Sample records for ovine corpus luteum

  1. Evidence for a role of capillary pericytes in vascular growth of the developing ovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Redmer, D A; Doraiswamy, V; Bortnem, B J; Fisher, K; Jablonka-Shariff, A; Grazul-Bilska, A T; Reynolds, L P

    2001-09-01

    Because of rapid growth followed by spontaneous regression, the ovarian corpus luteum (CL) is an excellent model to study angiogenesis in vivo. To evaluate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein during luteal development, ovaries were collected from FSH-stimulated ewes throughout the estrous cycle. VEGF was immunolocalized in tissue sections by using an affinity-purified antibody. VEGF protein localized exclusively to the thecal layer of preovulatory follicles, while the granulosa was devoid of staining. Associated with the periovulatory period was intense expression of VEGF by thecal cells at the basement membrane and subsequent invasion of the granulosa layers by these VEGF-positive cells immediately after ovulation. The early CL showed staining for VEGF in thecal-derived compartments, and strong staining for VEGF was also seen in cells within the granulosa-derived parenchymal lobules. Dual immunohistochemical localization of VEGF and smooth muscle cell alpha-actin indicated that the VEGF-positive cells were capillary pericytes or vascular smooth muscle cells. In another experiment, we quantified proliferation of endothelial cells and pericytes throughout luteal development. Pericytes represented a large proportion of the proliferating cells during the early luteal phase and then decreased dramatically. Perivascular cells, therefore, may play a critical role in angiogenesis that occurs during transformation of the follicle into the highly vascular CL of the sheep. As angiogenesis occurs only at the level of capillaries, and pericytes are integral members of these microvessels, regulation of pericytes may provide a novel mechanism for regulating luteal growth and tissue growth in general. PMID:11514354

  2. Pregnancy-associated genes contribute to antiluteolytic mechanisms in ovine corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Jared J.; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q.; Smirnova, Natalia P.; Webb, Brett T.; Yu, Fang; Davis, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that ovine luteal gene expression differs due to pregnancy status and day of estrous cycle was tested. RNA was isolated from corpora lutea (CL) on days 12 and 14 of the estrous cycle (NP) or pregnancy (P) and analyzed with the Affymetrix bovine microarray. RNA also was isolated from luteal cells on day 10 of estrous cycle that were cultured for 24 h with luteolytic hormones (OXT and PGF) and secretory products of the conceptus (IFNT and PGE2). Differential gene expression (>1.5-fold, P < 0.05) was confirmed using semiquantitative real-time PCR. Serum progesterone concentrations decreased from day 12 to day 15 in NP ewes (P < 0.05) reflecting luteolysis and remained >1.7 ng/ml in P ewes reflecting rescue of the CL. Early luteolysis (days 12–14) was associated with differential expression of 683 genes in the CL, including upregulation of SERPINE1 and THBS1. Pregnancy on day 12 (55 genes) and 14 (734 genes) also was associated with differential expression of genes in the CL, many of which were ISGs (i.e., ISG15, MX1) that were induced when culturing luteal cells with IFNT, but not PGE2. Finally, many genes, such as PTX3, IL6, VEGF, and LHR, were stabilized during pregnancy and downregulated during the estrous cycle and in response to culture of luteal cells with luteolytic hormones. In conclusion, pregnancy circumvents luteolytic pathways and activates or stabilizes genes associated with interferon, chemokine, cell adhesion, cytoskeletal, and angiogenic pathways in the CL. PMID:24046284

  3. Pregnancy-associated genes contribute to antiluteolytic mechanisms in ovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Romero, Jared J; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q; Smirnova, Natalia P; Webb, Brett T; Yu, Fang; Davis, John S; Hansen, Thomas R

    2013-11-15

    The hypothesis that ovine luteal gene expression differs due to pregnancy status and day of estrous cycle was tested. RNA was isolated from corpora lutea (CL) on days 12 and 14 of the estrous cycle (NP) or pregnancy (P) and analyzed with the Affymetrix bovine microarray. RNA also was isolated from luteal cells on day 10 of estrous cycle that were cultured for 24 h with luteolytic hormones (OXT and PGF) and secretory products of the conceptus (IFNT and PGE2). Differential gene expression (>1.5-fold, P < 0.05) was confirmed using semiquantitative real-time PCR. Serum progesterone concentrations decreased from day 12 to day 15 in NP ewes (P < 0.05) reflecting luteolysis and remained >1.7 ng/ml in P ewes reflecting rescue of the CL. Early luteolysis (days 12-14) was associated with differential expression of 683 genes in the CL, including upregulation of SERPINE1 and THBS1. Pregnancy on day 12 (55 genes) and 14 (734 genes) also was associated with differential expression of genes in the CL, many of which were ISGs (i.e., ISG15, MX1) that were induced when culturing luteal cells with IFNT, but not PGE2. Finally, many genes, such as PTX3, IL6, VEGF, and LHR, were stabilized during pregnancy and downregulated during the estrous cycle and in response to culture of luteal cells with luteolytic hormones. In conclusion, pregnancy circumvents luteolytic pathways and activates or stabilizes genes associated with interferon, chemokine, cell adhesion, cytoskeletal, and angiogenic pathways in the CL. PMID:24046284

  4. Interactions between the embryo and corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M R; Bolton, V N; Riddle, A F; Sharma, V; Nicolaides, K; Grudzinskas, J G; Collins, W P

    1993-09-01

    A total of 102 patients who had become pregnant following in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer were studied at weekly intervals between 4 and 14 weeks gestation. The pregnancies were classified as follows: (i) normal singleton, n = 52; (ii) normal twin, n = 24; (iii) heterotopic, n = 4 (weeks 4-8 only); and (iv) anembryonic with a viable intra-uterine singleton, n = 22. The serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), Schwangerschaft protein-1 (SP-1) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), oestradiol and progesterone were measured. The mean serum concentrations of HCG, SP-1 and PAPP-A were significantly less in heterotopic than in singleton, singleton/anembryonic or twin pregnancies (P < 0.01-0.05), while those of progesterone and oestradiol were not different at any time. There were no significant differences between the serum concentrations of any of the substances analysed in singleton/anembryonic and singleton pregnancies, but the concentrations of all the substances analysed were significantly greater in twin pregnancies from as early as 7 weeks (P < 0.01-0.05). These data show that in heterotopic pregnancies trophoblast function is reduced, as suggested by the lower concentrations of the placental proteins. Despite this the concentrations of oestradiol and progesterone, derived predominantly from the corpus luteum between 4 and 8 weeks, are equivalent to those found in twin pregnancies, and greater than those found in singleton and singleton/anembryonic pregnancies. These findings support the notion that although HCG may rescue the corpus luteum it does not subsequently have a direct effect on its function, and suggest that the embryo may influence corpus luteum function. PMID:7504683

  5. Corpus luteum failure in ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M R; Riddle, A F; Irvine, R; Sharma, V; Collins, W P; Nicolaides, K H; Grudzinskas, J G

    1993-09-01

    The endocrinology of ectopic pregnancy was studied in order to investigate the origin of the discordance in the circulating amounts of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and those of oestradiol and progesterone. Serial maternal blood samples were obtained at 4-9 weeks gestation from 93 patients who became pregnant following in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer including 10 ectopic, 21 anembryonic and 62 normal singleton pregnancies. The samples were analysed for HCG, Schwangerschaft protein-1 (SP-1), pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), progesterone and oestradiol. In ectopic pregnancies, concentrations of all substances analysed were significantly reduced compared to singleton pregnancies from 5 weeks gestation (P < 0.05-0.001) but they were not significantly different from those of anembryonic pregnancies. In ectopic pregnancies, associations were found between the concentration of both HCG and SP-1 and those of progesterone and oestradiol. No associations were found between PAPP-A and any other substances analysed. This may be due to insensitivity of the PAPP-A assay; alternatively PAPP-A concentrations may be differentially reduced in ectopic pregnancy. These findings suggest that progesterone and oestradiol are derived from the corpus luteum in early ectopic pregnancy but that the corpus luteum fails rapidly and the dominant source of both hormones becomes the trophoblast as early as 5 weeks. PMID:7504682

  6. Progesterone and interferon tau regulated genes in the endometrium of the ovine uterus and expression of interferon stimulated genes in the corpus luteum during early pregnancy in sheep

    E-print Network

    Ahn, Hyo Won

    2008-10-10

    paracrine actions in the endometrium. However, when recombinant ovine IFNT (roIFNT) was administered to pregnant ewes by either intrauterine (i.u.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) routes, both treatments were equally effective in induction of ISGs (MX1 and ISG15.... Homogenates of the ovine conceptus from Days 14 and 15 extended CL lifespan and interestrus intervals when infused into uteri of cyclic ewes. However, intrauterine infusion of conceptus homogenates from Days 21 to 25 or intravenous injection of conceptus...

  7. Recurrent hemorrhage from corpus luteum during anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, K. P.; Gillett, P. G.

    1977-01-01

    A 43-year old woman had recurrent massive intraperitoneal hemorrhage from rupture of a hemorrhagic corpus luteum in two successive menstrual cycles while receiving anticoagulant therapy. Left oophorectomy was performed on the first occasion and right salpingo-oophorectomy with left salpingectomy on the second. While the precise incidence cannot be determined, rupture from a hemorrhagic corpus luteum appears to be a rare but potentially catastrophic complication of anticoagulant therapy. Hence possible ovarian hemorrhage should be considered in women of reproductive age receiving heparin or sodium warfarin therapy. PMID:844024

  8. Immunocytochemical localization of oxytocin in the equine corpus luteum

    E-print Network

    Murray, Melanie Ann

    1991-01-01

    of progesterone and estrogen in oxytocin receptor formation has been demonstrated but the interactions of oxytocin and prostaglandin are still unclear in the mare. 34 LITERATURE CITED Arthur, G. H. 1975. Influence of intrauterine saline infusion upon... for the presence of oxytocin and neurophysin in the large cells of the bovine corpus luteum. Cell Tiss. Res. 237:349. Hansel, W. and W. C. Wagner. 1960. Luteal inhibition in the bovine as a result of oxytocin injections, uterine dilatation, and intrauterine...

  9. Macrophages regulate corpus luteum development during embryo implantation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Care, Alison S.; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Jasper, Melinda J.; Brown, Hannah M.; Ingman, Wendy V.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are prominent in the uterus and ovary at conception. Here we utilize the Cd11b-Dtr mouse model of acute macrophage depletion to define the essential role of macrophages in early pregnancy. Macrophage depletion after conception caused embryo implantation arrest associated with diminished plasma progesterone and poor uterine receptivity. Implantation failure was alleviated by administration of bone marrow–derived CD11b+F4/80+ monocytes/macrophages. In the ovaries of macrophage-depleted mice, corpora lutea were profoundly abnormal, with elevated Ptgs2, Hif1a, and other inflammation and apoptosis genes and with diminished expression of steroidogenesis genes Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b1. Infertility was rescued by exogenous progesterone, which confirmed that uterine refractoriness was fully attributable to the underlying luteal defect. In normally developing corpora lutea, macrophages were intimately juxtaposed with endothelial cells and expressed the proangiogenic marker TIE2. After macrophage depletion, substantial disruption of the luteal microvascular network occurred and was associated with altered ovarian expression of genes that encode vascular endothelial growth factors. These data indicate a critical role for macrophages in supporting the extensive vascular network required for corpus luteum integrity and production of progesterone essential for establishing pregnancy. Our findings raise the prospect that disruption of macrophage-endothelial cell interactions underpinning corpus luteum development contributes to infertility in women in whom luteal insufficiency is implicated. PMID:23867505

  10. BECN1, corpus luteum function, and preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Gawriluk, Thomas R; Rucker, Edmund B

    2015-01-01

    Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is necessary to maintain pregnancy in mammals. We recently found that mice with a conditional deletion of Becn1/Beclin 1 specifically in the progesterone-synthesizing cells of the corpus luteum, had reduced progesterone synthesis and these mice failed to maintain pregnancy.(1) Furthermore, we identified that lipid storage and feedback through PRLR (prolactin receptor) and LHCGR (luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor) were negatively affected by Becn1 deletion. BECN1 is necessary for the interaction of the 2 catalytic subunits of the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex, PIK3C3, and PIK3R4, which are responsible for the generation of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate that is required for nucleation of the phagophore. Work from Sun et al. and Itakura et al. demonstrated that this BECN1 complex is also necessary for the fusion of autophagosomes and endosomes with lysosomes. Therefore, we suspected that ablating Becn1 in luteal cells would inhibit macroautophagy, hereafter referred to as autophagy. In support, we provide evidence that autophagic flux is reduced in our model. Thus, this study provides evidence that Becn1 is necessary for steroid production in murine luteal cells. PMID:25646672

  11. Electron microscopic observations on the involution of the human corpus luteum of menstruation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernest W. Lennep; Lesley M. Madden

    1965-01-01

    The involution of the granulosa lutein cell in the human corpus luteum is characterized by a dilatation of agranular endoplasmic reticulum vesicles and tubules. This process continues until the whole cell is filled with large vacuoles and the cytoplasm is reduced to thin strands between the vacuoles. The contents of the latter are of low electron density in contrast to

  12. The effect of exogenous oxytocin on estrous cycle length and corpus luteum lysis in ewes

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    The effect of exogenous oxytocin on estrous cycle length and corpus luteum lysis in ewes I, University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Summary. The effect of exogenous oxytocin on estrous cycle length of experiment 1 showed no significant reduction of estrous cycle length of oxytocin-treated ewes ; however, 2

  13. Interrelationships among morphology, echotexture, and function of the bovine corpus luteum during the estrous cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Gustavo B. Siqueira; Ciro A. A. Torres; Lincoln S. Amorim; Eliza D. Souza; Luiz Sérgio A. Camargo; Carlos A. C. Fernandes; João Henrique M. Viana

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that ultrasound image attributes are a potential indicator of physiological and functional status of the corpus luteum (CL) in several species, including cattle. The aims of this study were to evaluate CL morphological, functional and echotextural characteristics, and also to investigate the hypothesis that those attributes are correlated and change similarly throughout an estrous cycle. Ovaries

  14. Immunohistological localization and expression of alpha-actin in the baboon (Papio anubis) corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Khan-Dawood, F S; Yang, J; Dawood, M Y

    1997-01-01

    We have recently shown the presence of E-cadherin and of alpha- and gamma-catenins in human and baboon corpora lutea. These are components of adherens junctions between cells. The cytoplasmic catenins link the cell membrane-associated cadherins to the actin-based cytoskeleton. This interaction is necessary for the functional activity of the E-cadherins. Our aim therefore was to determine the presence of alpha-actin in the baboon corpus luteum, to further establish whether the necessary components for E-cadherin activity are present in this tissue. An antibody specific for the smooth muscle isoform of actin, alpha-actin, was used for these studies. The results using immunohistochemistry show that (a) alpha-actin is present in steroidogenic cells of the active corpus luteum, theca externa of the corpus luteum, cells of the vasculature, and the tunica albuginea surrounding the ovary. The intensity of immunoreactivity for alpha-actin varied, with the cells of the vasculature reacting more intensely than the luteal cells. A difference in intensity of immunoreactivity was also observed among the luteal cells, with the inner granulosa cells showing stronger immunoreactivity than the peripheral theca lutein cells. There was no detectable immunoreactivity in the steroidogenic cells of the atretic corpus luteum. However, in both the active and atretic corpora lutea, alpha-actin-positive vascular cells were dispersed within the tissue. (b) Total alpha-actin (luteal and non-luteal), as determined by Western blot analyses, does not change during the luteal phase and subsequent corpus luteum demise (atretic corpora lutea). (c) hCG stimulated the expression of alpha-actin and progesterone secretion by the early luteal phase (LH surge + 1-5 days) and mid-luteal phase (LH surge + 6-10 days) cells in culture, but only progesterone in the late luteal phase (LH surge + 11-15 days). The data show that alpha-actin is present in luteal cells and that its expression is regulated by hCG, thus suggesting that E-cadherin may form functional adherens junctions in the corpus luteum. PMID:9010471

  15. Presence of Arylsulfatase A and Sulfogalactosylglycerolipid in Mouse Ovaries: Localization to the Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Anupriwan, Araya; Schenk, Matthias; Kongmanas, Kessiri; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Costa Santos, Daniela; Yaghoubian, Arman; Liu, Fang; Wu, Alexander; Berger, Trish; Faull, Kym F.; Saitongdee, Porncharn; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Tanphaichitr, Nongnuj

    2008-01-01

    Arylsulfatase A (AS-A) is a lysosomal enzyme, which catalyzes the desulfation of certain sulfogalactolipids, including sulfogalactosylglycerolipid (SGG), a molecule implicated in cell adhesion. In this report, immunocytochemistry revealed the selective presence of AS-A in the corpus luteum of mouse ovaries. Immunoblotting indicated that mouse corpus luteum AS-A had a molecular mass of 66 kDa, similar to AS-A of other tissues. Corpus luteum AS-A was active, capable of desulfating the artificial substrate, p-nitrocatechol sulfate, at the optimum pH of five. To understand further the role of AS-A in female reproduction, levels of AS-A were determined during corpus luteum development in pseudopregnant mice and during luteolysis after cessation of pseudopregnancy. Immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting and desulfation activity showed that AS-A expression was evident at the onset of pseudopregnancy in the newly formed corpora lutea, and its level increased steadily during gland development. The increase in the expression and activity of AS-A continued throughout luteolysis after the decrease in serum progesterone levels. We also observed the selective presence of SGG on the luteal cell surface in developed corpora lutea, as shown by immunofluorescence of mouse ovary sections as well as high-performance thin-layer chromatography of lipids isolated from mouse and pig corpora lutea. The identity of the “SGG” band on the thin layer silica plate was further validated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Significantly, SGG disappeared in regressing corpora lutea. Therefore, lysosomal AS-A may be involved in cell-surface remodeling during luteolysis by desulfating SGG after its endocytosis and targeting to the lysosome. PMID:18420734

  16. Identification of a functional corpus luteum in the Atlantic hagfish, Myxine glutinosa.

    PubMed

    Powell, Mickie L; Kavanaugh, Scott; Sower, Stacia A

    2006-08-01

    Hagfish represent the oldest extant craniates and are an important link between invertebrates and vertebrates. However, key elements of the reproductive system have not been elucidated in hagfish. There is new evidence from our recent studies that Atlantic hagfish may have a seasonal reproductive cycle. These data include seasonal changes in gonadotropin-releasing hormone, gonadal steroids, estradiol, and progesterone, corresponding to gonadal reproductive stages along with the putative identification of a functional corpus luteum. The corpus luteum in non-mammalian vertebrates secretes mainly progesterone thought to be involved in the retention of eggs and down regulation of vitellogenin synthesis. The most ancient vertebrate that is known to have a functional corpus luteum is the dogfish, Squalus acanthias. However, brown bodies, hypothesized to be corpora lutea, have been observed by scientists for over 100 years in the gonad of the hagfish. To date, data in support of these brown bodies acting as corpora lutea have consisted mainly of observational studies. Therefore, we examined the putative corpora lutea (post-ovulatory follicles) in hagfish by histology, electron microscopy, and production of progesterone and estradiol. Progesterone concentrations from post-ovulatory follicles were significantly higher (12+/-1.5 pg/mg gonad tissue wet weight) compared to controls containing only gonadal tissues and oocytes (3.6+/-1.5 pg/mg gonad tissue wet weight) (p<0.05). Estradiol was detected in seven of the 13 samples containing only gonadal tissue with oocytes and ranged between 0.6 and 0.18 pg/mg gonad tissue wet weight and was not detected in any of the media containing only corpora lutea samples. Light and electron microscopy analysis supported that these structures were corpora lutea like structures (post-ovulatory follicles). From these results, we hypothesize that hagfish have functional corpora lutea like structures that produce progesterone. PMID:16483574

  17. Possible role of insulin-like factor 3 in the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Abe, Misato; Hojo, Takuo; Kozai, Keisuke; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) is a local regulator in mammalian gonads, but little is known of its function in bovine corpus luteum (CL). Here, we show that RXFP2 protein, the receptor of INSL3, was expressed throughout the estrous cycle and significantly high at the early luteal stage compared to the regressed luteal stage. INSL3 stimulated progesterone secretion, but not prostaglandin F2? and viability in cultured luteal cells. Together, these results suggest that INSL3 plays a luteotropic role as a local regulator in the bovine CL. PMID:23220928

  18. Rapid induction of gene expression in the corpus luteum following in vivo treatment with prostaglandin F2 alpha

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pulsatile uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF) triggers the regression of the corpus luteum (CL). Research from many laboratories has identified the early intracellular signaling events initiated by PGF (for example, activation of phospholipases, increased intracellular calcium, an...

  19. DNA methylation and histone modifications are associated with repression of the inhibin ? promoter in the rat corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Meldi, Kristen M; Gaconnet, Georgia A; Mayo, Kelly E

    2012-10-01

    The transition from follicle to corpus luteum after ovulation is associated with profound morphological and functional changes and is accompanied by corresponding changes in gene expression. The gene encoding the ? subunit of the dimeric reproductive hormone inhibin is maximally expressed in the granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicle, is rapidly repressed by the ovulatory LH surge, and is expressed at only very low levels in the corpus luteum. Although previous studies have identified transient repressors of inhibin ? gene transcription, little is known about how this repression is maintained in the corpus luteum. This study examines the role of epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation and histone modification, in silencing of inhibin ? gene expression. Bisulfite sequencing reveals that methylation of the inhibin ? proximal promoter is low in preovulatory and ovulatory follicles but is elevated in the corpus luteum. Increased methylation during luteinization is observed within the cAMP response element in the promoter, and EMSA demonstrate that methylation of this site inhibits cAMP response element binding protein binding in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals that repressive histone marks H3K9 and H3K27 trimethylation are increased on the inhibin ? promoter in primary luteal cells, whereas the activation mark H3K4 trimethylation is decreased. The changes in histone modification precede the alterations in DNA methylation, suggesting that they facilitate the recruitment of DNA methyltransferases. We show that the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a is present in the ovary and in luteal cells when the inhibin ? promoter becomes methylated and observe recruitment of DNMT3a to the inhibin promoter during luteinization. PMID:22865368

  20. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 Is Required for Ovulation and Corpus Luteum Formation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Deady, Lylah D.; Shen, Wei; Mosure, Sarah A.; Spradling, Allan C.; Sun, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Ovulation is critical for successful reproduction and correlates with ovarian cancer risk, yet genetic studies of ovulation have been limited. It has long been thought that the mechanism controlling ovulation is highly divergent due to speciation and fast evolution. Using genetic tools available in Drosophila, we now report that ovulation in Drosophila strongly resembles mammalian ovulation at both the cellular and molecular levels. Just one of up to 32 mature follicles per ovary pair loses posterior follicle cells (“trimming”) and protrudes into the oviduct, showing that a selection process prefigures ovulation. Follicle cells that remain after egg release form a “corpus luteum (CL)” at the end of the ovariole, develop yellowish pigmentation, and express genes encoding steroid hormone biosynthetic enzymes that are required for full fertility. Finally, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2), a type of protease thought to facilitate mammalian ovulation, is expressed in mature follicle and CL cells. Mmp2 activity is genetically required for trimming, ovulation and CL formation. Our studies provide new insights into the regulation of Drosophila ovulation and establish Drosophila as a model for genetically investigating ovulation in diverse organisms, including mammals. PMID:25695427

  1. Identification of optimal housekeeping genes for examination of gene expression in bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Rekawiecki, Robert; Rutkowska, Joanna; Kotwica, Jan

    2012-12-01

    The selection of proper housekeeping genes for studies requiring genes expression normalization is an important step in the appropriate interpretation of results. The expression of housekeeping genes is regulated by many factors including age, gender, type of tissue or disease. The aim of the study was to identify optimal housekeeping genes in the corpus luteum obtained from cyclic or pregnant cows. The mRNA expression of thirteen housekeeping genes: C2orf29, SUZ12, TBP, TUBB2B, ZNF131, HPRT1, 18s RNA, GAPDH, SF3A1, SDHA, MRPL12, B2M and ACTB was measured by Real-time PCR. Range of cycle threshold (C(t)) values of the tested genes varied between 12 and 30 cycles, and 18s RNA had the highest coefficient of variation, whereas C2orf29 had the smallest coefficient. GeNorm software demonstrated C2orf29 and TBP as the most stable and 18s RNA and B2M as the most unstable housekeeping genes. Using the proposed cut-off value (0.15), no more than two of the best GeNorm housekeeping genes are proposed to be used in studies requiring gene expression normalization. NormFinder software demonstrated C2orf29 and SUZ12 as the best and 18s RNA and B2M as the worst housekeeping genes. The study indicates that selection of housekeeping genes may essentially affect the quality of the gene expression results. PMID:23229008

  2. Luteoprotective mechanisms of prostaglandin F2? stimulated by luteinizing hormone in the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Syota; Bowolaksono, Anom; Yoshioka, Shin; Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) regulates several ovarian functions. However, the luteoprotective mechanisms of LH involved in the maintenance of bovine corpus luteum (CL) function are not well understood. Since prostaglandin F2? (PGF), PGE2 and progesterone (P4) are well documented as antiapoptotic factors in the bovine CL, we hypothesized that LH protects the CL by stimulating the local production and action of PGF, PGE2 and P4. Cultured bovine luteal cells obtained at the mid-luteal stage (days 8-12 of the estrous cycle) were treated with LH (10 ng/ml), onapristone (OP: a specific P4 receptor antagonist, 100 ?M) and indomethacin [INDO; a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, 100 ?M] for 24 h. LH with and without OP significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of COX-2, PGF synthase and carbonyl reductase (P<0.05) but not the mRNA and protein expressions of COX-1 and PGE synthase in bovine luteal cells. In addition, these treatments significantly increased PGF and P4 production (P<0.05) but not PGE2 production. Luteal cell viability was significantly increased by LH alone (P<0.05), but LH-increased cell viability was reduced by LH in combination with INDO as well as OP (P<0.05). The overall results suggest that LH prevents luteal cell death by stimulating luteal PGF and P4 production and supports CL function during the luteal phase in cattle. PMID:23358309

  3. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: role of immune cells in the corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Walusimbi, S S; Pate, J L

    2013-04-01

    The immune system is essential for optimal function of the reproductive system. The corpus luteum (CL) is an endocrine organ that secretes progesterone, which is responsible for regulating the length of the estrous cycle, and for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. This paper reviews literature that addresses 2 areas; i) how immune cells are recruited to the CL, and ii) how immune cells communicate with luteal cells to affect the formation, development, and regression of the CL. Immune cells, primarily recruited to the ovulatory follicle from lymphoid organs after the LH surge, facilitate ovulation and populate the developing CL. During the luteal phase, changes in the population of macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils, and T lymphocytes occur at critical functional stages of the CL. In addition to their role in facilitating ovulation, immune cells may have an important role in luteal function. Evidence shows that cytokines secreted by immune cells modulate both luteotropic and luteolytic processes. However, the decision to pursue either function may depend on the environment provided by luteal cells. It is suggested that understanding the role immune cells play could lead to identification of new strategies to improve fertility in dairy cattle and other species. PMID:23422006

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 is required for ovulation and corpus luteum formation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Deady, Lylah D; Shen, Wei; Mosure, Sarah A; Spradling, Allan C; Sun, Jianjun

    2015-02-01

    Ovulation is critical for successful reproduction and correlates with ovarian cancer risk, yet genetic studies of ovulation have been limited. It has long been thought that the mechanism controlling ovulation is highly divergent due to speciation and fast evolution. Using genetic tools available in Drosophila, we now report that ovulation in Drosophila strongly resembles mammalian ovulation at both the cellular and molecular levels. Just one of up to 32 mature follicles per ovary pair loses posterior follicle cells ("trimming") and protrudes into the oviduct, showing that a selection process prefigures ovulation. Follicle cells that remain after egg release form a "corpus luteum (CL)" at the end of the ovariole, develop yellowish pigmentation, and express genes encoding steroid hormone biosynthetic enzymes that are required for full fertility. Finally, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2), a type of protease thought to facilitate mammalian ovulation, is expressed in mature follicle and CL cells. Mmp2 activity is genetically required for trimming, ovulation and CL formation. Our studies provide new insights into the regulation of Drosophila ovulation and establish Drosophila as a model for genetically investigating ovulation in diverse organisms, including mammals. PMID:25695427

  5. Luteoprotective Mechanisms of Prostaglandin F2? Stimulated by Luteinizing Hormone in the Bovine Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    KAWAGUCHI, Syota; BOWOLAKSONO, Anom; YOSHIOKA, Shin; SAKUMOTO, Ryosuke; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Luteinizing hormone (LH) regulates several ovarian functions. However, the luteoprotective mechanisms of LH involved in the maintenance of bovine corpus luteum (CL) function are not well understood. Since prostaglandin F2? (PGF), PGE2 and progesterone (P4) are well documented as antiapoptotic factors in the bovine CL, we hypothesized that LH protects the CL by stimulating the local production and action of PGF, PGE2 and P4. Cultured bovine luteal cells obtained at the mid-luteal stage (days 8–12 of the estrous cycle) were treated with LH (10 ng/ml), onapristone (OP: a specific P4 receptor antagonist, 100 ?M) and indomethacin [INDO; a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, 100 ?M] for 24 h. LH with and without OP significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of COX-2, PGF synthase and carbonyl reductase (P<0.05) but not the mRNA and protein expressions of COX-1 and PGE synthase in bovine luteal cells. In addition, these treatments significantly increased PGF and P4 production (P<0.05) but not PGE2 production. Luteal cell viability was significantly increased by LH alone (P<0.05), but LH-increased cell viability was reduced by LH in combination with INDO as well as OP (P<0.05). The overall results suggest that LH prevents luteal cell death by stimulating luteal PGF and P4 production and supports CL function during the luteal phase in cattle. PMID:23358309

  6. Impaired microRNA processing causes corpus luteum insufficiency and infertility in mice.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Motoyuki; Zheng, Min; Hayashi, Masaaki; Lee, Jing-Dwan; Yoshino, Osamu; Lin, Shengcai; Han, Jiahuai

    2008-05-01

    The microRNA (miRNA) processing enzyme Dicer1 is required for zygotic and embryonic development, but the early embryonic lethality of Dicer1 null alleles in mice has limited our ability to address the role of Dicer1 in normal mouse growth and development. To address this question, we used a mouse mutant with a hypomorphic Dicer1 allele (Dicer(d/d)) and found that Dicer1 deficiency resulted in female infertility. This defect in female Dicer(d/d) mice was caused by corpus luteum (CL) insufficiency and resulted, at least in part, from the impaired growth of new capillary vessels in the ovary. We found that the impaired CL angiogenesis in Dicer(d/d) mice was associated with a lack of miR17-5p and let7b, 2 miRNAs that participate in angiogenesis by regulating the expression of the antiangiogenic factor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1. Furthermore, injection of miR17-5p and let7b into the ovaries of Dicer(d/d) mice partially normalized tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 expression and CL angiogenesis. Our data indicate that the development and function of the ovarian CL is a physiological process that appears to be regulated by miRNAs and requires Dicer1 function. PMID:18398510

  7. Evidence for nitric oxide acting as a luteolytic factor in the human corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Fridén, B E; Runesson, E; Hahlin, M; Brännström, M

    2000-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to characterize the expression and cellular localization of isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the human corpus luteum (CL) and to determine the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on CL steroidogenesis. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that endothelial NOS (eNOS) is the most abundant isoform in human CL with highest values during the late luteal phase. Immunoreactive eNOS was localized predominantely in the theca lutein layer, being particularly abundant in endothelial cells, but with positive staining also in some steroidogenic cells. Immunoreactive inducible NOS (iNOS) was also detected, but to lesser degree, and did not display apparent phase-specific changes. The effect of NO on CL steroid synthesis was examined using human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG)-stimulated dispersed CL cells cultured in vitro. Progesterone production was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by the NO donor spermine NONOate (10(-5) mol/l) in cells of the late, but not mid-, luteal phase. To investigate a potential link between NO and the local prostaglandins (PG), concentrations of PGF(2alpha) and PGE(2) were measured in culture medium. NO significantly increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of both PGF(2alpha) and PGE(2) during the late luteal phase. It is concluded that NO may be luteolytic in the human CL of menstruation. PMID:10775642

  8. Opposing roles of leptin and ghrelin in the equine corpus luteum regulation: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Galvão, António; Tramontano, Angela; Rebordão, Maria Rosa; Amaral, Ana; Bravo, Pedro Pinto; Szóstek, Anna; Skarzynski, Dariusz; Mollo, Antonio; Ferreira-Dias, Graça

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic hormones have been associated with reproductive function modulation. Thus, the aim of this study was: (i) to characterize the immunolocalization, mRNA and protein levels of leptin (LEP), Ghrelin (GHR) and respective receptors LEPR and Ghr-R1A, throughout luteal phase; and (ii) to evaluate the role of LEP and GHR on progesterone (P4), prostaglandin (PG) E2 and PGF2? , nitric oxide (nitrite), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF); macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) secretion, and on angiogenic activity (BAEC proliferation), in equine corpus luteum (CL) from early and mid-luteal stages. LEPR expression was decreased in late CL, while GHR/Ghr-R1A system was increased in the same stage. Regarding secretory activity, GHR decreased P4 in early CL, but increased PGF2? , nitrite and TNF in mid CL. Conversely, LEP increased P4, PGE2, angiogenic activity, MIF, TNF and nitrite during early CL, in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro effect of LEP on secretory activity was reverted by GHR, when both factors acted together. The present results evidence the presence of LEP and GHR systems in the equine CL. Moreover, we suggest that LEP and GHR play opposing roles in equine CL regulation, with LEP supporting luteal establishment and GHR promoting luteal regression. Finally, a dose-dependent luteotrophic effect of LEP was demonstrated. PMID:25125800

  9. Induction of the expressions of antioxidant enzymes by luteinizing hormone in the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Syota; Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Luteoprotective mechanisms of luteinizing hormone (LH) involved in the maintenance of bovine corpus luteum (CL) function have not been completely clarified. Since antioxidant enzymes are well documented as antiapoptotic factors in the CL of many mammals, we hypothesized that the luteoprotective action of LH is mediated by stimulating the local production and action of antioxidant enzymes. To test the above hypothesis, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms involved in the luteoprotective actions of LH. Cultured bovine luteal cells obtained from the CL at the mid-luteal stage (days 8-12 of the estrous cycle) were treated with LH (10 ng/ml), onapristone (OP; a specific progesterone receptor antagonist, 100 ?M) and diethyldithiocarbamate [DETC; an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase (SOD), 100 ?M] for 24 h. LH in combination with or without OP significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of manganese SOD (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CATA) and SOD activity. While LH alone significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of SOD containing copper and zinc (Cu,Zn-SOD), OP in combination with or without LH significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of Cu,Zn-SOD. In addition, Cu,Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CATA mRNA expressions were higher at the mid luteal phase than the other luteal phases. LH in combination with DETC significantly decreased LH-increased cell viability. The overall results suggest that LH increases cell viability by LH-increased antioxidant enzymes, resulting in maintenance of CL function during the luteal phase in cattle. PMID:23386101

  10. Induction of the Expressions of Antioxidant Enzymes by Luteinizing Hormone in the Bovine Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    KAWAGUCHI, Syota; SAKUMOTO, Ryosuke; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Luteoprotective mechanisms of luteinizing hormone (LH) involved in the maintenance of bovine corpus luteum (CL) function have not been completely clarified. Since antioxidant enzymes are well documented as antiapoptotic factors in the CL of many mammals, we hypothesized that the luteoprotective action of LH is mediated by stimulating the local production and action of antioxidant enzymes. To test the above hypothesis, in the present study, we examined the mechanisms involved in the luteoprotective actions of LH. Cultured bovine luteal cells obtained from the CL at the mid-luteal stage (days 8–12 of the estrous cycle) were treated with LH (10 ng/ml), onapristone (OP; a specific progesterone receptor antagonist, 100 ?M) and diethyldithiocarbamate [DETC; an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase (SOD), 100 ?M] for 24 h. LH in combination with or without OP significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of manganese SOD (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CATA) and SOD activity. While LH alone significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of SOD containing copper and zinc (Cu,Zn-SOD), OP in combination with or without LH significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of Cu,Zn-SOD. In addition, Cu,Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and CATA mRNA expressions were higher at the mid luteal phase than the other luteal phases. LH in combination with DETC significantly decreased LH-increased cell viability. The overall results suggest that LH increases cell viability by LH-increased antioxidant enzymes, resulting in maintenance of CL function during the luteal phase in cattle. PMID:23386101

  11. Immune cell-endothelial cell interactions in the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Townson, David H

    2006-12-01

    Early embryonic mortality accounts for a substantial portion of reproductive failure in agriculturally important livestock, including the dairy cow. The maintenance of early pregnancy requires a fully functional corpus luteum (CL) that is not susceptible to regression following fertilization, yet the cellular mechanisms of luteal regression are not clearly understood. Immune-cell accumulation within the CL at the time of regression is a well-documented phenomenon in a variety of species. In the dairy cow, immune-cell accumulation precedes luteal regression by several days and coincides with an increase in expression of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (CCL2), suggesting that immune-mediated events promote tissue destruction. Recent studies indicate that endothelial cells comprising the CL are a primary source of CCL2 secretion. Moreover, although uterine-derived prostaglandin F(2?) (PGF) initiates luteal regression in the cow, PGF does not directly provoke CCL2 secretion by luteal endothelial cells. Instead, PGF-induced luteal regression is thought to require cooperative interaction among immune cells, endothelial cells, and steroidogenic cells of the CL to further promote CCL2 secretion, enhance immune-cell recruitment, and eliminate luteal tissue. This brief review focuses on putative interactions between immune cells and endothelial cells derived from the bovine CL that result in enhanced CCL2 expression and the elaboration of other inflammatory mediators (for example, cytokines), which perpetuate luteal regression. Fundamental knowledge of immune-endocrine interactions within the reproductive system of cows has relevance to other CL-bearing mammals, including humans and endangered animals, particularly in the development of methods to control and/or improve fertility. Thus, it is a timely topic for this symposium concerning ecological immunology and public health. PMID:21672807

  12. Bone morphogenetic proteins are mediators of luteolysis in the human corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Trendell, Jennifer; Giakoumelou, Sevasti; Boswell, Lyndsey; Nicol, Linda; Kudo, Masataka; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Duncan, William Colin

    2015-04-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) superfamily, play important roles in folliculogenesis in various species; however, little is known about their role in luteal function. In this study, we investigated the expression, regulation, and effects of BMP2, BMP4, and BMP6 in carefully dated human corpora lutea and cultured human luteinized granulosa cells. The mRNA abundance of BMPs was increased in the regressing corpus luteum in vivo (P < .01-.001). Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) down-regulated BMP2, BMP4, and BMP6 transcripts both in vivo (P = .05-.001) and in vitro (P < .001), and decreased the mRNA abundance of BMP receptors (BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2; P < .05-.01) in vitro. Three BMPs were regulated by differential signaling pathways. H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor, increased the expression of both BMP2 (P < .05) and BMP4 (P < .05) while decreasing BMP6 (P < .01). PMA, a protein kinase C activator, decreased both BMP4 and BMP6 expression (P < .0001) while enhancing the mRNA abundance of BMP2 (P < .01). BMPs significantly down-regulated transcripts for LH/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR; P < .001) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR; P < .001), whereas up-regulating those of follicular stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR; P < .01) and aromatase (CYP19A1; P < .05-.01) in vitro, possessing an effect opposite to hCG but similar to Activin A. Like Activin A, BMP4 and BMP6 stimulated the expression of Inhibin/Activin subunits with a marked effect on INHBB expression (P < .05-.01). These data confirm that BMPs are increased during luteal regression and negatively regulated by hCG via differential mechanisms, suggesting that BMPs are one of the mediators of luteolysis in women. PMID:25635621

  13. Cellular and functional characterization of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) corpus luteum during the estrous cycle and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baithalu, Rubina Kumari; Singh, S K; Gupta, Chhavi; Raja, Anuj K; Saxena, Abhishake; Kumar, Yogendra; Singh, R; Agarwal, S K

    2013-08-01

    In the present paper, cellular composition of buffalo corpus luteum (CL) with its functional characterization based on 3?-HSD and progesterone secretory ability at different stages of estrous cycle and pregnancy was studied. Buffalo uteri along with ovaries bearing CL were collected from the local slaughter house. These were classified into different stages of estrous cycle (Stage I, II, III and IV) and pregnancy (Stage I, II and III) based on morphological appearance of CL, surface follicles on the ovary and crown rump length of conceptus. Luteal cell population, progesterone content and steroidogenic properties were studied by dispersion of luteal cells using collagenase type I enzyme, RIA and 3?-HSD activity, respectively. Large luteal cells (LLC) appeared as polyhedral or spherical in shape with a centrally placed large round nucleus and an abundance of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. However, small luteal cells (SLC) appeared to be spindle shaped with an eccentrically placed irregular nucleus and there was paucity of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. The size of SLC (range 12-23?m) and LLC (range 25-55?m) increased (P<0.01) with the advancement of stage of estrous cycle and pregnancy. The mean progesterone concentration per gram and per CL increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to III of estrous cycle with maximum concentration at Stage III of estrous cycle and pregnancy. The progesterone concentration decreased at Stage IV (day 17-20) of estrous cycle coinciding with CL regression. Total luteal cell number (LLC and SLC) also increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to III of estrous cycle and decreased (P<0.05), thereafter, at Stage IV indicating degeneration of luteal cells and regression of the CL. Total luteal cell population during pregnancy also increased (P<0.01) from Stage I to II and thereafter decreased (P>0.05) indicating cessation of mitosis. Increased (P<0.05) large luteal cell numbers from Stage I to III of estrous cycle and pregnancy coincided with the increased progesterone secretion and 3?-HSD activity of CL. Thus, proportionate increases of large compared with small luteal cells were primarily responsible for increased progesterone secretion during the advanced stages of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Total luteal cells and progesterone content per CL during the mid-luteal stage in buffalo as observed in the present study seem to be less than with cattle suggesting inherent luteal deficiency. PMID:23896394

  14. The influence of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF) on the secretory function of bovine corpus luteum: TNF and its receptors expression during the estrous cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Korzekwa; Shuko Murakami; Izabela Woc?awek-Potocka; Mamadou M. Bah; Kiyoshi Okuda; Dariusz J. Skarzynski

    SUMMARY Tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF) inversely regulates the function of bovine corpus luteum (CL). Whereas the low doses of TNF induce luteolysis, the high doses prolong CL lifespan and prevent luteolysis in vivo. We suggest that the varying effects of TNF may be caused by its action exerted on CL via multiple signaling pathways involving two distinct receptors: TNFR-I

  15. Expression of Bcl2 and Bax in the Human Corpus Luteum during the Menstrual Cycle and in Early Pregnancy: Regulation by Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NORIHIRO SUGINO; TAKASHI SUZUKI; SHIRO KASHIDA; AYAKO KARUBE; SHUJI TAKIGUCHI; HIROSHI KATO

    To investigate the relationship between apoptosis and the Bcl-2\\/ Bax system in the human corpus luteum (CL), the frequency of ap- optosis and expression of Bcl-2 and Bax were examined in the CL during the menstrual cycle and in early pregnancy. In situ analysis of DNA fragmentation showed that the number of apoptotic cells was much greater in the regressing

  16. Histological characteristics of the uterine endometrium and corpus luteum during early embryogenesis and the relationship to embryonic mortality in the domestic cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Roth; L. Munson; W. F. Swanson; D. E. Wildt

    1995-01-01

    Pregnancy rates are low and litter sizes generally small when assisted reproduction techniques are used in gonadotropin-treated felid (cat) species. A prerequisite to determining whether or not abnormal morphological changes in the uterine lumen or corpus luteum (CL) are related to this reproductive failure is the documentation of normal histological kinetics during natural embryogenesis. This study characterized the histological changes

  17. Antioxidants Mimic the Ability of Chorionic Gonadotropin to Suppress Apoptosis in the Rabbit Corpus Luteum in Vitro: A Novel Role for Superoxide Dismutase in Regulating bax Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Dharmarajan; S. HISHEH; B. SINGH; S. PARKINSON; KIM I. TILLY; JONATHAN L. TILLY

    1999-01-01

    We have recently reported that members of the bcl-2 gene family are expressed and estradiol regulated in rabbit luteal cells during corpus luteum (CL) regression, and that estradiol and hCG are ef- fective inhibitors of apoptosis in the rabbit CL in vivo and in vitro .A s Bcl-2 and related proteins are known to regulate levels of reactive oxygen species

  18. Genetic merit for fertility traits in Holstein cows: II. Ovarian follicular and corpus luteum dynamics, reproductive hormones, and estrus behavior.

    PubMed

    Cummins, S B; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Butler, S T

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the estrous cycle of cows with similar proportions of Holstein genetics, similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but with good (Fert+) or poor (Fert-) genetic merit for fertility traits. In total, 37 lactating cows were enrolled on a protocol to synchronize estrus. Nineteen Fert+ and 12 Fert- cows that successfully ovulated a dominant follicle and established a corpus luteum underwent daily transrectal ultrasonography. Blood sampling was carried out at 8-h intervals from d 0 to 6 and from d 15 to ovulation, and once daily from d 7 to 15. Blood samples were analyzed for progesterone, estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Estrus behavior was recorded using neck activity collars and mounting pads. The Fert+ cows tended to have fewer follicular waves (2.2 vs. 2.7) and had a shorter estrous cycle (21.0 vs. 25.1 d) than Fert- cows. We observed no effect of genotype on day of first-wave emergence or day of first-wave dominant follicle peak diameter, but the peak diameter of the first-wave dominant follicle tended to be larger in Fert- cows. During the first 13 d of the cycle, Fert+ cows developed a corpus luteum that was 16% larger than that in Fert- cows. Circulating progesterone concentrations were 34% greater in Fert+ than in Fert- cows (5.15 vs. 3.84ng/mL, respectively) from d 5 to 13. During the final follicular wave, the interval from preovulatory follicle emergence to ovulation and the interval from preovulatory follicle dominance to ovulation were similar in both genotypes. Maximum preovulatory follicle diameter was larger in Fert+ than Fert- cows (17.9 vs. 16.8mm, respectively); however, circulating concentrations of estradiol were not different between genotypes. A greater proportion of Fert- cows ovulated to a silent heat than Fert+ cows (22 vs. 2%, respectively). Of cows that showed behavioral estrus, Fert+ cows had 41% greater mean activity count; however, no difference was seen in mounting behavior between genotypes. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that genetic merit for fertility has pronounced effects on corpus luteum development, progesterone concentration, preovulatory follicle diameter, and behavioral estrus. PMID:22720927

  19. Conversion of intraovarian patterns from preovulation to postovulation based on location of dominant follicle and corpus luteum in heifers.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Siddiqui, M A R; Baldrighi, J M; Hoffman, M M

    2015-01-15

    The conversion of preovulatory intraovarian patterns based on location of the preovulatory follicle (PF) and the associated corpus luteum (cl) to postovulatory patterns based on location of the future and established dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) was studied daily in 26 heifers from Days -5 to 6 (Day 0 = ovulation). The two ipsilateral preovulatory patterns were PF-cl and devoid (neither PF nor cl), and the two contralateral patterns were PF and cl. The postovulatory patterns were DF-CL, devoid, DF, and CL. For the contralateral preovulatory relationships, a conversion from PF to DF-CL and the accompanying conversion from cl to devoid occurred most frequently (17 of 18 conversions, 94%). For the ipsilateral preovulatory relationships, a conversion from PF-cl to CL and from devoid to DF occurred most frequently (6 of 8, 75%). Number of 2-mm follicles during preovulation was greatest (P < 0.05) for the devoid and PF patterns, and number of 6-mm follicles during postovulation was greatest (P < 0.05) for the DF-CL and DF patterns. Blood flow resistance at a color Doppler signal in the ovarian pedicle indicated increasing ovarian perfusion over days in the PF to DF-CL and devoid to DF conversions and decreasing perfusion in the PF-cl to CL and cl to devoid conversions. In addition to formation of the CL from the PF, it was interpreted that the conversion of patterns involved number of newly emerging 2-mm follicles per ovary before ovulation and a continuation of the preovulatory angioarchitecture into postovulation. Results supported the novel hypothesis that the four preovulatory intraovarian patterns determine the frequency of the four postovulatory patterns. PMID:25457678

  20. Efficacy of PGF 2? to synchronize estrus in water buffalo cows ( Bubalus bubalis) is dependent upon plasma progesterone concentration, corpus luteum size and ovarian follicular status before treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. F. C Brito; R Satrapa; E. P Marson; J. P Kastelic

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors affecting PGF2? efficacy to synchronize estrus in water buffalo cows. After detection of a corpus luteum (CL) by rectal palpation, cows were treated (im) with dinoprost (12.5, 25 or 50mg) or d(+) cloprostenol (75, 150 or 300?g) in a total of 66 treatments. Blood samples were collected 0, 24 and 48h after treatment

  1. The lncRNA Neat1 is required for corpus luteum formation and the establishment of pregnancy in a subpopulation of mice.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Shimada, Masayuki; Yanaka, Kaori; Mito, Mari; Arai, Takashi; Takahashi, Eiki; Fujita, Youko; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Standaert, Laura; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Hirose, Tetsuro

    2014-12-01

    Neat1 is a non-protein-coding RNA that serves as an architectural component of the nuclear bodies known as paraspeckles. Although cell-based studies indicate that Neat1 is a crucial regulator of gene expression, its physiological relevance remains unclear. Here, we find that Neat1 knockout (KO) mice stochastically fail to become pregnant despite normal ovulation. Unilateral transplantation of wild-type ovaries or the administration of progesterone partially rescued the phenotype, suggesting that corpus luteum dysfunction and concomitant low progesterone were the primary causes of the decreased fertility. In contrast to the faint expression observed in most of the adult tissues, Neat1 was highly expressed in the corpus luteum, and the formation of luteal tissue was severely impaired in nearly half of the Neat1 KO mice. These observations suggest that Neat1 is essential for the formation of the corpus luteum and for the subsequent establishment of pregnancy under a suboptimal condition that has not yet been identified. PMID:25359727

  2. The lncRNA Neat1 is required for corpus luteum formation and the establishment of pregnancy in a subpopulation of mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Shimada, Masayuki; Yanaka, Kaori; Mito, Mari; Arai, Takashi; Takahashi, Eiki; Fujita, Youko; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Standaert, Laura; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Hirose, Tetsuro

    2014-01-01

    Neat1 is a non-protein-coding RNA that serves as an architectural component of the nuclear bodies known as paraspeckles. Although cell-based studies indicate that Neat1 is a crucial regulator of gene expression, its physiological relevance remains unclear. Here, we find that Neat1 knockout (KO) mice stochastically fail to become pregnant despite normal ovulation. Unilateral transplantation of wild-type ovaries or the administration of progesterone partially rescued the phenotype, suggesting that corpus luteum dysfunction and concomitant low progesterone were the primary causes of the decreased fertility. In contrast to the faint expression observed in most of the adult tissues, Neat1 was highly expressed in the corpus luteum, and the formation of luteal tissue was severely impaired in nearly half of the Neat1 KO mice. These observations suggest that Neat1 is essential for the formation of the corpus luteum and for the subsequent establishment of pregnancy under a suboptimal condition that has not yet been identified. PMID:25359727

  3. Prostaglandin F2-alpha receptor (FPr) expression on porcine corpus luteum microvascular endothelial cells (pCL-MVECs)

    PubMed Central

    Zannoni, Augusta; Bernardini, Chiara; Rada, Tommaso; Ribeiro, Luciana A; Forni, Monica; Bacci, Maria L

    2007-01-01

    Background The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine gland and prostaglandin F2-alpha is considered to be the principal luteolysin in pigs. In this species, the in vivo administration of prostaglandin F2-alpha induces apoptosis in large vessels as early as 6 hours after administration. The presence of the prostaglandin F2-alpha receptor (FPr) on the microvascular endothelial cells (pCL-MVECs) of the porcine corpus luteum has not yet been defined. The aim of the study was to assess FPr expression in pCL-MVECs in the early and mid-luteal phases (EL-p, ML-p), and during pregnancy (P-p). Moreover, the effectiveness of prostaglandin F2-alpha treatment in inducing pCL-MVEC apoptosis was tested. Methods Porcine CLs were collected in the EL and ML phases and during P-p. All CLs from each animal were minced together and the homogenates underwent enzymatic digestion. The pCL-MVECs were then positively selected by an immunomagnetic separation protocol using Dynabeads coated with anti-CD31 monoclonal antibody and seeded in flasks in the presence of EGM 2-MV (Microvascular Endothelial Cell Medium-2). After 4 days of culture, the cells underwent additional immunomagnetic selection and were seeded in flasks until the confluent stage. PCR Real time, western blot and immunodetection assays were utilized to assess the presence of FPr on pCL-MVEC primary cultures. Furthermore, the influence of culture time (freshly isolated, cultured overnight and at confluence) and hormonal treatment (P4 and E2) on FPr expression in pCL-MVECs was also investigated. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay of pCL-MVECs exposed to prostaglandin F2-alpha. Results We obtained primary cultures of pCL-MVECs from all animals. FPr mRNA and protein levels showed the highest value (ANOVA) in CL-MVECs derived from the early-luteal phase. Moreover, freshly isolated MVECs showed a higher FPr mRNA value than those cultured overnight and confluent cells (ANOVA). prostaglandin F2-alpha treatment failed to induce an apoptotic response in all the pCL-MVEC cultures. Conclusion Our data showing the presence of FPr on MVECs and the inability of prostaglandin F2-alpha to evoke an in vitro apoptotic response suggest that other molecules or mechanisms must be considered in order to explain the in vivo direct pro-apoptotic effect of prostaglandin F2-alpha at the endothelial level. PMID:17659079

  4. Expression of Aldo-keto Reductase 1C23 in the Equine Corpus Luteum in Different Luteal Phases

    PubMed Central

    KOZAI, Keisuke; HOJO, Takuo; TOKUYAMA, Shota; SZÓSTEK, Anna Z; TAKAHASHI, Masashi; SAKATANI, Miki; NAMBO, Yasuo; SKARZYNSKI, Dariusz J; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Regression of the corpus luteum (CL) is characterized by a decay in progesterone (P4) production (functional luteolysis) and disappearance of luteal tissues (structural luteolysis). In mares, structural luteolysis is thought to be caused by apoptosis of luteal cells, but functional luteolysis is poorly understood. 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20?-HSD) catabolizes P4 into its biologically inactive form, 20?-hydroxyprogesterone (20?-OHP). In mares, aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C23, which is a member of the AKR superfamily, has 20?-HSD activity. To clarify whether AKR1C23 is associated with functional luteolysis in mares, we investigated the expression of AKR1C23 in the CL in different luteal phases. The luteal P4 concentration and levels of 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD) mRNA were higher in the mid luteal phase than in the late and regressed luteal phases (P<0.05), but the level of 3?-HSD protein was higher in the late luteal phase than in the regressed luteal phase (P<0.05). The luteal 20?-OHP concentration and the level of AKR1C23 mRNA were higher in the late luteal phase than in the early and mid luteal phases (P<0.05), and the level of AKR1C23 protein was also highest in the late luteal phase. Taken together, these findings suggest that metabolism of P4 by AKR1C23 is one of the processes contributing to functional luteolysis in mares. PMID:24492656

  5. Luteoprotective roles of luteinizing hormone are mediated by not only progesterone production but also glucocorticoid conversion in bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Syota; Bowolaksono, Anom; Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2013-03-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is known as a key regulator of corpus luteum (CL) function, but the luteoprotective mechanisms of LH in the maintenance of bovine CL function are not well understood. The current study investigated if LH increases cell viability and induces cortisol conversion, and if the luteoprotective action of LH is mediated by stimulating the local production and action of progesterone (P4) and/or cortisol. Cultured bovine luteal cells obtained at the mid-luteal stage (Days 8-12 of the estrous cycle) were treated for 24 hr with LH (10 ng/ml) with/without onapristone (OP, a specific P4 receptor antagonist; 100 µM), cortisone (1 µM), and aminoglutethimide (AGT, a specific inhibitor of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage; 100 µM). LH with and without OP significantly increased the mRNA and protein expressions of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD11B) 1, but did not affect the mRNA or protein expression of HSD11B2. These treatments also significantly increased HSD11B1 activity. Cell viability was significantly increased by LH alone or by LH in combination with cortisone and OP. LH in combination with OP or AGT significantly decreased cell viability as compared to LH alone. The overall results suggest that LH stimulates not only P4 production but also HSD11B1 expression, thereby increasing the cortisol concentration in the bovine CL, and that LH prevents cell death through these survival pathways. LH may consequently support CL function during the luteal phase in cattle. PMID:23325624

  6. Expression and regulation of secreted phosphoprotein 1 in the bovine corpus luteum and effects on T lymphocyte chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Poole, Daniel H; Ndiaye, Kalidou; Pate, Joy L

    2013-12-01

    Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) regulates cell function during the transitional periods of luteinization and luteal regression. The objectives were to i) characterize SPP1 expression in the CL throughout the estrous cycle, ii) determine factors that regulate SPP1 expression in luteal cells, and iii) examine the role of SPP1 in lymphocyte chemotaxis, proliferation, and function. SPP1 mRNA was greater in fully functional (d10) CL and late cycle (d18) CL compared with developing (d4) CL. Additionally, SPP1 mRNA increased within 1?h and remained elevated 4 and 8?h following induction of luteolysis with prostaglandin (PG)F2?. Expression of the SPP1 receptor, ?3 integrin, was not different throughout the estrous cycle but decreased following induction of luteolysis. Expression of CD44 increased during the estrous cycle but did not change during luteal regression. In cultured luteal cells, SPP1 mRNA was upregulated by PGF2? and/or tumor necrosis factor ?. Western blots revealed the presence of both full-length SPP1 and multiple cleavage products in cultured luteal cells and luteal tissue. Depletion of endogenous SPP1 did not hinder luteal cell-induced lymphocyte proliferation or lymphocyte phenotype but did inhibit lymphocyte migration toward luteal cells. Based on these data, it is concluded that SPP1 is initially activated to establish and maintain cellular interactions between steroidogenic and nonsteroidogenic cells during the development of the CL. Upon induction of luteolysis, SPP1 serves as a signaling molecule to recruit or activate immune cells to facilitate luteal regression and tissue degradation. PMID:24019509

  7. Regulation of angiogenesis-related prostaglandin f2alpha-induced genes in the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Zalman, Yulia; Klipper, Eyal; Farberov, Svetlana; Mondal, Mohan; Wee, Gabbine; Folger, Joseph K; Smith, George W; Meidan, Rina

    2012-03-01

    We recently compared prostaglandin F2alpha (PG)-induced global gene expression profiles in PG-refractory, bovine corpus luteum (CL) collected on Day 4 of the estrous cycle, versus PG-responsive, Day 11 CL. Transcriptome analyses led us to study the regulation of angiogenesis-related genes by PG and their functions in luteal endothelial cells (ECs). We found that PG regulated angiogenesis-modulating factors in a luteal stage-dependent way. A robust increase in FGF2 expression (mRNA and protein) occurred in the PG-refractory Day 4 CL promoting CL survival and function. Inhibitors of FGF2 action, thrombospondin 1 and 2, their receptor (CD36), and PTX3 were upregulated by PG specifically in Day 11 CL undergoing luteolysis. VEGF mRNA decreased 4 h post-PG in both Day 4 and Day 11 CL. The resulting destabilization of blood vessels in Day 11 CL is expected to weaken the gland and reduce its hormonal output. These genes were expressed in dispersed luteal ECs and steroidogenic cells; however, thrombospondin 1 and FGF2 were more abundant in luteal ECs. Expression of such genes and their ability to modulate FGF2 actions were investigated. Similar to its in vivo effect, PG, in vitro, stimulated the expression of thrombospondins and PTX3 genes in several luteal cell models. Importantly, these factors influenced the angiogenic properties of luteal ECs. FGF2 dose-dependently enhanced cell migration and proliferation, whereas thrombospondin 1 and PTX3 inhibited FGF2 actions in luteal ECs. Collectively, the data presented here suggest that, by tilting the balance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors, PG can potentially control the ability of the CL to resist or advance toward luteolysis. PMID:22174022

  8. Unfolding protein response signaling is involved in development, maintenance, and regression of the corpus luteum during the bovine estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo-Jin; Park, Sun-Ji; Koo, Deog-Bon; Kong, Il-Keun; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Jin-Man; Choi, Myung-Sook; Park, Young-Ho; Kim, Sun-Uk; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Park, Choon-Keun; Chae, Jung-Il; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2013-11-15

    The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine organ. Development, maintenance, and regression of CL are effectively controlled by dynamic changes in gene expression. However, it is unknown what types of gene are affected during the CL life span of the estrous cycle in bovine. Here, we determined whether unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling via eIF2?/ATF4/GADD34, p90ATF6/p50ATF6, and IRE1/XBP1, which is a cellular stress response associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is involved in the bovine CL life span. Our results indicated that expression of Grp78/Bip, the master UPR regulator, was increased during the maintenance stage and rapidly decreased at the regression stage. Additionally, UPR signaling pathways genes were found to be involved in luteal phase progression during the estrous cycle. Our findings suggested that Grp78/Bip, ATF6, and XBP1 act as ER chaperones for initiating CL development and maintaining the CL. In addition, we investigated whether ER stress-mediated apoptosis is occurred through three UPR signaling pathways in CL regression stage. Interestingly, pIRE1 and CHOP were found to be involved in both the adaptive response and ER stress-mediated apoptosis. During the CL regression stage, increased expression of pJNK and CHOP, two components of ER stress-mediated apoptotic cascades, occurred before increased level of cleaved caspase 3 were observed. The present investigation was performed to identify a functional link between UPR signaling and CL life span during the bovine estrous cycle. Taken together, results from this study demonstrated that UPR protein/gene expression levels were different at various stages of the bovine CL life span. Variations in the expression of these protein/genes may play important roles in luteal stage progression during the estrous cycle. PMID:24161737

  9. Possible action of vasohibin-1 as an inhibitor in the regulation of vascularization of the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Shirasuna, Koumei; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Nitta, Akane; Nibuno, Sayo; Sasahara, Kiemi; Shimizu, Takashi; Bollwein, Heinrich; Miyamoto, Akio

    2012-04-01

    The development of the corpus luteum (CL), which secretes large amounts of progesterone to establish pregnancy, is accompanied by active angiogenesis, vascularization, and lymphangiogenesis. Negative feedback regulation is a critical physiological mechanism. Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) was recently discovered as a novel endothelium-derived negative feedback regulator of vascularization. We therefore investigated the expression of VASH1 in the bovine CL. Expression of VASH1 mRNA and protein was predominantly localized to luteal endothelial cells (LECs). VASH1 expression in the CL was constant through the early to late luteal phases and decreased during CL regression relating with the action of luteolytic prostaglandin F(2)(?) in vivo. To investigate the role of VASH1, we determined whether VASH1 treatment affects angiogenesis and/or lymphangiogenesis using LECs and lymphatic endothelial cells (LyECs) in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) stimulated the expression of VASH1 in LECs but not in LyECs, and VASH1 completely blocked VEGFA-induced formation of capillary-like tube structures of LECs and LyECs in vitro. In summary, VASH1 is predominantly located on LECs in the bovine CL and inhibits the angiogenic and lymphangiogenic actions of VEGFA. Bovine CL therefore has a VEGFA-VASH1 system that may be involved in regulation of luteal function, especially in the development of the CL. The results indicate that VASH1 has the potential to act as a negative feedback regulator of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the CL in cows. PMID:22367587

  10. Lgr4 gene regulates corpus luteum maturation through modulation of the WNT-mediated EGFR-ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongjie; Cui, Hengxiang; Liu, Shijie; Qian, Yu; Wu, Haili; Li, Liang; Guan, Yuting; Guan, Xin; Zhang, Long; Fan, Heng-Yu; Ma, Yanlin; Li, Runsheng; Liu, Mingyao; Li, Dali

    2014-09-01

    Luteal-phase insufficiency is one of the major causes of female infertility, but the molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. Here we found that disruption of Lgr4/Gpr48, the newly identified receptor for R-spondins, greatly reduced female fertility in mice. The expression of Lgr4 was induced specifically in granulosa-lutein cells during luteinization. In Lgr4-deficient female mice, the estrous cycle was prolonged and serum progesterone levels were dramatically downregulated. In Lgr4(-/-) corpora lutea, the expression of key enzymes for steroidogenesis as well as common luteal marker genes was significantly decreased. Additionally, the activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-ERK signaling was attenuated in Lgr4(-/-) granulosa-lutein cells. We found that the maturation of Lgr4(-/-) cells was impaired in cultured primary granulosa cells, but the defect was partially rescued by reactivation of EGFR signaling by heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor treatment. We found that the expression of wingless-type MMTV integration site family (WNT)/catenin (cadherin associated protein), beta 1 (CTNNB1) downstream targets, including matrix metalloproteinase 9, which is a critical matrix metalloproteinase for activation of EGF-like factors, was significantly downregulated in Lgr4(-/-) ovaries. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 inhibitor treatment attenuated human chorionic gonadotropin- but not heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor-induced ERK activation and luteinization in primary granulosa cells. Together, we report that Lgr4 modulates WNT-mediated EGFR-ERK signaling to facilitate corpus luteum maturation and ovarian steroidogenesis to maintain female reproduction. PMID:24877628

  11. Early development and function of the corpus luteum and relationship to pregnancy in the buffalo.

    PubMed

    Neglia, Gianluca; Restucci, Brunella; Russo, Marco; Vecchio, Domenico; Gasparrini, Bianca; Prandi, Alberto; Di Palo, Rossella; D'Occhio, Michael J; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    A detailed study on the structure and function of the CL in the Day-5 to Day-10 window of development, and relationship to the likelihood of pregnancy, was undertaken in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes. In experiment 1, buffaloes underwent synchronization of estrus and fixed-time artificial insemination (n = 23). Features of the CL were measured from Days 5 to 10 after fixed-time artificial insemination, and pregnancy was confirmed on Day 70. Buffaloes that established a pregnancy (n = 14) had a larger CL area (1.31 ± 0.1 vs. 1.09 ± 0.1 cm(2); P < 0.01) and greater progesterone (P4) concentrations (1.90 ± 0.1 vs. 1.48 ± 0.1 ng/mL; P < 0.01) during Days 5 to 10 compared with nonpregnant buffaloes. In the same period, blood flow measured as time average medium velocity tended to be greater (P = 0.059) in buffaloes that were subsequently pregnant versus nonpregnant buffaloes (10.8 ± 0.8 vs. 8.4 ± 0.9). There was a relationship (R(2) = 0.136; P < 0.05) between CL area, P4, and time average medium velocity from Days 5 to 10. Logistic regression analysis showed that P4 concentration on Day 10 had a significant influence on pregnancy (odds ratio, 19.337; P < 0.01). In experiment 2, highly vascularized CLs (HVCLs, n = 3) and lowly vascularized CLs (LVCLs, n = 3) on Day 5 were examined by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and then subjected to histologic investigation. Blood flow was greater in HVCLs than in LVCLs. Highly vascularized CLs showed intense staining for factor VIII and had many small, irregular-shaped blood vessels, whereas LVCLs had low factor VIII staining and relatively few large, regular-shaped vessels. Luteal cell expression of vascular EGF was greater for HVCLs compared with LVCLs. The study has shown that greater development and function of the CL from as early as Day 5 is related to an increased likelihood of pregnancy in the buffalo. Corpus lutea that show early development at Day 5 have greater expression of vascular EGF and factor VIII, increased vascularization, and higher blood flow. PMID:25543155

  12. Paradoxical effect of supplementary progesterone between Day 3 and Day 7 on corpus luteum function and conceptus development in cattle.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, L; Forde, N; Carter, F; Rizos, D; Maillo, V; Ealy, A D; Kelly, A K; Rodriguez, P; Isaka, N; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of short-term progesterone (P4) supplementation during the early metoestrous period on circulating P4 concentrations and conceptus development in cattle. The oestrous cycles of cross-bred beef heifers were synchronised using a 7-day P4-releasing intravaginal device (PRID® Delta; 1.55 g P4) treatment with administration of a prostaglandin F(2?) analogue (Enzaprost; CEVA Sante Animale) the day before PRID® Delta removal. Only those heifers recorded in standing oestrus (Day 0) were used. In Experiment 1, heifers were randomly assigned to one of five groups: (1) control: no treatment; (2) placebo: insertion of a blank device (no P4) from Day 3 to Day 7; (3) insertion of a PRID® Delta from Day 3 to Day 7; (4) insertion of a PRID® Delta from Day 3 to Day 5; or (5) insertion of a PRID® Delta from Day 5 to Day 7. In vitro-produced blastocysts were transferred to each heifer in Groups 2-5 on Day 7 (n=10 blastocysts per heifer) and conceptuses were recovered when heifers were killed on Day 14. Based on the outcome of Experiment 1, in Experiment 2 heifers were artificially inseminated at oestrus and randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) placebo; (2) PRID from Day 3 to Day 5; or (3) PRID from Day 3 to Day 7. All heifers were killed on Day 16 and recovered conceptuses were incubated in synthetic oviducal fluid medium for 24 h; spent media and uterine flushes were analysed for interferon-? (IFNT). In both experiments, daily blood samples were taken to determined serum P4 concentrations. Data were analysed using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). Insertion of a PRID resulted in an increase (P<0.05) in serum P4 that declined following removal. In Experiment 1, P4 supplementation from Day 3 to Day 5 (17.0±1.4 mm) or Day 3 to Day 7 (11.3±2.3 mm) increased conceptus length compared with placebo (2.1±1.8 mm). Serum P4 was significantly lower from Day 9 to Day 14 (P<0.05) and the weight of the Day 14 corpus luteum (CL) was lower in the PRID Day 3-7 group than the placebo or control groups. In Experiment 2, supplementation from Day 3 to Day 5 (94.0±18.8 mm) or Day 3 to Day 7 (143.6±20.6 mm) increased conceptus length on Day 16 compared with placebo (50.3±17.4 mm). Serum P4 was significantly lower in the two supplemented groups following PRID removal compared with placebo (P<0.05) and was associated with a lower CL weight in the Day 3-7 group. Conceptus length was strongly correlated with the IFNT concentration in the uterine flush (r=0.58; P=0.011) and spent culture medium (r=0.68; P<0.002). The findings of the present study highlight the somewhat paradoxical effects of P4 supplementation when given in the early metoestrous period in terms of its positive effect on conceptus development and its potentially negative effects on CL lifespan. PMID:23439105

  13. Ultrasound monitoring of blood flow and echotexture of the corpus luteum and uterus during early pregnancy of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Scully, S; Evans, A C O; Carter, F; Duffy, P; Lonergan, P; Crowe, M A

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to characterize changes in the ultrasound characteristics of the CL and uterus in pregnant, inseminated nonpregnant, and cyclic beef heifers and to correlate findings with systemic progesterone (P4) concentrations with the intention of identifying possible markers for early identification of pregnancy. Heifers were randomly selected for artificial insemination after estrus synchronization. Ultrasound examinations of the CL and uterus were carried out by transrectal ultrasonography using a high-resolution ultrasound scanner equipped with a 12 MHz linear array probe on Days 7, 11, 14, 16, and 18 after artificial insemination (Day 0; i.e., estrus). Cross-sectional B-mode images of the CL were captured for calculation of CL tissue area and echotexture. Images of the CL and associated blood flow were captured and stored for analysis of luteal blood flow area and ratio. Longitudinal B-mode images of the uterine horns were captured just beyond the bifurcation of the uterine horns and stored for analysis of contrast and homogeneity (MaZda v4.6; Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Electronics, Poland). A total of three images were captured for each structure of interest. Serum concentrations of P4 were determined from blood samples collected at each ultrasound examination. After pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasound, heifers were retrospectively allocated as being pregnant (embryonic heartbeat on Day 28; n = 14) or nonpregnant (interestrous interval 18-21 days; n = 8) and their data were compared with noninseminated cyclic heifers (n = 10). Corpus luteum tissue area did not appear to change between pregnant, nonpregnant, or cyclic control groups between Days 7 and 18 (P > 0.05). No significant differences in CL echotexture characteristics were found between groups at any time point. There were no significant differences between pregnant, nonpregnant, and cyclic control groups for CL blood flow area (P > 0.05). However, CL blood flow ratio decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in both inseminated nonpregnant and cyclic heifers between Days 14 and 18, whereas it remained unchanged in pregnant heifers (P > 0.05). Uterine homogeneity was not significantly different between groups at any time point (P > 0.05). However, uterine contrast was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in pregnant compared with cyclic control heifers on Days 16 and 18. Concentrations of P4 were lower (P < 0.05) in nonpregnant and control heifers than in pregnant heifers from Days 16 to 18. In conclusion, there were differences between nonpregnant and cyclic heifers compared with pregnant heifers in P4 concentrations from Day 16. On Day 18, the CL and uterine characteristics were different between the nonpregnant and pregnant heifers. Ultrasound measures of CL blood flow and uterine echotexture may be useful to establish pregnancy status. Further investigation is required to identify if pregnancy diagnosis can be made on Day 18 or at a later day postpartum. PMID:25459026

  14. Characterization of recombinant DNA derived-human luteinizing hormone in vitro and in vivo: efficacy in ovulation induction and corpus luteum support

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.A.; Danforth, D.R.; Hutchison, J.S.; Hodgen, G.D.

    1988-06-10

    The present data are the first, to the authors knowledge, to demonstrate the production feasibility of a commercially available medication of pure human luteinizing hormone from recombinant DNA technology (rechLH). The rechLH preparation achieved ovulation induction and corpus luteum support in the primate menstrual cycle. The observations described herein indicate the opportunity for significant improvement in the treatment of infertile women and men who require gonadal stimulation. Recombinant DNA-derived gonadotropin products, rechLH in this case, will have several therapeutic advantages compared with current medications extracted from urine. These advantages include (1) better reliability of an available supply of hormone and (2) improved treatment flexibility in determining the optimal dose ratio of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone or avoidance of the long-acting effects of human chorionic gonadotropin, as the needs of individual patients may dictate.

  15. Inhibitory effect of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) on in vitro angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cells in the rat corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Kazuhiro; YOSHIE, Mikihiro; HASHIMOTO, Keisuke; TACHIKAWA, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis in the developing corpus luteum (CL) is a prerequisite for establishment and maintenance of an early pregnancy. To explore the physiological significance of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) in the developing CL, the effects of IGFBP7 on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA)- and luteinizing hormone (LH)-induced in vitro tube formation were tested using isolated luteal microvascular endothelial cells (LECs). Capillary-like tube formation of LECs and their proliferation were stimulated by both VEGFA and LH. IGFBP7 treatment suppressed VEGFA- or LH-induced tube formation. The proliferation and migration of LECs, and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 were inhibited by IGFBP7. Furthermore, IGFBP7 attenuated VEGFA-enhanced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 mRNA expression and prostaglandin E2 secretion. These findings suggest the possibility that luteal IGFBP7 secretion may suppress the stimulatory effect of VEGFA on angiogenesis in the early CL. PMID:25212428

  16. Impairment of uterine smooth muscle contractions and prostaglandin secretion from cattle myometrium and corpus luteum in vitro is influenced by DDT, DDE and HCH.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Michal H; Bedziechowski, Pawel; Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Kotwica, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane(DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (10 ng/ml) on myometrial motility and the secretory function of the myometrium and corpus luteum (CL) collected from cows on days 8-12 of the estrous cycle. All of the xenobiotics increased (P<0.05) myometrial contractility. Moreover, the xenobiotics stimulated the secretion of the following prostaglandins (PGs) from myometrial strips: PGF2?, PGE2 and PGI2. DDT and DDE also increased (P<0.05) the release of PGF2? from CL strips, and HCH had the same effect (P<0.05) on the secretion of PGE2 and PGI2. The studied xenobiotics did not affect (P>0.05) PG synthesis, but DDT and DDE increased the mRNA expression levels of leukemia inhibitor factor (LIF), which can stimulate PG production. In summary, the xenobiotics affected PG secretion from cow myometrium and CL, which may contribute to the mechanism of uterine contraction disturbance. PMID:24742728

  17. Different expression of PGE synthase, PGF receptor, TNF, Fas and oxytocin in the bovine corpus luteum of the estrous cycle and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sakumoto, R; Hayashi, K-G; Takahashi, T

    2014-04-01

    Functional differences between the corpus luteum (CL) of pregnancy and CL of the cycle in cows were examined. Messenger RNA and protein levels of prostaglandin (PG) E synthase (PGES), PGF2? receptor (PGFR), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF) and Fas were found to be higher in the CL of pregnancy than in CL of the cycle. Oxytocin (OT) mRNA and protein levels were lower in the CL of pregnancy. Messenger RNA levels of progesterone receptor (PR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), PGE2 receptor (PGER), PGF synthase (PGFS), TNF receptor type I (TNFRI) and TNF receptor type II (TNFRII) did not differ between the cycle and pregnancy. PGE2 and PGF2? production by cultured bovine endometrial tissues was decreased by a supernatant derived from the homogenized CL of pregnancy but not by that of the CL of the cycle, suggesting that specific substances in the CL of pregnancy affect endometrial PG production in cows. Collectively, PGES, PGFR, TNF, Fas or OT may contribute to differences between the CL of pregnancy and CL of the estrous cycle in cows. PMID:24856470

  18. /sup 125/I-luteinizing hormone (LH) binding to soluble receptors from the primate (Macaca mulatta) corpus luteum: effects of ethanol exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Danforth, D.R.; Stouffer, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the current study, we compared the effects of ethanol on gonadotropin receptors solubilized from macaque luteal membranes to those on receptors associated with the lipid bilayer. Treatment with 1% Triton X-100 for 30 min at 4C, followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol, resulted in recovery of 50% more binding sites for /sup 125/I-human luteinizing hormone (hLH) than were available in particulate preparations. However, the soluble receptors displayed a 3-fold lower affinity for /sup 125/I-hLH. Conditions which enhanced LH binding to particulates, i.e., 1-8% ethanol at 25C, decreased specific /sup 125/I-hLH binding to soluble receptors. Steady-state LH binding to soluble receptors during incubation at 4C was half of that observed at 25C. The presence of 8% ethanol at 4C restored LH binding to levels observed in the absence of ethanol at 25C. Thus, LH binding sites in the primate corpus luteum can be effectively solubilized with Triton X-100. The different binding characteristics of particulate and soluble receptors, including the response to ethanol exposure, suggest that the lipid environment in the luteal membrane modulates the availability and affinity of gonadotropin receptors.

  19. Induction of mRNA for Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors by Prostaglandin F2? Is Dependent upon Stage of the Porcine Corpus Luteum and Intraluteal Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenxiang; Diaz, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that prostaglandin (PG) F2? increases expression of genes related to recruitment of leukocytes in mature but not early corpus luteum (CL) and that insensitivity to PGF2? action in early CL is dependent on high intraluteal progesterone (P4) concentrations. Experiment 1 examined early (0.5 h) and late (10 h) in vivo effects of PGF2? on mature (d 17 of pseudopregnancy) and early (d 9) porcine CL. Real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA for chemokines (IL8, CXCL2, CCL2, CCL8, CCL4, CCL11) and chemokine receptors (CCR1, CCR2, CXCR2, CCR5). Western blotting was used to measure protein expression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-?B proteins. Treatment with PGF2? for 10 h increased mRNA for almost all of these genes (all expect CXCL2 and CCL11) in d 17 CL but not d 9 CL. Treatment with PGF2? also led to greater phosphorylation of nuclear factor-?B-1A protein in d 17 than d 9 CL. Experiment 2 had a 2 × 2 factorial design with d 9 gilts treated or not treated with epostane (3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor to suppress intraluteal P4) and treated or not treated with PGF2?. Treatment with PGF2? (10 h) or epostane alone did not induce expression of any of these genes in d 9 CL. However, PGF2? + epostane increased expression of all of these genes except CCL11. In conclusion, PGF2? increases mRNA for chemokines and chemokine receptors in mature CL with similar PGF2? effects induced in early CL if intraluteal P4 is suppressed prior to PGF2? treatment. PMID:21505051

  20. VEGF system expression in different stages of estrous cycle in the corpus luteum of non-treated and superovulated water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Papa, P C; Moura, C E B; Artoni, L P; Fátima, L A; Campos, D B; Marques, J E B; Baruselli, P S; Binelli, M; Pfarrer, C; Leiser, R

    2007-11-01

    Water buffaloes are easily adaptable animals, whose raising and economical exploitation have been growing in the last three decades all over the world. Hyperstimulation of ovarian function in this species is a common technique aiming to improve reproductive performance. Superovulatory treatment affects corpus luteum (CL) function, which is highly correlated to angiogenic process. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the temporal protein and mRNA expression of VEGF and its receptors in the CL of non-treated and superovulated buffaloes. For that purpose blood samples and CL from 36 healthy (30 untreated, groups 1-5, and 6 superovulated, group 6) non-pregnant buffaloes were collected and the samples were divided into 6 groups according to the age of CL. Plasma samples were submitted to RIA to measure progesterone concentration and CL were subjected to immunohistochemistry and real time PCR for VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 1) and KDR (kinase insert domain containing region). The VEGF system protein and mRNA expression during CL life span of untreated animals showed a specific time-dependent profile, although protein did not always reflect mRNA concentrations. VEGF expression in luteal cells was high correlated to plasma progesterone levels. Superovulated CL showed a significant increase of the VEGF-system protein and a significant decrease of mRNA expression compared to untreated animals in the same stage of the oestrous cycle. We conclude that VEGF, Flt-1 and KDR protein and mRNA expression in buffalo CL is dependent of estrous cycle stage and superovulatory treatment is able to increase the translation rate of this system. PMID:17014980

  1. Patterns of gene expression in the bovine corpus luteum following repeated intrauterine infusions of low doses of prostaglandin F2alpha.

    PubMed

    Atli, Mehmet O; Bender, Robb W; Mehta, Vatsal; Bastos, Michele R; Luo, Wenxiang; Vezina, Chad M; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2012-04-01

    Natural luteolysis involves multiple pulses of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF) released by the nonpregnant uterus. This study investigated expression of 18 genes from five distinct pathways, following multiple low-dose pulses of PGF. Cows on Day 9 of the estrous cycle received four intrauterine infusions of 0.25 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or PGF (0.5 mg of PGF in 0.25 ml of PBS) at 6-h intervals. A luteal biopsy sample was collected 30 min after each PBS or PGF infusion. There were four treatment groups: Control (n = 5; 4 PBS infusions), 4XPGF (4 PGF infusions; n = 5), 2XPGF-non-regressed (2 PGF infusions; n = 5; PGF-PBS-PGF-PBS; no regression after treatments), and 2XPGF-regressed (PGF-PBS-PGF-PBS; regression after treatments; n = 5). As expected, the first PGF pulse increased mRNA for the immediate early genes JUN, FOS, NR4A1, and EGR1 but unexpectedly also increased mRNA for steroidogenic (STAR) and angiogenic (VEGFA) pathways. The second PGF pulse induced immediate early genes and genes related to immune system activation (IL1B, FAS, FASLG, IL8). However, mRNA for VEGFA and STAR were decreased by the second PGF infusion. After the third and fourth PGF pulses, a distinctly luteolytic pattern of gene expression was evident, with inhibition of steroidogenic and angiogenic pathways, whereas, there was induction of pathways for immune system activation and production of PGF. The pattern of PGF-induced gene expression was similar in corpus luteum not destined for luteolysis (2X-non-regressed) after the first PGF pulse but was very distinct after the second PGF pulse. Thus, although the initial PGF pulse induced mRNA for many pathways, the second and later pulses of PGF appear to have set the distinct pattern of gene expression that result in luteolysis. PMID:22262696

  2. Expression of prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) receptor and its isoforms in the bovine corpus luteum during the estrous cycle and PGF2?-induced luteolysis.

    PubMed

    Shirasuna, K; Akabane, Y; Beindorff, N; Nagai, K; Sasaki, M; Shimizu, T; Bollwein, H; Meidan, R; Miyamoto, A

    2012-10-01

    Prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) induces luteolysis via a specific receptor, PTGFR. Although PTGFR mRNA expression in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) has been studied previously, changes in PTGFR protein and its localization are not fully understood during the life span of the CL. In addition to full-length PTGFR, several types of PTGFR isoforms, such as PTGFR? (type I) and PTGFR? (type II), were reported in the bovine CL, suggesting isoform-specific luteal action. Full-length PTGFR mRNA in the bovine CL increased from the early to the mid-luteal phase and decreased during luteolysis, whereas PTGFR protein remained stable. PTGFR protein was localized to both luteal and endothelial cells and was expressed similarly during the life span of the CL. Like full-length PTGFR mRNA, PTGFR? and PTGFR? mRNA also increased from the early to mid-luteal phases, and mRNA of PTGFR?, but not PTGFR?, decreased in the regressing CL. During PGF2?-induced luteolysis, the mRNAs of full-length PTGFR, PTGFR,? and PTGFR? decreased rapidly (from 5 or 15 min after PGF2? injection), but PTGFR protein decreased only 12 h later. Silencing full-length PTGFR using small interfering RNA prevented PGF2?-stimulated cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2) mRNA induction. By contrast, PGF2? could stimulate vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) mRNA even when full-length PTGFR was knocked down, thus suggesting that PGF2? may stimulate PTGS2 via full-length PTGFR, whereas VEGFA is stimulated via other PTGFR isoforms. Collectively, PTGFR protein was expressed continually in the bovine CL during the estrous cycle, implying that PGF2? could function throughout this period. Additionally, the bovine CL expresses different PTGFR isoforms, and thus PGF2? may have different effects when acting via full-length PTGFR or via PTGFR isoforms. PMID:22560179

  3. Endocrinology of number of follicular waves per estrous cycle and contralateral or ipsilateral relationship between corpus luteum and preovulatory follicle in heifers.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Bashir, S T; Hoffman, M M; Beg, M A

    2013-08-01

    A 3-d extension of the luteal phase occurs in interovulatory intervals (IOIs) with a contralateral relationship between the corpus luteum (CL) and preovulatory follicle with 3 follicular waves (Contra-3W group). Concentrations of FSH, progesterone, LH, and estradiol-17? for the ipsilateral versus contralateral CL and/or follicle relationship and 2 versus 3 waves per IOI were studied in 14 heifers. Follicular waves and FSH surges were designated 1, 2, or 3, according to order of occurrence in the IOI. The day (day 0 = ovulation) of the FSH peak in surge 2 occurred earlier (P < 0.02) in 3-wave IOIs (day 6.3 ± 0.5) than in 2-wave IOIs (day 8.5 ± 0.5). Mean FSH was higher in 3-wave than in 2-wave IOI on 82% of the days in the IOI. Repeatability or individuality in FSH concentration was indicated by a correlation (r = 0.54, P < 0.04) in FSH concentrations between ovulations at the beginning and at the end of the IOI. Concentrations of LH and estradiol increased (P < 0.05) near the beginning of the luteolytic period in 2-wave IOI regardless of the CL and/or follicle relationship. In the Contra-3W group, LH and estradiol remained at basal concentrations concurrently with FSH surge 3 and extension of the luteal phase. The hypotheses were supported that FSH surge 2 occurs earlier in 3-wave IOIs than in 2-wave IOIs and that the development of 3-wave IOIs occurs in individuals with greater FSH concentrations. Extension of the luteal phase in the Contra-3W group was temporally associated with lower concentrations of LH and estradiol. PMID:23806855

  4. Expression of mRNAs for interleukin-4, interleukin-6 and their receptors in porcine corpus luteum during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Komatsu, Tokushi; Kasuya, Etsuko; Saito, Toshiyuki; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2006-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that inflammatory cytokines regulate corpus luteum (CL) function in many species. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-6 are expressed in the porcine CL, and whether these cytokines influence porcine luteal steroidogenesis. The gene expressions of IL-4, IL-6 and their specific receptors were determined in the CL of Chinese Meishan pigs during the estrous cycle. Moreover, the effects of these cytokines on progesterone (P(4)), estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha secretion by cultured luteal cells were investigated. IL-4 and IL-6 mRNAs were detected in the CL at all luteal stages. Furthermore, mRNAs of the receptors for IL-4 and IL-6 were clearly expressed in the CL throughout the estrous cycle. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) mRNA expression was higher in the regressed CL (days 19-21 after ovulation) than in the CL at other stages (P<0.01). Exposure of cultured luteal cells obtained from mid-stage CL (days 8-11) to IL-6 (1-100 ng/ml), it inhibited P(4) and E(2) secretion by the cells (P<0.05). Although IL-4 (1-100 ng/ml) did not significantly alter P(4) secretion, it inhibited E(2) secretion by the cells (P<0.05). Neither IL-4 nor IL-6 had any effect on PGF2alpha secretion by the cells. These results suggest that IL-4 and IL-6 are locally produced in the porcine CL, and that they inhibit steroid production from luteal cells via their specific receptors. Collectively, both IL-4 and IL-6 may play roles in regulating porcine CL function throughout the estrous cycle. PMID:16332426

  5. Effects of varying doses of ?-nerve growth factor on the timing of ovulation, plasma progesterone concentration and corpus luteum size in female alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Stuart, C C; Vaughan, J L; Kershaw-Young, C M; Wilkinson, J; Bathgate, R; de Graaf, S P

    2014-06-26

    Ovulation in camelids is induced by the seminal plasma protein ovulation-inducing factor (OIF), recently identified as ?-nerve growth factor (?-NGF). The present study measured the total protein concentration in alpaca seminal plasma using a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein quantification assay and found it to be 22.2±2.0mgmL-1. To measure the effects of varying doses of ?-NGF on the incidence and timing of ovulation, corpus luteum (CL) size and plasma progesterone concentration, 24 female alpacas were synchronised and treated with either: (1) 1mL 0.9% saline (n=5); (2) 4µg buserelin (n=5); (3) 1mg ?-NGF protein (n=5); (4) 0.1mg ?-NGF (n=5); or (5) 0.01mg ?-NGF (n=4). Females were examined by transrectal ultrasonography at 1-2-h intervals between 20 and 45h after treatment or until ovulation occurred, as well as on Day 8 to observe the size of the CL, at which time blood was collected to measure plasma progesterone concentrations. Ovulation was detected in 0/5, 5/5, 5/5, 3/5 and 0/4 female alpacas treated with saline, buserelin, 1, 0.1 and 0.01mg ?-NGF, respectively. Mean ovulation interval (P=0.76), CL diameter (P=0.96) and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.96) did not differ between treatments. Mean ovulation interval overall was 26.2±1.0h. In conclusion, buserelin and 1mg ?-NGF are equally effective at inducing ovulation in female alpacas, but at doses ?0.1mg, ?-NGF is not a reliable method for the induction of ovulation. PMID:24965784

  6. Gene expression profiles in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) during the estrous cycle and pregnancy: Possible roles of chemokines in regulating CL function during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sakumoto, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Ken-Go; Hosoe, Misa; Iga, Kosuke; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2015-02-24

    To determine functional differences between the corpus luteum (CL) of the estrous cycle and pregnancy in cows, gene expression profiles were compared using a 15 K bovine oligo DNA microarray. In the pregnant CL at days 20-25, 40-45 and 150-160, the expressions of 138, 265 and 455 genes differed by a factor of > 2-fold (P < 0.05) from their expressions in the cyclic CL (days 10-12 of the estrous cycle). Messenger RNA expressions of chemokines (eotaxin, lymphotactin and ENA-78) and their receptors (CCR3, XCR1 and CXCR2) were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Transcripts of eotaxin were more abundant in the CL at days 40-45 and 150-160 of pregnancy than in the cyclic CL (P < 0.01). In contrast, the mRNA expressions of lymphotactin, ENA-78 and XCR1 were lower in the CL of pregnancy (P < 0.05). Messenger RNAs of CCR3 and CXCR2 were similarly detected both in the cyclic and pregnant CL. Tissue protein levels of eotaxin were significantly higher in the CL at days 150-160 of pregnancy than in the CL at other stages, whereas the lymphotactin protein levels in the CL at days 20-25 of pregnancy were lower (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining showed that CCR3 was expressed in the luteal cells and that XCR1 was expressed in both the luteal cells and endothelial cells. Collectively, the different gene expression profiles may contribute to functional differences between the cyclic and pregnant CL, and chemokines including eotaxin and lymphotactin may regulate CL function during pregnancy in cows. PMID:25382605

  7. Gene expression profiles in the bovine corpus luteum (CL) during the estrous cycle and pregnancy: Possible roles of chemokines in regulating CL function during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    SAKUMOTO, Ryosuke; HAYASHI, Ken-Go; HOSOE, Misa; IGA, Kosuke; KIZAKI, Keiichiro; OKUDA, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    To determine functional differences between the corpus luteum (CL) of the estrous cycle and pregnancy in cows, gene expression profiles were compared using a 15 K bovine oligo DNA microarray. In the pregnant CL at days 20–25, 40–45 and 150–160, the expressions of 138, 265 and 455 genes differed by a factor of > 2-fold (P < 0.05) from their expressions in the cyclic CL (days 10–12 of the estrous cycle). Messenger RNA expressions of chemokines (eotaxin, lymphotactin and ENA-78) and their receptors (CCR3, XCR1 and CXCR2) were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Transcripts of eotaxin were more abundant in the CL at days 40–45 and 150–160 of pregnancy than in the cyclic CL (P < 0.01). In contrast, the mRNA expressions of lymphotactin, ENA-78 and XCR1 were lower in the CL of pregnancy (P < 0.05). Messenger RNAs of CCR3 and CXCR2 were similarly detected both in the cyclic and pregnant CL. Tissue protein levels of eotaxin were significantly higher in the CL at days 150–160 of pregnancy than in the CL at other stages, whereas the lymphotactin protein levels in the CL at days 20–25 of pregnancy were lower (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining showed that CCR3 was expressed in the luteal cells and that XCR1 was expressed in both the luteal cells and endothelial cells. Collectively, the different gene expression profiles may contribute to functional differences between the cyclic and pregnant CL, and chemokines including eotaxin and lymphotactin may regulate CL function during pregnancy in cows. PMID:25382605

  8. Real-time dynamics of prostaglandin F2alpha release from uterus and corpus luteum during spontaneous luteolysis in the cow.

    PubMed

    Shirasuna, Koumei; Asaoka, Hitomi; Acosta, Tomas J; Wijayagunawardane, Missaka P B; Ohtani, Masayuki; Hayashi, Ken-Go; Matsui, Motozumi; Miyamoto, Akio

    2004-08-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha released from the uterus in a pulsatile fashion is essential to induce regression of the corpus luteum (CL) in the cow. In addition to the uterus, the CL has also been recognized as a site of PGF(2alpha) production. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the detailed dynamics of the releasing profile of CL-derived PGF2alpha together with uterus-derived PGF2alpha during spontaneous luteolysis in the cow. Non-lactating Holstein cows (n = 6) were surgically implanted with a microdialysis system (MDS) on day 15 (oestrus = day 0) of the oestrous cycle. Simultaneously, catheters were implanted to collect ovarian venous plasma ipsilateral to the CL as well as jugular venous plasma. The concentrations of PGF2alpha, 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2alpha (PGFM) and progesterone in the MDS and plasma samples were determined by enzyme immunoassays. The intra-luteal PGF2alpha secretion slightly increased after the onset of luteolysis (0 h) and drastically increased from 24 h, and was maintained at high levels towards the following oestrus. Furthermore, PGF2alpha was released from the CL into the ovarian vein in a pulsatile manner during spontaneous luteolysis. Also, the fact that intra-luteal secretion of PGF2alpha and PGFM showed a positive correlation indicates the existence of a local metabolic pathway for PGF2alpha in the CL. In conclusion, the present study clarified the real-time dynamics of uterus-derived PGF2alpha and CL-derived PGF2alpha during spontaneous luteolysis in the cow, and gives the first in vivo evidence that the CL releases PGF2alpha during spontaneous luteolysis in the cow. Although the physiological relevance of CL-derived PGF2alpha appears to be restricted to a local role as an autocrine/paracrine factor in the CL, overall results support the concept that the local release of PGF2alpha within the regressing CL amplifies the luteolytic action of PGF2alpha from the uterus. PMID:15280558

  9. Role of LH and prostaglandin F2alpha on the development and regression of corpus luteum in mithun (Bos frontalis) estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Dhali, A; Mishra, D P; Mech, A; Karunakaran, M; Rajkhowa, C

    2006-11-01

    The present investigation was designed to study the role of LH and prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) on the development and regression of corpus luteum (CL) in the mithun estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein and PGF2alpha secretion was evaluated on the basis of peripheral 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF2alpha (PGFM) concentration. The daily variations in plasma LH, PGFM, and progesterone (P4) concentrations throughout the estrous cycle were monitored in morning and evening blood samples. The variations in plasma LH, PGFM, and P4 concentrations during the early luteal phase were monitored in blood samples that were collected every 2 h until 120 h following the onset of estrus (Day 0). The pulsatile secretion patterns of plasma LH, PGFM and P4 during estrus (Day 1), mid-diestrus (Day 10), and luteolysis (Day 14) were assessed in blood samples that were collected every 15 min for 6h. In the estrous cycle, P4 concentration increased above basal level on day 6-7, peaked on day 10-12 and declined thereafter. Following estrus, a significant (P<0.01) gradual increase in P4 concentration was observed. LH concentration was found to be significantly (P<0.01) greater around estrus and it declined gradually (P<0.01) following estrus. In the estrous cycle, PGFM concentration increased above basal level on day 9-11, peaked on day 16-17, and declined thereafter. The frequency of LH pulses and basal LH concentration were found to be significantly (P<0.01) greater on day 1, but significantly (P<0.01) greater amplitude of LH pulses was found on day 10 and 14. The frequency of P4 and PGFM pulses was found to be significantly (P<0.01) greater on day 1. In contrast, the amplitude of P4 and PGFM pulses and basal P4 and PGFM concentrations were found to be significantly (P<0.01) greater on day 10 and 14. The results indicate that probably the early stages of CL development continued until day 5-6 of the estrous cycle and a fully functional CL existed approximately at the mid estrous cycle. Luteolysis probably started since day 11-13 of the cycle and completed before the onset of the next estrus. The elevated basal LH concentration along with frequent low amplitude LH pulses were probably required for the early stages of CL development. In contrast, the high amplitude LH pulses of lower frequency during the mid estrous cycle were either sufficient or not required for maintaining the luteal function. Whereas, PGF2alpha pulses of greater amplitude and elevated basal PGF2alpha concentration during the mid and late estrous cycle were probably responsible for luteolysis. PMID:16828092

  10. Lack of complete regression of the Day 5 corpus luteum after one or two doses of PGF2? in nonlactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Anibal B; Souza, Alexandre H; Keskin, Abdulkadir; Sartori, Roberto; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2014-02-01

    The early corpus luteum (CL) (before Day 6) does not regress after a single PGF2? treatment. We hypothesized that increasing PGF2? dose or number of treatments would allow regression of the early CL (Day 5). Nonlactating Holstein cows (N = 22) were synchronized using the Ovsynch protocol. On Day 5 (Day 0 = second GnRH treatment), cows were assigned to: (1) control (N = 5): no further treatment; (2) 1PGF (N = 6): one dose of 25 mg PGF2?; (3) 2PGF (N = 5): two doses of 25 mg PGF2? (50 mg) given 8 hours apart (second PGF2? on Day 5 at the same time as the other PGF2? treatments); (4) DPGF (N = 6): double dose of 25 mg PGF2? (50 mg) given on Day 5. Blood samples were collected to monitor progesterone (P4) profiles in two periods. In the first period (0 to 24 hours), there were effects of treatment (P = 0.01), time (P < 0.01), and an interaction of treatment and time (P = 0.02). Group 1PGF versus control was different only at 12 hours (P = 0.02). Cows treated with DPGF were different than control at 4 hours (P = 0.04), 12 hours (P < 0.01), and 24 hours (P < 0.01). Only cows treated with 2PGF had lower P4 than control during the entire period and low P4 (0.37 ± 0.17 ng/mL) at 24 hours, usually indicative of luteolysis. In the second period (Day 5 to 15 of the cycle), there were effects of treatment (P < 0.01), time (P < 0.01), and interaction of treatment and time (P = 0.002). Group 1PGF was not different than control from Day 5 to 13 and P4 was greater than control on Day 14 (P = 0.01) and 15 (P < 0.01). Circulating P4 in DPGF cows was lower than control from Day 7 (P = 0.05) through 12 (P < 0.01). Likewise, there were differences between control and 2PGF from Day 7 to 13, but not on Day 14 and 15. On Day 15, all PGF2?-treated groups had circulating P4 consistent with an active CL. Ultrasound evaluation confirmed that no CL from any group completely regressed during the experiment and no new ovulations occurred to account for functional CL later in cycle. In summary, a double dose of PGF2? (twice on Day 5 or 8 hours apart) can dramatically decrease P4, consistent with classical definitions of luteolysis; however, these CL recover and become fully functional. Thus, the Day 5 CL of mature Holstein cows do not regress even to two doses of PGF2?. PMID:24252637

  11. Effects of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration on day 5 after oestrus on corpus luteum characteristics, circulating progesterone and conceptus elongation in cattle.

    PubMed

    Rizos, D; Scully, S; Kelly, A K; Ealy, A D; Moros, R; Duffy, P; Al Naib, A; Forde, N; Lonergan, P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that elevated concentrations of progesterone (P4) resulting from the induction of an accessory corpus luteum (CL) by human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration on day 5 after oestrus would lead to advanced conceptus elongation on day 14 following embryo transfer on day 7. The oestrous cycles of cross-bred beef heifers were synchronised and animals were randomly assigned to receive either of two treatments: (1) intramuscular injection of 3000 IU hCG on day 5 after oestrus (n=14); or (2) intramuscular injection of saline on day 5 after oestrus (n=13). Ovaries were scanned daily by transrectal ultrasonography to assess CL development. Serum concentrations of P4 were determined from daily blood samples collected from the jugular vein. In vitro-produced bovine blastocysts were transferred to synchronised recipients on day 7 after oestrus (n=15 blastocysts per recipient). Heifers were killed on day 14 after oestrus and the uterus was flushed to recover the embryos. Injection of hCG on day 5 induced ovulation of the dominant follicle in all treated heifers and increased the total area of luteal tissue on the ovary, which was associated with a significant increase (P<0.001) in serum concentrations of P4 from day 7 to day 14. Positive associations were detected between circulating P4 with CL area (within-day correlations ranging from r=0.45 to r=0.67) and total area of luteal tissue (within-day correlations ranging from r=0.65 to r=0.86) Administration of hCG did not affect the proportion of day 14 conceptuses recovered. However, compared with the control group, hCG-treated heifers had increased conceptus length (3.91±1.23 vs. 5.57±1.02 mm, respectively; P=0.06), width (1.00±0.06 vs. 1.45±0.05 mm, respectively; P=0.002) and area (5.71±0.97 vs. 8.31±0.83, respectively; P=0.02). Although numerically greater, mean interferon-? (IFNT) production in vitro did not differ significantly (P=0.54) between embryos recovered from hCG-treated and control heifers. In contrast, there was a strong positive correlation between individual embryo length (r=0.76; P<0.001) and individual embryo area (r=0.72; P<0.001) and IFNT production. In conclusion, administration of hCG on day 5 after oestrus resulted in the formation of an accessory CL and hypertrophy of the original CL, the result of which was an increase in P4 concentrations from day 7 onwards. These elevated P4 concentrations were associated with an increased conceptus area. Furthermore, conceptus size was highly correlated with IFNT secretion in vitro. PMID:22401279

  12. P450-aromatase mRNA is expressed in the corpus luteum (CL) of the non-pregnant sheep and goat: the expression of the enzyme is present throughout pregnancy in the goat CL.

    PubMed

    Mondragón, J A; Miranda, C; García-Mena, J; Ocádiz-Delgado, R; Gariglio, P; Romano, M C

    2013-02-01

    In most mammals, the corpus luteum (CL) and placenta are the major sources of progesterone. The goat pregnancy depends on the presence of CL after mid-gestation, while sheep pregnancy does not. The expression and distribution of P450-aromatase (P450-Aro) mRNA throughout gestation has not been investigated in the goat CL and partially in the sheep CL. The present research was designed to characterize the expression of P450-Aro mRNA in small ruminant CL with emphasis in the goat. For this purpose, ovaries from Criollo goats and Pelibuey sheeps were analysed using in situ reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the histological detection of P450-Aro transcripts. In addition, P450-Aro expression was determined by in vitro RT-PCR. In situ RT-PCR studies showed that the goat and sheep CL were rich in cells positive for P450-Aro mRNA. We have also found in vitro RT-PCR expression of P450-Aro mRNA in goat CL at 1, 3 and 4 months of gestation. This study shows that the goat CL expresses P450-Aro mRNA along gestation, suggesting that this structure is capable to produce oestrogens up to the end of gestation. PMID:22612285

  13. Comparison between lactating and non-lactating dairy cows on follicular growth and corpus luteum development, and endocrine patterns of ovarian steroids and luteinizing hormone in the estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Endo, Natsumi; Nagai, Kiyosuke; Tanaka, Tomomi; Kamomae, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    The dynamics of ovarian follicle, corpus luteum (CL), and peripheral plasma ovarian steroids were compared between lactating and non-lactating cows, and a possible association of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion with the dynamics was examined. Lactating (n=5) and non-lactating (n=5) cows were monitored daily for follicle and CL throughout two consecutive estrous cycles (Day 0: day of ovulation). Blood samples were collected daily and at 15 min intervals for 8h on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 14 of the second cycle. Lactating cows had larger CL (25.4 ± 1.8mm vs. 23.5 ± 1.5mm, P<0.01) and greater progesterone concentrations (4.6 ± 1.0ng/ml vs. 3.9 ± 0.9 ng/ml, P<0.01) during mid-luteal phase compared with non-lactating cows. Maximal diameters of the first wave dominant follicle (17.2 ± 1.8mm vs. 15.5 ± 0.8mm) and the ovulatory follicle (17.9 ± 1.2mm vs. 15.2 ± 0.8mm) were greater (P<0.05) in lactating cows than in non-lactating cows during the estrous cycles with two follicular waves, but no significant differences were detected between the groups during the estrous cycles with three follicular waves. Plasma estradiol concentrations did not differ between the groups throughout the experiment. Lactating cows had more LH pulses from Days 2 to 14 than non-lactating cows. These results imply that differences in ovarian dynamics may exist between lactating and non-lactating cows, for which the increased number of LH pulses observed in lactating cows may have responsibility. PMID:22951117

  14. Ultrastructural development of the rat corpus luteum

    E-print Network

    Bailey, John Franklin

    1971-01-01

    ). . . . . . . . . . . . g8 V1II. An e aizple of "stacl:ed" mitochondzia. . IX, A "cup-shaped" mitochondria surround- ing another mitochondria and in close arran ement with endopiasmic. reticulum. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ X, Rough endoplasmic reticulum, mito- chondria...) The follicular cells showed a marked increase in size; the ovum showed none. (2) An abundance of mitochondria appeared in the follicular cells, but there wa. s not a marked in- crease in the ovum. (3) j;?. , ":czc~. s Cclgi mcm'rane" appeared in the foll...

  15. Effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy and interferon tau on expression of cyclooxygenase two (COX-2) in ovine endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seokwoon; Choi, Youngsok; Spencer, Thomas E; Bazer, Fuller W

    2003-01-01

    In sheep, the uterus produces luteolytic pulses of prostaglandin F2? (PGF) on Days 15 to 16 of estrous cycle to regress the corpus luteum (CL). These PGF pulses are produced by the endometrial lumenal epithelium (LE) and superficial ductal glandular epithelium (sGE) in response to binding of pituitary and/or luteal oxytocin to oxytocin receptors (OTR) and liberation of arachidonic acid, the precursor of PGF. Cyclooxygenase-one (COX-1) and COX-2 are rate-limiting enzymes in PGF synthesis, and COX-2 is the major form expressed in ovine endometrium. During pregnancy recognition, interferon tau (IFN?), produced by the conceptus trophectoderm, acts in a paracrine manner to suppress development of the endometrial epithelial luteolytic mechanism by inhibiting transcription of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) (directly) and OTR (indirectly) genes. Conflicting studies indicate that IFN? increases, decreases or has no effect on COX-2 expression in bovine and ovine endometrial cells. In Study One, COX-2 mRNA and protein were detected solely in endometrial LE and sGE of both cyclic and pregnant ewes. During the estrous cycle, COX-2 expression increased from Days 10 to 12 and then decreased to Day 16. During early pregnancy, COX-2 expression increased from Days 10 to 12 and remained higher than in cyclic ewes. In Study Two, intrauterine infusion of recombinant ovine IFN? in cyclic ewes from Days 11 to 16 post-estrus did not affect COX-2 expression in the endometrial epithelium. These results clearly indicate that IFN? has no effect on expression of the COX-2 gene in the ovine endometrium. Therefore, antiluteolytic effects of IFN? are to inhibit ER? and OTR gene transcription, thereby preventing endometrial production of luteolytic pulses of PGF. Indeed, expression of COX-2 in the endometrial epithelia as well as conceptus is likely to have a beneficial regulatory role in implantation and development of the conceptus. PMID:12956885

  16. Bovine corpus luteum regression, estrus response and subsequent corpus luteum formation and function following treatment with Alfaprostol

    E-print Network

    Hansen, Thomas Ross

    1984-01-01

    analogue. The efficacy of AP to synchr o- nize standing estrus was evaluated in Brahman cows versus heifers (Trial 1) and in Simmental -cross hei fera that were injected with AP on day 8-10 versus day 11-13 (Trial 2). AP (0. 00, 0. 38, 0. 75, 1. 50 or 2... hei Fera. The 0. 38 mg AP dose appeared to be too lo? For optimum estrus synchrony in both cows and heiFers and appeared to affect cows differently than hei fers. The 2. 25 mg AP dose appeared to be too high in cows and hei Fers, since CL Formation...

  17. Endogenous Betaretroviruses in the Ovine Uterus and Conceptus

    E-print Network

    Black, Sarah Grace

    2011-10-21

    of progesterone from the corpus luteum (Spencer et al. 1996, Cameo et al. 2004). Progesterone induces production of growth factors and proteins from the uterus which stimulate trophectoderm proliferation, differentiation, and outgrowth (Spencer & Bazer 2002... interferon tau (IFNT), the signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy (Spencer et al. 1996, Spencer & Bazer 2004). These cells differentiate into trophoblast giant binucleate cells (BNC) that will eventually fuse with cells of the luminal epithelium...

  18. Cytokeratin-8/18 Intermediate Filaments and their Role in Regression of the Bovine Corpus Luteum

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    /18 filaments in a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa cells). Fluorescent detection of CK8/18 filaments of HeLa cells, a human cervical cancer cell line, were used in these experiments. The HeLa cells were hours. The HeLa cells were fixed in 1% paraformaldehyde in PBS and stored in 70% ethanol at -20ºC prior

  19. Progesterone supplementation to lactating dairy cows without a corpus luteum at initiation of the Ovsynch protocol.

    PubMed

    Bisinotto, R S; Castro, L O; Pansani, M B; Narciso, C D; Martinez, N; Sinedino, L D P; Pinto, T L C; Van de Burgwal, N S; Bosman, H M; Surjus, R S; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2015-04-01

    The objectives were to determine the effect of progesterone supplementation on fertility responses in lactating dairy cows without corpora lutea (CL) at initiation of the timed artificial insemination (AI) program. Holstein cows from 5 commercial dairy farms were subjected to the Ovsynch-56 protocol (d -10 GnRH, d -3 PGF2?, d -0.7 GnRH, d 0 AI). Ovaries were scanned by ultrasonography on d -10. Within farm, cows without CL were blocked by pen and assigned randomly to remain as nonsupplemented controls (CON; n=652) or to receive 2 controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) inserts containing 1.38g of progesterone each from d -10 to -3 (2CIDR; n=642). Cows with CL were randomly selected within pen and used as positive controls as cows in diestrus at the initiation of the Ovsynch protocol (DIEST; n=640). Signs of estrus were detected beginning on d -9 based on removal of tail chalk, and cows in estrus received AI on the same day. Blood samples from subsets of cows on d -10, -9, -7, -5, -3, and 0 (n=109) and on d 6, 13, and 19 (n=156) were analyzed for progesterone concentrations. Pregnancy was diagnosed on d 32 and 60 after AI. The average progesterone concentration during the timed AI program was lowest for CON, intermediate for 2CIDR, and highest for DIEST (0.92, 2.77, and 4.93 ng/mL, respectively). The proportions of cows that ovulated in response to the first GnRH (63.6, 61.1, and 47.2%, respectively) and that had a new CL on d -3 at PGF2? injection (72.4, 67.9, and 47.4%, respectively) were greater for CON and 2CIDR compared with DIEST, respectively. The diameter of the ovulatory follicle and the proportion of cows that ovulated in response to the second GnRH did not differ among treatments. A greater proportion of CON and 2CIDR cows were detected in estrus at AI compared with DIEST cows (35.8, 39.6, and 30.6%, respectively). Pregnancy per AI was less for CON compared with 2CIDR and DIEST on d 32 (31.3, 42.2, and 38.4%, respectively) and d 60 after AI (28.9, 37.2, and 33.9%, respectively), indicating that progesterone supplementation reestablished fertility in cows lacking a CL similar to that of cows in diestrus at the initiation of the timed AI program. Treatment did not affect pregnancy loss between d 32 and 60 of gestation. Pregnancy from a subset of cows with plasma progesterone concentrations indicated that a minimum concentration of 2.0 ng/mL was needed to optimize fertility. A single ultrasound examination effectively identified a low-fertility cohort of cows based on the absence of CL at the first GnRH injection of the Ovsynch protocol. Supplementation with 2 CIDR inserts increased progesterone in plasma by an additional 1.85 ng/mL compared with CON, resulting in concentrations of 2.77 ng/mL during development of the ovulatory follicle, which restored fertility in dairy cows lacking CL to a level similar to that of cows in diestrus. PMID:25682137

  20. Expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in bovine follicle and corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Tetsuka, M; Yamamoto, S; Hayashida, N; Hayashi, K G; Hayashi, M; Acosta, T J; Miyamoto, A

    2003-06-01

    In glucocorticoid target organs, local concentrations of active glucocorticoid are determined by the relative expression of two 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs): bi-directional 11beta-HSD type1 (11HSD1) that mainly activates cortisone to cortisol, and dehydrogenase 11beta-HSD type2 (11HSD2) that inactivates cortisol to cortisone. In this study, we examined the expression of mRNA encoding these two 11beta-HSDs in bovine granulosa cells harvested from preovulatory follicles and corpora lutea (CL). Ovaries were obtained from Holstein cows at a local slaughterhouse. Follicles larger than 10 mm in diameter and CL were dissected and follicular fluid and granulosa cells were taken. Corpora lutea were weighed and their stages were morphologically assessed (stage I, days 1-4; stage II, days 5-10; stage III, days 11-17; stage IV, days 8-20). Follicles were classified into four groups according to their hormonal status (oestradiol (E(2)): progesterone (P(4))>1: oestrogen active; E(2):P(4)<1: oestrogen inactive) and stage of the oestrous cycle (luteal or follicular phase). Total RNA was extracted with phenol-chloroform and subjected to a semi-quantitative RT-PCR for 11HSD1, 11HSD2 and beta-actin. Concentrations of steroids in follicular fluid were determined by an enzyme immunoassay. In granulosa cells, only 11HSD1 mRNA was detected. There was a negative correlation between the expression of 11HSD1 and the concentration of cortisol in follicular fluid (P<0.05), indicating 11HSD1 may act as a dehydrogenase in the bovine follicle. Both types of 11beta-HSDs were expressed in CL. The levels of mRNA for both isozymes were high in stage I and II, and were decreased in stage III CL. In stage IV CL, the expression of 11HSD2 but not 11HSD1 mRNA increased. These results indicate that the bovine granulosa cells and CL express 11HSD1 and 11HSD2, and they may play an important physiological role in the bovine ovary through modulating the local glucocorticoid environment. PMID:12773125

  1. Hormonal, luteal, and follicular changes during initiation of persistent corpus luteum in mares.

    PubMed

    Santos, V G; Bettencourt, E M; Ginther, O J

    2015-03-01

    Mares with persistent CL (PCL) with no known etiology (idiopathic) were matched with mares with an interovulatory interval (IOI) of apparent physiological length, so that ovulation at the beginning of each PCL and IOI occurred during the same month (n = 6/group). Blood samples were collected daily from Days 12 to 22 (Day 0 = ovulation). Mean progesterone (P4) decreased in both groups on Days 14 and 15 and then diverged with a continued decrease in the IOI group and the beginning of constant and greater (P < 0.05) P4 concentration on each day in the PCL group. Before P4 divergence between groups, P4 in the PCL group decreased either abruptly (apparent incomplete luteolysis) or gradually. Concentration of PGFM (a metabolite of PGF2?) was not different between groups and reached maximum on mean Day 15 in each group. After the divergence in P4 between groups, LH and estradiol (E2) remained low in the PCL group. There was no indication that an increase in a luteotropic effect of LH in the PCL group accounted for the divergence in P4. Differences in prolactin between the groups were inconclusive. The hypothesis that secretion of PGF2? at the time of expected luteolysis is defective in mares with idiopathic PCL was not supported. The hypothesis that E2 concentration before expected luteolysis is greater in mares with PCL than those without PCL was not supported; however, a difference on Day 12 approached significance (P < 0.06) and tentatively indicated greater E2 in the PCL group before the beginning of luteolysis. PMID:25497782

  2. Progestin content and biosynthetic potential of the corpus luteum of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana)

    E-print Network

    Pretoria, University of

    was collected from nonpregnant and early, mid- and late pregnant elephants (n = 2 per group) shot in the Kruger National Park. Pieces of individual corpora lutea (2\\p=n-\\3per animal; 23 in total) were stored directly concentrations in corpora lutea from animals at different reproductive stages. Progesterone and 17\\g

  3. Influence of Trueperella pyogenes in uterus on corpus luteum lifespan in cycling cows.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kazuyuki; Nakamura, Makoto; Sato, Reiichiro

    2013-03-15

    To study ovarian responses to long-term intrauterine infusions of Trueperella pyogenes (T. pyogenes), 12 nonlacting Holstein cows were transcervically infused with 10 mL of a bacterial solution (8-19 × 10(8) colony-forming units/mL), and the uteri of another four cows (control) were similarly infused with sterile physiological saline. Infusions were done six times, every 3 days from Days 3 to 18 (Day 0 = day of spontaneous ovulation). Development of ovarian follicles and the CL were monitored with transrectal, real-time ultrasonography. In five of the experimentally infected cows (group A), the CL, which developed after Day 0, regressed without maturing, and the first dominant follicle (DF) ovulated (mean ± SEM interovulatory interval, 8.6 ± 0.5 days). In group A, plasma 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF(2?) (PGFM) concentrations rose sharply on Day 6, but plasma progesterone concentrations did not increase substantially (as in the control) and were maintained at approximately 2.5 ng/mL after the first DF ovulated. In seven of the 12 infected cows (group B), the developing CL which formed after Day 0 matured and the second DF ovulated. However, the CL lifespan was shorter (P < 0.01) and the second DF ovulated earlier than in control (interovulatory interval, 16.0 ± 0.4 days and 22.3 ± 1.9 days; P < 0.01). Although there was no sharp increase in PGFM in group B, it tended to be high between Days 11 and 18. In conclusion, long-term, intrauterine infusions of T. pyogenes caused the CL to regress prematurely or to have a somewhat shorter lifespan because of release of endogenous PGF(2?). PMID:23312720

  4. Expression of lymphangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor family members in bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Berisha, B; Schilffarth, S; Kenngott, R; Sinowatz, F; Meyer, H H D; Schams, D

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate mRNA expression, protein concentration and localization of the assumedly important lymphangiogenic factors VEGFC and VEGFD and the receptor FLT4 in bovine corpora lutea (CL) during different physiological stages. In experiment 1, CL were collected in a slaughterhouse and stages (days 1-2, 3-4, 5-7, 8-12, 13-16, >18) of oestrous cycle and month <3, 3-5, 6-7 and >8 of pregnancy. In experiment 2, prostaglandin F2? (PGF)-induced luteolysis was performed in 30 cows, which were injected with PGF analogue on day 8-12 (mid-luteal phase), and CL were collected before and 0.5, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48 and 64 h after PGF injection. The mRNA expression was characterized by RT-qPCR. All three factors were clearly expressed and showed significant changes during different groups and periods examined in both experiments. Protein concentrations of VEGFD and FLT4 measured by ELISA were not detectable in early cyclic CL but increased to higher plateau levels during pregnancy. After PGF-induced luteolysis FLT4 protein showed an increase within 2-24 h after the injection. FLT4 localization by immunohistochemistry in the cytoplasm of luteal cells was relatively weak in early CL. It increased in late CL and especially in CL during pregnancy. During pregnancy, a positive FLT4 staining in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of lymphatic endothelial cells in peripheral tissue was observed. In conclusion, our results lead to the assumption that lymphangiogenic factors are produced and regulated in CL and may be involved in mechanisms regulating CL function, especially during pregnancy. PMID:23126445

  5. Accuracy of Predicting Stages of Bovine Estrous Cycle by Gross Appearance of the Corpus Luteum1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Ireland; R. L. Murphee; P. B. Coulson

    1980-01-01

    Four readily identifiable changes in appearance of corpora lutea (Stages I to IV) occur during a bovine estrous cycle. Accuracy of estimating the stage of an estrous cycle by appearance of corpora lutea was determined in a double-blind study. One investigator observed estrus in a group of heifers while another with no prior knowledge of reproductive histories of the heifers

  6. Activation of Gq/11 in the Mouse Corpus Luteum Is Required for Parturition

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Rachel; Waite, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Mice with a deletion of G?q/11 in granulosa cells were previously shown to be subfertile. They also have a reduced ovulatory response due to a deficiency in the ability of the activated LH receptor to fully induce the granulosa cell progesterone receptor. Because this conditional deletion of G?q/11 will interfere with the actions of any G protein-coupled receptor that activates Gq/11 in granulosa or luteal cells, we sought to determine whether the actions of other hormones that contribute to fertility were also impaired. We focused our attention on prostaglandin F2 (PGF2)?, because this hormone is known to activate phospholipase C (a prominent G?q/11 effector) in luteal cells and because the action of PGF2? on luteal cells is the first step in the murine parturition pathway. Our data show that the conditional deletion of G?q/11 from granulosa cells prevents the ability of PGF2? to induce Akr1c18 in luteal cells. Akr1c18 codes for 20?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an enzyme that inactivates progesterone. The PGF2?-mediated induction of this enzyme towards the end of pregnancy increases the inactivation of progesterone and precipitates parturition in mice. Thus, the conditional deletion of G?q/11 from granulosa/luteal cells prevents the progesterone withdrawal that occurs at the end of pregnancy and impairs parturition. This novel molecular defect contributes to the subfertile phenotype of the mice with a deletion of G?q/11 from granulosa cells. PMID:25495873

  7. September 25, 2012! Female Reproductive Endocrinology!

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    of follicle = corpus luteum! corpus luteum secretes progesterone! 5. If ovum is NOT fertilized, corpus luteum degenerates into corpus albicans (E2 decreases)! !If ovum IS fertilized, hCG "rescues" the corpus luteum

  8. Relation of reproductive performances and rectal palpation for luteum function of heifers 7 days after estrus.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tatsuyuki; Seki, Makoto; Watanabe, Norio; Furuta, Hiroki; Yoshimura, Itaru; Osada, Masahiro; Chiba, Koji; Okada, Konosuke; Kawasumi, Koh; Ushijima, Hitoshi

    2012-03-01

    Diagnosis of corpus luteum (CL) function by rectal palpation (RP) has been widely used for recipient selection of embryo transfer (ET), a technology essential for genetic improvements in cattle. To examine the accuracy of RP diagnosis method, the relationship between RP-based CL function and reproductive performance was compared in this study. In Experiment 1, CL of Holstein heifers on day 7 after estrus was classified into functional or hypoplastic by RP, and the results were compared with ultrasonographic (US) images and plasma progesterone (P4) levels. As a result, heifers with functional CL judged by RP had a mean maximum CL diameter of 20.1?±?3.1?mm on US and a mean P4 concentration of 8.1?±?2.3?ng/mL. These values were significantly greater than those of heifers with hypoplastic CL (12.4?±?5.4?mm, 4.0?±?2.8?ng/mL) (P?

  9. Corpus callosum morphology of

    E-print Network

    Corpus callosum morphology of Williams syndrome: relation to genetics and behavior J Eric Schmitt development such as Williams syndrome (WS). Individuals with WS possess a remarkable array of neurobehavioral between genetics, neuroanatomy, and neurobehavior. Specifically, Williams syndrome (WS), a condition

  10. GENIA corpus - a semantically annotated corpus for bio-textmining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-dong Kim; Tomoko Ohta; Yuka Tateisi; Jun-ichi Tsujii

    2003-01-01

    Motivation: Natural language processing (NLP) methods are regarded as being useful to raise the potential of text mining from biological literature. The lack of an extensively annotated corpus of this literature, however, causes a major bottleneck for applying NLP techniques. GENIA corpus is being developed to provide reference materials to let NLP techniques work for bio-textmining. Results: GENIA corpus version

  11. Corpus Uteri Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Corpus Uteri C540–C559 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) [SEER Note: Do not code dilation and curettage (D&C) as Surgery of Primary Site for invasive cancers] Codes 00 None; no surgery

  12. Ovine pedomics: the first study of the ovine foot 16S rRNA-based microbiome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the first study of the bacterial microbiome of ovine interdigital skin based on 16S rRNA by pyrosequencing and conventional cloning with Sanger-sequencing. Ovine foot rot is an infectious, contagious disease of sheep that causes severe lameness and economic loss from decreased flock produc...

  13. Changes in ovarian oxytocin secretion as an indicator of corpus luteum response to prostaglandin F 2? treatment in cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Skarzynski; M. Bogacki; J. Kotwica

    1997-01-01

    Exogenous prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) rapidly increases ovarian oxytocin (OT) release and decreases progesterone (P4) secretion in cattle. Hence, the measurement of OT secretion (the area under the curve and the height of the peak) after different doses of Oestrophan — PGF2? analogue (aPGF2?) on Days 12 and 18 of the estrous cycle (estrus = day 0), could be a suitable

  14. Effect of environmental pollutants on oxytocin synthesis and secretion from corpus luteum and on contractions of uterus from pregnant cows

    SciTech Connect

    Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Wrobel, Michal H.; Kotwica, Jan, E-mail: j.kotwica@pan.olsztyn.p

    2010-09-15

    Chloro-organic compounds are persistent environmental pollutants and affect many reproductive processes. Oxytocin (OT) synthesized in luteal cells is a local regulator of ovarian activity and uterine contractions. Therefore the effect of xenobiotics on the OT prohormone synthesis, secretion of OT and progesterone (P4) from luteal cells and on myometrial contractions during early pregnancy in cows was investigated. Luteal cells and myometrial strips from a cow at early pregnancy were treated with polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB 77), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (1 or 10 ng/ml). The mRNA expression of neurophysin-I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT) and peptidyl-glycine-{alpha}-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA) and concentration of OT and P4 were determined by RT-PCR and EIA, respectively. Moreover, the effect of xenobiotics given with P4 (12 ng/ml) on the basal and OT (10{sup -7} M) stimulated contractions of myometrial strips was studied. Xenobiotics increased (P < 0.05) OT secretion but DDE only stimulated P4 secretion. The ratio of P4 to OT in culture medium was decreased by all xenobiotics during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. All xenobiotics, except HCH, increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of NP-I/OT during all stages of pregnancy and all treatments decreased (P < 0.05) expression of mRNA for PGA during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. Myometrial strips were relaxed (P < 0.01) after pre-incubation with P4, while each of the xenobiotics jointly with P4 increased (P < 0.01) myometrial contractions. In conclusion, the xenobiotics used increased both expression of mRNA for genes involved in OT synthesis and secretion of OT from luteal cells. This decreases the ratio of P4 to OT and presumably, in this manner, the chloro-organic compounds can influence uterine contractions and enhance risk of abortions in pregnant females.

  15. Habeas Corpus and "Enemy Combatants"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Carolyn; Chavkin, Nisan

    2008-01-01

    The writ of habeas corpus has been a critical tool for balancing the rights of individuals with the government's responsibility to protect the nation's welfare. In this article, the authors discuss the writ of habeas corpus and how it affects the federal government and hundreds of prisoners who are held as enemy combatants. Elementary, middle, and…

  16. Ovine mitochondrial DNA: mapping and sequencing data

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ovine mitochondrial DNA: mapping and sequencing data in comparison with bovine mtDNA S Hiendleder W taurus (Anderson et al, 1982) sequence. MATERIALS AND METHODS mtDNA was prepared from the liver of porcine mtDNA of known gene content along with sequencing data was used for orientation of the map along

  17. Article original Fcondation in vitro chez les ovins,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . fécondation in vitrol ovocyte 1 ovin 1 caprin 1 équin Summary — In vitro fertilization in ovine, caprineArticle original Fécondation in vitro chez les ovins, caprins et équins Y Cognié N Crozet Y Guérin; accepté le 8 février 1992) Résumé — La production in vitro d'ceufs fécondés et de jeunes embryons

  18. Galectin-15 in ovine uteroplacental tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Allison Gray; Kathrin A Dunlap; Robert C Burghardt; Thomas E Spencer

    2005-01-01

    Galectin-15 is the newest member of a secreted b-galactoside-binding lectin family. The galectin-15 gene is expressed specifi- cally by the endometrial luminal epithelium (LE) and superficial ductal glandular epithelium (sGE) of the ovine uterus. The proposed extracellular role of secreted galec7tin-15 is to regulate implantation and placentation by functioning as a hetero- philic cell adhesion molecule between the conceptus trophectoderm

  19. Comparative molecular analysis of ovine and bovine Streptococcus uberis isolates.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, T L; Smith, D G E; Fitzpatrick, J L; Zadoks, R N; Fontaine, M C

    2013-02-01

    Streptococcus uberis causes clinical and subclinical mastitis in cattle and sheep, but it is unknown whether the composition of Strep. uberis populations differs between host species. To address this, we characterized a collection of bovine and ovine Strep. uberis isolates with shared geographical and temporal origins by means of an expanded multilocus sequence typing scheme. Among 14 ovine and 35 bovine isolates, 35 allelic profiles were detected. Each allelic profile was associated with a single host species and all but one were new to the multilocus sequence typing database. The median number of new alleles per isolate was higher for ovine isolates than for bovine isolates. None of the ovine isolates belonged to the global clonal complexes 5 or 143, which are commonly associated with bovine mastitis and which have a wide geographical distribution. Ovine isolates also differed from bovine isolates in carriage of plasminogen activator genes, with significantly higher prevalence of pauB in ovine isolates. Isolates that were negative for yqiL, one of the targets of multilocus sequence typing, were found among ovine and bovine isolates and were not associated with a specific sequence type or global clonal complex. One bovine isolate carried a gapC allele that was probably acquired through lateral gene transfer, most likely from Streptococcus salivarius. We conclude that ovine isolates are distinct from bovine isolates of Strep. uberis, and that recombination between isolates from different host species or bacterial species could contribute to changes in virulence gene profiles with relevance for vaccine development. PMID:23200465

  20. Review article Recent advances on ovine chlamydial abortion

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Recent advances on ovine chlamydial abortion Annie Rodolakisa Jesus Salinasb John on ovine chlamydial abortion. Concerning chlamy- dial taxonomy, with the recent advances due, with the kinetics of placental col- onization and placental pathology leading to abortion in ruminants. Studies

  1. Minimum intravenous infectious dose of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The minimum intravenous infectious dose for ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) WLC1 was determined using twenty-four 6 month-old lambs. Twelve groups of two 6 month-old lambs were inoculated intravenously with tissue culture fluid containing ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) WLC1 titer...

  2. Original article Induced differentiation of ovine foetal gonocytes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of Nude mice MT Hochereau-de-Reviers C Perreau Centre de recherches de Tours, Inra, PRMD-URA 1291, 37380 ovine testes into the scrotum of immunotol- erant adult Nude mice. Forty days after grafting, nine ovins foetaux dans le scrotum de souris Nude. Ce travail avait pour but de vérifier si l'absence de

  3. Original article Coculture of ovine zygotes fertilized in vivo

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Coculture of ovine zygotes fertilized in vivo or in vitro and positive effect of CZB medium on the development of in vitro fertilized zygotes ML Bernardi, C Delouis INRA, laboratoire; The development and quality of ovine zygotes derived from in vivo (IVOF) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) were

  4. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier may file a writ of habeas corpus to challenge his continued custody (usually in a post court-martial situation)...

  5. Vronique Montmont --Corpus quercuscanis frantexto 1 Corpus quercuscanis frantexto

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    », répliquerait-on dans Zazie dans le métro. Un peu de version latine donc. Corpus, corporis, neutre : le corp caverne d'Ali-Baba de la littérature française numérisée, qui comptait en octobre 2006 3777 titres, soit

  6. Corpus gastritis is protective against reflux oesophagitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H B El-Serag; A Sonnenberg; M M Jamal; J M Inadomi; L A Crooks; R M Feddersen

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUNDGastric acid is important in the pathogenesis of reflux oesophagitis. Acid production by the gastric corpus is reduced in corpus gastritis.AIMSTo determine whether corpus gastritis protects against reflux oesophagitis.METHODSPatients presenting for elective oesophagogastroduodenoscopy were studied. Two biopsy specimens were taken from the antrum, corpus, and cardia and stained with haematoxylin\\/eosin and Diff-Quick II stains. The presence and severity of gastritis

  7. Mutations in ovine TMEM154 associated with reduced risk of ovine lentivirus infection are also associated with reduced proviral concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine lentivirus (OVLV), also called ovine progressive pneumonia virus or maedi-visna, is present in 24% of US sheep. Like human immunodeficiency virus, OVLV is macrophage-tropic lentivirus that causes lifelong infection. The adverse economic impact on the sheep industry is due to a range of disease...

  8. Ovine placental lactogen binds specifically to endometrial glands of the ovine uterus

    E-print Network

    Noel, Sekoni Daouda

    2002-01-01

    GHR). The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine effects of intrauterine oPL, oGH and their combination on endometrial histoarchitecture and gene expression; (2) localize and characterize binding sites for oPL in the ovine uterus in vivo using an in situ...

  9. Developing an International Corpus of Creative English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassall, Peter John

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an International Corpus of Creative English (ICCE) as a worldwide corpus particularly suitable for implementation in countries which have tertiary institutions with well-defined populations of students possessing similar cultural and/or linguistic backgrounds. The ICCE is contextualized as a world Englishes corpus with…

  10. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma...prepared from tissue culture fluids or virus-bearing tissues obtained from...

  11. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma...prepared from tissue culture fluids or virus-bearing tissues obtained from...

  12. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma...prepared from tissue culture fluids or virus-bearing tissues obtained from...

  13. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma...prepared from tissue culture fluids or virus-bearing tissues obtained from...

  14. 9 CFR 113.301 - Ovine Ecthyma Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.301 Ovine Ecthyma...prepared from tissue culture fluids or virus-bearing tissues obtained from...

  15. Proteomics-Driven Analysis of Ovine Whey Colostrum

    PubMed Central

    Scumaci, Domenica; Trimboli, Francesca; Dell’Aquila, Ludovica; Concolino, Antonio; Pappaianni, Giusi; Tammè, Laura; Vignola, Giorgio; Luciani, Alessia; Morelli, Daniela; Cuda, Giovanni; Boari, Andrea; Britti, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light in to the complexity of the ovine colostrum proteome, with a specific focus on the low abundance proteins. The ovine colostrum is characterized by a few dominating proteins, as the immunoglobulins, but it also contains less represented protein species, equally important for the correct development of neonates. Ovine colostrum, collected immediately after lambing, was separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Proteins bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, a total of 343 unique proteins were identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of ovine colostrum proteome. PMID:25643159

  16. Identification and characterization of Ovine Herpesvirus 2 microRNAs 

    E-print Network

    Levy, Claire Safrai

    2012-06-30

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) is the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in susceptible ruminants. Through an unknown mechanism, presence of the virus leads to proliferation of NK-like T ...

  17. Proteomics-driven analysis of ovine whey colostrum.

    PubMed

    Scumaci, Domenica; Trimboli, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Ludovica; Concolino, Antonio; Pappaianni, Giusi; Tammè, Laura; Vignola, Giorgio; Luciani, Alessia; Morelli, Daniela; Cuda, Giovanni; Boari, Andrea; Britti, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light in to the complexity of the ovine colostrum proteome, with a specific focus on the low abundance proteins. The ovine colostrum is characterized by a few dominating proteins, as the immunoglobulins, but it also contains less represented protein species, equally important for the correct development of neonates. Ovine colostrum, collected immediately after lambing, was separated by 1D SDS-PAGE. Proteins bands were digested with trypsin and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, a total of 343 unique proteins were identified. To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive analysis of ovine colostrum proteome. PMID:25643159

  18. Cytokine-induced inflammation in the ovine teat and udder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Persson; I. G. Colditz; P. Flapper; N. A. F. Franklin; H. F. Seow

    1996-01-01

    The inflammatory response, as measured by the accumulation of leukocytes and ovine serum albumin, induced by interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was studied in lactating ovine udders, and in teat cisterns of dry ewes after surgical closure of the passage between the teat and udder cisterns.In the lactating udders, IL-1? and

  19. Detection of Neospora caninum in ovine abortion in Iran.

    PubMed

    Asadpour, R; Jafari-Joozani, R; Salehi, N

    2013-04-01

    The present study was designed to assess the importance of ovine neosporosis in abortion of Iraninan sheep. Seventy aborted foetuses and dams from ovine dairy farms in northwest of Iran were analyzed to investigate the role of Neospora caninum (N. caninum) in ovine abortion. Diagnosis of the infection was determined by serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 70 aborted dairy ovine were blood sampled and used to evaluate serological status for N. caninum infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and extracted DNA from the same aborted foetuses were subjected to PCR. Data were compared using Kruscal-Wallis test. From A total of the 70 sheeps, four (5.7 %) of the dams were seropositive. DNA from aborted foetuses was extracted primarily from placenta and CNS tissues. Extracted DNA from foetuses were analyzed using PCR with primers Np21(+) and Np6(+). Out of the 70 ovine fetuses 8.5 % were considered to be infected by PCR. This study confirms the importance of N. caninum as an important cause of ovine abortion in northwest of Iran. PMID:24431549

  20. Transmissibility of caprine scrapie in ovine transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The United States control program for classical ovine scrapie is based in part on the finding that infection is typically spread through exposure to shed placentas from infected ewes. Transmission from goats to sheep is less well described. A suitable rodent model for examining the effect of caprine scrapie isolates in the ovine host will be useful in the ovine scrapie eradication effort. In this study, we describe the incubation time, brain lesion profile, glycoform pattern and PrPSc distribution patterns in a well characterized transgenic mouse line (Tg338) expressing the ovine VRQ prion allele, following inoculation with brain from scrapie infected goats. Results First passage incubation times of caprine tissue in Tg338 ovinized mice varied widely but second passage intervals were shorter and consistent. Vacuolation profiles, glycoform patterns and paraffin-embedded tissue blots from terminally ill second passage mice derived from sheep or goat inocula were similar. Proteinase K digestion products of murine tissue were slightly smaller than the original ruminant inocula, a finding consistent with passage of several ovine strains in previous reports. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that Tg338 mice propagate prions of caprine origin and provide a suitable baseline for examination of samples identified in the expanded US caprine scrapie surveillance program. PMID:22472560

  1. Automatic Acquisition of Linguistic Knowledge: From Sinica Corpus to Gigaword Corpus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chu-Ren Huang

    The raison d'etre for a corpus, as it was first conceived by Francis and Kucera in 1963, was to provide a body of linguistic facts from which linguistic knowledge could be generalized, (1). The methods of acquisition have evolved as corpus size and technology have advanced in the past 40 years. Originally corpus-based concordances assisted linguists to form generalizations. This

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of microflora from ovine cheese.

    PubMed

    Kme?, V; Drugdová, Z

    2012-07-01

    Strains identified in ovine cheese and bryndza by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight analysis belonged to ten species of non-enterococcal lactic acid bacteria and included Lactobacillus casei/Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus acidilactici. The susceptibility toward antibiotics was determined in lactobacilli, lactococci and pediococci and also in Escherichia coli for comparison. Analysis of L. fermentum and pediococci revealed the presence of non-wild-type epidemiological cut-offs in streptomycin, clindamycin or gentamicin. E. coli were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, enrofloxacin and florfenicol. No extended spectrum ?-lactamases were detected. PMID:22491987

  3. CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CELT, an "online database of contemporary and historical topics from many areas, including literature and the other arts," is aimed at the greatest possible range of readers, from academic scholars to the general public. Texts at the site can be searched, read on-screen, or downloaded. Other works available at CELT include essays by Michael Collins, the Dail debates on the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty, works by James Connolly and Padraic Pearse, and almost the whole corpus of Hiberno-Norman French poetry.

  4. EFFICACY OF A LONG-ACTING OXYTETRACYCLINE* AGAINST CHLAMYDIAL OVINE ABORTION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EFFICACY OF A LONG-ACTING OXYTETRACYCLINE* AGAINST CHLAMYDIAL OVINE ABORTION Annie RODOLAKIS1 A ABORTIVE OVINE. ― Le traitement de la chlamydiose abortive ovine par la Terramycine/L A 200 a été-bas. La transposition d'un tel traitement à la pratique et son intérêt sont discutés. Chlamydial abortion

  5. The ATIS Sign Language Corpus Jan Bungeroth

    E-print Network

    van Zijl, Lynette

    The ATIS Sign Language Corpus Jan Bungeroth , Daniel Stein , Philippe Dreuw , Hermann Ney , Sara Africa lynette@cs.sun.ac.za Abstract Systems that automatically process sign language rely on appropriate data. We therefore present the ATIS sign language corpus that is based on the domain of air travel

  6. Enriching Language Learning through a Multimedia Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerley, Katherine; Coccetta, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, use has been made almost exclusively of text-based concordancers in the analysis of spoken corpora. This article discusses research being carried out on Padua University's Multimedia English Corpus (Padova MEC) using the multimodal concordancer "MCA "("Multimodal Corpus Authoring System," Baldry, 2005). This highly innovative…

  7. MATBN: A Mandarin Chinese Broadcast News Corpus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsin-Min Wang; Berlin Chen; Jen-Wei Kuo; Shih-Sian Cheng

    2005-01-01

    The MATBN Mandarin Chinese broadcast news corpus contains a total of 198 hours of broadcast news from the Public Television Service Foundation (Taiwan) with corresponding transcripts. The primary purpose of this collection is to provide training and testing data for continuous speech recognition evaluation in the broadcast news domain. In this paper, we briefly introduce the speech corpus and report

  8. Judicial Policy Making and Habeas Corpus Reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher E. Smith

    1995-01-01

    After Chief Justice William Rehnquist failed in his efforts to persuade Congress to reform habeas corpus procedures, a majority of justices on the Rehnquist Court used judicial decisions to reshape habeas procedures in a manner that made it more difficult for convicted offenders to have their cases successfully reviewed by federal judges. A purported justification for habeas corpus reform is

  9. Serotyping of Chlamydia I. Isolates of Ovine Origin

    PubMed Central

    Schachter, Julius; Banks, Joyce; Sugg, Nancy; Sung, Minnie; Storz, J.; Meyer, Karl F.

    1974-01-01

    Eight chlamydial isolates of ovine origin were tested in a plaque reduction system using homologous and heterologous rooster antisera. The eight isolates could be separated into two separate immunotypes. Type 1 included isolates associated with ovine abortion and one agent recovered from the feces of an apparently normal sheep. Type 2 isolates were associated with polyarthritis and conjunctivitis. These two serotypes were not cross-reactive with several chlamydiae of avian origin. Further application of the plaque reduction test may provide a useful means of typing chlamydiae. PMID:4855560

  10. Relationship between concentrations of progesterone, oxytocin, noradrenaline, gene expression and protein level for their receptors in corpus luteum during estrous cycle in the cow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rekawiecki; A. Nowocin; J. Kotwica

    2010-01-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate of the relationship between luteal concentrations of oxytocin (OT), noradrenaline (NA), progesterone (P4), oxytocin receptors (OT-R) and ?2-adrenoreceptors (?2-R) gene expression and their protein level throughout the estrous cycle in cattle. Corpora lutea (CL) collected during days 1–5, 6–10, 11–16 and 17–21 of the estrous cycle were used in these studies. Concentrations

  11. HORMONE SECRETION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ESTROUS CYCLES AFTER TREATMENT OF HEIFERS WITH HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN OR PROSTAGLANDIN F2~ DURING CORPUS LUTEUM FORMATION t

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Helmer; J. H. Britt

    Fertility in cattle is related positively to concentrations of progesterone in blood during the estrous cycle preceding insemination. This study determined whether treatment of heifers with prostaglandin F=a (PGF2~) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) during d 2 to 4 of an estrous cycle affected progesterone during that cycle and whether hormone secretion during the cycle and onset of subsequent estrus

  12. Contralateral ovarian location between the future ovulatory follicle and extant corpus luteum increases the length of the luteal phase and number of follicular waves in heifers.

    PubMed

    Ginther, O J; Bashir, S T; Santos, V G; Beg, M A

    2013-04-15

    Location of the future ovulatory follicle and CL in the same ovary (ipsilateral) or opposite ovaries (contralateral) and number of major follicular waves (two or three) per interovulatory interval (IOI) was studied in 14 heifers. Follicle diameter and a blood sample for progesterone (P4) assay were obtained each day throughout an IOI. Heifers were partitioned into three groups: ipsilateral follicle/CL relationship and two follicular waves (Ipsi-2W, N = 5), contralateral relationship and two follicular waves (Contra-2W, N = 5), and contralateral relationship and three waves (Contra-3W, N = 4). Only one heifer had an ipsilateral relationship and three waves and was not included in the analyses. An unexpected observation was slower growth of the dominant follicle of Wave 1 in the Ipsi-2W group than in the Contra-2W and Contra-3W groups. Increased P4 production in the Contra-3W group compared with the Ipsi-2W and Contra-2W groups was indicated by significantly greater P4 concentration averaged over Days 0 to 20 (Day 0 = ovulation), longer interval from ovulation to the beginning of a decrease in P4 and to the beginning of postluteolysis (P4 <1 ng/mL), and longer IOI. The interval from the beginning of postluteolysis to ovulation was not different among groups, indicating that the prolonged IOI reflected the prolonged luteal phase. An effect of the follicle/CL relationship on length of the IOI was not detected in mares. Results supported the hypothesis that the prolonged luteal phase of the contralateral follicle/CL relationship favors the development of three follicular waves/IOI in heifers. PMID:23499416

  13. Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-four Angus and Angus x Hereford heifers were used in two successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if ovarian function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed in...

  14. Real-time changes of the local vasoactive peptide systems (angiotensin, endothelin) in the bovine corpus luteum after induced luteal regression.

    PubMed

    Schams, Dieter; Berisha, Bajram; Neuvians, Tanja; Amselgruber, Werner; Kraetzl, Wolf-Dieter

    2003-05-01

    There is evidence that angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) may interact in an additive or synergistic way during luteal regression. The aim of the study was to investigate real time changes in luteal tissue of angiotensin and endothelin system members in mRNA expression, tissue concentrations, tissue localization, and ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) antagonist application after prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PG) induced (days 8-12) luteal regression in cow. Corpora lutea (CL) were collected by transvaginal ovaryectomy before and 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, and 64 hr (n = 5/time point) after PG injection. ACE mRNA expression (RT-PCR) increased continuously and peaked at 12, 24 hr; ECE-1 (endothelin converting enzyme) peaked at 12 hr, and both peptides in tissue (Ang II and ET-1) increased significantly and peaked at 24 hr. The expression of receptors for Ang II (AT1R and AT2R) did not change in contrast to ET receptors (ETR-A and ETR-B), which were up-regulated. Localization in tissue revealed very weak staining for Ang II and ET-1 before PG application followed by a clear increase of staining predominantly in large luteal cells, but also in endothelial cells. In two experiments, the attempt was made to block ACE by the antagonist captopril with two different doses. In both experiments with captopril, progesterone levels were not significantly different from controls. Ang II alone seems to be not essential for functional luteolysis in bovine system. In conclusion, the results suggest that both Ang II and ET-1 are in parallel up-regulated during luteal regression and may act as vasoconstrictors during functional luteolysis, but also as apoptosis inducer during functional/structural luteolysis. PMID:12658634

  15. Effect of progesterone supplementation on fertility responses of lactating dairy cows with corpus luteum at the initiation of the Ovsynch protocol.

    PubMed

    Bisinotto, R S; Pansani, M B; Castro, L O; Narciso, C D; Sinedino, L D P; Martinez, N; Carneiro, P E; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2015-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of supplemental progesterone on fertility responses of lactating dairy cows with a CL at the initiation of the timed artificial insemination (AI) program. Holstein cows were subjected to the Ovsynch protocol (Day -10 GnRH, Day -3 PGF2?, Day -0.7 GnRH, and Day 0 timed AI). Ovaries were scanned by ultrasonography on Day -10 and cows with CL were blocked by pen and assigned randomly to receive no supplemental progesterone (control, n = 863) or to receive a controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) insert containing progesterone from Days -10 to -3 (1CIDR, n = 862). Cows were observed for signs of estrus beginning on Day -9 based on removal of tail chalk and those in estrus received AI on the same day. Blood sampled from a subset of cows was analyzed for progesterone concentrations on Days -10, -9, -7, -5, -3, 0, 6, 13, and 19. Pregnancy was diagnosed on Days 32 and 60 after AI. Supplementation increased (P < 0.01) progesterone concentrations between Day -9 and -3 compared with control (7.5 vs. 6.2 ng/mL). Treatment had no effect on the ovulatory response to the first and final GnRH injections of the Ovsynch protocol, the proportion of cows that maintained their CL until the day of PGF2? injection, or the diameter of the ovulatory follicle before AI. Although the overall proportion of cows in estrus at AI did not differ between treatments, progesterone supplementation prevented (P < 0.01) cows from coming into estrus from Days -9 to -3 (0.0% vs. 4.7%), whereas it increased (P = 0.02) the proportion of cows inseminated in estrus from Days -2 to -1 (7.1% vs. 4.5%). Pregnancy per AI (P/AI) tended to be reduced (P = 0.06) by supplemental progesterone on Day 32 (40.5% vs. 45.0%), but not on Day 60 after AI (36.6% vs. 39.7%). A tendency for an interaction (P = 0.09) between treatment and the presence of CL at the PGF2? injection was observed for P/AI on Day 32 in cows that received timed AI because progesterone supplementation reduced P/AI in cows that maintained their CL until Day -3 (40.3% vs. 46.7%); however, it increased P/AI in those that did not have a CL at PGF2? (38.1% vs. 27.7%). Treatment did not affect pregnancy loss between Days 32 and 60 of gestation. In conclusion, incorporating a single intravaginal insert to the timed AI program increased progesterone concentrations in plasma by 1.3 ng/mL, but did not benefit fertility in dairy cows that have CL at the initiation of the synchronization protocol. PMID:25442385

  16. [Medicine and astrology in Arnau's corpus].

    PubMed

    Giralt, Sebastià

    2006-01-01

    The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology. PMID:17214132

  17. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA...military authority. If a foreign court issues any process in the nature of a writ of habeas corpus, the SJA...

  18. Galectin-15 in ovine uteroplacental tissues.

    PubMed

    Gray, C Allison; Dunlap, Kathrin A; Burghardt, Robert C; Spencer, Thomas E

    2005-08-01

    Galectin-15 is the newest member of a secreted beta-galactoside-binding lectin family. The galectin-15 gene is expressed specifically by the endometrial luminal epithelium (LE) and superficial ductal glandular epithelium (sGE) of the ovine uterus. The proposed extracellular role of secreted galec7tin-15 is to regulate implantation and placentation by functioning as a heterophilic cell adhesion molecule between the conceptus trophectoderm and endometrial LE, while that of intracellular galectin-15 is to regulate cell survival, differentiation and function. The present study determined galectin-15 expression in uteroplacental tissues during gestation and in the postpartum uterus. In the uterine lumen, secreted galectin-15 was found as multimers, particularly on days 14 and 16 of pregnancy. In the endometrial epithelium and conceptus trophectoderm, intracellular galectin-15 protein was found associated with crystalline structures. Between days 20 and 120 of pregnancy, galectin-15 mRNA was expressed specifically by the LE and sGE of the intercaruncular endometrium of ewes. Immunoreactive galectin-15 protein was most abundant in the trophectoderm with lower levels in the endometrial LE and sGE. Galectin-15 protein was detected in allantoic fluid, but not in amniotic fluid. After parturition, galectin-15 mRNA declined in the endometrium from postpartum day (PPD) 1 to 28 and exhibited a variegated expression pattern in the LE and sGE. These results indicate that galectin-15 is synthesized and secreted throughout gestation by the endometrial LE/sGE and is absorbed by the placenta and forms crystals within the trophectoderm, whereas the remainder is cleared into the allantois after being transported into the fetal circulation via the placental areolae. Based on the biological properties of other galectin family members, galectin-15 is hypothesized to have biological roles in conceptus-endometrial interactions, uterine immune and inflammatory responses, and placental morphogenesis and function. PMID:16049161

  19. Transmission of Ovine Herpesvirus 2 in Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Snowder, Garry; O’Toole, Donal; Crawford, Timothy B.

    1998-01-01

    The pattern of acquisition of ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV-2) infection in lambs was examined by a competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR. Newborn lambs (n = 118) did not exhibit antibody at birth. Viral DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes was detected in only 3% (n = 77) of newborn lambs before suckling. After nursing, viral DNA was sporadically present in about 10 to 20% of lambs until about 3 months of age. Thereafter, strong DNA signals began to appear in increasing numbers of lambs, reaching 100% by 5.5 months of age. Viral DNA in nasal secretions began to be detectable in about 30% of lambs at 5.5 months of age, achieved significant levels in 88% of lambs by 7.5 months of age, and then declined. The kinetics of the humoral immune response in lambs paralleled those of viral DNA in nasal secretions but did not parallel its presence in blood leukocytes. In the experiment to define the time of infection of OHV-2 in lambs, all five lambs separated from the flock at 2.5 months of age remained uninfected until the termination of the experiment at 1 year of age. In contrast, lambs weaned at 2.5 months of age and returned to the flock had become infected at 3.5 months of age. Weaning and separation from the flock at 3.5 months of age did not prevent infection. The study showed that OHV-2 infection does not commonly occur in perinatal lambs and that OHV-2-free sheep can be established by separation of lambs at the proper time, which has important implications for potential control measures. PMID:9431952

  20. [Femoropopliteal vascular replacement: vein, ePTFE or ovine collagen?].

    PubMed

    Koch, G; Gutschi, S; Pascher, O; Fruhwirth, J; Hauser, H

    1996-01-01

    In an eight year-period from 1988 to 1995 653 femoropopliteal and femorocrural bypasses were performed. 347 above-knee reconstructions 206 below-knee reconstructions and at last 100 femorocrural bypasses were analysed. The cumulative patency rate after a follow up of three years for above-knee vein bypasses was 90%, patency rate for PTFE grafts in the same period was 52%, for ovine collagen grafts 56%. For below-knee bypasses with autologous saphenous vein a function rate of 76% could be observed in the same period, the rate of PTFE grafts in this position was only 30%. In this position 3-year patency rates of 50% were achieved with ovine collagen grafts. This difference was statistically significant. Three years cumulative patency rate for femorocrural reconstructions with greater saphenous vein was 72%, the function rate for PTFE in this position was below 30% after a follow up of one year, with ovine grafts below 40%. Graft infection, aneurysm formation and postoperative mortality were low in all groups. Our data demonstrate, that patency rates of autologous vein bypasses could not be achieved with PTFE or ovine collagen prosthesis in any femoropopliteal the femorocrural position. We therefore cannot confirm the recommendation to use alloplastic grafts as primary choice for above knee bypasses to spare the saphenous vein. PMID:9012236

  1. A potential autocrine role for interferon tau in ovine trophectoderm.

    PubMed

    Wang, X-L; Wang, K; Han, G-C; Zeng, S-M

    2013-10-01

    Interferon tau (IFNT), a type I IFN produced by the conceptus trophectoderm, is the signal for maternal pregnancy recognition in ruminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether IFNT effected on the proliferation of ovine trophectoderm cells in an autocrine manner. Elongated ovine conceptuses (Days 15, Day 0 = day of mating) were collected for isolation of mononuclear ovine trophectoderm (oTr-1) cells, and conceptuses (Days 15 and 20, n = 4 and 3, respectively) were collected for RNA extraction. We demonstrated that the IFNT receptor, IFNAR1, was expressed in trophectoderm of day 15 and 20 conceptuses. Interestingly, the ovine trophectoderm cell line oTr-1 cultured in the presence of recombinant bovine IFNT (rbIFNT) displayed increased expressions of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), such as IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), 2-5-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) and bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2). Meanwhile, the presence of rbIFNT in the culture media could promote the cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the connective tissue growth factor, which has diverse functions in cell proliferation and is involved in conceptus elongation, was upregulated in oTr-1 cell by rbIFNT treatment in vitro. These data indicated that IFNT could act as an autocrine factor to regulate trophectoderm cell proliferation. PMID:23551360

  2. Original article Inhibitory effect of interferon-? activated ovine

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ― Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that is a major cause of abortion against congenital ovine Toxoplasma infection. Inhibition of T gondii replication is due to a different importance, because it causes sheep to abort leading to neonatal loss (Bux- ton, 1990). When T gondii

  3. Spatial autocorrelation of ovine protein polymorphisms in Europe

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , arylesterase, transferrin, carbonic anhydrase and albumin in 71 European ovine populations were studied using spatial autocorrelation analysis. Haemoglobin and transferrin show significant clinal patterns transferrine mon- trent des structurations spatiales significatives. Les clinés observés peuvent être le

  4. Original article Expression and characterisation of the ovine

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    respiratory syncytial virus / G protein / Semliki Forest virus replicon system 'k Correspondence and reprintsOriginal article Expression and characterisation of the ovine respiratory syncytial virus (ORSV) G) Abstract - Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe lower respiratory tract infection in chil- dren

  5. Original article The development of the ovine fetal adrenal gland

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article The development of the ovine fetal adrenal gland and its regulation E Naaman; In mammalian species, the fetal adrenal gland plays a key role during late ges- tation since fetal growth and differentiation of adreno- cortical cells, is not only under pituitary control but also

  6. Ovine Reference Materials and Assays for Prion Genetic Testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Genetic predisposition to scrapie in sheep is associated with variation in the peptide sequence of the ovine prion protein encoded by Prnp. Codon variants implicated in scrapie susceptibility or disease progression include those at amino acid positions 112, 136, 141, 154, and 171. Nin...

  7. A cold-active extracellular metalloprotease from Curtobacterium luteum (MTCC 7529): enzyme production and characterization.

    PubMed

    Kuddus, Mohammed; Ramteke, Pramod W

    2008-12-01

    A novel psychro-tolerant bacterium, Curtobacterium luteum, secreting an extracellular protease was isolated from the soil of Gangotri glacier, Western Himalaya. Maximum enzyme production was achieved when the strain was grown in a pH-neutral medium containing skim milk at 15 degrees C over 120 h. The metal ions such as Zn(2+) and Cr(2+) enhanced enzyme production. The specific activity of purified enzyme was 8,090 units/mg after 34.1-fold purification. The 115 kDa enzyme was a metalloprotease (activity inhibited by EDTA and EGTA) and showed maximum activity at 20 degrees C and pH 7. The enzyme was active over a broad pH range and retained 84% of its original activity between pH 6 and 8. There was no loss in enzyme activity when exposed for 3 h at 4-20 degrees C. However, the enzyme lost 65% of activity at 30 degrees C, and was almost inactivated at 50 degrees C, but was resistant to repeated freezing and thawing. The enzyme activity was stimulated by manganese ions; however, it was inactivated by copper ions. PMID:19164881

  8. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dating from about 2100 to 1650 BCE, ancient Mesopotamian literature, written in Sumerian cuneiform, is the earliest known recorded literature in the world. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (ETCSL) project, an initiative of the Faculty of Oriental Studies at the University of Oxford, aims to produce a Web-based digital collection of more than 400 poetic Sumerian compositions. The ETCSL project Website provides a browseable catalog of all texts in the corpus as well as an extensive description of the project. Each entry in the corpus catalog will eventually include a Sumerian text in transliteration, an English translation of that text, and detailed bibliographic information on the original text. At present, the site provides only a handful of texts but promises to expand significantly in the coming months.

  9. Bayesian stratified sampling to assess corpus utility

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.; Scovel, C.; Thomas, T.; Hall, S.

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a method for asking statistical questions about a large text corpus. The authors exemplify the method by addressing the question, ``What percentage of Federal Register documents are real documents, of possible interest to a text researcher or analyst?`` They estimate an answer to this question by evaluating 200 documents selected from a corpus of 45,820 Federal Register documents. Bayesian analysis and stratified sampling are used to reduce the sampling uncertainty of the estimate from over 3,100 documents to fewer than 1,000. A possible application of the method is to establish baseline statistics used to estimate recall rates for information retrieval systems.

  10. The Heraldry of Corpus Christi College by David Broomfield

    E-print Network

    Steiner, Ullrich

    The Heraldry of Corpus Christi College by David Broomfield Introduction The College Arms the founding guilds of Corpus Christi and the Blessed Virgin Mary. Overview of the Heraldry The bulk of the 150

  11. Purification and some properties of a carboxylesterase from ovine liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jón M. Einarsson; Kristmundur Sigmundsson; Hörur Filippusson

    1996-01-01

    Carboxylesterase ESB3 was extracted from ovine liver and purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulphate fractionation, hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl Sepharose, ion exchange chromatography on Mono-Q Sepharose and size exclusion chromatography on Superose 6. The enzyme is free of carboxylesterase ESB2 activity. The molecular mass of the enzyme is estimated 182 kDa as judged by size exclusion chromatography. Isoelectric focusing

  12. The free amino acid content of ovine cervicovaginal mucus

    E-print Network

    Woodward, Thomas Lee

    1969-01-01

    Major Subject; Physiology of Reproduction THE FREE AMINO ACID CONTENT OF OVINE CERVICOVAGINAL MUCUS A Thesis THOMAS LEE WOODWARD Approved as to style and content by: ad of Department) (Member) August, 1969 ABSTRACT The Free Amino Acid Content... (83. 3%) but the difference was not significant. Cervicovaginal mucus collected at estrus from 19 con. trol and 36 synchronized ewes was anal. yzed for free amino acid content. Fifteen free amino acids were identified and quantitated. The mucus...

  13. Treatment of ulcerated necrobiosis lipoidica with ovine forestomach matrix.

    PubMed

    Simcock, J W; Than, M; Ward, B R; May, B C H

    2013-07-01

    Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) results from degradation of the collagen extracellular matrix; these recurring ulcerated lesions are an especially challenging condition to treat. Ovine forestomach matrix (OFM) is a decellularised extracellular matrix and was used to successfully close a pretibial ulcer resulting from NL. Complete closure of the wound was achieved in 22 weeks, after four applications of OFM. This suggests OFM may be considered for the treatment of these challenging wounds. PMID:24159661

  14. Effects of chlordecone and chlordecone alcohol on isolated ovine erythrocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen D. Soileau; Donald E. Moreland

    1988-01-01

    Chlordecone (CHLO, 14–30 ??) and chlordecone alcohol (CHLO ALC, 10–23 ??) altered the permeability of isolated ovine erythrocytes as evidenced by a concentration?and time?dependent induction of K efflux and hemolysis. Hemolysis, but not K efflux, was markedly delayed when the erythrocytes were suspended in isotonic sucrose. CHLO?induced and CHLO ALC?induced hemolysis and K efflux were dependent on the pH of

  15. Genetic and physical mapping of the ovine cystic fibrosis gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Tebbutt; M. F. Broom; T. C. van Stijn; G. W. Montgomery; D. F. Hill

    1996-01-01

    Two yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs 48B6 and 88F7) that span the ovine cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene locus have been isolated. These YAC clones have been physically assigned to the interval 4q23?q25 on sheep chromosome 4, using fluorescence in situ hybridization. A sequence polymorphism in exon 7 of the CFTR gene was identified in Merino sheep and present

  16. A German Sign Language Corpus of the Domain Weather Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Bungeroth; Daniel Stein; Philippe Dreuw; Morteza Zahedi; Hermann Ney

    All systems for automatic sign language translation and recognition, in particular statistical systems, rely on adequately sized corpora. For this purpose, we created the Phoenix corpus that is based on German television weather reports translated into German Sign Language. It comes with a rich annotation of the video data, a bilingual text-based sentence corpus and a monolingual German corpus. The

  17. Corpus Callosum Area in Children and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Neeley, E. Shannon; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated findings of abnormal corpus callosum structure in autism, the developmental trajectories of corpus callosum growth in the disorder have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined corpus callosum size from a developmental perspective across a 30-year age range in a large cross-sectional sample of individuals with autism…

  18. Ovine Fetal Immune Response to Cache Valley Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dorniak, Piotr; Filant, Justyna; Dunlap, Kathrin A.; Bazer, Fuller W.; de la Concha-Bermejillo, Andres; Welsh, Christabel Jane; Varner, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Cache Valley virus (CVV)-induced malformations have been previously reproduced in ovine fetuses. To evaluate the development of the antiviral response by the early, infected fetus, before the development of immunocompetency, ovine fetuses at 35 days of gestation were inoculated in utero with CVV and euthanized at 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days postinfection. The antiviral immune response in immature fetuses infected with CVV was evaluated. Gene expression associated with an innate, immune response was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. The upregulated genes in infected fetuses included ISG15, Mx1, Mx2, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-?, TLR-7, and TLR-8. The amount of Mx1 protein, an interferon-stimulated GTPase capable of restricting growth of bunyaviruses, was elevated in the allantoic and amniotic fluid in infected fetuses. ISG15 protein expression was significantly increased in target tissues of infected animals. B lymphocytes and immunoglobulin-positive cells were detected in lymphoid tissues and in the meninges of infected animals. These results demonstrated that the infected ovine fetus is able to initiate an innate and adaptive immune response much earlier than previously known, which presumably contributes to viral clearance in infected animals. PMID:23468505

  19. The Need for a Speech Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dermot F.; McDonnell, Ciaran; Meinardi, Marti; Richardson, Bunny

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the ongoing construction of a speech corpus for use by applied linguists and advanced EFL/ESL students. In the first part, sections 1-4, the need for improvements in the teaching of listening skills and pronunciation practice for EFL/ESL students is noted. It is argued that the use of authentic native-to-native speech is…

  20. Integrating Corpus Consultation in Language Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Alongside developments in language research, the potential of corpora as a resource in language learning and teaching has been evident to researchers and teachers since the late 1960s. Despite publications which emphasise the benefits of corpus consultation for language learners (Bernardini, 2002; Kennedy & Miceli, 2001), there is little evidence…

  1. Federal Habeas Corpus Reform: The State's Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher E. Smith

    1995-01-01

    Utilizing a national survey of assistant state attorneys general, this article examines the effects of the Rehnquist Court's judicially initiated habeas corpus reforms upon the justice system. Although the Court's initiatives were directed at the branch of government about which the justices presumably possess their greatest knowledge and expertise, the reforms generated unanticipated consequences. Contrary to the justices' goal of

  2. The MATCH corpus: a corpus of older and younger users' interactions with spoken dialogue systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kallirroi Georgila; Maria Wolters; Johanna D. Moore; Robert H. Logie

    2010-01-01

    We present the MATCH corpus, a unique data set of 447 dialogues in which 26 older and 24 younger adults interact with nine\\u000a different spoken dialogue systems. The systems varied in the number of options presented and the confirmation strategy used.\\u000a The corpus also contains information about the users’ cognitive abilities and detailed usability assessments of each dialogue\\u000a system. The

  3. CANCER OF THE CORPUS UTERI 19. CANCER OF THE CORPUS UTERI

    E-print Network

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    , accounting for 3.9% of all malignant neoplasms, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, in women (Table 19.2% % of all new cancer cases excluding non-melanoma skin cancer 3.9% 3.7% 4.2% average number of new cases perCANCER OF THE CORPUS UTERI 171 19. CANCER OF THE CORPUS UTERI 19.1. SUMMARY Cancer of the uterus

  4. Analyzing part-of-speech variability in a longitudinal learner corpus and a pedagogic corpus

    E-print Network

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2013-01-01

    level of abstraction than afforded by word-based analyses (Meurers & Müller 2009). With advances in corpus linguistics, automatic tagging can considerably speed up POS analyses of large amounts of linguistic data. For native speaker (NS) corpora... on language development from a complex systems perspective. The Modern Language Journal 92, 200-213. Lu, X. (2011). A corpus-based evaluation of syntactic complexity measures as indices of college-level ESL writers’ language development. TESOL Quarterly...

  5. Functional Properties of Whey Protein Concentrates from Caprine and Ovine Specialty Cheese Wheys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Casper; W. L. Wendorff; D. L. Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Whey protein concentrates were prepared from two caprine and one ovine specialty cheese wheys by ultrafiltration-diafiltration and freeze-drying pro- cesses. The whey protein concentrates were compared with a bovine whey protein concentrate prepared by the same method for differences in composition and functional properties (foam overrun, foam stability, gelation, and emulsifying capability). Ovine whey protein concentrate showed significantly better foam

  6. Viscoelastic Mapping of the Arterial Ovine System using a Kelvin Model

    E-print Network

    1 Viscoelastic Mapping of the Arterial Ovine System using a Kelvin Model D. Valdez-Jasso1 , M and viscoelastic properties differ across 7 locations along the large ovine arteries in 11 sheep. We combined-vitro at conditions mimicking the in-vivo dynamics. Elastic and viscoelastic wall- properties were assessed

  7. LIPOGENESIS IN OVINE ADIPOSE TISSUE IN TISSUE CULTURE R.G. VERNON

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    responsi- ble for the low rate of glucose utilization for fatty acid synthesis in ovine adipose tissue-antagonists in ovine adipose tissue. The very low rate of utilization of glucose carbon for fatty acid synthesis) but there is circumstantial evi- dence for an impaired flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (Vernon, 1979b). Demonstra- tion

  8. Swallowing, urine flow, and amniotic fluid volume responses to prolonged hypoxia in the ovine fetus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph W Thurlow; Robert A Brace

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Four days of hypoxia produce an extensive fetal polyuria with little change in amniotic fluid volume in the ovine fetus. We hypothesized that fetal swallowing and intramembranous absorption would increase with prolonged hypoxia to offset the polyuria.STUDY DESIGN: After a 24-hour normoxic period, nine ovine fetuses were subjected to 4 days of hypoxia induced by lowering maternal inspired oxygen

  9. Comparative Characterization of Whey Protein Concentrates from Ovine, Caprine and Bovine Breeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela E. Pintado; J. A. Lopes da Silva; F. Xavier Malcata

    1999-01-01

    Whey protein concentrates (WPC) obtained from ovine, caprine and bovine wheys were studied in terms of chemical composition (concentration of lactose, protein, moisture, ash, calcium, sodium and potassium) and physical properties (onset denaturation temperature and viscoelastic behaviour). Ovine, caprine and bovine WPC exhibited decreasing protein content and increasing lactose content, in this order. The differences in ash content were relatively

  10. Biochemical modifications involved in the maturation of the ovine fetal adrenal gland in late gestation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Biochemical modifications involved in the maturation of the ovine fetal adrenal gland in late-uterine life, the steroidogenic response of the ovine fetal adrenal glands to ACTH increases and becomes). The steroidogenic response of fetal adrenal glands to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) develops simultaneously

  11. On the relationship between moment and curvature for an ovine artery

    E-print Network

    Reza, Gabriel Alejandro

    2006-10-30

    To find a relationship between moment versus curvature in a traction-free ovine artery, a pure moment was applied to a radially cut ovine artery (length 50.23 mm). The curvature of the segment opposite the cut was calculated and used to calculate...

  12. Spontaneous secretion of lipoprotein lipase by bovine and ovine adipose tissue incubated for 7 days

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Spontaneous secretion of lipoprotein lipase by bovine and ovine adipose tissue incubated for 7 days into the incubation medium differs with in vivo nutritional conditions, duration of incubation, and in vitro factors was to measure the secretion of LPL activity by bovine and ovine adipose tissue (AT) explants incubated for 7

  13. Annotating Sanskrit Corpus: Adapting IL-POSTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Girish Nath Jha; Madhav Gopal; Diwakar Mishra

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a In this paper we present an experiment on the use of the hierarchical Indic Languages POS\\u000a Tagset (IL-POSTS) (Baskaran et al 2008 a&b), developed by Microsoft Research India (MSRI) for tagging Indian languages, for\\u000a annotating Sanskrit corpus. Sanskrit is a language with richer morphology and relatively free word-order. The authors have\\u000a included and excluded certain tags according to the requirements

  14. Building a Bracketed Corpus Using ? 2 Statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue-Shi Lee; Hsin-Hsi Chen

    Research based on treebanks is ongoing for many natural language applications. However, the work involved in building a large-scale treebank is laborious and time-consuming. Thus, speeding up the process of building a treebank has become an important task. This paper proposes two versions of probabilistic chunkers to aid the development of a bracketed corpus. The basic version partitions part-of-speech sequences

  15. Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haixia; Zhang, Lin; Cao, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanjing; Liu, Yixin

    2014-01-01

    Mesonephric carcinomas are rare in the female genital tract and usually are found in sites where embryonic remnants of wolffian ducts are usually detected, such as the uterine cervix, broad ligament, mesosalpinx and exceptionally rarely in the uterine corpus. To date, only four cases of mesonephric carcinomas arising in the uterine corpus have been described in literature. Here we report two cases of mesonephric carcinomas arising in a deep intramural location of the uterine corpus in a 55-year-old woman and a 62-year-old woman in Chinese populations. It is believed to be the first report in China. Both cases presented with a little postmenopausal bleeding. Before hospitalized, uterine curettages were programmed for both cases. The pathology reports were mesonephric adenocarcinoma. A total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. On gross examination, the tumors of both cases were confined to the myometrium. Microscopic examination found both tumors of these two cases were adenocarcinomas mixed with spindle cell component. The most primary histologic patterns of the mesonephric adenocarcinomas were tubular glands that varied in size and were lined by one to several layers of columnar cells. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells expressed positive with CD10, calretinin, vimentin, cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA); but expressions of ER and PR were completely negative. The peculiar location of mesonephric carcinoma of the uterine corpus may be misinterpreted as other histological type neoplasms. Awareness of this rare phenomenon and immunostaining for markers of mesonephric carcinoma can prevent from making a false diagnosis. PMID:25400789

  16. Polymorphisms at Amino Acid Residues 141 and 154 Influence Conformational Variation in Ovine PrP

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sujeong; Thackray, Alana M.; Hopkins, Lee; Monie, Tom P.; Burke, David F.; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms in ovine PrP at amino acid residues 141 and 154 are associated with susceptibility to ovine prion disease: Leu141Arg154 with classical scrapie and Phe141Arg154 and Leu141His154 with atypical scrapie. Classical scrapie is naturally transmissible between sheep, whereas this may not be the case with atypical scrapie. Critical amino acid residues will determine the range or stability of structural changes within the ovine prion protein or its functional interaction with potential cofactors, during conversion of PrPC to PrPSc in these different forms of scrapie disease. Here we computationally identified that regions of ovine PrP, including those near amino acid residues 141 and 154, displayed more conservation than expected based on local structural environment. Molecular dynamics simulations showed these conserved regions of ovine PrP displayed genotypic differences in conformational repertoire and amino acid side-chain interactions. Significantly, Leu141Arg154 PrP adopted an extended beta sheet arrangement in the N-terminal palindromic region more frequently than the Phe141Arg154 and Leu141His154 variants. We supported these computational observations experimentally using circular dichroism spectroscopy and immunobiochemical studies on ovine recombinant PrP. Collectively, our observations show amino acid residues 141 and 154 influence secondary structure and conformational change in ovine PrP that may correlate with different forms of scrapie. PMID:25126555

  17. The Hebrew CHILDES corpus: transcription and morphological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Aviad; MacWhinney, Brian; Nir, Bracha

    2014-01-01

    We present a corpus of transcribed spoken Hebrew that reflects spoken interactions between children and adults. The corpus is an integral part of the CHILDES database, which distributes similar corpora for over 25 languages. We introduce a dedicated transcription scheme for the spoken Hebrew data that is sensitive to both the phonology and the standard orthography of the language. We also introduce a morphological analyzer that was specifically developed for this corpus. The analyzer adequately covers the entire corpus, producing detailed correct analyses for all tokens. Evaluation on a new corpus reveals high coverage as well. Finally, we describe a morphological disambiguation module that selects the correct analysis of each token in context. The result is a high-quality morphologically-annotated CHILDES corpus of Hebrew, along with a set of tools that can be applied to new corpora. PMID:25419199

  18. Building a large annotated corpus of English: the penn treebank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitchell P. Marcus; Mary Ann Marcin-kiewicz; Beatrice Santorini

    1993-01-01

    this paper, we review our experience with constructing one such large annotated corpus--the Penn Treebank, a corpus consisting of over 4.5 million words of American English. During the first three-year phase of the Penn Treebank Project (1989-1992), this corpus has been annotated for part-of-speech (POS) information. In addition, over half of it has been annotated for skeletal syntactic structure. These

  19. Progress on ovine lentivirus and its resistant genes.

    PubMed

    Guan, Feng; Shi, Guoqing; Zhao, Jin; Wang, Yimin

    2014-12-01

    Ovine lentivirus, also termed as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), includesmaedi-visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), which can infect sheep and goats. SRLVs are wide spread throughout the world causing serious economic implications for animal industry. Breed differences in susceptibility to MVV had suggested a strong genetic diversity in sheep. Genome wide association study (GWAS) indicated that a SNP (E35K) in ovine transmemebrane protein 154 (TMEM154) gene was significantly associated with sheep resistance to MVV and can be used as a molecular marker in sheep resistant selection breeding. Here, we review the progress of E35K mutation in sheep TMEM154 gene and its effects on resistance to MVV, and other lentivirusresistant genes including zinc finger cluster, chemokine reveptor 5 (CCR5), tripartite motif-containing 5 alpha (TRIM5?), apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypetide like 3 (APOBEC3), developmental pluripotencyassociated 2 (DPPA2) and DPPA4. Furthermore, SRLVs and the epidemic status are introduced. We hope to provide some guidance for sheep re-sistant breeding. PMID:25487264

  20. Polyamine profile in ovine and caprine colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Galitsopoulou, Augustina; Michaelidou, Alexandra-Maria; Menexes, George; Alichanidis, Efstathios

    2015-04-15

    The objective of this study was to monitor the post-partum variation of polyamine content, in ovine and caprine milk, from indigenous Greek breeds. Twenty samples of ewe and 20 samples of goat colostrum and milk were collected at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 15th day post-partum. Putrescine, spermidine and spermine were measured as dansylated derivatives by high-performance liquid chromatography. Putrescine was the least concentrated of these substances in both milk types. Spermidine was the prevailing polyamine in caprine samples, reaching levels up to 4.41 ?mol/l on the 3rd day post-partum. In ovine milk, the profile of the mean concentrations showed greater levels of spermine than spermidine, except for the 5th day post-partum. These data suggest that goat colostrum and ewe milk (15th day) could be considered as good natural sources for these bioactive growth factors, and may become useful raw materials for designing tailored dairy products for specific population groups. PMID:25465997

  1. 33 CFR 165.808 - Corpus Christi Ship Channel, Corpus Christi, TX, safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Gas, the waters within a 500 yard radius of the LPG carrier while the vessel transits the Corpus Christi Ship Channel to the LPG receiving facility. The safety zone remains in effect until the LPG vessel is moored at the LPG receiving...

  2. 76 FR 18391 - Safety Zone; Texas International Boat Show Power Boat Races; Corpus Christi Marina, Corpus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...dangers associated with power boat races. Basis...contained between the People's Street T-Head...southernmost tip of the People's Street T-Head...race heat when the power boats have departed...International Boat Show Power Boat Races, Corpus...contained between the People's Street...

  3. Building a text corpus for representing the variety of medical language

    E-print Network

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    1 Building a text corpus for representing the variety of medical language B. Habert , N. Grabar ¢ Building and exploiting the corpus ¢ Conclusion and Perspectives B diversity dimensions ¢ Building and exploiting the corpus ¢ Conclusion and Perspectives B

  4. Infarction of the Corpus Callosum: A Retrospective Clinical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yu-meng; Qin, Hua-min; Wu, Xiao-mei; Zhang, Xiao; Jolkkonen, Jukka; Boltze, Johannes; Wang, Su-ping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate patients with ischemic infarctions in the territory of the corpus callosum to advance our understanding of this rare stroke subtype by providing comprehensive descriptive and epidemiological data. Methods From January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2014, all cases of acute ischemic stroke diagnosed by clinical manifestation and diffusion weighted imaging in Dalian Municipal Central Hospital were investigated. The patients presenting with corpus callosum infarctions were selected and further allocated into genu and/or body and splenium infarction groups. Proportion, lesion patterns, clinical features, risk factors and etiology of corpus callosum infarction were analyzed. Results Out of 1,629 cases, 59 patients (3.6%) with corpus callosum infarctions were identified by diffusion weighted imaging, including 7 patients who had ischemic lesions restricted to the corpus callosum territory. Thirty six patients had lesions in the splenium (61.0%). Corpus callosum infarction patients suffered from a broad spectrum of symptoms including weakness and/or numbness of the limbs, clumsy speech, and vertigo, which could not be explained by lesions in corpus callosum. A classical callosal disconnection syndrome was found in 2 out of all patients with corpus callosum infarctions. Statistical differences in the risk factor and infarct pattern between the genu and/or body group and splenium group were revealed. Conclusion Corpus callosum infarction and the callosal disconnection syndrome were generally rare. The most susceptible location of ischemic corpus callosum lesion was the splenium. Splenium infarctions were often associated with bilateral cerebral hemisphere involvement (46.2%). The genu and/or body infarctions were associated with atherosclerosis. The most common cause of corpus callosum infarction probably was embolism. PMID:25785450

  5. Genome sequences of mannheimia haemolytica serotype A2: ovine and bovine isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the genome sequences of Mannheimia haemolytica, serotype A2 isolated from pneumonic lungs of two different ruminant species, one from Ovis aries, designated as Ovine (O) and the other from Bos taurus, designated as Bovine (B)....

  6. Anterior Gradient Homolog 2 and Its Potential Roles In Ovine Pregnancy

    E-print Network

    Del Curto, Hannah Margaret

    2014-08-13

    -regulated in prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, renal carcinomas and endometrial carcinomas, and it contributes to the survival of cells undergoing physiological stress. We previously reported that AGR2 expression in the ovine endometrium increased between...

  7. Leukocyte and Cytokine Accumulation in the Ovine Teat and Udder during Endotoxin-Induced Inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Persson Waller; I. G. Colditz; P. Flapper; H.-F. Seow

    1997-01-01

    Persson Waller, K., Colditz, I.G., Flapper, P. and Seow, H.-F., 1997. Leukocyte and cytokine accumulation in the ovine teat and udder during endotoxin-induced inflammation. Veterinary Research Communications, 21 (2), 101-115

  8. Novel in vitro systems for prediction of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    González-Lobato, L; Real, R; Herrero, D; de la Fuente, A; Prieto, J G; Marqués, M M; Alvarez, A I; Merino, G

    2014-01-01

    A new in vitro tool was developed for the identification of veterinary substrates of the main drug transporter in the mammary gland. These drugs have a much higher chance of being concentrated into ovine milk and thus should be detectable in dairy products. Complementarily, a cell model for the identification of compounds that can inhibit the secretion of drugs into ovine milk, and thus reduce milk residues, was also generated. The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) is responsible for the concentration of its substrates into milk. The need to predict potential drug residues in ruminant milk has prompted the development of in vitro cell models over-expressing ABCG2 for these species to detect veterinary drugs that interact with this transporter. Using these models, several substrates for bovine and caprine ABCG2 have been found, and differences in activity between species have been reported. However, despite being of great toxicological relevance, no suitable in vitro model to predict substrates of ovine ABCG2 was available. New MDCKII and MEF3.8 cell models over-expressing ovine ABCG2 were generated for the identification of substrates and inhibitors of ovine ABCG2. Five widely used veterinary antibiotics (marbofloxacin, orbifloxacin, sarafloxacin, danofloxacin and difloxacin) were discovered as new substrates of ovine ABCG2. These results were confirmed for the bovine transporter and its Y581S variant using previously generated cell models. In addition, the avermectin doramectin was described as a new inhibitor of ruminant ABCG2. This new rapid assay to identify veterinary drugs that can be concentrated into ovine milk will potentially improve detection and monitoring of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products. PMID:24679113

  9. Arginine and fetal growth in ovine models of intrauterine growth restriction

    E-print Network

    Lassala, Arantzatzu Leticia

    2009-05-15

    ARGININE AND FETAL GROWTH IN OVINE MODELS OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION A Dissertation by ARANTZATZU L. LASSALA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2008 Major Subject: Physiology of Reproduction ARGININE AND FETAL GROWTH IN OVINE MODELS OF INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RESTRICTION A Dissertation by ARANTZATZU L. LASSALA...

  10. Metagenomic Insights into the RDX-Degrading Potential of the Ovine Rumen Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Robert W.; Giarrizzo, Juan Gabriel; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Duringer, Jennifer M.; Craig, A. Morrie

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX), or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB) were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies. PMID:25383623

  11. Influence des tanins hydrolysables de chtaignier sur le mtabolisme azot des ovins et des caprins

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence des tanins hydrolysables de châtaignier sur le métabolisme azoté des ovins et des caprins Les tanins ont la propriété de se complexer aux protéines. Ceci peut conduire à l'insolubilisation de effets de l'ingestion de tanins sur le métabolisme azoté des ovins et caprins. Des tanins hydrolysables

  12. Metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen microbiome.

    PubMed

    Li, Robert W; Giarrizzo, Juan Gabriel; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong; Duringer, Jennifer M; Craig, A Morrie

    2014-01-01

    The manufacturing processes of royal demolition explosive (RDX), or hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, have resulted in serious water contamination. As a potential carcinogen, RDX can cause a broad range of harmful effects to humans and animals. The ovine rumen is capable of rapid degradation of nitroaromatic compounds, including RDX. While ruminal RDX-degrading bacteria have been identified, the genes and pathways responsible for RDX degradation in the rumen have yet to be characterized. In this study, we characterized the metabolic potential of the ovine rumen using metagenomic approaches. Sequences homologous to at least five RDX-degrading genes cloned from environmental samples (diaA, xenA, xenB, xplA, and xplB) were present in the ovine rumen microbiome. Among them, diaA was the most abundant, likely reflective of the predominance of the genus Clostridium in the ovine rumen. At least ten genera known to harbor RDX-degrading microorganisms were detectable. Metagenomic sequences were also annotated using public databases, such as Pfam, COG, and KEGG. Five of the six Pfam protein families known to be responsible for RDX degradation in environmental samples were identified in the ovine rumen. However, increased substrate availability did not appear to enhance the proliferation of RDX-degrading bacteria and alter the microbial composition of the ovine rumen. This implies that the RDX-degrading capacity of the ovine rumen microbiome is likely regulated at the transcription level. Our results provide metagenomic insights into the RDX-degrading potential of the ovine rumen, and they will facilitate the development of novel and economic bioremediation strategies. PMID:25383623

  13. Use of "Google Scholar" in Corpus-Driven EAP Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brezina, Vaclav

    2012-01-01

    This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the "Google Scholar" search engine. These resources ("Google Scholar virtual corpus") are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. "Google Scholar", however, was not designed for linguistic searches…

  14. Semantic Similarity Based on Corpus Statistics and Lexical Taxonomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay J. Jiang; David W. Conrath

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for measuring semantic similarity\\/distance between words and concepts. It combines a lexical taxonomy structure with corpus statistical information so that the semantic distance between nodes in the semantic space constructed by the taxonomy can be better quantified with the computational evidence derived from a distributional analysis of corpus data. Specifically, the proposed measure is

  15. Agenesis and lipoma of corpus callosum. Case report.

    PubMed

    Silva, D F; Lima, M M; Oliveira, C O; Oliveira, W N; Anghinah, R; Lima, J G

    1995-09-01

    The agenesis and lipoma of the corpus callosum is a very rare association. We report the case of a 18-years old woman with rare epileptic seizures since the age of 6 years, normal neurological examination, as well as normal electroencephalogram. The brain computed tomography scanning and the magnetic resonance showed the lipoma and the agenesis of the corpus callosum. PMID:8585829

  16. A Speech Corpus for Modeling Language Acquisition: CAREGIVER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toomas Altosaar; Louis ten Bosch; Guillaume Aimetti; Christos Koniaris; Kris Demuynck; Henk van den Heuvel

    2010-01-01

    A multi-lingual speech corpus used for modeling language acquisition called CAREGIVER has been designed and recorded within the framework of the EU funded Acquisition of Communication and Recognition Skills (ACORNS) project. The paper describes the motivation behind the corpus and its design by relying on current knowledge regarding infant language acquisition. Instead of recording infants and children, the voices of

  17. A Corpus-based Approach to Finding Happiness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rada Mihalcea; Hugo Liu

    2006-01-01

    What are the sources of happiness and sadness in everyday life? In this paper, we employ 'linguistic ethnography' to seek out where happiness lies in our everyday lives by considering a corpus of blogposts from the LiveJournal community annotated with happy and sad moods. By analyzing this corpus, we derive lists of happy and sad words and phrases annotated by

  18. Assembling a parallel corpus from RSS news feeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Fry

    We describe our use of RSS news feeds to quickly assemble a parallel English-Japanese corpus. Our method is simpler than other web mining approaches, and it produces a paral- lel corpus whose quality, quantity, and rate of growth are stable and predictable.

  19. Corpus linguistics and phraseo-paremiology ric Laporte

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Corpus linguistics and phraseo-paremiology Éric Laporte Universidade federal do Espírito Santo bad for the facts Nelson Rodrigues If corpus linguistics and phraseo-paremiology are two fields of linguistics, how are they interlinked and how can they interplay? In this paper, we defend the position

  20. Training audio events detectors with a sound effects corpus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Trancoso; José Portelo; Miguel Bugalho; João Paulo Neto; António Joaquim Serralheiro

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the work done in the framework of the VIDIVIDEO European project in terms of audio event detec- tion. Our first experiments concerned the detection of non- voice sounds, such as birds, machines, traffic, water and steps. Given the unavailability of a corpus labelled in terms of audio events, we used a relatively small sound effect corpus for

  1. The corpus callosum: white matter or terra incognita

    PubMed Central

    Fitsiori, A; Nguyen, D; Karentzos, A; Delavelle, J; Vargas, M I

    2011-01-01

    The corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure in the brain, consisting of 200–250 million contralateral axonal projections and the major commissural pathway connecting the hemispheres of the human brain. The pathology of the corpus callosum includes a wide variety of entities that arise from different causes such as congenital, inflammatory, tumoural, degenerative, infectious, metabolic, traumatic, vascular and toxic agents. The corpus callosum, or a specific part of it, can be affected selectively. Numerous pathologies of the corpus callosum are encountered during CT and MRI. The aim of this study is to facilitate a better understanding and thus treatment of the pathological entities of the corpus callosum by categorising them according to their causes and their manifestations in MR and CT imaging. Familiarity with its anatomy and pathology is important to the radiologist in order to recognise its disease at an early stage and help the clinician establish the optimal therapeutic approach. PMID:21172964

  2. Optimizing aerosol gene delivery and expression in the ovine lung.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Gerry; Baker, Alison; Tennant, Peter; Gordon, Catherine; Vrettou, Christina; Renwick, Louise; Blundell, Richard; Cheng, Seng H; Scheule, Ron K; Davies, Lee; Painter, Hazel; Coles, Rebecca L; Lawton, Anna E; Marriott, Chris; Gill, Deborah R; Hyde, Stephen C; Griesenbach, Uta; Alton, Eric W F W; Boyd, A Christopher; Porteous, David J; Collie, D David S

    2007-02-01

    We have developed the sheep as a large animal model for optimizing cystic fibrosis gene therapy protocols. We administered aerosolized gene transfer agents (GTAs) to the ovine lung in order to test the delivery, efficacy, and safety of GTAs using a clinically relevant nebulizer. A preliminary study demonstrated GTA distribution and reporter gene expression throughout the lung after aerosol administration of plasmid DNA (pDNA):GL67 and pDNA:PEI complexes. A more comprehensive study examined the dose-response relationship for pDNA:PEI and assessed the influence of adjunct therapeutic agents. We found that the sheep model can differentiate between doses of GTA and that the anticholinergic, glycopyrrolate, enhanced transgene expression. Dose-related toxicity of GTA was reduced by aerosol administration compared to direct instillation. This large animal model will allow us to move toward clinical studies with greater confidence. PMID:17235313

  3. Corpus Linguistics and the Design of a Response Message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwell, E.

    2002-01-01

    Most research related to SETI, the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence, is focussed on techniques for detection of possible incoming signals from extra-terrestrial intelligent sources (e.g. Turnbull et al. 1999), and algorithms for analysis of these signals to identify intelligent language-like characteristics (e.g. Elliott and Atwell 1999, 2000). However, another issue for research and debate is the nature of our response, should a signal arrive and be detected. The design of potentially the most significant communicative act in history should not be decided solely by astrophysicists; the Corpus Linguistics research community has a contribution to make to what is essentially a Corpus design and implementation project. (Vakoch 1998) advocated that the message constructed to transmit to extraterrestrials should include a broad, representative collection of perspectives rather than a single viewpoint or genre; this should strike a chord with Corpus Linguists for whom a central principle is that a corpus must be "balanced" to be representative (Meyer 2001). One idea favoured by SETI researchers is to transmit an encyclopaedia summarising human knowledge, such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, to give ET communicators an overview and "training set" key to analysis of subsequent messages. Furthermore, this should be sent in several versions in parallel: the text; page-images, to include illustrations left out of the text-file and perhaps some sort of abstract linguistic representation of the text, using a functional or logic language (Ollongren 1999, Freudenthal 1960). The idea of "enriching" the message corpus with annotations at several levels should also strike a chord with Corpus Linguists who have long known that Natural language exhibits highly complex multi-layering sequencing, structural and functional patterns, as difficult to model as sequences and structures found in more traditional physical and biological sciences. Some corpora have been annotated with several levels or layers of linguistic knowledge, for example the SEC corpus (Taylor and Knowles 1988), the ISLE corpus (Menzel et al. 2000). Tagged and parsed corpus can be used by corpus linguists as a testbed to guide their development of grammars (e.g. Souter and Atwell 1994); and they can be used to train Natural Language Learning or data-mining models of complex sequence data (e.g. Brill 1993, Hughes 1993, Atwell 1996). Corpus linguists have a range of standards and tools for design and annotation of representative corpus resources, and experience of which annotation types are more amenable to Natural Language Learning algorithms. An Advisory panel of corpus linguists could help design and implement an extended Multi-annotated Interstellar Corpus of English, incorporating ideas from Corpus Linguistics such as: - Augment the Encyclopaedia Britannica with a collection of samples representing the diversity of language in real use. - As an additional "key", transmit a dictionary aimed at language learners which has also been a rich source for NLP - Supply our ET communicators with several levels of linguistic annotation, to give them a richer training set for their - Add translations of the English text into other human languages: Humanity should not be represented by English alone, This calls for a large-scale corpus annotation project, requiring an Interstellar Corpus Advisory Panel, analogous to the BNC or MATE advisory panels, to include experts in English grammar and semantics, English language learning, computational Natural language Learning algorithms, and corpus design, implementation, annotation, standardisation, and analysis.

  4. The DDI corpus: an annotated corpus with pharmacological substances and drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Zazo, María; Segura-Bedmar, Isabel; Martínez, Paloma; Declerck, Thierry

    2013-10-01

    The management of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is a critical issue resulting from the overwhelming amount of information available on them. Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques can provide an interesting way to reduce the time spent by healthcare professionals on reviewing biomedical literature. However, NLP techniques rely mostly on the availability of the annotated corpora. While there are several annotated corpora with biological entities and their relationships, there is a lack of corpora annotated with pharmacological substances and DDIs. Moreover, other works in this field have focused in pharmacokinetic (PK) DDIs only, but not in pharmacodynamic (PD) DDIs. To address this problem, we have created a manually annotated corpus consisting of 792 texts selected from the DrugBank database and other 233 Medline abstracts. This fined-grained corpus has been annotated with a total of 18,502 pharmacological substances and 5028 DDIs, including both PK as well as PD interactions. The quality and consistency of the annotation process has been ensured through the creation of annotation guidelines and has been evaluated by the measurement of the inter-annotator agreement between two annotators. The agreement was almost perfect (Kappa up to 0.96 and generally over 0.80), except for the DDIs in the MedLine database (0.55-0.72). The DDI corpus has been used in the SemEval 2013 DDIExtraction challenge as a gold standard for the evaluation of information extraction techniques applied to the recognition of pharmacological substances and the detection of DDIs from biomedical texts. DDIExtraction 2013 has attracted wide attention with a total of 14 teams from 7 different countries. For the task of recognition and classification of pharmacological names, the best system achieved an F1 of 71.5%, while, for the detection and classification of DDIs, the best result was F1 of 65.1%. These results show that the corpus has enough quality to be used for training and testing NLP techniques applied to the field of Pharmacovigilance. The DDI corpus and the annotation guidelines are free for use for academic research and are available at http://labda.inf.uc3m.es/ddicorpus. PMID:23906817

  5. A corpus of noise-induced word misperceptions for Spanish.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Máté Attila; García Lecumberri, María Luisa; Tang, Yan; Cooke, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Word misperceptions are valuable in designing and evaluating detailed computational models of speech perception, especially when a number of listeners agree on the misperceived word. The current paper describes the elicitation of a corpus of Spanish word misperceptions induced by different types of noise. Stimuli were presented using an adaptive procedure designed to promote the rapid discovery of misperceptions. The final corpus contains 3235 misperceptions along with speech and masker waveforms, permitting further experimental and modeling studies into the origin of each misperception. The corpus is available online as an open resource. PMID:25698048

  6. NKp46 defines ovine cells that have characteristics corresponding to NK cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are well recognized as playing a key role in innate immune defence through cytokine production and cytotoxic activity; additionally recent studies have identified several novel NK cell functions. The ability to study NK cells in the sheep has been restricted due to a lack of specific reagents. We report the generation of a monoclonal antibody specific for ovine NKp46, a receptor which in a number of mammals is expressed exclusively in NK cells. Ovine NKp46+ cells represent a population that is distinct from CD4+ and ??+ T-cells, B-cells and cells of the monocytic lineage. The NKp46+ cells are heterogenous with respect to expression of CD2 and CD8 and most, but not all, express CD16 - characteristics consistent with NK cell populations in other species. We demonstrate that in addition to populations in peripheral blood and secondary lymphoid organs, ovine NKp46+ populations are also situated at the mucosal surfaces of the lung, gastro-intestinal tract and non-gravid uterus. Furthermore, we show that purified ovine NKp46+ populations cultured in IL-2 and IL-15 have cytotoxic activity that could be enhanced by ligation of NKp46 in re-directed lysis assays. Therefore we conclude that ovine NKp46+ cells represent a population that by phenotype, tissue distribution and function correspond to NK cells and that NKp46 is an activating receptor in sheep as in other species. PMID:21345198

  7. The effects of HNE on ovine oxymyoglobin redox stability in a microsome model.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shuang; Faustman, Cameron; Tatiyaborworntham, Nantawat; Ramanathan, Ranjith; Sun, Qun

    2013-10-01

    The effect of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a secondary lipid oxidation product, on ovine myoglobin (Mb) redox stability was investigated. HNE increased oxymyoglobin (OxyMb) oxidation under all pH/temperature conditions studied. Mono-, di- and tri-HNE adducts were detected by ESI-Q-TOF MS analysis. Sites of adduction, His 120, His 25 and His 65, were determined by ESI-CID-MS/MS analysis. The relationship between ovine Mb (with/without HNE) and lipid oxidation was also studied in a microsome model in the presence of ?-tocopherol. Surprisingly, preincubation of Mb with HNE did not affect subsequent Mb redox stability in the microsome model (P<0.05). Microsomes with elevated concentrations of ?-tocopherol delayed lipid and Mb oxidations relative to controls. HNE-treated ovine Mb caused greater lipid oxidation compared to control ovine Mb in control microsomes (P<0.05). This study demonstrated an interaction between ovine Mb oxidation and lipid oxidation. PMID:23747615

  8. Genetic architecture of gene expression in ovine skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In livestock populations the genetic contribution to muscling is intensively monitored in the progeny of industry sires and used as a tool in selective breeding programs. The genes and pathways conferring this genetic merit are largely undefined. Genetic variation within a population has potential, amongst other mechanisms, to alter gene expression via cis- or trans-acting mechanisms in a manner that impacts the functional activities of specific pathways that contribute to muscling traits. By integrating sire-based genetic merit information for a muscling trait with progeny-based gene expression data we directly tested the hypothesis that there is genetic structure in the gene expression program in ovine skeletal muscle. Results The genetic performance of six sires for a well defined muscling trait, longissimus lumborum muscle depth, was measured using extensive progeny testing and expressed as an Estimated Breeding Value by comparison with contemporary sires. Microarray gene expression data were obtained for longissimus lumborum samples taken from forty progeny of the six sires (4-8 progeny/sire). Initial unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis revealed strong genetic architecture to the gene expression data, which also discriminated the sire-based Estimated Breeding Value for the trait. An integrated systems biology approach was then used to identify the major functional pathways contributing to the genetics of enhanced muscling by using both Estimated Breeding Value weighted gene co-expression network analysis and a differential gene co-expression network analysis. The modules of genes revealed by these analyses were enriched for a number of functional terms summarised as muscle sarcomere organisation and development, protein catabolism (proteosome), RNA processing, mitochondrial function and transcriptional regulation. Conclusions This study has revealed strong genetic structure in the gene expression program within ovine longissimus lumborum muscle. The balance between muscle protein synthesis, at the levels of both transcription and translation control, and protein catabolism mediated by regulated proteolysis is likely to be the primary determinant of the genetic merit for the muscling trait in this sheep population. There is also evidence that high genetic merit for muscling is associated with a fibre type shift toward fast glycolytic fibres. This study provides insight into mechanisms, presumably subject to strong artificial selection, that underpin enhanced muscling in sheep populations. PMID:22171619

  9. Proximal Corpus Cavernosum Tear Presenting as Scrotal Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Darves-Bornoz, A.; DeBartolo, M. M.; Mishail, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a penile fracture involving the proximal corpus cavernosum, presenting as a hematoma extending into the scrotum. The presentation, diagnosis, and surgical approach, which differ from the more typical penile shaft fracture, are delineated. PMID:23781385

  10. Corpus-Based Robotics: A Route Instruction Example.

    E-print Network

    Bugmann, Guido

    specialized programming languages, control theory, artificial vision, AI, etc. Instead, a service robot mustCorpus-Based Robotics: A Route Instruction Example. Guido Bugmann, Ewan Klein*, Stanislao Lauria**, and Theocharis Kyriacou Robotic Intelligence Laboratory, School of Computing, Communication and Electronics

  11. A Corpus-Trained Parser for Systemic-Functional Syntax

    E-print Network

    Berzins, M.

    the mother and daughter constituents in a tree), a vertical trigram model is extracted from the corpus, controlling the vertical relationships between possible grandmothers, mothers and daughters in the parse tree

  12. An Arabic Sign Language Corpus for Instructional Language in School

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulaziz Almohimeed; Mike Wald; Robert Damper

    2010-01-01

    An annotated sign language corpus is essential for machine translation projects. For this reason, many sign language corpora have been developed. Unfortunately, none of these is based on Arabic Sign Language (ArSL). In this paper, we present the ArSL corpus we created that is based on school-level language instruction. In recent years, many efficient machine translation ap- proaches, both statistical

  13. Acute aortic dissection type A discloses Corpus alienum

    PubMed Central

    Popov, Aron Frederik; Baryalei, Mersa Mohammed; Schmitto, Jan Dieter; Hinz, Jose; Wiese, Christoph Hermann; Raab, Björn; Kolat, Philipp; Schoendube, Friedrich Albert; Seipelt, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    We report an unusual case of an aortic type A dissection with a corpus alienum which compresses the right ventricle. The patient successfully underwent an aortic root replacement in deep hypothermia with re-implantation of the coronary arteries using a modified Bentall procedure and the resection of the corpus alienum. Intraoperative finding reveals 3 greatly adhered gauze compresses, which were most likely forgotten in the operation 34 years ago. PMID:19121214

  14. Replication and cytopathic effects of ovine lentivirus strains in alveolar macrophages correlate with in vivo pathogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Lairmore, M D; Akita, G Y; Russell, H I; DeMartini, J C

    1987-01-01

    Ruminant lentiviruses share genomic sequences and biologic properties with human immunodeficiency viruses. Four ovine lentivirus strains were assessed for cytopathic effects and virus replication. Lentivirus isolate H/24 produced high virus titers and lysis of synovial cells but replicated slowly and caused no fusion of alveolar macrophages. Lentivirus isolates 84/28 and 85/14 produced low virus titers, less syncytia, and limited or no cell lysis in synovial cells and macrophages. In contrast, ovine lentivirus isolate 85/34 produced early peak virus titers and caused rapid fusion and lysis of both macrophages and synovial cells. Ovine lentivirus isolates which were cytopathic for macrophages induced lymphoproliferative disease when inoculated into lambs. Images PMID:2824834

  15. Dynamic dorsoventral stiffness assessment of the ovine lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Keller, Tony S; Colloca, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    Posteroanterior spinal stiffness assessments are common in the evaluating patients with low back pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mechanical excitation frequency on dynamic lumbar spine stiffness. A computer-controlled voice coil actuator equipped with a load cell and LVDT was used to deliver an oscillatory dorsoventral (DV) mechanical force to the L3 spinous process of 15 adolescent Merino sheep. DV forces (48 N peak, approximately 10% body weight) were randomly applied at periodic excitation frequencies of 2.0, 6.0, 11.7 and a 0.5-19.7 Hz sweep. Force and displacement were recorded over a 13-22 s time interval. The in vivo DV stiffness of the ovine spine was frequency dependent and varied 3.7-fold over the 0.5-19.7 Hz mechanical excitation frequency range. Minimum and maximum DV stiffness (force/displacement) were 3.86+/-0.38 and 14.1+/-9.95 N/mm at 4.0 and 19.7 Hz, respectively. Stiffness values based on the swept-sine measurements were not significantly different from corresponding periodic oscillations (2.0 and 6.0 Hz). The mean coefficient of variation in the swept-sine DV dynamic stiffness assessment method was 15%, which was similar to the periodic oscillation method (10-16%). The results indicate that changes in mechanical excitation frequency and animal body mass modulate DV spinal stiffness. PMID:16376350

  16. Biocompatibility and osseointegration of reconstituted keratin in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Dias, George J; Peplow, Philip V; McLaughlin, Andrew; Teixeira, Fernanda; Kelly, Robert J

    2010-02-01

    Reconstituted keratin has potential as a raw material for orthopaedic applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo biocompatibility and osseointegration of keratin materials in an ovine model. Six different modifications of the keratin polymer, based on porous or dense constructs, regenerated by either neutral or acidic treatment, with or without hydroxyapatite, were made as small rods and inserted into drilled round defects in the femur and tibia of sheep. Histology was carried out on samples taken at different time points up to 24 weeks postsurgery. All keratin implants showed similar histological profiles, which included granulation tissue surrounding and infiltrating the implants, followed by new bone formation radiating from the existing bone. By 8 weeks, new bone had grown to within a short distance of the implant surface, and in some places was in direct apposition to the keratin implant. In the 12 to 24-week period, there was peripheral resorption and infiltration of bony trabeculae with regard to the porous constructs only. The tissue reaction appeared to model that of a fairly inert material. Further work on improving the extent of osseointegration and acceleration of the biodegradation rate of reconstituted keratin is underway. PMID:19213058

  17. Shape modeling of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Farag, Ahmed; Elhabian, Shireen; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Graham, James; Farag, Aly; Chen, Dongqing; Casanova, Manuel F

    2010-01-01

    A novel approach for shape modeling of the corpus callosum (cc) is introduced where the contours of the cc are extracted by image/volume segmentation, and a Bezier curve is used to connect the vertices of the sampled contours, generating a parametric polynomial representation. These polynomials are shown to maintain the characteristics of the original cc, thus are suitable for classification of populations. The Bernstein polynomials are used in fitting the Bezier curves. The coefficients of the Bernstein polynomials are shown to capture the geometric features of the cc, and are able to describe deformations. We use these coefficients, in conjunction with the Fourier Descriptors and other features, to discriminate between autistic and normal brains. The approach is tested on T1-weighted MRI scans of 16 normal and 22 autistic subjects and shows its ability to provide perfect classification, suggesting that the approach is worth investigating on a larger population with the hope of providing early identification and intervention of autism using neuroimaging. PMID:21095752

  18. Corpus callosum: ovarian hormones and feminization.

    PubMed

    Fitch, R H; Cowell, P E; Schrott, L M; Denenberg, V H

    1991-03-01

    The rat's corpus callosum is sexually dimorphic with the male's being larger. This difference appears to depend in part on the neonatal presence of testosterone in the male and ovarian hormones in the female. To further investigate the possibility that ovarian hormones participate in the differentiation of the rat's callosum, females received one of the following treatments on postnatal day 8, 12 or 16: (1) ovariectomy (Ovx); (2) 1 mg of testosterone propionate (TP); or (3) sham surgery. All animals were handled daily from birth until weaning. They were sacrificed at 110 days and a mid-sagittal section of the callosum was obtained. From this section measures of callosal area, perimeter, length, and 99 widths were derived. Widths were averaged into 7 factors as defined by prior factor analysis. Ovariectomy, whether on day 8, 12 or 16, enlarged callosal area and 3 of the callosal width factors. TP had no effect on any callosal variable when administered on day 8, 12 or 16. A comparison of control males and females replicated our prior findings of sexual dimorphism. We conclude that ovarian hormones act to feminize the female callosum, and that their removal results in defeminization. Furthermore, the fact that ovariectomy was effective as late as day 16, while TP treatment on day 8 or later had no effect, suggests that masculinization and feminization of this structure constitute separate processes with distinct sensitive periods. PMID:2029639

  19. Lateral Surgical Approach to Lumbar Intervertebral Discs in an Ovine Model

    PubMed Central

    Oehme, David; Goldschlager, Tony; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Danks, Andrew; Ghosh, Peter; Gibbon, Anne; Jenkin, Graham

    2012-01-01

    The sheep is becoming increasingly used as a large animal model for preclinical spine surgery studies. Access to the ovine lumbar intervertebral discs has traditionally been via an anterior or anterolateral approach, which requires larger wound incisions and, at times, significant abdominal retraction. We present a new minimally invasive operative technique for a far-lateral approach to the ovine lumbar spine that allows for smaller incisions, excellent visualisation of intervertebral discs, and minimal abdominal retraction and is well tolerated by animals with minimal morbidity. PMID:23028255

  20. Characterization of ovine utero-placental interface tensile failure.

    PubMed

    Klinich, K D; Miller, C S; Hu, J; Samorezov, J E; Pearlman, M D; Schneider, L W; Rupp, J D

    2012-10-01

    Data on the strength of the utero-placental interface (UPI) would help improve understanding of the mechanisms of placental abruption (premature separation of the placenta from the uterus) during motor-vehicle crashes involving pregnant occupants. An ovine model was selected for study because like the human, its placenta has a villous attachment structure. Uteri with intact placentas were obtained from three sheep as by-products of another research study. The samples were harvested between 102 and 119 days of the 145-day gestational period. Rectangular specimens with areas measuring 15 mm × 5 mm were cut through the thickness of the placenta and uterus. Each subject provided eight samples, of which four were tested at a nominal strain rate of 0.10 strains/sec and the remainder was tested at a nominal strain rate of 1.0 strains/sec. Sutures were used to secure the uterine side of the specimens to the test fixture, while mechanical clamps were used to attach the placenta side. A FARO arm scanner recorded the initial geometry of the tissue, and a random dot pattern applied to the placenta and uterus tissue allowed visualization of displacement. For the structure of the UPI, mean tensile failure strain and standard deviations are 0.37 (0.11) and 0.37 (0.18) for the 0.10 and 1.0 strain rates, respectively (p-value = 0.970) while the associated failure stresses are 6.5 (1.37) and 15.0 (5.08) kPa, (p-value = 0.064). The results from sheep UPI testing provide the first estimate of the human UPI structural failure tolerance. PMID:22809672

  1. Androgen receptor and histone lysine demethylases in ovine placenta.

    PubMed

    Cleys, Ellane R; Halleran, Jennifer L; Enriquez, Vanessa A; da Silveira, Juliano C; West, Rachel C; Winger, Quinton A; Anthony, Russell V; Bruemmer, Jason E; Clay, Colin M; Bouma, Gerrit J

    2015-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones regulate developmental programming in many tissues, including programming gene expression during prenatal development. While estradiol is known to regulate placentation, little is known about the role of testosterone and androgen signaling in placental development despite the fact that testosterone rises in maternal circulation during pregnancy and in placenta-induced pregnancy disorders. We investigated the role of testosterone in placental gene expression, and focused on androgen receptor (AR). Prenatal androgenization decreased global DNA methylation in gestational day 90 placentomes, and increased placental expression of AR as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and growth. As AR complexes with histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) to regulate AR target genes in human cancers, we also investigated if the same mechanism is present in the ovine placenta. AR co-immunoprecipitated with KDM1A and KDM4D in sheep placentomes, and AR-KDM1A complexes were recruited to a half-site for androgen response element (ARE) in the promoter region of VEGFA. Androgenized ewes also had increased cotyledonary VEGFA. Finally, in human first trimester placental samples KDM1A and KDM4D immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast, with nuclear KDM1A and KDM4D immunostaining also present in the villous stroma. In conclusion, placental androgen signaling, possibly through AR-KDM complex recruitment to AREs, regulates placental VEGFA expression. AR and KDMs are also present in first trimester human placenta. Androgens appear to be an important regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, and aberrant androgen signaling may contribute to the development of placental disorders. PMID:25675430

  2. hTERT-immortalized ovine microglia propagate natural scrapie isolates.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Gutiérrez, Juan F; Schneider, David A; Baszler, Timothy V; Greenlee, Justin J; Nicholson, Eric M; Stanton, James B

    2015-02-16

    Ex vivo propagation of natural prion isolates (i.e., propagated solely in the natural host) is crucial for the characterization and study of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several well-established, prion-permissive cell culture systems are available; however, only a few cell lines are permissive to natural prion isolates and these cells are not pathophysiologically relevant (e.g., renal epithelium and fibroblast-like cells). Therefore, a pathophysiologically relevant cell line derived from a natural TSE host could be used for propagation of natural prion isolates. In this study, ovine brain macrophages (microglia) were immortalized by transfection with the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene to identify cell lines (hTERT-microglia) permissive to natural scrapie prion isolates. Following transfection, hTERT-microglia were passaged up to 100 times and their lifespan was significantly longer compared to parental cells (Fisher's exact test, P<0.001). Multiple sublines were permissive to cell culture-adapted prions; two sublines were also permissive to natural scrapie isolates (i.e., derived from brain homogenates of sheep infected with scrapie). Prion infectivity and partial protease resistance of the prion protein were maintained in hTERT-microglia. Comparisons between scrapie-permissive and non-permissive hTERT-microglia sublines revealed that overall quantity of the normal cellular prion protein was not associated with prion permissiveness. The use of hTERT-microglia in future TSE studies may be more germane to the characterization of the cellular and subcellular pathophysiology of natural scrapie prion isolates and to investigate host-specific factors involved in prion replication. PMID:25592246

  3. Androgen Receptor and Histone Lysine Demethylases in Ovine Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Cleys, Ellane R.; Halleran, Jennifer L.; Enriquez, Vanessa A.; da Silveira, Juliano C.; West, Rachel C.; Winger, Quinton A.; Anthony, Russell V.; Bruemmer, Jason E.; Clay, Colin M.; Bouma, Gerrit J.

    2015-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones regulate developmental programming in many tissues, including programming gene expression during prenatal development. While estradiol is known to regulate placentation, little is known about the role of testosterone and androgen signaling in placental development despite the fact that testosterone rises in maternal circulation during pregnancy and in placenta-induced pregnancy disorders. We investigated the role of testosterone in placental gene expression, and focused on androgen receptor (AR). Prenatal androgenization decreased global DNA methylation in gestational day 90 placentomes, and increased placental expression of AR as well as genes involved in epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis, and growth. As AR complexes with histone lysine demethylases (KDMs) to regulate AR target genes in human cancers, we also investigated if the same mechanism is present in the ovine placenta. AR co-immunoprecipitated with KDM1A and KDM4D in sheep placentomes, and AR-KDM1A complexes were recruited to a half-site for androgen response element (ARE) in the promoter region of VEGFA. Androgenized ewes also had increased cotyledonary VEGFA. Finally, in human first trimester placental samples KDM1A and KDM4D immunolocalized to the syncytiotrophoblast, with nuclear KDM1A and KDM4D immunostaining also present in the villous stroma. In conclusion, placental androgen signaling, possibly through AR-KDM complex recruitment to AREs, regulates placental VEGFA expression. AR and KDMs are also present in first trimester human placenta. Androgens appear to be an important regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, and aberrant androgen signaling may contribute to the development of placental disorders. PMID:25675430

  4. Mineralocorticoid effects in the late gestation ovine fetal lung

    PubMed Central

    McCartney, Jarret; Richards, Elaine M.; Wood, Charles E.; Keller?Wood, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study was designed to determine the effects of corticosteroids at MR in the late?gestation fetal lung. Since both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are expressed at relatively high levels in the fetal lung, endogenous corticosteroids may act at MR as well as GR in the preterm fetal lung. The GR agonist, betamethasone, the MR agonist, aldosterone, or both were infused intravenously for 48 h in ovine fetuses of approximately 130 days gestation. Effects on airway pressures during stepwise inflation of the in situ lung, expression of ENaC alpha (SCNN1A), ENaC beta (SCNN1B), and Na,K ATPase (ATP1A1), and elastin and collagen content were determined after the infusions. We found that aldosterone significantly reduced the airway pressure measured during the initial step in inflation of the lung, although aldosterone had no overall effect on lung compliance, nor did aldosterone induce expression of ENaC?, ENaC? or Na,K ATPase?1. Betamethasone significantly increased expression of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunit mRNAs, and collagen and elastin content in the lungs, although this dose of betamethasone also had no effect on lung compliance. There was no synergy between effects of the MR and GR agonists. Transcriptomic analysis suggested that although aldosterone did not alter genes in pathways related to epithelial sodium transport, aldosterone did alter genes in pathways involved in cell proliferation in the lungs. The results are consistent with corticosteroid?induced fluid reabsorption at birth through GR rather than MR, but suggest that MR facilitates lung maturation, and may contribute to inflation with the first breaths via mechanisms distinct from known aldosterone effects in other epithelia. PMID:25347852

  5. Morphometric changes of the corpus callosum in congenital blindness.

    PubMed

    Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D Louis; Fonov, Vladimir S; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Sartori, Giuseppe; Pietrini, Pietro; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender. There was no overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus callosum are in line with the well-described cross-modal functional and structural neuroplastic changes in congenital blindness. PMID:25255324

  6. Morphometric Changes of the Corpus Callosum in Congenital Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D. Louis; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Sartori, Giuseppe; Pietrini, Pietro; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender. There was no overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus callosum are in line with the well-described cross-modal functional and structural neuroplastic changes in congenital blindness. PMID:25255324

  7. Evidence of proviral clearance following postpartum transmission of an ovine lentivirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentiviral transmission by transfer of infected colostrum and/or milk is considered to be highly efficient. In this study, postpartum transmission of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) from 10 naturally infected ewes to their 23 lambs was followed from the perinatal period throughout a four y...

  8. Differential expression of Toll-like receptors and inflammatory cytokines in ovine interdigital dermatitis and footrot

    E-print Network

    Davenport, Rebecca; Heawood, Christopher; Sessford, Kate; Baker, Melissa; Baiker, Kerstin; Blacklaws, Barbara; Kaler, Jasmeet; Green, Laura; Tötemeyer, Sabine

    2014-07-24

    –105. cCarthy, A.J., Illot, N.E., Smith, J.E., Shaw, M.A., 2011. Novel hisms in ovine immune response genes and their associa- abortion. Anim. Genet. 42, 535–543. artin, W., Stryhn, H., 2009. Veterinary Epidemiologic 2nd ed. VER Inc., Charlottetown. rove...

  9. Molecular characterization, expression profiles of the ovine FSHR gene and its association with litter size.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiangyu; Liu, Shijia; Li, Fadi; Wang, Weimin; Li, Chong; Ma, Youji; Li, Tingfu

    2014-12-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) is a glycoprotein family member of G proteins coupled receptor super-family, and plays important roles in animal follicular development. In this study, we cloned the 5' flanking region of ovine FSHR gene and analyzed its genomic structure. One special domain named the LRRNT (Leucine rich repeat N-terminal domain) was found in the prediction amino acid sequence of ovine FSHR. RT-qPCR showed that ovine FSHR was expressed widely in detected tissues and was significantly higher in sexual gland (testicle and ovary) than in other tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, rumen, duodenum, muscle, fat, hypothalamus and pituitary) (P < 0.05). In addition, synonymous mutation g.-47C > T of the FSHR gene was detected and confirmed to be significantly associated with the litter size (P < 0.01), the genotype of CC had 0.42 (P < 0.01) and 0.53 (P < 0.01) lambs more than TC and TT genotype, respectively. Our results indicated the association of ovine FSHR with the litter size in sheep and FSHR could be used as a candidate gene for improving reproductive traits in industrial sheep breeding. PMID:25103022

  10. Development of an in vivo system to measure antibody-blocking of ovine herpesvirus 2 entry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), the causative agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), has never been propagated in vitro. Thus, an alternative to in vitro virus neutralization is needed to assess neutralizing antibody activity to OvHV-2 in SA-MCF vaccine development. Herein we ev...

  11. THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT OF SHEEP IS THE PREDOMINANT SITE OF OVINE HERPESVIRUS-2 REPLICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) is a member of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae, genus Rhadinovirus. OvHV-2 is the causative agent for sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) in many clinically susceptible ruminant species worldwide. Sheep are the natural carriers of OvHV-2. The inabilit...

  12. Serotyping of Chlamydia psittaci by the Micro-Immunofluorescence Test: Isolates of Ovine Origin

    PubMed Central

    Eb, François; Orfila, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    The micro-immunofluorescence test was successfully applied to seven ovine isolates which could be separated into two distinct immunotypes. The pattern of reactivity was similar to that elucidated by the plaque reduction test and confirmed by growth characteristics and biotyping. PMID:6752025

  13. Progesterone regulation of endometrial factors supporting conceptus growth and development in the ovine uterus

    E-print Network

    Satterfield, Michael Carey

    2008-10-10

    ...................................................................................... 41 Discussion ................................................................................ 51 IV TIGHT AND ADHERENS JUNCTIONS IN THE OVINE UTERUS: DIFFERENTIAL REGULATION BY PREGNANCY AND PROGESTERONE...). Progesterone Actions in Early Pregnancy Successful pregnancy in mammals unequivocally requires the actions of progesterone. Following ovulation of the dominant follicle, the follicular theca and granulosa cells differentiate into small and large luteal...

  14. Ovine trophoblast is a primary source of TNF? during Chlamydophila abortus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick Wheelhouse; Sean Wattegedera; James Stanton; Stephen Maley; Donna Watson; Catherine Jepson; David Deane; David Buxton; David Longbottom; Tim Baszler; Gary Entrican

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydophila abortus is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium that causes infectious abortion in sheep (ovine enzootic abortion, OEA) and humans. Infected placentas recovered from sheep that experience OEA have thickened membranes, contain dense inflammatory cellular infiltrates and show evidence of intravascular thrombosis. Despite widespread inflammation, chlamydial multiplication is restricted to the chorionic trophoblast cells. To investigate the potential role of

  15. Superovulation and embryo collection in nulliparous Boer goat does immunized against a recombinant ovine ?-subunit inhibin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Padilla; P. G. Knight; W. Holtz

    2008-01-01

    With the purpose of eliciting a superovulatory response, 12 adult nulliparous Boer goat does were actively immunized against a recombinant ?-subunit of ovine inhibin (roIHN-?; two injections of 100mg 4 weeks apart). Another 12 control Boer goat does were treated with physiological saline and acted as controls. One year later the immunized animals were boostered by the administration of another

  16. tude compare de l'activit microbienne dans le rumen chez les caprins et les ovins

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Étude comparée de l'activité microbienne dans le rumen chez les caprins et les ovins II. Effet du'activité microbienne du rumen, une expérimentation est réalisée sur trois boucs Alpin et trois béliers Ile complémentée avec du tourteau. Si l'activité microbienne est significativement stimulée aussi bien par l

  17. Sheep (Ovis aries) airway epithelial cells support ovine herpesvirus 2 lytic replication in vivo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we describe the development of a monospecific, polyclonal rabbit antiserum directed against the ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) major capsid protein and its use to detect lytically infected cells in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Immunofluorescent labeling using monoclonal antibodies direc...

  18. Development of cell lines from the sheep used to construct the CHORI-243 ovine BAC library

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cell lines, designated MARC.OVSM and MARC.OKF, were initiated from the aorta and kidney, respectively, obtained from the Texel ram used to make the CHORI-243 Ovine BAC library. These cell lines have been submitted to the NIA Aging Cell Repository at the Coriell Cell Respositories, Camden, NJ, U...

  19. Development and Validation of an Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus Quantitative PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) infects at least one sheep in eighty-one percent of U.S. sheep flocks as measured by serological diagnostic tests and can cause viral-induced mastitis, arthritis, dypsnea, and cachexia. Diagnostic tests that quantify OPP proviral load in peripheral blood leu...

  20. Ovine progressive pneumonia virus is transmitted more effectively via aerosol nebulization than oral administration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new method of experimental infection of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), aerosol nebulization (Nb), was compared to intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) methods of experimental infection. Seven month old lambs were given 3.5 × 107 TCID50 of Dubois OPPV LMH19 isolate using IV, PO, or Nb methods ...

  1. Efficacy of different commercial and new inactivated vaccines against ovine enzootic abortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N Garc??a de la Fuente; C. B Gutiérrez-Mart??n; N Ortega; E. F Rodr??guez-Ferri; M. L del R??o; O. R González; J Salinas

    2004-01-01

    The protective efficacy of two inactivated commercial (A, B) and two new inactivated vaccines (M7, QS) against ovine enzootic abortion was determined in two separate experiments in sheep. Vaccine A contained chlamydiae propagated in chicken embryos, adjuvated with Marcol 82, and vaccine B contained chlamydiae cultured in cell monolayers, adjuvated with aluminium hydroxide. For the preparation of the experimental vaccines,

  2. Determinants of ovine compact bone viscoelastic properties: effects of architecture, mineralization, and remodeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Les; C. A. Spence; J. L. Vance; G. T. Christopherson; B. Patel; A. S. Turner; G. W. Divine; D. P. Fyhrie

    2004-01-01

    Significant decreases in ovine compact bone viscoelastic properties (specifically, stress-rate sensitivity, and damping efficiency) are associated with three years of ovariectomy and are particularly evident at higher frequencies [Proc. Orthop. Res. Soc. 27 (2002) 89]. It is unclear what materials or architectural features of bone are responsible for either the viscoelastic properties themselves, or for the changes in those properties

  3. Experimental induction of malignant catarrhal fever in pigs with ovine herpesvirus 2 by intranasal nebulization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a frequently fatal herpesviral disease, has been sporadically reported in pigs. All cases of naturally-occurring porcine MCF reported to date have been linked to ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Macavirus carried by sheep. Experimental in...

  4. LES CELLULES CORTICOTROPES DE L'HYPOPHYSE DES BOVINS, OVINS et PORCINS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LES CELLULES CORTICOTROPES DE L'HYPOPHYSE DES BOVINS, OVINS et PORCINS MISE EN ÉVIDENCE PAR la mise en évidence des cellules corticotropes chez les Mammi- fères. 20 Du point de vue séquence terminale (25-39) de l'antigène naturel. Les deux systèmes révèlent les mêmes cellules en

  5. [The gene ontology and electro localization of ovine skin derived EST-SSR markers].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zun-Bao; Zhao, Zong-Sheng; Yu, Peng; Wu, Hong-Bin; Ban, Qian; Liang, Yao-Wei; Zheng, Wei

    2011-07-01

    Abstract: In order to study the potential gene function of ovine EST-SSR markers, nine original EST of Ovine Skin Derived polymorphic EST-SSR loci, which were developed in an early study by our lab, were ontology annotated and Electro localized. The results revealed that the original ESTs of the six loci had high homology with known genes and three of them probably played an important role in wool traits. Compared with its cDNA library, 8 loci were located on chromosomes of cattle. The homology of chromosomes between cattle and sheep was estimated based on the similarity coefficients calculated by positioning markers. Additionally, NJ clustering tree was establishedto serve for electro localization of ovine EST-SSR markers. Finally, 8 EST-SSR markers were successfully positioned on ovine chromosomes. The results from this study not only provide references for further studies on genetic mapping, in silico cloning of key genes for wool traits, but also are helpful to the researchs of chromosome evolution in animal. PMID:22049686

  6. HORMONAL REGULATION OF GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE RECEPTORS AND MRNA ACTIVITY IN OVINE PITUITARY CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies demonstrate that gonadotroph responsiveness to GnRH, GnRH binding, and the apparent number of GnRH receptors are all increased by 17B-estradiol (E) or inhibin (IN) in ovine pituitary cultures. rogesterone attenuates these effects. o explore differences between th...

  7. A new homologous radioimmunoassay for ovine follicle stimu-lating hormone : development and characterization

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    (LH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (Kerdelhu6 et al., 1972 ; Hopkinson and Pant, 1973A new homologous radioimmunoassay for ovine follicle stimu- lating hormone : development of information on the mechanism of regulation of the secre- tion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) can

  8. Conformational changes of ovine ?-1-proteinase inhibitor: The influence of heparin binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Gowda, Lalitha R.

    2008-11-01

    ?-1-Proteinase inhibitor (?-1-PI), the archetypal serpin causes rapid, irreversible stoichiometric inhibition of redundant circulating serine proteases and is associated with emphysema, inflammatory response and maintenance of protease-inhibitor equilibrium in vascular and peri-vascular spaces. A homogenous preparation of heparin octasaccharide binds to ovine and human ?-1-PI and enhances their protease inhibitory activity phenomenally. Size-exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering experiments reveal that ovine ?-1-PI undergoes a decrease in the Stokes' radius upon heparin binding. A strong binding; characterizes this ?-1-PI-heparin interaction as revealed by the binding constant ( K?) 1.98 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M and 2.1 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M determined by fluorescence spectroscopy and equilibrium dialysis, respectively. The stoichiometry of heparin binding to ovine ?-1-PI was 1.1 ± 0.2:1. The Stern-Volmer constants ( Ksv) for heparin activated ovine and human ?-1-PI were found to be 5.13 × 10 -6 M and 5.67 × 10 -6 M, respectively, significantly higher than the native inhibitors. FTIR and CD spectroscopy project the systematic structural reorientations that ?-1-PI undergoes upon heparin binding characterized by a decrease in ?-helical content and a concomitant increase in ?-turn and random coil elements. It is likely that these conformational changes result in the movement of the ?-1-PI reactive site loop into an extended structure that is better poised to combat the cognate protease and accelerate the inhibition.

  9. Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels associate with breed and Ovar-DRB1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have suggested that host genetics influence both lung histopathology and seroprevalence in sheep infected with ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV). As a first start, a genetic association study was conducted in 383 Idaho sheep of the Columbia, Polypay and Rambouillet breeds ut...

  10. Establishment of the optimum two-dimensional electrophoresis system of ovine ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Jia, J L; Zhang, L P; Wu, J P; Wang, J; Ding, Q

    2014-01-01

    Lambing performance of sheep is the most important economic trait and is regarded as a critic factoring affecting the productivity in sheep industry. Ovary plays the most roles in lambing trait. To establish the optimum two-dimensional electrophoresis system (2-DE) of ovine ovarian tissue, the common protein extraction methods of animal tissue (trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation and direct schizolysis methods) were used to extract ovine ovarian protein, and 17-cm nonlinear immobilized PH 3-10 gradient strips were used for 2-DE. The sample handling, loading quantity of the protein sample, and isoelectric focusing (IEF) steps were manipulated and optimized in this study. The results indicate that the direct schizolysis III method, a 200-?g loading quantity of the protein sample, and IEF steps II (20°C active hydration, 14 h?500 V, 1 h?1000 V 1 h?1000-9000 V, 6 h?80,000 VH?500 V 24 h) are optimal for 2-DE analysis of ovine ovarian tissue. Therefore, ovine ovarian tissue proteomics 2-DE was preliminarily established by the optimized conditions in this study; meanwhile, the conditions identified herein could provide a reference for ovarian sample preparation and 2-DE using tissues from other animals. PMID:25177933

  11. OVINE HERPESVIRUS 2 MRNA EXPRESSION IN CATTLE AND BISON WITH MALIGNANT CATARRHAL FEVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fulminant disease of certain susceptible ruminants caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2). The characteristic lesions of MCF include lymphoproliferation, vasculitis and mucosal ulceration. The pathogenesis of these lesions is very poorly understood, but is most ...

  12. Reliability of sex determination in ovine embryos using amelogenin gene ( AMEL)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Dervishi; A. Martinez-Royo; P. Sánchez; J. L. Alabart; M. J. Cocero; J. Folch; J. H. Calvo

    2008-01-01

    Sex specific sequence variability of the amelogenin gene has been used for sex determination in the family of Bovidae. In our study, suitability and reliability of the amelogenin gene for ovine sex determination in embryos was studied. The specificity of the method was previously demonstrated by testing 579 blood samples from several Spanish sheep breeds (161 males and 198 females).

  13. Tracking horizontal transmission of ovine lentivirus by quantitative PCR and envelope sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most transmission of ovine lentivirus (OvLV) occurs horizontally since in utero transmission is considered inefficient. However, there is no direct evidence that horizontal transmission occurs from unrelated ewes to other lambs/ewes or from ewes to progeny. One way to assess the source of horizont...

  14. The visual map in the corpus callosum of the cat.

    PubMed

    Payne, B R; Siwek, D F

    1991-01-01

    The corpus callosum conveys all the fibers that connect areas 17 and 18 in the 2 cerebral hemispheres of the cat. The purpose of the present study was to ascertain the organization of the visual field map described by these fibers in the corpus callosum. This was achieved by injecting anterograde and retrograde pathway tracers at known locations in the callosally connected zones of areas 17 and 18. The positions of the injection sites were varied systematically to include all visual field elevations represented along the marginal and posterolateral gyri. Overall, the results show (1) that callosal fibers projecting between the 2 marginal gyri, where the lower visual fields are represented, pass through the body of the corpus callosum; (2) that fibers connecting the junction of the marginal and posterolateral gyri in the 2 hemispheres, where central fields are represented, pass through the dorsal splenium of the corpus callosum; and (3) that fibers passing between the ventral portions of the 2 posterolateral gyri, where upper fields are represented, pass through posterior and ventral splenium. In addition, the density of visual fibers in the splenium is greater than in the body of the corpus callosum. Within the overall pattern, a finer arrangement exists, and it was possible, by comparison with the cortical visual field maps, to describe a map of visual field elevations in the corpus callosum. In this map, the representations of the different visual field elevations are not a simple reflection of the map in the cortex. The map of the lower fields contained in the body is spread out, whereas the map of the central and upper fields in the splenium is highly compressed. The high degree with which observations can be reproduced in different cats indicates that the map is stereotyped from one animal to another. PMID:1822731

  15. Description of a novel viral tool to identify and quantify ovine faecal pollution in the environment.

    PubMed

    Rusiñol, Marta; Carratalà, Anna; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Bach, Alex; Kern, Anita; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Girones, Rosina; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia

    2013-08-01

    Farmed animals such as sheep, cattle, swine and poultry play an important role in microbial contamination of water, crops and food, and introduce large quantities of pathogens into the environment. The ability to determine the origin of faecal pollution in water resources is essential when establishing a robust and efficient water management system. Animal-specific viruses have previously been suggested as microbial source tracking tools, but specific ovine viral markers have not been reported before now. Previous studies have shown that polyomaviruses are host-specific, highly prevalent and are commonly excreted in urine. Furthermore, they have been reported to infect several vertebrate species but not sheep. That situation encouraged the study of a new putative ovine polyomavirus (OPyV) and its use to determine whether faecal pollution originates from ovine faecal/urine contamination. Putative OPyV DNA was amplified from ovine urine and faecal samples using a broad-spectrum nested PCR (nPCR). Specific nested PCR and quantitative PCR assays were developed and applied to faecal and environmental samples, including sheep slurries, slaughterhouse wastewater effluents, urban sewage and river water samples. Successful amplification by PCR was achieved in sheep urine samples, sheep slaughterhouse wastewater and downstream sewage effluents. The assay was specific and was negative in samples of human, bovine, goat, swine and chicken origin. Ovine faecal pollution was detected in river water samples by applying the designed methods. These results provide a quantitative tool for the analysis of OPyV as a suitable viral indicator of sheep faecal contamination that may be present in the environment. PMID:23672793

  16. Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) in the ovine uterus: regulation by interferon tau and progesterone.

    PubMed

    Song, Gwonhwa; Satterfield, M Carey; Kim, Jinyoung; Bazer, Fuller W; Spencer, Thomas E

    2008-08-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is abundantly expressed by endometrial glands of the ovine uterus and processed into different bioactive peptides, including GRP1-27, GRP18-27, and a C-terminus, that affect cell proliferation and migration. However, little information is available concerning the hormonal regulation of endometrial GRP and expression of GRP receptors in the ovine endometrium and conceptus. These studies determined the effects of pregnancy, progesterone (P4), interferon tau (IFNT), placental lactogen (CSH1), and growth hormone (GH) on expression of GRP in the endometrium and GRP receptors (GRPR, NMBR, BRS3) in the endometrium, conceptus, and placenta. In pregnant ewes, GRP mRNA and protein were first detected predominantly in endometrial glands after Day 10 and were abundant from Days 18 through 120 of gestation. Treatment with IFNT and progesterone but not CSH1 or GH stimulated GRP expression in the endometrial glands. Western blot analyses identified proGRP in uterine luminal fluid and allantoic fluid from Day 80 unilateral pregnant ewes but not in uterine luminal fluid of either cyclic or early pregnant ewes. GRPR mRNA was very low in the Day 18 conceptus and undetectable in the endometrium and placenta; NMBR and BRS3 mRNAs were undetectable in ovine uteroplacental tissues. Collectively, the present studies validate GRP as a novel IFNT-stimulated gene in the glands of the ovine uterus, revealed that IFNT induction of GRP is dependent on P4, and found that exposure of the ovine uterus to P4 for 20 days induces GRP expression in endometrial glands. PMID:18448839

  17. The Suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act in England

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Clarence Cory

    1903-01-01

    ^ slJa^ O^ »9t^ sT'O'ts^Ns^'J^fes 0.' JKsT^PN^as^ C^ ,'i, s^^© .dolphus. Sir John. History Of England. 7 V o l * London, 1 0 4 0 . Alison, Sir Arsnibeld. History of »s*is**a*s., I f ¥el. Ediaburg Bright, J. Speech on Habeas Corpus, printed in Modern... dangerous control over ths personal liberty of his sublets and have enabled him to enforce obedience to his Adeas of government. Although James was c' , 0 unable to secure a repeal of the l^oaf Corpus Aot tor his own advantags whilo king, it irony...

  18. Corpus-based identification and refinement of semantic classes.

    PubMed Central

    Nazarenko, A.; Zweigenbaum, P.; Bouaud, J.; Habert, B.

    1997-01-01

    Medical Language Processing (MLP), especially in specific domains, requires fine-grained semantic lexica. We examine whether robust natural language processing tools used on a representative corpus of a domain help in building and refining a semantic categorization. We test this hypothesis with ZELLIG, a corpus analysis tool. The first clusters we obtain are consistent with a model of the domain, as found in the SNOMED nomenclature. They correspond to coarse-grained semantic categories, but isolate as well lexical idiosyncrasies belonging to the clinical sub-language. Moreover, they help categorize additional words. PMID:9357693

  19. Corpus Callosum Volume in Railroad Workers With Chronic Exposure to Solvents

    E-print Network

    Corpus Callosum Volume in Railroad Workers With Chronic Exposure to Solvents Marc W. Haut, Ph railroad workers and 31 matched controls. Results: There was a decrease in the genu of the corpus callosum

  20. 40 CFR 81.136 - Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.136 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.136 Corpus...

  1. 40 CFR 81.136 - Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.136 Section 81...CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.136 Corpus...

  2. Topographic distribution of the different cell types, connective tissue and vascular tissue/lumina within a functional bovine corpus luteum and its association with breed, type of fixation protocol and stage during the cycle.

    PubMed

    Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; De Vliegher, S; Piepers, S; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we analysed the effect of fixative, breed, luteal stage and location on the nuclear density, volume density of connective tissue and vascular tissue/lumina within a bovine luteal gland in view of the development of an in vivo sampling technique to longitudinally monitor luteal histophysiology. The inner zone defined as the zone geometrically closest to the centre of the gland shows a significantly lower nuclear density (for all cell types) and a higher volume density of collagen fibres and vessels when compared with the outer zone (p < 0.001). The nuclear density in luteal glands from Holstein-Friesian cows is not significantly different from that in Belgian Blue cows, nor is it in stage II vs stage III glands. The collagen fibre content was significantly lower in glands of Belgian Blue cows (p = 0.01) and in younger glands (p = 0.003). Hence, it seems that the lower nuclear density in the inner zone was compensated by a higher amount of collagen fibres. As the type of fixative applied has a significant effect on the nuclear density of the different cell types, the present study warrants future research to further optimize the fixation protocol. As a conclusion, we can state that the topographic difference in nuclear distribution for the different cell types in a bovine luteal gland is only significant when comparing the inner vs the outer zone. This implies that if a sample representative for the whole gland has to be taken, for example, when taking an in vivo sample, it is necessary that the biopsy goes through the inner zone and contains the total diameter of the gland. PMID:23281851

  3. Data Collection and IPR in Multilingual Parallel Corpora. Dutch Parallel Corpus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orphée De Clercq; Maribel Montero Perez

    2010-01-01

    After three years of work the Dutch Parallel Corpus (DPC) project has reached an end. The finalized corpus is a ten-million-word high-quality sentence-aligned bidirectional parallel corpus of Dutch, English and French, with Dutch as central language. In this paper we present the corpus and try to formulate some basic data collection principles, based on the work that was carried out

  4. Corpus-Based Research and Pedagogy in EAP: From Lexis to Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This plenary paper showcases current corpus-based research on written academic English, illustrating the tight links that exist between corpus research and pedagogic applications. I first explicate Sinclair's concept of the "lexical approach", which underpins much corpus research and pedagogy. I then discuss studies which focus on…

  5. Extensions of the Sign Language Recognition and Translation Corpus RWTH-PHOENIX-Weather

    E-print Network

    Ney, Hermann

    Extensions of the Sign Language Recognition and Translation Corpus RWTH-PHOENIX-Weather Jens. The corpus contains weather forecasts simultaneously interpreted into sign language which were recorded from are defined, and baseline results are presented. Keywords: Sign Language, Corpus, Automatic Recognition

  6. Teaching English Literature and Linguistics Using Corpus Stylistic Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Bednarek

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the teaching of an interdisciplinary undergraduate seminar on English linguistics and literature at the University of Augsburg (Germany). The focus of this seminar was 19th century women's fiction, with three novels discussed from literary and linguistic perspectives: Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, and Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre. The paper describes the main corpus

  7. Learner Corpus Analysis and the Development of Foreign Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belz, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper makes a methodological contribution to the emerging field of learner corpus analysis [Granger, S., 1998. Learner English on Computer. Longman, London, 1998; Granger, S., 2002. Computer Learner corpora, Second Language Acquisition, and Foreign Language Teaching. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, 2002] and to Second Language Acquisition (SLA)…

  8. The Use of Corpus Examples for Language Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg-Garcia, Ana

    2014-01-01

    One of the many new features of English language learners' dictionaries derived from the technological developments that have taken place over recent decades is the presence of corpus-based examples to illustrate the use of words in context. However, empirical studies have generally not been able to produce conclusive evidence about their…

  9. Dative Alternation in Indian English: A Corpus-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cuypere, Ludovic; Verbeke, Saartje

    2013-01-01

    The dative alternation refers to the alternation between two constructions that denote some type of transfer: the double object construction ("I give my sister a book") vs. the to-dative construction ("I give a book to my sister"). We examined the motivations behind the dative alternation in Indian English. A corpus study was performed based on a…

  10. Investigating acquisition of discourse markers through a developmental learner corpus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brittany Polat

    Despite the importance of discourse markers for pragmatically effective communication, surprisingly little research has been conducted on the acquisition of these markers by immigrant second language learners. The present paper approaches this understudied research area by using a developmental learner corpus (Belz and Vyatkina, 2005, 2008) to examine discourse marker use by one naturalistic adult language learner for one year.

  11. Shrug! Talking About Non-Verbal Communication: A Corpus Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Xiaotin

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the phrase "shrug" is investigated using the Bank of English Corpus. The report is the first of three; the other two will focus on the phrases "hold one's gaze" and "touch wood." Each of these phrases relates to an aspect of communications that may hold particular difficulties for someone from another culture: gesture, eye contact,…

  12. Touch. Talking About Non-Verbal Communication: A Corpus Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Xiaotian

    1999-01-01

    Presents the third and final report of an analysis of nonverbal communication. In this report, the phrase "touch wood" is investigated using the Bank of English Corpus. The first two phrases examined were "shrug" and "hold one's gaze." Each of these phrases relates to an aspect of communication that may hold particular difficulties for someone…

  13. Using Corpus Statistics to Remove Redundant Words in Text Categorization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yiming; Wilbur, John

    1996-01-01

    Studies aggressive automated word removal in text categorization in large databases based on corpus statistics to reduce the noise in free texts and to enhance the computational efficiency of categorization. Topics include stop word identification, categorization methods for comparison, tests on four document collections, and evaluation…

  14. Analyzing Parallelism and Domain Similarities in the MAREC Patent Corpus

    E-print Network

    Riezler, Stefan

    Analyzing Parallelism and Domain Similarities in the MAREC Patent Corpus Katharina W}@cl.uni-heidelberg.de Abstract. Statistical machine translation of patents requires large a- mounts of sentence-parallel data. Translations of patent text often exist for parts of the patent document, namely title, abstract and claims

  15. A Multidimensional Analysis of a Written L2 Spanish Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asencion-Delaney, Yuly; Collentine, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The present study adds to our understanding of how learners employ lexical and grammatical phenomena to communicate in writing in different types of interlanguage discourse. A multidimensional (factor) analysis of a corpus of L2 Spanish writing (202,241 words) generated by second- and third-year, university-level learners was performed. The…

  16. Corpus Callosum Morphology in Twin Pairs Discordant for Bipolar Disorder

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    Corpus Callosum Morphology in Twin Pairs Discordant for Bipolar Disorder Submission No: 3973 callosal volume reduction in patients with bipolar disorder, but it is not yet known whether these deficits callosum (CC) thickness and curvature in a population-based sample of twin pairs discordant for bipolar

  17. Corpus Planning and Codification in the Hebrew Revival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahir, Moshe

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the study of the unprecedented revival of the Hebrew language in Palestine during 1890-1914. The study focused on status planning but corpus planning also served as a critical component. Examines codification during the revitalization period. (Author/VWL)

  18. Perspectives on Dichotic Listening and the Corpus Callosum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musiek, Frank E.; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The present review summarizes historic and recent research which has investigated the role of the corpus callosum in dichotic processing within the context of audiology. Examination of performance by certain clinical groups, including split brain patients, multiple sclerosis cases, and other types of neurological lesions is included. Maturational,…

  19. Modifying Corpus Annotation to Support the Analysis of Learner Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Markus; Lee, Chong Min

    2009-01-01

    A crucial question for automatically analyzing learner language is to determine which grammatical information is relevant and useful for learner feedback. Based on knowledge about how learner language varies in its grammatical properties, we propose a framework for reusing analyses found in corpus annotation and illustrate its applicability to…

  20. Open Corpus Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Peter Brusilovsky1

    E-print Network

    Brusilovsky, Peter

    The volume of educational resources available to students is changing rapidly. A variety of educational22 Open Corpus Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Peter Brusilovsky1 and Nicola Henze2 1 School this problem in a popular arena: adaptive hypermedia systems with an emphasis on education. The origins

  1. The Enron Corpus: A New Dataset for Email Classification Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan Klimt; Yiming Yang

    2004-01-01

    Automated classication of email messages into user-specic folders and information extraction from chronologically ordered email streams have become interesting areas in text learning research. However, the lack of large benchmark collections has been an obstacle for studying the problems and evaluating the solutions. In this paper, we introduce the Enron corpus as a new test bed. We analyze its suitability

  2. CASS: A PHONETICALLY TRANSCRIBED CORPUS OF MANDARIN SPONTANEOUS SPEECH 1

    E-print Network

    Byrne, William

    CASS: A PHONETICALLY TRANSCRIBED CORPUS OF MANDARIN SPONTANEOUS SPEECH 1 LI Aijun (1), ZHENG Fang variations in Mandarin spontaneous speech due to pronunciation effects, including allophonic changes, phoneme University Language Engineering Workshop by the project on Pronunciation Modeling of Mandarin Casual Speech

  3. Autism Traits in Individuals with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Yolanda C.; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Bukshpun, Polina; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Jeremy, Rita J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have numerous etiologies, including structural brain malformations such as agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We sought to directly measure the occurrence of autism traits in a cohort of individuals with AgCC and to investigate the neural underpinnings of this association. We screened a large AgCC cohort (n =…

  4. Corpus-based Planning of Deictic Gestures Mary Ellen Foster

    E-print Network

    Foster, Mary Ellen

    Corpus-based Planning of Deictic Gestures in COMIC Mary Ellen Foster School of Informatics of the COMIC multimodal dialogue sys- tem. We give some generalisations about the use of deictic gesture how the fission component plans deictic gestures in the COMIC demonstrator. The COMIC demonstrator

  5. Towards a Bootstrapping Framework for Corpus Semantic Tagging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Basili; Michelangelo Della Rocca; Maria Teresa Pazienza

    1997-01-01

    Availability of source information for se- mantic tagging (or disambignating) words in corpora is problematic. A framework to produce a semantically tagged corpus in a domain specific perspective using as source a general purpose taxonomy (i.e. Word- Net) is here proposed. The tag set is de- rived from higher level Wordnet synsets. A methodology aiming to support semantic bootstrapping in

  6. The American Local News Corpus Ann Irvine1

    E-print Network

    and national newspapers and present two example corpus analyses. The first explores how different sports English 1. Motivation Gun violence has plagued the United States for decades. In 1996, the U.S. congress violence. Fortunately, the CDC's power to track gun violence was recently reinstated, and the Na- tional

  7. You Should Have the Body: Understanding Habeas Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landman, James

    2008-01-01

    English legal commentator William Blackstone described the writ of habeas corpus as a second Magna Carta, and Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall called it the "great writ." It has been part of the Anglo-American common law tradition since the Middle Ages. In the United States, it has been a source of tension between state and federal…

  8. An integrated pharmacokinetics ontology and corpus for text mining

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug pharmacokinetics parameters, drug interaction parameters, and pharmacogenetics data have been unevenly collected in different databases and published extensively in the literature. Without appropriate pharmacokinetics ontology and a well annotated pharmacokinetics corpus, it will be difficult to develop text mining tools for pharmacokinetics data collection from the literature and pharmacokinetics data integration from multiple databases. Description A comprehensive pharmacokinetics ontology was constructed. It can annotate all aspects of in vitro pharmacokinetics experiments and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies. It covers all drug metabolism and transportation enzymes. Using our pharmacokinetics ontology, a PK-corpus was constructed to present four classes of pharmacokinetics abstracts: in vivo pharmacokinetics studies, in vivo pharmacogenetic studies, in vivo drug interaction studies, and in vitro drug interaction studies. A novel hierarchical three level annotation scheme was proposed and implemented to tag key terms, drug interaction sentences, and drug interaction pairs. The utility of the pharmacokinetics ontology was demonstrated by annotating three pharmacokinetics studies; and the utility of the PK-corpus was demonstrated by a drug interaction extraction text mining analysis. Conclusions The pharmacokinetics ontology annotates both in vitro pharmacokinetics experiments and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies. The PK-corpus is a highly valuable resource for the text mining of pharmacokinetics parameters and drug interactions. PMID:23374886

  9. Corpus-Based Planning of Deictic Gestures in COMIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ellen Foster

    2004-01-01

    We describe the recording and annotation of a corpus of role- playing dialogues in the domain of the COMIC multimodal dialogue sys- tem. We give some generalisations about the use of deictic gesture in this task, and show how those findings are currently used in the presentation- planning module of the dialogue system prototype. Finally, we describe how the use

  10. Using Google as a Super Corpus to Drive Written Language Learning: A Comparison with the British National Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Guoquan

    2010-01-01

    Data-driven learning (DDL), or corpus-based language learning, involves the learner in an exploratory task to discover appropriate expressions or collocates regarding his writing. However, the problematic units of meaning in each learner's writing are so diverse that conventional corpora often prove futile. The search engine Google with the…

  11. Formulaic Language and Collocations in German Essays: From Corpus-Driven Data to Corpus-Based Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krummes, Cedric; Ensslin, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Whereas there exists a plethora of research on collocations and formulaic language in English, this article contributes towards a somewhat less developed area: the understanding and teaching of formulaic language in German as a foreign language. It analyses formulaic sequences and collocations in German writing (corpus-driven) and provides modern…

  12. Ovine glucose transporter-1 and -3: cDNA partial sequences and developmental gene expression in the placenta.

    PubMed

    Currie, M J; Bassett, N S; Gluckman, P D

    1997-01-01

    Transplacental glucose transfer utilizes specific glucose transporter (GLUT) proteins. cDNAs encoding ovine placental GLUT1 and GLUT3 genes were isolated, cloned and sequenced and then used to investigate their developmental regulation in ovine placenta. A cDNA of approximately 2.2 kb was isolated from a Clontech lambda gt10 ovine adult liver cDNA library using a 436-bp rat GLUT1 cDNA probe. Sequence data obtained from this clone (1600 bp) demonstrated 97 per cent homology to nucleotides 477-2079 of bovine GLUT1. The deduced amino acid sequence of the ovine cDNA presented 99 per cent identity to amino acid 103-493 of bovine GLUT1, and 97-98 per cent identity to corresponding regions in human and rat GLUT1 deduced amino acid sequences. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to isolate an ovine cDNA fragment from placental total RNA. Forward and reverse primers (16 mer) were designed to amplify a predicted 483-bp fragment between the second transmembrane-spanning domain (M2) and intracellular loop of GLUT3. The deduced 161 amino acid sequence of the ovine cDNA demonstrated 84 and 88 per cent identity with murine and human GLUT3. These cDNAs were used to investigate the ontogeny of placental oGLUT1 and oGLUT3 gene expression by Northern analysis. Total RNA was extracted from ovine placenta at gestational days 45, 60, 90, 120 and 138 (n=6 per time point). Ovine GLUT1 gene expression increased significantly from days 45 to 60 (P<0.05), peaked at around day 120 of gestation, then decreased to about two-thirds of maximal levels by day 138 of gestation (term 147 +/- 2). Ovine GLUT3 gene expression increased throughout gestation with significant increases from days 45 to 60, 60 to 120 and 120 to 138 (P<0.05). This study confirms the presence of both GLUT1 and GLUT3 genes in the ovine placenta and demonstrates ontogenic regulation of gene expression. The difference in temporal gene expression between oGLUT1 and oGLUT3 suggests distinct roles for each transporter during development. The nucleotide sequences reported in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank/EMBL Data Bank under accession numbers U89029 (oGLUT1) and U89030 (oGLUT3). PMID:9250701

  13. THE OGI KIDS' SPEECH CORPUS AND RECOGNIZERS Khaldoun Shobaki*, John-Paul Hosom*, and Ronald A. Cole**

    E-print Network

    Hosom, John-Paul

    THE OGI KIDS' SPEECH CORPUS AND RECOGNIZERS Khaldoun Shobaki*, John-Paul Hosom*, and Ronald A. Cole describe a corpus of children's speech, called the OGI Kids' Speech corpus, and a speaker- and vocabulary and methodology used to develop the OGI Kids' Speech corpus. We then describe development and evaluation

  14. Generation of Dutch referring expressions using the D-TUNA corpus Marissa Hoek (m.d.hoek@student.utwente.nl)

    E-print Network

    Vellekoop, Michel

    Generation of Dutch referring expressions using the D-TUNA corpus Marissa Hoek (m is done on the Dutch version of the TUNA-corpus, which contains annotated human-produced descriptions the lexical choice from the D-TUNA corpus, and used templates generated from the corpus which specified

  15. Antiproliferative Activity of a Pregnancy Recognition Hormone, Ovine Trophoblast Protein11

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol H. Pontzer; Fuller W. Bazer; Howard M. Johnson

    Ovine trophoblast protein-1 (oTP-1 ) is the a-interferon (IFNa) variant, secreted by conceptuses and referred to as type I trophoblast interferon, that is responsible for maternal recognition of pregnancy in sheep. We have previously shown that oTP-1 is as potent an antiviral agent as any known IFN. IFNs also possess anticellular activity and are, in fact, used in cancer therapy

  16. Characterization of Ovine Nectin-4, a Novel Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Jamie; Juleff, Nicholas; Heaton, Michael P.; Kalbfleisch, Ted; Kijas, James

    2013-01-01

    Small ruminants infected with peste des petits ruminants virus exhibit lesions typical of epithelial infection and necrosis. However, the only established host receptor for this virus is the immune cell marker signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). We have confirmed that the ovine Nectin-4 protein, when overexpressed in epithelial cells, permits efficient replication of PPRV. Furthermore, this gene was predominantly expressed in epithelial tissues and encoded by multiple haplotypes in sheep breeds from around the world. PMID:23388720

  17. Characterization of ovine Nectin-4, a novel peste des petits ruminants virus receptor.

    PubMed

    Birch, Jamie; Juleff, Nicholas; Heaton, Michael P; Kalbfleisch, Ted; Kijas, James; Bailey, Dalan

    2013-04-01

    Small ruminants infected with peste des petits ruminants virus exhibit lesions typical of epithelial infection and necrosis. However, the only established host receptor for this virus is the immune cell marker signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). We have confirmed that the ovine Nectin-4 protein, when overexpressed in epithelial cells, permits efficient replication of PPRV. Furthermore, this gene was predominantly expressed in epithelial tissues and encoded by multiple haplotypes in sheep breeds from around the world. PMID:23388720

  18. Regional Variation in Tissue Composition and Biomechanical Properties of Postmenopausal Ovine and Human Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Daniela; Edwards, Sharon L.; Letouzey, Vincent; Su, Kai; White, Jacinta F.; Rosamilia, Anna; Gargett, Caroline E.; Werkmeister, Jerome A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There are increasing numbers of reports describing human vaginal tissue composition in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to compare ovine and human posterior vaginal tissue in terms of histological and biochemical tissue composition and to assess passive biomechanical properties of ovine vagina to further characterise this animal model for pelvic organ prolapse research. Study Design Vaginal tissue was collected from ovariectomised sheep (n?=?6) and from postmenopausal women (n?=?7) from the proximal, middle and distal thirds. Tissue histology was analyzed using Masson's Trichrome staining; total collagen was quantified by hydroxyproline assays, collagen III/I+III ratios by delayed reduction SDS PAGE, glycosaminoglycans by dimethylmethylene blue assay, and elastic tissue associated proteins (ETAP) by amino acid analysis. Young's modulus, maximum stress/strain, and permanent strain following cyclic loading were determined in ovine vagina. Results Both sheep and human vaginal tissue showed comparable tissue composition. Ovine vaginal tissue showed significantly higher total collagen and glycosaminoglycan values (p<0.05) nearest the cervix. No significant differences were found along the length of the human vagina for collagen, GAG or ETAP content. The proximal region was the stiffest (Young's modulus, p<0.05), strongest (maximum stress, p<0.05) compared to distal region, and most elastic (permanent strain). Conclusion Sheep tissue composition and mechanical properties showed regional differences along the postmenopausal vaginal wall not apparent in human vagina, although the absolute content of proteins were similar. Knowledge of this baseline variation in the composition and mechanical properties of the vaginal wall will assist future studies using sheep as a model for vaginal surgery. PMID:25148261

  19. La complmentation azote du cactus inerme pour les ovins. Effet de la source d'azote

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    La complémentation azotée du cactus inerme pour les ovins. Effet de la source d'azote A Nefzaoui1 H ARIANA, Tunisie 2Direction des Ressources Alimentaires, OEP, rue Alain Savary - TUNIS, Tunisie Le cactus cactus et de comparer l'effet de différentes sources d'azote (urée, tourteau de soja, Atriplex halimus

  20. Effects of chronological age and physiological maturity on palatability traits of ovine carcasses

    E-print Network

    Stout, Bobby Ray

    1974-01-01

    revealed that there was little if any decrease in tender- ness with progressive increases in chronological age. Lamb carcasses in the combined sex class which were 220 days to 580 days of age produced the most satisfactory loin chops. Muscle color... . . . . . . . . . ~ . ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ 12 12 13 14 32 34 34 Experimental Procedure Results and Discussion 37 39 Summary and Conclusions STRATIFICATION OF OVINE CARCASSES INTO PALATABILITY GROUPS BY USE OF CHRONOLOGICAL AGE, SEX AND SKELETAL OR MUSCLE MATURITY INDICATORS...

  1. Identification of the ovine mannose receptor and its possible role in Visna/Maedi virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to characterize the mannose receptor (MR) gene in sheep and its role in ovine visna/maedi virus (VMV) infection. The deduced amino acid sequence of ovine MR was compatible with a transmembrane protein having a cysteine-rich ricin-type amino-terminal region, a fibronectin type II repeat, eight tandem C-type lectin carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD), a transmembrane region, and a cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal tail. The ovine and bovine MR sequences were closer to each other compared to human or swine MR. Concanavalin A (ConA) inhibited VMV productive infection, which was restored by mannan totally in ovine skin fibroblasts (OSF) and partially in blood monocyte-derived macrophages (BMDM), suggesting the involvement of mannosylated residues of the VMV ENV protein in the process. ConA impaired also syncytium formation in OSF transfected with an ENV-encoding pN3-plasmid. MR transcripts were found in two common SRLV targets, BMDM and synovial membrane (GSM) cells, but not in OSF. Viral infection of BMDM and especially GSM cells was inhibited by mannan, strongly suggesting that in these cells the MR is an important route of infection involving VMV Env mannosylated residues. Thus, at least three patterns of viral entry into SRLV-target cells can be proposed, involving mainly MR in GSM cells (target in SRLV-induced arthritis), MR in addition to an alternative route in BMDM (target in SRLV infections), and an alternative route excluding MR in OSF (target in cell culture). Different routes of SRLV infection may thus coexist related to the involvement of MR differential expression. PMID:21314911

  2. UREA AND GLUCOSE FORMATION IN OVINE LIVER AFTER AMMONIA AND LACTATE LOADING IN VIVO

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    UREA AND GLUCOSE FORMATION IN OVINE LIVER AFTER AMMONIA AND LACTATE LOADING IN VIVO BAREJ W'AMMONIAQUE ET DE LACTATE CHEZ LE MOUTON : FORMATION D'URÃ?E ET DE GLUCOSE DANS LE FOIE. ― Des moutons ont/min/kg PV), du lactate (50 gmole/min/kg PV) ou un mélange des deux composés. Des prises de sang ont été

  3. Roles of the Surface Layer Proteins of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in Ovine Abortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Grogono-Thomas; J. Dworkin; M. J. Blaser; D. G. Newell

    2000-01-01

    The role of the surface (S)-layer proteins of Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus has been investigated using an ovine model of abortion. Wild-type strain 23D induced abortion in up to 90% of pregnant ewes challenged subcutaneously. Isolates recovered from both dams and fetuses expressed S-layer proteins with variable molecular masses. The spontaneous S-layer-negative variant, strain 23B, neither colonized nor caused abor-

  4. The cloning and sequencing of an ovine c-myc cDNA.

    PubMed

    Kiermer, V; Dequiedt, F; Masengo, R; Cleuter, Y; Briclet, D; Ciesiolka, M; Van den Broeke, A; Willems, L; Kettmann, R; Burny, A; Droogmans, L

    1997-01-01

    We report the cloning of an ovine c-myc cDNA. The clone was isolated from a bovine leukemia virus-infected cell line (YR2) cDNA library cloned in the lambda gt10 vector. The clone encodes the full length c-Myc protein made of 439 amino-acids with 93, 96, 92 and 93% similarity with human, feline, murine and rat c-Myc proteins, respectively. PMID:9254020

  5. Progesterone Regulation of Endometrial Gene Expression in the Early Pregnant Ovine Uterus

    E-print Network

    Minten, Megan A.

    2012-10-19

    ............................................................................................. 48 IV EFFECTS OF THE ESTROUS CYCLE AND EARLY PREGNANCY ON GENE EXPRESSION IN THE ENDOMETRIUM OF THE OVINE UTERUS ........................................................................................... 55 Introduction... allows for a rapid increase in expression of ESR1 after Day 13 of the estrous cycle. The increase in ESR1 expression precedes the increase of OXTR expression (Flint et al. 1986; Spencer et al. 1995a). Oxytocin (OXT) released in a pulsatile manner...

  6. Cloning and characterisation of an ovine interleukin-10-encoding cDNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helene M. Martin; Andrew D. Nash; Arna E. Andrews

    1995-01-01

    Expression of the interleukin 10-encoding (IL-10) mRNA by ovine (ov-) cells, in response to mitogenic stimulation, was assessed by Northern blot and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses using a human (hu) IL-10 cDNA probe and oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers based on homologous regions of the human and murine IL-10 cDNA sequences. A 315-bp cDNA generated by the PCR analysis was cloned and

  7. Markedly Increased Susceptibility to Natural Sheep Scrapie of Transgenic Mice Expressing Ovine PrP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEAN-LUC VILOTTE; SOLANGE SOULIER; RACHID ESSALMANI; MARIE-GEORGE STINNAKRE; DANIEL VAIMAN; LAURENCE LEPOURRY; JOSE COSTA DA SILVA; NATHALIE BESNARD; MIKE DAWSON; ANNE BUSCHMANN; MARTIN GROSCHUP; STEPHANIE PETIT; MARIE-FRANCOISE MADELAINE; SABINE RAKATOBE; ANNICK LE DUR; DIDIER VILETTE; HUBERT LAUDE

    2001-01-01

    The susceptibility of sheep to scrapie is known to involve, as a major determinant, the nature of the prion protein (PrP) allele, with the VRQ allele conferring the highest susceptibility to the disease. Transgenic mice expressing in their brains three different ovine PrPVRQ-encoding transgenes under an endogenous PrP- deficient genetic background were established. Nine transgenic (tgOv) lines were selected and

  8. Isolation, characterization and evolution of ovine major histocompatibility complex class II DRA and DQA genes.

    PubMed

    Fabb, S A; Maddox, J F; Gogolin-Ewens, K J; Baker, L; Wu, M J; Brandon, M R

    1993-08-01

    Four full-length ovine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II A cDNA clones coding for new alleles of DRA, DQA1 and DQA2 genes were isolated from two ovine lambda gt10 cDNA libraries. The derived amino acid sequences of these clones resemble class II A molecules from other species in both size and structure. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, using an Ovar-DRA probe on DNA from Merino and Romney sheep revealed only limited polymorphism in contrast to the high levels of polymorphism revealed by Ovar-DQA probes. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences for the three ovine A genes with class II A genes from five other species revealed that the most variable region of the molecule is the signal peptide. Although virtually every amino acid site shows variation, within or between species, there are some blocks of highly conserved residues. Within gene comparisons of nucleotide differences reveal that the greatest number of changes is found between the alleles of Ovar-DQA1 and -DQA2 genes and the least between Ovar-DRA1 alleles. Phylogenetic analysis of class II A sequences from several species place DRA and DQA genes on two distinct branches, with Ovar-DRA1 and BOLA-DRA, and Ovar-DQA1 and BOLA-DQA being most similar on their respective branches. PMID:7902039

  9. COMPARISON OF BIAXIAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CORONARY SINUS TISSUES FROM PORCINE, OVINE AND AGED HUMAN SPECIES

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thuy; Sun, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Due to its proximity to the mitral valve, the coronary sinus (CS) vessel serves as a conduit for the deployment and implantation of the percutaneous transvenous mitral annuloplasty (PTMA) devices that can potentially reduce the mitral regurgitation. Because CS vessel is a venous tissue and seldom diseased, its mechanical properties have not been well studied. In this study, we performed the multi-axial mechanical test and histological analysis to characterize the mechanical and structural properties of the aged human, porcine and ovine CS tissues. The results showed that the aged human CS tissues exhibited much stiffer and highly anisotropic behaviors compared to the porcine and ovine. Both of the porcine and ovine CS vessel walls were thicker and mainly composed of striated muscle fibers (SMF), whereas the thinner aged human CS had higher collagen, lesser SMF, and more fragmented elastin fibers, which are possibly due to the aging effects. We also observed that the anatomical features of porcine CS vessel might be not suitable for the PTMA deployment. These differences between animal and human models raise questions for the validity of using animal models to investigate the biomechanics involved in the PTMA intervention. Therefore, caution must be taken in future studies of PTMA stents using animal models. PMID:22301170

  10. Autism traits in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Yolanda C.; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Bukshpun, Polina; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Jeremy, Rita J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have numerous etiologies, including structural brain malformations such as agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We sought to directly measure the occurrence of autism traits in a cohort of individuals with AgCC and to investigate the neural underpinnings of this association. We screened a large AgCC cohort (n = 106) with the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and found that 45% of children, 35% of adolescents, and 18% of adults exceeded the predetermined autism-screening cut-off. Interestingly, performance on the AQ’s imagination domain was inversely correlated with magnetoencephalography measures of resting-state functional connectivity in the right superior temporal gyrus. Individuals with AgCC should be screened for ASD and disorders of the corpus callosum should be considered in autism diagnostic evaluations as well. PMID:23054201

  11. Comparing English Vocabulary in a Spoken Learner Corpus with a Native Speaker Corpus: Pedagogical Implications Arising from an Empirical Study in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirato, Junko; Stapleton, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Insights from corpus linguistics have come to be seen as having a significant impact in second language pedagogy. Learner corpora, or collections of texts spoken or written by non-native speakers (NNS) of a language, are now being used for the purposes of enhancing language teaching. Specifically, by comparing the corpus of NNS with native…

  12. A Web Based Platform for Sign Language Corpus Creation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davide Barberis; Nicola Garazzino; Elio Piccolo; Paolo Prinetto; Gabriele Tiotto

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a This paper presents the design and implementation issues of a tool for the annotation of sign language based on speech recognition.\\u000a It is at his first version of stable development and it was designed within the Automatic Translation into Sign Languages\\u000a (ATLAS) project. The tool can be used to gather data from the language for corpus creation and stores information

  13. Building a Sign Language corpus for use in Machine Translation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Morrissey; Harold Somers; Shane Gilchrist; Sandipan Dandapat; Robert Smith

    2010-01-01

    In recent years data-driven methods of machine translation (MT) have overtaken rule-based approaches as the predominant means of a utomatically translating between languages. A pre-requisite for such an approach is a parallel corpus of the source and target languages. Technological developments in sign language (SL) capturing, analysis and processing tools now mean that SL corpora are becoming increasingly available. With

  14. Corpus annotation for mining biomedical events from literature

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Dong; Ohta, Tomoko; Tsujii, Jun'ichi

    2008-01-01

    Background Advanced Text Mining (TM) such as semantic enrichment of papers, event or relation extraction, and intelligent Question Answering have increasingly attracted attention in the bio-medical domain. For such attempts to succeed, text annotation from the biological point of view is indispensable. However, due to the complexity of the task, semantic annotation has never been tried on a large scale, apart from relatively simple term annotation. Results We have completed a new type of semantic annotation, event annotation, which is an addition to the existing annotations in the GENIA corpus. The corpus has already been annotated with POS (Parts of Speech), syntactic trees, terms, etc. The new annotation was made on half of the GENIA corpus, consisting of 1,000 Medline abstracts. It contains 9,372 sentences in which 36,114 events are identified. The major challenges during event annotation were (1) to design a scheme of annotation which meets specific requirements of text annotation, (2) to achieve biology-oriented annotation which reflect biologists' interpretation of text, and (3) to ensure the homogeneity of annotation quality across annotators. To meet these challenges, we introduced new concepts such as Single-facet Annotation and Semantic Typing, which have collectively contributed to successful completion of a large scale annotation. Conclusion The resulting event-annotated corpus is the largest and one of the best in quality among similar annotation efforts. We expect it to become a valuable resource for NLP (Natural Language Processing)-based TM in the bio-medical domain. PMID:18182099

  15. Corpus-based Planning of Deictic Gestures in COMIC

    E-print Network

    Mary Ellen Foster

    2004-01-01

    Abstract. We describe the recording and annotation of a corpus of roleplaying dialogues in the domain of the COMIC multimodal dialogue system. We give some generalisations about the use of deictic gesture in this task, and show how those findings are currently used in the presentationplanning module of the dialogue system prototype. Finally, we describe how the use of gestures in the system will be evaluated, and outline the next steps in the development of the module. 1

  16. Incidence of infection in mature ewes with TMEM154 diplotypes "1 1", "1 3", and "3 3" following natural exposure to ovine progressive pneumonia virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production and well-being of sheep and goats in many countries are harmfully impacted by small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) that cause incurable, progressive diseases. Susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), the North American form of SRLV, is influenced by variants of the ovine...

  17. Statistical shape analysis of the corpus callosum in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shantanu H.; Narr, Katherine L.; Philips, Owen R.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Asarnow, Robert F.; Toga, Arthur W.; Woods, Roger P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a statistical shape-analysis framework for characterizing and comparing morphological variation of the corpus callosum. The midsagittal boundary of the corpus callosum is represented by a closed curve and analyzed using an invariant shape representation. The shape space of callosal curves is endowed with a Riemannian metric. Shape distances are given by the length of shortest paths (geodesics) that are invariant to shape-confounding transformations. The statistical framework enables computation of shape averages and covariances on the shape space in an intrinsic manner (unique to the shape space). The statistical framework makes use of the tangent principal component approach to achieve dimension reduction on the space of corpus callosum shapes. The advantages of this approach are – it is fully automatic, invariant, and avoids the use of landmarks to define shapes. We applied our method to determine the effects of sex, age, schizophrenia and schizophrenia-related genetic liability on callosal shape in a large sample of patients and controls and their first-degree relatives (N=218). Results showed significant age, sex, and schizophrenia effects on both global and local callosal shape structure. PMID:23000788

  18. Annotated Chemical Patent Corpus: A Gold Standard for Text Mining

    PubMed Central

    Akhondi, Saber A.; Klenner, Alexander G.; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K.; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A. R. P.; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A.; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org. PMID:25268232

  19. What’s In a Note: Construction of a Suicide Note Corpus

    PubMed Central

    Pestian, John P.; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Linn-Gust, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of an initiative to create and annotate a corpus of suicide notes that can be used for machine learning. Ultimately, the corpus included 1,278 notes that were written by someone who died by suicide. Each note was reviewed by at least three annotators who mapped words or sentences to a schema of emotions. This corpus has already been used for extensive scientific research. PMID:23170067

  20. Lipoma of corpus callosum associated with dysraphic lesions and trisomy 13

    SciTech Connect

    Wainwright, H.; Bowen, R.; Radcliffe, M. [Univ. of Cape Town Medical School (South Africa)

    1995-05-22

    We report on a further case of corpus callosal lipoma and frontal cranial defects. Most cases in the literature of corpus callosal lipoma in association with {open_quotes}dysraphic{close_quotes} lesions have been frontal in location. Malformation of the corpus callosum is said to be associated with 50% of these lipomas. Trisomy 13 was confirmed by the 13q14 cosmid probe on paraffin-embedded liver tissue. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  1. A survey of aflatoxin M1 contamination in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad

    2012-07-01

    A total of 150 bovine (60), ovine (42), and caprine (48) bulk milk samples were analyzed using a commercially available competitive ELISA kit. Overall, AFM1 was found in 46.7 % of the analyzed samples by an average concentration of 40.3 ± 22.2 ng/L. The incidence rates of AFM1 contamination in bovine, ovine, and caprine bulk milk samples were 66.7, 31.0, and 35.4 %, respectively. The concentration of AFM1 in 37.5 % of AFM1-positive bovine milk samples and 5.9 % of AFM1-positive caprine milk samples were higher than 50 ng/L. PMID:22526986

  2. In vivo implant fixation of carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK hip prostheses in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Ichiro; Takao, Masaki; Bandoh, Shunichi; Bertollo, Nicky; Walsh, William R; Sugano, Nobuhiko

    2013-03-01

    Carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR/PEEK) is theoretically suitable as a material for use in hip prostheses, offering excellent biocompatibility, mechanical properties, and the absence of metal ions. To evaluate in vivo fixation methods of CFR/PEEK hip prostheses in bone, we examined radiographic and histological results for cementless or cemented CFR/PEEK hip prostheses in an ovine model with implantation up to 52 weeks. CFR/PEEK cups and stems with rough-textured surfaces plus hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings for cementless fixation and CFR/PEEK cups and stems without HA coating for cement fixation were manufactured based on ovine computed tomography (CT) data. Unilateral total hip arthroplasty was performed using cementless or cemented CFR/PEEK hip prostheses. Five cementless cups and stems and six cemented cups and stems were evaluated. On the femoral side, all cementless stems demonstrated bony ongrowth fixation and all cemented stems demonstrated stable fixation without any gaps at both the bone-cement and cement-stem interfaces. All cementless cases and four of the six cemented cases showed minimal stress shielding. On the acetabular side, two of the five cementless cups demonstrated bony ongrowth fixation. Our results suggest that both cementless and cemented CFR/PEEK stems work well for fixation. Cup fixation may be difficult for both cementless and cemented types in this ovine model, but bone ongrowth fixation on the cup was first seen in two cementless cases. Cementless fixation can be achieved using HA-coated CFR/PEEK implants, even under load-bearing conditions. PMID:23097319

  3. Stanniocalcin (STC) in the endometrial glands of the ovine uterus: regulation by progesterone and placental hormones.

    PubMed

    Song, Gwonhwa; Bazer, Fuller W; Wagner, Graham F; Spencer, Thomas E

    2006-05-01

    Stanniocalcin (STC) is a hormone in fish that regulates calcium levels. Mammals have two orthologs of STC with roles in calcium and phosphate metabolism and perhaps cell differentiation. In the kidney and gut, STC regulates calcium and phosphate homeostasis. In the mouse uterus, Stc1 increases in the mesometrial decidua during implantation. These studies determined the effects of pregnancy and related hormones on STC expression in the ovine uterus. In Days 10-16 cyclic and pregnant ewes, STC1 mRNA was not detected in the uterus. Intriguingly, STC1 mRNA appeared on Day 18 of pregnancy, specifically in the endometrial glands, increased from Day 18 to Day 80, and remained abundant to Day 120 of gestation. STC1 mRNA was not detected in the placenta, whereas STC2 mRNA was detected at low abundance in conceptus trophectoderm and endometrial glands during later pregnancy. Immunoreactive STC1 protein was detected predominantly in the endometrial glands after Day 16 of pregnancy and in areolae that transport uterine gland secretions across the placenta. In ovariectomized ewes, long-term progesterone therapy induced STC1 mRNA. Although interferon tau had no effect on endometrial STC1, intrauterine infusions of ovine placental lactogen (PL) increased endometrial gland STC1 mRNA abundance in progestinized ewes. These studies demonstrate that STC1 is induced by progesterone and increased by a placental hormone (PL) in endometrial glands of the ovine uterus during conceptus (embryo/fetus and extraembryonic membranes) implantation and placentation. Western blot analyses revealed the presence of a 25-kDa STC1 protein in the endometrium, uterine luminal fluid, and allantoic fluid. The data suggest that STC1 secreted by the endometrial glands is transported into the fetal circulation and allantoic fluid, where it is hypothesized to regulate growth and differentiation of the fetus and placenta, by placental areolae. PMID:16452456

  4. A corpus-based approach for automated LOINC mapping

    PubMed Central

    Fidahussein, Mustafa; Vreeman, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the knowledge contained in a rich corpus of local terms mapped to LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes) could be leveraged to help map local terms from other institutions. Methods We developed two models to test our hypothesis. The first based on supervised machine learning was created using Apache's OpenNLP Maxent and the second based on information retrieval was created using Apache's Lucene. The models were validated by a random subsampling method that was repeated 20 times and that used 80/20 splits for training and testing, respectively. We also evaluated the performance of these models on all laboratory terms from three test institutions. Results For the 20 iterations used for validation of our 80/20 splits Maxent and Lucene ranked the correct LOINC code first for between 70.5% and 71.4% and between 63.7% and 65.0% of local terms, respectively. For all laboratory terms from the three test institutions Maxent ranked the correct LOINC code first for between 73.5% and 84.6% (mean 78.9%) of local terms, whereas Lucene's performance was between 66.5% and 76.6% (mean 71.9%). Using a cut-off score of 0.46 Maxent always ranked the correct LOINC code first for over 57% of local terms. Conclusions This study showed that a rich corpus of local terms mapped to LOINC contains collective knowledge that can help map terms from other institutions. Using freely available software tools, we developed a data-driven automated approach that operates on term descriptions from existing mappings in the corpus. Accurate and efficient automated mapping methods can help to accelerate adoption of vocabulary standards and promote widespread health information exchange. PMID:23676247

  5. Unsupervised chunking based on graph propagation from bilingual corpus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Wong, Derek F; Chao, Lidia S

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for unsupervised shallow parsing model trained on the unannotated Chinese text of parallel Chinese-English corpus. In this approach, no information of the Chinese side is applied. The exploitation of graph-based label propagation for bilingual knowledge transfer, along with an application of using the projected labels as features in unsupervised model, contributes to a better performance. The experimental comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms show that the proposed approach is able to achieve impressive higher accuracy in terms of F-score. PMID:24772017

  6. Unsupervised Chunking Based on Graph Propagation from Bilingual Corpus

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Lidia S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for unsupervised shallow parsing model trained on the unannotated Chinese text of parallel Chinese-English corpus. In this approach, no information of the Chinese side is applied. The exploitation of graph-based label propagation for bilingual knowledge transfer, along with an application of using the projected labels as features in unsupervised model, contributes to a better performance. The experimental comparisons with the state-of-the-art algorithms show that the proposed approach is able to achieve impressive higher accuracy in terms of F-score. PMID:24772017

  7. Characterization of a 41Residue Ovine Hypothalamic Peptide that Stimulates Secretion of Corticotropin and beta -endorphin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wylie Vale; Joachim Spiess; Catherine Rivier; Jean Rivier

    1981-01-01

    A peptide with high potency and intrinsic activity for stimulating the secretion of corticotropin-like and beta -endorphin-like immunoactivities by cultured anterior pituitary cells has been purified from ovine hypothalamic extracts. The primary structure of this 41-residue corticotropin- and beta -endorphin-releasing factor has been determined to be: H-Ser-Gln-Glu-Pro-Pro-Ile-Ser-Leu-Asp-Leu-Thr-Phe-His-Leu-Leu-Arg-Glu- Val-Leu-Glu-Met-Thr-Lys-Ala-Asp-Gln-Leu-Ala-Gln-Gln-Ala-His-Ser-Asn-Arg- Lys-Leu-Leu-Asp-Ile-Ala-NH2 The synthetic peptide is active in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Ontogeny of factors associated with proliferation and differentiation of muscle in the ovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Fahey, A J; Brameld, J M; Parr, T; Buttery, P J

    2005-10-01

    The number of muscle fibers within a muscle has been found to be of high importance for the growth potential of an animal, and this number is set during fetal development. The objective of this study was to identify the ontogeny of muscle cell differentiation and fiber formation by observing the changes in expression of factors known to influence myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Twenty-one Swaledale x Leicester Blue Face ewes carrying twins were allotted to this trial. From d 40 of gestation, three ewes were killed every 15 d until term. At each time point, the fetuses were located, removed, and total muscle from both hind limbs was dissected from each fetus and snap frozen in liquid N2. Ribonuclease protection assays were used to quantify transcripts for IGF-I, IGF-II, GH receptor (GHR), and myostatin genes in the muscle samples, whereas quantitative real-time PCR was used to quantify myogenin transcripts. Histological sections also were taken from the fetal muscle samples and observed for evidence of muscle differentiation resulting in fiber formation. The abundance of mRNA for ovine IGF-II and ovine myogenin peaked at d 85 of gestation (P < 0.001). The abundance of ovine IGF-I transcripts peaked at d 100 of gestation, whereas the abundance of ovine GHR mRNA increased throughout gestation (P < 0.05). No change (P = 0.87) in the abundance of myostatin mRNA was observed. The histological sections from the muscle samples demonstrated a clear change in the appearance of the muscle tissue at each time period. Major fiber formation was observed around d 85. The results obtained from the analysis of gene expression and the histological sections suggest that the majority of muscle differentiation and fiber formation takes place around d 85, with myoblast proliferation mainly occurring before this time. It may be possible to manipulate the number of muscle fibers formed by targeting treatments during this proliferation stage immediately before the period of major fiber formation. PMID:16160044

  9. Effect of diet on microRNA expression in ovine subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Meale, S J; Romao, J M; He, M L; Chaves, A V; McAllister, T A; Guan, L L

    2014-08-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that regulate ovine adipogenesis is very limited. MicroRNAs (miRNA) have been reported as one of the regulatory mechanisms of adipogenesis. This study aimed to compare the expression of miRNA related to ovine adipogenesis in different adipose depots and to investigate whether their expression is affected by dietary fatty acid composition. We also investigated the role of miRNA in adipogenic gene regulation. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples were collected at slaughter from 12 Canadian Arcott lambs fed a barley-based finishing diet where an algae meal (DHA-Gold; Schizochytrium spp.) replaced flax oil and barley grain at 0 or 3% DM (n = 6). Total RNA from each tissue was subjected to quantitative real time (qRT-) PCR analysis to determine the expression of 15 selected miRNA including 11 identified from bovine adipose tissues and 4 conserved between bovine and ovine species. MicroRNAs were differentially expressed according to diet in each tissue depot (miR-142-5p and miR-376d) in visceral and miR-142-5p, miR-92a, and miR-378 in subcutaneous adipose tissue; P ? 0.05) and in each tissue depot depending on diet (miR-101, miR-106, miR-136, miR-16b, miR-196a-1, miR-2368*, miR-2454, miR-296, miR-376d, miR-378, and miR-92a in both control and DHA-G diets and miR-478 in control; P ? 0.05). Six miRNA were subjected to functional analysis and 3 genes of interest (ACSL1, PPAR?, and C/EBP?) were validated by qRT-PCR. Both diet and tissue depot affected expression levels of all 3 genes (P < 0.05). miR-101, miR-106, and miR-136 were negatively correlated with their respective predicted gene targets C/EBP?, PPAR?, and ACSL1 in subcutaneous adipose tissue of lambs fed DHA-G. Yet miR-142-5p and miR-101 showed no correlation with ACSL1 or C/EBP?. The variability in expression patterns of miRNA across adipose depots reflects the tissue specific nature of adipogenic regulation. Although the examined miRNA appear to be conserved across ruminant species, our results indicate the presence of ovine specific regulatory mechanisms that can be influenced by diet. PMID:24893997

  10. Malignant catarrhal fever associated with ovine herpesvirus-2 in free-ranging mule deer in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Patricia C; Van Campen, Hana; Spraker, Terry R; Bishop, Chad; Wolfe, Lisa; Podell, Brendan

    2007-07-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was diagnosed in four free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in January and February of 2003. Diagnosis was based on typical histologic lesions of lymphocytic vasculitis and PCR identification of ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2) viral genetic sequences in formalin-fixed tissues. The animals were from the Uncompahgre Plateau of southwestern Colorado. Deer from these herds occasionally resided in close proximity to domestic sheep (Ovis aries), the reservoir host of OHV-2, in agricultural valleys adjacent to their winter range. These cases indicate that fatal OHV-2 associated MCF can occur in free-ranging mule deer exposed to domestic sheep that overlap their range. PMID:17699095

  11. Recovery of intact IgG in the gastrointestinal tract of the growing rat following ingestion of an ovine serum immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Balan, P; Han, K S; Dukkipati, V S R; Moughan, P J

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether orally ingested ovine serum IgG partly resists digestion in the growing rat. Fifteen Sprague-Dawley male rats were allocated to one of three diets for a 3-week study: a control diet (CON) and two test diets containing either freeze-dried ovine serum immunoglobulin (FDOI) or inactivated ovine serum immunoglobulin (IOI). Samples of stomach chyme and intestinal digesta from the ad libitum-fed rats were subjected to ELISA and Western blot analysis. Amounts of intact ovine IgG for the FDOI diet were found to be 13.9, 20.0, 34.1, 13.0 and 36.9 ?g in the total wet digesta from the stomach chyme, duodenal, jejunal, ileal and colonic digesta respectively. Qualitative detection by Western blot revealed the presence of intact ovine serum IgG with a ~150 kDa MW. This was detected in all of the gut segments (stomach chyme, duodenal, jejunal, ileal and colonic digesta) for growing rats fed the FDOI diet. No ovine IgG was detected in the chyme or digesta from rats fed the CON or the IOI diets. Ovine serum IgG partly resisted digestion in the growing rat fed the FDOI diet and was found throughout the digestive tract. These results provide a basis to explain the reported biological effects of orally administered immunoglobulin. PMID:23441910

  12. Alcohol consumption and premotor corpus callosum in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Kisser, Jason; Davatzikos, Christos; Ferrucci, Luigi; Metter, Jeffrey; Resnick, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption is toxic to the brain, especially to the frontal white matter (WM), but whether lesser amounts of alcohol negatively impact the brain WM is unclear. In this study, we examined the relationship between self-reported alcohol consumption and regional WM and grey matter (GM) volume in fifty-six men and thirtyseven women (70 +- 7 years) cognitively intact participants of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) with no history of alcohol abuse. We used regional analysis of volumes examined in normalized space (RAVENS) maps methodology for WM and GM segmentation and normalization followed by voxel based morphometry statistical parametric mapping (in SPM8) to examine the cross-sectional association between alcohol consumption and WM (and, separately, GM) volume controlling for age, sex, smoking, blood pressure and dietary thiamine intake. WM VBM revealed that in men, but not in women, higher alcohol consumption was associated with lower volume in premotor frontal corpus callosum. This finding suggests that even moderate amounts of alcohol may be detrimental to corpus callosum and white matter integrity. PMID:22401959

  13. The history of nephrology in the Talmudic corpus.

    PubMed

    Dvorjetski, Estée

    2002-07-01

    The kidneys, the bladder and nephrology in general were discussed in the Talmudic literature from their anatomical, pathological and philological aspects. The Sages' deliberations were based on the Biblical texts. The characteristic phraseology of the scriptures uses the kidneys as symbols of the human emotions, contrary to the heart, which is regarded as the location of wisdom. The kidney is considered to be the individual's seat of their deepest desires--perhaps because it is an "internal" organ, well hidden, surrounded by a capsule and by a layer of perinephric fat. The Talmudic corpus considers the kidneys to be the origin of secret counsels--"the kidneys advise". An injury to the kidneys is used symbolically as an example of a cruel and serious injury. The sages were concerned with nephrological problems such as a diseased kidney of small size, fluid and pus in the kidney, injuries, perforations and more. Fascinating advice is given regarding micturition, its timing, characteristics and significance. The Halakhah is concerned with the kidneys during the examination of an animal after slaughter for the fitness for its ritual consumption. The paper presents various nephrological diseases from the Talmudic corpus. Among them are, for example, "Tzemirtha"--urolithiasis; "Hydrakon"--hydronephrosis; "Suskhinta"--urinary retention; "Tzinit"--podagra, gout, and "Yerakon"--icterus. A survey of some Talmudic personalities will exemplify the existence of these conditions. PMID:12097728

  14. Case series of lipid accumulation in the human corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Alwaal, Amjad; Wang, Lin; Zaid, Uwais B; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F

    2015-02-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a prevalent problem affecting millions of men in the United States and around the world. There have been no reports of the presence of lipids within the human penile corporal bodies, whether in normal or diseased states. We present here a case series of 9 patients who underwent penile corporal tissue biopsy during penile prosthesis insertion with severe intracorporal fibrosis and difficulties during insertion.Oil Red O staining was done to identify lipids; LipidTOX and phalloidin double staining was used to identify lipid location within the corpora, and Masson's trichrome staining was done to assess fibrosis.We identified lipid accumulation in those 9 corporal tissue samples, and further analysis showed the distribution to be 10% intramyocellular lipids and 90% extramyocellular lipids. These 9 specimens contained increased amount of collagen when compared with controls. In addition, we analyzed corporal samples from 10 random erectile dysfunction patients presenting for penile prosthesis insertion and identified no lipid accumulation in those control patients.This is the first report of lipid accumulation in the human corpus cavernosum. Possible mechanisms of lipid accumulation include androgen deficiency and dedifferentiation of corpus smooth muscle cells into other phenotypes; however, the exact mechanism is unknown and further research is needed. PMID:25674764

  15. The Big Australian Speech Corpus (The Big ASC) Michael Wagner1

    E-print Network

    Dale, Robert

    Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities grant for a project entitled `The Big Australian Speech Corpus: An audioThe Big Australian Speech Corpus (The Big ASC) Michael Wagner1 , Dat Tran1 , Roberto Togneri2 data from representative speakers of Australian English in all capital cities and some regional centres

  16. Conversational Telephone Speech Corpus Collection for the NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluation 2004

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvin Martin; David Miller; Mark Przybocki; Joseph Campbell; Hirotaka Nakasone

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the factors that should be considered when designing a speech corpus collection to be used for text- independent speaker recognition evaluation. The factors include telephone handset type, telephone transmission type, language, and (non-telephone) microphone type. The paper describes the design of the new corpus collection being undertaken by the Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) to support

  17. A Corpus-Based Approach to Online Materials Development for Writing Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ching-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hua

    2011-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the possible applications of corpora to both linguistic research and pedagogy. This study takes a corpus-based, genre-analytic approach to discipline-specific materials development. Combining corpus analysis with genre analysis makes it possible to develop teaching materials that are not only authentic but…

  18. Capturing L2 Accuracy Developmental Patterns: Insights from an Error-Tagged EFL Learner Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thewissen, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The present article addresses the issue of second language accuracy developmental trajectories and shows how they can be captured via an error-tagged version of an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learner corpus. The data used in this study were extracted from the International Corpus of Learner English (Granger et al., 2009) and consist of a…

  19. Using Edit Distance to Analyse Errors in a Natural Language to Logic Translation Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker-Plummer, Dave; Dale, Robert; Cox, Richard; Romanczuk, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We have assembled a large corpus of student submissions to an automatic grading system, where the subject matter involves the translation of natural language sentences into propositional logic. Of the 2.3 million translation instances in the corpus, 286,000 (approximately 12%) are categorized as being in error. We want to understand the nature of…

  20. The English Definite Article: What ESL/EFL Grammars Say and What Corpus Findings Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WonHo Yoo, Isaiah

    2009-01-01

    To ascertain whether what ESL/EFL grammars say is informed by what scholars discuss in the literature and supported by what corpus findings actually show, this paper first presents a brief overview of the literature on the English definite article and then compares popular ESL/EFL grammars' coverage of "the" and corpus findings on definite article…

  1. A Kinect Corpus of Swedish Sign Language Kalin Stefanov and Jonas Beskow

    E-print Network

    Beskow, Jonas

    A Kinect Corpus of Swedish Sign Language Signs Kalin Stefanov and Jonas Beskow KTH Speech, Music a corpus of Swedish sign language signs, recorded for the purpose of an educational "signing game a playful and interactive way of learning and practicing sign language signs to these children, as well

  2. RWTH-PHOENIX-Weather: A Large Vocabulary Sign Language Recognition and Translation Corpus

    E-print Network

    Ney, Hermann

    RWTH-PHOENIX-Weather: A Large Vocabulary Sign Language Recognition and Translation Corpus Jens of German Sign Language suitable for statistical sign language recognition and translation. In contrast to most available sign language data collections, the RWTH-PHOENIX-Weather corpus has not been recorded

  3. Job Title Substance Abuse Counselor Clinical Supervision (Corpus Christi, TX) Employer/ Agency Danya International, Inc.

    E-print Network

    Azevedo, Ricardo

    Job Title Substance Abuse Counselor Clinical Supervision (Corpus Christi, TX) Employer/ Agency Navy substance abuse counselors stationed in Corpus Christi, Texas. This is a part-time contract treatment. Seven years full-time direct counseling experience with substance abusers. Four years experience

  4. 1 | P a g e Corpus Callosum deformation analysis in Multiple Sclerosis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 | P a g e Corpus Callosum deformation analysis in Multiple Sclerosis *F. Derraz, **A. Pinti, *B to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesion. We propose an approach for 3D segmentation of the volume of interest based the criterion established in this paper. Key words : Segmentation, multiple sclerosis, corpus callosum, medical

  5. Sistema de Dialogo Estadistico y Adquisicion de un Nuevo Corpus de Dialogos

    E-print Network

    Goterris, Francisco Torres

    Sistema de Di´alogo Estad´istico y Adquisici´on de un Nuevo Corpus de Di´alogos D. Griol, E funcionamiento del sistema. Asimismo, se descri- be la adaptaci´on de la arquitectura utilizada para la adquisici´on´alogo, Adquisici´on de Corpus, Modelos Estad´isticos Abstract: We present a dialog system in which the main modules

  6. Agronomic & Test Information: Corpus Christi, TX Oilseed Hybrid Sunflower Trial, 2010

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Agronomic & Test Information: Corpus Christi, TX Oilseed Hybrid Sunflower Trial, 2010 TEST: 2010 Rainfed Oilseed Sunflower Hybrid Trial LOCATION: Texas AgriLife Research & Extension Center, Corpus: Limited tillage DATE PLANTED: March 9, 2010 SEEDING RATE: Overplanted at ~27,000 seeds/A then targeted

  7. Textual, Genre and Social Features of Spoken Grammar: A Corpus-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Llantada, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a corpus-based approach to teaching and learning spoken grammar for English for Academic Purposes with reference to Bhatia's (2002) multi-perspective model for discourse analysis: a textual perspective, a genre perspective and a social perspective. From a textual perspective, corpus-informed instruction helps students identify…

  8. Applying Corpus-Based Findings to Form-Focused Instruction: The Case of Reported Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Federica; Eckhardt, Suzanne E. B.

    2007-01-01

    Arguing that the introduction of corpus linguistics in teaching materials and the language classroom should be informed by theories and principles of SLA, this paper presents a case study illustrating how corpus-based findings on reported speech can be integrated into a form-focused model of instruction. After overviewing previous work which…

  9. Language with Character: A Stratified Corpus Comparison of Individual Differences in E-Mail Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberlander, Jon; Gill, Alastair J.

    2006-01-01

    To what extent does the wording and syntactic form of people's writing reflect their personalities? Using a bottom-up stratified corpus comparison, rather than the top-down content analysis techniques that have been used before, we examine a corpus of e-mail messages elicited from individuals of known personality, as measured by the Eysenck…

  10. English Collocation Learning through Corpus Data: On-Line Concordance and Statistical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtake, Hiroshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Morren, Brian; Ugawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We developed an English Collocations On Demand system offering on-line corpus and concordance information to help Japanese researchers acquire a better command of English collocation patterns. The Life Science Dictionary Corpus consists of approximately 90,000,000 words collected from life science related research papers published in academic…

  11. What Can Be Learned from Previously Answered Questions? A Corpus-Based Approach to Question Answering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcin Skowron; Kenji Araki

    2004-01-01

    We present corpus-based approach to question answering, which en- ables our system to classify a question category, generate a query and verify answer candidates. The system uses the Internet to nd information required to provide an answer. The role of the corpus-based modules is to support the system with knowledge that provides the means to eectiv ely use previously answered

  12. The Use of Corpus Concordancing for Second Language Learners' Self Error-Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Hui-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Corpus concordancing has been utilized in second language (L2) writing classrooms for a few decades. Some studies have shown that this application is helpful, to a certain degree, to learners' writing process. However, how corpus concordancing is utilized for nonnative speakers' (NNSs) self error-correction in writing, especially the…

  13. Surgical treatment of induratio penis plastica (Peyronie's disease) with a corpus cavernosum graft.

    PubMed

    Medgyesi, S

    1979-04-01

    Four patients with induratio penis plastica, involving the corpus cavernosum, have been treated by excision of the affected tissue and filling of the defect by a transplant of corpus cavernosum bulbi urethrae. Cavernosograms and a histological study indicate that the operative results were good, but the case histories stress the need of extreme care in the selection of patients. PMID:444774

  14. Developing a clinical hypermedia corpus: experiences from the use of a practice-centered method.

    PubMed Central

    Timpka, T.; Nyce, J. M.; Sjöberg, C.; Hedblom, P.; Lindblom, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines a practice-centered method for creation of a hypermedia corpus. It also describes experiences with creating such a corpus of information to support interprofessional work at a Primary Healthcare Center. From these experiences, a number of basic issues regarding information systems development within medical informatics will be discussed. PMID:1482924

  15. Partial Morphological and Functional Characterization of the Corpus Allatum - Corpus Cardiacum Complex from the Two-Spotted Stinkbug, Perillus bioculatus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CYNTHIA L. GOODMAN; Henda Nabli; MAUREEN K. WRIGHT-OSMENT; Takashi Okuda; THOMAS A. COUDRON

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY Selected morphological and physiological properties of the corpus allatum (CA)-corpus cardiacum (CC) complex from the two-spotted stinkbug, Perillus bioculatus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), were studied. The CAs play an important role in insect physiology because of their production of the juvenile hormones (JHs), i.e., key hormones involved in devel- opment and reproduction. We found that the P. bioculatus CA-CC complex is

  16. Partial morphological and functional characterization of the corpus allatum-corpus cardiacum complex from the two-spotted stinkbug, Perillus bioculatus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia L. Goodman; Renee M. Wagner; Henda Nabli; Maureen K. Wright-Osment; Takashi Okuda; Thomas A. Coudron

    2005-01-01

    Summary  Selected morphological and physiological properties of the corpus allatum (CA)-corpus cardiacum (CC) complex from the two-spotted\\u000a stinkbug, Perillus bioculatus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), were studied. The CAs play an important role in insect physiology because of their production\\u000a of the juvenile hormones (JHs), i.e., key hormones involved in development and reproduction. We found that the P. bioculatus CA-CC complex is present in

  17. OVINE HERPESVIRUS-2 GLYCOPROTEIN B SEQUENCES FROM TISSUES OF RUMINANT MALIGNANT CATARRHAL FEVER AND HEALTHY SHEEP ARE HIGHLY CONSERVED.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2) infection has been associated with malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in susceptible ruminants. In order to further investigate whether OHV-2 is an aetiological agent for sheep-associated (SA) MCF in cattle and bison, the entire sequences of OHV-2 glycoprotein B (gB) from di...

  18. Emergence of a Tetracycline-Resistant Campylobacter jejuni Clone Associated with Outbreaks of Ovine Abortion in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orhan Sahin; Paul J. Plummer; Dianna M. Jordan; Kapllan Sulaj; Sonia Pereira; Suelee Robbe-Austerman; Liping Wang; Michael J. Yaeger; Lorraine J. Hoffman; Qijing Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter infection is one of the major causes of ovine abortions worldwide. Historically, Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus was the major cause of Campylobacter-associated abortion in sheep; however, Campylobacter jejuni is increasingly associated with sheep abortions. We examined the species distribution, genotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibilities of abortion-associated Campylobacter isolates obtained from multiple lambing seasons on different farms in Iowa, Idaho, South

  19. Experimental nebulization of American bison (Bison bison) with low doses of ovine herpesvirus 2 from sheep nasal secretions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), is an important cause of mortality in ranched American bison (Bison bison) in North America. Detection of antibody against MCF-group viruses and OvHV-2 DNA in peripheral blood of healthy bison indicates that some are subclinic...

  20. Deletion variant near ZNF389 is associated with control of ovine lentivirus in multiple flocks of sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus found in many countries that causes interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and cachexia in sheep. There is no preventive vaccine and no cure, but breed differences suggest marker-assisted selective breeding might improve odds of infectio...

  1. Peripheral Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Provirus Levels Correlate with and Predict Histological Tissue Lesion Severity in Naturally Infected Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether host immune responses in the form of serum anti-ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) antibody responses or virus replication in the form of peripheral OPP provirus levels associate with the degree of histological tissue lesions in naturally OPPV infec...

  2. Ovine progressive pneumonia provirus levels are unaffected by the prion 171R allele in an Idaho sheep flock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding of sheep for arginine (R) at prion gene (PRNP) codon 171 confers resistance to Scrapie. The 171R allele naturally occurs at low frequency, possibly because it imparts a deleterious trait such as impaired disease resistance. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia/Maedi-Visna virus (OPPV) is...

  3. Ovine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis: a large animal model syntenic with the human neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis variant CLN6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M F Broom; C Zhou; J E Broom; K J Barwell; R D Jolly; D F Hill

    1998-01-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a group of inherited degenerative neurological diseases affecting children. A number of non-allelic variants have been identified within the human population and the genes for some of these have recently been identified. The underlying mechanism for the neuropathology remains an enigma; however, pioneering studies with the naturally occurring ovine model (OCL) have led to

  4. Genome-Wide association identifies multiple genomic regions associated with susceptibility to and control of ovine lentivirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is macrophage-tropic and causes lifelonginfection. OvLV infects one quarter of U.S. sheep and induces pneumonia and body condition wasting. There is no vaccine to prevent OvLV infection and no cost-effective treatment for i...

  5. Non-maternal transmission is the major mode of ovine lentivirus transmission in a ewe flock: A molecular epidemiology study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmission of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), a lentivirus of sheep, occurs through both maternal and non-maternal means. Currently, the contribution of each route to the overall flock OPPV prevalence is poorly understood since previous serological epidemiologic studies lacked the abilit...

  6. Experimental aerosol infection of cattle ( Bos taurus) with ovine herpesvirus 2 using nasal secretions from infected sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naomi S. Taus; J. Lindsay Oaks; Katherine Gailbreath; Donald L. Traul; Donal O’Toole; Hong Li

    2006-01-01

    Infection of clinically susceptible ruminants, including domesticated cattle and American bison, with ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) can result in the fatal lymphoproliferative and vasculitis syndrome known as malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). A reliable experimental infection model is needed to study the pathogenesis of MCF and to develop effective vaccination strategies to control the disease. An experimental aerosol infection model using

  7. Comparison of a New Braid Fixation System to an Interlocking Intramedullary Nail for Tibial Osteotomy Repair in an Ovine Model

    E-print Network

    Scharer, John E.

    Comparison of a New Braid Fixation System to an Interlocking Intramedullary Nail for Tibial) and polymethylmethacrylate bone cement with an interlocking intramedullary (IM) nail fixation in an ovine model. Study Design at 12 weeks after surgery compared with an interlocking IM nail repair. Clinical Relevance--A Nitinol

  8. Influences of yeast extract on specific cellular yield of Ovine growth hormone during fed-batch fermentation of E. coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Panda; R. H. Khan; S. Mishra; K. B. C. Appa Rao; S. M. Totey

    2000-01-01

    In most cases of E. coli high cell density fermentation process, maximizing cell concentration helps in increasing the volumetric productivity of recombinant proteins usually at the cost of lower specific cellular protein yield. In this report, we describe a process for maintaining the specific cellular yield of Ovine growth hormone (oGH) from E. coli by optimal feeding of yeast extract

  9. REGULATION OF THE OVINE INTERFERON-TAU GENE BY A BLASTOCYST-SPECIFIC TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR, CDX2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of ovine interferon-tau (oIFNt), a factor essential for the process of maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminant ungulates, is restricted to the trophoblast. However, the molecular mechanisms by which oIFNt expression is restricted to the trophectoderm have not been fully elucidated. ...

  10. Antibodies to ovine herpesvirus 2 glycoprotein antibodies decrease virus infectivity and prevent malignant catarrhal fever in rabbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) is the etiological agent of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF), a generally fatal lymphoproliferative disease of many species in the order Artiodactyla. Development of a vaccine is critical to prevent mortality. Because OvHV-2 has not been cultured in vi...

  11. ABSORPTION AND HALF-LIFE OF BOVINE, CAPRINE AND OVINE IgG1 IN THE NEWBORN LAMB.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ont été nourris au biberon avec un colostrum bovin identique pendant les 32 premières heures de la vie, alors que six agneaux à terme et sept prématurés ont reçu le même colostrum, un colostrum caprin, puis un colostrum ovin, respecti- vement 2 h, 8 h et 16 h post-partum. Dans le premier groupe, les taux

  12. Cloning and expression analysis of an ovine PAP-like protein cDNA, a gene differentially expressed in scrapie.

    PubMed

    Skretting, Grethe; Austbø, Lars; Olsaker, Ingrid; Espenes, Arild

    2006-07-01

    In a previous study, the mRNA level of a pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP)-like protein was found to be elevated in the ileal Peyer's patch of lambs during the early phase of scrapie infection. Here, we report the isolation of the ovine PAP-like protein cDNA which encodes a putative 178 amino acid protein with a signal peptide and a C-lectin binding domain. Comparisons of REG/PAP proteins between various species showed that the deduced amino acid sequences were conserved. The overall amino acid identity between the ovine PAP-like protein and bovine, human and rat REG/PAP proteins varied from 23% to 85%. In Northern blot analysis the expression of the ovine PAP-like protein mRNA was restricted to the ileal and jejunal Peyer's patches. The cellular expression of the PAP-like protein mRNA in the ovine intestine was further characterized by in situ hybridization. PAP-like protein mRNA was detected in cells of the epithelial lining in most crypts and in some intestinal villi in the ileum and jejunum while in the colon and rectum, the PAP-like protein mRNA expression was only detected in the deep portion of a few crypts. The data provided will offer the possibility to search for a link between this PAP-like protein and early events in the development of scrapie. PMID:16635555

  13. Effects of TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3 on susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus following natural exposure in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) adversely affect production and well-being of sheep and goats throughout much of the world. The SRLVs, including ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) in North America, cause lifetime infections and management procedures to eradicate or reduce disease prevalenc...

  14. Determination of imidocarb residues in bovine and ovine liver and milk by immunobiosensor.

    PubMed

    Traynor, I M; Thompson, C S; Armstrong, L; Fodey, T; Danaher, M; Jordan, K; Kennedy, D G; Crooks, S R H

    2013-01-01

    Imidocarb (IMD) is a veterinary drug that has been used for more than 30 years to treat and prevent parasitic diseases. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that substantial levels of IMD residues are retained in the edible tissues and milk of cattle and sheep for up to 6 months after administration. This has led to concern regarding the potential adverse effects posed through human consumption of edible tissue or milk from treated animals if the recommended withdrawal periods for the drug are not properly implemented. While MRLs have been established by the European Union, it is important that analytical methods are available to monitor food samples for potentially violative levels of IMD residues. A qualitative biosensor-based immunoassay was developed to allow the detection of IMD at less than the European Union MRLs of 50 ?g kg(-1) for milk and 2 mg kg(-1) for bovine and ovine liver. Validation of the developed methods provided a detection capability of <25 ?g kg(-1) in milk and <0.75 mg kg(-1) in liver. A comparison study was undertaken, with IMD incurred milk and ovine liver samples analysed by the newly developed procedures and results compared with those obtained by LC-MS/MS. The newly developed screening method was applied to both incurred milk and liver samples. This faster, cheaper and reliable screening method has potential use in sample analysis to ensure compliance with legislative requirements. PMID:23656364

  15. Simultaneous detection of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ovine prion protein gene.

    PubMed

    Benkel, Bernhard F; Valle, Edith; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Hossain Farid, A

    2007-01-01

    Amino acid polymorphisms in the prion protein gene (PrP) affect the susceptibility of sheep to scrapie, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). In particular, amino acid substitutions at codons 136, 154 and 171 of the ovine PrP gene are associated with different degrees of susceptibility to the classical form of scrapie, caused by 'typical' scrapie strains. Existing genotyping tests for scrapie susceptibility normally interrogate only the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) most relevant to 'typical' strains. Recently, however, a number of novel variants of the scrapie agent have been discovered. The ability of these new, 'atypical' scrapie variants to infect sheep that are resistant to 'typical' variants has raised concerns about the reduction in genetic variability that may result from intense selection for resistance to classical scrapie. Furthermore, a growing interest in a potential role for specific PrP genotypes in modulating performance traits is also driving a move toward more extensive characterization of haplotypes at the PrP locus. Here, we describe a single-tube method for the interrogation of eight SNPs within seven codons (112, 136, 141, 154, 171, 231 and 241) of the ovine PrP gene. This method is as accurate as sequencing, yet more affordable, and can easily be automated for high-throughput sample screening. Moreover, it can be modified to accommodate genetic variations that are found in local and heritage breeds. PMID:17590312

  16. Characterisation of monoclonal antibodies to ovine interleukin-6 and the development of a sensitive capture ELISA.

    PubMed

    McWaters, P; Hurst, L; Chaplin, P J; Collins, R A; Wood, P R; Scheerlinck, J P

    2000-02-25

    A purified recombinant ovine (rOv) interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used to generate specific murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a polyclonal rabbit antisera to this cytokine. From the 31 initial hybridoma cell lines generated, three stable clones were established which secreted mAbs to rOvIL-6, as judged by a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. Their specificity was further confirmed by demonstrating that none of the mAbs recognised any of the six other irrelevant recombinant ovine cytokines tested by direct ELISA. All three mAbs displayed cross-reactivity with human and African green monkey IL-6 as demonstrated by direct ELISA and Western blotting. In contrast, the polyclonal antibodies only cross-reacted with bovine IL-6 and not with either of the human or monkey homologues. By combining a mAb with the polyclonal antisera a sensitive, IL-6-specific, capture ELISA was developed that had a sensitivity of 150 pg/ml. This detection system was unequivocally validated by demonstrating that native OvIL-6 could be detected in efferent lymph draining from a stimulated popliteal lymph node. In addition, one of the mAbs was shown to allow the detection of OvIL-6 by intracellular cytokine staining and flow cytometry. PMID:10690931

  17. Regulation of GnRH receptors by progesterone and inhibin in ovine pituitary cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and the gonadal protein, inhibin, on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor number and binding affinity were investigated in vitro, using ovine pituitary cells in culture. Changes in GnRH binding were correlated with GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) release following pretreatment with P{sub 4} and inhibin. Ovine pituitary cells in culture were preincubated with P{sub 4} or porcine inhibin (I{sub P}) for 24 or 48 hours (h). Cells were collected and analyzed for GnRH binding using a radioligand-receptor assay. des-Gly{sup 10}-(D-Ala{sup 6})-LHRH-ethyl-amide was used as the radiolabeled GnRh superagonist analog (mono-{sup 125}I-GnRH-A) and as competing ligand. Treatment with P{sub 4} progressively decreased GnRH-A binding capacity by 44.3% and 71.8% of the control following pretreatment for 24 or 48 h, respectively. When P{sub 4} was removed from the cultures, GnRH-A binding capacity partially returned to control levels within 24 h. Decreased GnRH-A binding was closely correlated with the reduction in GnRH-stimulated LH release which was observed following 24 or 48 h pretreatment with P{sub 4}.

  18. Enucleated ovine oocyte supports human somatic cells reprogramming back to the embryonic stage.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, S Morteza; Hajian, Mehdi; Forouzanfar, Mohsen; Moulavi, Fariba; Abedi, Parvaneh; Asgari, Vajiheh; Tanhaei, Somayyeh; Abbasi, Hassan; Jafarpour, Farnoosh; Ostadhosseini, Soamyyeh; Karamali, Fereshteh; Karbaliaie, Khadijeh; Baharvand, Hossein; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad H

    2012-04-01

    Increased possibility of universality of ooplasmic reprogramming factors resulted in a parallel increased interest to use interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) to address basic questions of developmental biology and to improve the feasibility of cell therapy. In this study, the interactions between human somatic cells and ovine oocytes were investigated. Nuclear remodeling events were first observed 3 h post-iSCNT as nuclear swelling, chromosome condensation, and spindle formation. A time-dependent decrease in maturation promoting activity of inactivated reconstructs coincided with increased aberrations in chromosome and spindle organization of the newly developed embryos. The sequence and duration of nuclear remodeling events were irrespective of donor cell type used. Although the majority of the reconstituted embryos arrested before embryonic genome activation (8-16-cell) stage, less than 5% of them could progress beyond transcription-requiring developmental stage and formed blastocyst-like structures with distinct inner cell mass and trophectoderm at days 7 and 8 post-SCNT. Importantly, real-time assessment of three developmentally important genes (Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog) indicated their upregulation in iSCNT blastocysts. Blastocyst-derived outgrowths had alkaline phosphatase activity that was lost upon passage. Collectively, this study introduced ovine oocyte as a credible cytoplast for remodeling and reprogramming of human somatic cells back to the embryonic stage and provided a platform for further studies to unravel possible differences exist between reprogramming ability of oocytes of different mammalian species. PMID:22384929

  19. The Ovine Cerebral Venous System: Comparative Anatomy, Visualization, and Implications for Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Nitzsche, Björn; Lobsien, Donald; Seeger, Johannes; Schneider, Holm; Boltze, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases are significant causes of death and disability in humans. Improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches strongly rely on adequate gyrencephalic, large animal models being demanded for translational research. Ovine stroke models may represent a promising approach but are currently limited by insufficient knowledge regarding the venous system of the cerebral angioarchitecture. The present study was intended to provide a comprehensive anatomical analysis of the intracranial venous system in sheep as a reliable basis for the interpretation of experimental results in such ovine models. We used corrosion casts as well as contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography to scrutinize blood drainage from the brain. This combined approach yielded detailed and, to some extent, novel findings. In particular, we provide evidence for chordae Willisii and lateral venous lacunae, and report on connections between the dorsal and ventral sinuses in this species. For the first time, we also describe venous confluences in the deep cerebral venous system and an ‘anterior condylar confluent’ as seen in humans. This report provides a detailed reference for the interpretation of venous diagnostic imaging findings in sheep, including an assessment of structure detectability by in vivo (imaging) versus ex vivo (corrosion cast) visualization methods. Moreover, it features a comprehensive interspecies-comparison of the venous cerebral angioarchitecture in man, rodents, canines and sheep as a relevant large animal model species, and describes possible implications for translational cerebrovascular research. PMID:24736654

  20. Corpus-based Approach to Creating a Semantic Lexicon for Clinical Research Eligibility Criteria from UMLS

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhihui; Duffy, Robert; Johnson, Stephen; Weng, Chunhua

    2010-01-01

    We describe a corpus-based approach to creating a semantic lexicon using UMLS knowledge sources. We extracted 10,000 sentences from the eligibility criteria sections of clinical trial summaries contained in ClinicalTrials.gov. The UMLS Metathesaurus and SPECIALIST Lexical Tools were used to extract and normalize UMLS recognizable terms. When annotated with Semantic Network types, the corpus had a lexical ambiguity of 1.57 (=total types for unique lexemes / total unique lexemes) and a word occurrence ambiguity of 1.96 (=total type occurrences / total word occurrences). A set of semantic preference rules was developed and applied to completely eliminate ambiguity in semantic type assignment. The lexicon covered 95.95% UMLS-recognizable terms in our corpus. A total of 20 UMLS semantic types, representing about 17% of all the distinct semantic types assigned to corpus lexemes, covered about 80% of the vocabulary of our corpus. PMID:21347142

  1. Inhibition of ovine in vitro fertilization by anti-Prt antibody: hypothetical model for Prt/ZP interaction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of prion proteins in the rules that dictate biological reproduction is still poorly understood. Likewise, the role of prnt gene, encoding the prion-like protein testis specific (Prt), in ram reproductive physiology remains largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the effect of Prt in ovine fertilization by using an anti-Prt antibody (APPA) in fertilization medium incubated with spermatozoa and oocytes. Moreover, a computational model was constructed to infer how the results obtained could be related to a hypothetical role for Prt in sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding. Methods Mature ovine oocytes were transferred to fertilization medium alone (control) or supplemented with APPA, or pre-immune serum (CSerum). Oocytes were inseminated with ovine spermatozoa and after 18 h, presumptive zygotes (n?=?142) were fixed to evaluate fertilization rates or transferred (n?=?374) for embryo culture until D6-7. Predicted ovine Prt tertiary structure was compared with data obtained by circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and a protein-protein computational docking model was estimated for a hypothetical Prt/ZP interaction. Results The fertilizing rate was lower (P?=?0.006) in APPA group (46.0+/?6.79%) when compared to control (78.5+/?7.47%) and CSerum (64.5+/?6.65%) groups. In addition, the cleavage rate was higher (P?ovine Prt, which was subsequently used to test Prt/ZP docking. Computational analyses predicted a favorable Prt-binding activity towards ZP domains. Conclusions Our data indicates that the presence of APPA reduces the number of fertilized oocytes and of cleaved embryos. Moreover, the CD analysis data reinforces the predicted ovine Prt trend towards an alpha-helical structure. Predicted protein-protein docking suggests a possible interaction between Prt and ZP, thus supporting an important role for Prt in ovine fertilization. PMID:23531155

  2. Identification of Myotropic Neuropeptides from the Brain and Corpus Cardiacum-Corpus Allatum Complex of the Beetle, Zophobas atratus

    PubMed Central

    Marciniak, Pawel; Audsley, Neil; Kuczer, Mariola; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    The neuropeptide profiles of the two major neuro-endocrinological organs, brain and retrocerebral complex corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum (CC/CA) of adult beetles, Zophobas atratus Fabricius (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) were analyzed by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS). The homological semi-isolated heart bioassay was used to screen HPLC fractions for myotropic activity in tissues, revealing several cardiostimulatory and cardioinhibitory factors from both the brain and CC/CA. Analysis of HPLC fractions by MALDI-TOF MS identified seven mass ions that could be assigned to other known peptides: leucomyosuppressin (LMS), Tribolium castaneum pyrokinin 2, sulfakinin 1, myoinhibitory peptide 4, a truncated NVP-like peptide, Tenebrio molitor AKH and crustacean cardioactive peptide. In addition, two novel peptides, myosuppressin (pEDVEHVFLRFa), which differs from LMS by one amino acid (E for D at position 4) and pyrokinin-like peptide (LPHYTPRLa) were also identified. To establish cardioactive properties of some of the identified peptides, chemical synthesis was carried out and their activities were tested using the heart bioassay. PMID:21067424

  3. Balancing SoNaR: IPR versus Processing Issues in a 500-Million-Word Written Dutch Reference Corpus

    E-print Network

    Tilburg, Universiteit van

    Balancing SoNaR: IPR versus Processing Issues in a 500-Million-Word Written Dutch Reference Corpus during the creation of the SoNaR Corpus. Based on recent developments in traditional corpus compiling and new web harvesting approaches, SoNaR is designed to contain 500 million words, balanced over 36 text

  4. Expression of Endogenous Betaretroviruses in the Ovine Uterus: Effects of Neonatal Age, Estrous Cycle, Pregnancy, and Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Palmarini, Massimo; Gray, C. Allison; Carpenter, Karen; Fan, Hung; Bazer, Fuller W.; Spencer, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    The ovine genome contains 15 to 20 copies of endogenous retroviruses (enJSRVs) highly related to the oncogenic jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) and enzootic nasal tumor virus. enJSRVs are highly expressed in the endometrial lumenal epithelia (LE) and glandular epithelia (GE) of the ovine uterus. The effects of neonatal age, estrous cycle, pregnancy, and progesterone on expression of enJSRVs in the ovine uterus were determined. Expression of enJSRV RNAs was absent from the uterus of ewes at birth, but enJSRV RNAs were expressed specifically in the LE and developing GE from postnatal day (PND) 7 to PND 56. In adult ewes, enJSRV RNAs were detected only in the epithelia of the uterine endometrium, as well as epithelia of the oviduct, cervix, and vagina. In cyclic ewes, endometrial enJSRV RNA abundance was lowest on day 1, increased 12-fold between days 1 and 13, and then decreased to day 15. In pregnant ewes, levels of endometrial enJSRV RNAs were high on day 11, increased to day 13, and then decreased to day 19. In day 17 and 19 conceptuses, enJSRV RNAs were also detected in binucleate cells of the trophectoderm. Immunoreactive JSRV capsid and envelope proteins were detected in the endometrial LE and GE, as well as in the binucleate cells of the conceptus. In transfection assays utilizing ovine endometrial LE cells, progesterone increased transcriptional activity of several enJSRV long terminal repeats. Collectively, these results indicate that transcription of enJSRVs in the endometrial epithelia of the ovine uterus is increased by progesterone and might support a role for enJSRVs in conceptus-endometrium interactions during the peri-implantation period and early placental morphogenesis. PMID:11689612

  5. Corpus callosal microstructure influences intermanual transfer in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kimberley A.; Schaeffer, Jennifer A.; Hopkins, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Learning a new motor skill with one hand typically results in performance improvements in the alternate hand. The neural substrates involved with this skill acquisition are poorly understood. We combined behavioral testing and non-invasive brain imaging to study how the organization of the corpus callosum was related to intermanual transfer performance in chimpanzees. Fifty-three chimpanzees were tested for intermanual transfer of learning using a bent-wire task. Magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor images were collected from 39 of these subjects. The dominant hand showed greater performance benefits than the nondominant hand. Further, performance was associated with structural integrity of the motor and sensory regions of the CC. Subjects with better intermanual transfer of learning had lower fractional anisotropy values. The results are consistent with the callosal access model of motor programming. PMID:24427118

  6. Neurotransmitter-Specific Synaptosomes in Rat Corpus Striatum: Morphological Variations*

    PubMed Central

    Gfeller, Eduard; Kuhar, Michael J.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1971-01-01

    This communication describes ultrastructural variations among synaptosomal fractions isolated from the corpus striatum of the rat by incomplete equilibrium sedimentation in sucrose density gradients, and attempts to relate the variations to neurotransmitter-specific synaptosomes. The concentration of synaptosomes in each fraction of the density gradient was found to be correlated with the concentration of potassium, a marker for cytoplasm occluded within synaptosomes. Monoamine oxidase activity was found to be correlated with the incidence of free mitochondria in the gradients. Synaptosomes from denser gradient fractions showed a markedly increased frequency of adherent postsynaptic elements and intraterminal mitochondria. These denser gradient fractions were rich in synaptosomes containing norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine, while synaptosomes in lighter portions of the gradients were rich in ?-aminobutyric acid and other amino acids. These data suggest that significant morphological variations may exist among different neurotransmitter-specific nerve terminals in the brain. Images PMID:4395685

  7. Case report: Malignant teratoma of the uterine corpus

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Teratomas are the commonest germ cell tumours and are most frequently found in the testes and ovary. Extragonadal teratomas are rare and mainly occur in midline structures. Uterine teratomas are extremely rare with only a few previous case reports, usually involving mature teratomas of the uterine cervix. Case Presentation We report an 82-year-old lady presenting with post-menopausal bleeding. Initial investigations revealed a benign teratoma of the uterus which was removed. Her symptoms persisted and a recurrent, now malignant, teratoma of the uterine corpus was resected at hysterectomy. Six months after surgery she relapsed with para-aortic lymphadenopathy and was treated with a taxane, etoposide and cisplatin-containing chemotherapy regimen followed by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Conclusion In this report we discuss the aetiology, diagnosis and management of uterine teratomas, and review previous case studies. PMID:19538751

  8. Modification of articular cartilage and subchondral bone pathology in an ovine meniscectomy model of osteoarthritis by avocado and soya unsaponifiables (ASU)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A Cake; R. A Read; B Guillou; P Ghosh

    2000-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of an oral preparation of avocado and soya unsaponifiables (ASU) on the development of joint pathology in an ovine model of osteoarthritis (OA), using computer-assisted histomorphometric methods.Design OA was induced in ovine knee joints by bilateral lateral meniscectomy (N=32). ASU (900mg\\/weekday) was given orally to half the group (MenX+ASU), the remainder receiving placebo (MenX). Sixteen

  9. Structural and functional analysis of the ovine laminin receptor gene ( RPSA ): Possible involvement of the LRP\\/LR protein in scrapie response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ane Marcos-Carcavilla; Jorge H. Calvo; Carmen González; Carmen Serrano; Katayoun Moazami-Goudarzi; Pascal Laurent; Maud Bertaud; Hélène Hayes; Anne E. Beattie; Jaber Lyahyai; Inmaculada Martín-Burriel; Juan María Torres; Magdalena Serrano

    2008-01-01

    Scrapie is a prion disease affecting sheep and goats. Susceptibility to this neurodegenerative disease shows polygenic variance.\\u000a The involvement of the laminin receptor (LRP\\/LR) in the metabolism and propagation of prions has previously been demonstrated.\\u000a In the present work, the ovine laminin receptor gene (RPSA) was isolated, characterized, and mapped to ovine chromosome OAR19q13. Real-time RT-PCR revealed a significant decrease

  10. SELECTIVELY DIMINISHED CORPUS CALLOSUM FIBERS IN CONGENITAL CENTRAL HYPOVENTILATION SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a condition associated with mutations in the PHOX2B gene, is characterized by loss of breathing drive during sleep, insensitivity to CO2 and O2, and multiple somatomotor, autonomic, neuropsychological, and ophthalmologic deficits, including impaired intrinsic and extrinsic eye muscle control. Brain structural studies show injury in peri-callosal regions and the corpus callosum (CC), which has the potential to affect functions disturbed in the syndrome; however, the extent of CC injury in CCHS is unclear. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based fiber tractography procedures display fiber directional information and allow quantification of fiber integrity. We performed DTI in 13 CCHS children (age, 18.2±4.7 years; 8 male) and 31 control (17.4±4.9 years; 18 male) subjects using a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner; CC fibers were assessed globally and regionally with tractography procedures, and fiber counts and densities compared between groups using analysis-of-covariance (covariates; age and sex). Global CC evaluation showed reduced fiber counts and densities in CCHS over control subjects (CCHS vs controls; fiber-counts, 4490±854 vs 5232±777, p<0.001; fiber-density, 10.0±1.5 vs 10.8±0.9 fibers/mm2, p<0.020), and regional examination revealed that these changes are localized to callosal axons projecting to prefrontal (217±47 vs 248±32, p<0.005), premotor (201±51 vs 241±47, p<0.012), parietal (179±64 vs 238±54, p<0.002), and occipital regions (363±46 vs 431±82, p<0.004). Corpus callosum fibers in CCHS are compromised in motor, cognitive, speech, and ophthalmologic regulatory areas. The mechanisms of fiber injury are unclear, but may result from hypoxia or perfusion deficits accompanying the syndrome, or from consequences of PHOX2B action. PMID:21256194

  11. BioInfer: a corpus for information extraction in the biomedical domain

    PubMed Central

    Pyysalo, Sampo; Ginter, Filip; Heimonen, Juho; Björne, Jari; Boberg, Jorma; Järvinen, Jouni; Salakoski, Tapio

    2007-01-01

    Background Lately, there has been a great interest in the application of information extraction methods to the biomedical domain, in particular, to the extraction of relationships of genes, proteins, and RNA from scientific publications. The development and evaluation of such methods requires annotated domain corpora. Results We present BioInfer (Bio Information Extraction Resource), a new public resource providing an annotated corpus of biomedical English. We describe an annotation scheme capturing named entities and their relationships along with a dependency analysis of sentence syntax. We further present ontologies defining the types of entities and relationships annotated in the corpus. Currently, the corpus contains 1100 sentences from abstracts of biomedical research articles annotated for relationships, named entities, as well as syntactic dependencies. Supporting software is provided with the corpus. The corpus is unique in the domain in combining these annotation types for a single set of sentences, and in the level of detail of the relationship annotation. Conclusion We introduce a corpus targeted at protein, gene, and RNA relationships which serves as a resource for the development of information extraction systems and their components such as parsers and domain analyzers. The corpus will be maintained and further developed with a current version being available at . PMID:17291334

  12. Corpus callosum morphology in capuchin monkeys is influenced by sex and handedness.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kimberley A; Sherwood, Chet C; Lilak, Alayna L

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences have been reported in both overall corpus callosum area and its regional subdivisions in humans. Some have suggested this reflects a unique adaptation in humans, as similar sex differences in corpus callosum morphology have not been reported in any other species of primate examined to date. Furthermore, an association between various measurements of corpus callosum morphology and handedness has been found in humans and chimpanzees. In the current study, we report measurements of corpus callosum cross-sectional area from midsagittal MR images collected in vivo from 14 adult capuchin monkeys, 9 of which were also characterized for hand preference on a coordinated bimanual task. Adult females were found to have a significantly larger corpus callosum: brain volume ratio, rostral body, posterior midbody, isthmus, and splenium than adult males. Left-handed individuals had a larger relative overall corpus callosum area than did right-handed individuals. Additionally, a significant sex and handedness interaction was found for anterior midbody, with right-handed males having a significantly smaller area than right-handed females. These results suggest that sex and handedness influences on corpus callosum morphology are not restricted to Homo sapiens. PMID:17726522

  13. Effect of whey concentration on protein recovery in fresh ovine ricotta cheese.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, E; Pes, M; Falchi, G; Pagnozzi, D; Furesi, S; Fiori, M; Roggio, T; Addis, M F; Pirisi, A

    2014-08-01

    Ricotta cheese, particularly the ovine type, is a typical Italian dairy product obtained by heat-coagulation of the proteins in whey. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of whey protein concentration, obtained by ultrafiltration, on yield of fresh ovine ricotta cheese. Ricotta cheeses were obtained by thermocoagulation of mixtures with protein content of 1.56, 3.10, 4.16, and 7.09g/100g from the mixing of skim whey and ultrafiltered skim whey. A fat-to-protein ratio of 1.1 (wt/wt) was obtained for all mixtures by adding fresh cream. The initial mixtures, as well as the final ricotta cheeses, were analyzed for their composition and by SDS-PAGE. Protein bands were quantified by QuantityOne software (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Significant differences in the composition of the ricotta cheese were observed depending on protein concentration. Particularly, ricotta cheese resulting from the mixture containing 7.09g/100g of protein presented higher moisture (72.88±1.50g/100g) and protein (10.18±0.45g/100g) contents than that prepared from the mixture with 1.56g/100g of protein (69.52±1.75 and 6.70±0.85g/100g, respectively), and fat content was lower in this sample (12.20±1.60g/100g) compared with the other treatments, with mean values between 15.72 and 20.50g/100g. Each protein fraction presented a different behavior during thermocoagulation. In particular, the recovery of ?-lactoglobulin and ?-lactalbumin in the cheese increased as their content increased in the mixtures. It was concluded that concentrating ovine rennet whey improved the extent of heat-induced protein aggregation during the thermal coagulation process. This resulted in a better recovery of each protein fraction in the product, and in a consequent increase of ricotta cheese yield. PMID:24856986

  14. Mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy in ovine fetuses and sheep cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    PubMed Central

    Burgstaller, Jörg P; Schinogl, Pamela; Dinnyes, Andras; Müller, Mathias; Steinborn, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the cloned sheep "Dolly" and nine other ovine clones produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was reported to consist only of recipient oocyte mtDNA without any detectable mtDNA contribution from the nucleus donor cell. In cattle, mouse and pig several or most of the clones showed transmission of nuclear donor mtDNA resulting in mitochondrial heteroplasmy. To clarify the discrepant transmission pattern of donor mtDNA in sheep clones we analysed the mtDNA composition of seven fetuses and five lambs cloned from fetal fibroblasts. Results The three fetal fibroblast donor cells used for SCNT harboured low mtDNA copy numbers per cell (A: 753 ± 54, B: 292 ± 33 and C: 561 ± 88). The ratio of donor to recipient oocyte mtDNAs was determined using a quantitative amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR (i.e. ARMS-qPCR). For quantification of SNP variants with frequencies below 0.1% we developed a restriction endonuclease-mediated selective quantitative PCR (REMS-qPCR). We report the first cases (n = 4 fetuses, n = 3 lambs) of recipient oocyte/nuclear donor mtDNA heteroplasmy in SCNT-derived ovine clones demonstrating that there is no species-effect hindering ovine nucleus-donor mtDNA from being transmitted to the somatic clonal offspring. Most of the heteroplasmic clones exhibited low-level heteroplasmy (0.1% to 0.9%, n = 6) indicating neutral transmission of parental mtDNAs. High-level heteroplasmy (6.8% to 46.5%) was observed in one case. This clone possessed a divergent recipient oocyte-derived mtDNA genotype with three rare amino acid changes compared to the donor including one substitution at an evolutionary conserved site. Conclusion Our study using state-of-the-art techniques for mtDNA quantification, like ARMS-qPCR and the novel REMS-qPCR, documents for the first time the transmission of donor mtDNA into somatic sheep clones. MtDNA heteroplasmy was detected in seven of 12 clones tested, whereby all but one case revealed less than 1% mtDNA contribution from the nuclear donor cell suggesting neutral segregation. PMID:18154666

  15. Corpus cavernosum abscess from a blind-ending urethra after urinary diversion surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kumabe, Ayako; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Yamamoto, Yu; Kajii, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    Corpus cavernosum abscesses are rarely seen in the clinical setting. We report the case of an early diagnosis of corpus cavernosum abscess due to a blind-ending urethra in a 60-year-old man without known risk factors and who was successfully treated by antibiotic therapy alone. In this case, the blind-ending urethra after urinary diversion surgery was considered a risk factor of the abscess formation. If the physician notes that the patient has fever of uncertain cause after urinary diversion surgery, he/she should examine the penis and perineum in consideration of the possibility of corpus cavernosum abscess. PMID:23616331

  16. Towards A Phoneme Labeled Mandarin Chinese Speech Corpus Hsin-Min Wang, Jen-Wei Kuo, and Hung-Yi Lo

    E-print Network

    Wang, Hsin-Min

    Towards A Phoneme Labeled Mandarin Chinese Speech Corpus Hsin-Min Wang, Jen-Wei Kuo, and Hung-Yi Lo-labeled Mandarin Chinese speech corpus. This paper presents our recent work towards development of such a corpus. Our goal is to label five hours of speech data selected from a Mandarin Chinese broadcast news corpus

  17. Ovine Carotid Artery-Derived Cells as an Optimized Supportive Cell Layer in 2-D Capillary Network Assays

    PubMed Central

    Dreier, Agnieszka; Unger, Ronald E.; Flanagan, Thomas C.; Kirkpatrick, C. James; Zenke, Martin; Klee, Doris; Jockenhoevel, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background Endothelial cell co-culture assays are differentiation assays which simulate the formation of capillary-like tubules with the aid of a supportive cell layer. Different cell types have been employed as a supportive cell layer, including human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and human mammary fibroblasts. However, these sources of human tissue-derived cells are limited, and more readily accessible human or animal tissue-derived cell sources would simplify the endothelial cell co-culture assay. In the present study, we investigated the potential use of alternative, accessible supportive cells for endothelial cell co-culture assay, including human umbilical cord and ovine carotid artery. Methods and Results: Human umbilical artery SMCs (HUASMCs) and ovine carotid artery-derived cells were seeded into 96-well plates, followed by addition of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Nine days after co-culture, cells were fixed, immunostained and analysed using an in vitro angiogenesis quantification tool. Capillary-like structures were detected on ovine carotid artery-derived supportive cell layers. The initial cell number, as well as pro- and anti-angiogenic factors (VEGF, PDGF-BB and Bevacizumab), had a positive or negative influence on the number of capillary-like structures. Furthermore, HUVECs from different donors showed distinct levels of VEGF receptor-2, which correlated with the amount of capillary-like structures. In the case of HUASMC supportive cell layers, HUVECs detached almost completely from the surface. Conclusions Cells of different origin have a varying applicability regarding the endothelial cell co-culture assay: under the conditions described here, ovine carotid artery-derived cells seem to be more suitable than HUASMCs for an endothelial co-culture assay. Furthermore, the ovine carotid artery-derived cells are easier to obtain and are in more abundant supply than the currently used dermal or breast tissue cells. The use of ovine carotid artery-derived cells simplifies the endothelial co-culture assay with respect to testing large amounts of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. PMID:24621607

  18. Biomechanical performance of an ovine model of intradural spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    Safayi, S; Jeffery, N D; Fredericks, D C; Viljoen, S; Dalm, B D; Reddy, C G; Wilson, S; Gillies, G T; Howard, M A

    2014-07-01

    The authors are developing a novel type of spinal cord stimulator, designed to be placed directly on the pial surface of the spinal cord, for more selective activation of target tissues within the dorsal columns. For pre-clinical testing of the device components, an ovine model has been implemented which utilizes the agility and flexibility of a sheep's cervical and upper thoracic regions, thus providing an optimal environment of accelerated stress-cycling on small gauge lead wires implanted along the dorsal spinal columns. The results are presented of representative biomechanical measurements of the angles of rotation and the angular velocities and accelerations associated with the relevant head, neck and upper back motions, and these findings are interpreted in terms of their impact on assessing the robustness of the stimulator implant systems. PMID:24841845

  19. Quantification of in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis stimulated by ovine forestomach matrix biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Sharleen M; Cayzer, Juliet; Todd, Elise M; Lun, Stan; Floden, Evan W; Negron, Leonardo; Fisher, James N; Dempsey, Sandi G; Alexander, Alan; Hill, Michael C; O'Rouke, Annalee; Gunningham, Sarah P; Knight, Cameron; Davis, Paul F; Ward, Brian R; May, Barnaby C H

    2011-09-01

    Ovine forestomach matrix (OFM) biomaterial acts as a biomimetic of native extracellular matrix (ECM) by providing structural and functional cues to orchestrate cell activity during tissue regeneration. The ordered collagen matrix of the biomaterial is supplemented with secondary ECM-associated macromolecules that function in cell adhesion, migration and communication. As angiogenesis and vasculogenesis are critical processes during tissue regeneration we sought to quantify the angiogenic properties of the OFM biomaterial. In vitro studies demonstrated that soluble OFM components stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration and increased vascular sprouting from an aorta. Blood vessel density and branch points increased in response to OFM in an ex ovo chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The OFM biomaterial was shown to undergo remodeling in a porcine full-thickness excisional model and gave rise to significantly more blood vessels than wounds treated with small intestinal submucosa decellularized ECM or untreated wounds. PMID:21665268

  20. Differentiation of two ovine Babesia based on the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qingli; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Ma, Miling; Liu, Aihong; Gao, Jinliang; Ren, Qiaoyun; Li, Youquan; Qiu, Jiaxiang; Yin, H

    2009-01-01

    The first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1, ITS2) as well as the intervening 5.8S coding region of the rRNA gene for six Babesia spp. isolated from different geographic origins were characterized. Varying degrees of ITS1 and ITS2 intra- and inter-species sequence polymorphism were found among these isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1-5.8S gene-ITS2 region clearly separated the isolates into two clusters. One held an unidentified Babesia sp. transmitted by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum. The second held five other isolates, which were considered to be Babesia motasi. Each Babesia species cluster possessed ITS1 and ITS2 of unique size(s) and species specific nucleotide sequences. The results showed that ITS1, ITS2 and the complete ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region could be used to discriminate these ovine Babesia spp. effectively. PMID:18977349

  1. Alkaline saponification results in decomposition of tocopherols in milk and ovine blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Czauderna, M; Kowalczyk, J

    2007-10-15

    Alkaline saponification of entire sample matrixes for quantification of alpha-, gamma-, delta-tocopherols (alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T) and alpha-tocopherol acetate (alpha-TAc) was examined. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T and alpha-TAc in tocopherol standard solutions, milk and ovine blood plasma. Saponification in the presence of vitamin C decreases the concentration of tocopherols, especially alpha-T and gamma-T. The poor recovery of tocopherols is due to the decomposition of tocopherols in saponified standard solutions, milk or plasma. Saponification of samples in the presence of 2,[6]-ditertbutyl-p-cresol or flushed only with a stream of Ar resulted in a major decrease in the concentrations of alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T and alpha-TAc in comparison with saponification in the presence of vitamin C. PMID:17766200

  2. Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses for amputees: Limb compensation in a 12-month ovine model.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Trevor J; Beck, J Peter; Bloebaum, Roy D; Bachus, Kent N

    2011-10-13

    Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses are being investigated as an alternative strategy to attach prosthetic limbs to patients. Although the use of these implants has shown to be promising in clinical trials, the ability to maintain a skin seal around an osseointegrated implant interface is a major challenge to prevent superficial and deep periprosthetic infections. The specific aim of this study was to establish a translational load-bearing ovine model to assess postoperative limb compensation and gait symmetry following a percutaneous osseointegrated implant. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) the animals would return to pre-amputation limb loads within 12-months; (2) the animals would return to a symmetrical gait pattern (stride length and time in stance) within 12-months. The results demonstrated that one month following surgery, the sheep loaded their amputated limb to a mean value of nearly 80% of their pre-amputation loading condition; by 12-months, this mean had dropped to approximately 74%. There was no statistical differences between the symmetry of the amputated forelimb and the contralateral forelimb at any time point for the animals stride length or the time spent in the stance phase of their gait cycle. Thus, the data showed that while the animals maintained symmetric gait patterns, they did not return to full weight-bearing after 12-months. The results of this study showed that a large animal load-bearing model had a symmetric gait and was weight bearing for up to 12 months. While the current investigation utilizes an ovine model, the data show that osseointegrated implant technology with postoperative follow-up can help our human patients return to symmetric gait and maintain an active lifestyle, leading to an improvement in their quality of life following amputation. PMID:21920525

  3. Genomics of estradiol-3-sulfate action in the ovine fetal hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Rabaglino, Maria Belen; Richards, Elaine; Denslow, Nancy; Wood, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    In fetal sheep during late gestation sulfoconjugated estrogens in plasma reach a concentration 40–100 times greater than unconjugated estrogens. The objective of the present study was to determine the genomics of estradiol-3-sulfate (E2S) action in the ovine fetal brain. The hypothesis was that E2S stimulates genes involved in the neuroendocrine pathways that direct or facilitate fetal development at the end of gestation. Four sets of chronically catheterized ovine twin fetuses were studied (gestational age: 120–127 days gestation) with one infused with E2S intracerebroventricularly (1 mg/day) and the other remaining untreated (control). After euthanasia, mRNA samples were extracted from fetal brains. Only hypothalamic samples were employed for this study given the important function of this brain region in the control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Microarray analysis was performed following the Agilent protocol for one-color 8 × 15 microarrays, designed for Ovis aries. A total of 363 known genes were significantly upregulated by the E2S treatment (P < 0.05). Network and enrichment analyses were performed using the Cytoscape/Bingo software, and the results validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The main overrepresented biological processes resulting from this analysis were feeding behavior, hypoxia response, and transforming growth factor signaling. Notably, the genes involved in the feeding behavior (neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein) were the most strongly induced by the E2S treatment. In conclusion, E2S may be an important component of the mechanism for activating orexigenic, hypoxia responsiveness and neuroprotective pathways in the lamb as it approaches postnatal life. PMID:22570439

  4. Different influence of ovine estrus synchronization treatments on caruncular early angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, I; Sánchez, M A; García-Fernández, R A; García-Palencia, P; Sánchez, B; González-Bulnes, A; Flores, J M

    2013-03-01

    The present study compares two protocols for ovine estrus synchronization by assessing the caruncular angiogenic response to the establishment of pregnancy. The analysis consisted of the immunohistochemical evaluation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31) and Von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in ovine caruncular stroma. A flock of thirty-eight adult ewes was divided in two groups and synchronized with either progestagens (Group P) or prostaglandin analogues (Group PG). Immunohistochemistry was performed in uterine samples obtained from pregnant ewes (P, n=15; PG, n=13) on days 15 post coitus (pc), 17pc and 21pc (day 0 =day of estrus). Each factor was assessed by total vascular density (TVD, total positive blood vessels/mm2), capillary vascular density (CVD, positive blood capillaries/mm2) and arteriolar vascular density (AVD, positive arterioles/mm2). Group P demonstrated higher VEGF-CVD (P=0.045) when compared to prostaglandin treated animals. Vascular CD31-expression decreased on days 15pc and 21pc (TVD, P=0.007 and CVD, P=0.014) in both groups. vWF analysis did not show significant differences between groups or days of study. These results demonstrate a different influence of progestagen-based and prostaglandin analogues-based synchronization treatments over VEGF vascular expression during caruncular development taking place in response to pregnancy establishment. In addition, observations pointed out in this study support the involvement of CD31 in the angiogenic stimulus that occurs during early maternal placentation in the ewe. PMID:23348391

  5. Influence of Reproductive Status on Tissue Composition and Biomechanical Properties of Ovine Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Daniela; Edwards, Sharon L.; Su, Kai; White, Jacinta F.; Ramshaw, John A. M.; Jenkin, Graham; Deprest, Jan; Rosamilia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To undertake a comprehensive analysis of the biochemical tissue composition and passive biomechanical properties of ovine vagina and relate this to the histo-architecture at different reproductive stages as part of the establishment of a large preclinical animal model for evaluating regenerative medicine approaches for surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. Methods Vaginal tissue was collected from virgin (n?=?3), parous (n?=?6) and pregnant sheep (n?=?6; mean gestation; 132 d; term?=?145 d). Tissue histology was analyzed using H+E and Masson's Trichrome staining. Biochemical analysis of the extracellular matrix proteins used a hydroxyproline assay to quantify total collagen, SDS PAGE to measure collagen III/I+III ratios, dimethylmethylene blue to quantify glycosaminoglycans and amino acid analysis to quantify elastin. Uniaxial tensiometry was used to determine the Young's modulus, maximum stress and strain, and permanent strain following cyclic loading. Results Vaginal tissue of virgin sheep had the lowest total collagen content and permanent strain. Parous tissue had the highest total collagen and lowest elastin content with concomitant high maximum stress. In contrast, pregnant sheep had the highest elastin and lowest collagen contents, and thickest smooth muscle layer, which was associated with low maximum stress and poor dimensional recovery following repetitive loading. Conclusion Pregnant ovine vagina was the most extensible, but the weakest tissue, whereas parous and virgin tissues were strong and elastic. Pregnancy had the greatest impact on tissue composition and biomechanical properties, compatible with significant tissue remodeling as demonstrated in other species. Biochemical changes in tissue protein composition coincide with these altered biomechanical properties. PMID:24709913

  6. Serosurvey on schmallenberg virus and selected ovine reproductive pathogens in culled ewes from southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Astorga, R J; Reguillo, L; Hernández, M; Cardoso-Toset, F; Tarradas, C; Maldonado, A; Gómez-Laguna, J

    2014-02-01

    After the first case of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was reported in southern Spain (March 2012), a retrospective serological study was carried out in extensive sheep flocks from nearby areas to assess the history of exposure to SBV and other selected ovine reproductive pathogens (Chlamydophila abortus, Coxiella burnetii, Border Disease virus 'BDV', Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum). Secondly, the presence of antibodies was investigated in meat juice samples against selected pathogens to validate their use in serosurveys in sheep. A total of 209 Merina and cross-bred culled ewes belonging to 12 outdoor flocks managed in extensive breeding systems were sampled. Serum and meat juice samples were collected at the slaughterhouse and analysed using commercial ELISA kits. Chlamydophila abortus (62.68%, CI95 56.13-69.23) and Toxoplasma gondii (57.42%, CI95 50.72-64.12) were the most prevalent pathogens. The seroprevalence of BDV (16.27%, CI95 11.27-21.27) and Coxiella burnetii (13.88%, CI95 9.2-18.56) was moderate, and only 4 of 209 animals (1.91%, CI95 1.82-2.96) presented specific antibodies against Neospora caninum or SBV. All the examined ovine flocks were seropositive to three or more pathogens. The highest percentage of seropositive animals was detected for T. gondii-C. abortus coseropositive (25.36%) culled ewes. The concordance between serum and meat juice samples was moderate for T. gondii (? = 0.419) and BDV (? = 0.568), and fair for C. abortus (? = 0.311). Our results show evidence of circulation of SBV from summer 2011 in southern Spain. Furthermore, C. abortus and T. gondii were the most prevalent pathogens associated with sheep in outdoor rearing systems. Finally, these preliminary results point to meat juice samples as a potential biological sample for serosurveys studies on sheep. PMID:24219149

  7. Prostacyclin synthesis in ovine pulmonary artery is developmentally regulated by changes in cyclooxygenase-1 gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Brannon, T S; North, A J; Wells, L B; Shaul, P W

    1994-01-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) is a key mediator of pulmonary vasomotor tone during late gestation and in the newborn, and its production in whole lung increases during that period. We investigated the developmental regulation of PGI2 synthesis in ovine intrapulmonary artery (PA) segments from 110 to 115 d (F1) and 125 to 135 d gestation fetal lambs (F2, term = 144 d) and 1- and 4-wk-old newborn lambs (NB1 and NB2). Basal PGI2 rose fourfold from F1 to F2, fourfold from F2 to NB1, and twofold from NB1 to NB2. In all age groups 66-72% of PGI2 was derived from the endothelium. Similar fold increases in PGI2 were observed with maturation in intact and endothelium-denuded segments. In intact PA from F2, NB1, and NB2, basal PGI2 synthesis and synthesis maximally stimulated by bradykinin, A23187, or arachidonic acid rose with development in a comparable manner. In contrast, PGI2 synthesis stimulated by exogenous PGH2, the product of cyclooxygenase, was similar at all ages. Immunoblot analyses of PA from F2, NB1, and NB2 revealed that there is a sixfold maturational increase in cyclooxygenase-1 protein; the cyclooxygenase-2 isoform was not detectable. Cyclooxygenase-1 mRNA abundance in whole lung also rose with development. Thus, PGI2 synthesis in ovine PA endothelium and vascular smooth muscle increases markedly during late fetal and early newborn life; the increase is due to a rise in cyclooxygenase activity related to enhanced expression of cyclooxygenase-1. We conclude that there is developmental regulation of PA cyclooxygenase-1 gene expression, and that this may be critical to successful cardiopulmonary transition and function in the newborn. Images PMID:8182155

  8. Unexpected maturation of PI3K and MAPK-ERK signaling in fetal ovine cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Chattergoon, N N; Louey, S; Stork, P J; Giraud, G D; Thornburg, K L

    2014-10-15

    In the first two-thirds of gestation, ovine fetal cardiomyocytes undergo mitosis to increase cardiac mass and accommodate fetal growth. Thereafter, some myocytes continue to proliferate while others mature and terminally differentiate into binucleated cells. At term (145 days gestational age; dGA) about 60% of cardiomyocytes become binucleated and exit the cell cycle under hormonal control. Rising thyroid hormone (T3) levels near term (135 dGA) inhibit proliferation and stimulate maturation. However, the degree to which intracellular signaling patterns change with age in response to T3 is unknown. We hypothesized that in vitro activation of ERK, Akt, and p70(S6K) by two regulators of cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity, T3 and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), would be similar in cardiomyocytes at gestational ages 100 and 135 dGA. IGF-1 and T3 each independently stimulated phosphorylation of ERK, Akt, and p70(S6K) in cells at both ages. In the younger mononucleated myocytes, the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt was reduced in the presence of IGF-1 and T3. However, the same hormone combination led to a dramatic twofold increase in the phosphorylation of these signaling proteins in the 135 dGA cardiomyocytes-even in cells that were not proliferating. In the older cells, both mono- and binucleated cells were affected. In conclusion, fetal ovine cardiomyocytes undergo profound maturation-related changes in signaling in response to T3 and IGF-1, but not to either factor alone. Differences in age-related response are likely to be related to milestones in fetal cardiac development as the myocardium prepares for ex utero life. PMID:25128174

  9. First study of pathogen load and localisation of ovine footrot using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH)

    PubMed Central

    Witcomb, Luci A.; Green, Laura E.; Calvo-Bado, Leo A.; Russell, Claire L.; Smith, Edward M.; Grogono-Thomas, Rose; Wellington, Elizabeth M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of bacterial populations in situ provides insights into pathogen population dynamics and potential reservoirs for disease. Here we report a culture-independent study of ovine footrot (FR); a debilitating bacterial disease that has significant economic impact on sheep farming worldwide. Disease begins as an interdigital dermatitis (ID), which may then progress to separation of the hoof horn from the underlying epidermis causing severe footrot (SFR). Dichelobacter nodosus is the causative agent of ovine FR, however, the role of Fusobacterium necrophorum and other bacteria present in the environment and on the feet of sheep is less clear. The objective of this study was to use fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to detect, localise and quantify D. nodosus, F. necrophorum and the domain Bacteria from interdigital skin biopsies of healthy, ID- and SFR-affected feet. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum populations were restricted primarily to the epidermis, but both were detected more frequently in feet with ID or SFR than in healthy feet. D. nodosus cell counts were significantly higher in feet with ID and SFR (p < 0.05) than healthy feet, whereas F. necrophorum cell counts were significantly higher only in feet with SFR (p < 0.05) than healthy feet. These results, together with other published data, indicate that D. nodosus likely drives pathogenesis of footrot from initiation of ID to SFR; with D. nodosus cell counts increasing prior to onset of ID and SFR. In contrast, F. necrophorum cell counts increase after SFR onset, which may suggest an accessory role in disease pathogenesis, possibly contributing to the severity and duration of SFR. PMID:25742734

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation improves regional cardiac remodeling following ovine infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunshan; Li, Tieluo; Wei, Xufeng; Bianchi, Giacomo; Hu, Jingping; Sanchez, Pablo G; Xu, Kai; Zhang, Pei; Pittenger, Mark F; Wu, Zhongjun J; Griffith, Bartley P

    2012-09-01

    Progressive cardiac remodeling, including the myopathic process in the adjacent zone following myocardial infarction (MI), contributes greatly to the development of cardiac failure. Cardiomyoplasty using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been demonstrated to protect cardiomyocytes and/or repair damaged myocardium, leading to improved cardiac performance, but the therapeutic effects on cardiac remodeling are still under investigation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that MSCs could improve the pathological remodeling of the adjacent myocardium abutting the infarct. Allogeneic ovine MSCs were transplanted into the adjacent zone by intracardiac injection 4 hours after infarction. Results showed that remodeling and contractile strain alteration were reduced in the adjacent zone of the MSC-treated group. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was significantly attenuated with the normalization of the hypertrophy-related signaling proteins phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase ? (PI3K?), PI3K?, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) in the adjacent zone of the MSC-treated group versus the MI-alone group. Moreover, the imbalance of the calcium-handling proteins sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) adenosine triphosphatase (SERCA2a), phospholamban (PLB), and sodium/calcium exchanger type 1 (NCX-1) induced by MI was prevented by MSC transplantation, and more strikingly, the activity of SERCA2a and uptake of calcium were improved. In addition, the upregulation of the proapoptotic protein Bcl-xL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) was normalized, as was phospho-Akt expression; there was less fibrosis, as revealed by staining for collagen; and the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes was significantly inhibited in the adjacent zone by MSC transplantation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that MSC implantation improved the remodeling in the region adjacent to the infarct after cardiac infarction in the ovine infarction model. PMID:23197875

  11. First study of pathogen load and localisation of ovine footrot using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH).

    PubMed

    Witcomb, Luci A; Green, Laura E; Calvo-Bado, Leo A; Russell, Claire L; Smith, Edward M; Grogono-Thomas, Rose; Wellington, Elizabeth M H

    2015-04-17

    Analysis of bacterial populations in situ provides insights into pathogen population dynamics and potential reservoirs for disease. Here we report a culture-independent study of ovine footrot (FR); a debilitating bacterial disease that has significant economic impact on sheep farming worldwide. Disease begins as an interdigital dermatitis (ID), which may then progress to separation of the hoof horn from the underlying epidermis causing severe footrot (SFR). Dichelobacter nodosus is the causative agent of ovine FR, however, the role of Fusobacterium necrophorum and other bacteria present in the environment and on the feet of sheep is less clear. The objective of this study was to use fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) to detect, localise and quantify D. nodosus, F. necrophorum and the domain Bacteria from interdigital skin biopsies of healthy, ID- and SFR-affected feet. D. nodosus and F. necrophorum populations were restricted primarily to the epidermis, but both were detected more frequently in feet with ID or SFR than in healthy feet. D. nodosus cell counts were significantly higher in feet with ID and SFR (p<0.05) than healthy feet, whereas F. necrophorum cell counts were significantly higher only in feet with SFR (p<0.05) than healthy feet. These results, together with other published data, indicate that D. nodosus likely drives pathogenesis of footrot from initiation of ID to SFR; with D. nodosus cell counts increasing prior to onset of ID and SFR. In contrast, F. necrophorum cell counts increase after SFR onset, which may suggest an accessory role in disease pathogenesis, possibly contributing to the severity and duration of SFR. PMID:25742734

  12. Influence of storage and preservation on microbiological quality of silo ovine milk.

    PubMed

    de Garnica, M L; Santos, J A; Gonzalo, C

    2011-04-01

    This study was designed to analyze the effects of the storage and preservation conditions on counts of mesophilic, thermoduric, psychotrophic, coliform, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Staphylococcus aureus organisms in silo ovine milk. A total of 910 analytical determinations were conducted from aliquots of 10 silo ovine milks. The conditions tested were unpreserved and azidiol-preserved milk stored at 4°C, and unpreserved milk stored at -20°C. Milk aged 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-collection for refrigerated aliquots, and 7, 15, and 30 d post-collection for frozen aliquots. The factors silo and storage conditions significantly contributed to variation of all microbiological variables, although milk age effect within storage was only significant for mesophilic, psychrotrophic, and coliform bacteria counts. In refrigerated raw milk, mesophile, psychrotroph, and coliform counts significantly increased over 96 h post-collection, whereas the other groups and bacteria species tested maintained their initial concentration. In all cases, azidiol preservation maintained the initial bacterial concentration in raw sheep milk under refrigeration throughout 96 h. Thus, azidiol was a suitable preservative for microbiological studies in sheep milk. Smallest counts were registered for frozen samples, particularly for coliforms, E. coli, Strep. agalactiae and Staph. aureus. Estimates of mesophilic, thermoduric and psychrotrophic organisms showed similar values on both azidiol-preserved and frozen milk samples. Coliforms and E. coli counts significantly decrease over time after freezing. Consequently, freezing at -20°C could also be appropriate for analysis of mesophilic, thermoduric, and psychrotrophic bacterial groups, but not for coliforms or mammary pathogens. PMID:21426983

  13. Effect of synthetic ovine corticotropin-releasing factor. Dose response of plasma adrenocorticotropin and cortisol.

    PubMed Central

    Orth, D N; Jackson, R V; DeCherney, G S; DeBold, C R; Alexander, A N; Island, D P; Rivier, J; Rivier, C; Spiess, J; Vale, W

    1983-01-01

    Synthetic ovine corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) was administered to normal male volunteer subjects as an intravenous bolus or 30-s infusion. Doses of CRF ranging from 0.001 to 30 micrograms/kg body wt were administered, and plasma immunoreactive (IR)-ACTH and IR-cortisol concentrations were measured. The threshold dose appeared to be 0.01-0.03 micrograms/kg, the half-maximal dose 0.3-1 micrograms/kg, and the maximally effective dose 3-10 micrograms/kg. Basal concentrations of IR-ACTH and IR-cortisol were 14 +/- 7.6 pg/ml (mean +/- SD) and 5.6 +/- 2.2 micrograms/dl, respectively. IR-ACTH rose as early as 2 min after CRF injection, reached peak levels in 10-15 min, and declined slowly thereafter. IR-cortisol rose at 10 min or later and reached peak levels in 30-60 min. At a dose of 30 micrograms/kg, neither IR-ACTH nor IR-cortisol fell from peak levels of 82 +/- 21 pg/ml (mean +/- SE) and 23 +/- 1.4 micrograms/dl, respectively, during the 2-h course of the experiment, indicating that CRF has a sustained effect on ACTH release and/or a prolonged circulating plasma half-life. There was little or no increase in the levels of other anterior pituitary hormones. At doses of 1 microgram/kg and higher, facial flushing, tachycardia, and, in some subjects, a 15-29-mmHg decline in systemic arterial blood pressure were observed, even though blood volume was replaced and the subjects remained supine. These data indicate that synthetic ovine CRF is a very potent and specific ACTH secretagogue in man. Administered with caution until its vasomotor effects are more fully defined, CRF promises to be a safe and very useful investigative, diagnostic, and, possibly, therapeutic agent in man. Images PMID:6298280

  14. Percutaneous Osseointegrated Prostheses for Amputees: Limb Compensation in a 12-Month Ovine model

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Trevor J.; Beck, J. Peter; Bloebaum, Roy D.; Bachus, Kent N.

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous osseointegrated prostheses are being investigated as an alternative strategy to attach prosthetic limbs to patients. Although the use of these implants has shown to be promising in clinical trials; the ability to maintain a skin seal around an osseointegrated implant interface is a major challenge to prevent superficial and deep periprosthetic infections. The specific aim of this study was to establish a translational load-bearing ovine model to assess postoperative limb compensation and gait symmetry following a percutaneous integrated implant. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) the animals would return to pre-amputation limb loads within 12-months; (2) the animals would return to a symmetrical gait pattern (stride length and time in stance) within 12-months. The results demonstrated that one month following surgery, the sheep loaded their amputated limb to a mean value of nearly 80% of their pre-amputation loading condition; by 12-months, this mean had dropped to approximately 74%. There were no statistical differences between the symmetry of the amputated forelimb and the contralateral forelimb at any time point for the animals stride length or the time spent in the stance phase of their gait cycle. Thus, the data showed that while the animals maintained symmetric gait patterns, they did not return to full weight-bearing after 12-months. The results of this study showed that a large animal load-bearing model had a symmetric gait and was weight bearing for up to 12 months. While the current investigation utilizes an ovine model, there data show that osseointegrated implant technology with postoperative follow-up can help our human patients return to symmetric gait and maintain an active lifestyle, leading to an improvement in their quality of life following amputation. PMID:21920525

  15. The Local Effects of Ovarian Diathermy in an Ovine Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30–100 gestation. Their female offspring (n?=?12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n?=?4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n?=?4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n?=?4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P?=?0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles. PMID:25343339

  16. Whole-Exome Sequencing Identifies Mutated C12orf57 in Recessive Corpus Callosum Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Akizu, Naiara; Shembesh, Nuri M.; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Bastaki, Laila; Al-Tawari, Asma; Zaki, Maha S.; Koul, Roshan; Spencer, Emily; Rosti, Rasim Ozgur; Scott, Eric; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Stacey; da Gente, Gilberto; Li, Jiang; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Conlin, Laura K.; Horton, Margaret A.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Gleeson, Joseph G.

    2013-01-01

    The corpus callosum is the principal cerebral commissure connecting the right and left hemispheres. The development of the corpus callosum is under tight genetic control, as demonstrated by abnormalities in its development in more than 1,000 genetic syndromes. We recruited more than 25 families in which members affected with corpus callosum hypoplasia (CCH) lacked syndromic features and had consanguineous parents, suggesting recessive causes. Exome sequence analysis identified C12orf57 mutations at the initiator methionine codon in four different families. C12orf57 is ubiquitously expressed and encodes a poorly annotated 126 amino acid protein of unknown function. This protein is without significant paralogs but has been tightly conserved across evolution. Our data suggest that this conserved gene is required for development of the human corpus callosum. PMID:23453666

  17. Matrix: A statistical method and software tool for linguistic analysis through corpus comparison

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Rayson

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Matrix: A statistical method and software tool for linguistic analysis through corpus comparison A thesis submitted to Lancaster University for the degree of Ph D in Computer Science Paul Edward Rayson, B Sc September 2002

  18. Topic Models + Word Alignment = A Flexible Framework for Extracting Bilingual Dictionary from Comparable Corpus

    E-print Network

    Duh, Kevin

    Comparable Corpus Xiaodong Liu, Kevin Duh and Yuji Matsumoto Graduate School of Information Science Nara: The approach should not rely on language-specific knowl- edge or a large scale seed lexicon. 2. Polysemy

  19. Longitudinal, Regional and Deformation-Specific Corpus Callosum Shape Analysis for Multiple Sclerosis

    E-print Network

    Hamarneh, Ghassan

    brain scans of a group of multiple sclerosis patients undergoing a longitudinal (serial) study transmit neural impulses between the hemispheres. Multiple Sclerosis is an inflammatory and degenerativeLongitudinal, Regional and Deformation-Specific Corpus Callosum Shape Analysis for Multiple

  20. Discovery of Related Terms in a corpus using Reflective Random Indexing

    E-print Network

    Oard, Doug

    to automatically identify terms that co-occur in a corpus, with a view to offering the co-occurring terms and present parameters that impact its effectiveness in addressing information retrieval needs for the TREC

  1. Ex vivo bubble production from ovine large blood vessels: size on detachment and evidence of "active spots".

    PubMed

    Arieli, R; Marmur, A

    2014-08-15

    Nanobubbles formed on the hydrophobic silicon wafer were shown to be the source of gas micronuclei from which bubbles evolved during decompression. Bubbles were also formed after decompression on the luminal surface of ovine blood vessels. Four ovine blood vessels: aorta, pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery, and superior vena cava, were compressed to 1013 kPa for 21 h. They were then decompressed, photographed at 1-s intervals, and bubble size was measured on detachment. There were certain spots at which bubbles appeared, either singly or in a cluster. Mean detachment diameter was between 0.7 and 1.0 mm. The finding of active spots at which bubbles nucleate is a new, hitherto unreported observation. It is possible that these are the hydrophobic spots at which bubbles nucleate, stabilise, and later transform into the gas micronuclei that grow into bubbles. The possible neurological effects of these large arterial bubbles should be further explored. PMID:24933644

  2. The CHEMDNER corpus of chemicals and drugs and its annotation principles.

    PubMed

    Krallinger, Martin; Rabal, Obdulia; Leitner, Florian; Vazquez, Miguel; Salgado, David; Lu, Zhiyong; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Yanan; Ji, Donghong; Lowe, Daniel M; Sayle, Roger A; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Rak, Rafal; Huber, Torsten; Rocktäschel, Tim; Matos, Sérgio; Campos, David; Tang, Buzhou; Xu, Hua; Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Ryu, Keun Ho; Ramanan, S V; Nathan, Senthil; Žitnik, Slavko; Bajec, Marko; Weber, Lutz; Irmer, Matthias; Akhondi, Saber A; Kors, Jan A; Xu, Shuo; An, Xin; Sikdar, Utpal Kumar; Ekbal, Asif; Yoshioka, Masaharu; Dieb, Thaer M; Choi, Miji; Verspoor, Karin; Khabsa, Madian; Giles, C Lee; Liu, Hongfang; Ravikumar, Komandur Elayavilli; Lamurias, Andre; Couto, Francisco M; Dai, Hong-Jie; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Ata, Caglar; Can, Tolga; Usié, Anabel; Alves, Rui; Segura-Bedmar, Isabel; Martínez, Paloma; Oyarzabal, Julen; Valencia, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The automatic extraction of chemical information from text requires the recognition of chemical entity mentions as one of its key steps. When developing supervised named entity recognition (NER) systems, the availability of a large, manually annotated text corpus is desirable. Furthermore, large corpora permit the robust evaluation and comparison of different approaches that detect chemicals in documents. We present the CHEMDNER corpus, a collection of 10,000 PubMed abstracts that contain a total of 84,355 chemical entity mentions labeled manually by expert chemistry literature curators, following annotation guidelines specifically defined for this task. The abstracts of the CHEMDNER corpus were selected to be representative for all major chemical disciplines. Each of the chemical entity mentions was manually labeled according to its structure-associated chemical entity mention (SACEM) class: abbreviation, family, formula, identifier, multiple, systematic and trivial. The difficulty and consistency of tagging chemicals in text was measured using an agreement study between annotators, obtaining a percentage agreement of 91. For a subset of the CHEMDNER corpus (the test set of 3,000 abstracts) we provide not only the Gold Standard manual annotations, but also mentions automatically detected by the 26 teams that participated in the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER chemical mention recognition task. In addition, we release the CHEMDNER silver standard corpus of automatically extracted mentions from 17,000 randomly selected PubMed abstracts. A version of the CHEMDNER corpus in the BioC format has been generated as well. We propose a standard for required minimum information about entity annotations for the construction of domain specific corpora on chemical and drug entities. The CHEMDNER corpus and annotation guidelines are available at: http://www.biocreative.org/resources/biocreative-iv/chemdner-corpus/. PMID:25810773

  3. Development of a Partially Bracketed Corpus with Part-of-Speech Information Only

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsin-Hsi Chen; Yue-Shi Lee

    1995-01-01

    Resea\\/ch based on a treebank is active for many natural language applications. However, the work to build a large scale treebank is laborious and tedious. This paper proposes a probabilistic chunker to help the development of a partially bracketed corpus. The chunker partitions the part-of-speech sequence into segments called chunks. Rather than using a treebank as our training corpus, a

  4. The pedagogical mediation of a developmental learner corpus for classroom-based language instruction

    E-print Network

    Belz, Julie A.; Vyatkina, Nina

    2008-10-01

    under study as a Developmental Learner Corpus (DLC)1 because it contains the complete record of all native speaker (NS) and non-native speaker (NNS) interactions during two-month telecollaborative partnerships (see Belz, 2002; Belz & Thorne, 2006; O..., including the small number of languages and text types represented in existing corpora and the lack of developmental corpora. Another major issue is the controversy over the authenticity of corpus data (see Seidlhofer, 2003, pp. 77- 123). On the one hand...

  5. The CHEMDNER corpus of chemicals and drugs and its annotation principles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The automatic extraction of chemical information from text requires the recognition of chemical entity mentions as one of its key steps. When developing supervised named entity recognition (NER) systems, the availability of a large, manually annotated text corpus is desirable. Furthermore, large corpora permit the robust evaluation and comparison of different approaches that detect chemicals in documents. We present the CHEMDNER corpus, a collection of 10,000 PubMed abstracts that contain a total of 84,355 chemical entity mentions labeled manually by expert chemistry literature curators, following annotation guidelines specifically defined for this task. The abstracts of the CHEMDNER corpus were selected to be representative for all major chemical disciplines. Each of the chemical entity mentions was manually labeled according to its structure-associated chemical entity mention (SACEM) class: abbreviation, family, formula, identifier, multiple, systematic and trivial. The difficulty and consistency of tagging chemicals in text was measured using an agreement study between annotators, obtaining a percentage agreement of 91. For a subset of the CHEMDNER corpus (the test set of 3,000 abstracts) we provide not only the Gold Standard manual annotations, but also mentions automatically detected by the 26 teams that participated in the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER chemical mention recognition task. In addition, we release the CHEMDNER silver standard corpus of automatically extracted mentions from 17,000 randomly selected PubMed abstracts. A version of the CHEMDNER corpus in the BioC format has been generated as well. We propose a standard for required minimum information about entity annotations for the construction of domain specific corpora on chemical and drug entities. The CHEMDNER corpus and annotation guidelines are available at: http://www.biocreative.org/resources/biocreative-iv/chemdner-corpus/

  6. Sentiment analysis on a corpus of texts written by primary school children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eladio Blanco López; F. M. Santiago; Antonio Pantoja Vallejo; A. Ureña Lo?pez

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the making of the e-Culturas corpus from written texts by 10-11-year-old-children. These texts have been written from the memory of some event in which the kid has felt fear, hapiness or sadness. The purpose of the corpus in this report is the training of an automatic classifier for these sentiments. The results of the evaluation of the

  7. Liposarcoma of the uterine corpus coexisting with preinvasive cervical cancer--a case report.

    PubMed

    So?nik, Henryk; Jele?, Micha?; So?nik, Katarzyna; Pomorska, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Case report of isolated liposarcoma of the uterine corpus coexisting with preinvasive cervix cancer in 71-year-old woman, who 41 years ago underwent the enucleation of the uterine corpus myomas. In tumor histogenesis the malignant transformation of fat cells, which might have been previously transferred to myometrium, was taken into consideration. The 8 year long follow-up revealed neither recurrence nor metastases. PMID:17219745

  8. The distributions of major whey proteins in acid wheys obtained from caprine\\/bovine and ovine\\/bovine milk mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirjana B. Pesic; Miroljub B. Barac; Miroslav M. Vrvic; Nikola M. Ristic; Ognjen D. Macej; Sladjana P. Stanojevic; Aleksandar Z. Kostic

    2011-01-01

    The distributions of major whey proteins in acid wheys from different caprine\\/bovine and ovine\\/bovine milk mixtures were investigated using native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Significantly different distributions of major whey proteins as individual proteins or as the sum of the same protein from different species were established. The caprine major whey proteins were dominant in mixtures with 10%, 20% and 30%

  9. Comparison of gene probe and conventional methods for the differentiation of ovine footrot isolates of Dichelobacter nodosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian I. Rood; Pauline A. Howarth; Volker Haring; Stephen J. Billington; Weng K. Yong; Don Liu; Michael A. Palmer; David R. Pitman; Ian Links; David J. Stewart; Jill A. Vaughan

    1996-01-01

    In a collaborative study that involved four Australian veterinary diagnostic laboratories a gene probe test based on the recombinant plasmids pJIR318, pJIR314B, and pJIR313, which contain genomic vap or vrl regions, was compared with conventional tests used for the differential diagnosis of ovine footrot. A total of 771 clinical Dichelobacter nodosus isolates were tested and designated as belonging to one

  10. Growth performances and carcass traits of Ovin Martinik lambs fed various ratios of tropical forage to concentrate under intensive conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Archimède; P. Pellonde; P. Despois; T. Etienne; G. Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of supplementation upon intake, growth and carcass traits of Ovin Martinik hair sheep. Forty lambs weighing 20±3.7kg live weight (LW) were reared after weaning in individual pens during a 4-month experimental study. Four supplement levels were compared (10 lambs per treatment): the L0 group received the basal diet (tropical forage 0.75 UFL and

  11. Transcriptome signatures in Helicobacter pylori-infected mucosa identifies acidic mammalian chitinase loss as a corpus atrophy marker

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The majority of gastric cancer cases are believed to be caused by chronic infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, and atrophic corpus gastritis is a predisposing condition to gastric cancer development. We aimed to increase understanding of the molecular details of atrophy by performing a global transcriptome analysis of stomach tissue. Methods Biopsies from patients with different stages of H. pylori infection were taken from both the antrum and corpus mucosa and analyzed on microarrays. The stages included patients without current H. pylori infection, H. pylori-infected without corpus atrophy and patients with current or past H. pylori-infection with corpus-predominant atrophic gastritis. Results Using clustering and integrated analysis, we found firm evidence for antralization of the corpus mucosa of atrophy patients. This antralization harbored gain of gastrin expression, as well as loss of expression of corpus-related genes, such as genes associated with acid production, energy metabolism and blood clotting. The analyses provided detailed molecular evidence for simultaneous intestinal metaplasia (IM) and spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in atrophic corpus tissue. Finally, acidic mammalian chitinase, a chitin-degrading enzyme produced by chief cells, was shown to be strongly down-regulated in corpus atrophy. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis revealed several gene groups which are related to development of corpus atrophy, some of which were increased also in H. pylori-infected non-atrophic patients. Furthermore, loss of acidic chitinase expression is a promising marker for corpus atrophy. PMID:24119614

  12. Oligodendrocyte Lineage and Subventricular Zone Response to Traumatic Axonal Injury in the Corpus Callosum

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Genevieve M.; Mierzwa, Amanda J.; Kijpaisalratana, Naruchorn; Tang, *Haiying; Wang, Yong; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Selwyn, Reed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury frequently causes traumatic axonal injury (TAI) in white matter tracts. Experimental TAI in the corpus callosum of adult mice was used to examine the effects on oligodendrocyte lineage cells and myelin in conjunction with neuroimaging. The injury targeted the corpus callosum over the subventricular zone, a source of neural stem/progenitor cells. Traumatic axonal injury was produced in the rostral body of the corpus callosum by impact onto the skull at the bregma. During the first week after injury, magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging showed that axial diffusivity decreased in the corpus callosum and that corresponding regions exhibited significant axon damage accompanied by hypertrophic microglia and reactive astrocytes. Oligodendrocyte progenitor proliferation increased in the subventricular zone and corpus callosum. Oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum shifted toward upregulation of myelin gene transcription. Plp/CreERT:R26IAP reporter mice showed normal reporter labeling of myelin sheaths 0 to 2 days after injury but labeling was increased between 2 and 7 days after injury. Electron microscopy revealed axon degeneration, demyelination, and redundant myelin figures. These findings expand the cell types and responses to white matter injuries that inform diffusion tensor imaging evaluation and identify pivotal white matter changes after TAI that may affect axon vulnerability vs. recovery after brain injury. PMID:24226267

  13. Ovine (Ovis aries) blastula from an in vitro production system and isolation of primary embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S-X; Sun, Z; Zhang, J-P

    2007-02-01

    Livestock embryo production in in vitro systems has been highlighted due to the emergence of interest in embryo stem cells (ESC). ESC potency and their wide potential applications have been recognized in medicine, fundamental research fields and commercial markets due to ESC totipotency or pluripotency and self-renewal. Ovine ESC probably is a useful technical platform for transgenic livestock and animal cloning, but ESC lines have not yet been founded because of difficulties in ESC isolation and the lack of blastula materials. We have established an IVP (in vitro production) system in our laboratory, including in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization and in vitro culture, to produce sheep blastula using fresh ovaries and testes collected from livestock production. This system can achieve rates of mature eggs and blastulas of 65 and 50% respectively, and can provide enough blastulas for ICM (inner cell mass) isolation. Furthermore, ESC-like clones were isolated from the ICM on ovine embryonic fibroblast (OEF) feeder cells and in ES-DMEM supplemented with the cell factors LIF and SCF, and these survived to the third passage, which was primarily identified by AKP staining and morphology. This work provides a basis for ovine ESC isolation and foundation of ESC lines. PMID:17391544

  14. Incidence of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk using cultural method and the PCR assay

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Momtaz, Hassan; Behzadnia, Asma; Baghbadorani, Zeinab Torki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence rate of Listeria species in bovine, ovine, caprine, camel and water buffalo milk in Iran. Methods From September 2010 to December 2011 a total of 260 bulk milk samples including 85 bovine, 37 camel, 34 water buffalo, 56 ovine and 48 caprine bulk milk samples were collected from commercial dairy herds, in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran and were evaluated for the presence of Listeria species using cultural method and the PCR assay. Results Using cultural method, 19 samples (7.3%) were positive for Listeria spp. The highest prevalence of Listeria was found in raw water buffalo milk (11.8%), followed by raw bovine milk (10.6%), raw ovine milk (7.1%), and raw caprine milk (4.2%) samples. All 37 camel milk samples from 20 camel breeding farms were negative for Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria was 7.3%, in which Listeria innocua was the most recovered species (4.2%); the remaining isolates were Listeria monocytogenes (1.9%), Listeria ivanovii (0.08%) and Listeria seeligari (0.04%). The PCR assay could identify 8 Listeria-contaminated milk samples that were negative using the cultural method. Conclusions The results presented in this study indicate the potential risk of infection with Listeria in people consuming raw and unpasteurized milk.

  15. Automated measurement of the human corpus callosum using MRI

    PubMed Central

    Herron, Timothy J.; Kang, Xiaojian; Woods, David L.

    2012-01-01

    The corpus callosum includes the majority of fibers that connect the two cortical hemispheres. Studies of cross-sectional callosal morphometry and area have revealed developmental, gender, and hemispheric differences in healthy populations and callosal deficits associated with neurodegenerative disease and brain injury. However, accurate quantification of the callosum using magnetic resonance imaging is complicated by intersubject variability in callosal size, shape, and location and often requires manual outlining of the callosum in order to achieve adequate performance. Here we describe an objective, fully automated protocol that utilizes voxel-based images to quantify the area and thickness both of the entire callosum and of different callosal compartments. We verify the method's accuracy, reliability, robustness, and multisite consistency and make comparisons with manual measurements using public brain-image databases. An analysis of age-related changes in the callosum showed increases in length and reductions in thickness and area with age. A comparison of older subjects with and without mild dementia revealed that reductions in anterior callosal area independently predicted poorer cognitive performance after factoring out Mini-Mental Status Examination scores and normalized whole brain volume. Open-source software implementing the algorithm is available at www.nitrc.org/projects/c8c8. PMID:22988433

  16. Tractography of the Corpus Callosum in Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Owen; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Elifani, Francesca; Maglione, Vittorio; Di Pardo, Alba; Caltagirone, Carlo; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2013-01-01

    White matter abnormalities have been shown in presymptomatic and symptomatic Huntington’s disease (HD) subjects using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) methods. The largest white matter tract, the corpus callosum (CC), has been shown to be particularly vulnerable; however, little work has been done to investigate the regional specificity of tract abnormalities in the CC. Thus, this study examined the major callosal tracts by applying DTI-based tractography. Using TrackVis, a previously defined region of interest tractography method parcellating CC into seven major tracts based on target region was applied to 30 direction DTI data collected from 100 subjects: presymptomatic HD (Pre-HD) subjects (n?=?25), HD patients (n?=?25) and healthy control subjects (n?=?50). Tractography results showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD) across broad regions of the CC in Pre-HD subjects. Similar though more severe deficits were seen in HD patients. In Pre-HD and HD, callosal FA and RD were correlated with Disease Burden/CAG repeat length as well as motor (UHDRSI) and cognitive (URDRS2) assessments. These results add evidence that CC pathways are compromised prior to disease onset with possible demyelination occurring early in the disease and suggest that CAG repeat length is a contributing factor to connectivity deficits. Furthermore, disruption of these callosal pathways potentially contributes to the disturbances of motor and cognitive processing that characterize HD. PMID:24019913

  17. Ovarian estrogen acts to feminize the female rat's corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Mack, C M; Fitch, R H; Cowell, P E; Schrott, L M; Denenberg, V H

    1993-01-15

    The rat corpus callosum (CC) is sexually dimorphic, with the male CC being larger. Ovariectomy (Ovx) on day 12 has been shown to eliminate this sex difference, with callosal values of Ovx females approaching those of male controls. This suggested that postnatal ovarian estrogen affects the size of the female CC. In the present experiment, one group of female rats received Ovx on day 12, and a second group received Ovx followed by chronic implantation of a silastic tube containing beta-estradiol on day 25. Unmanipulated males and sham females served as controls. Examination of the CC at 110 days confirmed our prior findings that males have larger callosa than females and that the Ovx group had increased CC's compared to sham controls. Our new finding was that estrogen treatment was capable of reversing the effects of Ovx. Ovx+estrogen-treated females had decreased CC size as compared to Ovx alone. Indeed, they also had smaller CC values than control females. These findings indicate that ovarian estrogen plays a role in determining CC morphology and that estrogen in the female acts to inhibit overall callosal growth as measured by changes in gross callosal size. PMID:8431995

  18. Ovarian hormones can organize the rat corpus callosum in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bimonte, H A; Mack, C M; Stavnezer, A J; Denenberg, V H

    2000-06-30

    The rat corpus callosum (CC) is larger in males than females, and is responsive to hormone manipulations during development. Previous data suggest that CC sensitivity to testosterone ends by postnatal day 8 (P8). In contrast, responsivity to ovarian hormones extends as late as P25. The current series of experiments investigates whether ovarian hormone effects on the callosum are permanent and whether CC sensitivity to ovarian hormones extends beyond P25. We found that P70 ovariectomy (Ovx) did not affect callosal size, suggesting that ovarian hormone exposure sometime prior to P70 is sufficient to feminize the CC, and that once the callosum is feminized, the effects can not be reversed. We also found that P25 ovariectomy enlarged, or defeminized, adult female CC, whereas ovary transfer starting on P55 or P70 counteracted this enlarging effect, resulting in feminized adult CC. Thus, although a previously feminized callosum is not affected by P70 ovarian hormone removal, a not-yet feminized callosum can still be feminized after P70. These findings indicate that there is flexibility in the developmental window within which the female brain is responsive to the active feminization process initiated by ovarian hormones. PMID:10876029

  19. Detecting corpus callosum abnormalities in autism based on anatomical landmarks

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing; Duan, Ye; Karsch, Kevin; Miles, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Autism is a severe developmental disorder whose neurological basis is largely unknown. Autism is a subtype of autism that displays more homogeneous features within group. The aim of this study was to identify the shape differences of the corpus callosum between patients with autism and the controls. Anatomical landmarks were collected from mid-sagittal MRI of 25 patients and 18 controls. Euclidean distance matrix analysis and thin-plate spline were used to analyze the landmark forms. Point-by-point shape comparison was performed both globally and locally. A new local shape comparison scheme was proposed which compared each part of the shape in its local coordinate system. Point correspondence was established among individual shapes based on the inherent landmark correspondence. No significant difference was found in the landmark form between patients and controls, but the distance between interior genu and posterior most was found significantly shorter in patients. Thin-plate spline analysis showed significant group difference between the landmark configurations in terms of the deformation from the overall mean configuration. Significant global shape differences were found in the anterior lower body and posterior bottom, and local shape difference existed in the anterior bottom. This study can serve as both clinical reference and a detailed procedure guideline for similar studies in the future. PMID:20620032

  20. Social cognition in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Symington, Scott H; Paul, Lynn K; Symington, Melissa F; Ono, Makoto; Brown, Warren S

    2010-01-01

    Past research has revealed that individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) have deficits in interhemispheric transfer, complex novel problem-solving, and the comprehension of paralinguistic aspects of language. Case studies and family reports also suggest problems in social cognition. The performance of 11 individuals with complete ACC and with normal intelligence was compared to that of 13 IQ- and age-matched controls on three measures of social cognition. Individuals with ACC were indistinguishable from controls on the Happe Theory of Mind Stories and the Adult Faux Pas Test, but performed significantly worse on various portions of the Thames Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) involving interpretations of videotaped social vignettes. Further analysis of the TASIT indicated that individuals with ACC showed deficiency in the recognition of emotion, weakness in understanding paradoxical sarcasm, and particular difficulty interpreting textual versus visual social cues. These results suggest that the tendency for deficient social cognition in individuals with ACC stems from a combination of difficulty integrating information from multiple sources, using paralinguistic cues for emotion, and understanding nonliteral speech. Together, these deficits would contribute to a less robust theory of mind. PMID:20162492

  1. Data modelling in corpus linguistics: how low may we go?

    PubMed

    van Velzen, Marjolein H; Nanetti, Luca; de Deyn, Peter P

    2014-06-01

    Corpus linguistics allows researchers to process millions of words. However, the more words we analyse, i.e., the more data we acquire, the more urgent the call for correct data interpretation becomes. In recent years, a number of studies saw the light attempting to profile some prolific authors' linguistic decline, linking this decline to pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, in line with the nature of the (literary) work that was analysed, numbers alone do not suffice to 'tell the story'. The one and only objective of using statistical methods for the analysis of research data is to tell a story--what happened, when, and how. In the present study we describe a computerised but individualised approach to linguistic analysis--we propose a unifying approach, with firm grounds in Information Theory, that, independently from the specific parameter being investigated, guarantees to produce a robust model of the temporal dynamics of an author's linguistic richness over his or her lifetime. We applied this methodology to six renowned authors with an active writing life of four decades or more: Iris Murdoch, Gerard Reve, Hugo Claus, Agatha Christie, P.D. James, and Harry Mulisch. The first three were diagnosed with probable Alzheimer Disease, confirmed post-mortem for Iris Murdoch; this same condition was hypothesized for Agatha Christie. Our analysis reveals different evolutive patterns of lexical richness, in turn plausibly correlated with the authors' different conditions. PMID:24332294

  2. The Epicardial Neural Ganglionated Plexus of the Ovine Heart: Anatomical Basis for Experimental Cardiac Electrophysiology and Nerve Protective Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Saburkina, Inga; Rysevaite, Kristina; Pauziene, Neringa; Mischke, Karl; Schauerte, Patrick; Jalife, José; Pauza, Dainius H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND The sheep is routinely used in experimental cardiac electrophysiology and surgery. OBJECTIVE We aimed at (1) ascertaining the topography and architecture of the ovine epicardial neural plexus (ENP), (2) determining the relationships of the ENP with the vagal and sympathetic cardiac nerves and ganglia, and (3) evaluating gross anatomical differences and similarities among ENPs in humans, sheep and other species. METHODS The ovine ENP, extrinsic sympathetic and vagal nerves were revealed histochemically for acetylcholinesterase on whole heart and/or thorax-dissected preparations from 23 newborn lambs with subsequent examination by a stereomicroscope. RESULTS The intrinsic cardiac nerves extend from the venous part of the ovine heart hilum (HH) along the roots of the cranial (superior) caval and left azygos veins to both atria and ventricles via five epicardial routes; i.e. the dorsal right atrial (DRA), middle (MD), left dorsal (LD), right ventral (VR) and ventral left atrial (VLA) nerve subplexuses. Intrinsic nerves proceeding from the arterial part of the HH along the roots of the aorta and pulmonary trunk extend exclusively into the ventricles as the right and left coronary subplexuses. The DRA, RV, and MD subplexuses receive the main extrinsic neural input from the right cervicothoracic and the right thoracic sympathetic T2, T3 ganglia, as well as from the right vagal nerve. The LD is supplied by sizeable extrinsic nerves from the left thoracic T4-T6 sympathetic ganglia and the left vagal nerve. Sheep hearts contained on average 769±52 epicardial ganglia. Cumulative areas of epicardial ganglia on the root of the cranial vena cava and on the wall of the coronary sinus were the largest of all regions (p<0.05). CONCLUSION Despite substantial interindividual variability in the morphology of the ovine ENP, the right-sided epicardial neural subplexuses supplying the sinuatrial and atrioventricular nodes are mostly concentrated at a fat pad between the right pulmonary veins and the cranial vena cava. This is in sharp contrast with a solely left lateral neural input to the human atrioventricular node which extends mainly from the LD and MD subplexuses. The abundance of epicardial ganglia distributed widely along the ovine ventricular nerves over respectable distances below the coronary groove implies a distinctive neural control of the ventricles in human and sheep hearts. PMID:20197118

  3. Report of Energy Efficiency Study and Metering/Utilities Profile for Electricity Deregulation at Texas A&M University -- Corpus Christi (TAMU-CC) Corpus Christi, Texas

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Y.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    The physical plant director and staff at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (TAMUCC) do a very good job of maintaining TAMU-CC and keeping expenses down. During our visit, however, we were able to identify several opportunities for energy...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Findings of the Corpus Callosum in Canine and Feline Lysosomal Storage Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Tamura, Shinji; Nakamoto, Yuya; Matsuki, Naoaki; Takahashi, Kimimasa; Fujita, Michio; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yamato, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Several reports have described magnetic resonance (MR) findings in canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases such as gangliosidoses and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Although most of those studies described the signal intensities of white matter in the cerebrum, findings of the corpus callosum were not described in detail. A retrospective study was conducted on MR findings of the corpus callosum as well as the rostral commissure and the fornix in 18 cases of canine and feline lysosomal storage diseases. This included 6 Shiba Inu dogs and 2 domestic shorthair cats with GM1 gangliosidosis; 2 domestic shorthair cats, 2 familial toy poodles, and a golden retriever with GM2 gangliosidosis; and 2 border collies and 3 chihuahuas with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, to determine whether changes of the corpus callosum is an imaging indicator of those diseases. The corpus callosum and the rostral commissure were difficult to recognize in all cases of juvenile-onset gangliosidoses (GM1 gangliosidosis in Shiba Inu dogs and domestic shorthair cats and GM2 gangliosidosis in domestic shorthair cats) and GM2 gangliosidosis in toy poodles with late juvenile-onset. In contrast, the corpus callosum and the rostral commissure were confirmed in cases of GM2 gangliosidosis in a golden retriever and canine neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses with late juvenile- to early adult-onset, but were extremely thin. Abnormal findings of the corpus callosum on midline sagittal images may be a useful imaging indicator for suspecting lysosomal storage diseases, especially hypoplasia (underdevelopment) of the corpus callosum in juvenile-onset gangliosidoses. PMID:24386203

  5. Activation of the CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling axis may drive vascularization of the ovine placenta.

    PubMed

    Quinn, K E; Ashley, A K; Reynolds, L P; Grazul-Bilska, A T; Ashley, R L

    2014-04-01

    Early pregnancy, when most embryonic losses occur, is a critical period in which vital placental vascularization is established. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent inducer of angiogenesis, and factors that regulate VEGF function, expression, or both may ultimately affect vascularization. Activation of the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) by its cognate ligand, C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), increases VEGF synthesis and secretion, which in turn stimulates CXCL12 and CXCR4 production and this synergistic regulation may influence placental vascularization. We hypothesized that expression of CXCL12, CXCR4, select angiogenic factors, and their receptors would increase in placental tissues during early pregnancy and that treatment of ovine trophectoderm cells with CXCL12 would increase production of angiogenic factors. To test this hypothesis, maternal caruncle (CAR) and fetal extraembryonic membrane (FM) tissues were collected on days 18, 20, 22, 25, 26, and 30 of pregnancy and on day 10 of the estrous cycle (control, NP) to determine relative mRNA or protein expression of CXCL12 and CXCR4 and selected angiogenic factors. In CAR, expression of mRNA for CXCR4 increased on day 18, 20, 22, and 25 and CXCL12 increased on day 18 and 20 compared with NP ewes. CXCL12 protein followed a similar pattern in CAR tissue, with greater levels on day 20 than in NP tissue. Greater levels of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) mRNA was observed in CAR on day 20 of gestation than on day 30. In FM, CXCL12, CXCR4, angiopoietin 1, VEGF, and VEGF receptor 1 were enhanced with advancing pregnancy, whereas FGF2 and kinase insert domain receptor (or VEGF receptor 2) peaked on day 25. An increase in protein levels occurred on day 25 compared with day 20 in FM for CXCL12 and CXCR4, as well as a similar tendency for FGF2 protein. Both CXCL12 and CXCR4 are specifically localized to trophoblast cells and to the uterine luminal and glandular epithelium. Treatment of ovine trophectoderm cells with CXCL12 increased mRNA expression for VEGF and FGF2. The relationship between VEGF, FGF2, and the CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling underscores the potential role for this chemokine axis in driving placentation. PMID:24486002

  6. Microbiological contamination of ovine carcasses associated with the presence of wool and faecal material.

    PubMed

    Biss, M E; Hathaway, S C

    1996-12-01

    The microbiological contamination of ovine hind legs at sites which were visibly clean (control carcasses), sites immediately adjacent to and below visually contaminated sites, and sites contaminated with visible faecal material or wool were determined by excision sampling immediately after pelting and immediately after a pre-evisceration wash. The mean aerobic plate count (APC) and Escherichia coli count (EC) at clean sites immediately after pelting ranged from log10 cm-2 3.98 to 4.44 and log10 cm-2 0.96 to 1.51, respectively. These levels of contamination were significantly lower than those on sites contaminated with faecal material (log10 cm-2 6.00 and 3.00, respectively) or wool (log10 cm-2 5.44 and 2.45, respectively). The presence of faecal material or wool on the carcass was not associated with increased bacterial numbers on visually clean areas of the carcass. This indicates that the presence of faecal material or wool alone cannot be used as an indicator of the hygienic status of the carcass as a whole, particularly in the role of on-line monitoring parameters for HACCP systems. Pre-evisceration washing of carcasses had very little effect on the uncontaminated areas of the carcasses, but reduced the mean APC and EC at the site of visible contaminants. There was little evidence of redistribution of bacteria to immediately adjacent but visually clean sites. However, the residual levels of both APCs and ECs directly at sites of faecal contamination after washing were still significantly higher than at visually clean sites. Application of HACCP principles to ovine slaughter and dressing suggests that visible faecal material should be removed by trimming, whereas pre-evisceration washes can have a practical and microbiologically validated role in the removal of wool. There was generally a good correlation between APCs and ECs at the uncontaminated sites prior to pre-evisceration washing, suggesting that in some situations APCs can act as a useful indicator of both general carcass hygiene and the presence of faecal indicators. PMID:8972086

  7. Comprehension of humor in primary agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Brown, Warren S; Paul, Lynn K; Symington, Melissa; Dietrich, Rosalind

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) can, in some cases, perform normally on standardized intelligence tests. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that individuals with ACC and normal IQ scores have deficits in domains of fluid and social intelligence. Anecdotal reports from families suggest diminished appreciation of the subtleties of social interactions, and deficits in the comprehension of jokes and stories. In this research, both the cartoon and narrative joke subtests of a humor test (developed by Brownell et al. [Brownell, H., Michel, D., Powelson, J., & Gardner, H. (1983). Surprise but not coherence: sensitivity to verbal humor in right-hemisphere patients. Brain and language, 18(1), 20-27] and Bihrle et al. [Bihrle, A. M., Brownell, H. H., Powelson, J. A., & Gardner, H. (1986). Comprehension of humorous and non-humorous materials by left and right brain-damaged patients. Brain and Cognition, 5(4), 399-411]) were given to 16 adults with complete ACC (all with IQs>80) and 31 controls of similar age and IQ. Individuals with ACC performed worse than controls on the narrative joke subtest (p<.025) when VIQ was controlled. However, on the cartoon subtest the two groups were not significantly different. Covarying age, forms of IQ, narrative memory, set-switching, and literal language comprehension did not substantially alter the group difference. However, covarying comprehension of nonliteral language and proverbs eliminated the difference, suggesting a common origin for the comprehension of jokes, nonliteral language, and proverbs, most likely related to capacity for understanding second-order meanings. PMID:15716161

  8. Fatigue and progression of corpus callosum atrophy in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yaldizli, Özgür; Glassl, Stephanie; Sturm, Dietrich; Papadopoulou, Athina; Gass, Achim; Tettenborn, Barbara; Putzki, Norman

    2011-12-01

    Fatigue is one of the most disabling symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. There is no or only weak correlation between conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters and level of fatigue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between progression of corpus callosum (CC) atrophy and fatigue in MS patients. This was a cohort study in 70 patients with relapsing form of MS (RRMS) and serial MRIs over a mean follow-up of 4.8 years [67% female, mean age 42 ± 11 years, mean disease duration 9.7 ± 7.6 years, mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 2.8 ± 1.6]. Fatigue was assessed by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). CC size was measured with the CC index (CCI). In total, 40% of the patients suffered from fatigue (mean FSS score 5.3 ± 1.1) and 60% patients had no fatigue (mean FSS score of 2.1 ± 1). Patients with fatigue had higher EDSS scores (p = 0.01) and CC atrophy was more pronounced in patients with fatigue (-21.8 vs. -12.1%, p = 0.005). FSS correlated with CCI change over time (r = -0.33; p = 0.009) and EDSS (p = 0.008; r = 0.361). The association between annualized CCI change and FSS was independent from EDSS, disease duration, gender and age in a multivariate linear regression analysis (p < 0.001). Progression of CC atrophy may play a role in the evolution of MS-related fatigue. PMID:21594686

  9. Characterization of the corpus callosum in very preterm and full-term infants utilizing MRI

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Deanne K.; Inder, Terrie E.; Faggian, Nathan; Johnston, Leigh; Warfield, Simon K.; Anderson, Peter J.; Doyle, Lex W.; Egan, Gary F.

    2011-01-01

    The corpus callosum is the largest white matter tract, important for interhemispheric communication. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare corpus callosum size, shape and diffusion characteristics in 106 very preterm infants and 22 full-term infants. Structural and diffusion magnetic resonance images were obtained at term equivalent. The corpus callosum was segmented, cross-sectional areas were calculated, and shape was analyzed. Fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity measures were obtained from within the corpus callosum, with additional probabilistic tractography analysis. Very preterm infants had significantly reduced callosal cross sectional area compared with term infants (p=0.004), particularly for the mid-body and posterior sub-regions. Very preterm callosi were more circular (p=0.01). Fractional anisotropy was lower (p=0.007) and mean (p=0.006) and radial (p=0.001) diffusivity values were higher in very preterm infants’ callosi, particularly at the anterior and posterior ends. The volume of tracts originating from the corpus callosum was reduced in very preterm infants (p=0.001), particularly for anterior mid-body (p=0.01) and isthmus tracts (p=0.04). This study characterizes callosal size, shape and diffusion in typically developing infants at term equivalent age, and reports macro- and micro-structural abnormalities as a result of prematurity. PMID:21168519

  10. PEDF is a novel oligodendrogenic morphogen acting on the adult SVZ and corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Jiho; Selvaraj, Vimal; Wakayama, Kouji; Orosco, Lori; Lee, Eunyoung; Crawford, Susan E.; Guo, Fuzheng; Lang, Jordan; Horiuchi, Makoto; Zarbalis, Konstantinos; Itoh, Takayuki; Deng, Wenbin; Pleasure, David

    2012-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a serpin protein with well-established neuroprotective and anti-angiogenic properties. Recent studies have also shown that PEDF enhances renewal of adult subventricular zone (SVZ) neural precursors. In neurosphere cultures prepared from the SVZ of adult mice, we found that addition of recombinant PEDF to the medium enhanced expressions of oligodendroglial lineage markers (NG2 and PDGFr?) and transcription factors (Olig1, Olig2 and Sox10). Similarly, continuous PEDF administration into the lateral ventricles of adult glial fibrillary acidic protein:green fluorescent protein (GFAP:GFP) transgenic mice increased the proportions of GFAP:GFP+ and GFAP:GFP- SVZ neural precursors co-expressing oligodendroglial lineage markers and transcription factors. Notably, PEDF infusion also resulted in an induction of doublecortin (DCX) and Sox10 double-positive cells in the adult SVZ. Immunoreactive PEDF receptor (PEDFr) was detectable in multiple cell types in both adult SVZ and corpus callosum. Furthermore, PEDF intracerebral infusion enhanced survival and maturation of newly born oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs) in the normal corpus callosum, and accelerated oligodendroglial regeneration in lysolecithin-induced corpus callosum demyelinative lesions. Western blot analysis showed a robust upregulation of endogenous PEDF in the corpus callosum upon lysolecithin-induced demyelination. Our results document previously unrecognized oligodendrotrophic effects of recombinant PEDF on the adult SVZ and corpus callosum, demonstrate induction of endogenous CNS PEDF production following demyelination, and make PEDF a strong candidate for pharmacological intervention in demyelinative diseases. PMID:22933798

  11. PEDF is a novel oligodendrogenic morphogen acting on the adult SVZ and corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jiho; Selvaraj, Vimal; Wakayama, Kouji; Orosco, Lori; Lee, Eunyoung; Crawford, Susan E; Guo, Fuzheng; Lang, Jordan; Horiuchi, Makoto; Zarbalis, Konstantinos; Itoh, Takayuki; Deng, Wenbin; Pleasure, David

    2012-08-29

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) protein with well established neuroprotective and anti-angiogenic properties. Recent studies have also shown that PEDF enhances renewal of adult subventricular zone (SVZ) neural precursors. In neurosphere cultures prepared from the SVZ of adult mice, we found that addition of recombinant PEDF to the medium enhanced expressions of oligodendroglial lineage markers (NG2 and PDGFr?) and transcription factors (Olig1, Olig2, and Sox10). Similarly, continuous PEDF administration into the lateral ventricles of adult glial fibrillary acidic protein:green fluorescent protein (GFAP:GFP) transgenic mice increased the proportions of GFAP:GFP+ and GFAP:GFP- SVZ neural precursors coexpressing oligodendroglial lineage markers and transcription factors. Notably, PEDF infusion also resulted in an induction of doublecortin- and Sox10 double-positive cells in the adult SVZ. Immunoreactive PEDF receptor was detectable in multiple cell types in both adult SVZ and corpus callosum. Furthermore, PEDF intracerebral infusion enhanced survival and maturation of newly born oligodendroglial progenitor cells in the normal corpus callosum, and accelerated oligodendroglial regeneration in lysolecithin-induced corpus callosum demyelinative lesions. Western blot analysis showed a robust upregulation of endogenous PEDF in the corpus callosum upon lysolecithin-induced demyelination. Our results document previously unrecognized oligodendrotrophic effects of recombinant PEDF on the adult SVZ and corpus callosum, demonstrate induction of endogenous CNS PEDF production following demyelination, and make PEDF a strong candidate for pharmacological intervention in demyelinative diseases. PMID:22933798

  12. Early results of a reinforced biosynthetic ovine collagen vascular prosthesis for small arterial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, H; Sasajima, T; Goh, K; Inaba, M; Otani, N; Kubo, Y

    1996-01-01

    The efficacy of a reinforced biosynthetic ovine collagen (RBOC) vascular prosthesis developed for small arterial reconstruction was assessed by examining 30 grafts in 29 patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans. The operative procedures performed were femorofemoral bypass in 2 patients, above-knee femoropopliteal bypass in 28 patients, and below-knee femoropopliteal bypass in 1 patient. Femoropopliteal bypass was simultaneously performed in two patients undergoing femorofemoral bypass using one or two grafts. The indications for surgery were intermittent claudication in 27 patients and to salvage the limb in 2 patients. The longest follow-up period was 49 months, and there were six graft failures, occurring 1, 1, 9, 17, 17, and 23 months after implantation, respectively; caused by compression of the graft from outside in two, infection in one, anastomotic intimal hyperplasia in one, and unknown factors in two. Thus, the primary cumulative patency rate for above-knee femoropopliteal bypass at 3 years was 83.7%, and the secondary patency rate was 91.2%. No aneurysmal change was observed. Moreover, the RBOC was able to be used without preclotting, and its handling and suturing characteristics were satisfactory. Our findings suggest that this vascular prosthesis may be an acceptable alternative for above-knee femoropopliteal bypass. PMID:8727947

  13. Elevated maternal cortisol leads to relative maternal hyperglycemia and increased stillbirth in ovine pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Keller-Wood, Maureen; Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E; Richards, Elaine; Anthony, Russell V; Dahl, Geoffrey E; Tao, Sha

    2014-08-15

    In normal pregnancy, cortisol increases; however, further pathological increases in cortisol are associated with maternal and fetal morbidities. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that increased maternal cortisol would increase maternal glucose concentrations, suppress fetal growth, and impair neonatal glucose homeostasis. Ewes were infused with cortisol (1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) from day 115 of gestation to term; maternal glucose, insulin, ovine placental lactogen, estrone, progesterone, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and electrolytes were measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal glucose concentration and slowed the glucose disappearance after injection of glucose; maternal infusion of cortisol also increased the incidence of fetal death at or near parturition. The design of the study was altered to terminate the study prior to delivery, and post hoc analysis of the data was performed to test the hypothesis that maternal metabolic factors predict the fetal outcome. In cortisol-infused ewes that had stillborn lambs, plasma insulin was increased relative to control ewes or cortisol-infused ewes with live lambs. Maternal cortisol infusion did not alter maternal food intake or plasma NEFA, BHB, estrone, progesterone or placental lactogen concentrations, and it did not alter fetal body weight, ponderal index, or fetal organ weights. Our study suggests that the adverse effect of elevated maternal cortisol on pregnancy outcome may be related to the effects of cortisol on maternal glucose homeostasis, and that chronic maternal stress or adrenal hypersecretion of cortisol may create fetal pathophysiology paralleling some aspects of maternal gestational diabetes. PMID:24920731

  14. Compartmentalizing proximal FGFR1 signaling in ovine placental artery endothelial cell caveolae.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Zhang, Hong-hai; Wang, Wen; Zheng, Jing; Chen, Dong-bao

    2012-08-01

    Caveolae orchestrate the dominant placental angiogenic growth factor fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) signaling primarily via FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) in placental artery endothelial cells; however, how the proximal FGF2/FGFR1 signaling is organized in the caveolae is obscure. We have shown in the present study that the FGFR substrate 2alpha (FRS2alpha) is physically associated with FGFR1, and both are targeted to the caveolae via interaction with caveolin-1 in ovine fetoplacental artery endothelial cells. Treatment with FGF2 rapidly stimulated time- and concentration-dependent FRS2alpha tyrosine phosphorylation and recruited the cytosolic growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2)-GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (GAB1) complex to the caveolae, where they formed a ternary complex with FRS2alpha. Disruption of caveolae by cholesterol depletion with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin inhibited FGF2-induced FRS2alpha tyrosine phosphorylation, and it blocked the FGF2-induced recruitment of GRB2 and GAB1 to the caveolae and formation of the FRS2alpha-GRB2-GAB1 complex in the caveolae, as well as activation of the PI3K/AKT1 and MAPK1/2 pathways. Thus, these findings have demonstrated that the proximal fibroblast growth factor (FGF2/FGFR1) signaling is compartmentalized in the placental endothelial caveolae via the FGFR substrate 2? that mediates formation of a FRS2?-GRB2-GAB1 complex. PMID:22674390

  15. A Nonthoracotomy Myocardial Infarction Model in an Ovine Using Autologous Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Spata, Tyler; Bobek, Daniel; Whitson, Bryan A.; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Mohler, Peter J.; Higgins, Robert S. D.; Kilic, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Objective. There is a paucity of a biological large animal model of myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that, using autologous-aggregated platelets, we could create an ovine model that was reproducible and more closely mimicked the pathophysiology of MI. Methods. Mepacrine stained autologous platelets from male sheep (n = 7) were used to create a myocardial infarction via catheter injection into the mid-left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Serial daily serum troponin measurements were taken and tissue harvested on post-embolization day three. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to detect the mepacrine-stained platelet-induced thrombus, and histology performed to identify three distinct myocardial (infarct, peri-ischemic “border zone,” and remote) zones. Results. Serial serum troponin levels (?g/mL) measured 0.0 ± 0.0 at baseline and peaked at 297.4 ± 58.0 on post-embolization day 1, followed by 153.0 ± 38.8 on day 2 and 76.7 ± 19.8 on day 3. Staining confirmed distinct myocardial regions of inflammation and fibrosis as well as mepacrine-stained platelets as the cause of intravascular thrombosis. Conclusion. We report a reproducible, unique model of a biological myocardial infarction in a large animal model. This technique can be used to study acute, regional myocardial changes following a thrombotic injury. PMID:24367790

  16. The effects of inoculation of Listeria monocytogenes into the ovine mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Tzora, A; Fthenakis, G C; Linde, K

    1998-01-16

    In each of two experiments, the effects of inoculation of Listeria monocytogenes into the ovine mammary gland were studied. In the first experiment, ewes were challenged with one or other of five different Listeria spp. isolates to study differences in their pathogenicity. In the second, ewes were challenged with L. monocytogenes serotype 1/2a to study the sequential features of the infection. The reaction of the mammary glands was assessed by bacteriological, cytological and histological methods. No distinct variation in the pathogenicity of L. monocytogenes isolates was evident: all produced subclinical mastitis, independently of their origin or serotype; a L. innocua isolate caused only a transient increase of milk somatic cell counts. After challenge, L. monocytogenes was isolated for 88 days from the milk of inoculated glands, whose milk somatic cell counts were greater than 1.0 x 10(6) cells ml-1. The organism was also isolated from the mammary lymph nodes, but not from any internal organ of any inoculated ewe. In early stages of the infection neutrophilic infiltration was the predominant histological feature, but hyperaemia, and degeneration of alveolar epithelial cells were also recorded. Later, chronic inflammatory features predominated, with lymphocytes as the principal cell types, destruction of alveoli and fibrous tissue proliferation. In the final stage of the experiment, fibrosis was the salient finding. It is concluded that L. monocytogenes can cause subclinical mastitis after intramammary inoculation into ewes. PMID:9549859

  17. Biomechanical studies in an ovine model of non-accidental head injury.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R W G; Sandoz, B; Dutschke, J K; Finnie, J W; Turner, R J; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Vink, R

    2014-08-22

    This paper presents the head kinematics of a novel ovine model of non-accidental head injury (NAHI) that consists only of a naturalistic oscillating insult. Nine, 7-to-10-day-old anesthetized and ventilated lambs were subjected to manual shaking. Two six-axis motion sensors tracked the position of the head and torso, and a triaxial accelerometer measured head acceleration. Animals experienced 10 episodes of shaking over 30 min, and then remained under anesthesia for 6h until killed by perfusion fixation of the brain. Each shaking episode lasted for 20s resulting in about 40 cycles per episode. Each cycle typically consisted of three impulsive events that corresponded to specific phases of the head's motion; the most substantial of these were interactions typically with the lamb's own torso, and these generated accelerations of 30-70 g. Impulsive loading was not considered severe. Other kinematic parameters recorded included estimates of head power transfer, head-torso flexion, and rate of flexion. Several styles of shaking were also identified across episodes and subjects. Axonal injury, neuronal reaction and albumin extravasation were widely distributed in the hemispheric white matter, brainstem and at the craniocervical junction and to a much greater magnitude in lower body weight lambs that died. This is the first biomechanical description of a large animal model of NAHI in which repetitive naturalistic insults were applied, and that reproduced a spectrum of injury associated with NAHI. PMID:24974335

  18. Impacts of the Callipyge Mutation on Ovine Plasma Metabolites and Muscle Fibre Type

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Greenwood, Paul L.; Cockett, Noelle E.; Hadfield, Tracy S.; Vuocolo, Tony; Byrne, Keren; White, Jason D.; Tellam, Ross L.; Schirra, Horst Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The ovine Callipyge mutation causes postnatal muscle hypertrophy localized to the pelvic limbs and torso, as well as body leanness. The mechanism underpinning enhanced muscle mass is unclear, as is the systemic impact of the mutation. Using muscle fibre typing immunohistochemistry, we confirmed muscle specific effects and demonstrated that affected muscles had greater prevalence and hypertrophy of type 2X fast twitch glycolytic fibres and decreased representation of types 1, 2C, 2A and/or 2AX fibres. To investigate potential systemic effects of the mutation, proton NMR spectra of plasma taken from lambs at 8 and 12 weeks of age were measured. Multivariate statistical analysis of plasma metabolite profiles demonstrated effects of development and genotype but not gender. Plasma from Callipyge lambs at 12 weeks of age, but not 8 weeks, was characterized by a metabolic profile consistent with contributions from the affected hypertrophic fast twitch glycolytic muscle fibres. Microarray analysis of the perirenal adipose tissue depot did not reveal a transcriptional effect of the mutation in this tissue. We conclude that there is an indirect systemic effect of the Callipyge mutation in skeletal muscle in the form of changes of blood metabolites, which may contribute to secondary phenotypes such as body leanness. PMID:24937646

  19. Immunoreactive material resembling ovine prolactin in perikarya and nerve terminals of the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B L; Hansen, G N; Hagen, C

    1982-01-01

    The presence of prolactin (PRL)-like material is demonstrated in the brain of rats with the aid of anti-ovine PRL (oPRL) IgG as primary antibody in the unlabeled antibody-enzyme method. Immunoreactive deposits are visualized as an intraneuronal constituent with a widespread distribution in the hypothalamus and neural lobe of the pituitary. Dense networks of reactive nerve terminals derived from two prominent fibre tracts, a ventral (VHT) and a dorsal hypothalamo-neurohypophysial tract (DHT) are seen. The VHT is confined to the median eminence and pars oralis tuberis, the DHT to the pars caudalis tuberis. Both fibre tracts pass through the infundibular stalk into the neural lobe. The origin of the immunoreactive nerve terminals can be elucidated only to some extent. The VHT gives off beaded fibres entering the ependymal and glandular layer of the median eminence. Immunoreactive perikarya are observed in the supraoptic nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus, the anterior hypothalamic nucleus, the anterior commissural nucleus, the preoptic nucleus and the interstitial nucleus of the stria terminalis. A few of the immunoreactive perikarya are observed in close connection with brain vessels and the ependymal cells of the third ventricle. The results indicate that the anti-oPRL has a unique region specificity implying that only a segment of the mammalian PRL molecule is present in these nuclei of the brain. Fragments of PRL may function as neuromodulators or neurotransmitters in the rat brain. PMID:6751547

  20. Modulation of Innate Immune Responses by Influenza-Specific Ovine Polyclonal Antibodies Used for Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Catherine; Penhale, William J.; Stumbles, Philip A.; Tay, Guan; Berry, Cassandra M.

    2014-01-01

    In the event of a novel influenza A virus pandemic, prophylaxis mediated by antibodies provides an adjunct control option to vaccines and antivirals. This strategy is particularly pertinent to unvaccinated populations at risk during the lag time to produce and distribute an effective vaccine. Therefore, development of effective prophylactic therapies is of high importance. Although previous approaches have used systemic delivery of monoclonal antibodies or convalescent sera, available supply is a serious limitation. Here, we have investigated intranasal delivery of influenza-specific ovine polyclonal IgG antibodies for their efficacy against homologous influenza virus challenge in a mouse model. Both influenza-specific IgG and F(ab’)2 reduced clinical scores, body weight loss and lung viral loads in mice treated 1 hour before virus exposure. Full protection from disease was also observed when antibody was delivered up to 3 days prior to virus infection. Furthermore, effective prophylaxis was independent of a strong innate immune response. This strategy presents a further option for prophylactic intervention against influenza A virus using ruminants to generate a bulk supply that could potentially be used in a pandemic setting, to slow virus transmission and reduce morbidity associated with a high cytokine phenotype. PMID:24586955

  1. Molecular characterization of enterotoxigenic and borderline oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus strains from ovine milk.

    PubMed

    Perillo, Jusy; Ceccarelli, Daniela; Spagnoletti, Matteo; Lollai, Stefano; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Colombo, Mauro M

    2012-12-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus spp. are superantigens responsible for food-poisoning and are associated to mobile genetic elements such as Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPI). The presence of 13 enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, sej, sel, sek, seq, and tst) was tested in 15 S. aureus and 24 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) multi-resistant strains isolated from ovine milk in Sardinia. All CNS isolates were enterotoxin-negative, whereas co-presence of sec, sel and tst was observed in most of the S. aureus strains. One isolate of S. aureus was characterized by tst alone. A multiplex PCR assay aimed at discriminating between the integrase genes of pathogenicity islands SaPI2, SaPIbov1, and SaPIMW2 was developed. We demonstrated that strains harboring sec, sel and tst were associated with SaPIbov1, whereas the strain positive for tst was associated with SaPI2. Borderline oxacillin resistant S. aureus strains were also detected. RAPD analysis of the Staphylococcus strains showed that clonal relationships were correlated with pathogenic profiles. PMID:22986189

  2. A novel bronchial artery catheterization technique with preserved blood flow in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Hamahata, Atsumori; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Hiroyuki, Sakurai; Morita, Naoki; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Lange, Matthias; Nozaki, Motohiro; Traber, Lillian D; Traber, Daniel L

    2010-04-01

    The authors devised a novel bronchial artery catheterization technique to deliver agents directly into bronchial circulation with preserved blood flow in an awake ovine model. A polyurethane catheter was inserted into bronchial artery via an incision into the 4th intercostal space. Regional blood flow of the airway was measured by fluorescent microspheres before cannulation, after cannulation, and 7 days after the operative procedure. The blood flows were also measured in a sham group (no cannulation, no ligation, n = 6), cannulation group (bronchial artery cannulation, n = 5), and ligation group (bronchial artery ligation, n = 5) at baseline and 6 hours after burn and smoke inhalation injury. The regional blood flows decreased slightly after cannulation in proximal bronchi, but recovered after 7 days. The regional blood flow increased 10-fold after inhalation injury in bronchi of the sham group. Bronchial artery ligation significantly attenuated the increase of blood flow. However, cannulation preserved regional blood flow and did not prevent the blood flow increases after burn and smoke inhalation injury, thus constituting a novel bronchial artery catheterization technique. PMID:20334606

  3. Acclimatization to long-term hypoxia: gene expression in ovine carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ravi; Longo, Lawrence D

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to acute high-altitude hypoxia is associated with an increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a consequence of low arterial O2 tension. However, in response to high altitude acclimatization, CBF returns to levels similar to those at sea level, and tissue blood flow is maintained by an increase in angiogenesis. Of consequence, dysregulation of the acclimatization responses and CBF can result in acute mountain sickness, acute cerebral and/or pulmonary edema. To elucidate the signal transduction pathways involved in successful acclimatization to high altitude, in ovine carotid arteries, we tested the hypothesis that high altitude-associated long-term hypoxia results in changes in gene expression of critical signaling pathways. We acclimatized nonpregnant adult sheep to 3,801 m altitude for ?110 days and conducted oligonucleotide microarray experiments on carotid arteries. Of a total of 116 regulated genes, 58 genes were significantly upregulated and 58 genes were significantly downregulated (each >2-fold, P < 0.05). Major upregulated genes included suprabasin and myelin basic protein, whereas downregulated genes included BAG2. Several of these genes are known to activate the ERK canonical signal transduction pathway and the process of angiogenesis. We conclude that among other changes, the altered signal transduction molecules involved in high-altitude acclimatization are associated ERK activation and angiogenesis. PMID:25052263

  4. Effects of albuterol enantiomers on ciliary beat frequency in ovine tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Frohock, Jeffrey I; Wijkstrom-Frei, Corrine; Salathe, Matthias

    2002-06-01

    beta(2)-Adrenergic agonists stimulate ciliary beat frequency (CBF), an integral part of mucociliary clearance. To evaluate the differential effects of albuterol enantiomers and their racemic mixture on ciliary function, CBF and intracellular calcium were measured at room temperature from single ovine airway epithelial cells with use of digital videomicroscopy. Baseline CBF was 7.2 +/- 0.2 (SE) Hz (n = 80 measurements). R-albuterol (10 microM to 1 mM) stimulated CBF in a dose-dependent manner to maximally 24.4 +/- 5.4% above baseline. Racemic albuterol stimulated CBF to maximally 12.8 +/- 3.6% above baseline, a significantly lower increase compared with R-albuterol alone, despite identical R-enantiomer amounts in both groups. Simultaneous recordings of intracellular calcium concentration and CBF from single cells indicated that the CBF increase in response to R-albuterol was mediated through beta-receptors and stimulation of protein kinase A, in a calcium-dependent and -independent fashion. S-albuterol had a negligible effect on CBF and did not change intracellular calcium. Together, these results suggest that R-albuterol is more efficacious than racemic albuterol in stimulating CBF. Thus S-albuterol may interfere with the ability of R-albuterol to increase CBF. PMID:12015353

  5. Colocalization of kisspeptin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the ovine brain.

    PubMed

    Pompolo, S; Pereira, A; Estrada, K M; Clarke, I J

    2006-02-01

    Kisspeptin is a peptide that has been implicated in the regulation of GnRH cells in the brain. Immunohistochemical studies were undertaken to examine the distribution of kisspeptin-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the ovine diencephalon and determine the effect of ovariectomy in the ewe. We report that kisspeptin colocalizes to a high proportion of GnRH-IR cells in the preoptic area, which is a novel finding. A high level of colocalization of kisspeptin and GnRH was also seen in varicose neuronal fibers within the external, neurosecretory zone of the median eminence. Apart from the kisspeptin/GnRH cells, a population of single-labeling kisspeptin-IR cells was also observed in the preoptic area. Within the hypothalamus, kisspeptin-IR cells were found predominantly in the arcuate nucleus, and there was an increase in the number of immunohistochemically identified cell within this nucleus after ovariectomy. Kisspeptin-IR cells were also found in the periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, but the number observed was similar in gonad-intact and ovariectomized ewes. The colocalization of GnRH and kisspeptin within cells of the preoptic area and GnRH neurosecretory terminals of the median eminence suggests that the two peptides might be cosecreted into the hypophyseal portal blood to act on the pituitary gland. Effects of ovariectomy on the non-GnRH, Kisspeptin-IR cells of the hypothalamus suggest that kisspeptin production is negatively regulated by ovarian steroids. PMID:16293663

  6. Enriching a biomedical event corpus with meta-knowledge annotation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biomedical papers contain rich information about entities, facts and events of biological relevance. To discover these automatically, we use text mining techniques, which rely on annotated corpora for training. In order to extract protein-protein interactions, genotype-phenotype/gene-disease associations, etc., we rely on event corpora that are annotated with classified, structured representations of important facts and findings contained within text. These provide an important resource for the training of domain-specific information extraction (IE) systems, to facilitate semantic-based searching of documents. Correct interpretation of these events is not possible without additional information, e.g., does an event describe a fact, a hypothesis, an experimental result or an analysis of results? How confident is the author about the validity of her analyses? These and other types of information, which we collectively term meta-knowledge, can be derived from the context of the event. Results We have designed an annotation scheme for meta-knowledge enrichment of biomedical event corpora. The scheme is multi-dimensional, in that each event is annotated for 5 different aspects of meta-knowledge that can be derived from the textual context of the event. Textual clues used to determine the values are also annotated. The scheme is intended to be general enough to allow integration with different types of bio-event annotation, whilst being detailed enough to capture important subtleties in the nature of the meta-knowledge expressed in the text. We report here on both the main features of the annotation scheme, as well as its application to the GENIA event corpus (1000 abstracts with 36,858 events). High levels of inter-annotator agreement have been achieved, falling in the range of 0.84-0.93 Kappa. Conclusion By augmenting event annotations with meta-knowledge, more sophisticated IE systems can be trained, which allow interpretative information to be specified as part of the search criteria. This can assist in a number of important tasks, e.g., finding new experimental knowledge to facilitate database curation, enabling textual inference to detect entailments and contradictions, etc. To our knowledge, our scheme is unique within the field with regards to the diversity of meta-knowledge aspects annotated for each event. PMID:21985429

  7. Regulation of beta follicle stimulating hormone subunit RNA by 17-beta estradiol, progesterone, and inhibin in ovine pituitary cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    The molecular mechanism by which ovine follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is negatively regulated by 17-beta estradiol, progesterone, and inhibin was investigated in vitro, using ovine pituitary cells in culture. The effects of these gonadal hormones on beta FSH RNA levels were assayed by dot blot hybridization to a specific radiolabeled cDNA probe for beta FSH RNA. This was compared to concomitant changes in FSH secretion, which were measured by radioimmunoassay, in order to determine if the alterations in beta FSH RNA could account for the changes in FSH secretion.

  8. In-Vitro Mitral Valve Simulator Mimics Systolic Valvular Function of Chronic Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation Ovine Model

    PubMed Central

    Siefert, Andrew W.; Rabbah, Jean Pierre; Koomalsingh, Kevin J.; Touchton, Steven A.; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; McGarvey, Jeremy R.; Gorman, Robert C.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to evaluate an in vitro mitral valve simulator's ability to mimic the systolic leaflet coaptation, regurgitation, and leaflet mechanics of a healthy and chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) ovine model. Methods Mitral valve size and geometry of both healthy and chronic IMR ovine animals was used to recreate systolic mitral valve function in vitro. A2-P2 coaptation length, coaptation depth, tenting area, anterior leaflet strain, and mitral regurgitation were compared between the animal groups and valves simulated in the bench-top model. Results For the control conditions, no differences were observed between the healthy animals and simulator in coaptation length (p=.681), coaptation depth (p=.559), tenting area (p=.199), and anterior leaflet strain in the radial (p=.230) and circumferential (p=.364) directions. For the chronic IMR conditions, no differences were observed between the models in coaptation length (p=.596), coaptation depth (p=.621), tenting area (p=.879), and anterior leaflet strain in the radial (p=.151) and circumferential (p=.586) directions. Mitral regurgitation was similar between IMR models with an asymmetric jet originating from the tethered A3-P3 leaflets. Conclusion This study is the first to demonstrate the effectiveness of an in vitro simulator to emulate the systolic valvular function and mechanics of a healthy and chronic IMR ovine model. The in vitro IMR model provides the capability to recreate intermediary and exacerbated levels of annular and subvalvular distortion at which IMR repairs can be simulated. This system provides a realistic and controllable test platform for the development and evaluation of current and future IMR repairs. PMID:23374445

  9. Identification of the ovine keratin-associated protein KAP1-2 gene (KRTAP1-2).

    PubMed

    Gong, Hua; Zhou, Huitong; Yu, Zhidong; Dyer, Jolon; Plowman, Jeffrey E; Hickford, Jon

    2011-10-01

    Keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are a major component of wool and other keratin-containing tissues. While four KAP1-n proteins have been identified in sheep, only three genes have been described encoding KAP1-1, KAP1-3 and KAP1-4. Here, we used a sequence conserved across the known KAP1-n genes to search the inaugural Ovine Genome Sequence (v1.0) and identified a new KAP1-n sequence on chromosome 11. PCR amplification of this sequence revealed an open reading frame of 474-bp that putatively encodes a polypeptide sequence very similar to the previously described ovine KAP1-2 protein and suggests that the newly identified sequence represents the previously unidentified KAP1-2 gene (KRTAP1-2). Its expression in skin was confirmed by PCR, and the mRNA was localized to the cortex of the mid-keratinization zone of a growing wool fibre using a gene-specific probe and in situ hybridization. PCR-SSCP analysis of KRTAP1-2 revealed nine unique banding patterns representing nine different DNA sequences. One sequence was identical to, and the other eight were homologous to, the sequence identified above, suggesting that they were allelic variants of ovine KRTAP1-2. There were ten single nucleotide substitutions identified, although only three of these were non-synonymous and would potentially result in amino acid changes. The variation identified here may influence the expression or protein structure of KAP1-2 and consequently wool structure and wool traits. PMID:21771088

  10. Efficiency of sperm-mediated gene transfer in the ovine by laparoscopic insemination, in vitro fertilization and ICSI.

    PubMed

    Pereyra-Bonnet, Federico; Gibbons, Alejandro; Cueto, Marcela; Sipowicz, Pablo; Fernández-Martín, Rafael; Salamone, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    Transgenesis constitutes an important tool for pharmacological protein production and livestock improvement. We evaluated the potential of laparoscopic insemination (LI), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to produce egfp-expressing ovine embryos, using spermatozoa previously exposed to pCX-EGFP plasmid in two different sperm/DNA incubation treatments: "Long Incubation" (2 h at 17 C) and "Short Incubation" (5 min at 5 C). For LI, Merino sheep were superovulated and inseminated with treated fresh semen from Merino rams. The embryos were recovered by flushing the uterine horns. For IVF and ICSI, slaughterhouse oocytes were fertilized with DNA-treated frozen/thawed sperm. All recovered embryos were exposed to blue light (488 nm) to determine green fluorescent morulae and blastocysts rates. High cleavage and morulae/blastocysts rates accompanied the LI and IVF procedures, but no egfp-expressing embryos resulted. In contrast, regardless of the sperm/plasmid incubation treatment, egfp-expressing morulae and blastocysts were always obtained by ICSI, and the highest transgenesis rate (91.6%) was achieved with Short Incubation. In addition, following the incubation of labeled plasmid DNA, after Long or Short exposure treatments, with fresh or frozen/thawed spermatozoa, only non-motile fresh spermatozoa could maintain an attached plasmid after washing procedures. No amplification product could be detected following PCR treatment of LI embryos whose zonae pellucidae (ZP) had been removed. In order to establish conditions for transgenic ICSI in the ovine, we compared three different activation treatments, and over 60% of the obtained blastocysts expressed the transgene. For ICSI embryos, FISH analysis found possible signals compatible with integration events. In conclusion, our results show that in the ovine, under the conditions studied, ICSI is the only method capable of producing exogenous gene-expressing embryos using spermatozoa as vectors. PMID:21079375

  11. NCBI disease corpus: a resource for disease name recognition and concept normalization.

    PubMed

    Do?an, Rezarta Islamaj; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-02-01

    Information encoded in natural language in biomedical literature publications is only useful if efficient and reliable ways of accessing and analyzing that information are available. Natural language processing and text mining tools are therefore essential for extracting valuable information, however, the development of powerful, highly effective tools to automatically detect central biomedical concepts such as diseases is conditional on the availability of annotated corpora. This paper presents the disease name and concept annotations of the NCBI disease corpus, a collection of 793 PubMed abstracts fully annotated at the mention and concept level to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural language processing community. Each PubMed abstract was manually annotated by two annotators with disease mentions and their corresponding concepts in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®) or Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM®). Manual curation was performed using PubTator, which allowed the use of pre-annotations as a pre-step to manual annotations. Fourteen annotators were randomly paired and differing annotations were discussed for reaching a consensus in two annotation phases. In this setting, a high inter-annotator agreement was observed. Finally, all results were checked against annotations of the rest of the corpus to assure corpus-wide consistency. The public release of the NCBI disease corpus contains 6892 disease mentions, which are mapped to 790 unique disease concepts. Of these, 88% link to a MeSH identifier, while the rest contain an OMIM identifier. We were able to link 91% of the mentions to a single disease concept, while the rest are described as a combination of concepts. In order to help researchers use the corpus to design and test disease identification methods, we have prepared the corpus as training, testing and development sets. To demonstrate its utility, we conducted a benchmarking experiment where we compared three different knowledge-based disease normalization methods with a best performance in F-measure of 63.7%. These results show that the NCBI disease corpus has the potential to significantly improve the state-of-the-art in disease name recognition and normalization research, by providing a high-quality gold standard thus enabling the development of machine-learning based approaches for such tasks. The NCBI disease corpus, guidelines and other associated resources are available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Dogan/DISEASE/. PMID:24393765

  12. Original article Reduction of ovarian oxytocin content

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    affects neither luteolysis nor estrous cycle duration in cattle. Because ovarian OT is suggested than a mandatory role. corpus luteum / oxytocin / noradrenaline / estrous cycle / cattle Résumé &horbar depletion of OT in the early stages of the estrous cycle will influence the corpus luteum (CL) secretory

  13. The Most Frequently-Used Multi-Word Constructions in Academic Written English: A Multi-Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dilin

    2012-01-01

    Using the academic writing sub-corpora of the Corpus of Contemporary American English and the British National Corpus as data and building on previous research, this study strives to identify the most frequently-used multi-word constructions (MWCs) of various types (e.g., idioms, lexical bundles, and phrasal/prepositional verbs) in general…

  14. Clinical Features: Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum (HMSN/ACC) [OMIM #218000

    E-print Network

    Ober, Carole

    1/13 Clinical Features: Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy with Agenesis of the Corpus sensorimotor neuropathy resulting in hypotonia, areflexia and amyotrophy, variable degrees of dysgenesis Neuropathy with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum #12;1/13 Prenatal testing for a known mutation Sample

  15. Sketching Muslims: A Corpus Driven Analysis of Representations around the Word "Muslim" in the British Press 1998-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Paul; Gabrielatos, Costas; McEnery, Tony

    2013-01-01

    This article uses methods from corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis to examine patterns of representation around the word "Muslim" in a 143 million word corpus of British newspaper articles published between 1998 and 2009. Using the analysis tool Sketch Engine, an analysis of noun collocates of "Muslim" found that the following…

  16. Quantitative analysis of the corpus callosum in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay: correlation with cerebral white matter volume

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok Panigrahy; Patrick D. Barnes; Robert L. Robertson; Lynn A. Sleeper; James W. Sayre

    2005-01-01

    Background: The direct quantitative correlation between thickness of the corpus callosum and volume of cerebral white matter in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay has not been demonstrated. Objective: This study was conducted to quantitatively correlate the thickness of the corpus callosum with the volume of cerebral white matter in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay. Material and

  17. A Corpus Study of the Prosody of Polysyllabic Words in Mandarin Chinese Catherine Lai, Yanyan Sui, Jiahong Yuan

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    A Corpus Study of the Prosody of Polysyllabic Words in Mandarin Chinese Catherine Lai, Yanyan Sui,yanyan,jiahong}@ling.upenn.edu, Abstract This paper presents a corpus study of polysyllabic words in Standard Mandarin Chinese sug- gest that F0 is a reliable phonetic indicator of metrical structure in Mandarin Chinese, rather

  18. A Contrastive Analysis of the Use of Verb "Keep": A Corpus-Based Study between CLEC and Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Fang; Mei, Zhong-fang

    2010-01-01

    This is a corpus-based research focusing on the high-frequency verb "keep" used by Chinese non-English majors and native speakers. The corpora involved in the paper are Brown which stands for native speakers, Students 3 and Students 4 in CLEC (Chinese Learner English Corpus) which stand for Chinese non-English majors. The paper tries to…

  19. Biglycan and fibromodulin fragmentation correlates with temporal and spatial annular remodelling in experimentally injured ovine intervertebral discs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Melrose; Susan M. Smith; Emily S. Fuller; Allan A. Young; Peter J. Roughley; Andrew Dart; Christopher B. Little

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated spatial and temporal extracellular matrix changes, induced by controlled surgical defects in the outer\\u000a third of the annulus fibrosus (AF) of ovine intervertebral discs (IVDs). Thirty-two 4 year old sheep received a 4 mm deep × 10 mm\\u000a wide standard annular surgical incision in the L1L2 and L3L4 IVDs (lesion group), 32 sheep were also subjected to the same\\u000a surgical approach but

  20. Prolactin messenger ribonucleic acid concentrations throughout the ovine estrous cycle: Assessment relative to prolactin serum and pituitary amounts

    SciTech Connect

    Landefeld, T.; Roulia, V.; Bagnell, T.; Ballard, T.; Levitan, I. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) mRNA concentrations were assessed by nucleic acid hybridization assays in pituitaries of ewes representing the defined stages of the ovine estrous cycle. Concomitantly, pituitary and serum PRL concentrations were measured in these ewes using radioimmunoassays. It was observed that PRL serum, pituitary and mRNA concentrations tended to increase near the time of the gonadotropin preovulatory surge, particularly between 24 hrs before behavioral estrus to 5 hours after estrus. However, the changes in PRL mRNA, serum and pituitary concentrations were shown not to be statistically significant. These data suggest that PRL production during the sheep estrous cycle is maintained without dramatic changes in synthesis or secretion.

  1. Nitrergic neurotransmission mediates the non-adrenergic non-cholinergic responses in the clitoral corpus cavernosum of the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Cellek, Selim; Moncada, Salvador

    1998-01-01

    The corpus cavernosum is the erectile tissue in the penis and clitoris. Although nitrergic neurotransmission has been characterized in detail in the penile corpus cavernosum, functional studies on the inhibitory non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) transmission in the clitoral corpus cavernosum have been lacking. Here we demonstrate that electrical field stimulation (EFS) induces NANC relaxation responses in the clitoral corpus cavernosum of the rabbit. These responses were inhibited by NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3,-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) or tetrodotoxin. The inhibitory effect of L-NAME was partially reversed by L-arginine but not by D-arginine. EFS-induced relaxations were enhanced by an inhibitor of type V cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, zaprinast. These results suggest that nitrergic neurotransmission is responsible for the NANC relaxation responses in the clitoral corpus cavernosum of the rabbit. PMID:9886752

  2. Mandibular corpus bone strain in goats and alpacas: Implications for understanding the biomechanics of mandibular form in selenodont artiodactyls

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Susan H; Vinyard, Christopher J; Wall, Christine E; Hylander, William L

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to clarify the functional and biomechanical relationship between jaw morphology and in vivo masticatory loading in selenodont artiodactyls. We compare in vivo strains from the mandibular corpus of goats and alpacas to predicted strain patterns derived from biomechanical models for mandibular corpus loading during mastication. Peak shear strains in both species average 600–700 µ? on the working side and approximately 450 µ? on the balancing side. Maximum principal tension in goats and alpacas is directed at approximately 30° dorsocaudally relative to the long axis of the corpus on the working side and approximately perpendicular to the long axis on the balancing side. Strain patterns in both species indicate primarily torsion of the working-side corpus about the long axis and parasagittal bending and/or lateral transverse bending of the balancing-side corpus. Interpretation of the strain patterns is consistent with comparative biomechanical analyses of jaw morphology suggesting that in goats, the balancing-side mandibular corpus is parasagittally bent whereas in alpacas it experiences lateral transverse bending. However, in light of higher working-side corpus strains, biomechanical explanations of mandibular form also need to consider that torsion influences relative corpus size and shape. Furthermore, the complex combination of loads that occur along the selenodont artiodactyl mandibular corpus during the power stroke has two implications. First, added clarification of these loading patterns requires in vivo approaches for elucidating biomechanical links between mandibular corpus morphology and masticatory loading. Second, morphometric approaches may be limited in their ability to accurately infer masticatory loading regimes of selenodont artiodactyl jaws. PMID:19166474

  3. Deletion variant near ZNF389 is associated with control of ovine lentivirus in multiple sheep flocks

    PubMed Central

    White, S N; Mousel, M R; Reynolds, J O; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Knowles, D P

    2014-01-01

    Ovine lentivirus (OvLV) is a macrophage-tropic lentivirus found in many countries that causes interstitial pneumonia, mastitis, arthritis and cachexia in sheep. There is no preventive vaccine and no cure, but breed differences suggest marker-assisted selective breeding might improve odds of infection and control of OvLV post-infection. Although variants in TMEM154 have consistent association with odds of infection, no variant in any gene has been associated with host control of OvLV post-infection in multiple animal sets. Proviral concentration is a live-animal diagnostic measure of OvLV control post-infection related to severity of OvLV-induced lesions. A recent genome-wide association study identified a region including four zinc finger genes associated with proviral concentration in one Rambouillet flock. To refine this region, we tested additional variants and identified a small insertion/deletion variant near ZNF389 that showed consistent association with proviral concentration in three animal sets (P < 0.05). These animal sets contained Rambouillet, Polypay and crossbred sheep from multiple locations and management conditions. Strikingly, one flock had exceptionally high prevalence (>87%, including yearlings) and mean proviral concentration (>950 copies/?g), possibly due to needle sharing. The best estimate of proviral concentration by genotype, obtained from all 1310 OvLV-positive animals tested, showed insertion homozygotes had less than half the proviral concentration of other genotypes (P < 0.0001). Future work will test additional breeds, management conditions and viral subtypes, and identify functional properties of the haplotype this deletion variant tracks. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic variant consistently associated with host control of OvLV post-infection in multiple sheep flocks. PMID:24303974

  4. Alcohol exposure during late ovine gestation alters fetal liver iron homeostasis without apparent dysmorphology.

    PubMed

    Sozo, Foula; Dick, Anna M; Bensley, Jonathan G; Kenna, Kelly; Brien, James F; Harding, Richard; De Matteo, Robert

    2013-06-15

    High levels of alcohol (ethanol) exposure during fetal life can affect liver development and can increase susceptibility to infection after birth. Our aim was to determine the effects of a moderate level of ethanol exposure in late gestation on the morphology, iron status, and inflammatory status of the ovine fetal liver. Pregnant ewes were chronically catheterized at 91 days of gestation (DG; term ~145 DG) for daily intravenous infusion of ethanol (0.75 g/kg maternal body wt; n = 8) or saline (n = 7) over 1 h from 95 to 133 DG. At necropsy (134 DG), fetal livers were collected for analysis. Liver weight, general liver morphology, hepatic cell proliferation and apoptosis, perivascular collagen deposition, and interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, or IL-8 mRNA levels were not different between groups. However, ethanol exposure led to significant decreases in hepatic content of ferric iron and gene expression of the iron-regulating hormone hepcidin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? (all P < 0.05). In the placenta, there was no difference in transferrin receptor, divalent metal transporter 1, and ferritin mRNA levels; however, ferroportin mRNA levels were increased in ethanol-exposed animals (P < 0.05), and ferroportin protein tended to be increased (P = 0.054). Plasma iron concentration was not different between control and ethanol-exposed groups; control fetuses had significantly higher iron concentrations than their mothers, whereas maternal and fetal iron concentrations were similar in ethanol-exposed animals. We conclude that daily ethanol exposure during the third-trimester-equivalent in sheep does not alter fetal liver morphology; however, decreased fetal liver ferric iron content and altered hepcidin and ferroportin gene expression indicate that iron homeostasis is altered. PMID:23594612

  5. Ontogeny of inter-alpha inhibitor proteins in ovine brain and somatic tissues.

    PubMed

    Spasova, Mariya S; Sadowska, Grazyna B; Threlkeld, Steven W; Lim, Yow-Pin; Stonestreet, Barbara S

    2014-06-01

    Inter-alpha inhibitor proteins (IAIPs) found in relatively high concentrations in human plasma are important in inflammation. IAIPs attenuate brain damage in young and adult subjects, decrease during sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants, and attenuate sepsis-related inflammation in newborn rats. Although a few studies have reported adult organ-specific IAIP expression, information is not available on age-dependent IAIP expression. Given evidence suggesting IAIPs attenuate brain damage in young and adult subjects, and inflammation in newborns, we examined IAIP expression in plasma, cerebral cortex (CC), choroid plexus (CP), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and somatic organs in fetal, newborn, and adult sheep to determine the endogenous expression patterns of these proteins during development. IAIPs (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were higher in newborn and adult than fetal plasma (P?ovine development and that expression patterns are unique to each organ. Although exact functions of IAIPs in CNS and somatic tissues are not known, their presence in relatively high amounts during development suggests their potential importance in brain and organ development. PMID:24728724

  6. Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone (GnIH) Secretion into the Ovine Hypophyseal Portal System

    PubMed Central

    Ross Young, I.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Clarke, Iain J.

    2012-01-01

    GnIH was first identified in avian species, and there is now strong evidence that it is operant in mammals as an inhibitor of reproduction. Mammalian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH)-3 is encoded by the RFRP gene in neurons of the dorsomedial nucleus. These neurons project to the median eminence, predicting a role as a secreted neurohormone and regulation of the pituitary gonadotropes. To determine whether GnIH-3 is a secreted neurohormone, we measured its concentration in hypophyseal portal blood in ewes during the nonbreeding (anestrous) season and during the luteal and follicular phases of the estrous cycle in the breeding season. Paired portal and jugular blood samples were collected and plasma prepared for RIA using an ovine GnIH-3 antibody. Pulsatile GnIH-3 secretion was observed in the portal blood of all animals. Mean GnIH-3 pulse amplitude and pulse frequency was higher during the nonbreeding season. GnIH-3 was virtually undetectable in peripheral blood plasma. There was a lack of association between secretory pulses of GnIH-3 (portal) and LH (peripheral). To determine the role of secreted GnIH-3, we examined its effects on GnRH-stimulated LH secretion in hypothalamo-pituitary-disconnected ewes; a significant reduction in the LH response to GnRH was observed. Finally, to identify cellular targets in the pituitary, the expression of GnIH receptor [G protein-coupled receptor 147 (GPR147)] in fractions enriched for gonadotropes somatotropes, and lactotropes was examined; expression was observed in each cell type. These data show GnIH-3 is secreted into portal blood to act on pituitary gonadotropes, reducing the action of GnRH. PMID:22549225

  7. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) secretion into the ovine hypophyseal portal system.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeremy T; Young, I Ross; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Clarke, Iain J

    2012-07-01

    GnIH was first identified in avian species, and there is now strong evidence that it is operant in mammals as an inhibitor of reproduction. Mammalian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH)-3 is encoded by the RFRP gene in neurons of the dorsomedial nucleus. These neurons project to the median eminence, predicting a role as a secreted neurohormone and regulation of the pituitary gonadotropes. To determine whether GnIH-3 is a secreted neurohormone, we measured its concentration in hypophyseal portal blood in ewes during the nonbreeding (anestrous) season and during the luteal and follicular phases of the estrous cycle in the breeding season. Paired portal and jugular blood samples were collected and plasma prepared for RIA using an ovine GnIH-3 antibody. Pulsatile GnIH-3 secretion was observed in the portal blood of all animals. Mean GnIH-3 pulse amplitude and pulse frequency was higher during the nonbreeding season. GnIH-3 was virtually undetectable in peripheral blood plasma. There was a lack of association between secretory pulses of GnIH-3 (portal) and LH (peripheral). To determine the role of secreted GnIH-3, we examined its effects on GnRH-stimulated LH secretion in hypothalamo-pituitary-disconnected ewes; a significant reduction in the LH response to GnRH was observed. Finally, to identify cellular targets in the pituitary, the expression of GnIH receptor [G protein-coupled receptor 147 (GPR147)] in fractions enriched for gonadotropes somatotropes, and lactotropes was examined; expression was observed in each cell type. These data show GnIH-3 is secreted into portal blood to act on pituitary gonadotropes, reducing the action of GnRH. PMID:22549225

  8. An Injectable Nucleus Pulposus Implant Restores Compressive Range of Motion in the Ovine Disc

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Neil R.; Han, Woojin M.; Beckstein, Jesse; Cloyd, Jordan; Chen, Weiliam; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Investigation of injectable nucleus pulposus (NP) implant. Objective To assess the ability of a recently developed injectable hydrogel implant to restore non-degenerative disc mechanics through support of NP functional mechanics. Summary of Background Data While surgical intervention for low back pain is effective for some patients, treated discs undergo altered biomechanics and adjacent levels are at increased risk for accelerated degeneration. One potential treatment as an alternative to surgery for degenerated disc includes the percutaneous delivery of agents to support NP functional mechanics. The implants are delivered in a minimally invasive fashion, potentially on an outpatient basis, and do not preclude later surgical options. One of the challenges in designing such implants include the need to match key NP mechanical behavior and mimic the role of native non-degenerate NP in spinal motion. Methods The oxidized hyaluronic acid gelatin implant material was prepared. In vitro mechanical testing was performed in mature ovine bone-disc-bone units in three stages: intact, discectomy, and implantation vs. sham. Tested samples were cut axially for qualitative structural observations. Results Discectomy increased axial range of motion (ROM) significantly compared to intact. Hydrogel implantation reduced ROM 17% (p < 0.05) compared to discectomy and returned ROM to intact levels (ROM intact 0.71 mm, discectomy 0.87 mm, post-implantation 0.72 mm). While ROM for the hydrogel implant group was statistically unchanged compared to the intact disc, ROM for sham discs, which received a discectomy and no implant, was significant increase compared to intact. The compression and tension stiffness were decreased with discectomy and remained unchanged for both implant and sham groups, as expected because the annulus fibrosus was not repaired. Gross morphology images confirmed no ejection of NP implant. Conclusion An injectable implant that mimics non-degenerate NP has the potential to return motion segment ROM to normal subsequent to injury. PMID:22588378

  9. An investigation of growth factors and lactoferrin in naturally occurring ovine pulmonary adenomatosis.

    PubMed

    Sozmen, M; Beytut, E

    2012-11-01

    Ovine pulmonary adenomatosis (OPA), also known as jaagsiekte, is a transmissible beta retrovirus-induced lung tumour of sheep that has several features resembling human bronchoalveolar carcinoma (BAC). Angiogenesis has been suggested to be one of the most important factors underlying tumour growth and invasion. This process involves the action of growth factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-C and its receptor (PDGFR-?). Bovine lactoferrin (bLF), an iron and heparin-binding glycoprotein secreted into various biological fluids, has been implicated in innate immunity and has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour functions. Tissues from 16 cases of OPA were compared with tissues from seven healthy control sheep by immunohistochemistry. Expression of the markers was assessed semi-quantitatively by ascribing an immunoreactivity score (IRS) with a maximum value of 300. VEGF-C, bFGF, PDGF-C, PDGFR-? and bLF signals were detected in 10/16, 15/16, 12/16, 15/16 and 10/16 of the OPA cases studied, respectively. bLF expression was weak in the neoplastic epithelial cells (IRS 21.4 ± 10.0) in contrast to high levels detected in infiltrating macrophages and plasma cells (IRS 141.3 ± 24.8 and 140.0 ± 25.1, respectively). The PDGFR-? IRS was elevated for neoplastic epithelial cells (108.9 ± 18.2) and was lowest for macrophages and plasma cells (20.4 ± 13.1 and 13.7 ± 12.4, respectively). These results suggest that bFGF, VEGF-C and PDGF-C have roles in the pathogenesis of OPA. bLF may activate macrophages and plasma cells in these lesions, but limited expression of bLF by neoplastic cells may be a consequence of defective or impaired function of this molecule. PMID:22721818

  10. Tight and adherens junctions in the ovine uterus: differential regulation by pregnancy and progesterone.

    PubMed

    Satterfield, M Carey; Dunlap, Kathrin A; Hayashi, Kanako; Burghardt, Robert C; Spencer, Thomas E; Bazer, Fuller W

    2007-08-01

    In species with noninvasive implantation by conceptus trophectoderm, fetal/maternal communications occur across the endometrial epithelia. The present studies identified changes in junctional complexes in the ovine endometrium that regulate paracellular trafficking of water, ions, and other molecules, and the secretory capacity of the uterine epithelia. Distinct temporal and spatial alterations in occludin, tight junction protein 2, and claudin 1-4 proteins were observed in the endometrium of cyclic and early pregnant ewes. Dynamic changes in tight junction formation were characterized by an abundance of tight junction proteins on d 10 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy that substantially decreased by d 12. Early progesterone administration advanced conceptus development on d 9 and 12 that was associated with loss of tight-junction-associated proteins. Pregnancy increased tight-junction-associated proteins between d 14-16. Cadherin 1 and beta-catenin, which form adherens junctions, were abundant in the endometrial glands, but decreased after d 10 of pregnancy in the luminal epithelium and then increased by d 16 with the onset of implantation. Results support the ideas that progesterone elicits transient decreases in tight and adherens junctions in the endometrial luminal epithelium between d 10-12 that increases selective serum and tissue fluid transudation to enhance blastocyst elongation, which is subsequently followed by an increase in tight and adherens junctions between d 14-16 that may be required for attachment and adherence of the trophectoderm for implantation. The continuous presence of tight and adherens junctions in the uterine glands would allow for vectorial secretion of trophic substances required for conceptus elongation and survival. PMID:17478549

  11. Expression of ovine herpesvirus -2 encoded microRNAs in an immortalised bovine - cell line.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Katie; Levy, Claire S; Hopkins, John; Grey, Finn; Esper, Suzanne; Dalziel, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) infects most sheep, where it establishes an asymptomatic, latent infection. Infection of susceptible hosts e.g. cattle and deer results in malignant catarrhal fever, a fatal lymphoproliferative disease characterised by uncontrolled lymphocyte proliferation and non MHC restricted cytotoxicity. The same cell populations are infected in both cattle and sheep but only in cattle does virus infection cause dysregulation of cell function leading to disease. The mechanism by which OvHV-2 induces this uncontrolled proliferation is unknown. A number of herpesviruses have been shown to encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that have roles in control of both viral and cellular gene expression. We hypothesised that OvHV-2 encodes miRNAs and that these play a role in pathogenesis. Analysis of massively parallel sequencing data from an OvHV-2 persistently-infected bovine lymphoid cell line (BJ1035) identified forty-five possible virus-encoded miRNAs. We previously confirmed the expression of eight OvHV-2 miRNAs by northern hybridization. In this study we used RT-PCR to confirm the expression of an additional twenty-seven OvHV-2-encoded miRNAs. All thirty-five OvHV-2 miRNAs are expressed from the same virus genome strand and the majority (30) are encoded in an approximately 9 kb region that contains no predicted virus open reading frames. Future identification of the cellular and virus targets of these miRNAs will inform our understanding of MCF pathogenesis. PMID:24849241

  12. Novel determination of filtration coefficient of ovine placenta and intramembranous pathway.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, W M; Brace, R A

    1990-12-01

    We recently reported that distilled water injected into the amniotic compartment is rapidly absorbed by the fetal blood, which perfuses the fetal membranes and the fetal surface of the placenta, i.e., by the "intramembranous pathway." In the present study, we infused warmed distilled water at 2 ml.min-1.kg estimated fetal wt-1 into the amniotic compartment for 6-8 h in 12 chronically catheterized sheep. A steady state was achieved in amniotic fluid, fetal blood, and maternal blood osmolalities in 5.1 +/- 0.3 (SE) h. During the steady state, all of the infused water must pass to the ewe. Because the amount of water directly crossing the fetal membranes into the maternal circulation was not significantly different from zero (3.3 +/- 5.8% of total), we assumed all water crossed the placenta. The placental filtration coefficient was then calculated during the steady state as the infusion rate divided by the changes in the transplacental osmotic gradient and averaged 0.0260 +/- 0.0055 ml.min-1.mmHg-1.kg fetal wt-1. Attempts to correct this value for placental reflection coefficients less than 1 were unsatisfactory; thus the uncorrected value appears to provide the best estimate of the placental filtration coefficient. Similar calculations yielded a value of 0.00137 +/- 0.00025 ml.min-1.mmHg-1.kg-1 for the filtration coefficient of the intramembranous pathway. Thus this method provides a relatively simple new technique for estimating the filtration coefficient of the ovine placenta and intramembranous pathway under steady-state conditions. PMID:2260737

  13. Expression of Ovine Herpesvirus -2 Encoded MicroRNAs in an Immortalised Bovine – Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, Katie; Levy, Claire S.; Hopkins, John; Grey, Finn; Esper, Suzanne; Dalziel, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) infects most sheep, where it establishes an asymptomatic, latent infection. Infection of susceptible hosts e.g. cattle and deer results in malignant catarrhal fever, a fatal lymphoproliferative disease characterised by uncontrolled lymphocyte proliferation and non MHC restricted cytotoxicity. The same cell populations are infected in both cattle and sheep but only in cattle does virus infection cause dysregulation of cell function leading to disease. The mechanism by which OvHV-2 induces this uncontrolled proliferation is unknown. A number of herpesviruses have been shown to encode microRNAs (miRNAs) that have roles in control of both viral and cellular gene expression. We hypothesised that OvHV-2 encodes miRNAs and that these play a role in pathogenesis. Analysis of massively parallel sequencing data from an OvHV-2 persistently-infected bovine lymphoid cell line (BJ1035) identified forty-five possible virus-encoded miRNAs. We previously confirmed the expression of eight OvHV-2 miRNAs by northern hybridization. In this study we used RT-PCR to confirm the expression of an additional twenty-seven OvHV-2-encoded miRNAs. All thirty-five OvHV-2 miRNAs are expressed from the same virus genome strand and the majority (30) are encoded in an approximately 9 kb region that contains no predicted virus open reading frames. Future identification of the cellular and virus targets of these miRNAs will inform our understanding of MCF pathogenesis. PMID:24849241

  14. Developmental programming: prenatal androgen exposure alters the gonadotroph population of the ovine pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J E; Hastie, P M; Shah, A; Smith, A; Evans, N P

    2012-03-01

    In utero exposure of the female foetus to androgens during development disrupts the reproductive axis and results in hypersecretion of luteinising hormone (LH) (but not follicle-stimulating hormone) in postnatal life. Abnormalities in the neural circuits controlling hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone have been documented; however, androgens could also programme abnormalities in the pituitary gland. Ovine foetuses were exposed to either testosterone propionate or the non-aromatisable androgen dihydro-testosterone from days 30-90 of gestation (term 147 days) and the effects on the functional morphology of the pituitary were determined. Exogenous testosterone propionate exposure resulted in pituitary glands in adult male and female sheep that were 40% heavier than controls. Because this effect was not observed in the dihydro-testosterone-exposed animals, these actions are mediated via the oestrogen receptor (ER). No significant differences were apparent in 90- or 140-day foetuses. There was no difference between control and androgen-exposed animals in the density of LH? or ER? immunoreactive cells in the pituitary although the density of follicle-stimulating hormone-? immunoreactive cells was lower in the testosterone-treated animals. The percentage of cells co-localising LH? and ER? was lower in the testosterone-treated ewes and this may, in part, explain a reduced ability to respond to steroid feedback. Thus, enlargement of the pituitary gland, coupled with a reduced sensitivity to oestrogen negative-feedback, may contribute to the hyper-secretion of LH observed in animals that have been exposed to excess androgens during foetal life. PMID:22129152

  15. Membrane modification differentially affects the binding of the lactogenic hormones human growth hormone and ovine prolactin.

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, A; Vonderhaar, B K

    1981-01-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) and ovine prolactin (oPRL) are both lactogenic as defined by their ability to induce milk-protein synthesis in vitro in the presence of insulin and hydrocortisone. At physiological concentrations, both hGH and oPRL have similar dose-response curves in a mouse mammary gland organ culture system. Binding of 125I-labeled hGH (125I-hGH) to lactogenic receptors is competed by both hGH and oPRL, and the competition curves are nearly superimposable. Moreover, solubilized membrane proteins bound with either 125I-hGH or 125I-labeled oPRL (125I-oPRL) show the same sedimentation pattern on sucrose gradients. However, methylation of membrane phospholipids in the presence of the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine only increases the binding of 125I-hGH. Binding of either 125I-oPRL or 125I-labeled bovine growth hormone (125I-bGH) was unaffected. Addition of concanavalin A (Con A) to the membranes decreased binding of 125I-oPRL to the lactogenic site by 80%, whereas 125I-hGH binding was decreased by only 40%, with the binding of 125I-bGH unaffected. However, both hGH-and oPRL-bound proteins bind to Con A-Sepharose columns to the same extent. These results suggest that although hGH and oPRL bind to the same lactogenic site with similar affinities and elicit similar biological responses, modification of membranes either by phospholipid methylation or by Con A differentially affects the binding of these two hormones. PMID:6272313

  16. Selective V1a agonism attenuates vascular dysfunction and fluid accumulation in ovine severe sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yusuke; Sousse, Linda; Bartha, Eva; Jonkam, Collette; Hasselbach, Anthony K.; Traber, Lillian D.; Cox, Robert A.; Westphal, Martin; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Traber, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Vasopressin analogs are used as a supplement to norepinephrine in septic shock. The isolated effects of vasopressin agonists on sepsis-induced vascular dysfunction, however, remain controversial. Because V2-receptor stimulation induces vasodilation and procoagulant effects, a higher V1a- versus V2-receptor selectivity might be advantageous. We therefore hypothesized that a sole, titrated infusion of the selective V1a-agonist Phe2-Orn8-Vasotocin (POV) is more effective than the mixed V1a-/V2-agonist AVP for the treatment of vascular and cardiopulmonary dysfunction in methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus pneumonia-induced, ovine sepsis. After the onset of hemodynamic instability, awake, chronically instrumented, mechanically ventilated, and fluid resuscitated sheep were randomly assigned to receive continuous infusions of either POV, AVP, or saline solution (control; each n = 6). AVP and POV were titrated to maintain mean arterial pressure above baseline ? 10 mmHg. When compared with that of control animals, AVP and POV reduced neutrophil migration (myeloperoxidase activity, alveolar neutrophils) and plasma levels of nitric oxide, resulting in higher mean arterial pressures and a reduced vascular leakage (net fluid balance, chest and abdominal fluid, pulmonary bloodless wet-to-dry-weight ratio, alveolar and septal edema). Notably, POV stabilized hemodynamics at lower doses than AVP. In addition, POV, but not AVP, reduced myocardial and pulmonary tissue concentrations of 3-nitrotyrosine, VEGF, and angiopoietin-2, thereby leading to an abolishment of cumulative fluid accumulation (POV, 9 ± 15 ml/kg vs. AVP, 110 ± 13 ml/kg vs. control, 213 ± 16 ml/kg; P < 0.001 each) and an attenuated cardiopulmonary dysfunction (left ventricular stroke work index, PaO2-to-FiO2 ratio) versus control animals. Highly selective V1a-agonism appears to be superior to unselective vasopressin analogs for the treatment of sepsis-induced vascular dysfunction. PMID:22961865

  17. Altered lymphatics in an ovine model of congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Datar, Sanjeev A.; Johnson, Eric G.; Oishi, Peter E.; Johengen, Michael; Tang, Eric; Aramburo, Angela; Barton, Jubilee; Kuo, Hsuan-Chang; Bennett, Stephen; Xoinis, Konstantine; Reel, Bhupinder; Kalkan, Gokhan; Sajti, Eniko; Osorio, Oscar; Raff, Gary W.; Matthay, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities of the lymphatic circulation are well recognized in patients with congenital heart defects. However, it is not known how the associated abnormal blood flow patterns, such as increased pulmonary blood flow (PBF), might affect pulmonary lymphatic function and structure. Using well-established ovine models of acute and chronic increases in PBF, we cannulated the efferent lymphatic duct of the caudal mediastinal node and collected and analyzed lymph effluent from the lungs of lambs with acutely increased PBF (n = 6), chronically increased PBF (n = 6), and age-matched normal lambs (n = 8). When normalized to PBF, we found that lymph flow was unchanged following acute increases in PBF but decreased following chronic increases in PBF. The lymph:plasma protein ratio decreased with both acute and chronic increases in PBF. Lymph bioavailable nitric oxide increased following acute increases in PBF but decreased following chronic increases in PBF. In addition, we found perturbations in the transit kinetics of contrast material through the pleural lymphatics of lambs with chronic increases in PBF. Finally, there were structural changes in the pulmonary lymphatic system in lambs with chronic increases in PBF: lymphatics from these lambs were larger and more dilated, and there were alterations in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C, lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1, and Angiopoietin-2, proteins known to be important for lymphatic growth, development, and remodeling. Taken together these data suggest that chronic increases in PBF lead to both functional and structural aberrations of lung lymphatics. These findings have important therapeutic implications that warrant further study. PMID:22207591

  18. LPS-induced chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids modulate Shh signaling in the ovine fetal lung

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jennifer J. P.; Kuypers, Elke; Nitsos, Ilias; Jane Pillow, J.; Polglase, Graeme R.; Kemp, Matthew W.; Newnham, John P.; Cleutjens, Jack P.; Frints, Suzanna G. M.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Jobe, Alan H.

    2012-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids mature the fetal lung functionally but disrupt late-gestation lung development. Because Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling is a major pathway directing lung development, we hypothesized that chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids modulated Shh signaling, resulting in an altered fetal lung structure. Time-mated ewes with singleton ovine fetuses received an intra-amniotic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or maternal intramuscular betamethasone 7 and/or 14 days before delivery at 120 days gestational age (GA) (term = 150 days GA). Intra-amniotic LPS exposure decreased Shh mRNA levels and Gli1 protein expression, which was counteracted by both betamethasone pre- or posttreatment. mRNA and protein levels of fibroblast growth factor 10 and bone morphogenetic protein 4, which are important mediators of lung development, increased 2-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively, 14 days after LPS exposure. Both 7-day and 14-day exposure to LPS changed the mRNA levels of elastin (ELN) and collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1A1) and 2 (Col1A2), which resulted in fewer elastin foci and increased collagen type I deposition in the alveolar septa. Corticosteroid posttreatment prevented the decrease in ELN mRNA and increased elastin foci and decreased collagen type I deposition in the fetal lung. In conclusion, fetal lung exposure to LPS was accompanied by changes in key modulators of lung development resulting in abnormal lung structure. Betamethasone treatment partially prevented the changes in developmental processes and lung structure. This study provides new insights into clinically relevant prenatal exposures and fetal lung development. PMID:22962010

  19. Nebulization with ?-tocopherol ameliorates acute lung injury after burn and smoke inhalation in the ovine model.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yusuke; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Sousse, Linda E; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Rehberg, Sebastian W; Asmussen, Sven; Kraft, Edward R; Wright, Charlotte L; Bartha, Eva; Cox, Robert A; Hawkins, Hal K; Traber, Lillian D; Traber, Maret G; Szabo, Csaba; Herndon, David N; Traber, Daniel L

    2012-04-01

    We hypothesize that the nebulization of ?-tocopherol (g-T) in the airway of our ovine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome will effectively improve pulmonary function following burn and smoke inhalation after 96 h. Adult ewes (n = 14) were subjected to 40% total body surface area burn and were insufflated with 48 breaths of cotton smoke under deep anesthesia, in a double-blind comparative study. A customized aerosolization device continuously delivered g-T in ethanol with each breath from 3 to 48 h after the injury (g-T group, n = 6), whereas the control group (n = 5) was nebulized with only ethanol. Animals were weaned from the ventilator when possible. All animals were killed after 96 h, with the exception of one untreated animal that was killed after 64 h. Lung g-T concentration significantly increased after g-T nebulization compared with the control group (38.5 ± 16.8 vs. 0.39 ± 0.46 nmol/g, P < 0.01). The PaO(2)/FIO(2) ratio was significantly higher after treatment with g-T compared with the control group (310 ± 152 vs. 150 ± 27.0, P < 0.05). The following clinical parameters were improved with g-T treatment: pulmonary shunt fraction, peak and pause pressures, lung bloodless wet-to-dry weight ratios (2.9 ± 0.87 vs. 4.6 ± 1.4, P < 0.05), and bronchiolar obstruction (2.0% ± 1.1% vs. 4.6% ± 1.7%, P < 0.05). Nebulization of g-T, carried by ethanol, improved pulmonary oxygenation and markedly reduced the time necessary for assisted ventilation in burn- and smoke-injured sheep. Delivery of g-T into the lungs may be a safe, novel, and efficient approach for management of acute lung injury patients who have sustained oxidative damage to the airway. PMID:22266978

  20. Placental TonEBP/NFAT5 osmolyte regulation in an ovine model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Juan A; Garcia-Jones, Pastora; Graham, Amanda; Teng, Cecilia C; Battaglia, Frederick C; Galan, Henry L

    2012-03-01

    TonEBP/NFAT5 (the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein/nuclear factor of activated T cells) modulates cellular response to osmotic changes by accumulating inositol and sorbitol inside the cells. Our objective was to assess placental osmolytes, TonEBP/NFAT5 RNA and protein expression, and signaling molecules across gestation between control and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) ovine pregnancies. Pregnant sheep were placed in hyperthermic conditions to induce IUGR. Placental tissues were collected at 55, 95, and 130 days gestational age (dGA) to measure inositol, sorbitol, TonEBP/NFAT5 (NFAT5), sodium-dependent myo-inositol transporter (SMIT; official symbol SLC5A3), aldose reductase (AR), and NADPH (official symbol DE-CR1). Placental weight was reduced in IUGR compared to controls at 95 and 130 dGA. Osmolyte concentrations were similar between control and IUGR placentas, but both groups demonstrated a significant decrease in inositol concentration and an increase in sorbitol concentration with advancing gestation. Cytosolic NFAT5 protein decreased significantly from 55 to 95 dGA in both groups, and nuclear NFAT5 protein increased only at 130 dGA in the IUGR group, but no differences were seen between groups for either cytosolic or nuclear NFAT5 protein concentrations. DE-CR1 concentrations were similar between groups and increased significantly with advancing gestational age. AR was lowest at 55dGA, and SLC5A3 increased with advancing gestational age. We conclude that both placental osmolytes inositol and sorbitol (and their corresponding proteins SLC5A3 and AR) change with gestational age and are regulated, at least in part, by NFAT5 and DE-CR1 (NADPH). The inverse relationship between each osmolyte across gestation (e.g., inositol higher in early gestation and sorbitol higher in late gestation) may reflect nutritional needs that change across gestation. PMID:22190709