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Sample records for ovine corpus luteum

  1. Pregnancy-associated genes contribute to antiluteolytic mechanisms in ovine corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Jared J.; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q.; Smirnova, Natalia P.; Webb, Brett T.; Yu, Fang; Davis, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that ovine luteal gene expression differs due to pregnancy status and day of estrous cycle was tested. RNA was isolated from corpora lutea (CL) on days 12 and 14 of the estrous cycle (NP) or pregnancy (P) and analyzed with the Affymetrix bovine microarray. RNA also was isolated from luteal cells on day 10 of estrous cycle that were cultured for 24 h with luteolytic hormones (OXT and PGF) and secretory products of the conceptus (IFNT and PGE2). Differential gene expression (>1.5-fold, P < 0.05) was confirmed using semiquantitative real-time PCR. Serum progesterone concentrations decreased from day 12 to day 15 in NP ewes (P < 0.05) reflecting luteolysis and remained >1.7 ng/ml in P ewes reflecting rescue of the CL. Early luteolysis (days 12–14) was associated with differential expression of 683 genes in the CL, including upregulation of SERPINE1 and THBS1. Pregnancy on day 12 (55 genes) and 14 (734 genes) also was associated with differential expression of genes in the CL, many of which were ISGs (i.e., ISG15, MX1) that were induced when culturing luteal cells with IFNT, but not PGE2. Finally, many genes, such as PTX3, IL6, VEGF, and LHR, were stabilized during pregnancy and downregulated during the estrous cycle and in response to culture of luteal cells with luteolytic hormones. In conclusion, pregnancy circumvents luteolytic pathways and activates or stabilizes genes associated with interferon, chemokine, cell adhesion, cytoskeletal, and angiogenic pathways in the CL. PMID:24046284

  2. CORPUS LUTEUM: ANIMAL MODELS OF POSSIBLE RELEVANCE TO REPRODUCTIVE TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence of a normally functioning corpus luteum is an essential requirement for the maintenance of gestation in mammals. he chief function of the corpus luteum in all species is to synthesize the steroid hormone progesterone that is necessary for implantation and for the sub...

  3. Cytokines and Angiogenesis in the Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Galvão, António M.; Ferreira-Dias, Graça; Skarzynski, Dariusz J.

    2013-01-01

    In adults, physiological angiogenesis is a rare event, with few exceptions as the vasculogenesis needed for tissue growth and function in female reproductive organs. Particularly in the corpus luteum (CL), regulation of angiogenic process seems to be tightly controlled by opposite actions resultant from the balance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors. It is the extremely rapid sequence of events that determines the dramatic changes on vascular and nonvascular structures, qualifying the CL as a great model for angiogenesis studies. Using the mare CL as a model, reports on locally produced cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF), interferon gamma (IFNG), or Fas ligand (FASL), pointed out their role on angiogenic activity modulation throughout the luteal phase. Thus, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the interaction between immune, endothelial, and luteal steroidogenic cells, regarding vascular dynamics/changes during establishment and regression of the equine CL. PMID:23840095

  4. The role of GPR1 signaling in mice corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Li; Ren, Li-Rong; Sun, Li-Feng; Huang, Chen; Xiao, Tian-Xia; Wang, Bao-Bei; Chen, Jie; Zabel, Brian A; Ren, Peigen; Zhang, Jian V

    2016-07-01

    Chemerin, a chemokine, plays important roles in immune responses, inflammation, adipogenesis, and carbohydrate metabolism. Our recent research has shown that chemerin has an inhibitory effect on hormone secretion from the testis and ovary. However, whether G protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1), the active receptor for chemerin, regulates steroidogenesis and luteolysis in the corpus luteum is still unknown. In this study, we established a pregnant mare serum gonadotropin-human chorionic gonadotropin (PMSG-hCG) superovulation model, a prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) luteolysis model, and follicle and corpus luteum culture models to analyze the role of chemerin signaling through GPR1 in the synthesis and secretion of gonadal hormones during follicular/luteal development and luteolysis. Our results, for the first time, show that chemerin and GPR1 are both differentially expressed in the ovary over the course of the estrous cycle, with highest levels in estrus and metestrus. GPR1 has been localized to granulosa cells, cumulus cells, and the corpus luteum by immunohistochemistry (IHC). In vitro, we found that chemerin suppresses hCG-induced progesterone production in cultured follicle and corpus luteum and that this effect is attenuated significantly by anti-GPR1 MAB treatment. Furthermore, when the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway was blocked, the attenuating effect of GPR1 MAB was abrogated. Interestingly, PGF2α induces luteolysis through activation of caspase-3, leading to a reduction in progesterone secretion. Treatment with GPR1 MAB blocked the PGF2α effect on caspase-3 expression and progesterone secretion. This study indicates that chemerin/GPR1 signaling directly or indirectly regulates progesterone synthesis and secretion during the processes of follicular development, corpus luteum formation, and PGF2α-induced luteolysis. PMID:27149986

  5. Endocrine and Local Control of the Primate Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Stouffer, Richard L.; Bishop, Cecily V.; Bogan, Randy L.; Xu, Fuhua; Hennebold, Jon D.

    2014-01-01

    The primate corpus luteum is a transient endocrine gland that differentiates from the ovulatory follicle midway through the ovarian (menstrual) cycle. Its formation and limited lifespan is critical for fertility, as luteal-derived progesterone is the essential steroid hormone required for embryo implantation and maintenance of intra-uterine pregnancy until the placenta develops. It is well-established that LH and the LH-like hormone, CG, are the vital luteotropic hormones during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy, respectively. Recent advances, particularly through genome analyses and cellular studies, increased our understanding of various local factors and cellular processes associated with the development, maintenance and repression of the corpus luteum. These include paracrine or autocrine factors associated with angiogenesis (e.g., VEGF), and that mediate LH/CG actions (e.g., progesterone), or counteract luteotropic effects (i.e., local luteolysis; e.g., PGF2α). However, areas of mystery and controversy remain, particularly regarding the signals and events that initiate luteal regression in the non-fecund cycle. Novel approaches capable of gene “knockdown” or amplification”, in vivo as well as in vitro, should identify novel or underappreciated gene products that are regulated by or modulate LH/CG actions to control the functional lifespan of the primate corpus luteum. Further advances in our understanding of luteal physiology will help to improve or control fertility for purposes ranging from preservation of endangered primate species to designing novel ovary-based contraceptives and treating ovarian disorders in women. R01 HD020869, R01 HD042000, U54 HD018185, U54 HD055744, P51 OD011092, T32 HD007133, Bayer Schering Pharma AG. PMID:24287034

  6. Macrophages regulate corpus luteum development during embryo implantation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Care, Alison S.; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Jasper, Melinda J.; Brown, Hannah M.; Ingman, Wendy V.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are prominent in the uterus and ovary at conception. Here we utilize the Cd11b-Dtr mouse model of acute macrophage depletion to define the essential role of macrophages in early pregnancy. Macrophage depletion after conception caused embryo implantation arrest associated with diminished plasma progesterone and poor uterine receptivity. Implantation failure was alleviated by administration of bone marrow–derived CD11b+F4/80+ monocytes/macrophages. In the ovaries of macrophage-depleted mice, corpora lutea were profoundly abnormal, with elevated Ptgs2, Hif1a, and other inflammation and apoptosis genes and with diminished expression of steroidogenesis genes Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b1. Infertility was rescued by exogenous progesterone, which confirmed that uterine refractoriness was fully attributable to the underlying luteal defect. In normally developing corpora lutea, macrophages were intimately juxtaposed with endothelial cells and expressed the proangiogenic marker TIE2. After macrophage depletion, substantial disruption of the luteal microvascular network occurred and was associated with altered ovarian expression of genes that encode vascular endothelial growth factors. These data indicate a critical role for macrophages in supporting the extensive vascular network required for corpus luteum integrity and production of progesterone essential for establishing pregnancy. Our findings raise the prospect that disruption of macrophage-endothelial cell interactions underpinning corpus luteum development contributes to infertility in women in whom luteal insufficiency is implicated. PMID:23867505

  7. Macrophages regulate corpus luteum development during embryo implantation in mice.

    PubMed

    Care, Alison S; Diener, Kerrilyn R; Jasper, Melinda J; Brown, Hannah M; Ingman, Wendy V; Robertson, Sarah A

    2013-08-01

    Macrophages are prominent in the uterus and ovary at conception. Here we utilize the Cd11b-Dtr mouse model of acute macrophage depletion to define the essential role of macrophages in early pregnancy. Macrophage depletion after conception caused embryo implantation arrest associated with diminished plasma progesterone and poor uterine receptivity. Implantation failure was alleviated by administration of bone marrow-derived CD11b+F4/80+ monocytes/macrophages. In the ovaries of macrophage-depleted mice, corpora lutea were profoundly abnormal, with elevated Ptgs2, Hif1a, and other inflammation and apoptosis genes and with diminished expression of steroidogenesis genes Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b1. Infertility was rescued by exogenous progesterone, which confirmed that uterine refractoriness was fully attributable to the underlying luteal defect. In normally developing corpora lutea, macrophages were intimately juxtaposed with endothelial cells and expressed the proangiogenic marker TIE2. After macrophage depletion, substantial disruption of the luteal microvascular network occurred and was associated with altered ovarian expression of genes that encode vascular endothelial growth factors. These data indicate a critical role for macrophages in supporting the extensive vascular network required for corpus luteum integrity and production of progesterone essential for establishing pregnancy. Our findings raise the prospect that disruption of macrophage-endothelial cell interactions underpinning corpus luteum development contributes to infertility in women in whom luteal insufficiency is implicated. PMID:23867505

  8. Hypothyroidism prolongs corpus luteum function in the pregnant rat.

    PubMed

    Hapon, María Belén; Motta, Alicia B; Ezquer, Marcelo; Bonafede, Melisa; Jahn, Graciela A

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that hypothyroidism in the rat produces a prolongation of pregnancy associated with a delay in the fall of circulating progesterone (P4) at term. The aim of the present work is to determine whether the delayed P4 decline in hypothyroid mother rats is due to a retarded induction of P4 degradation to 20alphaOH P4 or to a stimulation of its synthesis, and to investigate the possible mechanisms that may underlie the altered luteal function. We determined by RIA the circulating profile of the hormones (TSH, PRL, LH, P4, PGF2alpha, and PGE2) involved in luteal regulation at the end of pregnancy and, by semiquantitative RT-PCR, the expression of factors involved in P4 synthesis (CytP450scc, StAR, 3betaHSD, PRLR) and metabolism (20alphaHSD, PGF2alphaR, iNOS and COX2). Our results show that the delay in P4 decline and parturition is the resultant of retarded luteal regression, caused by a combination of decreases in luteolytic factors, mainly luteal PGF2alpha, iNOS mRNA expression and also circulating LH, and increased synthesis or action of luteotrophic factors, such as luteal and circulating PGE2 and circulating PRL. All these changes may be direct causes of the decreased 20alphaHSD mRNA and protein (measured by western blot analysis) expression, which in the presence of unchanged expression of the factors involved in P4 synthesis results in elevated luteal and circulating P4 that prolonged pregnancy and also may favor longer survival of the corpus luteum. PMID:17244746

  9. ATF3 Expression in the corpus luteum: possible role in luteal regression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study investigated the induction and possible role of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in the corpus luteum. Postpubertal cattle were treated at midcycle with prostaglandin F2alpha(PGF) for 0–4 hours. Luteal tissue was processed for immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, an...

  10. Human corpus luteum: presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and binding characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyagari, R.R.; Khan-Dawood, F.S.

    1987-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors are present in many reproductive tissues but have not been demonstrated in the human corpus luteum. To determine the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and its binding characteristics, we carried out studies on the plasma cell membrane fraction of seven human corpora lutea (days 16 to 25) of the menstrual cycle. Specific epidermal growth factor receptors were present in human corpus luteum. Insulin, nerve growth factor, and human chorionic gonadotropin did not competitively displace epidermal growth factor binding. The optimal conditions for corpus luteum-epidermal growth factor receptor binding were found to be incubation for 2 hours at 4 degrees C with 500 micrograms plasma membrane protein and 140 femtomol /sup 125/I-epidermal growth factor per incubate. The number (mean +/- SEM) of epidermal growth factor binding sites was 12.34 +/- 2.99 X 10(-19) mol/micrograms protein; the dissociation constant was 2.26 +/- 0.56 X 10(-9) mol/L; the association constant was 0.59 +/- 0.12 X 10(9) L/mol. In two regressing corpora lutea obtained on days 2 and 3 of the menstrual cycle, there was no detectable specific epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity. Similarly no epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity could be detected in ovarian stromal tissue. Our findings demonstrate that specific receptors for epidermal growth factor are present in the human corpus luteum. The physiologic significance of epidermal growth factor receptors in human corpus luteum is unknown, but epidermal growth factor may be involved in intragonadal regulation of luteal function.

  11. Abnormal function of the corpus luteum in some ewes with phyto-oestrogenic infertility.

    PubMed

    Adams, N R; Hearnshaw, H; Oldham, C M

    1981-01-01

    Ewes with permanent phyto-estrogenic infertility show oestrus less regularly than normal ewes, and the present study examines the extent to which this results from abnormal ovarian function. Forty-nine affected ewes and 53 controls were run with rams fitted with marking crayons and harnesses, and crayon marks were recorded and laparoscopy performed at weekly intervals for 3 weeks. Fewer affected ewes showed oestrus accompanied by ovulation (28 v. 49, P less than 0.001), and four of these affected ewes had a second ovulation during the experiment. More of the ovulations observed in affected ewes were unaccompanied by behavioural oestrus than in controls (8 out of 38 v. 2 out of 50; P less than 0.05). Six affected ewes had no corpus luteum or oestrus, and five of these had adhesions over the genitalia. Hydrops uteri in five other affected ewes was accompanied by prolonged maintenance of the corpus luteum. Some other abnormalities were also observed. In a second study, plasma progesterone concentrations were measured twice daily in 12 affected ewes which were run with rams. Five ewes had oestrous cycles of abnormal duration (two of more than 23 days, two of 21 days, and one of 11 days), and these were accompanied by plasma progesterone patterns different from those of the ewes with an oestrous cycle duration of 16-18 days. It is concluded that the irregular oestrous cycles in affected ewes are due mainly to abnormal life span and progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum, which in turn largely result from changes in the uterus. PMID:7196218

  12. Biochemical and endocrine aspects of oxytocin production by the mammalian corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    Stormshak, Fredrick

    2003-01-01

    A review of the current state of knowledge of oxytocin production by the preovulatory follicle and corpus luteum is presented. Corpora lutea of a number of mammalian species have been found to synthesize oxytocin. However, the synthesis and secretion of this nanopeptide by the corpus luteum of the ruminant has been most extensively studied because of the potential role of this peptide in facilitating luteal regression. While much information exists relative to various biochemical and endocrine factors that impact on oxytocin gene expression, this aspect about luteal synthesis of this peptide hormone remains enigmatic. Prostaglandin F-2α (PGF-2α) has been shown to be a primary endogenous hormone responsible for triggering luteal secretion of oxytocin. Details are provided regarding the PGF-2α-induced intracellular signal transduction pathway that ultimately results in exocytosis of luteal oxytocin. Evidence is also presented for potential autocrine/paracrine actions of oxytocin in regulating progesterone production by luteal and granulosa cells. Concluding remarks highlight aspects about luteal oxytocin production that require further research. PMID:14613532

  13. Hepatic steroid inactivating enzymes, hepatic portal blood flow, and corpus luteum blood perfusion in lactating dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In ruminants, a decrease in pregnancy rates may be due to decreased concentrations of progesterone (P4). It is important to note that both production from the corpus luteum and/or hepatic steroid inactivation impacts peripheral concentrations of P4. Cattle with an elevated dry matter intake have inc...

  14. Rapid induction of gene expression in the corpus luteum following in vivo treatment with prostaglandin F2 alpha

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pulsatile uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF) triggers the regression of the corpus luteum (CL). Research from many laboratories has identified the early intracellular signaling events initiated by PGF (for example, activation of phospholipases, increased intracellular calcium, an...

  15. Characterization of EST Gene in the Bovine Corpus Luteum during the Estrous Cycle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunyoung; Kim, Sang Hwan; Kim, Byung-Gak; Yoon, Jong Taek

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of bovine luteum expressed sequence tags (ESTs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and the presence of functional ESTs in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) during different stages of the estrus cycle. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed a difference in the expression of ESTs during the CL stage. Concentration of ESTs in the CL tissue increased significantly from the mid-luteal stage and decreased thereafter. RT-PCR analysis showed higher levels of the EST genes in the CL of the mid-luteal stage than in other stages, and the same level of expression of VEGF. Immunohistochemistry analysis of the tissue from CL formation to regression showed low cytosol and aggregation of the nucleus. And activity caspase 3 (apoptosis detector) was most strongly detected in the CL1 stage of bovine. During the estrous cycle, the cytosol was magnified and differentiation of the nucleus was clearly manifested. The ESTs affected the CL, and the relationship between VEGF and TNFR1 played a pivotal role for CL development and activation, dependent on the stage of CL. These results suggest local production of ESTs, the presence of functional ESTs in the bovine CL, and that ESTs play a role in regulating the function of cell death in bovine CL. PMID:26973974

  16. Characterization of EST Gene in the Bovine Corpus Luteum during the Estrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunyoung; Kim, Sang Hwan; Kim, Byung-Gak; Yoon, Jong Taek

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of bovine luteum expressed sequence tags (ESTs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and the presence of functional ESTs in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) during different stages of the estrus cycle. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed a difference in the expression of ESTs during the CL stage. Concentration of ESTs in the CL tissue increased significantly from the mid-luteal stage and decreased thereafter. RT-PCR analysis showed higher levels of the EST genes in the CL of the mid-luteal stage than in other stages, and the same level of expression of VEGF. Immunohistochemistry analysis of the tissue from CL formation to regression showed low cytosol and aggregation of the nucleus. And activity caspase 3 (apoptosis detector) was most strongly detected in the CL1 stage of bovine. During the estrous cycle, the cytosol was magnified and differentiation of the nucleus was clearly manifested. The ESTs affected the CL, and the relationship between VEGF and TNFR1 played a pivotal role for CL development and activation, dependent on the stage of CL. These results suggest local production of ESTs, the presence of functional ESTs in the bovine CL, and that ESTs play a role in regulating the function of cell death in bovine CL. PMID:26973974

  17. Influence of corpus luteum and ovarian volume on the number and quality of bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Penitente-Filho, Jurandy Mauro; Jimenez, Carolina Rodrigues; Zolini, Adriana Moreira; Carrascal, Erly; Azevedo, Jovana Luiza; Silveira, Camila Oliveira; Oliveira, Fabrício Albani; Torres, Ciro Alexandre Alves

    2015-02-01

    In order to evaluate whether ovarian volume, presence and diameter of the corpus luteum (CL) have effects on the number and quality of bovine recovered oocytes, 110 ovaries were obtained from the slaughterhouse. Cumulus oocytes complex were aspirated and evaluated under stereomicroscope. Oocytes were counted and classified according to their quality (Grades I, II, III and IV). Ovarian volume was weakly correlated to the number of good quality oocytes (P < 0.05). Ovaries with CL showed greater numbers of good quality oocytes than ovaries without CL (P < 0.05). Further, presence of CL and its diameter positively influenced the probability of recovering good quality oocytes (P < 0.05). In conclusion, ovarian volume is not a good parameter itself to predict important ovarian characteristics; moreover, analysis of CL, its presence and diameter, may be a good tool to improve efficiency on in vitro embryo production programs. PMID:25187422

  18. Massive hemoperitoneum due to a ruptured corpus luteum cyst in a patient with congenital hypofibrinogenemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jeong, So-Young; Cho, Dong-Hyu

    2015-09-01

    Congenital afibrinogenemia/hypofibrinogenemia is a rare inherited hematologic disorder in which a patient lacks or has insufficient level of fibrinogen, the blood coagulation factor I. The incidence of this uncommon disease is 1 to 2 per 1 million individuals. Hence, massive hemoperitoneum caused by ovulation in a woman with congenital afibrogenemia is also a very rare clinical condition. Massive hemoperitoneum usually presents as acute abdominal pain with potential findings of peritonitis including abdominal distention, hypotension and tachycardia with critical consequences. We performed emergent endoscopic surgery for hemoperitoneum caused by a ruptured corpus luteum cyst in a patient with congenital hypofibrinogenemia. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first case report of such treatment in Korea. PMID:26430672

  19. Expression and regulation of Ang-2 in murine ovaries during sexual maturation and development of corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Guo, B; Zhang, X-M; Li, S-J; Tian, X-C; Wang, S-T; Li, D-D; Liu, D-F; Yue, Z-P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the expression and regulation of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) in murine ovaries during sexual maturation, gonadotropin treatment and luteal development by in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. By in situ hybridization Ang-2 mRNA was mainly localized in granulosa cells, thecal cells and corpus luteum, otherwise in oocytes. Moreover, Ang-2 mRNA was highly expressed in corpus luteum and granulosa cells of atretic follicles. According to RT-PCR data, Ang-2 mRNA was lowly expressed on day 10 after birth, then expression levels gradually increased and reached their highest values on day 25 after birth. In the superovulated model of immature mice, Ang-2 expression was strongly induced by equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) 48 h post the eCG injection, and was high from 0.5 to 13 h after hCG treatment. In situ hybridization showed that Ang-2 mRNA was highly expressed in corpus luteum from day 2 to 9 post the hCG injection, then the expression levels gradually declined on days 11 and 13 after hCG treatment. According to RT-PCR data, the levels of Ang-2 mRNA expression showed a decline after the hCG injection, with a nadir on day 3, followed by an increase, reaching the highest level on day 9 post-hCG injection. Then again Ang-2 expression gradually declined from day 11 to 15 after hCG injection. These results suggest that Ang-2 may be involved in follicular development, atresia, ovulation, and corpus luteum formation and regression. PMID:23350236

  20. Repeated intrauterine infusions of lipopolysaccharide alter gene expression and lifespan of the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Lüttgenau, J; Lingemann, B; Wellnitz, O; Hankele, A K; Schmicke, M; Ulbrich, S E; Bruckmaier, R M; Bollwein, H

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation of the uterus is associated with disturbed ovarian function and reduced reproductive performance in dairy cows. To investigate the influence of endometritis on the bovine corpus luteum, 8 heifers received intrauterine infusions with either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; 9mL) or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 3µg/kg of body weight diluted in 9mL of PBS) at 6-h intervals from 12h before and until 9d after ovulation during 2 cycles in a random order (ovulation=d 1). An untreated cycle was examined before and after PBS and LPS cycles, and the mean values from both untreated cycles were used as control. In all cycles, blood sampling and ultrasonography of the ovaries were performed on d 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, and then every 2d until ovulation. Endometrial cells were collected for cytology and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR on d 0, 6, and 9, and on d 0 and 6, respectively, and luteal tissue was collected for quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR on d 6 and 9. Both, PBS and LPS infusions induced subclinical endometritis, which was accompanied by increased endometrial mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines IL1β, IL8, and tumor necrosis factor α. Additionally, LPS challenge induced premature luteolysis, which was characterized by increased plasma concentrations of PGF2α metabolite, decreased plasma progesterone concentrations, and reduced luteal size and blood flow compared with the control. The luteal mRNA expression of the LPS receptor TLR4, PGE synthase, and the apoptosis-related factor CASP3 were higher, and those of steroidogenic factors STAR and HSD3B, the PGF receptor, and the angiogenic factor VEGFA121 were lower after LPS challenge compared with the control. In conclusion, repeated intrauterine LPS infusions during the first 9d of the estrous cycle alter gene expression and shorten the lifespan of the bovine corpus luteum. PMID:27179870

  1. Effect of a prostaglandin F2α analogue on the cyclic corpus luteum during its refractory period in cows

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to examine the response of the cyclic corpus luteum of cows to the administration of a prostaglandin F2α analogue (PGF) during the transition of refractoriness to responsiveness by investigating ultrasonographic changes in the corpus luteum and changes in plasma progesterone concentration in cows following the administration of PGF 3 and 5 days after ovulation. Results All cows that responded to PGF given on day 5 ovulated on day 9. In the cows that did not respond on day 5, the luteal cross-sectional area stagnated after treatment, whereas the plasma progesterone concentration continued to increase. In the cows that received PGF on day 3 of the oestrous cycle, the luteal cross-sectional area and the plasma progesterone concentration continued to increase. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the transition of the bovine corpus luteum from refractoriness to responsiveness to PGF occurs during day 5 of the oestrous cycle because in 5 of 8 cows given PGF on day 5, early luteal regression was evident during the examination 24 hours after PGF administration. PMID:23151276

  2. Formation and regression of the corpus luteum of the American alligator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guillette, L.J.; Woodward, A.R.; You-Xiang, Q.; Cox, M.C.; Matter, J.H.; Gross, T.S.

    1995-01-01

    Luteal morphology of the American alligator is unique when compared to other reptiles but is similar to that of its phylogenetic relatives, the birds. The theca is extensively hypertrophied, but the granulosa never fills the cavity formed following the ovulation of the ovum. The formation of the corpus luteum (CL) is correlated with elevated plasma progesterone concentrations, which decline dramatically after oviposition with the onset of luteolysis. Unlike those of most other reptiles, the central luteal cell mass is composed of two cell types; one presumably is derived from the granulosa, whereas the other is from the theca interna. Both cell types are present throughout gravidity but only one cell type is seen during mid to late luteolysis. A significant decline in luteal volume occurs following oviposition and continues throughout the post-oviposition period. The fastest decline in luteal volume occurs in the month immediately after oviposition; this rate then slows. Luteolysis appears to continue for a year or more following oviposition, as distinct structures of luteal origin can still be identified in animals 9 months after oviposition. The size of persistent CL can be used to determine whether a given female oviposited during the previous nesting season. Females with CL having volumes greater than 0.2 cm2 or CL diameters greater than 0.4 cm were active the previous season. 

  3. Identification of optimal housekeeping genes for examination of gene expression in bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Rekawiecki, Robert; Rutkowska, Joanna; Kotwica, Jan

    2012-12-01

    The selection of proper housekeeping genes for studies requiring genes expression normalization is an important step in the appropriate interpretation of results. The expression of housekeeping genes is regulated by many factors including age, gender, type of tissue or disease. The aim of the study was to identify optimal housekeeping genes in the corpus luteum obtained from cyclic or pregnant cows. The mRNA expression of thirteen housekeeping genes: C2orf29, SUZ12, TBP, TUBB2B, ZNF131, HPRT1, 18s RNA, GAPDH, SF3A1, SDHA, MRPL12, B2M and ACTB was measured by Real-time PCR. Range of cycle threshold (C(t)) values of the tested genes varied between 12 and 30 cycles, and 18s RNA had the highest coefficient of variation, whereas C2orf29 had the smallest coefficient. GeNorm software demonstrated C2orf29 and TBP as the most stable and 18s RNA and B2M as the most unstable housekeeping genes. Using the proposed cut-off value (0.15), no more than two of the best GeNorm housekeeping genes are proposed to be used in studies requiring gene expression normalization. NormFinder software demonstrated C2orf29 and SUZ12 as the best and 18s RNA and B2M as the worst housekeeping genes. The study indicates that selection of housekeeping genes may essentially affect the quality of the gene expression results. PMID:23229008

  4. The corpus luteum of the dog: source and target of steroid hormones?

    PubMed

    Papa, P C; Hoffmann, B

    2011-08-01

    Aim of this paper is to review our present understanding on the endocrine control of luteal function in the bitch and to add some new data generated in our laboratories in support of the hypothesis of a paracrine/autocrine role of corpus luteum (CL) derived steroid hormones. Luteal lifespan in non-pregnant dogs often exceeds that of pregnant dogs, where luteal regression terminates in a rapid luteolysis, immediately prior to parturition. In non-pregnant dogs, luteal regression occurs independently of a uterine luteolysin and in spite of increased gonadotropic support during the last third of dioestrus. The CL is the only source of progesterone (P(4)) maintaining pregnancy, and they have the capacity to synthesize oestrogens as substantiated by expression of the CYP19 (aromatase) gene observed in this study. Our data demonstrated that lutein and non-lutein cells of the canine CL express in a rather constant manner the progesterone receptor (PR) and the oestrogen receptor, classifying them as targets for an autocrine/paracrine activity of CL-derived steroids. Therefore, a functional role of P(4) within a positive loop feedback system, including StAR and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, has been postulated. PMID:21332829

  5. Opposing Roles of Leptin and Ghrelin in the Equine Corpus Luteum Regulation: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Galvão, António; Tramontano, Angela; Rebordão, Maria Rosa; Amaral, Ana; Bravo, Pedro Pinto; Szóstek, Anna; Skarzynski, Dariusz; Mollo, Antonio; Ferreira-Dias, Graça

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic hormones have been associated with reproductive function modulation. Thus, the aim of this study was: (i) to characterize the immunolocalization, mRNA and protein levels of leptin (LEP), Ghrelin (GHR) and respective receptors LEPR and Ghr-R1A, throughout luteal phase; and (ii) to evaluate the role of LEP and GHR on progesterone (P4), prostaglandin (PG) E2 and PGF2α, nitric oxide (nitrite), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF); macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) secretion, and on angiogenic activity (BAEC proliferation), in equine corpus luteum (CL) from early and mid-luteal stages. LEPR expression was decreased in late CL, while GHR/Ghr-R1A system was increased in the same stage. Regarding secretory activity, GHR decreased P4 in early CL, but increased PGF2α, nitrite and TNF in mid CL. Conversely, LEP increased P4, PGE2, angiogenic activity, MIF, TNF and nitrite during early CL, in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro effect of LEP on secretory activity was reverted by GHR, when both factors acted together. The present results evidence the presence of LEP and GHR systems in the equine CL. Moreover, we suggest that LEP and GHR play opposing roles in equine CL regulation, with LEP supporting luteal establishment and GHR promoting luteal regression. Finally, a dose-dependent luteotrophic effect of LEP was demonstrated. PMID:25125800

  6. Evidence that the subunit structure of gonadotropin receptor is preserved during regression of rat corpus luteum

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, J.; Menon, K.N.J.

    1986-05-29

    The level of hCG/LH receptor has been shown to undergo marked changes during the life span of rat corpus luteum. To evaluate whether these fluctuations are due to changes in the receptor subunit structure or receptor protein content, the /sup 125/I-hCG binding activity and the receptor subunit structure were determined during different time periods of pseudopregnancy. The maximum /sup 125/I-hCG binding activity was observed on day 7, after which it decreased by 20 and 45% on day 11 and day 14, respectively. The Scatchard analysis of /sup 125/I-hCG binding data showed that the decrease in binding activity was caused by a change in the number of binding sites rather than a change in the binding affinity. The LH/hCG receptor in ovarian membranes obtained on days 7, 11 and 14 were characterized by the method of affinity cross-linking. All four subunits of the LH/hCG receptor were detected in the ovarian membranes at all stages while the intensity decreased parallel to a decrease in hCG binding from day 7 to day 14.

  7. In vitro developmental competence of bovine oocytes: Effect of corpus luteum and follicle size

    PubMed Central

    Karami Shabankareh, Hamed; Shahsavari, Mohammad Hamed; Hajarian, Hadi; Moghaddam, Gholamali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported many discrepancies about the effects of corpus luteum (CL) and ovarian follicle size on the developmental competence of oocytes. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CL and different size of follicle on the developmental potential of bovine oocytes. Materials and Methods: After ovarian classification based on presence or absence of CL, sample follicles were placed in three groups according to their diameter; small (S; 3–6 mm), medium (M; 6–9 mm), and large (L; 10–20 mm). Collected oocytes in each group were subjected to the in vitro embryo production processes. Results: Results showed that, the percentages of blastocyst obtained from oocytes originating from small and medium follicles of ovaries bearing a CL (CL+S-oocytes and CL+M-oocytes, respectively) were lower (p<0.001) than those of small and medium follicles of ovaries not bearing a CL (CL-S-oocytes and CL-M-oocytes, respectively) (30.8% and 33.6% vs. 36.9% and 38.7% respectively). Although, the percentages of blastocyst obtained from CL-M-oocytes and CL-L-oocytes were greater (p< 0.001) than those of CL+S-oocytes and CL+M-oocytes. There were no significant differences in the percentages of blastocyst formation between controls (C-oocytes), CL-S-oocytes and CL+L-oocytes. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the negative effect of CL on the developmental competence of bovine oocyte depends on the follicle size. Therefore, oocytes originating from large grown follicles were not influenced by negative effects of CL as much as those originating from small and medium follicles did. PMID:26644789

  8. Leptin in the bovine corpus luteum: receptor expression and effects on progesterone production.

    PubMed

    Nicklin, L T; Robinson, R S; Marsters, P; Campbell, B K; Mann, G E; Hunter, M G

    2007-06-01

    In cattle, leptin has been implicated in the control of ovarian function and has been shown to modulate steroid production by theca and granulosa cells in a number of species. However, a direct effect of leptin on bovine luteal function has not been demonstrated. This study was conducted to determine if the leptin receptor (OB-R) is expressed in the bovine corpus luteum (CL), and to examine the effects of leptin on progesterone production by dispersed luteal cells in vitro. RT-PCR was used to detect the presence of OB-R and, more specifically, the long, biologically active isoform (OB-Rb), in CL, collected on days 2-18 of the oestrous cycle (n=18). The effects of leptin on progesterone production were investigated in dispersed luteal cells prepared from CL collected on days 5 and 8 (n=14) of the cycle. The dispersed luteal cells were cultured for 24 hr with recombinant human leptin and/or LR3-IGF-1 and/or LH. OB-Rs, in particular, OB-Rb, were expressed in the CL at all stages of development. Progesterone production by luteal cells was increased (P<0.001) by treatment with LH (10 ng/ml) but treatment with leptin alone had no effect. However, in the presence of IGF-1 (100 ng/ml), leptin (10 ng/ml) caused a significant (P<0.005) increase in progesterone production. In conclusion, we have shown that the leptin receptor is expressed in the bovine CL and have demonstrated a modulatory effect of leptin on luteal progesterone production in vitro. PMID:17154301

  9. Bovine corpus luteum regression and estrous response following treatment with alfaprostol.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T R; Randel, R D; Peterson, L A

    1987-05-01

    Two trials evaluated bovine corpus luteum (CL) regression and estrous response following treatment with alfaprostol (AP), a prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue. Expression of at least one estrous cycle (16 to 26 d) and a palpable mid-cycle CL were required prior to random assignment of females to receive 0, .38, .75, 1.50 or 2.25 mg AP/100 kg body weight. Alfaprostol was evaluated in Brahman cows and heifers that were treated on d 11 to 13 (trial 1) and in Simmental X Brahman-Hereford (crossbred) heifers that were treated on d 8 to 10 or d 11 to 13 of the estrous cycle (trial 2). In trial 1, Brahman heifers appeared to require a higher AP dose (greater than .38 mg/100 kg body weight) to elicit luteolysis and expression of estrus than Brahman cows. Alfaprostol treatment (greater than or equal to .75 mg/100 kg body weight) induced (P less than .0001) luteolysis followed by estrus in Brahman cows and heifers. In trial 2, crossbred heifers that received AP on d 8 to 10 appeared to require a higher dose of AP (greater than .38 mg/100 kg body weight) to elicit luteolysis and estrus than heifers that received AP on d 11 to 13 of the estrous cycle. Alfaprostol treatment greater than or equal to .75 mg/100 kg body weight on d 8 to 10 and d 11 to 13 of the estrous cycle induced (P less than .0001) luteolysis followed by estrus in crossbred heifers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3583939

  10. Form and function of the corpus luteum during the human menstrual cycle

    PubMed Central

    BAERWALD, A. R.; ADAMS, G. P.; PIERSON, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To characterize the growth and regression of the corpus luteum (CL) during an interovulatory interval (IOI) using serial transvaginal ultrasonography. Methods Fifty healthy women of reproductive age with a history of regular menstrual cycles underwent daily transvaginal ultrasonography for one IOI. Measurements of luteal area and luteal numerical pixel value (NPV) were recorded each day after ovulation until the CL could no longer be detected. Blood was drawn every third day during the IOI to measure serum concentrations of progesterone and estradiol-17β. Results Corpora lutea were of two morphological types: those with a central fluid-filled cavity (CFFC) (78%) and those without (22%). Eighty-eight percent of women exhibited a CL containing a CFFC 2 days after ovulation, followed by 34% 13 days after ovulation and 2% 27 days after ovulation. Luteal area, progesterone concentration and estradiol concentration increased for approximately the first 6 days following ovulation followed by a subsequent decline. Luteal NPV decreased from days 1 to 11 and increased during days 11–16. Changes in luteal area, NPV, progesterone and estradiol concentrations did not differ in women with two versus three waves of follicular development. Conclusions Peak luteal function, as determined by maximum luteal area, progesterone concentration and estradiol concentration, is observed 6 days following ovulation. Luteal NPV is reflective of morphological and endocrinological changes in the CL. The development of a CFFC during luteinization is a normal physiological phenomenon. The CL can be detected, but is not functional, during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. PMID:15846762

  11. Mathematical analysis of a model for the growth of the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Prokopiou, Sotiris A; Byrne, Helen M; Jeffrey, Mike R; Robinson, Robert S; Mann, George E; Owen, Markus R

    2014-12-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is an ovarian tissue that grows in the wound space created by follicular rupture. It produces the progesterone needed in the uterus to maintain pregnancy. Rapid growth of the CL and progesterone transport to the uterus require angiogenesis, the creation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, a process which is regulated by proteins that include fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). In this paper we develop a system of time-dependent ordinary differential equations to model CL growth. The dependent variables represent FGF2, endothelial cells (ECs), luteal cells, and stromal cells (like pericytes), by assuming that the CL volume is a continuum of the three cell types. We assume that if the CL volume exceeds that of the ovulated follicle, then growth is inhibited. This threshold volume partitions the system dynamics into two regimes, so that the model may be classified as a Filippov (piecewise smooth) system. We show that normal CL growth requires an appropriate balance between the growth rates of luteal and stromal cells. We investigate how angiogenesis influences CL growth by considering how the system dynamics depend on the dimensionless EC proliferation rate, ρ₅. We find that weak (low ρ₅) or strong (high ρ₅) angiogenesis leads to 'pathological' CL growth, since the loss of CL constituents compromises progesterone production or delivery. However, for intermediate values of ρ₅, normal CL growth is predicted. The implications of these results for cow fertility are also discussed. For example, inadequate angiogenesis has been linked to infertility in dairy cows. PMID:24337679

  12. Protein Profile in Corpus Luteum during Pregnancy in Korean Native Cows

    PubMed Central

    Chung, H. J.; Kim, K. W.; Han, D. W.; Lee, H. C.; Yang, B. C.; Chung, H. K.; Shim, M. R.; Choi, M. S.; Jo, E. B.; Jo, Y. M.; Oh, M. Y.; Jo, S. J.; Hong, S. K.; Park, J. K.; Chang, W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Steroidogenesis requires coordination of the anabolic and catabolic pathways of lipid metabolism, but the profile of proteins associated with progesterone synthesis in cyclic and pregnant corpus luteum (CL) is not well-known in cattle. In Experiment 1, plasma progesterone level was monitored in cyclic cows (n = 5) and pregnant cows (n = 6; until d-90). A significant decline in the plasma progesterone level occurred at d-19 of cyclic cows. Progesterone level in abbatoir-derived luteal tissues was also determined at d 1 to 5, 6 to 13 and 14 to 20 of cyclic cows, and d-60 and -90 of pregnant cows (n = 5 each). Progesterone level in d-60 CL was not different from those in d 6 to 13 CL and d-90 CL, although the difference between d 6 to 13 and d-90 was significant. In Experiment 2, protein expression pattern in CL at d-90 (n = 4) was compared with that in CL of cyclic cows at d 6 to 13 (n = 5). Significant changes in the level of protein expression were detected in 32 protein spots by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 23 of them were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Six proteins were found only in pregnant CL, while the other 17 proteins were found only in cyclic CL. Among the above 6 proteins, vimentin which is involved in the regulation of post-implantation development was included. Thus, the protein expression pattern in CL was disorientated from cyclic luteal phase to mid pregnancy, and alterations in specific CL protein expression may contribute to the maintenance of pregnancy in Korean native cows. PMID:25049514

  13. Induction of the expressions of antioxidant enzymes by luteinizing hormone in the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Syota; Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Luteoprotective mechanisms of luteinizing hormone (LH) involved in the maintenance of bovine corpus luteum (CL) function have not been completely clarified. Since antioxidant enzymes are well documented as antiapoptotic factors in the CL of many mammals, we hypothesized that the luteoprotective action of LH is mediated by stimulating the local production and action of antioxidant enzymes. To test the above hypothesis, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms involved in the luteoprotective actions of LH. Cultured bovine luteal cells obtained from the CL at the mid-luteal stage (days 8-12 of the estrous cycle) were treated with LH (10 ng/ml), onapristone (OP; a specific progesterone receptor antagonist, 100 μM) and diethyldithiocarbamate [DETC; an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase (SOD), 100 μM] for 24 h. LH in combination with or without OP significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of manganese SOD (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CATA) and SOD activity. While LH alone significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of SOD containing copper and zinc (Cu,Zn-SOD), OP in combination with or without LH significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of Cu,Zn-SOD. In addition, Cu,Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CATA mRNA expressions were higher at the mid luteal phase than the other luteal phases. LH in combination with DETC significantly decreased LH-increased cell viability. The overall results suggest that LH increases cell viability by LH-increased antioxidant enzymes, resulting in maintenance of CL function during the luteal phase in cattle. PMID:23386101

  14. Defective secretion of Prostaglandin F2α during development of idiopathic persistent corpus luteum in mares.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Castro, T; Baldrighi, J M; Wolf, C A; Santos, V G

    2016-04-01

    Five mares that developed idiopathic persistent corpus luteum (PCL) were compared with 5 mares with apparently normal interovulatory intervals (IOIs). Progesterone (P4) and a metabolite of prostaglandin F2α (PGFM) were assayed daily beginning on the day of ovulation (Day 0). Transition between the end of an initial progressive P4 increase and the beginning of a gradual decrease in P4 occurred on mean Day 6. The gradual decrease in P4 between Days 6 and 12 was less (approached significance, P < 0.06) in the PCL group than in the IOI group. The P4 concentration on Day 12 (before luteolysis in IOI group) was greater (P < 0.05) in the PCL group than in the IOI group. In a post hoc comparison, an interaction (P < 0.04) of group by day for Days 4 to 7 indicated that the end of the progressive increase in P4 was temporally associated with a transient increase in concentration of PGFM in IOI mares but not in PCL mares. Complete luteolysis (P4 < 1 ng/mL) occurred in the IOI mares on Days 13 to 15. Partial luteolysis (mean P4 decrease, 62%) occurred in 3 of the 5 PCL mares. Normalization to the day at the end of the most pronounced P4 decrease in the IOI mares and in the 3 PCL mares with partial luteolysis resulted in a day-by-group interaction (P < 0.05) for PGFM concentration. The interaction was partly from lower PGFM concentration on the day at the end of the pronounced P4 decrease in the 3 PCL mares than in the IOI mares. The peak of a transient PGFM increase and the day at the end of the most pronounced decrease in P4 were synchronized in each IOI mare but not in any of the 3 PCL mares. In the other 2 PCL mares, partial luteolysis did not occur, and a transient increase in PGFM was not apparent. Results tentatively indicated that the relationship between P4 and PGFM may be altered as early as Day 6 in PCL mares and supported the hypothesis that prostaglandin F2α secretion is defective in mares with idiopathic PCL. PMID:26773369

  15. Intramammary lipopolysaccharide infusion alters gene expression but does not induce lysis of the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Lüttgenau, J; Wellnitz, O; Kradolfer, D; Kalaitzakis, E; Ulbrich, S E; Bruckmaier, R M; Bollwein, H

    2016-05-01

    Data from various studies indicate that the ovarian function in dairy cows can be compromised during intramammary infections. Therefore, in this study, we investigated if an experimentally induced mastitis has an effect on corpus luteum (CL) function in 14 lactating cows. On d 9 of the estrous cycle (d 1=ovulation), cows received a single dose of 200 μg of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; dissolved in 10 mL of NaCL; n=8) or 10 mL of saline (control; n=6) into one quarter of the mammary gland. Measurements included plasma cortisol, haptoglobin, and progesterone (P4) concentrations, as well as luteal size (LTA) and relative luteal blood flow (rLBF). Sampling was performed on d 1, 4, and 8. On d 9, the main examination day, sampling was performed immediately before (0 h), every 1h (or at 3-h intervals for LTA and rLBF) until 9 h, as well as 12 and 24 h after treatment. Thereafter, measurements were taken on d 12, 15, 18, and then every 2 d until ovulation. Luteal tissue was collected for biopsy 24 h before and 6 h after treatment. Quantitative real-time PCR was applied to assess mRNA expression of steroidogenic factors (STAR, HSD3B), caspase 3, toll-like receptors (TLR2, -4), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFA), and prostaglandin-related factors (PGES, PGFS, PTGFR). Intramammary LPS infusion caused considerable inflammatory responses in the treated udder quarters. No decrease in plasma P4 concentrations was noted after LPS-challenge, and P4 levels did not differ between LPS-treated and control cows. Furthermore, LTA and rLBF values were not decreased after LPS challenge compared with the values obtained immediately before treatment. However, LPS infusion increased plasma levels of cortisol and haptoglobin compared with the control group. In the CL, mRNA abundance of TLR2 and TNFA was increased in cows after LPS-challenge (but not in control cows), whereas TLR4, steroidogenic, and prostaglandin-related factors remained similar to the mRNA abundance before

  16. Genetic merit for fertility traits in Holstein cows: II. Ovarian follicular and corpus luteum dynamics, reproductive hormones, and estrus behavior.

    PubMed

    Cummins, S B; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Butler, S T

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the estrous cycle of cows with similar proportions of Holstein genetics, similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but with good (Fert+) or poor (Fert-) genetic merit for fertility traits. In total, 37 lactating cows were enrolled on a protocol to synchronize estrus. Nineteen Fert+ and 12 Fert- cows that successfully ovulated a dominant follicle and established a corpus luteum underwent daily transrectal ultrasonography. Blood sampling was carried out at 8-h intervals from d 0 to 6 and from d 15 to ovulation, and once daily from d 7 to 15. Blood samples were analyzed for progesterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Estrus behavior was recorded using neck activity collars and mounting pads. The Fert+ cows tended to have fewer follicular waves (2.2 vs. 2.7) and had a shorter estrous cycle (21.0 vs. 25.1 d) than Fert- cows. We observed no effect of genotype on day of first-wave emergence or day of first-wave dominant follicle peak diameter, but the peak diameter of the first-wave dominant follicle tended to be larger in Fert- cows. During the first 13 d of the cycle, Fert+ cows developed a corpus luteum that was 16% larger than that in Fert- cows. Circulating progesterone concentrations were 34% greater in Fert+ than in Fert- cows (5.15 vs. 3.84ng/mL, respectively) from d 5 to 13. During the final follicular wave, the interval from preovulatory follicle emergence to ovulation and the interval from preovulatory follicle dominance to ovulation were similar in both genotypes. Maximum preovulatory follicle diameter was larger in Fert+ than Fert- cows (17.9 vs. 16.8mm, respectively); however, circulating concentrations of estradiol were not different between genotypes. A greater proportion of Fert- cows ovulated to a silent heat than Fert+ cows (22 vs. 2%, respectively). Of cows that showed behavioral estrus, Fert+ cows had 41% greater mean activity count; however, no difference was

  17. Impaired corpus luteum function and other undesired results of pregnancies associated with inadvertent administration of a long-acting agonist of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Herman, A; Ron-El, R; Golan, A; Nachum, H; Soffer, Y; Caspi, E

    1992-04-01

    Spontaneous pregnancies associated with inadvertent periconceptional administration of long-acting gonadotrophin releasing-hormone agonist (GnRHa), in in-vitro fertilization, occurred in 11 of 161 patients with non-tubal infertility. All these cases exhibited impaired function of the corpus luteum in terms of declining progesterone levels, despite rising levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin. The patients were categorized according to the timing of GnRHa administration: periovulatory (three cases), midluteal (five cases) and late luteal (three cases). Altogether, of the 11 pregnancies, seven ended with a normal livebirth, three with a preclinical gestation and one with a blighted ovum. It appears that spontaneous pregnancies associated with inadvertent administration of GnRHa are not rare. Awareness for early diagnosis and close hormonal monitoring are recommended for the assessment of corpus luteum function and adequate supplementation. PMID:1325988

  18. The influence of the corpus luteum on metabolites composition of follicular fluid from different sized follicles and their relationship to serum concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Shabankareh, Hamed Karami; Kor, Nasroallah Moradi; Hajarian, Hadi

    2013-08-01

    The presence of corpus luteum may have a local effect on metabolite composition of follicular fluid (FF) and could indirectly influence follicular development and oocyte quality. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the corpus luteum on metabolite composition of follicular fluid (FF), harvested from different-sized follicles and the relationship between metabolite composition of FF to blood serum in dairy cows. Ovaries and blood samples were collected from 30 female adult Holstein Friesian cows, 4-7 years old, with clinically normal reproductive tracts. The animals were in the diestrus stage and selected post mortem. The ovaries collected were classified based on the presence and absence of corpus luteum (CL(+/-)). Visible follicles on the surface of the ovaries were classified into (i) small (3-5mm), (ii) medium (6-9 mm) and (iii) large (10-20mm) based on their diameter. Follicular fluid was aspirated from follicles with different sizes in CL(+) and CL(-) ovaries. Blood and FF samples were analyzed for various biochemical constituents including glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, albumin and globulin. The results showed that serum concentration of glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride was significantly different (p≤0.05) in FF from follicles of different size categories. Differences between various follicle size categories in CL(-) ovaries were only significant for concentrations of glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride. FF concentration of glucose and cholesterol in the same follicle size categories in CL(+) ovaries was significantly lower than that of CL(-) ovaries. These results indicate that levels of the biochemical metabolites in serum and FF differ significantly. In addition, FF concentrations of biochemical metabolites were related to follicular size and to the presence or absence of corpus luteum. PMID:23890803

  19. Endogenous phosphorylation of microsomal proteins in bovine corpus luteum. Tenfold activation by adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Hardie, D. Grahame; Stansfield, David A.

    1977-01-01

    Free ribosomes and a smooth-microsomal fraction were prepared from bovine corpus luteum. Both preparations will self-phosphorylate when incubated with Mg2+ and ATP, but at low concentrations of Mg2+ and ATP the self-phosphorylation of the smooth-microsomal fraction was much more dependent on cyclic AMP than was that of free ribosomes, stimulation by the nucleotide being up to 10-fold in the former case. The self-phosphorylation of the smooth-microsomal fraction was studied further. The reaction bears similarities to that brought about by soluble cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, being inhibited by Ca2+ and the heat-stable inhibitor protein from skeletal muscle. Cyclic GMP will activate the reaction at concentrations higher than those required for full activation by cyclic AMP. In the presence of cyclic AMP, phosphate bound to protein is found almost exclusively as phosphoserine. Several proteins are phosphorylated, as judged by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, and the phosphorylation of all of them is markedly stimulated by cyclic AMP. If the reaction is carried out at high concentrations of Mg2+ and ATP, a distinct cyclic AMP-independent phosphorylation is observed. This activity is not inhibited by the heat-stable inhibitor protein, and phosphate is found esterified with both threonine and serine residues. PMID:195580

  20. Expression of angiogenic factors and luteinizing hormone receptors in the corpus luteum of mares induced to ovulate with deslorelin acetate.

    PubMed

    Maia, Victor N; Batista, André M; Cunha Neto, Sylvio; Silva, Diogo M F; Adrião, Manoel; Wischral, Aurea

    2016-02-01

    The effects of deslorelin acetate use in inducing ovulation need to be clarified to improve the results of equine embryo transfer. The mRNA abundance for angiogenic factors and LH receptor (LHR) in corpus luteum (CL) was studied in mares with natural (control group [CG]) and induced ovulation with deslorelin acetate (treatment group [TG]; follicles: ≥ 35 mm). Transrectal ultrasonography was used to verify the ovulation day, and on Days 4, 8, and 12 after ovulation (Day 0), CL samples were obtained through ultrasound-guided biopsy. The messenger RNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and LHR genes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. A positive correlation was observed between VEGF and LHR (P < 0.00001, r = 0.78), and it was possible to detect higher LHR expression in the TG than in the CG on Day 4 (P < 0.05). Moreover, this expression was higher on Days 4 and 8 than on Day 12 in the TG. Basic fibroblast growth factor was also expressed in luteal tissue on all days for both groups; however, these differences were not significant. In conclusion, deslorelin acetate was effective for the induction of ovulation in mares, resulting in higher expression of LHR, especially on the fourth day after ovulation. In addition, VEGF expression was influenced by induced ovulation, with a lower level on Day 12, which is expected in nonpregnant mares. PMID:26476595

  1. Expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in the corpus luteum and uterus from non-pregnant and pregnant llamas.

    PubMed

    Powell, Susan A; Smith, Bradford B; Timm, Karen I; Menino, Alfred R

    2007-08-01

    Because estrogen may be involved in maternal recognition of pregnancy and embryonic migration in llamas, expression of estrogen receptor subtypes alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) was evaluated in corpus luteum (CL), endometrium, and uterus using relative RT-PCR. Tissues were recovered from sterile-mated (SM) and pregnant (PG) females during Days 7-11 and 7-13 (Day 0 = day of mating), respectively, and follicular phase and juvenile females. Luteal expression of ERalpha and beta was similar (P > 0.10) in SM and PG females and within Days 7-11, however, expression of ERalpha in ovarian tissue from follicular phase females was greater (P < 0.05) than Days 7 and 9 CL. Uterus expressed less ERalpha and beta compared to endometrium (P = 0.07 and P < 0.01, respectively). Expression of ERalpha was greater (P < 0.05) in Day 7 and follicular phase uteri than Days 9 and 11, Day 13 PG and juvenile uteri. Uterine ERbeta expression was greater (P = 0.09) in PG versus SM females and in mated compared to follicular phase females (P < 0.05). Endometrial expression of ERalpha and beta did not differ (P > 0.10) between SM and PG females or by day. The presence of luteal ER during this period may mean a role for estradiol in maternal recognition of pregnancy. Observed increases in uterine ER expression with no changes in endometrium suggest expression increased in myometrium and/or perimetrium. Upregulation of myometrial ERbeta in PG females may be involved in supporting uterine migration of the embryo. PMID:17219432

  2. Joint MiRNA/mRNA Expression Profiling Reveals Changes Consistent with Development of Dysfunctional Corpus Luteum after Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Andrew P.; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C.; May, Margaret C.; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7–9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26258540

  3. Expression of vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor by human granulosa and theca lutein cells. Role in corpus luteum development.

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, B. R.; Brown, L. F.; Manseau, E. J.; Senger, D. R.; Dvorak, H. F.

    1995-01-01

    Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF) is a cytokine that is overexpressed in many tumors, in healing wounds, and in rheumatoid arthritis. VPF/VEGF is thought to induce angiogenesis and accompanying connective tissue stroma in two ways: 1), by increasing microvascular permeability, thereby modifying the extracellular matrix and 2), as an endothelial cell mitogen. VPF/VEGF has been reported in animal corpora lutea and we investigated the possibility that it might be present in human ovaries and have a role in corpus luteum formation. We here report that VPF/VEGF mRNA and protein are expressed by human ovarian granulosa and theca cells late in follicle development and, subsequent to ovulation, by granulosa and theca lutein cells. Therefore, VPF/VEGF is ideally positioned to provoke the increased permeability of thecal blood vessels that occurs shortly before ovulation. VPF/VEGF likely also contributes to the angiogenesis and connective tissue stroma generation that accompany corpus luteum/corpus albicans formation. Finally, VPF/VEGF was overexpressed in the hyperthecotic ovarian stroma of Stein-Leventhal syndrome in which it may also have a pathophysiological role. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7531945

  4. Differences in progesterone concentrations and mRNA expressions of progesterone receptors in bovine endometrial tissue between the uterine horns ipsilateral and contralateral to the corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Hiroto; HANEDA, Shingo; KAYANO, Mitsunori; MATSUI, Motozumi

    2016-01-01

    Because the establishment of pregnancy begins at the uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum (ipsi-horn) in cattle, levels of progesterone (P4) and receptor expression in the endometrial tissue, which regulate the intrauterine environment for embryo development, may differ between the ipsi-horn and the uterine horn contralateral to corpus luteum (contra-horn). The aim of the present study was to determine the endometrial tissue P4 concentrations and nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR), progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) and PGRMC2 mRNA expressions in the cranial and middle parts of the uterine horns during the luteal phase. The results showed higher endometrial tissue P4 concentrations in the cranial part of the ipsi-horn than in that of the contra-horn (P<0.01); however, no change in the endometrial tissue P4 concentrations was evident during the luteal phase. The PGR mRNA expression was higher during the early luteal phase (P<0.05), but no differences between the horns were evident. However, PGRMC1 mRNA expression during the early luteal phase was higher in the cranial part of the ipsi-horn than in that of the contra-horn (P<0.05). In the middle part, there were no changes in the endometrial tissue P4 concentrations and P4 receptor expressions during the luteal phase. In conclusion, the differences in dynamics of endometrial tissue P4 concentrations and P4 receptor expressions between the uterine horns ipsilateral and contralateral to the ovary containing a corpus luteum may cause differences in the intrauterine environment for both the ipsi- and contra-horns. PMID:26782011

  5. Pregnancy rates and corpus luteum-related factors affecting pregnancy establishment in bovine recipients synchronized for fixed-time embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, L G B; Torres, C A A; Souza, E D; Monteiro, P L J; Arashiro, E K N; Camargo, L S A; Fernandes, C A C; Viana, J H M

    2009-10-15

    The objective was to investigate the influence of corpora lutea physical and functional characteristics on pregnancy rates in bovine recipients synchronized for fixed-time embryo transfer (FTET). Crossbred (Bos taurus taurus x Bos taurus indicus) nonlactating cows and heifers (n=259) were treated with the following protocol: 2mg estradiol benzoate (EB) plus an intravaginal progesterone device (CIDR 1.9g progesterone; Day 0); 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; Day 5); prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) and CIDR withdrawal (Day 8); and 1mg EB (Day 9). Ovarian ultrasonography and blood sample collections were performed on Day 17. Of the 259 cattle initially treated, 197 (76.1%) were suitable recipients; they received a single, fresh, quality grade 1 or 2 in vivo-derived (n=90) or in vitro-produced (n=87) embryo on Day 17. Pregnancy rates (23 d after embryo transfer) were higher for in vivo-derived embryos than for in vitro-produced embryos (58.8% vs. 31.0%, respectively; P<0.001). Mean (+/-SD) plasma progesterone (P(4)) concentration was higher in cattle that became pregnant than that in nonpregnant cattle (5.2+/-5.0 vs. 3.8+/-2.4 ng/mL; P=0.02). Mean pixel values (71.8+/-1.3 vs. 71.2+/-1.1) and pixel heterogeneity (14.8+/-0.3 vs. 14.5+/-0.5) were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant recipients (P>0.10). No significant relationship was detected between pregnancy outcome and plasma P(4), corpus luteum area, or corpus luteum echotexture. Embryo type, however, affected the odds of pregnancy. In conclusion, corpus luteum-related traits were poor predictors of pregnancy in recipients. The type of embryo, however, was a major factor affecting pregnancy outcome. PMID:19709722

  6. Early development and function of the corpus luteum and relationship to pregnancy in the buffalo.

    PubMed

    Neglia, Gianluca; Restucci, Brunella; Russo, Marco; Vecchio, Domenico; Gasparrini, Bianca; Prandi, Alberto; Di Palo, Rossella; D'Occhio, Michael J; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    A detailed study on the structure and function of the CL in the Day-5 to Day-10 window of development, and relationship to the likelihood of pregnancy, was undertaken in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes. In experiment 1, buffaloes underwent synchronization of estrus and fixed-time artificial insemination (n = 23). Features of the CL were measured from Days 5 to 10 after fixed-time artificial insemination, and pregnancy was confirmed on Day 70. Buffaloes that established a pregnancy (n = 14) had a larger CL area (1.31 ± 0.1 vs. 1.09 ± 0.1 cm(2); P < 0.01) and greater progesterone (P4) concentrations (1.90 ± 0.1 vs. 1.48 ± 0.1 ng/mL; P < 0.01) during Days 5 to 10 compared with nonpregnant buffaloes. In the same period, blood flow measured as time average medium velocity tended to be greater (P = 0.059) in buffaloes that were subsequently pregnant versus nonpregnant buffaloes (10.8 ± 0.8 vs. 8.4 ± 0.9). There was a relationship (R(2) = 0.136; P < 0.05) between CL area, P4, and time average medium velocity from Days 5 to 10. Logistic regression analysis showed that P4 concentration on Day 10 had a significant influence on pregnancy (odds ratio, 19.337; P < 0.01). In experiment 2, highly vascularized CLs (HVCLs, n = 3) and lowly vascularized CLs (LVCLs, n = 3) on Day 5 were examined by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and then subjected to histologic investigation. Blood flow was greater in HVCLs than in LVCLs. Highly vascularized CLs showed intense staining for factor VIII and had many small, irregular-shaped blood vessels, whereas LVCLs had low factor VIII staining and relatively few large, regular-shaped vessels. Luteal cell expression of vascular EGF was greater for HVCLs compared with LVCLs. The study has shown that greater development and function of the CL from as early as Day 5 is related to an increased likelihood of pregnancy in the buffalo. Corpus lutea that show early development at Day 5 have greater expression of

  7. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Brogan, P T; Henning, H; Stout, T A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M

    2016-03-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between CL size and vascularity, and circulating [P4] during early pregnancy in mares, and to determine whether luteal blood flow was a useful aid for selecting an embryo transfer recipient. Equine embryos (n=48) were recovered 8 days after ovulation and were transferred to available recipient mares as part of a commercial program with the degree of synchrony in timing of recipient ovulation ranging from 1 day before to 4 days after the donor. Immediately prior to embryo transfer (ET), maximum CL cross-section and blood vessel areas were assessed sonographically, and jugular blood was collected to measure plasma [P4]. Sonographic measurements and jugular blood collection were repeated at day 4 after ET for all mares, and again at days 11, 18 and 25 after ET in mares that were pregnant. The number of grey-scale and colour pixels within the CL was subsequently quantified using ImageJ software. The CL blood flow correlated significantly but weakly with plasma [P4] on the day of transfer and on day 4 after ET in all mares, and on days 11 and 25 after ET in pregnant mares (r=0.30-0.36). The CL area and plasma [P4] were also correlated on each day until day 11 after ET (r=0.49-0.60). The CL colour pixel area decreased significantly after day 18, whereas CL area was already decreasing by day 4 after ET. The CL area, area of blood flow, or [P4] was predictive of pregnancy. Findings in the present study suggest that both CL area and blood flow are correlated with circulating [P4] at the time of transfer and in early pregnancy. Evaluation of the CL using B-mode or CF sonography, although practical, provides no improvement in the selection of recipients or prediction of pregnancy

  8. Influence of corpus luteum and induced ovulation on ovarian follicular dynamics in postpartum cyclic cows treated with buserelin and cloprostenol.

    PubMed

    Twagiramungu, H; Guilbault, L A; Proulx, J G; Dufour, J J

    1994-07-01

    The influence of the corpus luteum (CL) at the time of buserelin treatment and of buserelin-induced ovulation on the dynamics of ovarian follicular development was determined in 18 postpartum cyclic beef cows injected i.m. with 8 micrograms of buserelin on d 0 (d of treatment) and with 500 micrograms of cloprostenol (PGF) 6 d later. From d 0 to onset of estrus, ovaries were examined ultrasonographically, and blood samples were collected daily. Number of medium (5 to 10 mm) follicles and diameters of the two largest (F1 and F2) follicles in each cow were recorded. Cows were grouped according to the presence (CL+) or absence (CL-) of an active CL before buserelin injection and the presence (OV+) or absence (OV-) of a buserelin-induced ovulation (OV). Three groups were formed: CL-OV+ (n = 8), CL+OV+ (n = 6), and CL+OV- (n = 4). Buserelin induced an ovulation in all CL- cows (progesterone [P4] < .3 ng/mL) and in CL+ cows that had P4 < 4 ng/mL but did not in CL+ cows that had P4 > 8 ng/mL. Within CL+ cows, buserelin-induced ovulation (OV+) was associated with a smaller (P < .0001) increase in F1 and F1-F2 diameters and a transient increase in the number of medium follicles that was greater (P < .03) and of a longer duration (P < .01) than in OV- cows. After PGF, the increase in F1 and F1-F2 diameters was still greater in OV+ than in OV- cows (day x OV; P < .05). In all cows, the selection of the preovulatory follicle occurred before PGF injection. Results indicate that a buserelin-induced ovulation was dependent on P4 concentrations at the time of treatment. Subsequently, ovarian follicular dynamics were altered by a GnRH-induced ovulation, but emergence and selection of a large growing follicle occurred in all cows within 6 d of treatment. This follicle became the preovulatory follicle following PGF-induced luteolysis. PMID:7928759

  9. Paradoxical effect of supplementary progesterone between Day 3 and Day 7 on corpus luteum function and conceptus development in cattle.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, L; Forde, N; Carter, F; Rizos, D; Maillo, V; Ealy, A D; Kelly, A K; Rodriguez, P; Isaka, N; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P

    2014-01-01

    .05) and the weight of the Day 14 corpus luteum (CL) was lower in the PRID Day 3-7 group than the placebo or control groups. In Experiment 2, supplementation from Day 3 to Day 5 (94.0±18.8 mm) or Day 3 to Day 7 (143.6±20.6 mm) increased conceptus length on Day 16 compared with placebo (50.3±17.4 mm). Serum P4 was significantly lower in the two supplemented groups following PRID removal compared with placebo (P<0.05) and was associated with a lower CL weight in the Day 3-7 group. Conceptus length was strongly correlated with the IFNT concentration in the uterine flush (r=0.58; P=0.011) and spent culture medium (r=0.68; P<0.002). The findings of the present study highlight the somewhat paradoxical effects of P4 supplementation when given in the early metoestrous period in terms of its positive effect on conceptus development and its potentially negative effects on CL lifespan. PMID:23439105

  10. Ultrasound monitoring of blood flow and echotexture of the corpus luteum and uterus during early pregnancy of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Scully, S; Evans, A C O; Carter, F; Duffy, P; Lonergan, P; Crowe, M A

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to characterize changes in the ultrasound characteristics of the CL and uterus in pregnant, inseminated nonpregnant, and cyclic beef heifers and to correlate findings with systemic progesterone (P4) concentrations with the intention of identifying possible markers for early identification of pregnancy. Heifers were randomly selected for artificial insemination after estrus synchronization. Ultrasound examinations of the CL and uterus were carried out by transrectal ultrasonography using a high-resolution ultrasound scanner equipped with a 12 MHz linear array probe on Days 7, 11, 14, 16, and 18 after artificial insemination (Day 0; i.e., estrus). Cross-sectional B-mode images of the CL were captured for calculation of CL tissue area and echotexture. Images of the CL and associated blood flow were captured and stored for analysis of luteal blood flow area and ratio. Longitudinal B-mode images of the uterine horns were captured just beyond the bifurcation of the uterine horns and stored for analysis of contrast and homogeneity (MaZda v4.6; Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Electronics, Poland). A total of three images were captured for each structure of interest. Serum concentrations of P4 were determined from blood samples collected at each ultrasound examination. After pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasound, heifers were retrospectively allocated as being pregnant (embryonic heartbeat on Day 28; n = 14) or nonpregnant (interestrous interval 18-21 days; n = 8) and their data were compared with noninseminated cyclic heifers (n = 10). Corpus luteum tissue area did not appear to change between pregnant, nonpregnant, or cyclic control groups between Days 7 and 18 (P > 0.05). No significant differences in CL echotexture characteristics were found between groups at any time point. There were no significant differences between pregnant, nonpregnant, and cyclic control groups for CL blood flow area (P > 0.05). However, CL blood flow ratio

  11. Effects of synchronization treatments on ovarian follicular dynamics, corpus luteum growth, and circulating steroid hormone concentrations in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, M M; Crowe, M A; Diskin, M G; Butler, S T

    2012-02-01

    Lactating dairy cows (n=57) ≥45 d postpartum at first service were enrolled in a randomized complete block design study to evaluate treatments to synchronize estrus and ovulation. At 10 d before artificial insemination (AI), animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) d -10 GnRH (GnRH1; 10 μg of buserelin, i.m.) and controlled internal drug release insert [CIDR, 1.38 g of progesterone (P4)]; d -3 PGF(2α) (PGF; 25 mg of dinoprost, i.m.); d -2 CIDR out; and AI at observed estrus (CIDR_OBS); (2) same as CIDR_OBS, but GnRH (GnRH2) 36 h after CIDR out and timed AI (TAI) 18 h later (CIDR_TAI); or (3) same as CIDR_TAI, but no CIDR (Ovsynch). Transrectal ultrasound was used to assess follicle size before ovulation and on d 4, 8, and 15 after the presumptive day of estrus (d 0) to measure the corpus luteum (CL). Blood samples were collected to determine concentrations of estradiol (E2; d -10, -9, -3, -2, -1, and 0) and P4 (d -10, -9, -2, -1, 0, 1, 4, 6, 8, 11, and 15). No treatment differences were observed in either circulating concentrations of P4 or the ovulatory response to GnRH1 at the onset of synchronization treatments. Circulating concentrations of P4 were greater for CIDR_OBS and CIDR_TAI compared with Ovsynch at 24 h after CIDR insertion (5.34 and 4.98 vs. 1.75 ng/mL) and immediately before CIDR removal (1.65 and 1.48 vs. 0.40 ng/mL). Peak circulating concentrations of E2 were greater for CIDR_OBS compared with Ovsynch (3.85 vs. 2.39 pg/mL), but CIDR_TAI (2.82 pg/mL) did not differ from either CIDR_OBS or Ovsynch. The interval from PGF injection to peak circulating E2 did not differ between CIDR_TAI and Ovsynch (52.1 vs. 49.8 h). Both CIDR_TAI and Ovsynch, however, had shorter intervals from PGF injection to peak circulating E2 concentrations compared with CIDR_OBS (67.8 h). The diameter of the dominant follicle before ovulation was greater for CIDR_OBS compared with Ovsynch (18.5 vs. 16.0 mm) but CIDR_TAI (17.1 mm) did not differ from either of

  12. Characterization of recombinant DNA derived-human luteinizing hormone in vitro and in vivo: efficacy in ovulation induction and corpus luteum support

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.A.; Danforth, D.R.; Hutchison, J.S.; Hodgen, G.D.

    1988-06-10

    The present data are the first, to the authors knowledge, to demonstrate the production feasibility of a commercially available medication of pure human luteinizing hormone from recombinant DNA technology (rechLH). The rechLH preparation achieved ovulation induction and corpus luteum support in the primate menstrual cycle. The observations described herein indicate the opportunity for significant improvement in the treatment of infertile women and men who require gonadal stimulation. Recombinant DNA-derived gonadotropin products, rechLH in this case, will have several therapeutic advantages compared with current medications extracted from urine. These advantages include (1) better reliability of an available supply of hormone and (2) improved treatment flexibility in determining the optimal dose ratio of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone or avoidance of the long-acting effects of human chorionic gonadotropin, as the needs of individual patients may dictate.

  13. Differentially Expressed Genes in Endometrium and Corpus Luteum of Holstein Cows Selected for High and Low Fertility Are Enriched for Sequence Variants Associated with Fertility.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephen G; Pryce, Jennie E; Hayes, Ben J; Chamberlain, Amanda J; Kemper, Kathryn E; Berry, Donagh P; McCabe, Matt; Cormican, Paul; Lonergan, Pat; Fair, Trudee; Butler, Stephen T

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of fertility in humans and livestock, there has been little success dissecting the genetic basis of fertility. Our hypothesis was that genes differentially expressed in the endometrium and corpus luteum on Day 13 of the estrous cycle between cows with either good or poor genetic merit for fertility would be enriched for genetic variants associated with fertility. We combined a unique genetic model of fertility (cattle that have been selected for high and low fertility and show substantial difference in fertility) with gene expression data from these cattle and genome-wide association study (GWAS) results in ∼20,000 cattle to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions and sequence variants associated with genetic variation in fertility. Two hundred and forty-five QTL regions and 17 sequence variants associated primarily with prostaglandin F2alpha, steroidogenesis, mRNA processing, energy status, and immune-related processes were identified. Ninety-three of the QTL regions were validated by two independent GWAS, with signals for fertility detected primarily on chromosomes 18, 5, 7, 8, and 29. Plausible causative mutations were identified, including one missense variant significantly associated with fertility and predicted to affect the protein function of EIF4EBP3. The results of this study enhance our understanding of 1) the contribution of the endometrium and corpus luteum transcriptome to phenotypic fertility differences and 2) the genetic architecture of fertility in dairy cattle. Including these variants in predictions of genomic breeding values may improve the rate of genetic gain for this critical trait. PMID:26607721

  14. Control of corpus luteum function in the pregnant rabbit: role of the placenta ("placental luteotropin") in regulating responsiveness of corpora lutea to estrogen.

    PubMed

    Gadsby, J E; Keyes, P L

    1984-08-01

    Experiments were performed to examine the interaction between estrogen and "placental luteotropin," the two luteotropins thought to be required for corpus luteum maintenance in the pregnant rabbit. Experiment 1 was designed to determine whether estrogen alone was luteotropic in the absence of "placental luteotropin." Pregnant rabbits were assigned to the following groups: Group A, sham hysterectomy; Group B, hysterectomy; Group C, hysterectomy plus estradiol on Day 20; and Group D, hysterectomy plus estradiol on Day 22. "Placental luteotropin" was removed on Day 21 of pregnancy by hysterectomy and estrogen was administered via an estradiol-filled Silastic implant which was placed s.c. before (Day 20, Group C) or after (Day 22, Group D) hysterectomy. Daily blood samples were taken for radioimmunoassay of serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations. Corpus luteum weights were measured at autopsy on Day 27. Hysterectomy caused serum progesterone concentrations to fall rapidly from 13 +/- 1 ng/ml on Day 21 to 2 +/- 1 ng/ml on Day 23, and to 1 ng/ml or less on Days 24-27. In sham hysterectomized rabbits (Group A), pregnancy was maintained and serum progesterone concentrations remained elevated at 9-15 ng/ml throughout (Days 20-27). Estradiol treatment (Groups C and D) did not prevent or reverse luteal regression induced by hysterectomy and serum progesterone concentrations declined in a similar fashion to Group B. Serum estradiol concentrations were 4-8 pg/ml in all groups and did not vary substantially with stage of pregnancy or treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6466753

  15. /sup 125/I-luteinizing hormone (LH) binding to soluble receptors from the primate (Macaca mulatta) corpus luteum: effects of ethanol exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Danforth, D.R.; Stouffer, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the current study, we compared the effects of ethanol on gonadotropin receptors solubilized from macaque luteal membranes to those on receptors associated with the lipid bilayer. Treatment with 1% Triton X-100 for 30 min at 4C, followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol, resulted in recovery of 50% more binding sites for /sup 125/I-human luteinizing hormone (hLH) than were available in particulate preparations. However, the soluble receptors displayed a 3-fold lower affinity for /sup 125/I-hLH. Conditions which enhanced LH binding to particulates, i.e., 1-8% ethanol at 25C, decreased specific /sup 125/I-hLH binding to soluble receptors. Steady-state LH binding to soluble receptors during incubation at 4C was half of that observed at 25C. The presence of 8% ethanol at 4C restored LH binding to levels observed in the absence of ethanol at 25C. Thus, LH binding sites in the primate corpus luteum can be effectively solubilized with Triton X-100. The different binding characteristics of particulate and soluble receptors, including the response to ethanol exposure, suggest that the lipid environment in the luteal membrane modulates the availability and affinity of gonadotropin receptors.

  16. The effects of luteinizing hormone ablation/replacement versus steroid ablation/replacement on gene expression in the primate corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Cecily V.; Hennebold, Jon D.; Stouffer, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to provide a genome-wide analysis of the effects of luteinizing hormone (LH) versus steroid ablation/replacement on gene expression in the developed corpus luteum (CL) in primates during the menstrual cycle. On Days 9–11 of the luteal phase, female rhesus monkeys were left untreated (control) or received a GnRH antagonist Antide (A), A + LH, A + LH + the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor Trilostane (TRL) or A + LH + TRL + a progestin R5020. On Day 12 of the luteal phase, CL were removed and samples of RNA from individual CL were hybridized to Affymetrix™ rhesus macaque total genome microarrays. The greatest number of altered transcripts was associated with the ablation/replacement of LH, while steroid ablation/progestin replacement affected fewer transcripts. Replacement of LH during Antide treatment restored the expression of most transcripts to control levels. Validation of a subset of transcripts revealed that the expression patterns were similar between microarray and real-time PCR. Analyses of protein levels were subsequently determined for two transcripts. This is the first genome-wide analysis of LH and steroid regulation of gene transcription in the developed primate CL. Further analysis of novel transcripts identified in this data set can clarify the relative role for LH and steroids in CL maintenance and luteolysis. PMID:19168862

  17. Expression and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in the corpus luteum during oestrous cycle in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Chouhan, V S; Panda, R P; Yadav, V P; Babitha, V; Khan, F A; Das, G K; Gupta, M; Dangi, S S; Singh, G; Bag, S; Sharma, G T; Berisha, B; Schams, D; Sarkar, M

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to document the expression and localization of VEGF system comprising of VEGF isoforms (VEGF 120, VEGF 164 and VEGF 188) and their receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) in buffalo corpus luteum (CL) obtained from different stages of the oestrous cycle. Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry were applied to investigate mRNA expression, protein expression and localization of examined factors. In general, all the components of VEGF system (the VEGF isoforms and their receptors) were found in the water buffalo CL during the oestrous cycle. The mRNA as well as protein expression of VEGF system was highest during the early and mid-luteal phase, which later steadily decreased (p < 0.05) after day 10 to reach the lowest level in regressed CL. As demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, VEGF protein was localized predominantly in luteal cells; however, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 were localized in luteal cells as well as in endothelial cells. In conclusion, the dynamics of expression and localization of VEGF system in buffalo corpora lutea during the luteal phase were demonstrated in this study, indicating the possible role of VEGF system in the regulation of luteal angiogenesis and proliferation of luteal as well as endothelial cells through their non-angiogenic function. PMID:23551326

  18. PPAR ligand association with prostaglandin F2α and E2 synthesis in the pig corpus luteum-An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kurzynska, A; Chojnowska, K; Bogacki, M; Bogacka, I

    2016-09-01

    The present study evaluated the involvement of PPARs in prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2α production in the corpus luteum (CL) of pigs on days 10-12 and 14-16 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. The tissue explants were incubated for 6h in the presence of PPARα, PPARβ, PPARγ ligands. The concentration of PGs in the incubation media was determined by radioimmunoassay, while mRNA abundance of PG synthetases (PGES and PGFS) was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. It was found that L-165,045 and rosiglitazone stimulated PGES synthesis on days 10-12 of the estrous cycle, whereas all factors that were assessed did not affect PGE2 release. The PGFS mRNA abundance in the CL did not change in the presence of PPAR ligands during the assessment periods. However, PPARβ agonist inhibited PGF2α secretion on days 10-12 of the estrous cycle and on days 14-16 of pregnancy. Interestingly, PPAR antagonists, MK 886, GW 9662 or T0070907 decreased PGF2α release by the slices on days 10-12 of the estrous cycle. It is concluded that the CL has a different susceptibility (greatest during mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle) to the PPAR ligands, which is related to the physiological status of animal. The inhibition of PGF2α release and augmentation of PGES mRNA concentration during mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle might suggest luteotropic properties of PPAR ligands. PMID:27477116

  19. Nodal Promotes Functional Luteolysis via Down-Regulation of Progesterone and Prostaglandins E2 and Promotion of PGF2α Synthetic Pathways in Mare Corpus Luteum.

    PubMed

    Galvão, António; Skarzynski, Dariusz; Ferreira-Dias, Graça

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, we investigated the role of Nodal, an embryonic morphogen from the TGFβ superfamily in corpus luteum (CL) secretory activity using cells isolated from equine CL as a model. Expression pattern of Nodal and its receptors activin receptor A type IIB (ACVR2B), activin receptor-like kinase (Alk)-7, and Alk4, as well as the Nodal physiological role, demonstrate the involvement of this pathway in functional luteolysis. Nodal and its receptors were immune localized in small and large luteal cells and endothelial cells, except ACVR2B, which was not detected in the endothelium. Nodal mRNA in situ hybridization confirmed its transcription in steroidogenic and endothelial cells. Expression analysis of the aforementioned factors evidenced that Nodal and Alk7 proteins peaked at the mid-CL (P < .01), the time of luteolysis initiation, whereas Alk4 and ACVR2B proteins increased from mid- to late CL (P < .05). The Nodal treatment of luteal cells decreased progesterone and prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentrations in culture media (P < .05) as well as mRNA and protein of secretory enzymes steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytosolic PGE2 synthase, and microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (P < .05). Conversely, PGF2α secretion and gene expression of PG-endoperoxidase synthase 2 and PGF2α synthase were increased after Nodal treatment (P < .05). Mid-CL cells cultured with PGF2α had increased Nodal protein expression (P < .05) and phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic-3 phosphorylation (P < .05). Finally, the supportive interaction between Nodal and PGF2α on luteolysis was shown to its greatest extent because both factors together more significantly inhibited progesterone (P < .05) and promoted PGF2α (P < .05) synthesis than Nodal or PGF2α alone. Our results neatly pinpoint the sites of action of the Nodal signaling pathway toward functional luteolysis in the mare. PMID:26653568

  20. Effects of varying doses of β-nerve growth factor on the timing of ovulation, plasma progesterone concentration and corpus luteum size in female alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Stuart, C C; Vaughan, J L; Kershaw-Young, C M; Wilkinson, J; Bathgate, R; de Graaf, S P

    2015-11-01

    Ovulation in camelids is induced by the seminal plasma protein ovulation-inducing factor (OIF), recently identified as β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF). The present study measured the total protein concentration in alpaca seminal plasma using a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein quantification assay and found it to be 22.2±2.0mgmL(-1). To measure the effects of varying doses of β-NGF on the incidence and timing of ovulation, corpus luteum (CL) size and plasma progesterone concentration, 24 female alpacas were synchronised and treated with either: (1) 1mL 0.9% saline (n=5); (2) 4µg buserelin (n=5); (3) 1mg β-NGF protein (n=5); (4) 0.1mg β-NGF (n=5); or (5) 0.01mg β-NGF (n=4). Females were examined by transrectal ultrasonography at 1-2-h intervals between 20 and 45h after treatment or until ovulation occurred, as well as on Day 8 to observe the size of the CL, at which time blood was collected to measure plasma progesterone concentrations. Ovulation was detected in 0/5, 5/5, 5/5, 3/5 and 0/4 female alpacas treated with saline, buserelin, 1, 0.1 and 0.01mg β-NGF, respectively. Mean ovulation interval (P=0.76), CL diameter (P=0.96) and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.96) did not differ between treatments. Mean ovulation interval overall was 26.2±1.0h. In conclusion, buserelin and 1mg β-NGF are equally effective at inducing ovulation in female alpacas, but at doses ≤0.1mg, β-NGF is not a reliable method for the induction of ovulation. PMID:24965784

  1. Short communication: Development of the first follicular wave dominant follicle on the ovary ipsilateral to the corpus luteum is associated with decreased conception rate in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Miura, R; Haneda, S; Kayano, M; Matsui, M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of the locations of the first-wave dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) on fertility. In total, 350 artificial insemination (AI) procedures were conducted (lactating dairy cows: n=238, dairy heifers: n=112). Ovulation was confirmed 24 h after AI. The locations of the first-wave DF and CL were examined 5 to 9d after AI using rectal palpation or transrectal ultrasonography. Lactating dairy cows and dairy heifers were divided into 2 groups: (1) the ipsilateral group (IG), in which the DF was ipsilateral to the CL; and (2) the contralateral group (CG), in which the DF was contralateral to the CL. Pregnancy was diagnosed using transrectal ultrasonography 40d after AI. Conception rates were 54.0% in all cattle: 48.9% in lactating dairy cows, and 58.9% in dairy heifers. The incidence of the first-wave DF location did not differ between IG and CG (all cattle: 184 vs. 166; lactating cows: 129 vs. 109; heifers: 55 vs. 57 for IG vs. CG). Conception rates were lower in IG than in CG (all cattle: 40.2 vs. 69.3%; lactating dairy cows: 38.0 vs. 67.0%; dairy heifers: 45.5 vs. 73.7%, for IG vs. CG). Conception rate was not affected by season or live weight in heifers and lactating cows. In addition, days in milk at AI, milk production, body condition score, and parity did not affect conception in lactating cows. In summary, development of the first-wave DF in the ovary ipsilateral to the CL was associated with reduced conception rates in both lactating cows and heifers. PMID:25465564

  2. Gene expression profiles in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) during the estrous cycle and pregnancy: possible roles of chemokines in regulating CL function during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Ken-Go; Hosoe, Misa; Iga, Kosuke; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    To determine functional differences between the corpus luteum (CL) of the estrous cycle and pregnancy in cows, gene expression profiles were compared using a 15 K bovine oligo DNA microarray. In the pregnant CL at days 20-25, 40-45 and 150-160, the expressions of 138, 265 and 455 genes differed by a factor of > 2-fold (P < 0.05) from their expressions in the cyclic CL (days 10-12 of the estrous cycle). Messenger RNA expressions of chemokines (eotaxin, lymphotactin and ENA-78) and their receptors (CCR3, XCR1 and CXCR2) were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Transcripts of eotaxin were more abundant in the CL at days 40-45 and 150-160 of pregnancy than in the cyclic CL (P < 0.01). In contrast, the mRNA expressions of lymphotactin, ENA-78 and XCR1 were lower in the CL of pregnancy (P < 0.05). Messenger RNAs of CCR3 and CXCR2 were similarly detected both in the cyclic and pregnant CL. Tissue protein levels of eotaxin were significantly higher in the CL at days 150-160 of pregnancy than in the CL at other stages, whereas the lymphotactin protein levels in the CL at days 20-25 of pregnancy were lower (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining showed that CCR3 was expressed in the luteal cells and that XCR1 was expressed in both the luteal cells and endothelial cells. Collectively, the different gene expression profiles may contribute to functional differences between the cyclic and pregnant CL, and chemokines including eotaxin and lymphotactin may regulate CL function during pregnancy in cows. PMID:25382605

  3. Regulated C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2) in luteal cells contributes to macrophage infiltration into the human corpus luteum during luteolysis.

    PubMed

    Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Kudo, Masataka; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Kimura, Shunsuke; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Duncan, W Colin

    2015-08-01

    Intense macrophage infiltration is observed during luteolysis in various animals including women; however, we still do not know how macrophage infiltration into the human corpus luteum (CL) during luteolysis is regulated. In this study, we examined the expression, localization and regulation of an important chemokine for the recruitment of monocyte/macrophage lineages, C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2), in the human CL across the luteal phase and in cultured human luteinized granulosa cells (LGCs), with special reference to the number of infiltrating macrophages and luteal cell function. CCL2 mRNA increased in the non-functional regressing CL during menstruation (P < 0.01), corresponding to an elevated mRNA expression of a macrophage-derived cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and an increased number of infiltrating macrophages positively stained with a macrophage marker, CD68. CCL2 protein was immunohistochemically localized to the cytoplasm of granulosa-lutein and theca-lutein cells, and CCL2 mRNA was significantly reduced by hCG both in vivo (P < 0.05) and in vitro (P < 0.01). CCL2 was also down-regulated by luteotrophic prostaglandin (PG) E (P < 0.0001), but up-regulated by luteolytic PGF (P < 0.05) in vitro. Administration of TNF significantly enhanced the CCL2 mRNA expression in cultured LGCs (P < 0.01). A greater abundance of infiltrating macrophages were found around granulosa-lutein cells lacking 3β-HSD or PGE synthase (PGES) immunostaining. CCL2 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with both HSD3B1 and PGES, suggesting that locally produced progesterone and PGE suppress macrophage infiltration into the CL. Taken together, the infiltration of macrophages in the human CL is regulated by endocrine and paracrine molecules via regulation of the CCL2 expression in luteal cells. PMID:26003810

  4. Concentrations of progesterone, a metabolite of PGF2α, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone during development of idiopathic persistent corpus luteum in mares.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Baldrighi, J M; Castro, T; Wolf, C A; Santos, V G

    2016-04-01

    In experiment 1, daily blood samples were available from Days 0 to 20 (Day 0 = ovulation) in mares with an interovulatory interval (IOI, n = 5) and in mares that developed idiopathic persistent corpus luteum (PCL, n = 5). The PCL was confirmed by maintenance of progesterone (P4) concentration until end of the experiment (Day 20). Significant interactions of group and day revealed the novel findings that luteinizing hormone (LH) was lower (P < 0.05) in the PCL group than that in the IOI group on Days 0 to 4, and prolactin was lower (P < 0.05) on Days 1, 4, 6, and 7. In experiment 2, treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (n = 6) significantly reduced LH on Days 1 to 6 compared with the controls (n = 6) but did not support the hypothesis that low LH during the postovulatory period increases the frequency of PCL. In experiment 3, P4, PGFM (a PGF2α metabolite), and prolactin concentrations on Days 12 to 20 from 2 reported experiments were combined to increase the number of mares with an IOI (n = 11) or a PCL (n = 11). An abrupt and complete decrease in P4 (luteolysis) began on Day 13 in the IOI group compared with a gradual and partial P4 decline after Day 12 in the PCL group. Concentrations of PGFM and prolactin were lower (P < 0.05) in the PCL group than those in the IOI group on the day at the end of the most pronounced decrease in P4. The PCL mares were subgrouped into those with an abrupt but incomplete P4 decrease (partial luteolysis; n = 5) at the expected time and those without partial luteolysis (n = 6). There were no significant differences between the 2 subgroups in concentrations of PGFM and prolactin, but on a tentative basis (P < 0.10), the concentration of PGFM seemed more focused on the day of the most pronounced decrease in P4 in the subgroup with partial luteolysis. Results for PCL compared with IOI indicated (1) postovulatory LH and prolactin were lower, (2) treatment to reduce postovulatory LH did not increase the incidence

  5. Ovulation of the preovulatory follicle originating from the first-wave dominant follicle leads to formation of an active corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    MIURA, Ryotaro; HANEDA, Shingo; MATSUI, Motozumi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to compare the characteristics of the corpus luteum (CL) formed after ovulation of the dominant follicle (DF) of the first follicular wave (W1) and those of the CL formed after ovulation of the DF of the second (induced) follicular wave (W2). Non-lactating Holstein cows were used for this study. In Experiment 1, cows were treated with PGF2α and GnRH on days 6 and 8 (day 0 = day of follicular wave emergence) for W1 (n = 6) and W2 (n = 6), respectively. Dominant follicles were aspirated on day 9 to quantify the amounts of mRNA (VEGF120, VEGF164, FGF-2, StAR, P450-scc and 3β-HSD) in granulosa cells (GC). In Experiment 2, the size and blood flow area of the CL formed after ovulation of the DF in W1 (W1CL; n = 6) and W2 (W2CL; n = 6) (the day of DF ovulation in W1 and W2 was day 10) were evaluated on days 12, 15, 18 and 21. The plasma P4 concentration was measured on days 10 to 21. The amounts of VEGF164, P450-scc and 3β-HSD mRNA were higher (P < 0.05) in the DF in W1, and those of VEGF120,FGF-2 and StAR mRNA tended to be higher (P < 0.1) in the DF in W1. The size of the CL was greater in the W1CL on days 15, 18 and 21. The blood flow area of the CL was greater in the W1CL on days 12 and 15. The plasma P4 concentrations were higher in the W1CL. These results indicate that the CL formed after ovulation of the DF in W1 was greater in terms of size, blood flow and plasma P4 concentration. PMID:26018204

  6. The induction of a secondary corpus luteum on day 12 post-ovulation can delay the time of luteolysis in high-producing Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Saint-Dizier, M; Legendre, A-C; Driancourt, M-A; Chastant-Maillard, S

    2014-12-01

    Luteolysis before the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy is one cause of low fertility in high-producing dairy cows. The objective of this study was to assess whether induction of a secondary corpus luteum (CL) late in the luteal phase would delay the time of luteolysis. Twenty high-producing Holstein cows were synchronized to ovulation (Day 0) with the Ovsynch protocol and received hCG (1500 IU im) on Day 12. Corpora lutea formation (as evaluated by ultrasonography) and plasma P4 concentrations were monitored from Days 4 to 36. hCG treatment induced the formation of one secondary CL (CL2) in 11 of 20 cows (55%) from the dominant follicle (mean diameter: 14.2 ± 0.9 mm) of two-wave (3/11) and three-wave (8/11) cycles. The maximal diameter of the CL2 (23.3 ± 1.9 mm) was reached approximately 6 days after hCG treatment and was correlated with its structural lifespan (p < 0.01). Cows that formed a CL2 after hCG had higher mean plasma P4 concentrations on Day 14 (+4.5 ng/ml) and Day 18 (+3.0 ng/ml) compared with cows without CL2 (p < 0.05). The structural regression of CL2 begun approximately 8 days after that of the CL1, and the median time at which the first drop in circulating P4 levels occurred was later in cows that formed a CL2 than in those that did not (Day 26 vs Day 18; p < 0.01). Thus, the induction of a CL2 by hCG on Day 12 might reduce the risk of premature luteolysis in high-producing dairy cows after insemination. PMID:25219366

  7. Administration of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist affects corpus luteum vascular stability and development and induces luteal apoptosis in a rat model of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Leopoldina; Irusta, Griselda; Abramovich, Dalhia; Tesone, Marta; Parborell, Fernanda

    2011-03-30

    Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a complication of ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins followed by the administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to trigger the final steps of oocyte maturation. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs are thought to be effective in preventing this complication and a clinical trial has found a lower incidence of OHSS in patients treated with these molecules. Our aim was to analyze the in vivo effect of a GnRH-I agonist on corpus luteum development and regression, ANGPT-1, ANGPT-2 and Tie-2 protein expression and luteal blood vessel stabilization, the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and the cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and cell proliferation, in ovaries from an OHSS rat model. To this end immature female Sprague-Dawley rats were hyperstimulated and treated with a GnRH-I agonist from the start of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) administration until the day of hCG injection for 5 consecutive days. Blood and tissue samples were collected 48h after hCG injection. Vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF levels were evaluated in the peritoneal fluid by ELISA. Serum progesterone and estradiol were measured by RIA. Histological features of sectioned ovaries were assessed in hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides. Luteal blood vessel stability, cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by immunohistochemistry for SMCA, PCNA, and TUNEL, respectively. P450scc, StAR, FLK-1, ANGPT-1, ANGPT-2, Tie-2 and PCNA protein levels were evaluated by Western blot from dissected corpora lutea (CL). The treatment with the GnRH-I agonist significantly decreased serum progesterone and estradiol levels as well as P450scc and StAR protein expression in the untreated OHSS group. In addition, the agonist significantly decreased the number of CL in the OHSS group, as compared with the untreated OHSS group. In the OHSS group, the area of periendothelial cells in the

  8. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8 (MAP3K8) Mediates the Signaling Pathway of Estradiol Stimulating Progesterone Production Through G Protein-Coupled Receptor 30 (GPR30) in Mouse Corpus Luteum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Li, Yueqin; Zhang, Di; Liu, Jiali; Gou, Kemian; Cui, Sheng

    2015-05-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine gland developed from the ovulated follicles, and the most important function is to synthesize and secrete progesterone (P(4)), a key hormone to maintain normal pregnancy and estrous cycle in most mammals. It is known that estrogen has a vital role in stimulating P(4) synthesis in CL, but it still remains unclear about the mechanism of estradiol (E(2)) regulating P(4) production in CL. Our results here first show that all of the CL cells express MAPK 8 (MAP3K8), and the MAP3K8 level is much higher at the midstage than at the early and late stages during CL development. The further functional studies show that the forced inhibition of endogenous MAP3K8 by using MAP3K8 small interfering RNA and MAP3K8 signaling inhibitor (MAP3K8i) in the luteal cells significantly block the P(4) synthesis and neutralize the enhancing effect of E(2) on P(4) production in the CL. In addition, our results here demonstrate that the stimulating effect of E(2) on P(4) synthesis relies on the estrogen no-classical protein-coupled receptor 30, and MAP3K8 is involved in mediating the protein-coupled receptor 30signaling of E(2) affecting P(4) synthesis via stimulating ERK phosphorylation. These novel findings are critical for our understanding the ovary physiology and pathological mechanism. PMID:25763610

  9. Convergence of 3′,5′-Cyclic Adenosine 5′-Monophosphate/Protein Kinase A and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β/β-Catenin Signaling in Corpus Luteum Progesterone Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Lynn; McDonald, Claudia A.; Jiang, Chao; Maroni, Dulce; Zeleznik, Anthony J.; Wyatt, Todd A.; Hou, Xiaoying; Davis, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Progesterone secretion by the steroidogenic cells of the corpus luteum (CL) is essential for reproduction. Progesterone synthesis is under the control of LH, but the exact mechanism of this regulation is unknown. It is established that LH stimulates the LH receptor/choriogonadotropin receptor, a G-protein coupled receptor, to increase cAMP and activate cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that cAMP/PKA-dependent regulation of the Wnt pathway components glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β and β-catenin contributes to LH-dependent steroidogenesis in luteal cells. We observed that LH via a cAMP/PKA-dependent mechanism stimulated the phosphorylation of GSK3β at N-terminal Ser9 causing its inactivation and resulted in the accumulation of β-catenin. Overexpression of N-terminal truncated β-catenin (Δ90 β-catenin), which lacks the phosphorylation sites responsible for its destruction, significantly augmented LH-stimulated progesterone secretion. In contrast, overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of GSK3β (GSK-S9A) reduced β-catenin levels and inhibited LH-stimulated steroidogenesis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated the association of β-catenin with the proximal promoter of the StAR gene, a gene that expresses the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, which is a cholesterol transport protein that controls a rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis. Collectively these data suggest that cAMP/PKA regulation of GSK3β/β-catenin signaling may contribute to the acute increase in progesterone production in response to LH. PMID:19819952

  10. Comparison between lactating and non-lactating dairy cows on follicular growth and corpus luteum development, and endocrine patterns of ovarian steroids and luteinizing hormone in the estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Endo, Natsumi; Nagai, Kiyosuke; Tanaka, Tomomi; Kamomae, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    The dynamics of ovarian follicle, corpus luteum (CL), and peripheral plasma ovarian steroids were compared between lactating and non-lactating cows, and a possible association of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion with the dynamics was examined. Lactating (n=5) and non-lactating (n=5) cows were monitored daily for follicle and CL throughout two consecutive estrous cycles (Day 0: day of ovulation). Blood samples were collected daily and at 15 min intervals for 8h on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 14 of the second cycle. Lactating cows had larger CL (25.4 ± 1.8mm vs. 23.5 ± 1.5mm, P<0.01) and greater progesterone concentrations (4.6 ± 1.0ng/ml vs. 3.9 ± 0.9 ng/ml, P<0.01) during mid-luteal phase compared with non-lactating cows. Maximal diameters of the first wave dominant follicle (17.2 ± 1.8mm vs. 15.5 ± 0.8mm) and the ovulatory follicle (17.9 ± 1.2mm vs. 15.2 ± 0.8mm) were greater (P<0.05) in lactating cows than in non-lactating cows during the estrous cycles with two follicular waves, but no significant differences were detected between the groups during the estrous cycles with three follicular waves. Plasma estradiol concentrations did not differ between the groups throughout the experiment. Lactating cows had more LH pulses from Days 2 to 14 than non-lactating cows. These results imply that differences in ovarian dynamics may exist between lactating and non-lactating cows, for which the increased number of LH pulses observed in lactating cows may have responsibility. PMID:22951117

  11. A cellular and endocrine characterization of the original and induced corpus luteum after administration of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or human chorionic gonadotropin on day five of the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, E J; Barros, C M; Fields, P A; Fields, M J; Diaz, T; Kluge, J M; Thatcher, W W

    1996-08-01

    To determine whether injection of hCG or GnRH-agonist on d 5 after estrus (d 0) has a differential functional effect on an induced and the original corpus luteum (CL), two experiments were conducted. In Exp. 1, nonlactating Holstein cows were injected on d 5 with saline (n = 4; T1), a GnRH-agonist (Buserelin, 8 micrograms i.m.; n = 4; T2), or hCG (1,000 i.u., i.v., and 2,000 i.u., i.m.; n = 4; T3). Induced CL were removed on d 13 and weights were different (GnRH-agonist < hCG). In vitro production of progesterone by CL tissue (microgram/g; microgram/CL) was affected by treatment (GnRH-agonist < hCG) and dose of LH (ng.mL) in culture media. Experiment 2 was a replicate of Exp. 1, except that the original CL was removed on d 17 for in vitro culture. Day-17 CL weights and in vitro production of progesterone by original CL were not affected by treatment. The daily rate of increase of plasma progesterone from d 6 to d 13 differed: saline < GnRH-agonist < hCG (P < .01). From d 14 to 17, the rate of plasma progesterone decrease was not different between treatments. Electron micrographic study of the original and induced CL indicates that LH-like exposure delays involution of steroidogenic luteal cells. In summary, the higher levels of progesterone from d 6 to d 13 of the estrous cycle following an injection of hCG vs GnRH-agonist on d 5 is due to a greater response of hCG-induced CL. PMID:8856446

  12. Prostaglandin F2α Stimulates the Expression and Secretion of Transforming Growth Factor B1 Via Induction of the Early Growth Response 1 Gene (EGR1) in the Bovine Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiaoying; Arvisais, Edward W.; Jiang, Chao; Chen, Dong-bao; Roy, Shyamal K.; Pate, Joy L.; Hansen, Thomas R.; Rueda, Bo R.; Davis, John S.

    2008-01-01

    In most mammals, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) is believed to be a trigger that induces the regression of the corpus luteum (CL), whereby progesterone synthesis is inhibited, the luteal structure involutes, and the reproductive cycle resumes. Studies have shown that the early growth response 1 (EGR1) protein can induce the expression of proapoptotic proteins, suggesting that EGR1 may play a role in luteal regression. Our hypothesis is that EGR1 mediates the actions of PGF2α by inducing the expression of TGF β1 (TGFB1), a key tissue remodeling protein. The levels of EGR1 mRNA and protein were up-regulated in the bovine CL during PGF2α-induced luteolysis in vivo and in PGF2α-treated luteal cells in vitro. Using chemical and genetic approaches, the RAF/MAPK kinase (MEK) 1/ERK pathway was identified as a proximal signaling event required for the induction of EGR1 in PGF2α-treated cells. Treatment with PGF2α increased the expression of TGFB1 mRNA and protein as well as the binding of EGR1 protein to TGFB1 promoter in bovine luteal cells. The effect of PGF2α on TGFB1 expression was mimicked by a protein kinase C (PKC)/RAF/MEK1/ERK activator or adenoviral-mediated expression of EGR1. The stimulatory effect of PGF2α on TGFB1 mRNA and TGFB1 protein secretion was inhibited by blockade of MEK1/ERK signaling and by adenoviral-mediated expression of NAB2, an EGR1 binding protein that inhibits EGR1 transcriptional activity. Treatment of luteal cells with TGFB1 reduced progesterone secretion, implicating TGFB1 in luteal regression. These studies demonstrate that PGF2α stimulates the expression of EGR1 and TGFB1 in the CL. We suggest that EGR1 plays a role in the expression of genes whose cognate proteins coordinate luteal regression. PMID:17916653

  13. Differential gene expression in the bovine corpus luteum during transition from early phase to midphase and its potential role in acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity to prostaglandin F2 alpha.

    PubMed

    Goravanahally, Madhusudan P; Salem, Mohamed; Yao, Jianbo; Inskeep, E Keith; Flores, Jorge A

    2009-05-01

    Prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF(2alpha)) brings about regression of the bovine corpus luteum (CL). This luteolytic property of PGF(2alpha) is used in beef and dairy cattle to synchronize estrus. A limitation of this protocol is insensitivity of the early CL to luteolytic actions of PGF(2alpha). The mechanisms underlying this differential luteal sensitivity are poorly understood. The developing CL has a maximum number of PGF(2alpha) receptors; therefore, differences in signaling events may be responsible for luteal insensitivity. Hence, differential gene expression at two developmental stages of CL, Day 4 (D-4) and D-10 after estrus, might account for differences in signal transduction pathways associated with luteal sensitivity. This possibility was examined in these studies. Microarray analysis (n = 3 cows per stage) identified 167 genes that were differentially expressed (P < 0.05). These were categorized into genes involved in protein biosynthesis and modification (18.5%), transcription regulation and DNA biosynthesis (18.5%), miscellaneous (17.0%), cell signaling (12.0%), steroidogenesis and metabolism (10.2%), extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal proteins (9.5%), unknown functions (6.0%), protein degradation (5.3%), and antioxidant property (3.0%). Real-time PCR confirmed the differential expression of nine selected genes, including tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygense activation protein zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ) and regulator of G protein signaling 2 24-kDa (RGS2), observed in microarray. Furthermore, the in vivo effect of exogenous PGF(2alpha) (n = 3 cows per stage) on selected genes that were found to be differentially expressed during this developmental transition was examined. PGF(2alpha) increased the expression of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) beta polypeptide 1 (GNB1) in D-4 CL and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 beta (CAMKK2) in D-10 CL. Therefore, GNB1, CAMKK2, YWHAZ, and RGS2 are candidate genes that may

  14. Reduced fertility in high-yielding dairy cows: are the oocyte and embryo in danger? Part I. The importance of negative energy balance and altered corpus luteum function to the reduction of oocyte and embryo quality in high-yielding dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Leroy, J L M R; Opsomer, G; Van Soom, A; Goovaerts, I G F; Bols, P E J

    2008-10-01

    Fertility in high yielding dairy cows is declining, and there is increasing evidence to presume that oocyte and embryo quality are major factors in the complex pathogenesis of reproductive failure. In this report we present an overview of possible mechanisms linking negative energy balance (NEB) and deficiencies in oocyte and embryo developmental competence; specifically, in the high producing dairy cow. Changes in follicular growth patterns during a period of NEB can indirectly affect oocyte quality. The endocrine and biochemical changes, which are associated with NEB, are reflected in the microenvironment of the growing and maturing female gamete, and likely result in the ovulation of a developmentally incompetent oocyte. Even after an oocyte is successfully ovulated and fertilized, a full-term pregnancy is still not guaranteed. Inadequate corpus luteum function, associated with reduced progesterone, and probably also low insulin-like growth factor concentrations, can cause a suboptimal microenvironment in the uterus that is incapable of sustaining early embryonic life. This may partly account for the low conception rates and the high incidence of early embryonic mortality in high yielding dairy cows. PMID:18384499

  15. Ovine rotaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gazal, S.; Mir, I.A.; Iqbal, A.; Taku, A.K.; Kumar, B.; Bhat, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus has been recognized as a predominant cause of acute diarrhea in young animals and humans. Rotavirus has segmented genome composed of 11 segments of double stranded RNA. The virus has a triple layered protein shell consisting of a core, an inner capsid and an outer capsid. The inner capsid protein is responsible for group specificity and based on it rotaviruses are classified into seven groups. Ovine rotavirus strains have only been identified into two serogroups (A and B). The two outer capsid proteins (VP7 and VP4) are responsible for G and P typing of rotavirus, respectively. Although rotavirus has been frequently reported in many animal species, data regarding ovine rotavirus strains is very scanty and limited. Only a few ovine rotaviruses have been isolated and characterized so far. Recently, the G and P types circulating in ovines have been identified. The ovine rotavirus strain NT isolated from a diarrheic lamb in China is being considered as a promising vaccine candidate for human infants. PMID:26623281

  16. Ultrastructural changes of goat corpus luteum during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi-Fan; Hsu, Meng-Chieh; Cheng, Chiung-Hsiang; Tsui, Kuan-Hao; Chiu, Chih-Hsien

    2016-07-01

    The present study was designed to study the ultrastructure of goat corpora lutea (CL, n=10) and structural changes as related to steroidogenic functions during the estrous cycle. The reproduction status of goats was estimated by analyzing serum progesterone concentrations. The CL at various stages was surgically collected. To characterize ultrastructural features associated with steroidogenesis, tissue and cellular structures were studied. Blood supplies were examined based on features of the endothelial cells and capillary structures in the CL. Activated endothelial cells and developing vessels were observed in the early stage, whereas mature endothelial cells, accumulating extracellular matrix fibers, and stabilized vessels were observed in the middle and late stages of assessment. In the late stage of assessment, shrunken goat luteal cells scattered around the capillaries were detected and formed circular regression areas. Features of autophagy and luteal cell apoptosis were noted. In large luteal cells, steroidogenic organelles were present, including microvillar channels, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. Conformational changes in the endoplasmic reticulum and increased mitochondria with tubular cristae were observed in the early-middle CL transitions. In contrast, mitochondria swelled and the cristae transformed to the lamellar type in the late stage, suggesting that organelle plasticity could contribute to steroidogenesis in goat CL. In conclusion, results suggest angiogenesis occurs in early developing CL and programmed cell death occurred in the late stage of CL assessment in the present study. Structures and quantiles of steroidogenic organelles are correlated with the steroidogenic functions in goats. PMID:27102356

  17. Functional angiocoupling between follicles and adjacent corpus luteum in heifers.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Siddiqui, M A R; Baldrighi, J M

    2016-07-15

    In single ovulating cattle, ipsilateral versus contralateral interovarian relationships refer to a dominant follicle (DF) and CL in the same versus opposite ovaries. The ipsilateral relationship consists of the DF-CL and the devoid (no DF or CL) intraovarian pattern, and the contralateral relationship consists of the DF pattern and the CL pattern. The DF-CL pattern involves positive effects on both the DF and CL when adjacent (≤3-mm apart) versus separated as follows: greater diameter of DF (e.g., 10.5 ± 0.4 vs. 9.0 ± 0.4 mm), greater percentage of the DF wall with color Doppler signals of blood flow (40.2% ± 2.0% vs. 24.5% ± 1.9%), greater cross-sectional area of the CL (2.2 ± 0.1 vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 cm(2)), and greater percentage of the entire CL with blood flow signals (51.8% ± 1.2% vs. 42.5% ± 3.1%). Additional examples of positive coupling are (1) future DF on Day 0 (day of ovulation) is closer to the CL than the future largest subordinate and (2) diameter of growing follicles on Day 0 and the growth rate on Days 0 to 2 are greater for follicles that are adjacent than separated from the CL. An example of a negative intraovarian effect is decreasing diameter and loss of future DF status of a largest follicle when adjacent to a regressing CL. The impact of the continuity of ovarian angioarchitecture during the periovulatory follicular wave was exemplified in 17 of 18 waves by conversion of an ovary with only the preovulatory follicle to the postovulatory DF-CL pattern. Functional angiocoupling from commonality in angioarchitecture of the DF and adjacent CL would account for both the positive two-way coupling between DF and CL during the luteal phase and the negative effect of a regressing CL on an adjacent follicle during luteolysis. PMID:27056414

  18. Antibodies against the beta-subunit of ovine luteinizing hormone can decrease the clearance of human chorionic gonadotropin in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Gunsalus, G L; Sundaram, K; Thau, R B

    1984-06-01

    Contraceptive vaccines based on active immunization against gonadotropic hormones are being investigated in humans and other primates. Immunization against the beta-subunit of ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH beta) reduces fertility in rhesus monkeys by inducing inadequate luteal phases and preventing corpus luteum rescue by rhesus chorionic gonadotropin (rhCG). These effects result from the cross-reactions of the oLH beta-antibodies with rhCG and rhLH. We used human CG (hCG), which also cross-reacts strongly with anti-oLH beta to examine how the circulating oLH beta-antibodies affect the metabolic clearance rates (MCR) of hCG in rhesus monkeys. 125I-hCG was injected into four nonimmunized and seven immunized monkeys and blood was collected at frequent intervals over 7 days. Total and immunoprecipitable radioactivity did not differ significantly, suggesting that the radioactivity in the plasma consisted almost entirely of 125I-hCG. This was confirmed by column chromatography. The MCR (mean +/- SE) was significantly lower (p less than 0.001) in six immunized monkeys (0.35 +/- 0.06 liters/day) as compared to controls (1.19 +/- 0.09 liters/day). The hCG disappearance curve in control monkeys was best described by a two-compartmental system (slow and fast) while an additional third (intermediate) compartment of distribution was typical for immunized animals. The half-lives of hCG for the two exponentials corresponding to the slow and fast components of distribution were not significantly different between the two groups. One immunized monkey had a MCR (1.44 liters/day) that was much greater than the MCR of the other six.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6507705

  19. Ovarian VEGF165b expression regulates follicular development, corpus luteum function and fertility

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Y; Seager, M; Osman, A; Castle-Miller, J; Bevan, H; Tortonese, D J; Murphy, D; Harper, S J; Fraser, H M; Donaldson, L F; Bates, D O

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis and vascular regression are critical for the female ovulatory cycle. They enable progression and regression of follicular development, and corpora lutea formation and regression. Angiogenesis in the ovary occurs under the control of the vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA) family of proteins, which are generated as both pro-(VEGF165) and anti(VEGF165b)-angiogenic isoforms by alternative splicing. To determine the role of the VEGF165b isoforms in the ovulatory cycle, we measured VEGF165b expression in marmoset ovaries by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, and used transgenic mice over-expressing VEGF165b in the ovary. VEGF165b was expressed in the marmoset ovaries in granulosa cells and theca, and the balance of VEGF165b:VEGF165 was regulated during luteogenesis. Mice over-expressing VEGF165b in the ovary were less fertile than wild-type littermates, had reduced secondary and tertiary follicles after mating, increased atretic follicles, fewer corpora lutea and generated fewer embryos in the oviduct after mating, and these were more likely not to retain the corona radiata. These results indicate that the balance of VEGFA isoforms controls follicle progression and luteogenesis, and that control of isoform expression may regulate fertility in mammals, including in primates. PMID:22232745

  20. Progesterone supplementation to lactating dairy cows without a corpus luteum at initiation of the Ovsynch protocol.

    PubMed

    Bisinotto, R S; Castro, L O; Pansani, M B; Narciso, C D; Martinez, N; Sinedino, L D P; Pinto, T L C; Van de Burgwal, N S; Bosman, H M; Surjus, R S; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2015-04-01

    The objectives were to determine the effect of progesterone supplementation on fertility responses in lactating dairy cows without corpora lutea (CL) at initiation of the timed artificial insemination (AI) program. Holstein cows from 5 commercial dairy farms were subjected to the Ovsynch-56 protocol (d -10 GnRH, d -3 PGF2α, d -0.7 GnRH, d 0 AI). Ovaries were scanned by ultrasonography on d -10. Within farm, cows without CL were blocked by pen and assigned randomly to remain as nonsupplemented controls (CON; n = 652) or to receive 2 controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) inserts containing 1.38 g of progesterone each from d -10 to -3 (2CIDR; n = 642). Cows with CL were randomly selected within pen and used as positive controls as cows in diestrus at the initiation of the Ovsynch protocol (DIEST; n = 640). Signs of estrus were detected beginning on d -9 based on removal of tail chalk, and cows in estrus received AI on the same day. Blood samples from subsets of cows on d -10, -9, -7, -5, -3, and 0 (n = 109) and on d 6, 13, and 19 (n = 156) were analyzed for progesterone concentrations. Pregnancy was diagnosed on d 32 and 60 after AI. The average progesterone concentration during the timed AI program was lowest for CON, intermediate for 2CIDR, and highest for DIEST (0.92, 2.77, and 4.93 ng/mL, respectively). The proportions of cows that ovulated in response to the first GnRH (63.6, 61.1, and 47.2%, respectively) and that had a new CL on d -3 at PGF2α injection (72.4, 67.9, and 47.4%, respectively) were greater for CON and 2CIDR compared with DIEST, respectively. The diameter of the ovulatory follicle and the proportion of cows that ovulated in response to the second GnRH did not differ among treatments. A greater proportion of CON and 2CIDR cows were detected in estrus at AI compared with DIEST cows (35.8, 39.6, and 30.6%, respectively). Pregnancy per AI was less for CON compared with 2CIDR and DIEST on d 32 (31.3, 42.2, and 38.4%, respectively) and d 60 after AI (28.9, 37.2, and 33.9%, respectively), indicating that progesterone supplementation reestablished fertility in cows lacking a CL similar to that of cows in diestrus at the initiation of the timed AI program. Treatment did not affect pregnancy loss between d 32 and 60 of gestation. Pregnancy from a subset of cows with plasma progesterone concentrations indicated that a minimum concentration of 2.0 ng/mL was needed to optimize fertility. A single ultrasound examination effectively identified a low-fertility cohort of cows based on the absence of CL at the first GnRH injection of the Ovsynch protocol. Supplementation with 2 CIDR inserts increased progesterone in plasma by an additional 1.85 ng/mL compared with CON, resulting in concentrations of 2.77 ng/mL during development of the ovulatory follicle, which restored fertility in dairy cows lacking CL to a level similar to that of cows in diestrus. PMID:25682137

  1. Embryotoxic effects adjacent and opposite to the early regressing bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Fonseca, H J; Sayre, B L; Butcher, R L; Inskeep, E K

    2000-07-01

    Early luteal regression in cattle has an embryotoxic effect that is not overcome by replacement with progesterone, but is prevented by removal of the regressing CL. Two experiments were designed to test the null hypothesis that the luteal component of the embryotoxic effect is delivered by a systemic pathway. Beef heifers and cows (n = 39) received two good quality embryos, one placed into each uterine horn on Day 6 or 7 of the estrous cycle. Treated animals (n = 20) received 15 mg of PGF2alpha three times per day from Day 7 (n = 11; Experiment 1) or 5 (n = 9; Experiment 2) through 8; controls (n = 19) received saline. Progestogen replacement therapy (12 mg flurogestone acetate daily, s.c.) was provided from Day 6 (Experiment 1) or 4 (Experiment 2) until ultrasonographic diagnosis of embryo survival on Day 35 after estrus. The effects of treatment, location of the embryo and location by treatment interaction on embryo survival were tested by Chi square. In Experiment 1, there was no significant difference in embryo survival rate between PGF2alpha-treated and control recipients. In Experiment 2, only 6 of 18 embryos survived to Day 35 when transferred to animals treated with PGF2alpha compared to 12 of 18 in control animals (P< 0.05). The survival of embryos did not differ with location (adjacent or opposite to the regressing CL) or location by treatment interaction. Thus no evidence was obtained to support a local effect of the regressing CL. The embryo mortality associated with luteolytic doses of PGF2alpha in cows receiving replacement therapy with progestogen probably involves compounds that either act systemically or are transported via the uterine lumen to the uterine horn contralateral to the regressing CL. PMID:10990350

  2. Luteal regression vs. prepartum luteolysis: regulatory mechanisms governing canine corpus luteum function.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2014-04-01

    Canine reproductive physiology exhibits several unusual features. Among the most interesting of these are the lack of an acute luteolytic mechanism, coinciding with the apparent luteal independency of a uterine luteolysin in absence of pregnancy, contrasting with the acute prepartum luteolysis observed in pregnant animals. These features indicate the existence of mechanisms different from those in other species for regulating the extended luteal regression observed in non-pregnant dogs, and the actively regulated termination of luteal function observed prepartum as a prerequisite for parturition. Nevertheless, the supply of progesterone (P4) depends on corpora lutea (CL) as its primary source in both conditions, resulting in P4 levels that are similar in pregnant and non-pregnant bitches during almost the entire luteal life span prior to the prepartum luteolysis. Consequently, the duration of the prolonged luteal phase in non-pregnant bitches frequently exceeds that of pregnant ones, which is a peculiarity when compared with other domestic animal species. Both LH and prolactin (PRL) are endocrine luteotrophic factors in the dog, the latter being the predominant one. In spite of increased availability of these hormones, luteal regression/luteolysis still takes place. Recently, possible mechanisms regulating the expression and function of PRL receptor have been implicated in the local, i.e., intraluteal regulation of PRL bioavailability and thus its steroidogenic potential. Similar mechanisms may relate to the luteal LH receptor. Most recently, evidence has been provided for an autocrine/paracrine role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as a luteotrophic factor in the canine CL acting at the level of steroidogenic acute regulatory (STAR)-protein mediated supply of steroidogenic substrate, without having a significant impact on the enzymatic activity of the respective steroidogenic enzymes, 3β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (3βHSD, HSD3B2) and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, CYP11A1). Together with the strongly time-dependent expression of prostaglandin transporter, luteal prostaglandins seem to be involved more in the process of luteal formation than in termination of CL function in the dog. The possible roles of other factors such as vasoactive compounds, growth factors or cytokines have not been extensively studied but should not be neglected. PMID:24856467

  3. Expression of lymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor family members in bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Berisha, B; Schilffarth, S; Kenngott, R; Sinowatz, F; Meyer, H H D; Schams, D

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate mRNA expression, protein concentration and localization of the assumedly important lymphangiogenic factors VEGFC and VEGFD and the receptor FLT4 in bovine corpora lutea (CL) during different physiological stages. In experiment 1, CL were collected in a slaughterhouse and stages (days 1-2, 3-4, 5-7, 8-12, 13-16, >18) of oestrous cycle and month <3, 3-5, 6-7 and >8 of pregnancy. In experiment 2, prostaglandin F2α (PGF)-induced luteolysis was performed in 30 cows, which were injected with PGF analogue on day 8-12 (mid-luteal phase), and CL were collected before and 0.5, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48 and 64 h after PGF injection. The mRNA expression was characterized by RT-qPCR. All three factors were clearly expressed and showed significant changes during different groups and periods examined in both experiments. Protein concentrations of VEGFD and FLT4 measured by ELISA were not detectable in early cyclic CL but increased to higher plateau levels during pregnancy. After PGF-induced luteolysis FLT4 protein showed an increase within 2-24 h after the injection. FLT4 localization by immunohistochemistry in the cytoplasm of luteal cells was relatively weak in early CL. It increased in late CL and especially in CL during pregnancy. During pregnancy, a positive FLT4 staining in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of lymphatic endothelial cells in peripheral tissue was observed. In conclusion, our results lead to the assumption that lymphangiogenic factors are produced and regulated in CL and may be involved in mechanisms regulating CL function, especially during pregnancy. PMID:23126445

  4. Long-term characteristics of idiopathic persistent corpus luteum in the mare.

    PubMed

    Santos, V G; Bettencourt, E M V; Ginther, O J

    2015-07-15

    Persistent CL (PCL; n = 10) in mares was studied daily from Day 20 (Day 0 = ovulation) to the ending ovulation. In addition, the 10 days before ovulation at the end of a PCL were compared with the end of an interovulatory interval (IOI; n = 28) during the same months. Concentration of P4, cross-sectional area of CL, and percentage of CL with Doppler signals of blood flow during PCLs remained constant from 64 to about 33 days before the end of luteolysis and then decreased linearly. Concentration of LH between Day 20 and beginning of the ovulatory LH surge increased linearly. A dominant follicle developed on average every 15 days throughout each PCL. Novel transient P4 depressions were detected with the P4 nadir at a day of maximal diameter of a dominant follicle. At the apparent beginning of luteolysis before the ending ovulation, P4 concentration in PCLs (5.0 ± 0.5 ng/mL) was less (P < 0.0001) than that in IOIs (9.3 ± 0.6 ng/mL). Concentration of LH began to increase 2 days before the end of luteolysis in each group, but concentration on the day of the ending ovulation in PCLs (3.7 ± 0.3 ng/mL) was less (P < 0.005) than that in IOIs (8.9 ± 1.8 ng/mL). In a separate survey of PCLs (n = 23) and IOIs (n = 352), frequency of PCL (6.1%) differed significantly among mares indicating repeatability. These original and critical comparisons between PCLs and IOIs should provide hypotheses for further study. PMID:25922171

  5. Ultrastructural changes of the human corpus luteum of pregnancy induced by prostaglandin E2 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Salazar, H; Archer, D F

    1974-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the effects of prostaglandin(PG)E2 on the fine structure of human luteal tissue in vitro. The laboratory procedures are explained and microscopic photographs of the results are included. Biopsies of corpora lutea from 4 normal women at 10-16 weeks gestation were incubated in a buffer medium containing acetate-C and 20-40 mcg/ml of PGE2 for 3 hours. Preincubation and incubation controls and the PGE2-treated samples from each of the 4 biopsies were studied by electron microscopy. In all cases, the controls were well preserved and the luteal cells had the fine structural characteristics previously described in early pregnancy. The morphologic changes which occurred in the human luteal cells incubated in PGE2 solution varied from cell to cell in each sample. The changes were remarkable, indicating cell damage. Main changes were: collapse and disarrangement of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, ballooning or condensation of mitochondria, disappearance of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, dilatation and/or disappearance of the Golgi system, accumulation of lipid droplets, and increased lysosomes. The results also indicate that not only the synthesis of progesterone is impeded, but more significantly, the de novo synthesis of cholesterol from incorporation of acetate may be severely impaired. Findings in this study contradict the results of several earlier studies. This study shows a direct luteolytic effect of PGE2 in vitro. PMID:4472420

  6. Molecular determinants of a competent bovine corpus luteum: first- vs final-wave dominant follicles.

    PubMed

    Gregson, E; Webb, R; Sheldrick, E L; Campbell, B K; Mann, G E; Liddell, S; Sinclair, K D

    2016-06-01

    Reproductive management in cattle requires the synchrony of follicle development and oestrus before insemination. However, ovulation of follicles that have not undergone normal physiological maturation can lead to suboptimal luteal function. Here, we investigated the expression of a targeted set of 47 genes in (a) a first-wave vs final-wave dominant follicle (DF; the latter destined to ovulate spontaneously) and (b) 6-day-old corpora lutea (CLs) following either spontaneous ovulation or induced ovulation of a first-wave DF to ascertain their functional significance for competent CL development. Both the mass and progesterone-synthesising capacity of a CL formed following induced ovulation of a first-wave DF were impaired. These impaired CLs had reduced expression of steroidogenic enzymes (e.g. STAR and HSD3B1), luteotrophic receptors (LHCGR) and angiogenic regulators (e.g. VEGFA) and increased expression of BMP2 (linked to luteolysis). Relative to final-wave DFs, characteristic features of first-wave DFs included reduced oestradiol concentrations and a reduced oestradiol:progesterone ratio in the face of increased expression of key steroidogenic enzymes (i.e. CYP11A1, HSD3B1 and CYP19A1) in granulosa cells and reduced expression of the HDL receptor SCARB1 in thecal cells. Transcripts for further components of the TGF and IGF systems (e.g. INHA, INHBA, IGF2R and IGFBP2) varied between the first- and final-wave DFs. These results highlight the importance of hormones such as progesterone interacting with local components of both the TGF and IGF systems to affect the maturation of the ovulatory follicle and functional competency of the subsequent CL. PMID:26940100

  7. Production of prostaglandins in placentae and corpus luteum in pregnant hinds of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Korzekwa, A J; Szczepańska, A; Bogdaszewski, M; Nadolski, P; Malż, P; Giżejewski, Z

    2016-03-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are synthesized from arachidonic acid by prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) and specific terminal PG synthases such as PGES and PGFS. The role of PGs in the reproductive processes of domestic ruminants is well recognized, whereas in cervidae, it is almost unknown, although it is noteworthy because some species of this family are valued in meat production and trophies. The aim of this study was to determine an effective marker of pregnancy and investigate the production and secretion of PGs in placenta and CL tissue in pregnancy. In the preliminary experiment, the levels of progesterone and 17-β estradiol (RIA; N = 14 divided into seven pregnant and seven nonpregnant hinds) were measured in the peripheral blood. In the main experiment, a comparison of messenger RNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and protein expression (Western blotting) of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS, the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGF2α in the placentae and CL in pregnant hinds (aged 3-4 years, ca. 100 days of pregnancy, N = 6). In pregnant hinds, the level of progesterone in the blood was higher than that in nonpregnant hinds (P < 0.05), whereas the level of E2 was similar in all animals (P > 0.05). The highest messenger RNA expression of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS was observed in the placentae than in the CL (P < 0.05). The protein expression of PTGS2 and PGES was elevated in the placentae compared with the CL (P < 0.05). The PGE2 output was the highest in cotyledonary tissue (P < 0.05). Pregnancy development in hinds around 100 days is regulated by arachidonic acid metabolites, especially PGE2 produced by the placentae, which production increases in pregnancy. Further studies are required to unravel the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PG and biosynthetic enzymes in uteroplacental and ovarian tissues during pregnancy in red deer females. PMID:26553568

  8. Corpus Christi, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This near vertical view of the south Texas coast shows the city of Corpus Christi (28.0N, 97.0W) and Corpus Christi Bay. Mustang Island and the Gulf of Mexico are seen in the Southeast corner of the view. The Nueces River flows into the bay from the west. The light toned squiggly lines in Corpus Christi Bay are mud trails caused by shrimp boats dragging their nets along the shallow bottom of the bay.

  9. Bilingual Corpus Callosum Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Porter E., III.; Kennedy, Teresa J.; Armstrong, Terry A.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to produce midsagittal images of the corpus callosum of 19 right-handed adult male and female subjects. The preliminary findings of this study indicate that significant adaptation in the anterior midbody of the corpus callosum has occurred to accommodate multiple language capacity in bilingual individuals…

  10. Developing Software for Corpus Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Despite the central role of the computer in corpus research, programming is generally not seen as a core skill within corpus linguistics. As a consequence, limitations in software for text and corpus analysis slow down the progress of research while analysts often have to rely on third party software or even manual data analysis if no suitable…

  11. Progesterone supplementation after ovulation: effects on corpus luteum function and on fertility of dairy cows subjected to AI or ET.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Pedro L J; Nascimento, Anibal B; Pontes, Guilherme C S; Fernandes, Gabriela O; Melo, Leonardo F; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    Three experiments were done to evaluate the effects of progesterone (P4) supplementation starting during metestrus on formation of the CL and on fertility of lactating dairy cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or embryo transfer (ET). In experiment 1, 42 Holstein cows were randomly allocated to untreated (Control) or to receive an intravaginal implant containing 1.9 g of P4 from Day 3 to 20 after FTAI (controlled internal drug release [CIDR]). Blood samples were collected on Days 3, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17, 20, and 21 after FTAI to evaluate the effect of CIDR supplementation on plasma concentration of P4 using radioimmunoassay. Ultrasound scans were performed at Days 4, 7, 11, 14, and 20 to evaluate CL volume. In experiment 2, the effect on CIDR supplementation on fertility was evaluated in 668 Holstein and crossbred dairy cows that were subjected to FTAI and allocated randomly to untreated (AI-Control) or to receive a CIDR from Day 3 to 17 (AI-CIDR) after FTAI. In experiment 3, 360 Holstein cows were treated with PGF and after heat detection (Day 0), they were allocated to untreated (ET-Control) or to receive a CIDR from Day 4 ± 1 to 8 ± 1 (ET-CIDR-4) or a CIDR from 4 ± 1 to 18 ± 1 (ET-CIDR-14). In vitro-produced embryos were transferred on Day 8 ± 1. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed by ultrasound. In experiment 1, there was interaction between treatment and day in relation to plasma P4 on Days 4 and 7 due to CIDR supplementation. Independent of treatment, pregnant cows had higher plasma P4 from Day 14 to 21 than nonpregnant cows (P ≤ 0.05). Supplementation with CIDR did not alter CL development. In experiment 2, there was no effect of supplementation of P4 on pregnancy per AI on Day 32 (32.0% vs. 31.8%, for AI-Control and AI-CIDR, respectively) or pregnancy loss (15.6% vs. 17.6%, for AI-Control and AI-CIDR, respectively). In experiment 3, P4 supplementation compromised pregnancy per ET (P/ET) on Day 32 in both supplemented groups (39.7% vs. 21.3% vs. 15.2%, for ET-Control, ET-CIDR-4, and ET-CIDR-14, respectively), with no effect on pregnancy loss. Therefore, although CIDR insertion on Day 3 after FTAI did not affect CL function and increased circulating P4, it did not increase pregnancy per AI in lactating dairy cows submitted to FTAI. Moreover, P4 supplementation decreased pregnancy per ET in lactating recipient cows. PMID:26255222

  12. Size of Ovulatory Follicles in Cattle Expressing Multiple Ovulations Naturally and Its Influence on Corpus Luteum Development and Fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term genetic selection of cattle for fraternal twins has increased the frequency of twin and triplet ovulations. Although twin and triplet ovulations increased pregnancy rates initially, ratio of fetal number:ovulation site in pregnant females with twin (0.83) or triplet (0.73) ovulations was <...

  13. Effect of environmental pollutants on oxytocin synthesis and secretion from corpus luteum and on contractions of uterus from pregnant cows

    SciTech Connect

    Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Wrobel, Michal H.; Kotwica, Jan

    2010-09-15

    Chloro-organic compounds are persistent environmental pollutants and affect many reproductive processes. Oxytocin (OT) synthesized in luteal cells is a local regulator of ovarian activity and uterine contractions. Therefore the effect of xenobiotics on the OT prohormone synthesis, secretion of OT and progesterone (P4) from luteal cells and on myometrial contractions during early pregnancy in cows was investigated. Luteal cells and myometrial strips from a cow at early pregnancy were treated with polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB 77), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (1 or 10 ng/ml). The mRNA expression of neurophysin-I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT) and peptidyl-glycine-{alpha}-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA) and concentration of OT and P4 were determined by RT-PCR and EIA, respectively. Moreover, the effect of xenobiotics given with P4 (12 ng/ml) on the basal and OT (10{sup -7} M) stimulated contractions of myometrial strips was studied. Xenobiotics increased (P < 0.05) OT secretion but DDE only stimulated P4 secretion. The ratio of P4 to OT in culture medium was decreased by all xenobiotics during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. All xenobiotics, except HCH, increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of NP-I/OT during all stages of pregnancy and all treatments decreased (P < 0.05) expression of mRNA for PGA during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. Myometrial strips were relaxed (P < 0.01) after pre-incubation with P4, while each of the xenobiotics jointly with P4 increased (P < 0.01) myometrial contractions. In conclusion, the xenobiotics used increased both expression of mRNA for genes involved in OT synthesis and secretion of OT from luteal cells. This decreases the ratio of P4 to OT and presumably, in this manner, the chloro-organic compounds can influence uterine contractions and enhance risk of abortions in pregnant females.

  14. Ovine pedomics: the first study of the ovine foot 16S rRNA-based microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the first study of the bacterial microbiome of ovine interdigital skin based on 16S rRNA by pyrosequencing and conventional cloning with Sanger-sequencing. Ovine foot rot is an infectious, contagious disease of sheep that causes severe lameness and economic loss from decreased flock produc...

  15. Characterization of Ovine Dermal Papilla Cell Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Agnes Rosarina Prita; Rufaut, Nicholas Wolfgang; Jones, Leslie Norman; Sinclair, Rodney Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Context: The dermal papilla (DP) is a condensation of mesenchymal cells at the proximal end of the hair follicle, which determines hair shaft size and regulates matrix cell proliferation and differentiation. DP cells have the ability to regenerate new hair follicles. These cells tend to aggregate both in vitro and in vivo. This tendency is associated with the ability of papilla cells to induce hair growth. However, human papilla cells lose their hair-inducing activity in later passage number. Ovine DP cells are different from human DP cells since they do not lose their aggregative behavior or hair-inducing activity in culture. Nonetheless, our understanding of ovine DP cells is still limited. Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the expression of established DP markers in ovine cells and their association with aggregation. Subjects and Methods: Ovine DP cells from three different sheep were compared. Histochemistry, immunoflourescence, and polymerase chain reaction experiments were done to analyze the DP markers. Results: We found that ovine DP aggregates expressed all the 16 markers evaluated, including alkaline phosphatase and versican. Expression of the versican V0 and V3 isoforms, neural cell adhesion molecule, and corin was increased significantly with aggregation, while hey-1 expression was significantly decreased. Conclusions: Overall, the stable expression of numerous markers suggests that aggregating ovine DP cells have a similar phenotype to papillae in vivo. The stability of their molecular phenotype is consistent with their robust aggregative behavior and retained follicle-inducing activity after prolonged culture. Their phenotypic stability in culture contrasts with DP cells from other species, and suggests that a better understanding of ovine DP cells might provide opportunities to improve the hair-inducing activity and therapeutic potential of human cells. PMID:27625564

  16. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be prepared from tissue culture fluids or virus-bearing tissues obtained from sheep that have developed ovine ecthyma...

  17. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be prepared from tissue culture fluids or virus-bearing tissues obtained from sheep that have developed ovine ecthyma...

  18. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be prepared from tissue culture fluids or virus-bearing tissues obtained from sheep that have developed ovine ecthyma...

  19. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be prepared from tissue culture fluids or virus-bearing tissues obtained from sheep that have developed ovine ecthyma...

  20. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine. Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine shall be prepared from tissue culture fluids or virus-bearing tissues obtained from sheep that have developed ovine ecthyma...

  1. [Corpus Hermeticum in history].

    PubMed

    Bugaj, R

    2001-01-01

    The originator and founder of hermetism was the mythical Hermes Trismegistos, a deity of the syncretic Hellenistic religion that came into being through the identification of the Greek god Hermes with the Egyptian god Thot. In later Hellenistsic times various hermetic writers considered Hermes Trismegistos to have been a historical personage, a king, prophet and philosopher (physician), as well as author of many widely disseminated writings that made up the so-called Corpus Hermeticum (eighteen separate treatises from the 2nd-4th centuries AD) and the so-called Emerald Table (Tabula Smaragdina). The Corpus Hermeticum is a collection of treatises of a philosophical, religious, theological as well as theosophical nature. The collection played an important role in the development of the philosophy of alchemy and hermetism, and formed the basis for an alchemist philosophy of nature. There are currently two views among scholars on the origins of hermetism. According to one, hermetism derived directly from Egypt, while according to the other it orginated in Greece. In the years 1945-46 a number of hermetic texts forming part of the now famous gnostic "library" were discovered in Nag-Hammadi (Chenosboskion) in Upper Egypt. The Coptic texts from Nag-Hammadi date from the middle of the 4th century AD, and according to experts are translations from the Greek. Some authors (R. Reitzenstein and T. Zieliński) have suggested that along with the appearance in Egypt of the Hermetic Books, attributed to Hermes Trismegistos, there also appeared a new god in Egypt, Poimandres, and a new religion was established, hermetism, which competed for influence with Christianity. The present article discusses the main of the hermetic treatises, including Poimandres, which contains an account of the creation of the world. The article also discusses the reasons for the decline of hermetism as a religion and stresses that in spite of this decline the doctrine managed to survive in the form of

  2. Oculomotor-corpus callosum dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Acers, T E; Blackwell, C

    1982-01-01

    An infant with congenital bilateral ophthalmoplegia with levator and pupillary sparing is presented. The eyes are fixed in a divergent position with no apparent motility. The baby is otherwise clinically normal and is developing in a normal fashion except for delayed growth pattern. Visual attention is present and he fixates with either eye. Computed tomography demonstrates an associated dysplasia of the corpus callosum and an abnormal ventricular system. Neuroendocrine studies performed at one year of age demonstrate subnormal levels of growth hormone. It is postulated that this represents an embryodysgenesis involving the developing mesencephalic tegmentum (oculomotor nuclei) and the diencephalic lamina reuniens (corpus callosum). It is the first reported case of congenital ophthalmoplegia with corpus callosum dysplasia. The "embryodysgenic" relationship with other forebrain-ocular anomalies has been alluded to and remains speculative. PMID:7182958

  3. Corpus-based Customization for an Ontology

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-09-14

    CCAT scans a corpus of text for terms, and computes lexical similarity between corpus terms and taxonomy terms. Based on a set of metrics and a learning algorithm, the system inserts corpus terms into the taxonomy. Conversely, terms from the taxonomy are disambiguated based on the text in the corpus. Unused terms are discarded, and infrequently used senses of terms are collapsed to make the taxonomy more manageable.

  4. Minimum intravenous infectious dose of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The minimum intravenous infectious dose for ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) WLC1 was determined using twenty-four 6 month-old lambs. Twelve groups of two 6 month-old lambs were inoculated intravenously with tissue culture fluid containing ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) WLC1 titer...

  5. Comparative molecular analysis of ovine and bovine Streptococcus uberis isolates.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, T L; Smith, D G E; Fitzpatrick, J L; Zadoks, R N; Fontaine, M C

    2013-02-01

    Streptococcus uberis causes clinical and subclinical mastitis in cattle and sheep, but it is unknown whether the composition of Strep. uberis populations differs between host species. To address this, we characterized a collection of bovine and ovine Strep. uberis isolates with shared geographical and temporal origins by means of an expanded multilocus sequence typing scheme. Among 14 ovine and 35 bovine isolates, 35 allelic profiles were detected. Each allelic profile was associated with a single host species and all but one were new to the multilocus sequence typing database. The median number of new alleles per isolate was higher for ovine isolates than for bovine isolates. None of the ovine isolates belonged to the global clonal complexes 5 or 143, which are commonly associated with bovine mastitis and which have a wide geographical distribution. Ovine isolates also differed from bovine isolates in carriage of plasminogen activator genes, with significantly higher prevalence of pauB in ovine isolates. Isolates that were negative for yqiL, one of the targets of multilocus sequence typing, were found among ovine and bovine isolates and were not associated with a specific sequence type or global clonal complex. One bovine isolate carried a gapC allele that was probably acquired through lateral gene transfer, most likely from Streptococcus salivarius. We conclude that ovine isolates are distinct from bovine isolates of Strep. uberis, and that recombination between isolates from different host species or bacterial species could contribute to changes in virulence gene profiles with relevance for vaccine development. PMID:23200465

  6. Trappin ovine molecule (TOM), the ovine ortholog of elafin, is an acute phase reactant in the lung.

    PubMed

    Brown, Thomas I; Mistry, Rohit; Collie, D David; Tate, Steven; Sallenave, Jean-Michel

    2004-09-16

    As large animal models continue to play an important role in translating lung-directed therapeutic strategies from laboratory animals to humans, there is an increasing interest in the analysis of endogenous regulators of inflammation at both a genomic and a therapeutic level. To this end, we have sought to characterize the ovine ortholog of elafin, an important regulator of inflammation in humans. We have isolated both the elafin cDNA and gene, which have a similar structure to other species' orthologs. Interestingly, we have isolated two alleles for ovine elafin, which contain a very high number of transglutamination repeats, thought to be important in binding elafin to the interstitium. The mainly mucosal mRNA distribution for ovine elafin suggests that ovine elafin may, like its human ortholog, have functions in innate immunity. This is supported by analysis of elafin and the related protein secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in ovine bronchoalveolar fluid in response to locally administered lipopolysaccharide and confirmation of them acting as "alarm" antiproteases. We have also cloned the ovine elafin cDNA into an adenoviral vector and have demonstrated correct processing of the secreted protein as well as biological activity. Overexpression of ovine elafin in a lung-derived epithelial cell line has a protective effect against the enzymes human neutrophil and porcine pancreatic elastase. The identification of the ovine elafin gene and its translated protein are important in developing practical strategies aimed at regulating inflammation in the large mammalian lung. PMID:15292488

  7. Mutations in ovine TMEM154 associated with reduced risk of ovine lentivirus infection are also associated with reduced proviral concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine lentivirus (OVLV), also called ovine progressive pneumonia virus or maedi-visna, is present in 24% of US sheep. Like human immunodeficiency virus, OVLV is macrophage-tropic lentivirus that causes lifelong infection. The adverse economic impact on the sheep industry is due to a range of disease...

  8. An ovine transgenic Huntington's disease model

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Jessie C.; Bawden, C. Simon; Rudiger, Skye R.; McLaughlan, Clive J.; Reid, Suzanne J.; Waldvogel, Henry J.; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.; Walker, Simon K.; Kelly, Jennifer M.; Webb, Graham C.; Faull, Richard L.M.; Rees, Mark I.; Snell, Russell G.

    2010-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin (HTT) gene [Huntington's Disease Collaborative Research Group (1993) A novel gene containing a trinucleotide repeat that is expanded and unstable on Huntington's disease chromosomes. The Huntington's Disease Collaborative Research Group. Cell, 72, 971–983]. Despite identification of the gene in 1993, the underlying life-long disease process and effective treatments to prevent or delay it remain elusive. In an effort to fast-track treatment strategies for HD into clinical trials, we have developed a new large-animal HD transgenic ovine model. Sheep, Ovis aries L., were selected because the developmental pattern of the ovine basal ganglia and cortex (the regions primarily affected in HD) is similar to the analogous regions of the human brain. Microinjection of a full-length human HTT cDNA containing 73 polyglutamine repeats under the control of the human promotor resulted in six transgenic founders varying in copy number of the transgene. Analysis of offspring (at 1 and 7 months of age) from one of the founders showed robust expression of the full-length human HTT protein in both CNS and non-CNS tissue. Further, preliminary immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the organization of the caudate nucleus and putamen and revealed decreased expression of medium size spiny neuron marker DARPP-32 at 7 months of age. It is anticipated that this novel transgenic animal will represent a practical model for drug/clinical trials and surgical interventions especially aimed at delaying or preventing HD initiation. New sequence accession number for ovine HTT mRNA: FJ457100. PMID:20154343

  9. Corpus Christi oil port eyed

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.B.

    1993-07-05

    The Port of Corpus Christi, Texas, with the support of several oil companies and the blessing of the US Coast Guard, plans to build a $600-million deepwater harbor to accommodate supertankers. The proposed port, Safeharbor, is touted as an environmentally sound solution to current risks associated with off-loading crude oil from very large tankers at shore ports. In a system called lightering, crude now is transferred from supertankers in deep water to smaller vessels that can negotiate shallow channels. While smaller tankers need only 45 ft of water, supertankers need 80 ft. Corpus Christi has the advantage of being closer to deep water than other Gulf ports, but nevertheless, half the proposed project's cost, $300 million, would be for dredging a 10-mile channel to deep water.

  10. Ovine pedomics: the first study of the ovine foot 16S rRNA-based microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Bado, Leo A; Oakley, Brian B; Dowd, Scot E; Green, Laura E; Medley, Graham F; Ul-Hassan, Atiya; Bateman, Vicky; Gaze, William; Witcomb, Luci; Grogono-Thomas, Rose; Kaler, Jasmeet; Russell, Claire L; Wellington, Elizabeth MH

    2011-01-01

    We report the first study of the bacterial microbiome of ovine interdigital skin based on 16S rRNA by pyrosequencing and conventional cloning with Sanger-sequencing. Three flocks were selected, one a flock with no signs of footrot or interdigital dermatitis, a second flock with interdigital dermatitis alone and a third flock with both interdigital dermatitis and footrot. The sheep were classified as having either healthy interdigital skin (H) and interdigital dermatitis (ID) or virulent footrot (VFR). The ovine interdigital skin bacterial community varied significantly by flock and clinical condition. The diversity and richness of operational taxonomic units was greater in tissue from sheep with ID than H or VFR-affected sheep. Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla comprising 25 genera. Peptostreptococcus, Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus were associated with H, ID and VFR, respectively. Sequences of Dichelobacter nodosus, the causal agent of ovine footrot, were not amplified because of mismatches in the 16S rRNA universal forward primer (27F). A specific real-time PCR assay was used to demonstrate the presence of D. nodosus, which was detected in all samples including the flock with no signs of ID or VFR. Sheep with ID had significantly higher numbers of D. nodosus (104–109 cells per g tissue) than those with H or VFR feet. PMID:21430786

  11. Ovine pedomics: the first study of the ovine foot 16S rRNA-based microbiome.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Bado, Leo A; Oakley, Brian B; Dowd, Scot E; Green, Laura E; Medley, Graham F; Ul-Hassan, Atiya; Bateman, Vicky; Gaze, William; Witcomb, Luci; Grogono-Thomas, Rose; Kaler, Jasmeet; Russell, Claire L; Wellington, Elizabeth M H

    2011-09-01

    We report the first study of the bacterial microbiome of ovine interdigital skin based on 16S rRNA by pyrosequencing and conventional cloning with Sanger-sequencing. Three flocks were selected, one a flock with no signs of footrot or interdigital dermatitis, a second flock with interdigital dermatitis alone and a third flock with both interdigital dermatitis and footrot. The sheep were classified as having either healthy interdigital skin (H) and interdigital dermatitis (ID) or virulent footrot (VFR). The ovine interdigital skin bacterial community varied significantly by flock and clinical condition. The diversity and richness of operational taxonomic units was greater in tissue from sheep with ID than H or VFR-affected sheep. Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla comprising 25 genera. Peptostreptococcus, Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus were associated with H, ID and VFR, respectively. Sequences of Dichelobacter nodosus, the causal agent of ovine footrot, were not amplified because of mismatches in the 16S rRNA universal forward primer (27F). A specific real-time PCR assay was used to demonstrate the presence of D. nodosus, which was detected in all samples including the flock with no signs of ID or VFR. Sheep with ID had significantly higher numbers of D. nodosus (10(4)-10(9) cells per g tissue) than those with H or VFR feet. PMID:21430786

  12. Proteomics-Driven Analysis of Ovine Whey Colostrum

    PubMed Central

    Scumaci, Domenica; Trimboli, Francesca; Dell’Aquila, Ludovica; Concolino, Antonio; Pappaianni, Giusi; Tammè, Laura; Vignola, Giorgio; Luciani, Alessia; Morelli, Daniela; Cuda, Giovanni; Boari, Andrea; Britti, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light in to the complexity of the ovine colostrum proteome, with a specific focus on the low abundance proteins. The ovine colostrum is characterized by a few dominating proteins, as the immunoglobulins, but it also contains less represented protein species, equally important for the correct development of neonates. Ovine colostrum, collected immediately after lambing, was separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Proteins bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, a total of 343 unique proteins were identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of ovine colostrum proteome. PMID:25643159

  13. Proteomics-driven analysis of ovine whey colostrum.

    PubMed

    Scumaci, Domenica; Trimboli, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Ludovica; Concolino, Antonio; Pappaianni, Giusi; Tammè, Laura; Vignola, Giorgio; Luciani, Alessia; Morelli, Daniela; Cuda, Giovanni; Boari, Andrea; Britti, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light in to the complexity of the ovine colostrum proteome, with a specific focus on the low abundance proteins. The ovine colostrum is characterized by a few dominating proteins, as the immunoglobulins, but it also contains less represented protein species, equally important for the correct development of neonates. Ovine colostrum, collected immediately after lambing, was separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Proteins bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, a total of 343 unique proteins were identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of ovine colostrum proteome. PMID:25643159

  14. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (c) The Captain of the Port will notify the maritime community of periods during... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Corpus Christi Ship Channel... § 165.808 Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone. (a) The following areas...

  15. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 165.23 apply. (c) The Captain of the Port will notify the maritime community of periods during... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Corpus Christi Ship Channel... § 165.808 Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone. (a) The following areas...

  16. Characterization of the ovine ortholog of secretory leukoprotease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Brown, Thomas I; Mistry, Rohit; Gray, Robert; Imrie, Margaret; Collie, David D; Sallenave, Jean-Michel

    2005-08-01

    There is great interest in the use of the sheep as a model for the investigation of inflammation in the lung. The serine antiproteases secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) and elafin are important "alarm antiproteases" in the lung and have potentially important roles in the innate immune response. SLPI was first characterized in man and subsequently in murine, porcine, and rat tissues. Here we present the first data concerning the gene and cDNA sequence encoding for the ovine ortholog of SLPI, a protein of 132 amino acids with 66% sequence identity at the amino acid level with human SLPI. A 24-amino-acid signal sequence signifies that, like the other mammalian orthologs, ovine SLPI is a secreted protein. Tissue distribution of expression is demonstrated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and shows features similar to SLPI expression in other mammals, specifically at mucosal surfaces such as the upper respiratory and intestinal tracts, and also the skin, liver, and kidney. This distribution lends credence to SLPI having important roles in innate immunity. We have also cloned the ovine SLPI cDNA into an expression vector and expressed the ovine SLPI protein in vitro. This has enabled us to demonstrate that ovine SLPI is correctly processed (Western blot analysis and SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis) and has biological antihuman neutrophil elastase activity. In summary, the ovine ortholog of SLPI shows similarities to other members of the SLPI family and has all the features of a modulator of innate immunity. PMID:16180144

  17. Histomorphometric comparison of the human, swine, and ovine collecting systems.

    PubMed

    Simões, Michele; de Souza, Diogo B; Gallo, Carla B M; Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Costa, Waldemar S; Sampaio, Francisco J

    2016-07-01

    The ovine kidney has been recently determined to be a better model than the swine kidney for the study of collecting system healing after partial nephrectomy. However, there is no histological study comparing the collecting systems of these species. To compare human, swine, and ovine collecting systems using histomorphometry. The collecting systems of 10 kidneys from each species (human, swine, and ovine) were processed for histomorphometry. The thickness of the three layers (mucosal connective tissue, submucosal muscular, and adventitial connective tissue) were measured. The densities of smooth muscle fibers, elastic system fibers, and cells were also measured. Additionally, blood vessel density in the adventitial connective tissue was measured. Analysis of the collecting systems from the three species presented several differences. The adventitial connective tissue from the swine samples was thicker, with more blood vessels and smooth muscle fibers, compared with that from the human and ovine samples. Swine also had higher density of elastic fibers on the submucosal muscular layer. Ovine and human collecting systems shared several similar features, such as blood vessel and elastic fiber density in all layers and the density of cellular and muscular fibers in the submucosal muscular and adventitial connective tissue layers. The collecting system of the ovine kidney is more similar to that of the human kidney compared with that of the swine kidney. This may explain the differences between the healing mechanisms in swine and those in humans and sheep after partial nephrectomy. Anat Rec, 299:967-972, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27111677

  18. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Habeas Corpus. 516.20 Section 516.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier...

  19. Corpus Callosum Volume and Neurocognition in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keary, Christopher J.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Bansal, Rahul; Goradia, Dhruman; Fedorov, Serguei; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2009-01-01

    The corpus callosum has recently been considered as an index of interhemispheric connectivity. This study applied a novel volumetric method to examine the size of the corpus callosum in 32 individuals with autism and 34 age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls and to investigate the relationship between this structure and cognitive measures linked to…

  20. Enriching Language Learning through a Multimedia Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerley, Katherine; Coccetta, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, use has been made almost exclusively of text-based concordancers in the analysis of spoken corpora. This article discusses research being carried out on Padua University's Multimedia English Corpus (Padova MEC) using the multimodal concordancer "MCA "("Multimodal Corpus Authoring System," Baldry, 2005). This highly innovative…

  1. Network Analysis with the Enron Email Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, J. S.; Sarkis, G.; URC, P. .

    2015-01-01

    We use the Enron email corpus to study relationships in a network by applying six different measures of centrality. Our results came out of an in-semester undergraduate research seminar. The Enron corpus is well suited to statistical analyses at all levels of undergraduate education. Through this article's focus on centrality, students can explore…

  2. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Habeas Corpus. 516.20 Section 516.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier...

  3. 9 CFR 94.22 - Restrictions on importation of beef and ovine meat from Uruguay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and ovine meat from Uruguay. 94.22 Section 94.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.22 Restrictions on importation of beef and ovine meat from Uruguay. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this part, fresh (chilled or frozen) beef and ovine...

  4. Effect of progesterone supplementation on fertility responses of lactating dairy cows with corpus luteum at the initiation of the Ovsynch protocol.

    PubMed

    Bisinotto, R S; Pansani, M B; Castro, L O; Narciso, C D; Sinedino, L D P; Martinez, N; Carneiro, P E; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2015-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of supplemental progesterone on fertility responses of lactating dairy cows with a CL at the initiation of the timed artificial insemination (AI) program. Holstein cows were subjected to the Ovsynch protocol (Day -10 GnRH, Day -3 PGF2α, Day -0.7 GnRH, and Day 0 timed AI). Ovaries were scanned by ultrasonography on Day -10 and cows with CL were blocked by pen and assigned randomly to receive no supplemental progesterone (control, n = 863) or to receive a controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) insert containing progesterone from Days -10 to -3 (1CIDR, n = 862). Cows were observed for signs of estrus beginning on Day -9 based on removal of tail chalk and those in estrus received AI on the same day. Blood sampled from a subset of cows was analyzed for progesterone concentrations on Days -10, -9, -7, -5, -3, 0, 6, 13, and 19. Pregnancy was diagnosed on Days 32 and 60 after AI. Supplementation increased (P < 0.01) progesterone concentrations between Day -9 and -3 compared with control (7.5 vs. 6.2 ng/mL). Treatment had no effect on the ovulatory response to the first and final GnRH injections of the Ovsynch protocol, the proportion of cows that maintained their CL until the day of PGF2α injection, or the diameter of the ovulatory follicle before AI. Although the overall proportion of cows in estrus at AI did not differ between treatments, progesterone supplementation prevented (P < 0.01) cows from coming into estrus from Days -9 to -3 (0.0% vs. 4.7%), whereas it increased (P = 0.02) the proportion of cows inseminated in estrus from Days -2 to -1 (7.1% vs. 4.5%). Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) tended to be reduced (P = 0.06) by supplemental progesterone on Day 32 (40.5% vs. 45.0%), but not on Day 60 after AI (36.6% vs. 39.7%). A tendency for an interaction (P = 0.09) between treatment and the presence of CL at the PGF2α injection was observed for P/AI on Day 32 in cows that received timed AI because progesterone supplementation reduced P/AI in cows that maintained their CL until Day -3 (40.3% vs. 46.7%); however, it increased P/AI in those that did not have a CL at PGF2α (38.1% vs. 27.7%). Treatment did not affect pregnancy loss between Days 32 and 60 of gestation. In conclusion, incorporating a single intravaginal insert to the timed AI program increased progesterone concentrations in plasma by 1.3 ng/mL, but did not benefit fertility in dairy cows that have CL at the initiation of the synchronization protocol. PMID:25442385

  5. Progesterone exposure of the preovulatory follicle in the seasonally anestrous ewe alters the expression of angiogenic growth factors in the early corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Christensen, A C M; Haresign, W; Khalid, M

    2012-05-01

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced ovulation in seasonally anestrous ewes is associated with a high incidence of defective corpora lutea (CL), which can be completely eliminated by priming ewes with progesterone before GnRH treatment, but the physiological basis of this has remained elusive. This study tested the hypothesis that progesterone priming eliminates defective luteal function by altering the expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), its receptor VEGFR-2, and angiopoietin (ANG)-1, ANG-2 and their receptor TIE-2 in the early CL. Fifteen seasonally anestrous ewes were treated by i.m. injection with 20 mg of progesterone 3 days before the start of GnRH treatment, while another 15 animals served as controls. Intravenous injections of 500 ng GnRH were given to all the ewes every 2 h for 28 h, followed by a 300 μg GnRH bolus injection to synchronize the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Corpora lutea were collected 1, 2 and 4 days after ovulation and analyzed for protein and mRNA expression of VEGF, VEGFR-2, ANG-1, ANG-2 and Tie-2 using Western Immunoblotting and in situ hybridization. VEGF, VEGFR-2 and ANG-1 expression was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in the CL of progesterone-primed animals compared to non-primed ones. However, no differences were observed in the ANG-2 or Tie-2 expression levels between the two treatment groups. These data suggest that progesterone priming of the preovulatory follicle alters the expression of some angiogenic growth factors in the early CL, leading to greater vascular stability and thereby normal luteal function. PMID:22365696

  6. Effects of diets containing free gossypol on follicular development, embryo recovery and corpus luteum function in Brangus heifers treated with bFSH.

    PubMed

    Randel, R D; Willard, S T; Wyse, S J; French, L N

    1996-04-01

    Thirty 2 yr old Brangus heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: Control, 0 g of free gossypol (FG) per head per day (FGHD) from corn and soybean meal (SBM); 5 g of FGHD from cottonseed meal (CSM); and 15 g of FGHD from whole cottonseed (WCS). Blood samples were collected weekly for serum progesterone (P(4)) and later quantified by RIA. Whole blood was collected on Days 1, 28, 42, 56 and 70 for erythrocyte fragility (EF) analysis. Following 65 d on dietary treatments and estrus detection, the heifers received bovine-FSH (bFSH) once daily on Days 10, 11 and 12 postestrus, and PGF(2alpha) on Day 12 postestrus. Fifteen of the thirty heifers were randomly selected, and 12 h following PGF(2alpha), the ovaries were removed and follicular diameters, ovarian weight and stromal weights were recorded. Follicular fluid was analyzed for steroid content by RIA. The remaining fifteen heifers were artificially inseminated. Embryos were recovered non-surgically on Day 7 postestrus and graded, and the recovery efficiencies were calculated. Following embryo collection, both ovaries were removed, the number of CLs was recorded, and CL P(4) content was determined by RIA. By Day 42 of treatment, heifers receiving CSM had elevated (P < 0.04) EF compared with the Controls, and remained elevated above that of Controls throughout the study. At Day 70, the CSM heifers tended to have higher (P < 0.07) EF than the WCS group, which in turn tended to be higher (P < 0.06) than the Controls. The Control and CSM heifers gained weight during the 70 d treatment period, while heifers consuming WCS lost weight (P < 0.05). Ovarian and stromal weights did not differ (P > 0.10) among treatment groups. Heifers receiving CSM had fewer (P < 0.05) follicles > 5 mm than WCS or Control heifers. Follicular fluid weights and steroid content did not differ (P > 0.10) among treatments. Both CL weight and the number of CLs per heifer were similar (P > 0.10) among treatments. Heifers receiving CSM or WCS had a higher (P < 0.003) CL P(4) content per gram of CL tissue than the Controls. Progesterone content per CL was greater in WCS heifers (P < 0.003) than in CSM heifers, while both the CSM and WCS heifers had a higher CL P(4) content than the Control heifers. Weekly and Day 7 postestrus serum concentrations of P(4) were similar (P > 0.10) among treatments. The number of embryos recovered, number of degenerated embryos, embryo grades and recovery efficiencies were not affected (P > 0.10) by dietary treatments. To standardize heifers relative to the number of degenerated embryos, the percentage of degenerated embryos recovered was calculated and tended to be greater (P < 0.06) in heifers consuming CSM than in either the Control or WCS groups. While most ovarian, follicular and embryo characteristics were not affected by dietary free gossypol, these results suggest that differences in the availability of free gossypol and/or dietary components between CSM and WCS may influence weight gain, CL P(4) content and embryo viability. PMID:16727852

  7. Effects of buserelin injection and deslorelin (GnRH-agonist) implants on plasma progesterone, LH, accessory CL formation, follicle and corpus luteum dynamics in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Rajamahendran, R; Ambrose, J D; Schmitt, E J; Thatcher, M J; Thatcher, W W

    1998-11-01

    The influence of Buserelin injection and Deslorelin (a GnRH analogue) implants administered on Day 5 of the estrous cycle on plasma concentrations of LH and progesterone (P4), accessory CL formation, and follicle and CL dynamics was examined in nonlactating Holstein cows. On Day 5 (Day 1 = ovulation) following a synchronized estrus, 24 cows were assigned randomly (n = 4 per group) to receive 2 mL saline, i.m. (control), 8 micrograms, i.m. Buserelin or a subcutaneous Deslorelin (DES) implant in concentrations of 75 micrograms, 150 micrograms, 700 micrograms or 2100 micrograms. Blood samples were collected (for LH assay) at 30-min intervals for 2 h before and 12 h after GnRH-treatment from cows assigned to Buserelin, DES-700 micrograms and DES-2100 micrograms treatments and thereafter at 4-h intervals for 48 h. Beginning 24 h after treatment, ovaries were examined by ultrasound at 2-h intervals until ovulation was confirmed. Thereafter, ultrasonography and blood sampling (for P4 assay) was performed daily until a spontaneous ovulation before Day 45. A greater release of LH occurred in response to Deslorelin implants than to Buserelin injection (P < 0.01). Basal levels of LH between 12 and 48 h were higher in DES-700 micrograms group than in DES-2100 micrograms and Buserelin (P < 0.05). The first wave dominant follicle ovulated in all cows following GnRH treatment. Days to CL regression did not differ between treatments, but return to estrus was delayed (44.2 vs 27.2 d; P < 0.01) in cows of DES-2100 micrograms group. All GnRH treatments elevated plasma P4 concentrations, and the highest P4 responses were observed in the DES-700 micrograms and DES-2100 micrograms groups. The second follicular wave emerged earlier in GnRH-treated than in control cows (9.9 vs 12.8 d; P < 0.01). However, emergence of the third dominant follicle was delayed in cows of DES-2100 micrograms treatment (37.0 d) compared with DES-700 micrograms (22.2 d), Buserelin (17.8 d) or control (19.0 d). In conclusion, Deslorelin implants of 700 micrograms increased plasma P4 and LH concentrations and slightly delayed the emergence of the third dominant follicle. On the contrary, Deslorelin implants of 2100 micrograms drastically altered the P4 profiles and follicle dynamics. PMID:10734431

  8. Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-four Angus and Angus x Hereford heifers were used in two successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if ovarian function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed in...

  9. Angiogenesis in The Ovary - The Most Important Regulatory Event for Follicle and Corpus Luteum Development and Function in Cow - An Overview.

    PubMed

    Berisha, B; Schams, D; Rodler, D; Pfaffl, M W

    2016-04-01

    In the ovary, the development of new capillaries from pre-existing ones (angiogenesis) is a complex event regulated by numerous local factors. The dominant regulators of angiogenesis in ovarian follicles and corpora lutea are the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), angiopoietin (ANPT) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family members. Antral follicles in our study were classified according to the oestradiol-17-beta (E2) content in follicular fluid (FF) and were divided into five classes (E2 < 0.5, 0.5-5, 5-20, 20-180 and >180 ng/ml FF). The corresponding sizes of follicles were 5-7, 8-10, 10-13, 12-14 and >14 mm, respectively. Follicle tissue was separated in theca interna (TI) and granulosa cells (GC). The corpora lutea (CL) in our study were assigned to the following stages: days 1-2, 3-4, 5-7, 8-12 13-16 and >18 of the oestrous cycle and months 1-2, 3-4, 6-7 and >8 of pregnancy. The dominant regulators were measured at mRNA and protein expression levels; mRNA was quantified by RT-qPCR, hormone concentrations by RIA or EIA and their localization by immunohistochemistry. The highest expression for VEGF-A, FGF-2, IGF-1 and IGF-2, ANPT-2/ANPT-1 and HIF-1-alpha was found during final follicle maturation and in CL during the early luteal phase (days 1-4) followed by a lower plateau afterwards. The results suggest the importance of these factors for angiogenesis and maintenance of capillary structures for final follicle maturation, CL development and function. PMID:25951313

  10. Medroxyprogesterone in Treating Patients With Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Corpus

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma, Variant With Squamous Differentiation; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer

  11. [Medicine and astrology in Arnau's corpus].

    PubMed

    Giralt, Sebastià

    2006-01-01

    The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology. PMID:17214132

  12. Ovine TRIM5α Can Restrict Visna/Maedi Virus

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui, P.; Crespo, H.; Glaria, I.; Luján, L.; Contreras, A.; Rosati, S.; de Andrés, D.; Amorena, B.; Towers, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    The restrictive properties of tripartite motif-containing 5 alpha (TRIM5α) from small ruminant species have not been explored. Here, we identify highly similar TRIM5α sequences in sheep and goats. Cells transduced with ovine TRIM5α effectively restricted the lentivirus visna/maedi virus DNA synthesis. Proteasome inhibition in cells transduced with ovine TRIM5α restored restricted viral DNA synthesis, suggesting a conserved mechanism of restriction. Identification of TRIM5α active molecular species may open new prophylactic strategies against lentiviral infections. PMID:22696640

  13. Learner-Corpus Interaction: A Locus of Microgenesis in Corpus-Assisted L2 Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kwanghyun

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the processes through which learners interact with a corpus system and microgenetic development emerges from the interaction. The corpus system described in this paper is capable of retrieving highly relevant textual examples tailored to individual needs. Data were collected from an undergraduate ESL composition course in North…

  14. 77 FR 2448 - Special Local Regulation; HITS Triathlon; Corpus Christi Bayfront, Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; HITS Triathlon; Corpus Christi... from portions of the Corpus Christi Bayfront area during the HITS Triathlon on February 18th and 19th, 2012. This Special Local Regulation is necessary to ensure the safety of HITS Triathlon...

  15. Effect of maternal ketoacidosis on the ovine fetus

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Diego E.; Kuthiala, Shikha; Liu, Hai L.; Durosier, Daniel L.; Cao, Mingju; Burns, Patrick; Desrochers, André; Fecteau, Gilles; Frasch, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    Ketoacidosis during pregnancy carries significant risk of intrauterine fetal demise, but little is known about the impact of ketoacids on the ovine fetus. We report a case series of maternal ketoacidosis in ewes. Maternal ketoacidosis may result in biochemical and acid-base fetal abnormalities associated with changes in feto-placental unit perfusion. PMID:26246634

  16. DISTANCE TRANSMISSION OF OVINE HERPESVIRUS 2 FROM SHEEP TO BISON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is potentially devastating to American bison. Virtually all bison MCF cases in North America are caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a member of the gammaherpesvirus subfamily, which is carried almost exclusively by sheep. In this communication, we report transm...

  17. Ovine Reference Materials and Assays for Prion Genetic Testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Genetic predisposition to scrapie in sheep is associated with variation in the peptide sequence of the ovine prion protein encoded by Prnp. Codon variants implicated in scrapie susceptibility or disease progression include those at amino acid positions 112, 136, 141, 154, and 171. Nin...

  18. 78 FR 68327 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... effective and published in the Federal Register on May 29, 2003 (68 FR 31940-31949, Docket No. 02-109-3... FR 10266-10269, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0085), we proposed to also allow the importation of fresh ovine... / Thursday, November 14, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and...

  19. Inflation Metaphor in the TIME Magazine Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chunyu; Liu, Huijie

    2016-01-01

    A historical perspective on economy metaphor can shed new lights on economic thoughts. Based on the TIME Magazine Corpus (TMC), this paper investigates inflation metaphor over 83 years and compares findings against the economic data over the relatively corresponding period. The results show how inflation, an abstract concept and a normal economic…

  20. The Need for a Speech Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dermot F.; McDonnell, Ciaran; Meinardi, Marti; Richardson, Bunny

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the ongoing construction of a speech corpus for use by applied linguists and advanced EFL/ESL students. In the first part, sections 1-4, the need for improvements in the teaching of listening skills and pronunciation practice for EFL/ESL students is noted. It is argued that the use of authentic native-to-native speech is…

  1. Corpus Callosum Area in Children and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Neeley, E. Shannon; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated findings of abnormal corpus callosum structure in autism, the developmental trajectories of corpus callosum growth in the disorder have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined corpus callosum size from a developmental perspective across a 30-year age range in a large cross-sectional sample of individuals with autism…

  2. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Corpus of estate; net....263 Corpus of estate; net worth. (a) General. The following rules are for application in determining the corpus of estate of a parent where dependency is a factor under § 3.250, and the net worth of...

  3. EFL Students' Perceptions of Corpus-Tools as Writing References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Shu-Li

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have suggested the potentials of corpus tools in vocabulary learning. However, there are still some concerns. Corpus tools might be too complicated to use; example sentences retrieved from corpus tools might be too difficult to understand; processing large number of sample sentences could be challenging and time-consuming;…

  4. Using a Corpus in a 300-Level Spanish Grammar Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavides, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the use and effectiveness of a large corpus--the Corpus del Español (Davies, 2002)--in a 300-level Spanish grammar university course. Students conducted hands-on corpus searches with the goal of finding concordances containing particular types of collocations (combinations of words that tend to co-occur) and tokens (any…

  5. Can a Graded Reader Corpus Provide "Authentic" Input?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    In addition to their intended purpose, graded reader texts can be made into a corpus appropriate for use with lower-level learners. Here I consider using such a corpus for data-driven learning (DDL), to make this approach more accessible to intermediate level students. However, how far does grading the corpus in this way compromise the…

  6. Concept annotation in the CRAFT corpus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Manually annotated corpora are critical for the training and evaluation of automated methods to identify concepts in biomedical text. Results This paper presents the concept annotations of the Colorado Richly Annotated Full-Text (CRAFT) Corpus, a collection of 97 full-length, open-access biomedical journal articles that have been annotated both semantically and syntactically to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural-language-processing (NLP) community. CRAFT identifies all mentions of nearly all concepts from nine prominent biomedical ontologies and terminologies: the Cell Type Ontology, the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest ontology, the NCBI Taxonomy, the Protein Ontology, the Sequence Ontology, the entries of the Entrez Gene database, and the three subontologies of the Gene Ontology. The first public release includes the annotations for 67 of the 97 articles, reserving two sets of 15 articles for future text-mining competitions (after which these too will be released). Concept annotations were created based on a single set of guidelines, which has enabled us to achieve consistently high interannotator agreement. Conclusions As the initial 67-article release contains more than 560,000 tokens (and the full set more than 790,000 tokens), our corpus is among the largest gold-standard annotated biomedical corpora. Unlike most others, the journal articles that comprise the corpus are drawn from diverse biomedical disciplines and are marked up in their entirety. Additionally, with a concept-annotation count of nearly 100,000 in the 67-article subset (and more than 140,000 in the full collection), the scale of conceptual markup is also among the largest of comparable corpora. The concept annotations of the CRAFT Corpus have the potential to significantly advance biomedical text mining by providing a high-quality gold standard for NLP systems. The corpus, annotation guidelines, and other associated resources are freely available at http

  7. Primary structure of the ovine pituitary follitropin beta-subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Sairam, M R; Seidah, N G; Chrétien, M

    1981-01-01

    The complete amino acids sequence of the ovine pituitary follitropin beta-subunit was established by studying the tryptic, chymotryptic and thermolytic peptides. The N-terminal sequence of the subunit was confirmed by subjecting the oxidated protein to Edman degradation in an automated sequenator. Automated Edman degradation of the reduced and alkylated (with iodo [14C]acetamide) beta-subunit indicated that most of the molecules used in the sequence studies had lost the N-terminal serine residue. This also confirmed the location of the first five half-cystine residues in the sequence. The proposed structure shows the presence of 111 amino acid residues with the two oligosaccharide moieties linked to asparagine residues located at positions 6 and 23. Heterogeneity occurs at both the termini of the polypeptide chain. Comparison of the sequence of beta-subunit of the ovine hormone with that proposed for human follitropin beta-subunit shows the absence of any deletions in the middle of the peptide chain. Of the 13 replacements, 11 residues can be explained on the basis of a single base change in the codon. The single tryptophan residue of the follitropin occupies an identical position in all the four species that have been studied. The region corresponding to residues 63-105 of the ovine beta-subunit is highly conserved in all the species. PMID:6798969

  8. Selective transport of IgE into ovine mammary secretions.

    PubMed

    Hine, B C; Hunt, P W; Beasley, A M; Windon, R G; Glover, S A; Colditz, I G

    2010-10-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) E is actively transported into ovine colostrum. Here we examine the degree of selectivity and the mechanism by which this transfer occurs in sheep. Results indicate that during colostrogenesis in sheep, transfer of immunoglobulins was most selective for IgG1 and IgA followed by IgE, IgM and IgG2. In milk, selectivity was greatest for IgA, followed by IgM, IgE, IgG1 and IgG2. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and poly immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) mediate the transport of IgG1 and IgA across the ovine mammary epithelium respectively. In primates and rodents, the low-affinity IgE receptor, Fc epsilonRII, functions to transport IgE across the intestinal epithelium. We therefore investigated the expression of the low-affinity IgE receptor (CD23), pIgR and FcRn transcripts in the ovine mammary gland. The expression profiles of FcRn, pIgR and CD23 mRNA reflected concentrations of their Ig ligands in mammary secretions. These findings suggest a role for CD23 in transport of IgE across the mammary epithelium of sheep. PMID:20226487

  9. 78 FR 76276 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Ovine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Collection; Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... regulations for the importation of ovine meat from Uruguay into the United States. ] DATES: We will consider...: For information on the regulations for the importation of ovine meat from Uruguay, contact Dr....

  10. Developing a corpus of spoken language variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, Lesley; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia Beckford

    2003-10-01

    We are developing a novel, searchable corpus as a research tool for investigating phonetic and phonological phenomena across various speech styles. Five speech styles have been well studied independently in previous work: reduced (casual), careful (hyperarticulated), citation (reading), Lombard effect (speech in noise), and ``motherese'' (child-directed speech). Few studies to date have collected a wide range of styles from a single set of speakers, and fewer yet have provided publicly available corpora. The pilot corpus includes recordings of (1) a set of speakers participating in a variety of tasks designed to elicit the five speech styles, and (2) casual peer conversations and wordlists to illustrate regional vowels. The data include high-quality recordings and time-aligned transcriptions linked to text files that can be queried. Initial measures drawn from the database provide comparison across speech styles along the following acoustic dimensions: MLU (changes in unit duration); relative intra-speaker intensity changes (mean and dynamic range); and intra-speaker pitch values (minimum, maximum, mean, range). The corpus design will allow for a variety of analyses requiring control of demographic and style factors, including hyperarticulation variety, disfluencies, intonation, discourse analysis, and detailed spectral measures.

  11. Corpus callosum: microsurgical anatomy and MRI.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Ferreira, A J; Herculano-Carvalho, M; Melancia, J P; Farias, J P; Gomes, L

    2001-01-01

    The anatomy of the corpus callosum has received renewed interest during recent years due to the increasing number of callosotomies performed to treat intraventricular lesions, as well as some forms of generalized epilepsy. We have previously reported on the microsurgical anatomy of the corpus callosum and identified specific anatomical reference landmarks that can be used during surgery. In the present study we have continued the anatomical aspect of this earlier work in a larger number of cases, with in vitro observations (brain out of skull) being compared with the corresponding in vivo features seen in sagittal MRI slices. Fifty-three in vitro microsurgical callosotomies was performed and the data collected compared with a series of 57 in vivo normal MR callosal images. Callosal dimensions were measured on both the anatomical and MRI material, thus overcoming the problems associated with in vitro callosal deformation. Of the anatomical landmarks studied the distance from the genu of the corpus callosum to the bifurcation of the columns of the fornix was found to be useful for the intraoperative evaluation of the extent of rostral callosotomy, as it is not significantly changed in in vitro. The main microsurgical features of rostral callosotomy are presented. PMID:11963623

  12. The Effect of Ovine Secreted Soluble Factors on Human Dermal Papilla Cell Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Agnes Rosarina Prita; Rufaut, Nicholas Wolfgang; Jones, Leslie Norman; Sinclair, Rodney Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Context: In androgenetic alopecia, follicular miniaturization and dynamic changes to the hair cycle produce patterned baldness. The most effective treatment for baldness is hair transplantation surgery. The major limitation to hair transplantation is the availability of donor hair from the relatively unaffected occipital scalp. Hair induction with in vitro expansion of donor follicle populations has the potential to overcome this. The major obstacle to this is that in vitro expansion of human dermal papilla cell (DPC) colonies is associated with irreversible loss of aggregative behavior and hair follicle-inductive potential. In contrast, cultured ovine DPCs maintain these properties after extensive proliferation. Aims: To determine whether aggregating ovine DPC secrete factors that enhance the aggregative behavior or inductive potential of human DPC. Subjects and Methods: Fluorescently-labelled ovine DPC were mixed in culture with human DPC at passage number seven-nine, which had lost their aggregative behavior. The effects of different culture substrates and medium compositions on aggregative behavior were determined. Ovine and human papilla cells were co-cultured, separated by a permeable membrane to determine whether the ovine cells secrete soluble factors that affect human papilla cells. Results: In direct co-culture experiments, well-formed aggregates were produced by 90:10 human:ovine and 50:50 human:ovine DPC mixtures. In contrast, unmixed human DPC remained in a monolayer state after 18 days. Both human and ovine DPC had a higher tendency to aggregate in medium containing 20% (v/v) lamb serum (LS) compared to 10% (v/v) fetal calf serum (FCS). In co-culture experiments separated with permeable membrane, the human DPC aggregates were bigger and more rapidly formed with the addition of ovine secreted soluble factors. Conclusions: Soluble factors secreted by ovine DPC and present in LS increase the aggregative behavior of human DPC. These molecules might

  13. Creation of a new longitudinal corpus of clinical narratives.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vishesh; Stubbs, Amber; Shaw, Stanley; Uzuner, Özlem

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 i2b2/UTHealth Natural Language Processing (NLP) shared task featured a new longitudinal corpus of 1304 records representing 296 diabetic patients. The corpus contains three cohorts: patients who have a diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in their first record, and continue to have it in subsequent records; patients who do not have a diagnosis of CAD in the first record, but develop it by the last record; patients who do not have a diagnosis of CAD in any record. This paper details the process used to select records for this corpus and provides an overview of novel research uses for this corpus. This corpus is the only annotated corpus of longitudinal clinical narratives currently available for research to the general research community. PMID:26433122

  14. The Hebrew CHILDES corpus: transcription and morphological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Aviad; MacWhinney, Brian; Nir, Bracha

    2014-01-01

    We present a corpus of transcribed spoken Hebrew that reflects spoken interactions between children and adults. The corpus is an integral part of the CHILDES database, which distributes similar corpora for over 25 languages. We introduce a dedicated transcription scheme for the spoken Hebrew data that is sensitive to both the phonology and the standard orthography of the language. We also introduce a morphological analyzer that was specifically developed for this corpus. The analyzer adequately covers the entire corpus, producing detailed correct analyses for all tokens. Evaluation on a new corpus reveals high coverage as well. Finally, we describe a morphological disambiguation module that selects the correct analysis of each token in context. The result is a high-quality morphologically-annotated CHILDES corpus of Hebrew, along with a set of tools that can be applied to new corpora. PMID:25419199

  15. Corpus Christi, Nueces, and Aransas Bays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor; Thatcher, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay and Nueces Bay comprise the middle estuarine portion of Texas’ Coastal Bend region (Figure 1; Burgan and Engle, 2006). Aransas Bay is part of the upper estuarine portion of the region. These bays make up part of the Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, one of the many estuarine areas in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Estuary Program (Holt, 1998). The Coastal Bend region is sub-humid and sub-tropical. Summers are long, hot, and humid, and winters are short and mild. The landscape around the estuaries is dominated by row crops, pastures, and brushy rangeland (Handley and others, 2007). The Nueces River, along with other smaller rivers and creeks, provides freshwater inflow—along with essential nutrients and sediment— into Nueces Bay, which feeds into Corpus Christi Bay (Holt, 1998). Freshwater inflow into the Aransas Bay comes from Mission River, Aransas River, and Copano Creek. The region is relatively dry otherwise and prone to droughts. Corpus Christi receives an average of 76.2 cm (30 in) of rain annually; evaporation usually exceeds 177.8 cm (70 in) (Holt, 1998; Handley and others, 2007). The San Antonio-Nueces Coastal Basin drains into Aransas Bay. The Nueces River basin covers 43,253 km2 (16,700 miles2 ), from northwest of San Antonio, flowing southeast to where it drains into Nueces and Corpus Christi Bays (Holt, 1998). The Nueces-Rio Grande basin covers approximately 18,648 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 km2 (7,200 miles2 ) and flows partially into Corpus Christi Bay (as well as the upper Laguna Madre). The inflow from Nueces River has declined by approximately 20 percent over the past several decades, partly due to construction of lakes and reservoirs, particularly Lake Corpus Christi

  16. Secretion of platelet-activating factor by periovulatory ovine follicles

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, B.M.; Van Kirk, E.A.; Murdoch, W.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Secretion of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in vitro by ovine follicles and ovarian interstitium obtained at various times before, during and after the endogenous preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) and ovulation was quantified by radioimmunoassay. Release of PAF by the preovulatory follicle increased within 2 h after initiation of the surge of LH. Capacity for secretion of PAF was greatest at the time of ovulation, then declined thereafter. Production of PAF by ovarian interstitium throughout the periovulatory period was relatively low and did not change with time. It appears that PAF could act as an intrafollicular mediator in the mechanisms of ovulation and(or) luteinization.

  17. Selective gene expression by rat gastric corpus epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, M.; Stengel, A.; Sachs, G.

    2011-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is divided into several segments that have distinct functional properties, largely absorptive. The gastric corpus is the only segment thought of as largely secretory. Microarray hybridization of the gastric corpus mucosal epithelial cells was used to compare gene expression with other segments of the columnar GI tract followed by statistical data subtraction to identify genes selectively expressed by the rat gastric corpus mucosa. This provides a means of identifying less obvious specific functions of the corpus in addition to its secretion-related genes. For example, important properties found by this GI tract comparative transcriptome reflect the energy demand of acid secretion, a role in lipid metabolism, the large variety of resident neuroendocrine cells, responses to damaging agents and transcription factors defining differentiation of its epithelium. In terms of overlap of gastric corpus genes with the rest of the GI tract, the distal small bowel appears to express many of the gastric corpus genes in contrast to proximal small and large bowel. This differential map of gene expression by the gastric corpus epithelium will allow a more detailed description of major properties of the gastric corpus and may lead to the discovery of gastric corpus cell differentiation genes and those mis-regulated in gastric carcinomas. PMID:21177383

  18. Polyamine profile in ovine and caprine colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Galitsopoulou, Augustina; Michaelidou, Alexandra-Maria; Menexes, George; Alichanidis, Efstathios

    2015-04-15

    The objective of this study was to monitor the post-partum variation of polyamine content, in ovine and caprine milk, from indigenous Greek breeds. Twenty samples of ewe and 20 samples of goat colostrum and milk were collected at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 15th day post-partum. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were measured as dansylated derivatives by high-performance liquid chromatography. Putrescine was the least concentrated of these substances in both milk types. Spermidine was the prevailing polyamine in caprine samples, reaching levels up to 4.41 μmol/l on the 3rd day post-partum. In ovine milk, the profile of the mean concentrations showed greater levels of spermine than spermidine, except for the 5th day post-partum. These data suggest that goat colostrum and ewe milk (15th day) could be considered as good natural sources for these bioactive growth factors, and may become useful raw materials for designing tailored dairy products for specific population groups. PMID:25465997

  19. Infarction of the Corpus Callosum: A Retrospective Clinical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yu-meng; Qin, Hua-min; Wu, Xiao-mei; Zhang, Xiao; Jolkkonen, Jukka; Boltze, Johannes; Wang, Su-ping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate patients with ischemic infarctions in the territory of the corpus callosum to advance our understanding of this rare stroke subtype by providing comprehensive descriptive and epidemiological data. Methods From January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2014, all cases of acute ischemic stroke diagnosed by clinical manifestation and diffusion weighted imaging in Dalian Municipal Central Hospital were investigated. The patients presenting with corpus callosum infarctions were selected and further allocated into genu and/or body and splenium infarction groups. Proportion, lesion patterns, clinical features, risk factors and etiology of corpus callosum infarction were analyzed. Results Out of 1,629 cases, 59 patients (3.6%) with corpus callosum infarctions were identified by diffusion weighted imaging, including 7 patients who had ischemic lesions restricted to the corpus callosum territory. Thirty six patients had lesions in the splenium (61.0%). Corpus callosum infarction patients suffered from a broad spectrum of symptoms including weakness and/or numbness of the limbs, clumsy speech, and vertigo, which could not be explained by lesions in corpus callosum. A classical callosal disconnection syndrome was found in 2 out of all patients with corpus callosum infarctions. Statistical differences in the risk factor and infarct pattern between the genu and/or body group and splenium group were revealed. Conclusion Corpus callosum infarction and the callosal disconnection syndrome were generally rare. The most susceptible location of ischemic corpus callosum lesion was the splenium. Splenium infarctions were often associated with bilateral cerebral hemisphere involvement (46.2%). The genu and/or body infarctions were associated with atherosclerosis. The most common cause of corpus callosum infarction probably was embolism. PMID:25785450

  20. Corpus-Based Learning of Cantonese for Mandarin Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John; Wong, Tak-Sum

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports our experience in using a parallel corpus to teach Cantonese, a variety of Chinese spoken in Hong Kong, as a second language. The parallel corpus consists of pairs of word-aligned sentences in Cantonese and Mandarin Chinese, drawn from television programs in Hong Kong (Lee, 2011). We evaluated our pedagogical approach with…

  1. Use of "Google Scholar" in Corpus-Driven EAP Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brezina, Vaclav

    2012-01-01

    This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the "Google Scholar" search engine. These resources ("Google Scholar virtual corpus") are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. "Google Scholar", however, was not designed for linguistic searches…

  2. Corpus-Supported Academic Writing: How Can Technology Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitez, Madalina; Rapp, Christian; Kruse, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Phraseology has long been used in L2 teaching of academic writing, and corpus linguistics has played a major role in the compilation and assessment of academic phrases. However, there are only a few interactive academic writing tools in which corpus methodology is implemented in a real-time design to support formulation processes. In this paper,…

  3. Developing Corpus-Based Materials to Teach Pragmatic Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Mossman, Sabrina; Vellenga, Heidi E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how to develop teaching materials for pragmatics based on authentic language by using a spoken corpus. The authors show how to use the corpus in conjunction with textbooks to identify pragmatic routines for speech acts and how to extract appropriate language samples and adapt them for classroom use. They demonstrate how to…

  4. Genome sequences of mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2: ovine and bovine isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica, serotype A2 isolated from pneumonic lungs of two different ruminant species, one from Ovis aries, designated as Ovine (O) and the other from Bos taurus, designated as Bovine (B)....

  5. Cadec: A corpus of adverse drug event annotations.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Sarvnaz; Metke-Jimenez, Alejandro; Kemp, Madonna; Wang, Chen

    2015-06-01

    CSIRO Adverse Drug Event Corpus (Cadec) is a new rich annotated corpus of medical forum posts on patient-reported Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). The corpus is sourced from posts on social media, and contains text that is largely written in colloquial language and often deviates from formal English grammar and punctuation rules. Annotations contain mentions of concepts such as drugs, adverse effects, symptoms, and diseases linked to their corresponding concepts in controlled vocabularies, i.e., SNOMED Clinical Terms and MedDRA. The quality of the annotations is ensured by annotation guidelines, multi-stage annotations, measuring inter-annotator agreement, and final review of the annotations by a clinical terminologist. This corpus is useful for studies in the area of information extraction, or more generally text mining, from social media to detect possible adverse drug reactions from direct patient reports. The corpus is publicly available at https://data.csiro.au.(1). PMID:25817970

  6. The ovine respiratory syncytial virus F gene sequence and its diagnostic application.

    PubMed

    Eleraky, N Z; Kania, S A; Potgieter, L N

    2001-11-01

    Ruminant respiratory syncytial viruses (RSVs) are classified into 2 subgroups, ovine RSV and bovine RSV. Although ovine RSV infects cattle, its contribution to bovine respiratory tract disease has not been established, which is an important issue for vaccine development in cattle. Diagnosis by virus isolation or serology has low or variable sensitivity and/or specificity and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been recommended as a rapid and sensitive technique for RSV detection. A simple procedure has been developed to detect and identify bovine and ovine RSVs. First, the nucleotide sequence of the ovine RSV fusion (F) gene was determined and compared with representative strains of bovine RSV and human RSV subgroups A and B. The ovine RSV F gene has 85 and 72-73% nucleotide identity with those of bovine RSV and human RSV, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequence of the ovine RSV F gene has 94 and 83-84% amino acid identity with those of bovine RSV and human RSV, respectively. Then PCR primers targeting a specific F gene fragment of bovine and ovine RSV were designed. The primers represented bases 85-103 and the complementary sequence to bases 510-493 of the ovine RSV F gene. A similar PCR product (426 bp) was obtained on agarose gel electrophoresis from bovine RSV and from ovine RSV. The products, however, were unique to the parent virus and could be distinguished by EcoRI or MspI restriction endonuclease cleavage. EcoRI cleaved the ovine product into 2 bands (285 and 141 bp) but failed to affect the bovine RSV PCR product. However, MspI cleaved the bovine product into 2 bands (229 and 197 bp) but had no effect on the ovine product. Also, this assay did not amplify any PCR product with human RSV. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by restriction enzyme digestion is a useful and practical approach for detection and differentiation of ruminant respiratory syncytial viruses. PMID:11724134

  7. Novel in vitro systems for prediction of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    González-Lobato, L; Real, R; Herrero, D; de la Fuente, A; Prieto, J G; Marqués, M M; Alvarez, A I; Merino, G

    2014-01-01

    A new in vitro tool was developed for the identification of veterinary substrates of the main drug transporter in the mammary gland. These drugs have a much higher chance of being concentrated into ovine milk and thus should be detectable in dairy products. Complementarily, a cell model for the identification of compounds that can inhibit the secretion of drugs into ovine milk, and thus reduce milk residues, was also generated. The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) is responsible for the concentration of its substrates into milk. The need to predict potential drug residues in ruminant milk has prompted the development of in vitro cell models over-expressing ABCG2 for these species to detect veterinary drugs that interact with this transporter. Using these models, several substrates for bovine and caprine ABCG2 have been found, and differences in activity between species have been reported. However, despite being of great toxicological relevance, no suitable in vitro model to predict substrates of ovine ABCG2 was available. New MDCKII and MEF3.8 cell models over-expressing ovine ABCG2 were generated for the identification of substrates and inhibitors of ovine ABCG2. Five widely used veterinary antibiotics (marbofloxacin, orbifloxacin, sarafloxacin, danofloxacin and difloxacin) were discovered as new substrates of ovine ABCG2. These results were confirmed for the bovine transporter and its Y581S variant using previously generated cell models. In addition, the avermectin doramectin was described as a new inhibitor of ruminant ABCG2. This new rapid assay to identify veterinary drugs that can be concentrated into ovine milk will potentially improve detection and monitoring of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products. PMID:24679113

  8. In vitro culture medium (IVC) supplementation with sericin improves developmental competence of ovine zygotes.

    PubMed

    Aghaz, Faranak; Hajarian, Hadi; KaramiShabankareh, Hamed

    2016-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of supplementation of potassium simplex optimized medium (KSOM-aa) with various sericin concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2.5%) on ovine zygotes. The results indicate that the supplementation of oocyte in vitro culture medium with optimal concentration of sericin (0.1 and 0.5%) may have beneficial effects on developmental competence of in vitro-derived ovine embryos. PMID:26952758

  9. Metagenomic Insights into the RDX-Degrading Potential of the Ovine Rumen Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Robert W.; Giarrizzo, Juan Gabriel; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Duringer, Jennifer M.; Craig, A. Morrie

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX), or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB) were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies. PMID:25383623

  10. Metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen microbiome.

    PubMed

    Li, Robert W; Giarrizzo, Juan Gabriel; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Duringer, Jennifer M; Craig, A Morrie

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX), or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB) were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies. PMID:25383623

  11. Insights from a Learner Corpus as Opposed to a Native Corpus about Cohesive Devices in an Academic Writing Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the insights from an EFL learner corpora (a total of 151 essays and 49,690 words) generated from essays collected over the years in a Turkish state university from freshmen students enrolling in the Advanced Writing course. The comparison of cohesive devices in the non-native corpus (NNC) with those in a native corpus (NC)…

  12. 77 FR 34034 - Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC; Cheniere Corpus Christi Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Intent To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ....; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and... assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and... (LNG) export and import terminal, and a natural gas transmission pipeline in Nueces and San...

  13. EEAP lighting survey study at the Corpus Christi Army Depot, Corpus Christi, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-05

    This energy conservation study was performed by Huitt-Zollars Inc, for the U.S. Army Engineer District (USAED), Fort Worth, under contract number DACAC63-94-D-0015. The study was conducted at Corpus Christi Army Depot (CCAD) in Corpus Christi, Texas, between October 3, 1994 and April 5, 1995. The site survey and data collection was performed by C.A. Pieper, P.E. and Tom Luckett, Lighting Designer. The purpose of the study was to perform a limited site survey of specific buildings at the facility, identify specific Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs) that exist, and then evaluate these ECOs for technical and economic feasibility. These ECOs were limited to building interior lighting and it`s effects on the heating, ventilating and air conditioning.

  14. EEAP-lighting survey study at the Corpus Christi Army Depot Corpus Christi, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-05

    This energy conservation study was performed by Huitt-Zollars Inc, for the U.S. Army Engineer District (USAED), Fort Worth, under contract number DACAC63-94-D-00l5. The study was conducted at Corpus Christi Army Depot (CCAD) in Corpus Christi, Texas, between October 3, 1994 and April 5, 1995. The site survey and data collection was performed by C.A. Pieper, P.E. and Tom Luckett, Lighting Designer. The purpose of the study was to perform a limited site survey of specific buildings at the facility, identify specific Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs) that exist, and then evaluate these ECOs for technical and economic feasibility. These ECOs were limited to building interior lighting and its effects on the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

  15. Steroid hormone modulation of 3H-prostaglanding E1 binding to bovine corpus leteum cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Rao, C V

    1975-04-01

    The specific binding of 3H-prostaglandin E1 (3H-PGE1) to bovine corpus luteum cell membranes was not affected by cholesterol or various progestins at concentrations of up to 9.0x10-minus-6M. At concentrations above 2.5 x 10-minus-6M; estrone, 17beta-estradiol (but not 17alpha-estradiol or 17beta-estradiol glucuronide), estroil, equilin, D-equilenin, 17-ethynyl estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, cortisol, corticosterone, deoxycorticosterone and aldosterone inhibited specific binding of 3H-PGE1. On the other hand, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (but not androstenedione) significantly enhanced 3H-PGE1 binding. These findings permitted the following correlations between steroid structure and modulation of 3H-PGE1 binding: steroids with a free phenolic ring and a 17beta-hydroxyl or 17-keto group or C-21 steroids with a C-20 ketone and a C-21 hydroxy group decrease, whereas C-19 steroids with a C-17 hydroxy group enhance specific binding of 3H-PGE1. PGE receptors are heterogeneous with respect to affinity for 3H-PGE1. The steroids that decreased 3H-PGE1 binding caused a lowering to a complete loss of low affinity PGE receptors. Steroids that increased 3H-PGE1 binding caused appearance of new low affinity PGE receptors. Association rate constants for 3H-PGE1 binding were decreased by 17beta-estradiol (61%) and increased by DHT (59%). PMID:168618

  16. Age-related changes in dynamic moduli of ovine vitreous.

    PubMed

    Colter, Jourdan; Williams, Alex; Moran, Patrick; Coats, Brittany

    2015-01-01

    Multiple rheological studies have characterized the dynamic material properties of adult vitreous, but no studies have investigated vitreous properties in the immature eye. In this study, premature, infant and adult ovine vitreous specimens were tested in shear to identify differences in dynamic moduli with age. Significant inertial artifact and rapid degradation of the vitreous ex vivo hindered the ability to accurately collect dynamic data through standard oscillation protocols. Therefore, dynamic moduli were calculated by converting relaxation spectrum data to the retardation spectrum, resulting in the calculation of the storage (G') and loss (G") moduli from the first few milliseconds of creep testing when tissue degradation and inertia is minimal. The technique was validated against two synthetic materials that span the viscoelastic spectrum. G' and G" of the primarily viscous synthetic material (polystyrene, tanδ=0.61) and G' of the primarily elastic material (agar, tanδ=0.06) were not significantly different than those calculated from dynamic oscillatory testing (p<0.05). G" of agar was overestimated (4-39%) with the interconversion technique due to creep ringing. Ovine vitreous was primarily viscous (tanδ=1.31), so this technique was used to evaluate changes in dynamic moduli with age. G' and G" for adult vitreous was 2-4 times and 1.5-2 times lower, respectively, than infant vitreous, corresponding to the structural breakdown of the vitreous with age. The dynamic moduli of premature vitreous was lower than infant and adult, likely due to premature development of the vitreal structure. These data suggest that significant differences exist between the viscoelastic response of infant and adult vitreous, and computational models of the pediatric eye will require appropriate age and rate material properties of vitreous. PMID:25266808

  17. Glucose metabolism and effect of acetate in ovine adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y T; White, L S; Muir, L A

    1982-08-01

    Isolated ovine adipocytes were incubated in vitro with specifically labeled 14C-glucose in the presence or absence of acetate. The flux patterns of glucose carbon through major metabolic pathways were estimated. When glucose was added as the sole substrate, approximately equal portions of glucose carbon (10%) were oxidized to CO2 in the pentose phosphate pathway, in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction and in the citrate cycle. Fifteen percent of the glucose carbon was incorporated into fatty acids and 43% was released as lactate and pyruvate. Addition of acetate to the medium increased glucose carbon uptake by 1.5-fold. Most of this increase was accounted for by a sevenfold increase in the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. Acetate increased glucose carbon fluxes via pentose phosphate pathway to triose phosphates, from triose phosphate to pyruvate, into glyceride glycerol, into lactate and pyruvate and into pyruvate dehydrogenase and citrate cycle CO2. Glucose carbon incorporated into fatty acids was decreased 50% by acetate while, carbon fluxes through the phosphofructokinase-aldolase reactions were not significantly increased. Results of this study suggest that, when glucose is the sole substrate, the conversion of glucose to fatty acids in ovine adipocytes may not be limited by the maximum capacity of hexokinase, the pentose phosphate pathway or enzymes involved in the conversion of triose phosphates to pyruvate and of pyruvate to fatty acid. Acetate increased glucose utilization apparently by increasing activity of the pentose phosphate pathway as a result of enhanced NADPH utilization for fatty acid synthesis. PMID:7142048

  18. Corpus Linguistics and the Design of a Response Message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwell, E.

    2002-01-01

    Most research related to SETI, the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence, is focussed on techniques for detection of possible incoming signals from extra-terrestrial intelligent sources (e.g. Turnbull et al. 1999), and algorithms for analysis of these signals to identify intelligent language-like characteristics (e.g. Elliott and Atwell 1999, 2000). However, another issue for research and debate is the nature of our response, should a signal arrive and be detected. The design of potentially the most significant communicative act in history should not be decided solely by astrophysicists; the Corpus Linguistics research community has a contribution to make to what is essentially a Corpus design and implementation project. (Vakoch 1998) advocated that the message constructed to transmit to extraterrestrials should include a broad, representative collection of perspectives rather than a single viewpoint or genre; this should strike a chord with Corpus Linguists for whom a central principle is that a corpus must be "balanced" to be representative (Meyer 2001). One idea favoured by SETI researchers is to transmit an encyclopaedia summarising human knowledge, such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, to give ET communicators an overview and "training set" key to analysis of subsequent messages. Furthermore, this should be sent in several versions in parallel: the text; page-images, to include illustrations left out of the text-file and perhaps some sort of abstract linguistic representation of the text, using a functional or logic language (Ollongren 1999, Freudenthal 1960). The idea of "enriching" the message corpus with annotations at several levels should also strike a chord with Corpus Linguists who have long known that Natural language exhibits highly complex multi-layering sequencing, structural and functional patterns, as difficult to model as sequences and structures found in more traditional physical and biological sciences. Some corpora have been annotated with

  19. The tolerance of feline corpus and cauda spermatozoa to cryostress.

    PubMed

    Kunkitti, Panisara; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Johannisson, Anders; Axnér, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Epididymal sperm preservation can be used to avoid the total loss of genetic material in threatened species. Spermatozoa from the corpus, as from the cauda, are motile and can undergo capacitation. Thus, they can potentially be preserved for assisted reproductive technologies. However, cryopreservation of spermatozoa has a direct detrimental effect on sperm quality. The aim of this study was to compare the chromatin stability and the survival rate of spermatozoa from the corpus and cauda epididymis after cryopreservation. Epididymal spermatozoa were collected and cryopreserved from the corpus and cauda of 12 domestic cats. Sperm motility, progressive motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and DNA integrity were evaluated before and after freezing thawing. The average total number of spermatozoa collected from the corpus was lower (10.2 × 10(6) ± 7.4) than that from the cauda epididymis (24.9 × 10(6) ± 14.4; P = 0.005). The percentage of spermatozoa with intact DNA did not differ significantly whether it was collected from the corpus or cauda regions and did not decrease after freezing thawing in either region. However, motility of spermatozoa from both regions was affected by the freezing thawing process with a significant decline in motility after thaw compared with fresh spermatozoa. A significant difference in the percentage of motile sperm between the corpus and cauda was observed after the freezing thawing process (P < 0.001). Although sperm motility was lower in postthaw spermatozoa from the corpus epididymidis than from the cauda, the rate of the reduction did not differ between regions. This study indicates that the cryopreservation process does not have a negative effect on chromatin stability of feline epididymal spermatozoa. Spermatozoa from the corpus region have a similar freezability as spermatozoa from the cauda region. Therefore, preservation of spermatozoa from the corpus and the cauda epididymidis might be of value in preserving

  20. Paediatric Virology in the Hippocratic Corpus

    PubMed Central

    Mammas, Ioannis N.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocrates (Island of Kos, 460 B.C.-Larissa, 370 B.C.) is the founder of the most famous Medical School of the classical antiquity. In acknowledgement of his pioneering contribution to the new scientific field of Paediatric Virology, this article provides a systematic analysis of the Hippocratic Corpus, with particular focus on viral infections predominating in neonates and children. A mumps epidemic, affecting the island of Thasos in the 5th century B.C., is described in detail. ‘Herpes’, a medical term derived from the ancient Greek word ‘ἕρπειν’, meaning ‘to creep’ or ‘crawl’, is used to describe the spreading of cutaneous lesions in both childhood and adulthood. Cases of children with exanthema ‘resembling mosquito bites’ are presented in reference to varicella or smallpox infection. A variety of upper and lower respiratory tract viral infections are described with impressive accuracy, including rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchiolitis and bronchitis. The ‘cough of Perinthos’ epidemic, an influenza-like outbreak in the 5th century B.C., is also recorded and several cases complicated with pneumonia or fatal outcomes are discussed. Hippocrates, moreover, describes conjunctivitis, otitis, lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, febrile convulsions, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, poliomyelitis and skin warts, along with proposed treatment directions. Almost 2,400 years later, Hippocrates' systematic approach and methodical innovations can inspire paediatric trainees and future Paediatric Virology subspecialists. PMID:27446241

  1. Interleukin-6, Age, and Corpus Callosum Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Bettcher, Brianne M.; Watson, Christa L.; Walsh, Christine M.; Lobach, Iryna V.; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Joshua W.; Green, Ralph; Patel, Nihar; Dutt, Shubir; Busovaca, Edgar; Rosen, Howard J.; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce L.; Kramer, Joel H.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of inflammation to deleterious aging outcomes is increasingly recognized; however, little is known about the complex relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and brain structure, or how this association might change with increasing age. We examined the association between IL-6, white matter integrity, and cognition in 151 community dwelling older adults, and tested whether age moderated these associations. Blood levels of IL-6 and vascular risk (e.g., homocysteine), as well as health history information, were collected. Processing speed assessments were administered to assess cognitive functioning, and we employed tract-based spatial statistics to examine whole brain white matter and regions of interest. Given the association between inflammation, vascular risk, and corpus callosum (CC) integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA) of the genu, body, and splenium represented our primary dependent variables. Whole brain analysis revealed an inverse association between IL-6 and CC fractional anisotropy. Subsequent ROI linear regression and ridge regression analyses indicated that the magnitude of this effect increased with age; thus, older individuals with higher IL-6 levels displayed lower white matter integrity. Finally, higher IL-6 levels were related to worse processing speed; this association was moderated by age, and was not fully accounted for by CC volume. This study highlights that at older ages, the association between higher IL-6 levels and lower white matter integrity is more pronounced; furthermore, it underscores the important, albeit burgeoning role of inflammatory processes in cognitive aging trajectories. PMID:25188448

  2. Subluxation and semantics: a corpus linguistics study

    PubMed Central

    Budgell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to analyze the curriculum of one chiropractic college in order to discover if there were any implicit consensus definitions of the term subluxation. Methods: Using the software WordSmith Tools, the corpus of an undergraduate chiropractic curriculum was analyzed by reviewing collocated terms and through discourse analysis of text blocks containing words based on the root ‘sublux.’ Results: It was possible to identify 3 distinct concepts which were each referred to as ‘subluxation:’ i) an acute or instantaneous injurious event; ii) a clinical syndrome which manifested post-injury; iii) a physical lesion, i.e. an anatomical or physiological derangement which in most instances acted as a pain generator. Conclusions: In fact, coherent implicit definitions of subluxation exist and may enjoy broad but subconscious acceptance. However, confusion likely arises from failure to distinguish which concept an author or speaker is referring to when they employ the term subluxation. PMID:27385839

  3. Corpus Callosum Volume in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Hardan, Antonio Y.; Pabalan, Melissa; Gupta, Nidhi; Bansal, Rahul; Melhem, Nadine M.; Fedorov, Serguei; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2009-01-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is the main commissure connecting the cerebral hemispheres. Previous evidence suggests the involvement of CC in the pathophysiology of autism. However, most studies examined the mid-sagittal area and investigations applying more precise methods are warranted. The goal of this investigation is to apply a volumetric method to examine the size of the CC in autism and to identify any association with clinical features. An MRI-based morphometric study of the total CC volume and its 7 subdivisions was conducted and involved 22 children with autism (age range 8.1–12.7 years) and 23 healthy, age-matched controls. Reductions in the total volume of the CC and several of its subdivisions were found in the autism sample. Associations were observed between CC structures and clinical features including social deficits, repetitive behaviors, and sensory abnormalities. Volumetric alterations of the CC observed in this investigation are consistent with midsagittal area tracings of decreased CC size in autism. These findings support the aberrant connectivity hypothesis with possible decrease in interhemispheric communications. PMID:19781917

  4. Corpus callosum volume in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Hardan, Antonio Y; Pabalan, Melissa; Gupta, Nidhi; Bansal, Rahul; Melhem, Nadine M; Fedorov, Serguei; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Minshew, Nancy J

    2009-10-30

    The corpus callosum (CC) is the main commissure connecting the cerebral hemispheres. Previous evidence suggests the involvement of the CC in the pathophysiology of autism. However, most studies examined the mid-sagittal area and investigations applying novel methods are warranted. The goal of this investigation is to apply a volumetric method to examine the size of the CC in autism and to identify any association with clinical features. An MRI-based morphometric study of the total CC volume and its seven subdivisions was conducted and involved 22 children with autism (age range 8.1-12.7 years) and 23 healthy, age-matched controls. Reductions in the total volume of the CC and several of its subdivisions were found in the autism sample. Associations were observed between CC structures and clinical features including social deficits, repetitive behaviors, and sensory abnormalities. Volumetric alterations of the CC observed in this investigation are consistent with midsagittal area tracings of decreased CC size in autism. These findings support the aberrant connectivity hypothesis with possible decrease in interhemispheric communications. PMID:19781917

  5. Brain potentials related to corpus cavernosum electromyography.

    PubMed

    Ponseti, J; Bosinski, H A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the relation between electrical activity in the corpus cavernosum (CC), penile responses and brain processes. EEG potentials, penile circumference and electrical activity of the CC (CC-EMG) were recorded simultaneously while male subjects were exposed to visual sexual stimuli. The trials were sorted by the penile response of the subjects (erection, maintenance or detumescence). The corresponding EEG recordings were subjected to independent component analysis (ICA) and then correlated with CC activity. We found that CC activity was decreased in the case of erection. EEG activity was found to be correlated with CC activity in most cases at the same instant or with subsequent CC activity. EEG activity at early time points after stimulus onset (<300 ms) was found to be correlated with CC activity, indicating penile response preparation at a pre-attentive processing level. These data indicate that (i) CC activity is under the control of brain processing and (ii) autonomous input reaches the CC in fractions of a second after sexual stimulus onset. Our experimental paradigm should be used for the study of psychogenic erectile dysfunctions and could help in the development of an objective measurement of this disturbance. PMID:20336074

  6. Pituitary duplication associated with oral dermoid and corpus callosum hypogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Hakan; Paker, Bilhan; Gunes, Nilufer; Emektar, Ali; Keceli, Merter; Kantarci, Mecit

    2004-12-01

    We report a case of pituitary duplication in a neonate girl whose magnetic resonance (MR) images showed unusual findings of hypogenesis of the corpus callosum and oral dermoid. Pituitary duplication is an extremely rare malformation, with only a few previously reported cases. It occurs most commonly in association with complicated midline and skull base anomalies. We present a case of this malformation with special emphasis on the hypogenesis of splenium of the corpus callosum and oral dermoid. PMID:15565346

  7. The Corpus of English as Lingua Franca in Academic Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauranen, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Describes a project to make a corpus of English spoken as a lingua franca in university settings in Finland. This corpus is one of the first to address the need for corpora that show the target for English-as-a-Foreign-Language learners whose goal is not to speak with native speakers but to interact in communities where English is a lingua franca.…

  8. Citrimicrobium luteum gen. nov., sp. nov., aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium isolated from the gut of a sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hong-Joo; Cha, In-Tae; Yim, Kyung June; Song, Hye Seon; Cho, Kichul; Kim, Daekyung; Lee, Hae-Won; Lee, Jae Kook; Seo, Myung-Ji; Roh, Seong Woon; Lee, Sung-Jae

    2014-10-01

    A Gram-stain negative, yellow-pigmented, motile, pleomorphic bacterium, designated strain CBA4602(T), was isolated from the gut of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus, which was collected from Jeju Island in the Republic of Korea. In a phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene, strain CBA4602(T) belonged to the order Sphingomonadales in the class Alphaproteobacteria. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain CBA4602(T) and 'Citromicrobium bathyomarinum' JF-1, the most closely related strain having nonvalidly published name, was 98.4%, followed by 95.2-96.7% identities with sequence of the other closest strains in the genus Erythrobacter. Strain CBA4602(T) had bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids. Strain CBA4602(T) grew in 0-10% (w/v) NaCl, at 10-42°C and pH 6.0-8.0, with optimal growth in 1-2% NaCl, at 30-37°C and pH 7.0. Strain CBA4602(T) was positive for catalase and oxidase activities and was able to hydrolyse gelatine and Tween 20 and 40, but not starch, Tween 80 or L-tyrosine. The G+C content of genomic DNA from strain CBA4602(T) was 68.0 mol% and Q-10 was the major detected isoprenoid quinone. The polar lipids were three unidentified phospholipids, three unidentified glycolipids, and two unidentified lipids. The dominant fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, anteiso-C17:0 and C18:0. As considering the current taxonomic status of the genus 'Citromicrobium' and polyphasic taxonomic analyses, strain CBA4602(T) represents a novel genus and species. The name Citrimicrobium luteum is proposed for the type strain CBA4602(T) (=KACC 17668(T) =JCM 19530(T)). PMID:25163838

  9. A Corpus Investigation of Syntactic Embedding in Pirahã

    PubMed Central

    Futrell, Richard; Stearns, Laura; Everett, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    The Pirahã language has been at the center of recent debates in linguistics, in large part because it is claimed not to exhibit recursion, a purported universal of human language. Here, we present an analysis of a novel corpus of natural Pirahã speech that was originally collected by Dan Everett and Steve Sheldon. We make the corpus freely available for further research. In the corpus, Pirahã sentences have been shallowly parsed and given morpheme-aligned English translations. We use the corpus to investigate the formal complexity of Pirahã syntax by searching for evidence of syntactic embedding. In particular, we search for sentences which could be analyzed as containing center-embedding, sentential complements, adverbials, complementizers, embedded possessors, conjunction or disjunction. We do not find unambiguous evidence for recursive embedding of sentences or noun phrases in the corpus. We find that the corpus is plausibly consistent with an analysis of Pirahã as a regular language, although this is not the only plausible analysis. PMID:26934636

  10. Corpus Callosum Area in Children and Adults with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Neeley, E. Shannon; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Despite repeated findings of abnormal corpus callosum structure in autism, the developmental trajectories of corpus callosum growth in the disorder have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined corpus callosum size from a developmental perspective across a 30-year age range in a large cross-sectional sample of individuals with autism compared to a typically developing sample. Midsagittal corpus callosum area and the 7 Witelson subregions were examined in 68 males with autism (mean age 14.1 years; range 3–36 years) and 47 males with typical development (mean age 15.3 years; range 4–29 years). Controlling for total brain volume, increased variability in total corpus callosum area was found in autism. In autism, increased midsagittal areas were associated with reduced severity of autism behaviors, higher intelligence, and faster speed of processing (p=0.003, p=0.011, p=0.013, respectively). A trend toward group differences in isthmus development was found (p=0.029, uncorrected). These results suggest that individuals with autism benefit functionally from increased corpus callosum area. Our cross-sectional examination also shows potential maturational abnormalities in autism, a finding that should be examined further with longitudinal datasets. PMID:23130086

  11. Neuronal fiber composition of the corpus callosum within some odontocetes.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Mandy J; Ridgway, Sam H

    2008-07-01

    Odontocetes (toothed whales) evolved from terrestrial mammals approximately 55 million years ago and have since remained on a unique evolutionary trajectory. This study used formalin-fixed tissue and light microscopy to quantify the size and number of fibers along the corpus callosum of the bottlenose dolphin (n = 8). Two other species, the Amazon River dolphin (n = 1) and the killer whale (n = 1), were included for comparison. A large amount of variation in the shape and area of the corpus callosum was observed. The odontocete corpus callosum is a heterogeneous structure with variation in fiber size and density along the length of the corpus callosum in all specimens examined. Using the species with the largest sample size, the bottlenose dolphin, comparisons by sex and age (sexually mature verses immature) were made for the area of the corpus callosum, five subregions, and fiber densities. Although no sex differences were detected, age appeared to affect the size, shape, and fiber composition of the bottlenose dolphin corpus callosum. PMID:18493931

  12. A Corpus Investigation of Syntactic Embedding in Pirahã.

    PubMed

    Futrell, Richard; Stearns, Laura; Everett, Daniel L; Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The Pirahã language has been at the center of recent debates in linguistics, in large part because it is claimed not to exhibit recursion, a purported universal of human language. Here, we present an analysis of a novel corpus of natural Pirahã speech that was originally collected by Dan Everett and Steve Sheldon. We make the corpus freely available for further research. In the corpus, Pirahã sentences have been shallowly parsed and given morpheme-aligned English translations. We use the corpus to investigate the formal complexity of Pirahã syntax by searching for evidence of syntactic embedding. In particular, we search for sentences which could be analyzed as containing center-embedding, sentential complements, adverbials, complementizers, embedded possessors, conjunction or disjunction. We do not find unambiguous evidence for recursive embedding of sentences or noun phrases in the corpus. We find that the corpus is plausibly consistent with an analysis of Pirahã as a regular language, although this is not the only plausible analysis. PMID:26934636

  13. A diffusion and T2 relaxation MRI study of the ovine lumbar intervertebral disc under compression in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, Simon C.; Silva, Pujitha; Crozier, Stuart; Pearcy, Mark J.

    2004-08-01

    The ovine lumbar intervertebral disc is a useful model for the human lumbar disc. We present preliminary estimates of diffusion coefficients and T2 relaxation times in a pilot MRI study of the ovine lumbar intervertebral disc during uniaxial compression in vitro, and identify factors that hamper the ability to accurately monitor the temporal evolution of the effective diffusion tensor at high spatial resolution.

  14. Haplotypes and Sequence Variation in the Ovine Adiponectin Gene (ADIPOQ)

    PubMed Central

    An, Qing-Ming; Zhou, Hui-Tong; Hu, Jiang; Luo, Yu-Zhu; Hickford, Jon G. H.

    2015-01-01

    The adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In this study five separate regions (regions 1 to 5) of ovine ADIPOQ were analysed using PCR-SSCP. Four different PCR-SSCP patterns (A1-D1, A2-D2) were detected in region-1 and region-2, respectively, with seven and six SNPs being revealed. In region-3, three different patterns (A3-C3) and three SNPs were observed. Two patterns (A4-B4, A5-B5) and two and one SNPs were observed in region-4 and region-5, respectively. In total, nineteen SNPs were detected, with five of them in the coding region and two (c.46T/C and c.515G/A) putatively resulting in amino acid changes (p.Tyr16His and p.Lys172Arg). In region-1, -2 and -3 of 316 sheep from eight New Zealand breeds, variants A1, A2 and A3 were the most common, although variant frequencies differed in the eight breeds. Across region-1 and region-3, nine haplotypes were identified and haplotypes A1-A3, A1-C3, B1-A3 and B1-C3 were most common. These results indicate that the ADIPOQ gene is polymorphic and suggest that further analysis is required to see if the variation in the gene is associated with animal production traits. PMID:26610572

  15. Molecular screening of ovine mastitis in different breeds.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, O; Velez, Z; Alvarenga, N; Matos, C; Duarte, M

    2013-02-01

    Clinical and subclinical mastitis directly affect mammary gland function and have a great economic impact on the sheep and goat dairy industries. The present study explores molecular diagnosis of ovine subclinical mastitis as a faster and more precise screening method compared with microbiology and biochemical techniques to assess the molecular and chemical properties of raw milk samples from healthy animals from 3 breeds of sheep raised in Portugal. Based on 16S ribosomal RNA screening by PCR, milk samples from all sheep were categorized as contaminated (n=123) or noncontaminated (n=104). For contaminated milk, different specific primers were used for pathogen identification (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis). Streptococcus agalactiae was identified as the most frequent agent. We further assessed whether contaminated versus noncontaminated samples were chemically different in terms of fat, protein, lactose, pH, and solids-not-fat. This molecular screening method allowed rapid and efficient identification of contaminated raw sheep milk, including pathogen identification, before significant alterations in milk chemical properties could be detected. This methodology may lead to a specific and efficient animal treatment and consequently less expensive flock management. PMID:23245954

  16. Subsurface geology of Corpus Christi Bay, Neuces County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.W.

    1996-09-01

    Prolific production in Corpus Christi Bay has occurred mainly in the regressive Frio Barrier Bar System and the associated shore face-shelf environment. All production in Corpus Christi Bay area is below the Anahuac transgressive wedge with the greatest accumulation in the 1st Marg. sand, which has produced a minimum of 680 BCF of gas in the Red Fish Bay-Mustang Island Common 10 reservoir, the largest single reservoir in South Texas. The 1st Marg. sands have produced in excess of 990 BCFG from four fields in Corpus Christi Bay. Shallow hydrocarbons in Corpus Christi Bay are associated with the South Texas Frio Barrier Bar System and are structurally trapped on large fault bound anticlines or up-to-the-coast relief faults. Deeper production from the Frio Sands is mainly on the Barrier Bar shoreface and associated with fault bounded anticlinal closures. Structural complexity increases with depth especially along the large strike aligned growth faults, some up to 4000 ft displacement, and the associated rollover anticlines. subsidiary faults, and shale plugs. These deeper reservoirs are usually pressure-depletion drives. The oil industry can point with pride to the co-existence with the fragile bay environment while extracting huge reserves. Most of the wells are on State of Texas marine leases and are controlled by State rules and City of Corpus Christi Bay drilling ordinances.

  17. Corpus callosum in aging and dementia.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen

    2013-10-01

    The overarching objective of the thesis was to investigate the morphological changes in the corpus callosum (CC) in aging and dementia in relation to its role in cognitive and motor decline. The CC is the largest white matter tract in the brain, containing upwards of 200 million axons, and is believed important for communication and interaction between the two cerebral hemispheres. Historically, the role of white matter, including the CC, in relation to cognitive function has often been eclipsed by the predominance of the cortex, and led to a "corticocentric" view of the brain and cognitive function. However, from the 1960s and onwards, the role of lesions in the white matter in the appearence of cognitive deficits and diseases such as dementia has become increasingly evident. Many studies have indicated that AD is associated with CC atrophy, but the precise pattern of subregional CC atrophy in different disease stages remains undetermined. In study I, we establish that atrophy is present primarily in the posterior CC early in AD, and that atrophy of the CC is associated with faster disease progression. This finding supports a model where posterior atrophy is the earliest changes in the CC in AD patients, with atrophy of anterior CC being a later pathological event. To further elucidate the role of CC atrophy in dementia, we examined a population of 329 elderly subjects, and found that a higher rate of tissue loss in posterior CC is associated with an increased risk of dementia. This study represents the first to examine CC in elderly subjects longitudinally. In the same cohort, we investigated whether impairment in specific cognitive domains was associated with CC tissue loss. Previous studies had shown that processing speed and executive functions may be particularly reliant on the CC. Our findings indicated that CC tissue loss leads to selective impairment of processing speed but not memory or executive function deficits. Finally, CC tissue loss was also

  18. The Corpus Callosum and Forensic Issues-An Overview.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2016-07-01

    The corpus callosum is a large central white matter tract that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres. It permits placental mammals to have a more sophisticated interhemispheric integration of sensory cortices and allows communication between cortical and subcortical neurons. Search of the literature and the pathology archives at The University of Adelaide was undertaken to identify lesions and injuries within the corpus callosum that may have forensic significance. These include developmental/congenital lesions with agenesis/dysgenesis, vascular malformations, and lipomas; inherited syndromes such as neurofibromatosis; and acquired lesions involving trauma, neoplasia, demyelination, vascular conditions, infections, fat embolism, aging/dementia, and the effects of toxins. The finding of lesions within the corpus callosum should initiate careful examination of the adjacent brain and other organ systems for related phenomena as this may shed some light on the nature of the underlying condition, and also help to determine whether there are any forensic implications. PMID:27364276

  19. Decellularized ovine arteries as small-diameter vascular grafts.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, L; Gualerzi, A; Boschetti, F; Loy, F; Cao, G

    2014-08-01

    Atherosclerosis and its complications still represent the leading cause of death in the developed countries. While autologous blood vessels may be regarded as the best solution for peripheral and coronary bypass, they are unavailable in most patients. Even though tissue engineering techniques are often applied to the development of small-diameter vascular grafts, limiting factors of this approach are represented by the lack of essential extracellular matrix proteins and/or poor biomechanical properties of the scaffolds used. Along these lines, the aim of this study was to develop a decellularization protocol for ovine carotids to be used as suitable small-diameter vascular grafts. Samples were treated either with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) or with Trypsin and Triton X-100; a final nuclease digestion was performed for both protocols. Morphological analyses demonstrate complete removal of nuclei and cellular components in treated vessels, also confirmed by significant reduction in wall thickness and DNA content. Essential extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, elastin, and fibronectin are well preserved after decellularization. From a mechanical point of view, Trypsin and Triton X-100 treated arteries show elastic modules and compliance comparable to native carotids, whereas the use of SDS makes samples stiffer, with a significant decrease in the compliance mean value and an increase in longitudinal and circumferential Young's modules. It is demonstrated that the treatment where Trypsin and Triton X-100 are combined guarantees complete decellularization of carotids, with no significant alteration of biomechanical and structural properties, thus preserving a suitable environment for adhesion, proliferation, and migration of cells. PMID:25050540

  20. Androgen receptor and histone lysine demethylases in ovine placenta.

    PubMed

    Cleys, Ellane R; Halleran, Jennifer L; Enriquez, Vanessa A; da Silveira, Juliano C; West, Rachel C; Winger, Quinton A; Anthony, Russell V; Bruemmer, Jason E; Clay, Colin M; Bouma, Gerrit J

    2015-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones regulate developmental programming in many tissues, including programming gene expression during prenatal development. While estradiol is known to regulate placentation, little is known about the role of testosterone and androgen signaling in placental development despite the fact that testosterone rises in maternal circulation during pregnancy and in placenta-induced pregnancy disorders. We investigated the role of testosterone in placental gene expression, and focused on androgen receptor (AR). Prenatal androgenization decreased global DNA methylation in gestational day 90 placentomes, and increased placental expression of AR as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and growth. As AR complexes with histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) to regulate AR target genes in human cancers, we also investigated if the same mechanism is present in the ovine placenta. AR co-immunoprecipitated with KDM1A and KDM4D in sheep placentomes, and AR-KDM1A complexes were recruited to a half-site for androgen response element (ARE) in the promoter region of VEGFA. Androgenized ewes also had increased cotyledonary VEGFA. Finally, in human first trimester placental samples KDM1A and KDM4D immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast, with nuclear KDM1A and KDM4D immunostaining also present in the villous stroma. In conclusion, placental androgen signaling, possibly through AR-KDM complex recruitment to AREs, regulates placental VEGFA expression. AR and KDMs are also present in first trimester human placenta. Androgens appear to be an important regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, and aberrant androgen signaling may contribute to the development of placental disorders. PMID:25675430

  1. Characterization of ovine utero-placental interface tensile failure.

    PubMed

    Klinich, K D; Miller, C S; Hu, J; Samorezov, J E; Pearlman, M D; Schneider, L W; Rupp, J D

    2012-10-01

    Data on the strength of the utero-placental interface (UPI) would help improve understanding of the mechanisms of placental abruption (premature separation of the placenta from the uterus) during motor-vehicle crashes involving pregnant occupants. An ovine model was selected for study because like the human, its placenta has a villous attachment structure. Uteri with intact placentas were obtained from three sheep as by-products of another research study. The samples were harvested between 102 and 119 days of the 145-day gestational period. Rectangular specimens with areas measuring 15 mm × 5 mm were cut through the thickness of the placenta and uterus. Each subject provided eight samples, of which four were tested at a nominal strain rate of 0.10 strains/sec and the remainder was tested at a nominal strain rate of 1.0 strains/sec. Sutures were used to secure the uterine side of the specimens to the test fixture, while mechanical clamps were used to attach the placenta side. A FARO arm scanner recorded the initial geometry of the tissue, and a random dot pattern applied to the placenta and uterus tissue allowed visualization of displacement. For the structure of the UPI, mean tensile failure strain and standard deviations are 0.37 (0.11) and 0.37 (0.18) for the 0.10 and 1.0 strain rates, respectively (p-value = 0.970) while the associated failure stresses are 6.5 (1.37) and 15.0 (5.08) kPa, (p-value = 0.064). The results from sheep UPI testing provide the first estimate of the human UPI structural failure tolerance. PMID:22809672

  2. hTERT-immortalized ovine microglia propagate natural scrapie isolates.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Juan F; Schneider, David A; Baszler, Timothy V; Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M; Stanton, James B

    2015-02-16

    Ex vivo propagation of natural prion isolates (i.e., propagated solely in the natural host) is crucial for the characterization and study of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several well-established, prion-permissive cell culture systems are available; however, only a few cell lines are permissive to natural prion isolates and these cells are not pathophysiologically relevant (e.g., renal epithelium and fibroblast-like cells). Therefore, a pathophysiologically relevant cell line derived from a natural TSE host could be used for propagation of natural prion isolates. In this study, ovine brain macrophages (microglia) were immortalized by transfection with the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene to identify cell lines (hTERT-microglia) permissive to natural scrapie prion isolates. Following transfection, hTERT-microglia were passaged up to 100 times and their lifespan was significantly longer compared to parental cells (Fisher's exact test, P<0.001). Multiple sublines were permissive to cell culture-adapted prions; two sublines were also permissive to natural scrapie isolates (i.e., derived from brain homogenates of sheep infected with scrapie). Prion infectivity and partial protease resistance of the prion protein were maintained in hTERT-microglia. Comparisons between scrapie-permissive and non-permissive hTERT-microglia sublines revealed that overall quantity of the normal cellular prion protein was not associated with prion permissiveness. The use of hTERT-microglia in future TSE studies may be more germane to the characterization of the cellular and subcellular pathophysiology of natural scrapie prion isolates and to investigate host-specific factors involved in prion replication. PMID:25592246

  3. Transcriptomic Determinants of Scrapie Prion Propagation in Cultured Ovine Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Juan F.; Aguilar Pierlé, Sebastián; Schneider, David A.; Baszler, Timothy V.; Stanton, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility to infection by prions is highly dependent on the amino acid sequence and host expression of the cellular prion protein (PrPC); however, cellular expression of a genetically susceptible PrPC is insufficient. As an example, it has been shown in cultured cells that permissive and resistant sublines derived from the same parental population often have similar expression levels of PrPC. Thus, additional cellular factors must influence susceptibility to prion infection. The aim of this study was to elucidate the factors associated with relative permissiveness and resistance to scrapie prions in cultured cells derived from a naturally affected species. Two closely related ovine microglia clones with different prion susceptibility, but no detectable differences in PrPC expression levels, were inoculated with either scrapie-positive or scrapie-negative sheep brainstem homogenates. Five passages post-inoculation, the transcriptional profiles of mock and infected clones were sequenced using Illumina technology. Comparative transcriptional analyses identified twenty-two differentially transcribed genes, most of which were upregulated in poorly permissive microglia. This included genes encoding for selenoprotein P, endolysosomal proteases, and proteins involved in extracellular matrix remodeling. Furthermore, in highly permissive microglia, transforming growth factor β–induced, retinoic acid receptor response 1, and phosphoserine aminotranspherase 1 gene transcripts were upregulated. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified proteolysis, translation, and mitosis as the most affected pathways and supported the upregulation trend of several genes encoding for intracellular proteases and ribosomal proteins in poorly permissive microglia. This study identifies new genes potentially involved in scrapie prion propagation, corroborates results from other studies, and extends those results into another cell culture model. PMID:26807844

  4. Primary human chorionic gonadotropin secreting germinoma of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Chuan Aaron, Foo Song; Dawn, Chong Q. Q.; Kenneth, Chang T. E.; Hoe, Ng Wai; Yen, Soh Shui; Chee Kian, Tham

    2013-01-01

    Background: Primary intracranial germinomas are a rare subset of intracranial tumors derived from mis-incorporated germ cells within the folding neural plate during embryogenesis. Though known to arise from midline structures in the central nervous system (CNS), occurrence within the corpus callosum is exceedingly rare. Case Description: We present a rare case of secreting primary intracranial germinoma with extensive intraventricular metastasis presenting as a multi-cystic butterfly lesion in the genu of the corpus callosum in a young boy. Conclusion: Intracranial germ cell tumors must be considered for any multi-cystic lesion arising from midline structures in the CNS in the preadult population. PMID:24233184

  5. A multimodal corpus of speech to infant and adult listeners.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth K; Lahey, Mybeth; Ernestus, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2013-12-01

    An audio and video corpus of speech addressed to 28 11-month-olds is described. The corpus allows comparisons between adult speech directed toward infants, familiar adults, and unfamiliar adult addressees as well as of caregivers' word teaching strategies across word classes. Summary data show that infant-directed speech differed more from speech to unfamiliar than familiar adults, that word teaching strategies for nominals versus verbs and adjectives differed, that mothers mostly addressed infants with multi-word utterances, and that infants' vocabulary size was unrelated to speech rate, but correlated positively with predominance of continuous caregiver speech (not of isolated words) in the input. PMID:25669300

  6. [Demonstration and evolution of chorionic gonadotropin in ewes].

    PubMed

    Lacroix, M C; Martal, J

    1979-02-26

    Occurrence of ovine Chorionic Gonadotropin (oCG) is demonstrated in placenta and amniotic fluid with the use of a radioreceptor assay (corpus luteum membranes) in ewes. Identification of oCG is possible as early as 15th day of pregnancy. It should be secreted at a constant rate, and its maximum concentration is recorded on the 130th day. This hormonal factor might be one of the major components accountable for high progesteronemia observed during the 100 last days of pregnancy. PMID:110484

  7. Mechanical analysis of ovine and pediatric pulmonary artery for heart valve stent design.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, M S; Oomens, C W J; Bouten, C V C; Bogers, A J J C; Hoerstrup, S P; Baaijens, F P T

    2013-08-01

    Transcatheter heart valve replacement is an attractive and promising technique for congenital as well as acquired heart valve disease. In this procedure, the replacement valve is mounted in a stent that is expanded at the aimed valve position and fixated by clamping. However, for this technique to be appropriate for pediatric patients, the material properties of the host tissue need to be determined to design stents that can be optimized for this particular application. In this study we performed equibiaxial tensile tests on four adult ovine pulmonary artery walls and compared the outcomes with one pediatric pulmonary artery. Results show that the pediatric pulmonary artery was significantly thinner (1.06 ± 0.36 mm (mean ± SD)) than ovine tissue (2.85 ± 0.40 mm), considerably stiffer for strain values that exceed the physiological conditions (beyond 50% strain in the circumferential and 60% in the longitudinal direction), more anisotropic (with a significant difference in stiffness between the longitudinal and circumferential directions beyond 60% strain) and presented stronger non-linear stress-strain behavior at equivalent strains (beyond 26% strain) compared to ovine tissue. These discrepancies suggest that stents validated and optimized using the ovine pre-clinical model might not perform satisfactorily in pediatric patients. The material parameters derived from this study may be used to develop stent designs for both applications using computational models. PMID:23849135

  8. Characterization of ovine herpesvirus 2-induced malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a frequently fatal lymphoproliferative disease syndrome primarily of ruminant species, caused by gammaherpesviruses in the genus Macavirus. Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2),carried by sheep,causes sheep-associated MCF worldwide,while Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1)...

  9. Experimental induction of malignant catarrhal fever in pigs with ovine herpesvirus 2 by intranasal nebulization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a frequently fatal herpesviral disease, has been sporadically reported in pigs. All cases of naturally-occurring porcine MCF reported to date have been linked to ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Macavirus carried by sheep. Experimental in...

  10. Ovine Hair Follicle Stem Cells Derived from Single Vibrissae Reconstitute Haired Skin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huishan; Zhang, Shoubing; Zhao, Huashan; Qiao, Jingqiao; Liu, Shuang; Deng, Zhili; Lei, Xiaohua; Ning, Lina; Cao, Yujing; Zhao, Yong; Duan, Enkui

    2015-01-01

    Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) possess fascinating self-renewal capacity and multipotency, which play important roles in mammalian hair growth and skin wound repair. Although HFSCs from other mammalian species have been obtained, the characteristics of ovine HFSCs, as well as the methods to isolate them have not been well addressed. Here, we report an efficient strategy to obtain multipotent ovine HFSCs. Through microdissection and organ culture, we obtained keratinocytes that grew from the bulge area of vibrissa hair follicles, and even abundant keratinocytes were harvested from a single hair follicle. These bulge-derived keratinocytes are highly positive for Krt15, Krt14, Tp63, Krt19 and Itga6; in addition to their strong proliferation abilities in vitro, these keratinocytes formed new epidermis, hair follicles and sebaceous glands in skin reconstitution experiments, showing that these are HFSCs from the bulge outer root sheath. Taken together, we developed an efficient in vitro system to enrich ovine HFSCs, providing enough HFSCs for the investigations about the ovine hair cycle, aiming to promote wool production in the future. PMID:26247934

  11. Influence of Cellular Trafficking Pathway on Bluetongue Virus Infection in Ovine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Bishnupriya; Celma, Cristina C.; Roy, Polly

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), a non-enveloped arbovirus, causes hemorrhagic disease in ruminants. However, the influence of natural host cell proteins on BTV replication process is not defined. In addition to cell lysis, BTV also exits non-ovine cultured cells by non-lytic pathways mediated by nonstructural protein NS3 that interacts with virus capsid and cellular proteins belonging to calpactin and ESCRT family. The PPXY late domain motif known to recruit NEDD4 family of HECT ubiquitin E3 ligases is also highly conserved in NS3. In this study using a mixture of molecular, biochemical and microscopic techniques we have analyzed the importance of ovine cellular proteins and vesicles in BTV infection. Electron microscopic analysis of BTV infected ovine cells demonstrated close association of mature particles with intracellular vesicles. Inhibition of Multi Vesicular Body (MVB) resident lipid phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate resulted in decreased total virus titre suggesting that the vesicles might be MVBs. Proteasome mediated inhibition of ubiquitin or modification of virus lacking the PPXY in NS3 reduced virus growth. Thus, our study demonstrated that cellular components comprising of MVB and exocytic pathways proteins are involved in BTV replication in ovine cells. PMID:25984713

  12. Ovine progressive pneumonia virus is transmitted more effectively via aerosol nebulization than oral administration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new method of experimental infection of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), aerosol nebulization (Nb), was compared to intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) methods of experimental infection. Seven month old lambs were given 3.5 × 107 TCID50 of Dubois OPPV LMH19 isolate using IV, PO, or Nb methods ...

  13. Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels associate with breed and Ovar-DRB1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have suggested that host genetics influence both lung histopathology and seroprevalence in sheep infected with ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV). As a first start, a genetic association study was conducted in 383 Idaho sheep of the Columbia, Polypay and Rambouillet breeds ut...

  14. Development of cell lines from the sheep used to construct the CHORI-243 ovine BAC library

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cell lines, designated MARC.OVSM and MARC.OKF, were initiated from the aorta and kidney, respectively, obtained from the Texel ram used to make the CHORI-243 Ovine BAC library. These cell lines have been submitted to the NIA Aging Cell Repository at the Coriell Cell Respositories, Camden, NJ, U...

  15. Ovine herpesvirus 2 replicates initially in the lung of experimentally infected sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a rhadinovirus in the gammaherpesvirus subfamily, is the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), a frequently fatal lymphoproliferative disease primarily of ruminants worldwide. Inability to propagate the virus in vitro has made it diffi...

  16. Sheep (Ovis aries) airway epithelial cells support ovine herpesvirus 2 lytic replication in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we describe the development of a monospecific, polyclonal rabbit antiserum directed against the ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) major capsid protein and its use to detect lytically infected cells in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Immunofluorescent labeling using monoclonal antibodies direc...

  17. Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain PA02 Isolated from an Ovine Host in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Muge, Gabriel R. S.; Veras, Adonney A. O.; de Sá, Pablo H. C. G.; Cavalcante, Ana Lídia Queiroz; Alves, Jorianne Thyeska Castro; Morais, Ezequiel; Silva, André G. M.; Azevedo, Vasco; Folador, Adriana Ribeiro Carneiro; Silva, Artur

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain PA02 isolated from an ovine host. The genome contains 2,328,435 bp, a 52.2% G+C content, 2,035 coding sequences, 12 rRNA operons, 45 tRNAs, and 14 predicted pseudogenes. PMID:27516524

  18. Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Strain PA02 Isolated from an Ovine Host in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Muge, Gabriel R S; Veras, Adonney A O; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Cavalcante, Ana Lídia Queiroz; Alves, Jorianne Thyeska Castro; Morais, Ezequiel; Silva, André G M; Guimarães, Luís C; Azevedo, Vasco; Folador, Adriana Ribeiro Carneiro; Silva, Artur; Ramos, Rommel T J

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis strain PA02 isolated from an ovine host. The genome contains 2,328,435 bp, a 52.2% G+C content, 2,035 coding sequences, 12 rRNA operons, 45 tRNAs, and 14 predicted pseudogenes. PMID:27516524

  19. Metagenomic insights into RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, genes and biological pathways responsible for the biochemical processes in the rumen have yet to be character...

  20. Characterization of biomechanical properties of aged human and ovine mitral valve chordae tendineae.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Keping; Pham, Thuy; Li, Kewei; Martin, Caitlin; He, Zhaoming; Sun, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The mitral valve (MV) is a highly complex cardiac valve consisting of an annulus, anterior and posterior leaflets, chordae tendineae (chords) and two papillary muscles. The chordae tendineae mechanics play a pivotal role in proper MV function: the chords help maintain proper leaflet coaptation and rupture of the chordae tendineae due to disease or aging can lead to mitral valve insufficiency. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize the mechanical properties of aged human and ovine mitral chordae tendineae. The human and ovine chordal specimens were categorized by insertion location (i.e., marginal, basal and strut) and leaflet type (i.e., anterior and posterior). The results show that human and ovine chords of differing types vary largely in size but do not have significantly different elastic and failure properties. The excess fibrous tissue layers surrounding the central core of human chords added thickness to the chords but did not contribute to the overall strength of the chords. In general, the thinner marginal chords were stiffer than the thicker basal and strut chords, and the anterior chords were stiffer and weaker than the posterior chords. The human chords of all types were significantly stiffer than the corresponding ovine chords and exhibited much lower failure strains. These findings can be explained by the diminished crimp pattern of collagen fibers of the human mitral chords observed histologically. Moreover, the mechanical testing data was modeled with the nonlinear hyperelastic Ogden strain energy function to facilitate accurate computational modeling of the human MV. PMID:27315372

  1. The medial-lateral force distribution in the ovine stifle joint during walking.

    PubMed

    Taylor, William R; Poepplau, Berry M; König, Christian; Ehrig, Rainald M; Zachow, Stefan; Duda, Georg N; Heller, Markus O

    2011-04-01

    Knowledge of the load distribution in the knee is essential for understanding the interaction between mechanics and biology in both the healthy and diseased joint. While the sheep stifle joint is a predominant model for better understanding regeneration after injury, little is known about the compartmental force distribution between the medial and lateral condyles. By including sheep specific anatomy and gait analyses, we used computational musculoskeletal analyses to estimate the medial-lateral joint contact force distribution in ovine stifle joints during walking by simplifying the system of equations into a 2D problem that was solved directly. Gait analysis was conducted using bone markers in three female Merino-mix sheep. Joint contact forces were computed with respect to the specific anatomy of the ovine tibia, resulting in low (<0.13 bodyweight) mean anteroposterior shear forces throughout the gait cycle, with mean peak contact forces perpendicular to the tibial plateau of 2.2 times bodyweight. The medial-lateral compartmental load distribution across the tibial condyles was determined and revealed loading predominantly on the medial condyle, bearing approximately 75% of the total load during phases of peak loading. By considering the anatomical characteristics of the ovine stifle joint, together with the dynamic forces during gait, this study provides evidence for predominantly medial loading in sheep, somewhat similar to the distribution reported in man. However, the exact conditions under which the loading in the ovine stifle joint is representative of the human situation will need to be elucidated in further studies. PMID:20957731

  2. Tracking horizontal transmission of ovine lentivirus by quantitative PCR and envelope sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most transmission of ovine lentivirus (OvLV) occurs horizontally since in utero transmission is considered inefficient. However, there is no direct evidence that horizontal transmission occurs from unrelated ewes to other lambs/ewes or from ewes to progeny. One way to assess the source of horizont...

  3. Experimental infection of rabbits with ovine herpesvirus 2 from sheep nasal secretions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a generally fatal disease that primarily occurs in ruminants and is caused by a group of gammaherpesviruses. Outside of Africa MCF is mainly caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) which is carried subclinically by sheep. Cell-free virus is present in nasal secret...

  4. Phylogenetic clades of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) associate with sheep TMEM154 genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) is a lentivirus within the Retroviridae family that infects sheep. OPPV-induced clinical disease progresses slowly over time and manifests primarily in the lungs and central nervous system. Symptoms include weight loss, respiratory distress, and inevitably ...

  5. Development and Validation of an Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus Quantitative PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) infects at least one sheep in eighty-one percent of U.S. sheep flocks as measured by serological diagnostic tests and can cause viral-induced mastitis, arthritis, dypsnea, and cachexia. Diagnostic tests that quantify OPP proviral load in peripheral blood leu...

  6. The pathology of malignant catarrhal fever, with an emphasis on ovine herpesvirus 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enigmatic pathogenesis of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) involves dysregulated immune responses in susceptible ruminant species. Economically important outbreaks of MCF are due to two of the 10 viruses that currently comprise the malignant catarrhal fever virus group: ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-...

  7. Development of an in vivo system to measure antibody-blocking of ovine herpesvirus 2 entry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), has never been propagated in vitro. Thus, an alternative to in vitro virus neutralization is needed to assess neutralizing antibody activity to OvHV-2 in SA-MCF vaccine development. Herein we ev...

  8. Evidence of proviral clearance following postpartum transmission of an ovine lentivirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentiviral transmission by transfer of infected colostrum and/or milk is considered to be highly efficient. In this study, postpartum transmission of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) from 10 naturally infected ewes to their 23 lambs was followed from the perinatal period throughout a four y...

  9. Influence of cellular trafficking pathway on bluetongue virus infection in ovine cells.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Bishnupriya; Celma, Cristina C; Roy, Polly

    2015-05-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), a non-enveloped arbovirus, causes hemorrhagic disease in ruminants. However, the influence of natural host cell proteins on BTV replication process is not defined. In addition to cell lysis, BTV also exits non-ovine cultured cells by non-lytic pathways mediated by nonstructural protein NS3 that interacts with virus capsid and cellular proteins belonging to calpactin and ESCRT family. The PPXY late domain motif known to recruit NEDD4 family of HECT ubiquitin E3 ligases is also highly conserved in NS3. In this study using a mixture of molecular, biochemical and microscopic techniques we have analyzed the importance of ovine cellular proteins and vesicles in BTV infection. Electron microscopic analysis of BTV infected ovine cells demonstrated close association of mature particles with intracellular vesicles. Inhibition of Multi Vesicular Body (MVB) resident lipid phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate resulted in decreased total virus titre suggesting that the vesicles might be MVBs. Proteasome mediated inhibition of ubiquitin or modification of virus lacking the PPXY in NS3 reduced virus growth. Thus, our study demonstrated that cellular components comprising of MVB and exocytic pathways proteins are involved in BTV replication in ovine cells. PMID:25984713

  10. INHIBIN INCREASES AND PROGESTERONE DECREASES RECEPTORS FOR GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE IN OVINE PITUITARY CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of progesterone (P4) and inhibin on gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor number (GnRH-R) and binding affinity were investigated using ovine pituitary cells in culture. ollowing treatment with P4 or porcine inhibin, GnRH binding was analyzed using a radioligand-rece...

  11. OVINE HERPESVIRUS 2 MRNA EXPRESSION IN CATTLE AND BISON WITH MALIGNANT CATARRHAL FEVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fulminant disease of certain susceptible ruminants caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2). The characteristic lesions of MCF include lymphoproliferation, vasculitis and mucosal ulceration. The pathogenesis of these lesions is very poorly understood, but is most ...

  12. Isolation and Characterisation of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in the Ovine Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Deane, James A.; Ulrich, Daniela; Gurung, Shanti; Ong, Y. Rue; Gargett, Caroline E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) were recently discovered in the human endometrium. These cells possess key stem cell properties and show promising results in small animal models when used for preclinical tissue engineering studies. A small number of surface markers have been identified that enrich for MSC from bone marrow and human endometrium, including the Sushi Domain-containing 2 (SUSD2; W5C5) and CD271 markers. In preparation for developing a large animal preclinical model for urological and gynecological tissue engineering applications we aimed to identify and characterise MSC in ovine endometrium and determine surface markers to enable their prospective isolation. Materials and Methods Ovine endometrium was obtained from hysterectomised ewes following progesterone synchronisation, dissociated into single cell suspensions and tested for MSC surface markers and key stem cell properties. Purified stromal cells were obtained by flow cytometry sorting with CD49f and CD45 to remove epithelial cells and leukocytes respectively, and MSC properties investigated. Results There was a small population CD271+ stromal cells (4.5 ± 2.3%) in the ovine endometrium. Double labelling with CD271 and CD49f showed that the sorted CD271+CD49f- stromal cell population possessed significantly higher cloning efficiency, serial cloning capacity and a qualitative increased ability to differentiate into 4 mesodermal lineages (adipocytic, smooth muscle, chondrocytic and osteoblastic) than CD271-CD49f- cells. Immunolabelling studies identified an adventitial perivascular location for ovine endometrial CD271+ cells. Conclusion This is the first study to characterise MSC in the ovine endometrium and identify a surface marker profile identifying their location and enabling their prospective isolation. This knowledge will allow future preclinical studies with a large animal model that is well established for pelvic organ prolapse research. PMID:25992577

  13. Description of a novel viral tool to identify and quantify ovine faecal pollution in the environment.

    PubMed

    Rusiñol, Marta; Carratalà, Anna; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Bach, Alex; Kern, Anita; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Girones, Rosina; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia

    2013-08-01

    Farmed animals such as sheep, cattle, swine and poultry play an important role in microbial contamination of water, crops and food, and introduce large quantities of pathogens into the environment. The ability to determine the origin of faecal pollution in water resources is essential when establishing a robust and efficient water management system. Animal-specific viruses have previously been suggested as microbial source tracking tools, but specific ovine viral markers have not been reported before now. Previous studies have shown that polyomaviruses are host-specific, highly prevalent and are commonly excreted in urine. Furthermore, they have been reported to infect several vertebrate species but not sheep. That situation encouraged the study of a new putative ovine polyomavirus (OPyV) and its use to determine whether faecal pollution originates from ovine faecal/urine contamination. Putative OPyV DNA was amplified from ovine urine and faecal samples using a broad-spectrum nested PCR (nPCR). Specific nested PCR and quantitative PCR assays were developed and applied to faecal and environmental samples, including sheep slurries, slaughterhouse wastewater effluents, urban sewage and river water samples. Successful amplification by PCR was achieved in sheep urine samples, sheep slaughterhouse wastewater and downstream sewage effluents. The assay was specific and was negative in samples of human, bovine, goat, swine and chicken origin. Ovine faecal pollution was detected in river water samples by applying the designed methods. These results provide a quantitative tool for the analysis of OPyV as a suitable viral indicator of sheep faecal contamination that may be present in the environment. PMID:23672793

  14. Functional heterodimerization of prolactin and growth hormone receptors by ovine placental lactogen.

    PubMed

    Herman, A; Bignon, C; Daniel, N; Grosclaude, J; Gertler, A; Djiane, J

    2000-03-01

    Although homo- or heterodimerization are common mechanisms for activation of cytokine receptors, cross-talk between two distinct receptors in this superfamily has been never shown. Here we show a physiologically relevant example indicating that such an interaction does occurs, thus raising the hypothesis that heterodimerization between distinct cytokine receptors may be a novel mechanism contributing to the diversity of cytokine signaling. These findings were documented using both surface plasmon resonance and gel filtration experiments and show that ovine placental lactogen (PL) heterodimerizes the extracellular domains (ECDs) of ruminant growth hormone receptor (GHR) and prolactin receptor (PRLR). We also show that PL or PL analogues that exhibit little or no activity in cells transfected with PRLRs and no activity in cells transfected with ovine GHRs exhibit largely enhanced activity in cells cotransfected with both PRLRs and GHRs. Furthermore, chimeric receptors consisting of cytosolic and transmembrane part of ovine GHR or ovine PRLR and ECDs of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (GM-CSFR) alpha or beta were constructed. Upon transfection into Chinese hamster ovary cells along with reporter luciferase gene and stimulation by GM-CSF, a significant increase in luciferase activity occurred when GM-CSFR-alpha-PRLR and GM-CSFR-beta-GHR or GM-CSFR-alpha-GHR and GM-CSRR-beta-PRLR were cotransfected. In conclusion, we show that ovine PL is capable of functional heterodimerization of GHR and PRLR and that when their cytosolic parts, coupled to the ECD of GM-CSF receptors, are heterodimerized by GM-CSF, they are capable of transducing biological signal. PMID:10692427

  15. Corpus Callosum Differences Associated with Persistent Stuttering in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Ai Leen; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Olivero, William; Ambrose, Nicoline G.; Sharma, Harish; Chang, Soo-Eun; Loucks, Torrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated anatomical differences in speech-relevant brain regions of adults who stutter (AWS) compared to normally fluent adults (NFA). The present study focused on the region of the corpus callosum (CC) which is involved in interhemispheric processing between the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Two-dimensional…

  16. The Use of Corpus Examples for Language Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg-Garcia, Ana

    2014-01-01

    One of the many new features of English language learners' dictionaries derived from the technological developments that have taken place over recent decades is the presence of corpus-based examples to illustrate the use of words in context. However, empirical studies have generally not been able to produce conclusive evidence about their…

  17. Corpus Linguistics, Network Analysis and Co-Occurrence Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Keith; Botella, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes research undertaken in order to design a methodology for the reticular representation of knowledge of a specific discourse community. To achieve this goal, a representative corpus of the scientific production of the members of this discourse community (Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, UPV) was created. This article…

  18. Perspectives on Dichotic Listening and the Corpus Callosum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musiek, Frank E.; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The present review summarizes historic and recent research which has investigated the role of the corpus callosum in dichotic processing within the context of audiology. Examination of performance by certain clinical groups, including split brain patients, multiple sclerosis cases, and other types of neurological lesions is included. Maturational,…

  19. Parenting, corpus callosum, and executive function in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Kok, Rianne; Lucassen, Nicole; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Roza, Sabine J; Govaert, Paul; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal population-based study (N = 544), we investigated whether early parenting and corpus callosum length predict child executive function abilities at 4 years of age. The length of the corpus callosum in infancy was measured using postnatal cranial ultrasounds at 6 weeks of age. At 3 years, two aspects of parenting were observed: maternal sensitivity during a teaching task and maternal discipline style during a discipline task. Parents rated executive function problems at 4 years of age in five domains of inhibition, shifting, emotional control, working memory, and planning/organizing, using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Version. Maternal sensitivity predicted less executive function problems at preschool age. A significant interaction was found between corpus callosum length in infancy and maternal use of positive discipline to determine child inhibition problems: The association between a relatively shorter corpus callosum in infancy and child inhibition problems was reduced in children who experienced more positive discipline. Our results point to the buffering potential of positive parenting for children with biological vulnerability. PMID:24028215

  20. The Dependency Structure of Coordinate Phrases: A Corpus Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temperley, David

    2005-01-01

    Hudson (1990) proposes that each conjunct in a coordinate phrase forms dependency relations with heads or dependents outside the coordinate phrase (the "multi-head" view). This proposal is tested through corpus analysis of Wall Street Journal text. For right-branching constituents (such as direct-object NPs), a short-long preference for conjunct…

  1. Corpus callosum arteriovenous malformation with persistent trigeminal artery.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Chandan B; Devi, B Indira; Somanna, Sampath; Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Dawn, Rose

    2011-12-01

    A 13-year-old boy presented with an intracerebral haematoma secondary to a large corpus callosal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with an associated persistent trigeminal artery, and was treated with Gamma-Knife Radiosurgery for the AVM. This report discusses the embryological basis, radiological features and various classifications of this rare vascular anomaly. PMID:21501055

  2. Combining text clustering and retrieval for corpus adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Feng; Ding, Xiaoqing

    2007-01-01

    The application-relevant text data are very useful in various natural language applications. Using them can achieve significantly better performance for vocabulary selection, language modeling, which are widely employed in automatic speech recognition, intelligent input method etc. In some situations, however, the relevant data is hard to collect. Thus, the scarcity of application-relevant training text brings difficulty upon these natural language processing. In this paper, only using a small set of application specific text, by combining unsupervised text clustering and text retrieval techniques, the proposed approach can find the relevant text from unorganized large scale corpus, thereby, adapt training corpus towards the application area of interest. We use the performance of n-gram statistical language model, which is trained from the text retrieved and test on the application-specific text, to evaluate the relevance of the text acquired, accordingly, to validate the effectiveness of our corpus adaptation approach. The language models trained from the ranked text bundles present well discriminated perplexities on the application-specific text. The preliminary experiments on short message text and unorganized large corpus demonstrate the performance of the proposed methods.

  3. Touch. Talking About Non-Verbal Communication: A Corpus Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Xiaotian

    1999-01-01

    Presents the third and final report of an analysis of nonverbal communication. In this report, the phrase "touch wood" is investigated using the Bank of English Corpus. The first two phrases examined were "shrug" and "hold one's gaze." Each of these phrases relates to an aspect of communication that may hold particular difficulties for someone…

  4. Shrug! Talking About Non-Verbal Communication: A Corpus Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Xiaotin

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the phrase "shrug" is investigated using the Bank of English Corpus. The report is the first of three; the other two will focus on the phrases "hold one's gaze" and "touch wood." Each of these phrases relates to an aspect of communications that may hold particular difficulties for someone from another culture: gesture, eye contact,…

  5. Autism Traits in Individuals with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Yolanda C.; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Bukshpun, Polina; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Jeremy, Rita J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have numerous etiologies, including structural brain malformations such as agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We sought to directly measure the occurrence of autism traits in a cohort of individuals with AgCC and to investigate the neural underpinnings of this association. We screened a large AgCC cohort (n =…

  6. Corpus Callosum Anatomy in Chronically Treated and Stimulant Naive ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnoebelen, Sarah; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Pliszka, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of chronic stimulant treatment on corpus callosum (CC) size in children with ADHD using volumetric and area measurements. Previously published research indicated possible medication effects on specific areas of the CC. Method: Measurements of the CC from anatomical MRIs were obtained from children aged 9-16 in…

  7. Dative Alternation in Indian English: A Corpus-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cuypere, Ludovic; Verbeke, Saartje

    2013-01-01

    The dative alternation refers to the alternation between two constructions that denote some type of transfer: the double object construction ("I give my sister a book") vs. the to-dative construction ("I give a book to my sister"). We examined the motivations behind the dative alternation in Indian English. A corpus study was performed based on a…

  8. Semantic Associations in Business English: A Corpus-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the semantic associations of words found in the business lexical environment by using a one-million word corpus of both spoken and written Business English. The key method of analysis is that of semantic prosody or semantic association; the notion that words associate with collocates that are themselves related, often either…

  9. Corpus Consultation and Advanced Learners' Writing Skills in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Angela; O'Sullivan, Ide

    2004-01-01

    In the rapidly changing environment of language learning and teaching, electronic literacies have an increasingly important role to play. While much research on new literacies focuses on the World Wide Web, the aim in this study is to investigate the importance of corpus consultation as a new type of literacy which is of particular relevance in…

  10. A Corpus-Based Comparative Study of "Learn" and "Acquire"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    As an important yet intricate linguistic feature in English language, synonymy poses a great challenge for second language learners. Using the 100 million-word British National Corpus (BNC) as data and the software Sketch Engine (SkE) as an analyzing tool, this article compares the usage of "learn" and "acquire" used in natural…

  11. A Multidimensional Analysis of a Written L2 Spanish Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asencion-Delaney, Yuly; Collentine, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The present study adds to our understanding of how learners employ lexical and grammatical phenomena to communicate in writing in different types of interlanguage discourse. A multidimensional (factor) analysis of a corpus of L2 Spanish writing (202,241 words) generated by second- and third-year, university-level learners was performed. The…

  12. Corpus-Based Learning of Cantonese for Mandarin Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Tak-Sum; Lee, John S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the first study on using a parallel corpus to teach Cantonese, the variety of Chinese spoken in Hong Kong. We evaluated this approach with Mandarin-speaking undergraduate students at the beginner level. Exploiting their knowledge of Mandarin, a closely related language, the students studied Cantonese with authentic material…

  13. Using On-line Corpus To Facilitate Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    The potential for on-line corpus in language teaching and learning has been the focus of attention on the part of teachers and researchers for some time now. The purpose of this study is to report on an Internet-based concordance approach to language learning and to investigate both qualitatively and quantitatively Taiwanese…

  14. Corpus Callosum Morphometrics in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boger-Megiddo, Inbal; Shaw, Dennis W. W.; Friedman, Seth D.; Sparks, Bobbi F.; Artru, Alan A.; Giedd, Jay N.; Dawson, Geraldine; Dager, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed digital corpus callosum cross sectional areas in 3-4 year olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to typically developing (TD) and developmentally delayed (DD) children. Though not different in absolute size compared to TD, ASD callosums were disproportionately small adjusted for increased ASD cerebral volume. ASD…

  15. An integrated pharmacokinetics ontology and corpus for text mining

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug pharmacokinetics parameters, drug interaction parameters, and pharmacogenetics data have been unevenly collected in different databases and published extensively in the literature. Without appropriate pharmacokinetics ontology and a well annotated pharmacokinetics corpus, it will be difficult to develop text mining tools for pharmacokinetics data collection from the literature and pharmacokinetics data integration from multiple databases. Description A comprehensive pharmacokinetics ontology was constructed. It can annotate all aspects of in vitro pharmacokinetics experiments and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies. It covers all drug metabolism and transportation enzymes. Using our pharmacokinetics ontology, a PK-corpus was constructed to present four classes of pharmacokinetics abstracts: in vivo pharmacokinetics studies, in vivo pharmacogenetic studies, in vivo drug interaction studies, and in vitro drug interaction studies. A novel hierarchical three level annotation scheme was proposed and implemented to tag key terms, drug interaction sentences, and drug interaction pairs. The utility of the pharmacokinetics ontology was demonstrated by annotating three pharmacokinetics studies; and the utility of the PK-corpus was demonstrated by a drug interaction extraction text mining analysis. Conclusions The pharmacokinetics ontology annotates both in vitro pharmacokinetics experiments and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies. The PK-corpus is a highly valuable resource for the text mining of pharmacokinetics parameters and drug interactions. PMID:23374886

  16. Corpus Planning for the Southern Peruvian Quechua Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronel-Molina, Serafin M.

    1997-01-01

    The discussion of corpus planning for the Southern Quechua language variety of Peru examines issues of graphization, standardization, modernization, and renovation of Quechua in the face of increasing domination by the Spanish language. The efforts of three major groups of linguists and other scholars working on language planning in Peru, and the…

  17. Motivating College Students' Learning English for Specific Purposes Courses through Corpus Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Lin-Fang

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine how to motivate technical college students to learn English for specific purposes (ESP) courses through corpus building and enhance their language proficiency during the coursework for their majors. This study explores corpus building skills, how to simplify ESP courses by corpus building for English as second…

  18. Separating Fact and Fiction: The Real Story of Corpus Use in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates uses of corpora in language learning ("data-driven learning") through analysis of a 600K-word corpus of empirical research papers in the field. The corpus can tell us much--the authors and the countries the studies are conducted in, the types of publication, and so on. The corpus investigation itself starts with…

  19. Computer-assisted Lemmatisation of a Cornish Text Corpus for Lexicographical Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jon

    2002-01-01

    This project sets out to discover and develop techniques for the lemmatisation of a historical corpus of the Cornish language in order that a lemmatised dictionary macrostructure can be generated from the corpus. The system should be capable of uniquely identifying every lexical item that is attested in the corpus. A survey of published and…

  20. Evaluating Corpus Literacy Training for Pre-Service Language Teachers: Six Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heather, Julian; Helt, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Corpus literacy is the ability to use corpora--large, principled databases of spoken and written language--for language analysis and instruction. While linguists have emphasized the importance of corpus training in teacher preparation programs, few studies have investigated the process of initiating teachers into corpus literacy with the result…

  1. Corpus-Based Research and Pedagogy in EAP: From Lexis to Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This plenary paper showcases current corpus-based research on written academic English, illustrating the tight links that exist between corpus research and pedagogic applications. I first explicate Sinclair's concept of the "lexical approach", which underpins much corpus research and pedagogy. I then discuss studies which focus on…

  2. Development of ovine chorionic somatomammotropin hormone-deficient pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Baker, Callie M; Goetzmann, Lindsey N; Cantlon, Jeremy D; Jeckel, Kimberly M; Winger, Quinton A; Anthony, Russell V

    2016-05-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Chorionic somatomammotropin hormone (CSH), a placenta-specific secretory product found at high concentrations in maternal and fetal circulation throughout gestation, is significantly reduced in human and sheep IUGR pregnancies. The objective of this study was to knock down ovine CSH (oCSH) expression in vivo using lentiviral-mediated short-hairpin RNA to test the hypothesis that oCSH deficiency would result in IUGR of near-term fetal lambs. Three different lentiviral oCSH-targeting constructs were used and compared with pregnancies (n = 8) generated with a scrambled control (SC) lentiviral construct. Pregnancies were harvested at 135 days of gestation. The most effective targeting sequence, "target 6" (tg6; n = 8), yielded pregnancies with significant reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in oCSH mRNA (50%) and protein (38%) concentrations, as well as significant reductions (P ≤ 0.05) in placental (52%) and fetal (32%) weights compared with the SC pregnancies. Fetal liver weights were reduced 41% (P ≤ 0.05), yet fetal liver insulin-like growth factor-I (oIGF1) and -II mRNA concentrations were reduced (P ≤ 0.05) 82 and 71%, respectively, and umbilical artery oIGF1 concentrations were reduced 62% (P ≤ 0.05) in tg6 pregnancies. Additionally, fetal liver oIGF-binding protein (oIGFBP) 2 and oIGFBP3 mRNA concentrations were reduced (P ≤ 0.05), whereas fetal liver oIGFBP1 mRNA concentration was not impacted nor was maternal liver oIGF and oIGFBP mRNA concentrations or uterine artery oIGF1 concentrations (P ≥ 0.10). Based on our results, it appears that oCSH deficiency does result in IUGR, by impacting placental development as well as fetal liver development and function. PMID:26887431

  3. Formulaic Language and Collocations in German Essays: From Corpus-Driven Data to Corpus-Based Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krummes, Cedric; Ensslin, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Whereas there exists a plethora of research on collocations and formulaic language in English, this article contributes towards a somewhat less developed area: the understanding and teaching of formulaic language in German as a foreign language. It analyses formulaic sequences and collocations in German writing (corpus-driven) and provides modern…

  4. Using Google as a Super Corpus to Drive Written Language Learning: A Comparison with the British National Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Guoquan

    2010-01-01

    Data-driven learning (DDL), or corpus-based language learning, involves the learner in an exploratory task to discover appropriate expressions or collocates regarding his writing. However, the problematic units of meaning in each learner's writing are so diverse that conventional corpora often prove futile. The search engine Google with the…

  5. Human-, Ovine-, and Bovine-Specific Viral Source Tracking Tools to Discriminate Between the Major Fecal Sources in Agricultural Waters.

    PubMed

    Rusiñol, Marta; Moriarty, Elaine; Lin, Susan; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Gilpin, Brent

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the sources of fecal contamination in different river catchments, using a combination of microbial source tracking tools, for human, ruminant, ovine and bovine livestock, in order to define appropriate water management strategies. Every source of waterway pollution was evaluated in river water samples from one urban river catchment and two important farming regions in New Zealand. Fecal pollution was initially measured by testing Escherichia coli and evaluating the presence of human- and ruminant-associated DNA markers of Bacteroidales (BiAdo, BacHum-UCD, BacH, and BacR) and human and ruminant fecal sterols/stanols ratios. Then specific fecal pollution sources were assessed with previously reported quantitative PCR assays targeting human-, bovine-, and ovine-specific viruses: human adenoviruses (HAdV), human JC polyomaviruses, bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV), and ovine polyomaviruses (OPyV). High level of ruminant fecal contamination was detected all over the farming areas, whereas no ruminant sources were identified in the urban river sampling sites. BacR was the most frequently observed ruminant marker and OPyV and BPyV allowed the identification of ovine and bovine fecal sources. The human fecal viral marker (HAdV) was the most frequently observed human marker, highly abundant in the urban sites, and also present in farming areas. This is the first study using simultaneously the ovine and the bovine viral markers to identify and quantify both bovine and ovine fecal pollution. PMID:26607578

  6. Cholinergic neurotransmission in human corpus cavernosum. II. Acetylcholine synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, R.; De Tejada, S.; Goldstein, I.; Krane, R.J.; Wotiz, H.H.; Cohen, R.A. )

    1988-03-01

    Physiological and histochemical evidence indicates that cholinergic nerves may participate in mediating penile erection. Acetylcholine synthesis and release was studied in isolated human corporal tissue. Human corpus cavernosum incubated with ({sup 3}H)choline accumulated ({sup 3}H)choline and synthesized ({sup 3}H)acethylcholine in an concentration-dependent manner. ({sup 3}H)Acetylcholine accumulation by the tissue was inhibited by hemicholinium-3, a specific antagonist of the high-affinity choline transport in cholinergic nerves. Transmural electrical field stimulation caused release of ({sup 3}H)acetylcholine which was significantly diminished by inhibiting neurotransmission with calcium-free physiological salt solution or tetrodotoxin. These observations provide biochemical and physiological evidence for the existence of cholinergic innervation in human corpus cavernosum.

  7. Frequency of Basic English Grammatical Structures: A Corpus Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Douglas; Dick, Frederic; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Many recent models of language comprehension have stressed the role of distributional frequencies in determining the relative accessibility or ease of processing associated with a particular lexical item or sentence structure. However, there exist relatively few comprehensive analyses of structural frequencies, and little consideration has been given to the appropriateness of using any particular set of corpus frequencies in modeling human language. We provide a comprehensive set of structural frequencies for a variety of written and spoken corpora, focusing on structures that have played a critical role in debates on normal psycholinguistics, aphasia, and child language acquisition, and compare our results with those from several recent papers to illustrate the implications and limitations of using corpus data in psycholinguistic research. PMID:19668599

  8. Isolation and morphological characterization of ovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yunyun; Tao, Li; Zhao, Siriguleng; Tai, Dapeng; Liu, Dongjun; Liu, Pengxia

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the most promising cell populations for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Of utmost importance to MSC research is identification of MSC sources that are easily obtainable and stable. Several studies have shown that MSCs can be isolated from amniotic fluid. The sheep is one of the main types of farm animal, and it has many biophysical and biochemical similarities to humans. Here, we obtained MSCs from ovine amniotic fluid and determined the expansion capacity, surface and intracellular marker expression, karyotype, and multilineage differentiation ability of these ovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (oAF-MSCs). Moreover, expression levels of differentiation markers were measured using reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR). Our phenotypic analysis shows that the isolated oAF-MSCs are indeed MSCs. PMID:26616638

  9. A specific radioimmunoassay for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) using synthetic ovine CRF. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, K.; Murakami, K.; Ohno, N.; Kageyama, J.; Aoki, Y.; Takahara, J.; Ota, Z.

    1983-02-28

    This newly developed specific radioimmunoassay for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) had a sensitivity range of 25 pg/tube to 4 ng/tube. Intra and interassay coefficients of variation were 4.6% and 9.8%, respectively. Rat median eminence extracts showed a parallel dose response curve with synthetic ovine CRF and a significant cross reaction was not evident with other tested neuropeptides. The highest mean levels of CRF were found in the median eminence (6.61 ng/mg proparaventricular nucleus, dorsomedial nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus and ventromedial nucleus. The immunoreactive CRF of the rat medial basal hypothalamus coeluted with bioassayable CRF and with iodinated CRF on Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The results indicate that rat hypothalamus contains a CRF similar to ovine CRF.

  10. Synthesis of a high molecular weight thyroglobulin dimer by two ovine thyroid cell lines: the OVNIS.

    PubMed

    Hovsépian, S; Aouani, A; Fayet, G

    1986-05-01

    The OVNIS 6H and 5H thyroid cells, 2 permanent cell lines isolated 3 years ago from ovine tissue, synthesize a high molecular weight glycosylated protein, immunologically related to ovine thyroglobulin, which is similar to the prothyroid hormone dimer (17-19) S: thyroglobulin. Using sucrose gradient centrifugation and cell labelling with [14C]Leu or [3H]GlNH2, radioactivity was observed in proteins purified from cell layers and from cell culture media. Addition of thyrotropin to or removal from the media resulted respectively in an increase (+773%) or decrease (-1090%) of the total radioactivity detected in the (17-19)S thyroglobulin fraction. Estimation of thyroglobulin by RIA gave similar though less pronounced effects. These experiments prove (1) that thyroglobulin is still expressed in these OVNIS thyroid cell lines even after 3 years of permanent culture, (2) that TSH modulates the level of this protein through a TSH-receptor functional system. PMID:3709961

  11. Molecular epidemiology of Mannheimia haemolytica and Mannheimia glucosida associated with ovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Omaleki, Lida; Browning, Glenn F; Allen, Joanne L; Barber, Stuart R

    2012-07-01

    While Mannheimia haemolytica and Mannheimia glucosida have been recognized as causes of intramammary infection in sheep, there has been no investigation of the epidemiology of the strains involved. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was used to study the molecular epidemiology of isolates of these 2 species associated with ovine mastitis. Ten distinct strains were recognized among 12 M. haemolytica isolates, and 7 distinct strains among 13 M. glucosida isolates. The results demonstrate a high diversity of isolates with the ability to cause ovine mastitis. However, the presence of some identical isolates may suggest the possibility of horizontal transmission of these species in some flocks, possibly through lamb sucking, and/or differences in the capacity of some isolates to cause mastitis in sheep. PMID:22621951

  12. Corpus annotation for mining biomedical events from literature

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Dong; Ohta, Tomoko; Tsujii, Jun'ichi

    2008-01-01

    Background Advanced Text Mining (TM) such as semantic enrichment of papers, event or relation extraction, and intelligent Question Answering have increasingly attracted attention in the bio-medical domain. For such attempts to succeed, text annotation from the biological point of view is indispensable. However, due to the complexity of the task, semantic annotation has never been tried on a large scale, apart from relatively simple term annotation. Results We have completed a new type of semantic annotation, event annotation, which is an addition to the existing annotations in the GENIA corpus. The corpus has already been annotated with POS (Parts of Speech), syntactic trees, terms, etc. The new annotation was made on half of the GENIA corpus, consisting of 1,000 Medline abstracts. It contains 9,372 sentences in which 36,114 events are identified. The major challenges during event annotation were (1) to design a scheme of annotation which meets specific requirements of text annotation, (2) to achieve biology-oriented annotation which reflect biologists' interpretation of text, and (3) to ensure the homogeneity of annotation quality across annotators. To meet these challenges, we introduced new concepts such as Single-facet Annotation and Semantic Typing, which have collectively contributed to successful completion of a large scale annotation. Conclusion The resulting event-annotated corpus is the largest and one of the best in quality among similar annotation efforts. We expect it to become a valuable resource for NLP (Natural Language Processing)-based TM in the bio-medical domain. PMID:18182099

  13. Anterior commissure versus corpus callosum: A quantitative comparison across mammals.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2016-04-01

    Mammals rely on two major pathways to transfer information between the two hemispheres of the brain: the anterior commissure and the corpus callosum. Metatheria and monotremes rely exclusively on the anterior commissure for interhemispheric transfer between the isocortices and olfactory allocortices of each side, whereas Eutheria use a combination of the anterior commissure and an additional pathway exclusive to Eutheria, the corpus callosum. Midline cross-sectional area of the anterior commissure and corpus callosum were measured in a range of mammals from all three infraclasses and plotted against brain volume to determine how midline anterior commissure area and its size relative to the corpus callosum vary with brain size and taxon. In Metatheria, the square root of anterior commissure area rises in almost direct proportion with the cube root of brain volume (i.e. the ratio of the two is relatively constant), whereas among Eutheria the ratio of the square root of anterior commissure area to the cube root of brain volume declines slightly with increasing brain size. The total of isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissure area rises more rapidly with increasing brain volume among Eutheria than among Metatheria. This means that the midline isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area of metatherians with large brains (about 70 ml) is only about 50% of that among eutherians with similarly sized brains. On the other hand, isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area is similar in Metatheria and Eutheria at brain volumes around 1 ml. Among the Eutheria, some groups make less use of the anterior commissure pathway than do others: soricomorphs, rodents and cetaceans have smaller anterior commissures for their brain size than do afrosoricids, erinaceomorphs and proboscideans. The findings suggest that use of the anterior commissural route for isocortical commissural connections may have placed limitations on interhemispheric transfer of

  14. Anaphoric relations in the clinical narrative: corpus creation

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Wendy W; Zheng, Jiaping; Crowley, Rebecca S

    2011-01-01

    Objective The long-term goal of this work is the automated discovery of anaphoric relations from the clinical narrative. The creation of a gold standard set from a cross-institutional corpus of clinical notes and high-level characteristics of that gold standard are described. Methods A standard methodology for annotation guideline development, gold standard annotations, and inter-annotator agreement (IAA) was used. Results The gold standard annotations resulted in 7214 markables, 5992 pairs, and 1304 chains. Each report averaged 40 anaphoric markables, 33 pairs, and seven chains. The overall IAA is high on the Mayo dataset (0.6607), and moderate on the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) dataset (0.4072). The IAA between each annotator and the gold standard is high (Mayo: 0.7669, 0.7697, and 0.9021; UPMC: 0.6753 and 0.7138). These results imply a quality corpus feasible for system development. They also suggest the complementary nature of the annotations performed by the experts and the importance of an annotator team with diverse knowledge backgrounds. Limitations Only one of the annotators had the linguistic background necessary for annotation of the linguistic attributes. The overall generalizability of the guidelines will be further strengthened by annotations of data from additional sites. This will increase the overall corpus size and the representation of each relation type. Conclusion The first step toward the development of an anaphoric relation resolver as part of a comprehensive natural language processing system geared specifically for the clinical narrative in the electronic medical record is described. The deidentified annotated corpus will be available to researchers. PMID:21459927

  15. Development and Implementation of a Corriedale Ovine Brain Atlas for Use in Atlas-Based Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Steward, Christopher; Moffat, Bradford Armstrong; Opie, Nicholas Lachlan; Rind, Gil Simon; John, Sam Emmanuel; Ronayne, Stephen; May, Clive Newton; O’Brien, Terence John; Milne, Marjorie Eileen; Oxley, Thomas James

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation is the process of partitioning an image into subdivisions and can be applied to medical images to isolate anatomical or pathological areas for further analysis. This process can be done manually or automated by the use of image processing computer packages. Atlas-based segmentation automates this process by the use of a pre-labelled template and a registration algorithm. We developed an ovine brain atlas that can be used as a model for neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease and focal epilepsy. 17 female Corriedale ovine brains were imaged in-vivo in a 1.5T (low-resolution) MRI scanner. 13 of the low-resolution images were combined using a template construction algorithm to form a low-resolution template. The template was labelled to form an atlas and tested by comparing manual with atlas-based segmentations against the remaining four low-resolution images. The comparisons were in the form of similarity metrics used in previous segmentation research. Dice Similarity Coefficients were utilised to determine the degree of overlap between eight independent, manual and atlas-based segmentations, with values ranging from 0 (no overlap) to 1 (complete overlap). For 7 of these 8 segmented areas, we achieved a Dice Similarity Coefficient of 0.5–0.8. The amygdala was difficult to segment due to its variable location and similar intensity to surrounding tissues resulting in Dice Coefficients of 0.0–0.2. We developed a low resolution ovine brain atlas with eight clinically relevant areas labelled. This brain atlas performed comparably to prior human atlases described in the literature and to intra-observer error providing an atlas that can be used to guide further research using ovine brains as a model and is hosted online for public access. PMID:27285947

  16. Conformational changes of ovine α-1-proteinase inhibitor: The influence of heparin binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Gowda, Lalitha R.

    2008-11-01

    α-1-Proteinase inhibitor (α-1-PI), the archetypal serpin causes rapid, irreversible stoichiometric inhibition of redundant circulating serine proteases and is associated with emphysema, inflammatory response and maintenance of protease-inhibitor equilibrium in vascular and peri-vascular spaces. A homogenous preparation of heparin octasaccharide binds to ovine and human α-1-PI and enhances their protease inhibitory activity phenomenally. Size-exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering experiments reveal that ovine α-1-PI undergoes a decrease in the Stokes' radius upon heparin binding. A strong binding; characterizes this α-1-PI-heparin interaction as revealed by the binding constant ( Kα) 1.98 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M and 2.1 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M determined by fluorescence spectroscopy and equilibrium dialysis, respectively. The stoichiometry of heparin binding to ovine α-1-PI was 1.1 ± 0.2:1. The Stern-Volmer constants ( Ksv) for heparin activated ovine and human α-1-PI were found to be 5.13 × 10 -6 M and 5.67 × 10 -6 M, respectively, significantly higher than the native inhibitors. FTIR and CD spectroscopy project the systematic structural reorientations that α-1-PI undergoes upon heparin binding characterized by a decrease in α-helical content and a concomitant increase in β-turn and random coil elements. It is likely that these conformational changes result in the movement of the α-1-PI reactive site loop into an extended structure that is better poised to combat the cognate protease and accelerate the inhibition.

  17. Developmental Expression and Glucocorticoid Control of the Leptin Receptor in Fetal Ovine Lung.

    PubMed

    De Blasio, Miles J; Boije, Maria; Vaughan, Owen R; Bernstein, Brett S; Davies, Katie L; Plein, Alice; Kempster, Sarah L; Smith, Gordon C S; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Blache, Dominique; Wooding, F B Peter; Giussani, Dino A; Fowden, Abigail L; Forhead, Alison J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of endogenous and synthetic glucocorticoids on fetal lung maturation are well-established, although the role of leptin in lung development before birth is unclear. This study examined mRNA and protein levels of the signalling long-form leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) in fetal ovine lungs towards term, and after experimental manipulation of glucocorticoid levels in utero by fetal cortisol infusion or maternal dexamethasone treatment. In fetal ovine lungs, Ob-Rb protein was localised to bronchiolar epithelium, bronchial cartilage, vascular endothelium, alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes. Pulmonary Ob-Rb mRNA abundance increased between 100 (0.69 fractional gestational age) and 144 days (0.99) of gestation, and by 2-4-fold in response to fetal cortisol infusion and maternal dexamethasone treatment. In contrast, pulmonary Ob-Rb protein levels decreased near term and were halved by glucocorticoid treatment, without any significant change in phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) at Ser727, total STAT3 or the pulmonary pSTAT3:STAT3 ratio. Leptin mRNA was undetectable in fetal ovine lungs at the gestational ages studied. These findings demonstrate differential control of pulmonary Ob-Rb transcript abundance and protein translation, and/or post-translational processing, by glucocorticoids in utero. Localisation of Ob-Rb in the fetal ovine lungs, including alveolar type II pneumocytes, suggests a role for leptin signalling in the control of lung growth and maturation before birth. PMID:26287800

  18. Comparison of mechanical and ultrasound elastic modulus of ovine tibial cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Grant, Caroline A; Wilson, Lance J; Langton, Christian; Epari, Devakar

    2014-07-01

    Finite element models of bones can be created by deriving geometry from an X-ray CT scan. Material properties such as the elastic modulus can then be applied using either a single or set of homogeneous values, or individual elements can have local values mapped onto them. Values for the elastic modulus can be derived from the CT density values using an elasticity versus density relationship. Many elasticity-density relationships have been reported in the literature for human bone. However, while ovine in vivo models are common in orthopaedic research, no work has been done to date on creating FE models of ovine bones. To create these models and apply relevant material properties, an ovine elasticity-density relationship needs to be determined. Using fresh frozen ovine tibias the apparent density of regions of interest was determined from a clinical CT scan. The bones were the sectioned into cuboid samples of cortical bone from the regions of interest. Ultrasound was used to determine the elastic modulus in each of three directions - longitudinally, radially and tangentially. Samples then underwent traditional compression testing in each direction. The relationships between apparent density and both ultrasound, and compression modulus in each direction were determined. Ultrasound testing was found to be a highly repeatable non-destructive method of calculating the elastic modulus, particularly suited to samples of this size. The elasticity-density relationships determined in the longitudinal direction were very similar between the compression and ultrasound data over the density range examined. A clear difference was seen in the elastic modulus between the longitudinal and transverse directions of the bone samples, and a transverse elasticity-density relationship is also reported. PMID:24793408

  19. Myofiber angle distributions in the ovine left ventricle do not conform to computationally optimized predictions

    PubMed Central

    Ennis, Daniel B.; Nguyen, Tom C.; Riboh, Jonathan C.; Wigström, Lars; Harrington, Katherine B.; Daughters, George T.; Ingels, Neil B.; Miller, D. Craig

    2008-01-01

    Recent computational models of optimized left ventricular (LV) myofiber geometry that minimize the spatial variance in sarcomere length, stress, and ATP consumption have predicted that a midwall myofiber angle of 20° and transmural myofiber angle gradient of 140° from epicardium to endocardium is a functionally optimal LV myofiber geometry. In order to test the extent to which actual fiber angle distributions conform to this prediction, we measured local myofiber angles at an average of nine transmural depths in each of 32 sites (4 short-axis levels, 8 circumferentially distributed blocks in each level) in five normal ovine LVs. We found: 1) a mean midwall myofiber angle of −7° (SD 9), but with spatial heterogeneity (averaging 0° in the posterolateral and anterolateral wall near the papillary muscles, and −9° in all other regions); and 2) an average transmural gradient of 93° (SD 21), but with spatial heterogeneity (averaging a low of 51° in the basal posterior sector and a high of 130° in the mid-equatorial anterolateral sector). We conclude that midwall myofiber angles and transmural myofiber angle gradients in the ovine heart are regionally non-uniform and differ significantly from the predictions of present-day computationally optimized LV myofiber models. Myofiber geometry in the ovine heart may differ from other species, but model assumptions also underlie the discrepancy between experimental and computational results. To test of the predictive capability of the current computational model would we propose using an ovine specific LV geometry and comparing the computed myofiber orientations to those we report herein. PMID:18805536

  20. Identification of the ovine mannose receptor and its possible role in Visna/Maedi virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the mannose receptor (MR) gene in sheep and its role in ovine visna/maedi virus (VMV) infection. The deduced amino acid sequence of ovine MR was compatible with a transmembrane protein having a cysteine-rich ricin-type amino-terminal region, a fibronectin type II repeat, eight tandem C-type lectin carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD), a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal tail. The ovine and bovine MR sequences were closer to each other compared to human or swine MR. Concanavalin A (ConA) inhibited VMV productive infection, which was restored by mannan totally in ovine skin fibroblasts (OSF) and partially in blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMDM), suggesting the involvement of mannosylated residues of the VMV ENV protein in the process. ConA impaired also syncytium formation in OSF transfected with an ENV-encoding pN3-plasmid. MR transcripts were found in two common SRLV targets, BMDM and synovial membrane (GSM) cells, but not in OSF. Viral infection of BMDM and especially GSM cells was inhibited by mannan, strongly suggesting that in these cells the MR is an important route of infection involving VMV Env mannosylated residues. Thus, at least three patterns of viral entry into SRLV-target cells can be proposed, involving mainly MR in GSM cells (target in SRLV-induced arthritis), MR in addition to an alternative route in BMDM (target in SRLV infections), and an alternative route excluding MR in OSF (target in cell culture). Different routes of SRLV infection may thus coexist related to the involvement of MR differential expression. PMID:21314911

  1. Regional Variation in Tissue Composition and Biomechanical Properties of Postmenopausal Ovine and Human Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Daniela; Edwards, Sharon L.; Letouzey, Vincent; Su, Kai; White, Jacinta F.; Rosamilia, Anna; Gargett, Caroline E.; Werkmeister, Jerome A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There are increasing numbers of reports describing human vaginal tissue composition in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to compare ovine and human posterior vaginal tissue in terms of histological and biochemical tissue composition and to assess passive biomechanical properties of ovine vagina to further characterise this animal model for pelvic organ prolapse research. Study Design Vaginal tissue was collected from ovariectomised sheep (n = 6) and from postmenopausal women (n = 7) from the proximal, middle and distal thirds. Tissue histology was analyzed using Masson's Trichrome staining; total collagen was quantified by hydroxyproline assays, collagen III/I+III ratios by delayed reduction SDS PAGE, glycosaminoglycans by dimethylmethylene blue assay, and elastic tissue associated proteins (ETAP) by amino acid analysis. Young's modulus, maximum stress/strain, and permanent strain following cyclic loading were determined in ovine vagina. Results Both sheep and human vaginal tissue showed comparable tissue composition. Ovine vaginal tissue showed significantly higher total collagen and glycosaminoglycan values (p<0.05) nearest the cervix. No significant differences were found along the length of the human vagina for collagen, GAG or ETAP content. The proximal region was the stiffest (Young's modulus, p<0.05), strongest (maximum stress, p<0.05) compared to distal region, and most elastic (permanent strain). Conclusion Sheep tissue composition and mechanical properties showed regional differences along the postmenopausal vaginal wall not apparent in human vagina, although the absolute content of proteins were similar. Knowledge of this baseline variation in the composition and mechanical properties of the vaginal wall will assist future studies using sheep as a model for vaginal surgery. PMID:25148261

  2. Development and Implementation of a Corriedale Ovine Brain Atlas for Use in Atlas-Based Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Liyanage, Kishan Andre; Steward, Christopher; Moffat, Bradford Armstrong; Opie, Nicholas Lachlan; Rind, Gil Simon; John, Sam Emmanuel; Ronayne, Stephen; May, Clive Newton; O'Brien, Terence John; Milne, Marjorie Eileen; Oxley, Thomas James

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation is the process of partitioning an image into subdivisions and can be applied to medical images to isolate anatomical or pathological areas for further analysis. This process can be done manually or automated by the use of image processing computer packages. Atlas-based segmentation automates this process by the use of a pre-labelled template and a registration algorithm. We developed an ovine brain atlas that can be used as a model for neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease and focal epilepsy. 17 female Corriedale ovine brains were imaged in-vivo in a 1.5T (low-resolution) MRI scanner. 13 of the low-resolution images were combined using a template construction algorithm to form a low-resolution template. The template was labelled to form an atlas and tested by comparing manual with atlas-based segmentations against the remaining four low-resolution images. The comparisons were in the form of similarity metrics used in previous segmentation research. Dice Similarity Coefficients were utilised to determine the degree of overlap between eight independent, manual and atlas-based segmentations, with values ranging from 0 (no overlap) to 1 (complete overlap). For 7 of these 8 segmented areas, we achieved a Dice Similarity Coefficient of 0.5-0.8. The amygdala was difficult to segment due to its variable location and similar intensity to surrounding tissues resulting in Dice Coefficients of 0.0-0.2. We developed a low resolution ovine brain atlas with eight clinically relevant areas labelled. This brain atlas performed comparably to prior human atlases described in the literature and to intra-observer error providing an atlas that can be used to guide further research using ovine brains as a model and is hosted online for public access. PMID:27285947

  3. Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.

    PubMed

    Akhondi, Saber A; Klenner, Alexander G; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A R P; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org. PMID:25268232

  4. Corpus callosotomy: some aspects of its microsurgical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves Ferreira, A J; Farias, J P; Carvalho, M H; Melancia, J; Miguéns, J

    1995-01-01

    Corpus callosotomy was reported for the first time by Dandy in 1922 and developed by Van Wagenen and Herren in 1940, but only Wilson in 1975 started performing it with a microsurgical technique. Its indications have remained controversial for a long time, but during the last years new interest has been raised concerning callosotomy as a treatment for some kinds of generalized epilepsy or as route to the anterior ventricular system. The microsurgical anatomy of the corpus callosum has therefore regained interest. With this goal in mind, the authors studied some aspects of the microsurgical anatomy of the corpus callosum, namely its dimensions, variability and topography, as well as the transcallosal access to the deep interfrontal region and to the third ventricle. This study was carried out on 30 normal adult brains, obtained from routine autopsies, that were submitted to a special preparation procedure and dissected with microsurgical technique. The main aspects of the operating features, the measurements made and the variation in the different parameters are described. Some references are proposed respecting the extent of anterior partial and subtotal callosotomy. PMID:8916335

  5. Ovine luteinizing hormone heterogeneity: androgens increase the percentage of less basic isohormones.

    PubMed

    Christianson, S L; Zalesky, D D; Grotjan, H E

    1998-03-01

    The heterogeneity of luteinizing (LH) is hormonally regulated with androgens having been reported to increase the percentage of extremely basic LH isohormones in the ovine pituitary. This study re-examined the effects of androgens on the heterogeneity of LH in the ovine pituitary because the extremely basic isoforms of LH reported previously were subsequently demonstrated to be artifacts resulting from the conditions used for chromatofocusing. Pituitary extracts from wethers, rams, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-implanted wethers were desalted by flow dialysis and chromatofocused on pH 10.5 to 7.0 gradients. LH was quantitated by radioimmunoassays. When compared with rams, wethers had increased percentages of LH isoforms eluting between pH 9.6 and 10. Patterns of intrapituitary LH isohormones were comparable in rams and DHT-implanted wethers except that rams had a higher percentage of LH eluting at pH 9.2 (20.9 +/- 2.1% vs. 13.3 +/- 1.3%). In contrast to what was previously reported, rams and DHT-implanted wethers had higher percentages of ovine LH isoforms eluting at pH's 9.4 or lower. Thus, androgens alter LH heterogeneity yielding increased percentages of isohormones eluting at pH's of 9.4 or lower. PMID:9532422

  6. Increasing fetal ovine number per gestation alters fetal plasma clinical chemistry values.

    PubMed

    Zywicki, Micaela; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2016-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose. To determine fetal plasma biochemical values in singleton, twin, triplet, and quadruplet/quintuplet ovine gestation, we investigated morphometric measures and comprehensive metabolic panels with nutritional measures, liver enzymes, and placental and fetal kidney excretory measures at gestational day (GD) 130 (90% gestation). As anticipated, placental dysfunction was supported by a stepwise fall in fetal weight, fetal plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels as fetal number per ewe rose. Fetal glucose and triglycerides were directly related to fetal weight. Plasma creatinine, reflecting fetal renal excretory function, and plasma cholesterol, reflecting placental excretory function, were inversely correlated with fetal weight. Progressive biochemical disturbances and growth restriction accompanied the rise in fetal number. Understanding the compensatory and adaptive responses of growth-restricted fetuses at the biochemical level may help explain how metabolic pathways in growth restriction can be predetermined at birth. This physiological understanding is important for clinical care and generating interventional strategies to prevent altered developmental programming in multifetal gestation. PMID:27565903

  7. Evaluation of experimental vaccines for bovine viral diarrhea in bovines, ovines and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández, F; Costantini, V; Barrandeguy, M; Parreño, V; Schiappacassi, G; Maliandi, F; Leunda, M; Odeón, A

    2009-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection control should be based on elimination of persistently infected animals and on immunization through vaccination, to prevent fetal infection. However, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. This study evaluated the humoral immune response against homologous and heterologous strains of 7 inactivated BVDV vaccines, in bovines and two experimental models (ovine and guinea pig) which might be used to test candidate vaccines. Vaccines formulated with BVDV Singer, Oregon, NADL, and multivalent, induced seroconversion in the three animal models studied, reaching antibody titres higher than 2. Vaccine containing 125C -genotype 2- only induced a low antibody response in ovine, while VS-115 NCP vaccine was not immunogenic. Furthermore, bovine sera at 60 dpv presented homologous as well as heterologous antibody response, indicating a high degree of cross-reactivity among the strains studied. However, when bovine sera were tested against the Argentine field strain 00-693, they showed the lowest levels of cross-reactivity, suggesting the need of continued surveillance to identify and characterize emerging field BVDV strains. Finally, optimal correlations between bovine-ovine and bovine-guinea pig models were observed, indicating that two alternative species could replace bovines when testing the immunogenicity of BVDV candidate vaccines. PMID:19623897

  8. Large-scale preparation and characterization of non-pegylated and pegylated superactive ovine leptin antagonist.

    PubMed

    Niv-Spector, Leonora; Shpilman, Michal; Boisclair, Yves; Gertler, Arieh

    2012-02-01

    Superactive ovine leptin antagonist (SOLA) was prepared by rational mutagenesis of the ovine leptin antagonist L39A/D40A/F41A mutant prepared previously in our lab by mutating wild type leptin to D23L/L39A/D40A/F41A. SOLA was expressed in Escherichia coli as insoluble inclusion bodies, refolded and purified to homogeneity (as evidenced by SDS-PAGE and analytical gel filtration) by ion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was mono-pegylated at its N terminus by 20-kDa linear pegylation reagent. The D23L mutation resulted in ca. 5- to 6-fold increased affinity toward soluble human leptin binding domain and 6- to 8-fold increased inhibitory activity in two different in vitro bioassays. This increase was similar, though not identical, to our previous results with superactive mouse and human leptin antagonists. Pegylation decreased overall activity by 5- to 8-fold, but as shown previously for superactive mouse leptin antagonist, the prolonged half life in the circulation will likely result in higher activity in vivo. As amino acids 6-31 (VQDDTKTLIKTIVTRINDISHTQSVS), making up a main part of the first α-helix, are identical in human, mouse, rat, ovine, bovine and pig leptins, we anticipate that D23L mutations of the respective leptins will result in similar increases in affinity and consequent activity of other leptin antagonists. PMID:22040607

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of ovine IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta.

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, A E; Barcham, G J; Brandon, M R; Nash, A D

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a cytokine with a wide range of effects on a variety of cell types. By hybridization with human IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta cDNA probes, the corresponding ovine cDNAs were isolated from a stimulated alveolar macrophage cDNA library. The sequences of these cDNAs showed that ovine IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta encode proteins of 268 and 266 amino acids, respectively, with both the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showing a high degree of homology with their human, mouse and bovine equivalents. In a mammalian COS cell-expression system these cDNAs produced biologically active IL-1. Further experiments demonstrated the importance of sequences within the 3' untranslated portion of the cDNAs in determining the level of expression of these molecules. The analysis of expression of IL-1 alpha- and IL-1 beta-specific mRNA in response to endotoxin, phorbol myristic acid (PMA) or PMA plus ionomycin revealed a distinct pattern of differential regulation of the two genes. From genomic analysis both IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta appear to exist as single copies in the ovine genome. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1769692

  10. Effect of variation in ovine WFIKKN2 on growth traits appears to be gender-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiqing; Zhou, Huitong; Fang, Qian; Liu, Xiu; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G. H.

    2015-01-01

    WFIKKN2 may play a role in the regulation of muscle growth and development, but to date there have been no reports on the effect of variation in WFIKKN2 on growth and carcass traits in livestock. In this study, the effect of variation in ovine WFIKKN2 was investigated in 800 New Zealand Romney lambs (395 male and 405 female), with five previously described variants (A to E) being identified. Variation in ovine WFIKKN2 was not found to affect various growth traits in the female lambs, but the presence of variant B was associated (P < 0.05) with decreased birth weight, tailing weight, weaning weight and pre-weaning growth rate; and increased post-weaning growth rate in male lambs. In male lambs, the presence of variant B was associated (P < 0.05) with an increased shoulder yield and proportion shoulder yield. No associations with growth or carcass traits were detected for the presence (or absence) of the other variants. These results suggest that variation in ovine WFIKKN2 may have a differential effect on growth in male and female lambs, and hence that the gene may be expressed in, or act in, a gender-specific fashion. PMID:26197924

  11. COMPARISON OF BIAXIAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CORONARY SINUS TISSUES FROM PORCINE, OVINE AND AGED HUMAN SPECIES

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thuy; Sun, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Due to its proximity to the mitral valve, the coronary sinus (CS) vessel serves as a conduit for the deployment and implantation of the percutaneous transvenous mitral annuloplasty (PTMA) devices that can potentially reduce the mitral regurgitation. Because CS vessel is a venous tissue and seldom diseased, its mechanical properties have not been well studied. In this study, we performed the multi-axial mechanical test and histological analysis to characterize the mechanical and structural properties of the aged human, porcine and ovine CS tissues. The results showed that the aged human CS tissues exhibited much stiffer and highly anisotropic behaviors compared to the porcine and ovine. Both of the porcine and ovine CS vessel walls were thicker and mainly composed of striated muscle fibers (SMF), whereas the thinner aged human CS had higher collagen, lesser SMF, and more fragmented elastin fibers, which are possibly due to the aging effects. We also observed that the anatomical features of porcine CS vessel might be not suitable for the PTMA deployment. These differences between animal and human models raise questions for the validity of using animal models to investigate the biomechanics involved in the PTMA intervention. Therefore, caution must be taken in future studies of PTMA stents using animal models. PMID:22301170

  12. The effects of Ostertagia occidentalis somatic antigens on ovine TLR2 and TLR4 expression

    PubMed Central

    BORJI, Hassan; HAGHPARAST, Alireza; SOLEIMANI, Nooshinmehr; AZIZZADEH, Mohammad; NAZEMSHIRAZI, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recognition of helminth-derived pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including toll like receptors (TLRs) is the first step towards initiating anti–helminth immune responses. Methods : Using somatic antigens of Ostertagia occidentalis, an important abomasal parasite of ruminants, the expression of ovine TLR2 and TLR4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was analyzed by real-time quatitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis were prepared to stimulate ovine PBMCs in a time and dose dependent manner. Results : A high expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was observed in PBMCs cultured with somatic antigens of the parasites specially when PBMCs were cultured with 100 µg/ml of somatic antigens and incubated for 2h. Up-regulation of TLR2 expression was more pronounced and evident in our study. Conclsusion : Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis have immunostimulatory and dominant role on peripheral immune cells. This study provide for the first time evidence of induction of TLRs in ovine PBMCs by somatic antigen of O. occidentalis PMID:26622306

  13. Whole ovine ovaries as a model for human: perfusion with cryoprotectants in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Isachenko, Vladimir; Rahimi, Gohar; Dattena, Maria; Mallmann, Peter; Baikoshkarova, Saltanat; Kellerwessel, Elisabeth; Otarbaev, Marat; Shalakhmetova, Tamara; Isachenko, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    These experiments were performed to test the perfusion of ovine as a model for human ovaries by cryoprotectants in vivo at high temperature when the permeability of capillaries is high and when blood is insensibly replaced by the solution of cryoprotectants. By our hypothetical supposition, ovaries could be saturated by cryoprotectants before their surgical removal. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of perfusion of ovine ovaries with vascular pedicle in vivo and in vitro. Arteria ovarica was cannuled and ovaries were perfused by Leibovitz L-15 medium + 100 IU/mL heparin + 5% bovine calf serum + 6% dimethyl sulfoxide + 6% ethylene glycol + 0.15 M sucrose + Indian ink in vivo and in vitro. In the first and second cycle of experiments, ovaries (n = 13 and n = 23) were perfused in vivo and in vitro, respectively, during 60 min with the rate of perfusion 50 mL/h (0.8 mL/min). It was established with in vivo perfusion that only about 10% of ovarian tissues were perfused due to an appearance of multiple anastomoses when the perfusion medium goes from arteria ovarica to arteria uterina without inflow into the ovaries. It was concluded that in vitro perfusion of ovine intact ovaries with vascular pedicle by freezing medium is more effective than this manipulation performed in vivo. PMID:24701576

  14. Effect of variation in ovine WFIKKN2 on growth traits appears to be gender-dependent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiqing; Zhou, Huitong; Fang, Qian; Liu, Xiu; Luo, Yuzhu; Hickford, Jon G H

    2015-01-01

    WFIKKN2 may play a role in the regulation of muscle growth and development, but to date there have been no reports on the effect of variation in WFIKKN2 on growth and carcass traits in livestock. In this study, the effect of variation in ovine WFIKKN2 was investigated in 800 New Zealand Romney lambs (395 male and 405 female), with five previously described variants (A to E) being identified. Variation in ovine WFIKKN2 was not found to affect various growth traits in the female lambs, but the presence of variant B was associated (P < 0.05) with decreased birth weight, tailing weight, weaning weight and pre-weaning growth rate; and increased post-weaning growth rate in male lambs. In male lambs, the presence of variant B was associated (P < 0.05) with an increased shoulder yield and proportion shoulder yield. No associations with growth or carcass traits were detected for the presence (or absence) of the other variants. These results suggest that variation in ovine WFIKKN2 may have a differential effect on growth in male and female lambs, and hence that the gene may be expressed in, or act in, a gender-specific fashion. PMID:26197924

  15. An Integration of Corpus-Based and Genre-Based Approaches to Text Analysis in Eap/esp: Countering Criticisms against Corpus-Based Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, L.

    2005-01-01

    In the past few years, several corpus-based studies have been carried out which either explicitly in some cases, but more subtly in others, draw on aspects of genre theory for their analyses. The purpose of this paper is to review those corpus studies which specifically draw on either the English for Specific Purposes (following the Swales…

  16. [The pathways of glucose catabolism in Tenebrio molitor: the effects of fasting and the injection of the corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex].

    PubMed

    Gourdoux, L

    1975-01-01

    In the adult of Tenebrio molitor (Coleopterous) the pentose cycle is greatly used for the glucose degradation: starvation or injection of corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex alter this metabolic orientation : the pentose pathway is decreased and the glucose itself is less utilized. PMID:129268

  17. Recent Developments in Corpus Linguistics and Corpus-Based Research/Department of Linguistics and Modern Language Studies at the Hong Kong Institute of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has transformed the landscape of empirical research on languages in recent decades. The proliferation of corpus technology has enabled researchers worldwide to conduct research in their own geographical locations with few hindrances. It has become increasingly commonplace for researchers to compile their own corpora for specific…

  18. Co-expression of ovine LPS receptor CD14 with Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin receptor LFA-1 or Mac-1 does not enhance leukotoxin-induced cytotoxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leukotoxin (Lkt) and LPS are the major virulence determinants of Mannheimia haemolytica that contribute to the pathogenesis of bovine and ovine pneumonic pasteurellosis. We have previously identified bovine and ovine CD18 as the functional receptor for Lkt. LPS complexes with Lkt resulting in incre...

  19. Incidence of infection in 39-month-old ewes with TMEM154 diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3" after natural exposure to ovine progressive pneumonia virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production and well-being of sheep and goats in many countries are harmfully impacted by small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) that cause incurable, progressive diseases. Susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), the North American form of SRLV, is influenced by variants of the ovine...

  20. Biosynthesis of lutropin in ovine pituitary slices: incorporation of (/sup 35/S)sulfate in carbohydrate units

    SciTech Connect

    Anumula, K.R.; Bahl, O.P.

    1983-02-01

    Sulfate incorporation into carbohydrate of lutropin (LH) has been studied in sheep pituitary slices using H/sub 2/(/sup 35/)SO/sub 4/. Labeled ovine LH was purified to homogeneity by Sephadex G-100 and carboxymethyl-Sephadex chromatography from both the incubation medium and tissue extract. Autoradiography of the gel showed only two protein bands which comigrated with the alpha and beta subunits of ovine LH in both the purified ovine LH and the immunoprecipitate obtained with LH-specific rabbit antiserum. Furthermore, (/sup 35/S)sulfate was also incorporated into several other proteins in addition to LH. The location of /sup 35/SO/sub 2-(4)/ in the oligosaccharides of ovine LH was evidenced by its presence in the glycopeptides obtained by exhaustive Pronase digestion. The location and the point of attachment of sulfate in the carbohydrate unit were established by the isolation of 4-O-(/sup 35/S)sulfo-N-acetylhexosaminyl-glycerols and 4-O-(/sup 35/S) sulfo-N-acetylglucosaminitol from the Smith degradation products and by the release of /sup 35/SO/sub 2-(4)/ by chondro-4-sulfatase. Thus, the present line of experimentation indicates the presence of sulfate on both the terminal N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine in the oligosaccharide chains of the labeled ovine LH.

  1. Difference between smokers and non-smokers in the corpus callosum volume.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Hyun; Lee, Su-Jeong; Yang, Jae-Woong; Kim, Ji-Hye; Choi, Jin-Seung; Park, Jang-Yeon; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Tack, Gye-Rae; Lee, Beob-Yi; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2010-11-12

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of smoking on corpus callosum volume. In addition, the relationships between smoking duration, smoking frequency, and corpus callosum volume were analyzed. Magnetic resonance brain images were acquired for 58 normal Korean men (30 smokers (age 32.82±14.12 years) and 28 non-smokers (age 35.49±13.11 years)). The corpus callosum volume was measured using Brain Voyager 2000S/W and was normalized by intracranical volume, which was calculated using cerebral sizes. The corpus callosum volume for smokers was significantly smaller than that for non-smokers. Also, there was a negative correlation between corpus callosum volume and smoking duration. The change of white matter volume (e.g., corpus callosum) might be a primary factor for characterizing the effects of smoking. PMID:20804817

  2. A Study of Applicability of SNP Chips Developed for Bovine and Ovine Species to Whole-Genome Analysis of Reindeer Rangifer tarandus.

    PubMed

    Kharzinova, Veronika R; Sermyagin, Alexander A; Gladyr, Elena A; Okhlopkov, Innokentiy M; Brem, Gottfried; Zinovieva, Natalia A

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of commercially available single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for cattle (BovineSNP50 BeadChip) and sheep (OvineSNP50 BeadChip) have been trialed for whole-genome analysis of 4 female samples of Rangifer tarandus inhabiting Russia. We found out that 43.0% of bovine and 47.0% of Ovine SNPs could be genotyped, while only 5.3% and 2.03% of them were respectively polymorphic. The scored and the polymorphic SNPs were identified on each bovine and each ovine chromosome, but their distribution was not unique. The maximal value of runs of homozygosity (ROH) was 30.93Mb (for SNPs corresponding to bovine chromosome 8) and 80.32Mb (for SNPs corresponding to ovine chromosome 7). Thus, the SNP chips developed for bovine and ovine species can be used as a powerful tool for genome analysis in reindeer R. tarandus. PMID:26447215

  3. Lipoma of corpus callosum associated with dysraphic lesions and trisomy 13

    SciTech Connect

    Wainwright, H.; Bowen, R.; Radcliffe, M.

    1995-05-22

    We report on a further case of corpus callosal lipoma and frontal cranial defects. Most cases in the literature of corpus callosal lipoma in association with {open_quotes}dysraphic{close_quotes} lesions have been frontal in location. Malformation of the corpus callosum is said to be associated with 50% of these lipomas. Trisomy 13 was confirmed by the 13q14 cosmid probe on paraffin-embedded liver tissue. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Construction of an annotated corpus to support biomedical information extraction

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Paul; Iqbal, Syed A; McNaught, John; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Background Information Extraction (IE) is a component of text mining that facilitates knowledge discovery by automatically locating instances of interesting biomedical events from huge document collections. As events are usually centred on verbs and nominalised verbs, understanding the syntactic and semantic behaviour of these words is highly important. Corpora annotated with information concerning this behaviour can constitute a valuable resource in the training of IE components and resources. Results We have defined a new scheme for annotating sentence-bound gene regulation events, centred on both verbs and nominalised verbs. For each event instance, all participants (arguments) in the same sentence are identified and assigned a semantic role from a rich set of 13 roles tailored to biomedical research articles, together with a biological concept type linked to the Gene Regulation Ontology. To our knowledge, our scheme is unique within the biomedical field in terms of the range of event arguments identified. Using the scheme, we have created the Gene Regulation Event Corpus (GREC), consisting of 240 MEDLINE abstracts, in which events relating to gene regulation and expression have been annotated by biologists. A novel method of evaluating various different facets of the annotation task showed that average inter-annotator agreement rates fall within the range of 66% - 90%. Conclusion The GREC is a unique resource within the biomedical field, in that it annotates not only core relationships between entities, but also a range of other important details about these relationships, e.g., location, temporal, manner and environmental conditions. As such, it is specifically designed to support bio-specific tool and resource development. It has already been used to acquire semantic frames for inclusion within the BioLexicon (a lexical, terminological resource to aid biomedical text mining). Initial experiments have also shown that the corpus may viably be used to train IE

  5. Facial emotion recognition in agenesis of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired social functioning is a common symptom of individuals with developmental disruptions in callosal connectivity. Among these developmental conditions, agenesis of the corpus callosum provides the most extreme and clearly identifiable example of callosal disconnection. To date, deficits in nonliteral language comprehension, humor, theory of mind, and social reasoning have been documented in agenesis of the corpus callosum. Here, we examined a basic social ability as yet not investigated in this population: recognition of facial emotion and its association with social gaze. Methods Nine individuals with callosal agenesis and nine matched controls completed four tasks involving emotional faces: emotion recognition from upright and inverted faces, gender recognition, and passive viewing. Eye-tracking data were collected concurrently on all four tasks and analyzed according to designated facial regions of interest. Results Individuals with callosal agenesis exhibited impairments in recognizing emotions from upright faces, in particular lower accuracy for fear and anger, and these impairments were directly associated with diminished attention to the eye region. The callosal agenesis group exhibited greater consistency in emotion recognition across conditions (upright vs. inverted), with poorest performance for fear identification in both conditions. The callosal agenesis group also had atypical facial scanning (lower fractional dwell time in the eye region) during gender naming and passive viewing of faces, but they did not differ from controls on gender naming performance. The pattern of results did not differ when taking into account full-scale intelligence quotient or presence of autism spectrum symptoms. Conclusions Agenesis of the corpus callosum results in a pattern of atypical facial scanning characterized by diminished attention to the eyes. This pattern suggests that reduced callosal connectivity may contribute to the development and

  6. Unsupervised Chunking Based on Graph Propagation from Bilingual Corpus

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Lidia S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for unsupervised shallow parsing model trained on the unannotated Chinese text of parallel Chinese-English corpus. In this approach, no information of the Chinese side is applied. The exploitation of graph-based label propagation for bilingual knowledge transfer, along with an application of using the projected labels as features in unsupervised model, contributes to a better performance. The experimental comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms show that the proposed approach is able to achieve impressive higher accuracy in terms of F-score. PMID:24772017

  7. Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome with agenesis of corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shubhankar; Agarwalla, Sunil Kumar; Potpalle, Dnyaneshwar Ramesh; Dash, Nishant Nilotpal

    2015-01-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare genetic disorder with characteristic morphological anomaly. Our patient was a 4.5-year-old girl came with features like broad thumbs, downward slanting palpebral fissures and mental retardation. Systemic abnormalities such as repeated infection, seizure with developmental delay were also associated with it. She was having head banging behavior abnormal slurring speech, incoordination while transferring things from one hand to other. Galaxy of clinical pictures and magnetic resonance imaging report helped to clinch the diagnosis as a case of "RSTS with corpus callosal agenesis" which to the best of our knowledge has never been reported in past from India. PMID:26167229

  8. Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome with agenesis of corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shubhankar; Agarwalla, Sunil Kumar; Potpalle, Dnyaneshwar Ramesh; Dash, Nishant Nilotpal

    2015-01-01

    Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare genetic disorder with characteristic morphological anomaly. Our patient was a 4.5-year-old girl came with features like broad thumbs, downward slanting palpebral fissures and mental retardation. Systemic abnormalities such as repeated infection, seizure with developmental delay were also associated with it. She was having head banging behavior abnormal slurring speech, incoordination while transferring things from one hand to other. Galaxy of clinical pictures and magnetic resonance imaging report helped to clinch the diagnosis as a case of “RSTS with corpus callosal agenesis” which to the best of our knowledge has never been reported in past from India. PMID:26167229

  9. Platelet Activation in Ovines Undergoing Sham Surgery or Implant of the Second Generation PediaFlow™ Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Carl A.; Wearden, Peter D.; Kocyildirim, Ergin; Maul, Timothy M.; Woolley, Joshua R.; Ye, Sang-Ho; Strickler, Elise M.; Borovetz, Harvey S.; Wagner, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The PediaFlow™ pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) is a magnetically levitated turbodynamic pump under development for circulatory support of small children with a targeted flow rate range of 0.3 - 1.5 L/min. As the design of this device is refined, ensuring high levels of blood biocompatibility is essential. In this study we characterized platelet activation during the implantation and operation of a second generation prototype of the PediaFlow VAD (PF2) and also performed a series of surgical sham studies to examine purely surgical effects on platelet activation. In addition, a newly available monoclonal antibody was characterized and shown to be capable of quantifying ovine platelet activation. The PF2 was implanted in 3 chronic ovine experiments of 16, 30, and 70 days, while surgical sham procedures were performed in 5 ovines with 30 d monitoring. Blood biocompatibility in terms of circulating activated platelets was measured by flow cytometric assays with and without exogenous agonist stimulation. Platelet activation following sham surgery returned to baseline in approximately 2 weeks. Platelets in PF2 implanted ovines returned to baseline activation levels in all three animals, and showed an ability to respond to agonist stimulation. Late term platelet activation was observed in one animal corresponding with unexpected pump stoppages related to a manufacturing defect in the percutaneous cable. The results demonstrated encouraging platelet biocompatibility for the PF2 in that basal platelet activation was achieved early in the pump implant period. Furthermore, this first characterization of the effect of a major cardiothoracic procedure on temporal ovine platelet activation provides comparative data for future cardiovascular device evaluation in the ovine model. PMID:21463346

  10. Verbal learning and memory in agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Roger L; Paul, Lynn K; Brown, Warren S

    2014-07-01

    The role of interhemispheric interactions in the encoding, retention, and retrieval of verbal memory can be clarified by assessing individuals with complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), but who have normal intelligence. This study assessed verbal learning and memory in AgCC using the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II). Twenty-six individuals with AgCC were compared to 24 matched controls on CVLT-II measures, as well as Donders׳ four CVLT-II factors (i.e., Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory, and Inaccurate Memory). Individuals with AgCC performed significantly below healthy controls on the Delayed Memory factor, confirmed by significant deficits in short and long delayed free recall and cued recall. They also performed less well in original learning. Deficient performance by individuals with AgCC during learning trials, as well as deficits in all forms of delayed memory, suggest that the corpus callosum facilitates interhemispheric elaboration and encoding of verbal information. PMID:24933663

  11. A human language corpus for interstellar message construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John

    2011-02-01

    The aim of HuLCC (the human language chorus corpus), is to provide a resource of sufficient size to facilitate inter-language analysis by incorporating languages from all the major language families: for the first time all aspects of typology will be incorporated within a single corpus, adhering to a consistent grammatical classification and granularity, which historically adopt a plethora of disparate schemes. An added feature will be the inclusion of a common text element, which will be translated across all languages, to provide a precise comparable thread for detailed linguistic analysis for translation strategies and a mechanism by which these mappings can be explicitly achieved. Methods developed to solve unambiguous mappings across these languages can then be adopted for any subsequent message authored by the SETI community. Initially, it is planned to provide at least 20,000 words for each chosen language, as this amount of text exceeds the point where randomly generated text can be disambiguated from natural language and is of sufficient size useful for message transmission [1] (Elliot, 2002). This paper details the design of this resource, which ultimately will be made available to SETI upon its completion, and discusses issues 'core' to any message construction.

  12. The history of nephrology in the Talmudic corpus.

    PubMed

    Dvorjetski, Estée

    2002-07-01

    The kidneys, the bladder and nephrology in general were discussed in the Talmudic literature from their anatomical, pathological and philological aspects. The Sages' deliberations were based on the Biblical texts. The characteristic phraseology of the scriptures uses the kidneys as symbols of the human emotions, contrary to the heart, which is regarded as the location of wisdom. The kidney is considered to be the individual's seat of their deepest desires--perhaps because it is an "internal" organ, well hidden, surrounded by a capsule and by a layer of perinephric fat. The Talmudic corpus considers the kidneys to be the origin of secret counsels--"the kidneys advise". An injury to the kidneys is used symbolically as an example of a cruel and serious injury. The sages were concerned with nephrological problems such as a diseased kidney of small size, fluid and pus in the kidney, injuries, perforations and more. Fascinating advice is given regarding micturition, its timing, characteristics and significance. The Halakhah is concerned with the kidneys during the examination of an animal after slaughter for the fitness for its ritual consumption. The paper presents various nephrological diseases from the Talmudic corpus. Among them are, for example, "Tzemirtha"--urolithiasis; "Hydrakon"--hydronephrosis; "Suskhinta"--urinary retention; "Tzinit"--podagra, gout, and "Yerakon"--icterus. A survey of some Talmudic personalities will exemplify the existence of these conditions. PMID:12097728

  13. Interpretations of the Healer's Touch in the Hippocratic Corpus.

    PubMed

    Kosak, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses gender as an aspect of the role of touch in the relationship between doctors and patients, as represented in the Hippocratic Corpus. Touch is an essential aspect of the ancient doctor's art, but one potentially fraught with concerns over gender: while seeing, hearing, and smelling are also central to the medical encounter, touching is the act that places the greatest demands on the privacy and bodily integrity of the patient. This paper shows--perhaps counterintuitively--that, despite the multiple assertions of gender differences put forward by the authors of the Hippocratic Corpus, these authors make little distinction between touching male and female patients. At the same time, the paper argues that ancient physicians were anxious to avoid the charge that they were harming their patients when they touched them. It demonstrates that male doctors, sensitive as they were to the problems posed by their interactions with female patients, were challenged in different ways when engaging in intimate contact with male patients. PMID:26946680

  14. Leptin Matures Aspects of Lung Structure and Function in the Ovine Fetus.

    PubMed

    De Blasio, Miles J; Boije, Maria; Kempster, Sarah L; Smith, Gordon C S; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Denyer, Alice; Hughes, Alexandra; Wooding, F B Peter; Blache, Dominique; Fowden, Abigail L; Forhead, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    In human and ovine fetuses, glucocorticoids stimulate leptin secretion, although the extent to which leptin mediates the maturational effects of glucocorticoids on pulmonary development is unclear. This study investigated the effects of leptin administration on indices of lung structure and function before birth. Chronically catheterized singleton sheep fetuses were infused iv for 5 days with either saline or recombinant ovine leptin (0.5 mg/kg · d leptin (LEP), 0.5 LEP or 1.0 mg/kg · d, 1.0 LEP) from 125 days of gestation (term ∼145 d). Over the infusion, leptin administration increased plasma leptin, but not cortisol, concentrations. On the fifth day of infusion, 0.5 LEP reduced alveolar wall thickness and increased the volume at closing pressure of the pressure-volume deflation curve, interalveolar septal elastin content, secondary septal crest density, and the mRNA abundance of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) and surfactant protein (SP) B. Neither treatment influenced static lung compliance, maximal lung volume at 40 cmH2O, lung compartment volumes, alveolar surface area, pulmonary glycogen, protein content of the long form signaling Ob-Rb or phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription-3, or mRNA levels of SP-A, C, or D, elastin, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, angiotensin-converting enzyme, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, or parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Leptin administration in the ovine fetus during late gestation promotes aspects of lung maturation, including up-regulation of SP-B. PMID:26479186

  15. Leptin Matures Aspects of Lung Structure and Function in the Ovine Fetus

    PubMed Central

    De Blasio, Miles J.; Boije, Maria; Kempster, Sarah L.; Smith, Gordon C. S.; Charnock-Jones, D. Stephen; Denyer, Alice; Hughes, Alexandra; Wooding, F. B. Peter; Blache, Dominique; Fowden, Abigail L.

    2016-01-01

    In human and ovine fetuses, glucocorticoids stimulate leptin secretion, although the extent to which leptin mediates the maturational effects of glucocorticoids on pulmonary development is unclear. This study investigated the effects of leptin administration on indices of lung structure and function before birth. Chronically catheterized singleton sheep fetuses were infused iv for 5 days with either saline or recombinant ovine leptin (0.5 mg/kg · d leptin (LEP), 0.5 LEP or 1.0 mg/kg · d, 1.0 LEP) from 125 days of gestation (term ∼145 d). Over the infusion, leptin administration increased plasma leptin, but not cortisol, concentrations. On the fifth day of infusion, 0.5 LEP reduced alveolar wall thickness and increased the volume at closing pressure of the pressure-volume deflation curve, interalveolar septal elastin content, secondary septal crest density, and the mRNA abundance of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) and surfactant protein (SP) B. Neither treatment influenced static lung compliance, maximal lung volume at 40 cmH2O, lung compartment volumes, alveolar surface area, pulmonary glycogen, protein content of the long form signaling Ob-Rb or phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription-3, or mRNA levels of SP-A, C, or D, elastin, vascular endothelial growth factor-A, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, angiotensin-converting enzyme, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, or parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Leptin administration in the ovine fetus during late gestation promotes aspects of lung maturation, including up-regulation of SP-B. PMID:26479186

  16. Ovine aquaporin-2: cDNA cloning, ontogeny and control of renal gene expression.

    PubMed

    Butkus, A; Earnest, L; Jeyaseelan, K; Moritz, K; Johnston, H; Tenis, N; Wintour, E M

    1999-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the relative insensitivity of the ovine fetal kidney to arginine vasopressin (AVP) is due to low levels of expression of the gene for aquaporin-2 (AQP2) which encodes the AVP-regulated water channel. We report the cloning of the cDNA for the ovine AQP2 which has a major transcript at 4.2 kilobases (kb) and a minor transcript at 1.5 kb, resembling the human gene transcripts. At 40-60 days' (term = 145-150 days'), mRNA levels are very low, detectable only by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). By Northern blot analysis AQP2 mRNA is detectable at 75 days'. The ratio of AQP2/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA increases approximately 2.4-fold between 100 and 140 days' when it is about 41% of adult values. Both glucocorticoids and the renin-angiotensin system are involved in maturation of renal function. When fetuses at 75 or 85 days of gestation were exposed to high levels of dexamethasone for 2-3 days, mRNAs for both GAPDH and AQP2 doubled, but the ratio was unchanged. Angiotensin I, infused for 3 days at 115-120 days' gestation, increased the AQP2/GAPDH mRNA ratios by twofold (major transcript) and sixfold (minor transcript), which were highly significant (P<0.001). The increasing sensitivity of the ovine fetal kidney to AVP, from 100-140 days of gestation, is largely due to increasing AQP2 gene expression over this period. PMID:10412857

  17. Ovine tendon collagen: Extraction, characterisation and fabrication of thin films for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Fauzi, M B; Lokanathan, Y; Aminuddin, B S; Ruszymah, B H I; Chowdhury, S R

    2016-11-01

    Collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) protein in the human body, thus widely used in tissue engineering and subsequent clinical applications. This study aimed to extract collagen from ovine (Ovis aries) Achilles tendon (OTC), and to evaluate its physicochemical properties and its potential to fabricate thin film with collagen fibrils in a random or aligned orientation. Acid-solubilized protein was extracted from ovine Achilles tendon using 0.35M acetic acid, and 80% of extracted protein was measured as collagen. SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of alpha 1 and alpha 2 chain of collagen type I (col I). Further analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirms the presence of triple helix structure of col I, similar to commercially available rat tail col I. Drying the OTC solution at 37°C resulted in formation of a thin film with randomly orientated collagen fibrils (random collagen film; RCF). Introduction of unidirectional mechanical intervention using a platform rocker prior to drying facilitated the fabrication of a film with aligned orientation of collagen fibril (aligned collagen film; ACF). It was shown that both RCF and ACF significantly enhanced human dermal fibroblast (HDF) attachment and proliferation than that on plastic surface. Moreover, cells were distributed randomly on RCF, but aligned with the direction of mechanical intervention on ACF. In conclusion, ovine tendon could be an alternative source of col I to fabricate scaffold for tissue engineering applications. PMID:27524008

  18. Performance of blue-yellow screening test for antimicrobial detection in ovine milk.

    PubMed

    Linage, B; Gonzalo, C; Carriedo, J A; Asensio, J A; Blanco, M A; De La Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F

    2007-12-01

    Drug residues in milk are important because of public health and industrial implications. The detection limits of 25 antimicrobial agents were determined by the blue-yellow screening method in ovine milk. For each drug, 8 concentrations were tested on 20 ovine milk samples from individual ewes in midlactation. Detection limits determined by means of logistic regression were below European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRL) for penicillin G (3 to 4 microg/kg), ceftiofur (96 to 107 microg/kg), framycetin (720 to 781 microg/kg), neomycin (915 to 1,084 microg/kg), and tylosin (44 to 51 microg/kg). Detection limits for ampicillin (5 to 6 microg/kg), cloxacillin (33 to 42 microg/kg), cefoperazone (73 to 82 microg/kg), cefalexin (160 to 202 microg/kg), gentamycin (355 to 382 microg/kg), streptomycin (3,063 to 3,593 microg/kg), tilmicosin (109 to 131 microg/kg), erythromycin (444 to 522 microg/kg), spyramicin (1,106 to 1,346 microg/kg), sulfadimethoxine (101 to 119 microg/kg), sulfathiazole (122 to 151 microg/kg), sulfamethazine (309 to 328 microg/kg), sulfanilamide (1,750 to 2,674 microg/kg), tetracycline (233 to 257 microg/kg), oxytetracycline (398 to 501 microg/kg), doxycycline (323 to 419 microg/kg), chlortetracycline (3,331 to 3,989 microg/kg), danofloxacin (4.7 to 5.5 mg/kg), enrofloxacin (41 to 46 mg/kg), and flumequin (63 to 71 mg/kg) were higher than the EU-MRL. Although the blue-yellow method showed improved sensitivity compared with other tests studied in ovine milk, the performance of screening methods for detecting antimicrobial agents in milk of this species should be improved. PMID:18024727

  19. Effect of diet on microRNA expression in ovine subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Meale, S J; Romao, J M; He, M L; Chaves, A V; McAllister, T A; Guan, L L

    2014-08-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that regulate ovine adipogenesis is very limited. MicroRNAs (miRNA) have been reported as one of the regulatory mechanisms of adipogenesis. This study aimed to compare the expression of miRNA related to ovine adipogenesis in different adipose depots and to investigate whether their expression is affected by dietary fatty acid composition. We also investigated the role of miRNA in adipogenic gene regulation. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples were collected at slaughter from 12 Canadian Arcott lambs fed a barley-based finishing diet where an algae meal (DHA-Gold; Schizochytrium spp.) replaced flax oil and barley grain at 0 or 3% DM (n = 6). Total RNA from each tissue was subjected to quantitative real time (qRT-) PCR analysis to determine the expression of 15 selected miRNA including 11 identified from bovine adipose tissues and 4 conserved between bovine and ovine species. MicroRNAs were differentially expressed according to diet in each tissue depot (miR-142-5p and miR-376d) in visceral and miR-142-5p, miR-92a, and miR-378 in subcutaneous adipose tissue; P ≤ 0.05) and in each tissue depot depending on diet (miR-101, miR-106, miR-136, miR-16b, miR-196a-1, miR-2368*, miR-2454, miR-296, miR-376d, miR-378, and miR-92a in both control and DHA-G diets and miR-478 in control; P ≤ 0.05). Six miRNA were subjected to functional analysis and 3 genes of interest (ACSL1, PPARα, and C/EBPα) were validated by qRT-PCR. Both diet and tissue depot affected expression levels of all 3 genes (P < 0.05). miR-101, miR-106, and miR-136 were negatively correlated with their respective predicted gene targets C/EBPα, PPARα, and ACSL1 in subcutaneous adipose tissue of lambs fed DHA-G. Yet miR-142-5p and miR-101 showed no correlation with ACSL1 or C/EBPα. The variability in expression patterns of miRNA across adipose depots reflects the tissue specific nature of adipogenic regulation. Although the examined miRNA appear to be

  20. Age, scrapie status, PrP genotype and follicular dendritic cells in ovine ileal Peyer's patches.

    PubMed

    Marruchella, Giuseppe; Ligios, Ciriaco; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2012-10-01

    Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) residing within ileal Peyer's patches (PPs) are of crucial relevance for sheep scrapie early pathogenesis and subsequent scrapie prion neuroinvasion. In this study, ileal PP follicles were significantly more numerous in lambs than in adult Sarda breed sheep, with significant differences being also found in lymphoid follicle area, perimeter and FDC density. Furthermore, PrPd deposition within ileal PPs and host's PrP genotype did not significantly influence these parameters. We conclude that age significantly affects FDC density in ileal PPs from Sarda breed ovines, independently from host's scrapie status and PrP genotype. PMID:21962485

  1. Epidemiological surveillance of ovine hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina, 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Gonzalo, Roberto; Pérez, Héctor; Aparici, Inés; Soto, Ximena; Guerrero, Juvenal; Cerrone, Gloria; Elissondo, Celina

    2006-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis is the most prevalent zoonosis in Tierra del Fuego province, Argentina, with important economic, productive and public health consequences. The present work was performed to determine the ovine prevalence in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, as well as to evaluate the quality of diagnostic systems in slaughterhouses. Moreover, genetic analyses to characterize the strain of Echinococcus granulosus involved in the region were done. The first actions to perform a diagnosis of the epidemiological situation of hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego were done between 1976 and 1977. A canine prevalence of 80% and an ovine prevalence of 55% results were obtained. Since 1979 the control program of Hydatidosis of Tierra del Fuego was implemented. It was based on semiannual canine anthelmintic treatment with praziquantel at dose of 5mg/kg, and complemented with sanitary education and canine and ovine epidemiological surveillance. During May 1997-January 1999: 5,916 sheep coming from 20 farms of the programmatic area were evaluated. In the lamb category, hydatid cysts were not found. In the adults category, 62 infected animals were found (3.2%). The ovine prevalence was 1.1% and there was 100% of coincidence between diagnosis in the slaughterhouse, re-inspection in the laboratory and histopathological study. The marked decrease in the prevalence observed for sheep infection evidenced a destabilization of the biological cycle of the parasite. This could be explained by the application of a control program with uninterrupted systematic actions. Polymerase chain reaction-ribosomal ITS-1 DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were used to characterize E. granulosus isolates collected from different regions of Tierra del Fuego to determine which genotypes occurred in this region. The results revealed the presence of the G1 genotype (sheep-dog strain

  2. TSH-induced cyclic AMP production in an ovine thyroid cell line: OVNIS 5H.

    PubMed

    Fayet, G; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

    1986-01-01

    The TSH-induced cyclic AMP response was studied using a 3-year-old ovine thyroid cell line TSH-independent for growth: OVNIS 5H. The kinetics of cyclic AMP production was followed both in cell layers and in cell culture media, with or without phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is noteworthy that following the first wave in cyclic AMP obtained within minutes, we observed later a sustained exponential increase in cyclic AMP during the 5 days following TSH stimulation. A bioassay of TSH was derived allowing measurement of 1 microU/ml TSH from a crude bTSH preparation. PMID:3000830

  3. The Use of Corpus Concordancing for Second Language Learners' Self Error-Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Hui-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Corpus concordancing has been utilized in second language (L2) writing classrooms for a few decades. Some studies have shown that this application is helpful, to a certain degree, to learners' writing process. However, how corpus concordancing is utilized for nonnative speakers' (NNSs) self error-correction in writing, especially the…

  4. Formulaic Language in Native and Second Language Speakers: Psycholinguistics, Corpus Linguistics, and TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.; Simpson-Vlach, Rita; Maynard, Carson

    2008-01-01

    Natural language makes considerable use of recurrent formulaic patterns of words. This article triangulates the construct of "formula" from corpus linguistic, psycholinguistic, and educational perspectives. It describes the corpus linguistic extraction of pedagogically useful formulaic sequences for academic speech and writing. It determines…

  5. A Corpus-Based Approach to Online Materials Development for Writing Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ching-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hua

    2011-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the possible applications of corpora to both linguistic research and pedagogy. This study takes a corpus-based, genre-analytic approach to discipline-specific materials development. Combining corpus analysis with genre analysis makes it possible to develop teaching materials that are not only authentic but…

  6. Verb-Noun Collocations in Second Language Writing: A Corpus Analysis of Learners' English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laufer, Batia; Waldman, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the use of English verb-noun collocations in the writing of native speakers of Hebrew at three proficiency levels. For this purpose, we compiled a learner corpus that consists of about 300,000 words of argumentative and descriptive essays. For comparison purposes, we selected LOCNESS, a corpus of young adult native…

  7. A Corpus-Based View of Lexical Gender in Written Business English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A.

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates lexical gender in specialized communication. The key method of analysis is that of forms of address, professional titles, and "generic man" in a 10 million word corpus of written Business English. After a brief introduction and literature review on both gender in specialized communication and similar corpus-based views of…

  8. Corpus Callosum and Prefrontal Functions in Adolescents with History of Very Preterm Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narberhaus, Ana; Segarra, Dolors; Caldu, Xavier; Gimenez, Monica; Pueyo, Roser; Botet, Francesc; Junque, Carme

    2008-01-01

    Very preterm (VPT) birth can account for thinning of the corpus callosum and poorer cognitive performance. Research findings about preterm and VPT adolescents usually describe a small posterior corpus callosum, although our research group has also found reductions of the anterior part, specifically the genu. The aim of the present study was to…

  9. Attitudes towards English in Norway: A Corpus-Based Study of Attitudinal Expressions in Newspaper Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graedler, Anne-Line

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some dimensions of how the role of the English language in Norway has been discursively constructed in newspapers during recent years, based on the analysis of data from the five-year period 2008-2012. The analysis is conducted using a specialised corpus containing 3,743 newspaper articles which were subjected to corpus-based…

  10. Using Edit Distance to Analyse Errors in a Natural Language to Logic Translation Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker-Plummer, Dave; Dale, Robert; Cox, Richard; Romanczuk, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We have assembled a large corpus of student submissions to an automatic grading system, where the subject matter involves the translation of natural language sentences into propositional logic. Of the 2.3 million translation instances in the corpus, 286,000 (approximately 12%) are categorized as being in error. We want to understand the nature of…

  11. Capturing L2 Accuracy Developmental Patterns: Insights from an Error-Tagged EFL Learner Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thewissen, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The present article addresses the issue of second language accuracy developmental trajectories and shows how they can be captured via an error-tagged version of an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learner corpus. The data used in this study were extracted from the International Corpus of Learner English (Granger et al., 2009) and consist of a…

  12. English Collocation Learning through Corpus Data: On-Line Concordance and Statistical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtake, Hiroshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Morren, Brian; Ugawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We developed an English Collocations On Demand system offering on-line corpus and concordance information to help Japanese researchers acquire a better command of English collocation patterns. The Life Science Dictionary Corpus consists of approximately 90,000,000 words collected from life science related research papers published in academic…

  13. More than a Linguistic Reference: The Infuence of Corpus Technology on L2 Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hyunsook

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study that investigated the changes in students' writing process associated with corpus use over an extended period of time. The primary purpose of this study was to examine how corpus technology affects students' development of competence as second language (L2) writers. The research was mainly based on case…

  14. An Empirical Study on Corpus-Driven English Vocabulary Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkai, Jiao

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the autonomous English vocabulary learning in corpus-based contexts. Language teaching practice is becoming more learner-centered in the field of language teaching, learner autonomy has been an ongoing concern of foreign language educators in china. As an assistant tool in language learning, corpus makes an easy and quick…

  15. Lexical Properties of Slovene Sign Language: A Corpus-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vintar, Špela

    2015-01-01

    Slovene Sign Language (SZJ) has as yet received little attention from linguists. This article presents some basic facts about SZJ, its history, current status, and a description of the Slovene Sign Language Corpus and Pilot Grammar (SIGNOR) project, which compiled and annotated a representative corpus of SZJ. Finally, selected quantitative data…

  16. A Quantitative Corpus-Based Approach to English Spatial Particles: Conceptual Symmetry and Its Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Alvin Cheng-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate how conceptual symmetry plays a role in the use of spatial particles in English and to further examine its pedagogical implications via a corpus-based evaluation of the course books in senior high schools in Taiwan. More specifically, we adopt a quantitative corpus-based approach to investigate whether bipolar…

  17. Productive Vocabulary Knowledge and Evaluation of ESL Writing in Corpus-Based Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Daehyeon

    2010-01-01

    Since Sinclair (1991) concretized the possibilities of processing and analyzing large quantities of text data through corpus linguistic techniques, the applications of corpus linguistic approaches employing authentic language data and empirical evidence have been widely accepted in language teaching and research. As the applications of corpus…

  18. Language with Character: A Stratified Corpus Comparison of Individual Differences in E-Mail Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberlander, Jon; Gill, Alastair J.

    2006-01-01

    To what extent does the wording and syntactic form of people's writing reflect their personalities? Using a bottom-up stratified corpus comparison, rather than the top-down content analysis techniques that have been used before, we examine a corpus of e-mail messages elicited from individuals of known personality, as measured by the Eysenck…

  19. Applying Corpus-Based Findings to Form-Focused Instruction: The Case of Reported Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Federica; Eckhardt, Suzanne E. B.

    2007-01-01

    Arguing that the introduction of corpus linguistics in teaching materials and the language classroom should be informed by theories and principles of SLA, this paper presents a case study illustrating how corpus-based findings on reported speech can be integrated into a form-focused model of instruction. After overviewing previous work which…

  20. A Corpus-Based Discourse Analysis of the Vision and Mission Statements of Universities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efe, Ibrahim; Ozer, Omer

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a corpus-assisted discourse analysis of mission and vision statements of 105 state and 66 private/foundation universities in Turkey. The paper combines a corpus-based approach with critical discourse analysis to interpret the data in relation to its institutional as well as socio-political context. It argues…

  1. "Nice Things Get Said": Corpus Evidence and the National Literacy Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey, Alison; Thompson, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The article compares evidence from an electronic corpus of texts written for a child audience with specifications in the National Literacy Strategy. The concepts and terminology associated with corpus linguistics are introduced and explained, and the research study from which the findings derive is summarised. Results of the analysis are presented…

  2. Identification of Myotropic Neuropeptides from the Brain and Corpus Cardiacum-Corpus Allatum Complex of the Beetle, Zophobas atratus

    PubMed Central

    Marciniak, Pawel; Audsley, Neil; Kuczer, Mariola; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    The neuropeptide profiles of the two major neuro-endocrinological organs, brain and retrocerebral complex corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum (CC/CA) of adult beetles, Zophobas atratus Fabricius (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) were analyzed by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS). The homological semi-isolated heart bioassay was used to screen HPLC fractions for myotropic activity in tissues, revealing several cardiostimulatory and cardioinhibitory factors from both the brain and CC/CA. Analysis of HPLC fractions by MALDI-TOF MS identified seven mass ions that could be assigned to other known peptides: leucomyosuppressin (LMS), Tribolium castaneum pyrokinin 2, sulfakinin 1, myoinhibitory peptide 4, a truncated NVP-like peptide, Tenebrio molitor AKH and crustacean cardioactive peptide. In addition, two novel peptides, myosuppressin (pEDVEHVFLRFa), which differs from LMS by one amino acid (E for D at position 4) and pyrokinin-like peptide (LPHYTPRLa) were also identified. To establish cardioactive properties of some of the identified peptides, chemical synthesis was carried out and their activities were tested using the heart bioassay. PMID:21067424

  3. Identification of myotropic neuropeptides from the brain and corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex of the beetle, Zophobas atratus.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Pawel; Audsley, Neil; Kuczer, Mariola; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    The neuropeptide profiles of the two major neuro-endocrinological organs, brain and retrocerebral complex corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum (CC/CA) of adult beetles, Zophobas atratus Fabricius (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) were analyzed by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS). The homological semi-isolated heart bioassay was used to screen HPLC fractions for myotropic activity in tissues, revealing several cardiostimulatory and cardioinhibitory factors from both the brain and CC/CA. Analysis of HPLC fractions by MALDI-TOF MS identified seven mass ions that could be assigned to other known peptides: leucomyosuppressin (LMS), Tribolium castaneum pyrokinin 2, sulfakinin 1, myoinhibitory peptide 4, a truncated NVP-like peptide, Tenebrio molitor AKH and crustacean cardioactive peptide. In addition, two novel peptides, myosuppressin (pEDVEHVFLRFa), which differs from LMS by one amino acid (E for D at position 4) and pyrokinin-like peptide (LPHYTPRLa) were also identified. To establish cardioactive properties of some of the identified peptides, chemical synthesis was carried out and their activities were tested using the heart bioassay. PMID:21067424

  4. Corpus-based Approach to Creating a Semantic Lexicon for Clinical Research Eligibility Criteria from UMLS

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhihui; Duffy, Robert; Johnson, Stephen; Weng, Chunhua

    2010-01-01

    We describe a corpus-based approach to creating a semantic lexicon using UMLS knowledge sources. We extracted 10,000 sentences from the eligibility criteria sections of clinical trial summaries contained in ClinicalTrials.gov. The UMLS Metathesaurus and SPECIALIST Lexical Tools were used to extract and normalize UMLS recognizable terms. When annotated with Semantic Network types, the corpus had a lexical ambiguity of 1.57 (=total types for unique lexemes / total unique lexemes) and a word occurrence ambiguity of 1.96 (=total type occurrences / total word occurrences). A set of semantic preference rules was developed and applied to completely eliminate ambiguity in semantic type assignment. The lexicon covered 95.95% UMLS-recognizable terms in our corpus. A total of 20 UMLS semantic types, representing about 17% of all the distinct semantic types assigned to corpus lexemes, covered about 80% of the vocabulary of our corpus. PMID:21347142

  5. Experimental nebulization of American bison (Bison bison) with low doses of ovine herpesvirus 2 from sheep nasal secretions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), is an important cause of mortality in ranched American bison (Bison bison) in North America. Detection of antibody against MCF-group viruses and OvHV-2 DNA in peripheral blood of healthy bison indicates that some are subclinic...

  6. Primary transmission of CWD versus scrapie prions from small ruminants to ovine and cervid PrP transgenic mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of mice expressing either ovine (Tg338) or cervid (TgElk) prion protein (PrP) have aided in characterization of scrapie and chronic wasting disease (CWD), respectively. Experimental inoculation of sheep with CWD prions has demonstrated the potential for interspecies transmission, but in...

  7. Deletion variant near ZNF389 is associated with control of ovine lentivirus in multiple flocks of sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus found in many countries that causes interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and cachexia in sheep. There is no preventive vaccine and no cure, but breed differences suggest marker-assisted selective breeding might improve odds of infectio...

  8. Effects of TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3 on susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus following natural exposure in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) adversely affect production and well-being of sheep and goats throughout much of the world. The SRLVs, including ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in North America, cause lifetime infections and management procedures to eradicate or reduce disease prevalenc...

  9. OVINE HERPESVIRUS-2 GLYCOPROTEIN B SEQUENCES FROM TISSUES OF RUMINANT MALIGNANT CATARRHAL FEVER AND HEALTHY SHEEP ARE HIGHLY CONSERVED.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2) infection has been associated with malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in susceptible ruminants. In order to further investigate whether OHV-2 is an aetiological agent for sheep-associated (SA) MCF in cattle and bison, the entire sequences of OHV-2 glycoprotein B (gB) from di...

  10. OXIDATION OF GLUCOSE, GLUTAMATE, AND GLUTAMINE BY ISOLATED OVINE ENTEROCYTES IN VITRO IS DECREASED BY PRESENCE OF OTHER METABOLIC FUELS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate oxidative metabolism of glucose, glutamate, and glutamine by isolated ovine enterocytes in presence of other metabolic fuels in vitro. Mucosal enterocytes were isolated from crossbred wether sheep (n=6) fed a mixed forage-concentrate diet, and incubated f...

  11. Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels are unaffected by the prion 171R allele in an Idaho sheep flock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding of sheep for arginine (R) at prion gene (PRNP) codon 171 confers resistance to Scrapie. The 171R allele naturally occurs at low frequency, possibly because it imparts a deleterious trait such as impaired disease resistance. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia/Maedi-Visna virus (OPPV) is...

  12. Peripheral Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Provirus Levels Correlate with and Predict Histological Tissue Lesion Severity in Naturally Infected Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether host immune responses in the form of serum anti-ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) antibody responses or virus replication in the form of peripheral OPP provirus levels associate with the degree of histological tissue lesions in naturally OPPV infec...

  13. Genome-Wide association identifies multiple genomic regions associated with susceptibility to and control of ovine lentivirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is macrophage-tropic and causes lifelonginfection. OvLV infects one quarter of U.S. sheep and induces pneumonia and body condition wasting. There is no vaccine to prevent OvLV infection and no cost-effective treatment for i...

  14. Non-maternal transmission is the major mode of ovine lentivirus transmission in a ewe flock: A molecular epidemiology study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmission of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), a lentivirus of sheep, occurs through both maternal and non-maternal means. Currently, the contribution of each route to the overall flock OPPV prevalence is poorly understood since previous serological epidemiologic studies lacked the abilit...

  15. Antibodies to ovine herpesvirus 2 glycoprotein antibodies decrease virus infectivity and prevent malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) is the etiological agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), a generally fatal lymphoproliferative disease of many species in the order Artiodactyla. Development of a vaccine is critical to prevent mortality. Because OvHV-2 has not been cultured in vi...

  16. Investigation of biochemical changes of the ovine calpain 3 exon-10 polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Muto, Yukiyo; Morton, Jim; Palmer, David

    2015-12-01

    Calpain 3 (CAPN3) is a tissue specific calpain, and its mRNA is the most expressed calpain isoform in skeletal muscles. Many mutations and polymorphisms within the human CAPN3 gene have been reported and related to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Several reports link CAPN3 polymorphisms and meat quality. An association between three allele variants in exon-10 of ovine CAPN3 and the yield of fat trimmed meat cuts has been reported. This research investigated the biochemical significance of polymorphic variation in CAPN3. CAPN3 mRNA sequences were obtained from muscle samples collected from lambs which were homozygous for each of the three alleles. Four single base substitutions were found besides those in exon-10, but none of them, including the variations within exon-10, caused a change in amino acid sequence. The expression of CAPN3 mRNA and the amounts of CAPN3 protein were also compared among genotypes, and no significant differences were found. These results suggest that the reported association of specific allele variants within CAPN3 exon-10 to phenotype variations were not direct effects of CAPN3 polymorphisms. Interspecies analyses of the CAPN3 sequences indicated that the sequence reported here is more likely to be the correct common ovine CAPN3 sequence than the reference sequence. PMID:26363096

  17. The occurrence of treponemes in contagious ovine digital dermatitis and the characterisation of associated Dichelobacter nodosus.

    PubMed

    Moore, L J; Woodward, M J; Grogono-Thomas, R

    2005-12-20

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is a recently recorded, apparently new infection of the ovine hoof, which differs clinically from footrot caused by Dichelobacter nodosus and which fails to respond well to accepted treatment practices for footrot. Despite the welfare implications of such an infection, very little research has been performed on CODD to date and the aetiology remains confused. Suggestions have been made that there is a potential role for treponemes in the pathogenesis of CODD but that D. nodosus is apparently not involved. Six farms were therefore targeted in this study to provide a more in-depth investigation into the bacterial flora of CODD lesions. Dark ground microscopy, culture and PCR techniques were used, concentrating on the presence of D. nodosus and spirochaetes, particularly those of the genus Treponema. The results demonstrated that isolates of D. nodosus were indeed present in a high percentage (74%) of CODD lesions compared with 31% of apparently healthy feet. The isolates were shown to be of similar virulence type to those reported previously in cases of footrot, and the range of serogroups was also found to be similar to footrot, with serogroup H being prevalent. Treponemes were present in 70% of CODD lesions and 38% of apparently healthy feet, supporting a possible association between CODD and treponemes. However, any further progress on the aetiology of CODD and the potential for novel, effective treatment will depend on an improved ability to culture these organisms routinely in the laboratory thereby enabling their complete characterisation. PMID:16280206

  18. The effect of Psoroptes ovis infestation on ovine epidermal barrier function

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sheep scab is an intensively pruritic, exudative and allergic dermatitis of sheep caused by the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of P. ovis infestation on different components of the ovine epidermal barrier within the first 24 hours post-infestation (hpi). To achieve this, the expression of epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) genes and epidermal barrier proteins, the nature and severity of epidermal pathology and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were evaluated. By 1 hpi a significant dermal polymorphonuclear infiltrate and a significant increase in TEWL with maximal mean TEWL (598.67 g/m2h) were observed. Epidermal pathology involving intra-epidermal pustulation, loss of epidermal architecture and damage to the basement membrane was seen by 3 hpi. Filaggrin and loricrin protein levels in the stratum corneum declined significantly in the first 24 hpi and qPCR validation confirmed the decrease in expression of the key EDC genes involucrin, filaggrin and loricrin observed by microarray analysis, with 5.8-fold, 4.5-fold and 80-fold decreases, respectively by 24 hpi. The present study has demonstrated that early P. ovis infestation disrupts the ovine epidermal barrier causing significant alterations in the expression of critical barrier components, epidermal pathology, and TEWL. Many of these features have also been documented in human and canine atopic dermatitis suggesting that sheep scab may provide a model for the elucidation of events occurring in the early phases of atopic sensitisation. PMID:23398847

  19. Application of small angle X-ray scattering synchrotron technology for measuring ovine meat quality.

    PubMed

    Hoban, J M; Hopkins, D L; Kirby, N; Collins, D; Dunshea, F R; Kerr, M G; Bailes, K; Cottrell, J J; Holman, B W B; Brown, W; Ponnampalam, E N

    2016-07-01

    A small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) synchrotron was used to evaluate 100 ovine m. longissimus lumborum, representing lamb (n=50) and sheep (n=50). The diffraction of X-rays gives information on muscle myofibril structure and fat content. The linear relationships between SAXS measures with measures such as, shear force, intramuscular fat content (IMF) and collagen content/solubility, were investigated. A relationship was found between the d-spacing of the actin/myosin fibril spacing (SAX1 and SAX2) and the cross sectional area of the rhombohedral unit cell (Cell area) and shear force after 1 and 5day ageing. There was a positive relationship between IMF and a SAXS Fat area measure. There was a muscle site effect on SAX1, SAX2 and Cell area, with the cranial site having a larger distance between myofibrils. The potential of SAXS as a powerful research tool to determine not only the structural components of ovine tenderness, but also the fat content related to IMF is evident. PMID:26971308

  20. Probiotic potential of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from Brazilian regional ovine cheese.

    PubMed

    Meira, Stela Maris Meister; Helfer, Virginia Etges; Velho, Renata Voltolini; Lopes, Fernanda Cortez; Brandelli, Adriano

    2012-02-01

    Twelve Lactobacillus isolates from Brazilian starter-free ovine cheeses were evaluated for their probiotic potential. The strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Lactobacillus plantarum (7), Lb. brevis (2), Lb. casei (2) and Lb. parabuchneri (1). All strains showed variable resistance to gastric juices and relative tolerance to pancreatin and bile salts. Only five strains of Lb. plantarum could not deconjugate the sodium salt of taurodeoxycholic acid. Autoaggregation ability after 24 h was above 50% and hydrophobicity was higher than 60% for most strains. All lactobacilli could inhibit linolenic acid oxidation, except Lb. parabuchneri strain, whereas none of them could scavenge DPPH radical. β-Galactosidase activity ranged from 47·7 to 2503 Miller units. Inhibition of food pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium was demonstrated and the production of organic acids could be associated with this effect. The Lactobacillus strains from Brazilian regional ovine cheese showed interesting functional characteristics, mainly the strains Lb. brevis SM-B and Lb. plantarum SM-I. Both presented high acid tolerance. In addition, Lb. brevis SM-B also displayed remarkable antioxidant activity and Lb. plantarum SM-I was the highest β-galactosidase producer, exhibited high autoaggregation and hydrophobicity properties. PMID:23171587

  1. Ovine middle cerebral artery characterization and quantification of ultrastructure and other features: changes with development.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ravi; Henderson, David A; Chu, Nina; Longo, Lawrence D

    2012-02-15

    Regulation of tone, blood pressure, and blood flow in the cerebral vasculature is of vital importance, particularly in the developing infant. We tested the hypothesis that, in addition to accretion of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in cell layers with vessel thickening, significant changes in smooth muscle structure, as well as phenotype, extracellular matrix, and membrane proteins, in the media of cerebral arteries (CAs) during the course of late fetal development account for associated changes in contractility. Using transmission electron, confocal, wide-field epifluorescence, and light microscopy, we examined the structure and ultrastructure of CAs. Also, we utilized wire myography, Western immunoblotting, and real-time quantitative PCR to examine several other features of these arteries. We compared the main branch ovine middle CAs of 95- and 140-gestational day (GD) fetuses with those of adults (n = 5 for each experimental group). We observed a graded increase in phenylephrine- and KCl-induced contractile responses with development. Structurally, lumen diameter, media thickness, and media cross-sectional area increased dramatically from one age group to the next. With maturation, the cross-sectional profiles of CA SMCs changed from flattened bands in the 95-GD fetus to irregular ovoid-shaped fascicles in the 140-GD fetus and adult. We also observed a change in the type of collagen, specific integrin molecules, and several other parameters of SMC morphology with maturation. Ovine CAs at 95 GD appeared morphologically immature and poorly equipped to respond to major hemodynamic adjustments with maturation. PMID:22116510

  2. The Ovine Cerebral Venous System: Comparative Anatomy, Visualization, and Implications for Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Nitzsche, Björn; Lobsien, Donald; Seeger, Johannes; Schneider, Holm; Boltze, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases are significant causes of death and disability in humans. Improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches strongly rely on adequate gyrencephalic, large animal models being demanded for translational research. Ovine stroke models may represent a promising approach but are currently limited by insufficient knowledge regarding the venous system of the cerebral angioarchitecture. The present study was intended to provide a comprehensive anatomical analysis of the intracranial venous system in sheep as a reliable basis for the interpretation of experimental results in such ovine models. We used corrosion casts as well as contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography to scrutinize blood drainage from the brain. This combined approach yielded detailed and, to some extent, novel findings. In particular, we provide evidence for chordae Willisii and lateral venous lacunae, and report on connections between the dorsal and ventral sinuses in this species. For the first time, we also describe venous confluences in the deep cerebral venous system and an ‘anterior condylar confluent’ as seen in humans. This report provides a detailed reference for the interpretation of venous diagnostic imaging findings in sheep, including an assessment of structure detectability by in vivo (imaging) versus ex vivo (corrosion cast) visualization methods. Moreover, it features a comprehensive interspecies-comparison of the venous cerebral angioarchitecture in man, rodents, canines and sheep as a relevant large animal model species, and describes possible implications for translational cerebrovascular research. PMID:24736654

  3. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue

    PubMed Central

    Lima de Souza, Alexandre; Divino Ribeiro, Marinaldo; Mattos Negrão, Fagton; Castro, Wanderson José Rodrigues; Valério Geron, Luiz Juliano; de Azevedo Câmara, Larissa Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P < 0.05) for the consumption of dry matter with maximum point value estimated at adding 23.25% additive. Ingestion efficiency and rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour) were significant (P < 0.05), by quadratic behavior, and NDF ingestion and rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P < 0.05), showing quadratic behavior. Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P < 0.05) by the adding of brewery residue in marandu grass silage in quadratic way, with maximum value estimated of 1.57 g DM/bolus chewed in inclusion of 24.72% additive in grass silage. The conclusion is that intermediary levels adding of 20 to 25% dehydrated brewery residue affects certain parameters of ingestive behavior. PMID:27547811

  4. mRNA Expression of Ovine Angiopoietin-like Protein 4 Gene in Adipose Tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Jing, Jiong-Jie; Jia, Xia-Li; Qiao, Li-Ying; Liu, Jian-Hua; Liang, Chen; Liu, Wen-Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is involved in a variety of functions, including lipoprotein metabolism and angiogenesis. To reveal the role of ANGPTL4 in fat metabolism of sheep, ovine ANGPTL4 mRNA expression was analyzed in seven adipose tissues from two breeds with distinct tail types. Forty-eight animals with the gender ratio of 1:1 for both Guangling Large Tailed (GLT) and Small Tailed Han (STH) sheep were slaughtered at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from greater and lesser omental, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, perirenal, mesenteric, and tail fats. Ontogenetic mRNA expression of ANGPTL4 in these adipose tissues from GTL and STH was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that ANGPTL4 mRNA expressed in all adipose tissues studied with the highest in subcutaneous and the lowest in mesenteric fat depots. Months of age, tissue and breed are the main factors that significantly influence the mRNA expression. These results provide new insights into ovine ANGPTL4 gene expression and clues for its function mechanism. PMID:26954186

  5. A 57-bp deletion in the ovine KAP6-1 gene affects wool fibre diameter.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H; Gong, H; Li, S; Luo, Y; Hickford, J G H

    2015-08-01

    High glycine-tyrosine keratin-associated proteins (HGT-KAPs) are predominantly present in the orthocortex of wool fibres. They vary in abundance in different wools and have been implicated in regulating wool fibre properties, but little is known about the functional roles of these proteins in the fibre matrix. In this study, we used polymerase chain reaction--single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis to screen for variation in a gene encoding the ovine HGT-KAP6-1 protein. We identified three gene variants (A, B and C). Variants A and B were similar to each other, with only three nucleotide differences occurring downstream of the coding sequence. However, variant C had a 57-bp deletion that would notionally result in a loss of 19 amino acids in the protein. The presence of C was found to be associated with an increase in mean fibre diameter (MFD), fibre diameter standard deviation (FDSD), coefficient of variation of fibre diameter (CVFD) and prickle factor (percentage of fibres over 30 microns; PF). Sheep of genotype BC produced wool of greater MFD, FDSD and PF than sheep of genotypes AA, AB and BB. The CVFD was greater in the BC sheep than the AB sheep. The results suggest that variation in ovine KRTAP6-1 affects wool fibre diameter-associated traits and that the 57-bp deletion in this gene would lead to coarser wool with greater FDSD, CVFD and PF. PMID:25782086

  6. Ovine HSP90AA1 gene promoter: functional study and epigenetic modifications.

    PubMed

    Salces-Ortiz, Judit; González, Carmen; Bolado-Carrancio, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Rey, Jose Carlos; Calvo, Jorge H; Muñoz, Rubén; Serrano, M Magdalena

    2015-11-01

    When environmental temperatures exceed a certain threshold, the upregulation of the ovine HSP90AA1 gene is produced to cope with cellular injuries caused by heat stress. It has been previously pointed out that several polymorphisms located at the promoter region of this gene seem to be the main responsible for the differences in the heat stress response observed among alternative genotypes in terms of gene expression rate. The present study, focused on the functional study of those candidate polymorphisms by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and in vitro luciferase expression assays, has revealed that the observed differences in the transcriptional activity of the HSP90AA1 gene as response to heat stress are caused by the presence of a cytosine insertion (rs397514115) and a C to G transversion (rs397514116) at the promoter region. Next, we discovered the presence of epigenetic marks at the promoter and along the gene body founding an allele-specific methylation of the rs397514116 mutation in DNA extracted from blood samples. This regulatory mechanism interacts synergistically to modulate gene expression depending on environmental circumstances. Taking into account the results obtained, it is suggested that the transcription of the HSP90AA1 ovine gene is regulated by a cooperative action of transcription factors (TFs) whose binding sites are polymorphic and where the influence of epigenetic events should be also taken into account. PMID:26253285

  7. Recent studies of ovine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses from BARN, the Batten Animal Research Network.

    PubMed

    Palmer, David N; Neverman, Nicole J; Chen, Jarol Z; Chang, Chia-Tien; Houweling, Peter J; Barry, Lucy A; Tammen, Imke; Hughes, Stephanie M; Mitchell, Nadia L

    2015-10-01

    Studies on naturally occurring New Zealand and Australian ovine models of the neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (Batten disease, NCLs) have greatly aided our understanding of these diseases. Close collaborations between the New Zealand groups at Lincoln University and the University of Otago, Dunedin, and a group at the University of Sydney, Australia, led to the formation of BARN, the Batten Animal Research Network. This review focusses on presentations at the 14th International Conference on Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease), recent relevant background work, and previews of work in preparation for publication. Themes include CLN5 and CLN6 neuronal cell culture studies, studies on tissues from affected and control animals and whole animal in vivo studies. Topics include the effect of a CLN6 mutation on endoplasmic reticulum proteins, lysosomal function and the interactions of CLN6 with other lysosomal activities and trafficking, scoping gene-based therapies, a molecular dissection of neuroinflammation, identification of differentially expressed genes in brain tissue, an attempted therapy with an anti-inflammatory drug in vivo and work towards gene therapy in ovine models of the NCLs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Current Research on the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (Batten Disease)". PMID:26073432

  8. Mapping, cluster detection and evaluation of risk factors of ovine toxoplasmosis in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Condoleo, Roberto; Musella, Vincenzo; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Bosco, Antonio; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, an important cause of reproductive failure in sheep, is responsible for significant economic losses to the ovine industry worldwide. Moreover, ovine meat contaminated by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is considered as a common source of infection for humans. The aim of this study was to develop point and risk profiling maps of T. gondii seroprevalence in sheep bred in Campania Region (Southern Italy) and analyse risk factors associated at the flock-level. We used serological data from a previous survey of 117 sheep flocks, while environmental and farm management information were obtained from an analysis based on geographical information systems and a questionnaire purveyance, respectively. An univariate Poisson regression model revealed that the type of farm production (milk and meat vs only meat) was the only independent variable associated with T. gondii positivity (P<0.02); the higher within-flock seroprevalence in milking herds suggests that milking practices might influence the spread of the infection on the farm. Neither environmental nor other management variables were significant. Since a majority of flocks were seasonally or permanently on pasture, the animals have a high exposure to infectious T. gondii oocysts, so the high within-flock seroprevalence might derive from this management factor. However, further studies are needed to better assess the actual epidemiological situation of toxoplasmosis in sheep and to clarify the factors that influence its presence and distribution. PMID:27245805

  9. mRNA Expression of Ovine Angiopoietin-like Protein 4 Gene in Adipose Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Jing, Jiong-Jie; Jia, Xia-Li; Qiao, Li-Ying; Liu, Jian-Hua; Liang, Chen; Liu, Wen-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is involved in a variety of functions, including lipoprotein metabolism and angiogenesis. To reveal the role of ANGPTL4 in fat metabolism of sheep, ovine ANGPTL4 mRNA expression was analyzed in seven adipose tissues from two breeds with distinct tail types. Forty-eight animals with the gender ratio of 1:1 for both Guangling Large Tailed (GLT) and Small Tailed Han (STH) sheep were slaughtered at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months of age, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from greater and lesser omental, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, perirenal, mesenteric, and tail fats. Ontogenetic mRNA expression of ANGPTL4 in these adipose tissues from GTL and STH was studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that ANGPTL4 mRNA expressed in all adipose tissues studied with the highest in subcutaneous and the lowest in mesenteric fat depots. Months of age, tissue and breed are the main factors that significantly influence the mRNA expression. These results provide new insights into ovine ANGPTL4 gene expression and clues for its function mechanism. PMID:26954186

  10. Nuclear transfer procedures in the ovine can induce early embryo fragmentation and compromise cloned embryo development.

    PubMed

    Xue, Lian; Cheng, Lei; Su, Guanghua; Kang, Feng; Wu, Xia; Bai, Chunling; Zhang, Li; Li, Guang-Peng

    2011-07-01

    Cytoplasmic fragmentations are frequently observed in early mammalian embryos, and especially in the human. In our research we have observed subtle clues that the occurrence of fragmentation was most likely a result of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) protocols, and in particular, the in vitro culture system. In this study we examined various putative factors that might induce early embryo fragmentation in the ovine. The results indicate that nuclear transfer protocols such as the fusion parameter, activation treatment, and especially the choice of culture medium affected embryo cleavage rates and resulted in a higher incidence of fragmented embryos. Upon using the same fusion parameter, activation parameters that were based upon amino acids containing synthetic oviduct fluids (SOFaa) culture system resulted in significantly lower fragmentation rates than when utilizing a Charles Rosenkrans 1 (CR1aa) culture system. Fragmented embryos typically exhibited irregular numbers of blastomeres with the majority of blastomeres devoid of chromatin. Factors such as fusion DC pulse, activation treatment and culture system led to higher fragmentation and also affected in vitro and in vivo embryo development. The SOFaa based culture system produced a higher number of quality NT embryos resulting in higher pregnancy rates and the birth of live lambs as compared to the CR1aa based system (P<0.05). We conclude that early embryo fragmentation in the ovine is caused by suboptimal cloning protocols, and NT embryo development is especially affected by the culture system used. PMID:21700405

  11. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue.

    PubMed

    de Jesus Ferreira, Daniele; de Moura Zanine, Anderson; de Paula Lana, Rogério; Lima de Souza, Alexandre; Divino Ribeiro, Marinaldo; Mattos Negrão, Fagton; Castro, Wanderson José Rodrigues; Nunes Parente, Henrique; Valério Geron, Luiz Juliano; de Azevedo Câmara, Larissa Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P < 0.05) for the consumption of dry matter with maximum point value estimated at adding 23.25% additive. Ingestion efficiency and rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour) were significant (P < 0.05), by quadratic behavior, and NDF ingestion and rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P < 0.05), showing quadratic behavior. Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P < 0.05) by the adding of brewery residue in marandu grass silage in quadratic way, with maximum value estimated of 1.57 g DM/bolus chewed in inclusion of 24.72% additive in grass silage. The conclusion is that intermediary levels adding of 20 to 25% dehydrated brewery residue affects certain parameters of ingestive behavior. PMID:27547811

  12. T2* mapping of ovine intervertebral discs: Normative data for cervical and lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Kolf, Anna-Katharina; Hesper, Tobias; Schleich, Christoph; Hosalkar, Harish S; Jankowiak, Silvia; Cacchi, Claudio; Antoch, Gerald; Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Rüdiger; Bittersohl, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    To obtain T2* values in histologically evaluated healthy ovine intervertebral discs of the cervical and lumbar spine. Intervertebral discs of nine sheep and nine lambs underwent histological assessment with the modified Boos score for grading of disc degeneration. Discs with a score <10 points (maximum = 40 points) underwent T2* mapping (n = 64). Mid-sagittal T2* values were obtained in five regions: Anterior annulus fibrosus, anterior nucleus pulposus, central nucleus pulposus, posterior nucleus pulposus, and posterior annulus fibrosus. We noted a zonal T2* distribution with high values in the central nucleus and low T2* values in the anterior and posterior annulus fibrosus. The T2* values were higher in lamb than in sheep IVDs for both cervical and lumbar spine (p < 0.001). The T2* values were also higher in the cervical than in the lumbar spine (p = 0.029 for sheep and p < 0.001 for lamb IVDs). The T2* values obtained in these ovine intervertebral discs can serve as baseline values for future T2* measurements both in health and disease. PMID:26466861

  13. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC.

    PubMed

    Adamzyk, Carina; Emonds, Tanja; Falkenstein, Julia; Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation. PMID:24228035

  14. Prevalence and risk factors associated to ovine toxoplasmosis in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Carlos Eduardo D'Alencar; Barros, Sílvia Letícia Bomfim; Guimarães, Vitor Andrade Accioly; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Munhoz, Alexandre Dias

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated to Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep from northeastern Brazil. A total of 932 ovine serum samples from 54 properties in 19 municipalities of the state of Sergipe were collected and assayed using indirect fluorescent antibody test. The assay used antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii (IFAT-IgG) with a cutoff point of 1:64. We observed that 28.22% (263/932) of the ovine samples were serum-reactive. In a logistic regression, factors such as consumption of water directly from the source, consumption of water from a deep well, and age below 12 months were associated with protection; whereas factors such as presence of cats on the property, presence of slatted floor, and use of exchanged or borrowed breeding males were associated with infection. The studied area can be considered endemic for toxoplasmosis, so it is necessary to adopt preventive and control measures because this zoonotic infection poses risks to public health. PMID:23856735

  15. Corpus callosal microstructure influences intermanual transfer in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Schaeffer, Jennifer A.; Hopkins, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Learning a new motor skill with one hand typically results in performance improvements in the alternate hand. The neural substrates involved with this skill acquisition are poorly understood. We combined behavioral testing and non-invasive brain imaging to study how the organization of the corpus callosum was related to intermanual transfer performance in chimpanzees. Fifty-three chimpanzees were tested for intermanual transfer of learning using a bent-wire task. Magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor images were collected from 39 of these subjects. The dominant hand showed greater performance benefits than the nondominant hand. Further, performance was associated with structural integrity of the motor and sensory regions of the CC. Subjects with better intermanual transfer of learning had lower fractional anisotropy values. The results are consistent with the callosal access model of motor programming. PMID:24427118

  16. Corpus callosum size and shape alterations in adolescent inhalant users.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Michael; Lubman, Dan I; Walterfang, Mark; Barton, Sarah; Reutens, David; Wood, Amanda; Yücel, Murat

    2013-09-01

    Inhalants, frequently abused during adolescence, are neurotoxic to white matter. We investigated the impact of inhalant misuse on the morphology of the corpus callosum (CC), the largest white matter bundle in the brain, in an adolescent sample of inhalant users [n = 14; mean age = 17.3; standard deviation (SD) = 1.7], cannabis users (n = 11; mean age = 19.7; SD = 1.7) and community controls (n = 9; mean age = 19.5; SD = 2.6). We identified significant morphological differences in the CC among inhalant users compared with community controls. There were no morphological differences between inhalant and cannabis users. Our findings may represent the early stages of neurobiological damage associated with chronic inhalant misuse. PMID:21955104

  17. Axon position within the corpus callosum determines contralateral cortical projection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Wen, Yunqing; She, Liang; Sui, Ya-Nan; Liu, Lu; Richards, Linda J; Poo, Mu-Ming

    2013-07-16

    How developing axons in the corpus callosum (CC) achieve their homotopic projection to the contralateral cortex remains unclear. We found that axonal position within the CC plays a critical role in this projection. Labeling of nearby callosal axons in mice showed that callosal axons were segregated in an orderly fashion, with those from more medial cerebral cortex located more dorsally and subsequently projecting to more medial contralateral cortical regions. The normal axonal order within the CC was grossly disturbed when semaphorin3A/neuropilin-1 signaling was disrupted. However, the order in which axons were positioned within the CC still determined their contralateral projection, causing a severe disruption of the homotopic contralateral projection that persisted at postnatal day 30, when the normal developmental refinement of contralateral projections is completed in wild-type (WT) mice. Thus, the orderly positioning of axons within the CC is a primary determinant of how homotopic interhemispheric projections form in the contralateral cortex. PMID:23812756

  18. The Wildcat Corpus of Native- and Foreign-Accented English: Communicative Efficiency across Conversational Dyads with Varying Language Alignment Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Engen, Kristin J.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Baker, Rachel E.; Choi, Arim; Kim, Midam; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Wildcat Corpus of native- and foreign-accented English, a corpus containing scripted and spontaneous speech recordings from 24 native speakers of American English and 52 non-native speakers of English. The core element of this corpus is a set of spontaneous speech recordings, for which a new method of…

  19. An Analysis of the Application of Wikipedia Corpus on the Lexical Learning in the Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has transformed linguistic research but has a slightly moderate impact on the ESL teaching and learning. The Wikipedia Corpus, designed by Mark Davis is introduced in this essay. The corpus allows teachers to search Wikipedia in a powerful way: they can search by word, phrase, part of speech, and synonyms. Teachers can also find…

  20. Inhibition of ovine in vitro fertilization by anti-Prt antibody: hypothetical model for Prt/ZP interaction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of prion proteins in the rules that dictate biological reproduction is still poorly understood. Likewise, the role of prnt gene, encoding the prion-like protein testis specific (Prt), in ram reproductive physiology remains largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the effect of Prt in ovine fertilization by using an anti-Prt antibody (APPA) in fertilization medium incubated with spermatozoa and oocytes. Moreover, a computational model was constructed to infer how the results obtained could be related to a hypothetical role for Prt in sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding. Methods Mature ovine oocytes were transferred to fertilization medium alone (control) or supplemented with APPA, or pre-immune serum (CSerum). Oocytes were inseminated with ovine spermatozoa and after 18 h, presumptive zygotes (n = 142) were fixed to evaluate fertilization rates or transferred (n = 374) for embryo culture until D6-7. Predicted ovine Prt tertiary structure was compared with data obtained by circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and a protein-protein computational docking model was estimated for a hypothetical Prt/ZP interaction. Results The fertilizing rate was lower (P = 0.006) in APPA group (46.0+/−6.79%) when compared to control (78.5+/−7.47%) and CSerum (64.5+/−6.65%) groups. In addition, the cleavage rate was higher (P < 0.0001) in control (44.1+/−4.15%) than in APPA group (19.7+/−4.22%). Prt CD spectroscopy showed a 22% alpha-helical structure in 30% (m/v) aqueous trifluoroethanol (TFE) and 17% alpha in 0.6% (m/v) TFE. The predominant alpha-helical secondary structure detected correlates with the predicted three dimensional structure for ovine Prt, which was subsequently used to test Prt/ZP docking. Computational analyses predicted a favorable Prt-binding activity towards ZP domains. Conclusions Our data indicates that the presence of APPA reduces the number of fertilized oocytes and of cleaved embryos. Moreover, the CD analysis

  1. [Role of rennin-angiotensin system in cholinergic agonist carbachol-induced cardiovascular responses in ovine fetus].

    PubMed

    Geng, Chun-Song; Wan, Zhen; Feng, Ya-Hong; Fan, Yi-Sun

    2012-06-25

    To investigate the mechanisms underlying the cholinergic agonist carbachol-induced cardiovascular responses, changes of renin-angiotensin system were examined in fetal hormonal systems. In the ovine fetal model under stressless condition, the cardiovascular function was recorded. Blood samples were collected before (during baseline period) and after the intravenous administration of carbachol. Simultaneously, the levels of angiotensin I (Ang I), angiotensin II (Ang II) and vasopressin in the fetal plasma were detected by immunoradiological method. Also, blood gas, plasma osmolality and electrolyte concentrations were analyzed in blood samples. Results showed that in chronically prepared ovine fetus, intravenous infusion of carbachol led to a significant decrease of heart rate (P < 0.05), and a transient decrease followed by an increase of blood pressure (P < 0.05) within 30 min. After the intravenous infusion of carbachol, blood concentrations of Ang I and Ang II in near-term ovine fetus were both significantly increased (P < 0.05); however, blood concentration of vasopressin, values of blood gas, electrolytes and plasma osmolality in near-term ovine fetus were not significantly changed (P > 0.05). Blood levels of Ang I and Ang II in the atropine (M receptor antagonist) + carbachol intravenous administration group was lower than those in the carbachol group without atropine administration (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this study indicates that the near-term changes of cardiovascular system induced by intravenous administration of carbachol in ovine fetus, such as blood pressure and heart rate, are associated with the changes of hormones of circulatory renin-angiotensin system. PMID:22717634

  2. A rapid real-time qRT-PCR assay for ovine beta-actin mRNA.

    PubMed

    Bjarnadottir, Helga; Jonsson, Jon J

    2005-05-01

    Beta-Actin mRNA is often used for normalization in gene expression experiments. We describe a sensitive, rapid and specific quantitative assay for the cytoplasmic ovine beta-actin mRNA. The assay was based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements to amplify cDNA products reverse transcribed from mRNA. A part of the ovine beta-actin sequence was amplified from cDNA from fetal ovine synovial (FOS) cells with mRNA-specific primers and cloned into a plasmid clone. The assay standard curve was constructed with dilutions of this plasmid. The assay was linear over five orders of magnitude and detected down to 600 copies per reaction of target DNA. Intraassay coefficient of variation was 12%. Detection of the beta-actin gene was eliminated by designing FRET probes at splice junctions and detection of putative processed pseudogenes was minimized by using FRET assay design with four oligonucleotides. We measured 0.2 copies per cell in RNA preparations without reverse transcription and DNase digestion. This might represent processed pseudogenes. In constrast, we measured 1400 beta-actin mRNA copies per cell in RNA preparations after the RT and DNase steps. The assay should, therefore, be sensitive enough to measure beta-actin from a single individual cell. Dilution of target DNA in murine RNA or ovine cDNA preparations did not effect efficiency of PCR or linearity of the assay. The quantitative assay described in this work can be used to correct for variations in various real-time qRT-PCR experiments in ovine cells with diverse goals, including gene expression studies, quantitation of viral load in infected cells and in various gene therapy experiments measuring vector load and expression in transduced cells. PMID:15823406

  3. BioInfer: a corpus for information extraction in the biomedical domain

    PubMed Central

    Pyysalo, Sampo; Ginter, Filip; Heimonen, Juho; Björne, Jari; Boberg, Jorma; Järvinen, Jouni; Salakoski, Tapio

    2007-01-01

    Background Lately, there has been a great interest in the application of information extraction methods to the biomedical domain, in particular, to the extraction of relationships of genes, proteins, and RNA from scientific publications. The development and evaluation of such methods requires annotated domain corpora. Results We present BioInfer (Bio Information Extraction Resource), a new public resource providing an annotated corpus of biomedical English. We describe an annotation scheme capturing named entities and their relationships along with a dependency analysis of sentence syntax. We further present ontologies defining the types of entities and relationships annotated in the corpus. Currently, the corpus contains 1100 sentences from abstracts of biomedical research articles annotated for relationships, named entities, as well as syntactic dependencies. Supporting software is provided with the corpus. The corpus is unique in the domain in combining these annotation types for a single set of sentences, and in the level of detail of the relationship annotation. Conclusion We introduce a corpus targeted at protein, gene, and RNA relationships which serves as a resource for the development of information extraction systems and their components such as parsers and domain analyzers. The corpus will be maintained and further developed with a current version being available at . PMID:17291334

  4. A human vocal utterance corpus for perceptual and acoustic analysis of speech, singing, and intermediate vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, David

    2002-11-01

    In this paper we present the collection and annotation process of a corpus of human utterance vocalizations used for speech and song research. The corpus was collected to fill a void in current research tools, since no corpus currently exists which is useful for the classification of intermediate utterances between speech and monophonic singing. Much work has been done in the domain of speech versus music discrimination, and several corpora exist which can be used for this research. A specific example is the work done by Eric Scheirer and Malcom Slaney [IEEE ICASSP, 1997, pp. 1331-1334]. The collection of the corpus is described including questionnaire design and intended and actual response characteristics, as well as the collection and annotation of pre-existing samples. The annotation of the corpus consisted of a survey tool for a subset of the corpus samples, including ratings of the clips based on a speech-song continuum, and questions on the perceptual qualities of speech and song, both generally and corresponding to particular clips in the corpus.

  5. A method for determining the number of documents needed for a gold standard corpus.

    PubMed

    Juckett, David

    2012-06-01

    The unstructured narratives in medicine have been increasingly targeted for content extraction using the techniques of natural language processing (NLP). In most cases, these efforts are facilitated by creating a manually annotated set of narratives containing the ground truth; commonly referred to as a gold standard corpus. This corpus is used for modeling, fine-tuning, and testing NLP software as well as providing the basis for training in machine learning. Determining the number of annotated documents (size) for this corpus is important, but rarely described; rather, the factors of cost and time appear to dominate decision-making about corpus size. In this report, a method is outlined to determine gold standard size based on the capture probabilities for the unique words within a target corpus. To demonstrate this method, a corpus of dictation letters from the Michigan Pain Consultant (MPC) clinics for pain management are described and analyzed. A well-formed working corpus of 10,000 dictations was first constructed to provide a representative subset of the total, with no more than one dictation letter per patient. Each dictation was divided into words and common words were removed. The Poisson function was used to determine probabilities of word capture within samples taken from the working corpus, and then integrated over word length to give a single capture probability as a function of sample size. For these MPC dictations, a sample size of 500 documents is predicted to give a capture probability of approximately 0.95. Continuing the demonstration of sample selection, a provisional gold standard corpus of 500 documents was selected and examined for its similarity to the MPC structured coding and demographic data available for each patient. It is shown that a representative sample, of justifiable size, can be selected for use as a gold standard. PMID:22245601

  6. The catalogue of the Ripley Corpus: alchemical writings attributed to George Ripley (d. ca. 1490).

    PubMed

    Rampling, Jennifer M

    2010-07-01

    The period 1471 to 1700 saw the accretion of a large corpus of alchemical works associated with the famous English alchemist George Ripley, Canon of Bridlington (d. ca. 1490). Evaluation of Ripley's alchemy is hampered by uncertainty over the composition of the corpus, the dating and provenance of individual texts, and the difficulty of separating genuine from spurious attributions. The Catalogue of the Ripley Corpus (CRC) provides a first step in ordering these diverse materials: a descriptive catalogue of approximately forty-five alchemical treatises, recipes and poems attributed to Ripley, with an index of all known manuscript copies. PMID:20973441

  7. Preparing an Annotated Gold Standard Corpus to Share with Extramural Investigators for De-identification Research

    PubMed Central

    Deleger, Louise; Kaiser, Megan; Stoutenborough, Laura; Marsolo, Keith; Kouril, Michal; Molnar, Katalin; Solti, Imre

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study aims to fill the gap in available healthcare de-identification resources by creating a new sharable dataset with realistic Protected Health Information (PHI) without reducing the value of the data for de-identification research. By releasing the annotated gold standard corpus with Data Use Agreement we would like to encourage other Computational Linguists to experiment with our data and develop new machine learning models for de-identification. This paper describes: (1) the modifications required by the Institutional Review Board before sharing the de-identification gold standard corpus; (2) our efforts to keep the PHI as realistic as possible; (3) and the tests to show the effectiveness of these efforts in preserving the value of the modified data set for machine learning model development. Material and Methods In a previous study we built an original de-identification gold standard corpus annotated with true Protected Health Information (PHI) from 3,503 randomly selected clinical notes for the 22 most frequent clinical note types of our institution. In the current study we modified the original gold standard corpus to make it suitable for external sharing by replacing HIPAA-specified PHI with newly generated realistic PHI. Finally, we evaluated the research value of this new dataset by comparing the performance of an existing published in-house de-identification system, when trained on the new de-identification gold standard corpus, with the performance of the same system, when trained on the original corpus. We assessed the potential benefits of using the new de-identification gold standard corpus to identify PHI in the i2b2 and PhysioNet datasets that were released by other groups for de-identification research. We also measured the effectiveness of the i2b2 and PhysioNet de-identification gold standard corpora in identifying PHI in our original clinical notes. Results Performance of the de-identification system using the new gold

  8. Unsupervised corpus distillation for represented indicator measurement on focus species detection.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Kao, Hung-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The gene ambiguity with the highest dimension is the species with which an entity is associated in biomedical text mining. Furthermore, one of the bottlenecks in gene normalisation is focus species detection. This study presents a method which is robust for all types of articles, particularly those without explicit species mentions. Since our method requires a training corpus, we developed an iterative distillation method to extend the corpus. Unsupervised corpus is therefore helpful for the detection of focus species. In experiments, the proposed method achieved a high accuracy of 85.64% and 84.32% in datasets with and without species mentions respectively. PMID:24400519

  9. Identification and Quantification of Ovine Gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in Fresh and Stored Tissues of Pigs with Symptoms of Porcine Malignant Catarrhal Fever

    PubMed Central

    Albini, Sarah; Zimmermann, Werner; Neff, Felix; Ehlers, Bernhard; Häni, Hansjürg; Li, Hong; Hüssy, Daniela; Engels, Monika; Ackermann, Mathias

    2003-01-01

    Cases of porcine malignant catarrhal fever were analyzed by a combination of identification and quantitation of ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in a variety of paraffin-embedded tissues from diseased pigs, serology, and exclusion of primary porcine gammaherpesviruses. In spite of reduced signal due to fixation and paraffin embedding, ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in pig brains exceeded the amounts found in sheep brains by orders of magnitude. PMID:12574312

  10. Identification and quantification of ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in fresh and stored tissues of pigs with symptoms of porcine malignant catarrhal fever.

    PubMed

    Albini, Sarah; Zimmermann, Werner; Neff, Felix; Ehlers, Bernhard; Häni, Hansjürg; Li, Hong; Hüssy, Daniela; Engels, Monika; Ackermann, Mathias

    2003-02-01

    Cases of porcine malignant catarrhal fever were analyzed by a combination of identification and quantitation of ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in a variety of paraffin-embedded tissues from diseased pigs, serology, and exclusion of primary porcine gammaherpesviruses. In spite of reduced signal due to fixation and paraffin embedding, ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in pig brains exceeded the amounts found in sheep brains by orders of magnitude. PMID:12574312

  11. Role of NO-cGMP pathway in ovine cervical relaxation induced by Erythroxylum caatingae Plowman.

    PubMed

    Santos, K C; Monte, A P O; Lima, J T; Ribeiro, L A A; Palheta Junior, R C

    2016-01-01

    Erythroxylum caatingae Plowman has a myorelaxing effect on smooth muscle tissue. We investigated the effect of the crude ethanolic extract of E. caatingae Plowman (Ec-EtOH) on the contractility of the ovine cervix. In an isometric system, circular strips were subjected to 90mM potassium (K(+)) or 30μM carbamylcholine (CCh)-induced contraction. We then exposed the tissue to cumulative concentrations of Ec-EtOH (1-729 μg/ml). In other bath solutions, the tissues were exposed to l-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 100μM), l-NAME (100μM)+l-arginine (300μM), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, ODQ; 5μM), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 3mM), tetraethylammonium (TEA; 0.3mM), glybenclamide (1μM), atosiban (10μM) or verapamil (3μM), followed by the addition of Ec-EtOH (1-729 μg/ml). We also evaluated the effect of cervical Ec-EtOH infusion (2mg) on cervical contractility in vivo. Ec-EtOH decreased cervical contractility induced by K(+) or CCh, and 729 μg/ml Ec-EtOH decreased 85.4±5.1% the amplitude of basal contractility in vitro, with an EC50 of 17.9±3.7 μg/ml. This effect of Ec-EtOH was prevented by l-NAME or ODQ. l-arginine impaired the blunting effect of l-NAME on cervical relaxation caused by Ec-EtOH. However, the potassium channel blockers 4-AP, TEA, and glybenclamide did not modify this myorelaxation triggered by Ec-EtOH. Ec-EtOH also decreased acetylcholine-induced contractions in tissue preincubated with verapamil. In addition, Ec-EtOH decreased ovine cervical contractions in vivo. Thus, Ec-EtOH had a relaxant effect on ovine cervical contractions. This may involve the nitric oxide signal, mediated by cGMP cellular transduction, and be related to intracellular calcium sequestration. PMID:26619941

  12. Cellular and molecular maturation in fetal and adult ovine calcaneal tendons

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Valentina; Mauro, Annunziata; Martelli, Alessandra; Di Giacinto, Oriana; Di Marcantonio, Lisa; Nardinocchi, Delia; Berardinelli, Paolo; Barboni, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Processes of development during fetal life profoundly transform tendons from a plastic tissue into a highly differentiated structure, characterised by a very low ability to regenerate after injury in adulthood. Sheep tendon is frequently used as a translational model to investigate cell-based regenerative approaches. However, in contrast to other species, analytical and comparative baseline studies on the normal developmental maturation of sheep tendons from fetal through to adult life are not currently available. Thus, a detailed morphological and biochemical study was designed to characterise tissue maturation during mid- (2 months of pregnancy: 14 cm of length) and late fetal (4 months: 40 cm of length) life, through to adulthood. The results confirm that ovine tendon morphology undergoes profound transformations during this period. Endotenon was more developed in fetal tendons than in adult tissues, and its cell phenotype changed through tendon maturation. Indeed, groups of large rounded cells laying on smaller and more compacted ones expressing osteocalcin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) were identified exclusively in fetal mid-stage tissues, and not in late fetal or adult tendons. VEGF, NGF as well as blood vessels and nerve fibers showed decreased expression during tendon development. Moreover, the endotenon of mid- and late fetuses contained identifiable cells that expressed several pluripotent stem cell markers [Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT), SRY Determining Region Y Box-2 (SOX2), Nanog Homeobox (NANOG) and Octamer Binding Transcription Factor-4A (OCT-4A)]. These cells were not identifiable in adult specimens. Ovine tendon development was also accompanied by morphological modifications to cell nuclei, and a progressive decrease in cellularity, proliferation index and expression of connexins 43 and 32. Tendon maturation was similarly characterised by modulation of several other gene expression

  13. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Schemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For long it was believed that a particular population of enteric neurons, referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPAN)s, encodes mechanical stimulation. We recently proposed a new concept suggesting that there are in addition mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) that are multifunctional. Based on firing pattern MEN behaved as rapidly, slowly, or ultra-slowly adapting RAMEN, SAMEN, or USAMEN, respectively. We aimed to validate this concept in the myenteric plexus of the gastric corpus, a region where IPANs were not identified and existence of enteric sensory neurons was even questioned. The gastric corpus is characterized by a particularly dense extrinsic sensory innervation. Neuronal activity was recorded with voltage sensitive dye imaging after deformation of ganglia by compression (intraganglionic volume injection or von Fry hair) or tension (ganglionic stretch). We demonstrated that 27% of the gastric neurons were MEN and responded to intraganglionic volume injection. Of these 73% were RAMEN, 25% SAMEN, and 2% USAMEN with a firing frequency of 1.7 (1.1/2.2), 5.1 (2.2/7.7), and of 5.4 (5.0/15.5) Hz, respectively. The responses were reproducible and stronger with increased stimulus strength. Even after adaptation another deformation evoked spike discharge again suggesting a resetting mode of the mechanoreceptors. All MEN received fast synaptic input. Fifty five percent of all MEN were cholinergic and 45% nitrergic. Responses in some MEN significantly decreased after perfusion of TTX, low Ca++/high Mg++ Krebs solution, capsaicin induced nerve defunctionalization and capsazepine indicating the involvement of TRPV1 expressing extrinsic mechanosensitive nerves. Half of gastric MEN responded to intraganglionic volume injection as well as to ganglionic stretch and 23% responded to stretch only. Tension-sensitive MEN were to a large proportion USAMEN (44%). In summary, we demonstrated for the first time compression and tension-sensitive MEN in the stomach

  14. Unlocked and locked elastic stable intramedullary nailing in an ovine tibia fracture model: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Berger, Leopold; Fischerauer, Stefan; Weiß, Barbara; Celarek, Anna; Castellani, Christoph; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina; Tschegg, Elmar

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, four different systems of elastic stable intramedullary nails (unlocked, Ender stainless steel nails locked with 3-mm screws, titanium nails locked with end caps, titanium nails locked with plugs and 3-mm screws) were implanted in cadaveric ovine tibiae. Fractures were simulated by a transverse diaphyseal osteotomy. The specimens were subjected to simultaneous axial and torsional fatigue loading of 5000 and 1000 cycles, respectively. The unlocked systems failed at an axial load of 200 N peak amplitude. End caps systems withstood axial loads up to 800 N for 1000 cycles, and ender nails and plugs lasted up to 1000 N for 1000 cycles. All systems showed a decrease of axial stiffness with higher loads and endured cycles. Ender nails and nails locked with plugs failed by penetration of the distal epiphysis rather than by loosening of the interlocking system. Overall, the titanium nails locked with plugs and 3-mm screws exhibited superior test results. PMID:24857493

  15. Fracture properties of growth plate cartilage compared to cortical and trabecular bone in ovine femora.

    PubMed

    Tschegg, E K; Celarek, A; Fischerauer, S F; Stanzl-Tschegg, S; Weinberg, A M

    2012-10-01

    Fracture mechanical parameters (notch tensile strength, specific fracture energy/crack resistance and specific crack initiation energy) of epiphyseal plate cartilage, trabecular bone (metaphysis) and cortical bone (diaphysis) were determined on ovine femur specimens. The fracture behaviour before and after crack initiation was recorded in force-displacement diagrams from wedge splitting tests. Crack propagation was stable both during and after the formation of a principal crack. This is the main advantage of the wedge-splitting method by Tschegg in comparison with tensile tests. Microscopy of the epiphyseal plate during fracture showed fibre elongation and tearing in the crack tip region. The results of this study can help to understand the mechanics of epiphyseal plate injuries and the obtained values can be used for computational simulations and models. PMID:23022566

  16. Indentation experiments and simulation of ovine bone using a viscoelastic-plastic damage model

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Wu, Ziheng; Turner, Simon; MacLeay, Jennifer; Niebur, Glen L.; Ovaert, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    Indentation methods have been widely used to study bone at the micro- and nanoscales. It has been shown that bone exhibits viscoelastic behavior with permanent deformation during indentation. At the same time, damage due to microcracks is induced due to the stresses beneath the indenter tip. In this work, a simplified viscoelastic-plastic damage model was developed to more closely simulate indentation creep data, and the effect of the model parameters on the indentation curve was investigated. Experimentally, baseline and 2-year postovariectomized (OVX-2) ovine (sheep) bone samples were prepared and indented. The damage model was then applied via finite element analysis to simulate the bone indentation data. The mechanical properties of yielding, viscosity, and damage parameter were obtained from the simulations. The results suggest that damage develops more quickly for OVX-2 samples under the same indentation load conditions as the baseline data. PMID:26136623

  17. Production of bacteriocin-like substances by lactic acid bacteria isolated from regional ovine cheese

    PubMed Central

    Nespolo, Cássia Regina; Brandelli, Adriano

    2010-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from ovine milk and cheeses manufactured in the South Region of Brazil. Among 112 bacterial isolates investigated, 59 were chosen through a screening for LAB. Among these 59 strains of LAB, 21% showed antimicrobial, proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Based on this screening, Lactobacillus plantarum LCN 17 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LCN 43 were selected and tested for the production of bacteriocin-like substances (BLS). The BLS produced by both isolates showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, whereas that produced by L. plantarum LCN 17 presented higher stability to different temperature, pH and enzyme treatments. These strains present potential for production of BLS, and for use as starter cultures. PMID:24031581

  18. Hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) is a growth factor for human, ovine and porcine thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Fayet, G; Amphoux-Fazekas, T; Aouani, A; Hovsépian, S

    1996-03-01

    Hexamethylenebisacetamide (HMBA) provokes in murine erythroleukemia cells (MELC) a commitment to terminal differentiation leading to the activation of the expression of hemoglobin. HMBA has been tested also in other cells from colon cancer, melanoma or lung cancer. However it has not yet been tested in the thyroid. We demonstrate in this paper that HMBA in kinetics and concentration-response experiments increases the proliferation of human thyroid cells isolated from Graves'-Basedow patients. It also acts like a growth factor for ovine and porcine thyroid cells, respectively, from the OVNIS line and the ATHOS line. This molecule which is a differentiating factor in the MELC system and a growth factor in human thyroid cell cultures represents a potential to get human thyroid cell lines expressing specialized functions. PMID:8734479

  19. Expression analysis of 13 ovine immune response candidate genes in Visna/Maedi disease progression.

    PubMed

    Larruskain, Amaia; Bernales, Irantzu; Luján, Lluis; de Andrés, Damián; Amorena, Beatriz; Jugo, Begoña M

    2013-07-01

    Visna/Maedi virus (VMV) is a lentivirus that infects cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage in sheep. Infection with VMV may lead to Visna/Maedi (VM) disease, which causes a multisystemic inflammatory disorder causing pneumonia, encephalitis, mastitis and arthritis. The role of ovine immune response genes in the development of VM disease is not fully understood. In this work, sheep of the Rasa Aragonesa breed were divided into two groups depending on the presence/absence of VM-characteristic clinical lesions in the aforementioned organs and the relative levels of candidate gene expression, including cytokines and innate immunity loci were measured by qPCR in the lung and udder. Sheep with lung lesions showed differential expression in five target genes: CCR5, TLR7, and TLR8 were up regulated and IL2 and TNFα down regulated. TNFα up regulation was detected in the udder. PMID:23582860

  20. Ovine Paratuberculosis: A Seroprevalence Study in Dairy Flocks Reared in the Marche Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Anna Rita, Attili; Victor, Ngu Ngwa; Silvia, Preziuso; Luciana, Pacifici; Anastasia, Domesi; Vincenzo, Cuteri

    2011-01-01

    In order to fulfil the seroprevalence gap on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in ovine dairy farms of Marche region (central Italy), a stratified study was carried out on 2086 adult female sheep randomly chosen from 38 herds selected in Ancona and Macerata provinces. 73.7% flocks resulted infected by a commercial ELISA test (Pourquier, France), with a mean seroprevalence of 6.29% of sampled sheep in both provinces. A higher number of MAP seropositive ewes was recorded in the large herds' consistence than in the small and medium herds' consistence (P = 0.0269), and a greater percentage of infected sheep was obtained among female at early/late than in peak lactation stage (P = 0.0237). MAP infection was confirmed in 12.6% of infected farms by faecal culture. The true sheep-level seroprevalence was 15.1% ± 7.3%. PMID:21876850

  1. Changes in meat quality of ovine longissimus dorsi muscle in response to repeated freeze and thaw.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jun; Li, Chunbao; Chen, Yinji; Gao, Feifei; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2012-12-01

    Changes in eating and technological quality attributes of ovine longissimus dorsi muscle during repeated freeze and thaw were investigated. Shear force value, L* value, a* value and fiber diameter decreased (P<0.05) but lipid oxidation increased (P<0.05) with repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Sarcomere length and pH decreased (P<0.05) within the first 10 freeze-thaw cycles but increased (P<0.05) after 5 further cycles. Total and myofibrillar protein solubility, and intramuscular free fatty acids concentration decreased (P<0.05) after 1 cycle of freeze and thaw but then increased (P<0.05) gradually with further cycles. Hardness, chewiness, cohesiveness and resilience of comminuted lamb products decreased (P<0.05) with increased freeze-thaw cycles. And therefore, repeated freeze and thaw should be minimized in terms of meat color for commercial value and water holding capacity for further processing. PMID:22749539

  2. EFFECTS OF CORPUS CHRISTI BAY SEDIMENTS ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study described here examined effects on mortality, growth, reproduction, and behavior of Americamysis bahi exposed under extended static conditions to bedded sediments from Corpus Christi Bay.

  3. Occurrence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii infections in ovine and caprine abortions.

    PubMed

    Moreno, B; Collantes-Fernández, E; Villa, A; Navarro, A; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2012-06-01

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are closely related cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites identified as important causes of reproductive failure in cattle and small ruminants, respectively. Protozoan abortion in small ruminants is traditionally associated with T. gondii, but the importance of N. caninum remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of N. caninum and T. gondii infections in abortion cases in small ruminants submitted for diagnosis. For this purpose, 74 ovine and 26 caprine aborted foetuses were recovered from different areas in Spain. Foetal histopathology was used to detect the presence of protozoal-associated lesions in brain. The presence of N. caninum and T. gondii was confirmed by PCR. Protozoal infection was detected in 17 out of 100 (17%) foetuses examined by at least one of the diagnostic techniques used. Lesions suggestive of protozoal infection were observed in 10.8% (8/74) and 15.4% (4/26) of the ovine and caprine abortions respectively. N. caninum and T. gondii infection was detected by PCR in 6.8% (5/74) and 5.4% (4/74) of sheep foetuses, respectively, of which five showed protozoal-associated lesions. N. caninum DNA was detected in 11.5% (3/26) of goat foetuses, of which two showed protozoal-associated lesions, whereas T. gondii DNA was detected in one goat foetus with no lesions. The simultaneous presence of N. caninum and T. gondii DNA was detected in one sheep foetus with severe lesions. This study demonstrates that N. caninum plays a significant role in abortion in small ruminants in the studied population. In addition, our results highlight the importance of differentiating between protozoa whenever characteristic lesions are observed. PMID:22260901

  4. BMP4 and LGL1 are Down Regulated in an Ovine Model of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Emmerton-Coughlin, Heather M. A.; Martin, K. Kathryn; Chiu, Jacky S. S.; Zhao, Lin; Scott, Leslie A.; Regnault, Timothy R. H.; Bütter, Andreana

    2014-01-01

    Background/Purpose: The molecular pathophysiology of lung hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) remains poorly understood. The Wnt signaling pathway and downstream targets, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) 4 and other factors such as late gestation lung protein 1 (LGL1), are essential to normal lung development. Nitrofen-induced hypoplastic CDH rodent lungs demonstrate down regulation of the Wnt pathway including BMP4 and reduced LGL1 expression. The aim of the current study was to examine the molecular pathophysiology associated with a surgically induced CDH in an ovine model. Methods: Left thoracotomy was performed at 80 days in 14 fetal sheep; CDH was created in seven experimental animals. Lungs were harvested at 136 days (term = 145 days). Lung weight (LW) and mean terminal bronchiole density (MTBD) were measured to determine the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia. Quantitative real time PCR was undertaken to analyze Wnt2, Wnt7b, BMP4, and LGL1 mRNA expression. Results: Total LW was decreased while MTBD was increased in the CDH group (p < 0.05), confirming pulmonary hypoplasia. BMP4 and LGL1 mRNA was significantly reduced in CDH lungs (p < 0.05). Wnt2 mRNA was decreased, although not significantly (p < 0.06). Conclusion: For the first time, down regulation of BMP4 and LGL1 are reported in an ovine CDH model. In contrast to other animal models, these changes are persistent to near term. These findings suggest that mechanical compression from herniated viscera may play a more important role in causing pulmonary hypoplasia in CDH, rather than a primary defect in lung organogenesis. PMID:25593968

  5. Unexpected maturation of PI3K and MAPK-ERK signaling in fetal ovine cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Louey, S.; Stork, P. J.; Giraud, G. D.; Thornburg, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    In the first two-thirds of gestation, ovine fetal cardiomyocytes undergo mitosis to increase cardiac mass and accommodate fetal growth. Thereafter, some myocytes continue to proliferate while others mature and terminally differentiate into binucleated cells. At term (145 days gestational age; dGA) about 60% of cardiomyocytes become binucleated and exit the cell cycle under hormonal control. Rising thyroid hormone (T3) levels near term (135 dGA) inhibit proliferation and stimulate maturation. However, the degree to which intracellular signaling patterns change with age in response to T3 is unknown. We hypothesized that in vitro activation of ERK, Akt, and p70S6K by two regulators of cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity, T3 and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), would be similar in cardiomyocytes at gestational ages 100 and 135 dGA. IGF-1 and T3 each independently stimulated phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, and p70S6K in cells at both ages. In the younger mononucleated myocytes, the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt was reduced in the presence of IGF-1 and T3. However, the same hormone combination led to a dramatic twofold increase in the phosphorylation of these signaling proteins in the 135 dGA cardiomyocytes—even in cells that were not proliferating. In the older cells, both mono- and binucleated cells were affected. In conclusion, fetal ovine cardiomyocytes undergo profound maturation-related changes in signaling in response to T3 and IGF-1, but not to either factor alone. Differences in age-related response are likely to be related to milestones in fetal cardiac development as the myocardium prepares for ex utero life. PMID:25128174

  6. Aquaporins in ovine amnion: responses to altered amniotic fluid volumes and intramembranous absorption rates.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Cecilia Y; Anderson, Debra F; Brace, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are transmembrane channel proteins that facilitate rapid water movement across cell membranes. In amniotic membrane, the AQP-facilitated transfer of water across amnion cells has been proposed as a mechanism for amniotic fluid volume (AFV) regulation. To investigate whether AQPs modulate AFV by altering intramembranous absorption (IMA) rate, we tested the hypothesis that AQP gene expression in the amnion is positively correlated with IMA rate during experimental conditions when IMA rate and AFV are modified over a wide range. The relative abundances of AQP1, AQP3, AQP8, AQP9, and AQP11 mRNA and protein were determined in the amnion of 16 late-gestation ovine fetuses subjected to 2 days of control conditions, urine drainage, urine replacement, or intraamniotic fluid infusion. AQP mRNA levels were determined by RT-qPCR and proteins by western immunoblot. Under control conditions, mRNA levels among the five AQPs differed more than 20-fold. During experimental treatments, mean IMA rate in the experimental groups ranged from 100 ± 120 mL/day to 1370 ± 270 mL/day. The mRNA levels of the five AQPs did not change from control and were not correlated with IMA rates. The protein levels of AQP1 were positively correlated with IMA rates (r(2) = 38%, P = 0.01) while the remaining four AQPs were not. These findings demonstrate that five AQPs are differentially expressed in ovine amnion. Our study supports the hypothesis that AQP1 may play a positive role in regulating the rate of fluid transfer across the amnion, thereby participating in the dynamic regulation of AFV. PMID:27440743

  7. First study of pathogen load and localisation of ovine footrot using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH)

    PubMed Central

    Witcomb, Luci A.; Green, Laura E.; Calvo-Bado, Leo A.; Russell, Claire L.; Smith, Edward M.; Grogono-Thomas, Rose; Wellington, Elizabeth M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of bacterial populations in situ provides insights into pathogen population dynamics and potential reservoirs for disease. Here we report a culture-independent study of ovine footrot (FR); a debilitating bacterial disease that has significant economic impact on sheep farming worldwide. Disease begins as an interdigital dermatitis (ID), which may then progress to separation of the hoof horn from the underlying epidermis causing severe footrot (SFR). Dichelobacter nodosus is the causative agent of ovine FR, however, the role of Fusobacterium necrophorum and other bacteria present in the environment and on the feet of sheep is less clear. The objective of this study was to use fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to detect, localise and quantify D. nodosus, F. necrophorum and the domain Bacteria from interdigital skin biopsies of healthy, ID- and SFR-affected feet. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum populations were restricted primarily to the epidermis, but both were detected more frequently in feet with ID or SFR than in healthy feet. D. nodosus cell counts were significantly higher in feet with ID and SFR (p < 0.05) than healthy feet, whereas F. necrophorum cell counts were significantly higher only in feet with SFR (p < 0.05) than healthy feet. These results, together with other published data, indicate that D. nodosus likely drives pathogenesis of footrot from initiation of ID to SFR; with D. nodosus cell counts increasing prior to onset of ID and SFR. In contrast, F. necrophorum cell counts increase after SFR onset, which may suggest an accessory role in disease pathogenesis, possibly contributing to the severity and duration of SFR. PMID:25742734

  8. IL-4 gene expression in adventitial layer (fibrous layer) of hepatic ovine and bovine hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Dorosti, Zahra; Tolouei, Sepideh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Jafari, Rasool; Jafaee, Fereshteh; Sharafi, Seyedeh Marayam; Darani, Hossein Yousofi

    2016-09-01

    Cystic Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease with cosmopolitan distribution caused by the tape worm Echinococcus granulosus. Fibrous layer is developed around the cyst as a host immune response reaction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of IL-4 gene expression in fibrous layer of bovine and ovine hepatic hydatid cysts using quantitative technique of Real-Time PCR. In this descriptive study the samples of hydatid cyst fibrous layer were taken from 6 bovine and 6 ovine hepatic hydatid cysts. Samples of normal liver tissue close to the cyst were also taken as controls. Total RNA from each sample was extracted and then converted to cDNA. Afterward, the rate of IL-4 gene expression for each sample was evaluated using real-time PCR technique. Data were analyzed by REST software (version 2.0.13, 2009). In sheep the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 1.98 times more than the rate of IL4 gene expression in control samples, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.561). In cattle the rate of IL-4 gene expression in the fibrous layer of hepatic hydatid cysts was 9.84 times more than that of control samples which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). With high rate of IL4 expression especially in fibrous layer of bovine hydatid cyst, it can be concluded that this interleukin may play an important role in host parasite relationship. PMID:27605798

  9. Expansion of bubbles under a pulsatile flow regime in decompressed ovine blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Arieli, Ran; Marmur, Abraham

    2016-02-01

    After decompression of ovine large blood vessels, bubbles nucleate and expand at active hydrophobic spots on their luminal aspect. These bubbles will be in the path of the blood flow within the vessel, which might replenish the supply of gas-supersaturated plasma in their vicinity and thus, in contrast with our previous estimations, enhance their growth. We used the data from our previous study on the effect of pulsatile flow in ovine blood vessels stretched on microscope slides and photographed after decompression from hyperbaric exposure. We measured the diameter of 46 bubbles in 4 samples taken from 3 blood vessels (pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, and aorta) in which both a "multi-bubble active spot" (MBAS)--which produces several bubbles at a time, and at least one "single-bubble active spot" (SBAS)--which produces a single bubble at a time, were seen together. The linear expansion rate for diameter in SBAS ranged from 0.077 to 0.498 mm/min and in MBAS from 0.001 to 0.332 mm/min. There was a trend toward a reduced expansion rate for bubbles in MBAS compared with SBAS. The expansion rate for bubbles in an MBAS when it was surrounded by others was very low. Bubble growth is related to gas tension, and under a flow regime, bubbles expand from a diameter of 0.1 to 1mm in 2-24 min at a gas supersaturation of 620 kPa and lower. There are two phases of bubble development. The slow and disperse initiation of active spots (from nanobubbles to gas micronuclei) continues for more than 1h, whereas the fast increase in size (2-24 min) is governed by diffusion. Bubble-based decompression models should not artificially reduce diffusion constants, but rather take both phases of bubble development into consideration. PMID:26592146

  10. Central cholinergic signal-mediated neuroendocrine regulation of vasopressin and oxytocin in ovine fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lijun; Mao, Caiping; Zeng, Fanxing; Zhang, Yuying; Xu, Zhice

    2008-01-01

    Background The hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of body fluid homeostasis by secreting arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) in response to a variety of signals, including osmotic and nonosmotic stimuli. It is well established that central cholinergic mechanisms are critical in the regulation of cardiovascular responses and maintenance of body fluid homeostasis in adults. Our recent study demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of carbachol elicited an increase of blood pressure in the near-term ovine fetuses. However, in utero development of brain cholinergic mechanisms in the regulation of the hypothalamic neuropeptides is largely unknown. This study investigated AVP and OT neural activation in the fetal hypothalamus induced by central carbachol. Results Chronically prepared near-term ovine fetuses (0.9 gestation) received an i.c.v. carbachol (3 μg/kg). Fetal blood samples were collected for AVP and OT assay, and brains were used for c-fos mapping studies. I.c.v. carbachol significantly increased fetal plasma AVP and OT concentrations. Intense FOS immunoreactivity (FOS-ir) was observed in the fetal supraoptic nuclei (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in the hypothalamus. Double labeling demonstrated that a number of AVP- and OT-containing neurons in the fetal SON and PVN were expressing c-fos in response to central carbachol. Conclusion The results indicate that the central cholinergic mechanism is established and functional in the regulation of the hypothalamic neuropeptides during the final trimester of pregnancy. This provides evidence for a functional link between the development of central cholinergic mechanisms and hypothalamic neuropeptide systems in the fetus. PMID:18828925

  11. Energy balance-dependent regulation of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein isoform expression.

    PubMed

    Triantaphyllopoulos, Kostas A; Laliotis, George P; Bizelis, Iosif A

    2014-01-01

    G6PDH is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and one of the principal source of NADPH, a major cellular reductant. Importantly, in ruminant's metabolism the aforementioned NADPH provided, is utilized for de novo fatty acid synthesis. Previous work of cloning the ovine (Ovis aries) og6pdh gene has revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (og6pda and og6pdb), og6pdb being a product of alternative splicing not similar to any other previously reported.(1) In the current study the effect of energy balance in the ovine G6PDH protein expression was investigated, shedding light on the biochemical features and potential physiological role of the oG6PDB isoform. Changes in energy balance leads to protein expression changes in both transcripts, to the opposite direction and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance was not in favor of the presence of any particular isoform, while both protein expression levels were not significantly different (P > 0.05). In contrast, at the transition point from negative to positive and on the positive energy balance, there is a significant increase of oG6PDA compared with oG6PDB protein expression (P < 0.001). Both oG6PDH protein isoforms changed significantly toward the positive energy balance. oG6PDA is escalating, while oG6PDB is falling, under the same stimulus (positive energy balance alteration). This change is also positively associated with increasing levels in enzyme activity, 4 weeks post-weaning in ewes' adipose tissue. Furthermore, regression analysis clearly demonstrated the linear correlation of both proteins in response to the WPW, while energy balance, enzyme activity, and oG6PDA relative protein expression follow the same escalating trend; in contrast, oG6PDB relative protein expression falls in time, similar to both transcripts accumulation pattern, as reported previously.(2.) PMID:24575366

  12. Anaerobic bioremediation of RDX by ovine whole rumen fluid and pure culture isolates.

    PubMed

    Eaton, H L; Duringer, J M; Murty, L D; Craig, A M

    2013-04-01

    The ability of ruminal microbes to degrade the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in ovine whole rumen fluid (WRF) and as 24 bacterial isolates was examined under anaerobic conditions. Compound degradation was monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identification of metabolites. Organisms in WRF microcosms degraded 180 μM RDX within 4 h. Nitroso-intermediates hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX), hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine (DNX), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX) were present as early as 0.25 h and were detected throughout the 24-h incubation period, representing one reductive pathway of ring cleavage. Following reduction to MNX, peaks consistent with m/z 193 and 174 were also produced, which were unstable and resulted in rapid ring cleavage to a common metabolite consistent with an m/z of 149. These represent two additional reductive pathways for RDX degradation in ovine WRF, which have not been previously reported. The 24 ruminal isolates degraded RDX with varying efficiencies (0-96 %) over 120 h. Of the most efficient degraders identified, Clostridium polysaccharolyticum and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. desulfuricans degraded RDX when medium was supplemented with both nitrogen and carbon, while Anaerovibrio lipolyticus, Prevotella ruminicola, and Streptococcus bovis IFO utilized RDX as a sole source of nitrogen. This study showed that organisms in whole rumen fluid, as well as several ruminal isolates, have the ability to degrade RDX in vitro and, for the first time, delineated the metabolic pathway for its biodegradation. PMID:22688904

  13. Unexpected maturation of PI3K and MAPK-ERK signaling in fetal ovine cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Chattergoon, N N; Louey, S; Stork, P J; Giraud, G D; Thornburg, K L

    2014-10-15

    In the first two-thirds of gestation, ovine fetal cardiomyocytes undergo mitosis to increase cardiac mass and accommodate fetal growth. Thereafter, some myocytes continue to proliferate while others mature and terminally differentiate into binucleated cells. At term (145 days gestational age; dGA) about 60% of cardiomyocytes become binucleated and exit the cell cycle under hormonal control. Rising thyroid hormone (T3) levels near term (135 dGA) inhibit proliferation and stimulate maturation. However, the degree to which intracellular signaling patterns change with age in response to T3 is unknown. We hypothesized that in vitro activation of ERK, Akt, and p70(S6K) by two regulators of cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity, T3 and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), would be similar in cardiomyocytes at gestational ages 100 and 135 dGA. IGF-1 and T3 each independently stimulated phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, and p70(S6K) in cells at both ages. In the younger mononucleated myocytes, the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt was reduced in the presence of IGF-1 and T3. However, the same hormone combination led to a dramatic twofold increase in the phosphorylation of these signaling proteins in the 135 dGA cardiomyocytes-even in cells that were not proliferating. In the older cells, both mono- and binucleated cells were affected. In conclusion, fetal ovine cardiomyocytes undergo profound maturation-related changes in signaling in response to T3 and IGF-1, but not to either factor alone. Differences in age-related response are likely to be related to milestones in fetal cardiac development as the myocardium prepares for ex utero life. PMID:25128174

  14. Genomics of estradiol-3-sulfate action in the ovine fetal hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Rabaglino, Maria Belen; Richards, Elaine; Denslow, Nancy; Keller-Wood, Maureen; Wood, Charles E

    2012-07-01

    In fetal sheep during late gestation sulfoconjugated estrogens in plasma reach a concentration 40-100 times greater than unconjugated estrogens. The objective of the present study was to determine the genomics of estradiol-3-sulfate (E(2)S) action in the ovine fetal brain. The hypothesis was that E(2)S stimulates genes involved in the neuroendocrine pathways that direct or facilitate fetal development at the end of gestation. Four sets of chronically catheterized ovine twin fetuses were studied (gestational age: 120-127 days gestation) with one infused with E(2)S intracerebroventricularly (1 mg/day) and the other remaining untreated (control). After euthanasia, mRNA samples were extracted from fetal brains. Only hypothalamic samples were employed for this study given the important function of this brain region in the control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Microarray analysis was performed following the Agilent protocol for one-color 8 × 15 microarrays, designed for Ovis aries. A total of 363 known genes were significantly upregulated by the E(2)S treatment (P < 0.05). Network and enrichment analyses were performed using the Cytoscape/Bingo software, and the results validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The main overrepresented biological processes resulting from this analysis were feeding behavior, hypoxia response, and transforming growth factor signaling. Notably, the genes involved in the feeding behavior (neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein) were the most strongly induced by the E(2)S treatment. In conclusion, E(2)S may be an important component of the mechanism for activating orexigenic, hypoxia responsiveness and neuroprotective pathways in the lamb as it approaches postnatal life. PMID:22570439

  15. Anti–IL-6 neutralizing antibody modulates blood-brain barrier function in the ovine fetus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiyong; Sadowska, Grazyna B.; Chen, Xiaodi; Park, Seon Yeong; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Bodge, Courtney A.; Cummings, Erin; Lim, Yow-Pin; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Besio, Walter G.; Gaitanis, John; Banks, William A.; Stonestreet, Barbara S.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired blood-brain barrier function represents an important component of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the perinatal period. Proinflammatory cytokines could contribute to ischemia-related blood-brain barrier dysfunction. IL-6 increases vascular endothelial cell monolayer permeability in vitro. However, contributions of IL-6 to blood-brain barrier abnormalities have not been examined in the immature brain in vivo. We generated pharmacologic quantities of ovine-specific neutralizing anti-IL-6 mAbs and systemically infused mAbs into fetal sheep at 126 days of gestation after exposure to brain ischemia. Anti–IL-6 mAbs were measured by ELISA in fetal plasma, cerebral cortex, and cerebrospinal fluid, blood-brain barrier permeability was quantified using the blood-to-brain transfer constant in brain regions, and IL-6, tight junction proteins, and plasmalemma vesicle protein (PLVAP) were detected by Western immunoblot. Anti–IL-6 mAb infusions resulted in increases in mAb (P < 0.05) in plasma, brain parenchyma, and cerebrospinal fluid and decreases in brain IL-6 protein. Twenty-four hours after ischemia, anti–IL-6 mAb infusions attenuated ischemia-related increases in blood-brain barrier permeability and modulated tight junction and PLVAP protein expression in fetal brain. We conclude that inhibiting the effects of IL-6 protein with systemic infusions of neutralizing antibodies attenuates ischemia-related increases in blood-brain barrier permeability by inhibiting IL-6 and modulates tight junction proteins after ischemia.—Zhang, J., Sadowska, G. B., Chen, X., Park, S. Y., Kim, J.-E., Bodge, C. A., Cummings, E., Lim, Y.-P., Makeyev, O., Besio, W. G., Gaitanis, J., Banks, W. A., Stonestreet, B. S. Anti–IL-6 neutralizing antibody modulates blood-brain barrier function in the ovine fetus. PMID:25609424

  16. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine milk in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kheirabadi, Elahe Kazemi

    2012-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. In the present study, 447 bulk milk samples from 230 dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds were collected in four provinces and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Using the cultural method, three of 447 milk samples (0.67%), including two sheep (2.2%) and one buffalo (1.6%) milk samples, were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 56 (12.5%) of milk samples, including 19 cow (14.1%), 11 sheep (12.2%), nine goat (8.7%), two camel (3.6%), and 15 buffalo (23.4%) milk samples. Using PCR method, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the level of contamination with H. pylori between milk samples collected from different species. The present study is the first report of the isolation of H. pylori from raw sheep and buffalo milk in Iran and the first demonstration of H. pylori DNA in camel and buffalo milk. PMID:22458716

  17. Ovine-Based Collagen Matrix Dressing: Next-Generation Collagen Dressing for Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Gregory; Liden, Brock; Schultz, Gregory; Yang, Qingping; Gibson, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: Broad-spectrum metalloproteinase (MMP) reduction along with inherent aspects of an extracellular matrix (ECM) dressing can bring about improved wound healing outcomes and shorter treatment duration. Initial reports of clinical effectiveness of a new ovine-based collagen extracellular matrix (CECM) dressing demonstrate benefits in chronic wound healing. Recent Advances: CECM dressings are processed differently than oxidized regenerated cellulose/collagen dressings. CECM dressings consist primarily of collagens I and III arranged as native fibers that retain the three-dimensional architecture present in tissue ECM. As such, ovine-based ECM dressings represent a new generation of collagen dressings capable of impacting a broad spectrum of MMP excess known to be present in chronic wounds. Critical Issues: While MMPs are essential in normal healing, elevated presence of MMPs has been linked to wound failure. Collagen has been shown to reduce levels of MMPs, acting as a sacrificial substrate for excessive proteases in a chronic wound. Preserving collagen dressings in a more native state enhances bioactivity in terms of the ability to affect the chronic wound environment. Clinical observation and assessment may not be sufficient to identify a wound with elevated protease activity that can break down ECM, affect wound fibroblasts, and impair growth factor response. Future Directions: Collagen dressings that target broad-spectrum excessive MMP levels and can be applied early in the course of care may positively impact healing rates in difficult wounds. Next-generation collagen dressings offer broader MMP reduction capacity while providing a provisional dermal matrix or ECM. PMID:26858910

  18. Effects of Maternal Antenatal Glucocorticoid Treatment on Apoptosis in the Ovine Fetal Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Malaeb, Shadi N.; Hovanesian, Virginia; Sarasin, Matthew D.; Hartmann, Silvia M.; Sadowska, Grazyna B.; Stonestreet, Barbara S.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of single and multiple maternal glucocorticoid courses on apoptosis in the cerebral cortices of ovine fetuses (CC). Ewes received single dexamethasone or placebo courses at 104–106 or 133–135 days or multiple courses between 76–78 and 104–106 days gestation. In the single-course groups, ewes received four 6 mg dexamethasone or placebo injections every 12 hr for 48 hr. Multiple-course groups received the same treatment once per week for 5 weeks. Neuronal and nonneuronal apoptotic cell numbers per square millimeter were determined with TUNEL and NeuN staining and with caspase-3 enzyme activity on CC tissues harvested at 106–108 (70%) or 135–137 (90%) days of gestation. Apoptotic cell numbers and caspase-3 activity were 50% lower (P < 0.02) after single placebo courses at 90% than 70% gestation; 90% of apoptotic cells were (P < 0.01) nonneuronal at both ages. Nonneuronal apoptotic cells and caspase-3 activity were 40% and 20% lower (P < 0.02) after single dexamethasone than placebo courses at 70%, but not 90%, gestation. Caspase-3 activity was 20% lower (P < 0.01) after multiple dexamethasone than placebo courses, but apoptotic cell number did not differ. We conclude that nonneuronal apoptosis represents the major form of apoptosis in the CC at both 70% and 90% of gestation. Apoptosis in nonneuronal cells decreases with maturity and after a single course of dexamethasone at 70%, but not at 90%, gestation and not after multiple courses at 70% gestation. We speculate that a single course of glucocorticoids exerts maturational changes on the rate of apoptosis in the cerebral cortex of preterm ovine fetuses. PMID:18711727

  19. Transgenic Rabbits Expressing Ovine PrP Are Susceptible to Scrapie.

    PubMed

    Sarradin, Pierre; Viglietta, Céline; Limouzin, Claude; Andréoletti, Olivier; Daniel-Carlier, Nathalie; Barc, Céline; Leroux-Coyau, Mathieu; Berthon, Patricia; Chapuis, Jérôme; Rossignol, Christelle; Gatti, Jean-Luc; Belghazi, Maya; Labas, Valérie; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Béringue, Vincent; Lantier, Frédéric; Laude, Hubert; Houdebine, Louis-Marie

    2015-08-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of neurodegenerative diseases affecting a wide range of mammalian species. They are caused by prions, a proteinaceous pathogen essentially composed of PrPSc, an abnormal isoform of the host encoded cellular prion protein PrPC. Constrained steric interactions between PrPSc and PrPC are thought to provide prions with species specificity, and to control cross-species transmission into other host populations, including humans. Transgenetic expression of foreign PrP genes has been successfully and widely used to overcome the recognized resistance of mouse to foreign TSE sources. Rabbit is one of the species that exhibit a pronounced resistance to TSEs. Most attempts to infect experimentally rabbit have failed, except after inoculation with cell-free generated rabbit prions. To gain insights on the molecular determinants of the relative resistance of rabbits to prions, we generated transgenic rabbits expressing the susceptible V136R154Q171 allele of the ovine PRNP gene on a rabbit wild type PRNP New Zealand background and assessed their experimental susceptibility to scrapie prions. All transgenic animals developed a typical TSE 6-8 months after intracerebral inoculation, whereas wild type rabbits remained healthy more than 700 days after inoculation. Despite the endogenous presence of rabbit PrPC, only ovine PrPSc was detectable in the brains of diseased animals. Collectively these data indicate that the low susceptibility of rabbits to prion infection is not enciphered within their non-PrP genetic background. PMID:26248157

  20. Influence of Reproductive Status on Tissue Composition and Biomechanical Properties of Ovine Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Daniela; Edwards, Sharon L.; Su, Kai; White, Jacinta F.; Ramshaw, John A. M.; Jenkin, Graham; Deprest, Jan; Rosamilia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To undertake a comprehensive analysis of the biochemical tissue composition and passive biomechanical properties of ovine vagina and relate this to the histo-architecture at different reproductive stages as part of the establishment of a large preclinical animal model for evaluating regenerative medicine approaches for surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. Methods Vaginal tissue was collected from virgin (n = 3), parous (n = 6) and pregnant sheep (n = 6; mean gestation; 132 d; term = 145 d). Tissue histology was analyzed using H+E and Masson's Trichrome staining. Biochemical analysis of the extracellular matrix proteins used a hydroxyproline assay to quantify total collagen, SDS PAGE to measure collagen III/I+III ratios, dimethylmethylene blue to quantify glycosaminoglycans and amino acid analysis to quantify elastin. Uniaxial tensiometry was used to determine the Young's modulus, maximum stress and strain, and permanent strain following cyclic loading. Results Vaginal tissue of virgin sheep had the lowest total collagen content and permanent strain. Parous tissue had the highest total collagen and lowest elastin content with concomitant high maximum stress. In contrast, pregnant sheep had the highest elastin and lowest collagen contents, and thickest smooth muscle layer, which was associated with low maximum stress and poor dimensional recovery following repetitive loading. Conclusion Pregnant ovine vagina was the most extensible, but the weakest tissue, whereas parous and virgin tissues were strong and elastic. Pregnancy had the greatest impact on tissue composition and biomechanical properties, compatible with significant tissue remodeling as demonstrated in other species. Biochemical changes in tissue protein composition coincide with these altered biomechanical properties. PMID:24709913

  1. Relationship between patellar tendon shortening and in vitro kinematics in the ovine stifle joint.

    PubMed

    Bertollo, Nicky; Pelletier, Matthew H; Walsh, William R

    2013-04-01

    Post-operative patellar tendon shortening induces a distal positioning of the patella in the femoral trochlear groove, which has been associated with pain and impeded mobility. An idealized in vitro model was used to examine the effects of shortening on patellar kinematics. The PT length was progressively reduced by up to 5 mm (1-mm instalments) using a device secured onto the tendon in n = 9 ovine stifles. In vitro 6 degrees-of-freedom motion data for the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joints under conditions of passively induced flexion-extension was acquired electromagnetically. Patellar motion was analysed as a function of both tibial and patellar flexion angles relative to the femoral co-ordinate frame. Linear regression with contrasts was used to compare kinematic changes for each shortening level, with significance set at P<0.01. A mean maximum percentage length reduction of 8.2% was achieved. Patellar flexion was linearly correlated with tibial flexion angle in the intact joint, and this correlation persisted after tendon shortening (R = 0.977, P < 0.01). Patellar kinematics expressed as a function of tibial flexion angle were significantly altered by a mean length decrease of 8.2%, while flexion and proximo-distal shift patterns were significantly affected at lesser shortening levels of 3.1% and 4.7%, respectively. Patellar kinematics expressed as a function of patellar flexion angle remained unchanged. These results suggest that patellar motion within the trochlear groove in the ovine stifle joint follows a repeatable three-dimensional path and that patellar tendon shortening advances the position of the patella along this path, without significantly altering it. PMID:23637219

  2. First study of pathogen load and localisation of ovine footrot using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH).

    PubMed

    Witcomb, Luci A; Green, Laura E; Calvo-Bado, Leo A; Russell, Claire L; Smith, Edward M; Grogono-Thomas, Rose; Wellington, Elizabeth M H

    2015-04-17

    Analysis of bacterial populations in situ provides insights into pathogen population dynamics and potential reservoirs for disease. Here we report a culture-independent study of ovine footrot (FR); a debilitating bacterial disease that has significant economic impact on sheep farming worldwide. Disease begins as an interdigital dermatitis (ID), which may then progress to separation of the hoof horn from the underlying epidermis causing severe footrot (SFR). Dichelobacter nodosus is the causative agent of ovine FR, however, the role of Fusobacterium necrophorum and other bacteria present in the environment and on the feet of sheep is less clear. The objective of this study was to use fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to detect, localise and quantify D. nodosus, F. necrophorum and the domain Bacteria from interdigital skin biopsies of healthy, ID- and SFR-affected feet. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum populations were restricted primarily to the epidermis, but both were detected more frequently in feet with ID or SFR than in healthy feet. D. nodosus cell counts were significantly higher in feet with ID and SFR (p<0.05) than healthy feet, whereas F. necrophorum cell counts were significantly higher only in feet with SFR (p<0.05) than healthy feet. These results, together with other published data, indicate that D. nodosus likely drives pathogenesis of footrot from initiation of ID to SFR; with D. nodosus cell counts increasing prior to onset of ID and SFR. In contrast, F. necrophorum cell counts increase after SFR onset, which may suggest an accessory role in disease pathogenesis, possibly contributing to the severity and duration of SFR. PMID:25742734

  3. Transgenic Rabbits Expressing Ovine PrP Are Susceptible to Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Sarradin, Pierre; Viglietta, Céline; Limouzin, Claude; Andréoletti, Olivier; Daniel-Carlier, Nathalie; Barc, Céline; Leroux-Coyau, Mathieu; Berthon, Patricia; Chapuis, Jérôme; Rossignol, Christelle; Gatti, Jean-Luc; Belghazi, Maya; Labas, Valérie; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Béringue, Vincent; Lantier, Frédéric; Laude, Hubert; Houdebine, Louis-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of neurodegenerative diseases affecting a wide range of mammalian species. They are caused by prions, a proteinaceous pathogen essentially composed of PrPSc, an abnormal isoform of the host encoded cellular prion protein PrPC. Constrained steric interactions between PrPSc and PrPC are thought to provide prions with species specificity, and to control cross-species transmission into other host populations, including humans. Transgenetic expression of foreign PrP genes has been successfully and widely used to overcome the recognized resistance of mouse to foreign TSE sources. Rabbit is one of the species that exhibit a pronounced resistance to TSEs. Most attempts to infect experimentally rabbit have failed, except after inoculation with cell-free generated rabbit prions. To gain insights on the molecular determinants of the relative resistance of rabbits to prions, we generated transgenic rabbits expressing the susceptible V136R154Q171 allele of the ovine PRNP gene on a rabbit wild type PRNP New Zealand background and assessed their experimental susceptibility to scrapie prions. All transgenic animals developed a typical TSE 6–8 months after intracerebral inoculation, whereas wild type rabbits remained healthy more than 700 days after inoculation. Despite the endogenous presence of rabbit PrPC, only ovine PrPSc was detectable in the brains of diseased animals. Collectively these data indicate that the low susceptibility of rabbits to prion infection is not enciphered within their non-PrP genetic background. PMID:26248157

  4. Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses for amputees: Limb compensation in a 12-month ovine model.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Trevor J; Beck, J Peter; Bloebaum, Roy D; Bachus, Kent N

    2011-10-13

    Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses are being investigated as an alternative strategy to attach prosthetic limbs to patients. Although the use of these implants has shown to be promising in clinical trials, the ability to maintain a skin seal around an osseointegrated implant interface is a major challenge to prevent superficial and deep periprosthetic infections. The specific aim of this study was to establish a translational load-bearing ovine model to assess postoperative limb compensation and gait symmetry following a percutaneous osseointegrated implant. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) the animals would return to pre-amputation limb loads within 12-months; (2) the animals would return to a symmetrical gait pattern (stride length and time in stance) within 12-months. The results demonstrated that one month following surgery, the sheep loaded their amputated limb to a mean value of nearly 80% of their pre-amputation loading condition; by 12-months, this mean had dropped to approximately 74%. There was no statistical differences between the symmetry of the amputated forelimb and the contralateral forelimb at any time point for the animals stride length or the time spent in the stance phase of their gait cycle. Thus, the data showed that while the animals maintained symmetric gait patterns, they did not return to full weight-bearing after 12-months. The results of this study showed that a large animal load-bearing model had a symmetric gait and was weight bearing for up to 12 months. While the current investigation utilizes an ovine model, the data show that osseointegrated implant technology with postoperative follow-up can help our human patients return to symmetric gait and maintain an active lifestyle, leading to an improvement in their quality of life following amputation. PMID:21920525

  5. Percutaneous Osseointegrated Prostheses for Amputees: Limb Compensation in a 12-Month Ovine model

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Trevor J.; Beck, J. Peter; Bloebaum, Roy D.; Bachus, Kent N.

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses are being investigated as an alternative strategy to attach prosthetic limbs to patients. Although the use of these implants has shown to be promising in clinical trials; the ability to maintain a skin seal around an osseointegrated implant interface is a major challenge to prevent superficial and deep periprosthetic infections. The specific aim of this study was to establish a translational load-bearing ovine model to assess postoperative limb compensation and gait symmetry following a percutaneous integrated implant. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) the animals would return to pre-amputation limb loads within 12-months; (2) the animals would return to a symmetrical gait pattern (stride length and time in stance) within 12-months. The results demonstrated that one month following surgery, the sheep loaded their amputated limb to a mean value of nearly 80% of their pre-amputation loading condition; by 12-months, this mean had dropped to approximately 74%. There were no statistical differences between the symmetry of the amputated forelimb and the contralateral forelimb at any time point for the animals stride length or the time spent in the stance phase of their gait cycle. Thus, the data showed that while the animals maintained symmetric gait patterns, they did not return to full weight-bearing after 12-months. The results of this study showed that a large animal load-bearing model had a symmetric gait and was weight bearing for up to 12 months. While the current investigation utilizes an ovine model, there data show that osseointegrated implant technology with postoperative follow-up can help our human patients return to symmetric gait and maintain an active lifestyle, leading to an improvement in their quality of life following amputation. PMID:21920525

  6. Suppression of ovine lymphocyte activation by Teladorsagia circumcincta larval excretory-secretory products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Teladorsagia circumcincta is an important pathogenic nematode of sheep. It has been demonstrated previously that stimulation of murine T lymphocytes with excretory-secretory (ES) products derived from fourth stage larvae of T. circumcincta (Tci-L4-ES) results in de novo expression of Foxp3, a transcription factor intimately involved in regulatory T cell function. In the current study, Foxp3+ T cell responses in the abomasum and the effects of Tci-L4-ES on ovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) following T. circumcincta infection were investigated. T. circumcincta infection resulted in a significant increase in numbers of abomasal Foxp3+ T cells, but not an increase in the proportion of T cells expressing Foxp3. Unlike in mice, Tci-L4-ES was incapable of inducing T cell Foxp3 expression but instead suppressed mitogen-induced and antigen-specific activation and proliferation of ovine PBMC in vitro. This effect was heat labile, suggesting that it is mediated by protein(s). Suppression was associated with up-regulation of interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA, and specific monoclonal antibody neutralisation of IL-10 resulted in a 50% reduction in suppression, indicating involvement of the IL-10 signaling pathway. Suppression was significantly reduced in PBMC isolated from T. circumcincta infected vs. helminth-naïve lambs, and this reduction in suppression was associated with an increase in Tci-L4-ES antigen-specific T cells within the PBMC. In conclusion, we have identified a mechanism by which T. circumcincta may modulate the host adaptive immune response, potentially assisting survival of the parasite within the host. However, the impact of Tci-L4-ES-mediated lymphocyte suppression during T. circumcincta infection remains to be determined. PMID:23964850

  7. Automatic corpus callosum segmentation for standardized MR brain scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qing; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.

    2007-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) brain scanning is often planned manually with the goal of aligning the imaging plane with key anatomic landmarks. The planning is time-consuming and subject to inter- and intra- operator variability. An automatic and standardized planning of brain scans is highly useful for clinical applications, and for maximum utility should work on patients of all ages. In this study, we propose a method for fully automatic planning that utilizes the landmarks from two orthogonal images to define the geometry of the third scanning plane. The corpus callosum (CC) is segmented in sagittal images by an active shape model (ASM), and the result is further improved by weighting the boundary movement with confidence scores and incorporating region based refinement. Based on the extracted contour of the CC, several important landmarks are located and then combined with landmarks from the coronal or transverse plane to define the geometry of the third plane. Our automatic method is tested on 54 MR images from 24 patients and 3 healthy volunteers, with ages ranging from 4 months to 70 years old. The average accuracy with respect to two manually labeled points on the CC is 3.54 mm and 4.19 mm, and differed by an average of 2.48 degrees from the orientation of the line connecting them, demonstrating that our method is sufficiently accurate for clinical use.

  8. Genetic Contributions to the Midsagittal Area of the Corpus Callosum

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Barrett, Elizabeth A.; Glahn, David C; Kochunov, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The degree to which genes and environment determine variations in brain structure and function is fundamentally important to understanding normal and disease-related patterns of neural organization and activity. We studied genetic contributions to the midsagittal area of the corpus callosum (CC) in pedigreed baboons (68 males/112 females) to replicate findings of high genetic contribution to area of the CC, reported in humans, and to determine if the heritability of the CC midsaggital area in adults was modulated by fetal development rate. Measurements of callosal area were obtained from high-resolution MRI scans. Heritability was estimated from pedigree based maximum likelihood estimation of genetic and non-genetic variance components as implemented in SOLAR. Our analyses revealed significant heritability for the total area of the CC and all of its subdivisions, with h2 = 0.46 for the total CC and h2 = .54, .37, .62, .56, and 0.29 for genu, anterior midbody, medial midbody, posterior midbody and splenium, respectively. Genetic correlation analysis demonstrated that the individual subdivisions shared between 41% and 98% of genetic variability. Combined with previous research reporting high heritability of other brain structures in baboons, these results reveal a consistent pattern of high heritability for brain morphometric measures in baboons. PMID:22856367

  9. Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum

    PubMed Central

    Sepehrband, Farshid; Alexander, Daniel C.; Clark, Kristi A.; Kurniawan, Nyoman D.; Yang, Zhengyi; Reutens, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy), or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI). The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach) because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions. PMID:27303273

  10. [A case of astrocytoma of corpus callosum presented diagnostic dyspraxia].

    PubMed

    Koshimizu, K; Takeyama, E; Takeyama, E; Kizuki, H; Tei, H; Kubo, O

    1995-08-01

    A case of astrocytoma whose first clinical presentation was diagnostic dyspraxia was reported. A 38-year-old right-handed male experienced funny motion of his left hand triggered by voluntary movement of his right hand. One day, he tried to insert a coin into the vending machine with his right hand, then the left hand was against the other. One month after that event, he experienced headache and vertigo. On admission, there were no abnormal findings on neurological examination. On neuropsychological examination, he was cooperative, well orientated and attentive, and there were no callosal disconnection symptoms. Frontal lobe function tests were slightly impaired. T1-weighted MRI demonstrated irregular mixed signal intensity mass lesion extending from the genu to the body of the corpus callosum and the cingulate gyrus. This lesion was slightly enhanced with Gd-DTPA. Biopsy was performed and histological diagnosis was fibrillary astrocytoma. After irradiation and chemotherapy, he was discharged from the hospital without evident neurological deficit. About 20 cases of diagnostic dyspraxia have been reported and almost all of them were caused by cerebro-vascular disease. This is the first case of brain tumor who presented diagnostic dyspraxia. PMID:7546921

  11. Division of Labor in Vocabulary Structure: Insights From Corpus Analyses.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Morten H; Monaghan, Padraic

    2016-07-01

    Psychologists have used experimental methods to study language for more than a century. However, only with the recent availability of large-scale linguistic databases has a more complete picture begun to emerge of how language is actually used, and what information is available as input to language acquisition. Analyses of such "big data" have resulted in reappraisals of key assumptions about the nature of language. As an example, we focus on corpus-based research that has shed new light on the arbitrariness of the sign: the longstanding assumption that the relationship between the sound of a word and its meaning is arbitrary. The results reveal a systematic relationship between the sound of a word and its meaning, which is stronger for early acquired words. Moreover, the analyses further uncover a systematic relationship between words and their lexical categories-nouns and verbs sound differently from each other-affecting how we learn new words and use them in sentences. Together, these results point to a division of labor between arbitrariness and systematicity in sound-meaning mappings. We conclude by arguing in favor of including "big data" analyses into the language scientist's methodological toolbox. PMID:26399384

  12. MRI evaluation of pathologies affecting the corpus callosum: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Kazi, Aamish Z; Joshi, Priscilla C; Kelkar, Abhimanyu B; Mahajan, Mangal S; Ghawate, Amit S

    2013-01-01

    The corpus callosum is a midline cerebral structure and has a unique embryological development pattern. In this article, we describe the pathophysiology and present imaging findings of various typical/atypical conditions affecting the corpus callosum. Since many of these pathologies have characteristic appearances on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their therapeutic approaches are poles apart, ranging from medical to surgical, the neuroradiologist should be well aware of them. PMID:24604936

  13. The CHEMDNER corpus of chemicals and drugs and its annotation principles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The automatic extraction of chemical information from text requires the recognition of chemical entity mentions as one of its key steps. When developing supervised named entity recognition (NER) systems, the availability of a large, manually annotated text corpus is desirable. Furthermore, large corpora permit the robust evaluation and comparison of different approaches that detect chemicals in documents. We present the CHEMDNER corpus, a collection of 10,000 PubMed abstracts that contain a total of 84,355 chemical entity mentions labeled manually by expert chemistry literature curators, following annotation guidelines specifically defined for this task. The abstracts of the CHEMDNER corpus were selected to be representative for all major chemical disciplines. Each of the chemical entity mentions was manually labeled according to its structure-associated chemical entity mention (SACEM) class: abbreviation, family, formula, identifier, multiple, systematic and trivial. The difficulty and consistency of tagging chemicals in text was measured using an agreement study between annotators, obtaining a percentage agreement of 91. For a subset of the CHEMDNER corpus (the test set of 3,000 abstracts) we provide not only the Gold Standard manual annotations, but also mentions automatically detected by the 26 teams that participated in the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER chemical mention recognition task. In addition, we release the CHEMDNER silver standard corpus of automatically extracted mentions from 17,000 randomly selected PubMed abstracts. A version of the CHEMDNER corpus in the BioC format has been generated as well. We propose a standard for required minimum information about entity annotations for the construction of domain specific corpora on chemical and drug entities. The CHEMDNER corpus and annotation guidelines are available at: http://www.biocreative.org/resources/biocreative-iv/chemdner-corpus/ PMID:25810773

  14. MRI and MR spectroscopy findings of a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis affecting the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Mehmet; Sığırcı, Ahmet; Yakıncı, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, slowly progressive, fatal, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease that is seen mostly in children and young adolescents, and primarily affects the parieto-occipital lobes. The corpus callosum, cerebellum and basal ganglia are less frequently involved. MR spectroscopy (MRS) may illustrate the pathophysiological features of SSPE. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report of MRS findings of corpus callosum involvement in a stage 3 SSPE case. PMID:26163552

  15. The CHEMDNER corpus of chemicals and drugs and its annotation principles.

    PubMed

    Krallinger, Martin; Rabal, Obdulia; Leitner, Florian; Vazquez, Miguel; Salgado, David; Lu, Zhiyong; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Yanan; Ji, Donghong; Lowe, Daniel M; Sayle, Roger A; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Rak, Rafal; Huber, Torsten; Rocktäschel, Tim; Matos, Sérgio; Campos, David; Tang, Buzhou; Xu, Hua; Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Ryu, Keun Ho; Ramanan, S V; Nathan, Senthil; Žitnik, Slavko; Bajec, Marko; Weber, Lutz; Irmer, Matthias; Akhondi, Saber A; Kors, Jan A; Xu, Shuo; An, Xin; Sikdar, Utpal Kumar; Ekbal, Asif; Yoshioka, Masaharu; Dieb, Thaer M; Choi, Miji; Verspoor, Karin; Khabsa, Madian; Giles, C Lee; Liu, Hongfang; Ravikumar, Komandur Elayavilli; Lamurias, Andre; Couto, Francisco M; Dai, Hong-Jie; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Ata, Caglar; Can, Tolga; Usié, Anabel; Alves, Rui; Segura-Bedmar, Isabel; Martínez, Paloma; Oyarzabal, Julen; Valencia, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The automatic extraction of chemical information from text requires the recognition of chemical entity mentions as one of its key steps. When developing supervised named entity recognition (NER) systems, the availability of a large, manually annotated text corpus is desirable. Furthermore, large corpora permit the robust evaluation and comparison of different approaches that detect chemicals in documents. We present the CHEMDNER corpus, a collection of 10,000 PubMed abstracts that contain a total of 84,355 chemical entity mentions labeled manually by expert chemistry literature curators, following annotation guidelines specifically defined for this task. The abstracts of the CHEMDNER corpus were selected to be representative for all major chemical disciplines. Each of the chemical entity mentions was manually labeled according to its structure-associated chemical entity mention (SACEM) class: abbreviation, family, formula, identifier, multiple, systematic and trivial. The difficulty and consistency of tagging chemicals in text was measured using an agreement study between annotators, obtaining a percentage agreement of 91. For a subset of the CHEMDNER corpus (the test set of 3,000 abstracts) we provide not only the Gold Standard manual annotations, but also mentions automatically detected by the 26 teams that participated in the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER chemical mention recognition task. In addition, we release the CHEMDNER silver standard corpus of automatically extracted mentions from 17,000 randomly selected PubMed abstracts. A version of the CHEMDNER corpus in the BioC format has been generated as well. We propose a standard for required minimum information about entity annotations for the construction of domain specific corpora on chemical and drug entities. The CHEMDNER corpus and annotation guidelines are available at: http://www.biocreative.org/resources/biocreative-iv/chemdner-corpus/. PMID:25810773

  16. Biomechanics of cross-sectional size and shape in the hominoid mandibular corpus.

    PubMed

    Daegling, D J

    1989-09-01

    Mandibular cross sections of Pan, Pongo, Gorilla, Homo, and two fossil specimens of Paranthropus were examined by computed tomography (CT) to determine the biomechanical properties of the hominoid mandibular corpus. Images obtained by CT reveal that while the fossil hominids do not differ significantly from extant hominoids in the relative contribution of compact bone to total subperiosteal area, the shape of the Paranthropus corpora indicates that the mechanical design of the robust australopithecine mandible is fundamentally distinct from that of modern hominoids in terms of its ability to resist transverse bending and torsion. It is also apparent that, among the modern hominoids, interspecific and sexual differences in corpus shape are not significant from a biomechanical perspective. While ellipse models have been used previously to describe the size, shape, and subsequent biomechanical properties of the corpus, the present study shows that such models do not predict the biomechanical properties of corpus cross-sectional geometry in an accurate or reliable manner. The traditional "robusticity" index of the mandibular corpus is of limited utility for biomechanical interpretations. The relationship of compact bone distribution in the corpus to dimensions such as mandibular length and arch width may provide a more functionally meaningful definition of mandibular robusticity. PMID:2508480

  17. Oligodendrocyte Lineage and Subventricular Zone Response to Traumatic Axonal Injury in the Corpus Callosum

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Genevieve M.; Mierzwa, Amanda J.; Kijpaisalratana, Naruchorn; Tang, *Haiying; Wang, Yong; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Selwyn, Reed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury frequently causes traumatic axonal injury (TAI) in white matter tracts. Experimental TAI in the corpus callosum of adult mice was used to examine the effects on oligodendrocyte lineage cells and myelin in conjunction with neuroimaging. The injury targeted the corpus callosum over the subventricular zone, a source of neural stem/progenitor cells. Traumatic axonal injury was produced in the rostral body of the corpus callosum by impact onto the skull at the bregma. During the first week after injury, magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging showed that axial diffusivity decreased in the corpus callosum and that corresponding regions exhibited significant axon damage accompanied by hypertrophic microglia and reactive astrocytes. Oligodendrocyte progenitor proliferation increased in the subventricular zone and corpus callosum. Oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum shifted toward upregulation of myelin gene transcription. Plp/CreERT:R26IAP reporter mice showed normal reporter labeling of myelin sheaths 0 to 2 days after injury but labeling was increased between 2 and 7 days after injury. Electron microscopy revealed axon degeneration, demyelination, and redundant myelin figures. These findings expand the cell types and responses to white matter injuries that inform diffusion tensor imaging evaluation and identify pivotal white matter changes after TAI that may affect axon vulnerability vs. recovery after brain injury. PMID:24226267

  18. Development of a Cost-effective Ovine Polyclonal Antibody-Based Product, EBOTAb, to Treat Ebola Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dowall, Stuart David; Callan, Jo; Zeltina, Antra; Al-Abdulla, Ibrahim; Strecker, Thomas; Fehling, Sarah K.; Krähling, Verena; Bosworth, Andrew; Rayner, Emma; Taylor, Irene; Charlton, Sue; Landon, John; Cameron, Ian; Hewson, Roger; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Bowden, Thomas A.; Carroll, Miles W.

    2016-01-01

    The highly glycosylated glycoprotein spike of Ebola virus (EBOV-GP1,2) is the primary target of the humoral host response. Recombinant EBOV-GP ectodomain (EBOV-GP1,2ecto) expressed in mammalian cells was used to immunize sheep and elicited a robust immune response and produced high titers of high avidity polyclonal antibodies. Investigation of the neutralizing activity of the ovine antisera in vitro revealed that it neutralized EBOV. A pool of intact ovine immunoglobulin G, herein termed EBOTAb, was prepared from the antisera and used for an in vivo guinea pig study. When EBOTAb was delivered 6 hours after challenge, all animals survived without experiencing fever or other clinical manifestations. In a second series of guinea pig studies, the administration of EBOTAb dosing was delayed for 48 or 72 hours after challenge, resulting in 100% and 75% survival, respectively. These studies illustrate the usefulness of EBOTAb in protecting against EBOV-induced disease. PMID:26715676

  19. Detection and characterization of an ovine placental lactogen stable intermediate in the urea-induced unfolding process.

    PubMed Central

    Cymes, G. D.; Grosman, C.; Delfino, J. M.; Wolfenstein-Todel, C.

    1996-01-01

    The urea-induced equilibrium unfolding of ovine placental lactogen, purified from ovine placenta, was followed by size-exclusion chromatography, far-UV CD, and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. The data obtained by each of these methods showed a poor fit to a two-state model involving only a native and an unfolded form. A satisfactory fit required, instead, a model that involved a stable, partially folded form in addition to the native and unfolded ones. The results obtained from the best-fitting theoretical curves for the three-state model indicated that this intermediate state, which is the predominant species in solution at 3.6 M of urea activity, is compact, largely alpha-helical, and changes considerably the native-like tertiary packing around its tryptophan residues. These findings suggest that this stable intermediate exhibits properties similar to those that characterize the molten globule state. PMID:8897607

  20. Resistance of ovine, caprine and bovine endothelial cells to Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Uzal, F A; Rolfe, B E; Smith, N J; Thomas, A C; Kelly, W R

    1999-08-01

    Ovine, caprine and bovine endothelial cells were grown in vitro and challenged with Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin to compare their susceptibility to this toxin. Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, which are known to be susceptible to epsilon toxin, were used as a positive control. No morphological alterations were observed in any of the endothelial cell cultures tested, even after challenging with doses as high as 1200 MLD50/ml of epsilon toxin. MDCK cells showed contour rounding and nuclear condensation as early as 30 min after exposure to 100 MLD50/ml of epsilon toxin and after 60 min of exposure to 12.5 MLD50/ml of the same toxin. All the MDCK cells were dead after 3 h of exposure to all concentrations of epsilon toxin. The results indicate that ovine, caprine and bovine endothelial cells are not morphologically responsive to the action of epsilon toxin in vitro. PMID:10493114

  1. Ex vivo bubble production from ovine large blood vessels: size on detachment and evidence of "active spots".

    PubMed

    Arieli, R; Marmur, A

    2014-08-15

    Nanobubbles formed on the hydrophobic silicon wafer were shown to be the source of gas micronuclei from which bubbles evolved during decompression. Bubbles were also formed after decompression on the luminal surface of ovine blood vessels. Four ovine blood vessels: aorta, pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery, and superior vena cava, were compressed to 1013 kPa for 21 h. They were then decompressed, photographed at 1-s intervals, and bubble size was measured on detachment. There were certain spots at which bubbles appeared, either singly or in a cluster. Mean detachment diameter was between 0.7 and 1.0 mm. The finding of active spots at which bubbles nucleate is a new, hitherto unreported observation. It is possible that these are the hydrophobic spots at which bubbles nucleate, stabilise, and later transform into the gas micronuclei that grow into bubbles. The possible neurological effects of these large arterial bubbles should be further explored. PMID:24933644

  2. Kit ligand promotes the transition from primordial to primary follicles after in vitro culture of ovine ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, A Y P; Gouveia, B B; Barberino, R S; Lins, T L B G; Santos, L P; Gonçalves, R J S; Celestino, J J H; Matos, M H T

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of kit ligand (KL) on the morphology and development of ovine preantral follicles (fresh control) and after 7 days of in vitro culture in α-Minimal Essential Medium (α-MEM; control medium) or the presence of KL (1, 10, 50, 100 or 200 ng/ml). There was an increase in the percentage of primary follicles at the concentration of 100 ng/ml KL, compared with the fresh control, control medium (α-MEM) and the other KL concentrations. Follicle diameter was significantly higher than the control medium only at concentrations of 50 and 100 ng/ml KL. In conclusion, 100 ng/ml KL promoted the transition from primordial to primary follicles (follicular activation) after in vitro culture of ovine ovarian tissue. PMID:26503557

  3. NADPH diaphorase and nitric oxide synthase in the corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum of the cockroach Diploptera punctata.

    PubMed

    Skinner, J R; Ren, M; Chan, K K; Stay, B

    2000-01-01

    Juvenile hormone synthesis by corpora allata is regulated partly by allatostatin containing nerves from the brain that innervate the corpora cardiaca and the corpora allata. To investigate whether NO also participates in the regulation of juvenile hormone synthesis, antibody against NO synthase and the histochemical test for NADPH diaphorase activity, a marker for NO synthase, were applied to the corpora cardiaca-corpora allata of Diploptera punctata. Strong NADPH diaphorase activity occurred in corpus allatum cells but not in nerve fibers in the corpora allata or corpora cardiaca. In contrast, NO immunoreactivity occurred in nerves in the corpora cardiaca but not within the corpora allata. NO and allatostatin were not colocalized. NO synthase and NADPH diaphorase activity were localized in similar areas of the subesophageal ganglion and cells in the pars intercerebralis of the brain. Positive correlation of the quantity of NADPH diaphorase activity with juvenile hormone synthesis during the gonadotrophic cycle and lack of such correlation in subesophageal ganglia suggest that NADPH diaphorase activity reflects the necessity of NADPH in the pathway of juvenile hormone synthesis. These data suggest that NO is unlikely to play a significant role in the regulation of the corpora allata. PMID:18088916

  4. A comparison between porcine, ovine, and bovine intervertebral disc anatomy and single lamella annulus fibrosus tensile properties.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Lauren A; DeWitte-Orr, Stephanie J; Gregory, Diane E

    2016-02-01

    This project aimed to compare gross anatomical measures and biomechanical properties of single lamellae from the annulus fibrosus of ovine and porcine lumbar vertebrae, and bovine tail vertebrae. The morphology of the vertebrae of these species differ significantly both from each other and from human, yet how these differences alter biomechanical properties is unknown. Geometric parameters measured in this study included: 1) absolute and relative intervertebral (IVD) and vertebral body height and 2) absolute and relative intervertebral disc (IVD) anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) widths. Single lamella tensile properties included toe-region stress and stretch ratio, stiffness, and tensile strength. As expected, the bovine tail IVD revealed a more circular shape compared with both the ovine and porcine lumbar IVD. The bovine tail also had the largest IVD to vertebral body height ratio (due to having the highest absolute IVD height). Bovine tail lamellae were also found to be strongest and stiffest (in tension) while ovine lumbar lamellae were weakest and most compliant. Histological analysis revealed the greatest proportion of collagen in the bovine corroborating findings of increased strength and stiffness. The observed differences in anatomical shape, connective tissue composition, and tensile properties need to be considered when choosing an appropriate model for IVD research. PMID:26558749

  5. Intrafollicular expression and potential regulatory role of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in the ovine ovary.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Yao, X L; Meng, J Z; Liu, Y; Jiang, X L; Chen, J W; Li, P F; Ren, Y S; Liu, W Z; Yao, J B; Folger, J K; Smith, G W; Lv, L H

    2016-01-01

    Follicular growth is regulated by a complex interaction of pituitary gonadotropins with local regulatory molecules. Previous studies demonstrated an important role for cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in regulation of granulosa cell estradiol production associated with dominant follicle selection in cattle. However, intraovarian expression and actions of CART in other species, including sheep, are not known. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of CART in sheep follicles and determine the effects of CART on indices of ovine granulosa cell function linked to follicular development. Results demonstrated the expression of CART messenger RNA and prominent intraovarian localization of CART peptide in granulosa cells of sheep follicles. Granulosa cell CART messenger RNA was lower, but follicular fluid estradiol concentrations were higher in large (>5 mm) follicles vs smaller 3- to 5-mm follicles harvested from sheep ovaries of abattoir origin. CART treatment inhibited follicle stimulating hormone-induced estradiol production by cultured ovine granulosal cells and also blocked the follicle stimulating hormone-induced increase in granulosa cell numbers. Results demonstrate expression of CART in sheep follicular tissues and suggest potential biological actions of CART, which are inhibitory to ovine follicular growth and development. PMID:26490113

  6. A genetically engineered human Kunitz protease inhibitor with increased kallikrein inhibition in an ovine model of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Ohri, S K; Parratt, R; White, T; Becket, J; Brannan, J J; Hunt, B J; Taylor, K M

    2001-05-01

    A recombinant human serine protease inhibitor known as Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) wild type has functional similarities to the bovine Kunitz inhibitor, aprotinin, and had shown a potential to reduce bleeding in an ovine model of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The aim of this study was to assess KPI-185, a modification of KPI-wild type that differs from KPI-wild type in two amino acid residues and which enhances anti-kallikrein activity in a further double-blind, randomized study in an ovine model of CPB, and to compare with our previous study of KPI-wild type and aprotinin in the same ovine model. Post-operative drain losses and subjective assessment of wound 'dryness' showed no significant differences between KPI-185 and KPI-wild type, despite the significant enhancement of kallikrein inhibition using KPI-185 seen in serial kallikrein inhibition assays. These preliminary findings support the hypothesis that kallikrein inhibition is not the major mechanism by which Kunitz inhibitors such as aprotinin reduce perioperative bleeding. PMID:11419655

  7. Population structure of eleven Spanish ovine breeds and detection of selective sweeps with BayeScan and hapFLK.

    PubMed

    Manunza, A; Cardoso, T F; Noce, A; Martínez, A; Pons, A; Bermejo, L A; Landi, V; Sànchez, A; Jordana, J; Delgado, J V; Adán, S; Capote, J; Vidal, O; Ugarte, E; Arranz, J J; Calvo, J H; Casellas, J; Amills, M

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the current work were to analyse the population structure of 11 Spanish ovine breeds and to detect genomic regions that may have been targeted by selection. A total of 141 individuals were genotyped with the Infinium 50 K Ovine SNP BeadChip (Illumina). We combined this dataset with Spanish ovine data previously reported by the International Sheep Genomics Consortium (N = 229). Multidimensional scaling and Admixture analyses revealed that Canaria de Pelo and, to a lesser extent, Roja Mallorquina, Latxa and Churra are clearly differentiated populations, while the remaining seven breeds (Ojalada, Castellana, Gallega, Xisqueta, Ripollesa, Rasa Aragonesa and Segureña) share a similar genetic background. Performance of a genome scan with BayeScan and hapFLK allowed us identifying three genomic regions that are consistently detected with both methods i.e. Oar3 (150-154 Mb), Oar6 (4-49 Mb) and Oar13 (68-74 Mb). Neighbor-joining trees based on polymorphisms mapping to these three selective sweeps did not show a clustering of breeds according to their predominant productive specialization (except the local tree based on Oar13 SNPs). Such cryptic signatures of selection have been also found in the bovine genome, posing a considerable challenge to understand the biological consequences of artificial selection. PMID:27272025

  8. Population structure of eleven Spanish ovine breeds and detection of selective sweeps with BayeScan and hapFLK

    PubMed Central

    Manunza, A.; Cardoso, T. F.; Noce, A.; Martínez, A.; Pons, A.; Bermejo, L. A.; Landi, V.; Sànchez, A.; Jordana, J.; Delgado, J. V.; Adán, S.; Capote, J.; Vidal, O.; Ugarte, E.; Arranz, J. J.; Calvo, J. H.; Casellas, J.; Amills, M.

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the current work were to analyse the population structure of 11 Spanish ovine breeds and to detect genomic regions that may have been targeted by selection. A total of 141 individuals were genotyped with the Infinium 50 K Ovine SNP BeadChip (Illumina). We combined this dataset with Spanish ovine data previously reported by the International Sheep Genomics Consortium (N = 229). Multidimensional scaling and Admixture analyses revealed that Canaria de Pelo and, to a lesser extent, Roja Mallorquina, Latxa and Churra are clearly differentiated populations, while the remaining seven breeds (Ojalada, Castellana, Gallega, Xisqueta, Ripollesa, Rasa Aragonesa and Segureña) share a similar genetic background. Performance of a genome scan with BayeScan and hapFLK allowed us identifying three genomic regions that are consistently detected with both methods i.e. Oar3 (150–154 Mb), Oar6 (4–49 Mb) and Oar13 (68–74 Mb). Neighbor-joining trees based on polymorphisms mapping to these three selective sweeps did not show a clustering of breeds according to their predominant productive specialization (except the local tree based on Oar13 SNPs). Such cryptic signatures of selection have been also found in the bovine genome, posing a considerable challenge to understand the biological consequences of artificial selection. PMID:27272025

  9. Substantial differences between human and ovine mesenchymal stem cells in response to osteogenic media: how to explain and how to manage?

    PubMed

    Kalaszczynska, Ilona; Ruminski, Slawomir; Platek, Anna E; Bissenik, Igor; Zakrzewski, Piotr; Noszczyk, Maria; Lewandowska-Szumiel, Malgorzata

    2013-10-01

    It is expected that use of adult multipotential mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bone tissue engineering (TE) will lead to improvement of TE products. Prior to clinical application, biocompatibility of bone TE products need to be tested in vitro and in vivo. In orthopedic research, sheep are a well-accepted model due to similarities with humans and are assumed to be predictive of human outcomes. In this study we uncover differences between human and ovine bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ADSCs) in response to osteogenic media. Osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and ADSCs was monitored by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition. Mineralization of ovine BMSC was achieved in medium containing NaH2PO4 as a source of phosphate ions (Pi), but not in medium containing β-glycerophosphate (β-GP), which is most often used. In a detailed study we found no induction of ALP activity in ovine BMSCs and ADSCs upon osteogenic stimulation, which makes β-GP an unsuitable source of phosphate ions for ovine cells. Moreover, mineralization of human ADSCs was more efficient in osteogenic medium containing NaH2PO4. These results indicate major differences between ovine and human MSCs and suggest that standard in vitro osteogenic differentiation techniques may not be suitable for all types of cells used in cell-based therapies. Since mineralization is a widely accepted marker of the osteogenic differentiation and maturation of cells in culture, it may lead to potentially misleading results and should be taken into account at the stage of planning and interpreting preclinical observations performed in animal models. We also present a cell culture protocol for ovine ADSCs, which do not express ALP activity and do not mineralize under routine pro-osteogenic conditions in vitro. We plan to apply it in preclinical experiments of bone tissue-engineered products performed in an ovine model. PMID:24083091

  10. Substantial Differences Between Human and Ovine Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Response to Osteogenic Media: How to Explain and How to Manage?

    PubMed Central

    Kalaszczynska, Ilona; Ruminski, Slawomir; Platek, Anna E.; Bissenik, Igor; Zakrzewski, Piotr; Noszczyk, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Abstract It is expected that use of adult multipotential mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bone tissue engineering (TE) will lead to improvement of TE products. Prior to clinical application, biocompatibility of bone TE products need to be tested in vitro and in vivo. In orthopedic research, sheep are a well-accepted model due to similarities with humans and are assumed to be predictive of human outcomes. In this study we uncover differences between human and ovine bone marrow–derived MSCs (BMSCs) and adipose tissue–derived MSCs (ADSCs) in response to osteogenic media. Osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and ADSCs was monitored by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition. Mineralization of ovine BMSC was achieved in medium containing NaH2PO4 as a source of phosphate ions (Pi), but not in medium containing β-glycerophosphate (β-GP), which is most often used. In a detailed study we found no induction of ALP activity in ovine BMSCs and ADSCs upon osteogenic stimulation, which makes β-GP an unsuitable source of phosphate ions for ovine cells. Moreover, mineralization of human ADSCs was more efficient in osteogenic medium containing NaH2PO4. These results indicate major differences between ovine and human MSCs and suggest that standard in vitro osteogenic differentiation techniques may not be suitable for all types of cells used in cell-based therapies. Since mineralization is a widely accepted marker of the osteogenic differentiation and maturation of cells in culture, it may lead to potentially misleading results and should be taken into account at the stage of planning and interpreting preclinical observations performed in animal models. We also present a cell culture protocol for ovine ADSCs, which do not express ALP activity and do not mineralize under routine pro-osteogenic conditions in vitro. We plan to apply it in preclinical experiments of bone tissue–engineered products performed in an ovine model. PMID:24083091

  11. A Combined Corpus and Systemic-Functional Analysis of the Problem-Solution Pattern in a Student and Professional Corpus of Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2003-01-01

    Reports on research describing similarities and differences between expert and novice writing in the problem-solution pattern, a frequent rhetorical pattern of technical academic writing. A corpus of undergraduate student writing and one containing professional writing consisted of 80 and 60 recommendation reports, respectively, with each corpus…

  12. Proverb comprehension in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Rehmel, Jamie L; Brown, Warren S; Paul, Lynn K

    2016-09-01

    Comprehension of non-literal language involves multiple neural systems likely involving callosal connections. We describe proverb comprehension impairments in individuals with isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) and normal-range general intelligence. Experiment 1 compared Gorham Proverb Test (Gorham, 1956) performance in 19 adults with AgCC and 33 neurotypical control participants of similar age, sex, and intelligence. Experiment 2 used the Proverbs subtest of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS, 2001) to compare 19 adults with AgCC and 17 control participants with similar age, sex, and intelligence. Gorham Proverbs performance was impaired in the AgCC group for both the free-response and multiple-choice tasks. On the D-KEFS proverbs test, the AgCC group performed significantly worse on the free-response task (and all derivative scores) despite normal levels of performance on the multiple-choice task. Covarying verbal intelligence did not alter these outcomes. However, covarying a measure of non-literal language comprehension considerably reduced group differences in proverb comprehension on the Gorham test, but had little effect on the D-KEFS group differences. The difference between groups seemed to be greatest when participants had to generate their own interpretation (free response), or in the multiple choice format when the test included many proverbs that were likely to be less familiar. Taken together, the results of this study clearly show that proverb comprehension is diminished in individuals with AgCC compared to their peers. PMID:27448531

  13. Role of different types of potassium channels in the relaxation of corpus cavernosum induced by resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Dalaklioglu, Selvinaz; Ozbey, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Resveratrol (RVT), one of the most commonly employed dietary polyphenol, is used in traditional Japanese and Chinese medicine for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Recently, we have shown that RVT has a potent relaxant effect on rat corpus cavernosum via endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Objective: The present study addressed the question whether different types of potassium channels are involved in the endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanism of corpus cavernosum relaxation induced by RVT. Materials and Methods: Strips of corpus cavernosum from rats were mounted in an organ-bath system for isometric tension studies. Results: RVT (1-100 μmol/L) produced concentration-dependent relaxation responses in rat corpus cavernosum pre-contracted by phenylephrine. The non-selective potassium channels blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA, 10 mmol/L), ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels blocker glibenclamide (10 μmol/L), and inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels inhibitor barium chloride (BaCl2, 30 μmol/L) caused a significant inhibition on the relaxation response to RVT, whereas voltage-dependent potassium channels inhibitor 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 1 mmol/L), and large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels inhibitor iberiotoxin (IbTX, 0.1 μmol/L) did not significantly alter relaxant responses of corpus cavernosum strips to RVT. In addition, relaxant responses to RVT did not significantly inhibited by the combination of selective inhibitors of small and intermediate conductance BKCa channels (0.1 μmol/L charybdotoxin and 1 μmol/L apamin, respectively). Conclusion: These results demonstrated that endothelial small and intermediate conductance BKCa channels are not thought to be an important role in RVT-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation of corpus cavernosum. The endothelium-independent corpus cavernosum relaxation induced by RVT is seems to largely depend on Kir channels and KATP channels in

  14. Magnetic resonance findings of the corpus callosum in canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Tamura, Shinji; Nakamoto, Yuya; Matsuki, Naoaki; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Fujita, Michio; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yamato, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have described magnetic resonance (MR) findings in canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases such as gangliosidoses and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Although most of those studies described the signal intensities of white matter in the cerebrum, findings of the corpus callosum were not described in detail. A retrospective study was conducted on MR findings of the corpus callosum as well as the rostral commissure and the fornix in 18 cases of canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases. This included 6 Shiba Inu dogs and 2 domestic shorthair cats with GM1 gangliosidosis; 2 domestic shorthair cats, 2 familial toy poodles, and a golden retriever with GM2 gangliosidosis; and 2 border collies and 3 chihuahuas with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, to determine whether changes of the corpus callosum is an imaging indicator of those diseases. The corpus callosum and the rostral commissure were difficult to recognize in all cases of juvenile-onset gangliosidoses (GM1 gangliosidosis in Shiba Inu dogs and domestic shorthair cats and GM2 gangliosidosis in domestic shorthair cats) and GM2 gangliosidosis in toy poodles with late juvenile-onset. In contrast, the corpus callosum and the rostral commissure were confirmed in cases of GM2 gangliosidosis in a golden retriever and canine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses with late juvenile- to early adult-onset, but were extremely thin. Abnormal findings of the corpus callosum on midline sagittal images may be a useful imaging indicator for suspecting lysosomal storage diseases, especially hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the corpus callosum in juvenile-onset gangliosidoses. PMID:24386203

  15. Magnetic Resonance Findings of the Corpus Callosum in Canine and Feline Lysosomal Storage Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Tamura, Shinji; Nakamoto, Yuya; Matsuki, Naoaki; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Fujita, Michio; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yamato, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have described magnetic resonance (MR) findings in canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases such as gangliosidoses and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Although most of those studies described the signal intensities of white matter in the cerebrum, findings of the corpus callosum were not described in detail. A retrospective study was conducted on MR findings of the corpus callosum as well as the rostral commissure and the fornix in 18 cases of canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases. This included 6 Shiba Inu dogs and 2 domestic shorthair cats with GM1 gangliosidosis; 2 domestic shorthair cats, 2 familial toy poodles, and a golden retriever with GM2 gangliosidosis; and 2 border collies and 3 chihuahuas with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, to determine whether changes of the corpus callosum is an imaging indicator of those diseases. The corpus callosum and the rostral commissure were difficult to recognize in all cases of juvenile-onset gangliosidoses (GM1 gangliosidosis in Shiba Inu dogs and domestic shorthair cats and GM2 gangliosidosis in domestic shorthair cats) and GM2 gangliosidosis in toy poodles with late juvenile-onset. In contrast, the corpus callosum and the rostral commissure were confirmed in cases of GM2 gangliosidosis in a golden retriever and canine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses with late juvenile- to early adult-onset, but were extremely thin. Abnormal findings of the corpus callosum on midline sagittal images may be a useful imaging indicator for suspecting lysosomal storage diseases, especially hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the corpus callosum in juvenile-onset gangliosidoses. PMID:24386203

  16. Characterizing the Google Books Corpus: Strong Limits to Inferences of Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Evolution.

    PubMed

    Pechenick, Eitan Adam; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-01-01

    It is tempting to treat frequency trends from the Google Books data sets as indicators of the "true" popularity of various words and phrases. Doing so allows us to draw quantitatively strong conclusions about the evolution of cultural perception of a given topic, such as time or gender. However, the Google Books corpus suffers from a number of limitations which make it an obscure mask of cultural popularity. A primary issue is that the corpus is in effect a library, containing one of each book. A single, prolific author is thereby able to noticeably insert new phrases into the Google Books lexicon, whether the author is widely read or not. With this understood, the Google Books corpus remains an important data set to be considered more lexicon-like than text-like. Here, we show that a distinct problematic feature arises from the inclusion of scientific texts, which have become an increasingly substantive portion of the corpus throughout the 1900 s. The result is a surge of phrases typical to academic articles but less common in general, such as references to time in the form of citations. We use information theoretic methods to highlight these dynamics by examining and comparing major contributions via a divergence measure of English data sets between decades in the period 1800-2000. We find that only the English Fiction data set from the second version of the corpus is not heavily affected by professional texts. Overall, our findings call into question the vast majority of existing claims drawn from the Google Books corpus, and point to the need to fully characterize the dynamics of the corpus before using these data sets to draw broad conclusions about cultural and linguistic evolution. PMID:26445406

  17. Characterizing the Google Books Corpus: Strong Limits to Inferences of Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Pechenick, Eitan Adam; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-01-01

    It is tempting to treat frequency trends from the Google Books data sets as indicators of the “true” popularity of various words and phrases. Doing so allows us to draw quantitatively strong conclusions about the evolution of cultural perception of a given topic, such as time or gender. However, the Google Books corpus suffers from a number of limitations which make it an obscure mask of cultural popularity. A primary issue is that the corpus is in effect a library, containing one of each book. A single, prolific author is thereby able to noticeably insert new phrases into the Google Books lexicon, whether the author is widely read or not. With this understood, the Google Books corpus remains an important data set to be considered more lexicon-like than text-like. Here, we show that a distinct problematic feature arises from the inclusion of scientific texts, which have become an increasingly substantive portion of the corpus throughout the 1900s. The result is a surge of phrases typical to academic articles but less common in general, such as references to time in the form of citations. We use information theoretic methods to highlight these dynamics by examining and comparing major contributions via a divergence measure of English data sets between decades in the period 1800–2000. We find that only the English Fiction data set from the second version of the corpus is not heavily affected by professional texts. Overall, our findings call into question the vast majority of existing claims drawn from the Google Books corpus, and point to the need to fully characterize the dynamics of the corpus before using these data sets to draw broad conclusions about cultural and linguistic evolution. PMID:26445406

  18. The Epicardial Neural Ganglionated Plexus of the Ovine Heart: Anatomical Basis for Experimental Cardiac Electrophysiology and Nerve Protective Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Saburkina, Inga; Rysevaite, Kristina; Pauziene, Neringa; Mischke, Karl; Schauerte, Patrick; Jalife, José; Pauza, Dainius H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND The sheep is routinely used in experimental cardiac electrophysiology and surgery. OBJECTIVE We aimed at (1) ascertaining the topography and architecture of the ovine epicardial neural plexus (ENP), (2) determining the relationships of the ENP with the vagal and sympathetic cardiac nerves and ganglia, and (3) evaluating gross anatomical differences and similarities among ENPs in humans, sheep and other species. METHODS The ovine ENP, extrinsic sympathetic and vagal nerves were revealed histochemically for acetylcholinesterase on whole heart and/or thorax-dissected preparations from 23 newborn lambs with subsequent examination by a stereomicroscope. RESULTS The intrinsic cardiac nerves extend from the venous part of the ovine heart hilum (HH) along the roots of the cranial (superior) caval and left azygos veins to both atria and ventricles via five epicardial routes; i.e. the dorsal right atrial (DRA), middle (MD), left dorsal (LD), right ventral (VR) and ventral left atrial (VLA) nerve subplexuses. Intrinsic nerves proceeding from the arterial part of the HH along the roots of the aorta and pulmonary trunk extend exclusively into the ventricles as the right and left coronary subplexuses. The DRA, RV, and MD subplexuses receive the main extrinsic neural input from the right cervicothoracic and the right thoracic sympathetic T2, T3 ganglia, as well as from the right vagal nerve. The LD is supplied by sizeable extrinsic nerves from the left thoracic T4-T6 sympathetic ganglia and the left vagal nerve. Sheep hearts contained on average 769±52 epicardial ganglia. Cumulative areas of epicardial ganglia on the root of the cranial vena cava and on the wall of the coronary sinus were the largest of all regions (p<0.05). CONCLUSION Despite substantial interindividual variability in the morphology of the ovine ENP, the right-sided epicardial neural subplexuses supplying the sinuatrial and atrioventricular nodes are mostly concentrated at a fat pad between

  19. In vitro fabrication of autologous living tissue-engineered vascular grafts based on prenatally harvested ovine amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Weber, Benedikt; Kehl, Debora; Bleul, Ulrich; Behr, Luc; Sammut, Sébastien; Frese, Laura; Ksiazek, Agnieszka; Achermann, Josef; Stranzinger, Gerald; Robert, Jérôme; Sanders, Bart; Sidler, Michele; Brokopp, Chad E; Proulx, Steven T; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Schoenauer, Roman; Emmert, Maximilian Y; Falk, Volkmar; Hoerstrup, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid cells (AFCs) have been proposed as a valuable source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, before clinical implementation, rigorous evaluation of this cell source in clinically relevant animal models accepted by regulatory authorities is indispensable. Today, the ovine model represents one of the most accepted preclinical animal models, in particular for cardiovascular applications. Here, we investigate the isolation and use of autologous ovine AFCs as cell source for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications. Fetal fluids were aspirated in vivo from pregnant ewes (n = 9) and from explanted uteri post mortem at different gestational ages (n = 91). Amniotic non-allantoic fluid nature was evaluated biochemically and in vivo samples were compared with post mortem reference samples. Isolated cells revealed an immunohistochemical phenotype similar to ovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and showed expression of stem cell factors described for embryonic stem cells, such as NANOG and STAT-3. Isolated ovine amniotic fluid-derived MSCs were screened for numeric chromosomal aberrations and successfully differentiated into several mesodermal phenotypes. Myofibroblastic ovine AFC lineages were then successfully used for the in vitro fabrication of small- and large-diameter tissue-engineered vascular grafts (n = 10) and cardiovascular patches (n = 34), laying the foundation for the use of this relevant pre-clinical in vivo assessment model for future amniotic fluid cell-based therapeutic applications. PMID:23881794

  20. Mechanisms of desensitization of the adrenocorticotropin response to arginine vasopressin in ovine anterior pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A; Mason, D

    2005-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) stimulates adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion from corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary via activation of the V1b vasopressin receptor, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Recently, we have shown that treatment of ovine anterior pituitary cells with AVP for short periods results in reduced responsiveness to subsequent stimulation with AVP. The aim of this study was to investigate mechanisms involved in this desensitization process. Among the GPCR family, rapid desensitization is commonly mediated by receptor phosphorylation, with resensitization being mediated by internalization and subsequent dephosphorylation of the receptors by protein phosphatases. Since desensitization of V1a vasopressin receptors is mediated by protein kinase C-mediated receptor phosphorylation, we investigated the involvement of this enzyme in desensitization of the ACTH response to AVP. Treatment of perifused ovine anterior pituitary cells with the specific protein kinase C (PKC) activator 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (300 microM) did not induce any reduction in response to a subsequent 5-min stimulation with 100 nM AVP, despite potently stimulating ACTH secretion. Likewise, the results obtained using the PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8220 were not consistent with involvement of PKC in AVP desensitization: 2 microM Ro 31-8220 did not reduce the ability of a 10 nM AVP pretreatment to induce desensitization to a subsequent stimulation with 100 nM AVP. Pharmacologic blockade of receptor internalization by treatment with 0.25 mg/ml concanavalin A significantly impaired the ability of a 15-min pretreatment with 10 nM AVP to induce desensitization, rather than affecting resensitization. Treatment with 10 nM okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 and 2A, had no effect on either resensitization or desensitization. In contrast, inhibition of protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B) with 1 microM FK506 decreased the rate of resensitization: complete

  1. Some epizootiological and clinical aspects of ovine babesiosis caused by Babesia ovis--a review.

    PubMed

    Yeruham, I; Hadani, A; Galker, F

    1998-01-31

    The study shows a close relationship between incidence of ovine babesiosis caused by Babesia ovis and the activity period and distribution area of the vector tick Rhipicephalus bursa. The most important factor limiting the distribution of this tick is a decrease in humidity. In general, it is absent from areas with an average annual rainfall of less than about 300 mm. The rate of parasitaemia and the degree of anaemia were not correlated. Decrease of the packed-cell volume ranged from 30 to 40%. Parasitized erythrocytes were not observed to block capillaries in the brain, which explained the absence of nervous symptoms in acute babesiosis. The kidney was the most severely affected organ, exhibiting acute glomerulonephritis. The lesions observed were suggestive of vascular alteration and vascular stasis, leading to anoxia of the tissues. A disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) syndrome was recorded in sheep infected with babesiosis. Biochemical studies revealed possible damage to the liver and kidneys. Most of the lambs (85%) that were infested with larvae, and all lambs infested with adult R. bursa ticks reacted serologically to B. ovis antigen. The serological reactions following infestation with the larvae occurred much later than those following infestation with the adult stage. Both transovarial and transstadial transmission of the parasite were demonstrated. A study of antibodies to B. ovis using IFAT in hoggets and ewes revealed high serological prevalence, i.e., 88.9% in ewes and 84.5% in hoggets. No marked seasonal fluctuation was observed. The serological findings, in addition to the fact that one splenectomised lamb reacted to larval infestation with acute ovine babesiosis, show that the preimaginal stages of R. bursa occurring in the winter can transmit B. ovis, usually causing a sub-clinical disease. This might play a major role in pre-immunizing and strengthening the premunition of the sheep against the main spring challenge by the adult ticks

  2. Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine from corpus of guinea pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Shichijo, K; Sakurai-Yamashita, Y; Sekine, I; Taniyama, K

    1997-11-01

    Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine was identified in mucosa-free preparations (muscle layer including intramural plexus) from guinea pig stomach corpus by measuring tissue dopamine content and dopamine release and by immunohistochemical methods using a dopamine antiserum. Dopamine content in mucosa-free preparations of guinea pig gastric corpus was one-tenth of norepinephrine content. Electrical transmural stimulation of mucosa-free preparations of gastric corpus increased the release of endogenous dopamine in a frequency-dependent (3-20 Hz) manner. The stimulated release of dopamine was prevented by either removal of external Ca2+ or treatment with tetrodotoxin. Dopamine-immunopositive nerve fibers surrounding choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive ganglion cells were seen in the myenteric plexus of whole mount preparations of gastric corpus even after bilateral transection of the splanchnic nerve proximal to the junction with the vagal nerve (section of nerves between the celiac ganglion and stomach). Domperidone and sulpiride potentiated the stimulated release of acetylcholine and reversed the dopamine-induced inhibition of acetylcholine release from mucosa-free preparations. These results indicate that dopamine is physiologically released from neurons and from possible dopaminergic nerve terminals and regulates cholinergic neuronal activity in the corpus of guinea pig stomach. PMID:9374701

  3. Enriching a biomedical event corpus with meta-knowledge annotation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomedical papers contain rich information about entities, facts and events of biological relevance. To discover these automatically, we use text mining techniques, which rely on annotated corpora for training. In order to extract protein-protein interactions, genotype-phenotype/gene-disease associations, etc., we rely on event corpora that are annotated with classified, structured representations of important facts and findings contained within text. These provide an important resource for the training of domain-specific information extraction (IE) systems, to facilitate semantic-based searching of documents. Correct interpretation of these events is not possible without additional information, e.g., does an event describe a fact, a hypothesis, an experimental result or an analysis of results? How confident is the author about the validity of her analyses? These and other types of information, which we collectively term meta-knowledge, can be derived from the context of the event. Results We have designed an annotation scheme for meta-knowledge enrichment of biomedical event corpora. The scheme is multi-dimensional, in that each event is annotated for 5 different aspects of meta-knowledge that can be derived from the textual context of the event. Textual clues used to determine the values are also annotated. The scheme is intended to be general enough to allow integration with different types of bio-event annotation, whilst being detailed enough to capture important subtleties in the nature of the meta-knowledge expressed in the text. We report here on both the main features of the annotation scheme, as well as its application to the GENIA event corpus (1000 abstracts with 36,858 events). High levels of inter-annotator agreement have been achieved, falling in the range of 0.84-0.93 Kappa. Conclusion By augmenting event annotations with meta-knowledge, more sophisticated IE systems can be trained, which allow interpretative information to be specified as

  4. Corpus callosum abnormalities in women with borderline personality disorder and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Luders, Eileen; Lieb, Klaus; Zahn, Roland; Ebert, Dieter; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz

    2007-01-01

    Objective Decreased brain volumes in prefrontal, limbic and parietal areas have been found in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Recent models suggest impaired structural and functional connectivity in this condition. To investigate this, we studied the thickness of the corpus callosum, the largest connecting fibre bundle in the human brain. Methods We acquired magnetic resonance imaging scans from 20 healthy women and 20 women with BPD and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. A novel computational mesh-based method was applied to measure callosal thickness at high spatial resolution. Results Women with BPD had a thinner isthmus of the corpus callosum, compared with healthy women. In the patient group, a history of childhood sexual abuse was associated with a thinner posterior body of the corpus callosum. Conclusion Interhemispheric structural connectivity involving parietal and temporal areas may be impaired in women with BPD and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:18043765

  5. Biochemical composition of ovine follicular fluid in relation to follicle size.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Kumar, V Girish; Manjunatha, B M; Gupta, P S P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to biochemically characterize ovine follicular fluid and to relate possible changes in composition to follicular size. Ovaries were collected from adult and cycling non-pregnant slaughtered sheep (Ovis aries) during breeding season. A total of 104 pairs of ovaries were investigated and these data were then compared. Follicular fluid was aspirated from small (< 2 mm), medium (2-4 mm) and large (> 4 mm) nonatretic ovarian follicles. The follicular fluid was centrifuged at 4 degrees C and 5000 g for 30 min to remove any cells and stored at -80 degrees C prior to assay. Follicular fluid samples were analyzed for glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, lactate, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Data were analyzed by the linear regression model. As follicles became larger, the concentrations of glucose and cholesterol significantly (P < 0.05) increased while those of triglycerides, lactate, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase significantly (P < 0.05) decreased. PMID:17227345

  6. Quantitative fluorogenic PCR assay for measuring ovine herpesvirus 2 replication in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hüssy, D; Stäuber, N; Leutenegger, C M; Rieder, S; Ackermann, M

    2001-01-01

    A fluorogenic PCR specific for ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) DNA was developed and compared to a previously established conventional seminested PCR. Testing of a total of 152 blood samples from both positive and negative animals revealed that the results of both assays corresponded to each other in 100% of the cases. A second fluorogenic PCR for genomic sheep DNA was required to normalize the quantity of viral DNA in the sample. Separate standard curves had to be constructed for each PCR. The analytical sensitivity of the new PCRs ranged between at least 10 copies and sometimes even 1 copy of target DNA per reaction mixture. In dilution series of the target DNAs, linear decreases of the signals were observed over 7 orders of magnitude. Thus, it was possible to calculate the amounts of viral DNA in relation to the amounts of cellular DNA by normalizing the absolute quantity of OvHV-2 DNA with the amount of genomic sheep DNA. By this technique, it was possible for the first time to quantitatively characterize the course of OvHV-2 replication in naturally infected sheep. PMID:11139205

  7. Quantitative Fluorogenic PCR Assay for Measuring Ovine Herpesvirus 2 Replication in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Hüssy, D.; Stäuber, N.; Leutenegger, C. M.; Rieder, S.; Ackermann, M.

    2001-01-01

    A fluorogenic PCR specific for ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) DNA was developed and compared to a previously established conventional seminested PCR. Testing of a total of 152 blood samples from both positive and negative animals revealed that the results of both assays corresponded to each other in 100% of the cases. A second fluorogenic PCR for genomic sheep DNA was required to normalize the quantity of viral DNA in the sample. Separate standard curves had to be constructed for each PCR. The analytical sensitivity of the new PCRs ranged between at least 10 copies and sometimes even 1 copy of target DNA per reaction mixture. In dilution series of the target DNAs, linear decreases of the signals were observed over 7 orders of magnitude. Thus, it was possible to calculate the amounts of viral DNA in relation to the amounts of cellular DNA by normalizing the absolute quantity of OvHV-2 DNA with the amount of genomic sheep DNA. By this technique, it was possible for the first time to quantitatively characterize the course of OvHV-2 replication in naturally infected sheep. PMID:11139205

  8. Elevated Intracranial Pressure and Cerebral Edema following Permanent MCA Occlusion in an Ovine Model

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Adam J.; Vink, Robert; Helps, Stephen C.; Knox, Steven J.; Blumbergs, Peter C.; Turner, Renée J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke has a disproportionately high mortality due to the rapid development of refractory space-occupying cerebral edema. Animal models are essential in developing successful anti-edema therapies; however to date poor clinical translation has been associated with the predominately used rodent models. As such, large animal gyrencephalic models of stroke are urgently needed. The aim of the study was to characterize the intracranial pressure (ICP) response to MCA occlusion in our recently developed ovine stroke model. Materials and Methods 30 adult female Merino sheep (n = 8–12/gp) were randomized to sham surgery, temporary or permanent proximal MCA occlusion. ICP and brain tissue oxygen were monitored for 24 hours under general anesthesia. MRI, infarct volume with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and histology were performed. Results No increase in ICP, radiological evidence of ischemia within the MCA territory but without space-occupying edema, and TTC infarct volumes of 7.9+/-5.1% were seen with temporary MCAO. Permanent MCAO resulted in significantly elevated ICP, accompanied by 30% mortality, radiological evidence of space-occupying cerebral edema and TTC infarct volumes of 27.4+/-6.4%. Conclusions Permanent proximal MCAO in the sheep results in space-occupying cerebral edema, raised ICP and mortality similar to human malignant MCA stroke. This animal model may prove useful for pre-clinical testing of anti-edema therapies that have shown promise in rodent studies. PMID:26121036

  9. Novel surface modifications of carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone hip stem in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Ichiro; Takao, Masaki; Bandoh, Shunichi; Bertollo, Nicky; Walsh, William R; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    A carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is theoretically a suitable material for use in an uncemented hip prosthesis considering it can provide isoelastic environment with the surrounding bone, adequate fatigue strength, and a metal-free radiographic evaluation. To date, the selection of polymer material and optimization of both design and surface finish of the prostheses for osseointegration has not been accomplished. This study examined radiographic and histologic results of an uncemented CFRP stem manufactured from carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR/PEEK) with a roughened surface and a bioactive treatment in an adult ovine model following a 12-month implantation period. A unilateral hemiarthroplasty of the hip was performed using the CFRP stem or a titanium stem as a control. Four cases with the CFRP stem and five cases with titanium stem were evaluated. Bone on-growth fixation was achieved in two cases with the CFRP stem and in all the cases with the titanium stem. The CFRP cases showed minimal stress shielding while three of five cases with the titanium stem demonstrated typical osteopenia associated with stiff metal stems. Bone on-growth to the uncemented CFRP stem was achieved by using the CFR/PEEK for the material and modifying the surface design and the bioactive surface finish. Bone resorption and osteopenia observed with the Ti stems was not found with the CFRP design. PMID:21819435

  10. Ultrastructural characterization of in vivo-produced ovine morulae and blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, E M V; Bettencourt, C M V; Chagas e Silva, J N; Ferreira, P; Oliveira, E; Romão, R; Rocha, A; Sousa, M

    2015-08-01

    The ultrastructure of in vivo-produced ovine embryos, at the morula, early blastocyst and late blastocyst stages, was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Embryonic cells were characterized by the presence of intact intercellular junctions, numerous mitochondria, smooth endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and light vesicles. Polyribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, secondary lysosomes, Golgi complexes and lipid droplets were also observed in the cytoplasm. The nucleus was well defined and organized, with an intact envelope rich in nuclear pore complexes, and one or more reticular nucleoli. Microvilli were present in external blastomeres of morulae and became more abundant in trophectoderm cells of early and late blastocysts. Light vesicles seemed to be associated with small cisternae of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum origin. These cisternae fused and created light vesicles with engulfed heterogeneous cytosolic structures, small cisternae and vesicles. Their labile membrane enabled them to rapidly coalesce into medium-sized vesicles that began to engulf mitochondria and lipid droplets, forming giant vacuoles mostly filled with fat. Incomplete matured secretory vesicles were observed to exocytose into the perivitelline space of morulae, whereas fully matured secretory vesicles appeared only in trophectoderm cells, being exocytosed into the blastocoelic cavity. These observations suggested that these endoplasmic-/Golgi-derived vesicles behave as active autophagic organelles presenting probably a maturation process from compact morulae to blastocyst. PMID:25076424

  11. A preliminary proteomic characterisation of extracellular vesicles released by the ovine parasitic nematode, Teladorsagia circumcincta

    PubMed Central

    Tzelos, Thomas; Matthews, Jacqueline B.; Buck, Amy H.; Simbari, Fabio; Frew, David; Inglis, Neil F.; McLean, Kevin; Nisbet, Alasdair J.; Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.; Knox, David P.; McNeilly, Tom N.

    2016-01-01

    Teladorsagia circumcincta is a major cause of ovine parasitic gastroenteritis in temperate climatic regions. The development of high levels of anthelmintic resistance in this nematode species challenges its future control. Recent research indicates that many parasite species release extracellular vesicles into their environment, many of which have been classified as endocytic in origin, termed exosomes. These vesicles are considered to play important roles in the intercellular communication between parasites and their hosts, and thus represent potentially useful targets for novel control strategies. Here, we demonstrate that exosome-like extracellular vesicles can be isolated from excretory-secretory (ES) products released by T. circumcincta fourth stage larvae (Tci-L4ES). Furthermore, we perform a comparative proteomic analysis of vesicle-enriched and vesicle-free Tci-L4ES. Approximately 73% of the proteins identified in the vesicle-enriched fraction were unique to this fraction, whilst the remaining 27% were present in both vesicle-enriched and vesicle-free fraction. These unique proteins included structural proteins, nuclear proteins, metabolic proteins, proteolytic enzymes and activation-associated secreted proteins. Finally, we demonstrate that molecules present within the vesicles-enriched material are targets of the IgA and IgG response in T. circumcincta infected sheep, and could potentially represent useful targets for future vaccine intervention studies. PMID:27084478

  12. Noninferiority of Shanghai Cingular biotech’s bovine pericardial valve preclinical study in juvenile ovine model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jin-Miao; Ding, Yu; Lu, Shu-Yang; Pan, Sun; Abudupataer, Mieradilijiang

    2016-01-01

    Background This study introduces a newly Chinese domestic-designed/manufactured bovine pericardial valve, the SCBC valve (Shanghai Cingular Biotech Corporation, Shanghai, China), and evaluates its hemodynamic performance and calcification potential compared with the Carpentier-Edwards (CE) PerimountTM valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) in juvenile sheep for preclinical study. Methods Five SCBC valves in study group and three CE PerimountTM valves (6900P with TFX) in control group were implanted in the mitral position of juvenile sheep and followed up for five months. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for hemodynamic measurement was performed ten days, three months and five months postoperatively. Valve calcification was assessed by X-ray after euthanasia. Other collected data included macroscopic examination, blood analysis, microorganism culture and histological assessment. Results All sheep in two groups lived to sacrifice without evidence of valvular dysfunction. The SCBC valve had similar hemodynamic performance and susceptibility of calcification compared with the CE PerimountTM valve in juvenile ovine model. In all other parameters, the SCBC valve also exhibited no significant difference compared with the CE PerimountTM valve. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that the SCBC valve can exhibit similar mid-term satisfactory safety and efficacy compared with the CE PerimountTM valve in the mitral position of juvenile sheep model. PMID:27293835

  13. A preliminary proteomic characterisation of extracellular vesicles released by the ovine parasitic nematode, Teladorsagia circumcincta.

    PubMed

    Tzelos, Thomas; Matthews, Jacqueline B; Buck, Amy H; Simbari, Fabio; Frew, David; Inglis, Neil F; McLean, Kevin; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Knox, David P; McNeilly, Tom N

    2016-05-15

    Teladorsagia circumcincta is a major cause of ovine parasitic gastroenteritis in temperate climatic regions. The development of high levels of anthelmintic resistance in this nematode species challenges its future control. Recent research indicates that many parasite species release extracellular vesicles into their environment, many of which have been classified as endocytic in origin, termed exosomes. These vesicles are considered to play important roles in the intercellular communication between parasites and their hosts, and thus represent potentially useful targets for novel control strategies. Here, we demonstrate that exosome-like extracellular vesicles can be isolated from excretory-secretory (ES) products released by T. circumcincta fourth stage larvae (Tci-L4ES). Furthermore, we perform a comparative proteomic analysis of vesicle-enriched and vesicle-free Tci-L4ES. Approximately 73% of the proteins identified in the vesicle-enriched fraction were unique to this fraction, whilst the remaining 27% were present in both vesicle-enriched and vesicle-free fraction. These unique proteins included structural proteins, nuclear proteins, metabolic proteins, proteolytic enzymes and activation-associated secreted proteins. Finally, we demonstrate that molecules present within the vesicles-enriched material are targets of the IgA and IgG response in T. circumcincta infected sheep, and could potentially represent useful targets for future vaccine intervention studies. PMID:27084478

  14. Clinical and radiographic features of contagious ovine digital dermatitis and a novel lesion grading system.

    PubMed

    Angell, J W; Blundell, R; Grove-White, D H; Duncan, J S

    2015-05-23

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an infectious foot disease of sheep causing severe lameness. Diagnosis is currently made using broad anecdotal descriptions. The aim of this study was to systematically and formally describe the clinical presentation of the disease in terms of (1) a lesion grading system; (2) associated radiographic changes and (3) severity of associated lameness. A five-point lesion grading system was developed and applied to 908 sheep affected by CODD from six farms. Sheep with lesions typical of each grade were euthanased and their feet radiographed. Radiographic abnormalities including soft tissue and bony changes were evident in feet with lesions graded 2-5. In order to quantify the welfare impact of CODD, all the 908 sheep were locomotion scored. Five hundred and eighty-five (64.5% (95% CI 61.4% to 67.6%)) were lame. The locomotion score for affected sheep increased with worsening pathological changes. Once healing had begun the locomotion score decreased. In conclusion the five-point grading system may be used to clinically describe stages of CODD lesions. The radiographic changes revealed examples of deeper pathological changes and there was a strong association between the lesion grading system and locomotion score in affected sheep. PMID:25861825

  15. Effect of Human Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Regeneration of Ovine Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Zorzi, Alessandro R.; Amstalden, Eliane M. I.; Plepis, Ana Maria G.; Martins, Virginia C. A.; Ferretti, Mario; Antonioli, Eliane; Duarte, Adriana S. S.; Luzo, Angela C. M.; Miranda, João B.

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapy is a promising approach to improve cartilage healing. Adipose tissue is an abundant and readily accessible cell source. Previous studies have demonstrated good cartilage repair results with adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells in small animal experiments. This study aimed to examine these cells in a large animal model. Thirty knees of adult sheep were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: CELLS (scaffold seeded with human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells), SCAFFOLD (scaffold without cells), or EMPTY (untreated lesions). A partial thickness defect was created in the medial femoral condyle. After six months, the knees were examined according to an adaptation of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS 1) score, in addition to a new Partial Thickness Model scale and the ICRS macroscopic score. All of the animals completed the follow-up period. The CELLS group presented with the highest ICRS 1 score (8.3 ± 3.1), followed by the SCAFFOLD group (5.6 ± 2.2) and the EMPTY group (5.2 ± 2.4) (p = 0.033). Other scores were not significantly different. These results suggest that human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells promoted satisfactory cartilage repair in the ovine model. PMID:26569221

  16. Platelet Activation Following Implant of the Levitronix PediVAS in the Ovine Model

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Carl A.; Shankarraman, Venkat; Wearden, Peter D.; Kocyildirim, Ergin; Maul, Timothy M.; Marks, John D.; Richardson, J. Scott; Gellman, Barry N.; Borovetz, Harvey S.; Dasse, Kurt A.; Wagner, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The Levitronix PediVAS is an extracorporeal magnetically levitated pediatric ventricular assist system with an optimal flow rate range of 0.3 – 1.5 L/min. The system is being tested in preclinical studies to assess hemodynamic performance and biocompatibility. The PediVAS was implanted in 9 ovines for 30 days duration using either commercially available cannulae (N = 3) or customized Levitronix cannulae (N = 6). Blood biocompatibility in terms of circulating activated platelets was measured by flow cytometric assays to detect P-selectin. Platelet activation was further examined following exogenous agonist stimulation. Platelet activation rose following surgery and eventually returned to baseline in animal studies where minimal kidney infarcts were observed. Platelet activation remained elevated for the duration of the study in animals where a moderate number of kidney infarcts with or without thrombotic deposition in the cannulae were observed. When platelet activation did return to baseline, platelets appropriately responded to agonist stimulation signifying conserved platelet function following PediVAS implant. Platelet activation returned to baseline in the majority of studies, representing a promising biocompatibility result for the Levitronix PediVAS. PMID:21989419

  17. Intra-amniotic Candida albicans infection induces mucosal injury and inflammation in the ovine fetal intestine

    PubMed Central

    Nikiforou, Maria; Jacobs, Esmee M.R.; Kemp, Matthew W.; Hornef, Mathias W.; Payne, Matthew S.; Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P.; Janssen, Leon E.W.; Jobe, Alan H.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Kramer, Boris W.; Wolfs, Tim G.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis is caused by intrauterine infection with microorganisms including Candida albicans (C.albicans). Chorioamnionitis is associated with postnatal intestinal pathologies including necrotizing enterocolitis. The underlying mechanisms by which intra-amniotic C.albicans infection adversely affects the fetal gut remain unknown. Therefore, we assessed whether intra-amniotic C.albicans infection would cause intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury in an ovine model. Additionally, we tested whether treatment with the fungistatic fluconazole ameliorated the adverse intestinal outcome of intra-amniotic C.albicans infection. Pregnant sheep received intra-amniotic injections with 107 colony-forming units C.albicans or saline at 3 or 5 days before preterm delivery at 122 days of gestation. Fetuses were given intra-amniotic and intra-peritoneal fluconazole treatments 2 days after intra-amniotic administration of C.albicans. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal colonization and invasive growth within the fetal gut with mucosal injury and intestinal inflammation, characterized by increased CD3+ lymphocytes, MPO+ cells and elevated TNF-α and IL-17 mRNA levels. Fluconazole treatment in utero decreased intestinal C.albicans colonization, mucosal injury but failed to attenuate intestinal inflammation. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal infection, injury and inflammation. Fluconazole treatment decreased mucosal injury but failed to ameliorate C.albicans-mediated mucosal inflammation emphasizing the need to optimize the applied antifungal therapeutic strategy. PMID:27411776

  18. Impacts of the Callipyge mutation on ovine plasma metabolites and muscle fibre type.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Greenwood, Paul L; Cockett, Noelle E; Hadfield, Tracy S; Vuocolo, Tony; Byrne, Keren; White, Jason D; Tellam, Ross L; Schirra, Horst Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The ovine Callipyge mutation causes postnatal muscle hypertrophy localized to the pelvic limbs and torso, as well as body leanness. The mechanism underpinning enhanced muscle mass is unclear, as is the systemic impact of the mutation. Using muscle fibre typing immunohistochemistry, we confirmed muscle specific effects and demonstrated that affected muscles had greater prevalence and hypertrophy of type 2X fast twitch glycolytic fibres and decreased representation of types 1, 2C, 2A and/or 2AX fibres. To investigate potential systemic effects of the mutation, proton NMR spectra of plasma taken from lambs at 8 and 12 weeks of age were measured. Multivariate statistical analysis of plasma metabolite profiles demonstrated effects of development and genotype but not gender. Plasma from Callipyge lambs at 12 weeks of age, but not 8 weeks, was characterized by a metabolic profile consistent with contributions from the affected hypertrophic fast twitch glycolytic muscle fibres. Microarray analysis of the perirenal adipose tissue depot did not reveal a transcriptional effect of the mutation in this tissue. We conclude that there is an indirect systemic effect of the Callipyge mutation in skeletal muscle in the form of changes of blood metabolites, which may contribute to secondary phenotypes such as body leanness. PMID:24937646

  19. Intra-amniotic Candida albicans infection induces mucosal injury and inflammation in the ovine fetal intestine.

    PubMed

    Nikiforou, Maria; Jacobs, Esmee M R; Kemp, Matthew W; Hornef, Mathias W; Payne, Matthew S; Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P; Janssen, Leon E W; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Kramer, Boris W; Wolfs, Tim G A M

    2016-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis is caused by intrauterine infection with microorganisms including Candida albicans (C.albicans). Chorioamnionitis is associated with postnatal intestinal pathologies including necrotizing enterocolitis. The underlying mechanisms by which intra-amniotic C.albicans infection adversely affects the fetal gut remain unknown. Therefore, we assessed whether intra-amniotic C.albicans infection would cause intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury in an ovine model. Additionally, we tested whether treatment with the fungistatic fluconazole ameliorated the adverse intestinal outcome of intra-amniotic C.albicans infection. Pregnant sheep received intra-amniotic injections with 10(7) colony-forming units C.albicans or saline at 3 or 5 days before preterm delivery at 122 days of gestation. Fetuses were given intra-amniotic and intra-peritoneal fluconazole treatments 2 days after intra-amniotic administration of C.albicans. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal colonization and invasive growth within the fetal gut with mucosal injury and intestinal inflammation, characterized by increased CD3(+) lymphocytes, MPO(+) cells and elevated TNF-α and IL-17 mRNA levels. Fluconazole treatment in utero decreased intestinal C.albicans colonization, mucosal injury but failed to attenuate intestinal inflammation. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal infection, injury and inflammation. Fluconazole treatment decreased mucosal injury but failed to ameliorate C.albicans-mediated mucosal inflammation emphasizing the need to optimize the applied antifungal therapeutic strategy. PMID:27411776

  20. Cytotoxic evaluation of biomechanically improved crosslinked ovine collagen on human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Awang, M A; Firdaus, M A B; Busra, M B; Chowdhury, S R; Fadilah, N R; Wan Hamirul, W K; Reusmaazran, M Y; Aminuddin, M Y; Ruszymah, B H I

    2014-01-01

    Earlier studies in our laboratory demonstrated that collagen extracted from ovine tendon is biocompatible towards human dermal fibroblast. To be able to use this collagen as a scaffold in skin tissue engineering, a mechanically stronger scaffold is required that can withstand manipulation before transplantation. This study was conducted to improve the mechanical strength of this collagen sponge using chemical crosslinkers, and evaluate their effect on physical, chemical and biocompatible properties. Collagen sponge was crosslinked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and glutaraldehyde (GA). Tensile test, FTIR study and mercury porosimetry were used to evaluate mechanical properties, chemical property and porosity, respectively. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of crosslinked collagen sponge on human dermal fibroblasts. The FTIR study confirmed the successful crosslinking of collagen sponge. Crosslinking with EDC and GA significantly increased the mechanical strength of collagen sponge, with GA being more superior. Crosslinking of collagen sponge significantly reduced the porosity and the effect was predominant in GA-crosslinked collagen sponge. The GA-crosslinked collagen showed significantly lower, 60% cell viability towards human dermal fibroblasts compared to that of EDC-crosslinked collagen, 80% and non-crosslinked collagen, 100%. Although the mechanical strength was better when using GA but the more toxic effect on dermal fibroblast makes EDC a more suitable crosslinker for future skin tissue engineering. PMID:24948455

  1. Rat, ovine and bovine Peyer's patches mounted in horizontal diffusion chambers display sampling function.

    PubMed

    Soni, Jyoti; Baird, Alan W; O'Brien, Leah M; McElroy, Maire; Callanan, John J; Bassett, Hugh F; Campion, Deirdre; Brayden, David J

    2006-09-28

    Freshly excised rat, ovine and bovine ileal Peyer's patch (PP) and non-Peyer's patch tissues (NPP) were mounted in modified horizontal polyethylene diffusion chambers with a range of window areas. Rat tissue was initially used to establish that barrier function and histology were maintained for up to 60 min. Horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) fluxes and S. Typhimurium adherence and invasion were significantly higher in rat PP over NPP. Particle uptake was shown to be a rapid, energy-, time-, and size-dependent process, occurring more readily in PP than NPP tissue in each species. In a kinetic analysis, particles were localized initially in the follicle-associated epithelium and then in the dome region. For NPP uptake, particles were initially localized to villous epithelium, and were then detected in the crypts and lamina propria. Electrophysiological parameters including pharmacologically-stimulated inward short-circuit current responses were determined in isolated PP and NPP from each species mounted under identical conditions in Ussing chambers. In conclusion, comparative functional and histological characteristics of PP from several species were demonstrated in horizontal diffusion chambers. Horizontal diffusion chambers are therefore a useful in vitro model in which a range of functions including transport of particulate formulations by PP may be examined. PMID:16884804

  2. Drug Target Identification and Prioritization for Treatment of Ovine Foot Rot: An In Silico Approach

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ovine foot rot is an infection of the feet of sheep, mainly caused by Dichelobacter nodosus. In its virulent form, it is highly contagious and debilitating, causing significant losses in the form of decline in wool growth and quality and poor fertility. Current methods of treatment are ineffective in complete eradication. Effective antibiotic treatment of foot rot is hence necessary to ensure better outcomes during control phases by reduction in culling count and the possibility of carriers of the infection. Using computational approaches, we have identified a set of 297 proteins that are essential to the D. nodosus and nonhomologous with sheep proteins. These proteins may be considered as potential vaccine candidates or drug targets for designing antibiotics against the bacterium. This core set of drug targets have been analyzed for pathway annotation to identify 67 proteins involved in unique bacterial pathways. Choke-point analysis on the drug targets identified 138 choke-point proteins, 29 involved in unique bacterial pathways. Subcellular localization was also predicted for each target to identify the ones that are membrane associated or secreted extracellularly. In addition, a total of 13 targets were identified that are common in at least 10 pathogenic bacterial species. PMID:27379247

  3. Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma: a large animal model for human lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Gehad; Wallace, William A H; Dagleish, Mark P; Cousens, Chris; Griffiths, David J

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Recent progress in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of this disease has resulted in novel therapeutic strategies targeting specific groups of patients. Further studies are required to provide additional advances in diagnosis and treatment. Animal models are valuable tools for studying oncogenesis in lung cancer, particularly during the early stages of disease where tissues are rarely available from human cases. Mice have traditionally been used for studying lung cancer in vivo, and a variety of spontaneous and transgenic models are available. However, it is recognized that other species may also be informative for studies of cancer. Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a naturally occurring lung cancer of sheep caused by retrovirus infection and has several features in common with adenocarcinoma of humans, including a similar histological appearance and activation of common cell signaling pathways. Additionally, the size and organization of human lungs are much closer to those of sheep lungs than to those of mice, which facilitates experimental approaches in sheep that are not available in mice. Thus OPA presents opportunities for studying lung tumor development that can complement conventional murine models. Here we describe the potential applications of OPA as a model for human lung adenocarcinoma with an emphasis on the various in vivo and in vitro experimental systems available. PMID:25991702

  4. Quantifying the risk from ovine BSE and the impact of control strategies.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Helen R; Baylis, Matthew; Sivam, Kumar; McLean, Angela R

    2007-06-22

    Although no naturally infected sheep with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has ever been discovered, it remains possible that BSE once infected the UK sheep population, has been transmitted between sheep, and is still present today. We constructed a mathematical model to assess the current maximum theoretical exposure to consumers from BSE-infected ovine material and to estimate the risk reduction that could be achieved by abattoir-based control options if BSE-infected sheep were ever found in the national flock. We predict that, if present, the exposure to consumers from a single BSE-infected sheep would be high: one sheep, close to the end of its incubation period, is likely to contribute 10-1000 times more infectious material than a fully infectious cow. Furthermore, 30% of this exposure comes from infectivity residing in lymphatic and peripheral tissue that cannot be completely removed from a carcass. We are 95% confident that throughout Great Britain, no more than four sheep flocks currently harbour an ongoing BSE epidemic. However, since the exposure from a single infected sheep is high, the annual human exposure from four 'typical' BSE-infected flocks could be considerable. Small reductions in exposure could be achieved by strategies based on tissue testing, a 12-month age restriction or expanded definitions of high-risk tissues. A six-month age restriction is likely to be more effective and genotype-based strategies the most effective. PMID:17412681

  5. Pathophysiological Changes Resulting from Intravenous Injection of Ovine Hydatid Cyst Fluid to Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabai, M.; Ismaili, M. H.; Nazarian, I.; Daneshbod, K.

    1974-01-01

    The pathophysiological changes produced by intravenous administration of ovine hydatid fluid were studied in 40 sodium pentobarbitone-anaesthetized sheep. Hydatid fluid was obtained from the lung and liver cysts of freshly-slaughtered sheep. Fifty per cent of the animals died following intravenous injection of 5-10 ml hydatid fluid. In the latter group, postmortem examination revealed a great amount of mucus in the lower airway, intra-alveolar oedema and haemorrhage, congestion of the pulmonary capillaries and peribronchiolar vessels and of the central sinusoids of the liver. Eighty per cent of the animals (including those which died) developed hypotension and respiratory alterations such as transient apnoea and/or rapid respiration to hydatid fluid administration. The 20% non-reactive animals manifested low blood pressure and respiratory changes when they were reinjected hydatid fluid 48 hours or more after the first test. Pretreatment with the antihistamine chlorpheniramine substantially reduced the fall in blood pressure in 3 out of 8 reactive sheep. Atropine pretreatment failed to block the reactions to hydatid fluid. The responses brought about in sheep by hydatid fluid administration may be due to antigen-antibody reactions or due to pharmacological properties of the cyst fluid. ImagesFigs. 1-2Figs. 3-4Figs. 5-7 PMID:4835796

  6. Identification of a novel ovine LH-beta promoter region, which dramatically enhances its promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Aherrahrou, Redouane; Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Erdmann, Jeanette; Moumni, Mohieddine

    2015-01-01

    The luteinizing hormone beta subunit (LH-beta) gene plays a critical role in reproduction. In order to characterize and analyze the promoter region of LH-beta in sheep, a genomic library was constructed in phage lambda gt 10 and screened. A novel region of 1,224 bp upstream from the targeted LH-beta gene was identified. Blasting this sequence showed a perfect homology for the first 721 bp sequence with an upstream ovine LH-beta sequence in the database. However, the remaining 5'-503 bp showed no sequence matching. DNA from Moroccan breeds was isolated and the whole region was amplified and confirmed by sequencing. To further confirm the promoter activity of this region, an in vitro analysis using a luciferase assay was carried out. An increase in the promoter activity of the whole region was demonstrated compared to the empty vector. More interestingly, the unpublished region significantly enhanced the promoter activity compared to the known region alone. To predict putative transcription factor binding-sites (TFBSs), an in silico analysis was performed using the TFSEARCH program. The region features many TFBSs and contains two palindrome sequences of 17- and 18-bp. Taken together, a novel region was identified and confirmed in sheep which contained a promoter activity rich with binding sites for a putative regulatory element as shown in silico. PMID:26355566

  7. Diagnosis and prevalence of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma in lung tissues of naturally infected farm sheep

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, Ganesh G.; Tripathi, Bhupendra Nath; Kumar, Rajiv; Kumar, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was aimed to detect ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) in sheep flocks affected with pulmonary disorders at organized farm. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 sheep died naturally were thoroughly examined for the lesions of OPA during necropsy. Tissue sections from affected portion of the lungs from each animal were collected aseptically and divided into two parts; one each for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and another for histopathology. Results: On PCR examination of lung tissues, six sheep (8%) were found to be positive for JSRV. Two of them were 3-6 months of age and did not show clinical signs/gross lesions of OPA. Four adult sheep positive on PCR revealed characteristic lesions of OPA on gross and histopathological examination. Conclusion: In the absence of known specific antibody response to the infection with JSRV, there is no diagnostic serological test available. The PCR assay employed in this study on lung tissues, using primers based on the U3 region of the viral long terminal repeat for JSRV would be helpful in the screening of preclinical and clinical cases of OPA in sheep. PMID:27182131

  8. Interleukin-1β Modulates Melatonin Secretion in Ovine Pineal Gland: Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Herman, A. P.; Bochenek, J.; Skipor, J.; Król, K.; Krawczyńska, A.; Antushevich, H.; Pawlina, B.; Marciniak, E.; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D.

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the effect of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, on melatonin release and expression enzymes essential for this hormone synthesis: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in ovine pineal gland, taking into account the immune status of animals before sacrificing. Ewes were injected by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg) or saline, two hours after sunset during short day period (December). Animals were euthanized three hours after the injection. Next, the pineal glands were collected and divided into four explants. The explants were incubated with (1) medium 199 (control explants), (2) norepinephrine (NE; 10 µM), (3) IL-1β (75 pg/mL), or (4) NE + IL-1β. It was found that IL-1β abolished (P < 0.05) NE-induced increase in melatonin release. Treatment with IL-1β also reduced (P < 0.05) expression of AA-NAT enzyme compared to NE-treated explants. There was no effect of NE or IL-1β treatment on gene expression of HIOMT; however, the pineal fragments isolated from LPS-treated animals were characterized by elevated (P < 0.05) expression of HIOMT mRNA and protein compared to the explants from saline-treated ewes. Our study proves that IL-1β suppresses melatonin secretion and its action seems to be targeted on the reduction of pineal AA-NAT protein expression. PMID:26339621

  9. Biomechanical studies in an ovine model of non-accidental head injury.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R W G; Sandoz, B; Dutschke, J K; Finnie, J W; Turner, R J; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Vink, R

    2014-08-22

    This paper presents the head kinematics of a novel ovine model of non-accidental head injury (NAHI) that consists only of a naturalistic oscillating insult. Nine, 7-to-10-day-old anesthetized and ventilated lambs were subjected to manual shaking. Two six-axis motion sensors tracked the position of the head and torso, and a triaxial accelerometer measured head acceleration. Animals experienced 10 episodes of shaking over 30 min, and then remained under anesthesia for 6h until killed by perfusion fixation of the brain. Each shaking episode lasted for 20s resulting in about 40 cycles per episode. Each cycle typically consisted of three impulsive events that corresponded to specific phases of the head's motion; the most substantial of these were interactions typically with the lamb's own torso, and these generated accelerations of 30-70 g. Impulsive loading was not considered severe. Other kinematic parameters recorded included estimates of head power transfer, head-torso flexion, and rate of flexion. Several styles of shaking were also identified across episodes and subjects. Axonal injury, neuronal reaction and albumin extravasation were widely distributed in the hemispheric white matter, brainstem and at the craniocervical junction and to a much greater magnitude in lower body weight lambs that died. This is the first biomechanical description of a large animal model of NAHI in which repetitive naturalistic insults were applied, and that reproduced a spectrum of injury associated with NAHI. PMID:24974335

  10. Impacts of the Callipyge Mutation on Ovine Plasma Metabolites and Muscle Fibre Type

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Greenwood, Paul L.; Cockett, Noelle E.; Hadfield, Tracy S.; Vuocolo, Tony; Byrne, Keren; White, Jason D.; Tellam, Ross L.; Schirra, Horst Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The ovine Callipyge mutation causes postnatal muscle hypertrophy localized to the pelvic limbs and torso, as well as body leanness. The mechanism underpinning enhanced muscle mass is unclear, as is the systemic impact of the mutation. Using muscle fibre typing immunohistochemistry, we confirmed muscle specific effects and demonstrated that affected muscles had greater prevalence and hypertrophy of type 2X fast twitch glycolytic fibres and decreased representation of types 1, 2C, 2A and/or 2AX fibres. To investigate potential systemic effects of the mutation, proton NMR spectra of plasma taken from lambs at 8 and 12 weeks of age were measured. Multivariate statistical analysis of plasma metabolite profiles demonstrated effects of development and genotype but not gender. Plasma from Callipyge lambs at 12 weeks of age, but not 8 weeks, was characterized by a metabolic profile consistent with contributions from the affected hypertrophic fast twitch glycolytic muscle fibres. Microarray analysis of the perirenal adipose tissue depot did not reveal a transcriptional effect of the mutation in this tissue. We conclude that there is an indirect systemic effect of the Callipyge mutation in skeletal muscle in the form of changes of blood metabolites, which may contribute to secondary phenotypes such as body leanness. PMID:24937646

  11. Genome-Wide Search for Host Association Factors during Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Meghan; Xiang, Shi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) is an important virus that causes serious diseases in sheep and goats with a prevalence of 36% in the USA. Although OPPV was discovered more than half of a century ago, little is known about the infection and pathogenesis of this virus. In this report, we used RNA-seq technology to conduct a genome-wide probe for cellular factors that are associated with OPPV infection. A total of approximately 22,000 goat host genes were detected of which 657 were found to have been significantly up-regulated and 889 down-regulated at 12 hours post-infection. In addition to previously known restriction factors from other viral infections, a number of factors which may be specific for OPPV infection were uncovered. The data from this RNA-seq study will be helpful in our understanding of OPPV infection, and also for further study in the prevention and intervention of this viral disease. PMID:26950733

  12. Using text mining techniques to extract phenotypic information from the PhenoCHF corpus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Phenotypic information locked away in unstructured narrative text presents significant barriers to information accessibility, both for clinical practitioners and for computerised applications used for clinical research purposes. Text mining (TM) techniques have previously been applied successfully to extract different types of information from text in the biomedical domain. They have the potential to be extended to allow the extraction of information relating to phenotypes from free text. Methods To stimulate the development of TM systems that are able to extract phenotypic information from text, we have created a new corpus (PhenoCHF) that is annotated by domain experts with several types of phenotypic information relating to congestive heart failure. To ensure that systems developed using the corpus are robust to multiple text types, it integrates text from heterogeneous sources, i.e., electronic health records (EHRs) and scientific articles from the literature. We have developed several different phenotype extraction methods to demonstrate the utility of the corpus, and tested these methods on a further corpus, i.e., ShARe/CLEF 2013. Results Evaluation of our automated methods showed that PhenoCHF can facilitate the training of reliable phenotype extraction systems, which are robust to variations in text type. These results have been reinforced by evaluating our trained systems on the ShARe/CLEF corpus, which contains clinical records of various types. Like other studies within the biomedical domain, we found that solutions based on conditional random fields produced the best results, when coupled with a rich feature set. Conclusions PhenoCHF is the first annotated corpus aimed at encoding detailed phenotypic information. The unique heterogeneous composition of the corpus has been shown to be advantageous in the training of systems that can accurately extract phenotypic information from a range of different text types. Although the scope of our

  13. Minimizing Human Intervention for Constructing Korean Part-of-Speech Tagged Corpus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Do-Gil; Hong, Gumwon; Lee, Seok Kee; Rim, Hae-Chang

    The construction of annotated corpora requires considerable manual effort. This paper presents a pragmatic method to minimize human intervention for the construction of Korean part-of-speech (POS) tagged corpus. Instead of focusing on improving the performance of conventional automatic POS taggers, we devise a discriminative POS tagger which can selectively produce either a single analysis or multiple analyses based on the tagging reliability. The proposed approach uses two decision rules to judge the tagging reliability. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can effectively control the quality of corpus and the amount of manual annotation by the threshold value of the rule.

  14. NCBI disease corpus: a resource for disease name recognition and concept normalization.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Rezarta Islamaj; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-02-01

    Information encoded in natural language in biomedical literature publications is only useful if efficient and reliable ways of accessing and analyzing that information are available. Natural language processing and text mining tools are therefore essential for extracting valuable information, however, the development of powerful, highly effective tools to automatically detect central biomedical concepts such as diseases is conditional on the availability of annotated corpora. This paper presents the disease name and concept annotations of the NCBI disease corpus, a collection of 793 PubMed abstracts fully annotated at the mention and concept level to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural language processing community. Each PubMed abstract was manually annotated by two annotators with disease mentions and their corresponding concepts in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®) or Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM®). Manual curation was performed using PubTator, which allowed the use of pre-annotations as a pre-step to manual annotations. Fourteen annotators were randomly paired and differing annotations were discussed for reaching a consensus in two annotation phases. In this setting, a high inter-annotator agreement was observed. Finally, all results were checked against annotations of the rest of the corpus to assure corpus-wide consistency. The public release of the NCBI disease corpus contains 6892 disease mentions, which are mapped to 790 unique disease concepts. Of these, 88% link to a MeSH identifier, while the rest contain an OMIM identifier. We were able to link 91% of the mentions to a single disease concept, while the rest are described as a combination of concepts. In order to help researchers use the corpus to design and test disease identification methods, we have prepared the corpus as training, testing and development sets. To demonstrate its utility, we conducted a benchmarking experiment where we compared three different

  15. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  16. 76 FR 55909 - CITGO Refining and Chemicals Company L.P. v. Port of Corpus Christi Authority of Nueces County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... CITGO Refining and Chemicals Company L.P. v. Port of Corpus Christi Authority of Nueces County, Texas... ``Complainant,'' against the Port of Corpus Christi Authority of Nueces County, Texas (PCCA) hereinafter... charges, CITGO has been forced to subsidize costs associated with services provided to other users of...

  17. Corpus-Driven Characterizations of Pronominal "da"-Compound Use by Learners and Native Speakers of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belz, Julie A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper makes a usage-based contribution to the learning and teaching of German via the tools of contrastive learner corpus analysis (Granger, 1998; Granger, Hung, and Petch-Tyson, 2002; Nesselhauf, 2004). On the basis of an integrated learner and native speaker corpus of "telecollaborative" discourse (Belz, 2005), an empirically rich…

  18. Variation in Citational Practice in a Corpus of Student Biology Papers: From Parenthetical Plonking to Intertextual Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swales, John M.

    2014-01-01

    This is a corpus-based study of a key aspect of academic writing in one discipline (biology) by final-year undergraduates and first-, second-, and third-year graduate students. The papers come from the Michigan Corpus of Upper-level Student Papers, a freely available electronic database. The principal aim of the study is to examine the extent of…

  19. Sketching Muslims: A Corpus Driven Analysis of Representations around the Word "Muslim" in the British Press 1998-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Paul; Gabrielatos, Costas; McEnery, Tony

    2013-01-01

    This article uses methods from corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis to examine patterns of representation around the word "Muslim" in a 143 million word corpus of British newspaper articles published between 1998 and 2009. Using the analysis tool Sketch Engine, an analysis of noun collocates of "Muslim" found that the following…

  20. Corpus Callosum Area and Brain Volume in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Quantitative Analysis of Structural MRI from the ABIDE Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucharsky Hiess, R.; Alter, R.; Sojoudi, S.; Ardekani, B. A.; Kuzniecky, R.; Pardoe, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced corpus callosum area and increased brain volume are two commonly reported findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated these two correlates in ASD and healthy controls using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE). Automated methods were used to segment the corpus callosum and intracranial…