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Sample records for oxidase-dependent ros generation

  1. The Anorexigenic Effect of Serotonin Is Mediated by the Generation of NADPH Oxidase-Dependent ROS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Na; Yang, Jing; Zeng, Qing-Jie; Cheng, Xiao; Zhang, Zhi-Qi; Wang, Song-Bo; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Xi, Qian-Yun; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Jiang, Qing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a central inhibitor of food intake in mammals. Thus far, the intracellular mechanisms for the effect of serotonin on appetite regulation remain unclear. It has been recently demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the hypothalamus are a crucial integrative target for the regulation of food intake. To investigate the role of ROS in the serotonin-induced anorexigenic effects, conscious mice were treated with 5-HT alone or combination with Trolox (a ROS scavenger) or Apocynin (an NADPH oxidase inhibitor) by acute intracerebroventricular injection. Both Trolox and Apocynin reversed the anorexigenic action of 5-HT and the 5-HT-induced hypothalamic ROS elevation. The mRNA and protein expression levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) were dramatically increased after ICV injection with 5-HT. The anorexigenic action of 5-HT was accompanied by markedly elevated hypothalamic MDA levels and GSH-Px activity, while the SOD activity was decreased. Moreover, 5-HT significantly increased the mRNA expression of UCP-2 but reduced the levels of UCP-3. Both Trolox and Apocynin could block the 5-HT-induced changes in UCP-2 and UCP-3 gene expression. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the anorexigenic effect of 5-HT is mediated by the generation of ROS in the hypothalamus through an NADPH oxidase-dependent pathway. PMID:23326391

  2. Activation of Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in retinal pigment epithelium and reduces choroidal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibo; Jiang, Yanchao; Shi, Dallas; Quilliam, Lawrence A.; Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Magdalena; Wittchen, Erika S.; Li, Dean Y.; Hartnett, M. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Activation of Rap1 GTPase can improve the integrity of the barrier of the retina pigment epithelium (RPE) and reduce choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Inhibition of NADPH oxidase activation also reduces CNV. We hypothesize that Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-generated ROS and thereby reduces CNV formation. Using a murine model of laser-induced CNV, we determined that reduced Rap1 activity in RPE/choroid occurred with CNV formation and that activation of Rap1 by 2′-O-Me-cAMP (8CPT)-reduced laser-induced CNV via inhibiting NADPH oxidase-generated ROS. In RPE, inhibition of Rap1 by Rap1 GTPase-activating protein (Rap1GAP) increased ROS generation, whereas activation of Rap1 by 8CPT reduced ROS by interfering with the assembly of NADPH oxidase membrane subunit p22phox with NOX4 or cytoplasmic subunit p47phox. Activation of NADPH oxidase with Rap1GAP reduced RPE barrier integrity via cadherin phosphorylation and facilitated choroidal EC migration across the RPE monolayer. Rap1GAP-induced ROS generation was inhibited by active Rap1a, but not Rap1b, and activation of Rap1a by 8CPT in Rap1b−/− mice reduced laser-induced CNV, in correlation with decreased ROS generation in RPE/choroid. These findings provide evidence that active Rap1 reduces CNV by interfering with the assembly of NADPH oxidase subunits and increasing the integrity of the RPE barrier.—Wang, H., Jiang, Y., Shi, D., Quilliam, L. A., Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, M., Wittchen, E. S., Li, D. Y., Hartnett, M. E. Activation of Rap1 inhibits NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation in retinal pigment epithelium and reduces choroidal neovascularization. PMID:24043260

  3. Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2013-11-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative IκB-α plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-κB, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages. PMID:23978445

  4. Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2013-11-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative IκB-α plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-κB, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages. - Highlights: • Ethanol increases ROS production through up-regulation of Nox2 in macrophages. • Enhanced oxidative stress contributes to ethanol

  5. Chlorella Induces Stomatal Closure via NADPH Oxidase-Dependent ROS Production and Its Effects on Instantaneous Water Use Efficiency in Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Xu, Shan-Shan; Gao, Jing; Pan, Sha; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been established to participate in stomatal closure induced by live microbes and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Chlorella as a beneficial microorganism can be expected to trigger stomatal closure via ROS production. Here, we reported that Chlorella induced stomatal closure in a dose-and time-dependent manner in epidermal peels of Vicia faba. Using pharmacological methods in this work, we found that the Chlorella-induced stomatal closure was almost completely abolished by a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase (CAT), significantly suppressed by an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI), and slightly affected by a peroxidase inhibitor, salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), suggesting that ROS production involved in Chlorella-induced stomatal closure is mainly mediated by DPI-sensitive NADPH oxidase. Additionally, Exogenous application of optimal concentrations of Chlorella suspension improved instantaneous water use efficiency (WUEi) in Vicia faba via a reduction in leaf transpiration rate (E) without a parallel reduction in net photosynthetic rate (Pn) assessed by gas-exchange measurements. The chlorophyll fluorescence and content analysis further demonstrated that short-term use of Chlorella did not influence plant photosynthetic reactions center. These results preliminarily reveal that Chlorella can trigger stomatal closure via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in epidermal strips and improve WUEi in leave levels. PMID:24687099

  6. NADH oxidase-dependent CD39 expression by CD8(+) T cells modulates interferon gamma responses via generation of adenosine.

    PubMed

    Bai, Aiping; Moss, Alan; Rothweiler, Sonja; Longhi, Maria Serena; Wu, Yan; Junger, Wolfgang G; Robson, Simon C

    2015-01-01

    Interferon gamma (IFNγ)-producing CD8(+) T cells (Tc1) play important roles in immunological disease. We now report that CD3/CD28-mediated stimulation of CD8(+) T cells to generate Tc1 cells, not only increases IFNγ production but also boosts the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and augments expression of CD39. Inhibition of NADPH oxidases or knockdown of gp91phox in CD8(+) T cells abrogates ROS generation, which in turn modulates JNK and NFκB signalling with decreases in both IFNγ levels and CD39 expression. CD39(+)CD8(+) T cells substantially inhibit IFNγ production by CD39(-)CD8(+) T cells via the paracrine generation of adenosine, which is operational via adenosine type 2A receptors. Increases in numbers of CD39(+)CD8(+) T cells and associated enhancements in ROS signal transduction are noted in cells from patients with Crohn's disease. Our findings provide insights into Tc1-mediated IFNγ responses and ROS generation and link these pathways to CD39/adenosine-mediated effects in immunological disease. PMID:26549640

  7. NADH oxidase-dependent CD39 expression by CD8+ T cells modulates interferon gamma responses via generation of adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Aiping; Moss, Alan; Rothweiler, Sonja; Serena Longhi, Maria; Wu, Yan; Junger, Wolfgang G.; Robson, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    Interferon gamma (IFNγ)-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc1) play important roles in immunological disease. We now report that CD3/CD28-mediated stimulation of CD8+ T cells to generate Tc1 cells, not only increases IFNγ production but also boosts the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and augments expression of CD39. Inhibition of NADPH oxidases or knockdown of gp91phox in CD8+ T cells abrogates ROS generation, which in turn modulates JNK and NFκB signalling with decreases in both IFNγ levels and CD39 expression. CD39+CD8+ T cells substantially inhibit IFNγ production by CD39−CD8+ T cells via the paracrine generation of adenosine, which is operational via adenosine type 2A receptors. Increases in numbers of CD39+CD8+ T cells and associated enhancements in ROS signal transduction are noted in cells from patients with Crohn's disease. Our findings provide insights into Tc1-mediated IFNγ responses and ROS generation and link these pathways to CD39/adenosine-mediated effects in immunological disease. PMID:26549640

  8. NADPH Oxidase-dependent Generation of Lysophosphatidylserine Enhances Clearance of Activated and Dying Neutrophils via G2A*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Frasch, S. Courtney; Berry, Karin Zemski; Fernandez-Boyanapalli, Ruby; Jin, Hyun-Sun; Leslie, Christina; Henson, Peter M.; Murphy, Robert C.; Bratton, Donna L.

    2008-01-01

    Exofacial phosphatidylserine (PS) is an important ligand mediating apoptotic cell clearance by phagocytes. Oxidation of PS fatty acyl groups (oxPS) during apoptosis reportedly mediates recognition through scavenger receptors. Given the oxidative capacity of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase, we sought to identify oxPS signaling species in stimulated neutrophils. Using mass spectrometry analysis, only trace amounts of previously characterized oxPS species were found. Conversely, 18:1 and 18:0 lysophosphatidylserine (lyso-PS), known bioactive signaling phospholipids, were identified as abundant modified PS species following activation of the neutrophil oxidase. NADPH oxidase inhibitors blocked the production of lyso-PS in vitro, and accordingly, its generation in vivo by activated, murine neutrophils during zymosan-induced peritonitis was absent in mice lacking a functional NADPH oxidase (gp91phox-/-). Treatment of macrophages with lyso-PS enhanced the uptake of apoptotic cells in vitro, an effect that was dependent on signaling via the macrophage G2A receptor. Similarly, endogenously produced lyso-PS also enhanced the G2A-mediated uptake of activated PS-exposing (but non-apoptotic) neutrophils, raising the possibility of non-apoptotic mechanisms for removal of inflammatory cells during resolution. Finally, antibody blockade of G2A signaling in vivo prolonged zymosan-induced neutrophilia in wild-type mice, whereas having no effect in gp91phox-/- mice where lyso-PS are not generated. Taken together, we show that lyso-PS are modified PS species generated following activation of the NADPH oxidase and lyso-PS signaling through the macrophage G2A functions to enhance existing receptor/ligand systems for optimal resolution of neutrophilic inflammation. PMID:18824544

  9. Generation of reactive oxygen species in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) treated dopaminergic neurons occurs as an NADPH oxidase-dependent two-wave cascade

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are necessary for appropriate responses to immune challenges. In the brain, excess superoxide production predicts neuronal cell loss, suggesting that Parkinson's disease (PD) with its wholesale death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (nigra) may be a case in point. Although microglial NADPH oxidase-produced superoxide contributes to dopaminergic neuron death in an MPTP mouse model of PD, this is secondary to an initial die off of such neurons, suggesting that the initial MPTP-induced death of neurons may be via activation of NADPH oxidase in neurons themselves, thus providing an early therapeutic target. Methods NADPH oxidase subunits were visualized in adult mouse nigra neurons and in N27 rat dopaminergic cells by immunofluorescence. NADPH oxidase subunits in N27 cell cultures were detected by immunoblots and RT-PCR. Superoxide was measured by flow cytometric detection of H2O2-induced carboxy-H2-DCFDA fluorescence. Cells were treated with MPP+ (MPTP metabolite) following siRNA silencing of the Nox2-stabilizing subunit p22phox, or simultaneously with NADPH oxidase pharmacological inhibitors or with losartan to antagonize angiotensin II type 1 receptor-induced NADPH oxidase activation. Results Nigral dopaminergic neurons in situ expressed three subunits necessary for NADPH oxidase activation, and these as well as several other NADPH oxidase subunits and their encoding mRNAs were detected in unstimulated N27 cells. Overnight MPP+ treatment of N27 cells induced Nox2 protein and superoxide generation, which was counteracted by NADPH oxidase inhibitors, by siRNA silencing of p22phox, or losartan. A two-wave ROS cascade was identified: 1) as a first wave, mitochondrial H2O2 production was first noted at three hours of MPP+ treatment; and 2) as a second wave, H2O2 levels were further increased by 24 hours. This second wave was eliminated by pharmacological inhibitors

  10. RAGE Expression and ROS Generation in Neurons: Differentiation versus Damage

    PubMed Central

    Piras, S.; Furfaro, A. L.; Domenicotti, C.; Traverso, N.; Marinari, U. M.; Pronzato, M. A.; Nitti, M.

    2016-01-01

    RAGE is a multiligand receptor able to bind advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), amphoterin, calgranulins, and amyloid-beta peptides, identified in many tissues and cells, including neurons. RAGE stimulation induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) mainly through the activity of NADPH oxidases. In neuronal cells, RAGE-induced ROS generation is able to favor cell survival and differentiation or to induce death through the imbalance of redox state. The dual nature of RAGE signaling in neurons depends not only on the intensity of RAGE activation but also on the ability of RAGE-bearing cells to adapt to ROS generation. In this review we highlight these aspects of RAGE signaling regulation in neuronal cells. PMID:27313835

  11. Zinc Chelation Mediates the Lysosomal Disruption without Intracellular ROS Generation

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Andreza Cândido; Manieri, Tânia Maria; Cerchiaro, Giselle

    2016-01-01

    We report the molecular mechanism for zinc depletion caused by TPEN (N,N,N′,N′-Tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine) in neuroblastoma cells. The activation of p38 MAP kinase and subsequently caspase 3 is not due to or followed by redox imbalance or ROS generation, though these are commonly observed in literature. We found that TPEN is not responsible for ROS generation and the mechanism involves essentially lysosomal disruption caused by intracellular zinc depletion. We also observed a modest activation of Bax and no changes in the Bcl-2 proteins. As a result, we suggest that TPEN causes intracellular zinc depletion which can influence the breakdown of lysosomes and cell death without ROS generation. PMID:27123155

  12. The Endogenous Nitric Oxide Mediates Selenium-Induced Phytotoxicity by Promoting ROS Generation in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liang-Bin; Li, You-Qin; Chen, Jian; Yang, Li-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is suggested as an emerging pollutant in agricultural environment because of the increasing anthropogenic release of Se, which in turn results in phytotoxicity. The most common consequence of Se-induced toxicity in plants is oxidative injury, but how Se induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst remains unclear. In this work, histofluorescent staining was applied to monitor the dynamics of ROS and nitric oxide (NO) in the root of Brassica rapa under Se(IV) stress. Se(IV)-induced faster accumulation of NO than ROS. Both NO and ROS accumulation were positively correlated with Se(IV)-induced inhibition of root growth. The NO accumulation was nitrate reductase (NR)- and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent while ROS accumulation was NADPH oxidase-dependent. The removal of NO by NR inhibitor, NOS inhibitor, and NO scavenger could alleviate Se(IV)-induced expression of Br_Rbohs coding for NADPH oxidase and the following ROS accumulation in roots, which further resulted in the amelioration of Se(IV)-induced oxidative injury and growth inhibition. Thus, we proposed that the endogenous NO played a toxic role in B. rapa under Se(IV) stress by triggering ROS burst. Such findings can be used to evaluate the toxic effects of Se contamination on crop plants. PMID:25333984

  13. Photosensitizing nanoparticles and the modulation of ROS generation

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Dayane B.; Baptista, Mauricio S.

    2015-01-01

    The association of PhotoSensitizer (PS) molecules with nanoparticles (NPs) forming photosensitizing NPs, has emerged as a therapeutic strategy to improve PS tumor targeting, to protect PS from deactivation reactions and to enhance both PS solubility and circulation time. Since association with NPs usually alters PS photophysical and photochemical properties, photosensitizing NPs are an important tool to modulate ROS generation. Depending on the design of the photosensitizing NP, i.e., type of PS, the NP material and the method applied for the construction of the photosensitizing NP, the deactivation routes of the excited state can be controlled, allowing the generation of either singlet oxygen or other reactive oxygen species (ROS). Controlling the type of generated ROS is desirable not only in biomedical applications, as in Photodynamic Therapy where the type of ROS affects therapeutic efficiency, but also in other technological relevant fields like energy conversion, where the electron and energy transfer processes are necessary to increase the efficiency of photoconversion cells. The current review highlights some of the recent developments in the design of Photosensitizing NPs aimed at modulating the primary photochemical events after light absorption. PMID:26075198

  14. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation by lunar simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Rickman, Douglas; Schoonen, Martin A.

    2016-05-01

    The current interest in human exploration of the Moon and past experiences of Apollo astronauts has rekindled interest into the possible harmful effects of lunar dust on human health. In comparison to the Apollo-era explorations, human explorers may be weeks on the Moon, which will raise the risk of inhalation exposure. The mineralogical composition of lunar dust is well documented, but its effects on human health are not fully understood. With the aim of understanding the reactivity of dusts that may be encountered on geologically different lunar terrains, we have studied Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation by a suite of lunar simulants of different mineralogical-chemical composition dispersed in water and Simulated Lung Fluid (SLF). To further explore the reactivity of simulants under lunar environmental conditions, we compared the reactivity of simulants both in air and inert atmosphere. As the impact of micrometeorites with consequent shock-induced stresses is a major environmental factor on the Moon, we also studied the effect of mechanical stress on samples. Mechanical stress was induced by hand crushing the samples both in air and inert atmosphere. The reactivity of samples after crushing was analyzed for a period of up to nine days. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in water and SLF was analyzed by an in situ electrochemical probe and hydroxyl radical (•OH) by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and Adenine probe. Out of all simulants, CSM-CL-S was found to be the most reactive simulant followed by OB-1 and then JSC-1A simulant. The overall reactivity of samples in the inert atmosphere was higher than in air. Fresh crushed samples showed a higher level of reactivity than uncrushed samples. Simulant samples treated to create agglutination, including the formation of zero-valent iron, showed less reactivity than untreated simulants. ROS generation in SLF is initially slower than in deionized water (DI), but the ROS formation is sustained for as long as 7

  15. Bioreductively Activated Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Generators as MRSA Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Khodade, Vinayak S; Sharath Chandra, Mallojjala; Banerjee, Ankita; Lahiri, Surobhi; Pulipeta, Mallikarjuna; Rangarajan, Radha; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2014-07-10

    The number of cases of drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections is on the rise globally and new strategies to identify drug candidates with novel mechanisms of action are in urgent need. Here, we report the synthesis and evaluation of a series of benzo[b]phenanthridine-5,7,12(6H)-triones, which were designed based on redox-active natural products. We find that the in vitro inhibitory activity of 6-(prop-2-ynyl)benzo[b]phenanthridine-5,7,12(6H)-trione (1f) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including a panel of patient-derived strains, is comparable or better than vancomycin. We show that the lead compound generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell, contributing to its antibacterial activity. PMID:25050164

  16. Maternal inflammation activated ROS-p38 MAPK predisposes offspring to heart damages caused by isoproterenol via augmenting ROS generation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Deng, Yafei; Lai, Wenjing; Guan, Xiao; Sun, Xiongshan; Han, Qi; Wang, Fangjie; Pan, Xiaodong; Ji, Yan; Luo, Hongqin; Huang, Pei; Tang, Yuan; Gu, Liangqi; Dan, Guorong; Yu, Jianhua; Namaka, Michael; Zhang, Jianxiang; Deng, Youcai; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Maternal inflammation contributes to the increased incidence of adult cardiovascular disease. The current study investigated the susceptibility of cardiac damage responding to isoproterenol (ISO) in adult offspring that underwent maternal inflammation (modeled by pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) challenge). We found that 2 weeks of ISO treatment in adult offspring of LPS-treated mothers led to augmented heart damage, characterized by left-ventricular systolic dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. Mechanistically, prenatal exposure to LPS led to up-regulated expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, antioxidant enzymes, and p38 MAPK activity in left ventricular of adult offspring at resting state. ISO treatment exaggerated ROS generation, p38 MAPK activation but down-regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) elimination capacity in the left ventricular of offspring from LPS-treated mothers, while antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reversed these changes together with improved cardiac functions. The p38 inhibitor SB202190 alleviated the heart damage only via inhibiting the expression of NADPH oxidases. Collectively, our data demonstrated that prenatal inflammation programs pre-existed ROS activation in the heart tissue, which switches on the early process of oxidative damages on heart rapidly through a ROS-p38 MAPK-NADPH oxidase-ROS positive feedback loop in response to a myocardial hypertrophic challenge in adulthood. PMID:27443826

  17. Maternal inflammation activated ROS-p38 MAPK predisposes offspring to heart damages caused by isoproterenol via augmenting ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Deng, Yafei; Lai, Wenjing; Guan, Xiao; Sun, Xiongshan; Han, Qi; Wang, Fangjie; Pan, Xiaodong; Ji, Yan; Luo, Hongqin; Huang, Pei; Tang, Yuan; Gu, Liangqi; Dan, Guorong; Yu, Jianhua; Namaka, Michael; Zhang, Jianxiang; Deng, Youcai; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Maternal inflammation contributes to the increased incidence of adult cardiovascular disease. The current study investigated the susceptibility of cardiac damage responding to isoproterenol (ISO) in adult offspring that underwent maternal inflammation (modeled by pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) challenge). We found that 2 weeks of ISO treatment in adult offspring of LPS-treated mothers led to augmented heart damage, characterized by left-ventricular systolic dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis. Mechanistically, prenatal exposure to LPS led to up-regulated expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases, antioxidant enzymes, and p38 MAPK activity in left ventricular of adult offspring at resting state. ISO treatment exaggerated ROS generation, p38 MAPK activation but down-regulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) elimination capacity in the left ventricular of offspring from LPS-treated mothers, while antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reversed these changes together with improved cardiac functions. The p38 inhibitor SB202190 alleviated the heart damage only via inhibiting the expression of NADPH oxidases. Collectively, our data demonstrated that prenatal inflammation programs pre-existed ROS activation in the heart tissue, which switches on the early process of oxidative damages on heart rapidly through a ROS-p38 MAPK-NADPH oxidase-ROS positive feedback loop in response to a myocardial hypertrophic challenge in adulthood. PMID:27443826

  18. Silica particles cause NADPH oxidase–independent ROS generation and transient phagolysosomal leakage

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Gaurav N.; Goetjen, Alexandra M.; Knecht, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of silica particles causes lung fibrosis and silicosis. Silica taken up by alveolar macrophages causes phagolysosomal membrane damage and leakage of lysosomal material into the cytoplasm to initiate apoptosis. We investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this membrane damage by studying the spatiotemporal generation of ROS. In macrophages, ROS generated by NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) was detected in phagolysosomes containing either silica particles or nontoxic latex particles. ROS was only detected in the cytoplasm of cells treated with silica and appeared in parallel with an increase in phagosomal ROS, as well as several hours later associated with mitochondrial production of ROS late in apoptosis. Pharmacological inhibition of NOX activity did not prevent silica-induced phagolysosomal leakage but delayed it. In Cos7 cells, which do not express NOX2, ROS was detected in silica-containing phagolysosomes that leaked. ROS was not detected in phagolysosomes containing latex particles. Leakage of silica-containing phagolysosomes in both cell types was transient, and after resealing of the membrane, endolysosomal fusion continued. These results demonstrate that silica particles can generate phagosomal ROS independent of NOX activity, and we propose that this silica-generated ROS can cause phagolysosomal leakage to initiate apoptosis. PMID:26202463

  19. Measurements of UV-generated free radicals/reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrling, Th.; Jung, K.; Fuchs, J.

    2006-03-01

    Free radicals/reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in skin by UV irradiation were measured by electron spin resonance (ESR). To increase the sensitivity of measurement the short life free radicals/ROS were scavenged and accumulated by using the nitroxyl probe 3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetrametylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl (PCA). The spatial distribution of free radicals/ROS measured in pig skin biopsies with ESR imaging after UV irradiation corresponds to the intensity decay of irradiance in the depth of the skin. The main part of free radicals/ROS were generated by UVA (320-400 nm) so that the spatial distribution of free radicals reaches up to the lower side of the dermis. In vivo measurements on human skin were performed with a L-band ESR spectrometer and a surface coil integrating the signal intensities from all skin layers to get a sufficient signal amplitude. Using this experimental arrangement the protection of UVB and UVA/B filter against the generation of free radicals/ROS in skin were measured. The protection against ROS and the repair of damages caused by them can be realized with active antioxidants characterized by a high antioxidative power (AP). The effect of UV filter and antioxidants corresponding to their protection against free radicals/ROS in skin generated by UVAB irradiation can be quantified by the new radical sun protection factor (RSF). The RSF indicates the increase of time for staying in the sun to generate the same number of free radicals/ROS in the skin like for the unprotected skin. Regarding the amount of generated free radicals/ROS in skin as an biophysical endpoint the RSF characterizes both the protection against UVB and UVA radiation.

  20. Surface functionalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Photo-stability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Kacie M.

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are becoming increasingly prevalent in society for applications of sunscreens, cosmetics, paints, biomedical imaging, and photovoltaics. Due to the increased surface area to volume ratio of nanoparticles compared to bulk materials, it is important to know the health and safety impacts of these materials. One mechanism of toxicity of nominally "safe" materials such as TiO 2 is through the photocatalytic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS production and ligand degradation can affect the bioavailability of these particles in aqueous organisms. We have investigated ROS generation by functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles and its influence on aggregation and bioavailability and toxicity to zebrafish embryos/larvae. For these studies we investigated anatase TiO2 nanoparticles. For application purposes and solution stability, the TiO2 nanoparticles were functionalized with a variety of ligands such as citrate, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and ascorbate. We quantitatively examined the amount of ROS produced in aqueous solution using fluorescent probes and see that more ROS is produced under UV light than in the dark control. Our measurements show that TiO2 toxicity reaches a maximum for nanoparticles with smaller diameters, and is correlated with surface area dependent changes in ROS generation. In an effort to reduce toxicity through control of the surface and surface ligands, we synthesized anatase nanoparticles of different sizes, functionalized them with different ligands, and examined the resulting ROS generation and ligand stability. Using a modular ligand containing a hydrophobic inner region and a hydrophilic outer region, we synthesized water-stable nanoparticles, via two different chemical reactions, having much-reduced ROS generation and thus reduced toxicity. These results suggest new strategies for making safer nanoparticles while still retaining their desired properties. We also examine the degradation of the different ligands

  1. ROS generation and multiple forms of mammalian mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Mráček, Tomáš; Holzerová, Eliška; Drahota, Zdeněk; Kovářová, Nikola; Vrbacký, Marek; Ješina, Pavel; Houštěk, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in a range of pathologies. Mitochondrial flavin dehydrogenases glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) represent important ROS source, but the mechanism of electron leak is still poorly understood. To investigate the ROS production by the isolated dehydrogenases, we used brown adipose tissue mitochondria solubilized by digitonin as a model. Enzyme activity measurements and hydrogen peroxide production studies by Amplex Red fluorescence, and luminol luminescence in combination with oxygraphy revealed flavin as the most likely source of electron leak in SDH under in vivo conditions, while we propose coenzyme Q as the site of ROS production in the case of mGPDH. Distinct mechanism of ROS production by the two dehydrogenases is also apparent from induction of ROS generation by ferricyanide which is unique for mGPDH. Furthermore, using native electrophoretic systems, we demonstrated that mGPDH associates into homooligomers as well as high molecular weight supercomplexes, which represent native forms of mGPDH in the membrane. By this approach, we also directly demonstrated that isolated mGPDH itself as well as its supramolecular assemblies are all capable of ROS production. PMID:23999537

  2. Khz-cp (crude polysaccharide extract obtained from the fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia) induces apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels and activating P38 and NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species in SNU-1 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Khz-cp is a crude polysaccharide extract that is obtained after nuclear fusion in Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia (Khz). It inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Methods Khz-cp was extracted by solvent extraction. The anti-proliferative activity of Khz-cp was confirmed by using Annexin-V/PI-flow cytometry analysis. Intracellular calcium increase and measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were performed by using flow cytometry and inverted microscope. SNU-1 cells were treated with p38, Bcl-2 and Nox family siRNA. siRNA transfected cells was employed to investigate the expression of apoptotic, growth and survival genes in SNU-1 cells. Western blot analysis was performed to confirm the expression of the genes. Results In the present study, Khz-cp induced apoptosis preferentially in transformed cells and had only minimal effects on non-transformed cells. Furthermore, Khz-cp was found to induce apoptosis by increasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and activating P38 to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) via NADPH oxidase and the mitochondria. Khz-cp-induced apoptosis was caspase dependent and occurred via a mitochondrial pathway. ROS generation by NADPH oxidase was critical for Khz-cp-induced apoptosis, and although mitochondrial ROS production was also required, it appeared to occur secondary to ROS generation by NADPH oxidase. Activation of NADPH oxidase was shown by the translocation of the regulatory subunits p47phox and p67phox to the cell membrane and was necessary for ROS generation by Khz-cp. Khz-cp triggered a rapid and sustained increase in [Ca2+]i that activated P38. P38 was considered to play a key role in the activation of NADPH oxidase because inhibition of its expression or activity abrogated membrane translocation of the p47phox and p67phox subunits and ROS generation. Conclusions In summary, these data indicate that Khz-cp preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells and that the

  3. ROS-mediated platelet generation: a microenvironment-dependent manner for megakaryocyte proliferation, differentiation, and maturation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S; Su, Y; Wang, J

    2013-01-01

    Platelets have an important role in the body because of their manifold functions in haemostasis, thrombosis, and inflammation. Platelets are produced by megakaryocytes (MKs) that are differentiated from haematopoietic stem cells via several consecutive stages, including MK lineage commitment, MK progenitor proliferation, MK differentiation and maturation, cell apoptosis, and platelet release. During differentiation, the cells migrate from the osteoblastic niche to the vascular niche in the bone marrow, which is accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent oxidation state changes in the microenvironment, suggesting that ROS can distinctly influence platelet generation and function in a microenvironment-dependent manner. The objective of this review is to reveal the role of ROS in regulating MK proliferation, differentiation, maturation, and platelet activation, thereby providing new insight into the mechanism of platelet generation, which may lead to the development of new therapeutic agents for thrombocytopenia and/or thrombosis. PMID:23846224

  4. ROS-generating/ARE-activating capacity of metals in roadway particulate matter deposited in urban environment.

    PubMed

    Shuster-Meiseles, Timor; Shafer, Martin M; Heo, Jongbae; Pardo, Michal; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S; Schauer, James J; Rudich, Assaf; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigated the possible causal role for soluble metal species extracted from roadway traffic emissions in promoting particulate matter (PM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant response element (ARE) promoter activation. To this end, these responses have been evaluated in alveolar macrophage and epithelial lung cells that have been exposed to 'Unfiltered', 'Filtered' and 'Filtered+Chelexed' water extracts of PM samples collected from the roadway urban environments of Thessaloniki, Milan and London. Except for Thessaloniki, our results demonstrate that filtration resulted in a minor decrease in ROS activity of the fine PM fraction, suggesting that ROS activity is attributed mainly to water-soluble PM species. In contrast to ROS, ARE activity was mediated predominantly by the water-soluble component of PM present in both the fine and coarse extracts. Further removal of metals by Chelex treatment from filtered water extracts showed that soluble metal species are the major factors mediating ROS and ARE activities of the soluble fraction, especially in the London PM extracts. Finally, utilizing step-wise multiple-regression analysis, we show that 87% and 78% of the total variance observed in ROS and ARE assays, respectively, is accounted for by changes in soluble metal concentration. Using a statistical analysis we find that As, Zn and Fe best predict the ROS-generating/ARE-activating capacity of the near roadway particulate matter in the pulmonary cells studied. Collectively, our findings imply that soluble metals present in roadside PM are potential drivers of both pro- and anti-oxidative effects of PM in respiratory tract. PMID:26775006

  5. Quinones as photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy: ROS generation, mechanism and detection methods.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, M

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the dye-sensitized photooxidation of biological matter in the target tissue, and utilizes light activated drugs for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies. Quinones and porphyrins moiety are available naturally and involved in the biological process. Quinone metabolites perform a variety of key functions in plants which includes pathogen protection, oxidative phosphorylation, and redox signaling. Quinones and porphyrin are biologically accessible and will not create any allergic effects. In the field of photodynamic therapy, porphyrin derivatives are widely used, because it absorb in the photodynamic therapy window region (600-900 nm). Hence, researchers synthesize drugs based on porphyrin structure. Benzoquinone and its simple polycyclic derivatives such as naphthaquinone and anthraquinones absorb at lower wavelength region (300-400 nm), which is lower than porphyrin. Hence they are not involved in PDT studies. However, higher polycyclic quinones absorb in the photodynamic therapy window region (600-900 nm), because of its conjugation and can be used as PDT agents. Redox cycling has been proposed as a possible mechanism of action for many quinone species. Quinones are involved in the photodynamic as well as enzymatic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Generations of ROS may be measured by optical, phosphorescence and EPR methods. The photodynamically generated ROS are also involved in many biological events. The photo-induced DNA cleavage by quinones correlates with the ROS generating efficiencies of the quinones. In this review basic reactions involving photodynamic generation of ROS by quinones and their biological applications were discussed. PMID:26241780

  6. Unusual compounds from Galium mollugo and their inhibitory activities against ROS generation in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Chaher, Nassima; Krisa, Stéphanie; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Bernillon, Stéphane; Pedrot, Eric; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Atmani, Djebbar; Richard, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Three unusual dioxatricyclodecenone compounds, mollugoside A, E-mollugoside B and Z-mollugoside B and, together with known flavonoids, were isolated from the aerial parts of Galium mollugo collected in north-eastern Algeria. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR. Flavonoids and mollugoside A significantly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human fibroblasts. PMID:26344381

  7. Induction of chlorosis, ROs generation and cell death by a toxin isolated from Pyricularia oryzae.

    PubMed

    Tsurushima, Tetsu; Minami, Yukari; Miyagawa, Hisashi; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Tosa, Yukio; Mayama, Shigeyuki

    2010-01-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of the conidia germination fluid from an Avena isolate (Br58) of Pyricularia oryzae had chlorosis-inducing activity on oat leaf segments. The same activity was also present in the acetone extract of an oatmeal agar culture of Br58. Fungal cultures were used for a large-scale preparation. A series of acetone and ethyl acetate extraction monitored by chromatography was used to isolate an active fraction. The active principle was purified by HPLC. We show by NMR and LC/MS that the toxin was an oxidized C18 unsaturated fatty acid named Mag-toxin. Mag-toxin induced chlorosis on oat leaf segments incubated in the light but not in the dark. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death were induced by Mag-toxin in oat cells. The sub-cellular localization of ROS generation induced by the toxin treatment was correlated with the location of mitochondria. Interestingly, the induction of ROS generation and cell death by Mag-toxin was light-independent. PMID:21071840

  8. Mitochondrial calcium uptake underlies ROS generation during aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death.

    PubMed

    Esterberg, Robert; Linbo, Tor; Pickett, Sarah B; Wu, Patricia; Ou, Henry C; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics can lead to the generation of toxic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within mechanosensory hair cells of the inner ear that have been implicated in hearing and balance disorders. Better understanding of the origin of aminoglycoside-induced ROS could focus the development of therapies aimed at preventing this event. In this work, we used the zebrafish lateral line system to monitor the dynamic behavior of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic oxidation occurring within the same dying hair cell following exposure to aminoglycosides. The increased oxidation observed in both mitochondria and cytoplasm of dying hair cells was highly correlated with mitochondrial calcium uptake. Application of the mitochondrial uniporter inhibitor Ru360 reduced mitochondrial and cytoplasmic oxidation, suggesting that mitochondrial calcium drives ROS generation during aminoglycoside-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, targeting mitochondria with free radical scavengers conferred superior protection against aminoglycoside exposure compared with identical, untargeted scavengers. Our findings suggest that targeted therapies aimed at preventing mitochondrial oxidation have therapeutic potential to ameliorate the toxic effects of aminoglycoside exposure. PMID:27500493

  9. Cordycepin Prevents Bone Loss through Inhibiting Osteoclastogenesis by Scavenging ROS Generation

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Ce; Cao, Zhen; Ding, Ning; Hou, Tianyong; Luo, Fei; Kang, Fei; Yang, Xiaochao; Jiang, Hong; Xie, Zhao; Hu, Min; Xu, Jianzhong; Dong, Shiwu

    2016-01-01

    Cordycepin was previously reported to have anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. However, the potential role of cordycepin in bone metabolism and cell biology of osteoclasts remains unclear. In our study, we focused on the in vitro effects of cordycepin on osteoclastogenesis and its in vivo effects in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Osteoclast differentiation, formation and fusion were evaluated by Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain, focal adhesion stain and fusion assay, respectively. Osteoclastic bone resorption was evaluated by pit formation assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and removal were detected by the ROS assay. OVX mice were orally administered with 10 mg/kg of cordycepin daily for four weeks. In vitro results revealed that cordycepin inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation, formation, fusion and bone resorption activity. We further proved that cordycepin treatments scavenged the generation of ROS, upregulated interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF-8) and suppressed the activity of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) during osteoclastogenesis. In vivo results indicated cordycepin prevents bone loss, rescues bone microarchitecture, and restores bone mineralization in OVX mice. Our observations strongly suggested that cordycepin is an efficient osteoclast inhibitor and hold potential therapeutic value in preventing bone loss among postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. PMID:27104563

  10. Amorphous nanosilica induce endocytosis-dependent ROS generation and DNA damage in human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clarifying the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials is crucial for hazard assessment and the safe application of these substances. With this in mind, we analyzed the relationship between particle size and the in vitro effect of amorphous nanosilica (nSP). Specifically, we evaluated the relationship between particle size of nSP and the in vitro biological effects using human keratinocyte cells (HaCaT). Results Our results indicate that exposure to nSP of 70 nm diameter (nSP70) induced an elevated level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to DNA damage. A markedly reduced response was observed using submicron-sized silica particles of 300 and 1000 nm diameter. In addition, cytochalasin D-treatment reduced nSP70-mediated ROS generation and DNA damage, suggesting that endocytosis is involved in nSP70-mediated cellular effects. Conclusions Thus, particle size affects amorphous silica-induced ROS generation and DNA damage of HaCaT cells. We believe clarification of the endocytosis pathway of nSP will provide useful information for hazard assessment as well as the design of safer forms of nSPs. PMID:21235812

  11. Characterization and structures of anthocyanin pigments generated in rosé cider during vinification.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Toshihiko; Goda, Yukihiro; Toyoda, Masatake; Yanagida, Akio; Kanda, Tomomasa

    2002-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments, which are not found in apple juice, were detected in rosé cider. We confirmed by HPLC/DAD and LC/ESI-MS analyses that some of these anthocyanin pigments generated in rosé cider during vinification corresponded to those formed in model cider containing anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol in the presence of acetaldehyde. To confirm their structures, two anthocyanin pigments formed in a model cider containing cyanidin-3-galactoside and (-)-epicatechin in the presence of acetaldehyde were isolated and purified, and their structures were elucidated by high resolution FAB-MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR analyses. These two pigments were found to consist of cyanidin-3-galactoside and (-)-epicatechin linked by a CH(3)-CH bridge at the 8-position. They were diastereomers that differed in the configuration of the asymmetric methine carbon. PMID:11809454

  12. How aluminum, an intracellular ROS generator promotes hepatic and neurological diseases: the metabolic tale.

    PubMed

    Han, Sungwon; Lemire, Joseph; Appanna, Varun P; Auger, Christopher; Castonguay, Zachary; Appanna, Vasu D

    2013-04-01

    Metal pollutants are a global health risk due to their ability to contribute to a variety of diseases. Aluminum (Al), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant is implicated in anemia, osteomalacia, hepatic disorder, and neurological disorder. In this review, we outline how this intracellular generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggers a metabolic shift towards lipogenesis in astrocytes and hepatocytes. This Al-evoked phenomenon is coupled to diminished mitochondrial activity, anerobiosis, and the channeling of α-ketoacids towards anti-oxidant defense. The resulting metabolic reconfiguration leads to fat accumulation and a reduction in ATP synthesis, characteristics that are common to numerous medical disorders. Hence, the ability of Al toxicity to create an oxidative environment promotes dysfunctional metabolic processes in astrocytes and hepatocytes. These molecular events triggered by Al-induced ROS production are the potential mediators of brain and liver disorders. PMID:23463459

  13. beta-aminobutyric acid primes an NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species production during grapevine-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil-Maurizi, Carole; Trouvelot, Sophie; Frettinger, Patrick; Pugin, Alain; Wendehenne, David; Poinssot, Benoît

    2010-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the process of priming are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the early signaling events triggered by beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA), a well-known priming-mediated plant resistance inducer. Our results indicate that, in contrast to oligogalacturonides (OG), BABA does not elicit typical defense-related early signaling events nor defense-gene expression in grapevine. However, in OG-elicited cells pretreated with BABA, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of the respiratory-burst oxidase homolog RbohD gene were primed. In response to the causal agent of downy mildew Plasmopara viticola, a stronger ROS production was specifically observed in BABA-treated leaves. This process was correlated with an increased resistance. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) abolished this primed ROS production and reduced the BABA-induced resistance (BABA-IR). These results suggest that priming of an NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production contributes to BABA-IR in the Vitis-Plasmopara pathosystem. PMID:20615112

  14. Impaired ROS Scavenging System in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Generated from Patients with MERRF Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Shih-Jie; Tseng, Wei-Lien; Chen, Chien-Tsun; Lai, Yu-Fen; Chien, Chian-Shiu; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Lee, Hsin-Chen; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Myoclonus epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) is a mitochondrial disorder characterized by myoclonus epilepsy, generalized seizures, ataxia and myopathy. MERRF syndrome is primarily due to an A to G mutation at mtDNA 8344 that disrupts the mitochondrial gene for tRNA(Lys). However, the detailed mechanism by which this tRNA(Lys) mutation causes mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiomyocytes or neurons remains unclear. In this study, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) that carry the A8344G genetic mutation from patients with MERRF syndrome. Compared with mutation-free isogenic hiPSCs, MERRF-specific hiPSCs (MERRF-hiPSCs) exhibited reduced oxygen consumption, elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, reduced growth, and fragmented mitochondrial morphology. We sought to investigate the induction ability and mitochondrial function of cardiomyocyte-like cells differentiated from MERRF-hiPSCs. Our data demonstrate that that cardiomyocyte-like cells (MERRF-CMs) or neural progenitor cells (MERRF-NPCs) differentiated from MERRF-iPSCs also exhibited increased ROS levels and altered antioxidant gene expression. Furthermore, MERRF-CMs or -NPCs contained fragmented mitochondria, as evidenced by MitoTracker Red staining and transmission electron microscopy. Taken together, these findings showed that MERRF-hiPSCs and MERRF-CM or –NPC harboring the A8344G genetic mutation displayed contained mitochondria with an abnormal ultrastructure, produced increased ROS levels, and expressed upregulated antioxidant genes. PMID:27025901

  15. Impaired ROS Scavenging System in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Generated from Patients with MERRF Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shih-Jie; Tseng, Wei-Lien; Chen, Chien-Tsun; Lai, Yu-Fen; Chien, Chian-Shiu; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Lee, Hsin-Chen; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Myoclonus epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) is a mitochondrial disorder characterized by myoclonus epilepsy, generalized seizures, ataxia and myopathy. MERRF syndrome is primarily due to an A to G mutation at mtDNA 8344 that disrupts the mitochondrial gene for tRNA(Lys). However, the detailed mechanism by which this tRNA(Lys) mutation causes mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiomyocytes or neurons remains unclear. In this study, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) that carry the A8344G genetic mutation from patients with MERRF syndrome. Compared with mutation-free isogenic hiPSCs, MERRF-specific hiPSCs (MERRF-hiPSCs) exhibited reduced oxygen consumption, elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, reduced growth, and fragmented mitochondrial morphology. We sought to investigate the induction ability and mitochondrial function of cardiomyocyte-like cells differentiated from MERRF-hiPSCs. Our data demonstrate that that cardiomyocyte-like cells (MERRF-CMs) or neural progenitor cells (MERRF-NPCs) differentiated from MERRF-iPSCs also exhibited increased ROS levels and altered antioxidant gene expression. Furthermore, MERRF-CMs or -NPCs contained fragmented mitochondria, as evidenced by MitoTracker Red staining and transmission electron microscopy. Taken together, these findings showed that MERRF-hiPSCs and MERRF-CM or -NPC harboring the A8344G genetic mutation displayed contained mitochondria with an abnormal ultrastructure, produced increased ROS levels, and expressed upregulated antioxidant genes. PMID:27025901

  16. Mechanism of Cisplatin-Induced Cytotoxicity Is Correlated to Impaired Metabolism Due to Mitochondrial ROS Generation

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Wooyoung; Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Kwon, Ji-Woong; Kwon, Hyuk-Kwon; Kim, Hyung Joong; Jeong, Hyobin; Kim, Hwan Myung; Hwang, Daehee; Kim, Hyung Sik; Choi, Sangdun

    2015-01-01

    The chemotherapeutic use of cisplatin is limited by its severe side effects. In this study, by conducting different omics data analyses, we demonstrated that cisplatin induces cell death in a proximal tubular cell line by suppressing glycolysis- and tricarboxylic acid (TCA)/mitochondria-related genes. Furthermore, analysis of the urine from cisplatin-treated rats revealed the lower expression levels of enzymes involved in glycolysis, TCA cycle, and genes related to mitochondrial stability and confirmed the cisplatin-related metabolic abnormalities. Additionally, an increase in the level of p53, which directly inhibits glycolysis, has been observed. Inhibition of p53 restored glycolysis and significantly reduced the rate of cell death at 24 h and 48 h due to p53 inhibition. The foremost reason of cisplatin-related cytotoxicity has been correlated to the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) that influence multiple pathways. Abnormalities in these pathways resulted in the collapse of mitochondrial energy production, which in turn sensitized the cells to death. The quenching of ROS led to the amelioration of the affected pathways. Considering these observations, it can be concluded that there is a significant correlation between cisplatin and metabolic dysfunctions involving mROS as the major player. PMID:26247588

  17. The ROS-generating oxidase Nox1 is required for epithelial restitution following colitis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masayoshi; Marumo, Masaya; Nakayama, Jun; Matsumoto, Misaki; Yabe-Nishimura, Chihiro; Kamata, Tohru

    2016-07-29

    Accumulating evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by endogenous metabolic enzymes are involved in a variety of intracellular mechanisms. In particular, superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase (Nox) 1 is highly expressed in the colon and has been implicated in physiological and pathophysiological states of colon tissues. However, its role in tissue repair following colitis has not been fully elucidated. Our study using experimental colitis in mice showed that repair of the mucosal layer did not occur in Nox1-deficient mice following dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. This was accompanied by inhibition of proliferation, cell survival, migration, and terminal differentiation (generation of goblet cells) of crypt progenitor cells, as determined by histochemical analyses. Furthermore, Nox1 expression as well as ROS production in the colon crypt was increased during the repair process, and Nox1 deficiency suppressed these events. The results suggest that Nox1 promotes colon mucosal wound repair by sustaining the bioactivity of crypt progenitor cells and plays a crucial role in the epithelial restitution in the case of damage associated with colitis. PMID:26876598

  18. Endotoxin Priming of Neutrophils Requires Endocytosis and NADPH Oxidase-dependent Endosomal Reactive Oxygen Species*

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Fred S.; Hook, Jessica S.; Hilkin, Brieanna M.; Huber, Jody N.; Volk, A. Paige Davis; Moreland, Jessica G.

    2012-01-01

    NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical for neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)) microbicidal function. Nox2 also plays a role in intracellular signaling, but the site of oxidase assembly is unknown. It has been proposed to occur on secondary granules. We previously demonstrated that intracellular NADPH oxidase-derived ROS production is required for endotoxin priming. We hypothesized that endotoxin drives Nox2 assembly on endosomes. Endotoxin induced ROS generation within an endosomal compartment as quantified by flow cytometry (dihydrorhodamine 123 and Oxyburst Green). Inhibition of endocytosis by the dynamin-II inhibitor Dynasore blocked endocytosis of dextran, intracellular generation of ROS, and priming of PMN by endotoxin. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a ROS-containing endosomal compartment that co-labeled with gp91phox, p40phox, p67phox, and Rab5, but not with the secondary granule marker CD66b. To further characterize this compartment, PMNs were fractionated by nitrogen cavitation and differential centrifugation, followed by free flow electrophoresis. Specific subfractions made superoxide in the presence of NADPH by cell-free assay (cytochrome c). Subfraction content of membrane and cytosolic subunits of Nox2 correlated with ROS production. Following priming, there was a shift in the light membrane subfractions where ROS production was highest. CD66b was not mobilized from the secondary granule compartment. These data demonstrate a novel, nonphagosomal intracellular site for Nox2 assembly. This compartment is endocytic in origin and is required for PMN priming by endotoxin. PMID:22235113

  19. Deliberate ROS production and auxin synergistically trigger the asymmetrical division generating the subsidiary cells in Zea mays stomatal complexes.

    PubMed

    Livanos, Pantelis; Galatis, Basil; Apostolakos, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    Subsidiary cell generation in Poaceae is an outstanding example of local intercellular stimulation. An inductive stimulus emanates from the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) towards their laterally adjacent subsidiary cell mother cells (SMCs) and triggers the asymmetrical division of the latter. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) immunolocalization in Zea mays protoderm confirmed that the GMCs function as local sources of auxin and revealed that auxin is polarly accumulated between GMCs and SMCs in a timely-dependent manner. Besides, staining techniques showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) exhibit a closely similar, also time-dependent, pattern of appearance suggesting ROS implication in subsidiary cell formation. This phenomenon was further investigated by using the specific NADPH-oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine, menadione which leads to ROS overproduction, and H2O2. Treatments with diphenylene iodonium, N-acetyl-cysteine, and menadione specifically blocked SMC polarization and asymmetrical division. In contrast, H2O2 promoted the establishment of SMC polarity and subsequently subsidiary cell formation in "younger" protodermal areas. Surprisingly, H2O2 favored the asymmetrical division of the intervening cells of the stomatal rows leading to the creation of extra apical subsidiary cells. Moreover, H2O2 altered IAA localization, whereas synthetic auxin analogue 1-napthaleneacetic acid enhanced ROS accumulation. Combined treatments with ROS modulators along with 1-napthaleneacetic acid or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, an auxin efflux inhibitor, confirmed the crosstalk between ROS and auxin functioning during subsidiary cell generation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ROS are critical partners of auxin during development of Z. mays stomatal complexes. The interplay between auxin and ROS seems to be spatially and temporarily regulated. PMID:26250135

  20. Oxidation-extraction spectrometry of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by chlorophyllin magnesium (Chl-Mg) under ultrasonic irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuwei; Cheng, Chunping; Wang, Jun; Jin, Xudong; Liu, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiu; Gao, Jingqun; Kang, Pingli

    2011-09-01

    In order to examine the mechanism and process of sonodynamic reaction, the chlorophyllin magnesium (Chl-Mg) acting as a sonosensitizer was irradiated by ultrasound, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by the method of oxidation-extraction spectrometry (OES). That is, under ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of Chl-Mg, the 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPCI) is oxidized by generated ROS into 1,5-diphenyl carbazone (DPCO), which can be extracted by mixed organic solvent and display a obvious visible absorption at 563 nm wavelength. Besides, the generation conditions of ROS were also reviewed. The results demonstrated that the quantities of generated ROS increased with the increase of ultrasonic irradiation time, Chl-Mg concentration and DPCI concentration. Finally, several radical scavengers (l-Histidine (His), 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-methylphenol (BHT) and Vitamin C (VC)) were used to determine the kind of the generated ROS. It was found that at least the hydroxyl radical (OH) and singlet oxygen ( 1O 2) were generated in the presence of Chl-Mg under ultrasonic irradiation. It is wish that this paper might offer some valuable references for the study on the mechanism of SDT and the application of Chl-Mg in tumor treatment.

  1. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key factor for stimulation of macrophage proliferation by ceramide 1-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Arana, Lide; Gangoiti, Patricia; Ouro, Alberto; Rivera, Io-Guane; Ordonez, Marta; Trueba, Miguel; Lankalapalli, Ravi S.; Bittman, Robert; Gomez-Munoz, Antonio

    2012-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) is mitogenic for fibroblasts and macrophages. However, the mechanisms involved in this action were only partially described. Here, we demonstrate that C1P stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages, and that ROS are required for the mitogenic effect of C1P. ROS production was dependent upon prior activation of NADPH oxidase by C1P, which was determined by measuring phosphorylation of the p40phox subunit and translocation of p47phox from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. In addition, C1P activated cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipase A{sub 2} and protein kinase C-{alpha}, and NADPH oxidase activation was blocked by selective inhibitors of these enzymes. These inhibitors, and inhibitors of ROS production, blocked the mitogenic effect of C1P. By using BHNB-C1P (a photolabile caged-C1P analog), we demonstrate that all of these C1P actions are caused by intracellular C1P. It can be concluded that the enzyme responsible for C1P-stimulated ROS generation in bone marrow-derived macrophages is NADPH oxidase, and that this enzyme is downstream of PKC-{alpha} and cPLA{sub 2}-{alpha} in this pathway. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) stimulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enzyme responsible for ROS generation by C1P in macrophages is NADPH oxidase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NADPH oxidase lies downstream of cPLA{sub 2}-{alpha} and PKC-{alpha} in this pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROS generation is essential for the stimulation of macrophage proliferation by C1P.

  2. Discovery of novel berberine imidazoles as safe antimicrobial agents by down regulating ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Si-Qi; Jeyakkumar, Ponmani; Avula, Srinivasa Rao; Zhang, Ling; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2016-06-15

    A series of novel berberine-based imidazole derivatives as new type of antimicrobial agents were developed and characterized. Most of them gave good antibacterial activity toward the Gram-positive and negative bacteria. Noticeably, imidazolyl berberine 3a exhibited low MIC value of 1μg/mL against Eberthella typhosa, which was even superior to reference drugs berberine, chloromycin and norfloxacin. The cell toxicity and ROS generation assay indicated that compound 3a showed low cell toxicity. The interactive investigation by UV-vis spectroscopic method revealed that compound 3a could effectively intercalate into calf thymus DNA to form 3a-DNA complex which might further block DNA replication to exert the powerful antimicrobial activities. The binding behavior of compound 3a to DNA topoisomerase IB revealed that hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions played important roles in the association of compound 3a with DNA topoisomerase IB. PMID:27156777

  3. ROS-generating TiO2 nanoparticles for non-invasive sonodynamic therapy of cancer

    PubMed Central

    You, Dong Gil; Deepagan, V. G.; Um, Wooram; Jeon, Sangmin; Son, Sejin; Chang, Hyeyoun; Yoon, Hwa In; Cho, Yong Woo; Swierczewska, Maggie; Lee, Seulki; Pomper, Martin G.; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Park, Jae Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The non-invasive photodynamic therapy has been limited to treat superficial tumours, primarily ascribed to poor tissue penetration of light as the energy source. Herein, we designed a long-circulating hydrophilized titanium dioxide nanoparticle (HTiO2 NP) that can be activated by ultrasound to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). When administered systemically to mice, HTiO2 NPs effectively suppressed the growth of superficial tumours after ultrasound treatments. In tumour tissue, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines were elevated several fold and intense vascular damage was observed. Notably, ultrasound treatments with HTiO2 NPs also suppressed the growth of deeply located liver tumours at least 15-fold, compared to animals without ultrasound treatments. This study provides the first demonstration of the feasibility of using HTiO2 NPs as sensitizers for sonodynamic therapy in vivo. PMID:26996446

  4. Nickel Release, ROS Generation and Toxicity of Ni and NiO Micro- and Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, Jonas; Di Bucchianico, Sebastiano; Möller, Lennart; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Elihn, Karine; Karlsson, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to airborne nickel is associated with an elevated risk for respiratory tract diseases including lung cancer. Therefore, the increased production of Ni-containing nanoparticles necessitates a thorough assessment of their physical, chemical, as well as toxicological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the characteristics of nickel metal (Ni) and nickel oxide (NiO) particles with a focus on Ni release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Four Ni-containing particles of both nano-size (Ni-n and NiO-n) and micron-size (Ni-m1 and Ni-m2) were tested. The released amount of Ni in solution was notably higher in artificial lysosomal fluid (e.g. 80–100 wt% for metallic Ni) than in cell medium after 24h (ca. 1–3 wt% for all particles). Each of the particles was taken up by the cells within 4 h and they remained in the cells to a high extent after 24 h post-incubation. Thus, the high dissolution in ALF appeared not to reflect the particle dissolution in the cells. Ni-m1 showed the most pronounced effect on cell viability after 48 h (alamar blue assay) whereas all particles showed increased cytotoxicity in the highest doses (20–40 μg cm2) when assessed by colony forming efficiency (CFE). Interestingly an increased CFE, suggesting higher proliferation, was observed for all particles in low doses (0.1 or 1 μg cm-2). Ni-m1 and NiO-n were the most potent in causing acellular ROS and DNA damage. However, no intracellular ROS was detected for any of the particles. Taken together, micron-sized Ni (Ni-m1) was more reactive and toxic compared to the nano-sized Ni. Furthermore, this study underlines that the low dose effect in terms of increased proliferation observed for all particles should be further investigated in future studies. PMID:27434640

  5. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced actin glutathionylation controls actin dynamics in neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Jiro; Li, Jingyu; Subramanian, Kulandayan K.; Mondal, Subhanjan; Bajrami, Besnik; Hattori, Hidenori; Jia, Yonghui; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Zhong, Jia; Ye, Keqiang; Chang, Christopher J; Ho, Ye-Shih; Zhou, Jun; Luo, Hongbo R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The regulation of actin dynamics is pivotal for cellular processes such as cell adhesion, migration, and phagocytosis, and thus is crucial for neutrophils to fulfill their roles in innate immunity. Many factors have been implicated in signal-induced actin polymerization, however the essential nature of the potential negative modulators are still poorly understood. Here we report that NADPH oxidase-dependent physiologically generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) negatively regulate actin polymerization in stimulated neutrophils via driving reversible actin glutathionylation. Disruption of glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1), an enzyme that catalyzes actin deglutathionylation, increased actin glutathionylation, attenuated actin polymerization, and consequently impaired neutrophil polarization, chemotaxis, adhesion, and phagocytosis. Consistently, Grx1-deficient murine neutrophils showed impaired in vivo recruitment to sites of inflammation and reduced bactericidal capability. Together, these results present a physiological role for glutaredoxin and ROS- induced reversible actin glutathionylation in regulation of actin dynamics in neutrophils. PMID:23159440

  6. Effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating system for control of airborne microorganisms in meat processing environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating AirOcare equipment on the reduction of airborne bacteria in a meat processing environment was determined. Serratia marcescens and lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum) were used to artificiall...

  7. Asperlin induces G{sub 2}/M arrest through ROS generation and ATM pathway in human cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    He, Long; Nan, Mei-Hua; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Young Ho; Jang, Jae Hyuk; Erikson, Raymond Leo; Ahn, Jong Seog; Kim, Bo Yeon

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} A new anti-cancer effect of an antibiotics, asperlin, is exploited. {yields} Asperlin induced human cervical cancer cell apoptosis through ROS generation. {yields} Asperlin activated DNA-damage related ATM protein and cell cycle associated proteins. {yields} Asperlin could be developed as a new anti-cancer therapeutics. -- Abstract: We exploited the biological activity of an antibiotic agent asperlin isolated from Aspergillus nidulans against human cervical carcinoma cells. We found that asperlin dramatically increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation accompanied by a significant reduction in cell proliferation. Cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP and reduction of Bcl-2 could also be detected after asperlin treatment to the cells. An anti-oxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), however, blocked all the apoptotic effects of asperlin. The involvement of oxidative stress in asperlin induced apoptosis could be supported by the findings that ROS- and DNA damage-associated G2/M phase arrest and ATM phosphorylation were increased by asperlin. In addition, expression and phosphorylation of cell cycle proteins as well as G2/M phase arrest in response to asperlin were significantly blocked by NAC or an ATM inhibitor KU-55933 pretreatment. Collectively, our study proved for the first time that asperlin could be developed as a potential anti-cancer therapeutics through ROS generation in HeLa cells.

  8. ROS and ROS-Mediated Cellular Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jixiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Vikash, Vikash; Ye, Qing; Wu, Dandan; Liu, Yulan; Dong, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can modify the cell-signaling proteins and have functional consequences, which successively mediate pathological processes such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, unchecked growth, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and aging. While numerous articles have demonstrated the impacts of ROS on various signaling pathways and clarify the mechanism of action of cell-signaling proteins, their influence on the level of intracellular ROS, and their complex interactions among multiple ROS associated signaling pathways, the systemic summary is necessary. In this review paper, we particularly focus on the pattern of the generation and homeostasis of intracellular ROS, the mechanisms and targets of ROS impacting on cell-signaling proteins (NF-κB, MAPKs, Keap1-Nrf2-ARE, and PI3K-Akt), ion channels and transporters (Ca2+ and mPTP), and modifying protein kinase and Ubiquitination/Proteasome System. PMID:26998193

  9. Induction of Apoptosis and Antiproliferative Activity of Naringenin in Human Epidermoid Carcinoma Cell through ROS Generation and Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Jafri, Asif; Ahmad, Sheeba; Afzal, Mohammad; Arshad, Md

    2014-01-01

    A natural predominant flavanone naringenin, especially abundant in citrus fruits, has a wide range of pharmacological activities. The search for antiproliferative agents that reduce skin carcinoma is a task of great importance. The objective of this study was to analyze the anti-proliferative and apoptotic mechanism of naringenin using MTT assay, DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, change in mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle kinetics and caspase-3 as biomarkers and to investigate the ability to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) initiating apoptotic cascade in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Results showed that naringenin exposure significantly reduced the cell viability of A431 cells (p<0.01) with a concomitant increase in nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation in a dose dependent manner. The intracellular ROS generation assay showed statistically significant (p<0.001) dose-related increment in ROS production for naringenin. It also caused naringenin-mediated epidermoid carcinoma apoptosis by inducing mitochondrial depolarization. Cell cycle study showed that naringenin induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle and caspase-3 analysis revealed a dose dependent increment in caspase-3 activity which led to cell apoptosis. This study confirms the efficacy of naringenin that lead to cell death in epidermoid carcinoma cells via inducing ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and caspase-3 activation. PMID:25330158

  10. Cristacarpin promotes ER stress-mediated ROS generation leading to premature senescence by activation of p21(waf-1).

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Souneek; Rasool, Reyaz Ur; Kumar, Sunil; Nayak, Debasis; Rah, Bilal; Katoch, Archana; Amin, Hina; Ali, Asif; Goswami, Anindya

    2016-06-01

    Stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) is quite similar to replicative senescence that is committed by cells exposed to various stress conditions viz. ultraviolet radiation (DNA damage), hydrogen peroxide (oxidative stress), chemotherapeutic agents (cytotoxic threat), etc. Here, we report that cristacarpin, a natural product obtained from the stem bark of Erythrina suberosa, promotes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, leading to sub-lethal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and which eventually terminates by triggering senescence in pancreatic and breast cancer cells through blocking the cell cycle in the G1 phase. The majority of cristacarpin-treated cells responded to conventional SA-β-gal stains; showed characteristic p21(waf1) upregulation along with enlarged and flattened morphology; and increased volume, granularity, and formation of heterochromatin foci-all of these features are the hallmarks of senescence. Inhibition of ROS generation by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly reduced the expression of p21(waf1), confirming that the modulation in p21(waf1) by anti-proliferative cristacarpin was ROS dependent. Further, the elevation in p21(waf1) expression in PANC-1 and MCF-7 cells was consistent with the decrease in the expression of Cdk-2 and cyclinD1. Here, we provide evidence that cristacarpin promotes senescence in a p53-independent manner. Moreover, cristacarpin treatment induced p38MAPK, indicating the ROS-dependent activation of the MAP kinase pathway, and thus abrogates the tumor growth in mouse allograft tumor model. PMID:27246693

  11. Intracellular Generation of ROS by 3,5-Dimethylaminophenol: Persistence, Cellular Response, and Impact of Molecular Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ming-Wei; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Tseng, Chia-Yi; Ye, Wenjie; Trudel, Laura J.; Skipper, Paul L.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Wogan, Gerald N.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated extensive human exposure to the monocyclic aromatic amines, particularly to 3,5-dimethylaniline, and found an association between exposure to these compounds and risk for bladder cancer. Little is known about molecular mechanisms that might lead to the observed risk. We previously suggested that the hydroxylated 3,5-dimethylaniline metabolite, 3,5-dimethylaminophenol (3,5-DMAP), played a central role in effecting genetic change through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a redox cycle with 3,5-dimethylquinoneimine. Experiments here characterize ROS generation by 3,5-DMAP exposure in nucleotide repair-proficient and -deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells as a function of time. Besides, various cellular responses discussed herein indicate that ROS production is the principal cause of cytotoxicity. Fluorescence microscopy of cells exposed to 3,5-DMAP confirmed that ROS production occurs in the nuclear compartment, as suggested by a previous study demonstrating covalent linkage between 3,5-DMAP and histones. 3,5-DMAP was also compared with 3,5-dimethylhydroquinone to determine whether substitution of one of the phenolic hydroxyl groups by an amino group had a significant effect on some of the investigated parameters. The comparatively much longer duration of observable ROS produced by 3,5-DMAP (7 vs. 1 day) provides further evidence that 3,5-DMAP becomes embedded in the cellular matrix in a form capable of continued redox cycling. 3,5-DMAP also induced dose-dependent increase of H2O2 and ·OH, which were determined as the major free radicals contributing to the cytotoxicity and apoptosis mediated via caspase-3 activation. Overall, this study provides insight into the progression of alkylaniline-induced toxicity. PMID:24973092

  12. Autophagy prevents irradiation injury and maintains stemness through decreasing ROS generation in mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hou, J; Han, Z-p; Jing, Y-y; Yang, X; Zhang, S-s; Sun, K; Hao, C; Meng, Y; Yu, F-h; Liu, X-q; Shi, Y-f; Wu, M-c; Zhang, L; Wei, L-x

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells were characterized by their stemness: self-renewal and pluripotency. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a unique type of adult stem cells that have been proven to be involved in tissue repair, immunoloregulation and tumorigenesis. Irradiation is a well-known factor that leads to functional obstacle in stem cells. However, the mechanism of stemness maintenance in human MSCs exposed to irradiation remains unknown. We demonstrated that irradiation could induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation that resulted in DNA damage and stemness injury in MSCs. Autophagy induced by starvation or rapamycin can reduce ROS accumulation-associated DNA damage and maintain stemness in MSCs. Further, inhibition of autophagy leads to augment of ROS accumulation and DNA damage, which results in the loss of stemness in MSCs. Our results indicate that autophagy may have an important role in protecting stemness of MSCs from irradiation injury. PMID:24113178

  13. High-sucrose diet increases ROS generation, FFA accumulation, UCP2 level, and proton leak in liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ramírez, Angélica; Chávez-Salgado, Monserrath; Peñeda-Flores, José Antonio; Zapata, Estrella; Masso, Felipe; El-Hafidi, Mohammed

    2011-12-01

    Obesity, a risk factor for insulin resistance, contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The relationship between increased levels of free fatty acids in the liver mitochondria, mitochondrial function, and ROS generation in rat model of obesity induced by a high-sucrose diet was not sufficiently established. We determined how the bioenergetic functions and ROS generation of the mitochondria respond to a hyperlipidemic environment. Mitochondria from sucrose-fed rats generated H(2)O(2) at a higher rate than the control mitochondria. Adding fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin to mitochondria from sucrose-fed rats significantly reduced the rate of H(2)O(2) generation. In contrast, adding exogenous oleic or linoleic acid exacerbated the rate of H(2)O(2) generation in both sucrose-fed and control mitochondria, and the mitochondria from sucrose-fed rats were more sensitive than the control mitochondria. The increased rate of H(2)O(2) generation in sucrose-fed mitochondria corresponded to decreased levels of reduced GSH and vitamin E and increased levels of Cu/Zn-SOD in the intermembrane space. There was no difference between the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation in the two types of mitochondria. In addition to the normal activity of Mn-SOD, GPX and catalase detected an increased activity of complex II, and upregulation of UCP2 was observed in mitochondria from sucrose-fed rats, all of which may accelerate respiration rates and reduce generation of ROS. In turn, these effects may protect the mitochondria of sucrose-fed rats from oxidative stress and preserve their function and integrity. However, in whole liver these adaptive mechanisms of the mitochondria were inefficient at counteracting redox imbalances and inhibiting oxidative stress outside of the mitochondria. PMID:21917631

  14. Plumbagin Inhibits Proliferative and Inflammatory Responses of T Cells Independent of ROS Generation But by Modulating Intracellular Thiols

    PubMed Central

    Checker, Rahul; Sharma, Deepak; Sandur, Santosh K.; Subrahmanyam, G.; Krishnan, Sunil; Poduval, T.B.; Sainis, K.B.

    2011-01-01

    Plumbagin inhibited activation, proliferation, cytokine production, and graft-versus-host disease in lymphocytes and inhibited growth of tumor cells by suppressing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Plumbagin was also shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in tumor cells via an unknown mechanism. Present report describes a novel role of cellular redox in modulation of immune responses in normal lymphocytes by plumbagin. Plumbagin depleted glutathione (GSH) levels that led to increase in ROS generation. The decrease in GSH levels was due to direct reaction of plumbagin with GSH as evinced by mass spectrometric and HPLC analysis. Further, addition of plumbagin to cells resulted in decrease in free thiol groups on proteins and increase in glutathionylation of proteins. The suppression of mitogen-induced T-cell proliferation and cytokine (IL-2/IL-4/IL-6/IFN-γ) production by plumbagin was abrogated by thiol antioxidants but not by non-thiol antioxidants confirming that thiols but not ROS play an important role in biological activity of plumbagin. Plumbagin also abrogated mitogen-induced phosphorylation of ERK, IKK, and degradation of IκB-α. However, it did not affect phosphorylation of P38, JNK, and AKT. Our results for the first time show that antiproliferative effects of plumbagin are mediated by modulation of cellular redox. These results provide a rationale for application of thiol-depleting agents as anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:20564204

  15. Chemically synthesized CdSe quantum dots inhibit growth of human lung carcinoma cells via ROS generation

    PubMed Central

    Jigyasu, Aditya Kumar; Siddiqui, Sahabjada; Lohani, Mohatashim; Khan, Irfan Ali; Arshad, Md

    2016-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs), semiconducting materials have potential applications in the field of electronic and biomedical applications including cancer therapy. In present study, cadmium selenide (CdSe) QDs were synthesized by chemical method. Octadecene was used as non-coordinating solvent which facilitated the formation of colloidal solutions of nanoparticles. CdSe QDs were characterized by UV-vis spectrometer and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The size measured by TEM was varied between 2-5 nm depending upon temperature. The cytotoxic activity of QDs was monitored by MTT assay, nuclear condensation, ROS activity and DNA fragmentation assay on human lung epithelial A549 cell line. Cells were treated with different concentrations of varying size of CdSe QDs for 24 h. CdSe QDs induced significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent cytotoxicity and this was comparable to the sizes of particles. Smaller particles were more cytotoxic to the large particles. Fluorescence microscopic analysis revealed that QDs induced oxidative stress generating significant ROS level and consequently, induced nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation. Study suggested the cytotoxicity of CdSe QDs via ROS generation and DNA fragmentation depending upon particles size. PMID:27047318

  16. Carnosic acid inhibits STAT3 signaling and induces apoptosis through generation of ROS in human colon cancer HCT116 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hee; Park, Ki-Woong; Chae, In Gyeong; Kundu, Juthika; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar; Chun, Kyung-Soo

    2016-06-01

    Carnosic acid (CA), the main antioxidant compound of Rosmarinus officinalis L., has been reported to possess anticancer activity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of CA remain poorly understood. Our study revealed that CA treatment significantly reduced the viability of human colon cancer HCT116, SW480, and HT-29 cells. Treatment with CA induced apoptosis, which was associated with the induction of p53 and Bax, inhibition of Mdm2, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xl expression, activation of caspase-9, and -3, and the cleavage of PARP in HCT116 cells. CA inhibited the constitutive phosphorylation, the DNA binding and the reporter gene activity of STAT3 in HCT116 cells by blocking the phosphorylation of upstream JAK2 and Src kinases. Moreover, CA attenuated the expression of STAT3 target gene products, such as survivin, cyclin D1, D2, and D3. In STAT3-overexpressed HCT116 cells, CA inhibited cell viability and the expression of cyclin D1 and survivin. Furthermore, CA treatment induced the generation of ROS in these colon cancer cells. Pretreatment of cells with ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine abrogated the inhibitory effect of CA on the JAK2-STAT3/Src-STAT3 signaling and rescued cells from CA-induced apoptosis by blocking the induction of p53 and the cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP in HCT116 cells. However, L-buthionine-sulfoximine, a pharmacological inhibitor of GSH synthesis, increased CA-induced ROS production, thereby potentiating apoptotic effect of CA. In conclusion, our study provides the first report that CA induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells via generation of ROS, induction of p53, activation of caspases, and inhibition of STAT3 signaling pathway. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26152521

  17. Hemodynamic Shear Stress via ROS Modulates PCSK9 Expression in Human Vascular Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells and Along the Mouse Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zufeng; Wang, Xianwei; Deng, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yubo; Sun, Changqing; Wang, Yannian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To investigate a possible link between hemodynamic shear stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) expression. Results: Using a parallel-plate flow chamber, we observed that PCSK9 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) reached maximal value at low shear stress (3–6 dynes/cm2), and then began to decline with an increase in shear stress. PCSK9 expression increased when cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide. PCSK9 expression was always greater in SMCs than in ECs. ROS generation followed the same pattern as PCSK9 expression. Aortic branching and aorta–iliac bifurcation regions of mouse aorta that express low shear stress were also found to have greater PCSK9 expression (vs. other regions). To determine a relationship between ROS and PCSK9 expression, ECs and SMCs were treated with ROS inhibitors diphenylene-iodonium chloride and apocynin, and both markedly reduced PCSK9 expression. Relationship between PCSK9 and ROS was further studied in p47phox and gp91phox knockout mice; both mice strains revealed low PCSK9 levels in serum and mRNA levels in aorta–iliac bifurcation regions (vs. wild-type mice). Other studies showed that ROS and NF-κB activation plays a bridging role in PCSK9 expression via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1). Innovation: Low shear stress induces PCSK9 expression, which is mediated by NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that low shear stress enhances PCSK9 expression in concert with ROS generation in vascular ECs and SMCs. ROS seem to regulate PCSK9 expression. We propose that PCSK9-ROS interaction may be important in the development of atherosclerosis in arterial channels with low shear stress. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 760–771. PMID:25490141

  18. mtDNA germ line variation mediated ROS generates retrograde signaling and induces pro-cancerous metabolic features

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajnish Kumar; Srivastava, Archita; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Manvati, Siddharth; Chopra, Rupali; Bamezai, Rameshwar N. K.

    2014-01-01

    mtDNA non-synonymous germ line variation (G10398A; p.A114T) has remained equivocal with least mechanistic understanding in showing an association with cancer. This has necessitated showing in-vitro how an over-expression within mitochondria of either of the variants produces higher intracellular ROS, resulting in differential anchorage dependent and independent growth. Both these features were observed to be relatively higher in ND3:114T variant. An elevated amount of intracellular carbonylated proteins and a reduced activity of a key glycolytic enzyme, Pyruvate kinase M2, along with high glucose uptake and lactate production were other pro-cancerous features observed. The retrograde signaling through surplus ROS was generated by post-ND3 over-expression regulated nuclear gene expression epigenetically, involving selectively the apoptotic-DDR-pathways. The feature of ND3 over-expression, inducing ROS mediated pro-cancerous features in the cells in in vitro, was replicated in a pilot study in a limited number of sporadic breast tumors, suggesting the importance of mitochondrial germ-line variant(s) in enabling the cells to acquire pro-cancerous features. PMID:25300428

  19. Inhibition of autophagy promotes apoptosis and enhances anticancer efficacy of adriamycin via augmented ROS generation in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jizhong; Tan, Xiangpeng; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Xiangfeng; Zhou, Yuying; Luo, Wu; Lin, Xiaomian; Song, Li; Cai, Jialong; Wang, Tianxiang; Wu, Xiaoping

    2016-08-01

    The interplay between autophagy and apoptosis response to chemotherapy is still a subject of intense debate in recent years. More efforts have focused on the regulation effects of apoptosis on autophagy, whereas how autophagy affects apoptosis remains poorly understood. In this study performed on prostate cancer cells, we investigated the role of autophagy in adriamycin-induced apoptosis, as well as the mechanisms mediating the effects of autophagy on apoptosis response to adriamycin (ADM). The results show that ADM not only inhibited cell viability and enhanced apoptosis, but also promoted autophagy via PI3K/Akt(T308)/mTOR signal pathway. Inhibition of autophagy by either pharmacological inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) or RNA interference of Atg5 increased ADM-induced apoptosis and enhanced the chemosensitivity of prostate cancer cells. Moreover, blockade of autophagy augmented reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by ADM. Scavenging of ROS by antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) reversed the strengthened effects of CQ on ADM-induced apoptosis and rescued the cells from apoptosis. The results identified ROS as a potential mediator directing the modulation effects of the protective autophagy on apoptosis response to ADM. Suppression of the protective autophagy might provide a promising strategy to increase the anticancer efficacy of agents in the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:27247025

  20. Carrageenan-induced inflammation promotes ROS generation and neutrophil extracellular trap formation in a mouse model of peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Barth, Cristiane R; Funchal, Giselle A; Luft, Carolina; de Oliveira, Jarbas R; Porto, Bárbara N; Donadio, Márcio V F

    2016-04-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a combination of DNA fibers and granular proteins, such as neutrophil elastase (NE). NETs are released in the extracellular space in response to different stimuli. Carrageenan is a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from Chondrus crispus, a marine algae, used for decades in research for its potential to induce inflammation in different animal models. In this study, we show for the first time that carrageenan injection can induce NET release in a mouse model of acute peritonitis. Carrageenan induced NET release by viable neutrophils with NE and myeloperoxidase (MPO) expressed on DNA fibers. Furthermore, although this polysaccharide was able to stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by peritoneal neutrophils, NADPH oxidase derived ROS were dispensable for NET formation by carrageenan. In conclusion, our results show that carrageenan-induced inflammation in the peritoneum of mice can induce NET formation in an ROS-independent manner. These results may add important information to the field of inflammation and potentially lead to novel anti-inflammatory agents targeting the production of NETs. PMID:26786873

  1. NOX4 NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Aging-Associated Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vendrov, Aleksandr E.; Vendrov, Kimberly C.; Smith, Alberto; Yuan, Jinling; Sumida, Arihiro; Robidoux, Jacques; Madamanchi, Nageswara R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Increased oxidative stress and vascular inflammation are implicated in increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence with age. We and others demonstrated that NOX1/2 NADPH oxidase inhibition, by genetic deletion of p47phox, in Apoe−/− mice decreases vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and atherosclerosis in young age. The present study examined whether NOX1/2 NADPH oxidases are also pivotal to aging-associated CVD. Results: Both aged (16 months) Apoe−/− and Apoe−/−/p47phox−/− mice had increased atherosclerotic lesion area, aortic stiffness, and systolic dysfunction compared with young (4 months) cohorts. Cellular and mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) levels were significantly higher in aortic wall and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from aged wild-type and p47phox−/− mice. VSMCs from aged mice had increased mitochondrial protein oxidation and dysfunction and increased vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression, which was abrogated with (2-(2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl-4-ylamino)-2-oxoethyl)triphenylphosphonium chloride (MitoTEMPO) treatment. NOX4 expression was increased in the vasculature and mitochondria of aged mice and its suppression with shRNA in VSMCs from aged mice decreased mtROS levels and improved function. Increased mtROS levels were associated with enhanced mitochondrial NOX4 expression in aortic VSMCs from aged subjects, and NOX4 expression levels in arterial wall correlated with age and atherosclerotic severity. Aged Apoe−/− mice treated with MitoTEMPO and 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-4-methyl-5-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine-3,6(2H,5H)-dione had decreased vascular ROS levels and atherosclerosis and preserved vascular and cardiac function. Innovation and Conclusion: These data suggest that NOX4, but not NOX1/2, and mitochondrial oxidative stress are mediators of CVD in aging under hyperlipidemic conditions. Regulating NOX4 activity/expression and using mitochondrial antioxidants are

  2. ESR investigation of ROS generated by H2O2 bleaching with TiO2 coated HAp.

    PubMed

    Saita, Makiko; Kobayashi, Kyo; Kobatashi, Kyou; Yoshino, Fumihiko; Hase, Hiriko; Nonami, Toru; Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-il

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that clinical bleaching can be achieved with a solution of 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or H2O2/titanium dioxide (TiO2) combination. This study examined the hypothesis that TiO2 coated with hydroxyapatite (HAp-TiO2) can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are generated via photocatalysis using electron spin resonance (ESR). The bleaching properties of HAp-TiO2 in the presence of H2O2 can be measured using hematoporphyrin litmus paper and extracted teeth. We demonstrate that superoxides (O2(•-)) and hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)) can be generated through excitation of anatase TiO2, rutile TiO2, anatase HAp-TiO2, and rutile HAp-TiO2 in the presence of H2O2. The combination of R HAp-TiO2 with H2O2 produced the highest level of HO(•) generation and the most marked bleaching effects of all the samples. The superior bleaching effects exhibited by R HAp-TiO2 with H2O2 suggest that this combination may lead to novel methods for the clinical application of bleaching treatments. PMID:22673461

  3. Ischemic A/D transition of mitochondrial complex I and its role in ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Dröse, Stefan; Stepanova, Anna; Galkin, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is a key enzyme in cellular energy metabolism and provides approximately 40% of the proton-motive force that is utilized during mitochondrial ATP production. The dysregulation of complex I function--either genetically, pharmacologically, or metabolically induced--has severe pathophysiological consequences that often involve an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Slow transition of the active (A) enzyme to the deactive, dormant (D) form takes place during ischemia in metabolically active organs such as the heart and brain. The reactivation of complex I occurs upon reoxygenation of ischemic tissue, a process that is usually accompanied by an increase in cellular ROS production. Complex I in the D-form serves as a protective mechanism preventing the oxidative burst upon reperfusion. Conversely, however, the D-form is more vulnerable to oxidative/nitrosative damage. Understanding the so-called active/deactive (A/D) transition may contribute to the development of new therapeutic interventions for conditions like stroke, cardiac infarction, and other ischemia-associated pathologies. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the mechanism of A/D transition of mitochondrial complex I considering recently available structural data and site-specific labeling experiments. In addition, this review discusses in detail the impact of the A/D transition on ROS production by complex I and the S-nitrosation of a critical cysteine residue of subunit ND3 as a strategy to prevent oxidative damage and tissue damage during ischemia-reperfusion injury. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. PMID:26777588

  4. A novel synthetic analog of militarin, MA-1 induces mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by ROS generation in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Deok Hyo; Lim, Mi-Hee; Lee, Yu Ran; Sung, Gi-Ho; Lee, Tae-Ho; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Cho, Jae Youl; Song, Won O.; Park, Haeil; Choi, Sunga; Kim, Tae Woong

    2013-12-15

    A synthetic Militarin analog-1[(2R,3R,4R,5R)-1,6-bis(4-(2,4,4-trimethylpentan-2-yl)phenoxy) hexane-2,3,4,5-tetraol] is a novel derivative of constituents from Cordyceps militaris, which has been used to treat a variety of chronic diseases including inflammation, diabetes, hyperglycemia and cancers. Here, we report for the first time the synthesis of Militarin analog-1 (MA-1) and the apoptotic mechanism of MA-1 against human lung cancer cell lines. Treatment with MA-1 significantly inhibited the viability of 3 human lung cancer cell lines. The inhibition of viability and growth in MA-1-treated A549 cells with an IC{sub 50} of 5 μM were mediated through apoptosis induction, as demonstrated by an increase in DNA fragmentation, sub-G{sub 0}/G{sub 1}-DNA fraction, nuclear condensation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. The apoptotic cell death caused mitochondrial membrane permeabilization through regulation of expression of the Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to cytochrome c release in a time-dependent manner. Subsequently, the final stage of apoptosis, activation of caspase-9/-3 and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase, was induced. Furthermore, A549 lung cancer cells were more responsive to MA-1 than a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B), involving the rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. The pharmacological inhibition of ROS generation and JNK/p38 MAPK exhibited attenuated DNA fragmentation in MA-1-induced apoptosis. Oral administration of MA-1 also retarded growth of A549 orthotopic xenografts. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the new synthetic derivative MA-1 triggers mitochondrial apoptosis through ROS generation and regulation of MAPKs and may be a potent therapeutic agent against human lung cancer. - Highlights: • We report a novel synthesized derivative, militarin analog-1 (MA-1). • MA-1-induced cancer cell death was triggered by

  5. Effects of G6PD activity inhibition on the viability, ROS generation and mechanical properties of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zishui; Jiang, Chengrui; Feng, Yi; Chen, Rixin; Lin, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Han, Luhao; Chen, Xiaodan; Li, Hongyi; Guo, Yibin; Jiang, Weiying

    2016-09-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency has been revealed to be involved in the efficacy to anti-cancer therapy but the mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the anti-cancer mechanism of G6PD deficiency. In our study, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and shRNA technology were used for inhibiting the activity of G6PD of cervical cancer cells. Peak Force QNM Atomic Force Microscopy was used to assess the changes of topography and biomechanical properties of cells and detect the effects on living cells in a natural aqueous environment. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe cell morphology. Moreover, a laser scanning confocal microscope was used to observe the alterations in cytoskeleton to explore the involved mechanism. When G6PD was inhibited by DHEA or RNA interference, the abnormal Young's modulus and increased roughness of cell membrane were observed in HeLa cells, as well as the idioblasts. Simultaneously, G6PD deficiency resulted in decreased HeLa cells migration and proliferation ability but increased ROS generation inducing apoptosis. What's more, the inhibition of G6PD activity caused the disorganization of microfilaments and microtubules of cytoskeletons and cell shrinkage. Our results indicated the anti-cervix cancer mechanism of G6PD deficiency may be involved with the decreased cancer cells migration and proliferation ability as a result of abnormal reorganization of cell cytoskeleton and abnormal biomechanical properties caused by the increased ROS. Suppression of G6PD may be a promising strategy in developing novel therapeutic methods for cervical cancer. PMID:27217331

  6. Salvicine, a novel topoisomerase II inhibitor, exerts its potent anticancer activity by ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ling-hua; Ding, Jian

    2007-09-01

    Salvicine is a novel diterpenoid quinone compound obtained by structural modification of a natural product lead isolated from a Chinese herb with potent growth inhibitory activity against a wide spectrum of human tumor cells in vitro and in mice bearing human tumor xenografts. Salvicine has also been found to have a profound cytotoxic effect on multidrug-resisitant (MDR) cells. Moreover, Salvicine significantly reduced the lung metastatic foci of MDA-MB-435 orthotopic xenograft. Recent studies demonstrated that salvicine is a novel non-intercalative topoisomerase II (Topo II) poison by binding to the ATPase domain, promoting DNA-Topo II binding and inhibiting Topo II-mediated DNA relegation and ATP hydrolysis. Further studies have indicated that salcivine-elicited ROS plays a central role in salvicine-induced cellular response including Topo II inhibition, DNA damage, circumventing MDR and tumor cell adhesion inhibition. PMID:17723179

  7. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen (ROS and RNS) species generation and cell death in tomato suspension cultures--Botrytis cinerea interaction.

    PubMed

    Pietrowska, E; Różalska, S; Kaźmierczak, A; Nawrocka, J; Małolepsza, U

    2015-01-01

    This article reports events connected to cell survival and Botrytis cinerea infection development in cell suspension cultures of two tomato cultivars which show different levels of susceptibility to the pathogen: cv. Corindo (more susceptible) and cv. Perkoz (less susceptible). In parallel changes in reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species generation and in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity were studied. In vivo staining methods with acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB) as well as fluorescent microscopy were used to assess tomato and B. cinerea cells death. The biochemical studies of ROS and RNS concentrations in plant cell extract were complemented by in vivo ROS and nitric oxide (NO) imaging using nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT), diaminobenzidine (DAB) and diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-DA) staining methods, and confocal microscope technique. B. cinerea infection proceeded slower in Perkoz cell cultures. It was evidenced by measuring the pathogen conidia germination and germination tube development in which nuclei revealing cell death dominated. Two different types of tomato cell death were observed: cells with necrotic nuclei dominated in Corindo whereas in Perkoz cells with characteristic of vacuolar death type prevailed. In Perkoz cells, constitutive levels of NO and S-nitrosothiols (SNO) were significantly higher and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and superoxide anion (O₂(-)) concentrations were slightly higher as compared with Corindo cells. Moreover, increases in these molecule concentrations as a result of B. cinerea inoculation were observed in both, Perkoz and Corindo cell cultures. The enzymatic GSNOR activity seems to be an important player in controlling the SNO level in tomato cells. Involvements of the studied compounds in molecular mechanisms of tomato resistance to B. cinerea are discussed in the paper. PMID:25064634

  8. Arsenic-induced cell proliferation is associated with enhanced ROS generation, Erk signaling and CyclinA expression.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Chatterjee, Raghunath; Giri, Ashok K; Mandal, Chitra; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2010-10-01

    Arsenic is a well-established human carcinogen; however molecular mechanisms to arsenic-induced carcinogenesis are complex and elusive. The present study identifies a potential biomarker of arsenic exposure, and redefines arsenic-induced signaling in stimulation of cell proliferation. The effect of arsenic exposure on gene expression was evaluated in PBMC of arsenic-exposed individuals selected from a severely affected district of West Bengal, India. A novel, un-documented biomarker of arsenic exposure, CyclinA was identified by microarray analysis from the study. Non-transformed cell lines HaCat and Int407 when exposed to clinically achievable arsenic concentration showed significant increase of CyclinA substantiating the clinical data. An associated increase in S phase population of cells in cell cycle, indicative of enhanced proliferation was also noticed. On further investigation of the pathway to arsenic-induced proliferation, we observed that arsenic resulted: ROS generation; activated Erk signaling; stimulated AP-1 activity, including immediate early genes, c-Jun and c-Fos. N-Acetyl-l-cysteine, a ROS quencher, blocked the arsenic-induced effects. Our study underlines a previously undefined mechanism by which arsenic imparts its toxicity and results in uncontrolled cell proliferation. PMID:20654705

  9. ROS Hexapod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Kirsch; Bankieris, Derek

    2016-01-01

    As an intern project for NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), my job was to familiarize myself and operate a Robotics Operating System (ROS). The project outcome will convert existing software assets into ROS using nodes, enabling a robotic Hexapod to communicate and to be functional and controlled by an existing PlayStation 3 (PS3) controller. Existing control algorithms and current libraries have no ROS capabilities within the Hexapod C++ source code. Conversion of C++ codes to ROS will enable existing code to be compatible with ROS, and will be controlled using existing PS3 controller. Furthermore, my job description is to design ROS messages and script programs which will enable assets to participate in the ROS ecosystem. In addition, an open source software (IDE) Arduino board will be integrated in the ecosystem with designing circuitry on a breadboard to add additional behavior with push buttons, potentiometers and other simple elements in the electrical circuitry. Other projects with the Arduino will be a GPS module digital clock that will run off 22 satellites to show accurate real time using a GPS signal and internal patch antenna to communicate with satellites.

  10. Organic aerosols associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by water-soluble PM2.5.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vishal; Fang, Ting; Xu, Lu; Peltier, Richard E; Russell, Armistead G; Ng, Nga Lee; Weber, Rodney J

    2015-04-01

    We compare the relative toxicity of various organic aerosol (OA) components identified by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) based on their ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ambient fine aerosols were collected from urban (three in Atlanta, GA and one in Birmingham, AL) and rural (Yorkville, GA and Centerville, AL) sites in the Southeastern United States. The ROS generating capability of the water-soluble fraction of the particles was measured by the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Water-soluble PM extracts were further separated into the hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions using a C-18 column, and both fractions were analyzed for DTT activity and water-soluble metals. Organic aerosol composition was measured at selected sites using a high-resolution time-of-flight AMS. Positive matrix factorization of the AMS spectra resolved the organic aerosol into isoprene-derived OA (Isop_OA), hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), less-oxidized oxygenated OA, (LO-OOA), more-oxidized OOA (MO-OOA), cooking OA (COA), and biomass burning OA (BBOA). The association of the DTT activity of water-soluble PM2.5 (WS_DTT) with these factors was investigated by linear regression techniques. BBOA and MO-OOA were most consistently linked with WS_DTT, with intrinsic water-soluble activities of 151 ± 20 and 36 ± 22 pmol/min/μg, respectively. Although less toxic, MO-OOA was most widespread, contributing to WS_DTT activity at all sites and during all seasons. WS_DTT activity was least associated with biogenic secondary organic aerosol. The OA components contributing to WS_DTT were humic-like substances (HULIS), which are abundantly emitted in biomass burning (BBOA) and include highly oxidized OA from multiple sources (MO-OOA). Overall, OA contributed approximately 60% to the WS_DTT activity, with the remaining probably from water-soluble metals, which were mostly associated with the hydrophilic WS_DTT fraction. PMID:25748105

  11. Bioaccumulation and ROS generation in liver of freshwater fish, goldfish Carassius auratus under HC Orange No 1 exposure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Zhang, Jingfei; Yu, Hongxia; Wang, Xiaorong

    2007-06-01

    HC Orange No. 1 (CAS No. 54381-08-7, 2-nitro-4'-hydroxydiphenylamine) is used as a color additive in hair dyes. In this study, laboratory experiment was carried out to determine HC Orange No. 1 bioaccumulation and oxidative stress in the liver of freshwater fish, goldfish Carassius auratus. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/L) of HC Orange No. 1 for 10 days, with one group assigned as control. The accumulation of HC Orange No. 1 in liver increased with the exposure concentration (R(2) = 0.94). A secondary spin trapping technique was used followed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis to study the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. On the basis of the hyperfine splitting constants and shape of the EPR spectrum, the ROS generated in fish liver after exposure was identified as hydroxyl radical (*OH). There is a good correlation between the exposure concentrations and *OH generation (R(2) = 0.92). The *OH signal intensity of the EPR spectrum showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) when the HC Orange No. 1 concentration was 1.0 mg/L, compared with that of the control. A good positive relationship (R(2) = 0.95) was found between the *OH formation and accumulation level of HC Orange No. 1 in liver. The changes of the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) were also detected. These observations indicated a possible mechanism of oxidative stress induced by HC Orange No. 1 on fish. PMID:17497642

  12. Optogenetic control of ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Wojtovich, Andrew P.; Foster, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are known to cause oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids. In addition, recent evidence suggests that ROS can also initiate signaling cascades that respond to stress and modify specific redox-sensitive moieties as a regulatory mechanism. This suggests that ROS are physiologically-relevant signaling molecules. However, these sensor/effector molecules are not uniformly distributed throughout the cell. Moreover, localized ROS damage may elicit site-specific compensatory measures. Thus, the impact of ROS can be likened to that of calcium, a ubiquitous second messenger, leading to the prediction that their effects are exquisitely dependent upon their location, quantity and even the timing of generation. Despite this prediction, ROS signaling is most commonly intuited through the global administration of chemicals that produce ROS or by ROS quenching through global application of antioxidants. Optogenetics, which uses light to control the activity of genetically-encoded effector proteins, provides a means of circumventing this limitation. Photo-inducible genetically-encoded ROS-generating proteins (RGPs) were originally employed for their phototoxic effects and cell ablation. However, reducing irradiance and/or fluence can achieve sub-lethal levels of ROS that may mediate subtle signaling effects. Hence, transgenic expression of RGPs as fusions to native proteins gives researchers a new tool to exert spatial and temporal control over ROS production. This review will focus on the new frontier defined by the experimental use of RGPs to study ROS signaling. PMID:24563855

  13. The regulation of methyl jasmonate on hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis in Ganoderma lucidum partly via ROS generated by NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Gong, Li; Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Ang; Gao, Tan; Zhao, Mingwen

    2015-08-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is one of the best known medicinal basidiomycetes because it produces many pharmacologically active compounds, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was previously reported to induce the biosynthesis of ganoderic acids (GA) in G. lucidum. In this study, we found that MeJA not only increased the amount of GA but also increased the distance between hyphal branches by approximately 1.2-fold. Further analysis showed that MeJA could increase the intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) content by approximately 2.2-2.7-fold. Furthermore, the hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis regulated by MeJA treatment could be abolished by ROS scavengers to a level similar to or lower than that of the control group. These results indicated that the regulation of hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis by MeJA might occur via a ROS signaling pathway. Further analysis revealed that NADPH oxidase (NOX) plays an important role in MeJA-regulated ROS generation. Importantly, our results highlight that NOX functions in signaling cross-talk between ROS and MeJA. In addition, these findings provide an excellent opportunity to identify potential pathways linking ROS networks to MeJA signaling in fungi and suggest that plants and fungi share a conserved signaling-crosstalk mechanism. PMID:25512263

  14. Reactive Oxygen Species (Ros-Induced) Ros Release

    PubMed Central

    Zorov, Dmitry B.; Filburn, Charles R.; Klotz, Lars-Oliver; Zweier, Jay L.; Sollott, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    We sought to understand the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in cardiac myocytes based on the observation of increased ROS production at sites of spontaneously deenergized mitochondria. We devised a new model enabling incremental ROS accumulation in individual mitochondria in isolated cardiac myocytes via photoactivation of tetramethylrhodamine derivatives, which also served to report the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, ΔΨ. This ROS accumulation reproducibly triggered abrupt (and sometimes reversible) mitochondrial depolarization. This phenomenon was ascribed to MPT induction because (a) bongkrekic acid prevented it and (b) mitochondria became permeable for calcein (∼620 daltons) concurrently with depolarization. These photodynamically produced “triggering” ROS caused the MPT induction, as the ROS scavenger Trolox prevented it. The time required for triggering ROS to induce the MPT was dependent on intrinsic cellular ROS-scavenging redox mechanisms, particularly glutathione. MPT induction caused by triggering ROS coincided with a burst of mitochondrial ROS generation, as measured by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence, which we have termed mitochondrial “ROS-induced ROS release” (RIRR). This MPT induction/RIRR phenomenon in cardiac myocytes often occurred synchronously and reversibly among long chains of adjacent mitochondria demonstrating apparent cooperativity. The observed link between MPT and RIRR could be a fundamental phenomenon in mitochondrial and cell biology. PMID:11015441

  15. Role of mitochondria ROS generation in ethanol-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cell death in astroglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso-Loeches, Silvia; Ureña-Peralta, Juan R.; Morillo-Bargues, Maria José; Oliver-De La Cruz, Jorge; Guerri, Consuelo

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are innate immunity sensors that provide an early/effective response to pathogenic or injury conditions. We have reported that ethanol-induced TLR4 activation triggers signaling inflammatory responses in glial cells, causing neuroinflammation and brain damage. However, it is uncertain if ethanol is able to activate NLRs/inflammasome in astroglial cells, which is the mechanism of activation, and whether there is crosstalk between both immune sensors in glial cells. Here we show that chronic ethanol treatment increases the co-localization of caspase-1 with GFAP+ cells, and up-regulates IL-1β and IL-18 in the frontal medial cortex in WT, but not in TLR4 knockout mice. We further show that cultured cortical astrocytes expressed several inflammasomes (NLRP3, AIM2, NLRP1, and IPAF), although NLRP3 mRNA is the predominant form. Ethanol, as ATP and LPS treatments, up-regulates NLRP3 expression, and causes caspase-1 cleavage and the release of IL-1β and IL-18 in astrocytes supernatant. Ethanol-induced NLRP3/caspase-1 activation is mediated by mitochondrial (m) reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation because when using a specific mitochondria ROS scavenger, the mito-TEMPO (500 μM) or NLRP3 blocking peptide (4 μg/ml) or a specific caspase-1 inhibitor, Z-YVAD-FMK (10 μM), abrogates mROS release and reduces the up-regulation of IL-1β and IL-18 induced by ethanol or LPS or ATP. Confocal microscopy studies further confirm that ethanol, ATP or LPS promotes NLRP3/caspase-1 complex recruitment within the mitochondria to promote cell death by caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis, which accounts for ≈73% of total cell death (≈22%) and the remaining (≈25%) die by caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Suppression of the TLR4 function abrogates most ethanol effects on NLRP3 activation and reduces cell death. These findings suggest that NLRP3 participates, in ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and highlight the NLRP3/TLR4 crosstalk in

  16. Pigment epithelium-derived factor stimulates skeletal muscle glycolytic activity through NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Carnagarin, Revathy; Carlessi, Rodrigo; Newsholme, Philip; Dharmarajan, Arun M; Dass, Crispin R

    2016-09-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor is a multifunctional serpin implicated in insulin resistance in metabolic disorders. Recent evidence suggests that exposure of peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle to PEDF has profound metabolic consequences with predisposition towards chronic conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Chronic inflammation shifts muscle metabolism towards increased glycolysis and decreased oxidative metabolism. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel effect of PEDF on cellular metabolism in mouse cell line (C2C12) and human primary skeletal muscle cells. PEDF addition to skeletal muscle cells induced enhanced phospholipase A2 activity. This was accompanied with increased production of reactive oxygen species in a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-dependent manner that triggered a shift towards a more glycolytic phenotype. Extracellular flux analysis and glucose consumption assays demonstrated that PEDF treatment resulted in enhanced glycolysis but did not change mitochondrial respiration. Our results demonstrate that skeletal muscle cells express a PEDF-inducible oxidant generating system that enhances glycolysis but is sensitive to antioxidants and NADPH oxidase inhibition. PMID:27343430

  17. [The ROS-generating and antioxidant systems in the liver of rats treated with prednisolone and vitamin D3].

    PubMed

    Shymans'kyĭ, I O; Khomenko, A V; Lisakovs'ka, O O; Labudzyns'kyĭ, D O; Apukhovs'ka, L I; Velykyĭ, M M

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced disturbances of liver function is currently not fully clarified. Vitamin D3 was previously shown to play an important role in the regulation of impaired oxidative metabolism and detoxification function of the liver associated with the effects of hepatotoxic compounds. The study was undertaken to define the intensity of oxidative metabolism in the rat liver and survival of hepatocytes after prolonged prednisolone administration and to assess whether vitamin D3 is capable to counter glucocorticoid-induced changes. It has been shown that prednisolone (0.5 mg per animal for 30 days) leads to 1.6-fold increase in the percentage of necrotic cells among isolated hepatocytes as compared with the control. The glucocorticoid-induced impairment of hepatocellular function was accompanied by enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), accumulation of TBA-active products and carbonylated proteins but reduced levels of free SH-groups of low molecular weight compounds. It was demonstrated a decrease in the activities of key enzymes of antioxidant system (SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), whereas the activities of pro-oxidant enzymes NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase were shown to be increased. Vitamin D3 (and to greater extent in combination with α-tocopherol) administration (100 IU) on the background of glucocorticoid therapy caused normalizing effects on the level of ROS formation, oxidative modification of biomolecules and activity of antioxidant enzymes resulting in better survival of hepatocytes. These data suggest a potential role of vitamin D3 in the regulation of oxidative metabolism alterations related to hepatotoxic action of glucocorticoids. PMID:25816595

  18. Aristolochic acid-induced apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest depends on ROS generation and MAP kinases activation.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Victor; Whyard, Terry C; Waltzer, Wayne C; Grollman, Arthur P; Rosenquist, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Ingestion of aristolochic acids (AAs) contained in herbal remedies results in a renal disease and, frequently, urothelial malignancy. The genotoxicity of AA in renal cells, including mutagenic DNA adducts formation, is well documented. However, the mechanisms of AA-induced tubular atrophy and renal fibrosis are largely unknown. To better elucidate some aspects of this process, we studied cell cycle distribution and cell survival of renal epithelial cells treated with AAI at low and high doses. A low dose of AA induces cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase via activation of DNA damage checkpoint pathway ATM-Chk2-p53-p21. DNA damage signaling pathway is activated more likely via increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by AA treatment then via DNA damage induced directly by AA. Higher AA concentration induced cell death partly via apoptosis. Since mitogen-activated protein kinases play an important role in cell survival, death and cell cycle progression, we assayed their function in AA-treated renal tubular epithelial cells. ERK1/2 and p38 but not JNK were activated in cells treated with AA. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 as well as suppression of ROS generation with N-acetyl-L-cysteine resulted in the partial relief of cells from G2/M checkpoint and a decline of apoptosis level. Cell cycle arrest may be a mechanism for DNA repair, cell survival and reprogramming of epithelial cells to the fibroblast type. An apoptosis of renal epithelial cells at higher AA dose might be necessary to provide space for newly reprogrammed fibrotic cells. PMID:24792323

  19. Investigation of the rates of surface and bulk ROS-generating reactions using indigo dye as an indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Carly; Clark, Douglas; Graves, David

    2014-10-01

    We present evidence for the existence of two distinct processes that contribute to the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in liquids exposed to cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) in air. At the plasma-liquid interface, there exists a fast surface reaction zone where RONS from the gas phase interact with species in the liquid. RONS can also be produced by ``slow'' chemical reactions in the bulk liquid, even long after plasma exposure. To separate the effects of these processes, we used indigo dye as an indicator of ROS production; specifically generation of hydroxyl radical. The rate of indigo decolorization while in direct contact with CAP is compared with the expected rate of hydroxyl radical generation at the liquid surface. When added to aqueous solutions after CAP exposure, indigo dye reacts on a time scale consistent with the production of peroxynitrous acid, ONOOH, which is known to decompose to hydroxyl radical below a pH of 6.8. In this study, the CAP used was a air corona discharge plasma run in a positive streamer mode.

  20. Inverse agonist of estrogen-related receptor α suppresses the growth of triple negative breast cancer cells through ROS generation and interaction with multiple cell signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guan-Min; Zhang, Kun-Shui; Liu, Qiao; Liang, Shu-Wei; Zhou, Yan; Huang, Hong-Bin; Du, Jun; Wang, Hong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent clinical need for targeted therapy approaches for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. Increasing evidences suggested that the expression of estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) was correlate with unfavorable clinical outcomes of breast cancer patients. We here show that inhibition of ERRα by its inverse agonist XCT-790 can suppress the proliferation, decrease G2/M phases, and induce mitochondrial-related apoptosis of TNBC cells. XCT-790 elevates the proteins related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress such as ATF4/6, XBT-1 and CHOP. It also increases the expression of growth inhibition related proteins such as p53 and p21. Further, XCT-790 can increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TNBC cells mainly through inhibition of SOD1/2. While ROS scavenger NAC abolishes XCT-790 induced ER-stress and growth arrest. XCT-790 treatment can rapidly activate the signal molecules including ERK1/2, p38-MAPK, JNK, Akt, p65, and IκBα, while NAC attenuates effects of XCT-790 induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38-MAPK and Akt. Further, the inhibitors of ERK1/2, JNK, Akt, and NF-κB attenuate XCT-790 induced ROS generation. These data suggest that AKT/ROS and ERK/ROS positive feedback loops, NF-κB/ROS, and ROS/p38-MAPK, are activated in XCT-790 treated TNBC cells. In vivo experiments show that XCT-790 significantly suppresses the growth of MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumors, which is associated with up regulation of p53, p21, ER-stress related proteins while down regulation of bcl-2. The present discovery makes XCT-790 a promising candidate drug and lays the foundation for future development of ERRα-based therapies for TNBC patients. PMID:26871469

  1. NADPH oxidase-dependent redox signaling in TGF-β-mediated fibrotic responses☆

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fan; Liu, Guei-Sheung; Dusting, Gregory J.; Chan, Elsa C.

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrolled fibrosis in organs like heart, kidney, liver and lung is detrimental and may lead to end-stage organ failure. Currently there is no effective treatment for fibrotic disorders. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has a fundamental role in orchestrating the process of fibrogenesis; however, interventions directly targeting TGF-β would have undesired systemic side effects due to the multiple physiological functions of TGF-β. Further characterization of the downstream signaling pathway(s) involved in TGF-β-mediated fibrosis may lead to discovery of novel treatment strategies for fibrotic disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that Nox4 NADPH oxidase may be an important downstream effector in mediating TGF-β-induced fibrosis, while NADPH oxidase-dependent redox signaling may in turn regulate TGF-β/Smad signaling in a feed-forward manner. It is proposed that pharmacological inhibition of the Nox4 function may represent a novel approach in treatment of fibrotic disorders. PMID:24494202

  2. Airway smooth muscle NOX4 is upregulated and modulates ROS generation in COPD.

    PubMed

    Hollins, Fay; Sutcliffe, Amanda; Gomez, Edith; Berair, Rachid; Russell, Richard; Szyndralewiez, Cédric; Saunders, Ruth; Brightling, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The burden of oxidative stress is increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, whether the intra-cellular mechanisms controlling the oxidant/anti-oxidant balance in structural airway cells such as airway smooth muscle in COPD is altered is unclear. We sought to determine whether the expression of the NADPH oxidase (NOX)-4 is increased in airway smooth muscle in COPD both in vivo and primary cells in vitro and its role in hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species generation. We found that in vivo NOX4 expression was up-regulated in the airway smooth muscle bundle in COPD (n = 9) and healthy controls with >20 pack year history (n = 4) compared to control subjects without a significant smoking history (n = 6). In vitro NOX4 expression was increased in airway smooth muscle cells from subjects with COPD (n = 5) compared to asthma (n = 7) and upregulated following TNF-α stimulation. Hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species generation by airway smooth muscle cells in COPD (n = 5) was comparable to healthy controls (n = 9) but lower than asthma (n = 5); and was markedly attenuated by NOX4 inhibition. Our findings demonstrate that NOX4 expression is increased in vivo and in vitro in COPD and although we did not observe an intrinsic increase in oxidant-induced reactive oxygen species generation in COPD, it was reduced markedly by NOX4 inhibition supporting a potential therapeutic role for NOX4 in COPD. PMID:27435477

  3. Impact of solar UV radiation on toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles through photocatalytic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and photo-induced dissolution

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study investigated the impact of solar UV radiation on ZnO nanoparticle toxicity through photocatalytic ROS generation and photo-induced dissolution. Toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to Daphnia magna was examined under laboratory light versus simulated solar UV radiatio...

  4. Shift in aggregation, ROS generation, antioxidative defense, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase activities in the cells of an Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2016-09-01

    Washing soda, chemically identified as anhydrous sodium carbonate, is a popular cleaning agent among the rural and urban populations of India which often contaminates the freshwater ponds and lakes, the natural habitat of sponge Eunapius carteri. Present investigation deals with estimation of cellular aggregation, generation of ROS and activities of antioxidant enzymes, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Prolonged treatment of washing soda inhibited the degree of cellular aggregation. Experimental exposure of 8 and 16mg/l of sodium carbonate for 48h elevated the physiological level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the agranulocytes, semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, whereas, treatment of 192h inhibited the ROS generation in three cellular morphotypes. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were recorded to be inhibited under prolonged exposure of washing soda. Washing soda mediated inhibition of ROS generation and depletion in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were indicative to an undesirable shift in cytotoxic status and antioxidative defense in E. carteri. Inhibition in the activity of lysozyme under the treatment of sodium carbonate was suggestive to a severe impairment of the innate immunological efficiency of E. carteri distributed in the washing soda contaminated habitat. Washing soda mediated inhibition in the activity of acetylcholinesterase indicated its neurotoxicity in E. carteri. Washing soda, a reported environmental contaminant, affected adversely the immunophysiological status of E. carteri with reference to cellular aggregation, oxidative stress, antioxidative defense, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase activity. PMID:27178357

  5. Surface modification of amorphous nanosilica particles suppresses nanosilica-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and DNA damage in various mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Matsuyama, Keigo; Nakazato, Yasutaro; Tochigi, Saeko; Hirai, Toshiro; Kondoh, Sayuri; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is increasing concern regarding the potential health risks of nanomaterials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluated the effect of surface properties of nanomaterials on cellular responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed that the surface properties play an important in determining its safety. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These data provide useful information for producing safer nanomaterials. -- Abstract: Recently, nanomaterials have been utilized in various fields. In particular, amorphous nanosilica particles are increasingly being used in a range of applications, including cosmetics, food technology, and medical diagnostics. However, there is concern that the unique characteristics of nanomaterials might induce undesirable effects. The roles played by the physical characteristics of nanomaterials in cellular responses have not yet been elucidated precisely. Here, by using nanosilica particles (nSPs) with a diameter of 70 nm whose surface was either unmodified (nSP70) or modified with amine (nSP70-N) or carboxyl groups (nSP70-C), we examined the relationship between the surface properties of nSPs and cellular responses such as cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and DNA damage. To compare the cytotoxicity of nSP70, nSP70-N, or nSP70-C, we examined in vitro cell viability after nSP treatment. Although the susceptibility of each cell line to the nSPs was different, nSP70-C and nSP70-N showed lower cytotoxicity than nSP70 in all cell lines. Furthermore, the generation of ROS and induction of DNA damage in nSP70-C- and nSP70-N-treated cells were lower than those in nSP70-treated cells. These results suggest that the surface properties of nSP70 play an important role in determining its safety, and surface modification of nSP70 with amine or carboxyl groups may be useful for the development of safer nSPs. We hope that our results will contribute to the development of safer nanomaterials.

  6. Redox-fibrosis: Impact of TGFβ1 on ROS generators, mediators and functional consequences

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Kati; Konzack, Anja; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Kietzmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis is one of the most prevalent features of age-related diseases like obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic kidney disease, or cardiomyopathy and affects millions of people in all countries. Although the understanding about the pathophysiology of fibrosis has improved a lot during the recent years, a number of mechanisms still remain unknown. Although TGF-β1 signaling, loss of metabolic homeostasis and chronic low-grade inflammation appear to play important roles in the pathogenesis of fibrosis, recent evidence indicates that oxidative stress and the antioxidant system may also be crucial for fibrosis development and persistence. These findings point to a concept of a redox-fibrosis where the cellular oxidant and antioxidant system could be potential therapeutic targets. The current review aims to summarize the existing links between TGF-β1 signaling, generation and action of reactive oxygen species, expression of antioxidative enzymes, and functional consequences including epigenetic redox-mediated responses during fibrosis. PMID:26335400

  7. PERK pathway is involved in oxygen-glucose-serum deprivation-induced NF-kB activation via ROS generation in spinal cord astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinbo; Du, Lijian

    2015-11-13

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a direct target of hypoxic/ischemic stress in astrocytes, which results in the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous reports showed that ROS can activate NF-kB in spinal cord astrocytes, which occurs as a secondary injury during the pathological process of spinal cord injury (SCI). Protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) plays an important role in mitochondrial dysfunction. To elucidate the specific role of PERK in hypoxic/ischemic-induced NF-kB activation in spinal astrocytes, we utilized an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model, which showed an enhanced formation of ROS and NF-kB activation. Knockdown of PERK resulted in reduced activation of PERK and ROS generation in astrocytes under OGD conditions. Notably, the knockdown of PERK also induced NF-kB activation in astrocytes. These data suggest that PERK is required for the hypoxic/ischemic-induced-dependent regulation of ROS and that it is involved in NF-kB activation in the astrocytes. PMID:26454173

  8. Cyclosporine A regulate oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes: mechanisms via ROS generation, iNOS and Hsp70

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huei-Wen; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Yu, Sung-Liang; Lee, Yuan-Teh; Chen, Wen-Jone

    2002-01-01

    Previous study suggested that cyclosporine A (CsA) could partially reduce ischaemia/reperfusion-induced injury in isolated heart, but the mechanism was still unclear. In this study, the possible mechanisms of cyclosporine A in regulating oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis were examined. Morphological (cell shrinkage, apoptotic body formation, and DNA fragmentation) and biochemical (annexin-V staining for exposed phosphatidylserine residues) evidences showed that both hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hypoxia/reoxygenation could induce apoptotic change in the embryonal rat heart myoblast-derived cells (H9c2). These effects were inhibited by pre-treatment with CsA at concentration of 0.01–1.0 μM for 24 h, but were increased with 10.0 μM CsA. While examining the mechanisms of CsA in protecting cardiomyocyte apoptosis, we found that the collapse of mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by oxidative stress was partially reversed by CsA (0.01–1.0 μM). Compared to the control, CSA at the concentration of 0.1 and 10.0 μM significantly increased the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) to 117.2±12.4% and 234.4±9.3%, respectively. Co-incubating with the antioxidant, ascorbic acid (10.0 μM), could partially reduce the protective effect of CsA (0.01–1.0 μM) and the toxic effect of 10.0 μM CsA. Pre-treatment with CsA at concentration of 0.01–1.0 μM for 24 h produced up-regulation of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp 70), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and also induced NO production, indicating that these factors might be associated with the cell protective effects of CsA. These results suggest that CsA could protect the oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis not only by preventing the loss of ΔΨm in mitochondria, but also through ROS generation, Hsp70, and iNOS up-regulation. PMID:12411407

  9. Tideglusib induces apoptosis in human neuroblastoma IMR32 cells, provoking sub-G0/G1 accumulation and ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Mathuram, Theodore Lemuel; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan; Reece, Lisa M; Karthik, Selvaraju; Sasikumar, Changam Sheela; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen

    2016-09-01

    apoptotic inducer in human neuroblastoma IMR32 cells. Our study also reports that LiCl reduced cell viability in IMR32 cells inducing apoptosis mediated by ROS generation. PMID:27490211

  10. Activation of MAPK Is Required for ROS Generation and Exocytosis in HMC-1 Cells Induced by Trichomonas vaginalis-Derived Secretory Products

    PubMed Central

    Narantsogt, Giimaa; Min, Arim; Nam, Young Hee; Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; El-Benna, Jamel; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis and cervicitis in women and asymptomatic urethritis and prostatitis in men. Mast cells have been reported to be predominant in vaginal smears and vaginal walls of patients infected with T. vaginalis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), activated by various stimuli, have been shown to regulate the transcriptional activity of various cytokine genes in mast cells. In this study, we investigated whether MAPK is involved in ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 cells induced by T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP). We found that TvSP induces the activation of MAPK and NADPH oxidase in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP induced phosphorylation of MAPK and p47phox in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP also induced up-regulation of CD63, a marker for exocytosis, along the surfaces of human mast cells. Pretreatment with MAPK inhibitors strongly inhibited TvSP-induced ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation. Finally, our results suggest that TvSP induces intracellular ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 via MAPK signaling. PMID:26537039

  11. Responses of Solid Tumor Cells in DMEM to Reactive Oxygen Species Generated by Non-Thermal Plasma and Chemically Induced ROS Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Neha; Uddin, Nizam; Sim, Geon Bo; Hong, Young June; Baik, Ku Youn; Kim, Chung Hyeok; Lee, Su Jae; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we assessed the role of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by soft jet plasma and chemical-induced ROS systems with regard to cell death in T98G, A549, HEK293 and MRC5 cell lines. For a comparison with plasma, we generated superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radical (HO.), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with chemicals inside an in vitro cell culture. Our data revealed that plasma decreased the viability and intracellular ATP values of cells and increased the apoptotic population via a caspase activation mechanism. Plasma altered the mitochondrial membrane potential and eventually up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of BAX, BAK1 and H2AX gene but simultaneously down-regulated the levels of Bcl-2 in solid tumor cells. Moreover, a western blot analysis confirmed that plasma also altered phosphorylated ERK1/2/MAPK protein levels. At the same time, using ROS scavengers with plasma, we observed that scavengers of HO. (mannitol) and H2O2 (catalase and sodium pyruvate) attenuated the activity of plasma on cells to a large extent. In contrast, radicals generated by specific chemical systems enhanced cell death drastically in cancer as well as normal cell lines in a dose-dependent fashion but not specific with regard to the cell type as compared to plasma.

  12. Responses of Solid Tumor Cells in DMEM to Reactive Oxygen Species Generated by Non-Thermal Plasma and Chemically Induced ROS Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Neha; Uddin, Nizam; Sim, Geon Bo; Hong, Young June; Baik, Ku Youn; Kim, Chung Hyeok; Lee, Su Jae; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we assessed the role of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by soft jet plasma and chemical-induced ROS systems with regard to cell death in T98G, A549, HEK293 and MRC5 cell lines. For a comparison with plasma, we generated superoxide anion (O2−), hydroxyl radical (HO·), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with chemicals inside an in vitro cell culture. Our data revealed that plasma decreased the viability and intracellular ATP values of cells and increased the apoptotic population via a caspase activation mechanism. Plasma altered the mitochondrial membrane potential and eventually up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of BAX, BAK1 and H2AX gene but simultaneously down-regulated the levels of Bcl-2 in solid tumor cells. Moreover, a western blot analysis confirmed that plasma also altered phosphorylated ERK1/2/MAPK protein levels. At the same time, using ROS scavengers with plasma, we observed that scavengers of HO· (mannitol) and H2O2 (catalase and sodium pyruvate) attenuated the activity of plasma on cells to a large extent. In contrast, radicals generated by specific chemical systems enhanced cell death drastically in cancer as well as normal cell lines in a dose-dependent fashion but not specific with regard to the cell type as compared to plasma. PMID:25715710

  13. Copper Ion Attenuated the Antiproliferative Activity of Di-2-pyridylhydrazone Dithiocarbamate Derivative; However, There Was a Lack of Correlation between ROS Generation and Antiproliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Fu, Yun; Huang, Tengfei; Liu, Youxun; Wu, Meihao; Yuan, Yanbin; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2016-01-01

    The use of chelators for cancer treatment has been an alternative option. Dithiocarbamates have recently attracted considerable attention owning to their diverse biological activities; thus, the preparation of new dithiocarbamate derivatives with improved antitumor activity and selectivity as well as probing the underlying molecular mechanism are required. In this study, di-2-pyridylhydrazone dithiocarbamate S-propionic acid (DpdtpA) and its copper complex were prepared and characterized, and its antiproliferative activity was evaluated. The proliferation inhibition assay showed that DpdtpA exhibited excellent antiproliferative effect in hepatocellular carcinoma (IC50 = 1.3 ± 0.3 μM for HepG2, and 2.5 ± 0.6 μM for Bel-7402). However, in the presence of copper ion, the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA was dramatically attenuated (20-30 fold) owing to the formation of copper chelate. A preliminarily mechanistic study revealed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation mediated the antiproliferative activity of DpdtpA, and accordingly induced apoptosis, DNA cleavage, and autophagy. Surprisingly, the cytotoxicity of DpdtpA copper complex (DpdtpA-Cu) was also involved in ROS generation; however, a paradoxical relation between cellular ROS level and cytotoxicity was observed. Further investigation indicated that DpdtpA could induce cell cycle arrest at the S phase; however, DpdtpA-Cu lacked this effect, which explained the difference in their antiproliferative activity. PMID:27556432

  14. Baicalein Induces Caspase-dependent Apoptosis Associated with the Generation of ROS and the Activation of AMPK in Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Jae; Park, Cheol; Han, Min-Ho; Hong, Su-Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Hoon Hong, Sang; Deuk Kim, Nam; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Preclinical Research Baicalein is one of the main bioactive flavonoids found in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Here, we report that baicalein-induced growth inhibition was associated with the induction of apoptosis in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Baicalein stimulated the expression of DR5, FasL, and FADD, and activated caspase-8 by reducing the levels of FLIPs (FLICE-inhibitory proteins). The apoptotic cell death was also connected with an activation of caspase-9 and -3, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; however, a blockage of caspase activation abolished baicalein-induced apoptotic potentials. Additionally, baicalein caused a mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the truncation of Bid, and the translocation of pro-apoptotic Bax to the mitochondria, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In turn, baicalein increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, an ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, notably attenuated baicalein-mediated loss of MMP and activation of caspases. Furthermore, baicalein activated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Consequently, baicalein-triggered cell death was attenuated by an AMPK inhibitor, but increased by an AMPK activator, compound C. Overall, the results suggest that the apoptotic activity of baicalein may be associated with caspase-dependent cascade through the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways connected with ROS generation and AMPK activation. Drug Dev Res 77 : 73-86, 2016.   © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26971531

  15. Lycium chinensis Mill attenuates glutamate induced oxidative toxicity in PC12 cells by increasing antioxidant defense enzymes and down regulating ROS and Ca(2+) generation.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2016-03-11

    Lycium chinensis Mill is a famous traditional Chinese medicine which displays several medicinal activities including antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. However, the mechanism of action towards the neuroprotective action has not been fully elucidated. This work was aimed at investigating the neuroprotective effects of L. chinensis Mill against glutamate-induced oxidative neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Oxidative cell death was induced with 5mM glutamate in PC12 cells. Cell viability, LDH release, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD antioxidant enzyme levels were measured. Our results indicated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with L. chinensis Mill extracts markedly attenuated the loss of cell viability, the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Ca(2+) overload, ROS generation, and cell apoptosis induced by glutamate toxicity. Furthermore, L. chinensis Mill extracts also significantly increased the levels of innate antioxidant enzymes GSH-Px, SOD and CAT in glutamate-induced PC12 cells. Conclusively, our results provided substantial evidence that L. chinensis Mill protected PC12 cells against glutamate-induced cell death by attenuating ROS generation, Ca(2+) influx, and increased the antioxidant defense capacity of PC12 cells against oxidative stress damages, suggesting the possible potential of extracts from the plant as sources of bioactive molecules in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26536075

  16. Induction of hsp70, hsp60, hsp83 and hsp26 and oxidative stress markers in benzene, toluene and xylene exposed Drosophila melanogaster: Role of ROS generation

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Reddy, M.M. Krishna.; Mathur, N.; Saxena, D.K.; Chowdhuri, D. Kar

    2009-03-01

    Exposure to benzene, toluene and xylene in the human population may pose a health risk. We tested a working hypothesis that these test chemicals cause cellular toxicity to a non-target organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Third instar larvae of D. melanogaster transgenic for hsp70, hsp83 and hsp26 and Oregon R{sup +} strain were exposed to 1.0-100.0 mM benzene, toluene and xylene for 2-48 h to examine the heat shock proteins (hsps), ROS generation, anti-oxidant stress markers and developmental end points. The test chemicals elicited a concentration- and time-dependent significant (p < 0.01) induction of the hsps in the exposed organism in the order of hsp70 > hsp83 {>=} hsp26 as evident by {beta}-galactosidase activity after 24 h. RT-PCR amplification studies in Oregon R{sup +} larvae revealed a similar induction pattern of these genes along with hsp60 in the order of hsp70 > hsp60 > hsp26 {>=} hsp83. Under similar experimental conditions, a significant induction of ROS generation and oxidative stress markers viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin reductase, glutathione, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl content was observed. Sub-organismal response was propagated towards organismal response i.e., a delay in the emergence of flies and their reproductive performance. While hsp70 was predominantly induced in the organism till 24 h of treatment with the test chemicals, a significant or insignificant regression of Hsp70 after 48 h was concurrent with a significant induction (p < 0.01) of hsp60 > hsp83 {>=} hsp26 in comparison to the former. A significant positive correlation was observed between ROS generation and these hsps in the exposed organism till 24 h and a negative correlation between ROS generation and hsp70 in them after 48 h indicating a modulatory role of ROS in the induction of hsps. The study suggests that among the tested hsps, hsp70 may be used as an early bioindicator of cellular toxicity against benzene, toluene

  17. Conserved cysteine residues in the mammalian lamin A tail are essential for cellular responses to ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Pekovic, Vanja; Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Markiewicz, Ewa; Alzoghaibi, Fahad; Benham, Adam M; Edwards, Robert; Wenhert, Manfred; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Hutchison, Christopher J

    2011-12-01

    Pre-lamin A and progerin have been implicated in normal aging, and the pathogenesis of age-related degenerative diseases is termed 'laminopathies'. Here, we show that mature lamin A has an essential role in cellular fitness and that oxidative damage to lamin A is involved in cellular senescence. Primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) aged replicatively or by pro-oxidants acquire a range of dysmorphic nuclear shapes. We observed that conserved cysteine residues in the lamin A tail domain become hyperoxidized in senescent fibroblasts, which inhibits the formation of lamin A inter- and intramolecular disulfide bonds. Both in the absence of lamin A and in the presence of a lamin A cysteine-to-alanine mutant, which eliminates these cysteine residues (522, 588, and 591), mild oxidative stress induced nuclear disorganization and led to premature senescence as a result of decreased tolerance to ROS stimulators. Human dermal fibroblasts lacking lamin A or expressing the lamin A cysteine-to-alanine mutant displayed a gene expression profile of ROS-responsive genes characteristic of chronic ROS stimulation. Our findings suggest that the conserved C-terminal cysteine residues are essential for lamin A function and that loss or oxidative damage to these cysteine residues promotes cellular senescence. PMID:21951640

  18. High-Dose Nicotinamide Suppresses ROS Generation and Augments Population Expansion during CD8+ T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ho Jin; Jang, So-Young; Hwang, Eun Seong

    2015-01-01

    During T cell activation, mitochondrial content increases to meet the high energy demand of rapid cell proliferation. With this increase, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) also increases and causes the rapid apoptotic death of activated cells, thereby facilitating T cell homeostasis. Nicotinamide (NAM) has previously been shown to enhance mitochondria quality and extend the replicative life span of human fibroblasts. In this study, we examined the effect of NAM on CD8+ T cell activation. NAM treatment attenuated the increase of mitochondrial content and ROS in T cells activated by CD3/CD28 antibodies. This was accompanied by an accelerated and higher-level clonal expansion resulting from attenuated apoptotic death but not increased division of the activated cells. Attenuation of ROS-triggered pro-apoptotic events and upregulation of Bcl-2 expression appeared to be involved. Although cells activated in the presence of NAM exhibited compromised cytokine gene expression, our results suggest a means to augment the size of T cell expansion during activation without consuming their limited replicative potential. PMID:26442863

  19. High-Dose Nicotinamide Suppresses ROS Generation and Augments Population Expansion during CD8(+) T Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ho Jin; Jang, So-Young; Hwang, Eun Seong

    2015-10-01

    During T cell activation, mitochondrial content increases to meet the high energy demand of rapid cell proliferation. With this increase, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) also increases and causes the rapid apoptotic death of activated cells, thereby facilitating T cell homeostasis. Nicotinamide (NAM) has previously been shown to enhance mitochondria quality and extend the replicative life span of human fibroblasts. In this study, we examined the effect of NAM on CD8(+) T cell activation. NAM treatment attenuated the increase of mitochondrial content and ROS in T cells activated by CD3/CD28 antibodies. This was accompanied by an accelerated and higher-level clonal expansion resulting from attenuated apoptotic death but not increased division of the activated cells. Attenuation of ROS-triggered pro-apoptotic events and upregulation of Bcl-2 expression appeared to be involved. Although cells activated in the presence of NAM exhibited compromised cytokine gene expression, our results suggest a means to augment the size of T cell expansion during activation without consuming their limited replicative potential. PMID:26442863

  20. N,N-dimethyl phytosphingosine induces caspase-8-dependent cytochrome c release and apoptosis through ROS generation in human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Byeong Mo; Choi, Yun Jung; Han, Youngsoo; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Hong, Sung Hee

    2009-08-15

    N,N-dimethyl phytosphingosine (DMPS) blocks the conversion of sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) by the enzyme sphingosine kinase (SK). In this study, we elucidated the apoptotic mechanisms of DMPS action on a human leukemia cell line using functional pharmacologic and genetic approaches. First, we demonstrated that DMPS-induced apoptosis is evidenced by nuclear morphological change, distinct internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and an increased sub-G1 cell population. DMPS treatment led to the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, accompanied by the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and led to cytochrome c release, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and downregulation of the anti-apoptotic members of the bcl-2 family. Ectopic expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xL conferred resistance of HL-60 cells to DMPS-induced cell death, suggesting that DMPS-induced apoptosis occurs predominantly through the activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. We also observed that DMPS activated the caspase-8-Bid-Bax pathway and that the inhibition of caspase-8 by z-IETD-fmk or small interfering RNA suppressed the cleavage of Bid, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, and apoptotic cell death. In addition, cells subjected to DMPS exhibited significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and ROS scavengers, such as quercetin and Tiron, but not N-acetylcysteine (NAC), inhibited DMPS-induced activations of caspase-8, -3 and subsequent apoptotic cell death, indicating the role of ROS in caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that caspase-8 acts upstream of caspase-3, and that the caspase-8-mediated mitochondrial pathway is important in DMPS-induced apoptosis. Our results also suggest that ROS are critical regulators of caspase-8-mediated apoptosis in DMPS-treated leukemia cells.

  1. Sodium orthovanadate associated with pharmacological doses of ascorbate causes an increased generation of ROS in tumor cells that inhibits proliferation and triggers apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Günther, Tânia Mara Fischer; Kviecinski, Maicon Roberto; Baron, Carla Cristine; Felipe, Karina Bettega; Farias, Mirelle Sifroni; da Silva, Fabiana Ourique; Bücker, Nádia Cristina Falcão; Pich, Claus Tröger; Ferreira, Eduardo Antonio; Wilhelm Filho, Danilo; Verrax, Julien; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2013-01-18

    Pharmacological doses of ascorbate were evaluated for its ability to potentiate the toxicity of sodium orthovanadate (Na(3)VO(4)) in tumor cells. Cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell proliferation, generation of ROS and DNA fragmentation were assessed in T24 cells. Na(3)VO(4) was cytotoxic against T24 cells (EC(50)=5.8 μM at 24 h), but in the presence of ascorbate (100 μM) the EC(50) fell to 3.3 μM. Na(3)VO(4) plus ascorbate caused a strong inhibition of cell proliferation (up to 20%) and increased the generation of ROS (4-fold). Na(3)VO(4) did not directly cleave plasmid DNA, at this aspect no synergism was found occurring between Na(3)VO(4) and ascorbate once the resulting action of the combination was no greater than that of both substances administered separately. Cells from Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice were used to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the extent of the oxidative damage and the type of cell death. Na(3)VO(4) alone, or combined with ascorbate, increased catalase activity, but only Na(3)VO(4) plus ascorbate increased superoxide dismutase activity (up to 4-fold). Oxidative damage on proteins and lipids was higher due to the treatment done with Na(3)VO(4) plus ascorbate (2-3-fold). Ascorbate potentiated apoptosis in tumor cells from mice treated with Na(3)VO(4). The results indicate that pharmacological doses of ascorbate enhance the generation of ROS induced by Na(3)VO(4) in tumor cells causing inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis. Apoptosis induced by orthovanadate and ascorbate is closer related to inhibition on Bcl-xL and activation of Bax. Our data apparently rule out a mechanism of cell demise p53-dependent or related to Cdk2 impairment. PMID:23261463

  2. Quercetin suppresses cytochrome P450 mediated ROS generation and NFκB activation to inhibit the development of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi Vidya; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2012-01-01

    Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has long been recognized to play a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. Quercetin, a naturally occurring dietary flavonoid is known for its ROS scavenging properties. The present study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects of quercetin based on cytochrome P450 (CYP) mediated ROS generation, ROS-induced cellular damage and activation of the NFκB signalling circuit during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Administration of quercetin inhibited the development of DMBA-induced HBP carcinomas by impairing CYP-mediated ROS production via downregulation of the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, and upregulation of antioxidant defences. Attenuation of ROS generation by quercetin in turn abrogated NFκB signalling by preventing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB, nuclear translocation of NFκB and transactivation of its target genes associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis evasion. Thus dietary flavonoids such as quercetin that can block ROS generation and inhibit the redox regulated transcription factor NFκB, by virtue of their antioxidant potential are promising candidates for future antioxidant-based anticancer regimens. PMID:22044346

  3. Galangin attenuates airway remodelling by inhibiting TGF-β1-mediated ROS generation and MAPK/Akt phosphorylation in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ya-Nan; Zha, Wang-Jian; Ma, Yuan; Chen, Fei-Fei; Zhu, Wen; Ge, Ai; Zeng, Xiao-Ning; Huang, Mao

    2015-01-01

    Galangin, a natural flavonol, has attracted much attention for its potential anti-inflammatory properties. However, its role in the regulation of airway remodelling in asthma has not been explored. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of galangin on chronic inflammation and airway remodelling and to investigate the underlying mechanisms both in vivo and in vitro. Ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitised mice were administered with galangin 30 min before challenge. Our results showed that severe inflammatory responses and airway remodelling occurred in OVA-induced mice. Treatment with galangin markedly attenuated the leakage of inflammatory cells into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and decreased the level of OVA-specific IgE in serum. Galangin significantly inhibited goblet cell hyperplasia, collagen deposition and α-SMA expression. Lowered level of TGF-β1 and suppressed expression of VEGF and MMP-9 were observed in BALF or lung tissue, implying that galangin has an optimal anti-remodelling effect in vivo. Consistently, the TGF-β1-induced proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells was reduced by galangin in vitro, which might be due to the alleviation of ROS levels and inhibition of MAPK pathway. Taken together, the present findings highlight a novel role for galangin as a promising anti-remodelling agent in asthma, which likely involves the TGF-β1-ROS-MAPK pathway. PMID:26156213

  4. Spectroscopic analyses on ROS generation catalyzed by TiO2, CeO2/TiO2 and Fe2O3/TiO2 under ultrasonic and visible-light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Mingming; Kong, Yumei; Wang, Jun; Wang, Qi; Wang, Zhiqiu; Wang, Baoxin; Fan, Ping

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the TiO2, CeO2/TiO2 and Fe2O3/TiO2 powders were irradiated, respectively, by ultrasound and visible-light, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were estimated by the method of Oxidation-Extraction Photometry (OEP). That is, the 1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPCI) can be oxidized by generated ROS into 1,5-diphenyl carbazone (DPCO), which can be extracted by mixed solvent of benzene and carbon tetrachloride. The DPCO extract liquor displays an obvious absorbance at 563 nm wavelength. In addition, some influencing factors, such as (ultrasonic or visible-light) irradiation time, catalyst addition amount and DPCI concentration, on the generation of ROS were also reviewed. The results indicated that the quantities of generated ROS increase with the increase of (ultrasonic or visible-light) irradiation time and catalyst addition amount. Moreover, the displayed quantities of ROS are also related with DPCI concentration. And then, several radical scavengers were used to determine the kinds of the generated ROS. At last, the researches on the sonocatalytic and photocatalytic degradation of several organic dyes have also been performed. It is wished that this paper might offer some important subjects for broadening the applications of sonocatalytic and photocatalytic technologies in future environment treatment.

  5. A rapid and transient ROS generation by cadmium triggers apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathway in HepG2 cells and this is inhibited through N-acetylcysteine-mediated catalase upregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Seon-Hee; Lim, Sung-Chul . E-mail: sclim@chosun.ac.kr

    2006-05-01

    Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in cadmium (Cd)-induced hepatotoxicity, the role of ROS in this pathway remains unclear. Therefore, we attempted to determine the molecular mechanisms relevant to Cd-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. Cd was found to induce apoptosis in the HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, as confirmed by DNA fragmentation analysis and TUNEL staining. In the early stages, both rapid and transient ROS generation triggered apoptosis via Fas activation and subsequent caspase-8-dependent Bid cleavage, as well as by calpain-mediated mitochondrial Bax cleavage. The timing of Bid activation was coincided with the timing at which the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MMP) collapsed as well as the cytochrome c (Cyt c) released into the cytosol. Furthermore, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore inhibitors, such as cyclosporin A (CsA) and bongkrekic acid (BA), did not block Cd-induced ROS generation, MMP collapse and Cyt c release. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) pretreatment resulted in the complete inhibition of the Cd-induced apoptosis via catalase upregulation and subsequent Fas downregulation. NAC treatment also completely blocked the Cd-induced intracellular ROS generation, MMP collapse and Cyt c release, indicating that Cd-induced mitochondrial dysfunction may be regulated indirectly by ROS-mediated signaling pathway. Taken together, a rapid and transient ROS generation by Cd triggers apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathway and subsequent mitochondrial pathway. NAC inhibits Cd-induced apoptosis through the blocking of ROS generation as well as the catalase upregulation.

  6. Generation of ROS by CAY10598 leads to inactivation of STAT3 signaling and induction of apoptosis in human colon cancer HCT116 cells.

    PubMed

    Chae, I G; Kim, D-H; Kundu, J; Jeong, C-H; Kundu, J K; Chun, K-S

    2014-11-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been reported to play critical roles in cell fate decision by interacting with four types of prostanoid receptors such as EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of the EP4-specific agonist CAY10598 in human colon cancer HCT116 cells. Our study revealed that treatment with CAY10598 significantly reduced the cell viability and induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells, as evidenced by the induction of p53 and Bax, release of cytochrome c, cleavage of caspase-9, -7, and -3, and PARP, and the inhibition of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin expression. Moreover, treatment with CAY10598 diminished the phosphorylation of JAK2, leading to the attenuation of STAT3 activation in HCT116 cells. CAY10598-induced apoptosis in cells which were transiently transfected with EP4 siRNA or treated with an EP4 antagonist prior to incubation with the compound remained unaffected, suggesting an EP4-independent mechanism of apoptosis induction by CAY10598. We found that treatment with CAY10598 generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pretreatment of cells with N-acetyl cysteine rescued cells from apoptosis by abrogating the inhibitory effect of CAY10598 on the activation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling. In conclusion, CAY10598 induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells in an EP4-independent manner, but through the generation of ROS and inactivation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling. PMID:25096910

  7. NPRL-Z-1, as a New Topoisomerase II Poison, Induces Cell Apoptosis and ROS Generation in Human Renal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Szu-Ying; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Xiao, Zhi-Yan; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Teng, Che-Ming

    2014-01-01

    NPRL-Z-1 is a 4β-[(4″-benzamido)-amino]-4′-O-demethyl-epipodophyllotoxin derivative. Previous reports have shown that NPRL-Z-1 possesses anticancer activity. Here NPRL-Z-1 displayed cytotoxic effects against four human cancer cell lines (HCT 116, A549, ACHN, and A498) and exhibited potent activity in A498 human renal carcinoma cells, with an IC50 value of 2.38 µM via the MTT assay. We also found that NPRL-Z-1 induced cell cycle arrest in G1-phase and detected DNA double-strand breaks in A498 cells. NPRL-Z-1 induced ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) protein kinase phosphorylation at serine 1981, leading to the activation of DNA damage signaling pathways, including Chk2, histone H2AX, and p53/p21. By ICE assay, the data suggested that NPRL-Z-1 acted on and stabilized the topoisomerase II (TOP2)–DNA complex, leading to TOP2cc formation. NPRL-Z-1-induced DNA damage signaling and apoptotic death was also reversed by TOP2α or TOP2β knockdown. In addition, NPRL-Z-1 inhibited the Akt signaling pathway and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. These results demonstrated that NPRL-Z-1 appeared to be a novel TOP2 poison and ROS generator. Thus, NPRL-Z-1 may present a significant potential anticancer candidate against renal carcinoma. PMID:25372714

  8. ATP Mediates NADPH Oxidase/ROS Generation and COX-2/PGE2 Expression in A549 Cells: Role of P2 Receptor-Dependent STAT3 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shin-Ei; Lee, I-Ta; Lin, Chih-Chung; Wu, Wan-Ling; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2013-01-01

    Background Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are frequently implicated in lung inflammation. Extracellular nucleotides, such as ATP have been shown to act via activation of P2 purinoceptors, leading to COX-2 expression in various inflammatory diseases, such as lung inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying ATP-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 release remain unclear. Principal Findings Here, we showed that ATPγS induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells revealed by western blot and real-time PCR. Pretreatment with the inhibitors of P2 receptor (PPADS and suramin), PKC (Gö6983, Gö6976, Ro318220, and Rottlerin), ROS (Edaravone), NADPH oxidase [diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI) and apocynin], Jak2 (AG490), and STAT3 [cucurbitacin E (CBE)] and transfection with siRNAs of PKCα, PKCι, PKCμ, p47phox, Jak2, STAT3, and cPLA2 markedly reduced ATPγS-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. In addition, pretreatment with the inhibitors of P2 receptor attenuated PKCs translocation from the cytosol to the membrane in response to ATPγS. Moreover, ATPγS-induced ROS generation and p47phox translocation was also reduced by pretreatment with the inhibitors of P2 receptor, PKC, and NADPH oxidase. On the other hand, ATPγS stimulated Jak2 and STAT3 activation which were inhibited by pretreatment with PPADS, suramin, Gö6983, Gö6976, Ro318220, GF109203X, Rottlerin, Edaravone, DPI, and apocynin in A549 cells. Significance Taken together, these results showed that ATPγS induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production via a P2 receptor/PKC/NADPH oxidase/ROS/Jak2/STAT3/cPLA2 signaling pathway in A549 cells. Increased understanding of signal transduction mechanisms underlying COX-2 gene regulation will create opportunities for the development of anti-inflammation therapeutic strategies. PMID:23326583

  9. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors induce apoptosis of lymphoma cells by promoting ROS generation and regulating Akt, Erk and p38 signals via suppression of mevalonate pathway

    PubMed Central

    Qi, X-F; Zheng, L; Lee, K-J; Kim, D-H; Kim, C-S; Cai, D-Q; Wu, Z; Qin, J-W; Yu, Y-H; Kim, S-K

    2013-01-01

    Statins, the inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, are widely used cholesterol-lowering drugs. Convincing evidence indicates that statins stimulate apoptotic cell death in several types of proliferating tumor cells in a cholesterol-lowering-independent manner. The objective here was to elucidate the molecular mechanism by which statins induce lymphoma cells death. Statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin and simvastatin) treatment enhanced the DNA fragmentation and the activation of proapoptotic members such as caspase-3, PARP and Bax, but suppressed the activation of anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-2 in lymphoma cells including A20 and EL4 cells, which was accompanied by inhibition of cell survival. Both increase in levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of p38 MAPK and decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of Akt and Erk pathways were observed in statin-treated lymphoma cells. Statin-induced cytotoxic effects, DNA fragmentation and changes of activation of caspase-3, Akt, Erk and p38 were blocked by antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine) and metabolic products of the HMG-CoA reductase reaction, such as mevalonate, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP). These results suggests that HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors induce lymphoma cells apoptosis by increasing intracellular ROS generation and p38 activation and suppressing activation of Akt and Erk pathways, through inhibition of metabolic products of the HMG-CoA reductase reaction including mevalonate, FPP and GGPP. PMID:23449454

  10. Sodium orthovanadate associated with pharmacological doses of ascorbate causes an increased generation of ROS in tumor cells that inhibits proliferation and triggers apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Günther, T-hat nia Mara Fischer; Kviecinski, Maicon Roberto; Baron, Carla Cristine; Felipe, Karina Bettega; Farias, Mirelle Sifroni; Ourique da Silva, Fabiana; Bücker, Nádia Cristina Falcão; Pich, Claus Tröger; Ferreira, Eduardo Antonio; Filho, Danilo Wilhelm; Verrax, Julien; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2013-01-18

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Pharmacological doses of ascorbate were evaluated for its ability to potentiate the toxicity of sodium orthovanadate (Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4}) in tumor cells. Cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell proliferation, generation of ROS and DNA fragmentation were assessed in T24 cells. Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} was cytotoxic against T24 cells (EC{sub 50} = 5.8 μM at 24 h), but in the presence of ascorbate (100 μM) the EC{sub 50} fell to 3.3 μM. Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} plus ascorbate caused a strong inhibition of cell proliferation (up to 20%) and increased the generation of ROS (4-fold). Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} did not directly cleave plasmid DNA, at this aspect no synergism was found occurring between Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} and ascorbate once the resulting action of the combination was no greater than that of both substances administered separately. Cells from Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice were used to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the extent of the oxidative damage and the type of cell death. Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} alone, or combined with ascorbate, increased catalase activity, but only Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} plus ascorbate increased superoxide dismutase activity (up to 4-fold). Oxidative damage on proteins and lipids was higher due to the treatment done with Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} plus ascorbate (2–3-fold). Ascorbate potentiated apoptosis in tumor cells from mice treated with Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4}. The results indicate that pharmacological doses of ascorbate enhance the generation of ROS induced by Na{sub 3}VO{sub 4} in tumor cells causing inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis. Apoptosis induced by orthovanadate and ascorbate is closer related to inhibition on Bcl-xL and activation of Bax. Our data apparently rule out a mechanism of cell demise p53-dependent or related to Cdk2 impairment.

  11. Berberine induces apoptosis via ROS generation in PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 pancreatic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Park, S H; Sung, J H; Kim, E J; Chung, N

    2015-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death. Gemcitabine is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, but the prognosis is still poor. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from a variety of natural herbs, possesses a variety of pharmacological properties including anticancer effects. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of berberine and compared its use with that of gemcitabine in the pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2. Berberine inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. After berberine treatment, the G1 phase of PANC-1 cells increased by 10% compared to control cells, and the G1 phase of MIA-PaCa2 cells was increased by 2%. Whereas gemcitabine exerts antiproliferation effects through S-phase arrest, our results showed that berberine inhibited proliferation by inducing G1-phase arrest. Berberine-induced apoptosis of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 cells increased by 7 and 2% compared to control cells, respectively. Notably, berberine had a greater apoptotic effect in PANC-1 cells than gemcitabine. Upon treatment of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 with berberine at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), apoptosis was induced by a mechanism that involved the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than caspase 3/7 activation. Our findings showed that berberine had anti-cancer effects and may be an effective drug for pancreatic cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25517919

  12. Berberine induces apoptosis via ROS generation in PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 pancreatic cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Park, S.H.; Sung, J.H.; Kim, E.J.; Chung, N.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death. Gemcitabine is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, but the prognosis is still poor. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from a variety of natural herbs, possesses a variety of pharmacological properties including anticancer effects. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of berberine and compared its use with that of gemcitabine in the pancreatic cancer cell lines PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2. Berberine inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. After berberine treatment, the G1 phase of PANC-1 cells increased by 10% compared to control cells, and the G1 phase of MIA-PaCa2 cells was increased by 2%. Whereas gemcitabine exerts antiproliferation effects through S-phase arrest, our results showed that berberine inhibited proliferation by inducing G1-phase arrest. Berberine-induced apoptosis of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 cells increased by 7 and 2% compared to control cells, respectively. Notably, berberine had a greater apoptotic effect in PANC-1 cells than gemcitabine. Upon treatment of PANC-1 and MIA-PaCa2 with berberine at a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), apoptosis was induced by a mechanism that involved the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) rather than caspase 3/7 activation. Our findings showed that berberine had anti-cancer effects and may be an effective drug for pancreatic cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25517919

  13. ROS-induced ROS release in vascular biology: redox-redox signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zinkevich, Natalya S.

    2011-01-01

    The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating vascular function both in normal vessels and as part of an adaptive response during disease has been intensively studied. From the recognition that ROS serve as important signaling molecules has emerged multiple lines of evidence that there is a functional connectivity between intracellular sites of ROS production. This cross talk has been termed ROS-induced ROS release (RIRR) and is supported by a variety of observations showing that RIRR is a common mechanism for ROS amplification and regional ROS generation. The compartmentalization of ROS production within a cell is critical to its signaling function and is facilitated by microlocalization of specific scavengers. This review will provide descriptions and examples of important mechanisms of RIRR. PMID:21685266

  14. Neutrophils from patients with SAPHO syndrome show no signs of aberrant NADPH oxidase-dependent production of intracellular reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Wekell, Per; Björnsdottir, Halla; Björkman, Lena; Sundqvist, Martina; Christenson, Karin; Osla, Veronica; Berg, Stefan; Fasth, Anders; Welin, Amanda; Bylund, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to investigate if aberrant intracellular production of NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neutrophils is a disease mechanism in the autoinflammatory disease SAPHO syndrome, characterized by synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis, as has previously been suggested based on a family with SAPHO syndrome-like disease. Methods. Neutrophil function was explored in a cohort of four patients with SAPHO syndrome, two of whom were sampled during both inflammatory and non-inflammatory phase. Intracellular neutrophil ROS production was determined by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence in response to phorbol myristate acetate. Results. Cells from all patients produced normal amounts of ROS, both intra- and extracellularly, when compared with internal controls as well as with a large collection of healthy controls assayed in the laboratory over time (showing an extensive inter-personal variability in a normal population). Further, intracellular production of ROS increased during the inflammatory phase. Neutrophil activation markers were comparable between patients and controls. Conclusion. Dysfunctional generation of intracellular ROS in neutrophils is not a generalizable feature in SAPHO syndrome. Secondly, serum amyloid A appears to be a more sensitive inflammatory marker than CRP during improvement and relapses in SAPHO syndrome. PMID:27121779

  15. The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in the Formation of Extracellular Traps (ETs) in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Stoiber, Walter; Obermayer, Astrid; Steinbacher, Peter; Krautgartner, Wolf-Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular traps (ETs) are reticulate structures of extracellular DNA associated with antimicrobial molecules. Their formation by phagocytes (mainly by neutrophils: NETs) has been identified as an essential element of vertebrate innate immune defense. However, as ETs are also toxic to host cells and potent triggers of autoimmunity, their role between pathogen defense and human pathogenesis is ambiguous, and they contribute to a variety of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Since the discovery of ET formation (ETosis) a decade ago, evidence has accumulated that most reaction cascades leading to ET release involve ROS. An important new facet was added when it became apparent that ETosis might be directly linked to, or be a variant of, the autophagy cell death pathway. The present review analyzes the evidence to date on the interplay between ROS, autophagy and ETosis, and highlights and discusses several further aspects of the ROS-ET relationship that are incompletely understood. These aspects include the role of NADPH oxidase-derived ROS, the molecular requirements of NADPH oxidase-dependent ETosis, the roles of NADPH oxidase subtypes, extracellular ROS and of ROS from sources other than NADPH oxidase, and the present evidence for ROS-independent ETosis. We conclude that ROS interact with ETosis in a multidimensional manner, with influence on whether ETosis shows beneficial or detrimental effects. PMID:25946076

  16. Production of hydrogen peroxide and expression of ROS generating genes in peach flower petals in response to host and non-host pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play dual roles in plant-microbe interactions in that they can either stimulate host resistance or benefit pathogen virulence. Accumulation of ROS was determined in peach petals in response to Monilinia fructicola (a compatible pathogen) and Penicillium digitatum (an i...

  17. NADPH Oxidase Dependent NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Plays an Important Role in Lung Fibrosis by Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Wang, Meiying; Liao, Yu-Pei; Chang, Chong Hyun; Li, Ruibin; Zhang, Haiyuan; Nel, André E.; Xia, Tian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to elucidate the key role of NADPH oxidase in NLRP3 inflammasome activation and generation of pulmonary fibrosis by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Although it is known that oxidative stress plays a role in pulmonary fibrosis by single-walled CNTs, the role of specific sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including NADPH oxidase, in inflammasome activation remains to be clarified. In this study, three long aspect ratio (LAR) materials (MWCNTs, SWCNTs, and silver nanowires) are used to compare with spherical carbon black and silver nanoparticles for their ability to trigger oxygen burst activity and NLRP3 assembly. All LAR materials but not spherical nanoparticles induce robust NADPH oxidase activation and respiratory burst activity in THP-1 cells, which are blunted in p22phox deficient cells. NADPH oxidase is directly involved in lysosome damage by LAR materials, as demonstrated by decreased cathepsin B release and IL-1β production in p22phox deficient cells. Reduced respiratory burst activity and inflammasome activation are also observed in bone marrow-derived macrophages from p47phox deficient mice. Moreover, p47phox deficient mice have reduced IL-1β production and lung collagen deposition in response to MWCNTs. Lung fibrosis is also suppressed by N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) in wild type animals exposed to MWCNTs. PMID:25581126

  18. Organochlorine insecticides induce NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species in human monocytic cells via phospholipase A2/arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Mangum, Lee C; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Stokes, John V; Matthews, Anberitha T; Lee, Jung Hwa; Chambers, Janice E; Ross, Matthew K

    2015-04-20

    Bioaccumulative organohalogen chemicals, such as organochlorine (OC) insecticides, have been increasingly associated with disease etiology; however, the mechanistic link between chemical exposure and diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer, and diabetes, is complex and poorly defined. Systemic oxidative stress stemming from OC exposure might play a vital role in the development of these pathologies. Monocytes are important surveillance cells of the innate immune system that respond to extracellular signals possessing danger-associated molecular patterns by synthesizing oxyradicals, such as superoxide, for the purpose of combating infectious pathogens. We hypothesized that OC chemicals can be toxic to monocytes because of an inappropriate elevation in superoxide-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) capable of causing cellular oxidative damage. Reactive oxyradicals are generated in monocytes in large part by NADPH oxidase (Nox). The present study was conducted to examine the ability of two chlorinated cyclodiene compounds, trans-nonachlor and dieldrin, as well as p,p'-DDE, a chlorinated alicyclic metabolite of DDT, to stimulate Nox activity in a human monocytic cell line and to elucidate the mechanisms for this activation. Human THP-1 monocytes treated with either trans-nonachlor or dieldrin (0.1-10 μM in the culture medium) exhibited elevated levels of intracellular ROS, as evidenced by complementary methods, including flow cytometry analysis using the probe DCFH-DA and hydroethidine-based fluorometric and UPLC-MS assays. In addition, the induced reactive oxygen flux caused by trans-nonachlor was also observed in two other cell lines, murine J774 macrophages and human HL-60 cells. The central role of Nox in OC-mediated oxidative stress was demonstrated by the attenuated superoxide production in OC-exposed monocytes treated with the Nox inhibitors diphenyleneiodonium and VAS-2870. Moreover, monocytes challenged with OCs exhibited increased phospho-p47(phox

  19. NADPH oxidase-dependent production of reactive oxygen species induces endoplasmatic reticulum stress in neutrophil-like HL60 cells.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Wilson Mitsuo Tatagiba; Zhang, Liling; Schuiki, Irmgard; Curi, Rui; Volchuk, Allen; Alba-Loureiro, Tatiana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) primarily produced via NADPH oxidase play an important role for killing microorganisms in neutrophils. In this study we examined if ROS production in Human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL60) differentiated into neutrophil-like cells (dHL60) induces ER stress and activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). To cause ROS production cells were treated with PMA or by chronic hyperglycemia. Chronic hyperglycemia failed to induce ROS production and did not cause activation of the UPR in dHL60 cells. PMA, a pharmacologic NADPH oxidase activator, induced ER stress in dHL60 cells as monitored by IRE-1 and PERK pathway activation, and this was independent of calcium signaling. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor, DPI, abolished both ROS production and UPR activation. These results show that ROS produced by NADPH oxidase induces ER stress and suggests a close association between the redox state of the cell and the activation of the UPR in neutrophil-like HL60 cells. PMID:25668518

  20. Anticancer potential of a photoactivated transplatin derivative containing the methylazaindole ligand mediated by ROS generation and DNA cleavage.

    PubMed

    Pracharova, Jitka; Radosova Muchova, Tereza; Dvorak Tomastikova, Eva; Intini, Francesco P; Pacifico, Concetta; Natile, Giovanni; Kasparkova, Jana; Brabec, Viktor

    2016-08-16

    The limitations associated with the clinical utility of conventional platinum anticancer drugs have stimulated research leading to the design of new metallodrugs with improved pharmacological properties, particularly with increased selectivity for cancer cells. Very recent research has demonstrated that photoactivation or photopotentiation of platinum drugs can be one of the promising approaches to tackle this challenge. This is so because the application of irradiation can be targeted exclusively to the tumor tissue so that the resulting effects could be much more selective and targeted to the tumor. We show in this work that the presence of 1-methyl-7-azaindole in trans-[PtCl2(NH3)(L)] (L = 1-methyl-7-azaindole, compound 1) markedly potentiated the DNA binding ability of 1 when irradiated by UVA light in a cell-free medium. Concomitantly, the formation of cytotoxic bifunctional cross-links was markedly enhanced. In addition, 1, when irradiated with UVA, was able to effectively cleave the DNA backbone also in living cells. The incorporation of 1-methyl-7-azaindole moiety had also a profound effect on the photophysical properties of 1, which can generate singlet oxygen responsible for the DNA cleavage reaction. Finally, we found that 1, upon irradiation with UVA light, exhibited a pronounced dose-dependent decrease in viability of A2780 cells whereas it was markedly less cytotoxic if the cells were treated in the absence of light. Hence, it is possible to conclude that 1 is amenable to photodynamic therapy. PMID:27396365

  1. Protective Effects of N-Acetyl Cysteine against Diesel Exhaust Particles-Induced Intracellular ROS Generates Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines to Mediate the Vascular Permeability of Capillary-Like Endothelial Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chia-Yi; Chang, Jing-Fen; Wang, Jhih-Syuan; Chang, Yu-Jung; Gordon, Marion K.; Chao, Ming-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies using in vitro endothelial tubes as a simplified model of capillaries have found that DEP-induced ROS increase vascular permeability with rearrangement or internalization of adherens junctional VE-cadherin away from the plasma membrane. This allows DEPs to penetrate into the cell and capillary lumen. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines are up-regulated and mediate vascular permeability in response to DEP. However, the mechanisms through which these DEP-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines increase vascular permeability remain unknown. Hence, we examined the ability of DEP to induce permeability of human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube cells to investigate these mechanisms. Furthermore, supplementation with NAC reduces ROS production following exposure to DEP. HUVEC tube cells contributed to a pro-inflammatory response to DEP-induced intracellular ROS generation. Endothelial oxidative stress induced the release of TNF-α and IL-6 from tube cells, subsequently stimulating the secretion of VEGF-A independent of HO-1. Our data suggests that DEP-induced intracellular ROS and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF- α and IL-6, which would contribute to VEGF-A secretion and disrupt cell-cell borders and increase vasculature permeability. Addition of NAC suppresses DEP-induced ROS efficiently and reduces subsequent damages by increasing endogenous glutathione. PMID:26148005

  2. Neuroprotective Effect of Puerarin on Glutamate-Induced Cytotoxicity in Differentiated Y-79 Cells via Inhibition of ROS Generation and Ca(2+) Influx.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhifeng; Sun, Song; Zhou, Fanfan; Zhu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate toxicity is estimated to be the key cause of photoreceptor degeneration in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress and Ca(2+) influx induced by glutamate are responsible for the apoptosis process of photoreceptor degeneration. Puerarin, a primary component of Kudzu root, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in China for decades; however, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of puerarin against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in the differentiated Y-79 cells was first investigated through cytotoxicity assay. Then the molecular mechanism of this effect regarding anti-oxidative stress and Ca(2+) hemostasis was further explored with indirect immunofluorescence, flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis. Our study showed that glutamate induced cell viability loss, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, calcium overload and up-regulated cell apoptosis in differentiated Y-79 cells, which effect was significantly attenuated with the pre-treatment of puerarin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data indicated that the neuroprotective effect of puerarin was potentially mediated through the inhibition of glutamate-induced activation of mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathway and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1(ASK-1)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 signaling pathway. The present study supports the notion that puerarin may be a promising neuroprotective agent in the prevention of retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27409614

  3. Neuroprotective Effect of Puerarin on Glutamate-Induced Cytotoxicity in Differentiated Y-79 Cells via Inhibition of ROS Generation and Ca2+ Influx

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhifeng; Sun, Song; Zhou, Fanfan; Zhu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate toxicity is estimated to be the key cause of photoreceptor degeneration in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress and Ca2+ influx induced by glutamate are responsible for the apoptosis process of photoreceptor degeneration. Puerarin, a primary component of Kudzu root, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in China for decades; however, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of puerarin against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in the differentiated Y-79 cells was first investigated through cytotoxicity assay. Then the molecular mechanism of this effect regarding anti-oxidative stress and Ca2+ hemostasis was further explored with indirect immunofluorescence, flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis. Our study showed that glutamate induced cell viability loss, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, calcium overload and up-regulated cell apoptosis in differentiated Y-79 cells, which effect was significantly attenuated with the pre-treatment of puerarin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data indicated that the neuroprotective effect of puerarin was potentially mediated through the inhibition of glutamate-induced activation of mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathway and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1(ASK-1)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 signaling pathway. The present study supports the notion that puerarin may be a promising neuroprotective agent in the prevention of retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27409614

  4. Cytotoxic effects induced by interferon-ω gene lipofection through ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential disruption in feline mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Marcela Solange; Targovnik, Alexandra Marisa; Miranda, María Victoria; Finocchiaro, Liliana María Elena; Glikin, Gerardo Claudio

    2016-08-01

    Progress in comparative oncology promises advances in clinical cancer treatments for both companion animals and humans. In this context, feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) cells have been proposed as a suitable model to study human breast cancer. Based on our previous data about the advantages of using type I interferon gene therapy over the respective recombinant DNA derived protein, the present work explored the effects of feline interferon-ω gene (fIFNω) transfer on FMC cells. Three different cell variants derived from a single spontaneous highly aggressive FMC tumor were successfully established and characterized. Lipofection of the fIFNω gene displayed a significant cytotoxic effect on the three cell variants. The extent of the response was proportional to ROS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential disruption and calcium uptake. Moreover, a lower sensitivity to the treatment correlated with a higher malignant phenotype. Our results suggest that fIFNω lipofection could offer an alternative approach in veterinary oncology with equal or superior outcome and with less adverse effects than recombinant fIFNω therapy. PMID:27236354

  5. ROS Regulation During Abiotic Stress Responses in Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    You, Jun; Chan, Zhulong

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salt and heat cause reduction of plant growth and loss of crop yield worldwide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anions (O2•-), hydroxyl radical (OH•) and singlet oxygen (1O2) are by-products of physiological metabolisms, and are precisely controlled by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems. ROS are significantly accumulated under abiotic stress conditions, which cause oxidative damage and eventually resulting in cell death. Recently, ROS have been also recognized as key players in the complex signaling network of plants stress responses. The involvement of ROS in signal transduction implies that there must be coordinated function of regulation networks to maintain ROS at non-toxic levels in a delicate balancing act between ROS production, involving ROS generating enzymes and the unavoidable production of ROS during basic cellular metabolism, and ROS-scavenging pathways. Increasing evidence showed that ROS play crucial roles in abiotic stress responses of crop plants for the activation of stress-response and defense pathways. More importantly, manipulating ROS levels provides an opportunity to enhance stress tolerances of crop plants under a variety of unfavorable environmental conditions. This review presents an overview of current knowledge about homeostasis regulation of ROS in crop plants. In particular, we summarize the essential proteins that are involved in abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants through ROS regulation. Finally, the challenges toward the improvement of abiotic stress tolerance through ROS regulation in crops are discussed. PMID:26697045

  6. Augmented EGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity impairs vascular function by NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanism in type 2 diabetic mouse.

    PubMed

    Kassan, Modar; Ait-Aissa, Karima; Ali, Maha; Trebak, Mohamed; Matrougui, Khalid

    2015-10-01

    We previously determined that augmented EGFR tyrosine kinase (EGFRtk) impairs vascular function in type 2 diabetic mouse (TD2). Here we determined that EGFRtk causes vascular dysfunction through NADPH oxidase activity in TD2. Mesenteric resistance arteries (MRA) from C57/BL6 and db-/db- mice were mounted in a wired myograph and pre-incubated for 1h with either EGFRtk inhibitor (AG1478) or exogenous EGF. The inhibition of EGFRtk did not affect the contractile response to phenylephrine-(PE) and thromboxane-(U46619) or endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) to acetylcholine in MRA from control group. However, in TD2 mice, AG1478 reduced the contractile response to U46619, improved vasodilatation and reduced p22phox-NADPH expression, but had no effect on the contractile response to PE. The incubation of MRA with exogenous EGF potentiated the contractile response to PE in MRA from control and diabetic mice. However, EGF impaired the EDR and potentiated the vasoconstriction to U46619 only in the control group. Interestingly, NADPH oxidase inhibition in the presence of EGF restored the normal contraction to PE and improved the EDR but had no effect on the potentiated contraction to U46619. Vascular function improvement was associated with the rescue of eNOS and Akt and reduction in phosphorylated Rho-kinase, NOX4 mRNA levels, and NADPH oxidase activity. MRA from p47phox-/- mice incubated with EGF potentiated the contraction to U46619 but had no effect to PE or ACh responses. The present study provides evidence that augmented EGFRtk impairs vascular function by NADPH oxidase-dependent mechanism. Therefore, EGFRtk and oxidative stress should be potential targets to treat vascular dysfunction in TD2. PMID:26036345

  7. Potent In Vitro Protection Against PM[Formula: see text]-Caused ROS Generation and Vascular Permeability by Long-Term Pretreatment with Ganoderma tsugae.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chia-Yi; Chung, Meng-Chi; Wang, Jhih-Syuan; Chang, Yu-Jung; Chang, Jing-Fen; Lin, Chin-Hung; Hseu, Ruey-Shyang; Chao, Ming-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies show increased particulate matter (PM[Formula: see text]) particles in ambient air are correlated with increased myocardial infarctions. Given the close association of capillaries and alveoli, the dysfunction is caused when inhaled PM[Formula: see text] particles come in close proximity to capillary endothelial cells. We previously suggested that the inhalation of PM[Formula: see text] diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induces oxidative stress and upregulates the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, inducing vascular permeability factor VEGFA secretion, which results in cell-cell adherens junction disruption and PM[Formula: see text] transmigratation into circulation. Here, we minimized the level that PM[Formula: see text] traveled in the bloodstream by pre-supplementing with a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Ganoderma tsugae DMSO extract (GTDE) prior to PM[Formula: see text] exposure. Our results show that PM[Formula: see text] caused alterations in enzyme activities and cellular anti-oxidant balance. We found decreased glutathione levels, a reduced cellular redox ratio, increased ROS generation and cytotoxicity in the cellular fractions. The oxidative stress caused DNA damage and apoptosis, likely causing downstream molecular events that trigger vasculature permeabilization and, eventually, cardiovascular disorders. Our results show long-term GTDE treatment increased endogenous glutathione level, while PM[Formula: see text]-reduced glutathione levels and the cellular redox ratio. GTDE was protective against the genotoxic and apoptotic effects initiated by PM[Formula: see text] oxidative stress. Vascular permeability revealed that PM[Formula: see text] only accumulated on the surface of cells after GTDE treatment; no penetration was detected. After two weeks of GTDE treatment, VEGFA secretion was significantly reduced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and endothelial cell migration was blocked. Our results suggest GTDE prevents PM

  8. Effect of extracts of poly(ether imide) microparticles on cytotoxicity, ROS generation and proinflammatory effects on human monocytic (THP-1) cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Reddi K; Basu, Sayantani; Lemke, Horst-Dieter; Jankowski, Joachim; Kratz, Karl; Lendlein, Andreas; Tetali, Sarada D

    2016-01-01

    Current haemodialysis techniques are not capable to remove efficiently low molecular weight hydrophobic uremic toxins from the blood of patients suffering from chronic renal failure. With respect to the hydrophobic characteristics and the high level of protein binding of these uremic toxins, hydrophobic adsorber materials might be an alternative to remove these substances from the plasma of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Here nanoporous microparticles prepared from poly(ether imide) (PEI) with an average diameter of 90 ± 30 μm and a porosity around 88 ± 2% prepared by a spraying/coagulation process are considered as candidate adsorber materials. A prerequisite for the clinical application of such particles is their biocompatibility, which can be examined i.e. indirectly in cell culture experiments with the particles' extracts. In this work we studied the effects of aqueous extracts of PEI microparticles on the viability of THP-1 cells, a human leukemia monocytic cell line, as well as their macrophage differentiation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inflammation.A high cell viability of around 99 ± 18% and 99 ± 5% was observed when THP-1 cells were cultured in the presence of aqueous extracts of the PEI microparticles in medium A and medium B respectively. The obtained microscopic data suggested that PEI particle extracts have no significant effect on cell death, oxidative stress or differentiation to macrophages. It was further found that the investigated proinflammatory markers in THP-1 cells were not up-regulated. These results are promising with regard to the biocompatibility of PEI microparticles and in a next step the hemocompatibility of the microparticles will be examined. PMID:26639770

  9. The phosphorylation status of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 in astrocytes and neurons from rat hippocampus determines the thrombin-induced calcium release and ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Zündorf, Gregor; Reiser, Georg

    2011-12-01

    Challenge of protease-activated receptors induces cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ](c)) increase, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation with a bandwidth of responses in individual cells. We detected in this study in situ the thrombin-induced [Ca(2+) ](c) rise and ROS formation in dissociated hippocampal astrocytes and neurons in a mixed culture. In identified cells, single cell responses were correlated with extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 phosphorylation level. On average, in astrocytes, thrombin induced a transient [Ca(2+) ](c) rise with concentration-dependent increase in amplitude and extrusion rate and high ERK1/2 phosphorylation level. Correlation analysis of [Ca(2+) ](c) response characteristics of single astrocytes reveals that astrocytes with nuclear phosphoERK1/2 localization have a smaller Ca(2+) amplitude and extrusion rate compared with cells with a cytosolic phosphoERK1/2 localization. In naive neurons, without thrombin challenge, variable ERK1/2 phosphorylation patterns are observed. ROS were detected by hydroethidine. Only in neurons with increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation level, we see sustained intracellular rise in fluorescence of the dye lasting over several minutes. ROS formation was abolished by pre-incubation with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Additionally, thrombin induced an immediate, transient hydroethidine fluorescence increase. This was interpreted as NADPH oxidase-mediated O(2) (•-) -release into the extracellular milieu, because it was decreased by pre-incubation with apocynin, and could be eluted by superfusion. In conclusion, the phosphorylation status of ERK1/2 determines the thrombin-dependent [Ca(2+) ](c) increase and ROS formation and, thus, influences the capacity of thrombin to regulate neuroprotection or neurodegeneration. PMID:21988180

  10. Clematichinenoside inhibits VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression in TNF-α-treated endothelial cells via NADPH oxidase-dependent IκB kinase/NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Simin; Zhang, Xu; Zheng, Haili; Hu, Danhong; Zhang, Yongtian; Guan, Qinghua; Liu, Lifang; Ding, Qilong; Li, Yunman

    2015-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α-induced adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells plays a critical role in the early stage of atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress and redox-sensitive transcription factors are implicated in the process. Thus, compounds that mediate intracellular redox status and regulate transcription factors are of great therapeutic interest. Clematichinenoside (AR), a triterpene saponin isolated from the root of Clematis chinensis Osbeck, was previously demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. However, little is known about the exact mechanism underlying these actions. Thus we performed a detailed study on its effect on leukocytes-endothelial cells adhesion with TNF-α-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and cell-free systems. First, we found that AR reduced TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression and their promoter activity, inhibited translocation of p65 and phosphorylation of IκBα, suppressed IκB kinase-β (IKK-β) activity, lowered O2(∙-) and H2O2 levels, tackled p47(phox) translocation, and decreased NOX4 NADPH oxidase expression. Second, we showed that AR exhibited no direct free radical scavenging ability in cell-free systems at concentrations that were used in intact cells. Besides, AR had no direct effect on the activity of IKK-β that was extracted from TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. We also found that p47 translocation, NOX4 expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were up-regulated before IκB phosphorylation in TNF-α-induced HUVECs. Moreover, TNF-α-enhanced IKK-β activity was also inhibited by (polyethylene glycol) PEG-catalase, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and vitamin E. In conclusion, these results suggest that AR reduces VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression through NADPH oxidase-dependent IKK/NF-κB pathways in TNF-α-induced HUVECs, which finally suppress monocyte-HUVECs adhesion. This compound is potentially beneficial for early-stage atherosclerosis. PMID:25463279

  11. Cedrol induces autophagy and apoptotic cell death in A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells through the P13K/Akt signaling pathway, the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the generation of ROS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Yi; Li, Xue-Bo; Hou, Sheng-Guang; Sun, Yao; Shi, Yi-Ran; Lin, Song-Sen

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the anticancer effects of cedrol in A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cells by examining the effects of cedrol on apoptosis induction, the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, autophagy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). The anticancer effects of cedrol were examined using A549 human lung carcinoma cells as an in vitro model. Cell viability was determined using MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, and an inverted phase contrast microscope was used to examine the morphological changes in these cells. Cedrol‑triggered autophagy was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the cells, as well as by western blot analysis of microtubule-associated protein light-chain 3 (LC3)B expression. Intracellular ROS generation was measured by flow cytometry using 5-(6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CM-DCFH2-DA) staining and MTP was measured using flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that cedrol reduced cell viability and induced cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic evaluations indicated that cedrol induced apoptosis by reducing the MTP and by decreasing the levels of phosphorylated (p-)PI3K and p-Akt. Cedrol induced autophagy, which was confirmed by TEM analysis, by increasing intracellular ROS formation in a concentration-dependent manner, which was almost completely reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and tocopherol. Taken together, these findings reveal that cedrol inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in A549 cells through mitochondrial and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Our findings also reveal that cedrol induced pro-death autophagy by increasing intracellular ROS production. PMID:27177023

  12. A novel pyrazolone-based derivative induces apoptosis in human esophageal cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and caspase-dependent mitochondria-mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Li; Li, Jinyao; Wu, Ting; Wang, Meifang; Xu, Guancheng; Zhang, Fuchun; Liu, Lang; Yang, Jianhua; Sun, Surong

    2015-04-25

    Pyrazolone complexes have strong bio-activity but the anti-tumor mechanism of pyrazolone-based metal complexes is not fully understood. In this study, the inhibitory effect and possible mechanism of a novel pyrazolone-based derivative compound (Cd-PMPP-SAL) on human esophageal cancer cells were investigated. We found that Cd-PMPP-SAL inhibited the proliferation of Eca-109 cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced the apoptosis in the cells. Interestingly, Cd-PMPP-SAL promoted the production of ROS, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, PARP cleavage and activation of caspase-3/9. These results suggest Cd-PMPP-SAL-induced apoptosis might be mediated by the increased production of ROS and caspase-dependent mitochondria-mediated pathway. These results suggest that Cd-PMPP-SAL is a potential candidate for the treatment of esophageal cancer. PMID:25684395

  13. Isoliensinine induces apoptosis in triple-negative human breast cancer cells through ROS generation and p38 MAPK/JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiyu; Wang, Xiyao; Wu, Tingting; Li, Boxuan; Liu, Tianqi; Wang, Rong; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Zhaojian; Gong, Yaoqin; Shao, Changshun

    2015-01-01

    Isoliensinine, liensinine and neferine are major bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids in the seed embryo of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), and exhibit potential anti-cancer activity. Here, we explored the effects of these alkaloids on triple-negative breast cancer cells and found that among the three alkaloids isoliensinine possesses the most potent cytotoxic effect, primarily by inducing apoptosis. Interestingly, isoliensinine showed a much lower cytotoxicity against MCF-10A, a normal human breast epithelial cell line. Further studies showed that isoliensinine could significantly increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in triple-negative breast cancer cells, but not in MCF-10A cells. The isoliensinine-induced apoptosis could be attenuated by radical oxygen scavenger N-acetyl cysteine, suggesting that the cytotoxic effect of isoliensinine on cancer cells is at least partially achieved by inducing oxidative stress. We found that both p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways were activated by isoliensinine treatment and contributed to the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibitors or specific siRNAs of p38 MAPK and JNK could attenuate apoptosis induced by isoliensinine. However, only the p38 inhibitor or p38-specific siRNA blocked the elevation of ROS in isoliensinine-treated cells. Our findings thus revealed a novel antitumor effect of isoliensinine on breast cancer cells and may have therapeutic implications. PMID:26219228

  14. Isoliensinine induces apoptosis in triple-negative human breast cancer cells through ROS generation and p38 MAPK/JNK activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiyu; Wang, Xiyao; Wu, Tingting; Li, Boxuan; Liu, Tianqi; Wang, Rong; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Zhaojian; Gong, Yaoqin; Shao, Changshun

    2015-01-01

    Isoliensinine, liensinine and neferine are major bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids in the seed embryo of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), and exhibit potential anti-cancer activity. Here, we explored the effects of these alkaloids on triple-negative breast cancer cells and found that among the three alkaloids isoliensinine possesses the most potent cytotoxic effect, primarily by inducing apoptosis. Interestingly, isoliensinine showed a much lower cytotoxicity against MCF-10A, a normal human breast epithelial cell line. Further studies showed that isoliensinine could significantly increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in triple-negative breast cancer cells, but not in MCF-10A cells. The isoliensinine-induced apoptosis could be attenuated by radical oxygen scavenger N-acetyl cysteine, suggesting that the cytotoxic effect of isoliensinine on cancer cells is at least partially achieved by inducing oxidative stress. We found that both p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways were activated by isoliensinine treatment and contributed to the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibitors or specific siRNAs of p38 MAPK and JNK could attenuate apoptosis induced by isoliensinine. However, only the p38 inhibitor or p38-specific siRNA blocked the elevation of ROS in isoliensinine-treated cells. Our findings thus revealed a novel antitumor effect of isoliensinine on breast cancer cells and may have therapeutic implications. PMID:26219228

  15. Curcumin and Ellagic acid synergistically induce ROS generation, DNA damage, p53 accumulation and apoptosis in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devbrat; Basu, Soumya; Parija, Lucy; Rout, Deeptimayee; Manna, Sanjeet; Dandapat, Jagneshwar; Debata, Priya Ranjan

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer and precancerous lesions of the cervix continue to be a global health issue, and the medication for the treatment for chronic HPV infection so far has not been effective. Potential anticancer and anti HPV activities of two known phytochemicals, Curcumin and Ellagic acid were evaluated in HeLa cervical cancer cells. Curcumin is a natural compound found in the root of Curcuma longa plant and Ellagic acid a polyphenol found in fruits of strawberries, raspberries and walnuts. The combination of Curcumin and Ellagic acid at various concentrations showed better anticancer properties than either of the drug when used alone as evidenced by MTT assay. Besides this, Curcumin and Ellagic acid also restore p53, induce ROS formation and DNA damage. Mechanistic study further indicated that Curcumin and Ellagic acid show anti-HPV activity as evidenced by decrease in the HPV E6 oncoprotein on HeLa cells. PMID:27261574

  16. PF-06463922, an ALK/ROS1 inhibitor, overcomes resistance to 1st and 2nd generation ALK inhibitors in pre-clinical models

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Helen Y.; Friboulet, Luc; Kodack, David P.; Engstrom, Lars D.; Li, Qiuhua; West, Melissa; Tang, Ruth W.; Wang, Hui; Tsaparikos, Konstantinos; Wang, Jinwei; Timofeevski, Sergei; Katayama, Ryohei; Dinh, Dac M.; Lam, Hieu; Lam, Justine L.; Yamazaki, Shinji; Hu, Wenyue; Patel, Bhushankumar; Bezwada, Divya; Frias, Rosa L.; Lifshits, Eugene; Mahmood, Sidra; Gainor, Justin F.; Affolter, Timothy; Lappin, Patrick B.; Gukasyan, Hovhannes; Lee, Nathan; Deng, Shibing; Jain, Rakesh K; Johnson, Ted W.; Shaw, Alice T.; Fantin, Valeria R.; Smeal, Tod

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY We report the preclinical evaluation of PF-06463922, a potent and brain penetrant ALK/ROS1 inhibitor. Compared to other clinically available ALK inhibitors, PF-06463922 displayed superior potency against all known clinically acquired ALK mutations, including the highly resistant G1202R mutant. Furthermore, PF-06463922 treatment led to regression of EML4-ALK driven brain metastases, leading to prolonged mouse survival, in a superior manner. Finally, PF-06463922 demonstrated high selectivity and safety margins in a variety of preclinical studies. These results suggest that PF-06463922 will be highly effective for the treatment of patients with ALK-driven lung cancers, including those who relapsed on clinically available ALK inhibitors due to secondary ALK kinase domain mutations and/or due to the failed control of brain metastases. PMID:26144315

  17. Nurr1 and PPARγ protect PC12 cells against MPP(+) toxicity: involvement of selective genes, anti-inflammatory, ROS generation, and antimitochondrial impairment.

    PubMed

    Jodeiri Farshbaf, Mohammad; Forouzanfar, Mahboobeh; Ghaedi, Kamran; Kiani-Esfahani, Abbas; Peymani, Maryam; Shoaraye Nejati, Alireza; Izadi, Tayebeh; Karbalaie, Khadijeh; Noorbakhshnia, Maryam; Rahgozar, Soheila; Baharvand, Hossein; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) can degenerate dopaminergic (DA) neurons in midbrain, substantia-nigra pars compacta. Alleviation of its symptoms and protection of normal neurons against degeneration are the main aspects of researches to establish novel therapeutic strategies. PPARγ as a member of PPARs have shown neuroprotection in a number of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and PD. Nuclear receptor related 1 protein (Nurr1) is, respectively, member of NR4A family and has received great attentions as potential target for development, maintenance, and survival of DA neurons. Based on neuroprotective effects of PPARγ and dual role of Nurr1 in anti-inflammatory pathways and development of DA neurons, we hypothesize that PPARγ and Nurr1 agonists alone and in combined form can be targets for neuroprotective therapeutic development for PD in vitro model. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells as an in vitro model for PD studies. Treatment/cotreatment with PPARγ and Nurr1 agonists 24 h prior to MPP(+) induction enhanced the viability of PC12 cell. The viability of PC12 cells was determined by MTS test. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by flow cytometry. In addition, the relative expression of four genes including TH (the marker of DA neurons), Ephrin A1, Nurr1, and Ferritin light chain were assessed by RT-qPCR. In the MPP(+)-pretreated PC12 cells, PPARγ and Nurr1 agonists and their combined form resulted in a decrease in the cell death rate. Moreover, production of intracellular ROS and MMP modulated by MPP(+) was decreased by PPARγ and Nurr1 agonists' treatment alone and in the combined form. PMID:27435855

  18. Mitochondrial ROS Metabolism: 10 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Kushnareva, Y. E.; Murphy, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    The role of mitochondria in oxidative stress is well recognized, but many questions are still to be answered. This article is intended to update our comprehensive review in 2005 by highlighting the progress in understanding of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism over the past 10 years. We review the recently identified or re-appraised sources of ROS generation in mitochondria, such as p66shc protein, succinate dehydrogenase, and recently discovered properties of the mitochondrial antioxidant system. We also reflect upon some controversies, disputes, and misconceptions that confound the field. PMID:26071769

  19. Cysteines under ROS attack in plants: a proteomics view.

    PubMed

    Akter, Salma; Huang, Jingjing; Waszczak, Cezary; Jacques, Silke; Gevaert, Kris; Van Breusegem, Frank; Messens, Joris

    2015-05-01

    Plants generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as part of their metabolism and in response to various external stress factors, potentially causing significant damage to biomolecules and cell structures. During the course of evolution, plants have adapted to ROS toxicity, and use ROS as signalling messengers that activate defence responses. Cysteine (Cys) residues in proteins are one of the most sensitive targets for ROS-mediated post-translational modifications, and they have become key residues for ROS signalling studies. The reactivity of Cys residues towards ROS, and their ability to react to different oxidation states, allow them to appear at the crossroads of highly dynamic oxidative events. As such, a redox-active cysteine can be present as S-glutathionylated (-SSG), disulfide bonded (S-S), sulfenylated (-SOH), sulfinylated (-SO2H), and sulfonylated (-SO3H). The sulfenic acid (-SOH) form has been considered as part of ROS-sensing pathways, as it leads to further modifications which affect protein structure and function. Redox proteomic studies are required to understand how and why cysteines undergo oxidative post-translational modifications and to identify the ROS-sensor proteins. Here, we update current knowledge of cysteine reactivity with ROS. Further, we give an overview of proteomic techniques that have been applied to identify different redox-modified cysteines in plants. There is a particular focus on the identification of sulfenylated proteins, which have the potential to be involved in plant signal transduction. PMID:25750420

  20. Genetic disorders coupled to ROS deficiency.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Sharon; Brault, Julie; Stasia, Marie-Jose; Knaus, Ulla G

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining the redox balance between generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical for health. Disturbances such as continuously elevated ROS levels will result in oxidative stress and development of disease, but likewise, insufficient ROS production will be detrimental to health. Reduced or even complete loss of ROS generation originates mainly from inactivating variants in genes encoding for NADPH oxidase complexes. In particular, deficiency in phagocyte Nox2 oxidase function due to genetic variants (CYBB, CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, NCF4) has been recognized as a direct cause of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), an inherited immune disorder. More recently, additional diseases have been linked to functionally altered variants in genes encoding for other NADPH oxidases, such as for DUOX2/DUOXA2 in congenital hypothyroidism, or for the Nox2 complex, NOX1 and DUOX2 as risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease. A comprehensive overview of novel developments in terms of Nox/Duox-deficiency disorders is presented, combined with insights gained from structure-function studies that will aid in predicting functional defects of clinical variants. PMID:26210446

  1. Genetic disorders coupled to ROS deficiency

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Sharon; Brault, Julie; Stasia, Marie-Jose; Knaus, Ulla G.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the redox balance between generation and elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical for health. Disturbances such as continuously elevated ROS levels will result in oxidative stress and development of disease, but likewise, insufficient ROS production will be detrimental to health. Reduced or even complete loss of ROS generation originates mainly from inactivating variants in genes encoding for NADPH oxidase complexes. In particular, deficiency in phagocyte Nox2 oxidase function due to genetic variants (CYBB, CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, NCF4) has been recognized as a direct cause of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), an inherited immune disorder. More recently, additional diseases have been linked to functionally altered variants in genes encoding for other NADPH oxidases, such as for DUOX2/DUOXA2 in congenital hypothyroidism, or for the Nox2 complex, NOX1 and DUOX2 as risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease. A comprehensive overview of novel developments in terms of Nox/Duox-deficiency disorders is presented, combined with insights gained from structure–function studies that will aid in predicting functional defects of clinical variants. PMID:26210446

  2. Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and ROS-Induced ROS Release

    PubMed Central

    Zorov, Dmitry B.; Juhaszova, Magdalena; Sollott, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Byproducts of normal mitochondrial metabolism and homeostasis include the buildup of potentially damaging levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Ca2+, etc., which must be normalized. Evidence suggests that brief mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) openings play an important physiological role maintaining healthy mitochondria homeostasis. Adaptive and maladaptive responses to redox stress may involve mitochondrial channels such as mPTP and inner membrane anion channel (IMAC). Their activation causes intra- and intermitochondrial redox-environment changes leading to ROS release. This regenerative cycle of mitochondrial ROS formation and release was named ROS-induced ROS release (RIRR). Brief, reversible mPTP opening-associated ROS release apparently constitutes an adaptive housekeeping function by the timely release from mitochondria of accumulated potentially toxic levels of ROS (and Ca2+). At higher ROS levels, longer mPTP openings may release a ROS burst leading to destruction of mitochondria, and if propagated from mitochondrion to mitochondrion, of the cell itself. The destructive function of RIRR may serve a physiological role by removal of unwanted cells or damaged mitochondria, or cause the pathological elimination of vital and essential mitochondria and cells. The adaptive release of sufficient ROS into the vicinity of mitochondria may also activate local pools of redox-sensitive enzymes involved in protective signaling pathways that limit ischemic damage to mitochondria and cells in that area. Maladaptive mPTP- or IMAC-related RIRR may also be playing a role in aging. Because the mechanism of mitochondrial RIRR highlights the central role of mitochondria-formed ROS, we discuss all of the known ROS-producing sites (shown in vitro) and their relevance to the mitochondrial ROS production in vivo. PMID:24987008

  3. Development of an automated sampling-analysis system for simultaneous measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in gas and particle phases: GAC-ROS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Zhang, Yuanxun; Zhang, Yang; Zeng, Limin; Dong, Huabin; Huo, Peng; Fang, Dongqing; Schauer, James J.

    2016-06-01

    A novel online system, GAC-ROS, for simultaneous measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both gas and particle phases was developed based on 2‧,7‧-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) assay to provide fast sampling and analysis of atmospheric ROS. The GAC-ROS, composed of a Gas and Aerosol Collector (GAC), a series of reaction and transportation systems, and a fluorescence detector, was tested for instrumental performance in laboratory. Results showed good performance with a favorable R2 value for the calibration curve (above 0.998), high penetration efficiencies of ROS (above 99.5%), and low detection limits (gas-phase ROS: 0.16 nmol H2O2 m-3; particle-phase ROS: 0.12 nmol H2O2 m-3). Laboratorial comparison between online and offline methods for particle-bound ROS showed significant loss of ROS due to the relatively long time off-line treatment. Field observations in Beijing found that concentrations of ROS in winter time were significantly higher than those observed in spring. Only a few weak positive correlations were found between ROS and some air pollutants, which reflects the complexities of ROS generation and transformation in atmosphere. This study was the first to simultaneously obtain concentrations of gas and particle-phase ROS using an online method. Consequently, it provides a powerful tool to characterize the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere and the sources of the oxidizing capacity.

  4. Golden Berry-Derived 4β-hydroxywithanolide E for Selectively Killing Oral Cancer Cells by Generating ROS, DNA Damage, and Apoptotic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chien-Chih; Haung, Jo-Wen; Chang, Fang-Rong; Huang, Kuang-Jing; Huang, Hsuan-Min; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Chou, Chon-Kit; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background Most chemotherapeutic drugs for killing cancer cells are highly cytotoxic in normal cells, which limits their clinical applications. Therefore, a continuing challenge is identifying a drug that is hypersensitive to cancer cells but has minimal deleterious effects on healthy cells. The aims of this study were to evaluate the potential of 4β-hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE) for selectively killing cancer cells and to elucidate its related mechanisms. Methodology and Principal Findings Changes in survival, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis signaling were compared between 4βHWE-treated oral cancer (Ca9-22) and normal fibroblast (HGF-1) cells. At 24 h and 48 h, the numbers of Ca9-22 cells were substantially decreased, but the numbers of HGF-1 cells were only slightly decreased. Additionally, the IC50 values for 4βHWE in the Ca9-22 cells were 3.6 and 1.9 µg/ml at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Time-dependent abnormal increases in ROS and dose-responsive mitochondrial depolarization can be exploited by using 4βHWE in chemotherapies for selectively killing cancer cells. Dose-dependent DNA damage measured by comet-nuclear extract assay and flow cytometry-based γ-H2AX/propidium iodide (PI) analysis showed relatively severer damage in the Ca9-22 cells. At both low and high concentrations, 4βHWE preferably perturbed the cell cycle in Ca9-22 cells by increasing the subG1 population and arrest of G1 or G2/M. Selective induction of apoptosis in Ca9-22 cells was further confirmed by Annexin V/PI assay, by preferential expression of phosphorylated ataxia-telangiectasia- and Rad3-related protein (p-ATR), and by cleavage of caspase 9, caspase 3, and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Conclusions/Significance Together, the findings of this study, particularly the improved understanding of the selective killing mechanisms of 4βHWE, can be used to improve efficiency in killing oral cancer cells during chemoprevention and therapy. PMID:23705007

  5. Synthesis, characterization of α-amino acid Schiff base derived Ru/Pt complexes: Induces cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell via protein binding and ROS generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsalme, Ali; Laeeq, Sameen; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Khan, Mohd. Shahnawaz; Al Farhan, Khalid; Musarrat, Javed; Khan, Rais Ahmad

    2016-06-01

    We have synthesized two new complexes of platinum (1) and ruthenium (2) with α-amino acid, L-alanine, and 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde derived Schiff base (L). The ligand and both complexes were characterized by using elemental analysis and several other spectroscopic techniques viz; IR, 1H, 13C NMR, EPR, and ESI-MS. Furthermore, the protein-binding ability of synthesized complexes was monitored by UV-visible, fluorescence and circular dichroism techniques with a model protein, human serum albumin (HSA). Both the PtL2 and RuL2 complexes displayed significant binding towards HSA. Also, in vitro cytotoxicity assay for both complexes was carried out on human hepatocellular carcinoma cancer (HepG2) cell line. The results showed concentration-dependent inhibition of cell viability. Moreover, the generation of reactive oxygen species was also evaluated, and results exhibited substantial role in cytotoxicity.

  6. Synthesis, characterization of α-amino acid Schiff base derived Ru/Pt complexes: Induces cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell via protein binding and ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Alsalme, Ali; Laeeq, Sameen; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Al Farhan, Khalid; Musarrat, Javed; Khan, Rais Ahmad

    2016-06-15

    We have synthesized two new complexes of platinum (1) and ruthenium (2) with α-amino acid, l-alanine, and 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde derived Schiff base (L). The ligand and both complexes were characterized by using elemental analysis and several other spectroscopic techniques viz; IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR, EPR, and ESI-MS. Furthermore, the protein-binding ability of synthesized complexes was monitored by UV-visible, fluorescence and circular dichroism techniques with a model protein, human serum albumin (HSA). Both the PtL2 and RuL2 complexes displayed significant binding towards HSA. Also, in vitro cytotoxicity assay for both complexes was carried out on human hepatocellular carcinoma cancer (HepG2) cell line. The results showed concentration-dependent inhibition of cell viability. Moreover, the generation of reactive oxygen species was also evaluated, and results exhibited substantial role in cytotoxicity. PMID:27002605

  7. 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide Riboside Induces Apoptosis Through AMP-activated Protein Kinase-independent and NADPH Oxidase-dependent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wi, Sae Mi

    2014-01-01

    It is debatable whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation is involved in anti-apoptotic or pro-apoptotic signaling. AICAR treatment increases AMPK-α1 phosphorylation, decreases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and significantly increases Annexin V-positive cells, DNA laddering, and caspase activity in human myeloid cell. AMPK activation is therefore implicated in apoptosis. However, AMPK-α1-knockdown THP-1 cells are more sensitive to apoptosis than control THP-1 cells are, suggesting that the apoptosis is AMPK-independent. Low doses of AICAR induce cell proliferation, whereas high doses of AICAR suppress cell proliferation. Moreover, these effects are significantly correlated with the downregulation of intracellular ROS, strongly suggesting that AICAR-induced apoptosis is critically associated with the inhibition of NADPH oxidase by AICAR. Collectively, our results demonstrate that in AICAR-induced apoptosis, intracellular ROS levels are far more relevant than AMPK activation. PMID:25360075

  8. 3-β-Εrythrodiol isolated from Conyza canadensis inhibits MKN‑45 human gastric cancer cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA fragmentation, ROS generation and reduces tumor weight and volume in mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Qin, Yue-Hong; Yu, Jian-Yong; Ma, Heng; Song, Xi-Lin

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo anticancer and apoptotic effects of 3-β-erythrodiol, a plant-derived triterpene against MKN-45 human gastric cancer cells. In addition, effects on cellular morphology, cell cycle phase distribution, DNA fragmentation, and ROS generation were also elucidated in the current research work. Cytotoxic activity of 3-β-erythrodiol was demonstrated by MTT cell viability and LDH assay. Cellular morphological study was carried out using phase contrast, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Cell cycle analysis was evaluated by flow cytometry and gel electrophoresis was used to evaluate DNA fragmentation pattern. The results of the present study revealed that 3-β-erythrodiol induced dose-dependent as well as time-dependent anticancer effects in MKN-45 gastric cancer cells. Cellular morphological changes in MKN-45 cells as indicated by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy were induced by 3-β-erythrodiol. This triterpene induced both early and late apoptotic features in these cancer cells. 3-β-Erythrodiol treatment led to sub-G1 cell cycle arrest with a corresponding decrease in S-phase cells and an increase in G2/M phase cells. DNA fragments were evident in gel electrophoresis experiment following 3-β-erythrodiol treatment. It was observed that 0.50 and 1.0 µg/g 3-β-erythrodiol injection reduced the tumor weight from 1.4 g in PBS-treated group (control) to 0.61 and 0.22 g, respectively. Similarly, 0.50 and 1.0 µg/g 3-β-erythrodiol injection reduced the tumor volume from 1.5 cm3 in PBS-treated group (control) to 0.91 and 0.31 cm3, respectively. The present investigation indicates that 3-β-erythrodiol exerts anti-proliferative effects in human gastric cancer by inducing early and late apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and ROS generation. It also decreased the tumor volume and tumor weight in male Balb/c nude mice. PMID:26846256

  9. The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytochrome P-450 2E1 in the generation of carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Kirsten; Bartsch, Helmut; Seitz, Helmut K.

    2014-01-01

    Exocyclic etheno-DNA adducts are mutagenic and carcinogenic and are formed by the reaction of lipidperoxidation (LPO) products such as 4-hydoxynonenal or malondialdehyde with DNA bases. LPO products are generated either via inflammation driven oxidative stress or via the induction of cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1). In the liver CYP2E1 is induced by various compounds including free fatty acids, acetone and ethanol. Increased levels of CYP2E1 and thus, oxidative stress are observed in the liver of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as well as in the chronic alcoholic. In addition, chronic ethanol ingestion also increases CYP2E1 in the mucosa of the oesophagus and colon. In all these tissues CYP2E1 correlates significantly with the levels of carcinogenic etheno-DNA adducts. In contrast, in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) hepatic etheno-DNA adducts do not correlate with CYP2E1 indicating that in NASH etheno-DNA adducts formation is predominately driven by inflammation rather than by CYP2E1 induction. Since etheno-DNA adducts are strong mutagens producing various types of base pair substitution mutations as well as other types of genetic damage, it is strongly believed that they are involved in ethanol mediated carcinogenesis primarily driven by the induction of CYP2E1. PMID:25462066

  10. Torilis japonica extract-generated intracellular ROS induces apoptosis by reducing the mitochondrial membrane potential via regulation of the AMPK-p38 MAPK signaling pathway in HCT116 colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Guen Tae; Lee, Se Hee; Kim, Young Min

    2016-09-01

    Torilis japonica extract (TJE) has been reported to possess diverse medicinal properties including anti‑inflammatory and antibacterial activities. However, the precise mechanism of its anticancer effect is not understood. Thus, we evaluated the apoptotic effects of TJE and examined its underlying molecular mechanisms in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. Our results show that TJE induces apoptosis through the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and that it regulates the mitochondrial outer membrane potential via the AMPK/p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Importantly, ~50% of cancer cells have p53 mutations. Thus, the ability to induce apoptosis in a p53-independent manner would be of great value in cancer treatment. Our results show that not only does TJE regulate the AMPK/p38 signaling pathway, but it induces apoptosis in cells in which p53 has been knocked down using siRNA. Moreover, as in in vitro studies, TJE induced apoptosis and regulated apoptosis related-proteins in an HCT 116 xenograft model. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TJE, a natural compound that may provide a substitute for chemotherapeutic drugs, has potential as an anticancer agent. PMID:27314881

  11. Calcium and ROS: A mutual interplay

    PubMed Central

    Görlach, Agnes; Bertram, Katharina; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important second messenger involved in intra- and extracellular signaling cascades and plays an essential role in cell life and death decisions. The Ca2+ signaling network works in many different ways to regulate cellular processes that function over a wide dynamic range due to the action of buffers, pumps and exchangers on the plasma membrane as well as in internal stores. Calcium signaling pathways interact with other cellular signaling systems such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although initially considered to be potentially detrimental byproducts of aerobic metabolism, it is now clear that ROS generated in sub-toxic levels by different intracellular systems act as signaling molecules involved in various cellular processes including growth and cell death. Increasing evidence suggests a mutual interplay between calcium and ROS signaling systems which seems to have important implications for fine tuning cellular signaling networks. However, dysfunction in either of the systems might affect the other system thus potentiating harmful effects which might contribute to the pathogenesis of various disorders. PMID:26296072

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum stress triggers ROS signalling, changes the redox state, and regulates the antioxidant defence of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Turkan, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Inefficient chaperone activity in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes accumulation of unfolded proteins and is called ER stress, which triggers the unfolded protein response. For proper oxidative protein folding, reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2 are produced in the ER. Although the role of ROS during abiotic stresses such as salinity is well documented, the role of ER-related ROS production and its signalling is not yet known. Moreover, how H2O2 production, redox regulation, and antioxidant defence are affected in salt-treated plants when ER protein-folding machinery is impaired needs to be elucidated. For this aim, changes in NADPH-oxidase-dependent ROS signalling and H2O2 content at sequential time intervals and after 48h of ER stress, induced by tunicamycin (Tm), salinity, and their combination were determined in Arabidopsis thaliana. The main root growth was inhibited by ER stress, while low levels of Tm caused an increase in lateral root density. Salt stress and Tm induced the expression of ER-stress-related genes (bZIP17, bZIP28, bZIP60, TIN1, BiP1, BiP3) and ERO1. Tm induced expression of RBOHD and RBOHF, which led to an early increase in H2O2 and triggered ROS signalling. This study is the first report that ER stress induces the antioxidant system and the Asada–Halliwell pathway of A. thaliana in a similar way to salinity. ER stress caused oxidative damage, as evident by increased H2O2 accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation. As a result, this study shows that ER stress triggers ROS signalling, changes the redox state, and regulates the antioxidant defence of A. thaliana. PMID:24558072

  13. Polymorphic ROS scavenging revealed by CCCP in a lizard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Mats; Wilson, Mark; Isaksson, Caroline; Uller, Tobias

    2009-07-01

    Ingestion of antioxidants has been argued to scavenge circulating reactive molecules (e.g., free radicals), play a part in mate choice (by mediating access to this important resource), and perhaps increase life span. However, recent work has come to question these relationships. We have shown elsewhere in the polychromatic lizard, Ctenophorus pictus, that diet supplementation of carotenoids as antioxidants does not depress circulating natural reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and leads to no corresponding improvement of color traits. However, a much stronger test would be to experimentally manipulate the ROS levels themselves and assess carotenoid-induced ROS depression. Here, we achieve this by using carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone, which elevates superoxide (SO) formation approximately threefold at 10 μM in this model system. We then look for depressing effects on ROS of the carotenoids in order to assess whether ‘super-production’ of SO makes carotenoid effects on elevated ROS levels detectable. The rationale for this treatment was that if not even such elevated levels of SO are reduced by carotenoid supplementation, the putative link carotenoids, ROS depression, and mate quality (in terms of antioxidant capacity) is highly questionable. We conclude that there is no significant effect of carotenoids on mean SO levels even at the induced ROS levels. However, our results showed a significant interaction effect between carotenoid treatment and male color, with red males having higher ROS levels than yellow males. We suggest that this may be because different pigments are differently involved in the generation of the integumental colors in the two morphs with concomitant effects on ROS depletion depending on carotenoid uptake or allocation to coloration and antioxidation.

  14. Mitochondria-Ros Crosstalk in the Control of Cell Death and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Saverio; Giorgi, Carlotta; Suski, Jan M.; Agnoletto, Chiara; Bononi, Angela; Bonora, Massimo; De Marchi, Elena; Missiroli, Sonia; Patergnani, Simone; Poletti, Federica; Rimessi, Alessandro; Duszynski, Jerzy; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive molecules, mainly generated inside mitochondria that can oxidize DNA, proteins, and lipids. At physiological levels, ROS function as “redox messengers” in intracellular signalling and regulation, whereas excess ROS induce cell death by promoting the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Recent work has pointed to a further role of ROS in activation of autophagy and their importance in the regulation of aging. This review will focus on mitochondria as producers and targets of ROS and will summarize different proteins that modulate the redox state of the cell. Moreover, the involvement of ROS and mitochondria in different molecular pathways controlling lifespan will be reported, pointing out the role of ROS as a “balance of power,” directing the cell towards life or death. PMID:22175013

  15. Oxidative inhibition of the vascular Na+-K+ pump via NADPH oxidase-dependent β1-subunit glutathionylation: implications for angiotensin II-induced vascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Chi; Karimi Galougahi, Keyvan; Weisbrod, Robert M; Hansen, Thomas; Ravaie, Ramtin; Nunez, Andrea; Liu, Yi B; Fry, Natasha; Garcia, Alvaro; Hamilton, Elisha J; Sweadner, Kathleen J; Cohen, Richard A; Figtree, Gemma A

    2013-12-01

    Glutathionylation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump's β1-subunit is a key molecular mechanism of physiological and pathophysiological pump inhibition in cardiac myocytes. Its contribution to Na(+)-K(+) pump regulation in other tissues is unknown, and cannot be assumed given the dependence on specific β-subunit isoform expression and receptor-coupled pathways. As Na(+)-K(+) pump activity is an important determinant of vascular tone through effects on [Ca(2+)]i, we have examined the role of oxidative regulation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump in mediating angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced increases in vascular reactivity. β1-subunit glutathione adducts were present at baseline and increased by exposure to Ang II in rabbit aortic rings, primary rabbit aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and human arterial segments. In VSMCs, Ang II-induced glutathionylation was associated with marked reduction in Na(+)-K(+)ATPase activity, an effect that was abolished by the NADPH oxidase inhibitory peptide, tat-gp91ds. In aortic segments, Ang II-induced glutathionylation was associated with decreased K(+)-induced vasorelaxation, a validated index of pump activity. Ang II-induced oxidative inhibition of Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and decrease in K(+)-induced relaxation were reversed by preincubation of VSMCs and rings with recombinant FXYD3 protein that is known to facilitate deglutathionylation of β1-subunit. Knock-out of FXYD1 dramatically decreased K(+)-induced relaxation in a mouse model. Attenuation of Ang II signaling in vivo by captopril (8 mg/kg/day for 7 days) decreased superoxide-sensitive DHE levels in the media of rabbit aorta, decreased β1-subunit glutathionylation, and enhanced K(+)-induced vasorelaxation. Ang II inhibits the Na(+)-K(+) pump in VSMCs via NADPH oxidase-dependent glutathionylation of the pump's β1-subunit, and this newly identified signaling pathway may contribute to altered vascular tone. FXYD proteins reduce oxidative inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+) pump and may have an

  16. ROS and RNS in plant physiology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Del Río, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the unavoidable consequence of aerobic life. ROS is a collective term that includes both oxygen radicals, like superoxide (O 2. -) and hydroxyl (·OH) radicals, and other non-radicals such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), singlet oxygen ((1)O2 or (1)Δg), etc. In plants, ROS are produced in different cell compartments and are oxidizing species, particularly hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen, that can produce serious damage in biological systems (oxidative stress). However, plant cells also have an array of antioxidants which, normally, can scavenge the excess oxidants produced and so avoid deleterious effects on the plant cell bio-molecules. The concept of 'oxidative stress' was re-evaluated in recent years and the term 'oxidative signalling' was created. This means that ROS production, apart from being a potentially harmful process, is also an important component of the signalling network that plants use for their development and for responding to environmental challenges. It is known that ROS play an important role regulating numerous biological processes such as growth, development, response to biotic and environmental stresses, and programmed cell death. The term reactive nitrogen species (RNS) includes radicals like nitric oxide (NO· ) and nitric dioxide (NO2.), as well as non-radicals such as nitrous acid (HNO2) and dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), among others. RNS are also produced in plants although the generating systems have still not been fully characterized. Nitric oxide (NO·) has an important function as a key signalling molecule in plant growth, development, and senescence, and RNS, like ROS, also play an important role as signalling molecules in the response to environmental (abiotic) stress. Similarly, NO· is a key mediator, in co-operation with ROS, in the defence response to pathogen attacks in plants. ROS and RNS have been demonstrated to have an increasingly important role in biology and medicine

  17. TPD52L1-ROS1, a new ROS1 fusion variant in lung adenosquamous cell carcinoma identified by comprehensive genomic profiling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Viola Weijia; Upadhyay, Daya; Schrock, Alexa B; Gowen, Kyle; Ali, Siraj M; Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius

    2016-07-01

    Crizotinib was approved for the treatment of ROS1-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in the US on 11 March, 2016. Interestingly no one companion diagnostic test (CDx) has been approved simultaneously with this approval of crizotinib. Hence, an ideal and adequate CDx will have to be able to identify ROS1 fusions without the knowledge of the fusion partners to ROS1, and as to date there are 13 fusion partners reported for ROS1 in NSCLC. Here we report a novel TPD52L1-ROS1 fusion variant in NSCLC. This novel TPD52L1-ROS1 fusion variant is generated by the fusion of exons 1-3 of TPD52L1 on chromosome 6q22-23 to the exons 33-43 of ROS1 on chromosome 6q22, likely from an intra-chromosomal deletion and subsequent fusion event similar to the generation of EML4-ALK. The predicted TPD52L1-ROS1 protein product contains 655 amino acids comprising of the N-terminal amino acids 1-95 of TPD52L1 and C-terminal amino acids of 1789-2348 of ROS1. In summary, TPD52L1-ROS1 is a novel ROS1 fusion variant in NSCLC identified by comprehensive genomic profiling and should be included in any ROS1 detecting assays that depend on identifying the corresponding fusion partners, such as reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PMID:27237027

  18. Structural insight into selectivity and resistance profiles of ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Davare, Monika A.; Vellore, Nadeem A.; Wagner, Jacob P.; Eide, Christopher A.; Goodman, James R.; Drilon, Alexander; Deininger, Michael W.; O’Hare, Thomas; Druker, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic ROS1 fusion proteins are molecular drivers in multiple malignancies, including a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The phylogenetic proximity of the ROS1 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) catalytic domains led to the clinical repurposing of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved ALK inhibitor crizotinib as a ROS1 inhibitor. Despite the antitumor activity of crizotinib observed in both ROS1- and ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients, resistance due to acquisition of ROS1 or ALK kinase domain mutations has been observed clinically, spurring the development of second-generation inhibitors. Here, we profile the sensitivity and selectivity of seven ROS1 and/or ALK inhibitors at various levels of clinical development. In contrast to crizotinib’s dual ROS1/ALK activity, cabozantinib (XL-184) and its structural analog foretinib (XL-880) demonstrate a striking selectivity for ROS1 over ALK. Molecular dynamics simulation studies reveal structural features that distinguish the ROS1 and ALK kinase domains and contribute to differences in binding site and kinase selectivity of the inhibitors tested. Cell-based resistance profiling studies demonstrate that the ROS1-selective inhibitors retain efficacy against the recently reported CD74-ROS1G2032R mutant whereas the dual ROS1/ALK inhibitors are ineffective. Taken together, inhibitor profiling and stringent characterization of the structure–function differences between the ROS1 and ALK kinase domains will facilitate future rational drug design for ROS1- and ALK-driven NSCLC and other malignancies. PMID:26372962

  19. P8 deficiency increases cellular ROS and induces HO-1.

    PubMed

    Weis, Sebastian; Bielow, Tobias; Sommerer, Ines; Iovanna, Juan; Malicet, Cédric; Mössner, Joachim; Hoffmeister, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    The gene p8 encodes for a small cytoprotective protein with no apparent enzymatic activity being proposed to act as co-transcription factor whose expression is increased during inflammation. Recent data from astrocytes demonstrates that p8 suppression leads to induction of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Here, we assessed the cross-talk between p8 and HO-1 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) observing an increased expression of HO-1 in p8-deficient (p8(-/-)) MEFs in non-treated and treated conditions. This effect was independent of the cell cycle. Our findings revealed that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was higher in p8(-/-) MEFs. Mitochondria and NADPH oxidases were not the origin of ROS. This observation was not restricted to MEF as suppression of p8 gene transcription in MiaPaCa-2 cells also led to increased intracellular ROS. Additionally, p8 deficiency did not affect the Rac1 dependant NADPH oxidase complex. Our data shows that p8 deficiency increases ROS and subsequently the expression of anti-oxidative enzymes, such as HO-1, suggesting an involvement in the anti-oxidative defense. Moreover, we suggest that the severity of AP observed in p8(-/-) mice is induced by an impaired anti oxidative capacity of the pancreas, which is caused by increased generation of ROS. PMID:25475530

  20. Induction of hepatoma carcinoma cell apoptosis through activation of the JNK-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-ROS self-driven death signal circuit.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ke-Wu; Song, Fang-Jiao; Wang, Ying-Hong; Li, Ning; Yu, Qian; Liao, Li-Xi; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2014-10-28

    As an efficient method for inducing tumor cell apoptosis, ROS can be constantly formed and accumulated in NADPH oxidase overactivated-cells, resulting in further mitochondrial membrane damage and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. In addition, JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (JNK MAPK) signal also acts as a vital candidate pathway for inducing tumor cell apoptosis by targeting mitochondrial death pathway. However, the relationship between NADPH oxidase-ROS and JNK MAPK signal still remains unclear. Here, we discovered a novel self-driven signal circuit between NADPH oxidase-ROS and JNK MAPK, which was induced by a cytotoxic steroidal saponin (ASC) in hepatoma carcinoma cells. NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production was markedly activated by ASC and directly led to JNK MAPK activation. Moreover, antioxidant, NADPH oxidase inhibitor and specific knock-out for p47 subunit of NADPH oxidase could effectively block NADPH oxidase-ROS-dependent JNK activation, suggesting that NADPH oxidase is an upstream regulator of JNK MAPK. Conversely, a specific JNK inhibitor could inhibit ASC-induced NADPH oxidase activation and down-regulate ROS levels as well, indicating that JNK might also regulate NADPH oxidase activity to some extent. These observations indicate that NADPH oxidase and JNK MAPK activate each other as a signal circuit. Furthermore, drug pretreatment experiments with ASC showed this signal circuit operated continuously via a self-driven mode and finally induced apoptosis in hepatoma carcinoma cells. Taken together, we provide a proof for inducing hepatoma carcinoma cell apoptosis by activating the JNK-NADPH oxidase-ROS-dependent self-driven signal circuit pathway. PMID:25064608

  1. TNF-a stimulation enhances ROS-dependent cell migration via NF-?B activation in liver cells.

    PubMed

    Kastl, Lena; Sauer, Sven; Beissbarth, Tim; Becker, Michael; Krammer, Peter; Gülow, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    Development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is accompanied by a continuous increase in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). TNF-a was used in murine hepatocytes as stimulus to identify the primary source of ROS generation. Using specific inhibitors targeting the different complexes of the respiratory chain we detected the mitochondria as main producer of ROS. TNF-a altered mitochondrial integrity by mimicking a mild uncoupling effect in liver cells. siRNA mediated downregulation of essential assembly factors for complex I and complex III led to an inhibition of ROS production. Therefore, ROS is generated by the mitochondrial respiratory chain upon TNF-a stimulation. ROS activated NF-?B and subsequently enhanced migration of liver cells. Thus, we identified complex I and complex III of the respiratory chain as point of ROS release after TNF-a treatment in hepatocytes which enhances cell migration by activating NF-?B signaling. PMID:26461342

  2. Ionized gas (plasma) delivery of reactive oxygen species (ROS) into artificial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sung-Ha; Szili, Endre J.; Jenkins, A. Toby A.; Short, Robert D.

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to enhance our understanding of how reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated ex situ by ionized gas (plasma), can affect the regulation of signalling processes within cells. A model system, comprising of a suspension of phospholipid vesicles (cell mimics) encapsulating a ROS reporter, was developed to study the plasma delivery of ROS into cells. For the first time it was shown that plasma unequivocally delivers ROS into cells over a sustained period and without compromising cell membrane integrity. An important consideration in cell and biological assays is the presence of serum, which significantly reduced the transfer efficiency of ROS into the vesicles. These results are key to understanding how plasma treatments can be tailored for specific medical or biotechnology applications. Further, the phospholipid vesicle ROS reporter system may find use in other studies involving the application of free radicals in biology and medicine.

  3. Mitochondrial ROS in cancer: initiators, amplifiers or an Achilles’ heel?

    PubMed Central

    Sabharwal, Simran S.; Schumacker, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria cooperate with their host cells by contributing to bioenergetics, metabolism, biosynthesis, and cell death or survival functions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by mitochondria participate in stress signalling in normal cells but also contribute to the initiation of nuclear or mitochondrial DNA mutations that promote neoplastic transformation. In cancer cells, mitochondrial ROS amplify the tumorigenic phenotype and accelerate the accumulation of additional mutations that lead to metastatic behaviour. As mitochondria carry out important functions in normal cells, disabling their function is not a feasible therapy for cancer. However, ROS signalling contributes to proliferation and survival in many cancers, so the targeted disruption of mitochondria-to-cell redox communication represents a promising avenue for future therapy. PMID:25342630

  4. The ROS Wheel: Refining ROS Transcriptional Footprints1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Noctor, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, microarray studies have delivered extensive inventories of transcriptome-wide changes in messenger RNA levels provoked by various types of oxidative stress in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Previous cross-study comparisons indicated how different types of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their subcellular accumulation sites are able to reshape the transcriptome in specific manners. However, these analyses often employed simplistic statistical frameworks that are not compatible with large-scale analyses. Here, we reanalyzed a total of 79 Affymetrix ATH1 microarray studies of redox homeostasis perturbation experiments. To create hierarchy in such a high number of transcriptomic data sets, all transcriptional profiles were clustered on the overlap extent of their differentially expressed transcripts. Subsequently, meta-analysis determined a single magnitude of differential expression across studies and identified common transcriptional footprints per cluster. The resulting transcriptional footprints revealed the regulation of various metabolic pathways and gene families. The RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG F-mediated respiratory burst had a major impact and was a converging point among several studies. Conversely, the timing of the oxidative stress response was a determining factor in shaping different transcriptome footprints. Our study emphasizes the need to interpret transcriptomic data sets in a systematic context, where initial, specific stress triggers can converge to common, aspecific transcriptional changes. We believe that these refined transcriptional footprints provide a valuable resource for assessing the involvement of ROS in biological processes in plants. PMID:27246095

  5. Ischaemic accumulation of succinate controls reperfusion injury through mitochondrial ROS

    PubMed Central

    Gaude, Edoardo; Aksentijević, Dunja; Sundier, Stephanie Y.; Robb, Ellen L.; Logan, Angela; Nadtochiy, Sergiy M.; Ord, Emily N. J.; Smith, Anthony C.; Eyassu, Filmon; Shirley, Rachel; Hu, Chou-Hui; Dare, Anna J.; James, Andrew M.; Rogatti, Sebastian; Hartley, Richard C.; Eaton, Simon; Costa, Ana S.H.; Brookes, Paul S.; Davidson, Sean M.; Duchen, Michael R.; Saeb-Parsy, Kourosh; Shattock, Michael J.; Robinson, Alan J.; Work, Lorraine M.; Frezza, Christian; Krieg, Thomas; Murphy, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury occurs when blood supply to an organ is disrupted and then restored, and underlies many disorders, notably heart attack and stroke. While reperfusion of ischaemic tissue is essential for survival, it also initiates oxidative damage, cell death, and aberrant immune responses through generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)1-5. Although mitochondrial ROS production in IR is established, it has generally been considered a non-specific response to reperfusion1,3. Here, we developed a comparative in vivo metabolomic analysis and unexpectedly identified widely conserved metabolic pathways responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during IR. We showed that selective accumulation of the citric acid cycle (CAC) intermediate succinate is a universal metabolic signature of ischaemia in a range of tissues and is responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during reperfusion. Ischaemic succinate accumulation arises from reversal of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), which in turn is driven by fumarate overflow from purine nucleotide breakdown and partial reversal of the malate/aspartate shuttle. Upon reperfusion, the accumulated succinate is rapidly re-oxidised by SDH, driving extensive ROS generation by reverse electron transport (RET) at mitochondrial complex I. Decreasing ischaemic succinate accumulation by pharmacological inhibition is sufficient to ameliorate in vivo IR injury in murine models of heart attack and stroke. Thus, we have identified a conserved metabolic response of tissues to ischaemia and reperfusion that unifies many hitherto unconnected aspects of IR injury. Furthermore, these findings reveal a novel pathway for metabolic control of ROS production in vivo, while demonstrating that inhibition of ischaemic succinate accumulation and its oxidation upon subsequent reperfusion is a potential therapeutic target to decrease IR injury in a range of pathologies. PMID:25383517

  6. Ischaemic accumulation of succinate controls reperfusion injury through mitochondrial ROS.

    PubMed

    Chouchani, Edward T; Pell, Victoria R; Gaude, Edoardo; Aksentijević, Dunja; Sundier, Stephanie Y; Robb, Ellen L; Logan, Angela; Nadtochiy, Sergiy M; Ord, Emily N J; Smith, Anthony C; Eyassu, Filmon; Shirley, Rachel; Hu, Chou-Hui; Dare, Anna J; James, Andrew M; Rogatti, Sebastian; Hartley, Richard C; Eaton, Simon; Costa, Ana S H; Brookes, Paul S; Davidson, Sean M; Duchen, Michael R; Saeb-Parsy, Kourosh; Shattock, Michael J; Robinson, Alan J; Work, Lorraine M; Frezza, Christian; Krieg, Thomas; Murphy, Michael P

    2014-11-20

    Ischaemia-reperfusion injury occurs when the blood supply to an organ is disrupted and then restored, and underlies many disorders, notably heart attack and stroke. While reperfusion of ischaemic tissue is essential for survival, it also initiates oxidative damage, cell death and aberrant immune responses through the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although mitochondrial ROS production in ischaemia reperfusion is established, it has generally been considered a nonspecific response to reperfusion. Here we develop a comparative in vivo metabolomic analysis, and unexpectedly identify widely conserved metabolic pathways responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during ischaemia reperfusion. We show that selective accumulation of the citric acid cycle intermediate succinate is a universal metabolic signature of ischaemia in a range of tissues and is responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during reperfusion. Ischaemic succinate accumulation arises from reversal of succinate dehydrogenase, which in turn is driven by fumarate overflow from purine nucleotide breakdown and partial reversal of the malate/aspartate shuttle. After reperfusion, the accumulated succinate is rapidly re-oxidized by succinate dehydrogenase, driving extensive ROS generation by reverse electron transport at mitochondrial complex I. Decreasing ischaemic succinate accumulation by pharmacological inhibition is sufficient to ameliorate in vivo ischaemia-reperfusion injury in murine models of heart attack and stroke. Thus, we have identified a conserved metabolic response of tissues to ischaemia and reperfusion that unifies many hitherto unconnected aspects of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Furthermore, these findings reveal a new pathway for metabolic control of ROS production in vivo, while demonstrating that inhibition of ischaemic succinate accumulation and its oxidation after subsequent reperfusion is a potential therapeutic target to decrease ischaemia

  7. ROS1 fusions in cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Uguen, Arnaud; De Braekeleer, Marc

    2016-08-01

    The ROS1 gene belongs to the sevenless subfamily of tyrosine kinase insulin receptor genes. A literature review identified a ROS1 fusion in 2.54% of the patients with lung adenocarcinoma and even higher frequencies in spitzoid neoplasms and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors. At present, 26 genes were found to fuse with ROS1, some of them already known to fuse with RET and ALK. All the fusion proteins retain the ROS1 kinase domain, but rarely its transmembrane domain. Most of the partners have dimerization domains that are retained in the fusion, presumably leading to constitutive ROS1 tyrosine kinase activation. Some partners have transmembrane domains that are retained or not in the chimeric proteins. Therefore, different ROS1 fusions have distinct subcellular localization, suggesting that they may activate different substrates in vivo. PMID:27256160

  8. Mechanical Stretch-Induced Activation of ROS/RNS Signaling in Striated Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Christopher W.; Prosser, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Mechanical activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) occurs in striated muscle and affects Ca2+ signaling and contractile function. ROS/RNS signaling is tightly controlled, spatially compartmentalized, and source specific. Recent Advances: Here, we review the evidence that within the contracting myocyte, the trans-membrane protein NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) is the primary source of ROS generated during contraction. We also review a newly characterized signaling cascade in cardiac and skeletal muscle in which the microtubule network acts as a mechanotransduction element that activates Nox2-dependent ROS generation during mechanical stretch, a pathway termed X-ROS signaling. Critical Issues: In the heart, X-ROS acts locally and affects the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channels (ryanodine receptors) and tunes Ca2+ signaling during physiological behavior, but excessive X-ROS can promote Ca2+-dependent arrhythmias in pathology. In skeletal muscle, X-ROS sensitizes Ca2+-permeable sarcolemmal “transient receptor potential” channels, a pathway that is critical for sustaining SR load during repetitive contractions, but when in excess, it is maladaptive in diseases such as Duchenne Musclar dystrophy. Future Directions: New advances in ROS/RNS detection as well as molecular manipulation of signaling pathways will provide critical new mechanistic insights into the details of X-ROS signaling. These efforts will undoubtedly reveal new avenues for therapeutic intervention in the numerous diseases of striated muscle in which altered mechanoactivation of ROS/RNS production has been identified. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 929–936. PMID:23971496

  9. Life-history Constraints on the Mechanisms that Control the Rate of ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Aledo, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The quest to understand why and how we age has led to numerous lines of investigation that have gradually converged to consider mitochondrial metabolism as a major player. During mitochondrial respiration a small and variable amount of the consumed oxygen is converted to reactive species of oxygen (ROS). For many years, these ROS have been perceived as harmful by-products of respiration. However, evidence from recent years indicates that ROS fulfill important roles as cellular messengers. Results obtained using model organisms suggest that ROS-dependent signalling may even activate beneficial cellular stress responses, which eventually may lead to increased lifespan. Nevertheless, when an overload of ROS cannot be properly disposed of, its accumulation generates oxidative stress, which plays a major part in the ageing process. Comparative studies about the rates of ROS production and oxidative damage accumulation, have led to the idea that the lower rate of mitochondrial oxygen radical generation of long-lived animals with respect to that of their short-lived counterpart, could be a primary cause of their slow ageing rate. A hitherto largely under-appreciated alternative view is that such lower rate of ROS production, rather than a cause may be a consequence of the metabolic constraints imposed for the large body sizes that accompany high lifespans. To help understanding the logical underpinning of this rather heterodox view, herein I review the current literature regarding the mechanisms of ROS formation, with particular emphasis on evolutionary aspects. PMID:24955029

  10. Training Effects on ROS Production Determined by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Master Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Porcelli, Simone; Pugliese, Lorenzo; Pavei, Gaspare; Bellistri, Giuseppe; Montorsi, Michela; Tacchini, Philippe; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Acute exercise induces an increase in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production dependent on exercise intensity with highest ROS amount generated by strenuous exercise. However, chronic repetition of exercise, that is, exercise training, may reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6-weeks high-intensity discontinuous training (HIDT), characterized by repeated variations of intensity and changes of redox potential, on ROS production and antioxidant capacity in sixteen master swimmers. Time course changes of ROS generation were assessed by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in capillary blood by a microinvasive approach. An incremental arm-ergometer exercise (IE) until exhaustion was carried out at both before (PRE) and after (POST) training (Trg) period. A significant (P < 0.01) increase of ROS production from REST to the END of IE in PRE Trg (2.82 ± 0.66 versus 3.28 ± 0.66 µmol·min−1) was observed. HIDT increased peak oxygen consumption (36.1 ± 4.3 versus 40.6 ± 5.7 mL·kg−1·min−1 PRE and POST Trg, resp.) and the antioxidant capacity (+13%) while it significantly decreased the ROS production both at REST (−20%) and after IE (−25%). The observed link between ROS production, adaptive antioxidant defense mechanisms, and peak oxygen consumption provides new insight into the correlation between ROS response pathways and muscle metabolic function. PMID:25874024

  11. Training effects on ROS production determined by electron paramagnetic resonance in master swimmers.

    PubMed

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Porcelli, Simone; Pugliese, Lorenzo; Pavei, Gaspare; Bellistri, Giuseppe; Montorsi, Michela; Tacchini, Philippe; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Acute exercise induces an increase in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production dependent on exercise intensity with highest ROS amount generated by strenuous exercise. However, chronic repetition of exercise, that is, exercise training, may reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress. Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6-weeks high-intensity discontinuous training (HIDT), characterized by repeated variations of intensity and changes of redox potential, on ROS production and antioxidant capacity in sixteen master swimmers. Time course changes of ROS generation were assessed by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in capillary blood by a microinvasive approach. An incremental arm-ergometer exercise (IE) until exhaustion was carried out at both before (PRE) and after (POST) training (Trg) period. A significant (P < 0.01) increase of ROS production from REST to the END of IE in PRE Trg (2.82 ± 0.66 versus 3.28 ± 0.66 µmol·min(-1)) was observed. HIDT increased peak oxygen consumption (36.1 ± 4.3 versus 40.6 ± 5.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) PRE and POST Trg, resp.) and the antioxidant capacity (+13%) while it significantly decreased the ROS production both at REST (-20%) and after IE (-25%). The observed link between ROS production, adaptive antioxidant defense mechanisms, and peak oxygen consumption provides new insight into the correlation between ROS response pathways and muscle metabolic function. PMID:25874024

  12. Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae induces NADPH oxidase-dependent monocyte extracellular trap formation and upregulates IL-12 and TNF-α, IL-6 and CCL2 gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Pérez, D; Muñoz, M C; Molina, J M; Muñoz-Caro, T; Silva, L M R; Taubert, A; Hermosilla, C; Ruiz, A

    2016-08-30

    Extracellular trap (ET) formation has been demonstrated as novel effector mechanism against diverse pathogens in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), eosinophils, mast cells, macrophages and recently also in monocytes. In the current study, we show that E. ninakohlyakimovae triggers the deliverance of monocyte-derived ETs in vitro. Fluorescence illustrations as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses showed that monocyte-derived ET formation was rapidly induced upon exposure to viable sporozoites, sporocysts and oocysts of E. ninakohlyakimovae. Classical features of monocyte-released ETs were confirmed by the co-localization of extracellular DNA adorned with myeloperoxidase (MPO) and histones (H3) in parasite-entrapping structures. The treatment of caprine monocyte ET structures with NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodondium (DPI) significantly reduced ETosis confirming the essential role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in monocyte mediated ETs formation. Additionally, co-culture of monocytes with viable sporozoites and soluble oocyst antigen (SOA) induced distinct levels of cytokine and chemokine gene transcription. Thus, the transcription of genes encoding for IL-12 and TNF-α was significantly upregulated after sporozoite encounter. In contrast IL-6 and CCL2 gene transcripts were rather weakly induced by parasites. Conversely, SOA only induced the up-regulation of IL-6 and CCL2 gene transcription, and failed to enhance transcripts of IL-12 and TNF-α in vitro. We here report on monocyte-triggered ETs as novel effector mechanism against E. ninakohlyakimovae. Our results strongly suggest that monocyte-mediated innate immune reactions might play an important role in early host immune reactions against E. ninakohlyakimovae in goats. PMID:27523951

  13. Classical ROS-dependent and early/rapid ROS-independent release of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps triggered by Leishmania parasites

    PubMed Central

    Rochael, Natalia C.; Guimarães-Costa, Anderson B.; Nascimento, Michelle T. C.; DeSouza-Vieira, Thiago S.; Oliveira, Matheus P.; Garcia e Souza, Luiz F.; Oliveira, Marcus F.; Saraiva, Elvira M.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) extruded from neutrophils upon activation are composed of chromatin associated with cytosolic and granular proteins, which ensnare and kill microorganisms. This microbicidal mechanism named classical netosis has been shown to dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by NADPH oxidase and also chromatin decondensation dependent upon the enzymes (PAD4), neutrophil elastase (NE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). NET release also occurs through an early/rapid ROS-independent mechanism, named early/rapid vital netosis. Here we analyze the role of ROS, NE, MPO and PAD4 in the netosis stimulated by Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes in human neutrophils. We demonstrate that promastigotes induce a classical netosis, dependent on the cellular redox imbalance, as well as by a chloroamidine sensitive and elastase activity mechanism. Additionally, Leishmania also induces the early/rapid NET release occurring only 10 minutes after neutrophil-parasite interaction. We demonstrate here, that this early/rapid mechanism is dependent on elastase activity, but independent of ROS generation and chloroamidine. A better understanding of both mechanisms of NET release, and the NETs effects on the host immune system modulation, could support the development of new potential therapeutic strategies for leishmaniasis. PMID:26673780

  14. Immunohistochemical detection of ROS1 is useful for identifying ROS1 rearrangements in lung cancers.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Tsuta, Koji; Wakai, Susumu; Arai, Yasuhito; Asamura, Hisao; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Furuta, Koh; Kohno, Takashi; Kushima, Ryoji

    2014-05-01

    The recent discovery and characterization of an oncogenic ROS1 gene fusion in a subset of lung cancers has raised significant clinical interest because small molecule inhibitors may be effective to these tumors. As lung cancers with ROS1 rearrangements comprise only 1-3% of lung adenocarcinomas, patients with such tumors must be identified to gain optimal benefit from molecular therapy. Recently, immunohistochemical analyses using a novel anti-ROS1 rabbit monoclonal antibody (D4D6) have shown promise for accurate identification of ROS1-rearranged cancers. To validate this finding, we compared the immunostaining results of tissue microarrays (TMAs) containing 17 ROS1-rearranged and 253 ROS1-non-rearranged lung carcinomas. All 17 ROS1-rearranged cancers showed ROS1 immunoreactivity mostly in a diffuse and moderate-to-strong manner with an H-score range of 5-300 (median, 260). In contrast, 69% of ROS1-non-rearranged cancers lacked detectable immunoreactivity, whereas the remaining 31% showed reactivity mainly in a weak or focal manner. The H-score for the entire ROS1-non-rearranged group ranged from 0 to 240 (median, 0). The difference in H-score between the two cohorts was statistically significant, and the H-score cutoff (≥150) allowed optimal discrimination (94% sensitivity and 98% specificity). Similar but slightly less-specific performance was achieved using the extent of diffuse (≥75%) staining or ≥2+ staining intensity as cutoffs. CD74-ROS1 and EZR-ROS1 fusions were significantly associated with at least focal globular immunoreactivity and plasma membranous accentuation, respectively, and these patterns were specific to ROS1-rearranged cases. Although full-length ROS1 is expressed in some ROS1-non-rearranged cases, we showed that establishment of an optimal set of interpretative criteria makes ROS1 immunohistochemistry a valuable method to rapidly and accurately screen lung cancer patients for appropriate molecular therapy. PMID:24186139

  15. ROS-dependent Syk and Pyk2-mediated STAT1 activation is required for 15(S)-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-induced CD36 expression and foam cell formation

    PubMed Central

    Kotla, Sivareddy; Singh, Nikhlesh K.; Traylor, James G.; Orr, A. Wayne; Rao, Gadiparthi N.

    2014-01-01

    15(S)-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE), the major 15-lipoxygenase 1/2 (15-LO1/2) metabolite of arachidonic acid (AA), induces CD36 expression through xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production and Syk and Pyk2-dependent STAT1 activation. In line with these observations, 15(S)-HETE also induced foam cell formation involving ROS, Syk, Pyk2 and STAT1-mediated CD36 expression. In addition, peritoneal macrophages from Western diet-fed ApoE−/− mice exhibited elevated levels of xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase activities, ROS production, Syk, Pyk2, and STAT1 phosphorylation and CD36 expression compared to those from ApoE−/−:12/15-LO−/− mice and these events correlated with increased lipid deposits, macrophage content and lesion progression in the aortic roots. Human atherosclerotic arteries also showed increased 15-LO1 expression, STAT1 phosphorylation and CD36 levels as compared to normal arteries. Together, these findings suggest that 12/15-LO metabolites of AA, particularly 12/15(S)-HETE might play a crucial role in atherogenesis by enhancing foam cell formation. PMID:25152235

  16. The regulatory roles of ethylene and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant salt stress responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Smith, J Andrew C; Harberd, Nicholas P; Jiang, Caifu

    2016-08-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most commonly encountered environmental stresses affecting plant growth and crop productivity. Accordingly, plants have evolved a variety of morphological, physiological and biochemical strategies that enable them to adapt to saline growth conditions. For example, it has long been known that salinity-stress increases both the production of the gaseous stress hormone ethylene and the in planta accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, there has been significant progress in understanding how the fine-tuning of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling transduction can promote salinity tolerance, and how salinity-induced ROS accumulation also acts as a signal in the mediation of salinity tolerance. Furthermore, recent advances have indicated that ethylene signaling modulates salinity responses largely via regulation of ROS-generating and ROS-scavenging mechanisms. This review focuses on these recent advances in understanding the linked roles of ethylene and ROS in salt tolerance. PMID:27233644

  17. Hericium erinaceus Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Angiogenesis and ROS Generation through Suppression of MMP-9/NF-κB Signaling and Activation of Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Genes in Human EA.hy926 Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hebron C; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Pan, Jih-Hao; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Pan, Jian-You; Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Chao, Pei-Min; Huang, Pei-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is an edible mushroom that has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the antiangiogenic and antioxidant potentials of ethanol extracts of HE in human endothelial (EA.hy926) cells upon tumor necrosis factor-α- (TNF-α-) stimulation (10 ng/mL). The underlying molecular mechanisms behind the pharmacological efficacies were elucidated. We found that noncytotoxic concentrations of HE (50-200 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced migration/invasion and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells. HE treatment suppressed TNF-α-induced activity and/or overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Furthermore, HE downregulated TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) followed by suppression of I-κB (inhibitor-κB) degradation. Data from fluorescence microscopy illustrated that increased intracellular ROS production upon TNF-α-stimulation was remarkably inhibited by HE pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, HE triggered antioxidant gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCLC), and glutathione levels, which may contribute to inhibition of ROS. Increased antioxidant status was associated with upregulated nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) in HE treated cells. Our findings conclude that antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of H. erinaceus may contribute to its anticancer property through modulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathways. PMID:26823953

  18. Hericium erinaceus Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Angiogenesis and ROS Generation through Suppression of MMP-9/NF-κB Signaling and Activation of Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Genes in Human EA.hy926 Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hebron C.; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Pan, Jih-Hao; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Pan, Jian-You; Hsieh, Meng-Chang; Chao, Pei-Min; Huang, Pei-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Tsan; Hseu, You-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) is an edible mushroom that has been shown to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the antiangiogenic and antioxidant potentials of ethanol extracts of HE in human endothelial (EA.hy926) cells upon tumor necrosis factor-α- (TNF-α-) stimulation (10 ng/mL). The underlying molecular mechanisms behind the pharmacological efficacies were elucidated. We found that noncytotoxic concentrations of HE (50–200 μg/mL) significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced migration/invasion and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells. HE treatment suppressed TNF-α-induced activity and/or overexpression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Furthermore, HE downregulated TNF-α-induced nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) followed by suppression of I-κB (inhibitor-κB) degradation. Data from fluorescence microscopy illustrated that increased intracellular ROS production upon TNF-α-stimulation was remarkably inhibited by HE pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, HE triggered antioxidant gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCLC), and glutathione levels, which may contribute to inhibition of ROS. Increased antioxidant status was associated with upregulated nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) in HE treated cells. Our findings conclude that antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities of H. erinaceus may contribute to its anticancer property through modulation of MMP-9/NF-κB and Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathways. PMID:26823953

  19. ROS1 rearrangements in lung adenocarcinoma: prognostic impact, therapeutic options and genetic variability

    PubMed Central

    Teixido, Cristina; Michels, Sebastian; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Viteri, Santiago; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Merkelbach-Bruse, Sabine; Fischer, Rieke; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Fassunke, Jana; Sebastian, Martin; Serke, Monika; Kaminsky, Britta; Randerath, Winfried; Gerigk, Ulrich; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Krüger, Stefan; Schnell, Roland; Rothe, Achim; Kropf-Sanchen, Cornelia; Heukamp, Lukas; Rosell, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Background While recent data show that crizotinib is highly effective in patients with ROS1 rearrangement, few data is available about the prognostic impact, the predictive value for different treatments, and the genetic heterogeneity of ROS1-positive patients. Patients and Methods 1137 patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung were analyzed regarding their ROS1 status. In positive cases, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed. Clinical characteristics, treatments and outcome of these patients were assessed. Overall survival (OS) was compared with genetically defined subgroups of ROS1-negative patients. Results 19 patients of 1035 evaluable (1.8%) had ROS1-rearrangement. The median OS has not been reached. Stage IV patients with ROS1-rearrangement had the best OS of all subgroups (36.7 months, p < 0.001). 9 of 14 (64.2%) patients had at least one response to chemotherapy. Estimated mean OS for patients receiving chemotherapy and crizotinib was 5.3 years. Ten patients with ROS1-rearrangement (52.6%) harbored additional aberrations. Conclusion ROS1-rearangement is not only a predictive marker for response to crizotinib, but also seems to be the one of the best prognostic molecular markers in NSCLC reported so far. In stage IV patients, response to chemotherapy was remarkable high and overall survival was significantly better compared to other subgroups including EGFR-mutated and ALK-fusion-positive NSCLC. PMID:25868855

  20. ROS evaluation for a series of CNTs and their derivatives using an ESR method with DMPO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruoka, S.; Takeuchi, K.; Koyama, K.; Noguchi, T.; Endo, M.; Tristan, F.; Terrones, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Saito, N.; Usui, Y.; Porter, D. W.; Castranova, V.

    2013-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are important materials in advanced industries. It is a concern that pulmonary exposure to CNTs may induce carcinogenic responses. It has been recently reported that CNTs scavenge ROS though non-carbon fibers generate ROS. A comprehensive evaluation of ROS scavenging using various kinds of CNTs has not been demonstrated well. The present work specifically investigates ROS scavenging capabilities with a series of CNTs and their derivatives that were physically treated, and with the number of commercially available CNTs. CNT concentrations were controlled at 0.2 through 0.6 wt%. The ROS scavenging rate was measured by ESR with DMPO. Interestingly, the ROS scavenging rate was not only influenced by physical treatments, but was also dependent on individual manufacturing methods. Ratio of CNTs to DMPO/ hydrogen peroxide is a key parameter to obtain appropriate ROS quenching results for comparison of CNTs. The present results suggest that dangling bonds are not a sole factor for scavenging, and electron transfer on the CNT surface is not clearly determined to be the sole mechanism to explain ROS scavenging.

  1. ROS evaluation for a series of CNTs and their derivatives using an ESR method with DMPO

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruoka, S; Takeuchi, K; Koyama, K; Noguchi, T; Endo, M; Tristan, F; Terrones, M; Matsumoto, H; Saito, N; Usui, Y; Porter, D W; Castranova, V

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are important materials in advanced industries. It is a concern that pulmonary exposure to CNTs may induce carcinogenic responses. It has been recently reported that CNTs scavenge ROS though non-carbon fibers generate ROS. A comprehensive evaluation of ROS scavenging using various kinds of CNTs has not been demonstrated well. The present work specifically investigates ROS scavenging capabilities with a series of CNTs and their derivatives that were physically treated, and with the number of commercially available CNTs. CNT concentrations were controlled at 0.2 through 0.6 wt%. The ROS scavenging rate was measured by ESR with DMPO. Interestingly, the ROS scavenging rate was not only influenced by physical treatments, but was also dependent on individual manufacturing methods. Ratio of CNTs to DMPO/ hydrogen peroxide is a key parameter to obtain appropriate ROS quenching results for comparison of CNTs. The present results suggest that dangling bonds are not a sole factor for scavenging, and electron transfer on the CNT surface is not clearly determined to be the sole mechanism to explain ROS scavenging. PMID:26300949

  2. Unravelling the relationship between macroautophagy and mitochondrial ROS in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuqian; Qu, Tiange; Wang, Peiqi; Li, Xinyi; Qiang, Jiayu; Xia, Zhaokun; Duan, Hangwu; Huang, Jian; Zhu, Lingjuan

    2016-05-01

    Macroautophagy (Autophagy), an evolutionarily conserved cellular self-digesting process implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, is activated by different stimuli including oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in autophagy modulation through multiple signaling pathways and transcription regulators. Accumulating data support both a positive and negative role of ROS-modulated autophagy in cancer. As a tumor suppressive mechanism, autophagy induces autophagic cell death and maintains genome stability. Conversely, autophagy may promote cancer development by limiting metabolic stress and supplying high-energetic nutrients. Mitochondrial ROS (mitoROS), the main source of endogenous ROS, serve as essential signal transducers that mediate autophagy, while autophagy can also regulate mitochondrial ROS generation in turn. Here, we untangle the knot between mitochondrial ROS and autophagy, which may be of great significance to solve the conundrum of the inter-conversion between cytoprotective and cytotoxic roles of autophagy; thus providing new insights for current cancer therapies. Whilst, we focus on anti-tumor agents that target mitoROS-regulated autophagy, in the hope of fueling the exploration of more potential novel anti-cancer drugs in the future. PMID:27007273

  3. Oxidation of NADH and ROS production by respiratory complex I.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Andrei D; Grivennikova, Vera G

    2016-07-01

    Kinetic characteristics of the proton-pumping NADH:quinone reductases (respiratory complexes I) are reviewed. Unsolved problems of the redox-linked proton translocation activities are outlined. The parameters of complex I-mediated superoxide/hydrogen peroxide generation are summarized, and the physiological significance of mitochondrial ROS production is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Respiratory complex I, edited by Volker Zickermann and Ulrich Brandt. PMID:26571336

  4. Reactive oxygen species generation and signaling in plants

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Baishnab Charan; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of molecular oxygen into the atmosphere was accompanied by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as side products of many biochemical reactions. ROS are permanently generated in plastids, peroxisomes, mitochiondria, the cytosol and the apoplast. Imbalance between ROS generation and safe detoxification generates oxidative stress and the accumulating ROS are harmful for the plants. On the other hand, specific ROS function as signaling molecules and activate signal transduction processes in response to various stresses. Here, we summarize the generation of ROS in the different cellular compartments and the signaling processes which are induced by ROS. PMID:23072988

  5. ROS production in brown adipose tissue mitochondria: the question of UCP1-dependence.

    PubMed

    Shabalina, Irina G; Vrbacký, Marek; Pecinová, Alena; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Drahota, Zdeněk; Houštěk, Josef; Mráček, Tomáš; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Whether active UCP1 can reduce ROS production in brown-fat mitochondria is presently not settled. The issue is of principal significance, as it can be seen as a proof- or disproof-of-principle concerning the ability of any protein to diminish ROS production through membrane depolarization. We therefore undertook a comprehensive investigation of the significance of UCP1 for ROS production, by comparing the ROS production in brown-fat mitochondria isolated from wildtype mice (that display membrane depolarization) or from UCP1(-/-) mice (with a high membrane potential). We tested the significance of UCP1 for glycerol-3-phosphate-supported ROS production by three methods (fluorescent dihydroethidium and the ESR probe PHH for superoxide, and fluorescent Amplex Red for hydrogen peroxide), and followed ROS production also with succinate, acyl-CoA or pyruvate as substrate. We studied the effects of the reverse electron flow inhibitor rotenone, the UCP1 activity inhibitor GDP, and the uncoupler FCCP. We also examined the effect of a physiologically induced increase in UCP1 amount. We noted GDP effects that were not UCP1-related. We conclude that only ROS production supported by exogenously added succinate was affected by the presence of active UCP1; ROS production supported by any other tested substrate (including endogenously generated succinate) was unaffected. This conclusion indicates that UCP1 is not involved in control of ROS production in brown-fat mitochondria. Extrapolation of these data to other tissues would imply that membrane depolarization may not necessarily decrease physiologically relevant ROS production. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled: 18th European Bioenergetics Conference (Biochim. Biophys. Acta, Volume 1837, Issue 7, July 2014). PMID:24769119

  6. Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm Bark Crude Extract Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells via G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest, Bcl-2/Bax/Bcl-xl Signaling Pathways, and ROS Generation.

    PubMed

    Narrima, Putri; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Yi Li; Taha, Hairin; Wong, Won Fen; Ali Mohd, Mustafa; Hadi, A Hamid A

    2014-01-01

    Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm is a member of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in Southeast Asia. It is from the same genus with avocado (Persea americana Mill), which is widely consumed as food and for medicinal purposes. In the present study, we examined the anticancer properties of Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm bark methanolic crude extract (PDM). PDM exhibited a potent antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 16.68 µg/mL after 48 h of treatment. We observed that PDM caused cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as exhibited by increased population at G0/G1 phase, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and DNA fragmentation. Mechanistic studies showed that PDM caused significant elevation in ROS production, leading to perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and activation of caspases-3/7. On the other hand, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that PDM treatment increased the expression of the proapoptotic molecule, Bax, but decreased the expression of prosurvival proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings imply that PDM could inhibit proliferation in MCF-7 cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, indicating its potential as a therapeutic agent worthy of further development. PMID:24808916

  7. Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm Bark Crude Extract Induces Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells via G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest, Bcl-2/Bax/Bcl-xl Signaling Pathways, and ROS Generation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yi Li; Wong, Won Fen; Ali Mohd, Mustafa; Hadi, A. Hamid A.

    2014-01-01

    Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm is a member of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in Southeast Asia. It is from the same genus with avocado (Persea americana Mill), which is widely consumed as food and for medicinal purposes. In the present study, we examined the anticancer properties of Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm bark methanolic crude extract (PDM). PDM exhibited a potent antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 16.68 µg/mL after 48 h of treatment. We observed that PDM caused cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as exhibited by increased population at G0/G1 phase, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and DNA fragmentation. Mechanistic studies showed that PDM caused significant elevation in ROS production, leading to perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and activation of caspases-3/7. On the other hand, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that PDM treatment increased the expression of the proapoptotic molecule, Bax, but decreased the expression of prosurvival proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings imply that PDM could inhibit proliferation in MCF-7 cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, indicating its potential as a therapeutic agent worthy of further development. PMID:24808916

  8. ROS-talk - how the apoplast, the chloroplast, and the nucleus get the message through.

    PubMed

    Shapiguzov, Alexey; Vainonen, Julia P; Wrzaczek, Michael; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko

    2012-01-01

    The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in different plant subcellular compartments is the hallmark of the response to many stress stimuli and developmental cues. The past two decades have seen a transition from regarding ROS as exclusively cytotoxic agents to being considered as reactive compounds which participate in elaborate signaling networks connecting various aspects of plant life. We have now arrived at a stage where it has become increasingly difficult to disregard the communication between different types and pools of ROS. Production of ROS in the extracellular space, the apoplast, can influence their generation in the chloroplast and both can regulate nuclear gene expression. In spite of existing information on these signaling events, we can still barely grasp the mechanisms of ROS signaling and communication between the organelles. In this review, we summarize evidence that supports the mutual influence of extracellular and chloroplastic ROS production on nuclear gene regulation and how this interaction might occur. We also reflect on how, and via which routes signals might reach the nucleus where they are ultimately integrated for transcriptional reprogramming. New ideas and approaches will be needed in the future to address the pressing questions of how ROS as signaling molecules can participate in the coordination of stress adaptation and development and how they are involved in the chatter of the organelles. PMID:23293644

  9. Redox-optimized ROS balance and the relationship between mitochondrial respiration and ROS.

    PubMed

    Cortassa, Sonia; O'Rourke, Brian; Aon, Miguel A

    2014-02-01

    The Redox-Optimized ROS Balance [R-ORB] hypothesis postulates that the redox environment [RE] is the main intermediary between mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species [ROS]. According to R-ORB, ROS emission levels will attain a minimum vs. RE when respiratory rate (VO2) reaches a maximum following ADP stimulation, a tenet that we test herein in isolated heart mitochondria under forward electron transport [FET]. ROS emission increased two-fold as a function of changes in the RE (~400 to ~900mV·mM) in state 4 respiration elicited by increasing glutamate/malate (G/M). In G/M energized mitochondria, ROS emission decreases two-fold for RE ~500 to ~300mV·mM in state 3 respiration at increasing ADP. Stressed mitochondria released higher ROS, that was only weakly dependent on RE under state 3. As a function of VO2, the ROS dependence on RE was strong between ~550 and ~350mV·mM, when VO2 is maximal, primarily due to changes in glutathione redox potential. A similar dependence was observed with stressed mitochondria, but over a significantly more oxidized RE and ~3-fold higher ROS emission overall, as compared with non-stressed controls. We conclude that under non-stressful conditions mitochondrial ROS efflux decreases when the RE becomes less reduced within a range in which VO2 is maximal. These results agree with the R-ORB postulate that mitochondria minimize ROS emission as they maximize VO2 and ATP synthesis. This relationship is altered quantitatively, but not qualitatively, by oxidative stress although stressed mitochondria exhibit diminished energetic performance and increased ROS release. PMID:24269780

  10. Mouse models for ROS1-fusion-positive lung cancers and their application to the analysis of multikinase inhibitor efficiency.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Maki; Toki, Hideaki; Matsui, Junko; Togashi, Yuki; Dobashi, Akito; Fukumura, Ryutaro; Gondo, Yoichi; Minowa, Osamu; Tanaka, Norio; Mori, Seiichi; Takeuchi, Kengo; Noda, Tetsuo

    2016-05-01

    ROS1-fusion genes, resulting from chromosomal rearrangement, have been reported in 1-2% of human non-small cell lung cancer cases. More than 10 distinct ROS1-fusion genes, including break-point variants, have been identified to date. In this study, to investigate the in vivo oncogenic activities of one of the most frequently detected fusions, CD74-ROS1, as well as another SDC4-ROS1 fusion that has also been reported in several studies, we generated transgenic (TG) mouse strains that express either of the two ROS1-fusion genes specifically in lung alveolar type II cells. Mice in all TG lines developed tumorigenic nodules in the lung, and a few strains of both TG mouse lines demonstrated early-onset nodule development (multiple tumor lesions present in the lung at 2-4 weeks after birth); therefore, these two strains were selected for further investigation. Tumors developed progressively in the untreated TG mice of both lines, whereas those receiving oral administration of an ALK/MET/ROS1 inhibitor, crizotinib, and an ALK/ROS1 inhibitor, ASP3026, showed marked reduction in the tumor burden. Collectively, these data suggest that each of these two ROS1-fusion genes acts as a driver for the pathogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma in vivo The TG mice developed in this study are expected to serve as valuable tools for exploring novel therapeutic agents against ROS1-fusion-positive lung cancer. PMID:26964870

  11. NLRP3 inflammasome activation by mitochondrial ROS in bronchial epithelial cells is required for allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S R; Kim, D I; Kim, S H; Lee, H; Lee, K S; Cho, S H; Lee, Y C

    2014-01-01

    Abnormality in mitochondria has been suggested to be associated with development of allergic airway disorders. In this study, to evaluate the relationship between mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in allergic asthma, we used a newly developed mitochondrial ROS inhibitor, NecroX-5. NecroX-5 reduced the increase of mitochondrial ROS generation in airway inflammatory cells, as well as bronchial epithelial cells, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB, increased expression of various inflammatory mediators and pathophysiological features of allergic asthma in mice. Finally, blockade of IL-1β substantially reduced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in the asthmatic mice. These findings suggest that mitochondrial ROS have a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation through the modulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, providing a novel role of airway epithelial cells expressing NLRP3 inflammasome as an immune responder. PMID:25356867

  12. Reduced O2 and elevated ROS in sea urchin embryos leads to defects in ectoderm differentiation.

    PubMed

    Agca, Cavit; Klein, William H; Venuti, Judith M

    2009-07-01

    The sea urchin oral-aboral (OA) axis is established in part by Nodal signaling. The OA axis is also influenced by treatments affecting respiration and Nodal transcription is influenced by redox-dependent transcription factors. This suggests that intracellular redox state plays a role in OA axis specification. Since cellular redox state can be altered by the formation of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), and hypoxia and paraquat generate ROS in cells, we asked whether these treatments affected specification of the OA axis and Nodal expression. Embryos cultured under conditions that elevate ROS, demonstrate perturbed ectoderm specification, but other territories are not affected. Immunohistochemical and Q-RT-PCR analyses revealed that both oral and aboral ectoderm genes are downregulated. Our results argue that elevating ROS in sea urchin embryos by these treatments blocks early steps in ectoderm differentiation preceding the polarization of the ectoderm into oral and aboral territories. PMID:19517573

  13. Enhanced aphid detoxification when confronted by a host with elevated ROS production

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Jiaxin; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays an important role in plant defense responses against bacteria, fungi and insect pests. Most recently, we have demonstrated that loss of Arabidopsis thaliana BOTRYTIS-INDUCED KINASE1 (BIK1) function releases its suppression of aphid-induced H2O2 production and cell death, rendering the bik1 mutant more resistant to green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) than wild-type plants. However, little is known regarding how ROS-related gene expression is correlated with bik1-mediated resistance to aphids, or whether these aphids biochemically respond to the oxidative stress. Here, we show that the bik1 mutant exhibited elevated basal expression of ROS-generating and -responsive genes, but not ROS-metabolizing genes. Conversely, we detected enhanced detoxification enzymatic activities in aphids reared on bik1 plants compared to those on wild-type plants, suggesting that aphids counter the oxidative stress associated with bik1 through elevated metabolic resistance. PMID:25932782

  14. Temporal dynamics of ROS biogenesis under simulated solar radiation in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra P; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Häder, Donat-P; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2014-09-01

    We studied the temporal generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis PCC 7937 under simulated solar radiation using WG 280, WG 295, WG 305, WG 320, WG 335, WG 345, and GG 400 nm cut-off filters to find out the minimum exposure time and most effective region of the solar spectrum inducing highest level of ROS. There was no significant generation of ROS in all treatments in comparison to the samples kept in the dark during the first 8 h of exposure; however, after 12 h of exposure, ROS were significantly generated in samples covered with 305, 295, or 280 nm cut-off filters. In contrast with ROS, the fragmentation of filaments was predominantly seen in 280 nm cut-off filter covered samples after 12 h of exposure. After 24 h of exposure, ROS levels were significantly higher in all samples than in the dark; however, the ROS signals were more pronounced in 320, 305, 295, or 280 nm cut-off filter covered samples. In contrast, the length of filaments was reduced in 305, 295, or 280 nm cut-off filter covered samples after 24 h of exposure. Thus, fragmentation of the filament was induced by all wavelengths of the UV-B region contrary to the UV-A region where only shorter wavelengths were able to induce the fragmentation. In contrast, ROS were generated by all wavelengths of the solar spectrum after 24 h of exposure; however, shorter wavelengths of both the UV-A and the UV-B regions were more effective in generating ROS in comparison to their higher wavelengths and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Moreover, lower wavelengths of UV-B were more efficient than the lower wavelengths of the UV-A radiation. Findings from this study suggest that certain threshold levels of ROS are required to induce the fragmentation of filaments. PMID:24633292

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Associated ROS

    PubMed Central

    Zeeshan, Hafiz Maher Ali; Lee, Geum Hwa; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a fascinating network of tubules through which secretory and transmembrane proteins enter unfolded and exit as either folded or misfolded proteins, after which they are directed either toward other organelles or to degradation, respectively. The ER redox environment dictates the fate of entering proteins, and the level of redox signaling mediators modulates the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Accumulating evidence suggests the interrelation of ER stress and ROS with redox signaling mediators such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin (ERO)-1, glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disuphide (GSSG), NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR), and calcium. Here, we reviewed persistent ER stress and protein misfolding-initiated ROS cascades and their significant roles in the pathogenesis of multiple human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, inflammation, ischemia, and kidney and liver diseases. PMID:26950115

  16. Mitochondrial ROS fire up T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael P; Siegel, Richard M

    2013-02-21

    Metabolic reprogramming has emerged as an important feature of immune cell activation. Two new studies, including Sena et al. (2013) in this issue of Immunity, identify mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) arising from metabolic reprogramming as signaling molecules in T cell activation. PMID:23438817

  17. Overview on how oncogenic Kras promotes pancreatic carcinogenesis by inducing low intracellular ROS levels.

    PubMed

    Kong, Bo; Qia, Chengjia; Erkan, Mert; Kleeff, Jörg; Michalski, Christoph W

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a devastating disease without clearly known disease causes. Recent epidemiological and animal studies suggest that the supplementation of dietary antioxidants (e.g., vitamins C and E) decreases cancer risk, implying that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) may play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. However, oncogenic Kras mutations (e.g., Kras(G12D)), which are present in more than 90% of PDAC, have been proven to foster low intracellular ROS levels. Here, oncogenic Kras activates expression of a series of anti-oxidant genes via Nrf2 (nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2) and also mediates an unusual metabolic pathway of glutamine to generate NADPH. This can then be used as the reducing power for ROS detoxification, leading collectively to low ROS levels in pancreatic pre-neoplastic cells and in cancer cells. In adult stem cells and cancer stem cells, low ROS levels have been associated with the formation of a proliferation-permissive intracellular environment and with perseverance of self-renewal capacities. Therefore, it is conceivable that low intracellular ROS levels may contribute significantly to oncogenic Kras-mediated PDAC formation. PMID:24062691

  18. Hydroxychavicol, a betel leaf component, inhibits prostate cancer through ROS-driven DNA damage and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Yang, Chunhua; Mukkavilli, Rao; Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Brahmbhatt, Meera; Pannu, Vaishali; Cheng, Alice; Reid, Michelle D.; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-10-01

    Dietary phytochemicals are excellent ROS-modulating agents and have been shown to effectively enhance ROS levels beyond toxic threshold in cancer cells to ensure their selective killing while leaving normal cells unscathed. Here we demonstrate that hydroxychavicol (HC), extracted and purified from Piper betel leaves, significantly inhibits growth and proliferation via ROS generation in human prostate cancer, PC-3 cells. HC perturbed cell-cycle kinetics and progression, reduced clonogenicity and mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to activation of several pro-apoptotic molecules. In addition, HC treatment elicited a novel autophagic response as evidenced by the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles and increased expression of autophagic markers, LC3-IIb and beclin-1. Interestingly, quenching of ROS with tiron, an antioxidant, offered significant protection against HC-induced inhibition of cell growth and down regulation of caspase-3, suggesting the crucial role of ROS in mediating cell death. The collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by HC further revealed the link between ROS generation and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Our data showed remarkable inhibition of prostate tumor xenografts by ∼ 72% upon daily oral administration of 150 mg/kg bw HC by quantitative tumor volume measurements and non-invasive real-time bioluminescent imaging. HC was well-tolerated at this dosing level without any observable toxicity. This is the first report to demonstrate the anti-prostate cancer efficacy of HC in vitro and in vivo, which is perhaps attributable to its selective prooxidant activity to eliminate cancer cells thus providing compelling grounds for future preclinical studies to validate its potential usefulness for prostate cancer management. - Highlights: • HC perturbs cell-cycle progression by induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). • HC mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to

  19. Hydroxychavicol, a betel leaf component, inhibits prostate cancer through ROS-driven DNA damage and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Yang, Chunhua; Mukkavilli, Rao; Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Brahmbhatt, Meera; Pannu, Vaishali; Cheng, Alice; Reid, Michelle D.; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Dietary phytochemicals are excellent ROS-modulating agents and have been shown to effectively enhance ROS levels beyond toxic threshold in cancer cells to ensure their selective killing while leaving normal cells unscathed. Here we demonstrate that hydroxychavicol (HC), extracted and purified from Piper betel leaves, significantly inhibits growth and proliferation via ROS generation in human prostate cancer, PC-3 cells. HC perturbed cell-cycle kinetics and progression, reduced clonogenicity and mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to activation of several pro-apoptotic molecules. In addition, HC treatment elicited a novel autophagic response as evidenced by the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles and increased expression of autophagic markers, LC3-IIb and beclin-1. Interestingly, quenching of ROS with tiron, an antioxidant, offered significant protection against HC-induced inhibition of cell growth and down regulation of caspase-3, suggesting the crucial role of ROS in mediating cell death. The collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by HC further revealed the link between ROS generation and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Our data showed remarkable inhibition of prostate tumor xenografts by ~72% upon daily oral administration of 150 mg/kg bw HC by quantitative tumor volume measurements and non-invasive real-time bioluminescent imaging. HC was well-tolerated at this dosing level without any observable toxicity. This is the first report to demonstrate the anti-prostate efficacy of HC in vitro and in vivo, which is perhaps attributable to its selective prooxidant activity to eliminate cancer cells thus providing compelling grounds for future preclinical studies to validate its potential usefulness for prostate cancer management. PMID:25064160

  20. ROS Mediated Stress Response in Illuminated Cattle Feces Derived DOM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial exposure to exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to increase theexpression of oxidative stress related genes and has been linked to acquisition of antibioticresistance (AR). ROS, including hydrogen peroxide (H202), singlet oxygen e o 2), andhydroxyl radicals...

  1. ROS signaling during granzyme B-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Martinvalet, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in cell signaling, aging, and death and play a role in carcinogenesis. However, whether ROS are bystanders or active effectors of apoptosis was unclear until recently. New evidence shows that the killer lymphocyte protease granzyme B activates a conserved biochemical pathway centered on respiratory chain disruption to trigger mitocentric ROS-dependent apoptosis. PMID:27308474

  2. Monolayer expansion induces an oxidative metabolism and ROS in chondrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Heywood, H.K. Lee, D.A.

    2008-08-22

    This study tests the hypothesis that articular chondrocytes shift from a characteristically glycolytic to an oxidative energy metabolism during population expansion in monolayer. Bovine articular chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer under standard incubator conditions for up to 14 days. Cellular proliferation, oxygen consumption, lactate production, protein content, ROS generation and mitochondrial morphology were examined. Lactate release increased {approx}5-fold within 1 week, but this was limited to {approx}2-fold increase when normalized to cellular protein content. By contrast, per cell oxidative phosphorylation increased 98-fold in 1 week. The increase in oxidative phosphorylation was evident within 24 h, preceding cell proliferation and was associated with augmented reactive oxygen species generation. The autologous chondrocyte implantation procedure requires 14-21 days for population expansion. The alterations in metabolic phenotype we report within 7 days in vitro are thus pertinent to autologous chondrocyte implantation with significant implications for the chondrocyte functionality.

  3. Akt mediated ROS-dependent selective targeting of mutant KRAS tumors.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Kartini; Rezlan, Majidah; Pervaiz, Shazib

    2014-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in a variety of cellular processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to cell death. Previously, we reported the ability of a small molecule compound, C1, to induce ROS dependent autophagy associated apoptosis in human cancer cell lines and primary tumor cells (Wong C. et al. 2010). Our ongoing investigations have unraveled a hitherto undefined novel signaling network involving hyper-phosphorylation of Akt and Akt-mediated ROS production in cancer cell lines. Interestingly, drug-induced Akt activation is selectively seen in cell lines that carry mutant KRAS; HCT116 cells that carry the V13D KRAS mutation respond favorably to C1 while HT29 cells expressing wild type KRAS are relatively resistant. Of note, not only does the compound target mutant KRAS expressing cells but also induces RAS activation as evidenced by the PAK pull down assay. Corroborating this, pharmacological inhibition as well as siRNA mediated silencing of KRAS or Akt, blocked C1-induced ROS production and rescued tumor colony forming ability in HCT116 cells. To further confirm the involvement of KRAS, we made use of mutant KRAS transformed RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells. Notably, drug-induced ROS generation and death sensitivity was significantly higher in RWPE-1-KRAS cells than the RWPE-1-vector cells, thus confirming the results obtained with mutant KRAS colorectal carcinoma cell line. Lastly, we made use of HCT116 mutant KRAS knockout cells (KO) where the mutant KRAS allele had been deleted, thus expressing a single wild-type KRAS allele. Exposure of the KO cells to C1 failed to induce Akt activation and mitochondrial ROS production. Taken together, results show the involvement of activated Akt in ROS-mediated selective targeting of mutant KRAS expressing tumors, which could have therapeutic implications given the paucity of chemotherapeutic strategies specifically targeting KRAS mutant cancers. PMID:26461287

  4. Photocatalytic ROS production and phototoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles is dependent on solar UV radiation spectrum

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) and its consequent phototoxicity to Daphnia magna were measured under different solar UV radiation spectrum by applying a series of optical filters in a solar simulator. Removing UVB (280-32...

  5. ROS Regulate Cardiac Function via a Distinct Paracrine Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hui-Ying; Wang, Weidong; Chen, Jianming; Ocorr, Karen; Bodmer, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can act cell autonomously and in a paracrine manner by diffusing into nearby cells. Here, we reveal a ROS-mediated paracrine signaling mechanism that does not require entry of ROS into target cells. We found that under physiological conditions, nonmyocytic pericardial cells (PCs) of the Drosophila heart contain elevated levels of ROS compared to the neighboring cardiomyocytes (CMs). We show that ROS in PCs act in a paracrine manner to regulate normal cardiac function, not by diffusing into the CMs to exert their function, but by eliciting a downstream D-MKK3-D-p38 MAPK signaling cascade in PCs that acts on the CMs to regulate their function. We find that ROS-D-p38 signaling in PCs during development is also important for establishing normal adult cardiac function. Our results provide evidence for a previously unrecognized role of ROS in mediating PC/CM interactions that significantly modulates heart function. PMID:24656823

  6. Mitochondrial ROS Produced via Reverse Electron Transport Extend Animal Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Scialò, Filippo; Sriram, Ashwin; Fernández-Ayala, Daniel; Gubina, Nina; Lõhmus, Madis; Nelson, Glyn; Logan, Angela; Cooper, Helen M.; Navas, Plácido; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Murphy, Michael P.; Sanz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has long been considered a cause of aging. However, recent studies have implicated ROS as essential secondary messengers. Here we show that the site of ROS production significantly contributes to their apparent dual nature. We report that ROS increase with age as mitochondrial function deteriorates. However, we also demonstrate that increasing ROS production specifically through respiratory complex I reverse electron transport extends Drosophila lifespan. Reverse electron transport rescued pathogenesis induced by severe oxidative stress, highlighting the importance of the site of ROS production in signaling. Furthermore, preventing ubiquinone reduction, through knockdown of PINK1, shortens lifespan and accelerates aging; phenotypes that are rescued by increasing reverse electron transport. These results illustrate that the source of a ROS signal is vital in determining its effects on cellular physiology and establish that manipulation of ubiquinone redox state is a valid strategy to delay aging. PMID:27076081

  7. Detection of Rain-on-Snow (ROS) Events Using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and Weather Station Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E. M.; Brucker, L.; Forman, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    During the winter months, the occurrence of rain-on-snow (ROS) events can impact snow stratigraphy via generation of large scale ice crusts, e.g., on or within the snowpack. The formation of such layers significantly alters the electromagnetic response of the snowpack, which can be witnessed using space-based microwave radiometers. In addition, ROS layers can hinder the ability of wildlife to burrow in the snow for vegetation, which limits their foraging capability. A prime example occurred on 23 October 2003 in Banks Island, Canada, where an ROS event is believed to have caused the deaths of over 20,000 musk oxen. Through the use of passive microwave remote sensing, ROS events can be detected by utilizing observed brightness temperatures (Tb) from AMSR-E. Tb observed at different microwave frequencies and polarizations depends on snow properties. A wet snowpack formed from an ROS event yields a larger Tb than a typical dry snowpack would. This phenomenon makes observed Tb useful when detecting ROS events. With the use of data retrieved from AMSR-E, in conjunction with observations from ground-based weather station networks, a database of estimated ROS events over the past twelve years was generated. Using this database, changes in measured Tb following the ROS events was also observed. This study adds to the growing knowledge of ROS events and has the potential to help inform passive microwave snow water equivalent (SWE) retrievals or snow cover properties in polar regions.

  8. Dehydrosilybin attenuates the production of ROS in rat cardiomyocyte mitochondria with an uncoupler-like mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gabrielová, Eva; Jabůrek, Martin; Gažák, Radek; Vostálová, Jitka; Ježek, Jan; Křen, Vladimír; Modrianský, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from mitochondria are perceived as a factor contributing to cell aging and means have been sought to attenuate ROS formation with the aim of extending the cell lifespan. Silybin and dehydrosilybin, two polyphenolic compounds, display a plethora of biological effects generally ascribed to their known antioxidant capacity. When investigating the cytoprotective effects of these two compounds in the primary cell cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, we noted the ability of dehydrosilybin to de-energize the cells by monitoring JC-1 fluorescence. Experiments evaluating oxygen consumption and membrane potential revealed that dehydrosilybin uncouples the respiration of isolated rat heart mitochondria albeit with a much lower potency than synthetic uncouplers. Furthermore, dehydrosilybin revealed a very high potency in suppressing ROS formation in isolated rat heart mitochondria with IC(50) = 0.15 μM. It is far more effective than its effect in a purely chemical system generating superoxide or in cells capable of oxidative burst, where the IC(50) for dehydrosilybin exceeds 50 μM. Dehydrosilybin also attenuated ROS formation caused by rotenone in the primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. We infer that the apparent uncoupler-like activity of dehydrosilybin is the basis of its ROS modulation effect in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and leads us to propose a hypothesis on natural ischemia preconditioning by dietary polyphenols. PMID:21153691

  9. Identification of Novel ROS Inducers: Quinone Derivatives Tethered to Long Hydrocarbon Chains.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yeonsun; Sengupta, Sandip; Hur, Wooyoung; Sim, Taebo

    2015-05-14

    We performed the first synthesis of the 17-carbon chain-tethered quinone moiety 22 (SAN5201) of irisferin A, a natural product exhibiting anticancer activity, and its derivatives. We found that 22 is a potent ROS inducer and cytotoxic agent. Compound 25 (SAN7401), the hydroquinone form of 22, induced a significant release of intracellular ROS and apoptosis (EC50 = 1.3-2.6 μM) in cancer cell lines, including A549 and HCT-116. Compared with the activity of a well-known ROS inducer, piperlongumine, 22 and 25 showed stronger cytotoxicity and higher selectivity over noncancerous cells. Another hydroquinone tethering 12-carbon chain, 26 (SAN4601), generated reduced levels of ROS but showed more potent cytotoxicity (EC50 = 0.8-1.6 μM) in cancer cells, although it lacked selectivity over noncancerous cells, implying that the naturally occurring 17-carbon chain is also crucial for ROS production and a selective anticancer effect. Both 25 and 26 displayed strong, equipotent activities against vemurafenib-resistant SK-Mel2 melanoma cells and p53-deficient H1299 lung cancer cells as well, demonstrating their broad therapeutic potential as anticancer agents. PMID:25826398

  10. Mitochondrial Lon protease controls ROS-dependent apoptosis in cardiomyocyte under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chan-Yen; Chiu, Yi-Chieh; Lee, Alan Yueh-Luen; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2015-07-01

    Apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, under ischemic conditions, has been identified as an essential process in the progression of heart failure. Under hypoxic conditions, mitochondria can become a threat to the cell because of their capacity to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). As ROS appear to have a critical role in heart failure, there has been considerable interest in identifying the candidate proteins involved and in developing strategies to reduce oxidative stress. Lon protease (Lon) is a multifunctional protein that mediates protein quality control and stress response in mitochondria. However, comprehensive and detailed studies, on the role of Lon in hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, have yet to be carried out. In the present study, we demonstrated that hypoxia induced ROS-dependent cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Lon was upregulated in hypoxia-induced cardiomyocytes. Lon downregulation attenuated hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis through a reduction of ROS level. Moreover, overexpression of Lon stimulated ROS production and induced apoptosis under normoxic conditions in cardiomyocytes. Our results identify Lon as a novel regulator of cardiomyocyte fate and offers exciting new insights into the therapeutic potential of hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. PMID:25922169

  11. The hormesis effect of plasma-elevated intracellular ROS on HaCaT cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szili, Endre J.; Harding, Frances J.; Hong, Sung-Ha; Herrmann, Franziska; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Short, Robert D.

    2015-12-01

    We have examined the link between ionized-gas plasma delivery of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and cell fate, defined in terms of cell viability versus death. Phospholipid vesicles were used as cell mimics to measure the possible intracellular ROS concentration, [ROSi], delivered by various plasma treatments. Cells were exposed to a helium cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) jet for different plasma exposure times (5-60 s) and gas flow rates (50-1000 ml min-1). Based upon the [ROSi] data we argue that plasma-generated ROS in the cell culture medium can readily diffuse into real cells. Plasma exposure that equated to an [ROSi] in the range of 3.81  ×  10-10-9.47  ×  10-8 M, measured at 1 h after the plasma exposure, resulted in increased cell viability at 72 h; whereas a higher [ROSi] at 1 h decreased cell viability after 72 h of culture. This may be because of the manner in which the ROS are delivered by the plasma: HaCaT cells better tolerate a low ROS flux over an extended plasma exposure period of 1 min, compared to a high flux delivered in a few seconds, although the final [ROSi] may be the same. Our results suggest that plasma stimulation of HaCaT cells follows the principle of hormesis.

  12. NADPH oxidase-derived ROS and the regulation of pulmonary vessel tone

    PubMed Central

    Frazziano, G.; Champion, H. C.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary vessel constriction results from an imbalance between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor factors released by the endothelium including nitric oxide, endothelin, prostanoids, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS, generated by a variety of enzymatic sources (such as mitochondria and NADPH oxidases, a.k.a. Nox), appear to play a pivotal role in vascular homeostasis, whereas elevated levels effect vascular disease. The pulmonary circulation is very sensitive to changes in the partial pressure of oxygen and differs from the systemic circulation in its response to this change. In fact, the pulmonary vessels contract in response to low oxygen tension, whereas systemic vessels dilate. Growing evidence suggests that ROS production and ROS-related pathways may be key factors that underlie this differential response to oxygen tension. A major emphasis of our laboratory is the role of Nox isozymes in cardiovascular disease. In this review, we will focus our attention on the role of Nox-derived ROS in the control of pulmonary vascular tone. PMID:22427511

  13. ATM functions at the peroxisome to induce pexophagy in response to ROS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangwei; Tripathi, Durga Nand; Jing, Ji; Alexander, Angela; Kim, Jinhee; Powell, Reid T; Dere, Ruhee; Tait-Mulder, Jacqueline; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Paull, Tanya T; Pandita, Raj K; Charaka, Vijaya K; Pandita, Tej K; Kastan, Michael B; Walker, Cheryl Lyn

    2015-10-01

    Peroxisomes are highly metabolic, autonomously replicating organelles that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a by-product of fatty acid β-oxidation. Consequently, cells must maintain peroxisome homeostasis, or risk pathologies associated with too few peroxisomes, such as peroxisome biogenesis disorders, or too many peroxisomes, inducing oxidative damage and promoting diseases such as cancer. We report that the PEX5 peroxisome import receptor binds ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and localizes this kinase to the peroxisome. In response to ROS, ATM signalling activates ULK1 and inhibits mTORC1 to induce autophagy. Specificity for autophagy of peroxisomes (pexophagy) is provided by ATM phosphorylation of PEX5 at Ser 141, which promotes PEX5 monoubiquitylation at Lys 209, and recognition of ubiquitylated PEX5 by the autophagy adaptor protein p62, directing the autophagosome to peroxisomes to induce pexophagy. These data reveal an important new role for ATM in metabolism as a sensor of ROS that regulates pexophagy. PMID:26344566

  14. Cabozantinib overcomes crizotinib resistance in ROS1 fusion positive cancer

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Yuka; Friboulet, Luc; Lockerman, Elizabeth. L.; Koike, Sumie; Shaw, Alice T.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Fujita, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Purpose ROS1 rearrangement leads to constitutive ROS1 activation with potent transforming activity. In an ongoing phase 1 trial, the ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) crizotinib shows remarkable initial responses in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring ROS1 fusions; however, cancers eventually develop crizotinib resistance due to acquired mutations such as G2032R in ROS1. Thus, understanding the crizotinib resistance mechanisms in ROS1 rearranged NSCLC and identification of therapeutic strategies to overcome the resistance are required. Experimental Design The sensitivity of CD74-ROS1-transformed Ba/F3 cells to multiple ALK inhibitors was examined. Acquired ROS1 inhibitor resistant mutations in CD74-ROS1 fusion were screened by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis with Ba/F3 cells. To overcome the resistance mutation, we performed high throughput drug screening with small molecular inhibitors and anticancer drugs used in clinical practice or being currently tested in clinical trials. The effect of the identified drug was assessed in the CD74-ROS1 mutant Ba/F3 cells and crizotinib resistant patient-derived cancer cells (MGH047) harboring G2032R mutated CD74-ROS1. Results We identified multiple novel crizotinib resistance mutations in the ROS1 kinase domain including the G2032R mutation. As the result of high-throughput drug screening, we found that the cMET/RET/VEGFR inhibitor cabozantinib (XL184) effectively inhibited the survival of CD74-ROS1-WT and resistant mutants harboring Ba/F3 and MGH047 cells. Furthermore, cabozantinib could overcome all the resistance by all newly identified secondary mutations. Conclusions We developed a comprehensive model of acquired resistance to ROS1 inhibitors in NSCLC with ROS1 rearrangement and identified cabozantinib as a therapeutic strategy to overcome the resistance. PMID:25351743

  15. ROS Involves the Fungicidal Actions of Thymol against Spores of Aspergillus flavus via the Induction of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qingshan; Zhou, Wei; Li, Hongbo; Hu, Liangbin; Mo, Haizhen

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogenic fungus for both crops and human beings. The acquisition of resistance to azoles by A. flavus is leading to more failures occurring in the prevention of infection by A. flavus. In this study, we found that thymol, one of the major chemical constituents of the essential oil of Monarda punctate, had efficient fungicidal activity against A. flavus and led to sporular lysis. Further studies indicated that thymol treatment induced the generation of both ROS and NO in spores, whereas NO accumulation was far later than ROS accumulation in response to thymol. By blocking ROS production with the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, NO generation was also significantly inhibited in the presence of thymol, which indicated that ROS induced NO generation in A. flavus in response to thymol treatment. Moreover, the removal of either ROS or NO attenuated lysis and death of spores exposed to thymol. The addition of SNP (exogenous NO donor) eliminated the protective effects of the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase on thymol-induced lysis and death of spores. Taken together, it could be concluded that ROS is involved in spore death induced by thymol via the induction of NO. PMID:27196096

  16. ROS Involves the Fungicidal Actions of Thymol against Spores of Aspergillus flavus via the Induction of Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qingshan; Zhou, Wei; Li, Hongbo; Hu, Liangbin; Mo, Haizhen

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a well-known pathogenic fungus for both crops and human beings. The acquisition of resistance to azoles by A. flavus is leading to more failures occurring in the prevention of infection by A. flavus. In this study, we found that thymol, one of the major chemical constituents of the essential oil of Monarda punctate, had efficient fungicidal activity against A. flavus and led to sporular lysis. Further studies indicated that thymol treatment induced the generation of both ROS and NO in spores, whereas NO accumulation was far later than ROS accumulation in response to thymol. By blocking ROS production with the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, NO generation was also significantly inhibited in the presence of thymol, which indicated that ROS induced NO generation in A. flavus in response to thymol treatment. Moreover, the removal of either ROS or NO attenuated lysis and death of spores exposed to thymol. The addition of SNP (exogenous NO donor) eliminated the protective effects of the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase on thymol-induced lysis and death of spores. Taken together, it could be concluded that ROS is involved in spore death induced by thymol via the induction of NO. PMID:27196096

  17. Isofraxidin, a potent reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, protects human leukemia cells from radiation-induced apoptosis via ROS/mitochondria pathway in p53-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Zhao, Qing-Li; Wu, Li-Hua; Jawaid, Paras; Jiao, Yu-Fei; Kadowaki, Makoto; Kondo, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) leads to oxidizing events such as excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the exposed cells, resulting in further oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. To screen the potential radio-protective drug, the intracellular ROS was measured in irradiated U937 cells pretreated with 80 candidate traditional herbal medicine, respectively. Isofraxidin (IF) was one possible radio-protector in these 80 drugs. This study investigated the radio-protective role of IF, a Coumarin compound, in human leukemia cell lines, for the first time. Results indicate that IF protects against IR-induced apoptosis in U937 cells in the time- and concentration- dependent manner. IF decreases IR-induced intracellular ROS generation, especially hydroxyl radicals formation, inhibits IR-induced mitochondrial membrane potential loss and reduces IR-induced high intracellular Ca(2+) levels regardless of ER stress. IF down-regulates the expression of caspase-3, phospho-JNK, phospho-p38 and activates Bax in mitochondria. IF inhibits cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol. IF also moderates IR-induced Fas externalization and caspase-8 activation. IF also exhibits significant protection against IR-induced cell death in other leukemia cell lines such as Molt-4 cells and HL60 cells regardless of p53. Taken together, the data demonstrate that IF protects leukemia cells from radiation-induced apoptosis via ROS/mitochondria pathway in a p53-independent manner. PMID:24692054

  18. KRAS-driven ROS promote malignant transformation

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Yongjoon; Lee, Su-Jae

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism underlying KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog)-driven cellular transformation remains unclear because of the complexity of its downstream effectors. Park et al. recently reported that levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased by KRAS and are responsible for KRAS-driven malignant transformation, and further identified the signaling cascade involved as KRAS/p38/PDPK1/PKCδ/p47phox/NOX1. These findings provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms governing KRAS-driven malignant transformation. PMID:27308397

  19. Loss of the tumor suppressor Hace1 leads to ROS-dependent glutamine addiction.

    PubMed

    Cetinbas, N; Daugaard, M; Mullen, A R; Hajee, S; Rotblat, B; Lopez, A; Li, A; DeBerardinis, R J; Sorensen, P H

    2015-07-23

    Cellular transformation is associated with altered glutamine (Gln) metabolism. Tumor cells utilize Gln in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to maintain sufficient pools of biosynthetic precursors to support rapid growth and proliferation. However, Gln metabolism also generates NADPH, and Gln-derived glutamate is used for synthesis of glutathione (GSH). As both NADPH and GSH are antioxidants, Gln may also contribute to redox balance in transformed cells. The Hace1 E3 ligase is a tumor suppressor inactivated in diverse human cancers. Hace1 targets the Rac1 GTPase for degradation at Rac1-dependent NADPH oxidase complexes, blocking superoxide generation by the latter. Consequently, loss of Hace1 increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in vitro and in vivo. Given the link between Hace1 loss and increased ROS, we investigated whether genetic inactivation of Hace1 alters Gln metabolism. We demonstrate that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Hace1(-/-) mice are highly sensitive to Gln withdrawal, leading to enhanced cell death compared with wild-type (wt) MEFs, and Gln depletion or chemical inhibition of Gln uptake blocks soft agar colony formation by Hace1(-/-) MEFs. Hace1(-/-) MEFs exhibit increased Gln uptake and ammonia secretion, and metabolic labeling using (13)C-Gln revealed that Hace1 loss increases incorporation of Gln carbons into the TCA cycle intermediates. Gln starvation markedly increases ROS levels in Hace1(-/-) but not in wt MEFs, and treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine or the TCA cycle intermediate oxaloacetate efficiently rescues Gln starvation-induced ROS elevation and cell death in Hace1(-/-) MEFs. Finally, Gln starvation increases superoxide levels in Hace1(-/-) MEFs, and NADPH oxidase inhibitors block the induction of superoxide and cell death by Gln starvation. Together, these results suggest that increased ROS production due to Hace1 loss leads to Gln addiction as a mechanism to cope with increased ROS

  20. ROS1 Kinase Inhibitors for Molecular-Targeted Therapies.

    PubMed

    Al-Sanea, M M; Abdelazem, A Z; Park, B S; Yoo, K H; Sim, T; Kwon, Y J; Lee, S H

    2016-01-01

    ROS1 is a pivotal transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase which regulates several cellular processes like apoptosis, survival, differentiation, proliferation, cell migration, and transformation. There is increasing evidence supporting that ROS1 plays an important role in different malignancies including glioblastoma, colorectal cancer, gastric adenocarcinoma, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, ovarian cancer, angiosarcoma, and non small cell lung cancer; thus, ROS1 has become a potential drug discovery target. ROS1 shares about 49% sequence homology with ALK primary structure; therefore, wide range of ALK kinase inhibitors have shown in vitro inhibitory activity against ROS1 kinase. After Crizotinib approval by FDA for the management of ALK-rearranged lung cancer, ROS1-positive tumors have been focused. Although significant advancements have been achieved in understanding ROS1 function and its signaling pathways plus recent discovery of small molecules modulating ROS1 protein, a vital need of medicinal chemistry efforts is still required to produce selective and potent ROS1 inhibitors as an important therapeutic strategy for different human malignancies. This review focuses on the current knowledge about different scaffolds targeting ROS1 rearrangements, methods to synthesis, and some biological data about the most potent compounds that have delivered various scaffold structures. PMID:26438251

  1. ROS Function in Redox Signaling and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Schieber, Michael; Chandel, Navdeep S.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress refers to elevated intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause damage to lipids, proteins and DNA. Oxidative stress has been linked to a myriad of pathologies. However, elevated ROS are also signaling molecules i.e. redox biology that maintain physiological functions. In this review we discuss the two faces of ROS, redox signaling and oxidative stress, and their contribution to both physiological and pathological conditions. Redox biology refers to low levels of ROS that activate signaling pathways to initiate biological processes while oxidative stress denotes high levels of ROS that incur damage to DNA, protein or lipids. Thus, the response to ROS displays hormesis. The In this review, we argue that redox biology, rather than oxidative stress, underlies physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:24845678

  2. HOI-02 induces apoptosis and G2-M arrest in esophageal cancer mediated by ROS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Liu, K; Yao, K; Reddy, K; Zhang, Y; Fu, Y; Yang, G; Zykova, T A; Shin, S H; Li, H; Ryu, J; Jiang, Y-N; Yin, X; Ma, W; Bode, A M; Dong, Z; Dong, Z

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive molecules that perform essential functions in living organisms. Accumulating evidence suggests that many types of cancer cells exhibit elevated levels of ROS. Conversely, generation of ROS has become an effective method to kill cancer cells. (E)-3-hydroxy-3-(4-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-oxobut-3-en-1-yl) indolin-2-one, which is an NO2 group-containing compound designated herein as HOI-02, generated ROS and, in a dose-dependent manner, decreased esophageal cancer cell viability and inhibited anchorage-independent growth, followed by apoptosis and G2-M arrest. Moreover, results of an in vivo study using a patient-derived xenograft mouse model showed that HOI-02 treatment suppressed the growth of esophageal tumors, without affecting the body weight of mice. The expression of Ki-67 was significantly decreased with HOI-02 treatment. In addition, the phosphorylation of c-Jun, and expression of p21, cleaved caspase 3, and DCFH-DA were increased in the HOI-02-treated group compared with the untreated control group. In contrast, treatment of cells with (E)-3-(4-(4-aminophenyl)-2-oxobut-3-en-1-yl)-3-hydroxyindolin-2-one, which is an NH2 group-containing compound designated herein as HOI-11, had no effect. Overall, we identified HOI-02 as an effective NO2 group-containing compound that was an effective therapeutic or preventive agent against esophageal cancer cell growth. PMID:26469961

  3. Artemisinin induces ROS-mediated caspase3 activation in ASTC-a-1 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Feng-Lian; Chen, Tong-Sheng; Qu, Jun-Le; Liu, Cheng-Yi

    2010-02-01

    Artemisinin (ART), an antimalarial phytochemical from the sweet wormwood plant or a naturally occurring component of Artemisia annua, has been shown a potential anticancer activity by apoptotic pathways. In our report, cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay showed that treatment of human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells with ART effectively increase cell death by inducing apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. Hoechst 33258 staining was used to detect apoptosis as well. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in cells exposed to ART at concentrations of 400 μM for 48 h. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), an oxygen radical scavenger, suppressed the rate of ROS generation and inhibited the ART-induced apoptosis. Moreover, AFC assay (Fluorometric assay for Caspase3 activity) showed that ROS was involved in ART-induced caspase3 acitvation. Taken together, our data indicate that ART induces ROS-mediated caspase3 activation in a time-and dose-dependent way in ASCT-a-1 cells.

  4. Roles for ROS and hydrogen sulfide in the longevity response to germline loss in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yuehua; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, removing germ cells slows aging and extends life. Here we show that transcription factors that extend life and confer protection to age-related protein-aggregation toxicity are activated early in adulthood in response to a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a shift in sulfur metabolism. Germline loss triggers H2S production, mitochondrial biogenesis, and a dynamic pattern of ROS in specific somatic tissues. A cytoskeletal protein, KRI-1, plays a key role in the generation of H2S and ROS. These kri-1–dependent redox species, in turn, promote life extension by activating SKN-1/Nrf2 and the mitochondrial unfolded-protein response, respectively. Both H2S and, remarkably, kri-1–dependent ROS are required for the life extension produced by low levels of the superoxide-generator paraquat and by a mutation that inhibits respiration. Together our findings link reproductive signaling to mitochondria and define an inducible, kri-1–dependent redox-signaling module that can be invoked in different contexts to extend life and counteract proteotoxicity. PMID:27140632

  5. Roles for ROS and hydrogen sulfide in the longevity response to germline loss in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuehua; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2016-05-17

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, removing germ cells slows aging and extends life. Here we show that transcription factors that extend life and confer protection to age-related protein-aggregation toxicity are activated early in adulthood in response to a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a shift in sulfur metabolism. Germline loss triggers H2S production, mitochondrial biogenesis, and a dynamic pattern of ROS in specific somatic tissues. A cytoskeletal protein, KRI-1, plays a key role in the generation of H2S and ROS. These kri-1-dependent redox species, in turn, promote life extension by activating SKN-1/Nrf2 and the mitochondrial unfolded-protein response, respectively. Both H2S and, remarkably, kri-1-dependent ROS are required for the life extension produced by low levels of the superoxide-generator paraquat and by a mutation that inhibits respiration. Together our findings link reproductive signaling to mitochondria and define an inducible, kri-1-dependent redox-signaling module that can be invoked in different contexts to extend life and counteract proteotoxicity. PMID:27140632

  6. HOI-02 induces apoptosis and G2-M arrest in esophageal cancer mediated by ROS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, C; Liu, K; Yao, K; Reddy, K; Zhang, Y; Fu, Y; Yang, G; Zykova, T A; Shin, S H; Li, H; Ryu, J; Jiang, Y-n; Yin, X; Ma, W; Bode, A M; Dong, Z; Dong, Z

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive molecules that perform essential functions in living organisms. Accumulating evidence suggests that many types of cancer cells exhibit elevated levels of ROS. Conversely, generation of ROS has become an effective method to kill cancer cells. (E)-3-hydroxy-3-(4-(4-nitrophenyl)-2-oxobut-3-en-1-yl) indolin-2-one, which is an NO2 group-containing compound designated herein as HOI-02, generated ROS and, in a dose-dependent manner, decreased esophageal cancer cell viability and inhibited anchorage-independent growth, followed by apoptosis and G2-M arrest. Moreover, results of an in vivo study using a patient-derived xenograft mouse model showed that HOI-02 treatment suppressed the growth of esophageal tumors, without affecting the body weight of mice. The expression of Ki-67 was significantly decreased with HOI-02 treatment. In addition, the phosphorylation of c-Jun, and expression of p21, cleaved caspase 3, and DCFH-DA were increased in the HOI-02-treated group compared with the untreated control group. In contrast, treatment of cells with (E)-3-(4-(4-aminophenyl)-2-oxobut-3-en-1-yl)-3-hydroxyindolin-2-one, which is an NH2 group-containing compound designated herein as HOI-11, had no effect. Overall, we identified HOI-02 as an effective NO2 group-containing compound that was an effective therapeutic or preventive agent against esophageal cancer cell growth. PMID:26469961

  7. Norepinephrine Reduces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and DNA Damage in Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Pooja R; Hegde, Muralidhar L; Theruvathu, Jacob; Mitra, Sankar A; Boldogh, Istvan; Sowers, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the role of norepinephrine (NE) on DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in ovarian surface epithelial cells. Method Non-tumorigenic, immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells were treated with NE, bleomycin, and bleomycin followed by NE. The comet assay was performed on each treatment group to determine the amount of single and double-strand breaks induced by treatments. ROS levels for each treatment group were measured using the H2DCF-DA fluorescence assay. Finally, RNA transcripts were measured for each treatment group with regards to the expression of DNA repair and oxidative stress genes. Results The mean tail moment of untreated cells was significantly greater than that of cells treated with NE (p=0.02). The mean tail moment of cells treated with bleomycin was significantly greater than that of cells treated with bleomycin followed by NE (p<0.01). Treatment with NE resulted in significantly less ROS generation than in untreated cells (p<0.01). NE treatment after hydrogen peroxide treatment resulted in a noticeable decrease in ROS generation. Genes associated with oxidative stress were upregulated in cells treated with bleomycin, however this upregulation was blunted when bleomycin-treated cells were treated subsequently with NE. Conclusion NE is associated with decreased DNA damage and ROS production in ovarian surface epithelial cells. This effect is protective in the presence of the oxidative-damaging agent bleomycin. These results suggest an additional physiologic role for the stress hormone NE, in protecting ovarian surface epithelial cells from oxidative stress. PMID:26167254

  8. A Key Role for Mg2+ in TRPM7’s Control of ROS Levels During Cell Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsiang-Chin; Su, Li-Ting; González-Pagán, Omayra; Overton, Jeffrey D.; Runnels, Loren W.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The TRPM7 channel has been shown to play a pivotal role in cell survival during brain ischemia as well as in the survival of other cell types challenged with apoptotic stimuli. Ca2+ is thought to be central to the channel’s ability to regulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, channel-mediated entry of Mg2+ and Zn2+ have also been implicated in cell death. Here we show that depletion of TRPM7 by RNA interference in fibroblasts increases cell resistance to apoptotic stimuli by decreasing ROS levels in a Mg2+-dependent manner. Depletion of TRPM7 lowered cellular Mg2+, decreased the concentration of ROS and lessened p38 MAP kinase and JNK activation as well as decreased caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage in response to apoptotic stimuli. Re-expression of TRPM7 or of a kinase-inactive mutant of TRPM7 in TRPM7-knockdown cells increased cellular Mg2+ and ROS levels, as did expression of the Mg2+ transporter SLC41A2. In addition, expression of SLC41A2 increased TRPM7-knockdown cells’ sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli as well as boosted ROS generation in response to cell stress. Together these data uncover an essential role for Mg2+ in TRPM7’s control of cell survival and in the regulation of cellular ROS levels. PMID:22587440

  9. Emodin augments cisplatin cytotoxicity in platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells via ROS-dependent MRP1 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Yang, Jie; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Nan; Dong, Ying; Wang, Chengjie; Wang, Yu; Lin, Xinjian

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is closely associated with chemosensitivity of cancer cells. Overexpression of ATP binding cassette transporter MRP1 is correlated with resistance to platinum drugs. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that emodin, a potent ROS generator, may increase sensitivity of cisplatin-(cDDP-) resistant ovarian carcinoma cells to cDDP cytotoxicity via ROS-mediated suppression of MRP1 expression. Using the isogenic pair of the human ovarian carcinoma cell line COC1 and its cDDP resistant variant COC1/DDP, we found that ROS level in the cDDP-sensitive ovarian cancer cells was significantly higher than that in the cDDP-resistant cells. Emodin enhanced ROS production in COC1/DDP cells and consequently sensitized them to cDDP-induced apoptosis. These effects were reversed by addition of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Cotreatment with emodin and cDDP inhibited the tumor growth in vivo by increasing tumor cell apoptosis. The emodin-enhanced cDDP cytotoxicity was attributable to downregulation of multidrug resistance-related protein 1 (MRP1) expression. Together, these results suggest that emodin could act as an adjunct to enhance the anticancer effect of cDDP likely through ROS-related downregulation of MRP1 expression, and may be of therapeutic potential in cDDP-refractory ovarian carcinomas. PMID:25580427

  10. Autophagy induced by cathepsin S inhibition induces early ROS production, oxidative DNA damage, and cell death via xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Chang; Chen, Kuo-Li; Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio; Chang, Jang-Yang

    2013-12-01

    Cathepsin S plays multiple roles in MHC class II antigen presentation, extracellular matrix degradation, angiogenesis, and tumorogenesis. Our previous study revealed that targeting cathepsin S could induce cellular cytotoxicity and reduce cell viability. For the current study, we further investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for targeting cathepsin S-induced cell death and its association with autophagy. Distinct from regulation of the classic autophagy pathway by reactive oxygen species (ROS), we demonstrated that autophagy is the genuine regulator of early ROS production. The molecular silencing of autophagy-dependent ATG genes (ATG5, ATG7, and LC3) and the pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy with 3-MA and wortmannin reduced ROS production significantly. In addition, xanthine oxidase (XO), which is upregulated by autophagy, is required for early ROS production, oxidative DNA damage, and consequent cell death. Autophagy inhibition suppresses the upregulation of XO, which is induced by cathepsin S inhibition, resulting in reduced ROS generation, DNA damage, and cell death. Collectively, our study reveals a noncanonical molecular pathway in which, after the inhibition of cathepsin S, autophagy induces early ROS production for oxidative DNA damage and cell death through XO. PMID:23892358

  11. ROS play a critical role in the differentiation of alternatively activated macrophages and the occurrence of tumor-associated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Choksi, Swati; Chen, Kun; Pobezinskaya, Yelena; Linnoila, Ilona; Liu, Zheng-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Differentiation to different types of macrophages determines their distinct functions. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promote tumorigenesis owing to their proangiogenic and immune-suppressive functions similar to those of alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. We report that reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is critical for macrophage differentiation and that inhibition of superoxide (O2−) production specifically blocks the differentiation of M2 macrophages. We found that when monocytes are triggered to differentiate, O2− is generated and is needed for the biphasic ERK activation, which is critical for macrophage differentiation. We demonstrated that ROS elimination by butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and other ROS inhibitors blocks macrophage differentiation. However, the inhibitory effect of ROS elimination on macrophage differentiation is overcome when cells are polarized to classically activated (M1), but not M2, macrophages. More importantly, the continuous administration of the ROS inhibitor BHA efficiently blocked the occurrence of TAMs and markedly suppressed tumorigenesis in mouse cancer models. Targeting TAMs by blocking ROS can be a potentially effective method for cancer treatment. PMID:23752925

  12. Mouse Model for ROS1-Rearranged Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hiromi; Hama, Natsuko; Kohno, Takashi; Tsuta, Koji; Yoshida, Akihiko; Asamura, Hisao; Mutoh, Michihiro; Hosoda, Fumie; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Shibata, Tatsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Genetic rearrangement of the ROS1 receptor tyrosine kinase was recently identified as a distinct molecular signature for human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, direct evidence of lung carcinogenesis induced by ROS1 fusion genes remains to be verified. The present study shows that EZR-ROS1 plays an essential role in the oncogenesis of NSCLC harboring the fusion gene. EZR-ROS1 was identified in four female patients of lung adenocarcinoma. Three of them were never smokers. Interstitial deletion of 6q22–q25 resulted in gene fusion. Expression of the fusion kinase in NIH3T3 cells induced anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and subcutaneous tumors in nude mice. This transforming ability was attributable to its kinase activity. The ALK/MET/ROS1 kinase inhibitor, crizotinib, suppressed fusion-induced anchorage-independent growth of NIH3T3 cells. Most importantly, established transgenic mouse lines specifically expressing EZR-ROS1 in lung alveolar epithelial cells developed multiple adenocarcinoma nodules in both lungs at an early age. These data suggest that the EZR-ROS1 is a pivotal oncogene in human NSCLC, and that this animal model could be valuable for exploring therapeutic agents against ROS1-rearranged lung cancer. PMID:23418494

  13. ROS and Brain Gliomas: An Overview of Potential and Innovative Therapeutic Strategies.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Caffo, Maria; Minutoli, Letteria; Marini, Herbert; Abbritti, Rosaria Viola; Squadrito, Francesco; Trichilo, Vincenzo; Valenti, Andrea; Barresi, Valeria; Altavilla, Domenica; Passalacqua, Marcello; Caruso, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) represent reactive products belonging to the partial reduction of oxygen. It has been reported that ROS are involved in different signaling pathways to control cellular stability. Under normal conditions, the correct function of redox systems leads to the prevention of cell oxidative damage. When ROS exceed the antioxidant defense system, cellular stress occurs. The cellular redox impairment is strictly related to tumorigenesis. Tumor cells, through the generation of hydrogen peroxide, tend to the alteration of cell cycle phases and, finally to cancer progression. In adults, the most common form of primary malignant brain tumors is represented by gliomas. The gliomagenesis is characterized by numerous molecular processes all characterized by an altered production of growth factor receptors. The difficulty to treat brain cancer depends on several biological mechanisms such as failure of drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier, tumor response to chemotherapy, and intrinsic resistance of tumor cells. Understanding the mechanisms of ROS action could allow the formulation of new therapeutic protocols to treat brain gliomas. PMID:27338365

  14. ROS and Brain Gliomas: An Overview of Potential and Innovative Therapeutic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Caffo, Maria; Minutoli, Letteria; Marini, Herbert; Abbritti, Rosaria Viola; Squadrito, Francesco; Trichilo, Vincenzo; Valenti, Andrea; Barresi, Valeria; Altavilla, Domenica; Passalacqua, Marcello; Caruso, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) represent reactive products belonging to the partial reduction of oxygen. It has been reported that ROS are involved in different signaling pathways to control cellular stability. Under normal conditions, the correct function of redox systems leads to the prevention of cell oxidative damage. When ROS exceed the antioxidant defense system, cellular stress occurs. The cellular redox impairment is strictly related to tumorigenesis. Tumor cells, through the generation of hydrogen peroxide, tend to the alteration of cell cycle phases and, finally to cancer progression. In adults, the most common form of primary malignant brain tumors is represented by gliomas. The gliomagenesis is characterized by numerous molecular processes all characterized by an altered production of growth factor receptors. The difficulty to treat brain cancer depends on several biological mechanisms such as failure of drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier, tumor response to chemotherapy, and intrinsic resistance of tumor cells. Understanding the mechanisms of ROS action could allow the formulation of new therapeutic protocols to treat brain gliomas. PMID:27338365

  15. Mitochondrial flashes: new insights into mitochondrial ROS signalling and beyond.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tingting; Wang, Xianhua; Ma, Qi; Cheng, Heping

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory mitochondria undergo stochastic, intermittent bursts of superoxide production accompanied by transient depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and reversible opening of the membrane permeability transition pore. These discrete events were named 'superoxide flashes' for the reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal involved, and 'mitochondrial flashes' (mitoflashes) for the entirety of the multifaceted and intertwined mitochondrial processes. In contrast to the flashless basal ROS production of 'homeostatic ROS' for redox regulation, bursting ROS production during mitoflashes may provide 'signalling ROS' at the organelle level, fulfilling distinctly different cell functions. Mounting evidence indicates that mitoflash frequency is richly regulated over a broad range, and represents a novel, universal, and 'digital' readout of mitochondrial functional status and of the mitochondrial stress response. An emerging view is that mitoflashes participate in vital processes including metabolism, cell differentiation, the stress response and ageing. These recent advances shed new light on the role of mitochondrial functional dynamics in health and disease. PMID:25038239

  16. The interplay between ROS and tubulin cytoskeleton in plants

    PubMed Central

    Livanos, Pantelis; Galatis, Basil; Apostolakos, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Plants have to deal with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, since it could potentially cause severe damages to different cellular components. On the other hand, ROS functioning as important second messengers are implicated in various developmental processes and are transiently produced during biotic or abiotic stresses. Furthermore, the microtubules (MTs) play a primary role in plant development and appear as potent players in sensing stressful situations and in the subsequent cellular responses. Emerging evidence suggests that ROS affect MTs in multiple ways. The cellular redox status seems to be tightly coupled with MTs. ROS signals regulate the organization of tubulin cytoskeleton and induce tubulin modifications. This review aims at summarizing the signaling mechanisms and the key operators orchestrating the crosstalk between ROS and tubulin cytoskeleton in plant cells. The contribution of several molecules, including microtubule associated proteins, oxidases, kinases, phospholipases, and transcription factors, is highlighted. PMID:24521945

  17. Detection and quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, V Nahuel; Sleiman, Mohamad; Cohn, Sebastian; Litter, Marta I; Destaillats, Hugo

    2015-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as free radicals and peroxides, are environmental trace pollutants potentially associated with asthma and airways inflammation. These compounds are often not detected in indoor air due to sampling and analytical limitations. This study developed and validated an experimental method to sample, identify and quantify ROS in indoor air using fluorescent probes. Tests were carried out simultaneously using three different probes: 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH) to detect a broad range of ROS, Amplex ultra Red® (AuR) to detect peroxides, and terephthalic acid (TPA) to detect hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)). For each test, air samples were collected using two impingers in series kept in an ice bath, containing each 10 mL of 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.2. In tests with TPA, that probe was also added to the buffer prior to sampling; in the other two tests, probes and additional reactants were added immediately after sampling. The concentration of fluorescent byproducts was determined fluorometrically. Calibration curves were developed by reacting DCFH and AuR with known amounts of H2O2, and using known amounts of 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid (HTPA) for TPA. Low detection limits (9-13 nM) and quantification limits (18-22 nM) were determined for all three probes, which presented a linear response in the range 10-500 nM for AuR and TPA, and 100-2000 nM for DCFH. High collection efficiency (CE) and recovery efficiency (RE) were observed for DCFH (CE=RE=100%) and AuR (CE=100%; RE=73%) by sampling from a laboratory-developed gas phase H2O2 generator. Interference of co-occurring ozone was evaluated and quantified for the three probes by sampling from the outlet of an ozone generator. The method was demonstrated by sampling air emitted by two portable air cleaners: a strong ozone generator (AC1) and a plasma generator (AC2). High ozone levels emitted by AC1 did not allow for simultaneous determination of ROS levels due to high background levels

  18. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced cytokine production and cytotoxicity of PAMAM dendrimers in J774A.1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Naha, Pratap C.; Davoren, Maria; Lyng, Fiona M.; Byrne, Hugh J.

    2010-07-15

    The immunotoxicity of three generations of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (G-4, G-5 and G-6) was evaluated in mouse macrophage cells in vitro. Using the Alamar blue and MTT assays, a generation dependent cytotoxicity of the PAMAM dendrimers was found whereby G-6 > G-5 > G-4. The toxic response of the PAMAM dendrimers correlated well with the number of surface primary amino groups, with increasing number resulting in an increase in toxic response. An assessment of intracellular ROS generation by the PAMAM dendrimers was performed by measuring the increased fluorescence as a result of intracellular oxidation of Carboxy H{sub 2}DCFDA to DCF both quantitatively using plate reader and qualitatively by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The inflammatory mediators macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), tumour necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6, (IL-6) were measured by the enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) following exposure of mouse macrophage cells to PAMAM dendrimers. A generation dependent ROS and cytokine production was found, which correlated well with the cytotoxicological response and therefore number of surface amino groups. A clear time sequence of increased ROS generation (maximum at {approx} 4 h), TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 secretion (maximum at {approx} 24 h), MIP-2 levels and cell death ({approx} 72 h) was observed. The intracellular ROS generation and cytokine production induced cytotoxicity point towards the mechanistic pathway of cell death upon exposure to PAMAM dendrimers.

  19. Neuronal NAD(P)H Oxidases Contribute to ROS Production and Mediate RGC Death after Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Dvoriantchikova, Galina; Grant, Jeff; Santos, Andrea Rachelle C.; Hernandez, Eleut; Ivanov, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To study the role of neuronal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] oxidase–dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death after ischemia. Methods. Ischemic injury was induced by unilateral elevation of intraocular pressure via direct corneal cannulation. For in vitro experiments, RGCs isolated by immunopanning from retinas were exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). The expression levels of NAD(P)H oxidase subunits were evaluated by quantitative PCR, immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry. The level of ROS generated was assayed by dihydroethidium. The NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors were then tested to determine if inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase altered the production of ROS within the RGCs and promoted cell survival. Results. It was reported that RGCs express catalytic Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, Duox1, as well as regulatory Ncf1/p47phox, Ncf2/p67phox, Cyba/p22phox, Noxo1, and Noxa1 subunits of NAD(P)H oxidases under normal conditions and after ischemia. However, whereas RGCs express only low levels of catalytic Nox2, Nox4, and Duox1, and regulatory Ncf1/p47, Ncf2/p67 subunits, they exhibit significantly higher levels of catalytic subunit Nox1 and the subunits required for optimal activity of Nox1. It was observed that the nonselective NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitors VAS-2870, AEBSF, and the Nox1 NAD(P)H oxidase–specific inhibitor ML-090 decreased the ROS burst stimulated by OGD, which was associated with a decreased level of RGC death. Conclusions. The findings suggest that NAD(P)H oxidase activity in RGCs renders them vulnerable to ischemic death. Importantly, high levels of Nox1 NAD(P)H oxidase subunits in RGCs suggest that this enzyme could be a major source of ROS in RGCs produced by NAD(P)H oxidases. PMID:22467573

  20. Methylglyoxal induces cell death through endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chi-Ming; Huang, Duen-Yi; Huang, Yi-Pin; Hsu, Shu-Hao; Kang, Lan-Ya; Shen, Chung-Min; Lin, Wan-Wan

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are two important leading causes of acquired blindness in developed countries. As accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells plays an important role in both DR and AMD, and the methylglyoxal (MGO) within the AGEs exerts irreversible effects on protein structure and function, it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanism of MGO-induced RPE cell death. Using ARPE-19 as the cell model, this study revealed that MGO induces RPE cell death through a caspase-independent manner, which relying on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss, intracellular calcium elevation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Suppression of ROS generation can reverse the MGO-induced ROS production, MMP loss, intracellular calcium increase and cell death. Moreover, store-operated calcium channel inhibitors MRS1845 and YM-58483, but not the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor inhibitor xestospongin C, can block MGO-induced ROS production, MMP loss and sustained intracellular calcium increase in ARPE-19 cells. Lastly, inhibition of ER stress by salubrinal and 4-PBA can reduce the MGO-induced intracellular events and cell death. Therefore, our data indicate that MGO can decrease RPE cell viability, resulting from the ER stress-dependent intracellular ROS production, MMP loss and increased intracellular calcium increase. As MGO is one of the components of drusen in AMD and is the AGEs adduct in DR, this study could provide a valuable insight into the molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention of AMD and DR. PMID:27307396

  1. Oxidative metabolism, ROS and NO under oxygen deprivation.

    PubMed

    Blokhina, Olga; Fagerstedt, Kurt V

    2010-05-01

    Oxygen deprivation, in line with other stress conditions, is accompanied by reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) formation and is characterised by a set of metabolic changes collectively named as the 'oxidative stress response'. The controversial induction of oxidative metabolism under the lack of oxygen is necessitated by ROS and RNS signaling in the induction of adaptive responses, and inevitably results in oxidative damage. To prevent detrimental effects of oxidative stress, the levels of ROS and NO are tightly controlled on transcriptional, translational and metabolic levels. Hypoxia triggers the induction of genes responsible for ROS and NO handling and utilization (respiratory burst oxidase, non-symbiotic hemoglobins, several cytochromes P450, mitochondrial dehydrogenases, and antioxidant-related transcripts). The level of oxygen in the tissue is also under metabolic control via multiple mechanisms: Regulation of glycolytic and fermentation pathways to manage pyruvate availability for respiration, and adjustment of mitochondrial electron flow through NO and ROS balance. Both adaptive strategies are controlled by energy status and aim to decrease the respiratory capacity and to postpone complete anoxia. Besides local oxygen concentration, ROS and RNS formation is controlled by an array of antioxidants. Hypoxic treatment leads to the upregulation of multiple transcripts associated with ascorbate, glutathione and thioredoxin metabolism. The production of ROS and NO is an integral part of the response to oxygen deprivation which encompasses several levels of metabolic regulation to sustain redox signaling and to prevent oxidative damage. PMID:20303775

  2. Optimization of photosynthesis by multiple metabolic pathways involving interorganelle interactions: resource sharing and ROS maintenance as the bases.

    PubMed

    Sunil, Bobba; Talla, Sai K; Aswani, Vetcha; Raghavendra, Agepati S

    2013-11-01

    The bioenergetic processes of photosynthesis and respiration are mutually beneficial. Their interaction extends to photorespiration, which is linked to optimize photosynthesis. The interplay of these three pathways is facilitated by two major phenomena: sharing of energy/metabolite resources and maintenance of optimal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The resource sharing among different compartments of plant cells is based on the production/utilization of reducing equivalents (NADPH, NADH) and ATP as well as on the metabolite exchange. The responsibility of generating the cellular requirements of ATP and NAD(P)H is mostly by the chloroplasts and mitochondria. In turn, besides the chloroplasts, the mitochondria, cytosol and peroxisomes are common sinks for reduced equivalents. Transporters located in membranes ensure the coordinated movement of metabolites across the cellular compartments. The present review emphasizes the beneficial interactions among photosynthesis, dark respiration and photorespiration, in relation to metabolism of C, N and S. Since the bioenergetic reactions tend to generate ROS, the cells modulate chloroplast and mitochondrial reactions, so as to ensure that the ROS levels do not rise to toxic levels. The patterns of minimization of ROS production and scavenging of excess ROS in intracellular compartments are highlighted. Some of the emerging developments are pointed out, such as model plants, orientation/movement of organelles and metabolomics. PMID:23881384

  3. New insights into ROS dynamics: a multi-layered microfluidic chip for ecotoxicological studies on aquatic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Koman, Volodymyr B; von Moos, Nadia R; Santschi, Christian; Slaveykova, Vera I; Martin, Olivier J F

    2016-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the life of every cell, including cellular defense and signaling mechanisms. Continuous and quantitative ROS sensing can provide valuable information about the cell state, but it remains a challenge to measure. Here, we introduce a multi-layered microfluidic chip with an integrated optical sensor for the continuous sensitive detection of extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), one of the most stable ROS. This platform includes hydraulically controlled microvalves and microsieves, which enable the precise control of toxicants and complex exposure sequences. In particular, we use this platform to study the dynamics of toxicity-induced ROS generation in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during short-term exposures, recovery periods, and subsequent re-exposures. Two cadmium-based toxicants with distinct internalization mechanisms are used as stress inducers: CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (Qdots) and ionic cadmium (Cd(2+)). Our results show the quantitative dynamics of ROS generation by the model microalga, the recovery of cell homeostasis after stress events and the cumulative nature of two consecutive exposures. The dissolution of quantum dots and its possible influence on toxicity and H2O2 depletion is discussed. The obtained insights are relevant from ecotoxicological and physiological perspectives. PMID:26907664

  4. Cyanine fluorophores for cellular protection against ROS in stimulated macrophages and two-photon ROS detection.

    PubMed

    Chan, M S; Xu, D; Guo, L; Tam, D Y; Liu, L S; Chen, Y; Wong, M S; Lo, P K

    2015-07-14

    We report the first example of a novel two-photon active, biocompatible, and macrophage cell-membrane permeable carbazole-based cyanine fluorophore for the detection of three biologically important ROS, namely, ˙OH, O2(-) and OCl(-) in solution. This versatile probe shows cellular protection not only in stimulated macrophages from phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced morphological changes but also lipopolysaccharide-induced cytotoxicity by quenching with the O2(-) and OCl(-) production, respectively. Such protection could be visualized by a distinct change in the fluorescence intensity of the probe. PMID:26059852

  5. Efficient generation of cavitation bubbles and reactive oxygen species using triggered high-intensity focused ultrasound sequence for sonodynamic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Jun; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Sonodynamic treatment is a method of treating cancer using reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by cavitation bubbles in collaboration with a sonosensitizer at a target tissue. In this treatment method, both localized ROS generation and ROS generation with high efficiency are important. In this study, a triggered high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) sequence, which consists of a short, extremely high intensity pulse immediately followed by a long, moderate-intensity burst, was employed for the efficient generation of ROS. In experiments, a solution sealed in a chamber was exposed to a triggered HIFU sequence. Then, the distribution of generated ROS was observed by the luminol reaction, and the amount of generated ROS was quantified using KI method. As a result, the localized ROS generation was demonstrated by light emission from the luminol reaction. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the triggered HIFU sequence has higher efficiency of ROS generation by both the KI method and the luminol reaction emission.

  6. Phytohormones Signaling Pathways and ROS Involvement in Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Oracz, Krystyna; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are major determinants of the regulation of development and stress responses in plants. During life cycle of these organisms, signaling networks of plant growth regulators and ROS interact in order to render an appropriate developmental and environmental response. In plant’s photosynthetic (e.g., leaves) and non-photosynthetic (e.g., seeds) tissues, enhanced and suboptimal ROS production is usually associated with stress, which in extreme cases can be lethal to cells, a whole organ or even an organism. However, controlled production of ROS is appreciated for cellular signaling. Despite the current progress that has been made in plant biology and increasing number of findings that have revealed roles of ROS and hormonal signaling in germination, some questions still arise, e.g., what are the downstream protein targets modified by ROS enabling stimulus-specific cellular responses of the seed? Or which molecular regulators allow ROS/phytohormones interactions and what is their function in seed life? In this particular review the role of some transcription factors, kinases and phosphatases is discussed, especially those which usually known to be involved in ROS and hormonal signal transduction under stress in plants, may also play a role in the regulation of processes occurring in seeds. The summarized recent findings regarding particular ROS- and phytohormones-related regulatory proteins, as well as their integration, allowed to propose a novel, possible model of action of LESION SIMULATING DISEASE 1, ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1, and PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4 functioning during seeds life. PMID:27379144

  7. MaROS: Information Management Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allard, Daniel A.; Gladden, Roy E.; Wright, Jesse J.; Hy, Franklin H.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Wallick, Michael N.

    2011-01-01

    This software is provided by the Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) task to a variety of Mars projects for the purpose of coordinating communications sessions between landed spacecraft assets and orbiting spacecraft assets at Mars. The Information Management Service centralizes a set of functions previously distributed across multiple spacecraft operations teams, and as such, greatly improves visibility into the end-to-end strategic coordination process. Most of the process revolves around the scheduling of communications sessions between the spacecraft during periods of time when a landed asset on Mars is geometrically visible by an orbiting spacecraft. These relay sessions are used to transfer data both to and from the landed asset via the orbiting asset on behalf of Earth-based spacecraft operators. This software component is an application process running as a Java virtual machine. The component provides all service interfaces via a Representational State Transfer (REST) protocol over https to external clients. There are two general interaction modes with the service: upload and download of data. For data upload, the service must execute logic specific to the upload data type and trigger any applicable calculations including pass delivery latencies and overflight conflicts. For data download, the software must retrieve and correlate requested information and deliver to the requesting client. The provision of this service enables several key advancements over legacy processes and systems. For one, this service represents the first time that end-to-end relay information is correlated into a single shared repository. The software also provides the first multimission latency calculator; previous latency calculations had been performed on a mission-by-mission basis.

  8. Uncoupling and reactive oxygen species (ROS)--a double-edged sword for β-cell function? "Moderation in all things".

    PubMed

    Collins, Sheila; Pi, Jingbo; Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav

    2012-12-01

    The ability of the mitochondrion to (a) manage fuel import to oxidize for adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) generation while (b) protecting itself and the cellular environment from electron leak, which can generate highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a delicate balancing act. ATP is the currency of the cell and as such serves a signaling function as a substrate partner to many kinases and ion channels. While various ROS species have been viewed as a dangerous and toxic group of molecules, it also has a role as a signal derived from mitochondria, as well as other enzymatic sources: a double-edged sword. Current efforts to understand the biochemical mechanisms affected by ROS as a signal--usually noted to be hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))--are exciting, but this duality of ROS effects also pose challenges in managing its levels to protect cells. The mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), UCP3, and the permeability transition pore have been integral to efforts to try to understand what role mitochondrial-derived ROS have in cells. In this piece we reflect on mitochondrial ROS and uncoupling proteins as signaling regulators. It seems that when it comes to ROS and uncoupling the proverb "Moderation in all things" is apt. PMID:23168277

  9. Chaetocin-induced ROS-mediated apoptosis involves ATM–YAP1 axis and JNK-dependent inhibition of glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, D; Ghildiyal, R; Anto, N P; Sen, E

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress serves as an important regulator of both apoptosis and metabolic reprogramming in tumor cells. Chaetocin, a histone methyltransferase inhibitor, is known to induce ROS generation. As elevating basal ROS level sensitizes glioma cells to apoptosis, the ability of Chaetocin in regulating apoptotic and metabolic adaptive responses in glioma was investigated. Chaetocin induced glioma cell apoptosis in a ROS-dependent manner. Increased intracellular ROS induced (i) Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) expression independent of the canonical Hippo pathway as well as (ii) ATM and JNK activation. Increased interaction of YAP1 with p73 and p300 induced apoptosis in an ATM-dependent manner. Chaetocin induced JNK modulated several metabolic parameters like glucose uptake, lactate production, ATP generation, and activity of glycolytic enzymes hexokinase and pyruvate kinase. However, JNK had no effect on ATM or YAP1 expression. Coherent with the in vitro findings, Chaetocin reduced tumor burden in heterotypic xenograft glioma mouse model. Chaetocin-treated tumors exhibited heightened ROS, pATM, YAP1 and pJNK levels. Our study highlights the coordinated control of glioma cell proliferation and metabolism by ROS through (i) ATM-YAP1-driven apoptotic pathway and (ii) JNK-regulated metabolic adaptation. The elucidation of these newfound connections and the roles played by ROS to simultaneously shift metabolic program and induce apoptosis could provide insights toward the development of new anti-glioma strategies. PMID:24810048

  10. HYPERSENSITIVE RESPONSE-LIKE LESIONS 1 Codes for AtPPT1 and Regulates Accumulation of ROS and Defense Against Bacterial Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Aditya; Chan, Samuel H.P.; Pauli, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Plants employ both basal and resistance gene (R gene)-mediated defenses in response to pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are widely reported to play a central role in both basal and R gene-mediated defense; however, the nature of ROS has been less well established for basal defense. In addition, spatial distribution of redox moieties and mechanisms of plant responses during basal defense are poorly understood. We investigated redox signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to virulent bacterial pathogen, focusing on the role of the mitochondria in balancing energy demands against generation of physiologically relevant ROS. Results: Positional cloning of an Arabidopsis lesion mimic mutant identified a polyprenyl transferase involved in the biosynthesis of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ), which leads to novel insights into physiological ROS levels and their role in basal resistance. Gain- and loss-of-function studies identified Coenzyme Q10 redox state to be a key determinant of ROS levels. These Coenzyme Q10 redox state-mediated ROS levels had a direct bearing on both response against pathogen and ability to thrive in high oxidative stress environments. Innovation: We demonstrate that Coenzyme Q10 redox state generates an ROS threshold for a successful basal resistance response. Perturbation of the Coenzyme Q10 redox state has the potential to disrupt plant defense responses against bacterial pathogens. Conclusions: Coenzyme Q10 redox state is a key regulator of Arabidopsis basal resistance against bacterial pathogens. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 785–796. PMID:25557512