callison-genre, human annotated corpus of dialectal Arabic with data obtained from both online newspaper commentary and Twitter. Most Arabic corpora are small and focus on Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). There has been recent

  11. Catgorisation des valuations dans un corpus de blogs multi-domaine

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Catégorisation des évaluations dans un corpus de blogs multi-domaine Matthieu Vernier , Laura et la catégorisation des évaluations localement exprimées dans un corpus de blogs multi lesquels l'étude de l'image représente un enjeu et un pouvoir économique majeur. Les blogs se caractérisent

  12. Design and Construction of Knowledge base for Verb using MRD and Tagged Corpus 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Soog Chae; Key-Sun Choi

    This paper represents the procedure of building syntactic knowledge base. This study is to construct basic sentence pattern automatically by using the POS-tagged corpus in balanced KAIST corpus, and electronic dictionary for Korean, and to construct syntactic knowledge base with specific information added to the lexicographer's analysis. The summary of work process will be as follows: 1) Extraction of characteristic

  13. Improving Domain-Specific Word Alignment with a General Bilingual Corpus

    E-print Network

    Wang, Haifeng

    Improving Domain-Specific Word Alignment with a General Bilingual Corpus WU Hua, WANG Haifeng-scale bilingual sentence- aligned training corpora. Others employ dictionaries to guide alignment selection-scale domain-specific bilingual corpus without terminological lexicons. This paper proposes an approach

  14. International Scientific Conference Computer Science'2006 Compiling a Turkish-English Bilingual Corpus and

    E-print Network

    Güngör, Tunga

    International Scientific Conference Computer Science'2006 Compiling a Turkish-English Bilingual discuss the compilation of a bilingual Turkish-English corpus and propose a method for sentence alignment, this is the first comprehensive bilingual corpus between these languages. The proposed sentence alignment algorithm

  15. Attitudes towards English in Norway: A Corpus-Based Study of Attitudinal Expressions in Newspaper Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graedler, Anne-Line

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some dimensions of how the role of the English language in Norway has been discursively constructed in newspapers during recent years, based on the analysis of data from the five-year period 2008-2012. The analysis is conducted using a specialised corpus containing 3,743 newspaper articles which were subjected to corpus-based…

  16. STC-TIMIT: Generation of a Single-channel Telephone Corpus Nicols Morales1

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    STC-TIMIT: Generation of a Single-channel Telephone Corpus Nicolás Morales1 , Javier Tejedor2 it through a real and single telephone channel. TIMIT is phonetically balanced, covers the dialectal different telephone calls, resulting in a corpus that characterizes telephone channels in a wide sense

  17. Matrix: A statistical method and software tool for linguistic analysis through corpus comparison

    E-print Network

    Rayson, Paul

    Matrix: A statistical method and software tool for linguistic analysis through corpus comparison and software tool for linguistic analysis through corpus comparison A thesis submitted to Lancaster University the development of a new kind of method and tool (Matrix) for advancing the statistical analysis of electronic

  18. 1 | P a g e Corpus Callosum deformation analysis in Multiple Sclerosis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 | P a g e Corpus Callosum deformation analysis in Multiple Sclerosis *F. Derraz, **A. Pinti, *B to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesion. We propose an approach for 3D segmentation of the volume of interest based the criterion established in this paper. Key words : Segmentation, multiple sclerosis, corpus callosum, medical

  19. Surgical treatment of induratio penis plastica (Peyronie's disease) with a corpus cavernosum graft.

    PubMed

    Medgyesi, S

    1979-04-01

    Four patients with induratio penis plastica, involving the corpus cavernosum, have been treated by excision of the affected tissue and filling of the defect by a transplant of corpus cavernosum bulbi urethrae. Cavernosograms and a histological study indicate that the operative results were good, but the case histories stress the need of extreme care in the selection of patients. PMID:444774

  20. A Fully Annotated Corpus for Studying the Effect of Cognitive Ageing on Users' Interactions with Spoken Dialogue Systems 

    E-print Network

    Georgila, Kallirroi; Wolters, Maria; Karaiskos, Vasilis; Kronenthal, Melissa; Logie, Robert; Mayo, Neil; Moore, Johanna; Watson, Matt

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a corpus of interactions of older and younger users with nine different dialogue systems. The corpus has been fully transcribed and annotated with dialogue acts and “Information State Update” (ISU) ...

  1. Partial Morphological and Functional Characterization of the Corpus Allatum - Corpus Cardiacum Complex from the Two-Spotted Stinkbug, Perillus bioculatus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CYNTHIA L. GOODMAN; Henda Nabli; MAUREEN K. WRIGHT-OSMENT; Takashi Okuda; THOMAS A. COUDRON

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY Selected morphological and physiological properties of the corpus allatum (CA)-corpus cardiacum (CC) complex from the two-spotted stinkbug, Perillus bioculatus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), were studied. The CAs play an important role in insect physiology because of their production of the juvenile hormones (JHs), i.e., key hormones involved in devel- opment and reproduction. We found that the P. bioculatus CA-CC complex is

  2. Partial morphological and functional characterization of the corpus allatum-corpus cardiacum complex from the two-spotted stinkbug, Perillus bioculatus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia L. Goodman; Renee M. Wagner; Henda Nabli; Maureen K. Wright-Osment; Takashi Okuda; Thomas A. Coudron

    2005-01-01

    Summary  Selected morphological and physiological properties of the corpus allatum (CA)-corpus cardiacum (CC) complex from the two-spotted\\u000a stinkbug, Perillus bioculatus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), were studied. The CAs play an important role in insect physiology because of their production\\u000a of the juvenile hormones (JHs), i.e., key hormones involved in development and reproduction. We found that the P. bioculatus CA-CC complex is present in

  3. Leather structure determination by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS): cross sections of ovine and bovine leather.

    PubMed

    Basil-Jones, Melissa M; Edmonds, Richard L; Allsop, Timothy F; Cooper, Sue M; Holmes, Geoff; Norris, Gillian E; Cookson, David J; Kirby, Nigel; Haverkamp, Richard G

    2010-05-12

    SAXS has been applied to structural determination in leather. The SAXS beamline at the Australian Synchrotron provides 6 orders of magnitude dynamic range, enabling a rich source of structural information from scattering patterns of leather sections. SAXS patterns were recorded for q from 0.004 to 0.223 A(-1). Collagen d spacing varied across ovine leather sections from 63.8 nm in parts of the corium up to 64.6 nm in parts of the grain. The intensity of the collagen peak at q = 0.06 A(-1) varied by 1 order of magnitude across ovine leather sections with the high-intensity region in the corium and the low intensity in the grain. The degree of fiber orientation and the dispersion of the orientation has been quantified in leather. It is shown how the technique provides a wealth of useful information that may be used to characterize and compare leathers, skin, and connective tissue. PMID:20337370

  4. Analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Survival in Ovine or Bovine Manure and Manure Slurry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    INDIRA T. KUDVA; KATHRYN BLANCH; CAROLYN J. HOVDE

    1998-01-01

    Farm animal manure or manure slurry may disseminate, transmit, or propagate Escherichia coli O157:H7. In this study, the survival and growth of E. coli O157:H7 in ovine or bovine feces under various experimental and environmental conditions were determined. A manure pile collected from experimentally inoculated sheep was incubated outside under fluctuating environmental conditions. E. coli O157:H7 survived in the manure

  5. Comparison of Performance, Clinical Chemistry, and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Lambs Treated with Recombinant Ovine or Bovine Somatotropins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. McLaughlin; H. B. Hedrickt; J. J. Veenhuizen; R. L. Hintz; G. F. Hartnell; T. R. Kasser; C. A. Baile

    2010-01-01

    The variation in growth and carcass composition responses of lambs to somatotropin ( S T ) treatment may depend on the source of ST used as well as on other experimental conditions. In the present experiment, growth, carcass composition, and clinical chemistry responses to recombinantly produced ovine ST (oST) and two bovine ST (N- methionyl-bST(M-bST1 and N-alanyl-bST(A-bST1 were compared. Lambs

  6. Ovine endometrial expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 and conceptus expression of FGF receptors during early pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga M. Ocón-Grove; Flavia N. T. Cooke; Idania M. Alvarez; Sally E. Johnson; Troy L. Ott; Alan D. Ealy

    2008-01-01

    In ruminants, conceptus development beyond the blastocyst state requires input from uterine-derived factors. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is expressed by the bovine endometrium throughout the estrus cycle and early pregnancy and stimulates trophectoderm expression of interferon-tau, the maternal recognition of pregnancy factor in ruminants. The objective of this study was to examine the expression of FGF2 in ovine endometrium

  7. Properties of Kefir made in Scotland and Poland using Bovine, Caprine and Ovine Milk with Different Starter Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wszolek; A. Y. Tamime; D. D. Muir; M. N. I. Barclay

    2001-01-01

    Varieties of Kefir were made in Poland and Scotland from bovine, caprine and ovine milk, using Kefir grains and two direct-to-vat inoculation (DVI) starter cultures. The chemical composition (g\\/kg) of the Kefir ranged from 106–149 for total solids, 29–64 for crude protein, 38–47 for carbohydrate, 7–11 for ash. The fat content was standardized to a mean value of 31 g\\/kg.

  8. Laparoscopical intrauterine insemination with different doses of fresh, conserved, and frozen semen for the production of ovine zygotes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Ehling; Petra Wirth; Lothar Schindler; Klaus-Gerd Hadeler; Hans-Herrmann Döpke; Erika Lemme; Doris Herrmann; Heiner Niemann

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to increase the efficiency in the production of ovine zygotes suitable for microinjection via laparoscopical intrauterine insemination. In the first part of the study, 71 ewes of three different breeds were inseminated with one of two different insemination doses (50×106 or 300×106sperm per inseminate) and semen was either freshly diluted, liquid conserved, or

  9. Psychose et troubles du langage : aspects concourant la constitution d'un corpus chez les patients schizophrnes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Psychose et troubles du langage : aspects concourant à la constitution d'un corpus chez les production langagière fiable passe par le recueil des données et la constitution pratique d'un corpus. Quelles sont et comment se déroulent les étapes concourant à la constitution d'un corpus prêt pour l

  10. Sweden, France, Europe: Identity in the Corpus On the whole, dictionaries do not like proper names. Only dictionaries of an

    E-print Network

    Brest, Université de

    Sweden, France, Europe: Identity in the Corpus On the whole, dictionaries do not like proper names is to look briefly at what corpus linguistics can bring to the study of place names. We shall look at `Europe is to carry out a purely corpus-driven analysis looking at how the French press views Europe and itself

  11. Toward a Broad-coverage Bilingual Corpus for Speech Translation of Travel Conversations in the Real World

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyuki Takezawa; Eiichiro Sumita; Fumiaki Sugaya; Hirofumi Yamamoto; Seiichi Yamamoto

    2002-01-01

    At ATR Spoken Language Translation Research Laboratories, we are building a broad-coverage bilingual corpus to study corpus-based speech translation technologies for the real world. There are three important points to consider in designing and constructing a corpus for future speech translation research. The first is to have a variety of speech samples, with a wide range of pronunciations and speakers.

  12. SELECTIVELY DIMINISHED CORPUS CALLOSUM FIBERS IN CONGENITAL CENTRAL HYPOVENTILATION SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a condition associated with mutations in the PHOX2B gene, is characterized by loss of breathing drive during sleep, insensitivity to CO2 and O2, and multiple somatomotor, autonomic, neuropsychological, and ophthalmologic deficits, including impaired intrinsic and extrinsic eye muscle control. Brain structural studies show injury in peri-callosal regions and the corpus callosum (CC), which has the potential to affect functions disturbed in the syndrome; however, the extent of CC injury in CCHS is unclear. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based fiber tractography procedures display fiber directional information and allow quantification of fiber integrity. We performed DTI in 13 CCHS children (age, 18.2±4.7 years; 8 male) and 31 control (17.4±4.9 years; 18 male) subjects using a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner; CC fibers were assessed globally and regionally with tractography procedures, and fiber counts and densities compared between groups using analysis-of-covariance (covariates; age and sex). Global CC evaluation showed reduced fiber counts and densities in CCHS over control subjects (CCHS vs controls; fiber-counts, 4490±854 vs 5232±777, p<0.001; fiber-density, 10.0±1.5 vs 10.8±0.9 fibers/mm2, p<0.020), and regional examination revealed that these changes are localized to callosal axons projecting to prefrontal (217±47 vs 248±32, p<0.005), premotor (201±51 vs 241±47, p<0.012), parietal (179±64 vs 238±54, p<0.002), and occipital regions (363±46 vs 431±82, p<0.004). Corpus callosum fibers in CCHS are compromised in motor, cognitive, speech, and ophthalmologic regulatory areas. The mechanisms of fiber injury are unclear, but may result from hypoxia or perfusion deficits accompanying the syndrome, or from consequences of PHOX2B action. PMID:21256194

  13. Clinical features of acute corpus callosum infarction patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li-Li; Huang, Yi-Ning; Cui, Zhi-Tang

    2014-01-01

    The clinical manifestation of acute corpus callosum (CC) infarction is lack of specificity and complex, so it is easily missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis in the early stage. The present study aims to describe the clinical features of the acute CC infarction. In this study, 25 patients with corpus callosum infarction confirmed by the brain MRI/DWI and the risk factors were summarized. Patients were classified into genu infarction (3 cases), body infarction (4cases), body and genu infarction (4 cases), body and splenium infarction (1 case), splenium infarction (13 cases) according to lesion location. Clinical manifestation and prognosis were analyzed among groups. The results indicated that CC infarction in patients with high-risk group accounted for 72%, moderate-risk group accounted for 20%, low-risk group (8%). The main risk factors are carotid intimal thickening or plaque formation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cerebral artery stenosis, and so on. The CC infarction often merged with other parts infarction, and splenium infarction had the highest incidence, the clinical symptoms in the body infarction which can appear typical signs and symptoms, but in other parts infarction which always merged many nerve defect symptoms. The body infarction prognosis is poor; the rest parts of infarction are more favorable prognosis. In conclusion, CC infarction has the highest incidence in the stroke of high-risk group; neck color Doppler and TCD examination can be found as early as possible to explore the pathogenic factors. Prognosis is usually much better by treatment according to the location and risk factors. PMID:25197390

  14. The language of public health—a corpus-based analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Millar; B. S. Budgell

    2008-01-01

    Aim  The objective of this study was to analyse a corpus of public health journal articles to identify lexical features characteristic\\u000a of writing in the discipline.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A public health corpus of approximately 2 million words was compared with a reference corpus of general English in order to\\u000a identify words and phrases which were relatively over-represented in the field of public health

  15. Dichotic listening in patients with partial section of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Sugishita, M; Otomo, K; Yamazaki, K; Shimizu, H; Yoshioka, M; Shinohara, A

    1995-04-01

    Patients with a complete section of the corpus callosum have been observed to exhibit strong left-ear suppression when different speech stimuli are presented to both ears simultaneously (so-called dichotic listening). Data concerning the locus of corpus callosum damage that causes strong left-ear suppression remains scanty. In the present investigation, a consonant-vowel syllable dichotic listening test was given to five right-handed patients with partial sections of the corpus callosum, which were located using MRI and accurately defined measurement procedures. The following two measurement methods were used: (i) the genu-splenium (G-S) method, in which a lesion was localized in the anteroposterior dimension relative to the total length of the corpus callosum, defined as the distance between the most anterior point of the genu to the most posterior point of the splenium; and (ii) the rostrum-splenium (R-S) method, which takes into account the curvature of the corpus callosum, and in which a lesion was localized relative to the total length of the corpus callosum, defined as the length of the curved line from the tip of the rostrum to the end of the splenium. Results were compared with scores from 50 normal control subjects. Strong left-ear suppression was observed in two patients, who had surgical sections of the posterior 15.5-18.5% of the corpus callosum as measured with the G-S method, or the posterior 20-24% of the corpus callosum as measured with the R-S method. The suppression phenomenon persisted for more than 10 years post-surgery. On the other hand, the remaining three patients, who had lesions anterior to the posterior 17-28% of the corpus callosum as measured with the G-S method or 20-33% as measured with the R-S method exhibited no left-ear extinction. Despite the common assumption that damage to the posterior part of the trunk of the corpus callosum causes strong left-ear suppression, the results from the G-S method indicated that damage to the splenium defined as the posterior one-fifth of the segment between the anterior-most and posterior-most points of the corpus callosum, cause strong left-ear suppression. By the R-S method, results showed that damage to the splenium (the posterior one-fifth of the curvature of the corpus callosum) and possibly the part extending to the most posterior part of the trunk (the posterior one-quarter of the curvature) causes strong left-ear suppression. PMID:7735883

  16. Activation of the CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling axis may drive vascularization of the ovine placenta.

    PubMed

    Quinn, K E; Ashley, A K; Reynolds, L P; Grazul-Bilska, A T; Ashley, R L

    2014-04-01

    Early pregnancy, when most embryonic losses occur, is a critical period in which vital placental vascularization is established. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent inducer of angiogenesis, and factors that regulate VEGF function, expression, or both may ultimately affect vascularization. Activation of the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) by its cognate ligand, C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), increases VEGF synthesis and secretion, which in turn stimulates CXCL12 and CXCR4 production and this synergistic regulation may influence placental vascularization. We hypothesized that expression of CXCL12, CXCR4, select angiogenic factors, and their receptors would increase in placental tissues during early pregnancy and that treatment of ovine trophectoderm cells with CXCL12 would increase production of angiogenic factors. To test this hypothesis, maternal caruncle (CAR) and fetal extraembryonic membrane (FM) tissues were collected on days 18, 20, 22, 25, 26, and 30 of pregnancy and on day 10 of the estrous cycle (control, NP) to determine relative mRNA or protein expression of CXCL12 and CXCR4 and selected angiogenic factors. In CAR, expression of mRNA for CXCR4 increased on day 18, 20, 22, and 25 and CXCL12 increased on day 18 and 20 compared with NP ewes. CXCL12 protein followed a similar pattern in CAR tissue, with greater levels on day 20 than in NP tissue. Greater levels of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) mRNA was observed in CAR on day 20 of gestation than on day 30. In FM, CXCL12, CXCR4, angiopoietin 1, VEGF, and VEGF receptor 1 were enhanced with advancing pregnancy, whereas FGF2 and kinase insert domain receptor (or VEGF receptor 2) peaked on day 25. An increase in protein levels occurred on day 25 compared with day 20 in FM for CXCL12 and CXCR4, as well as a similar tendency for FGF2 protein. Both CXCL12 and CXCR4 are specifically localized to trophoblast cells and to the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium. Treatment of ovine trophectoderm cells with CXCL12 increased mRNA expression for VEGF and FGF2. The relationship between VEGF, FGF2, and the CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling underscores the potential role for this chemokine axis in driving placentation. PMID:24486002

  17. An in vivo ovine model of bone tissue alterations in simulated microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Gadomski, Benjamin C; McGilvray, Kirk C; Easley, Jeremiah T; Palmer, Ross H; Ehrhart, E J; Haussler, Kevin K; Browning, Raymond C; Santoni, Brandon G; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2014-02-01

    Microgravity and its inherent reduction in body-weight associated mechanical loading encountered during spaceflight have been shown to produce deleterious effects on important human physiological processes. Rodent hindlimb unloading is the most widely-used ground-based microgravity model. Unfortunately, results from these studies are difficult to translate to the human condition due to major anatomic and physiologic differences between the two species such as bone microarchitecture and healing rates. The use of translatable ovine models to investigate orthopedic-related conditions has become increasingly popular due to similarities in size and skeletal architecture of the two species. Thus, a new translational model of simulated microgravity was developed using common external fixation techniques to shield the metatarsal bone of the ovine hindlimb during normal daily activity over an 8 week period. Bone mineral density, quantified via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, decreased 29.0% (p?

  18. Microbiological contamination of ovine carcasses associated with the presence of wool and faecal material.

    PubMed

    Biss, M E; Hathaway, S C

    1996-12-01

    The microbiological contamination of ovine hind legs at sites which were visibly clean (control carcasses), sites immediately adjacent to and below visually contaminated sites, and sites contaminated with visible faecal material or wool were determined by excision sampling immediately after pelting and immediately after a pre-evisceration wash. The mean aerobic plate count (APC) and Escherichia coli count (EC) at clean sites immediately after pelting ranged from log10 cm-2 3.98 to 4.44 and log10 cm-2 0.96 to 1.51, respectively. These levels of contamination were significantly lower than those on sites contaminated with faecal material (log10 cm-2 6.00 and 3.00, respectively) or wool (log10 cm-2 5.44 and 2.45, respectively). The presence of faecal material or wool on the carcass was not associated with increased bacterial numbers on visually clean areas of the carcass. This indicates that the presence of faecal material or wool alone cannot be used as an indicator of the hygienic status of the carcass as a whole, particularly in the role of on-line monitoring parameters for HACCP systems. Pre-evisceration washing of carcasses had very little effect on the uncontaminated areas of the carcasses, but reduced the mean APC and EC at the site of visible contaminants. There was little evidence of redistribution of bacteria to immediately adjacent but visually clean sites. However, the residual levels of both APCs and ECs directly at sites of faecal contamination after washing were still significantly higher than at visually clean sites. Application of HACCP principles to ovine slaughter and dressing suggests that visible faecal material should be removed by trimming, whereas pre-evisceration washes can have a practical and microbiologically validated role in the removal of wool. There was generally a good correlation between APCs and ECs at the uncontaminated sites prior to pre-evisceration washing, suggesting that in some situations APCs can act as a useful indicator of both general carcass hygiene and the presence of faecal indicators. PMID:8972086

  19. Evaluation of pore-water samplers at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used innovative sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report evaluates a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. The new type of pore-water sampler appears to be an effective approach for long-term monitoring of ground water in the sand and organic-rich mud beneath the drainage ditch.

  20. Measurement of the corpus callosum using magnetic resonance imaging: analyses of methods and techniques.

    PubMed

    Dorion, A A; Capron, C; Duyme, M

    2001-06-01

    Since the first postmortem report of sex-related differences in the size of the human corpus callosum, a number of studies on sex differences have been published, but results conflicted. The aim of this review was not to assess the possible existence and magnitude of sex variations in the size of the corpus callosum but to analyze methodological differences in several studies using Magnetic Resonance Imaging to investigate the sexual dimorphism in the size of the corpus callosum. Methodological problems arise at several steps of the method: sampling, imagery techniques, and measurements. Moreover, the means of callosal areas obtained by the nine reported studies are significantly different. The hypothesis that methodoiogical differences could explain these differences is supported by statistical results. A common method for investigating sex-related differences in callosal morphology appears necessary to resolve the question of a real sexual dimorphism of the corpus callosum and its subregions. PMID:11565916

  1. A Corpus Analysis of Spoken Smart-Home Interactions with Older Users 

    E-print Network

    Möller, Sebastian; Gödde, Florian; Wolters, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present the collection and analysis of a spoken dialogue corpus obtained from interactions of older and younger users with a smart-home system. Our aim is to identify the amount and the origin of linguistic ...

  2. Development/Plasticity/Repair The Development of the Corpus Callosum in the Healthy

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    growth and shrinkage may reflect a permanent adjustment and fine-tuning of fibers connecting homologous deformation-based longitudinal study with a larger sample (n 28) also observed localized growth of the corpus

  3. Automatic corpus callosum segmentation using a deformable active Fourier contour model

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    Automatic corpus callosum segmentation using a deformable active Fourier contour model Clement sensory, motor and cognitive information from homologous regions in both hemispheres. We have developed approach employs constrained elastic deformation of flexible Fourier contour model, and is an extension

  4. Acute infarct of the corpus callosum: appearance on diffusion-weighted MR imaging and MR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Riedy, Gerard; Melhem, Elias R

    2003-08-01

    Few reports of corpus callosum infarction are published in the radiologic literature. We present a case of an atypical infarction of the corpus callosum and adjacent gyri involving both anterior cerebral artery territories. Standard magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed including diffusion weighted imaging. In addition, perfusion-weighted imaging and MR spectroscopy were employed to further characterize the patient's corpus callosal lesion. On MR imaging and spectroscopic examination, the lesion demonstrated T2 hyper-intensity, restricted diffusion, and the metabolite lactate. While the MR imaging appearance of this bilateral infarction has some characteristics that mimic tumor, employment of the full range of MR techniques can obviate the need for biopsy in acute infarcts of the corpus callosum. PMID:12884339

  5. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Mutated C12orf57 in Recessive Corpus Callosum Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Akizu, Naiara; Shembesh, Nuri M.; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Bastaki, Laila; Al-Tawari, Asma; Zaki, Maha S.; Koul, Roshan; Spencer, Emily; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur; Scott, Eric; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Stacey; da Gente, Gilberto; Li, Jiang; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Conlin, Laura K.; Horton, Margaret A.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    The corpus callosum is the principal cerebral commissure connecting the right and left hemispheres. The development of the corpus callosum is under tight genetic control, as demonstrated by abnormalities in its development in more than 1,000 genetic syndromes. We recruited more than 25 families in which members affected with corpus callosum hypoplasia (CCH) lacked syndromic features and had consanguineous parents, suggesting recessive causes. Exome sequence analysis identified C12orf57 mutations at the initiator methionine codon in four different families. C12orf57 is ubiquitously expressed and encodes a poorly annotated 126 amino acid protein of unknown function. This protein is without significant paralogs but has been tightly conserved across evolution. Our data suggest that this conserved gene is required for development of the human corpus callosum. PMID:23453666

  6. Longitudinal, Regional and Deformation-Specific Corpus Callosum Shape Analysis for Multiple Sclerosis

    E-print Network

    Hamarneh, Ghassan

    brain scans of a group of multiple sclerosis patients undergoing a longitudinal (serial) study transmit neural impulses between the hemispheres. Multiple Sclerosis is an inflammatory and degenerativeLongitudinal, Regional and Deformation-Specific Corpus Callosum Shape Analysis for Multiple

  7. Experimental evaluation of ovine antisera to Thai cobra (Naja kaouthia) venom and its alpha-neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Sells, P G; Jones, R G; Laing, G D; Smith, D C; Theakston, R D

    1994-12-01

    Conventional treatment of Naja kaouthia (Thai cobra) envenoming requires large volumes (up to 600 ml) of equine antivenom, which results in a high incidence of serum reactions. The inefficiency of the antivenom is assumed to be related to the high percentage (approx. 20%) of alpha-neurotoxin, a relatively weak and highly toxic immunogen, present in the native venom. First, antibodies to N. kaouthia venom were raised in sheep, which protected mice against challenge with whole venom. Second, ovine antibodies to the purified neurotoxin and to three different neurotoxin conjugates were developed and their neutralising abilities against either whole venom or neurotoxin were compared using murine ED50 tests. High titre antibodies, assessed by enzyme immunoassay and Western blot, were obtained from all four neurotoxin immunisation regimens. Neurotoxin conjugated to rabbit anti-sheep IgG produced the highest titres against both neurotoxin and whole venom. This antiserum provided protection against neurotoxin challenge but failed to protect against whole venom. Furthermore, the addition of neurotoxin antibodies to whole venom antiserum did not enhance the neutralisation efficacy of the latter. These findings raise the possibility that in mice other toxins apart from the neurotoxin may significantly contribute to the lethal effect of N. kaouthia venom. PMID:7725333

  8. Biological and binding activities of ovine and porcine prolactins in porcine mammary tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of prolactin receptors may play a critical role in regulating growth and development of the mammary gland during gestation and tumor development; however, the discrepancy between specific binding of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and porcine prolactin (pPRL) in porcine mammary tissue was disturbing. It was possible that /sup 125/I-oPRL may be an unsuitable ligand for the procine prolactin receptor. The validate the use of oPRL in binding assays, the biological and binding activities of oPRL and pPRL were compared. A lactogenic bioassay of pPRL was developed using porcine mammary explants cultured in Medium 199 containing insulin, cortisol, and pPRL. The potencies of oPRL and pPRL were compared using this bioassay. Oxidation of glucose and incorporation of glucose into lipids were similarly enhanced by physiological concentrations of both oPRL and pPRL. However, specific binding of /sup 125/I-oPRL was 20%, while less than 1% of /sup 125/I-pPRL was bound. /sup 125/I-oPRL bound to high affinity sites.

  9. BMP13 Prevents the Effects of Annular Injury in an Ovine Model

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Aiqun; Williams, Lisa A; Bhargav, Divya; Shen, Bojiang; Kishen, Thomas; Duffy, Neil; Diwan, Ashish D

    2009-01-01

    Chronic back pain is a global health problem affecting millions of people worldwide and carries significant economic and social morbidities. Intervertebral disc damage and degeneration is a major cause of back pain, characterised by histological and biochemical changes that have been well documented in animal models. Recently there has been intense interest in early intervention in disc degeneration using growth factors or stem cell transplantation, to replenish the diseased tissues. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) have been approved for clinical use in augmenting spinal fusions, and may represent candidate molecules for intervertebral disc regeneration. BMP13 has an important role in embryonic development and recent genetic evidence shows a role in the development of the human spine. This study explores the effect of BMP13 on a damaged intervertebral disc in an ovine model of discal degeneration. We found that, when injected at the time of injury, BMP13 reversed or arrested histological changes that occurred in the control discs such as loss of extracellular matrix proteins. In addition, BMP13 injected discs retained greater hydration after 4months, and possessed more cells in the NP. Taken together, BMP13 may be a potent clinical therapeutic agent when used early in the degeneration cascade to promote healthy disc tissue. PMID:19521550

  10. The pathology of malignant catarrhal fever, with an emphasis on ovine herpesvirus 2.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, D; Li, H

    2014-03-01

    The enigmatic pathogenesis of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) involves dysregulated immune responses in susceptible ruminant species. Economically important outbreaks of MCF are due to 2 of the 10 viruses currently comprising the malignant catarrhal fever virus group: ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) and alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1). Attempts to develop effective vaccines for this group of viruses in the 1970s were sufficiently discouraging that they were temporarily abandoned. This review focuses on recent efforts to understand the pathogenesis of MCF, particularly the sheep-associated form of the disease, with the goal of developing rational control methods, including vaccination. The past 2 decades have seen several advances, including recognition of new members of the MCF virus group, better diagnostic assays, induction of disease by a natural route (aerosol), and clearer understanding of OvHV-2's shedding patterns by domestic sheep. A consistent theme in experimental studies of OvHV-2 in susceptible species is that there are 2 peaks of OvHV-2 gene expression: a preclinical peak involving the respiratory tract and a second in multiple organ systems leading to clinical disease. Latent and lytic gene expression may coexist in tissues during clinical stages in symptomatic animals. PMID:24503439

  11. BMP13 prevents the effects of annular injury in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Wei, Aiqun; Williams, Lisa A; Bhargav, Divya; Shen, Bojiang; Kishen, Thomas; Duffy, Neil; Diwan, Ashish D

    2009-01-01

    Chronic back pain is a global health problem affecting millions of people worldwide and carries significant economic and social morbidities. Intervertebral disc damage and degeneration is a major cause of back pain, characterised by histological and biochemical changes that have been well documented in animal models. Recently there has been intense interest in early intervention in disc degeneration using growth factors or stem cell transplantation, to replenish the diseased tissues. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) have been approved for clinical use in augmenting spinal fusions, and may represent candidate molecules for intervertebral disc regeneration. BMP13 has an important role in embryonic development and recent genetic evidence shows a role in the development of the human spine. This study explores the effect of BMP13 on a damaged intervertebral disc in an ovine model of discal degeneration. We found that, when injected at the time of injury, BMP13 reversed or arrested histological changes that occurred in the control discs such as loss of extracellular matrix proteins. In addition, BMP13 injected discs retained greater hydration after 4 months, and possessed more cells in the NP. Taken together, BMP13 may be a potent clinical therapeutic agent when used early in the degeneration cascade to promote healthy disc tissue. PMID:19521550

  12. Ultrastructural characterization of in vivo-produced ovine morulae and blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, E M V; Bettencourt, C M V; E Silva, J N Chagas; Ferreira, P; Oliveira, E; Romão, R; Rocha, A; Sousa, M

    2015-08-01

    The ultrastructure of in vivo-produced ovine embryos, at the morula, early blastocyst and late blastocyst stages, was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Embryonic cells were characterized by the presence of intact intercellular junctions, numerous mitochondria, smooth endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and light vesicles. Polyribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, secondary lysosomes, Golgi complexes and lipid droplets were also observed in the cytoplasm. The nucleus was well defined and organized, with an intact envelope rich in nuclear pore complexes, and one or more reticular nucleoli. Microvilli were present in external blastomeres of morulae and became more abundant in trophectoderm cells of early and late blastocysts. Light vesicles seemed to be associated with small cisternae of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum origin. These cisternae fused and created light vesicles with engulfed heterogeneous cytosolic structures, small cisternae and vesicles. Their labile membrane enabled them to rapidly coalesce into medium-sized vesicles that began to engulf mitochondria and lipid droplets, forming giant vacuoles mostly filled with fat. Incomplete matured secretory vesicles were observed to exocytose into the perivitelline space of morulae, whereas fully matured secretory vesicles appeared only in trophectoderm cells, being exocytosed into the blastocoelic cavity. These observations suggested that these endoplasmic-/Golgi-derived vesicles behave as active autophagic organelles presenting probably a maturation process from compact morulae to blastocyst. PMID:25076424

  13. Elevated Intracranial Pressure and Cerebral Edema following Permanent MCA Occlusion in an Ovine Model

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Adam J.; Vink, Robert; Helps, Stephen C.; Knox, Steven J.; Blumbergs, Peter C.; Turner, Renée J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke has a disproportionately high mortality due to the rapid development of refractory space-occupying cerebral edema. Animal models are essential in developing successful anti-edema therapies; however to date poor clinical translation has been associated with the predominately used rodent models. As such, large animal gyrencephalic models of stroke are urgently needed. The aim of the study was to characterize the intracranial pressure (ICP) response to MCA occlusion in our recently developed ovine stroke model. Materials and Methods 30 adult female Merino sheep (n = 8–12/gp) were randomized to sham surgery, temporary or permanent proximal MCA occlusion. ICP and brain tissue oxygen were monitored for 24 hours under general anesthesia. MRI, infarct volume with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and histology were performed. Results No increase in ICP, radiological evidence of ischemia within the MCA territory but without space-occupying edema, and TTC infarct volumes of 7.9+/-5.1% were seen with temporary MCAO. Permanent MCAO resulted in significantly elevated ICP, accompanied by 30% mortality, radiological evidence of space-occupying cerebral edema and TTC infarct volumes of 27.4+/-6.4%. Conclusions Permanent proximal MCAO in the sheep results in space-occupying cerebral edema, raised ICP and mortality similar to human malignant MCA stroke. This animal model may prove useful for pre-clinical testing of anti-edema therapies that have shown promise in rodent studies. PMID:26121036

  14. The peroxynitrite catalyst WW-85 improves microcirculation in ovine smoke inhalation injury and septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Maybauer, Dirk M.; Maybauer, Marc O.; Szabó, Csaba; Westphal, Martin; Traber, Lillian D.; Salzman, Andrew L.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    This prospective, randomized, controlled experimental study looks at the effects of the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst WW-85 on global hemodynamics and regional microvascular blood flow (RMBF) in an established ovine model of septic shock following severe smoke inhalation injury. Twenty-one sheep were randomized into a sham group (no injury), a control group (smoke/sepsis), and a treatment group (smoke/sepsis/WW-85; n=7 each). WW-85 was administered 1h post injury as bolus (0.1 mg/kg), followed by a continuous infusion of 0.02 mg/kg/h RMBF was analyzed using colored microspheres. All control animals developed a hypotensive, hyperdynamic circulation and increased plasma levels of nitrate/-nitrite (NOx). All hemodynamic variables and NOx levels were significantly improved in the treatment group. In visceral organs of controls, blood flow to trachea, ileum, and spleen significantly increased (p<0.05). Blood flow to kidneys and pancreas significantly decreased (p<0.05). Treatment with WW-85 stabilized blood flow to ileum, spleen, and kidneys on baseline levels and was significantly improved compared to controls (p<0.05). Cerebral blood flow deteriorated in controls, but was significantly improved in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and thalamus (p<0.05) by WW-85. These results provide evidence that WW-85 blocks NO production, thereby improving cardiovascular function and microcirculation. PMID:21345593

  15. Cytotoxic evaluation of biomechanically improved crosslinked ovine collagen on human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Awang, M A; Firdaus, M A B; Busra, M B; Chowdhury, S R; Fadilah, N R; Wan Hamirul, W K; Reusmaazran, M Y; Aminuddin, M Y; Ruszymah, B H I

    2014-01-01

    Earlier studies in our laboratory demonstrated that collagen extracted from ovine tendon is biocompatible towards human dermal fibroblast. To be able to use this collagen as a scaffold in skin tissue engineering, a mechanically stronger scaffold is required that can withstand manipulation before transplantation. This study was conducted to improve the mechanical strength of this collagen sponge using chemical crosslinkers, and evaluate their effect on physical, chemical and biocompatible properties. Collagen sponge was crosslinked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and glutaraldehyde (GA). Tensile test, FTIR study and mercury porosimetry were used to evaluate mechanical properties, chemical property and porosity, respectively. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of crosslinked collagen sponge on human dermal fibroblasts. The FTIR study confirmed the successful crosslinking of collagen sponge. Crosslinking with EDC and GA significantly increased the mechanical strength of collagen sponge, with GA being more superior. Crosslinking of collagen sponge significantly reduced the porosity and the effect was predominant in GA-crosslinked collagen sponge. The GA-crosslinked collagen showed significantly lower, 60% cell viability towards human dermal fibroblasts compared to that of EDC-crosslinked collagen, 80% and non-crosslinked collagen, 100%. Although the mechanical strength was better when using GA but the more toxic effect on dermal fibroblast makes EDC a more suitable crosslinker for future skin tissue engineering. PMID:24948455

  16. Survey of the Parasite Toxoplasma gondii in Human Consumed Ovine Meat in Tunis City

    PubMed Central

    Boughattas, Sonia; Ayari, Khaled; Sa, Tongmin; Aoun, Karim; Bouratbine, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis has been recognized as parasitic zoonosis with the highest human incidence. The human infection by the parasite can lead to severe clinical manifestations in congenital toxoplasmosis and immunocompromised patients. Contamination occurs mainly by foodborne ways especially consumption of raw or undercooked meat. In contrast to other foodborne infections, toxoplasmosis is a chronic infection which would make its economic and social impact much higher than even previously anticipated. Ovine meat was advanced as a major risk factor, so we investigated its parasite survey, under natural conditions. Serological MAT technique and touchdown PCR approaches were used for prevalence determination of the parasite in slaughtered sheep intended to human consumption in Tunis City. The genotyping was carried by SNPs analysis of SAG3 marker. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were present in 38.2% of young sheep and in 73.6% of adult sheep. Molecular detection revealed the contamination of 50% of ewes’ tissue. Sequencing and SNPs analysis enabled unambiguous typing of meat isolates and revealed the presence of mixed strains as those previously identified from clinical samples in the same area. Our findings conclude that slaughtered sheep are highly infected, suggesting them as a major risk factor of Toxoplasma gondii transmission by meat consumption. Special aware should target consequently this factor when recommendations have to be established by the health care commanders. PMID:24427300

  17. Impacts of the Callipyge Mutation on Ovine Plasma Metabolites and Muscle Fibre Type

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Greenwood, Paul L.; Cockett, Noelle E.; Hadfield, Tracy S.; Vuocolo, Tony; Byrne, Keren; White, Jason D.; Tellam, Ross L.; Schirra, Horst Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The ovine Callipyge mutation causes postnatal muscle hypertrophy localized to the pelvic limbs and torso, as well as body leanness. The mechanism underpinning enhanced muscle mass is unclear, as is the systemic impact of the mutation. Using muscle fibre typing immunohistochemistry, we confirmed muscle specific effects and demonstrated that affected muscles had greater prevalence and hypertrophy of type 2X fast twitch glycolytic fibres and decreased representation of types 1, 2C, 2A and/or 2AX fibres. To investigate potential systemic effects of the mutation, proton NMR spectra of plasma taken from lambs at 8 and 12 weeks of age were measured. Multivariate statistical analysis of plasma metabolite profiles demonstrated effects of development and genotype but not gender. Plasma from Callipyge lambs at 12 weeks of age, but not 8 weeks, was characterized by a metabolic profile consistent with contributions from the affected hypertrophic fast twitch glycolytic muscle fibres. Microarray analysis of the perirenal adipose tissue depot did not reveal a transcriptional effect of the mutation in this tissue. We conclude that there is an indirect systemic effect of the Callipyge mutation in skeletal muscle in the form of changes of blood metabolites, which may contribute to secondary phenotypes such as body leanness. PMID:24937646

  18. A study of zooplankton in the Corpus Christi ship channel area near Ingleside, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Ansari, Fahmida

    1979-01-01

    A STUDY OF ZOOPLANKTON POPULATIONS IN THE CORPUS CHR STI SHIP CHANNEL AREA NEAR INGLESIDE, TEXAS A Tnesis FAHMIDA ANSARI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1979 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences A STUDY OF ZOOPLANKTON POPULATIONS IN THE CORPUS CHRISTI SHIP CHANNEL AREA NEAR INGLESIDE, TEXAS A Thesis FAHMIDA ANSARI Approved as to style and content by: Co...

  19. Toward Constructing A Multilingual Speech Corpus for Taiwanese (Min-nan), Hakka, and Mandarin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ren-yuan Lyu; Min-siong Liang; Yuang-chin Chiang

    2004-01-01

    The Formosa speech database (ForSDat) is a multilingual speech corpus collected at Chang Gung University and sponsored by the National Science Council of Taiwan. It is expected that a multilingual speech corpus will be collected, covering the three most frequently used languages in Taiwan: Taiwanese (Min-nan), Hakka, and Mandarin. This 3-year project has the goal of collecting a phonetically abundant

  20. Exploring Hydrodynamic Modeling of Texas Bays With focus on Corpus Christi Bay & Lavaca Bay

    E-print Network

    Furnans, Jordan

    2004-01-01

    TR- 277 2004 Exploring Hydrodynamic Modeling of Texas Bays With focus on Corpus Christi Bay & Lavaca Bay Jordan Furnans Center for Research in Water Resources University of Texas, Austin Texas... Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University CRWR Online Report 04-03 Exploring Hydrodynamic Modeling of Texas Bays with focus on Corpus Christi Bay & Lavaca Bay by Jordan Furnans May 2004 CENTER FOR RESEARCH IN WATER...

  1. A field investigation of the hydraulics and stability of Corpus Christi Water Exchange Pass, Texas 

    E-print Network

    DeFehr, Kenneth Jay

    1973-01-01

    inlet connecting the southeast corner of Corpus Christi Bay, Texas with the Gulf of Mexico. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the hydraulic characteristics of the inlet, (2) its response to various physical processes, and (3...) the nature of its stability. Field work included current measurements, collection and analysis of sediment samples, and measurements of tidal fluctuations in the inlet and Corpus Christi Bay. Hydrographic data was obtained from a concurrent hydrographic...

  2. Cross Domain Automatic Transcription on the TC-STAR EPPS Corpus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Gollan; Maximilian Bisani; Stephan Kanthak; R. Schluter; Hermann Ney

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the ongoing development of the British English European Parliament Plenary Session corpus. This corpus will be part of the speech-to-speech translation evaluation infrastructure of the European TC-STAR project. Furthermore, we present first recognition results on the English speech recordings. The transcription system has been derived from an older speech recognition system built for the North-American broadcast news

  3. CROSS DOMAIN AUTOMATIC TRANSCRIPTION ON THE TC-STAR EPPS CORPUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Gollan; Maximilian Bisani; Stephan Kanthak; Ralf Schl; Hermann Ney

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the ongoing development of the British English European Parliament Plenary Session corpus. This corpus will be part of the speech-to-speech translation evaluation infrastructure of the European TC-STAR project. Furthermore, we present first recognition results on the English speech recordings. The transcription system has been derived from an older speech recognition system built for the North-American broadcast news

  4. Multi-Word Verbs of Estonian: a Database and a Corpus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heiki-Jaan Kaalep; Kadri Muischnek

    The paper describes two interrelated language resou rces: a database of 13,000 Estonian multi-word verb s (MWV) and a 300,000 word corpus with annotated MWVs. Both resources have been manually post-edited, and are meant to be us ed by a wide audience, from corpus linguists to language engineers. The pa per gives a short overview of the types of MWVs

  5. Amino acid sequence and the cellular location of the Na(+)-dependent D-glucose symporters (SGLT1) in the ovine enterocyte and the parotid acinar cell.

    PubMed Central

    Tarpey, P S; Wood, I S; Shirazi-Beechey, S P; Beechey, R B

    1995-01-01

    The Na(+)-dependent D-glucose symporter has been shown to be located on the basolateral domain of the plasma membrane of ovine parotid acinar cells. This is in contrast to the apical location of this transporter in the ovine enterocyte. The amino acid sequences of these two proteins have been determined. They are identical. The results indicated that the signals responsible for the differential targeting of these two proteins to the apical and the basal domains of the plasma membrane are not contained within the primary amino acid sequence. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7492327

  6. Oligodendrocyte Lineage and Subventricular Zone Response to Traumatic Axonal Injury in the Corpus Callosum

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Genevieve M.; Mierzwa, Amanda J.; Kijpaisalratana, Naruchorn; Tang, *Haiying; Wang, Yong; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Selwyn, Reed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury frequently causes traumatic axonal injury (TAI) in white matter tracts. Experimental TAI in the corpus callosum of adult mice was used to examine the effects on oligodendrocyte lineage cells and myelin in conjunction with neuroimaging. The injury targeted the corpus callosum over the subventricular zone, a source of neural stem/progenitor cells. Traumatic axonal injury was produced in the rostral body of the corpus callosum by impact onto the skull at the bregma. During the first week after injury, magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging showed that axial diffusivity decreased in the corpus callosum and that corresponding regions exhibited significant axon damage accompanied by hypertrophic microglia and reactive astrocytes. Oligodendrocyte progenitor proliferation increased in the subventricular zone and corpus callosum. Oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum shifted toward upregulation of myelin gene transcription. Plp/CreERT:R26IAP reporter mice showed normal reporter labeling of myelin sheaths 0 to 2 days after injury but labeling was increased between 2 and 7 days after injury. Electron microscopy revealed axon degeneration, demyelination, and redundant myelin figures. These findings expand the cell types and responses to white matter injuries that inform diffusion tensor imaging evaluation and identify pivotal white matter changes after TAI that may affect axon vulnerability vs. recovery after brain injury. PMID:24226267

  7. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for thermal denaturation of ovine milk lactoferrin determined by its loss of immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, F; Harouna, S; Calvo, M; Pérez, M D; Sánchez, L

    2015-07-01

    Lactoferrin is a protein with important biological functions that can be obtained from milk and by-products derived from the dairy industry, such as whey. Although bovine lactoferrin has been extensively studied, ovine lactoferrin is not quite as well known. In the present study, the effect of several heat treatments in 3 different media, over a temperature range from 66 to 75°C, has been studied on lactoferrin isolated from sheep milk. Denaturation of lactoferrin was determined by measuring its immunoreactivity with specific polyclonal antibodies. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters obtained indicate that lactoferrin denatures by heat more rapidly in whey than in phosphate buffer or milk. The value of activation energy found for the denaturation process of lactoferrin when treated in whey is higher (390kJ/mol) than that obtained in milk (194kJ/mol) or phosphate buffer (179kJ/mol). This indicates that a great amount of energy is necessary to start denaturation of ovine lactoferrin, probably due to the interaction of this protein with other whey proteins. The changes in the hydrophobicity of lactoferrin after heat treatments were determined by fluorescence measurement using acrylamide. The decrease in the hydrophobicity constant was very small for the treatments from 66 to 75°C, up to 20min, which indicates that lactoferrin conformation did not experienced a great change. The results obtained in this study permit the prediction of behavior of ovine lactoferrin under several heat treatments and show that high-temperature, short-time pasteurization (72°C, 15 s) does not cause loss of its immunoreactivity and, consequently, would not affect its conformation and biological activity. PMID:25958286

  8. Automated measurement of the human corpus callosum using MRI

    PubMed Central

    Herron, Timothy J.; Kang, Xiaojian; Woods, David L.

    2012-01-01

    The corpus callosum includes the majority of fibers that connect the two cortical hemispheres. Studies of cross-sectional callosal morphometry and area have revealed developmental, gender, and hemispheric differences in healthy populations and callosal deficits associated with neurodegenerative disease and brain injury. However, accurate quantification of the callosum using magnetic resonance imaging is complicated by intersubject variability in callosal size, shape, and location and often requires manual outlining of the callosum in order to achieve adequate performance. Here we describe an objective, fully automated protocol that utilizes voxel-based images to quantify the area and thickness both of the entire callosum and of different callosal compartments. We verify the method's accuracy, reliability, robustness, and multisite consistency and make comparisons with manual measurements using public brain-image databases. An analysis of age-related changes in the callosum showed increases in length and reductions in thickness and area with age. A comparison of older subjects with and without mild dementia revealed that reductions in anterior callosal area independently predicted poorer cognitive performance after factoring out Mini-Mental Status Examination scores and normalized whole brain volume. Open-source software implementing the algorithm is available at www.nitrc.org/projects/c8c8. PMID:22988433

  9. Tractography of the Corpus Callosum in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Owen; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Elifani, Francesca; Maglione, Vittorio; Di Pardo, Alba; Caltagirone, Carlo; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2013-01-01

    White matter abnormalities have been shown in presymptomatic and symptomatic Huntington’s disease (HD) subjects using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) methods. The largest white matter tract, the corpus callosum (CC), has been shown to be particularly vulnerable; however, little work has been done to investigate the regional specificity of tract abnormalities in the CC. Thus, this study examined the major callosal tracts by applying DTI-based tractography. Using TrackVis, a previously defined region of interest tractography method parcellating CC into seven major tracts based on target region was applied to 30 direction DTI data collected from 100 subjects: presymptomatic HD (Pre-HD) subjects (n?=?25), HD patients (n?=?25) and healthy control subjects (n?=?50). Tractography results showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD) across broad regions of the CC in Pre-HD subjects. Similar though more severe deficits were seen in HD patients. In Pre-HD and HD, callosal FA and RD were correlated with Disease Burden/CAG repeat length as well as motor (UHDRSI) and cognitive (URDRS2) assessments. These results add evidence that CC pathways are compromised prior to disease onset with possible demyelination occurring early in the disease and suggest that CAG repeat length is a contributing factor to connectivity deficits. Furthermore, disruption of these callosal pathways potentially contributes to the disturbances of motor and cognitive processing that characterize HD. PMID:24019913

  10. Bimanual motor coordination in agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kendra L Oakes; Marion, Sarah DeBoard; Paul, Lynn K; Brown, Warren S

    2009-10-01

    The nature and extent of deficiencies in bimanual motor coordination in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) was studied using the computerized Bimanual Coordination Test (cBCT). Compared with previous bimanual tasks, the cBCT is more specifically reliant on interhemispheric interactions of lateralized motor control, allows more precise measurement, and permits examination of performance over a wider range of bimanual challenges. The cBCT performance of 13 high-functioning individuals with complete ACC was compared to 21 age- and IQ-matched controls. The groups did not differ in unimanual response speed. On trials involving angled paths that require bimanual coordination, the ACC group performed significantly slower and less accurately across all angles. The largest group differences in speed occurred on trials where the hands must respond symmetrically, while mirror-image (vs. parallel) responding produced the greatest deficits in accuracy. These data confirm previous findings of deficits in bimanual coordination in callosal absence, but using significantly improved measurement technology. Deficits in bimanual coordination in ACC are present across different demands for interhand interactions in the speed and direction of movement. PMID:19824766

  11. Elimination of (¹⁴C)heptachlor from body stores of lactating ewes treated with ovine growth hormone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Holcombe; G. S. Smith; M. F. Khan; D. M. Hallford; K. Rozman

    1988-01-01

    Elimination of (14C)heptachlor from body burdens of sheep was measured using mature ewes nursing single offspring, and the influence of exogenous ovine growth hormone (oGH) on elimination was studied. Six ewes (62 +\\/- 2.5 kg BW) were dosed (i.p.) once with (14C)heptachlor (2.04 mg\\/kg Bw; .88 microCi\\/mg heptachlor) and three were treated additionally with oGH (oGH; 5 mg\\/d) for 21

  12. Co-expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and neuropilin-1 in ovine feto-placental artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Stephen C M; Wen, YunXia; Chung, Jin Young; Chen, DongBao; Magness, Ronald R; Zheng, Jing

    2002-10-31

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator for placental angiogenesis and vascular functions via activating two high affinity tyrosine-kinase receptors, VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) and -2 (VEGFR-2). Recently, a specific VEGF165 receptor, neuropilin-1 (NP-1), was also identified in endothelial cells and upon VEGF binding, NP-1, synergistically with VEGFR-2, enhances VEGF-induced cell proliferation and migration. To evaluate the role of VEGF and NP-1 in regulating fetoplacental angiogenesis and endothelial function, an ovine fetal placental artery endothelial (OFPAE) cell line was established. In this study, an OFPAE cell cDNA library was constructed. Two positive clones for VEGF and one for NP-1 were isolated from the OFPAE cell cDNA library, and their partial 3' sequences were identified. The sequence of VEGF cDNA insert had 98% homology to the reported ovine VEGF (GenBank accesssion # X89506). The partial NP-1 cDNA sequence included a portion of the protein coding region and a complete 3' untranslated region (UTR), and had 90% homology to human NP-1 (GenBank accession # AF016050). The predicted amino acid sequence of ovine NP-1 was 97-98% identical to human (GenBank accession # AAC12921.1), mouse (GenBank accession # NP_032763), and rat (GenBank accession # AAC53345.1) NP-1. Two CU-rich stabilizing and two consensus destabilizing elements 5'-AUUUA-3' were identified in the 3' UTR of ovine NP-1 cDNA sequence. These elements are the potential binding sites for mRNA-binding proteins which may regulate the stability of NP-1 mRNA. Expression of VEGF and NP-1 in OFPAE cells and fetal placentas was confirmed by Northern and Western blot analyses. Using PCR analysis, we also identified partial sequences of multiple VEGF isoforms (VEGF188, 183, 164, and 120) as well as VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and neuropilin-2 (NP-2) from the OFPAE cell cDNA library. These results indicate that multiple isoforms of VEGF are expressed in OFPAE cells. Moreover, we also identified, for the first time, a complete 3' UTR of NP-1 cDNA in any species. Together with expression of VEGF and VEGF receptors in OFPAE cells, we propose that there is an autocrine mechanism by which VEGF regulates fetal placental angiogenesis and other functions of endothelial cells. PMID:12385828

  13. Evaluation of the overall accuracy of the DeLaval cell counter for somatic cell counts in ovine milk.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, C; Linage, B; Carriedo, J A; de la Fuente, F; Primitivo, F San

    2006-12-01

    The DeLaval cell counter (DCC) is a portable device designed for on-farm somatic cell count (SCC) analysis in bovine milk. This study evaluated the performance of the DCC when analyzing ovine milk. A total of 29 composite ovine milk samples, ranging between 20 x 10(3) and 2,200 x 10(3) cells/mL, were divided into 15 aliquots/milk sample corresponding to 5 SCC methods using 3 types of preservation (unpreserved, azidiol, and bronopol). The SCC methods were the Fossomatic (FSCC), the DCC in undiluted samples, and the DCC in samples diluted 1:1 in 3 different types of diluents (PBS + Triton X-100, PBS + ethidium bromide + Triton X-100, and PBS + propidium iodide + Triton X-100). All analyses were carried out in duplicate. In addition, each sample was analyzed in quadruplicate by the direct microscopic method (DMSCC) using Pyronin Y-methyl green as a stain. Comparison of methods was based on overall accuracy studies (means comparison, repeatability, and regression studies vs. DMSCC and FSCC as reference methods). The DCC methods used to analyze milk samples diluted in staining solution (with ethidium bromide or propidium iodide) showed large coefficients of regression (b = 0.91 to 1.01) and correlation (r > 0.99) when compared with the DMSCC and FSCC methods. In these samples the DCC gave repeatability values (s(r) = 33 to 48 x 10(3) cells/mL) similar to the DMSCC (s(r) = 36 x 10(3) cells/mL), and their log SCC means (5.52 to 5.54) did not differ from the reference value (5.54). However, undiluted samples analyzed by the DCC method showed large standard deviations of repeatability and SCC values lower than those by the DMSCC or FSCC methods, probably because of the high solids content in ovine milk. The type of preservation did not affect the outcomes. Consequently, the DCC was determined to be accurate when analyzing diluted ovine milk based on comparison with the SCC reference methods. PMID:17106093

  14. Microvascular Endothelial Cells Differ in Their Basal and Tumour Necrosis Factor-?-Regulated Expression of Adhesion Molecules and Cytokines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Lehmann; E. Brylla; D. Sittig; K. Spanel-Borowski; G. Aust

    2000-01-01

    We recently located a rare cytokeratin-positive (CK+) type of microvascular endothelial cell (MVEC) in the corpus luteum and aorta. Bovine corpus luteum MVEC are known to be involved in the cyclic accumulation of eosinophils and macrophages. Since leukocyte migration is specifically mediated by adhesion molecules and the release of cytokines, we compared the expression of these factors in basal and

  15. Case File: Mare Infertility SIGNALMENTAND HISTORY

    E-print Network

    and uterus · Presence of corpus luteum on right ovary indicated that the mare was cycling · No free fluid or endometrial cysts in uterus · No abnormalities of perineal area CONTACT INFO Colorado State University. Ultrasound of the right ovary showing corpus luteum (arrow). · Ultrasound of the uterus (arrow) above bladder

  16. Magnetic resonance findings of the corpus callosum in canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Tamura, Shinji; Nakamoto, Yuya; Matsuki, Naoaki; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Fujita, Michio; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yamato, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have described magnetic resonance (MR) findings in canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases such as gangliosidoses and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Although most of those studies described the signal intensities of white matter in the cerebrum, findings of the corpus callosum were not described in detail. A retrospective study was conducted on MR findings of the corpus callosum as well as the rostral commissure and the fornix in 18 cases of canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases. This included 6 Shiba Inu dogs and 2 domestic shorthair cats with GM1 gangliosidosis; 2 domestic shorthair cats, 2 familial toy poodles, and a golden retriever with GM2 gangliosidosis; and 2 border collies and 3 chihuahuas with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, to determine whether changes of the corpus callosum is an imaging indicator of those diseases. The corpus callosum and the rostral commissure were difficult to recognize in all cases of juvenile-onset gangliosidoses (GM1 gangliosidosis in Shiba Inu dogs and domestic shorthair cats and GM2 gangliosidosis in domestic shorthair cats) and GM2 gangliosidosis in toy poodles with late juvenile-onset. In contrast, the corpus callosum and the rostral commissure were confirmed in cases of GM2 gangliosidosis in a golden retriever and canine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses with late juvenile- to early adult-onset, but were extremely thin. Abnormal findings of the corpus callosum on midline sagittal images may be a useful imaging indicator for suspecting lysosomal storage diseases, especially hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the corpus callosum in juvenile-onset gangliosidoses. PMID:24386203

  17. Magnetic Resonance Findings of the Corpus Callosum in Canine and Feline Lysosomal Storage Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Tamura, Shinji; Nakamoto, Yuya; Matsuki, Naoaki; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Fujita, Michio; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yamato, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have described magnetic resonance (MR) findings in canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases such as gangliosidoses and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Although most of those studies described the signal intensities of white matter in the cerebrum, findings of the corpus callosum were not described in detail. A retrospective study was conducted on MR findings of the corpus callosum as well as the rostral commissure and the fornix in 18 cases of canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases. This included 6 Shiba Inu dogs and 2 domestic shorthair cats with GM1 gangliosidosis; 2 domestic shorthair cats, 2 familial toy poodles, and a golden retriever with GM2 gangliosidosis; and 2 border collies and 3 chihuahuas with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, to determine whether changes of the corpus callosum is an imaging indicator of those diseases. The corpus callosum and the rostral commissure were difficult to recognize in all cases of juvenile-onset gangliosidoses (GM1 gangliosidosis in Shiba Inu dogs and domestic shorthair cats and GM2 gangliosidosis in domestic shorthair cats) and GM2 gangliosidosis in toy poodles with late juvenile-onset. In contrast, the corpus callosum and the rostral commissure were confirmed in cases of GM2 gangliosidosis in a golden retriever and canine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses with late juvenile- to early adult-onset, but were extremely thin. Abnormal findings of the corpus callosum on midline sagittal images may be a useful imaging indicator for suspecting lysosomal storage diseases, especially hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the corpus callosum in juvenile-onset gangliosidoses. PMID:24386203

  18. Ovine induced pluripotent stem cells are resistant to reprogramming after nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    German, Sergio D; Campbell, Keith H S; Thornton, Elisabeth; McLachlan, Gerry; Sweetman, Dylan; Alberio, Ramiro

    2015-02-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) share similar characteristics of indefinite in vitro growth with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and may therefore serve as a useful tool for the targeted genetic modification of farm animals via nuclear transfer (NT). Derivation of stable ESC lines from farm animals has not been possible, therefore, it is important to determine whether iPSCs can be used as substitutes for ESCs in generating genetically modified cloned farm animals. We generated ovine iPSCs by conventional retroviral transduction using the four Yamanaka factors. These cells were basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)- and activin A-dependent, showed persistent expression of the transgenes, acquired chromosomal abnormalities, and failed to activate endogenous NANOG. Nonetheless, iPSCs could differentiate into the three somatic germ layers in vitro. Because cloning of farm animals is best achieved with diploid cells (G1/G0), we synchronized the iPSCs in G1 prior to NT. Despite the cell cycle synchronization, preimplantation development of iPSC-NT embryos was lower than with somatic cells (2% vs. 10% blastocysts, p<0.01). Furthermore, analysis of the blastocysts produced demonstrated persistent expression of the transgenes, aberrant expression of endogenous SOX2, and a failure to activate NANOG consistently. In contrast, gene expression in blastocysts produced with the parental fetal fibroblasts was similar to those generated by in vitro fertilization. Taken together, our data suggest that the persistent expression of the exogenous factors and the acquisition of chromosomal abnormalities are incompatible with normal development of NT embryos produced with iPSCs. PMID:25513856

  19. Urea production and arginine metabolism are reduced in the growth restricted ovine foetus.

    PubMed

    de Boo, H A; van Zijl, P L; Lafeber, H N; Harding, J E

    2007-06-01

    Urea production may be impaired in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), increasing the risk of toxic hyperammonaemia after birth. Arginine supplementation stimulates urea production, but its effects in IUGR are unknown. We aimed to determine the effects of IUGR and arginine supplementation on urea production and arginine metabolism in the ovine foetus. Pregnant ewes and their foetuses were catheterised at 110 days of gestation and randomly assigned to control or IUGR groups. IUGR was induced by placental embolisation. At days 120 and 126 of gestation, foetal urea production was determined from [14C]-urea kinetics and arginine metabolism was determined from the appearance of radioactive metabolites from [3H]-arginine, both at baseline and in response to arginine or an isonitrogenous mixed amino acid supplementation. Urea production decreased with gestational age in the embolised animals (13.9 ±  3.1 to 11.2 ±  3.0 ?mol/kg per min, P ? 0.05) but not in the controls (13.3 ±  3.5 to 14.8 ±  6.0 ?mol/kg per min). Arginine supplementation increased urea production in both groups, but only at 126 days of gestation (control: 15.0 ±  8.5 to 17.0 ±  9.4 ?mol/kg per min; embolised: 11.7 ±  3.1 to 14.3 ±  3.1 ?mol/kg per min, P ? 0.05). Embolisation reduced foetal arginine concentrations by 20% ( P ? 0.05) while foetal arginine consumption was reduced by 27% ( P ? 0.05). The proportions of plasma citrulline and hydroxyproline derived from arginine were reduced in the embolised animals. These data suggest that foetal urea production and arginine metabolism are perturbed in late gestation after placental embolisation. PMID:22444470

  20. Effects of thyroparathyroidectomy, parathyroid hormone, and PTHrP on kidneys of ovine fetuses.

    PubMed

    MacIsaac, R J; Horne, R S; Caple, I W; Martin, T J; Wintour, E M

    1993-01-01

    The fetal parathyroid glands and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) have been shown to be important regulators of fetal calcium metabolism through their actions on the placenta and bone. This study examined the effects of fetal thyroparathyroidectomy (with thyroxine replacement) and exogenous infusion of human parathyroid hormone [PTH-(1-34)], PTHrP-(1-34), and PTHrP-(1-141) on the urinary excretion of calcium in chronically cannulated ovine fetuses during the last one-fifth of gestation. Fetal plasma total and ionized calcium concentrations were significantly lower in thyroparathyroidectomized (TxPTx) fetuses when compared with intact fetuses, but there were no significant differences in urinary excretion rates of total calcium. However, TxPTx produced a significant increase in the fractional excretion rate of total calcium and a significant decrease in the excretion of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) compared with intact fetuses. Infusions of PTH-(1-34), PTHrP-(1-34), and PTHrP-(1-141) into the jugular vein of TxPTx fetuses (n = 5) at the rate of 1 nmol/h for 2 h, after a 1-nmol loading dose, significantly decreased the excretion rate of total calcium and increased the excretion rate of cAMP in fetal urine. Infusions of all three peptides resulted in significant increases in the concentration of total calcium in fetal plasma but had no effect on the plasma concentrations or urinary excretion rates of phosphate. Infusion of either PTH-(1-34), PTHrP-(1-34), or PTHrP-(1-141) also resulted in an increase in fetal urine osmolality and pH and a decrease in free water clearance in TxPTx fetuses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8430786

  1. Selective V1a agonism attenuates vascular dysfunction and fluid accumulation in ovine severe sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yusuke; Sousse, Linda; Bartha, Eva; Jonkam, Collette; Hasselbach, Anthony K.; Traber, Lillian D.; Cox, Robert A.; Westphal, Martin; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Traber, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Vasopressin analogs are used as a supplement to norepinephrine in septic shock. The isolated effects of vasopressin agonists on sepsis-induced vascular dysfunction, however, remain controversial. Because V2-receptor stimulation induces vasodilation and procoagulant effects, a higher V1a- versus V2-receptor selectivity might be advantageous. We therefore hypothesized that a sole, titrated infusion of the selective V1a-agonist Phe2-Orn8-Vasotocin (POV) is more effective than the mixed V1a-/V2-agonist AVP for the treatment of vascular and cardiopulmonary dysfunction in methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus pneumonia-induced, ovine sepsis. After the onset of hemodynamic instability, awake, chronically instrumented, mechanically ventilated, and fluid resuscitated sheep were randomly assigned to receive continuous infusions of either POV, AVP, or saline solution (control; each n = 6). AVP and POV were titrated to maintain mean arterial pressure above baseline ? 10 mmHg. When compared with that of control animals, AVP and POV reduced neutrophil migration (myeloperoxidase activity, alveolar neutrophils) and plasma levels of nitric oxide, resulting in higher mean arterial pressures and a reduced vascular leakage (net fluid balance, chest and abdominal fluid, pulmonary bloodless wet-to-dry-weight ratio, alveolar and septal edema). Notably, POV stabilized hemodynamics at lower doses than AVP. In addition, POV, but not AVP, reduced myocardial and pulmonary tissue concentrations of 3-nitrotyrosine, VEGF, and angiopoietin-2, thereby leading to an abolishment of cumulative fluid accumulation (POV, 9 ± 15 ml/kg vs. AVP, 110 ± 13 ml/kg vs. control, 213 ± 16 ml/kg; P < 0.001 each) and an attenuated cardiopulmonary dysfunction (left ventricular stroke work index, PaO2-to-FiO2 ratio) versus control animals. Highly selective V1a-agonism appears to be superior to unselective vasopressin analogs for the treatment of sepsis-induced vascular dysfunction. PMID:22961865

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of benzimidazole resistance in the ovine parasite Nematodirus battus.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Alison A; Mitchell, Sian; Mearns, Rebecca; Richards, Iain; Matthews, Jacqui B; Bartley, David J

    2014-01-01

    Benzimidazole resistance is common amongst many ovine trichostrongylid nematodes species globally. Although anthelmintics have been used for over half a century in some areas of the world for the control of Nematodirus battus, resistance has never been detected. Veterinary investigations conducted in 2010 demonstrated reduced efficacy in a flock that had been treated previously with fenbendazole (FBZ), suggesting probable resistance in N. battus. Infective larvae (L3; designated MNba2) were generated from the original material to conduct a controlled efficacy test (CET). Faecal egg counts showed an average of 37% reduction in the FBZ treated group 7 days post treatment compared to the untreated lambs. Average worm burden results showed no reduction after FBZ treatment compared to the untreated group (3850 and 3850 worms respectively). A molecular assay to assess the frequency of the commonly associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the ?-tubulin isotype 1 gene, F200Y and E198A, was developed. Larval genotypes were predominantly homozygous resistant at codon 200 SNP, ranging from 56%-83% and remained stable at 70% for adult worm populations taken from treated and control lambs in the CET. Only susceptible genotypes were found at codon 198. The allele frequency for F200Y ranged between 80-83% in adult worms taken from the CET from treated and control lambs. The results confirmed initial findings and demonstrated the first report of FBZ resistance in N. battus whilst providing evidence that the P200 point mutation in the ?-tubulin isotype 1 gene is a potential mechanism of resistance in the species. PMID:25487605

  3. Altered lymphatics in an ovine model of congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Datar, Sanjeev A.; Johnson, Eric G.; Oishi, Peter E.; Johengen, Michael; Tang, Eric; Aramburo, Angela; Barton, Jubilee; Kuo, Hsuan-Chang; Bennett, Stephen; Xoinis, Konstantine; Reel, Bhupinder; Kalkan, Gokhan; Sajti, Eniko; Osorio, Oscar; Raff, Gary W.; Matthay, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities of the lymphatic circulation are well recognized in patients with congenital heart defects. However, it is not known how the associated abnormal blood flow patterns, such as increased pulmonary blood flow (PBF), might affect pulmonary lymphatic function and structure. Using well-established ovine models of acute and chronic increases in PBF, we cannulated the efferent lymphatic duct of the caudal mediastinal node and collected and analyzed lymph effluent from the lungs of lambs with acutely increased PBF (n = 6), chronically increased PBF (n = 6), and age-matched normal lambs (n = 8). When normalized to PBF, we found that lymph flow was unchanged following acute increases in PBF but decreased following chronic increases in PBF. The lymph:plasma protein ratio decreased with both acute and chronic increases in PBF. Lymph bioavailable nitric oxide increased following acute increases in PBF but decreased following chronic increases in PBF. In addition, we found perturbations in the transit kinetics of contrast material through the pleural lymphatics of lambs with chronic increases in PBF. Finally, there were structural changes in the pulmonary lymphatic system in lambs with chronic increases in PBF: lymphatics from these lambs were larger and more dilated, and there were alterations in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1, and Angiopoietin-2, proteins known to be important for lymphatic growth, development, and remodeling. Taken together these data suggest that chronic increases in PBF lead to both functional and structural aberrations of lung lymphatics. These findings have important therapeutic implications that warrant further study. PMID:22207591

  4. THE PEROXYNITRITE CATALYST WW-85 IMPROVES PULMONARY FUNCTION IN OVINE SEPTIC SHOCK

    PubMed Central

    Maybauer, Dirk M.; Maybauer, Marc O.; Szabó, Csaba; Cox, Robert A.; Westphal, Martin; Kiss, Levente; Horvath, Eszter M.; Traber, Lillian D.; Hawkins, Hal K.; Salzman, Andrew L.; Southan, Garry J.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is associated with excessive production of nitric oxide (NO•) and superoxide (O2?), forming peroxynitrite (ONOO?), which in turn, acts as a terminal mediator of cellular injury by producing cell necrosis and apoptosis. We examined the effect of the ONOO? decomposition catalyst WW-85 in a sheep model of acute lung injury (ALI) and septic shock. Eighteen sheep were operatively prepared and randomly allocated, either to the sham, control, or WW-85 group (n=6 each). Following a tracheotomy, ALI was produced in the control and WW-85 group by insufflation of four sets of 12 breaths of cotton smoke. Then, a 30 mL suspension of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (containing 2–5×1011 cfu) was instilled into the lungs according to an established protocol. The sham group received only the vehicle (30 mL saline). The sheep were studied in awake state for 24 hrs and ventilated with 100% oxygen. WW-85 was administered 1 h post injury as bolus infusion (0.1 mg/kg), followed by a continuous infusion of 0.02 mg•kg?1•h?1 until the end of the 24-h experimental period. Compared to injured but untreated controls, WW-85-treated animals had significantly improved gas exchange, reductions in airway obstruction, shunt formation, lung myeloperoxidase-, lung malondialdehyde-, lung 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations, and plasma nitrate-to-nitrite (NOx) levels. Animals treated with WW-85 exhibited less microvascular leakage and improvements in pulmonary function. These results provide evidence that blockade of the nitric oxide - peroxynitrite pathway improves disturbances from septic shock, as demonstrated in a clinically relevant ovine experimental model. PMID:20577150

  5. L-arginine augments nitric oxide production and mesenteric blood flow in ovine endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Allman, K G; Stoddart, A P; Kennedy, M M; Young, J D

    1996-10-01

    We studied the effects of administrating the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), or the nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine, on hemodynamic variables and serum nitrate concentrations in an anesthetized ovine model of endotoxemia to assess the effects on regional visceral blood flow and to determine whether L-arginine availability limits nitric oxide production. Animals received Escherichia coli endotoxin (2 micrograms/kg) followed 2 h later by L-NAME (25 mg/kg), L-arginine (0.575 g/kg), or saline administered over 1 h followed by an infusion of the same dose over 8 h (n = 6 per group). Renal and mesenteric blood flow were measured by placement of electromagnetic flow probes, and serum nitrate concentrations were determined using vanadium III chloride or nitrate reductase reduction to nitric oxide or nitrite, respectively. The results showed L-NAME significantly increased systemic vascular resistance (P < 0.01), decreased serum nitrate concentrations (P < 0.05), and caused a transient reduction in mesenteric blood flow (P < 0.05). L-Arginine caused a reduction in systemic vascular resistance (P < 0.01), increased mesenteric blood flow (P < 0.001) and conductance (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in renal arterial blood flow in either group. We conclude that the availability of L-arginine limits nitric oxide production in endotoxemia and, furthermore, that L-arginine administration in this model causes significant mesenteric vasodilatation. L-NAME administration had only limited effect on visceral blood flow despite a marked increase in systemic vascular resistance and a reduction in nitric oxide production. PMID:8897920

  6. Evidence of a molecular clock in the ovine ovary and the influence of photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Murphy, B A; Blake, C M; Brown, J A; Martin, A-M; Forde, N; Sweeney, L M; Evans, A C O

    2015-07-15

    The influence of the central circadian clock on reproductive timing is well established. Much less is known about the role of peripheral oscillators such as those in the ovary. We investigated the influence of photoperiod and timing of the LH surge on expression of circadian clock genes and genes involved in steroidogenesis in ovine ovarian stroma. Seventy-two Suffolk cross ewes were divided into two groups, and their estrous cycles were synchronized. Progestagen sponge removal was staggered by 12 hours between the groups such that expected LH peak would occur midway through either the light or dark phase of the photoperiodic cycle. Four animals from each group were killed, and their ovaries were harvested beginning 36 hours after sponge removal, at 6-hour intervals for 48 hours. Blood was sampled every 3 hours for the period 24 to 48 hours after sponge removal to detect the LH surge. The interval to peak LH did not differ between the groups (36.2 ± 1.2 and 35.6 ± 1.1 hours, respectively). There was an interaction between group and the time of sponge removal on the expression of the core clock genes ARNTL, PER1, CRY1, CLOCK, and DBP (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, and P < 0.01, respectively). As no significant interaction between group and time of day was detected, the datasets were combined. Statistically significant rhythmic oscillation was observed for ARNTL, CLOCK, CRY1 (P < 0.01, respectively), PTGS2, DBP, PTGER2, and CYP17A1 (P < 0.05, respectively), confirming the existence of a time-sensitive functionality within the ovary, which may influence steroidogenesis and is independent of the ovulatory cycle. PMID:25892340

  7. In an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Prenatal Androgens Suppress Female Fetal Renal Gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T; Späth, Katharina; Boswell, Lyndsey; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2015-01-01

    Increased maternal androgen exposure during pregnancy programmes a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like condition, with metabolic dysfunction, in adult female offspring. Other in utero exposures associated with the development of insulin resistance, such as intrauterine growth restriction and exposure to prenatal glucocorticoids, are associated with altered fetal gluconeogenesis. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of maternal androgenisation on the expression of PEPCK and G6PC in the ovine fetus. Pregnant Scottish Greyface sheep were treated with twice weekly testosterone propionate (TP; 100mg) or vehicle control from day 62 to day102 of gestation. At day 90 and day 112 fetal plasma and liver and kidney tissue was collected for analysis. PEPCK and G6PC expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. PEPCK and G6PC were localised to fetal hepatocytes but maternal androgens had no effect on female or male fetuses. PEPCK and G6PC were also localised to the renal tubules and renal PEPCK (P<0.01) and G6PC (P = 0.057) were lower in females after prenatal androgenisation with no change in male fetuses. These tissue and sex specific observations could not be explained by alterations in fetal insulin or cortisol. The sexual dimorphism may be related to the increase in circulating estrogen (P<0.01) and testosterone (P<0.001) in females but not males. The tissue specific effects may be related to the increased expression of ESR1 (P<0.01) and AR (P<0.05) in the kidney when compared to the fetal liver. After discontinuation of maternal androgenisation female fetal kidney PEPCK expression normalised. These data further highlight the fetal and sexual dimorphic effects of maternal androgenisation, an antecedent to adult disease and the plasticity of fetal development. PMID:26148093

  8. In an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Prenatal Androgens Suppress Female Fetal Renal Gluconeogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Späth, Katharina; Boswell, Lyndsey; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

    2015-01-01

    Increased maternal androgen exposure during pregnancy programmes a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like condition, with metabolic dysfunction, in adult female offspring. Other in utero exposures associated with the development of insulin resistance, such as intrauterine growth restriction and exposure to prenatal glucocorticoids, are associated with altered fetal gluconeogenesis. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of maternal androgenisation on the expression of PEPCK and G6PC in the ovine fetus. Pregnant Scottish Greyface sheep were treated with twice weekly testosterone propionate (TP; 100mg) or vehicle control from day 62 to day102 of gestation. At day 90 and day 112 fetal plasma and liver and kidney tissue was collected for analysis. PEPCK and G6PC expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. PEPCK and G6PC were localised to fetal hepatocytes but maternal androgens had no effect on female or male fetuses. PEPCK and G6PC were also localised to the renal tubules and renal PEPCK (P<0.01) and G6PC (P = 0.057) were lower in females after prenatal androgenisation with no change in male fetuses. These tissue and sex specific observations could not be explained by alterations in fetal insulin or cortisol. The sexual dimorphism may be related to the increase in circulating estrogen (P<0.01) and testosterone (P<0.001) in females but not males. The tissue specific effects may be related to the increased expression of ESR1 (P<0.01) and AR (P<0.05) in the kidney when compared to the fetal liver. After discontinuation of maternal androgenisation female fetal kidney PEPCK expression normalised. These data further highlight the fetal and sexual dimorphic effects of maternal androgenisation, an antecedent to adult disease and the plasticity of fetal development. PMID:26148093

  9. Maturation and the role of PKC-mediated contractility in ovine cerebral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Ravi; Mittal, Ashwani; Chu, Nina; Shi, Lijun; Zhang, Lubo

    2009-01-01

    Ca2+-independent pathways such as protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and Rho kinase 1 and 2 (ROCK1/2) play important roles in modulating cerebral vascular tone. Because the roles of these kinases vary with maturational age, we tested the hypothesis that PKC differentially regulates the Ca2+-independent pathways and their effects on cerebral arterial contractility with development. We simultaneously examined the responses of arterial tension and intracellular Ca2+ concentration and used Western immunoblot analysis to measure ERK1/2, RhoA, 20 kDa regulatory myosin light chain (MLC20), PKC-potentiated inhibitory protein of 17 kDa (CPI-17), and caldesmon. Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu)-mediated PKC activation produced a robust contractile response, which was increased a further 20 to 30% by U-0126 (MEK inhibitor) in cerebral arteries of both age groups. Of interest, in the fetal cerebral arteries, PDBu leads to an increased phosphorylation of ERK2 compared with ERK1, whereas in adult arteries, we observed an increased phosphorylation of ERK1 compared with ERK2. Also, in the present study, RhoA/ROCK played a significant role in the PDBu-mediated contractility of fetal cerebral arteries, whereas in adult cerebral arteries, CPI-17 and caldesmon had a significantly greater role compared with the fetus. PDBu also led to an increased MLC20 phosphorylation, a response blunted by the inhibition of myosin light chain kinase only in the fetus. Overall, the present study demonstrates an important maturational shift from RhoA/ROCK-mediated to CPI-17/caldesmon-mediated PKC-induced contractile response in ovine cerebral arteries. PMID:19749163

  10. A NEW MONOSPECIFIC OVINE FAB FRAGMENT ANTIVENOM FOR TREATMENT OF ENVENOMING BY THE SRI LANKAN RUSSELL'S VIPER (DABOIA RUSSELII RUSSELII ): A PRELIMINARY DOSE-FINDING AND PHARMACOKINETIC STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. ARIARATNAM; W. P. MEYER; G. PERERA; M. EDDLESTON; S. A. M. KULERATNE; W. ATTAPATTU; R. SHERIFF

    Russell's viper is the most important cause of life-threatening snake bite and acute renal failure in Sri Lanka. Only equine polyspecific antivenoms imported from India are available. They have not proved effective clinically or in clearing venom antigenemia and they frequently cause reactions. In an attempt to reduce mortality and morbidity, a new monospecific ovine Fab fragment antivenom (PolongaTab y;

  11. Analysis and evaluation of a biomedical polycarbonate urethane tested in an in vitro study and an ovine arthroplasty model. Part I: materials selection and evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imran Khan; Nigel Smith; Eric Jones; Dudley S Finch; Ruth Elizabeth Cameron

    2005-01-01

    The polyurethane elastomer (PU) Corethane 80A (Corvita) is being considered as the acetabular bearing material in a novel total replacement hip joint. The biostability of Corethane 80A was investigated in vitro (this work) and in vivo (reported separately) in a fully functioning ovine total hip arthroplasty (THA) model, with the PU as the bearing layer in a prototype compliant layer

  12. Analysis and evaluation of a biomedical polycarbonate urethane tested in an in vitro study and an ovine arthroplasty model. Part II: in vivo investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imran Khan; Nigel Smith; Eric Jones; Dudley S Finch; Ruth Elizabeth Cameron

    2005-01-01

    The polyurethane (PU) elastomer Corethane 80A (Corvita) is being considered as the acetabular bearing material in a novel total replacement hip joint. Its biostability was investigated in vitro (Analysis and evaluation of a biomedical polycarbonate urethane tested in an in vitro study and an ovine arthroplasty model. Part I: material selection and evaluation, Biomaterials, in press) together with three other

  13. Ovine herpesvirus 2 infection in american bison: virus and host dynamics in the development of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) is a gammaherpesvirus that causes sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), a frequently fatal disease mainly of ruminants. This study was designed to define virus-host dynamics following experimental OvHV-2 infection in bison. A transient peak in viral DNA ac...

  14. OVINE PROGRESSIVE PNEUMONIA VIRUS CAPSID IS B-CELL IMMUNODOMINANT USING WESTERN BLOT ANALYSIS: A COMPARISON OF SENSITIVITY BETWEEN WESTERN BLOT ANALYSIS AND IMMUNOPRECIPITATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A western blot assay (WB) was developed and analyzed against the comparable standard, immunoprecipitation of 35[S] methionine/cysteine-labeled ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) proteins (IP), for its ability to detect anti-OPPV antibodies using endpoint titers. WB is 12-fold more sensitive i...

  15. Structural changes of the corpus callosum in tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Diesch, Eugen; Schummer, Verena; Kramer, Martin; Rupp, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: In tinnitus, several brain regions seem to be structurally altered, including the medial partition of Heschl's gyrus (mHG), the site of the primary auditory cortex. The mHG is smaller in tinnitus patients than in healthy controls. The corpus callosum (CC) is the main interhemispheric commissure of the brain connecting the auditory areas of the left and the right hemisphere. Here, we investigate whether tinnitus status is associated with CC volume. Methods: The midsagittal cross-sectional area of the CC was examined in tinnitus patients and healthy controls in which an examination of the mHG had been carried out earlier. The CC was extracted and segmented into subregions which were defined according to the most common CC morphometry schemes introduced by Witelson (1989) and Hofer and Frahm (2006). Results: For both CC segmentation schemes, the CC posterior midbody was smaller in male patients than in male healthy controls and the isthmus, the anterior midbody, and the genou were larger in female patients than in female controls. With CC size normalized relative to mHG volume, the normalized CC splenium was larger in male patients than male controls and the normalized CC splenium, the isthmus and the genou were larger in female patients than female controls. Normalized CC segment size expresses callosal interconnectivity relative to auditory cortex volume. Conclusion: It may be argued that the predominant function of the CC is excitatory. The stronger callosal interconnectivity in tinnitus patients, compared to healthy controls, may facilitate the emergence and maintenance of a positive feedback loop between tinnitus generators located in the two hemispheres. PMID:22470322

  16. Arginine and mixed amino acids increase protein accretion in the growth-restricted and normal ovine fetus by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    de Boo, Hendrina A; van Zijl, Pierre L; Smith, Desirée E C; Kulik, Willem; Lafeber, Harrie N; Harding, Jane E

    2005-08-01

    Protein metabolism may be perturbed in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Arginine is indispensable for growth and nitrogen balance in young mammals. Fetuses with IUGR therefore may benefit from arginine supplementation. The purpose of this study was to determine 1) the effects of IUGR on protein metabolism in the ovine fetus and 2) the effects of arginine or mixed amino acid (AA) infusion on protein metabolism in these fetuses. Pregnant ewes and their fetuses were catheterized at 110 d gestation and randomly assigned to control or IUGR groups. IUGR was induced by repetitive placental embolization. Parameters of fetal protein metabolism were determined from [ring-(2)H(5)]phenylalanine kinetics at baseline and in response to a 4-h infusion of either arginine or an isonitrogenous AA mixture. There were no differences in protein metabolism between control and IUGR groups either at baseline or in response to arginine or AA treatment. Both arginine and AA infusion increased fetal protein accretion in both groups. Arginine did this by decreasing protein turnover, synthesis, and breakdown. AAs increased protein turnover and synthesis while decreasing protein breakdown. AA infusion resulted in a significantly higher increase in protein accretion than arginine infusion. Thus, in the ovine fetus, placental embolization has no clear effect on protein metabolism. Arginine and AAs both stimulate protein accretion but do so in distinctly different ways. Mixed AA infusion has a greater effect on protein accretion than arginine alone and therefore may be a better strategy for stimulating fetal growth. PMID:16006429

  17. Discrimination between ovine Babesia and Theileria species in China based on the ribosomal protein S8 (RPS8) gene.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhancheng; Liu, Guangyuan; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jin; Xie, Junren; Zheng, Jinfeng; Yuan, Xiaosong; Wang, Fangfang; Shen, Hui; Tian, Meiyuan

    2013-10-18

    Ovine babesiosis and theileriosis are important hemoprotozoal diseases of sheep and goats in tropical and subtropical regions that lead to economic losses in these animals. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is a reliable molecular diagnostic tool for discriminating Theileria or Babesia species in the same host. In this study, the DNA sequences of a ribosomal protein S8 (RPS8) gene from four species of piroplasms in China were used to develop a species-specific PCR-RFLP diagnostic tool. The sensitivity of the PCR assays was 0.1 pg DNA for B. motasi and 1 pg DNA for T. uilenbergi and 10 pg DNA for Babesia sp. Xinjiang-2005 and T. luwenshuni. The clear size difference of the PCR products allowed for a direct discrimination for B. motasi, Babesia sp. Xinjiang-2005 and ovine Theileria species (T. uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni), except that the mixed infection between T. uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni may be difficult to distinguish, simply after the electrophoretic separation of the amplification products. Further T. uilenbergi and T. luwenshuni diagnoses were made by digesting the PCR product with SacI. The established method could be applicable for the survey of parasite dynamics, and epidemiological studies as well as prevention and control of the disease. PMID:23747103

  18. Modulation of ovine neutrophil function and apoptosis by standardized extracts of Echinacea angustifolia, Butea frondosa and Curcuma longa.

    PubMed

    Farinacci, Maura; Colitti, Monica; Stefanon, Bruno

    2009-04-15

    Impaired neutrophil function has been associated with increased infectious diseases in ruminants. Attachment of neutrophils to endothelium and superoxide production is critical features of their immune activity. Once the infection is cleared, programmed cell death ensures the rapid resolution of inflammation. To develop new natural therapeutics for ruminants, standard extracts of Echinacea angustifolia (Polinacea), Butea frondosa and Curcuma longa (Curcuvet) were first evaluated on ovine neutrophil functions. Curcuvet strongly reduced PMA-stimulated adhesion and superoxide production. Polinacea and B. frondosa extract also reduced these functions, but with less efficacy than Curcuvet. We analyzed the effect of extracts on spontaneous apoptosis and gene expression in neutrophils aged in vitro for up to 22h. IL8 is critical for neutrophil recruitment and the immune response; Bcl2-related proteins, Bcl2A1 and Bax, are key regulators of neutrophil fate. Spontaneous apoptosis strongly increased in ovine neutrophils cultured for 22h (T22), accompanied by an upregulation of IL8 and a decreased Bcl2A1:Bax ratio. Curcuvet stimulated spontaneous apoptosis and inhibited IL8 and Bcl2A1 gene expression at T22, whereas Polinacea and B. frondosa extract inhibited spontaneous apoptosis and stimulated IL8 expression at T22. These results suggest that Curcuvet has antiinflammatory activity, whereas Polinacea and B. frondosa have an immunomodulatory action on sheep neutrophils. PMID:19128841

  19. Regeneration of nucleus pulposus tissue in an ovine intervertebral disc degeneration model by cell-free resorbable polymer scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Woiciechowsky, Christian; Abbushi, Alexander; Zenclussen, Maria L; Casalis, Pablo; Krüger, Jan Philipp; Freymann, Undine; Endres, Michaela; Kaps, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Degeneration of intervertebral discs (IVDs) occurs frequently and is often associated with lower back pain. Recent treatment options are limited and treat the symptoms rather than regenerate the degenerated disc. Cell-free, freeze-dried resorbable polyglycolic acid (PGA)-hyaluronan implants were used in an ovine IVD degeneration model. The nucleus pulposus of the IVD was partially removed, endoscopically. PGA-hyaluronan implants were immersed in autologous sheep serum and implanted into the disc defect. Animals with nucleotomy only served as controls. The T2-weighted/fat suppression sequence signal intensity index of the operated discs, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), showed that implantation of the PGA-hyaluronan implant improved (p = 0.0066) the MRI signal compared to controls at 6 months after surgery. Histological analysis by haematoxylin and eosin and safranin O staining showed the ingrowth of cells with typical chondrocytic morphology, even cell distribution, and extracellular matrix rich in proteoglycan. Histomorphometric analyses confirmed that the implantation of the PGA-hyaluronan scaffolds improved (p = 0.027) the formation of regenerated tissue after nucleotomy. Disc heights remained stable in discs with nucleotomy only as well as after implantation of the implant. In conclusion, implantation of cell-free polymer-based implants after nucleotomy induces nucleus pulposus tissue regeneration and improves disc water content in the ovine model. PMID:22865642

  20. Long-term physicochemical and immunological stability of a liquid formulated intact ovine immunoglobulin-based antivenom.

    PubMed

    Al-Abdulla, Ibrahim; Casewell, Nicholas R; Landon, John

    2013-03-15

    An antivenom should be stable under the conditions that it will be both transferred and stored. Thus instability may lead to a loss of efficacy and an increased incidence and severity of adverse effects. Stability is a particular problem in countries where the temperatures and humidity are high. Here we investigate the stability of a liquid-formulated, intact ovine immunoglobulin-based antivenom, EchiTAbG™, which is used extensively in Nigeria to treat envenoming by the West African saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus. Ampoules of antivenom were assessed as to their specific antibody content by small scale affinity chromatography and their purity by size exclusion gel filtration and turbidity. Three different batches of the antivenom revealed no significant changes, using these assessment techniques, during 42 months storage at 4 °C or at ambient temperature, followed by one month at 37 °C. These real-time studies indicate that the antivenom remains stable for a minimum of 3.5 years and that it can be exposed to tropical temperatures without any loss in immunoglobulin binding activity. This further highlights the clinical utility of liquid formulated ovine IgG antivenoms by demonstrating their retention of potency in the event of a short term failing in the cold chain. PMID:23319075

  1. The mechanisms for tachykinin-induced contractions of the rabbit corpus cavernosum

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Junji; Hirano, Katsuya; Naito, Seiji; Kanaide, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms for the contractions induced by tachykinins (substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and neurokinin B (NKB)) in the rabbit corpus cavernosum strips, using fura-PE3 fluorimetry and ?-toxin permeabilization. Tachykinins induced contractions in the rabbit corpus cavernosum in a concentration-dependent manner. The potency order was SP>NKA>NKB. The tachykinin-induced contractions were enhanced by phosphoramidon (PPAD), an endopeptidase inhibitor, but not by N?-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME). The NK1 receptor selective antagonist, SR 140333 significantly inhibited the tachykinin-induced contractions. Although the NK2 receptor selective antagonist, SR 48968 alone did not influence the effects of tachykinins, it potentiated the inhibitory effect of SR 140333. The NK3 receptor selective antagonist, SR142801 had no effect. In the rabbit corpus cavernosum, tachykinins induced sustained increases in [Ca2+]i and tension in normal PSS, while only small transient increases in [Ca2+]i and tension were observed in Ca2+-free solution. In ?-toxin permeabilized preparations, tachykinins induced an additional force development at a constant [Ca2+]i. These results indicated that in the rabbit corpus cavernosum: (1) Tachykinins induced contractions by increasing both the [Ca2+]i and myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity; (2) The tachykinin-induced [Ca2+]i elevations were mainly due to the Ca2+ influx; (3) Tachykinin-induced contractions were mainly mediated through the activation of NK1 receptor expressed in the rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle, and affected by the endopeptidase activity and (4) Tachykinins may thus play a role in controlling the corpus cavernosum tone. PMID:12411416

  2. The mechanisms for tachykinin-induced contractions of the rabbit corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Nishimura, Junji; Hirano, Katsuya; Naito, Seiji; Kanaide, Hideo

    2002-11-01

    1. This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms for the contractions induced by tachykinins (substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and neurokinin B (NKB)) in the rabbit corpus cavernosum strips, using fura-PE3 fluorimetry and alpha-toxin permeabilization. 2. Tachykinins induced contractions in the rabbit corpus cavernosum in a concentration-dependent manner. The potency order was SP>NKA>NKB. 3. The tachykinin-induced contractions were enhanced by phosphoramidon (PPAD), an endopeptidase inhibitor, but not by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME). 4. The NK(1) receptor selective antagonist, SR 140333 significantly inhibited the tachykinin-induced contractions. Although the NK(2) receptor selective antagonist, SR 48968 alone did not influence the effects of tachykinins, it potentiated the inhibitory effect of SR 140333. The NK(3) receptor selective antagonist, SR142801 had no effect. 5. In the rabbit corpus cavernosum, tachykinins induced sustained increases in [Ca(2+)](i) and tension in normal PSS, while only small transient increases in [Ca(2+)](i) and tension were observed in Ca(2+)-free solution. 6. In alpha-toxin permeabilized preparations, tachykinins induced an additional force development at a constant [Ca(2+)](i). 7. These results indicated that in the rabbit corpus cavernosum: (1) Tachykinins induced contractions by increasing both the [Ca(2+)](i) and myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity; (2) The tachykinin-induced [Ca(2+)](i) elevations were mainly due to the Ca(2+) influx; (3) Tachykinin-induced contractions were mainly mediated through the activation of NK(1) receptor expressed in the rabbit corpus cavernosum smooth muscle, and affected by the endopeptidase activity and (4) Tachykinins may thus play a role in controlling the corpus cavernosum tone. PMID:12411416

  3. Proteolysis and biogenic amine buildup in high-pressure treated ovine milk blue-veined cheese.

    PubMed

    Calzada, J; Del Olmo, A; Picon, A; Gaya, P; Nuñez, M

    2013-08-01

    Penicillium roqueforti plays an important role in the ripening of blue-veined cheeses, mostly due to lactic acid consumption and to its extracellular enzymes. The strong activity of P. roqueforti proteinases may bring about cheese over-ripening. Also, free amino acids at high concentrations serve as substrates for biogenic amine formation. Both facts result in shorter product shelf-life. To prevent over-ripening and buildup of biogenic amines, blue-veined cheeses made from pasteurized ovine milk were high-pressure treated at 400 or 600 MPa after 3, 6, or 9 wk of ripening. Primary and secondary proteolysis, biogenic amines, and sensory characteristics of pressurized and control cheeses were monitored for a 90-d ripening period, followed by a 270-d refrigerated storage period. On d 90, treatments at 400 MPa had lowered counts of lactic acid bacteria and P. roqueforti by less than 2 log units, whereas treatments at 600 MPa had reduced lactic acid bacteria counts by more than 4 log units and P. roqueforti counts by more than 6 log units. No residual ?-casein (CN) or ?-CN were detected in control cheese on d 90. Concentrations of ?-CN, para-?-CN, and ?-CN were generally higher in 600 MPa cheeses than in the rest. From d 90 onwards, hydrophilic peptides were at similar levels in pressurized and control cheeses, but hydrophobic peptides and the hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic peptide ratio were at higher levels in pressurized cheeses than in control cheese. Aminopeptidase activity, overall proteolysis, and free amino acid contents were generally higher in control cheese than in pressurized cheeses, particularly if treated at 600 MPa. Tyramine concentration was lower in pressurized cheeses, but tryptamine, phenylethylamine, and putrescine contents were higher in some of the pressurized cheeses than in control cheese. Differences in sensory characteristics between pressurized and control cheeses were generally negligible, with the only exception of treatment at high pressure level (600 MPa) at an early ripening stage (3 wk), which affected biochemical changes and sensory characteristics. PMID:23706489

  4. The role of neuropeptide Y in the ovine fetal cardiovascular response to reduced oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Emilia M; Johansen-Bibby, Anja A; Fletcher, Andrew J W; Riquelme, Raquel A; Daniels, Alejandro J; Serón-Ferré, Maria; Gaete, Cristián R; Carrasco, Jorge E; Llanos, Aníbal J; Giussani, Dino A

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in mediating cardiovascular responses to reduced oxygenation in the late gestation ovine fetus by: (1) comparing the effects on the cardiovascular system of an exogenous infusion of NPY with those elicited by moderate or severe reductions in fetal oxygenation; and (2) determining the effect of fetal i.v. treatment with a selective NPY-Y1 receptor antagonist on the fetal cardiovascular responses to acute moderate hypoxaemia. Under general anaesthesia, 14 sheep fetuses (0.8–0.9 of gestation) were surgically prepared with vascular and amniotic catheters. In 5 of these fetuses, a Transonic flow probe was also implanted around a femoral artery. Following at least 5 days of recovery, one group of fetuses (n = 9) was subjected to a 30 min treatment period with exogenous NPY (17 ?g kg?1 bolus plus 0.85 ?g kg?1 min?1 infusion). In this group, fetal blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously and the distribution of the fetal combined ventricular output was assessed via injection of radiolabelled microspheres before and during treatment. The second group of fetuses instrumented with the femoral flow probe (n = 5) were subjected to a 3 h experiment consisting of 1 h of normoxia, 1 h of hypoxaemia, and 1 h of recovery during a slow i.v. infusion of vehicle. One or two days later, the acute hypoxaemia protocol was repeated during fetal i.v. treatment with a selective NPY-Y1 receptor antagonist (50 ?g kg?1bolus + 1.5 ?g kg?1 min?1 infusion). In these fetuses, fetal arterial blood pressure, heart rate and femoral vascular resistance were recorded continuously. The results show that fetal treatment with exogenous NPY mimics the fetal cardiovascular responses to asphyxia, and that treatment of the sheep fetus with a selective NPY-Y1 receptor antagonist does not affect the fetal cardiovascular response to acute moderate hypoxaemia. These results support a greater role for NPY in mediating the fetal cardiovascular responses to acute asphyxia than to acute moderate hypoxaemia. PMID:12563013

  5. Inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in ovine model of acute lung injury*

    PubMed Central

    Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Connelly, Rhykka; Wang, Jianpu; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Lange, Matthias; Hamahata, Atsumori; Horvath, Eszter; Szabo, Csaba; Jaroch, Stefan; Hölscher, Peter; Hillmann, Margrit; Traber, Lillian D.; Schmalstieg, Frank C.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Acute respiratory distress syndrome/acute lung injury is a serious complication of burn patients with concomitant smoke inhalation injury. Nitric oxide has been shown to play a major role in pulmonary dysfunction from thermal damage. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase could ameliorate the severity of acute lung injury using our well-established ovine model of cutaneous burn and smoke inhalation. Design Prospective, randomized, controlled, experimental animals study. Setting Investigational intensive care unit at university hospital. Subjects Adult female sheep Interventions Female sheep (n = 16) were surgically prepared for the study. Seven days after surgery, all sheep were randomly allocated into three study groups: sham (noninjured, nontreated, n = 6); control (injured, treated with saline, n = 6); and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (injured, treated with specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, ZK 234238 (n = 4). Control and neuronal nitric oxide synthase groups were given a cutaneous burn (40% of total body surface, third degree) and insufflated with cotton smoke (48 breaths, <40°C) under halothane anesthesia. Animals in sham group received fake injury also under halothane anesthesia. After injury or fake injury procedure, all sheep were placed on ventilators and resuscitated with lactated Ringer's solution. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase group was administered with continuous infusion of ZK 234238 started 1 hr postinjury with a dose of 100 ?g/kg/hr. Sham and control groups received same amount of saline. Measurements and Main Results Cardiopulmonary hemodynamics monitored during the 24-hr experimental time period was stable in the sham group. Control sheep developed multiple signs of acute lung injury. This pathophysiology included decreased pulmonary gas exchange and lung compliance, increased pulmonary edema, and inflammatory indices, such as interleukin-8. Treatment of injured sheep with neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor attenuated all the observed pulmonary pathophysiology. Conclusions The results provide definitive evidence that inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-derived excessive nitric oxide may be a novel and beneficial treatment strategy for pulmonary pathology in burn victims with smoke inhalation injury. PMID:19050603

  6. Calcification in the ovine intervertebral disc: a model of hydroxyapatite deposition disease

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, D.; Taylor, T. K. F.; Dillon, C. T.; Read, R.; Cake, M.; Little, C. B.

    2009-01-01

    The study design included a multidisciplinary examination of the mineral phase of ovine intervertebral disc calcifications. The objective of the study was to investigate the mineral phase and its mechanisms of formation/association with degeneration in a naturally occurring animal model of disc calcification. The aetiology of dystrophic disc calcification in adult humans is unknown, but occurs as a well-described clinical disorder with hydroxyapatite as the single mineral phase. Comparable but age-related pathology in the sheep could serve as a model for the human disorder. Lumbar intervertebral discs (n = 134) of adult sheep of age 6 years (n = 4), 8 years (n = 12) and 11 years (n = 2) were evaluated using radiography, morphology, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, histology, immunohistology and proteoglycan analysis. Half of the 6-year, 84% of the 8-year and 86% of the 11-year-old discs had calcific deposits. These were not well delineated by plain radiography. They were either: (a) punctate deposits in the outer annulus, (b) diffuse deposits in the transitional zone or inner annulus fibrosus with occasional deposits in the nucleus, or (c) large deposits in the transitional zone extending variably into the nucleus. Their maximal incidence was in the lower lumbar discs (L4/5–L6/7) with no calcification seen in the lumbosacral or lower thoracic discs. All deposits were hydroxyapatite with large crystallite sizes (800–1,300 Å) compared to cortical bone (300–600 Å). No type X-collagen, osteopontin or osteonectin were detected in calcific deposits, although positive staining for bone sialoprotein was evident. Calcified discs had less proteoglycan of smaller hydrodynamic size than non-calcified discs. Disc calcification in ageing sheep is due to hydroxyapatite deposition. The variable, but large, crystal size and lack of protein markers indicate that this does not occur by an endochondral ossification-like process. The decrease in disc proteoglycan content and size suggests that calcification may precede or predispose to disc degeneration in ageing sheep. PMID:19165512

  7. Spontaneous Corpus Cavernosum Abscess in a Healthy Man Using Long-Term Androgenic Anabolic Steroids

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abscess formation of the corpus cavernosum is very rare. Here, we report a case of long-term anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse that is suspected to have facilitated the development of a corpus cavernosum abscess in a healthy bodybuilder. Cultures obtained from the abscess contained Staphylococcus epidermidis, a microorganism that almost exclusively affects immunocompromised patients. Therefore, prompt drainage of pus from cavernosal bodies should be the primary aim of the treatment. This case illustrates the potential danger of AAS suppressing the immune system and causing a serious infection. PMID:25927061

  8. Using text mining techniques to extract phenotypic information from the PhenoCHF corpus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Phenotypic information locked away in unstructured narrative text presents significant barriers to information accessibility, both for clinical practitioners and for computerised applications used for clinical research purposes. Text mining (TM) techniques have previously been applied successfully to extract different types of information from text in the biomedical domain. They have the potential to be extended to allow the extraction of information relating to phenotypes from free text. Methods To stimulate the development of TM systems that are able to extract phenotypic information from text, we have created a new corpus (PhenoCHF) that is annotated by domain experts with several types of phenotypic information relating to congestive heart failure. To ensure that systems developed using the corpus are robust to multiple text types, it integrates text from heterogeneous sources, i.e., electronic health records (EHRs) and scientific articles from the literature. We have developed several different phenotype extraction methods to demonstrate the utility of the corpus, and tested these methods on a further corpus, i.e., ShARe/CLEF 2013. Results Evaluation of our automated methods showed that PhenoCHF can facilitate the training of reliable phenotype extraction systems, which are robust to variations in text type. These results have been reinforced by evaluating our trained systems on the ShARe/CLEF corpus, which contains clinical records of various types. Like other studies within the biomedical domain, we found that solutions based on conditional random fields produced the best results, when coupled with a rich feature set. Conclusions PhenoCHF is the first annotated corpus aimed at encoding detailed phenotypic information. The unique heterogeneous composition of the corpus has been shown to be advantageous in the training of systems that can accurately extract phenotypic information from a range of different text types. Although the scope of our annotation is currently limited to a single disease, the promising results achieved can stimulate further work into the extraction of phenotypic information for other diseases. The PhenoCHF annotation guidelines and annotations are publicly available at https://code.google.com/p/phenochf-corpus. PMID:26099853

  9. NCBI disease corpus: a resource for disease name recognition and concept normalization.

    PubMed

    Do?an, Rezarta Islamaj; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-02-01

    Information encoded in natural language in biomedical literature publications is only useful if efficient and reliable ways of accessing and analyzing that information are available. Natural language processing and text mining tools are therefore essential for extracting valuable information, however, the development of powerful, highly effective tools to automatically detect central biomedical concepts such as diseases is conditional on the availability of annotated corpora. This paper presents the disease name and concept annotations of the NCBI disease corpus, a collection of 793 PubMed abstracts fully annotated at the mention and concept level to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural language processing community. Each PubMed abstract was manually annotated by two annotators with disease mentions and their corresponding concepts in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®) or Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM®). Manual curation was performed using PubTator, which allowed the use of pre-annotations as a pre-step to manual annotations. Fourteen annotators were randomly paired and differing annotations were discussed for reaching a consensus in two annotation phases. In this setting, a high inter-annotator agreement was observed. Finally, all results were checked against annotations of the rest of the corpus to assure corpus-wide consistency. The public release of the NCBI disease corpus contains 6892 disease mentions, which are mapped to 790 unique disease concepts. Of these, 88% link to a MeSH identifier, while the rest contain an OMIM identifier. We were able to link 91% of the mentions to a single disease concept, while the rest are described as a combination of concepts. In order to help researchers use the corpus to design and test disease identification methods, we have prepared the corpus as training, testing and development sets. To demonstrate its utility, we conducted a benchmarking experiment where we compared three different knowledge-based disease normalization methods with a best performance in F-measure of 63.7%. These results show that the NCBI disease corpus has the potential to significantly improve the state-of-the-art in disease name recognition and normalization research, by providing a high-quality gold standard thus enabling the development of machine-learning based approaches for such tasks. The NCBI disease corpus, guidelines and other associated resources are available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Dogan/DISEASE/. PMID:24393765

  10. Primary precursor B cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of uterine corpus: case report and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi-sheng TanXing-chen; Xing-chen Peng; Ying Cao

    Introduction  Primary lymphomas of the female genital tract are rare. Most involve the cervix rather than the uterine corpus. Many cases\\u000a of primary endometrial lymphoma are diagnosed as diffuse large B cell type, whereas the precursor B cell lymphoblastic type\\u000a is extremely rare.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We report a case of precursor B cell lymphoblastic lymphoma of uterine corpus which was successfully

  11. Preliminary evidence that prenatal alcohol damage may be visible in averaged ultrasound images of the neonatal human corpus callosum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred L. Bookstein; Paul D. Connor; Kristi D. Covell; Helen M. Barr; Christine A. Gleason; Raymond W. Sze; Jenny A. McBroom; Ann P. Streissguth

    2005-01-01

    Brain damage consequent to prenatal alcohol exposure can be detected by measurements of the corpus callosum in the midline magnetic resonance (MR) brain image in adolescents and adults. The present article extends this finding into the neonatal period, when the power of detection to ameliorate the quality of the child's future life is greatest. The midline corpus callosum of the

  12. Sketching Muslims: A Corpus Driven Analysis of Representations around the Word "Muslim" in the British Press 1998-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Paul; Gabrielatos, Costas; McEnery, Tony

    2013-01-01

    This article uses methods from corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis to examine patterns of representation around the word "Muslim" in a 143 million word corpus of British newspaper articles published between 1998 and 2009. Using the analysis tool Sketch Engine, an analysis of noun collocates of "Muslim" found that the following…

  13. The Most Frequently-Used Multi-Word Constructions in Academic Written English: A Multi-Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dilin

    2012-01-01

    Using the academic writing sub-corpora of the Corpus of Contemporary American English and the British National Corpus as data and building on previous research, this study strives to identify the most frequently-used multi-word constructions (MWCs) of various types (e.g., idioms, lexical bundles, and phrasal/prepositional verbs) in general…

  14. Variation in Citational Practice in a Corpus of Student Biology Papers: From Parenthetical Plonking to Intertextual Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swales, John M.

    2014-01-01

    This is a corpus-based study of a key aspect of academic writing in one discipline (biology) by final-year undergraduates and first-, second-, and third-year graduate students. The papers come from the Michigan Corpus of Upper-level Student Papers, a freely available electronic database. The principal aim of the study is to examine the extent of…

  15. CEFLE and Direkt Profil: a New Computer Learner Corpus in French L2 and a System for Grammatical Profiling

    E-print Network

    Nugues, Pierre

    and detection of learner profiles using machine-learning techniques. 1. Introduction The importance of computer and detection of learner profiles using machine- learning techniques. 2. The CEFLE Corpus The Lund CEFLE Corpus.Granfeldt, Malin.Agren, Suzanne.Schlyter}@rom.lu.se, Emil.Persson@telia.com Department of Computer science ­ Lund

  16. Easy/difficultconstructions as triggers of implicit content: comparing covert event elicitations and events extracted from a very large corpus

    E-print Network

    Reyle, Uwe

    Method: 15 native speakers of English crowdsourcing platform (Snow et al. 2008) "The newspaper to cue specific concepts that are relevant to GEK scenarios 4. Research questions can corpus study corpus extraction Bibliography wash hair shampoo, sink, bathroom, indoor wash car hose, outdoor

  17. Corpus-based NP Modi er Generation Hua Cheng and Massimo Poesio and Renate Henschel y and Chris Mellish

    E-print Network

    Poesio, Massimo

    Corpus-based NP Modi#12;er Generation Hua Cheng and Massimo Poesio and Renate Henschel y and Chris and analysed the np modi#12;ers in a corpus of mu- seum descriptions to discover rules for the se- lection and realisation of such modi#12;ers, in par- ticular non-referring ones. We implemented the regularities

  18. Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases from ovine and bovine erythrocytes occur as longer chain forms than previously recognized.

    PubMed

    Gettins, P; Dyal, D; Crews, B

    1992-05-01

    From the cDNA sequence of bovine glutathione peroxidase [G. T. Mullenbach, A. Tabrizi, B. D. Irvine, G. I. Bell, J. A. Tainer, and R. A. Hallewell (1988) Protein Eng. 2, 239-246], it is known that the full transcript represents a 205-residue protein with the N-terminal sequence of MCAAQRSAAALAAAAPRTV. However, a protein primary structure determination on what is believed to be the mature protein showed an N-terminal sequence of AAALAAAAPRTV [W. A. Günzler, G. J. Steffens, A. Grossmann, S. A. Kim, F. Otting, A. Wendel, and L. Flohe (1984) Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 365, 195-212], suggesting processing of the N-terminal 7 residues to give the mature protein. It is shown here that the normal form of bovine erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase is most likely the full transcript lacking the N-terminal methionine, and that subsequent proteolysis during isolation results in formation first of the form characterized by Günzler et al. and then of two slightly smaller species, the smaller of which appears to be similar to that examined crystallographically [O. Epp, R. Ladenstein, and A. Wendel (1983) Eur. J. Biochem. 133, 51-69]. For ovine erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase the same behavior is seen, with initial isolation of a high-molecular-weight form that is subsequently proteolyzed to two intermediate forms and a final form that migrates at the same position on acrylamide gels as the lowest-molecular-weight form of the bovine enzyme. The contaminating protease can be inhibited by the addition of 10 mM EDTA, suggesting that it is a metalloprotease. Activity measurements on the intact and processed forms of the ovine enzyme show no significant differences with both hydrogen peroxide and t-butyl hydroperoxide as substrates. These results suggest that both bovine and ovine erythrocyte glutathione peroxidases consist of a globular core that is relatively resistant to proteolysis and an N-terminal tail of approximately 17 residues that seems to be exposed and is very sensitive to proteolysis. This tail, which contains many hydrophobic residues, is predicted to be largely alpha-helical and may be involved in anchoring the enzyme at or close to the membrane surface. PMID:1567207

  19. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  20. Ovine plasma prion protein levels show genotypic variation detected by C-terminal epitopes not exposed in cell-surface PrPC

    PubMed Central

    Thackray, Alana M.; Fitzmaurice, Tim J.; Hopkins, Lee; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Ovine PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) express PrPC [cellular PrP (prion-related protein)] and have the potential to harbour and release disease-associated forms of PrP during scrapie in sheep. Cell-surface PrPC expression by PBMCs, together with plasma PrPC levels, may contribute to the regulatory mechanisms that determine susceptibility and resistance to natural scrapie in sheep. Here, we have correlated cell-surface PrPC expression on normal ovine PBMCs by FACS with the presence of PrPC in plasma measured by capture–detector immunoassay. FACS showed similar levels of cell-surface PrPC on homozygous ARR (Ala136-Arg154-Arg171), ARQ (Ala136-Arg154-Gln171) and VRQ (Val136-Arg154-Gln171) PBMCs. Cell-surface ovine PrPC showed modulation of N-terminal epitopes, which was more evident on homozygous ARR cells. Ovine plasma PrPC levels showed genotypic variation and the protein displayed C-terminal epitopes not available in cell-surface PrPC. Homozygous VRQ sheep showed the highest plasma PrPC level and homozygous ARR animals the lowest. For comparison, similar analyses were performed on normal bovine PBMCs and plasma. PrPC levels in bovine plasma were approx. 4-fold higher than ovine homozygous ARQ plasma despite similar levels of PBMC cell-surface PrPC expression. Immunoassays using C-terminal-specific anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies as capture and detector reagents revealed the highest level of PrPC in both ovine and bovine plasma, whilst lower levels were detected using N-terminal-specific monoclonal antibody FH11 as the capture reagent. This suggested that a proportion of plasma PrPC was N-terminally truncated. Our results indicate that the increased susceptibility to natural scrapie displayed by homozygous VRQ sheep correlates with a higher level of plasma PrPC. PMID:16881870

  1. Impact of seasonal changes in ovine milk on composition and yield of a hard-pressed cheese.

    PubMed

    Jaeggi, J J; Wendorff, W L; Romero, J; Berger, Y M; Johnson, M E

    2005-04-01

    A hard-pressed, brined cheese was produced from frozen ovine milk collected in February, May, and August. Solids in the milk decreased as the season progressed. This was a result of high solids in early-lactation milk and low solids in August milk because of hot weather and poorer quality pastures. Casein as a percentage of true protein and the casein to fat ratio were higher in May and August milk. Fat in the cheese from February milk was higher and total protein was lower than in May and August. Milk, whey, and press whey composition were influenced by season and followed the trends of milk composition. Fat recovery in the cheeses ranged from 83.2 to 84.2%. Protein recovery in the cheeses was not affected by season. Cheese yield from February milk was higher than from May and August milk and was a result of higher casein and fat in the milk. PMID:15778303

  2. Parathyroid gland hormones in the skeletal development of the ovine foetus: the effect of parathyroidectomy with calcium and phosphate infusion.

    PubMed

    Aaron, J E; Abbas, S K; Colwell, A; Eastell, R; Oakley, B A; Russell, R G; Care, A D

    1992-02-01

    It has been confirmed that the foetal parathyroid glands are important in development and that thyroparathyroidectomy (TXPTX) of the ovine foetus with thyroxine (T4) replacement leads to hypocalcaemia, retarded skeletal development, depressed calcification and rickets, relative to thyroidectomy plus T4 replacement. Histomorphometric and biochemical (urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline) indices of bone resorption are also reduced. However, skeletal calcification can be restored to normal by long-term infusion of the TXPTX foetuses with phosphate and calcium sufficient to normalise the plasma Ca2+ x Pi ion product. Nevertheless, depressed resorption, reduced osteoblast numbers and delayed development persisted. The evidence suggests that the abnormally low number of resorption cavities and osteoclasts may result from the reduction in circulatory parathyroid-hormone-related protein consequent upon the removal of the foetal parathyroid glands and that this hypercalcaemic factor has a direct effect upon the process of resorption and primary trabecular remodelling of the foetal skeleton. PMID:1576487

  3. Elimination of (/sup 14/C)heptachlor from body stores of lactating ewes treated with ovine growth hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Holcombe, D.W.; Smith, G.S.; Khan, M.F.; Hallford, D.M.; Rozman, K.

    1988-09-01

    Elimination of (14C)heptachlor from body burdens of sheep was measured using mature ewes nursing single offspring, and the influence of exogenous ovine growth hormone (oGH) on elimination was studied. Six ewes (62 +/- 2.5 kg BW) were dosed (i.p.) once with (14C)heptachlor (2.04 mg/kg Bw; .88 microCi/mg heptachlor) and three were treated additionally with oGH (oGH; 5 mg/d) for 21 d. Three additional ewes served as controls. Excreta were collected each day for 21 d. Milk and blood were collected every 3rd d until ewes were euthanized at d 21. 14C activity was measured in excreta, milk, blood and tissues. Total cumulative activity of (14C)heptachlor and(or) metabolites in excreta (21 d) did not differ (P greater than .20) in ewes given oGH (25 +/- 2%) vs none (23 +/- 2%). Milk yield and protein content were unaffected (P greater than .10) by oGH. Ewes given oGH eliminated 2.2 +/- 2% of total 14C dosage into milk during 21 d, whereas ewes untreated with oGH eliminated 1.3 +/- .2% (P less than .10); total 14C activity eliminated into milk plus excreta was similar for ewes given oGH or none (P greater than .10). For all six ewes, half-times (T1/2) for distribution and elimination of 14C activity (heptachlor and metabolites) were 1.5 d and 11.7 d, respectively. Blood concentrations of 14C activity during 21 d yielded elimination half-time as 23 d. Unlike bovines, which eliminate heptachlor slowly (T1/2 approximately 70 to 80 d) and mainly into milk fat, lactating ovines eliminated heptachlor and(or) metabolites mainly into excreta and about sixfold faster than bovines.

  4. Maternal nutrient restriction reduces concentrations of amino acids and polyamines in ovine maternal and fetal plasma and fetal fluids.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyukjung; Ford, Stephen P; Bazer, Fuller W; Spencer, Thomas E; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Nijland, Mark J; Hess, Bret W; Wu, Guoyao

    2004-09-01

    Amino acids and polyamines are essential for placental and fetal growth, but little is known about their availability in the conceptus in response to maternal undernutrition. We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction reduces concentrations of amino acids and polyamines in the ovine conceptus. This hypothesis was tested in nutrient-restricted ewes between Days 28 and 78 (experiment 1) and between Days 28 and 135 (experiment 2) of gestation. In both experiments, ewes were assigned randomly on Day 28 of gestation to a control group fed 100% of National Research Council (NRC) nutrient requirements and to an nutrient-restricted group fed 50% of NRC requirements. Every 7 days beginning on Day 28 of gestation, ewes were weighed and rations adjusted for changes in body weight. On Day 78 of gestation, blood samples were obtained from the uterine artery and umbilical vein for analysis. In experiment 2, nutrient-restricted ewes on Day 78 of gestation either continued to be fed 50% of NRC requirements or were realimented to 100% of NRC requirements until Day 135. Fetal weight was reduced in nutrient-restricted ewes at both Day 78 (32%) and Day 135 (15%) compared with controls. Nutritional restriction markedly reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of total alpha-amino acids (particularly serine, arginine-family amino acids, and branched-chain amino acids) and polyamines in maternal and fetal plasma and in fetal allantoic and amniotic fluids at both mid and late gestation. Realimentation of nutrient-restricted ewes increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of total alpha-amino acids and polyamines in all the measured compartments and prevented intrauterine growth retardation. These novel findings demonstrate that 50% global nutrient restriction decreases concentrations of amino acids and polyamines in the ovine conceptus that could adversely impact key fetal functions. The results have important implications for understanding the mechanisms responsible for both intrauterine growth retardation and developmental origins of adult disease. PMID:15140798

  5. Metabolism of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) in ovine ruminal fluid under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Craig, A M; Latham, C J; Blythe, L L; Schmotzer, W B; O'Connor, O A

    1992-01-01

    The ability of ovine ruminal fluid to metabolize pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) from Senecio jacobaea under anaerobic conditions was evaluated. Four fistulated sheep fed PA served as individual sources of ruminal fluid, which was incubated in a defined minimal salts medium under two different anaerobic conditions, denitrifying and methanogenic. Anaerobic cultures amended with ovine ruminal fluids (20%), PA (100 micrograms/ml), and a defined minimal salts medium were monitored for a period of several days. These cultures revealed that while PA was not depleted in sterile, autoclaved controls or under denitrifying conditions, it was metabolized during periods of active methanogenesis under methanogenic conditions. In addition, samples of ruminal fluid were separated by differential centrifugation under anaerobic conditions, and the resultant supernatants were tested for their ability to metabolize PA as compared with those of the respective uncentrifuged control fluids. Uncentrifuged controls exhibited a PA depletion rate of -4.04 +/- 0.17 micrograms of PA per ml per h. Supernatants 1 (centrifuged at 41 x g for 2 min), 2 (centrifuged at 166 x g for 5 min), and 3 (centrifuged at 1,500 x g for 10 min) exhibited significantly slower depletion rates, with slopes of data representing -1.64 +/- 0.16, -1.44 +/- 0.16, and -1.48 +/- 0.16 micrograms of PA metabolized per ml per h, respectively, demonstrating no statistically significant difference among the supernatant cultures. Microscopic evaluations revealed that protozoa were present in the control whole ruminal fluid and to a lesser extent in supernatant 1, while supernatants 2 and 3 contained only bacteria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1444382

  6. Influence of the gestational stage on the clinical course, lesional development and parasite distribution in experimental ovine neosporosis.

    PubMed

    Arranz-Solís, David; Benavides, Julio; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Fuertes, Miguel; Ferre, Ignacio; Ferreras, Maria Del Carmen; Collantes-Fernández, Esther; Hemphill, Andrew; Pérez, Valentín; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Neospora caninum is considered one of the main causes of abortion in cattle, yet recent studies have also emphasised its relevance as an abortifacient in small ruminants. In order to gain deeper insight into the pathogenesis of ovine neosporosis, pregnant ewes were intravenously inoculated with 10(6) tachyzoites of the Nc-Spain7 isolate at days 40, 90 or 120 of gestation. Infection during the first term resulted in the death of all foetuses between days 19 and 21 post-infection, showing mainly necrotic lesions in foetal liver and the highest parasite DNA detection and burden in both placenta and foetal viscera. After infection at day 90, foetal death was also detected in all ewes, although later (34-48 days post-infection). In this group, lesions were mainly inflammatory. Foetal livers showed the lowest frequency of lesions, as well as the lowest parasite detection and burden. All ewes infected at day 120 delivered viable lambs, although 3 out of 9 showed weakness and recumbency. Neospora DNA was detected in all lambs but one, and parasite burden was similar to that observed in day 90 group. Lesions in this group showed more conspicuous infiltration of inflammatory cells and higher frequency in foetal brain and muscle when compared to both previous groups. These results highlight the crucial role that the stage of gestation plays on the course of ovine neosporosis, similar to that reported in bovine neosporosis, and open the doors to consider sheep as a valid model for exogenous transplacental transmission for ruminant neosporosis. PMID:25884945

  7. Gene therapy for prostate cancer delivered by ovine adenovirus and mediated by purine nucleoside phosphorylase and fludarabine in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Voeks, D; Martiniello-Wilks, R; Madden, V; Smith, K; Bennetts, E; Both, G W; Russell, P J

    2002-06-01

    A gene-directed enzyme pro-drug therapy (GDEPT) based on purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), that converts the prodrug, fludarabine to 2-fluoroadenine, has been described, but studies are limited compared with other GDEPTs. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of PNP-GDEPT for treating androgen-independent (AI) prostate cancer. The PNP gene controlled by Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) constitutive promoter was delivered using a recombinant ovine adenovirus vector (OAdV220) that uses a different receptor from human adenovirus type 5. In vitro, OAdV220 provided increased transgene expression over a comparable human Ad5 vector in infected AI, murine RM1 prostate cancer cells. Subsequent in vivo testing was therefore confined to OAdV220. Transduction of RM1 cells with OAdV220 before implantation in immunocompetent mice dramatically inhibited subcutaneous (s.c.) tumor growth when fludarabine phosphate was administered systemically and increased mouse survival in a dose-dependent manner. In tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice, a single intratumoral injection of OAdV220 produced detectable PNP activity for at least 6 days and with prodrug, retarded the growth of aggressive RM1 s.c. tumors by 35% at day 14. There was a consistent trend to reduction of pre-established intraprostatic RM1 tumors. A similar regimen induced significant therapeutic efficacy in human PC3 xenografts. Thus, ovine adenovirus-mediated GDEPT using the PNP system was effective in vivo against AI prostate cancers, the aggressive murine RM1, and the human PC3 lines. Methods that improve viral dissemination and stimulate the immune system in vivo may further improve efficacy. PMID:12040457

  8. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes

    PubMed Central

    Nitzsche, Björn; Frey, Stephen; Collins, Louis D.; Seeger, Johannes; Lobsien, Donald; Dreyer, Antje; Kirsten, Holger; Stoffel, Michael H.; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Boltze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs, and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM) that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams) were acquired on a 1.5 T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight (BW), age, and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM) and white (WM) matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and BW explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species. PMID:26089780

  9. A stereotaxic, population-averaged T1w ovine brain atlas including cerebral morphology and tissue volumes.

    PubMed

    Nitzsche, Björn; Frey, Stephen; Collins, Louis D; Seeger, Johannes; Lobsien, Donald; Dreyer, Antje; Kirsten, Holger; Stoffel, Michael H; Fonov, Vladimir S; Boltze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Standard stereotaxic reference systems play a key role in human brain studies. Stereotaxic coordinate systems have also been developed for experimental animals including non-human primates, dogs, and rodents. However, they are lacking for other species being relevant in experimental neuroscience including sheep. Here, we present a spatial, unbiased ovine brain template with tissue probability maps (TPM) that offer a detailed stereotaxic reference frame for anatomical features and localization of brain areas, thereby enabling inter-individual and cross-study comparability. Three-dimensional data sets from healthy adult Merino sheep (Ovis orientalis aries, 12 ewes and 26 neutered rams) were acquired on a 1.5 T Philips MRI using a T1w sequence. Data were averaged by linear and non-linear registration algorithms. Moreover, animals were subjected to detailed brain volume analysis including examinations with respect to body weight (BW), age, and sex. The created T1w brain template provides an appropriate population-averaged ovine brain anatomy in a spatial standard coordinate system. Additionally, TPM for gray (GM) and white (WM) matter as well as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) classification enabled automatic prior-based tissue segmentation using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Overall, a positive correlation of GM volume and BW explained about 15% of the variance of GM while a positive correlation between WM and age was found. Absolute tissue volume differences were not detected, indeed ewes showed significantly more GM per bodyweight as compared to neutered rams. The created framework including spatial brain template and TPM represent a useful tool for unbiased automatic image preprocessing and morphological characterization in sheep. Therefore, the reported results may serve as a starting point for further experimental and/or translational research aiming at in vivo analysis in this species. PMID:26089780

  10. Alteration of osteocalcin mRNA expression in ovine osteoblasts in dependence of sodium fluoride and sodium selenite medium supplementation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liting; Yu, Fuqing; Xu, Zhihua; Zeng, Xinmei; Ferreri, Miro; Han, Bo

    2010-03-01

    Objective of this study was to assess the quantification of osteocalcin (OCN) expression by ovine osteoblasts cultured with different concentrations of sodium fluoride (F) and sodium selenite (Se) to evaluate the interaction of these agents on OCN expression in vitro . We wanted to demonstrate a possible protective effect of selenium on the toxic effect of fluoride. Osteoblasts were isolated by complete trypsin and collagenase digestion from ovine calvarial bone and cultured in DMEM supplemented with 15% FBS at 37 degrees C in a humidified 5% CO 2 incubator. Identified osteoblasts were divided into one control group (C) and eight experimental groups, which were exposed to different concentrations of sodium fluoride (F; 0, 0.5, 1 mM) sodium selenite (Se; 0, 0.1, 1 microM). At different time points after treatment total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed into first-strand cDNA. OCN mRNA was indirectly measured by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). OCN mRNA expression in F 1 mM with Se 1 microM group was found to have a high peak at day seven and was lower before and afterwards. Expression of OCN mRNA in all groups except control could be promoted by F and/or Se showing a general upregulation. Furthermore, the toxicity from excessive exposure of osteoblast with F could be circumvented by usage of moderate concentration of Se. Osteoblasts cultured in vitro may have stressful responses to F and Se at the first few days. Low concentrations of Se inhibit the toxic effects of high concentrations of F. Therefore, F and Se could be used as antagonistic factors, which could regulate osteocalcin expression. PMID:20194099

  11. Effect of biopsy and vitrification on in vitro survival of ovine embryos at different stages of development.

    PubMed

    Naitana, S; Loi, P; Ledda, S; Cappai, P; Dattena, M; Bogliolo, L; Leoni, G

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the in vitro viability of ovine embryos at different stages of development after combining cell sampling and vitrification. Precompacted morulae, compacted morulae and blastocysts were obtained from superovulated Sarda ewes at 4, 5 or 6 d following insemination. Embryo cell biopsy was carried out in a 100-microl drop of PBS + 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) with 10 micromol nocodazole and 7.5 microg/ml cytochalasin-b by aspiration (3-5 cells). Embryos were cryopreserved at room temperature after exposure of 2 solutions for 5 min, transferred into a vitrification solution, loaded into the center of 0.25-ml straws separated by air bubbles from 2 columns of sucrose 0.5 M and plunged immediately into liquid nitrogen. In Experiment 1, the in vitro viability of manipulated or vitrified embryos after in vitro co-culture in TCM 199 medium with 10% FCS and sheep oviductal epithelial cells (SOEC) in 5% CO2 humidified atmosphere in air at 39 degrees C was significantly lower (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) at precompacted morula (60 and 30%) and compacted morula (62 and 39%) stages than intact embryos at the same stages (87 and 88%). No differences were found at the blastocyst stage. In Experiment 2, the in vitro survival rate of precompacted morulae which were manipulated and immediately vitrified was lower (P < 0.05) than in those manipulated and, after a temporary period of culture, vitrified at blastocyst stage (21 vs 48%); while no differences were found at compacted morula and blastocyst stages. The results show that 1) the stage of development influences the subsequent in vitro viability of manipulated and vitrified ovine embryos, 2) temporary culture after manipulation and before vitrification improves the in vitro viability of embryos, and 3) the hole in the zona pellucida resulting from biopsy does not affect blastocyst survival after subsequent vitrification. PMID:16727945

  12. A Corpus-Based Evaluation of Metaphors in a Business English Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skorczynska Sznajder, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the selection of metaphors in a published business English textbook using findings from a specialised corpus of written business English. While most scholars agree that metaphors should be included in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) syllabuses as a potentially problematic area in successful language learning, it is…

  13. Shape Analysis of Corpus Callosum in Autism Subtype using Planar Conformal Mapping

    E-print Network

    Yin, Xiaotian "Tim"

    cannot be reflected in volume measurements. Shape morphology of the CC in autism has been studied in [1Shape Analysis of Corpus Callosum in Autism Subtype using Planar Conformal Mapping Qing He*1 , Ye Brook, New York, USA 11794 3 Thompson Center for Autism, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO

  14. Desalination\\/Aquifer Storage Recovery (DASR): a cost-effective combination for Corpus Christi, Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. David G. Pyne; Jonathan B. Howard

    2004-01-01

    A project is underdevelopment at Padre Island and Mustang Island, Corpus Christi, Texas, combining desalination of brackish groundwater with ASR storage of treated drinking water, both utilizing brackish, confined sand aquifers and clay confining layers at depths of less than 250 m. The combination of these two technologies, referred to as “DASR,” is a cost-effective water management approach that enables

  15. Creating the DISEQuA Corpus: a Test Set for Multilingual Question Answering

    E-print Network

    de Rijke, Maarten

    Creating the DISEQuA Corpus: a Test Set for Multilingual Question Answering Bernardo Magnini Amsterdam, The Netherlands. mdr@science.uva.nl Abstract. This paper describes the procedure adopted by the three coordinators of the CLEF 2003 question answering track (ITC-irst, UNED and ILLC) to create

  16. Corpus Study of Tense, Aspect, and Modality in Diglossic Speech in Cairene Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moshref, Ola Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Morpho-syntactic features of Modern Standard Arabic mix intricately with those of Egyptian Colloquial Arabic in ordinary speech. I study the lexical, phonological and syntactic features of verb phrase morphemes and constituents in different tenses, aspects, moods. A corpus of over 3000 phrases was collected from religious, political/economic and…

  17. Longitudinal Changes in the Corpus Callosum following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor C. Wu; Elisabeth A. Wilde; Erin D. Bigler; Xiaoqi Li; Tricia L. Merkley; Ragini Yallampalli; Stephen R. McCauley; Kathleen P. Schnelle; Ana C. Vasquez; Zili Chu; Gerri Hanten; Jill V. Hunter; Harvey S. Levin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) is a documented consequence of moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), which has been expressed as volume loss using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Other advanced imaging modalities such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have also detected white matter microstructural alteration following TBI in the CC. The manner and degree to which macrostructural changes

  18. Editing and Translating the Taiping Jing and the Great Peace Textual Corpus*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Editing and Translating the Taiping Jing and the Great Peace Textual Corpus* Grégoire Espesset Centre national de la recherche scientifique, UMR 8155, Paris The Scripture on Great Peace: The Taiping . The entry therein dealing with the Taiping jing (Scripture of Great Peace) today shows both disdain

  19. K.Stock et al. Creating a corpus of geospatial language

    E-print Network

    Stock, Kristin

    K.Stock et al. Creating a corpus of geospatial language Kristin Stock* , Robert C Pasley, Zoe Gardner, Paul Brindley, Jeremy Morley and Claudia Cialone Nottingham Geospatial Institute, University, examples of geospatial language are usually collected from the personal knowledge of researchers

  20. Statistical analysis of target language corpus for word sense disambiguation in a machine translation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tayebeh Mosavi

    This article studies different aspects of a new approach for word sense disambiguation using statistical information gains from a target language monolingual corpus. Here, the source language is English and the target one is Persian, and this disambiguation method in those aspects which gives desirable results can be directly applied in the system of English-to-Persian machine translation for solving lexical

  1. Oldenburg logatome speech corpus (OLLO) for speech recognition experiments with humans and machines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorsten Wesker; Bernd T. Meyer; Kirsten Wagener; Jörn Anemüller; Alfred Mertins; Birger Kollmeier

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the new OLdenburg LOgatome speech corpus (OLLO) and outlines design considerations dur- ing its creation. OLLO is distinct from previous ASR corpora as it specifically targets (1) the fair comparison between human and machine speech recognition performance, and (2) the re- alistic representation of intrinsic variabilities in speech that are significant for automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems.

  2. Reduced White Matter Connectivity in the Corpus Callosum of Children with Tourette Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plessen, Kerstin J.; Gruner, Renate; Lundervold, Arvid; Hirsch, Jochen G.; Xu, Dongrong; Bansal, Ravi; Hammar, Asa; Lundervold, Astri J.; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Lie, Stein Atle; Gass, Achim; Peterson, Bradley S.; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Background: Brain imaging studies have revealed anatomical anomalies in the brains of individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS). Prefrontal regions have been found to be larger and the corpus callosum (CC) area smaller in children and young adults with TS compared with healthy control subjects, and these anatomical features have been understood to…

  3. Catalan-English Statistical Machine Translation without Parallel Corpus: Bridging through Spanish

    E-print Network

    de Gispert, Adrià

    the cost of using Spanish as a bridge towards large-vocabulary Catalan-English translation in a wholly approaches followed to produce English-Catalan translations, including the evaluation procedure. Section 3Catalan-English Statistical Machine Translation without Parallel Corpus: Bridging through Spanish

  4. A corpus study on the number of true proportional analogies between chunks

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    that there is no inductive #12;device like analogy in language acquisition be- cause (1) young children produce sententialA corpus study on the number of true proportional analogies between chunks in two typologically}@etu.info.unicaen.fr Abstract We measure the number of true pro- portional analogies between chunks in two typologically

  5. Contrastive Textology and Corpus Linguistics: On the Value of Parallel Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, R. R. K.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the intricacies of text analysis as approached by computer-assisted corpus linguistics, focusing on meaning relations in the text. The article points out that it is possible to distinguish several different approaches, according to whether the focus is on intralingual or interlingual parallel texts. (12 references) (Author/CK)

  6. Will Corpus Linguistics Revolutionize Grammar Teaching in the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Argues that corpus linguistics could radically change grammar teaching in the 21st century in three ways: register-specific grammatical description could replace the grammar of English, grammar and vocabulary teaching could become more integrated, and emphasis could shift from structural accuracy to appropriateness of grammatical choice.…

  7. Job Title Substance Abuse Counselor Clinical Supervision (Corpus Christi, TX) Employer/ Agency Danya International, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Azevedo, Ricardo

    with a primary diagnosis of substance abuse or dependence. If in recovery from alcohol or drug abuse, a minimum Navy substance abuse counselors stationed in Corpus Christi, Texas. This is a part-time contract position offering approximately 12 hours a month. Danya International, Inc. is under contract to the Navy

  8. Concussion causes transient dysfunction in cortical inhibitory networks but not the corpus callosum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Hammond-Tooke; J. Goei; L. J. du Plessis; E. A. Franz

    2010-01-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is thought to be especially vulnerable in traumatic brain injury. Bimanual cost (a slowing of reaction time with bimanual compared to unimanual responses) is a sensitive indicator of CC function. To determine whether CC dysfunction is a significant feature of mild traumatic brain injury, unimanual and bimanual reaction times were studied in 10 recently concussed patients

  9. Two Different Faces of Cavafy in English: A Corpus-Assisted Approach to Translational Stylistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantopoulos, Iraklis

    2012-01-01

    A translator is seen to leave a personal mark on the text through their stylistic choices and the patterns formed by these choices. This article comprises a case study that uses a specialized comparative corpus containing translations of C.P. Cavafy's canon in order to explore the distinctive stylistic features of Rae Dalven and of Edmund…

  10. Writing/Thinking in Real Time: Digital Video and Corpus Query Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kwanghyun; Kinginger, Celeste

    2010-01-01

    The advance of digital video technology in the past two decades facilitates empirical investigation of learning in real time. The focus of this paper is the combined use of real-time digital video and a networked linguistic corpus for exploring the ways in which these technologies enhance our capability to investigate the cognitive process of…

  11. From Raw Corpus to Word Lattices: Robust Pre-parsing Processing with SXPipe

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    From Raw Corpus to Word Lattices: Robust Pre-parsing Processing with SXPipe Benoît Sagot and Pierre, spelling correction, and non-deterministic multi- words processing, re-accentuation and un parsing of large corpora (several milion words), and used SXPipe to pre-process these corpora before

  12. On Building a Reusable Twitter Corpus Richard McCreadie1

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jimmy

    On Building a Reusable Twitter Corpus Richard McCreadie1 , Ian Soboroff2 , Jimmy Lin3 , Craig@umd.edu3 ABSTRACT The Twitter real-time information network is the subject of research for information retrieval tasks such as real-time search. However, so far, reproducible experimentation on Twitter data has

  13. Issues Related to the Construction of a Purpose-Built Domain-Specific Word Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa; Pfister, H. Peter; Peterson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of semantic collections in order to identify and analyse domain knowledge. This paper describes some technical issues to consider when contemplating research which incorporates small-to-medium domain-specific word sets. The purpose of the corpus construction described was to provide an external word collection…

  14. Rapid Unit Selection from a Large Speech Corpus for Concatenative Speech Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Mohri, Mehryar

    stored acoustic unit sequence that matched each phonetic sequence to be synthesized [8]. More recently, synthe­ sis systems have emerged that use an entire speech corpus as the acoustic inventory avoids time­consuming manual selection, and, with a large enough database, eliminates or mini­ mizes

  15. An Algerian Arabic-French Code-Switched Corpus Ryan Cotterell1

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    An Algerian Arabic-French Code-Switched Corpus Ryan Cotterell1 , Adithya Renduchintala1 , Naomi Computer and Information Science Department, University of Pennsylvania Abstract Arabic is not just one language, but rather a collection of dialects in addition to Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). While MSA

  16. The Penn Arabic Treebank: Building a Large-Scale Annotated Arabic Corpus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Maamouri; Ann Bies; Tim Buckwalter; Wigdan Mekki

    From our three year experience of developing a large-scale corpus of annotated Arabic text, our paper will address the following: (a) review pertinent Arabic language issues as they relate to methodology choices, (b) explain our choice to use the Penn English Treebank style of guidelines, (requiring the Arabic-speaking annotators to deal with a new grammatical system) rather than doing the

  17. A web-based multilingual parallel corpus collection system for the medical field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Yoshino; Taku Fukushima; Mai Miyabe; Aguri Shigeno

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a Web-based multilingual parallel corpus collection system named TackPad for medical workers and foreign patients. The number of foreign visitors and residents in Japan is increasing. However, it is not sufficient to provide linguistic support via medical translators to people who do not understand Japanese. In particular, poor communication may lead to medical errors. Moreover, there are

  18. Hallermann-Streiff syndrome associated with complete agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Sigirci, Ahmet; Alkan, Alpay; Bicak, Ugur; Yakinci, Cengiz

    2005-08-01

    Hallermann-Streiff syndrome is a rare clinical entity with unknown etiology characterized by a birdlike face, microphthalmia, a beaked nose, hypotrichosis, and proportional small stature. We present a 4-year-old boy in whom magnetic resonance imaging showed complete agenesis of the corpus callosum, which has not been presented in the literature. PMID:16225817

  19. Sex differences in corpus callosum size: relationship to age and intracranial size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edith V. Sullivan; Margaret J. Rosenbloom; John E. Desmond; Adolf Pfefferbaum

    2001-01-01

    This quantitative MRI study reports measurement of corpus callosum area taken from midsagittal brain images in 51 healthy men and 41 healthy women, spanning the adult age range (22 to 71 years). Men had larger brains and corpora callosa than women, but callosal size did not correlate with age in either sex. Intracranial (i.c.) volume (ICV) and midsagittal i.c. area

  20. Tag Questions across Irish English and British English: A Corpus Analysis of Form and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Anne; Pandarova, Irina; Muderack, Karoline

    2015-01-01

    The present study, situated in the area of variational pragmatics, contrasts tag question (TQ) use in Ireland and Great Britain using spoken data from the Irish and British components of the International Corpus of English (ICE). Analysis is on the formal and functional level and also investigates form-functional relationships. Findings reveal…