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Sample records for oxidative stress-related mitochondrial

  1. Oxidative Stress Related Diseases in Newborns.

    PubMed

    Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Aykac, Kubra

    2016-01-01

    We review oxidative stress-related newborn disease and the mechanism of oxidative damage. In addition, we outline diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and future directions. Many reports have defined oxidative stress as an imbalance between an enhanced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and the lack of protective ability of antioxidants. From that point of view, free radical-induced damage caused by oxidative stress seems to be a probable contributing factor to the pathogenesis of many newborn diseases, such as respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and retinopathy of prematurity. We share the hope that the new understanding of the concept of oxidative stress and its relation to newborn diseases that has been made possible by new diagnostic techniques will throw light on the treatment of those diseases. PMID:27403229

  2. Oxidative Stress Related Diseases in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Aykac, Kubra

    2016-01-01

    We review oxidative stress-related newborn disease and the mechanism of oxidative damage. In addition, we outline diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and future directions. Many reports have defined oxidative stress as an imbalance between an enhanced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and the lack of protective ability of antioxidants. From that point of view, free radical-induced damage caused by oxidative stress seems to be a probable contributing factor to the pathogenesis of many newborn diseases, such as respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and retinopathy of prematurity. We share the hope that the new understanding of the concept of oxidative stress and its relation to newborn diseases that has been made possible by new diagnostic techniques will throw light on the treatment of those diseases. PMID:27403229

  3. Methodology for use of mitochondria-targeted cations in the field of oxidative stress-related research.

    PubMed

    Vyssokikh, Mikhail Y; Antonenko, Yury N; Lyamzaev, Konstantin G; Rokitskaya, Tatyana I; Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2015-01-01

    For many pathological conditions, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in mitochondria are considered to have a role as a trigger. When mitochondrial ROS (mROS) are formed in the inner mitochondrial membrane, they initiate free radical-mediated chain reactions of lipid peroxidation and are thus especially damaging. The consequences of membrane damage are decreased electrical resistance of the membrane, oxidative damage to cardiolipin (a mitochondria specific lipid essential for functioning of respiratory chain proteins and H(+)-ATP synthase), and damage to mitochondrial DNA localized in close vicinity to the inner membrane, with consequent mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of apoptotic cascade and cell death. To target the starting point of such undesirable events, antioxidants conjugated with mitochondria-targeted, membrane-penetrating cations can be used to scavenge ROS inside mitochondria. The most demonstrative indications favoring this conclusion originate from recent discoveries of the in vivo effects of such cations belonging to the MitoQ and SkQ groups. Here we describe some essential methodological aspects of the application of mitochondria-targeted cations promising in treating oxidative stress-related pathologies. PMID:25634274

  4. Antioxidant capacities of flavones and benefits in oxidative-stress related diseases.

    PubMed

    Catarino, Marcelo D; Alves-Silva, Jorge M; Pereira, Olivia R; Cardoso, Susana M

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, a group of secondary metabolites widely distributed in the plant kingdom, have been acknowledged for their interesting medicinal properties. Among them, natural flavones, as well as some of their synthetic derivatives, have been shown to exhibit several biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-allergic, neuroprotective, cardioprotective and antimicrobial. The antioxidant properties of flavones allow them to demonstrate potential application as preventive and attenuating agents in oxidative stress, i.e., a biological condition that is closely associated to aging process and several diseases. Some flavones interfere in distinct oxidative-stress related events by directly reducing the levels of intracellular free radicals (hydroxyl, superoxide and nitric oxide) and/or of reactive species (e.g. hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite and hypochlorous acid) thus preventing their amplification and the consequent damage of other biomolecules such as lipids, proteins and DNA. Flavones can also hinder the activity of central free radical-producing enzymes, such as xanthine oxidase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH-oxidase) or inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and can even modulate the intracellular levels of pro-oxidant and/or antioxidant enzymes. The evaluation of flavones antioxidant ability has been extensively determined in chemical or biological in vitro models, but in vivo therapy with individual flavones or with flavones-enriched extracts has also been reported. The present manuscript revises relevant studies focusing the preventive effects of flavones on stress-related diseases, namely the neurological and cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes and its associated complications. PMID:25547095

  5. Oxidative Stress-Related Biomarkers in Essential Hypertension and Ischemia-Reperfusion Myocardial Damage

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Ramón; Feliú, Felipe; Hasson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with hypertension being a major risk factor. Numerous studies support the contribution of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the pathogenesis of hypertension, as well as other pathologies associated with ischemia/reperfusion. However, the validation of oxidative stress-related biomarkers in these settings is still lacking and novel association of these biomarkers and other biomarkers such as endothelial progenitor cells, endothelial microparticles, and ischemia modified albumin, is just emerging. Oxidative stress has been suggested as a pathogenic factor and therapeutic target in early stages of essential hypertension. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure correlated positively with plasma F2-isoprostane levels and negatively with total antioxidant capacity of plasma in hypertensive and normotensive patients. Cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation causes an ischemia/reperfusion event associated with increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation, two biomarkers associated with oxidative damage of cardiac tissue. An enhancement of the antioxidant defense system should contribute to ameliorating functional and structural abnormalities derived from this metabolic impairment. However, data have to be validated with the analysis of the appropriate oxidative stress and/or nitrosative stress biomarkers. PMID:24347798

  6. Mammalian mitochondrial beta-oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, S; Bartlett, K; Pourfarzam, M

    1996-01-01

    The enzymic stages of mammalian mitochondrial beta-oxidation were elucidated some 30-40 years ago. However, the discovery of a membrane-associated multifunctional enzyme of beta-oxidation, a membrane-associated acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and characterization of the carnitine palmitoyl transferase system at the protein and at the genetic level has demonstrated that the enzymes of the system itself are incompletely understood. Deficiencies of many of the enzymes have been recognized as important causes of disease. In addition, the study of these disorders has led to a greater understanding of the molecular mechanism of beta-oxidation and the import, processing and assembly of the beta-oxidation enzymes within the mitochondrion. The tissue-specific regulation, intramitochondrial control and supramolecular organization of the pathway is becoming better understood as sensitive analytical and molecular techniques are applied. This review aims to cover enzymological and organizational aspects of mitochondrial beta-oxidation together with the biochemical aspects of inherited disorders of beta-oxidation and the intrinsic control of beta-oxidation. PMID:8973539

  7. Oxidative stress-related DNA damage and homologous recombination repairing induced by N,N-dimethylformamide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cui; Yang, Jinhuan; Lu, Dezhao; Fan, Yongsheng; Zhao, Meirong; Li, Zhuoyu

    2016-07-01

    The intensified anthropogenic release of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) has been proven to have hepatotoxic effects. However, the potential mechanism for DMF-induced toxicity has rarely been investigated. Our research implicated that DMF induced a significantly dose-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HL-7702 human liver cells. Moreover, oxidative stress-related DNA damage, marked as 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, was increased 1.5-fold at 100 mmol l(-1) . The most severe DNA lesion (double-strand break, DSB), measured as the formation of γH2AX foci, was increased at/above 6.4 mmol l(-1) , and approximately 50% of cells underwent DSB at the peak induction. Subsequently, the DNA repair system triggered by molecules of RAD50 and MRE11A induced the homologous recombination (HR) pathway by upregulation of both gene and protein levels of RAD50, RAD51, XRCC2 and XRCC3 at 16 mmol l(-1) and was attenuated at 40 mmol l(-1) . Consequently, cellular death observed at 40 mmol l(-1) was exaggerated compared with exposure at 16 mmol l(-1) . Although the exact mechanism relying on the DMF-induced hepatotoxicity needs further clarification, oxidative stress and DNA damage involved in DSBs partially explain the reason for DMF-induced liver injury. Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage should be first considered during risk assessment on liver-targeted chemicals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26387567

  8. Identification of oxidative stress-related proteins for predictive screening of hepatotoxicity using a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshinori; Kikkawa, Rie; Yamada, Hiroshi; Horii, Ikuo

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the effects of three hepatotoxicants, acetaminophen (APAP), amiodarone (AD) and tetracycline (TC), on protein expression in primary cultured rat hepatocytes with toxicoproteomic approach, which is two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry. The objectives of this study were to search for alternative toxicity biomarkers which could be detected with high sensitivity prior to the appearance of morphological changes or alterations of analytical conventional biomarkers. The related proteins in the process of cell degeneration/necrosis such as cell death, lipid metabolism and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism were mainly affected under exposure to APAP, AD and TC, respectively. Among the differentially expressed proteins, several oxidative stress-related proteins were clearly identified after 24-hr exposure, even though they were not affected for 6-hr exposure. They were glutathione peroxidase (GPX) as a down-regulated protein as well as peroxiredoxin 1 (PRX1) and peroxiredoxin 2 (PRX2) as up-regulated proteins, which are known to serve as antioxidative enzymes in cells. These findings suggested that the focused proteins, GPX and PRXs, could be utilized as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity, and they were useful for setting high throughput screening methods to assess hepatotoxicity in the early stage of drug discovery. PMID:16141655

  9. Oxidative damage and mitochondrial decay in aging.

    PubMed Central

    Shigenaga, M K; Hagen, T M; Ames, B N

    1994-01-01

    We argue for the critical role of oxidative damage in causing the mitochondrial dysfunction of aging. Oxidants generated by mitochondria appear to be the major source of the oxidative lesions that accumulate with age. Several mitochondrial functions decline with age. The contributing factors include the intrinsic rate of proton leakage across the inner mitochondrial membrane (a correlate of oxidant formation), decreased membrane fluidity, and decreased levels and function of cardiolipin, which supports the function of many of the proteins of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Acetyl-L-carnitine, a high-energy mitochondrial substrate, appears to reverse many age-associated deficits in cellular function, in part by increasing cellular ATP production. Such evidence supports the suggestion that age-associated accumulation of mitochondrial deficits due to oxidative damage is likely to be a major contributor to cellular, tissue, and organismal aging. PMID:7971961

  10. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter protein MCU is involved in oxidative stress-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yajin; Hao, Yumin; Chen, Hong; He, Qing; Yuan, Zengqiang; Cheng, Jinbo

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is a conserved Ca(2+) transporter at mitochondrial in eukaryotic cells. However, the role of MCU protein in oxidative stress-induced cell death remains unclear. Here, we showed that ectopically expressed MCU is mitochondrial localized in both HeLa and primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Knockdown of endogenous MCU decreases mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake following histamine stimulation and attenuates cell death induced by oxidative stress in both HeLa cells and CGNs. We also found MCU interacts with VDAC1 and mediates VDAC1 overexpression-induced cell death in CGNs. This finding demonstrates that MCU-VDAC1 complex regulates mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, which might represent therapeutic targets for oxidative stress related diseases. PMID:25753332

  11. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Waldbaum, Simon; Patel, Manisha

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction are contributing factors to various neurological disorders. Recently, there has been increasing evidence supporting the association between mitochondrial oxidative stress and epilepsy. Although certain inherited epilepsies are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, little is known about its role in acquired epilepsies such as temporal lobe epilepsy. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction are emerging as key factors that not only result from seizures, but may also contribute to epileptogenesis. The occurrence of epilepsy increases with age, and mitochondrial oxidative stress is a leading mechanism of aging and age-related degenerative disease, suggesting a further involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in seizure generation. Mitochondria have critical cellular functions that effect neuronal excitability including production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), fatty acid oxidation, control of apoptosis and necrosis, regulation of amino acid cycling, neurotransmitter biosynthesis, and regulation of cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis. Mitochondria are the primary site of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production making them uniquely vulnerable to oxidative stress and damage which can further affect cellular macromolecule function, the ability of the electron transport chain to produce ATP, antioxidant defenses, mitochondrial DNA stability, and synaptic glutamate homeostasis. Oxidative damage to one or more of these cellular targets may affect neuronal excitability and increase seizure susceptibility. The specific targeting of mitochondrial oxidative stress, dysfunction, and bioenergetics with pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments may be a novel avenue for attenuating epileptogenesis and seizure initiation. PMID:19850449

  12. Oxidative stress in inherited mitochondrial diseases.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Genki; Cortopassi, Gino

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondria are a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial diseases are the result of inherited defects in mitochondrially expressed genes. One potential pathomechanism for mitochondrial disease is oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can occur as the result of increased ROS production or decreased ROS protection. The role of oxidative stress in the five most common inherited mitochondrial diseases, Friedreich ataxia, LHON, MELAS, MERRF, and Leigh syndrome (LS), is discussed. Published reports of oxidative stress involvement in the pathomechanisms of these five mitochondrial diseases are reviewed. The strongest evidence for an oxidative stress pathomechanism among the five diseases was for Friedreich ataxia. In addition, a meta-analysis was carried out to provide an unbiased evaluation of the role of oxidative stress in the five diseases, by searching for "oxidative stress" citation count frequency for each disease. Of the five most common mitochondrial diseases, the strongest support for oxidative stress is for Friedreich ataxia (6.42%), followed by LHON (2.45%), MELAS (2.18%), MERRF (1.71%), and LS (1.03%). The increased frequency of oxidative stress citations was significant relative to the mean of the total pool of five diseases (p<0.01) and the mean of the four non-Friedreich diseases (p<0.0001). Thus there is support for oxidative stress in all five most common mitochondrial diseases, but the strongest, significant support is for Friedreich ataxia. PMID:26073122

  13. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chunyan; Sun, Li; Chen, Xueping; Zhang, Danshen

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Oxidative stress is characterized by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which can induce mitochondrial DNA mutations, damage the mitochondrial respiratory chain, alter membrane permeability, and influence Ca2+ homeostasis and mitochondrial defense systems. All these changes are implicated in the development of these neurodegenerative diseases, mediating or amplifying neuronal dysfunction and triggering neurodegeneration. This paper summarizes the contribution of oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage to the onset of neurodegenerative eases and discusses strategies to modify mitochondrial dysfunction that may be attractive therapeutic interventions for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25206509

  14. Mitochondrial oxidative stress in aging and healthspan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The free radical theory of aging proposes that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced accumulation of damage to cellular macromolecules is a primary driving force of aging and a major determinant of lifespan. Although this theory is one of the most popular explanations for the cause of aging, several experimental rodent models of antioxidant manipulation have failed to affect lifespan. Moreover, antioxidant supplementation clinical trials have been largely disappointing. The mitochondrial theory of aging specifies more particularly that mitochondria are both the primary sources of ROS and the primary targets of ROS damage. In addition to effects on lifespan and aging, mitochondrial ROS have been shown to play a central role in healthspan of many vital organ systems. In this article we review the evidence supporting the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and dysfunction in aging and healthspan, including cardiac aging, age-dependent cardiovascular diseases, skeletal muscle aging, neurodegenerative diseases, insulin resistance and diabetes as well as age-related cancers. The crosstalk of mitochondrial ROS, redox, and other cellular signaling is briefly presented. Potential therapeutic strategies to improve mitochondrial function in aging and healthspan are reviewed, with a focus on mitochondrial protective drugs, such as the mitochondrial antioxidants MitoQ, SkQ1, and the mitochondrial protective peptide SS-31. PMID:24860647

  15. The Role of Na/K-ATPase Signaling in Oxidative Stress Related to Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Srikanthan, Krithika; Shapiro, Joseph I; Sodhi, Komal

    2016-01-01

    Na/K-ATPase has been extensively studied for its ion pumping function, but, in the past several decades, has been identified as a scaffolding and signaling protein. Initially it was found that cardiotonic steroids (CTS) mediate signal transduction through the Na/K-ATPase and result in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are also capable of initiating the signal cascade. However, in recent years, this Na/K-ATPase/ROS amplification loop has demonstrated significance in oxidative stress related disease states, including obesity, atherosclerosis, heart failure, uremic cardiomyopathy, and hypertension. The discovery of this novel oxidative stress signaling pathway, holds significant therapeutic potential for the aforementioned conditions and others that are rooted in ROS. PMID:27598118

  16. Nitric oxide regulates vascular adaptive mitochondrial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew W; Knaub, Leslie A; Olivera-Fragoso, Luis F; Keller, Amy C; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Watson, Peter A; Reusch, Jane E B

    2013-06-15

    Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and physical inactivity, are all correlated with impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function and decreased nitric oxide (NO) production. NO-mediated regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis has been established in many tissues, yet the role of eNOS in vascular mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics is unclear. We hypothesized that genetic eNOS deletion and 3-day nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition in rodents would result in impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and defunct fission/fusion and autophagy profiles within the aorta. We observed a significant, eNOS expression-dependent decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) protein subunits from complexes I, II, III, and V in eNOS heterozygotes and eNOS null mice compared with age-matched controls. In response to NOS inhibition with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) treatment in Sprague Dawley rats, significant decreases were observed in ETC protein subunits from complexes I, III, and IV as well as voltage-dependent anion channel 1. Decreased protein content of upstream regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, cAMP response element-binding protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, were observed in response to 3-day L-NAME treatment. Both genetic eNOS deletion and NOS inhibition resulted in decreased manganese superoxide dismutase protein. L-NAME treatment resulted in significant changes to mitochondrial dynamic protein profiles with decreased fusion, increased fission, and minimally perturbed autophagy. In addition, L-NAME treatment blocked mitochondrial adaptation to an exercise intervention in the aorta. These results suggest that eNOS/NO play a role in basal and adaptive mitochondrial biogenesis in the vasculature and regulation of mitochondrial turnover. PMID:23585138

  17. Oxidative stress-related mechanisms affecting response to aspirin in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Santilli, Francesca; Lapenna, Domenico; La Barba, Sara; Davì, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major cardiovascular risk factor. Persistent platelet activation plays a key role in atherothrombosis in T2DM. However, current antiplatelet treatments appear less effective in T2DM patients vs nondiabetics at similar risk. A large body of evidence supports the contention that oxidative stress, which characterizes DM, may be responsible, at least in part, for less-than-expected response to aspirin, with multiple mechanisms acting at several levels. This review discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms related to oxidative stress and contributing to suboptimal aspirin action or responsiveness. These include: (1) mechanisms counteracting the antiplatelet effect of aspirin, such as reduced platelet sensitivity to the antiaggregating effects of NO, due to high-glucose-mediated oxidative stress; (2) mechanisms interfering with COX acetylation especially at the platelet level, e.g., lipid hydroperoxide-dependent impaired acetylating effects of aspirin; (3) mechanisms favoring platelet priming (lipid hydroperoxides) or activation (F2-isoprostanes, acting as partial agonists of thromboxane receptor), or aldose-reductase pathway-mediated oxidative stress, leading to enhanced platelet thromboxane A2 generation or thromboxane receptor activation; (4) mechanisms favoring platelet recruitment, such as aspirin-induced platelet isoprostane formation; (5) modulation of megakaryocyte generation and thrombopoiesis by oxidative HO-1 inhibition; and (6) aspirin-iron interactions, eventually resulting in impaired pharmacological activity of aspirin, lipoperoxide burden, and enhanced generation of hydroxyl radicals capable of promoting protein kinase C activation and platelet aggregation. Acknowledgment of oxidative stress as a major contributor, not only of vascular complications, but also of suboptimal response to antiplatelet agents in T2DM, may open the way to designing and testing novel antithrombotic strategies, specifically targeting

  18. Oxidative Stress-Related Biomarkers in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiaozhen; Zhu, Li; Zhang, Dafeng; Li, Ning; Li, Qiao; Dai, Panpan; Mao, Yixin; Li, Xumin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies suggested that oxidative stress (OS) played a central role in the onset and development of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PO); however, conflicting results were obtained as to the association of OS-related biomarkers and PO. This meta-analysis aimed to identify the association between these markers and PO, and explore factors that may explain the inconsistencies in these results. A systematic literature search was conducted in relevant database. Search terms and selection criteria were priorly determined to identify and include all studies that detected markers of OS in PO patients. We pooled data with a random effects meta-analysis with standardized mean differences and 95% confidence interval. Total 17 studies including 12 OS markers were adopted. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD) in erythrocytes, catalase (CAT), total antioxidant status (TAS), hydroperoxides (HY), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and vitamin B12 (VB12) in plasma/serum were not statistically different between the PO and control group, whereas significantly increased level of homocysteine (Hcy) and nitric oxide (NO), along with decreased SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), folate, and total antioxidant power (TAP) in plasma/serum were obtained in the PO group. In summary, OS might serve as potential biomarkers in the etiopathophysiology and clinical course of PO. PMID:27594735

  19. Oxidative Stress-Related Biomarkers in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiaozhen; Zhu, Li; Zhang, Dafeng; Li, Ning; Li, Qiao; Dai, Panpan; Mao, Yixin; Li, Xumin; Ma, Jianfeng; Huang, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies suggested that oxidative stress (OS) played a central role in the onset and development of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PO); however, conflicting results were obtained as to the association of OS-related biomarkers and PO. This meta-analysis aimed to identify the association between these markers and PO, and explore factors that may explain the inconsistencies in these results. A systematic literature search was conducted in relevant database. Search terms and selection criteria were priorly determined to identify and include all studies that detected markers of OS in PO patients. We pooled data with a random effects meta-analysis with standardized mean differences and 95% confidence interval. Total 17 studies including 12 OS markers were adopted. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD) in erythrocytes, catalase (CAT), total antioxidant status (TAS), hydroperoxides (HY), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA), and vitamin B12 (VB12) in plasma/serum were not statistically different between the PO and control group, whereas significantly increased level of homocysteine (Hcy) and nitric oxide (NO), along with decreased SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), folate, and total antioxidant power (TAP) in plasma/serum were obtained in the PO group. In summary, OS might serve as potential biomarkers in the etiopathophysiology and clinical course of PO. PMID:27594735

  20. Antioxidant and oxidative stress related responses in the Mediterranean land snail Cantareus apertus exposed to the carbamate pesticide Carbaryl.

    PubMed

    Leomanni, A; Schettino, T; Calisi, A; Gorbi, S; Mezzelani, M; Regoli, F; Lionetto, M G

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the alterations of the antioxidant defenses and the overall susceptibility to oxidative stress of the terrestrial snail Cantareus apertus exposed to the carbamate pesticide Carbaryl at a low environmentally realistic concentration. The animals were exposed to Lactuca sativa soaked for 1h in 1μM Carbaryl. The temporal dynamics of the responses was assessed by measurements at 3, 7 and 14days of exposure. C. apertus exposed to Carbaryl activates a number of enzymatic antioxidant responses, represented by the early induction of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, followed by a delayed induction of superoxide dismutase. Concomitantly, a derangement of the total oxyradical scavenging of the tissues was observed, suggesting an overall impairment of the tissue capability to neutralize ROS probably resulting from the overall negative balance between enzymatic antioxidant defense capability and oxidative stress intensity. This negative balance exposed the animals to the risk of oxidative stress damages including genotoxic damage. Compared to acetylcholinesterase inhibition, the antioxidant responses developed to Carbaryl exposure at the low concentration utilized showed a greater percentage variation in exposed organisms. The results pointed out the high sensitivity of the antioxidant and oxidative stress related responses to Carbaryl exposure at an environmental realistic concentration, demonstrating their usefulness in environmental monitoring and risk assessment. The study highlights also the usefulness of the terrestrial snail C. apertus as potential bioindicator species for assessing the risk of pesticide environmental contamination. PMID:25451076

  1. Oxidative stress-related lung dysfunction by chromium(VI): alleviation by Citrus aurantium L.

    PubMed

    Soudani, Nejla; Rafrafi, Moez; Ben Amara, Ibtissem; Hakim, Ahmed; Troudi, Afef; Zeghal, Khaled Mounir; Ben Salah, Hichem; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2013-06-01

    Chromium(VI), a very strong oxidant, causes high cytotoxicity through oxidative stress in tissue systems. Our study investigated the potential ability of ethanolic Citrus aurantium L., family Rutaceae extract, used as a nutritional supplement, to alleviate lung oxidative damage induced by Cr(VI). A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer method was developed to separate and identify flavonoids in C. aurantium L. Six flavonoids were identified, as (1) poncirin, (2) naringin, (3) naringenin, (4) quercetin, (5) isosinensetin, and (6) tetramethyl-o-isoscutellarein. Adult Wistar rats, used in this study, were divided into six groups of six animals each: group I served as controls which received standard diet, group II received via drinking water K2Cr2O7 alone (700 ppm), groups III and IV were pretreated for 10 days with ethanol extract of C. aurantium L. at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively, and then K2Cr2O7 was administrated during 3 weeks, and groups V and VI received during 10 days only C. aurantium L. ethanol extract at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg/day, respectively. Ethanol extract of C. aurantium L. was administered orally. Rats exposed to Cr(VI) showed in lung an increase in malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels and a decrease in sulflydryl content, glutathione, nonprotein thiol, and vitamins C and E levels. Decreases in enzyme activities such as in Na(+)K(+) ATPase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were noted. Pretreatment with C. aurantium L. of chromium-treated rats ameliorated all biochemical parameters. Lung histological studies confirmed the biochemical parameters and the beneficial role of C. aurantium L. PMID:22972417

  2. Oxidative-stress-related proteome changes in Helicobacter pylori-infected human gastric mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Hye Yeon; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung; Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection leads to gastroduodenal inflammation, peptic ulceration and gastric carcinoma. Proteomic analysis of the human gastric mucosa from the patients with erosive gastritis, peptic ulcer or gastric cancer, which were either infected or not with H. pylori, was used to determine the differentially expressed proteins by H. pylori in the human gastric mucosa in order to investigate the pathogenic mechanism of H. pylori -induced gastric diseases. Prior to the experiment, the expression of the main 18 proteins were identified in the gastric mucosa and used for a proteome map of the human gastric mucosa. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis of the protein isolated from the H. pylori -infected tissues, Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining and computerized analysis of the stained gel, the expression of eight proteins were altered in the H. pylori -infected tissues compared with the non-infected tissues. MS analysis (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight MS) of the tryptic fragment and a data search allowed the the identification of the four increased proteins (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein precursor, endoplasmin precursor, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and L-lactate dehydrogenase B chain) and the four decreased proteins (intracellular chloride channel protein 1, glutathione S-transferase, heat-shock protein 60 and cytokeratin 8) caused by H. pylori infection in the gastric mucosa. These proteins are related to cell proliferation, carcinogenesis, cytoskeletal function and cellular defence mechanism. The common feature is that these proteins are related to oxidative-stress-mediated cell damage. In conclusion, the established gastric mucosal proteome map might be useful for detecting the disease-related protein changes. The H. pylori -induced alterations in protein expression demonstrate the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of H. pylori -induced gastric diseases, including inflammation, ulceration and carcinogenesis

  3. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  4. Effects of pyrogallic acid on Microcystis aeruginosa: oxidative stress related toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhiying; Zhang, Yongyuan; Gao, Yunni; Liu, Biyun; Sun, Xuemei; He, Feng; Zhou, Qiaohong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2016-10-01

    Pyrogallic acid (PA) is used in various industrial and consumer products. The molecular mechanisms underlying PA's toxicity was not fully understood. In this study, toxicity of PA on Microcystis aeruginosa with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation as an end point was investigated. The results showed an increase in the percentage of cells with loss of membrane integrity and enhanced intracellular ROS production. Exposure to 50mgL(-1) PA for 48h caused the highest percentage of loss of membrane integrity (56.7%), and a 2.54-fold higher intracellular ROS level compared to control. Further investigation revealed that PA caused a dose-dependent increase in DNA strand breaks (DSB) of M. aeruginosa at exposure concentration from 2 to 50mgL(-1). The incubation of cells with ROS scavengers ascorbic acid, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and tocopherol markedly alleviated the level of PA-induced DSB. Analysis of PA autoxidized products in culture solution showed that PA was quickly converted to purpurogallin (PG), and PG was further autoxidized to other polyphenolic compounds. PA and PG might participate a futile redox cycle, which mediated ROS production in M. aeruginosa. These results suggested DNA strands and cell membrane were two targets of ROS induced by PA, and oxidative damage was an important mechanism for the toxicity of PA against M. aeruginosa. PMID:27400421

  5. Free radicals production and estimation of oxidative stress related to gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Dubner, D; Gisone, P; Jaitovich, I; Perez, M

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of chemiluminescence (ChL) in vitro to measure free radicals generated as a result of metabolic disorganization caused by radiation sickness is evaluated. The results are correlated with those obtained by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and lipid peroxide as levels of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS). To this aim, livers from irradiated Wistar rats were removed immediately (day 0) after irradiation and also 7 and 14 d later. ChL results, expressed in arbitrary units (AU)/min/mg protein, were analyzed for irradiated samples and controls, for different doses at different times. Increased levels of ChL emission were observed not only on day 0, but also on days 7 and 14. On the other hand, SOD activity showed a decrease on the 7th d, and significantly higher lipid peroxide levels were observed in the assays performed on the 14th d, at all exposure doses. The correlation between temporal changes in the SOD activity, ChL emission, and higher TBARS levels a week later were evident from the data. These results indicate that the ChL technique proved to be useful in combination with other techniques currently used for evaluating radiation oxidative injury. PMID:7779556

  6. Novel recombinant human lactoferrin: differential activation of oxidative stress related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kruzel, Marian L; Actor, Jeffrey K; Zimecki, Michał; Wise, Jasen; Płoszaj, Paulina; Mirza, Shaper; Kruzel, Mark; Hwang, Shen-An; Ba, Xueqing; Boldogh, Istvan

    2013-12-01

    Lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein found in high concentrations in mammalian exocrine secretions, is an important component of the host defense system. It is also a major protein of the secondary granules of neutrophils from which is released upon activation. Due to its potential clinical utility, recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) has been produced in various eukaryotic expression systems; however, none of these are fully compatible with humans. Most of the biopharmaceuticals approved by the FDA for use in humans are produced in mammalian expression systems. The Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) have become the system of choice for proteins that require post-translational modifications, such as glycoproteins. The aim of this study was to scale-up expression and purification of rhLF in a CHO expression system, verify its glycan primary structure, and assess its biological properties in cell culture models. A stable CHO cell line producing >200mg/L of rhLF was developed and established. rhLF was purified by a single-step cation-exchange chromatography procedure. The highly homogenous rhLF has a molecular weight of approximately 80 kDa. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis revealed N-linked, partially sialylated glycans at two glycosylation sites, typical for human milk LF. This novel rhLF showed a protective effect against oxidative stress in a similar manner to its natural counterpart. In addition, rhLF revealed a modulatory effect on cellular redox via upregulation of key antioxidant enzymes. These data imply that the CHO-derived rhLF is fully compatible with the native molecule, thus it has promise for human therapeutic applications. PMID:24070904

  7. Vitamin E in oxidant stress-related cardiovascular pathologies: focus on experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Turan, Belma; Vassort, Guy

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this review is to summarize the important roles of vitamin E family members as protective agents in cardiovascular pathologies of different types of disease states and particularly in diabetes, including some of our research results, to illustrate how this recent knowledge is helping to better understand the roles of the vitamin E family in biology, in animals and humans specifically. Cardiovascular disease, a general name for a wide variety of diseases, disorders and conditions, is caused by disorders of the heart and blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease is the world's largest killer, claiming 17.1 million lives a year. Cardiovascular complications result from multiple parameters including glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, fibrosis. Obesity and diabetes mellitus are also often linked to cardiovascular disease. In fact, cardiovascular disease is the most life-threatening of the diabetic complications and diabetics are 2- to 4-fold more likely to die of cardiovascular-related causes than non-diabetics. In order to prevent the tendency of cardiovascular disease, primary prevention is needed by modifying risk factors. Several recent studies, besides earlier ones, have reported beneficial effects of therapy with antioxidant agents, including trace elements, vitamins (E and/or C), other antioxidants, against the cardiovascular dysfunction. Hence, the use of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα) agonists to reduce fatty acid oxidation, of trace elements such as selenium as antioxidant and other antioxidants such as vitamins E and C, contributes to the prevention of these dysfunctions. Moreover, therapy with antioxidants and the above vitamins to prevent or delay the onset and development of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients and animal models has been investigated although these studies showed inconsistent results. PMID:21774778

  8. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Mario D; de Miguel, Manuel; Carmona-López, Inés; Bonal, Pablo; Campa, Francisco; Moreno-Fernández, Ana María

    2010-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome with unknown etiology and pathophysiology. Recent studies have shown some evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress may have a role in the pathophysiology of FM. Furthermore, it is controversial the role of mitochondria in the oxidant imbalance documented in FM. Signs and symptoms associated with muscular alteration and mitochondrial dysfunction, including oxidative stress, have been observed in patients with FM. To this respect, Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency, an essential electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and a strong antioxidant, alters mitochondria function and mitochondrial respiratory complexes organization and leading to increased ROS generation. Recently have been showed CoQ10 deficiency in blood mononuclear cells in FM patients, so if the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction is the origin of oxidative stress in FM patients is demonstrated, could help to understand the complex pathophysiology of this disorder and may lead to development of new therapeutic strategies for prevention and treatment of this disease. PMID:20424583

  9. Mitochondrial oxidative stress promotes atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wenjun; Santulli, Gaetano; Reiken, Steven R.; Yuan, Qi; Osborne, Brent W.; Chen, Bi-Xing; Marks, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Indeed, the prevalence of AF increases with age as does oxidative stress. However, the mechanisms linking redox state to AF are not well understood. In this study we identify a link between oxidative stress and aberrant intracellular Ca2+ release via the type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) that promotes AF. We show that RyR2 are oxidized in the atria of patients with chronic AF compared with individuals in sinus rhythm. To dissect the molecular mechanism linking RyR2 oxidation to AF we used two murine models harboring RyR2 mutations that cause intracellular Ca2+ leak. Mice with intracellular Ca2+ leak exhibited increased atrial RyR2 oxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and AF susceptibility. Both genetic inhibition of mitochondrial ROS production and pharmacological treatment of RyR2 leakage prevented AF. Collectively, our results indicate that alterations of RyR2 and mitochondrial ROS generation form a vicious cycle in the development of AF. Targeting this previously unrecognized mechanism could be useful in developing effective interventions to prevent and treat AF. PMID:26169582

  10. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on spermatogenesis and induction of testicular apoptosis through oxidative stress-related pathways.

    PubMed

    Duan, Peng; Hu, Chunhui; Butler, Holly J; Quan, Chao; Chen, Wei; Huang, Wenting; Tang, Sha; Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Meng; Shi, Yuqin; Martin, Francis L; Yang, Kedi

    2016-07-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that prepubertal exposure to 4-nonylphenol (NP) affects reproductive function in male rats. Twenty-four rats at five-weeks-old were randomly divided into four groups and treated with NP at varying concentrations (0, 5, 20, and 60mg/kg/2d) for thirty days by intra-peritoneal injection. 60mg/kg NP induced spermatogenic degeneration and pronounced deficits in epididymal sperm count, motility and function, whereas potentially stimulatory effects were observed at 5 NPmg/kg. Moreover, 60mg/kg NP resulted in a significant reduction in fructose, FSH and LH; induced apoptosis related to oxidative stress; inhibited mRNA and protein levels of Bcl-2 and PCNA; as well as the additional up-regulation of p53, Bax, Apaf-1, cytochrome c, cleaved-caspase-3, Fas and FasL expression. Our data suggest potentially hormetic effects of NP on spermatogenic function. High-dose NP impairs testicular development and function by reducing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis involving oxidative stress-related p53-Bcl-2/Bax and -Fas/FasL pathways. PMID:27109770

  11. Polymorphisms in oxidative stress-related genes and mortality in breast cancer patients--potential differential effects by radiotherapy?

    PubMed

    Seibold, Petra; Hall, Per; Schoof, Nils; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Benner, Axel; Liu, Jianjun; Schmezer, Peter; Popanda, Odilia; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2013-10-01

    We assessed whether variants in 22 oxidative stress-related genes are associated with mortality of breast cancer patients and whether the associations differ according to radiotherapy. Using a prospective cohort of 1348 postmenopausal breast cancer patients, we estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for 109 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Cox proportional hazards regression. Validation of results was attempted using two Scandinavian studies. Eleven SNPs in MT2A, NFE2L2, NQO1, PRDX1, and PRDX6 were significantly associated with overall mortality after a median follow-up of 5.7 years. Three SNPs in NQO1 (rs2917667) and in PRDX6 (rs7314, rs4916362) were consistently associated with increased risk of dying across all three study populations (pooled: HRNQO1_rs2917667 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.44, p = 0.051; HRPRDX6_rs7314 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.35, p = 0.056, HRPRDX6_rs4916362 1.14 95% CI 1.00-1.32, p = 0.062). Potential effect modification by radiotherapy was found for CAT_rs769218. In conclusion, genetic variants in NQO1 and PRDX6 may modify breast cancer prognosis. PMID:23489758

  12. Parallel expression evolution of oxidative stress-related genes in fiber from wild and domesticated diploid and polyploid cotton (Gossypium)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a prominent role in signal transduction and cellular homeostasis in plants. However, imbalances between generation and elimination of ROS can give rise to oxidative stress in growing cells. Because ROS are important to cell growth, ROS modulation could be responsive to natural or human-mediated selection pressure in plants. To study the evolution of oxidative stress related genes in a single plant cell, we conducted comparative expression profiling analyses of the elongated seed trichomes ("fibers") of cotton (Gossypium), using a phylogenetic approach. Results We measured expression changes during diploid progenitor species divergence, allopolyploid formation and parallel domestication of diploid and allopolyploid species, using a microarray platform that interrogates 42,429 unigenes. The distribution of differentially expressed genes in progenitor diploid species revealed significant up-regulation of ROS scavenging and potential signaling processes in domesticated G. arboreum. Similarly, in two independently domesticated allopolyploid species (G. barbadense and G. hirsutum) antioxidant genes were substantially up-regulated in comparison to antecedent wild forms. In contrast, analyses of three wild allopolyploid species indicate that genomic merger and ancient allopolyploid formation had no significant influences on regulation of ROS related genes. Remarkably, many of the ROS-related processes diagnosed as possible targets of selection were shared among diploid and allopolyploid cultigens, but involved different sets of antioxidant genes. Conclusion Our data suggests that parallel human selection for enhanced fiber growth in several geographically widely dispersed species of domesticated cotton resulted in similar and overlapping metabolic transformations of the manner in which cellular redox levels have become modulated. PMID:19686594

  13. Modification of the association of bisphenol A with abnormal liver function by polymorphisms of oxidative stress-related genes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Mee-Ri; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2016-05-01

    Some studies suggested oxidative stress as a possible mechanism for the relation between exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and liver damage. Therefore, we evaluated modification of genetic polymorphisms of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 or PTGS2), epoxide hydrolase 1 (EPHX1), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 or MnSOD), which are oxidative stress-related genes, on the relation between exposure to BPA and liver function in the elderly. We assessed the association of visit-to-visit variations in BPA exposure with abnormal liver function by each genotype or haplotype after controlling for age, sex, BMI, alcohol consumption, exercise, urinary cotinine levels, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a GLIMMIX model. A significant association of BPA with abnormal liver function was observed only in participants with COX2 GG genotype at rs5277 (odds ratio (OR)=3.04 and p=0.0231), CAT genotype at rs769218 (OR=4.16 and p=0.0356), CAT CT genotype at rs769217 (OR=4.19 and p=0.0348), SOD2 TT genotype at rs4880 (OR=2.59 and p=0.0438), or SOD2 GG genotype at rs2758331 (OR=2.57 and p=0.0457). Moreover, we also found higher OR values in participants with a pair of G-G haplotypes for COX2 (OR=2.81 and p=0.0384), G-C-A haplotype for EPHX1 (OR=4.63 and p=0.0654), A-T haplotype for CAT (OR=4.48 and p=0.0245), or T-G-A haplotype for SOD2 (OR=2.91 and p=0.0491) compared with those with the other pair of haplotypes for each gene. Furthermore, the risk score composed of 4 risky pair of haplotypes showed interactive effect with BPA on abnormal liver function (p=0.0057). Our study results suggest that genetic polymorphisms of COX2, EPHX1, CAT, and SOD2 modify the association of BPA with liver function. PMID:26922413

  14. Oxidative Stress-Related Genetic Polymorphisms Are Associated with the Prognosis of Metastatic Gastric Cancer Patients Treated with Epirubicin, Oxaliplatin and 5-Fluorouracil Combination Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoying; Qiu, Lixin; Liu, Xin; Liu, Rujiao; Guo, Weijian; He, Guang; Li, Jin; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress genes are related to cancer development and treatment response. In this study, we aimed to determine the predictive and prognostic roles of oxidative stress-related genetic polymorphisms in metastatic gastric cancer (MGC) patients treated with chemotherapy. Methods In this retrospective study, we genotyped nine oxidative stress-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NQO1, SOD2, SOD3, PON1, GSTP1, GSTT1, and NOS3 (rs1800566, rs10517, rs4880, rs1799895, rs662, rs854560, rs1695, rs2266637, rs1799983, respectively) in 108 consecutive MGC patients treated with epirubicin, oxaliplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (EOF) regimen as the first-line chemotherapy and analyzed the association between the genotypes and the disease control rate (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Results We found that, in addition to a lower pathological grade (p = 0.017), NQO1 rs1800566 CT/TT genotype was an independent predictive factor of poor PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23–3.16; p = 0.005). PON1 rs662 AA/AG genotype was significantly associated with poor OS (HR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.07–3.54; p = 0.029). No associations were detected between the nine SNPs and DCR. Conclusions NQO1 rs1800566 is an independent predictive factor of PFS for MGC patients treated with EOF chemotherapy, and PON1 rs662 is a noteworthy prognostic factor of OS. Information on oxidative stress-related genetic variants may facilitate optimization of individualized chemotherapy in clinical practice. PMID:25545243

  15. The Mitochondrial-Derived Peptide Humanin Protects RPE Cells From Oxidative Stress, Senescence, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sreekumar, Parameswaran G.; Ishikawa, Keijiro; Spee, Chris; Mehta, Hemal H.; Wan, Junxiang; Yen, Kelvin; Cohen, Pinchas; Kannan, Ram; Hinton, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the expression of humanin (HN) in human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells and its effect on oxidative stress–induced cell death, mitochondrial bioenergetics, and senescence. Methods Humanin localization in RPE cells and polarized RPE monolayers was assessed by confocal microscopy. Human RPE cells were treated with 150 μM tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBH) in the absence/presence of HN (0.5–10 μg/mL) for 24 hours. Mitochondrial respiration was measured by XF96 analyzer. Retinal pigment epithelial cell death and caspase-3 activation, mitochondrial biogenesis and senescence were analyzed by TUNEL, immunoblot analysis, mitochondrial DNA copy number, SA-β-Gal staining, and p16INK4a expression and HN levels by ELISA. Oxidative stress–induced changes in transepithelial resistance were studied in RPE monolayers with and without HN cotreatment. Results A prominent localization of HN was found in the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments of hRPE. Humanin cotreatment inhibited tBH-induced reactive oxygen species formation and significantly restored mitochondrial bioenergetics in hRPE cells. Exogenous HN was taken up by RPE and colocalized with mitochondria. The oxidative stress–induced decrease in mitochondrial bioenergetics was prevented by HN cotreatment. Humanin treatment increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and upregulated mitochondrial transcription factor A, a key biogenesis regulator protein. Humanin protected RPE cells from oxidative stress–induced cell death by STAT3 phosphorylation and inhibiting caspase-3 activation. Humanin treatment inhibited oxidant-induced senescence. Polarized RPE demonstrated elevated cellular HN and increased resistance to cell death. Conclusions Humanin protected RPE cells against oxidative stress–induced cell death and restored mitochondrial function. Our data suggest a potential role for HN therapy in the prevention of retinal degeneration, including AMD. PMID:26990160

  16. Development and characterization of a hydrogen peroxide-resistant cholangiocyte cell line: A novel model of oxidative stress-related cholangiocarcinoma genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Thanan, Raynoo; Techasen, Anchalee; Hou, Bo; Jamnongkan, Wassana; Armartmuntree, Napat; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Murata, Mariko

    2015-08-14

    Oxidative stress is a cause of inflammation–related diseases, including cancers. Cholangiocarcinoma is a liver cancer with bile duct epithelial cell phenotypes. Our previous studies in animal and human models indicated that oxidative stress is a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma development. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) can generate hydroxyl radicals, which damage lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, leading to cell death. However, some cells can survive by adapting to oxidative stress conditions, and selective clonal expansion of these resistant cells would be involved in oxidative stress-related carcinogenesis. The present study aimed to establish H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant cell line from an immortal cholangiocyte cell line (MMNK1) by chronic treatment with low-concentration H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (25 μM). After 72 days of induction, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant cell lines (ox-MMNK1-L) were obtained. The ox-MMNK1-L cell line showed H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant properties, increasing the expression of the anti-oxidant genes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), and superoxide dismutase-3 (SOD3) and the enzyme activities of CAT and intracellular SODs. Furthermore, the resistant cells showed increased expression levels of an epigenetics-related gene, DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1), when compared to the parental cells. Interestingly, the ox-MMNK1-L cell line had a significantly higher cell proliferation rate than the MMNK1 normal cell line. Moreover, ox-MMNK1-L cells showed pseudopodia formation and the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion (multi-layers) under additional oxidative stress (100 μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). These findings suggest that H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant cells can be used as a model of oxidative stress-related cholangiocarcinoma genesis through molecular changes such as alteration of gene expression and epigenetic changes. - Highlights: • An H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-resistant ox-MMNK1-L cells was established from

  17. Suppression of Mic60 compromises mitochondrial transcription and oxidative phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui-Feng; Sun, Li-Hong; Zhang, Ran; Zhang, Yuan; Luo, Yu-Xuan; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Zhu-Qin; Chen, Hou-Zao; Liu, De-Pei

    2015-01-01

    Precise regulation of mtDNA transcription and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is crucial for human health. As a component of mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS), Mic60 plays a central role in mitochondrial morphology. However, it remains unclear whether Mic60 affects mitochondrial transcription. Here, we report that Mic60 interacts with mitochondrial transcription factors TFAM and TFB2M. Furthermore, we found that Mic60 knockdown compromises mitochondrial transcription and OXPHOS activities. Importantly, Mic60 deficiency decreased TFAM binding and mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT) recruitment to the mtDNA promoters. In addition, through mtDNA immunoprecipitation (mIP)-chromatin conformation capture (3C) assays, we found that Mic60 interacted with mtDNA and was involved in the architecture of mtDNA D-loop region. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unrecognized important role of Mic60 in mtDNA transcription. PMID:25612828

  18. Storing red blood cells with vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine prevents oxidative stress-related lesions: a metabolomics overview

    PubMed Central

    Pallotta, Valeria; Gevi, Federica; D’Alessandro, Angelo; Zolla, Lello

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advances in red blood cell metabolomics have paved the way for further improvements of storage solutions. Materials and methods In the present study, we exploited a validated high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analytical workflow to determine the effects of vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine supplementation (anti-oxidants) on the metabolome of erythrocytes stored in citrate-phosphate-dextrose saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol medium under blood bank conditions. Results We observed decreased energy metabolism fluxes (glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway). A tentative explanation of this phenomenon could be related to the observed depression of the uptake of glucose, since glucose and ascorbate are known to compete for the same transporter. Anti-oxidant supplementation was effective in modulating the redox poise, through the promotion of glutathione homeostasis, which resulted in decreased haemolysis and less accumulation of malondialdehyde and oxidation by-products (including oxidized glutathione and prostaglandins). Discussion Anti-oxidants improved storage quality by coping with oxidative stress at the expense of glycolytic metabolism, although reservoirs of high energy phosphate compounds were preserved by reduced cyclic AMP-mediated release of ATP. PMID:25074788

  19. Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial fragmentation in frataxin-deficient cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lefevre, Sophie; Sliwa, Dominika; Rustin, Pierre; Camadro, Jean-Michel; Santos, Renata

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yeast frataxin-deficiency leads to increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress induces complete mitochondrial fragmentation in {Delta}yfh1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress increases mitochondrial fragmentation in patient fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of mitochondrial fission in {Delta}yfh1 induces oxidative stress resistance. -- Abstract: Friedreich ataxia (FA) is the most common recessive neurodegenerative disease. It is caused by deficiency in mitochondrial frataxin, which participates in iron-sulfur cluster assembly. Yeast cells lacking frataxin ({Delta}yfh1 mutant) showed an increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria compared to wild-type. In addition, oxidative stress induced complete fragmentation of mitochondria in {Delta}yfh1 cells. Genetically controlled inhibition of mitochondrial fission in these cells led to increased resistance to oxidative stress. Here we present evidence that in yeast frataxin-deficiency interferes with mitochondrial dynamics, which might therefore be relevant for the pathophysiology of FA.

  20. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial protein quality control in aging.

    PubMed

    Lionaki, Eirini; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2013-10-30

    Mitochondrial protein quality control incorporates an elaborate network of chaperones and proteases that survey the organelle for misfolded or unfolded proteins and toxic aggregates. Repair of misfolded or aggregated protein and proteolytic removal of irreversibly damaged proteins are carried out by the mitochondrial protein quality control system. Initial maturation and folding of the nuclear or mitochondrial-encoded mitochondrial proteins are mediated by processing peptidases and chaperones that interact with the protein translocation machinery. Mitochondrial proteins are subjected to cumulative oxidative damage. Thus, impairment of quality control processes may cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Aging has been associated with a marked decline in the effectiveness of mitochondrial protein quality control. Here, we present an overview of the chaperones and proteases involved in the initial folding and maturation of new, incoming precursor molecules, and the subsequent repair and removal of oxidized aggregated proteins. In addition, we highlight the link between mitochondrial protein quality control mechanisms and the aging process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Posttranslational Protein modifications in biology and Medicine. PMID:23563202

  1. Characteristics and function of cardiac mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Dedkova, Elena N; Blatter, Lothar A

    2009-01-01

    We used laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive fluorescent dye DAF-2 and the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive dyes CM-H2DCF and MitoSOX Red to characterize NO and ROS production by mitochondrial NO synthase (mtNOS) in permeabilized cat ventricular myocytes. Stimulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake by exposure to different cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i= 1, 2 and 5 μm) resulted in a dose-dependent increase of NO production by mitochondria when l-arginine, a substrate for mtNOS, was present. Collapsing the mitochondrial membrane potential with the protonophore FCCP or blocking the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter with Ru360 as well as blocking the respiratory chain with rotenone or antimycin A in combination with oligomycin inhibited mitochondrial NO production. In the absence of l-arginine, mitochondrial NO production during stimulation of Ca2+ uptake was significantly decreased, but accompanied by increase in mitochondrial ROS production. Inhibition of mitochondrial arginase to limit l-arginine availability resulted in 50% inhibition of Ca2+-induced ROS production. Both mitochondrial NO and ROS production were blocked by the nNOS inhibitor (4S)-N-(4-amino-5[aminoethyl]aminopentyl)-N′-nitroguanidine and the calmodulin antagonist W-7, while the eNOS inhibitor l-N5-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine (l-NIO) or iNOS inhibitor N-(3-aminomethyl)benzylacetamidine, 2HCl (1400W) had no effect. The superoxide dismutase mimetic and peroxynitrite scavenger MnTBAP abolished Ca2+-induced ROS generation and increased NO production threefold, suggesting that in the absence of MnTBAP either formation of superoxide radicals suppressed NO production or part of the formed NO was transformed quickly to peroxynitrite. In the absence of l-arginine, mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), which was blocked by the PTP inhibitor cyclosporin A and MnTBAP, and reversed by l

  2. Nitric Oxide Regulation of Mitochondrial Processes: Commonality in Medical Disorders.

    PubMed

    Stefano, George B; Kream, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    The vital status of diverse classes of eukaryotic mitochondria is reflected by the high degree of evolutionary modification functionally linked to ongoing multifaceted organelle development. From this teleological perspective, a logistical enhancement of eukaryotic cellular energy requirements indicates a convergence of metabolic processes within the mitochondrial matrix for optimal synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate and necessitates an evolutionarily driven retrofit of the primordial endosymbiont bacterial plasma membrane into the inner mitochondrial membrane. The biochemical complexity of eukaryotic inner membrane electron transport complexes linked to temporally-defined, state-dependent, fluctuations in mitochondrial oxygen utilization is capable of generating deleterious reactive oxygen species. Within this functional context, an extensive neurochemical literature supports the role of the free radical gas nitric oxide (NO) as a key signaling molecule involved in the regulation of multiple aspects of mitochondrial respiration/oxidative phosphorylation. Importantly, the unique chemical properties of NO underlie its rapid metabolism in vivo within a mechanistic spectrum of small oxidative molecules, free and protein-bound thiol adducts, and reversible binding to ferrous heme iron centers. Recent compelling work has identified a medically relevant dual regulation pathway for mitochondrial NO expression mediated by traditionally characterized NO synthases (NOS) and by enzymatic reduction of available cellular nitrite pools by a diverse class of cytosolic and mitochondrial nitrite reductases. Accordingly, our short review presents selected medically-based discussion topics relating to multi-faceted NO regulation of mitochondrial functions in human health and disease states. PMID:26177568

  3. Fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid protects against oxidative stress-related renal dysfunction induced by TCDD in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Palaniswamy, Kalai Selvi; Vishwanadha, Vijaya Padma; Ramalingam Singaravelu, Saranya

    2014-05-01

    Humans are systemically exposed to persistent organic pollutants, of which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has become a major environmental concern. Exposure to TCDD results in a wide variety of adverse health effects which is mediated by oxidative stress through CYP1A1 activation and arachidonic acid metabolites. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) exhibits antioxidant property and competes with arachidonic acid in membrane phospholipids and produces anti-inflammatory EPA derivatives. Since both EPA and its derivatives have been reported to enhance the antioxidant mechanism, the present study aimed at studying whether EPA could offer protection against TCDD-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. Estimation of kidney markers (serum urea and creatinine) and histopathological studies revealed that EPA treatment significantly reduced TCDD-induced renal damage. TCDD-induced oxidative damage was reflected in a significant increase in CYP1A1 activity and lipid peroxide levels with a concomitant decline in non-enzymic antioxidant (GSH) and various enzymic antioxidants such catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In addition, TCDD-induced oxidative stress also resulted in decline in Na(+)-K(+) and Mg(2+)ATPases activities with increase in Ca(2+) ATPases activity. Oral treatment with EPA showed a significant cytoprotection against TCDD-induced renal oxidative stress by decreased CYP1A1 activity and enhanced antioxidant status. TCDD-induced alterations in ATPase enzyme activities were also prevented by EPA treatment. Our results show clear evidence that EPA ameliorates TCDD-induced oxidative stress and kidney damage; thus suggest the potential of EPA as an effective therapeutic agent against toxic effects mediated through redox imbalance. PMID:24114387

  4. Identification of Oxidative Stress Related Proteins as Biomarkers for Lung Cancer and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Bronchoalveolar Lavage

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, Maria Dolores; Nogal, Ana; Molina-Pinelo, Sonia; Meléndez, Ricardo; Romero-Romero, Beatriz; Mediano, Maria Dolores; López-Campos, Jose L.; García-Carbonero, Rocío; Sanchez-Gastaldo, Amparo; Carnero, Amancio; Paz-Ares, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) commonly coexist in smokers, and the presence of COPD increases the risk of developing LC. Cigarette smoke causes oxidative stress and an inflammatory response in lung cells, which in turn may be involved in COPD and lung cancer development. The aim of this study was to identify differential proteomic profiles related to oxidative stress response that were potentially involved in these two pathological entities. Protein content was assessed in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of 60 patients classified in four groups: COPD, COPD and LC, LC, and control (neither COPD nor LC). Proteins were separated into spots by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and examined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). A total of 16 oxidative stress regulatory proteins were differentially expressed in BAL samples from LC and/or COPD patients as compared with the control group. A distinct proteomic reactive oxygen species (ROS) protein signature emerged that characterized lung cancer and COPD. In conclusion, our findings highlight the role of the oxidative stress response proteins in the pathogenic pathways of both diseases, and provide new candidate biomarkers and predictive tools for LC and COPD diagnosis. PMID:23389041

  5. Changes in expression of oxidative stress related genes in grapefruit peel in response to yeast Metschnikowia fructicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain insight into the mode of action of the yeast biocontrol agent, Metschnikowia fructicola, the transcription profiles of genes involved in oxidative stress were studied in grapefruit (Citrus paradis, 'Star Ruby') surface wounds following the application of the yeast antagonist. Three transcri...

  6. Effect of extract of Withania Somnifera on dehydration-induced oxidative stress-related uremia in male rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Koushik; Samanta, Tanushree Tulsian; Samanta, Pradip; Nandi, Dilip Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Dehydration or water deprivation in the body decreases urinary excretion and allows urea and other protein waste products to accumulate in the blood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association of uremia and oxidative stress by applying the herbal plant Withania somnifera (W. somnifera) (Aswagandha). The study was performed on male Wister strain rats in which, dehydration was achieved by water withdrawal. A total of 18 rats were studied and were randomly divided into three Groups: Group-1, control, Group-2, only dehydration and Group-3, dehydration + administration of aqueous root extract of W. somnifera, orally (50 mg/100 gm body weight/day) for 25 days. After 25 days of treatment, it was observed that the body weight of Group-3 animals had increased significantly, while that in Group-2 had decreased significantly. The liver enzymes in both blood and kidneys did not show any significant change in the three groups implying absence of any toxicity of the root extract. In Group-2 animals, the serum urea and creatinine levels increased sig-nificantly when compared with animals in Groups-1 and 3. The low levels of serum urea and crea-tinine in Group-3 animals indicates the protective effect of the plant extract against renal injury caused by dehydration. Dehydration-induced oxidative stress was established in our study by noting the low activities of super-oxide dismutase and catalase, both important antioxidant enzymes, in Group-2 animals; both enzymes were stabilized in animals of Groups-3 and 1. In conclusion, it is hypothesized that there is an antioxidative role of W. somnifera resulting in reducing the extent of renal injury as a result of oxidative stress. PMID:20061697

  7. The chloroplast membrane associated ceQORH putative quinone oxidoreductase reduces long-chain, stress-related oxidized lipids.

    PubMed

    Curien, Gilles; Giustini, Cécile; Montillet, Jean-Luc; Mas-Y-Mas, Sarah; Cobessi, David; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Matringe, Michel; Grechkin, Alexander; Rolland, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Under oxidative stress conditions the lipid constituents of cells can undergo oxidation whose frequent consequence is the production of highly reactive α,β-unsaturated carbonyls. These molecules are toxic because they can add to biomolecules (such as proteins and nucleic acids) and several enzyme activities cooperate to eliminate these reactive electrophile species. CeQORH (chloroplast envelope Quinone Oxidoreductase Homolog, At4g13010) is associated with the inner membrane of the chloroplast envelope and imported into the organelle by an alternative import pathway. In the present study, we show that the recombinant ceQORH exhibits the activity of a NADPH-dependent α,β-unsaturated oxoene reductase reducing the double bond of medium-chain (C⩾9) to long-chain (18 carbon atoms) reactive electrophile species deriving from poly-unsaturated fatty acid peroxides. The best substrates of ceQORH are 13-lipoxygenase-derived γ-ketols. γ-Ketols are spontaneously produced in the chloroplast from the unstable allene oxide formed in the biochemical pathway leading to 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, a precursor of the defense hormone jasmonate. In chloroplasts, ceQORH could detoxify 13-lipoxygenase-derived γ-ketols at their production sites in the membranes. This finding opens new routes toward the understanding of γ-ketols role and detoxification. PMID:26678323

  8. Circadian Clock NAD+ Cycle Drives Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Peek, Clara Bien; Affinati, Alison H.; Ramsey, Kathryn Moynihan; Kuo, Hsin-Yu; Yu, Wei; Sena, Laura A.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Marcheva, Biliana; Kobayashi, Yumiko; Omura, Chiaki; Levine, Daniel C.; Bacsik, David J.; Gius, David; Newgard, Christopher B.; Goetzman, Eric; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Denu, John M.; Mrksich, Milan; Bass, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Circadian clocks are self-sustained cellular oscillators that synchronize oxidative and reductive cycles in anticipation of the solar cycle. We found that the clock transcription feedback loop produces cycles of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis, adenosine triphosphate production, and mitochondrial respiration through modulation of mitochondrial protein acetylation to synchronize oxidative metabolic pathways with the 24-hour fasting and feeding cycle. Circadian control of the activity of the NAD+-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) generated rhythms in the acetylation and activity of oxidative enzymes and respiration in isolated mitochondria, and NAD+ supplementation restored protein deacetylation and enhanced oxygen consumption in circadian mutant mice. Thus, circadian control of NAD+ bioavailability modulates mitochondrial oxidative function and organismal metabolism across the daily cycles of fasting and feeding. PMID:24051248

  9. Oxidative stress related to chlorpyrifos exposure in rainbow trout: Acute and medium term effects on genetic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, A; Brizio, P; Squadrone, S; Scanzio, T; Righetti, M; Gasco, L; Prearo, M; Abete, M C

    2016-05-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are derivatives of phosphoric acid widely used in agriculture as pesticides. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an OP that is extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is considered as a sentinel model species for ecotoxicology assessment in freshwater ecosystems. An exposure study was carried out on rainbow trout to investigate genetic responses to CPF-induced oxidative stress by Real-Time PCR, and to determine the accumulation dynamics of CPF and toxic metabolite chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-ox) in edible parts, by HPLC-MS/MS. Among the genes considered to be related to oxidative stress, a significant increase in HSP70 mRNA levels was observed in liver samples up to 14 days after CPF exposure (0.05 mg/L). CPF concentrations in muscle samples reach mean values of 285.25 ng/g within 96 hours of exposure, while CPF-ox concentrations were always under the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the applied method. Our findings lead us to consider HSP70 as a suitable genetic marker in rainbow trout for acute and medium-term monitoring of CPF exposure, complementary to analytical determinations. PMID:27017883

  10. Mitochondrial glycolate oxidation contributes to photorespiration in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Niessen, Markus; Thiruveedhi, Krishnaveni; Rosenkranz, Ruben; Kebeish, Rashad; Hirsch, Heinz-Josef; Kreuzaler, Fritz; Peterhänsel, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate is an important reaction step in photorespiration. Land plants and charophycean green algae oxidize glycolate in the peroxisome using oxygen as a co-factor, whereas chlorophycean green algae use a mitochondrial glycolate dehydrogenase (GDH) with organic co-factors. Previous analyses revealed the existence of a GDH in the mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana (AtGDH). In this study, the contribution of AtGDH to photorespiration was characterized. Both RNA abundance and mitochondrial GDH activity were up-regulated under photorespiratory growth conditions. Labelling experiments indicated that glycolate oxidation in mitochondrial extracts is coupled to CO(2) release. This effect could be enhanced by adding co-factors for aminotransferases, but is inhibited by the addition of glycine. T-DNA insertion lines for AtGDH show a drastic reduction in mitochondrial GDH activity and CO(2) release from glycolate. Furthermore, photorespiration is reduced in these mutant lines compared with the wild type, as revealed by determination of the post-illumination CO(2) burst and the glycine/serine ratio under photorespiratory growth conditions. The data show that mitochondrial glycolate oxidation contributes to photorespiration in higher plants. This indicates the conservation of chlorophycean photorespiration in streptophytes despite the evolution of leaf-type peroxisomes. PMID:17595195

  11. Human mitochondrial oxidative capacity is acutely impaired following burn trauma

    PubMed Central

    Cree, Melanie G.; Fram, Ricki Y.; Herndon, David N.; Qian, Ting; Angel, Carlos; Green, Justin M.; Mlcak, Ronald; Aarsland, Asle; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial proteins and genes are damaged after burn injury in animals but have not previously been assessed in human burn patients. Methods The rates of maximal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity(ATP production) and uncoupled oxidation(heat production) for both palmitate and pyruvate were measured in muscle biopsies from 40 children sustaining burns >40% body surface area and from 13 healthy children controls. Results Maximal mitochondrial oxidation of pyruvate and palmitate were reduced in burn patients compared to controls (4.0±0.2:1.9±0.1 µmolO2/citrate synthase activity/mg protein/min pyruvate; Control:Burn;P<0.001 and 3.0±0.1:0.9±0.03 µmolO2/citrate synthase activity/mg protein/min palmatyl CoA; Control:Burn;P=0.003). Uncoupled oxidation was the same between groups. Conclusions The maximal coupled mitochondrial oxidative capacity is severely impaired after burn injury, although there are no alterations in the rate of uncoupled oxidative capacity. It may be that the ratio of these indicates that a larger portion of energy production in trauma patients is wasted through uncoupling, rather than used for healing. PMID:18639661

  12. Mitochondrial proteome remodelling in pressure overload-induced heart failure: the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Dao-Fu; Hsieh, Edward J.; Liu, Yonggang; Chen, Tony; Beyer, Richard P.; Chin, Michael T.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Rabinovitch, Peter S.

    2012-01-01

    Aims We investigate the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in mitochondrial proteome remodelling using mouse models of heart failure induced by pressure overload. Methods and results We demonstrate that mice overexpressing catalase targeted to mitochondria (mCAT) attenuate pressure overload-induced heart failure. An improved method of label-free unbiased analysis of the mitochondrial proteome was applied to the mouse model of heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). A total of 425 mitochondrial proteins were compared between wild-type and mCAT mice receiving TAC or sham surgery. The changes in the mitochondrial proteome in heart failure included decreased abundance of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, an increased abundance of proteins in glycolysis, apoptosis, mitochondrial unfolded protein response and proteolysis, transcription and translational control, and developmental processes as well as responses to stimuli. Overexpression of mCAT better preserved proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism and attenuated the increases in apoptotic and proteolytic enzymes. Interestingly, gene ontology analysis also showed that monosaccharide metabolic processes and protein folding/proteolysis were only overrepresented in mCAT but not in wild-type mice in response to TAC. Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate that scavenging mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mCAT not only attenuates most of the mitochondrial proteome changes in heart failure, but also induces a subset of unique alterations. These changes represent processes that are adaptive to the increased work and metabolic requirements of pressure overload, but which are normally inhibited by overproduction of mitochondrial ROS. PMID:22012956

  13. Nutrient sensing by the mitochondrial transcription machinery dictates oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijun; Nam, Minwoo; Fan, Wei; Akie, Thomas E; Hoaglin, David C; Gao, Guangping; Keaney, John F; Cooper, Marcus P

    2014-02-01

    Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), an important regulator of energy metabolism and lipid oxidation, is induced in fasted liver mitochondria and implicated in metabolic syndrome. In fasted liver, SIRT3-mediated increases in substrate flux depend on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), but precisely how OXPHOS meets the challenge of increased substrate oxidation in fasted liver remains unclear. Here, we show that liver mitochondria in fasting mice adapt to the demand of increased substrate oxidation by increasing their OXPHOS efficiency. In response to cAMP signaling, SIRT3 deacetylated and activated leucine-rich protein 130 (LRP130; official symbol, LRPPRC), promoting a mitochondrial transcriptional program that enhanced hepatic OXPHOS. Using mass spectrometry, we identified SIRT3-regulated lysine residues in LRP130 that generated a lysine-to-arginine (KR) mutant of LRP130 that mimics deacetylated protein. Compared with wild-type LRP130 protein, expression of the KR mutant increased mitochondrial transcription and OXPHOS in vitro. Indeed, even when SIRT3 activity was abolished, activation of mitochondrial transcription and OXPHOS by the KR mutant remained robust, further highlighting the contribution of LRP130 deacetylation to increased OXPHOS in fasted liver. These data establish a link between nutrient sensing and mitochondrial transcription that regulates OXPHOS in fasted liver and may explain how fasted liver adapts to increased substrate oxidation. PMID:24430182

  14. Impaired mitochondrial fat oxidation induces adaptive remodeling of muscle metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wicks, Shawna E.; Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa; Haynie, Kimberly R.; Fuller, Scott E.; Warfel, Jaycob D.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.; Wang, Miao; Han, Xianlin; Zhang, Jingying; Noland, Robert C.; Mynatt, Randall L.

    2015-01-01

    The correlations between intramyocellular lipid (IMCL), decreased fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and insulin resistance have led to the hypothesis that impaired FAO causes accumulation of lipotoxic intermediates that inhibit muscle insulin signaling. Using a skeletal muscle-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 KO model, we show that prolonged and severe mitochondrial FAO inhibition results in increased carbohydrate utilization, along with reduced physical activity; increased circulating nonesterified fatty acids; and increased IMCLs, diacylglycerols, and ceramides. Perhaps more importantly, inhibition of mitochondrial FAO also initiates a local, adaptive response in muscle that invokes mitochondrial biogenesis, compensatory peroxisomal fat oxidation, and amino acid catabolism. Loss of its major fuel source (lipid) induces an energy deprivation response in muscle coordinated by signaling through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α) to maintain energy supply for locomotion and survival. At the whole-body level, these adaptations result in resistance to obesity. PMID:26056297

  15. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and mammalian healthspan

    PubMed Central

    Wanagat, Jonathan; Dai, Dao-Fu; Rabinovitch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Aging of the American society is leading to a growing need for disease-modifying interventions to treat age-related diseases and enhance healthspan. Mitochondria and mitochondrially-generated reactive oxygen species appear to play a central role in these processes and are a likely target for interventions. Conventional, untargeted antioxidants have not demonstrated a clear benefit in human studies. As a result, approaches have been developed to target antioxidants specifically to mitochondria. Studies have employed a wide array of targeted molecules including antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, peroxiredoxin, superoxide dismutases and small molecular compounds which recapitulate the antioxidant activities of these enzymes. Lifespan and healthspan effects differ between interventions suggesting varied roles for specific mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and their impact on usual aging. Consistent findings in myocardial protection across various interventions support a focus on the impact of cardiac aging on healthspan. The advancement of mitochondrially-targeted small molecule antioxidants suggests the prospect of swift translation to human use. PMID:20566356

  16. Oxidative DNA damage stalls the human mitochondrial replisome

    PubMed Central

    Stojkovič, Gorazd; Makarova, Alena V.; Wanrooij, Paulina H.; Forslund, Josefin; Burgers, Peter M.; Wanrooij, Sjoerd

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is capable of causing damage to various cellular constituents, including DNA. There is however limited knowledge on how oxidative stress influences mitochondrial DNA and its replication. Here, we have used purified mtDNA replication proteins, i.e. DNA polymerase γ holoenzyme, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA binding protein mtSSB, the replicative helicase Twinkle and the proposed mitochondrial translesion synthesis polymerase PrimPol to study lesion bypass synthesis on oxidative damage-containing DNA templates. Our studies were carried out at dNTP levels representative of those prevailing either in cycling or in non-dividing cells. At dNTP concentrations that mimic those in cycling cells, the replication machinery showed substantial stalling at sites of damage, and these problems were further exacerbated at the lower dNTP concentrations present in resting cells. PrimPol, the translesion synthesis polymerase identified inside mammalian mitochondria, did not promote mtDNA replication fork bypass of the damage. This argues against a conventional role for PrimPol as a mitochondrial translesion synthesis DNA polymerase for oxidative DNA damage; however, we show that Twinkle, the mtDNA replicative helicase, is able to stimulate PrimPol DNA synthesis in vitro, suggestive of an as yet unidentified role of PrimPol in mtDNA metabolism. PMID:27364318

  17. Mitochondrial Thioredoxin in Regulation of Oxidant-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Cai, Jiyang; Jones, Dean P

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondrial thioredoxin (mtTrx) can be oxidized in response to inducers of oxidative stress; yet the functional consequences of the oxidation have not been determined. This study evaluated the redox status of mtTrx and its association to oxidant-induced apoptosis. Results showed that mtTrx was oxidized after exposure to peroxides and diamide. Overexpression of mtTrx protected against diamide-induced oxidation and cytotoxicity. Oxidation of mtTrx was also achieved by knocking down its reductase; and lead to increased susceptibility to cell death. The data indicate that the redox status of mtTrx is a regulatory mechanism underlying the vulnerability of mitochondria to oxidative injury. PMID:17113580

  18. Control of lipid oxidation at the mitochondrial level.

    PubMed

    Sahlin, Kent

    2009-06-01

    The rate of lipid oxidation during exercise is controlled at several sites, and there is a reciprocal dependency between oxidation of lipids and carbohydrates (CHO). It is well known that the proportion of the 2 fuels oxidized is influenced by substrate availability and exercise intensity, but the mechanisms regulating fuel preferences remain unclear. During intense exercise, oxidation of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) decreases, and the major control is likely to be at the mitochondrial level. Potential mitochondrial sites for control of lipid oxidation include transport of LCFAs into mitochondrial matrix, beta-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the electron transport chain (ETC). CHO catabolism may impair lipid oxidation by interfering with the transfer of LCFAs into mitochondria and by competing for mutual cofactors (i.e., nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and (or) coenzyme A (CoA)). The different effect of energy state on the catabolism of CHO and lipids is likely to be of major importance in explaining the shift in fuel utilization during intensive exercise. Formation of acetyl-CoA from CHO is activated by a low energy state, and will lead to accumulation of products that are inhibitory to lipid oxidation. In contrast, beta-oxidation of LCFAs to acetyl-CoA is not stimulated by a low energy state. Further interaction between CHO and LCFAs may occur by substrate competition for electron carriers at ETC, due to provisions of electrons through different complexes. Feedback inhibition of beta-oxidation by redox state is thought to be an important mechanism for the slowing of lipid oxidation during intensive exercise. PMID:19448703

  19. Cardioprotective effects of lipoic acid, quercetin and resveratrol on oxidative stress related to thyroid hormone alterations in long-term obesity.

    PubMed

    Cheserek, Maureen Jepkorir; Wu, Guirong; Li, Longnan; Li, Lirong; Karangwa, Eric; Shi, Yonghui; Le, Guowei

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated possible mechanisms for cardioprotective effects of lipoic acid (LA), quercetin (Q) and resveratrol (R) on oxidative stress related to thyroid hormone alterations in long-term obesity. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed on high-fat diet (HFD), HFD+LA, HFD+R, HFD+Q and normal diet for 26weeks. Body weight, blood pressure, thyroid hormones, oxidative stress markers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and ion pump activities were measured, and expression of cardiac genes was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. HFD induced marked increase (P<.05) in body weight, blood pressure and oxidative stress, while plasma triidothyronine levels reduced. ACE activity increased (P<.05) in HFD mice (0.69±0.225U/mg protein) compared with controls (0.28±0.114U/mg protein), HFD+LA (0.231±0.02U/mg protein) and HFD+Q (0.182±0.096U/mg protein) at 26weeks. Moreover, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities increased in HFD mice whereas NOS reduced. A 1.5-fold increase in TRα1 and reduction in expression of the deiodinase iodothyronine DIO1, threonine protein kinase and NOS3 as well as up-regulation of AT1α, ACE, ATP1B1, GSK3β and Cja1 genes also occurred in HFD mice. Conversely, LA, Q and R inhibited weight gain; reduced TRα1 expression as well as increased DIO1; reduced ACE activity and AT1α, ATP1B1 and Cja1 gene expression as well as inhibited GSK3β; increased total antioxidant capacity, GSH and catalase activity; and reduced blood pressure. In conclusion, LA, resveratrol and quercetin supplementation reduces obesity thereby restoring plasma thyroid hormone levels and attenuating oxidative stress in the heart and thus may have therapeutic potential in heart diseases. PMID:27260466

  20. Integrated analysis of the involvement of nitric oxide synthesis in mitochondrial proliferation, mitochondrial deficiency and apoptosis in skeletal muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Gabriela Silva; Godinho, Rosely Oliveira; Kiyomoto, Beatriz Hitomi; Gamba, Juliana; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Schmidt, Beny; Tengan, Célia Harumi

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling messenger involved in different mitochondrial processes but only few studies explored the participation of NO in mitochondrial abnormalities found in patients with genetic mitochondrial deficiencies. In this study we verified whether NO synthase (NOS) activity was altered in different types of mitochondrial abnormalities and whether changes in mitochondrial function and NOS activity could be associated with the induction of apoptosis. We performed a quantitative and integrated analysis of NOS activity in individual muscle fibres of patients with mitochondrial diseases, considering mitochondrial function (cytochrome-c-oxidase activity), mitochondrial content, mitochondrial DNA mutation and presence of apoptotic nuclei. Our results indicated that sarcolemmal NOS activity was increased in muscle fibres with mitochondrial proliferation, supporting the relevance of neuronal NOS in the mitochondrial biogenesis process. Sarcoplasmic NOS activity was reduced in cytochrome-c-oxidase deficient fibres, probably as a consequence of the involvement of NO in the regulation of the respiratory chain. Alterations in NOS activity or mitochondrial abnormalities were not predisposing factors to apoptotic nuclei. Taken together, our results show that NO can be considered a potential molecular target for strategies to increase mitochondrial content and indicate that this approach may not be associated with increased apoptotic events. PMID:26856437

  1. Mitochondrial Cyclophilin D in Vascular Oxidative Stress and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Itani, Hana A; Dikalova, Anna E; McMaster, William G; Nazarewicz, Rafal R; Bikineyeva, Alfiya T; Harrison, David G; Dikalov, Sergey I

    2016-06-01

    Vascular superoxide (O˙2 (-)) and inflammation contribute to hypertension. The mitochondria are an important source of O˙2 (-); however, the regulation of mitochondrial O˙2 (-) and the antihypertensive potential of targeting the mitochondria remain poorly defined. Angiotensin II and inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 17A and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) significantly contribute to hypertension. We hypothesized that angiotensin II and cytokines co-operatively induce cyclophilin D (CypD)-dependent mitochondrial O˙2 (-) production in hypertension. We tested whether CypD inhibition attenuates endothelial oxidative stress and reduces hypertension. CypD depletion in CypD(-/-) mice prevents overproduction of mitochondrial O˙2 (-) in angiotensin II-infused mice, attenuates hypertension by 20 mm Hg, and improves vascular relaxation compared with wild-type C57Bl/6J mice. Treatment of hypertensive mice with the specific CypD inhibitor Sanglifehrin A reduces blood pressure by 28 mm Hg, inhibits production of mitochondrial O˙2 (-) by 40%, and improves vascular relaxation. Angiotensin II-induced hypertension was associated with CypD redox activation by S-glutathionylation, and expression of the mitochondria-targeted H2O2 scavenger, catalase, abolished CypD S-glutathionylation, prevented stimulation mitochondrial O˙2 (-), and attenuated hypertension. The functional role of cytokine-angiotensin II interplay was confirmed by co-operative stimulation of mitochondrial O˙2 (-) by 3-fold in cultured endothelial cells and impairment of aortic relaxation incubated with combination of angiotensin II, interleukin 17A, and tumor necrosis factor-α which was prevented by CypD depletion or expression of mitochondria-targeted SOD2 and catalase. These data support a novel role of CypD in hypertension and demonstrate that targeting CypD decreases mitochondrial O˙2 (-), improves vascular relaxation, and reduces hypertension. PMID:27067720

  2. Hepatitis C Virus Attenuates Mitochondrial Lipid β-Oxidation by Downregulating Mitochondrial Trifunctional-Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Munakata, Tsubasa; Kohara, Michinori; Siddiqui, Aleem; Peers, Chris

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and disease progression involves alterations in lipid metabolism, leading to symptoms such as hypocholesterolemia and steatosis. Steatosis can be induced by multiple mechanisms, including increases in lipid biosynthesis and uptake, impaired lipoprotein secretion, and/or attenuation of lipid β-oxidation. However, little is known about the effects of HCV on lipid β-oxidation. A previous proteomics study revealed that HCV interacted with both the α- and β-subunits of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP), an enzyme complex which catalyzes the last 3 steps of mitochondrial lipid β-oxidation for cellular energy production. Here we show that in HCV-infected Huh7.5 cells, lipid β-oxidation was significantly attenuated. Consistently with this, MTP protein and mRNA levels were suppressed by HCV infection. A loss-of-function study showed that MTP depletion rendered cells less responsive to alpha interferon (IFN-α) treatment by impairing IFN-stimulated gene expression. These aspects of host-virus interaction explain how HCV alters host energy homeostasis and how it may also contribute to the establishment of persistent infection in the liver. IMPORTANCE HCV infection triggers metabolic alterations, which lead to significant disease outcomes, such as fatty liver (steatosis). This study revealed that HCV impairs mitochondrial lipid β-oxidation, which results in low lipid combustion. On the other hand, the HCV-induced defects in metabolic status played an important role in the control of the type I interferon system. Under the conditions of impaired lipid β-oxidation, host cells were less responsive to the ability of exogenously added IFN-α to suppress HCV replication. This suggests that interference with lipid β-oxidation may assist the virus in the establishment of a long-term, persistent infection. Further understanding of this aspect of virus-host interaction may lead to improvements in the current

  3. Mitochondrial oxidant stress in locus coeruleus is regulated by activity and nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Padilla, Javier; Guzman, Jaime N; Ilijic, Ema; Kondapalli, Jyothisri; Galtieri, Daniel J; Yang, Ben; Schieber, Simon; Oertel, Wolfgang; Wokosin, David; Schumacker, Paul T; Surmeier, D James

    2014-06-01

    Loss of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is a prominent feature of aging-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). The basis of this vulnerability is not understood. To explore possible physiological determinants, we studied LC neurons using electrophysiological and optical approaches in ex vivo mouse brain slices. We found that autonomous activity in LC neurons was accompanied by oscillations in dendritic Ca(2+) concentration that were attributable to the opening of L-type Ca(2+) channels. This oscillation elevated mitochondrial oxidant stress and was attenuated by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. The relationship between activity and stress was malleable, as arousal and carbon dioxide increased the spike rate but differentially affected mitochondrial oxidant stress. Oxidant stress was also increased in an animal model of PD. Thus, our results point to activity-dependent Ca(2+) entry and a resulting mitochondrial oxidant stress as factors contributing to the vulnerability of LC neurons. PMID:24816140

  4. Mitochondrial oxidant stress in locus coeruleus is regulated by activity and nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez–Padilla, J.; Guzman, J.N.; Ilijic, E.; Kondapalli, J.; Galtieri, D.J.; Yang, B.; Schieber, S.; Oertel, W.; Wokosin, D.; Schumacker, P. T.; Surmeier, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Loss of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is a prominent feature of aging–related neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson’s disease (PD). The basis of this vulnerability is not understood. To explore possible physiological determinants, LC neurons were studied using electrophysiological and optical approaches in ex vivo mouse brain slices. These studies revealed that autonomous activity in LC neurons was accompanied by oscillations in dendritic Ca2+ concentration attributable to opening of L–type Ca2+ channels. This oscillation elevated mitochondrial oxidant stress and was attenuated by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. The relationship between activity and stress was malleable, as arousal and carbon dioxide, each increased the spike rate, but differentially affected mitochondrial oxidant stress. Oxidant stress also was increased in an animal model of PD. Thus, our results point to activity–dependent Ca2+ entry and a resulting mitochondrial oxidant stress as factors contributing to the vulnerability of LC neurons. PMID:24816140

  5. Bushen-Yizhi formula ameliorates cognition deficits and attenuates oxidative stress-related neuronal apoptosis in scopolamine-induced senescence in mice

    PubMed Central

    HOU, XUE-QIN; WU, DIAN-WEI; ZHANG, CHUN-XIA; YAN, RONG; YANG, CONG; RONG, CUI-PING; ZHANG, LEI; CHANG, XIANG; SU, RU-YU; ZHANG, SHI-JIE; HE, WEN-QING; QU, ZHAO; LI, SHI; SU, ZI-REN; CHEN, YUN-BO; WANG, QI; FANG, SHU-HUAN

    2014-01-01

    Bushen-Yizhi formula (BSYZ), a traditional Chinese medicine formula consisting of six herbs has been reported to possess a neuroprotective effect. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of BSYZ on learning and memory abilities, as well as oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus of scopolamine (SCOP)-induced senescence in mice, in order to reveal whether BSYZ is a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint was applied to provide a chemical profile of BSYZ. Extracts of BSYZ were orally administered to mice with SCOP-induced memory impairment for two weeks. The learning and memory abilities were determined by the Morris water maze test. The oxidant stress-related indices, such as activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and levels of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined in hippocampus of SCOP-treated mice. The cell death ratio was assessed by TUNEL staining, while apoptotic-related proteins including Bcl-2 and Bax were determined by immunofluorescent staining and western blot analysis. Caspase-3 was determined by western blot analysis. Consequently, a chromatographic condition, which was conducted at 35°C with a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min on the Gemini C18 column with mobile phase of acetonitrile and water-phosphoric acid (100:0.1, v/v), was established to yield common fingerprint chromatography under 203 nm with a similarity index of 0.986 within 10 batches of BSYZ samples. BSYZ at a dose of 2.92 g/kg significantly improved the cognitive ability, restored the abnormal activity of SOD and increased the levels of MDA and GSH induced by SCOP. Moreover, the neural apoptosis in the hippocampus of SCOP-treated mice was reversed by BSYZ by regulating the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3. The results demonstrated that BSYZ had neuroprotective effects in SCOP-induced senescence in mice by ameliorating oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in the

  6. MiR-17-5p Impairs Trafficking of H-ERG K+ Channel Protein by Targeting Multiple ER Stress-Related Chaperones during Chronic Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Hu, Weina; Lei, Mingming; Wang, Yong; Yan, Bing; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ren; Jin, Yuanzhe

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate if microRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in regulating h-ERG trafficking in the setting of chronic oxidative stress as a common deleterious factor for many cardiac disorders. Methods We treated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and HEK293 cells with stable expression of h-ERG with H2O2 for 12 h and 48 h. Expression of miR-17-5p seed miRNAs was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Protein levels of chaperones and h-ERG trafficking were measured by Western blot analysis. Luciferase reporter gene assay was used to study miRNA and target interactions. Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were employed to record h-ERG K+ current. Results H-ERG trafficking was impaired by H2O2 after 48 h treatment, accompanied by reciprocal changes of expression between miR-17-5p seed miRNAs and several chaperones (Hsp70, Hsc70, CANX, and Golga2), with the former upregulated and the latter downregulated. We established these chaperones as targets for miR-17-5p. Application miR-17-5p inhibitor rescued H2O2-induced impairment of h-ERG trafficking. Upregulation of endogenous by H2O2 or forced miR-17-5p expression either reduced h-ERG current. Sequestration of AP1 by its decoy molecule eliminated the upregulation of miR-17-5p, and ameliorated impairment of h-ERG trafficking. Conclusions Collectively, deregulation of the miR-17-5p seed family miRNAs can cause severe impairment of h-ERG trafficking through targeting multiple ER stress-related chaperones, and activation of AP1 likely accounts for the deleterious upregulation of these miRNAs, in the setting of prolonged duration of oxidative stress. These findings revealed the role of miRNAs in h-ERG trafficking, which may contribute to the cardiac electrical disturbances associated with oxidative stress. PMID:24386440

  7. Rabies virus phosphoprotein interacts with mitochondrial Complex I and induces mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kammouni, Wafa; Wood, Heidi; Saleh, Ali; Appolinario, Camila M; Fernyhough, Paul; Jackson, Alan C

    2015-08-01

    Our previous studies in an experimental model of rabies showed neuronal process degeneration in association with severe clinical disease. Cultured adult rodent dorsal root ganglion neurons infected with challenge virus standard (CVS)-11 strain of rabies virus (RABV) showed axonal swellings and reduced axonal growth with evidence of oxidative stress. We have shown that CVS infection alters a variety of mitochondrial parameters and increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial Complex I activity vs. mock infection. We have hypothesized that a RABV protein targets mitochondria and triggers dysfunction. Mitochondrial extracts of mouse neuroblastoma cells were analyzed with a proteomics approach. We have identified peptides belonging to the RABV nucleocapsid protein (N), phosphoprotein (P), and glycoprotein (G), and our data indicate that the extract was most highly enriched with P. P was also detected by immunoblotting in RABV-infected purified mitochondrial extracts and also in Complex I immunoprecipitates from the extracts but not in mock-infected extracts. A plasmid expressing P in cells increased Complex I activity and increased ROS generation, whereas expression of other RABV proteins did not. We have analyzed recombinant plasmids encoding various P gene segments. Expression of a peptide from amino acid 139-172 increased Complex I activity and ROS generation similar to expression of the entire P protein, whereas peptides that did not contain this region did not increase Complex I activity or induce ROS generation. These results indicate that a region of the RABV P interacts with Complex I in mitochondria causing mitochondrial dysfunction, increased generation of ROS, and oxidative stress. PMID:25698500

  8. Transcriptomics in Interferon-α-Treated Patients Identifies Inflammation-, Neuroplasticity- and Oxidative Stress-Related Signatures as Predictors and Correlates of Depression.

    PubMed

    Hepgul, Nilay; Cattaneo, Annamaria; Agarwal, Kosh; Baraldi, Sara; Borsini, Alessandra; Bufalino, Chiara; Forton, Daniel M; Mondelli, Valeria; Nikkheslat, Naghmeh; Lopizzo, Nicola; Riva, Marco A; Russell, Alice; Hotopf, Matthew; Pariante, Carmine M

    2016-09-01

    Owing to the unique opportunity to assess individuals before and after they develop depression within a short timeframe, interferon-α (IFN-α) treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an ideal model to identify molecular mechanisms relevant to major depression, especially in the context of enhanced inflammation. Fifty-eight patients were assessed prospectively, at baseline and monthly over 24 weeks of IFN-α treatment. New-onset cases of depression were determined using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Whole-blood transcriptomic analyses were conducted to investigate the following: (1) baseline gene expression differences associated with future development of IFN-α-induced depression, before IFN-α, and (2) longitudinal gene expression changes from baseline to weeks 4 or 24 of IFN-α treatment, separately in those who did and did not develop depression. Transcriptomics data were analyzed using Partek Genomics Suite (1.4-fold, FDR adjusted p⩽0.05) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Software. Twenty patients (34%) developed IFN-α-induced depression. At baseline, 73 genes were differentially expressed in patients who later developed depression compared with those who did not. After 4 weeks of IFN-α treatment, 592 genes were modulated in the whole sample, representing primarily IFN-α-responsive genes. Substantially more genes were modulated only in patients who developed depression (n=506, compared with n=70 in patients who did not), with enrichment in inflammation-, neuroplasticity- and oxidative stress-related pathways. A similar picture was observed at week 24. Our data indicate that patients who develop IFN-α-induced depression have an increased biological sensitivity to IFN-α, as shown by larger gene expression changes, and specific signatures both as predictors and as correlates. PMID:27067128

  9. Transcriptomics in Interferon-α-Treated Patients Identifies Inflammation-, Neuroplasticity- and Oxidative Stress-Related Signatures as Predictors and Correlates of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hepgul, Nilay; Cattaneo, Annamaria; Agarwal, Kosh; Baraldi, Sara; Borsini, Alessandra; Bufalino, Chiara; Forton, Daniel M; Mondelli, Valeria; Nikkheslat, Naghmeh; Lopizzo, Nicola; Riva, Marco A; Russell, Alice; Hotopf, Matthew; Pariante, Carmine M

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the unique opportunity to assess individuals before and after they develop depression within a short timeframe, interferon-α (IFN-α) treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an ideal model to identify molecular mechanisms relevant to major depression, especially in the context of enhanced inflammation. Fifty-eight patients were assessed prospectively, at baseline and monthly over 24 weeks of IFN-α treatment. New-onset cases of depression were determined using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Whole-blood transcriptomic analyses were conducted to investigate the following: (1) baseline gene expression differences associated with future development of IFN-α-induced depression, before IFN-α, and (2) longitudinal gene expression changes from baseline to weeks 4 or 24 of IFN-α treatment, separately in those who did and did not develop depression. Transcriptomics data were analyzed using Partek Genomics Suite (1.4-fold, FDR adjusted p⩽0.05) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Software. Twenty patients (34%) developed IFN-α-induced depression. At baseline, 73 genes were differentially expressed in patients who later developed depression compared with those who did not. After 4 weeks of IFN-α treatment, 592 genes were modulated in the whole sample, representing primarily IFN-α-responsive genes. Substantially more genes were modulated only in patients who developed depression (n=506, compared with n=70 in patients who did not), with enrichment in inflammation-, neuroplasticity- and oxidative stress-related pathways. A similar picture was observed at week 24. Our data indicate that patients who develop IFN-α-induced depression have an increased biological sensitivity to IFN-α, as shown by larger gene expression changes, and specific signatures both as predictors and as correlates. PMID:27067128

  10. Exercise increases mitochondrial glutamate oxidation in the mouse cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Eric A F; Holloway, Graham P

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the impact of acute exercise on stimulating mitochondrial respiratory function in mouse cerebral cortex. Where pyruvate-stimulated respiration was not affected by acute exercise, glutamate respiration was enhanced following the exercise bout. Additional assessment revealed that this affect was dependent on the presence of malate and did not occur when substituting glutamine for glutamate. As such, our results suggest that glutamate oxidation is enhanced with acute exercise through activation of the malate-aspartate shuttle. PMID:27184881

  11. Mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase participates in septic shock myocardial depression by nitric oxide overproduction and mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ce; Yi, Chenju; Wang, Huiping; Bruce, Iain C; Xia, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether mitochondrial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) is involved in septic shock myocardial depression. The cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) method was used to induce septic shock. There was a significant depression of hemodynamic parameters recorded in the septic shock stage. After using nonselective NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), inducible NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AMG), and neuronal NOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), depression of the parameters was partly attenuated. Nitric oxide production in isolated cardiac mitochondria increased obviously in the CLP-septic shock stage, L-NAME and 7-NI both decreased NO production significantly. Nitrite/nitrate (NOx) production in the septic shock stage was much greater than those in the corresponding sham groups, and NOx production in the cytosol by inducible NOS was greater. Treatment with AMG suppressed NOx production in the cytosol by iNOS, whereas treatment with 7-NI decreased NOx production in the mitochondria. Mitochondrial NOS expression increased significantly in the septic shock stage, and its overexpression was attenuated using 7-NI. There was no significant decrease in the mitochondrial permeability transition pore measurement in the CLP-septic shock group, whereas a significant decrease was observed in those treated with L-NAME or 7-NI. These results indicate that overexpression of mitochondrial NOS is involved in myocardial depression. PMID:21993446

  12. Ghrelin reduces hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid beta oxidation.

    PubMed

    Rigault, C; Le Borgne, F; Georges, B; Demarquoy, J

    2007-04-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide secreted during starvation by gastric cells. Ghrelin physiologically induces food intake and seems to alter lipid and glucid metabolism in several tissues such as adipose tissue and liver. Liver has a key position in lipid metabolism as it allows the metabolic orientation of fatty acids between oxidation and esterification. We investigated the effects of peripheral ghrelin administration on 2 crucial parameters of fatty acid oxidation: the levocarnitine (L-carnitine)-dependent entry of the fatty acids in the mitochondria and the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Ghrelin was either given to rats prior to the hepatocyte preparation and culture or used to treat hepatocytes prepared from control animals. Direct incubation of ghrelin to raw hepatocytes did not induce any change in the studied parameters. In hepatocytes prepared from 3 nmol ghrelin-treated rats, a 44% reduction of the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation while no alteration of the L-carnitine-related parameters were observed. These results suggested (a) that ghrelin has no direct effect on liver, and (b) that when administrated to a whole organism, ghrelin may alter the lipid metabolism and the energy balance through a marked decrease in liver fatty acid oxidation. PMID:17556859

  13. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Their Role in Age-Related Vascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Mikhed, Yuliya; Daiber, Andreas; Steven, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is significantly increased in the older population. Risk factors and predictors of future cardiovascular events such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, or diabetes are observed with higher frequency in elderly individuals. A major determinant of vascular aging is endothelial dysfunction, characterized by impaired endothelium-dependent signaling processes. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress, loss of nitric oxide (•NO) signaling, loss of endothelial barrier function and infiltration of leukocytes to the vascular wall, explaining the low-grade inflammation characteristic for the aged vasculature. We here discuss the importance of different sources of ROS for vascular aging and their contribution to the increased cardiovascular risk in the elderly population with special emphasis on mitochondrial ROS formation and oxidative damage of mitochondrial DNA. Also the interaction (crosstalk) of mitochondria with nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases is highlighted. Current concepts of vascular aging, consequences for the development of cardiovascular events and the particular role of ROS are evaluated on the basis of cell culture experiments, animal studies and clinical trials. Present data point to a more important role of oxidative stress for the maximal healthspan (healthy aging) than for the maximal lifespan. PMID:26184181

  14. Nrf2 protects mitochondrial decay by oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Strom, Joshua; Xu, Beibei; Tian, Xiuqing; Chen, Qin M

    2016-01-01

    Sublethal levels of oxidative stress are commonly associated with various pathophysiological conditions. Cardiomyocytes have the highest content of mitochondria among all cell types, allowing the study of mitochondria in cells surviving oxidative stress and address whether nuclear factor-erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) can reverse these changes. Mitochondria normally exist in elaborated networks, which were replaced by predominately individual punctuate mitochondria 24 h after exposure to a nonlethal dose of H2O2. Electron microscopy revealed that cells surviving H2O2 show swelling of mitochondria with disorganized cristae and areas of condensation. Measurements of functional mitochondria showed a H2O2 dose-dependent decrease over a course of 5 d. At the protein and mRNA levels, cells surviving H2O2 treatment show a reduction of mitochondrial components, cytochrome c, and cytochrome b. Nrf2 overexpression prevented H2O2 from inducing mitochondria morphologic changes and reduction of cytochrome b/c. Although Nrf2 is known as a transcription factor regulating antioxidant and detoxification genes, Nrf2 overexpression did not significantly reduce the level of protein oxidation. Instead, Nrf2 was found to associate with the outer mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria prepared from the myocardium of Nrf2 knockout mice are more sensitive to permeability transition. Our data suggest that Nrf2 protects mitochondria from oxidant injury likely through direct interaction with mitochondria. PMID:26340923

  15. Diabetes and mitochondrial function: Role of hyperglycemia and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Rolo, Anabela P.; Palmeira, Carlos M. . E-mail: palmeira@ci.uc.pt

    2006-04-15

    Hyperglycemia resulting from uncontrolled glucose regulation is widely recognized as the causal link between diabetes and diabetic complications. Four major molecular mechanisms have been implicated in hyperglycemia-induced tissue damage: activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms via de novo synthesis of the lipid second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG), increased hexosamine pathway flux, increased advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation, and increased polyol pathway flux. Hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of superoxide is the causal link between high glucose and the pathways responsible for hyperglycemic damage. In fact, diabetes is typically accompanied by increased production of free radicals and/or impaired antioxidant defense capabilities, indicating a central contribution for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the onset, progression, and pathological consequences of diabetes. Besides oxidative stress, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated a link between various disturbances in mitochondrial functioning and type 2 diabetes. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and decreases in mtDNA copy number have been linked to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The study of the relationship of mtDNA to type 2 diabetes has revealed the influence of the mitochondria on nuclear-encoded glucose transporters, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and nuclear-encoded uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in {beta}-cell glucose toxicity. This review focuses on a range of mitochondrial factors important in the pathogenesis of diabetes. We review the published literature regarding the direct effects of hyperglycemia on mitochondrial function and suggest the possibility of regulation of mitochondrial function at a transcriptional level in response to hyperglycemia. The main goal of this review is to include a fresh consideration of pathways involved in hyperglycemia-induced diabetic complications.

  16. Curcumin alleviates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Daverey, Amita; Agrawal, Sandeep K

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in various neurodegenerative diseases, thus alleviating oxidative stress is a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention and/or prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, alleviation of oxidative stress through curcumin is investigated in A172 (human glioblastoma cell line) and HA-sp (human astrocytes cell line derived from the spinal cord) astrocytes. H2O2 was used to induce oxidative stress in astrocytes (A172 and HA-sp). Data show that H2O2 induces activation of astrocytes in dose- and time-dependent manner as evident by increased expression of GFAP in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24 and 12h respectively. An upregulation of Prdx6 was also observed in A172 and HA-sp cells after 24h of H2O2 treatment as compared to untreated control. Our data also showed that curcumin inhibits oxidative stress-induced cytoskeleton disarrangement, and impedes the activation of astrocytes by inhibiting upregulation of GFAP, vimentin and Prdx6. In addition, we observed an inhibition of oxidative stress-induced inflammation, apoptosis and mitochondria fragmentation after curcumin treatment. Therefore, our results suggest that curcumin not only protects astrocytes from H2O2-induced oxidative stress but also reverses the mitochondrial damage and dysfunction induced by oxidative stress. This study also provides evidence for protective role of curcumin on astrocytes by showing its effects on attenuating reactive astrogliosis and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:27423629

  17. Effects of dietary fatty acids on mitochondrial phospholipid compositions, oxidative status and mitochondrial gene expression of zebrafish at different ages.

    PubMed

    Betancor, M B; Almaida-Pagán, P F; Hernández, A; Tocher, D R

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial decay is generally associated with impairment in the organelle bioenergetics function and increased oxidative stress, and it appears that deterioration of mitochondrial inner membrane phospholipids (PL) and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are among the main mechanisms involved in this process. In the present study, mitochondrial membrane PL compositions, oxidative status (TBARS content and SOD activity) and mtDNA gene expression of muscle and liver were analyzed in zebrafish fed two diets with lipid supplied either by rapeseed oil (RO) or a blend 60:40 of RO and DHA500 TG oil (DHA). Two feeding trials were performed using zebrafish from the same population of two ages (8 and 21 months). Dietary FA composition affected fish growth in 8-month-old animals, which could be related to an increase in stress promoted by diet composition. Lipid peroxidation was considerably higher in mitochondria of 8-month-old zebrafish fed the DHA diet than in animals fed the RO diet. This could indicate higher oxidative damage to mitochondrial lipids, very likely due to increased incorporation of DHA in PL of mitochondrial membranes. Lipids would be among the first molecules affected by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation could propagate oxidative reactions that would damage other molecules, including mtDNA. Mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and gene expression of 21-month-old fish showed lower responsiveness to diet composition than those of younger fish. Differences found in the effect of diet composition on mitochondrial lipids between the two age groups could be indicating age-related changes in the ability to maintain structural homeostasis of mitochondrial membranes. PMID:26156499

  18. Spaceflight environment induces mitochondrial oxidative damage in ocular tissue.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiao W; Pecaut, Michael J; Stodieck, Louis S; Ferguson, Virginia L; Bateman, Ted A; Bouxsein, Mary; Jones, Tamako A; Moldovan, Maria; Cunningham, Christopher E; Chieu, Jenny; Gridley, Daila S

    2013-10-01

    A recent report shows that more than 30% of the astronauts returning from Space Shuttle missions or the International Space Station (ISS) were diagnosed with eye problems that can cause reduced visual acuity. We investigate here whether spaceflight environment-associated retinal damage might be related to oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial apoptosis. Female C57BL/6 mice were flown in the space shuttle Atlantis (STS-135), and within 3-5 h of landing, the spaceflight and ground-control mice, similarly housed in animal enclosure modules (AEMs) were euthanized and their eyes were removed for analysis. Changes in expression of genes involved in oxidative stress, mitochondrial and endothelial cell biology were examined. Apoptosis in the retina was analyzed by caspase-3 immunocytochemical analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) protein, an oxidative specific marker for lipid peroxidation were also measured. Evaluation of spaceflight mice and AEM ground-control mice showed that expression of several genes playing central roles in regulating the mitochondria-associated apoptotic pathway were significantly altered in mouse ocular tissue after spaceflight compared to AEM ground-control mice. In addition, the mRNA levels of several genes, which are responsible for regulating the production of reactive oxygen species were also significantly up-regulated in spaceflight samples compared to AEM ground-control mice. Further more, the level of HNE protein was significantly elevated in the retina after spaceflight compared to controls. Our results also revealed that spaceflight conditions induced significant apoptosis in the retina especially inner nuclear layer (INL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL) compared to AEM ground controls. The data provided the first evidence that spaceflight conditions induce oxidative damage that results in mitochondrial apoptosis in the retina. This data suggest

  19. Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinglong; Wang, Wenzhang; Li, Li; Perry, George; Lee, Hyoung-gon; Zhu, Xiongwei

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) exhibits extensive oxidative stress throughout the body, being detected peripherally as well as associated with the vulnerable regions of the brain affected in disease. Abundant evidence not only demonstrates the full spectrum of oxidative damage to neuronal macromolecules, but also reveals the occurrence of oxidative events early in the course of the disease and prior to the formation of the pathology, which support an important role of oxidative stress in AD. As a disease of abnormal aging, AD demonstrats oxidative damage at levels that significantly surpass that of elderly controls, which suggests the involvement of additional factor(s). Structurally and functionally damaged mitochondria, which are more proficient at producing reactive oxygen species but less so in ATP, are also an early and prominent feature of the disease. Since mitochondria are also vulnerable to oxidative stress, it is likely that a vicious downward spiral involving the interactions between mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress contributes to the initiation and/or amplification of reactive oxygen species that is critical to the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:24189435

  20. Mitochondrial Redox Signaling: Interaction of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species with Other Sources of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Eberhard; Wenzel, Philip; Münzel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative stress is a well established hallmark of cardiovascular disease and there is strong evidence for a causal role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) therein. Recent Advances: Improvement of cardiovascular complications by genetic deletion of RONS producing enzymes and overexpression of RONS degrading enzymes proved the involvement of these species in cardiovascular disease at a molecular level. Vice versa, overexpression of RONS producing enzymes as well as deletion of antioxidant enzymes was demonstrated to aggravate cardiovascular complications. Critical Issues: With the present overview we present and discuss different pathways how mitochondrial RONS interact (crosstalk) with other sources of oxidative stress, namely NADPH oxidases, xanthine oxidase and an uncoupled nitric oxide synthase. The potential mechanisms of how this crosstalk proceeds are discussed in detail. Several examples from the literature are summarized (including hypoxia, angiotensin II mediated vascular dysfunction, cellular starvation, nitrate tolerance, aging, hyperglycemia, β-amyloid stress and others) and the underlying mechanisms are put together to a more general concept of redox-based activation of different sources of RONS via enzyme-specific “redox switches”. Mitochondria play a key role in this concept providing redox triggers for oxidative damage in the cardiovascular system but also act as amplifiers to increase the burden of oxidative stress. Future Directions: Based on these considerations, the characterization of the role of mitochondrial RONS formation in cardiac disease as well as inflammatory processes but also the role of mitochondria as potential therapeutic targets in these pathophysiological states should be addressed in more detail in the future. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 308–324. PMID:22657349

  1. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress. PMID:26180820

  2. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R.; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress. PMID:26180820

  3. A mitochondrial superoxide theory for oxidative stress diseases and aging.

    PubMed

    Indo, Hiroko P; Yen, Hsiu-Chuan; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichiro; Tamura, Masato; Nagano, Yumiko; Matsui, Hirofumi; Gusev, Oleg; Cornette, Richard; Okuda, Takashi; Minamiyama, Yukiko; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Suenaga, Shigeaki; Oki, Misato; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Clair, Daret K St; Majima, Hideyuki J

    2015-01-01

    Fridovich identified CuZnSOD in 1969 and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in 1973, and proposed "the Superoxide Theory," which postulates that superoxide (O2 (•-)) is the origin of most reactive oxygen species (ROS) and that it undergoes a chain reaction in a cell, playing a central role in the ROS producing system. Increased oxidative stress on an organism causes damage to cells, the smallest constituent unit of an organism, which can lead to the onset of a variety of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurological diseases caused by abnormalities in biological defenses or increased intracellular reactive oxygen levels. Oxidative stress also plays a role in aging. Antioxidant systems, including non-enzyme low-molecular-weight antioxidants (such as, vitamins A, C and E, polyphenols, glutathione, and coenzyme Q10) and antioxidant enzymes, fight against oxidants in cells. Superoxide is considered to be a major factor in oxidant toxicity, and mitochondrial MnSOD enzymes constitute an essential defense against superoxide. Mitochondria are the major source of superoxide. The reaction of superoxide generated from mitochondria with nitric oxide is faster than SOD catalyzed reaction, and produces peroxynitrite. Thus, based on research conducted after Fridovich's seminal studies, we now propose a modified superoxide theory; i.e., superoxide is the origin of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and, as such, causes various redox related diseases and aging. PMID:25834301

  4. A mitochondrial superoxide theory for oxidative stress diseases and aging

    PubMed Central

    Indo, Hiroko P.; Yen, Hsiu-Chuan; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro; Tamura, Masato; Nagano, Yumiko; Matsui, Hirofumi; Gusev, Oleg; Cornette, Richard; Okuda, Takashi; Minamiyama, Yukiko; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Suenaga, Shigeaki; Oki, Misato; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Clair, Daret K. St.; Majima, Hideyuki J.

    2015-01-01

    Fridovich identified CuZnSOD in 1969 and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in 1973, and proposed ”the Superoxide Theory,” which postulates that superoxide (O2•−) is the origin of most reactive oxygen species (ROS) and that it undergoes a chain reaction in a cell, playing a central role in the ROS producing system. Increased oxidative stress on an organism causes damage to cells, the smallest constituent unit of an organism, which can lead to the onset of a variety of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurological diseases caused by abnormalities in biological defenses or increased intracellular reactive oxygen levels. Oxidative stress also plays a role in aging. Antioxidant systems, including non-enzyme low-molecular-weight antioxidants (such as, vitamins A, C and E, polyphenols, glutathione, and coenzyme Q10) and antioxidant enzymes, fight against oxidants in cells. Superoxide is considered to be a major factor in oxidant toxicity, and mitochondrial MnSOD enzymes constitute an essential defense against superoxide. Mitochondria are the major source of superoxide. The reaction of superoxide generated from mitochondria with nitric oxide is faster than SOD catalyzed reaction, and produces peroxynitrite. Thus, based on research conducted after Fridovich’s seminal studies, we now propose a modified superoxide theory; i.e., superoxide is the origin of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and, as such, causes various redox related diseases and aging. PMID:25834301

  5. WldS and PGC-1α Regulate Mitochondrial Transport and Oxidation State after Axonal Injury

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Kelley C.; Vargas, Mauricio E.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria carry out many of the processes implicated in maintaining axon health or causing axon degeneration, including ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, as well as calcium buffering and protease activation. Defects in mitochondrial function and transport are common in axon degeneration, but how changes in specific mitochondrial properties relate to degeneration is not well understood. Using cutaneous sensory neurons of living larval zebrafish as a model, we examined the role of mitochondria in axon degeneration by monitoring mitochondrial morphology, transport, and redox state before and after laser axotomy. Mitochondrial transport terminated locally after injury in wild-type axons, an effect that was moderately attenuated by expressing the axon-protective fusion protein Wallerian degeneration slow (WldS). However, mitochondrial transport arrest eventually occurred in WldS-protected axons, indicating that later in the lag phase, mitochondrial transport is not required for axon protection. By contrast, the redox-sensitive biosensor roGFP2 was rapidly oxidized in the mitochondrial matrix after injury, and WldS expression prevented this effect, suggesting that stabilization of ROS production may mediate axon protection. Overexpression of PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator with roles in both mitochondrial biogenesis and ROS detoxification, dramatically increased mitochondrial density, attenuated roGFP2 oxidation, and delayed Wallerian degeneration. Collectively, these results indicate that mitochondrial oxidation state is a more reliable indicator of axon vulnerability to degeneration than mitochondrial motility. PMID:24027278

  6. Combined defects in oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid β-oxidation in mitochondrial disease

    PubMed Central

    Nsiah-Sefaa, Abena; McKenzie, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria provide the main source of energy to eukaryotic cells, oxidizing fats and sugars to generate ATP. Mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are two metabolic pathways which are central to this process. Defects in these pathways can result in diseases of the brain, skeletal muscle, heart and liver, affecting approximately 1 in 5000 live births. There are no effective therapies for these disorders, with quality of life severely reduced for most patients. The pathology underlying many aspects of these diseases is not well understood; for example, it is not clear why some patients with primary FAO deficiencies exhibit secondary OXPHOS defects. However, recent findings suggest that physical interactions exist between FAO and OXPHOS proteins, and that these interactions are critical for both FAO and OXPHOS function. Here, we review our current understanding of the interactions between FAO and OXPHOS proteins and how defects in these two metabolic pathways contribute to mitochondrial disease pathogenesis. PMID:26839416

  7. Chronic Arsenic Exposure-Induced Oxidative Stress is Mediated by Decreased Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Chandra; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-09-01

    The present study was executed to study the effect of chronic arsenic exposure on generation of mitochondrial oxidative stress and biogenesis in rat liver. Chronic sodium arsenite treatment (25 ppm for 12 weeks) decreased mitochondrial complexes activity in rat liver. There was a decrease in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity in arsenic-treated rats that might be responsible for increased protein and lipid oxidation as observed in our study. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded subunits of complexes I (ND1 and ND2) and IV (COX I and COX IV) was downregulated in arsenic-treated rats only. The protein and mRNA expression of MnSOD was reduced suggesting increased mitochondrial oxidative damage after arsenic treatment. There was activation of Bax and caspase-3 followed by release of cytochrome c from mitochondria suggesting induction of apoptotic pathway under oxidative stress. The entire phenomenon was associated with decrease in mitochondrial biogenesis as evident by decreased protein and mRNA expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in arsenic-treated rat liver. The results of the present study indicate that arsenic-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress is associated with decreased mitochondrial biogenesis in rat liver that may present one of the mechanisms for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:26767369

  8. Dicarbonyls linked to damage in the powerhouse: glycation of mitochondrial proteins and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Naila; Thornalley, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Protection of mitochondrial proteins from glycation by endogenous dicarbonyl compounds, methylglyoxal and glyoxal, was found recently to prevent increased formation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative and nitrosative damage to the proteome during aging and produce life extension in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This suggests that dicarbonyl glycation damage to the mitochondrial proteome may be a preceding event to mitochondrial dysfunction leading to oxidative stress. Future research will address the functional charges in mitochondrial proteins that are the targets for dicarbonyl glycation. PMID:18793186

  9. Protection from palmitate-induced mitochondrial DNA damage prevents from mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and impaired insulin signaling in rat L6 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yuzefovych, Larysa V; Solodushko, Viktoriya A; Wilson, Glenn L; Rachek, Lyudmila I

    2012-01-01

    Saturated free fatty acids have been implicated in the increase of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and insulin resistance seen in type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether palmitate-induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage contributed to increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, impaired insulin signaling, and reduced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. Adenoviral vectors were used to deliver the DNA repair enzyme human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase/(apurinic/apyrimidinic) lyase (hOGG1) to mitochondria in L6 myotubes. After palmitate exposure, we evaluated mtDNA damage, mitochondrial function, production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, insulin signaling pathways, and glucose uptake. Protection of mtDNA from palmitate-induced damage by overexpression of hOGG1 targeted to mitochondria significantly diminished palmitate-induced mitochondrial superoxide production, restored the decline in ATP levels, reduced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) kinase, prevented cells from entering apoptosis, increased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of serine-threonine kinase (Akt) (Ser473) and tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, and thereby enhanced glucose transporter 4 translocation to plasma membrane, and restored insulin signaling. Addition of a specific inhibitor of JNK mimicked the effect of mitochondrial overexpression of hOGG1 and partially restored insulin sensitivity, thus confirming the involvement of mtDNA damage and subsequent increase of oxidative stress and JNK activation in insulin signaling in L6 myotubes. Our results are the first to report that mtDNA damage is the proximal cause in palmitate-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired insulin signaling and provide strong evidence that targeting DNA repair enzymes into mitochondria in skeletal muscles could be a potential therapeutic treatment for insulin resistance. PMID:22128025

  10. Impaired mitochondrial fat oxidation induces FGF21 in muscle

    PubMed Central

    Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa; Warfel, Jaycob D.; Wicks, Shawna E.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Salbaum, J. Michael; Burk, David; Dubuisson, Olga S.; Mendoza, Tamra M.; Zhang, Jingying; Noland, Robert C.; Mynatt, Randall L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Fatty acids are the primary fuel source for skeletal muscle during most of our daily activities and impaired fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is associated with insulin resistance. We have developed a mouse model of impaired FAO by deleting carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1b specifically in skeletal muscle (Cpt1bm−/−). Cpt1bm−/− mice have increased glucose utilization and are resistant to diet induced obesity. Here we show that inhibition of mitochondrial FAO induces FGF21 expression specifically in skeletal muscle. The induction of FGF21 in Cpt1b-deficient muscle is dependent on AMPK and Akt1 signaling but independent on the stress signaling pathways. FGF21 appears to act in a paracrine manner to increase glucose uptake under low insulin conditions, but does not contribute to the resistance to diet induced obesity. PMID:27184848

  11. Impaired Mitochondrial Fat Oxidation Induces FGF21 in Muscle.

    PubMed

    Vandanmagsar, Bolormaa; Warfel, Jaycob D; Wicks, Shawna E; Ghosh, Sujoy; Salbaum, J Michael; Burk, David; Dubuisson, Olga S; Mendoza, Tamra M; Zhang, Jingying; Noland, Robert C; Mynatt, Randall L

    2016-05-24

    Fatty acids are the primary fuel source for skeletal muscle during most of our daily activities, and impaired fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is associated with insulin resistance. We have developed a mouse model of impaired FAO by deleting carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1b specifically in skeletal muscle (Cpt1b(m-/-)). Cpt1b(m-/-) mice have increased glucose utilization and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. Here, we show that inhibition of mitochondrial FAO induces FGF21 expression specifically in skeletal muscle. The induction of FGF21 in Cpt1b-deficient muscle is dependent on AMPK and Akt1 signaling but independent of the stress signaling pathways. FGF21 appears to act in a paracrine manner to increase glucose uptake under low insulin conditions, but it does not contribute to the resistance to diet-induced obesity. PMID:27184848

  12. Mitochondrial glutathione transport is a key determinant of neuronal susceptibility to oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Heather M; Kirchhof, Danielle; Manning, Evan; Joseph, Jamie W; Linseman, Daniel A

    2013-02-15

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress significantly contributes to the underlying pathology of several devastating neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondria are highly sensitive to the damaging effects of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; therefore, these organelles are equipped with a number of free radical scavenging systems. In particular, the mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) pool is a critical antioxidant reserve that is derived entirely from the larger cytosolic pool via facilitated transport. The mechanism of mitochondrial GSH transport has not been extensively studied in the brain. However, the dicarboxylate (DIC) and 2-oxoglutarate (OGC) carriers localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane have been established as GSH transporters in liver and kidney. Here, we investigated the role of these carriers in protecting neurons from oxidative and nitrosative stress. Immunoblot analysis of DIC and OGC in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) and cerebellar astrocytes showed differential expression of these carriers, with CGNs expressing only DIC and astrocytes expressing both DIC and OGC. Consistent with these findings, butylmalonate specifically reduced mitochondrial GSH in CGNs, whereas both butylmalonate and phenylsuccinate diminished mitochondrial GSH in astrocytes. Moreover, preincubation with butylmalonate but not phenylsuccinate significantly enhanced susceptibility of CGNs to oxidative and nitrosative stressors. This increased vulnerability was largely prevented by incubation with cell-permeable GSH monoethylester but not malate. Finally, knockdown of DIC with adenoviral siRNA also rendered CGNs more susceptible to oxidative stress. These findings demonstrate that maintenance of the mitochondrial GSH pool via sustained mitochondrial GSH transport is essential to protect neurons from oxidative and nitrosative stress. PMID:23283974

  13. Mitochondrial Glutathione Transport Is a Key Determinant of Neuronal Susceptibility to Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Heather M.; Kirchhof, Danielle; Manning, Evan; Joseph, Jamie W.; Linseman, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress significantly contributes to the underlying pathology of several devastating neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondria are highly sensitive to the damaging effects of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; therefore, these organelles are equipped with a number of free radical scavenging systems. In particular, the mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) pool is a critical antioxidant reserve that is derived entirely from the larger cytosolic pool via facilitated transport. The mechanism of mitochondrial GSH transport has not been extensively studied in the brain. However, the dicarboxylate (DIC) and 2-oxoglutarate (OGC) carriers localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane have been established as GSH transporters in liver and kidney. Here, we investigated the role of these carriers in protecting neurons from oxidative and nitrosative stress. Immunoblot analysis of DIC and OGC in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) and cerebellar astrocytes showed differential expression of these carriers, with CGNs expressing only DIC and astrocytes expressing both DIC and OGC. Consistent with these findings, butylmalonate specifically reduced mitochondrial GSH in CGNs, whereas both butylmalonate and phenylsuccinate diminished mitochondrial GSH in astrocytes. Moreover, preincubation with butylmalonate but not phenylsuccinate significantly enhanced susceptibility of CGNs to oxidative and nitrosative stressors. This increased vulnerability was largely prevented by incubation with cell-permeable GSH monoethylester but not malate. Finally, knockdown of DIC with adenoviral siRNA also rendered CGNs more susceptible to oxidative stress. These findings demonstrate that maintenance of the mitochondrial GSH pool via sustained mitochondrial GSH transport is essential to protect neurons from oxidative and nitrosative stress. PMID:23283974

  14. Oxidative stress modulates mitochondrial failure and cyclophilin D function in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    López-Erauskin, Jone; Galino, Jorge; Bianchi, Patrizia; Fourcade, Stéphane; Andreu, Antoni L.; Ferrer, Isidre; Muñoz-Pinedo, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    A common process associated with oxidative stress and severe mitochondrial impairment is the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, as described in many neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening represents a potential target for inhibiting mitochondrial-driven cell death. Among the mitochondrial permeability transition pore components, cyclophilin D is the most studied and has been found increased under pathological conditions. Here, we have used in vitro and in vivo models of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy to investigate the relationship between the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and redox homeostasis. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a neurodegenerative condition caused by loss of function of the peroxisomal ABCD1 transporter, in which oxidative stress plays a pivotal role. In this study, we provide evidence of impaired mitochondrial metabolism in a peroxisomal disease, as fibroblasts in patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy cannot survive when forced to rely on mitochondrial energy production, i.e. on incubation in galactose. Oxidative stress induced under galactose conditions leads to mitochondrial damage in the form of mitochondrial inner membrane potential dissipation, ATP drop and necrotic cell death, together with increased levels of oxidative modifications in cyclophilin D protein. Moreover, we show increased expression levels of cyclophilin D in the affected zones of brains in patients with adrenomyeloneuropathy, in spinal cord of a mouse model of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (Abcd1-null mice) and in fibroblasts from patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Notably, treatment with antioxidants rescues mitochondrial damage markers in fibroblasts from patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, including cyclophilin D oxidative modifications, and reverses cyclophilin D induction in vitro and in vivo. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the

  15. Uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by DNA gyrase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, M.; Weinberg, R.; Simpson, M.V.

    1986-05-01

    Supercoiled mtDNA and the swivel requirement for its replication suggest the existence of a mtDNA gyrase. The authors published studies on isolated mitochondria showing that novobiocin, coumermycin, nalidixic acid, and oxolinic acid promote relaxed DNA formation at the expense of supercoiled DNA are in accord with this view. However, their inability to directly detect the enzyme led them to ask whether these drugs act elsewhere. Their results with isolated rat liver mitochondria show that novo, nal, but not oxo, stimulate O/sub 2/ uptake as much as does 2.4-dinitrophenol (DNP). This possible uncoupling effect was confirmed by a standard (/sup 32/P) assay showing the following inhibitions of ATP synthesis: 0.2 mM novo, 95% (0.4 mM, 100%) 0.4 mM nal, 37%; oxo to at least 1.9 mM, 0%; (0.5 mM 2,4-DNP, 100%). Thus, oxo remains a useful tool for intact mitochondrial studies. Because these three drugs, especially novo, are being used to study the role of DNA superhelicity on pro- and eucaryotic (and mitochondrial) gene expression, the authors studied their effect on oxidative phosphorylation in such cells. In these cases the drugs did not affect DNP-sensitive (/sup 14/C)glutamine transport into E. coli cells (an established measure of ATP level), nor, in an S. cerevisiae mutant permeable to novo, did novo affect the steady state ATP level. Studies on cultured mammalian cells are in progress.

  16. Current issues regarding treatment of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders.

    PubMed

    Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Bastin, Jean; Gillingham, Melanie; Morris, Andrew; Wijburg, Frits; Wilcken, Bridget

    2010-10-01

    Treatment recommendations in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects are diverse. With implementation of newborn screening and identification of asymptomatic patients, it is necessary to define whom to treat and how strictly. We here discuss critical questions that are currently under debate. For some asymptomatic long-chain defects, long-chain fat restriction plays a minor role, and a normal diet may be introduced. For patients presenting only with myopathic symptoms, e.g., during exercise, treatment may be adapted to energy demand. As a consequence, patients with exercise-induced myopathy may be able to return to normal activity when provided with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) prior to exercise. There is no need to limit participation in sports. Progression of retinopathy in disorders of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein complex is closely associated with hydroxyacylcarnitine accumulation. A strict low-fat diet with MCT supplementation is recommended to slow or prevent progression of chorioretinopathy. Additional docosahexanoic acid does not prevent the decline in retinal function but does promote nonspecific improvement in visual acuity and is recommended. There is no evidence that L-carnitine supplementation is beneficial. Thus, supplementation with L-carnitine in a newborn identified by screening with either a medium-chain or long-chain defect is not supported. With respect to the use of the odd-chain medium-chain triglyceride triheptanoin in myopathic phenotypes, randomized trials are needed to establish whether triheptanoin is more effective than even-chain MCT. With increasing pathophysiological knowledge, new treatment options have been identified and are being clinically evaluated. These include the use of bezafibrates in myopathic long-chain defects. PMID:20830526

  17. Role of mitochondrial-derived oxidants in renal tubular cell cold storage injury

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Tanecia; Saba, Hamida; Laakman, Joe; Parajuli, Nirmala; MacMillan-Crow, Lee Ann

    2013-01-01

    Cold storage (CS) is regarded as a necessary procedure during donation of a deceased donor kidney that helps to optimize organ viability. Increased oxidant generation during both CS as well as during the reperfusion (or rewarming/CS.RW) phase have been suggested to be a major contributor to renal injury; although the source and/or biochemical pathways involved with oxidant production remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if renal tubular mitochondrial superoxide is capable of inducing oxidant production and mitochondrial damage in response to a CS.RW insult. To test the role of mitochondrial superoxide in CS.RW injury, we used rat renal proximal tubular (NRK) cells overexpressing manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), the major mitochondrial antioxidant. Oxidant production, mitochondrial membrane potential, respiratory complex function, and cell death were all altered following exposure of NRK cells to CS.RW. MnSOD overexpression or inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) provided significant protection against oxidant generation, respiratory complex inactivation, and cell death. These findings implicate mitochondrial superoxide, nitric oxide, and their reaction product, peroxynitrite, as key signaling molecules involved in CS.RW injury of renal tubular cells, and suggest that therapeutic inhibition of these pathways may protect the donor kidney. PMID:20659553

  18. Thiol-based antioxidants elicit mitochondrial oxidation via respiratory complex III

    PubMed Central

    Beaudoin, Jessica N.; Ponnuraj, Nagendraprabhu; DiLiberto, Stephen J.; Hanafin, William P.; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Gaskins, H. Rex

    2015-01-01

    Excessive oxidation is widely accepted as a precursor to deleterious cellular function. On the other hand, an awareness of the role of reductive stress as a similar pathological insult is emerging. Here we report early dynamic changes in compartmentalized glutathione (GSH) redox potentials in living cells in response to exogenously supplied thiol-based antioxidants. Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular thiol-disulfide exchange via a genetically encoded biosensor targeted to cytosol and mitochondria revealed unexpectedly rapid oxidation of the mitochondrial matrix in response to GSH ethyl ester or N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Oxidation of the probe occurred within seconds in a concentration-dependent manner and was attenuated with the membrane-permeable ROS scavenger tiron. In contrast, the cytosolic sensor did not respond to similar treatments. Surprisingly, the immediate mitochondrial oxidation was not abrogated by depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential or inhibition of mitochondrial GSH uptake. After detection of elevated levels of mitochondrial ROS, we systematically inhibited multisubunit protein complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and determined that respiratory complex III is a downstream target of thiol-based compounds. Disabling complex III with myxothiazol completely blocked matrix oxidation induced with GSH ethyl ester or N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Our findings provide new evidence of a functional link between exogenous thiol-containing antioxidants and mitochondrial respiration. PMID:25994788

  19. Thiol-based antioxidants elicit mitochondrial oxidation via respiratory complex III.

    PubMed

    Kolossov, Vladimir L; Beaudoin, Jessica N; Ponnuraj, Nagendraprabhu; DiLiberto, Stephen J; Hanafin, William P; Kenis, Paul J A; Gaskins, H Rex

    2015-07-15

    Excessive oxidation is widely accepted as a precursor to deleterious cellular function. On the other hand, an awareness of the role of reductive stress as a similar pathological insult is emerging. Here we report early dynamic changes in compartmentalized glutathione (GSH) redox potentials in living cells in response to exogenously supplied thiol-based antioxidants. Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular thiol-disulfide exchange via a genetically encoded biosensor targeted to cytosol and mitochondria revealed unexpectedly rapid oxidation of the mitochondrial matrix in response to GSH ethyl ester or N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Oxidation of the probe occurred within seconds in a concentration-dependent manner and was attenuated with the membrane-permeable ROS scavenger tiron. In contrast, the cytosolic sensor did not respond to similar treatments. Surprisingly, the immediate mitochondrial oxidation was not abrogated by depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential or inhibition of mitochondrial GSH uptake. After detection of elevated levels of mitochondrial ROS, we systematically inhibited multisubunit protein complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and determined that respiratory complex III is a downstream target of thiol-based compounds. Disabling complex III with myxothiazol completely blocked matrix oxidation induced with GSH ethyl ester or N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Our findings provide new evidence of a functional link between exogenous thiol-containing antioxidants and mitochondrial respiration. PMID:25994788

  20. Redox regulation of mitochondrial function with emphasis on cysteine oxidation reactions☆

    PubMed Central

    Mailloux, Ryan J.; Jin, Xiaolei; Willmore, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria have a myriad of essential functions including metabolism and apoptosis. These chief functions are reliant on electron transfer reactions and the production of ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The production of ATP and ROS are intimately linked to the electron transport chain (ETC). Electrons from nutrients are passed through the ETC via a series of acceptor and donor molecules to the terminal electron acceptor molecular oxygen (O2) which ultimately drives the synthesis of ATP. Electron transfer through the respiratory chain and nutrient oxidation also produces ROS. At high enough concentrations ROS can activate mitochondrial apoptotic machinery which ultimately leads to cell death. However, if maintained at low enough concentrations ROS can serve as important signaling molecules. Various regulatory mechanisms converge upon mitochondria to modulate ATP synthesis and ROS production. Given that mitochondrial function depends on redox reactions, it is important to consider how redox signals modulate mitochondrial processes. Here, we provide the first comprehensive review on how redox signals mediated through cysteine oxidation, namely S-oxidation (sulfenylation, sulfinylation), S-glutathionylation, and S-nitrosylation, regulate key mitochondrial functions including nutrient oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, ROS production, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), apoptosis, and mitochondrial fission and fusion. We also consider the chemistry behind these reactions and how they are modulated in mitochondria. In addition, we also discuss emerging knowledge on disorders and disease states that are associated with deregulated redox signaling in mitochondria and how mitochondria-targeted medicines can be utilized to restore mitochondrial redox signaling. PMID:24455476

  1. Perm1 enhances mitochondrial biogenesis, oxidative capacity, and fatigue resistance in adult skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoshitake; Hazen, Bethany C; Gandra, Paulo G; Ward, Samuel R; Schenk, Simon; Russell, Aaron P; Kralli, Anastasia

    2016-02-01

    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity are important determinants of muscle function and whole-body health. Mitochondrial content and function are enhanced by endurance exercise and impaired in states or diseases where muscle function is compromised, such as myopathies, muscular dystrophies, neuromuscular diseases, and age-related muscle atrophy. Hence, elucidating the mechanisms that control muscle mitochondrial content and oxidative function can provide new insights into states and diseases that affect muscle health. In past studies, we identified Perm1 (PPARGC1- and ESRR-induced regulator, muscle 1) as a gene induced by endurance exercise in skeletal muscle, and regulating mitochondrial oxidative function in cultured myotubes. The capacity of Perm1 to regulate muscle mitochondrial content and function in vivo is not yet known. In this study, we use adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors to increase Perm1 expression in skeletal muscles of 4-wk-old mice. Compared to control vector, AAV1-Perm1 leads to significant increases in mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity (by 40-80%). Moreover, AAV1-Perm1-transduced muscles show increased capillary density and resistance to fatigue (by 33 and 31%, respectively), without prominent changes in fiber-type composition. These findings suggest that Perm1 selectively regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative function, and implicate Perm1 in muscle adaptations that also occur in response to endurance exercise. PMID:26481306

  2. Evaluation of the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation System Using Yeast Models of OXPHOS Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Fontanesi, Flavia; Diaz, Francisca; Barrientos, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system consists of five multimeric complexes embedded in the mitochondrial inner membrane. They work in concert to drive the aerobic synthesis of ATP. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA mutations affecting the accumulation and function of these enzymes are the most common cause of mitochondrial diseases and have also been associated with neurodegeneration and aging. Several approaches for the assessment of the OXPHOS system enzymes have been developed. Based on the methods described elsewhere, we present here the creation and study of yeast models of mitochondrial OXPHOS deficiencies. PMID:19806592

  3. Melatonin: A Potential Anti-Oxidant Therapeutic Agent for Mitochondrial Dysfunctions and Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Dar, Tanveer Ali; Bhat, Aashiq Hussain; Dar, Khalid B; Anees, Suhail; Zargar, Mohammad Afzal; Masood, Akbar

    2016-02-01

    Mitochondria play a central role in cellular physiology. Besides their classic function of energy metabolism, mitochondria are involved in multiple cell functions, including energy distribution through the cell, energy/heat modulation, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), calcium homeostasis, and control of apoptosis. Simultaneously, mitochondria are the main producer and target of ROS with the result that multiple mitochondrial diseases are related to ROS-induced mitochondrial injuries. Increased free radical generation, enhanced mitochondrial inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, enhanced nitric oxide (NO) production, decreased respiratory complex activity, impaired electron transport system, and opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores have all been suggested as factors responsible for impaired mitochondrial function. Because of these, neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD), and aging, are caused by ROS-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions. Melatonin, the major hormone of the pineal gland, also acts as an anti-oxidant and as a regulator of mitochondrial bioenergetic function. Melatonin is selectively taken up by mitochondrial membranes, a function not shared by other anti-oxidants, and thus has emerged as a major potential therapeutic tool for treating neurodegenerative disorders. Multiple in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown the protective role of melatonin for preventing oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction seen in experimental models of PD, AD, and HD. With these functions in mind, this article reviews the protective role of melatonin with mechanistic insights against mitochondrial diseases and suggests new avenues for safe and effective treatment modalities against these devastating neurodegenerative diseases. Future insights are also discussed. PMID:26087000

  4. The conserved Trp114 residue of thioredoxin reductase 1 has a redox sensor-like function triggering oligomerization and crosslinking upon oxidative stress related to cell death

    PubMed Central

    Xu, J; Eriksson, S E; Cebula, M; Sandalova, T; Hedström, E; Pader, I; Cheng, Q; Myers, C R; Antholine, W E; Nagy, P; Hellman, U; Selivanova, G; Lindqvist, Y; Arnér, E S J

    2015-01-01

    The selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) has several key roles in cellular redox systems and reductive pathways. Here we discovered that an evolutionarily conserved and surface-exposed tryptophan residue of the enzyme (Trp114) is excessively reactive to oxidation and exerts regulatory functions. The results indicate that it serves as an electron relay communicating with the FAD moiety of the enzyme, and, when oxidized, it facilitates oligomerization of TrxR1 into tetramers and higher multimers of dimers. A covalent link can also be formed between two oxidized Trp114 residues of two subunits from two separate TrxR1 dimers, as found both in cell extracts and in a crystal structure of tetrameric TrxR1. Formation of covalently linked TrxR1 subunits became exaggerated in cells on treatment with the pro-oxidant p53-reactivating anticancer compound RITA, in direct correlation with triggering of a cell death that could be prevented by antioxidant treatment. These results collectively suggest that Trp114 of TrxR1 serves a function reminiscent of an irreversible sensor for excessive oxidation, thereby presenting a previously unrecognized level of regulation of TrxR1 function in relation to cellular redox state and cell death induction. PMID:25611390

  5. Lycopene Prevents Amyloid [Beta]-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Dysfunctions in Cultured Rat Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Qu, Mingyue; Jiang, Zheng; Liao, Yuanxiang; Song, Zhenyao; Nan, Xinzhong

    2016-06-01

    Brains affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) show a large spectrum of mitochondrial alterations at both morphological and genetic level. The causal link between β-amyloid (Aβ) and mitochondrial dysfunction has been established in cellular models of AD. We observed previously that lycopene, a member of the carotenoid family of phytochemicals, could counteract neuronal apoptosis and cell damage induced by Aβ and other neurotoxic substances, and that this neuroprotective action somehow involved the mitochondria. The present study aims to investigate the effects of lycopene on mitochondria in cultured rat cortical neurons exposed to Aβ. It was found that lycopene attenuated Aβ-induced oxidative stress, as evidenced by the decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondria-derived superoxide production. Additionally, lycopene ameliorated Aβ-induced mitochondrial morphological alteration, opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pores and the consequent cytochrome c release. Lycopene also improved mitochondrial complex activities and restored ATP levels in Aβ-treated neuron. Furthermore, lycopene prevented mitochondrial DNA damages and improved the protein level of mitochondrial transcription factor A in mitochondria. Those results indicate that lycopene protects mitochondria against Aβ-induced damages, at least in part by inhibiting mitochondrial oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function. These beneficial effects of lycopene may account for its protection against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:26816095

  6. Oxidative stress, cardiolipin and mitochondrial dysfunction in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Paradies, Giuseppe; Paradies, Valeria; Ruggiero, Francesca M; Petrosillo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is today considered the most common form of chronic liver disease, affecting a high proportion of the population worldwide. NAFLD encompasses a large spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Obesity, hyperglycemia, type 2 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia are the most important risk factors. The pathogenesis of NAFLD and its progression to fibrosis and chronic liver disease is still unknown. Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the physiopathology of NAFLD, although the mechanisms underlying this dysfunction are still unclear. Oxidative stress is considered an important factor in producing lethal hepatocyte injury associated with NAFLD. Mitochondrial respiratory chain is the main subcellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may damage mitochondrial proteins, lipids and mitochondrial DNA. Cardiolipin, a phospholipid located at the level of the inner mitochondrial membrane, plays an important role in several reactions and processes involved in mitochondrial bioenergetics as well as in mitochondrial dependent steps of apoptosis. This phospholipid is particularly susceptible to ROS attack. Cardiolipin peroxidation has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple tissues in several physiopathological conditions, including NAFLD. In this review, we focus on the potential roles played by oxidative stress and cardiolipin alterations in mitochondrial dysfunction associated with NAFLD. PMID:25339807

  7. An update on the role of mitochondrial α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Starkov, Anatoly A.

    2012-01-01

    The activity of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) is severely reduced in human pathologies where oxidative stress is traditionally thought to play an important role, such as familial and sporadic forms of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related neurodegenerative diseases. This minireview is focused on substantial data that were accumulated over the last 2 decades to support the concept that KGDHC can be a primary mitochondrial target of oxidative stress and at the same time a key contributor to it by producing reactive oxygen species. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Mitochondrial function’. PMID:22820180

  8. Mitochondrial oxidative stress mediates induction of autophagy and hypertrophy in angiotensin-II treated mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Dai, Dao-Fu; Rabinovitch, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Autophagy is characterized by recycling of cellular organelles and can be induced by several stimuli, including nutrient deprivation and oxidative stress. As a major site of free radical production during oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondria are believed to be primary targets of oxidative damage during stress. Our recent study demonstrated that angiotensin II increases cardiac mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, causes a decline of mitochondrial membrane potential in cardiomyocytes and increases cardiac mitochondrial protein oxidative damage and mitochondrial DNA deletions. The deleterious effects of angiotensin II on mitochondria are associated with an increase in autophagosomes and increased signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis, interpreted as an attempt to replenish the damaged mitochondria and restore energy production. Direct evidence for the central role of mitochondrial ROS was investigated by comparing the effect on mice overexpressing catalase targeted to mitochondria (mCAT) and mice overexpressing peroxisomal targeted catalase (pCAT, the natural site of catalase) challenged by angiotensin II or Gαq overexpression. The mCAT, but not pCAT, mice are resistant to cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and mitochondrial damage, biogenesis and autophagy induced by angiotensin II, as well as heart failure induced by overexpression of Gαq. PMID:21505274

  9. Seasonal cycles of mitochondrial ADP sensitivity and oxidative capacities in trout oxidative muscle.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; St Pierre, J

    1999-10-01

    Mitochondria from red myotomal muscle of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, showed seasonal cycles of their maximal rates of substrate oxidation (nmol.min-1 mg-1 mitochondrial protein) and their apparent ADP affinity (Kmapp), as well as in the thermal sensitivity of these properties. Increases in the maximal capacity of pyruvate oxidation were sufficient to compensate for seasonal changes in temperature, except during the winter months when rates at habitat temperature were depressed relative to other periods. The ADP affinity of isolated mitochondria was highest during cold months. Thus, the Kmapp for ADP at habitat temperature showed less seasonal variation than the ADP Kmapp at a given temperature. A loss in ADP affinity with decreasing temperature occurred through much of the year, and only was definitively suppressed in December and July. Both the ADP affinity and the maximal oxidative capacities of muscle mitochondria seem to be regulated parameters. PMID:10595316

  10. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by Different Organochalchogens Is Mediated by Thiol Oxidation and Is Not Dependent of the Classical Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Opening

    PubMed Central

    Puntel, Robson L.; Roos, Daniel H.; Folmer, Vanderlei; Nogueira, Cristina W.; Galina, Antonio; Aschner, Michael; Rocha, João B. T.

    2010-01-01

    Ebselen (Ebs) and diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] readily oxidize thiol groups. Here we studied mitochondrial swelling changes in mitochondrial potential (Δψm), NAD(P)H oxidation, reactive oxygen species production, protein aggregate formation, and oxygen consumption as ending points of their in vitro toxicity. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that organochalchogens toxicity could be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction via oxidation of vicinal thiol groups that are known to be involved in the regulation of mitochondrial permeability (Petronilli et al. J. Biol. Chem., 269; 16638; 1994). Furthermore, we investigated the possible mechanism(s) by which these organochalchogens could disrupt liver mitochondrial function. Ebs and (PhSe)2 caused mitochondrial depolarization and swelling in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, both organochalchogens caused rapid oxidation of the mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides (NAD(P)H) pool, likely reflecting the consequence and not the cause of increased mitochondrial permeability (Costantini, P., Chernyak, B. V., Petronilli, V., and Bernardi, P. (1996). Modulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) by pyridine nucleotides and dithiol oxidation at two separate sites. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 6746–6751). The organochalchogens-induced mitochondrial dysfunction was prevented by the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT). Ebs- and (PhSe)2-induced mitochondrial depolarization and swelling were unchanged by ruthenium red (4μM), butylated hydroxytoluene (2.5μM), or cyclosporine A (1μM). N-ethylmaleimide enhanced the organochalchogens-induced mitochondrial depolarization, without affecting the magnitude of the swelling response. In contrast, iodoacetic acid did not modify the effects of Ebs or (PhSe)2 on the mitochondria. Additionally, Ebs and (PhSe)2 decreased the basal 2' 7' dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H2-DCFDA) oxidation and oxygen consumption rate in state 3 and increased it during the state 4 of

  11. Superoxide dismutase administration, a potential therapy against oxidative stress related diseases: several routes of supplementation and proposal of an original mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Carillon, Julie; Rouanet, Jean-Max; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Brion, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Oxidative stress, involved in many diseases, is defined as an impaired balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant defences. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) play a key role in diminishing oxidative stress. Thus, the removal of ROS by exogenous SODs could be an effective preventive strategy against various diseases. The poor bioavailability of exogenous SODs has been criticized. However, improvements in SOD formulation may overcome this limitation and boost interest in its therapeutic properties. Here, we provide a review of animal and human studies about SODs supplementation in order to evaluate their therapeutic value. Protective effects have been observed against irradiation, carcinogenesis, apoptosis and neurodegeneration. SODs administration has also been reported to alleviate inflammatory, infectious, respiratory, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and genitourinary and fertility disorders, raising the question of its mechanism of action in these diverse situations. Some authors have shown an increase in endogenous antioxidant enzymes after exogenous SODs administration. The induction of endogenous antioxidant defence and, consequently, a decrease in oxidative stress, could explain all the effects observed. Further investigations need to be carried out to test the hypothesis that SODs supplementation acts by inducing an endogenous antioxidant defence. PMID:23793992

  12. Cardiac mitochondrial proteome dynamics with heavy water reveals stable rate of mitochondrial protein synthesis in heart failure despite decline in mitochondrial oxidative capacity.

    PubMed

    Shekar, Kadambari Chandra; Li, Ling; Dabkowski, Erinne R; Xu, Wenhong; Ribeiro, Rogerio Faustino; Hecker, Peter A; Recchia, Fabio A; Sadygov, Rovshan G; Willard, Belinda; Kasumov, Takhar; Stanley, William C

    2014-10-01

    We recently developed a method to measure mitochondrial proteome dynamics with heavy water ((2)H2O)-based metabolic labeling and high resolution mass spectrometry. We reported the half-lives and synthesis rates of several proteins in the two cardiac mitochondrial subpopulations, subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar (SSM and IFM), in Sprague Dawley rats. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the mitochondrial protein synthesis rate is reduced in heart failure, with possible differential changes in SSM versus IFM. Six to seven week old male Sprague Dawley rats underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and developed moderate heart failure after 22weeks. Heart failure and sham rats of the same age received heavy water (5% in drinking water) for up to 80days. Cardiac SSM and IFM were isolated from both groups and the proteins were separated by 1D gel electrophoresis. Heart failure reduced protein content and increased the turnover rate of several proteins involved in fatty acid oxidation, electron transport chain and ATP synthesis, while it decreased the turnover of other proteins, including pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit in IFM, but not in SSM. Because of these bidirectional changes, the average overall half-life of proteins was not altered by heart failure in both SSM and IFM. The kinetic measurements of individual mitochondrial proteins presented in this study may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for mitochondrial alterations in the failing heart. PMID:24995939

  13. Chronic ethanol consumption induces mitochondrial protein acetylation and oxidative stress in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Peter S.; Roy, Samantha R.; Coughlan, Christina; Orlicky, David J.; Liang, Yongliang; Shearn, Colin T.; Roede, James R.; Fritz, Kristofer S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present the novel findings that chronic ethanol consumption induces mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation in the kidney and correlates with significantly increased renal oxidative stress. A major proteomic footprint of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is an increase in hepatic mitochondrial protein acetylation. Protein hyperacetylation has been shown to alter enzymatic function of numerous proteins and plays a role in regulating metabolic processes. Renal mitochondrial targets of hyperacetylation include numerous metabolic and antioxidant pathways, such as lipid metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and amino acid metabolism, as well as glutathione and thioredoxin pathways. Disruption of protein lysine acetylation has the potential to impair renal function through metabolic dysregulation and decreased antioxidant capacity. Due to a significant elevation in ethanol-mediated renal oxidative stress, we highlight the acetylation of superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxins, glutathione reductase, and glutathione transferase enzymes. Since oxidative stress is a known factor in ethanol-induced nephrotoxicity, we examined biochemical markers of protein hyperacetylation and oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate increased protein acetylation concurrent with depleted glutathione, altered Cys redox potential, and the presence of 4-HNE protein modifications in our 6-week model of early-stage alcoholic nephrotoxicity. These findings support the hypothesis that ethanol metabolism causes an influx of mitochondrial metabolic substrate, resulting in mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation with the potential to impact mitochondrial metabolic and antioxidant processes. PMID:26177469

  14. XPD localizes in mitochondria and protects the mitochondrial genome from oxidative DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Fang, Hongbo; Chi, Zhenfen; Wu, Zan; Wei, Di; Mo, Dongliang; Niu, Kaifeng; Balajee, Adayabalam S.; Hei, Tom K.; Nie, Linghu; Zhao, Yongliang

    2015-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD/ERCC2) encodes an ATP-dependent helicase that plays essential roles in both transcription and nucleotide excision repair of nuclear DNA, however, whether or not XPD exerts similar functions in mitochondria remains elusive. In this study, we provide the first evidence that XPD is localized in the inner membrane of mitochondria, and cells under oxidative stress showed an enhanced recruitment of XPD into mitochondrial compartment. Furthermore, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and levels of oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) common deletion were significantly elevated, whereas capacity for oxidative damage repair of mtDNA was markedly reduced in both XPD-suppressed human osteosarcoma (U2OS) cells and XPD-deficient human fibroblasts. Immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify interacting factor(s) with XPD and TUFM, a mitochondrial Tu translation elongation factor was detected to be physically interacted with XPD. Similar to the findings in XPD-deficient cells, mitochondrial common deletion and oxidative damage repair capacity in U2OS cells were found to be significantly altered after TUFM knock-down. Our findings clearly demonstrate that XPD plays crucial role(s) in protecting mitochondrial genome stability by facilitating an efficient repair of oxidative DNA damage in mitochondria. PMID:25969448

  15. Postischemic Oxidative Stress Promotes Mitochondrial Metabolic Failure in Neurons and Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fiskum, Gary; Danilov, Camelia A.; Mehrabian, Zara; Bambrick, Linda L.; Kristian, Tibor; McKenna, Mary C.; Hopkins, Irene; Richards, E.M.; Rosenthal, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been closely associated in many subcellular, cellular, animal, and human studies of both acute brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Our animal models of brain injury caused by cardiac arrest illustrate this relationship and demonstrate that both oxidative molecular modifications and mitochondrial metabolic impairment are exacerbated by reoxygenation of the brain using 100% ventilatory O2 compared to lower levels that maintain normoxemia. Numerous molecular mechanisms may be responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress, including oxidation and inactivation of mitochondrial proteins, promotion of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition, and consumption of metabolic cofactors and intermediates, e.g., NAD(H). Moreover, the relative contribution of these mechanisms to cell injury and death is likely different among different types of brain cells, e.g., neurons and astrocytes. In order to better understand these oxidative stress mechanisms and their relevance to neurologic disorders, we have undertaken studies with primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons exposed to O2 and glucose deprivation and reoxygenation and compared the results of these studies to those using a rat model of neonatal asphyxic brain injury. These results support the hypothesis that release and or consumption of mitochondrial NAD(H) is at least partially responsible for respiratory inhibition, particularly in neurons. PMID:19076438

  16. Renal Oxidative Stress Induced by Long-Term Hyperuricemia Alters Mitochondrial Function and Maintains Systemic Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Cristóbal-García, Magdalena; García-Arroyo, Fernando E.; Arellano-Buendía, Abraham S.; Madero, Magdalena; Rodríguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Zazueta, Cecilia; Johnson, Richard J.; Sánchez Lozada, Laura-Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks) and short-term (3 weeks) effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW), OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water), OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW), or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase) and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation) along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident. PMID:25918583

  17. Cardioprotective effects of Notoginsenoside R1 against ischemia/reperfusion injuries by regulating oxidative stress- and endoplasmic reticulum stress- related signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yingli; Sun, Guibo; Luo, Yun; Wang, Min; Chen, Rongchang; Zhang, Jingyi; Ai, Qidi; Xing, Na; Sun, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent reports suggested the involvement of oxidative stress- and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-associated pathways in the progression of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is a novel saponin isolated from P. notoginseng, which has a history of prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Objective: We aimed to examine the cardioprotective effects of NGR1 on I/R-induced heart dysfunction ex vivo and in vitro. Methods: H9c2 cadiomyocytes were incubated with NGR1 for 24 h and exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation. Isolated rat hearts were perfused by NGR1 for 15 min and then subjected to global ischemia/reperfusion. Hemodynamic parameters were monitored as left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), heart rate, and maximal rate of increase and decrease of left ventricular pressure (±dP/dt max/min). Results: NGR1 pretreatment prevents cell apoptosis and delays the onset of ERS by decreasing the protein expression levels of ERS-responsive proteins GRP78, P-PERK, ATF6, IRE, and inhibiting the expression of pro-apoptosis proteins CHOP, Caspase-12, and P-JNK. Besides, NGR1 scavenges free radical, and increases the activity of antioxidase. NGR1 inhibits Tunicamycin-induced cell death and cardic dysfunction. Conclusion: We elucidated the significant cardioprotective effects of NGR1 against I/R injuries, and demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress and ERS in the protective effects of NGR1. PMID:26888485

  18. Environmental Lead Exposure, Catalase Gene, and Markers of Antioxidant and Oxidative Stress Relation to Hypertension: An Analysis Based on the EGAT Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaojarern, Sukhumpun; Chanprasertyothin, Suwannee; Panpunuan, Pachara; Petchpoung, Krittaya; Tatsaneeyapant, Aninthita; Yoovathaworn, Krongtong; Sura, Thunyachai; Kaojarern, Sming; Sritara, Piyamit

    2015-01-01

    Lead has been linked to the development of hypertension via oxidative stress. Catalase plays an important role in the disposal of hydrogen peroxide in erythrocyte and its activity was determined by CAT gene. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the association between blood levels of antioxidant markers such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, oxidative stress-marker (malondialdehyde), and blood lead level and (2) the influence of genetic polymorphism of CAT gene (rs769217) on change in blood pressure in general population of EGAT study project. This is a cross-sectional study of 332 normotensive, 432 prehypertensive, and 222 hypertensive male subjects. Hypertensive subjects had significantly higher blood lead level (5.28 μg/dL) compared to normotensive (4.41 μg/dL) and prehypertensive (4.55 μg/dL) subjects (P < 0.05). These significant findings are also found in MDA levels. Moreover, individuals with TT genotype in hypertensive group had significantly higher blood lead and MDA levels (6.06 μg/dL and 9.67 μmol/L) than those with CC genotype (5.32 μg/dL and 8.31 μmol/L, P < 0.05). Our findings suggested that decreased blood catalase activity in this polymorphism together with low level lead exposure induced lipid peroxidation may be responsible for hypertension. PMID:25793211

  19. [Cyclosporin A causes oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in renal tubular cells].

    PubMed

    Pérez de Hornedo, J; de Arriba, G; Calvino, M; Benito, S; Parra, T

    2007-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in cyclosporin A (CsA) nephrotoxicity. As mitochondria are one of the main sources of ROS in cells, we evaluated the role of CsA in mitochondrial structure and function in LLC-PK1 cells. We incubated cells with CsA 1 microM for 24 hours and studies were performed with flow citometry and confocal microscopy. We studied mitochondrial NAD(P)H content, superoxide anion (O2.-) production (MitoSOX Red), oxidation of cardiolipin of inner mitochondrial membrane (NAO) and mitochondrial membrane potential (DIOC2(3)). Also we analyzed the intracellular ROS synthesis (H2DCF-DA) and reduced glutation (GSH) of cells. Our results showed that CsA decreased NAD(P)H and membrane potential, and increased O2.- in mitochondria. CsA also provoked oxidation of cardiolipin. Furthermore, CsA increased intracellular ROS production and decreased GSH content. These results suggest that CsA has crucial effects in mitochondria. CsA modified mitochondrial physiology through the decrease of antioxidant mitochondrial compounds as NAD(P)H and the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and increase of oxidants as O2.-. Also, CsA alters lipidic structure of inner mitochondrial membrane through the oxidation of cardiolipin. These effects trigger a chain of events that favour intracellular synthesis of ROS and depletion of GSH that can compromise cellular viability. Nephrotoxic cellular effects of CsA can be explained, at least in part, through its influence on mitochondrial functionalism. PMID:18045032

  20. Mitochondrial targeting of bilirubin regulatory enzymes: An adaptive response to oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Muhsain, Siti Nur Fadzilah; Lang, Matti A.; Abu-Bakar, A'edah

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular level of bilirubin (BR), an endogenous antioxidant that is cytotoxic at high concentrations, is tightly controlled within the optimal therapeutic range. We have recently described a concerted intracellular BR regulation by two microsomal enzymes: heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), essential for BR production and cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5), a BR oxidase. Herein, we describe targeting of these enzymes to hepatic mitochondria during oxidative stress. The kinetics of microsomal and mitochondrial BR oxidation were compared. Treatment of DBA/2J mice with 200 mg pyrazole/kg/day for 3 days increased hepatic intracellular protein carbonyl content and induced nucleo-translocation of Nrf2. HMOX1 and CYP2A5 proteins and activities were elevated in microsomes and mitoplasts but not the UGT1A1, a catalyst of BR glucuronidation. A CYP2A5 antibody inhibited 75% of microsomal BR oxidation. The inhibition was absent in control mitoplasts but elevated to 50% after treatment. An adrenodoxin reductase antibody did not inhibit microsomal BR oxidation but inhibited 50% of mitochondrial BR oxidation. Ascorbic acid inhibited 5% and 22% of the reaction in control and treated microsomes, respectively. In control mitoplasts the inhibition was 100%, which was reduced to 50% after treatment. Bilirubin affinity to mitochondrial and microsomal CYP2A5 enzyme is equally high. Lastly, the treatment neither released cytochrome c into cytoplasm nor dissipated membrane potential, indicating the absence of mitochondrial membrane damage. Collectively, the observations suggest that BR regulatory enzymes are recruited to mitochondria during oxidative stress and BR oxidation by mitochondrial CYP2A5 is supported by mitochondrial mono-oxygenase system. The induced recruitment potentially confers membrane protection. - Highlights: • Pyrazole induces oxidative stress in the mouse liver. • Pyrazole-induced oxidative stress induces mitochondrial targeting of key bilirubin regulatory enzymes, HMOX1

  1. Effects of Cigarette Smoke on the Activation of Oxidative Stress-Related Transcription Factors in Female A/J Mouse Lung

    PubMed Central

    Tharappel, Job C.; Cholewa, Jill; Espandiari, Parvaneh; Spear, Brett T.; Gairola, C. Gary; Glauert, Howard P.

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains a high concentration of free radicals and induces oxidative stress in the lung and other tissues. Several transcription factors are known to be activated by oxidative stress, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Studies were therefore undertaken to examine if cigarette smoke could activate these transcription factors, as well as other transcription factors that may be important in lung carcinogenesis. Female A/J mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 42, or 56 days (6 hr/day, 5 days/wk). Cigarette smoke did not increase NF-κB activation at any of these times, but NF-κB DNA binding activity was lower after 15 days and 56 days of smoke exposure. The DNA binding activity of AP-1 was lower after 10 days and 56 days but was not changed after 42 days of smoke exposure. The DNA binding activity of HIF was quantitatively increased after 42 days of smoke exposure but decreased after 56 days. Whether the activation of other transcription factors in the lung could be altered after exposure to cigarette smoke was subsequently examined. The DNA binding activities of FoxF2, myc-CF1, RORE, and p53 were examined after 10 days of smoke exposure. The DNA binding activities of FoxF2 and p53 were quantitatively increased, but those of myc-CF1 and RORE were unaffected. These studies show that cigarette smoke exposure leads to quantitative increases in DNA binding activities of FoxF2 and p53, while the activations of NF-κB, AP-1, and HIF are largely unaffected or reduced. PMID:20711931

  2. Indirubin-3'-oxime impairs mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and prevents mitochondrial permeability transition induction

    SciTech Connect

    Varela, Ana T.; Gomes, Ana P.; Simoes, Anabela M.; Teodoro, Joao S.; Duarte, Filipe V.; Rolo, Anabela P.; Palmeira, Carlos M.

    2008-12-01

    Indirubin, a red colored 3,2'-bisindole isomer, is a component of Indigo naturalis and is an active ingredient used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of chronic diseases. The family of indirubin derivatives, such as indirubin-3'-oxime, has been suggested for various therapeutic indications. However, potential toxic interactions such as indirubin effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics are still unknown. This study evaluated the action of indirubin-3'-oxime on the function of isolated rat liver mitochondria contributing to a better understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying the multiple effects of indirubin. Indirubin-3'-oxime incubated with isolated rat liver mitochondria, at concentrations above 10{mu}M, significantly depresses the phosphorylation efficiency of mitochondria as inferred from the decrease in the respiratory control and ADP/O ratios, the perturbations in mitochondrial membrane potential and in the phosphorylative cycle induced by ADP. Furthermore, indirubin-3'-oxime at up to 25{mu}M stimulates the rate of state 4 respiration and inhibits state 3 respiration. The increased lag phase of repolarization was associated with a direct inhibition of the mitochondrial ATPase. Indirubin-3'-oxime significantly inhibited the activity of complex II and IV thus explaining the decreased FCCP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondria pre-incubated with indirubin-3'-oxime exhibits decreased susceptibility to calcium-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. This work shows for the first time multiple effects of indirubin-3'-oxime on mitochondrial bioenergetics thus indicating a potential mechanism for indirubin-3'-oxime effects on cell function.

  3. Mitochondrial respiratory control and early defects of oxidative phosphorylation in the failing human heart.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Hélène; Semsroth, Severin; Antretter, Herwig; Höfer, Daniel; Gnaiger, Erich

    2011-12-01

    Heart failure is a consequence of progressive deterioration of cardiac performance. Little is known about the role of impaired oxidative phosphorylation in the progression of the disease, since previous studies of mitochondrial injuries are restricted to end-stage chronic heart failure. The present study aimed at evaluating the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of human heart failure. We measured the control of oxidative phosphorylation with high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized myocardial fibres from donor hearts (controls), and patients with no or mild heart failure but presenting with heart disease, or chronic heart failure due to dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathy. The capacity of the phosphorylation system exerted a strong limitation on oxidative phosphorylation in the human heart, estimated at 121 pmol O(2)s(-1)mg(-1) in the healthy left ventricle. In heart disease, a specific defect of the phosphorylation system, Complex I-linked respiration, and mass-specific fatty acid oxidation were identified. These early defects were also significant in chronic heart failure, where the capacities of the oxidative phosphorylation and electron transfer systems per cardiac tissue mass were decreased with all tested substrate combinations, suggesting a decline of mitochondrial density. Oxidative phosphorylation and electron transfer system capacities were higher in ventricles compared to atria, but the impaired mitochondrial quality was identical in the four cardiac chambers of chronic heart failure patients. Coupling was preserved in heart disease and chronic heart failure, in contrast to the mitochondrial dysfunction observed after prolonged cold storage of cardiac tissue. Mitochondrial defects in the phosphorylation system, Complex I respiration and mass-specific fatty acid oxidation occurred early in the development of heart failure. Targeting these mitochondrial injuries with metabolic therapy may offer a promising approach to delay

  4. Roles of Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis, PGC-1α and Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shang-Der; Yang, Ding-I; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Shaw, Fu-Zen; Liou, Chia-Wei; Chuang, Yao-Chung

    2011-01-01

    The primary physiological function of mitochondria is to generate adenosine triphosphate through oxidative phosphorylation via the electron transport chain. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as byproducts generated from mitochondria have been implicated in acute brain injuries such as stroke from cerebral ischemia. It was well-documented that mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway involves pro- and anti-apoptotic protein binding, release of cytochrome c, leading ultimately to neuronal death. On the other hand, mitochondria also play a role to counteract the detrimental effects elicited by excessive oxidative stress. Recent studies have revealed that oxidative stress and the redox state of ischemic neurons are also implicated in the signaling pathway that involves peroxisome proliferative activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) co-activator 1α (PGC1-α). PGC1-α is a master regulator of ROS scavenging enzymes including manganese superoxide dismutase 2 and the uncoupling protein 2, both are mitochondrial proteins, and may contribute to neuronal survival. PGC1-α is also involved in mitochondrial biogenesis that is vital for cell survival. Experimental evidence supports the roles of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress as determinants of neuronal death as well as endogenous protective mechanisms after stroke. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge focusing on the molecular mechanisms underlying cerebral ischemia involving ROS, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, mitochondrial proteins capable of ROS scavenging, and mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:22072942

  5. Mutant Huntingtin and Elusive Defects in Oxidative Metabolism and Mitochondrial Calcium Handling.

    PubMed

    Brustovetsky, Nickolay

    2016-07-01

    Elongation of a polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch in huntingtin protein (Htt) is linked to Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis. The mutation in Htt correlates with neuronal dysfunction in the striatum and cerebral cortex and eventually leads to neuronal cell death. The exact mechanisms of the injurious effect of mutant Htt (mHtt) on neurons are not completely understood but might include aberrant gene transcription, defective autophagy, abnormal mitochondrial biogenesis, anomalous mitochondrial dynamics, and trafficking. In addition, deficiency in oxidative metabolism and defects in mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling are considered essential contributing factors to neuronal dysfunction in HD and, consequently, in HD pathogenesis. Since the discovery of the mutation in Htt, the questions whether mHtt affects oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling and, if it does, what mechanisms could be involved were in focus of numerous investigations. However, despite significant research efforts, the detrimental effect of mHtt and the mechanisms by which mHtt might impair oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling remain elusive. In this paper, I will briefly review studies aimed at clarifying the consequences of mHtt interaction with mitochondria and discuss experimental results supporting or arguing against the mHtt effects on oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling. PMID:25941077

  6. YME1L degradation reduces mitochondrial proteolytic capacity during oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Rainbolt, T Kelly; Saunders, Jaclyn M; Wiseman, R Luke

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial proteostasis is maintained by a network of ATP-dependent quality control proteases including the inner membrane protease YME1L. Here, we show that YME1L is a stress-sensitive mitochondrial protease that is rapidly degraded in response to acute oxidative stress. This degradation requires reductions in cellular ATP and involves the activity of the ATP-independent protease OMA1. Oxidative stress-dependent reductions in YME1L inhibit protective YME1L-dependent functions and increase cellular sensitivity to oxidative insult. Collectively, our results identify stress-induced YME1L degradation as a biologic process that attenuates protective regulation of mitochondrial proteostasis and promotes cellular death in response to oxidative stress. PMID:25433032

  7. Effect of endogenous nitric oxide on mitochondrial respiration of rat hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, J.; Curran, R.D.; Ochoa, J.B.; Harbrecht, B.G.; Hoffman, R.A.; Simmons, R.L.; Billiar, T.R. )

    1991-02-01

    Nitric oxide, a highly reactive radical, was recently identified as an intermediate of L-arginine metabolism in mammalian cells. We have shown that nitric oxide synthesis is induced in vitro in cultured hepatocytes by supernatants from activated Kupffer cells or in vivo by injecting rats with nonviable Corynebacterium parvum. In both cases, nitric oxide biosynthesis in hepatocytes was associated with suppression of total protein synthesis. This study attempts to determine the effect of nitric oxide biosynthesis on the activity of specific hepatocytic mitochondrial enzymes and to determine whether inhibition of protein synthesis is caused by suppression of energy metabolism. Exposure of hepatocytes to supernatants from activated Kupffer cells led to a 30% decrease of aconitase (Krebs cycle) and complex I (mitochondrial electron transport chain) activity. Using NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, we demonstrated that the inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity was due, in part, to the action of nitric oxide. In contrast, in vivo nitric oxide synthesis of hepatocytes from Corynebacterium parvum-treated animals had no effect on mitochondrial respiration. This suggests that inhibition of protein synthesis by nitric oxide is not likely to be mediated by inhibition of energy metabolism.

  8. Hepatic toxicity of dronedarone in mice: role of mitochondrial β-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Felser, Andrea; Stoller, Andrea; Morand, Réjane; Schnell, Dominik; Donzelli, Massimiliano; Terracciano, Luigi; Bouitbir, Jamal; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2014-09-01

    Dronedarone is an amiodarone-like antiarrhythmic drug associated with severe liver injury. Since dronedarone inhibits mitochondrial respiration and β-oxidation in vitro, mitochondrial toxicity may also explain dronedarone-associated hepatotoxicity in vivo. We therefore studied hepatotoxicity of dronedarone (200mg/kg/day for 2 weeks or 400mg/kg/day for 1 week by intragastric gavage) in heterozygous juvenile visceral steatosis (jvs(+/-)) and wild-type mice. Jvs(+/-) mice have reduced carnitine stores and are sensitive for mitochondrial β-oxidation inhibitors. Treatment with dronedarone 200mg/kg/day had no effect on body weight, serum transaminases and bilirubin, and hepatic mitochondrial function in both wild-type and jvs(+/-) mice. In contrast, dronedarone 400mg/kg/day was associated with a 10-15% drop in body weight, and a 3-5-fold increase in transaminases and bilirubin in wild-type mice and, more accentuated, in jvs(+/-) mice. In vivo metabolism of intraperitoneal (14)C-palmitate was impaired in wild-type, and, more accentuated, in jvs(+/-) mice treated with 400mg/kg/day dronedarone compared to vehicle-treated mice. Impaired β-oxidation was also found in isolated mitochondria ex vivo. A likely explanation for these findings was a reduced activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a in liver mitochondria from dronedarone-treated mice. In contrast, dronedarone did not affect the activity of the respiratory chain ex vivo. We conclude that dronedarone inhibits mitochondrial β-oxidation in and ex vivo, but not the respiratory chain. Jvs(+/-) mice are slightly more sensitive for the effect of dronedarone on mitochondrial β-oxidation than wild-type mice. The results suggest that inhibition of mitochondrial β-oxidation is an important mechanism of hepatotoxicity associated with dronedarone. PMID:24881592

  9. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cancer and Neurodegenerative Diseases: Spotlight on Fatty Acid Oxidation and Lipoperoxidation Products

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Giuseppina; Gentile, Fabrizio; Pizzimenti, Stefania; Canuto, Rosa Angela; Daga, Martina; Arcaro, Alessia; Cetrangolo, Giovanni Paolo; Lepore, Alessio; Ferretti, Carlo; Dianzani, Chiara; Muzio, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In several human diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced mainly by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, is increased. In cancer cells, the increase of ROS production has been associated with mtDNA mutations that, in turn, seem to be functional in the alterations of the bioenergetics and the biosynthetic state of cancer cells. Moreover, ROS overproduction can enhance the peroxidation of fatty acids in mitochondrial membranes. In particular, the peroxidation of mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin leads to the formation of reactive aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA), which are able to react with proteins and DNA. Covalent modifications of mitochondrial proteins by the products of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the course of oxidative cell stress are involved in the mitochondrial dysfunctions observed in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Such modifications appear to affect negatively mitochondrial integrity and function, in particular energy metabolism, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, antioxidant defenses and stress responses. In neurodegenerative diseases, indirect confirmation for the pathogenetic relevance of LPO-dependent modifications of mitochondrial proteins comes from the disease phenotypes associated with their genetic alterations. PMID:26907355

  10. Assessment of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Monoamine Oxidase Contribution to Oxidative Stress in Human Diabetic Hearts.

    PubMed

    Duicu, O M; Lighezan, R; Sturza, A; Balica, R; Vaduva, A; Feier, H; Gaspar, M; Ionac, A; Noveanu, L; Borza, C; Muntean, D M; Mornos, C

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria-related oxidative stress is a pathomechanism causally linked to coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Recently, mitochondrial monoamine oxidases (MAOs) have emerged as novel sources of oxidative stress in the cardiovascular system and experimental diabetes. The present study was purported to assess the mitochondrial impairment and the contribution of MAOs-related oxidative stress to the cardiovascular dysfunction in coronary patients with/without DM. Right atrial appendages were obtained from 75 patients randomized into 3 groups: (1) Control (CTRL), valvular patients without CHD; (2) CHD, patients with confirmed CHD; and (3) CHD-DM, patients with CHD and DM. Mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry and MAOs expression was evaluated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) emission was assessed by confocal microscopy and spectrophotometrically. The impairment of mitochondrial respiration was substrate-independent in CHD-DM group. MAOs expression was comparable among the groups, with the predominance of MAO-B isoform but no significant differences regarding oxidative stress were detected by either method. Incubation of atrial samples with MAOs inhibitors significantly reduced the H2O2 in all groups. In conclusion, abnormal mitochondrial respiration occurs in CHD and is more severe in DM and MAOs contribute to oxidative stress in human diseased hearts with/without DM. PMID:27190576

  11. Assessment of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Monoamine Oxidase Contribution to Oxidative Stress in Human Diabetic Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Duicu, O. M.; Lighezan, R.; Sturza, A.; Balica, R.; Vaduva, A.; Feier, H.; Gaspar, M.; Ionac, A.; Noveanu, L.; Borza, C.; Muntean, D. M.; Mornos, C.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria-related oxidative stress is a pathomechanism causally linked to coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Recently, mitochondrial monoamine oxidases (MAOs) have emerged as novel sources of oxidative stress in the cardiovascular system and experimental diabetes. The present study was purported to assess the mitochondrial impairment and the contribution of MAOs-related oxidative stress to the cardiovascular dysfunction in coronary patients with/without DM. Right atrial appendages were obtained from 75 patients randomized into 3 groups: (1) Control (CTRL), valvular patients without CHD; (2) CHD, patients with confirmed CHD; and (3) CHD-DM, patients with CHD and DM. Mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry and MAOs expression was evaluated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) emission was assessed by confocal microscopy and spectrophotometrically. The impairment of mitochondrial respiration was substrate-independent in CHD-DM group. MAOs expression was comparable among the groups, with the predominance of MAO-B isoform but no significant differences regarding oxidative stress were detected by either method. Incubation of atrial samples with MAOs inhibitors significantly reduced the H2O2 in all groups. In conclusion, abnormal mitochondrial respiration occurs in CHD and is more severe in DM and MAOs contribute to oxidative stress in human diseased hearts with/without DM. PMID:27190576

  12. Impaired Mitochondrial Energy Production Causes Light-Induced Photoreceptor Degeneration Independent of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Manish; Haelterman, Nele A; Sandoval, Hector; Xiong, Bo; Donti, Taraka; Kalsotra, Auinash; Yamamoto, Shinya; Cooper, Thomas A; Graham, Brett H; Bellen, Hugo J

    2015-07-01

    Two insults often underlie a variety of eye diseases including glaucoma, optic atrophy, and retinal degeneration--defects in mitochondrial function and aberrant Rhodopsin trafficking. Although mitochondrial defects are often associated with oxidative stress, they have not been linked to Rhodopsin trafficking. In an unbiased forward genetic screen designed to isolate mutations that cause photoreceptor degeneration, we identified mutations in a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene, ppr, a homolog of human LRPPRC. We found that ppr is required for protection against light-induced degeneration. Its function is essential to maintain membrane depolarization of the photoreceptors upon repetitive light exposure, and an impaired phototransduction cascade in ppr mutants results in excessive Rhodopsin1 endocytosis. Moreover, loss of ppr results in a reduction in mitochondrial RNAs, reduced electron transport chain activity, and reduced ATP levels. Oxidative stress, however, is not induced. We propose that the reduced ATP level in ppr mutants underlies the phototransduction defect, leading to increased Rhodopsin1 endocytosis during light exposure, causing photoreceptor degeneration independent of oxidative stress. This hypothesis is bolstered by characterization of two other genes isolated in the screen, pyruvate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase. Their loss also causes a light-induced degeneration, excessive Rhodopsin1 endocytosis and reduced ATP without concurrent oxidative stress, unlike many other mutations in mitochondrial genes that are associated with elevated oxidative stress and light-independent photoreceptor demise. PMID:26176594

  13. FABP4 reversed the regulation of leptin on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation in mice adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lu; Liu, Zhenjiang; Cao, Weina; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Sun, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), plays key role in fatty acid transportation and oxidation, and increases with leptin synergistically during adipose inflammation process. However, the regulation mechanism between FABP4 and leptin on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation remains unclear. In this study, we found that FABP4 reduced the expression of leptin, CPT-1 and AOX1 in mice adipocytes. Conversely, FABP4 was down-regulated in a time-dependent manner by leptin treatment. Additionally, forced expression of FABP4 attenuated the expression of PGC1-α, UCP2, CPT-1, AOX1 and COX2 compared with leptin incubation. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential, fatty acid oxidation enzyme medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) and Cyt C levels were reduced in response to the overexpression of FABP4. These reductions correspond well with the reduced release of free fatty acid and the inactivation of mitochondrial complexes I and III by FABP4 overexpression. Furthermore, addition of the Akt/mTOR pathway-specific inhibitor (MK2206) blocked the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and respiration factors, whereas interference of FABP4 overcame these effects. Taken together, FABP4 could reverse the activation of the leptin-induced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, and the inhibition of Akt/mTOR signal pathway played a key role in this process. PMID:26310911

  14. Impaired Mitochondrial Energy Production Causes Light-Induced Photoreceptor Degeneration Independent of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Manish; Haelterman, Nele A.; Sandoval, Hector; Xiong, Bo; Donti, Taraka; Kalsotra, Auinash; Yamamoto, Shinya; Cooper, Thomas A.; Graham, Brett H.; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2015-01-01

    Two insults often underlie a variety of eye diseases including glaucoma, optic atrophy, and retinal degeneration—defects in mitochondrial function and aberrant Rhodopsin trafficking. Although mitochondrial defects are often associated with oxidative stress, they have not been linked to Rhodopsin trafficking. In an unbiased forward genetic screen designed to isolate mutations that cause photoreceptor degeneration, we identified mutations in a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial gene, ppr, a homolog of human LRPPRC. We found that ppr is required for protection against light-induced degeneration. Its function is essential to maintain membrane depolarization of the photoreceptors upon repetitive light exposure, and an impaired phototransduction cascade in ppr mutants results in excessive Rhodopsin1 endocytosis. Moreover, loss of ppr results in a reduction in mitochondrial RNAs, reduced electron transport chain activity, and reduced ATP levels. Oxidative stress, however, is not induced. We propose that the reduced ATP level in ppr mutants underlies the phototransduction defect, leading to increased Rhodopsin1 endocytosis during light exposure, causing photoreceptor degeneration independent of oxidative stress. This hypothesis is bolstered by characterization of two other genes isolated in the screen, pyruvate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase. Their loss also causes a light-induced degeneration, excessive Rhodopsin1 endocytosis and reduced ATP without concurrent oxidative stress, unlike many other mutations in mitochondrial genes that are associated with elevated oxidative stress and light-independent photoreceptor demise. PMID:26176594

  15. Aluminium induced oxidative stress results in decreased mitochondrial biogenesis via modulation of PGC-1α expression

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Kandimalla, Ramesh J.L.; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2013-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the effects of aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream targets i.e. Nuclear respiratory factor-1(NRF-1), Nuclear respiratory factor-2(NRF-2) and Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10 mg/kg b.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of exposure, we found an increase in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and decrease in citrate synthase activity in the Hippocampus (HC) and Corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain. On the other hand, there was a decrease in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits–NADH dehydrogenase (ND) subunits i.e. ND1, ND2, ND3, Cytochrome b (Cytb), Cytochrome oxidase (COX) subunits i.e. COX1, COX3, ATP synthase (ATPase) subunit 6 along with reduced expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A, COX5B of Electron transport chain (ETC). Besides, a decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was down-regulated in aluminium treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α in aluminium treated rats. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant increase in the mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae, chromatin condensation and decreases in mitochondrial number in case of aluminium treated rats as compared to control. So, PGC-1α seems to be a potent target for aluminium neurotoxicity, which makes it an almost ideal target to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in neurodegenerative diseases. - Highlights: • Aluminium decreases the mRNA levels of mitochondrial and nuclear encoded

  16. Mitochondrial Sirt3 supports cell proliferation by regulating glutamine-dependent oxidation in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jieun; Koh, Eunjin; Lee, Yu Shin; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Hyeok Gu; Yoon, Young Eun; Han, Woong Kyu; Choi, Kyung Hwa; Kim, Kyung-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Clear cell renal carcinoma (RCC), the most common malignancy arising in the adult kidney, exhibits increased aerobic glycolysis and low mitochondrial respiration due to von Hippel-Lindau gene defects and constitutive hypoxia-inducible factor-α expression. Sirt3 is a major mitochondrial deacetylase that mediates various types of energy metabolism. However, the role of Sirt3 as a tumor suppressor or oncogene in cancer depends on cell types. We show increased Sirt3 expression in the mitochondrial fraction of human RCC tissues. Sirt3 depletion by lentiviral short-hairpin RNA, as well as the stable expression of the inactive mutant of Sirt3, inhibited cell proliferation and tumor growth in xenograft nude mice, respectively. Furthermore, mitochondrial pyruvate, which was used for oxidation in RCC, might be derived from glutamine, but not from glucose and cytosolic pyruvate, due to depletion of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier and the relatively high expression of malic enzyme 2. Depletion of Sirt3 suppressed glutamate dehydrogenase activity, leading to impaired mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Our findings suggest that Sirt3 plays a tumor-progressive role in human RCC by regulating glutamine-derived mitochondrial respiration, particularly in cells where mitochondrial usage of cytosolic pyruvate is severely compromised. PMID:27114304

  17. Pathogenesis of Target Organ Damage in Hypertension: Role of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rubattu, Speranza; Pagliaro, Beniamino; Pierelli, Giorgia; Santolamazza, Caterina; Di Castro, Sara; Mennuni, Silvia; Volpe, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension causes target organ damage (TOD) that involves vasculature, heart, brain and kidneys. Complex biochemical, hormonal and hemodynamic mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of TOD. Common to all these processes is an increased bioavailability of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both in vitro and in vivo studies explored the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress as a mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of TOD in hypertension, especially focusing on atherosclerosis, heart disease, renal failure, cerebrovascular disease. Both dysfunction of mitochondrial proteins, such as uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), superoxide dismutase (SOD) 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α), calcium channels, and the interaction between mitochondria and other sources of ROS, such as NADPH oxidase, play an important role in the development of endothelial dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy, renal and cerebral damage in hypertension. Commonly used anti-hypertensive drugs have shown protective effects against mitochondrial-dependent oxidative stress. Notably, few mitochondrial proteins can be considered therapeutic targets on their own. In fact, antioxidant therapies specifically targeted at mitochondria represent promising strategies to reduce mitochondrial dysfunction and related hypertensive TOD. In the present article, we discuss the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress as a contributing factor to hypertensive TOD development. We also provide an overview of mitochondria-based treatment strategies that may reveal useful to prevent TOD and reduce its progression. PMID:25561233

  18. Mitochondrial targeting of bilirubin regulatory enzymes: An adaptive response to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Muhsain, Siti Nur Fadzilah; Lang, Matti A; Abu-Bakar, A'edah

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular level of bilirubin (BR), an endogenous antioxidant that is cytotoxic at high concentrations, is tightly controlled within the optimal therapeutic range. We have recently described a concerted intracellular BR regulation by two microsomal enzymes: heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), essential for BR production and cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5), a BR oxidase. Herein, we describe targeting of these enzymes to hepatic mitochondria during oxidative stress. The kinetics of microsomal and mitochondrial BR oxidation were compared. Treatment of DBA/2J mice with 200mgpyrazole/kg/day for 3days increased hepatic intracellular protein carbonyl content and induced nucleo-translocation of Nrf2. HMOX1 and CYP2A5 proteins and activities were elevated in microsomes and mitoplasts but not the UGT1A1, a catalyst of BR glucuronidation. A CYP2A5 antibody inhibited 75% of microsomal BR oxidation. The inhibition was absent in control mitoplasts but elevated to 50% after treatment. An adrenodoxin reductase antibody did not inhibit microsomal BR oxidation but inhibited 50% of mitochondrial BR oxidation. Ascorbic acid inhibited 5% and 22% of the reaction in control and treated microsomes, respectively. In control mitoplasts the inhibition was 100%, which was reduced to 50% after treatment. Bilirubin affinity to mitochondrial and microsomal CYP2A5 enzyme is equally high. Lastly, the treatment neither released cytochrome c into cytoplasm nor dissipated membrane potential, indicating the absence of mitochondrial membrane damage. Collectively, the observations suggest that BR regulatory enzymes are recruited to mitochondria during oxidative stress and BR oxidation by mitochondrial CYP2A5 is supported by mitochondrial mono-oxygenase system. The induced recruitment potentially confers membrane protection. PMID:25478736

  19. Mitochondrial Alterations and Oxidative Stress in an Acute Transient Mouse Model of Muscle Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ramadasan-Nair, Renjini; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Mishra, Sudha; Sunitha, Balaraju; Mythri, Rajeswara Babu; Nalini, Atchayaram; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Harsha, Hindalahalli Chandregowda; Kolthur-Seetharam, Ullas; Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) and inflammatory myopathies (IMs) are debilitating skeletal muscle disorders characterized by common pathological events including myodegeneration and inflammation. However, an experimental model representing both muscle pathologies and displaying most of the distinctive markers has not been characterized. We investigated the cardiotoxin (CTX)-mediated transient acute mouse model of muscle degeneration and compared the cardinal features with human MDs and IMs. The CTX model displayed degeneration, apoptosis, inflammation, loss of sarcolemmal complexes, sarcolemmal disruption, and ultrastructural changes characteristic of human MDs and IMs. Cell death caused by CTX involved calcium influx and mitochondrial damage both in murine C2C12 muscle cells and in mice. Mitochondrial proteomic analysis at the initial phase of degeneration in the model detected lowered expression of 80 mitochondrial proteins including subunits of respiratory complexes, ATP machinery, fatty acid metabolism, and Krebs cycle, which further decreased in expression during the peak degenerative phase. The mass spectrometry (MS) data were supported by enzyme assays, Western blot, and histochemistry. The CTX model also displayed markers of oxidative stress and a lowered glutathione reduced/oxidized ratio (GSH/GSSG) similar to MDs, human myopathies, and neurogenic atrophies. MS analysis identified 6 unique oxidized proteins from Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples (n = 6) (versus controls; n = 6), including two mitochondrial proteins. Interestingly, these mitochondrial proteins were down-regulated in the CTX model thereby linking oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that mitochondrial alterations and oxidative damage significantly contribute to CTX-mediated muscle pathology with implications for human muscle diseases. PMID:24220031

  20. Oxidative stress–induced mitochondrial dysfunction drives inflammation and airway smooth muscle remodeling in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Wiegman, Coen H.; Michaeloudes, Charalambos; Haji, Gulammehdi; Narang, Priyanka; Clarke, Colin J.; Russell, Kirsty E.; Bao, Wuping; Pavlidis, Stelios; Barnes, Peter J.; Kanerva, Justin; Bittner, Anton; Rao, Navin; Murphy, Michael P.; Kirkham, Paul A.; Chung, Kian Fan; Adcock, Ian M.; Brightling, Christopher E.; Davies, Donna E.; Finch, Donna K.; Fisher, Andrew J.; Gaw, Alasdair; Knox, Alan J.; Mayer, Ruth J.; Polkey, Michael; Salmon, Michael; Singh, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammation and oxidative stress play critical roles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mitochondrial oxidative stress might be involved in driving the oxidative stress–induced pathology. Objective We sought to determine the effects of oxidative stress on mitochondrial function in the pathophysiology of airway inflammation in ozone-exposed mice and human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. Methods Mice were exposed to ozone, and lung inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and mitochondrial function were determined. Human ASM cells were isolated from bronchial biopsy specimens from healthy subjects, smokers, and patients with COPD. Inflammation and mitochondrial function in mice and human ASM cells were measured with and without the presence of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ. Results Mice exposed to ozone, a source of oxidative stress, had lung inflammation and AHR associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and reflected by decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), increased mitochondrial oxidative stress, and reduced mitochondrial complex I, III, and V expression. Reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction by the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ reduced inflammation and AHR. ASM cells from patients with COPD have reduced ΔΨm, adenosine triphosphate content, complex expression, basal and maximum respiration levels, and respiratory reserve capacity compared with those from healthy control subjects, whereas mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were increased. Healthy smokers were intermediate between healthy nonsmokers and patients with COPD. Hydrogen peroxide induced mitochondrial dysfunction in ASM cells from healthy subjects. MitoQ and Tiron inhibited TGF-β–induced ASM cell proliferation and CXCL8 release. Conclusions Mitochondrial dysfunction in patients with COPD is associated with excessive mitochondrial ROS levels, which contribute to enhanced inflammation and cell

  1. Role of skeletal muscle mitochondrial density on exercise-stimulated lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Galgani, Jose E; Johannsen, Neil M; Bajpeyi, Sudip; Costford, Sheila R; Zhang, Zhengyu; Gupta, Alok K; Ravussin, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial density is proposed to lead to impaired muscle lipid oxidation and increased lipid accumulation in sedentary individuals. We assessed exercise-stimulated lipid oxidation by imposing a prolonged moderate-intensity exercise in men with variable skeletal muscle mitochondrial density as measured by citrate synthase (CS) activity. After a 2-day isoenergetic high-fat diet, lipid oxidation was measured before and during exercise (650 kcal at 50% VO(2)max) in 20 healthy men with either high (HI-CS = 24 ± 1; mean ± s.e.) or low (LO-CS = 17 ± 1 nmol/min/mg protein) muscle CS activity. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before and immediately after exercise. Respiratory exchange data and blood samples were collected at rest and throughout the exercise. HI-CS subjects had higher VO(2)max (50 ± 1 vs. 44 ± 2 ml/kg fat free mass/min; P = 0.01), lower fasting respiratory quotient (RQ) (0.81 ± 0.01 vs. 0.85 ± 0.01; P = 0.04) and higher ex vivo muscle palmitate oxidation (866 ± 168 vs. 482 ± 78 nmol/h/mg muscle; P = 0.05) compared to LO-CS individuals. However, whole-body exercise-stimulated lipid oxidation (20 ± 2 g vs. 19 ± 1 g; P = 0.65) and plasma glucose, lactate, insulin, and catecholamine responses were similar between the two groups. In conclusion, in response to the same energy demand during a moderate prolonged exercise bout, reliance on lipid oxidation was similar in individuals with high and low skeletal muscle mitochondrial density. This data suggests that decreased muscle mitochondrial density may not necessarily impair reliance on lipid oxidation over the course of the day since it was normal under a high-lipid oxidative demand condition. Twenty-four-hour lipid oxidation and its relationship with mitochondrial density need to be assessed. PMID:21681225

  2. Evidence of oxidative stress and mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction in an in vitro model of sepsis-induced kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Quoilin, C; Mouithys-Mickalad, A; Lécart, S; Fontaine-Aupart, M-P; Hoebeke, M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the role of oxidative stress and/or mitochondrial impairment in the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) during sepsis, we developed a sepsis-induced in vitro model using proximal tubular epithelial cells exposed to a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). This investigation has provided key features on the relationship between oxidative stress and mitochondrial respiratory chain activity defects. LPS treatment resulted in an increase in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4), suggesting the cytosolic overexpression of nitric oxide and superoxide anion, the primary reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This oxidant state seemed to interrupt mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by reducing cytochrome c oxidase activity. As a consequence, disruptions in the electron transport and the proton pumping across the mitochondrial inner membrane occurred, leading to a decrease of the mitochondrial membrane potential, a release of apoptotic-inducing factors and a depletion of adenosine triphosphate. Interestingly, after being targeted by RNS and ROS, mitochondria became in turn producer of ROS, thus contributing to increase the mitochondrial dysfunction. The role of oxidants in mitochondrial dysfunction was further confirmed by the use of iNOS inhibitors or antioxidants that preserve cytochrome c oxidase activity and prevent mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation. These results suggest that sepsis-induced AKI should not only be regarded as failure of energy status but also as an integrated response, including transcriptional events, ROS signaling, mitochondrial activity and metabolic orientation such as apoptosis. PMID:25019585

  3. Mechanism study on mitochondrial fragmentation under oxidative stress caused by high-fluence low-power laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shengnan; Zhou, Feifan; Xing, Da

    2012-03-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo continual fusion and fission to maintain their morphology and functions, but the mechanism involved is still not clear. Here, we investigated the effect of mitochondrial oxidative stress triggered by high-fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) on mitochondrial dynamics in human lung adenocarcinoma cells (ASTC-a-1). Upon HF-LPLI-triggered oxidative stress, mitochondria displayed a fragmented structure, which was abolished by exposure to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), a reactive oxygen species scavenger, indicating that oxidative stress can induce mitochondrial fragmentation. Mitochondrial translocation of the profission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) was observed following HF-LPLI, demonstrating apoptosis-related activation of Drp1. Notably, DHA pre-treatment prevented HF-LPLI-induced Drp1 activation. We conclude that mitochondrial oxidative stress through activation of Drp1 causes mitochondrial fragmentation.

  4. Over-expression of heme oxygenase-1 promotes oxidative mitochondrial damage in rat astroglia.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Su, Haixiang; Song, Sisi; Paudel, Hemant K; Schipper, Hyman M

    2006-03-01

    Glial heme oxygenase-1 is over-expressed in the CNS of subjects with Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Up-regulation of HO-1 in rat astroglia has been shown to facilitate iron sequestration by the mitochondrial compartment. To determine whether HO-1 induction promotes mitochondrial oxidative stress, assays for 8-epiPGF(2alpha) (ELISA), protein carbonyls (ELISA) and 8-OHdG (HPLC-EC) were used to quantify oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, respectively, in mitochondrial fractions and whole-cell compartments derived from cultured rat astroglia engineered to over-express human (h) HO-1 by transient transfection. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion and the MTT assay, and cell proliferation was determined by [3H] thymidine incorporation and total cell counts. In rat astrocytes, hHO-1 over-expression (x 3 days) resulted in significant oxidative damage to mitochondrial lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, partial growth arrest, and increased cell death. These effects were attenuated by incubation with 1 microM tin mesoporphyrin, a competitive HO inhibitor, or the iron chelator, deferoxamine. Up-regulation of HO-1 engenders oxidative mitochondrial injury in cultured rat astroglia. Heme-derived ferrous iron and carbon monoxide (CO) may mediate the oxidative modification of mitochondrial lipids, proteins and nucleic acids in these cells. Glial HO-1 hyperactivity may contribute to cellular oxidative stress, pathological iron deposition, and bioenergetic failure characteristic of degenerating and inflamed neural tissues and may constitute a rational target for therapeutic intervention in these conditions. PMID:16222706

  5. Genipin ameliorates age-related insulin resistance through inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lili; Feng, Haiyan; Gong, Dezheng; Zhao, Xu; Cai, Li; Wu, Qiong; Yuan, Bo; Yang, Mei; Zhao, Jie; Zou, Yuan

    2013-12-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) increases with age and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are supposed to be major factors leading to age-related IR. Genipin, an extract from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit, has been reported to stimulate insulin secretion in pancreatic islet cells by regulating mitochondrial function. In this study, we first investigated the effects of genipin on insulin sensitivity and the potential mitochondrial mechanisms in the liver of aging rats. The rats were randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either 25mg/kg genipin or vehicle once daily for 12days. The aging rats showed hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance as examined by the decreased glucose decay constant rate during insulin tolerance test (kITT). The hepatic tissues showed steatosis and reduced glycogen content. Hepatic malondialdehyde level and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were higher, and levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP were lower as compared with the normal control rats. Administration of genipin ameliorated systemic and hepatic insulin resistance, alleviated hyperinsulinemia, hyperglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis, relieved hepatic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in aging rats. Furthermore, genipin not only improved insulin sensitivity by promoting insulin-stimulated glucose consumption and glycogen synthesis, inhibited cellular ROS overproduction and alleviated the reduction of levels of MMP and ATP, but also reversed oxidative stress-associated JNK hyperactivation and reduced Akt phosphorylation in palmitate-treated L02 hepatocytes. In conclusion, genipin ameliorates age-related insulin resistance through inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24041487

  6. Role of oxidative DNA damage in mitochondrial dysfunction and Huntington's disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Peña, Sylvette

    2013-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with an autosomal dominant expression pattern and typically a late-onset appearance. HD is a movement disorder with a heterogeneous phenotype characterized by involuntary dance-like gait, bioenergetic deficits, motor impairment, and cognitive and psychiatric deficits. Compelling evidence suggests that increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may underlie HD pathogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms underlying mutant huntingtin-induced neurological toxicity remain unclear. The objective of this paper is to review recent literature regarding the role of oxidative DNA damage in mitochondrial dysfunction and HD pathogenesis. PMID:23602907

  7. Regulation of Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Capacity and Insulin Signaling by the Mitochondrial Rhomboid Protease PARL

    PubMed Central

    Civitarese, Anthony E.; MacLean, Paul S.; Carling, Stacy; Kerr-Bayles, Lyndal; McMillan, Ryan P.; Pierce, Anson; Becker, Thomas C.; Moro, Cedric; Finlayson, Jean; Lefort, Natalie; Newgard, Christopher B.; Mandarino, Lawrence; Cefalu, William; Walder, Ken; Collier, Greg R.; Hulver, Matthew W.; Smith, Steven R.; Ravussin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Type 2 diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and aging are characterized by insulin resistance, lower mitochondrial density and function and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In lower organisms continuous remodeling critically maintains the function and life cycle of mitochondria, in part by the protease pcp1 (PARL ortholog). We therefore examined whether variation in PARL protein content is associated with mitochondrial abnormalities and insulin resistance. Relative to healthy, young individuals (23±1y), PARL mRNA and mitochondrial mass were both reduced in elderly subjects (64.4±1.2 y; 51% and 44% respectively) and in subjects with T2DM (51.8±3 y; 31% and 41% respectively; all p<0.05). Muscle knock-down of PARL in mice resulted in lower mitochondrial content (−31±3%, p<0.05), lower OPA1 and PGC1α protein levels and impaired insulin signaling. Furthermore, mitochondrial cristae were malformed and resulted in elevated in vivo oxidative stress. Adenoviral suppression of PARL protein in healthy myotubes lowered mitochondrial mass (−33±8%), insulin stimulated glycogen synthesis (−33±9%) and increased ROS production (2-fold) (all p<0.05). We propose that lower PARL expression may contribute to the mitochondrial abnormalities seen in aging and T2DM. PMID:20444421

  8. Current experience in testing mitochondrial nutrients in disorders featuring oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction: rational design of chemoprevention trials.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Giovanni; Aiello Talamanca, Annarita; Castello, Giuseppe; Cordero, Mario D; d'Ischia, Marco; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Pallardó, Federico V; Petrović, Sandra; Tiano, Luca; Zatterale, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    An extensive number of pathologies are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) and oxidative stress (OS). Thus, mitochondrial cofactors termed "mitochondrial nutrients" (MN), such as α-lipoic acid (ALA), Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and l-carnitine (CARN) (or its derivatives) have been tested in a number of clinical trials, and this review is focused on the use of MN-based clinical trials. The papers reporting on MN-based clinical trials were retrieved in MedLine up to July 2014, and evaluated for the following endpoints: (a) treated diseases; (b) dosages, number of enrolled patients and duration of treatment; (c) trial success for each MN or MN combinations as reported by authors. The reports satisfying the above endpoints included total numbers of trials and frequencies of randomized, controlled studies, i.e., 81 trials testing ALA, 107 reports testing CoQ10, and 74 reports testing CARN, while only 7 reports were retrieved testing double MN associations, while no report was found testing a triple MN combination. A total of 28 reports tested MN associations with "classical" antioxidants, such as antioxidant nutrients or drugs. Combinations of MN showed better outcomes than individual MN, suggesting forthcoming clinical studies. The criteria in study design and monitoring MN-based clinical trials are discussed. PMID:25380523

  9. Current Experience in Testing Mitochondrial Nutrients in Disorders Featuring Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Rational Design of Chemoprevention Trials

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Giovanni; Aiello Talamanca, Annarita; Castello, Giuseppe; Cordero, Mario D.; d’Ischia, Marco; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Pallardó, Federico V.; Petrović, Sandra; Tiano, Luca; Zatterale, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    An extensive number of pathologies are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) and oxidative stress (OS). Thus, mitochondrial cofactors termed “mitochondrial nutrients” (MN), such as α-lipoic acid (ALA), Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and l-carnitine (CARN) (or its derivatives) have been tested in a number of clinical trials, and this review is focused on the use of MN-based clinical trials. The papers reporting on MN-based clinical trials were retrieved in MedLine up to July 2014, and evaluated for the following endpoints: (a) treated diseases; (b) dosages, number of enrolled patients and duration of treatment; (c) trial success for each MN or MN combinations as reported by authors. The reports satisfying the above endpoints included total numbers of trials and frequencies of randomized, controlled studies, i.e., 81 trials testing ALA, 107 reports testing CoQ10, and 74 reports testing CARN, while only 7 reports were retrieved testing double MN associations, while no report was found testing a triple MN combination. A total of 28 reports tested MN associations with “classical” antioxidants, such as antioxidant nutrients or drugs. Combinations of MN showed better outcomes than individual MN, suggesting forthcoming clinical studies. The criteria in study design and monitoring MN-based clinical trials are discussed. PMID:25380523

  10. Role of mitochondrial oxidants in an in vitro model of sepsis-induced renal injury.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Elina; MacMillan-Crow, Lee Ann; Mayeux, Philip R

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated to play a major role in multiorgan dysfunction during sepsis. To study the mechanism of oxidant generation in acute kidney injury (AKI) during sepsis, we developed an in vitro model of sepsis using primary cultures of mouse cortical tubular epithelial cells exposed to serum (2.5-10%) collected from mice at 4 h after induction of sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or Sham (no sepsis). CLP serum produced a concentration-dependent increase in nitric oxide (NO) (nitrate + nitrite) release at 6 h and cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase release) at 18 h compared with Sham serum treatment. Before cytotoxicity there was a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, which was followed by increased superoxide and peroxynitrite levels compared with Sham serum. The role of oxidants was evaluated by using the superoxide dismutase mimetic and peroxynitrite scavenger manganese(III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin tetratosylate hydroxide (MnTmPyP). MnTmPyP (10-100 μM) produced a concentration-dependent preservation of ATP and protection against cytotoxicity. MnTmPyP blocked mitochondrial superoxide and peroxynitrite generation produced by CLP serum but had no effect on NO levels. Although MnTmPyP did not block the initial CLP serum-induced fall in mitochondrial membrane potential, it allowed mitochondrial membrane potential to recover. Data from this in vitro model suggest a time-dependent generation of mitochondrial oxidants, mitochondrial dysfunction, and renal tubular epithelial cell injury and support the therapeutic potential of manganese porphyrin compounds in preventing sepsis-induced AKI. PMID:22011433

  11. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is the achille's heel of melanoma cells resistant to Braf-mutant inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    André, Fanny; Jonneaux, Aurélie; Scalbert, Camille; Garçon, Guillaume; Malet-Martino, Myriam; Balayssac, Stéphane; Rocchi, Stephane; Savina, Ariel; Formstecher, Pierre; Mortier, Laurent; Kluza, Jérome; Marchetti, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Vemurafenib/PLX4032, a selective inhibitor of mutant BRAFV600E, constitutes a paradigm shift in melanoma therapy. Unfortunately, acquired resistance, which unavoidably occurs, represents one major limitation to clinical responses. Recent studies have highlighted that vemurafenib activated oxidative metabolism in BRAFV600E melanomas expressing PGC1α. However, the oxidative state of melanoma resistant to BRAF inhibitors is unknown. We established representative in vitro and in vivo models of human melanoma resistant to vemurafenib including primary specimens derived from melanoma patients. Firstly, our study reveals that vemurafenib increased mitochondrial respiration and ROS production in BRAFV600E melanoma cell lines regardless the expression of PGC1α. Secondly, melanoma cells that have acquired resistance to vemurafenib displayed intrinsically high rates of mitochondrial respiration associated with elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress irrespective of the presence of vemurafenib. Thirdly, the elevated ROS level rendered vemurafenib-resistant melanoma cells prone to cell death induced by pro-oxidants including the clinical trial drug, elesclomol. Based on these observations, we propose that the mitochondrial oxidative signature of resistant melanoma constitutes a novel opportunity to overcome resistance to BRAF inhibition. PMID:24161908

  12. Pknox1/Prep1 regulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation components in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kanzleiter, Timo; Rath, Michaela; Penkov, Dmitry; Puchkov, Dmytro; Schulz, Nadja; Blasi, Francesco; Schürmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The homeodomain transcription factor Prep1 was previously shown to regulate insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to study the specific role of Prep1 for the regulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. Muscle-specific ablation of Prep1 resulted in increased expression of respiratory chain subunits. This finding was consistent with an increase in mitochondrial enzyme activity without affecting mitochondrial volume fraction as assessed by electron microscopy. Metabolic phenotyping revealed no differences in daily energy expenditure or body composition. However, during treadmill exercise challenge, Prep1 ablation resulted in a higher maximal oxidative capacity and better endurance. Elevated PGC-1α expression was identified as a cause for increased mitochondrial capacity in Prep1 ablated mice. Prep1 stabilizes p160 Mybbp1a, a known inhibitor of PGC-1α activity. Thereby, p160 protein levels were significantly lower in the muscle of Prep1 ablated mice. By a chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) approach, PREP1 binding sites in genes encoding mitochondrial components (e.g., Ndufs2) were identified that might be responsible for elevated proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the muscle of Prep1 null mutants. These results suggest that Prep1 exhibits additional direct effects on regulation of mitochondrial proteins. We therefore conclude that Prep1 is a regulator of oxidative phosphorylation components via direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:24216763

  13. Pknox1/Prep1 Regulates Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Components in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Michaela; Penkov, Dmitry; Puchkov, Dmytro; Schulz, Nadja; Blasi, Francesco; Schürmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The homeodomain transcription factor Prep1 was previously shown to regulate insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to study the specific role of Prep1 for the regulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. Muscle-specific ablation of Prep1 resulted in increased expression of respiratory chain subunits. This finding was consistent with an increase in mitochondrial enzyme activity without affecting mitochondrial volume fraction as assessed by electron microscopy. Metabolic phenotyping revealed no differences in daily energy expenditure or body composition. However, during treadmill exercise challenge, Prep1 ablation resulted in a higher maximal oxidative capacity and better endurance. Elevated PGC-1α expression was identified as a cause for increased mitochondrial capacity in Prep1 ablated mice. Prep1 stabilizes p160 Mybbp1a, a known inhibitor of PGC-1α activity. Thereby, p160 protein levels were significantly lower in the muscle of Prep1 ablated mice. By a chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) approach, PREP1 binding sites in genes encoding mitochondrial components (e.g., Ndufs2) were identified that might be responsible for elevated proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in the muscle of Prep1 null mutants. These results suggest that Prep1 exhibits additional direct effects on regulation of mitochondrial proteins. We therefore conclude that Prep1 is a regulator of oxidative phosphorylation components via direct and indirect mechanisms. PMID:24216763

  14. Essentiality of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism for photosynthesis: optimization of carbon assimilation and protection against photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Padmasree, K; Padmavathi, L; Raghavendra, A S

    2002-01-01

    The review emphasizes the essentiality of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism for photosynthetic carbon assimilation. Photosynthetic activity in chloroplasts and oxidative metabolism in mitochondria interact with each other and stimulate their activities. During light, the partially modified TCA cycle supplies oxoglutarate to cytosol and chloroplasts. The marked stimulation of O2 uptake after few minutes of photosynthetic activity, termed as light enhanced dark respiration (LEDR), is now a well-known phenomenon. Both the cytochrome and alternative pathways of mitochondrial electron transport are important in such interactions. The function of chloroplast is optimized by the complementary nature of mitochondrial metabolism in multiple ways: facilitation of export of excess reduced equivalents from chloroplasts, shortening of photosynthetic induction, maintenance of photorespiratory activity, and supply of ATP for sucrose biosynthesis as well as other cytosolic needs. Further, the mitochondrial oxidative electron transport and phosphorylation also protects chloroplasts against photoinhibition. Besides mitochondrial respiration, reducing equivalents (and ATP) are used for other metabolic phenomena, such as sulfur or nitrogen metabolism and photorespiration. These reactions often involve peroxisomes and cytosol. The beneficial interaction between chloroplasts and mitochondria therefore extends invariably to also peroxisomes and cytosol. While the interorganelle exchange of metabolites is the known basis of such interaction, further experiments are warranted to identify other biochemical signals between them. The uses of techniques such as on-line mass spectrometric measurement, novel mutants/transgenics, and variability in metabolism by growth conditions hold a high promise to help the plant biologist to understand this PMID:12027265

  15. Resveratrol Induces Hepatic Mitochondrial Biogenesis Through the Sequential Activation of Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide Production

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul-Ki; Joe, Yeonsoo; Zheng, Min; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Yu, Jae-Kyoung; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Chang, Ki Churl; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin; Ryter, Stefan W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Nitric oxide (NO) can induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cultured cells, through increased guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP), and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). We sought to determine the role of NO, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and its reaction product (carbon monoxide [CO]) in the induction of mitochondrial biogenesis by the natural antioxidant resveratrol. Results: S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), an NO donor, induced mitochondrial biogenesis in HepG2 hepatoma cells, and in vivo, through stimulation of PGC-1α. NO-induced mitochondrial biogenesis required cGMP, and was mimicked by the cGMP analogue (8-bromoguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate [8-Br-cGMP]). Activation of mitochondrial biogenesis by SNAP required HO-1, as it could be reversed by genetic interference of HO-1; and by treatment with the HO inhibitor tin-protoporphyrin-IX (SnPP) in vitro and in vivo. Cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP)-IX, an HO-1 inducing agent, stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in HepG2 cells, which could be reversed by the CO scavenger hemoglobin. Application of CO, using the CO-releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3), stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in HepG2 cells, in a cGMP-dependent manner. Both CoPP and CORM-3-induced mitochondrial biogenesis required NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) activation and phosphorylation of Akt. The natural antioxidant resveratrol induced mitochondrial biogenesis in HepG2 cells, in a manner dependent on NO biosynthesis, cGMP synthesis, Nrf2-dependent HO-1 activation, and endogenous CO production. Furthermore, resveratrol preserved mitochondrial biogenesis during lipopolysaccharides-induced hepatic inflammation in vivo. Innovation and Conclusions: The complex interplay between endogenous NO and CO production may underlie the mechanism by which natural antioxidants induce mitochondrial biogenesis. Strategies aimed at improving mitochondrial biogenesis may be used as therapeutics

  16. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress Corrupts Coronary Collateral Growth by Activating Adenosine Monophosphate Activated Kinase-α Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pung, Yuh Fen; Sam, Wai Johnn; Stevanov, Kelly; Enrick, Molly; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Kolz, Christopher; Thakker, Prashanth; Hardwick, James P.; Chen, Yeong-Renn; Dyck, Jason R.B.; Yin, Liya; Chilian, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our goal was to determine the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress impairs collateral growth in the heart. Approach and Results Rats were treated with rotenone (mitochondrial complex I inhibitor that increases reactive oxygen species production) or sham-treated with vehicle and subjected to repetitive ischemia protocol for 10 days to induce coronary collateral growth. In control rats, repetitive ischemia increased flow to the collateral-dependent zone; however, rotenone treatment prevented this increase suggesting that mitochondrial oxidative stress compromises coronary collateral growth. In addition, rotenone also attenuated mitochondrial complex I activity and led to excessive mitochondrial aggregation. To further understand the mechanistic pathway(s) involved, human coronary artery endothelial cells were treated with 50 ng/ mL vascular endothelial growth factor, 1 µmol/L rotenone, and rotenone/vascular endothelial growth factor for 48 hours. Vascular endothelial growth factor induced robust tube formation; however, rotenone completely inhibited this effect (P<0.05 rotenone versus vascular endothelial growth factor treatment). Inhibition of tube formation by rotenone was also associated with significant increase in mitochondrial superoxide generation. Immunoblot analyses of human coronary artery endothelial cells with rotenone treatment showed significant activation of adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK)-α and inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase. Activation of AMPK-α suggested impairments in energy production, which was reflected by decrease in O2 consumption and bioenergetic reserve capacity of cultured cells. Knockdown of AMPK-α (siRNA) also preserved tube formation during rotenone, suggesting the negative effects were mediated by the activation of AMPK-α. Conversely, expression of a constitutively active AMPK-α blocked tube formation. Conclusions We conclude that activation of AMPK

  17. Multiple isoforms of mitochondrial glutathione S-transferases and their differential induction under oxidative stress.

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Haider; Robin, Marie-Anne; Fang, Ji-Kang; Avadhani, Narayan G

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain, which consumes approx. 85-90% of the oxygen utilized by cells, is a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondrial genetic and biosynthetic systems are highly susceptible to ROS toxicity. Intramitochondrial glutathione (GSH) is a major defence against ROS. In the present study, we have investigated the nature of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) pool in mouse liver mitochondria, and have purified three distinct forms of GST: GSTA1-1 and GSTA4-4 of the Alpha family, and GSTM1-1 belonging to the Mu family. The mitochondrial localization of these multiple GSTs was confirmed using a combination of immunoblot analysis, protease protection assay, enzyme activity, N-terminal amino acid sequencing, peptide mapping and confocal immunofluorescence analysis. Additionally, exogenously added 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a reactive byproduct of lipid peroxidation, to COS cells differentially affected the cytosolic and mitochondrial GSH pools in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Our results show that HNE-mediated mitochondrial oxidative stress caused a decrease in the GSH pool, increased membrane lipid peroxidation, and increased levels of GSTs, glutathione peroxidase and Hsp70 (heat-shock protein 70). The HNE-induced oxidative stress persisted for longer in the mitochondrial compartment, where the recovery of GSH pool was slower than in the cytosolic compartment. Our study, for the first time, demonstrates the presence in mitochondria of multiple forms of GSTs that show molecular properties similar to those of their cytosolic counterparts. Our results suggest that mitochondrial GSTs may play an important role in defence against chemical and oxidative stress. PMID:12020353

  18. Glucocorticoids Suppress Mitochondrial Oxidant Production via Upregulation of Uncoupling Protein 2 in Hyperglycemic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Elevated blood glucose contributes to the development of endothelial and vascular dysfunction, and, consequently, to diabetic micro- and macrovascular complications, because it increases the mitochondrial proton gradient and mitochondrial oxidant production. Therapeutic approaches designed to counteract glucose-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the vasculature are expected to show efficacy against all diabetic complications, but direct pharmacological targeting (scavenging) of mitochondrial oxidants remains challenging due to the high reactivity of some of these oxidant species. In a recent study, we have conducted a medium-throughput cell-based screening of a focused library of well-annotated pharmacologically active compounds and identified glucocorticoids as inhibitors of mitochondrial superoxide production in microvascular endothelial cells exposed to elevated extracellular glucose. The goal of the current study was to investigate the mechanism of glucocorticoids' action. Our findings show that glucocorticoids induce the expression of the mitochondrial UCP2 protein and decrease the mitochondrial potential. UCP2 silencing prevents the protective effect of the glucocorticoids on ROS production. UCP2 induction also increases the oxygen consumption and the “proton leak” in microvascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, glutamine supplementation augments the effect of glucocorticoids via further enhancing the expression of UCP2 at the translational level. We conclude that UCP2 induction represents a novel experimental therapeutic intervention in diabetic vascular complications. While direct repurposing of glucocorticoids may not be possible for the therapy of diabetic complications due to their significant side effects that develop during chronic administration, the UCP2 pathway may be therapeutically targetable by other, glucocorticoid

  19. Glucocorticoids Suppress Mitochondrial Oxidant Production via Upregulation of Uncoupling Protein 2 in Hyperglycemic Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Gerö, Domokos; Szabo, Csaba

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Elevated blood glucose contributes to the development of endothelial and vascular dysfunction, and, consequently, to diabetic micro- and macrovascular complications, because it increases the mitochondrial proton gradient and mitochondrial oxidant production. Therapeutic approaches designed to counteract glucose-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the vasculature are expected to show efficacy against all diabetic complications, but direct pharmacological targeting (scavenging) of mitochondrial oxidants remains challenging due to the high reactivity of some of these oxidant species. In a recent study, we have conducted a medium-throughput cell-based screening of a focused library of well-annotated pharmacologically active compounds and identified glucocorticoids as inhibitors of mitochondrial superoxide production in microvascular endothelial cells exposed to elevated extracellular glucose. The goal of the current study was to investigate the mechanism of glucocorticoids' action. Our findings show that glucocorticoids induce the expression of the mitochondrial UCP2 protein and decrease the mitochondrial potential. UCP2 silencing prevents the protective effect of the glucocorticoids on ROS production. UCP2 induction also increases the oxygen consumption and the "proton leak" in microvascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, glutamine supplementation augments the effect of glucocorticoids via further enhancing the expression of UCP2 at the translational level. We conclude that UCP2 induction represents a novel experimental therapeutic intervention in diabetic vascular complications. While direct repurposing of glucocorticoids may not be possible for the therapy of diabetic complications due to their significant side effects that develop during chronic administration, the UCP2 pathway may be therapeutically targetable by other, glucocorticoid

  20. Link between Cancer and Alzheimer Disease via Oxidative Stress Induced by Nitric Oxide-Dependent Mitochondrial DNA Overproliferation and Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Obrenovich, Mark E.; Tabrez, Shams; Jabir, Nasimudeen R.; Reddy, V. Prakash; Li, Yi; Burnstock, Geoffrey; Cacabelos, Ramon; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide- (NO-) dependent oxidative stress results in mitochondrial ultrastructural alterations and DNA damage in cases of Alzheimer disease (AD). However, little is known about these pathways in human cancers, especially during the development as well as the progression of primary brain tumors and metastatic colorectal cancer. One of the key features of tumors is the deficiency in tissue energy that accompanies mitochondrial lesions and formation of the hypoxic smaller sized mitochondria with ultrastructural abnormalities. We speculate that mitochondrial involvement may play a significant role in the etiopathogenesis of cancer. Recent studies also demonstrate a potential link between AD and cancer, and anticancer drugs are being explored for the inhibition of AD-like pathology in transgenic mice. Severity of the cancer growth, metastasis, and brain pathology in AD (in animal models that mimic human AD) correlate with the degree of mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities. Recent advances in the cell-cycle reentry of the terminally differentiated neuronal cells indicate that NO-dependent mitochondrial abnormal activities and mitotic cell division are not the only important pathogenic factors in pathogenesis of cancer and AD, but open a new window for the development of novel treatment strategies for these devastating diseases. PMID:23691268

  1. Mitochondrial defects and oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Yan, Michael H; Wang, Xinglong; Zhu, Xiongwei

    2013-09-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) are the two most common age-related neurodegenerative diseases characterized by prominent neurodegeneration in selective neural systems. Although a small fraction of AD and PD cases exhibit evidence of heritability, among which many genes have been identified, the majority are sporadic without known causes. Molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and pathogenesis of these diseases remain elusive. Convincing evidence demonstrates oxidative stress as a prominent feature in AD and PD and links oxidative stress to the development of neuronal death and neural dysfunction, which suggests a key pathogenic role for oxidative stress in both AD and PD. Notably, mitochondrial dysfunction is also a prominent feature in these diseases, which is likely to be of critical importance in the genesis and amplification of reactive oxygen species and the pathophysiology of these diseases. In this review, we focus on changes in mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial dynamics, two aspects critical to the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis and function, in relationship with oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of AD and PD. PMID:23200807

  2. Screening SIRT1 Activators from Medicinal Plants as Bioactive Compounds against Oxidative Damage in Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Liang, Xinying; Chen, Yaqi; Zhao, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin type 1 (SIRT1) belongs to the family of NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases and plays a critical role in cellular metabolism and response to oxidative stress. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), as an important part of natural products, have been reported to exert protective effect against oxidative stress in mitochondria. In this study, we screened SIRT1 activators from TCMs and investigated their activities against mitochondrial damage. 19 activators were found in total by in vitro SIRT1 activity assay. Among those active compounds, four compounds, ginsenoside Rb2, ginsenoside F1, ginsenoside Rc, and schisandrin A, were further studied to validate the SIRT1-activation effects by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and confirm their activities against oxidative damage in H9c2 cardiomyocytes exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). The results showed that those compounds enhanced the deacetylated activity of SIRT1, increased ATP content, and inhibited intracellular ROS formation as well as regulating the activity of Mn-SOD. These SIRT1 activators also showed moderate protective effects on mitochondrial function in t-BHP cells by recovering oxygen consumption and increasing mitochondrial DNA content. Our results suggested that those compounds from TCMs attenuated oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes through activation of SIRT1. PMID:26981165

  3. Rev-erb-α modulates skeletal muscle oxidative capacity by regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Woldt, Estelle; Sebti, Yasmine; Solt, Laura A.; Duhem, Christian; Lancel, Steve; Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Hesselink, Matthijs K.C.; Paquet, Charlotte; Delhaye, Stéphane; Shin, Youseung; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Schaart, Gert; Lefebvre, Philippe; Nevière, Rémi; Burris, Thomas P.; Schrauwen, Patrick; Staels, Bart; Duez, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear receptor Rev-erb-α modulates hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism, adipogenesis and the inflammatory response in macrophages. We show here that Rev-erb-α is highly expressed in oxidative skeletal muscle and plays a role in mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative function, in gain- and loss-of function studies. Rev-erb-α-deficiency in skeletal muscle leads to reduced mitochondrial content and oxidative function, resulting in compromised exercise capacity. This phenotype was recapitulated in isolated fibers and in muscle cells upon Rev-erbα knock-down, while Rev-erb-α over-expression increased the number of mitochondria with improved respiratory capacity. Rev-erb-α-deficiency resulted in deactivation of the Stk11–Ampk–Sirt1–Ppargc1-α signaling pathway, whereas autophagy was up-regulated, resulting in both impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and increased clearance. Muscle over-expression or pharmacological activation of Rev-erb-α increased respiration and exercise capacity. This study identifies Rev-erb-α as a pharmacological target which improves muscle oxidative function by modulating gene networks controlling mitochondrial number and function. PMID:23852339

  4. Calpastatin overexpression reduces oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial impairment and cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells by decreasing calpain and calcineurin activation, induction of mitochondrial fission and destruction of mitochondrial fusion.

    PubMed

    Tangmansakulchai, Kulvadee; Abubakar, Zuroida; Kitiyanant, Narisorn; Suwanjang, Wilasinee; Leepiyasakulchai, Chaniya; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Chetsawang, Banthit

    2016-09-01

    Calpain is an intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent protease, and the activation of calpain has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Calpain activity can be regulated by calpastatin, an endogenous specific calpain inhibitor. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated a potential role of calpastatin in preventing calpain-mediated pathogenesis. Additionally, several studies have revealed that calpain activation and mitochondrial damage are involved in the cell death process; however, recent evidence has not clearly indicated a neuroprotective mechanism of calpastatin against calpain-dependent mitochondrial impairment in the process of neuronal cell death. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the potential ability of calpastatin to inhibit calpain activation and mitochondrial impairment in oxidative stress-induced neuron degeneration. Calpastatin was stably overexpressed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In non-calpastatin overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells, hydrogen peroxide significantly decreased cell viability, superoxide dismutase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP production and mitochondrial fusion protein (Opa1) levels in the mitochondrial fraction but increased reactive oxygen species formation, calpain and calcineurin activation, mitochondrial fission protein (Fis1 and Drp1) levels in the mitochondrial fraction and apoptotic cells. Nevertheless, these toxic effects were abolished in hydrogen peroxide-treated calpastatin-overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells. The results of the present study demonstrate the potential ability of calpastatin to diminish calpain and calcineurin activation and mitochondrial impairment in neurons that are affected by oxidative damage. PMID:27453331

  5. Nitric oxide inhibition of Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission is critical for myogenic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    De Palma, C; Falcone, S; Pisoni, S; Cipolat, S; Panzeri, C; Pambianco, S; Pisconti, A; Allevi, R; Bassi, MT; Cossu, G; Pozzan, T; Moncada, S; Scorrano, L; Brunelli, S; Clementi, E

    2011-01-01

    During myogenic differentiation the short mitochondria of myoblasts change into the extensively elongated network observed in myotubes. The functional relevance and the molecular mechanisms driving the formation of this mitochondrial network are unknown. We now show that mitochondrial elongation is required for myogenesis to occur and that this event depends on the cellular generation of nitric oxide (NO). Inhibition of NO synthesis in myogenic precursor cells leads to inhibition of mitochondrial elongation and of myogenic differentiation. This is due to the enhanced activity, translocation and docking of the pro-fission GTPase dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) to mitochondria, leading also to a latent mitochondrial dysfunction that increased sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli. These effects of NO inhibition were not observed in myogenic precursor cells containing a dominant-negative form of Drp1. Both NO-dependent repression of Drp1 action and maintenance of mitochondrial integrity and function were mediated through the soluble guanylate cyclase. These data uncover a novel level of regulation of differentiation linking mitochondrial morphology and function to myogenic differentiation. PMID:20467441

  6. Oligomeric BAX induces mitochondrial permeability transition and complete cytochrome c release without oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tsyregma; Brustovetsky, Tatiana; Antonsson, Bruno; Brustovetsky, Nickolay

    2008-01-01

    Summary In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of cytochrome c release from isolated brain mitochondria induced by recombinant oligomeric BAX (BAXoligo). We found that BAXoligo caused a complete release of cytochrome c in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The release was similar to those induced by alamethicin, which causes maximal mitochondrial swelling and eliminates barrier properties of the OMM. BAXoligo also produced large amplitude mitochondrial swelling as judged by light scattering assay and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, BAXoligo resulted in a strong mitochondrial depolarization. ATP or a combination of cyclosporin A and ADP, inhibitors of the mPT, suppressed BAXoligo-induced mitochondrial swelling and depolarization as well as cytochrome c release but did not influence BAXoligo insertion into the OMM. Both BAXoligo- and alamethicin-induced cytochrome c releases were accompanied by inhibition of ROS generation, which was assessed by measuring mitochondrial H2O2 release with an Amplex Red assay. The mPT inhibitors antagonized suppression of ROS generation caused by BAXoligo but not by alamethicin. Thus, BAXoligo resulted in a complete cytochrome c release from isolated brain mitochondria in the mPT-dependent manner without involvement of oxidative stress by the mechanism requiring mitochondrial remodeling and permeabilization of the OMM. PMID:18771651

  7. Mechanisms of MDMA (ecstasy)-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and organ damage.

    PubMed

    Song, Byoung-Joon; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Upreti, Vijay V; Eddington, Natalie D; Lee, Insong J

    2010-08-01

    Despite numerous reports about the acute and sub-chronic toxicities caused by MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy), the underlying mechanism of organ damage is poorly understood. The aim of this review is to present an update of the mechanistic studies on MDMA-mediated organ damage partly caused by increased oxidative/nitrosative stress. Because of the extensive reviews on MDMA-mediated oxidative stress and tissue damage, we specifically focus on the mechanisms and consequences of oxidative-modifications of mitochondrial proteins, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. We briefly describe a method to systematically identify oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins in control and MDMA-exposed rats by using biotin-N-maleimide (biotin-NM) as a sensitive probe for oxidized proteins. We also describe various applications and advantages of this Cys-targeted proteomics method and alternative approaches to overcome potential limitations of this method in studying oxidized proteins from MDMA-exposed tissues. Finally we discuss the mechanism of synergistic drug-interaction between MDMA and other abused substances including alcohol (ethanol) as well as application of this redox-based proteomics method in translational studies for developing effective preventive and therapeutic agents against MDMA-induced organ damage. PMID:20420575

  8. Proinflammatory cytokines differentially regulate adipocyte mitochondrial metabolism, oxidative stress, and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Wendy S.; Kuzmicic, Jovan; Burrill, Joel S.; Donoghue, Margaret A.; Foncea, Rocio; Jensen, Michael D.; Lavandero, Sergio; Arriaga, Edgar A.

    2014-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines differentially regulate adipocyte mitochondrial metabolism, oxidative stress, and dynamics. Macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue and the chronic low-grade production of inflammatory cytokines have been mechanistically linked to the development of insulin resistance, the forerunner of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we evaluated the chronic effects of TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1β on adipocyte mitochondrial metabolism and morphology using the 3T3-L1 model cell system. TNFα treatment of cultured adipocytes led to significant changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics, including increased proton leak, decreased ΔΨm, increased basal respiration, and decreased ATP turnover. In contrast, although IL-6 and IL-1β decreased maximal respiratory capacity, they had no effect on ΔΨm and varied effects on ATP turnover, proton leak, or basal respiration. Only TNFα treatment of 3T3-L1 cells led to an increase in oxidative stress (as measured by superoxide anion production and protein carbonylation) and C16 ceramide synthesis. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with cytokines led to decreased mRNA expression of key transcription factors and control proteins implicated in mitochondrial biogenesis, including PGC-1α and eNOS as well as deceased expression of COX IV and Cyt C. Whereas each cytokine led to effects on expression of mitochondrial markers, TNFα exclusively led to mitochondrial fragmentation and decreased the total level of OPA1 while increasing OPA1 cleavage, without expression of levels of mitofusin 2, DRP-1, or mitofilin being affected. In summary, these results indicate that inflammatory cytokines have unique and specialized effects on adipocyte metabolism, but each leads to decreased mitochondrial function and a reprogramming of fat cell biology. PMID:24595304

  9. Mitochondrial reserve capacity in endothelial cells: the impact of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Dranka, Brian P.; Hill, Bradford G.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    The endothelium is not considered to be a major energy requiring organ, but nevertheless endothelial cells have an extensive mitochondrial network. This suggests that mitochondrial function may be important in response to stress and signaling in these cells. In this study, we used extracellular flux analysis to measure mitochondrial function in adherent bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Under basal conditions, BAEC use only ~35% of their maximal respiratory capacity. We calculate that this represents an intermediate respiratory State between States 3 and 4 which we define as Stateapparent equal to 3.64. Interestingly, the apparent respiratory control ratio (maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption/non-ADP linked respiration) in these cells is on the order of 23 which is substantially higher than that which is frequently obtained with isolated mitochondria. These results suggest that mitochondria in endothelial cells are highly coupled and possess a considerable bioenergetic reserve. Since endothelial cells are exposed to both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in the course of vascular disease, we hypothesized that this reserve capacity is important in responding to oxidative stress. To test this, we exposed BAEC to NO or ROS alone or in combination. We found that exposure to non-toxic concentrations of NO or low levels of hydrogen peroxide generated from 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-napthoquinone (DMNQ) had little impact on basal mitochondrial function but both treatments reversibly decreased mitochondrial reserve capacity. However, combined NO and DMNQ treatment resulted in an irreversible loss of reserve capacity and was associated with cell death. These data are consistent with a critical role of mitochondrial reserve capacity in endothelial cells in responding to oxidative stress. PMID:20093177

  10. Mitochondrial metabolism mediates oxidative stress and inflammation in fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Satapati, Santhosh; Kucejova, Blanka; Duarte, Joao A.G.; Fletcher, Justin A.; Reynolds, Lacy; Sunny, Nishanth E.; He, Tianteng; Nair, L. Arya; Livingston, Kenneth; Fu, Xiaorong; Merritt, Matthew E.; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig R.; Shelton, John M.; Lambert, Jennifer; Parks, Elizabeth J.; Corbin, Ian; Magnuson, Mark A.; Browning, Jeffrey D.; Burgess, Shawn C.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are critical for respiration in all tissues; however, in liver, these organelles also accommodate high-capacity anaplerotic/cataplerotic pathways that are essential to gluconeogenesis and other biosynthetic activities. During nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), mitochondria also produce ROS that damage hepatocytes, trigger inflammation, and contribute to insulin resistance. Here, we provide several lines of evidence indicating that induction of biosynthesis through hepatic anaplerotic/cataplerotic pathways is energetically backed by elevated oxidative metabolism and hence contributes to oxidative stress and inflammation during NAFLD. First, in murine livers, elevation of fatty acid delivery not only induced oxidative metabolism, but also amplified anaplerosis/cataplerosis and caused a proportional rise in oxidative stress and inflammation. Second, loss of anaplerosis/cataplerosis via genetic knockdown of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1) prevented fatty acid–induced rise in oxidative flux, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Flux appeared to be regulated by redox state, energy charge, and metabolite concentration, which may also amplify antioxidant pathways. Third, preventing elevated oxidative metabolism with metformin also normalized hepatic anaplerosis/cataplerosis and reduced markers of inflammation. Finally, independent histological grades in human NAFLD biopsies were proportional to oxidative flux. Thus, hepatic oxidative stress and inflammation are associated with elevated oxidative metabolism during an obesogenic diet, and this link may be provoked by increased work through anabolic pathways. PMID:26571396

  11. Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial dysfunction in a subset of autistic lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rose, S; Frye, R E; Slattery, J; Wynne, R; Tippett, M; Melnyk, S; James, S J

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing recognition that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with autism spectrum disorders. However, little attention has been given to the etiology of mitochondrial dysfunction and how mitochondrial abnormalities might interact with other physiological disturbances such as oxidative stress. Reserve capacity is a measure of the ability of the mitochondria to respond to physiological stress. In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from children with autistic disorder (AD) have an abnormal mitochondrial reserve capacity before and after exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ten (44%) of 22 AD LCLs exhibited abnormally high reserve capacity at baseline and a sharp depletion of reserve capacity when challenged with ROS. This depletion of reserve capacity was found to be directly related to an atypical simultaneous increase in both proton-leak respiration and adenosine triphosphate-linked respiration in response to increased ROS in this AD LCL subgroup. In this AD LCL subgroup, 48-hour pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor, prevented these abnormalities and improved glutathione metabolism, suggesting a role for altered glutathione metabolism associated with this type of mitochondrial dysfunction. The results of this study suggest that a significant subgroup of AD children may have alterations in mitochondrial function, which could render them more vulnerable to a pro-oxidant microenvironment as well as intrinsic and extrinsic sources of ROS such as immune activation and pro-oxidant environmental toxins. These findings are consistent with the notion that AD is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24690598

  12. Chronic plus binge ethanol feeding induces myocardial oxidative stress, mitochondrial and cardiovascular dysfunction, and steatosis.

    PubMed

    Matyas, Csaba; Varga, Zoltan V; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Paloczi, Janos; Lajtos, Tamas; Erdelyi, Katalin; Nemeth, Balazs T; Nan, Mintong; Hasko, Gyorgy; Gao, Bin; Pacher, Pal

    2016-06-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy in humans develops in response to chronic excessive alcohol consumption; however, good models of alcohol-induced cardiomyopathy in mice are lacking. Herein we describe mouse models of alcoholic cardiomyopathies induced by chronic and binge ethanol (EtOH) feeding and characterize detailed hemodynamic alterations, mitochondrial function, and redox signaling in these models. Mice were fed a liquid diet containing 5% EtOH for 10, 20, and 40 days (d) combined with single or multiple EtOH binges (5 g/kg body wt). Isocalorically pair-fed mice served as controls. Left ventricular (LV) function and morphology were assessed by invasive pressure-volume conductance approach and by echocardiography. Mitochondrial complex (I, II, IV) activities, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels, gene expression of markers of oxidative stress (gp91phox, p47phox), mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α), and fibrosis were examined. Cardiac steatosis and fibrosis were investigated by histological/immunohistochemical methods. Chronic and binge EtOH feeding (already in 10 days EtOH plus single binge group) was characterized by contractile dysfunction (decreased slope of end-systolic pressure-volume relationship and preload recruitable stroke work), impaired relaxation (decreased time constant of LV pressure decay and maximal slope of systolic pressure decrement), and vascular dysfunction (impaired arterial elastance and lower total peripheral resistance). This was accompanied by enhanced myocardial oxidative/nitrative stress (3-NT; gp91phox; p47phox; angiotensin II receptor, type 1a) and deterioration of mitochondrial complex I, II, IV activities and mitochondrial biogenesis, excessive cardiac steatosis, and higher mortality. Collectively, chronic plus binge EtOH feeding in mice leads to alcohol-induced cardiomyopathies (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism models) characterized by increased myocardial oxidative

  13. Bridges between mitochondrial oxidative stress, ER stress and mTOR signaling in pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Jingjing

    2016-08-01

    Pancreatic β cell dysfunction, i.e., failure to provide insulin in concentrations sufficient to control blood sugar, is central to the etiology of all types of diabetes. Current evidence implicates mitochondrial oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pancreatic β cell loss and impaired insulin secretion. Oxidative and ER stress are interconnected so that misfolded proteins induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; likewise, oxidative stress disturbs the ER redox state thereby disrupting correct disulfide bond formation and proper protein folding. mTOR signaling regulates many metabolic processes including protein synthesis, cell growth, survival and proliferation. Oxidative stress inhibits mTORC1, which is considered an important suppressor of mitochondrial oxidative stress in β cells, and ultimately, controls cell survival. The interplay between ER stress and mTORC1 is complicated, since the unfolded protein response (UPR) activation can occur upstream or downstream of mTORC1. Persistent activation of mTORC1 initiates protein synthesis and UPR activation, while in the later phase induces ER stress. Chronic activation of ER stress inhibits Akt/mTORC1 pathway, while under particular settings, acute activation of UPR activates Akt-mTOR signaling. Thus, modulating mitochondrial oxidative stress and ER stress via mTOR signaling may be an approach that will effectively suppress obesity- or glucolipotoxicity-induced metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this review, we focus on the regulations between mTOR signaling and mitochondrial oxidative or ER stress in pancreatic β cells. PMID:27185188

  14. Involvement of a class III peroxidase and the mitochondrial protein TSPO in oxidative burst upon treatment of moss plants with a fungal elicitor.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Mikko T; Akita, Motomu; Frank, Wolfgang; Reski, Ralf; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2012-03-01

    Production of apoplastic reactive oxygen species (ROS), or oxidative burst, is among the first responses of plants upon recognition of microorganisms. It requires peroxidase or NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity and factors maintaining cellular redox homeostasis. Here, PpTSPO1 involved in mitochondrial tetrapyrrole transport and abiotic (salt) stress tolerance was tested for its role in biotic stress in Physcomitrella patens, a nonvascular plant (moss). The fungal elicitor chitin caused an immediate oxidative burst in wild-type P. patens but not in the previously described ΔPrx34 mutants lacking the chitin-responsive secreted class III peroxidase (Prx34). Oxidative burst in P. patens was associated with induction of the oxidative stress-related genes AOX, LOX7, and NOX, and also PpTSPO1. The available ΔPpTSPO1 knockout mutants overexpressed AOX and LOX7 constitutively, produced 2.6-fold more ROS than wild-type P. patens, and exhibited increased sensitivity to a fungal necrotrophic pathogen and a saprophyte. These results indicate that Prx34, which is pivotal for antifungal resistance, catalyzes ROS production in P. patens, while PpTSPO1 controls redox homeostasis. The capacity of TSPO to bind harmful free heme and porphyrins and scavenge them through autophagy, as shown in Arabidopsis under abiotic stress, seems important to maintenance of the homeostasis required for efficient pathogen defense. PMID:22112216

  15. Effects of Astragalus Polysaccharides on Dysfunction of Mitochondrial Dynamics Induced by Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan-Feng; Lu, Lu; Zhu, Da-Jian; Wang, Ming; Yin, Yi; Chen, De-Xiu; Wei, Lian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    This paper studied the chronic fatigue induced by excessive exercise and the restoration effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on mitochondria. In vivo, we found that excessive exercise could cause oxidative stress statue which led to morphological and functional changes of mitochondria. The changes, including imbalance between mitochondria fusion-fission processes, activation of mitophagy, and decrease of PGC-1α expression, could be restored by APS. We further confirmed in vitro, and what is more, we found that APS may ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction through Sirt1 pathway. Based on the results, we may figure out part of the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial amelioration by APS. PMID:26881048

  16. [The influence of panthotenic acid mitochondrial oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation in liver of rats with alimentary obesity].

    PubMed

    Naruta, E E; Egorov, A I; Omel'ianchik, C N; Buko, V U

    2004-01-01

    Alimentary obesity induced by the long-term feeding of rats by high-fat diet results the reducing of rate and efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in liver mitochondria when NAD-dependent substrates are used. The treatment of the obese rats with panthotenic acid derivatives (phosphopantotenate, panthetin, panthenol) enhanced oxidative phosphorylation of pyruvate and fatty acid carnitine esters. Among investigated compounds panthenol activated respiratory control and phosphorylation rate more effectively. Moreover, panthenol, but not phosphopanthotenate nor panthetine, increased the activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 that confirms the preferable usage of fatty acids for mitochondrial oxidation under the influence of this compound. PMID:15460980

  17. Two alanine aminotranferases link mitochondrial glycolate oxidation to the major photorespiratory pathway in Arabidopsis and rice.

    PubMed

    Niessen, Markus; Krause, Katrin; Horst, Ina; Staebler, Norma; Klaus, Stephanie; Gaertner, Stefanie; Kebeish, Rashad; Araujo, Wagner L; Fernie, Alisdair R; Peterhansel, Christoph

    2012-04-01

    The major photorespiratory pathway in higher plants is distributed over chloroplasts, mitochondria, and peroxisomes. In this pathway, glycolate oxidation takes place in peroxisomes. It was previously suggested that a mitochondrial glycolate dehydrogenase (GlcDH) that was conserved from green algae lacking leaf-type peroxisomes contributes to photorespiration in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, the identification of two Arabidopsis mitochondrial alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferases (ALAATs) that link glycolate oxidation to glycine formation are described. By this reaction, the mitochondrial side pathway produces glycine from glyoxylate that can be used in the glycine decarboxylase (GCD) reaction of the major pathway. RNA interference (RNAi) suppression of mitochondrial ALAAT did not result in major changes in metabolite pools under standard conditions or enhanced photorespiratroy flux, respectively. However, RNAi lines showed reduced photorespiratory CO(2) release and a lower CO(2) compensation point. Mitochondria isolated from RNAi lines are incapable of converting glycolate to CO(2), whereas simultaneous overexpression of GlcDH and ALAATs in transiently transformed tobacco leaves enhances glycolate conversion. Furthermore, analyses of rice mitochondria suggest that the side pathway for glycolate oxidation and glycine formation is conserved in monocotyledoneous plants. It is concluded that the photorespiratory pathway from green algae has been functionally conserved in higher plants. PMID:22268146

  18. Cyclovirobuxine D Attenuates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy by Suppression of Oxidative Damage and Mitochondrial Biogenesis Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qian; Guo, Jiabin; Yang, Rong; Peng, Hui; Zhao, Jun; Li, Li; Peng, Shuangqing

    2015-01-01

    The clinical application of doxorubicin (DOX) is compromised by its cardiac toxic effect. Cyclovirobuxine D (CVB-D) is a steroid alkaloid extracted from a traditional Chinese medicine, Buxus microphylla. Our results showed that CVB-D pretreatment markedly attenuated DOX-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction and histological alterations. By using TUNEL assay and western blot analysis, we found that CVB-D pretreatment reduced DOX-induced apoptosis of myocardial cells and mitochondrial cytochrome c release to cytosol. CVB-D pretreatment ameliorated DOX-induced cardiac oxidative damage including lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation and a decrease in the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Moreover, CVB-D was found to prevent DOX-induced mitochondrial biogenesis impairment as evidenced by preservation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1), as well as mitochondrial DNA copy number. These findings demonstrate that CVB-D protects against DOX-induced cardiomyopathy, at least in part, by suppression of oxidative damage and mitochondrial biogenesis impairment. PMID:26075032

  19. Fatty Acid Oxidation and Cardiovascular Risk during Menopause: A Mitochondrial Connection?

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Paulo J.; Carvalho, Rui A.; Portincasa, Piero; Bonfrate, Leonilde; Sardao, Vilma A.

    2012-01-01

    Menopause is a consequence of the normal aging process in women. This fact implies that the physiological and biochemical alterations resulting from menopause often blur with those from the aging process. It is thought that menopause in women presents a higher risk for cardiovascular disease although the precise mechanism is still under discussion. The postmenopause lipid profile is clearly altered, which can present a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Due to the role of mitochondria in fatty acid oxidation, alterations of the lipid profile in the menopausal women will also influence mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation fluxes in several organs. In this paper, we propose that alterations of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the heart, consequence from normal aging and/or from the menopausal process, result in decreased fatty acid oxidation and accumulation of fatty acid intermediates in the cardiomyocyte cytosol, resulting in lipotoxicity and increasing the cardiovascular risk in the menopausal women. PMID:22496981

  20. Impact of Antioxidants on Cardiolipin Oxidation in Liposomes: Why Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Serves as an Apoptotic Signal?

    PubMed Central

    Lokhmatikov, Alexey V.; Voskoboynikova, Natalia; Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Skulachev, Maxim V.; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Skulachev, Vladimir P.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2016-01-01

    Molecules of mitochondrial cardiolipin (CL) get selectively oxidized upon oxidative stress, which triggers the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In a chemical model most closely resembling the mitochondrial membrane—liposomes of pure bovine heart CL—we compared ubiquinol-10, ubiquinol-6, and alpha-tocopherol, the most widespread naturally occurring antioxidants, with man-made, quinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants. Lipid peroxidation was induced by addition of an azo initiator in the absence and presence of diverse antioxidants, respectively. The kinetics of CL oxidation was monitored via formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm. We found that natural ubiquinols and ubiquinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants were equally efficient in protecting CL liposomes from peroxidation; the chromanol-based antioxidants, including alpha-tocopherol, were 2-3 times less efficient. Amphiphilic antioxidants, but not natural ubiquinols and alpha-tocopherol, were able, additionally, to protect the CL bilayer from oxidation by acting from the water phase. We suggest that the previously reported therapeutic efficiency of mitochondrially targeted amphiphilic antioxidants is owing to their ability to protect those CL molecules that are inaccessible to natural hydrophobic antioxidants, being trapped within respiratory supercomplexes. The high susceptibility of such occluded CL molecules to oxidation may have prompted their recruitment as apoptotic signaling molecules by nature. PMID:27313834

  1. Regulation of mitochondrial oxidative stress by β-arrestins in cultured human cardiac fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Jennifer L.; Razzaque, Md. Abdur; Han, Mei; Li, Jinju; Theccanat, Tiju; Xu, Xianyao; Akhter, Shahab A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oxidative stress in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) promotes transformation to myofibroblasts and collagen synthesis leading to myocardial fibrosis, a precursor to heart failure (HF). NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) is a major source of cardiac reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, mechanisms of Nox4 regulation are unclear. β-arrestins are scaffold proteins that signal in G-protein-dependent and -independent pathways; for example, in ERK activation. We hypothesize that β-arrestins regulate oxidative stress in a Nox4-dependent manner and increase fibrosis in HF. CFs were isolated from normal and failing adult human left ventricles. Mitochondrial ROS/superoxide production was quantitated using MitoSox. β-arrestin and Nox4 expressions were manipulated using adenoviral overexpression or short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and Nox4 expression in CFs were significantly increased in HF. Nox4 knockdown resulted in inhibition of mitochondrial superoxide production and decreased basal and TGF-β-stimulated collagen and α-SMA expression. CF β-arrestin expression was upregulated fourfold in HF. β-arrestin knockdown in failing CFs decreased ROS and Nox4 expression by 50%. β-arrestin overexpression in normal CFs increased mitochondrial superoxide production twofold. These effects were prevented by inhibition of either Nox or ERK. Upregulation of Nox4 seemed to be a primary mechanism for increased ROS production in failing CFs, which stimulates collagen deposition. β-arrestin expression was upregulated in HF and plays an important and newly identified role in regulating mitochondrial superoxide production via Nox4. The mechanism for this effect seems to be ERK-mediated. Targeted inhibition of β-arrestins in CFs might decrease oxidative stress as well as pathological cardiac fibrosis. PMID:26449263

  2. Resolution of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress Rescues Coronary Collateral Growth in Zucker Obese Fatty Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pung, Yuh Fen; Rocic, Petra; Murphy, Michael P; Smith, Robin A J; Hafemeister, Jennifer; Ohanyan, Vahagn; Guarini, Giacinta; Yin, Liya; Chilian, William M

    2014-01-01

    Objective We have previously found abrogated ischemia-induced coronary collateral growth in Zucker obese fatty rats (ZOF) compared to Zucker lean rats (ZLN). Because ZOF have structural abnormalities in their mitochondria suggesting dysfunction, and also show increased production of O2ׄ−, we hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction, caused by oxidative stress impairs coronary collateral growth in ZOF. Methods and Results Increased levels of ROS were observed in aortic endothelium and smooth muscle cells in ZOF compared to ZLN. ROS levels were decreased by the mitochondria-targeted antioxidants MitoQuinone (MQ) and MitoTempol (MT) as assessed by MitoSox Red and DHE staining. Lipid peroxides (a marker of oxidized lipids) were increased in ZOF by ∼47 % compared to ZLN. The elevation in oxidative stress was accompanied by increased antioxidant enzymes, except GPx-1, and by increased uncoupling protein-2 in ZOF vs ZLN. In addition, elevated respiration rates were also observed in the obese compared to leans. Administration of MQ significantly normalized the metabolic profiles and reduced lipid peroxides in ZOF to the same level observed in leans. The protective effect of MQ also suppressed the induction of UCP-2 in the obese rats. Resolution of mitochondrial oxidative stress by MQ or MT restored coronary collateral growth to the same magnitude observed in ZLN in response to repetitive ischemia. Conclusions We conclude that mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction play a key role in disrupting coronary collateral growth in obesity and the metabolic syndrome, and elimination of the mitochondrial oxidative stress with MQ or MT rescues collateral growth. PMID:22155454

  3. Regulation of mitochondrial genome replication by hypoxia: The role of DNA oxidation in D-loop region.

    PubMed

    Pastukh, Viktor M; Gorodnya, Olena M; Gillespie, Mark N; Ruchko, Mykhaylo V

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondria of mammalian cells contain multiple copies of mitochondrial (mt) DNA. Although mtDNA copy number can fluctuate dramatically depending on physiological and pathophysiologic conditions, the mechanisms regulating mitochondrial genome replication remain obscure. Hypoxia, like many other physiologic stimuli that promote growth, cell proliferation and mitochondrial biogenesis, uses reactive oxygen species as signaling molecules. Emerging evidence suggests that hypoxia-induced transcription of nuclear genes requires controlled DNA damage and repair in specific sequences in the promoter regions. Whether similar mechanisms are operative in mitochondria is unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that controlled oxidative DNA damage and repair in the D-loop region of the mitochondrial genome are required for mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription in hypoxia. We found that hypoxia had little impact on expression of mitochondrial proteins in pulmonary artery endothelial cells, but elevated mtDNA content. The increase in mtDNA copy number was accompanied by oxidative modifications in the D-loop region of the mitochondrial genome. To investigate the role of this sequence-specific oxidation of mitochondrial genome in mtDNA replication, we overexpressed mitochondria-targeted 8-oxoguanine glycosylase Ogg1 in rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells, enhancing the mtDNA repair capacity of transfected cells. Overexpression of Ogg1 resulted in suppression of hypoxia-induced mtDNA oxidation in the D-loop region and attenuation of hypoxia-induced mtDNA replication. Ogg1 overexpression also reduced binding of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) to both regulatory and coding regions of the mitochondrial genome without altering total abundance of TFAM in either control or hypoxic cells. These observations suggest that oxidative DNA modifications in the D-loop region during hypoxia are important for increased TFAM binding and ensuing replication of the mitochondrial

  4. Metformin increases APP expression and processing via oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and NF-κB activation: Use of insulin to attenuate metformin's effect.

    PubMed

    Picone, Pasquale; Nuzzo, Domenico; Caruana, Luca; Messina, Elisa; Barera, Annalisa; Vasto, Sonya; Di Carlo, Marta

    2015-05-01

    Clinical and experimental biomedical studies have shown Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to be a risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study demonstrates the effect of metformin, a therapeutic biguanide administered for T2DM therapy, on β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism in in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models. Furthermore, the protective role of insulin against metformin is also demonstrated. In LAN5 neuroblastoma cells, metformin increases APP and presenilin levels, proteins involved in AD. Overexpression of APP and presenilin 1 (Pres 1) increases APP cleavage and intracellular accumulation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ), which, in turn, promotes aggregation of Aβ. In the experimental conditions utilized the drug causes oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, decrease of Hexokinase-II levels and cytochrome C release, all of which lead to cell death. Several changes in oxidative stress-related genes following metformin treatment were detected by PCR arrays specific for the oxidative stress pathway. These effects of metformin were found to be antagonized by the addition of insulin, which reduced Aβ levels, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. Similarly, antioxidant molecules, such as ferulic acid and curcumin, are able to revert metformin's effect. Comparable results were obtained using peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Finally, the involvement of NF-κB transcription factor in regulating APP and Pres 1 expression was investigated. Upon metformin treatment, NF-κB is activated and translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where it induces increased APP and Pres 1 transcription. The use of Bay11-7085 inhibitor suppressed the effect of metformin on APP and Pres 1 expression. PMID:25667085

  5. Alzheimer's Proteins, Oxidative Stress, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Interplay in a Neuronal Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bobba, Antonella; Petragallo, Vito A.; Marra, Ersilia; Atlante, Anna

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the interplay between beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, Tau fragments, oxidative stress, and mitochondria in the neuronal model of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) in which the molecular events reminiscent of AD are activated. The identification of the death route and the cause/effect relationships between the events leading to death could be helpful to manage the progression of apoptosis in neurodegeneration and to define antiapoptotic treatments acting on precocious steps of the death process. Mitochondrial dysfunction is among the earliest events linked to AD and might play a causative role in disease onset and progression. Recent studies on CGNs have shown that adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) impairment, due to interaction with toxic N-ter Tau fragment, contributes in a significant manner to bioenergetic failure and mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings open a window for new therapeutic strategies aimed at preserving and/or improving mitochondrial function. PMID:20862336

  6. Increase in oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in hypothalamus of streptozotocin treated diabetic rat: Antioxidative effect of Withania somnifera.

    PubMed

    Parihar, P; Shetty, R; Ghafourifar, P; Parihar, M S

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamus, the primary brain region for glucose sensing, is severely affected by oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress in this region of brain may cause severe impairment in neuronal metabolic functions. Mitochondria are prominent targets of oxidative stress and the combination of increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions may further decline hypothalamic neuronal functions. In the present study we examined the oxidative damage response, antioxidative responses and mitochondrial membrane permeability transition in hypothalamus of streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats. Our results show that streptozotocin significantly increases hypothalamic lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content while glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione were declined. Mitochondrial impairment marked by an increase in mitochondrial membrane permeabilization was seen following streptozotocin treatment in the hypothalamus. The oral administration of Withania somnifera root extract stabilized mitochondrial functions and prevented oxidative damage in the hypothalamus of diabetic rat. These findings suggest an increase in the oxidative stress and decline in antioxidative responses in the hypothalamus of streptozotocin treated diabetic rats. Withania somnifera root extract was found useful in reducing oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment in hypothalamus of diabetic rat. PMID:26828992

  7. Dietary fatty acid composition changes mitochondrial phospholipids and oxidative capacities in rainbow trout red muscle.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; Kraffe, E; Bureau, W; Bureau, D P

    2008-03-01

    Dietary conditioning of juvenile trout changed the acyl chain composition of mitochondrial phospholipids and the oxidative capacities of muscle mitochondria. Trout were fed three diets differing only in fatty acid (FA) composition. The highly unsaturated 22:6 n-3 (DHA) accounted for 0.4, 14, and 30% of fatty acids in Diets 1, 2 and 3. After 10 weeks of growth, the dietary groups differed markedly in FA composition of mitochondrial phospholipids, with significant dietary effects for virtually all FA. Mean mitochondrial DHA levels were 19, 40 and 33% in trout fed Diets 1, 2 and 3. Mitochondrial oxidative capacities changed with diet, while mitochondrial concentrations of cytochromes and of the adenylate nucleotide translocase (nmol mg(1) protein) did not. Mitochondria from fish fed Diet 1 had higher non-phosphorylating (state 4) rates at 5 degrees C than those fed other diets. When phosphorylating (state 3) rates differed between dietary groups, rates at 5 and 15 degrees C were higher for fish fed the more unsaturated diets. Stepwise multiple regressions indicated that FA composition could explain much (42-70%) of the variability of state 4 rates, particularly at 5 degrees C. At 15 degrees C, FA composition explained 16-42% of the variability of states 3 and 4 rates. Similar conclusions were obtained for the complete data set (trout fed diets 1, 2 and 3) and for the data from trout achieving similar growth rates (e.g. those fed Diets 1 and 2). Neither general characteristics of membrane FA, such as % saturates, unsaturation index, n-3, n-6 or n-3/n-6 nor levels of abundant unsaturated FA such as DHA or 18:1(n-9 + n-7), were systematically correlated with mitochondrial capacities even though they differed considerably between trout fed the different diets. Relatively minor FA (20:5n-3, 20:0, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 18:0 and 15:0) showed better correlations with mitochondrial oxidative capacities. This supports the concept that acyl chain composition modulates mitochondrial

  8. Opposing effects of nitric oxide and prostaglandin inhibition on muscle mitochondrial Vo(2) during exercise.

    PubMed

    Boushel, Robert; Fuentes, Teresa; Hellsten, Ylva; Saltin, Bengt

    2012-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG) together play a role in regulating blood flow during exercise. NO also regulates mitochondrial oxygen consumption through competitive binding to cytochrome-c oxidase. Indomethacin uncouples and inhibits the electron transport chain in a concentration-dependent manner, and thus, inhibition of NO and PG synthesis may regulate both muscle oxygen delivery and utilization. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined effects of NO and PG synthesis blockade (L-NMMA and indomethacin, respectively) on mitochondrial respiration in human muscle following knee extension exercise (KEE). Specifically, this study examined the physiological effect of NO, and the pharmacological effect of indomethacin, on muscle mitochondrial function. Consistent with their mechanism of action, we hypothesized that inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and PG synthesis would have opposite effects on muscle mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondrial respiration was measured ex vivo by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized fibers following 6 min KEE in control (CON; n = 8), arterial infusion of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; n = 4) and Indo (n = 4) followed by combined inhibition of NOS and PG synthesis (L-NMMA + Indo, n = 8). ADP-stimulated state 3 respiration (OXPHOS) with substrates for complex I (glutamate, malate) was reduced 50% by Indo. State 3 O(2) flux with complex I and II substrates was reduced less with both Indo (20%) and L-NMMA + Indo (15%) compared with CON. The results indicate that indomethacin reduces state 3 mitochondrial respiration primarily at complex I of the respiratory chain, while blockade of NOS by L-NMMA counteracts the inhibition by Indo. This effect on muscle mitochondria, in concert with a reduction of blood flow accounts for in vivo changes in muscle O(2) consumption during combined blockade of NOS and PG synthesis. PMID:22552792

  9. CARDIOSELECTIVE OXIDATION OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA FOLLOWING SUBCHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF DOXORUBICIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This preferential oxidation of cardiac mtDNA is consistent with the bioenergetic failure and the cumulative and irreversible cardiomyopathy that limits the clinical utility of this important antineoplastic drug.

  10. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents oxidative phosphorylation deficit and promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in human cells from subjects with Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Daniela; De Rasmo, Domenico; Signorile, Anna; Rossi, Leonardo; de Bari, Lidia; Scala, Iris; Granese, Barbara; Papa, Sergio; Vacca, Rosa Anna

    2013-04-01

    A critical role for mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed in the pathogenesis of Down's syndrome (DS), a human multifactorial disorder caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, associated with mental retardation and early neurodegeneration. Previous studies from our group demonstrated in DS cells a decreased capacity of the mitochondrial ATP production system and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria. In this study we have tested the potential of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) - a natural polyphenol component of green tea - to counteract the mitochondrial energy deficit found in DS cells. We found that EGCG, incubated with cultured lymphoblasts and fibroblasts from DS subjects, rescued mitochondrial complex I and ATP synthase catalytic activities, restored oxidative phosphorylation efficiency and counteracted oxidative stress. These effects were associated with EGCG-induced promotion of PKA activity, related to increased cellular levels of cAMP and PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the NDUFS4 subunit of complex I. In addition, EGCG strongly promoted mitochondrial biogenesis in DS cells, as associated with increase in Sirt1-dependent PGC-1α deacetylation, NRF-1 and T-FAM protein levels and mitochondrial DNA content. In conclusion, this study shows that EGCG is a promoting effector of oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis in DS cells, acting through modulation of the cAMP/PKA- and sirtuin-dependent pathways. EGCG treatment promises thus to be a therapeutic approach to counteract mitochondrial energy deficit and oxidative stress in DS. PMID:23291000

  11. Interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress during development in Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, Kayo; Hartman, Philip S.; Ishii, Takamasa; Suda, Hitoshi; Akatsuka, Akira; Shoyama, Tetsuji; Miyazawa, Masaki; Ishii, Naoaki

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} Growth and development of a fzo-1 mutant defective in the fusion process of mitochondria was delayed relative to the wild type of Caenorhabditis elegans. {yields} Oxygen sensitivity during larval development, superoxide production and carbonyl protein accumulation of the fzo-1 mutant were similar to wild type. {yields} fzo-1 animals had significantly lower metabolism than did N2 and mev-1 overproducing superoxide from mitochondrial electron transport complex II. {yields} Mitochondrial fusion can profoundly affect energy metabolism and development. -- Abstract: Mitochondria are known to be dynamic structures with the energetically and enzymatically mediated processes of fusion and fission responsible for maintaining a constant flux. Mitochondria also play a role of reactive oxygen species production as a byproduct of energy metabolism. In the current study, interrelationships between mitochondrial fusion, energy metabolism and oxidative stress on development were explored using a fzo-1 mutant defective in the fusion process and a mev-1 mutant overproducing superoxide from mitochondrial electron transport complex II of Caenorhabditis elegans. While growth and development of both single mutants was slightly delayed relative to the wild type, the fzo-1;mev-1 double mutant experienced considerable delay. Oxygen sensitivity during larval development, superoxide production and carbonyl protein accumulation of the fzo-1 mutant were similar to wild type. fzo-1 animals had significantly lower metabolism than did N2 and mev-1. These data indicate that mitochondrial fusion can profoundly affect energy metabolism and development.

  12. Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction across Broad-Ranging Pathologies: Toward Mitochondria-Targeted Clinical Strategies

    PubMed Central

    d'Ischia, Marco; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Pallardó, Federico V.; Petrović, Sandra; Tiano, Luca; Zatterale, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the disorders recognized as mitochondrial diseases, abnormalities in function and/or ultrastructure of mitochondria have been reported in several unrelated pathologies. These encompass ageing, malformations, and a number of genetic or acquired diseases, as diabetes and cardiologic, haematologic, organ-specific (e.g., eye or liver), neurologic and psychiatric, autoimmune, and dermatologic disorders. The mechanistic grounds for mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) along with the occurrence of oxidative stress (OS) have been investigated within the pathogenesis of individual disorders or in groups of interrelated disorders. We attempt to review broad-ranging pathologies that involve mitochondrial-specific deficiencies or rely on cytosol-derived prooxidant states or on autoimmune-induced mitochondrial damage. The established knowledge in these subjects warrants studies aimed at elucidating several open questions that are highlighted in the present review. The relevance of OS and MDF in different pathologies may establish the grounds for chemoprevention trials aimed at compensating OS/MDF by means of antioxidants and mitochondrial nutrients. PMID:24876913

  13. Nitric oxide partitioning into mitochondrial membranes and the control of respiration at cytochrome c oxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiva, Sruti; Brookes, Paul S.; Patel, Rakesh P.; Anderson, Peter G.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.

    2001-06-01

    An emerging and important site of action for nitric oxide (NO) within cells is the mitochondrial inner membrane, where NO binds to and inhibits members of the electron transport chain, complex III and cytochrome c oxidase. Although it is known that inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by NO is competitive with O2, the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon remain unclear, and the impact of both NO and O2 partitioning into biological membranes has not been considered. These properties are particularly interesting because physiological O2 tensions can vary widely, with NO having a greater inhibitory effect at low O2 tensions (<20 μM). In this study, we present evidence for a consumption of NO in mitochondrial membranes in the absence of substrate, in a nonsaturable process that is O2 dependent. This consumption modulates inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by NO and is enhanced by the addition of exogenous membranes. From these data, it is evident that the partition of NO into mitochondrial membranes has a major impact on the ability of NO to control mitochondrial respiration. The implications of this conclusion are discussed in the context of mitochondrial lipid:protein ratios and the importance of NO as a regulator of respiration in pathophysiology.

  14. RhTFAM treatment stimulates mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and improves memory in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ravindar R.; Khan, Shaharyar M.; Smigrodzki, Rafal M.; Onyango, Isaac G.; Dennis, Jameel; Khan, Omer M.; Portell, Francisco R.; Bennett, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial function declines with age in postmitotic tissues such as brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Despite weekly exercise, aged mice showed substantial losses of mtDNA gene copy numbers and reductions in mtDNA gene transcription and mitobiogenesis signaling in brain and heart. We treated these mice with weekly intravenous injections of recombinant human mitochondrial transcription factor A (rhTFAM). RhTFAM treatment for one month increased mitochondrial respiration in brain, heart and muscle, POLMRT expression and mtDNA gene transcription in brain, and PGC-1 alpha mitobiogenesis signaling in heart. RhTFAM treatment reduced oxidative stress damage to brain proteins, improved memory in Morris water maze performance and increased brain protein levels of BDNF and synapsin. Microarray analysis showed co-expression of multiple Gene Ontology families in rhTFAM-treated aged brains compared to young brains. RhTFAM treatment reverses age-related memory impairments associated with loss of mitochondrial energy production in brain, increases levels of memory-related brain proteins and improves mitochondrial respiration in brain and peripheral tissues. PMID:23075607

  15. Estrogen-related receptor gamma is a key regulator of muscle mitochondrial activity and oxidative capacity.

    PubMed

    Rangwala, Shamina M; Wang, Xiaomei; Calvo, Jennifer A; Lindsley, Loren; Zhang, Yunyu; Deyneko, Galina; Beaulieu, Valerie; Gao, Jiaping; Turner, Gordon; Markovits, Judit

    2010-07-16

    Estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRgamma) regulates the perinatal switch to oxidative metabolism in the myocardium. We wanted to understand the significance of induction of ERRgamma expression in skeletal muscle by exercise. Muscle-specific VP16ERRgamma transgenic mice demonstrated an increase in exercise capacity, mitochondrial enzyme activity, and enlarged mitochondria despite lower muscle weights. Furthermore, peak oxidative capacity was higher in the transgenics as compared with control littermates. In contrast, mice lacking one copy of ERRgamma exhibited decreased exercise capacity and muscle mitochondrial function. Interestingly, we observed that increased ERRgamma in muscle generates a gene expression profile that closely overlays that of red oxidative fiber-type muscle. We further demonstrated that a small molecule agonist of ERRbeta/gamma can increase mitochondrial function in mouse myotubes. Our data indicate that ERRgamma plays an important role in causing a shift toward slow twitch muscle type and, concomitantly, a greater capacity for endurance exercise. Thus, the activation of this nuclear receptor provides a potential node for therapeutic intervention for diseases such as obesity, which is associated with reduced oxidative metabolism and a lower type I fiber content in skeletal muscle. PMID:20418374

  16. Estrogen-related Receptor γ Is a Key Regulator of Muscle Mitochondrial Activity and Oxidative Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Rangwala, Shamina M.; Wang, Xiaomei; Calvo, Jennifer A.; Lindsley, Loren; Zhang, Yunyu; Deyneko, Galina; Beaulieu, Valerie; Gao, Jiaping; Turner, Gordon; Markovits, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) regulates the perinatal switch to oxidative metabolism in the myocardium. We wanted to understand the significance of induction of ERRγ expression in skeletal muscle by exercise. Muscle-specific VP16ERRγ transgenic mice demonstrated an increase in exercise capacity, mitochondrial enzyme activity, and enlarged mitochondria despite lower muscle weights. Furthermore, peak oxidative capacity was higher in the transgenics as compared with control littermates. In contrast, mice lacking one copy of ERRγ exhibited decreased exercise capacity and muscle mitochondrial function. Interestingly, we observed that increased ERRγ in muscle generates a gene expression profile that closely overlays that of red oxidative fiber-type muscle. We further demonstrated that a small molecule agonist of ERRβ/γ can increase mitochondrial function in mouse myotubes. Our data indicate that ERRγ plays an important role in causing a shift toward slow twitch muscle type and, concomitantly, a greater capacity for endurance exercise. Thus, the activation of this nuclear receptor provides a potential node for therapeutic intervention for diseases such as obesity, which is associated with reduced oxidative metabolism and a lower type I fiber content in skeletal muscle. PMID:20418374

  17. Impaired enzymatic defensive activity, mitochondrial dysfunction and proteasome activation are involved in RTT cell oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Cervellati, Carlo; Sticozzi, Claudia; Romani, Arianna; Belmonte, Giuseppe; De Rasmo, Domenico; Signorile, Anna; Cervellati, Franco; Milanese, Chiara; Mastroberardino, Pier Giorgio; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Savelli, Vinno; Forman, Henry J; Hayek, Joussef; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    A strong correlation between oxidative stress (OS) and Rett syndrome (RTT), a rare neurodevelopmental disorder affecting females in the 95% of the cases, has been well documented although the source of OS and the effect of a redox imbalance in this pathology has not been yet investigated. Using freshly isolated skin fibroblasts from RTT patients and healthy subjects, we have demonstrated in RTT cells high levels of H2O2 and HNE protein adducts. These findings correlated with the constitutive activation of NADPH-oxidase (NOX) and that was prevented by a NOX inhibitor and iron chelator pre-treatment, showing its direct involvement. In parallel, we demonstrated an increase in mitochondrial oxidant production, altered mitochondrial biogenesis and impaired proteasome activity in RTT samples. Further, we found that the key cellular defensive enzymes: glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductases activities were also significantly lower in RTT. Taken all together, our findings suggest that the systemic OS levels in RTT can be a consequence of both: increased endogenous oxidants as well as altered mitochondrial biogenesis with a decreased activity of defensive enzymes that leads to posttranslational oxidant protein modification and a proteasome activity impairment. PMID:26189585

  18. Regional differences in oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial activity among cortical bone osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Frikha-Benayed, Dorra; Basta-Pljakic, Jelena; Majeska, Robert J; Schaffler, Mitchell B

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic oxidative stress has been implicated as a cause of osteocyte apoptosis, an essential step in triggering bone remodeling. However, little is known about the oxidative behavior of osteocytes in vivo. We assessed the redox status and distribution of total and active mitochondria in osteocytes of mouse metatarsal cortical bone in situ. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was used to measure fluorescence of reduced pyridine nucleotides (NADH) under normoxic conditions and acutely following extreme (postmortem) hypoxic stress. Under non-hypoxic conditions, osteocytes exhibited no detectable fluorescence, indicating rapid NADH re-oxidation. With hypoxia, NADH levels peaked and returned to near baseline levels over 3h. Cells near the periosteal surface reached maximum NADH levels twice as rapidly as osteocytes near the mid-cortex, due to the time required to initiate NADH accumulation; once started, NADH accumulation followed a similar exponential relationship at all sites. Osteocytes near periosteal and endosteal bone surfaces also had higher mitochondrial content than those in mid-cortex based on immunohistochemical staining for mitochondrial ATPase-5A (Complex V ATPase). The content of active mitochondria, assessed in situ using the potentiometric dye TMRM, was also high in osteocytes near periosteum, but low in osteocytes near endocortical surfaces, similar to levels in mid-cortex. These results demonstrate that cortical osteocytes maintain normal oxidative status utilizing mainly aerobic (mitochondrial) pathways but respond to hypoxic stress differently depending on their location in the cortex, a difference linked to mitochondrial content. An apparently high proportion of poorly functional mitochondria in osteocytes near endocortical surfaces, where increased apoptosis mainly occurs in response to bone remodeling stimuli, further suggest that regional differences in oxidative function may in part determine osteocyte susceptibility to undergo apoptosis in response

  19. Glutathione Oxidation as a Trigger of Mitochondrial Depolarization and Oscillation in Intact Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Slodzinski, M.K.; Aon, A.M.; O’Rourke, B.

    2008-01-01

    Depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane potential (ΔΨm) associated with oxidative stress is thought to be a critical factor in cardiac dysfunction and cell injury following ischemia-reperfusion or exposure to cardiotoxic agents. In isolated cardiomyocytes, mitochondrially-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) can readily trigger cell-wide collapse or oscillations of ΔΨm but is it not known whether these phenomena scale to the level of the whole heart. Here we utilize two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy to track ΔΨm, ROS, and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in intact perfused guinea-pig hearts subjected to ischemia-reperfusion or GSH depletion with the thiol oxidizing agent diamide. Exposure to oxidative stress by either method provoked heterogeneous ΔΨm depolarization and occasional oscillation in clusters of myocytes in the epicardium in association with increased mitochondrial ROS production. Furthermore, the whole heart oxidative stress dramatically increased the sensitivity of seemingly quiescent cells to ΔΨm depolarization induced by a localized laser flash. These effects were directly correlated with depletion of the intracellular GSH pool. Unexpectedly, hearts perfused with nominally Ca2+-free solution or those switched from 0.5 mM Ca2+ to nominally Ca2+-free solution also displayed heterogeneous ΔΨm depolarization and oscillation, in parallel with net oxidation of the GSH pool. The findings demonstrate that metabolic heterogeneity initiated by mitochondrial ROS-induced ROS release is present in the intact heart, and that the redox state of the glutathione pool is a key determinant of loss of ΔΨm. PMID:18760283

  20. Chlorogenic acid ameliorates endotoxin-induced liver injury by promoting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Ruan, Zheng; Zhou, Lili; Shu, Xugang; Sun, Xiaohong; Mi, Shumei; Yang, Yuhui; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-22

    Acute or chronic hepatic injury is a common pathology worldwide. Mitochondrial dysfunction and the depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) play important roles in liver injury. Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are some of the most abundant phenolic acids in human diet. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that CGA may protect against chronic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury by modulating mitochondrial energy generation. CGA decreased the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase. The contents of ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), as well as the ratio of AMP/ATP, were increased after CGA supplementation. The activities of enzymes that are involved in glycolysis were reduced, while those of enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation were increased. Moreover, phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and mRNA levels of AMPK-α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial DNA transcription factor A were increased after CGA supplementation. Collectively, these findings suggest that the hepatoprotective effect of CGA might be associated with enhanced ATP production, the stimulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and the inhibition of glycolysis. PMID:26740181

  1. Nitrite-nitric oxide control of mitochondrial respiration at the frontier of anoxia.

    PubMed

    Benamar, Abdelilah; Rolletschek, Hardy; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla; Avelange-Macherel, Marie-Hélène; Curien, Gilles; Mostefai, H Ahmed; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Macherel, David

    2008-10-01

    Actively respiring animal and plant tissues experience hypoxia because of mitochondrial O(2) consumption. Controlling oxygen balance is a critical issue that involves in mammals hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) mediated transcriptional regulation, cytochrome oxidase (COX) subunit adjustment and nitric oxide (NO) as a mediator in vasodilatation and oxygen homeostasis. In plants, NO, mainly derived from nitrite, is also an important signalling molecule. We describe here a mechanism by which mitochondrial respiration is adjusted to prevent a tissue to reach anoxia. During pea seed germination, the internal atmosphere was strongly hypoxic due to very active mitochondrial respiration. There was no sign of fermentation, suggesting a down-regulation of O(2) consumption near anoxia. Mitochondria were found to finely regulate their surrounding O(2) level through a nitrite-dependent NO production, which was ascertained using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping of NO within membranes. At low O(2), nitrite is reduced into NO, likely at complex III, and in turn reversibly inhibits COX, provoking a rise to a higher steady state level of oxygen. Since NO can be re-oxidized into nitrite chemically or by COX, a nitrite-NO pool is maintained, preventing mitochondrial anoxia. Such an evolutionarily conserved mechanism should have an important role for oxygen homeostasis in tissues undergoing hypoxia. PMID:18602886

  2. Activation of mitochondrial oxidation by PDK2 inhibition reverses cisplatin resistance in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jong-Lyel; Park, Jin Young; Kim, Eun Hye; Jang, Hye Jin; Kwon, Minsu

    2016-02-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA), an orphan drug that promotes a shift from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation, has been repurposed for cancer therapy. The present study investigated whether DCA may overcome cisplatin resistance in head and neck cancer (HNC). Two cisplatin-resistant HNC cell lines (AMC-HN4R and -HN9R), their parental lines, and other human HNC lines were used. The effect of DCA, alone and in combination with cisplatin, was assessed by measuring cell cycle, viability, death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and protein expression in preclinical mouse tumor xenograft models. Increased glycolysis correlated with decreased sensitivity to cisplatin and was reduced by DCA. Cisplatin-resistant cells overexpressed pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2). DCA induced HNC cell death by decreasing ΔΨm and promoting mitochondrial ROS production. This effect was decreased by the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine or by inhibition of caspase-mediated apoptosis. Activation of mitochondrial glucose oxidation by DCA eventually activated downstream mitochondrial apoptotic signaling, leading to the death of chemoresistant cancer cells. Therefore, DCA significantly sensitized resistant HNC cells to cisplatin in vitro and in vivo. High glycolysis and PDK2 overexpression are closely linked to cisplatin resistance in HNC cells; the latter can be overcome by DCA. PMID:26607904

  3. Protection against oxidant-induced apoptosis by mitochondrial thioredoxin in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yan; Yu Min; Jones, Dean P.; Greenamyre, J. Timothy; Cai Jiyang . E-mail: jiyang.cai@vanderbilt.edu

    2006-10-15

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress plays important roles in aging and age-related degenerative disorders. The newly identified mitochondrial thioredoxin (mtTrx; Trx2) is a key component of the mitochondrial antioxidant system which is responsible for the clearance of reactive intermediates and repairs proteins with oxidative damage. Here, we show that in cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma 1cells, overexpression of mtTrx inhibited apoptosis and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential induced by a chemical oxidant, tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBH). The effects of calcium ionophore (Br-A23187) were not affected by mtTrx, suggesting the protection was specific against oxidative injury. The mitochondrial glutathione pool was oxidized by tBH, and this oxidation was not inhibited by increased mtTrx. Consequently, the antioxidant function of mtTrx is not redundant, but rather in addition, to that of GSH. Mutations of Cys90 and Cys93 to serines rendered mtTrx ineffective in protection against tBH-induced cytoxicity. These data indicate that mtTrx controls the mitochondrial redox status independently of GSH and is a key component of the defensive mechanism against oxidative stress in cultured neuronal cells.

  4. Sex-dependent mitochondrial respiratory impairment and oxidative stress in a rat model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Demarest, Tyler G; Schuh, Rosemary A; Waddell, Jaylyn; McKenna, Mary C; Fiskum, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Increased male susceptibility to long-term cognitive deficits is well described in clinical and experimental studies of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. While cell death signaling pathways are known to be sexually dimorphic, a sex-dependent pathophysiological mechanism preceding the majority of secondary cell death has yet to be described. Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to cell death following cerebral hypoxic-ischemia (HI). Several lines of evidence suggest that there are sex differences in the mitochondrial metabolism of adult mammals. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that brain mitochondrial respiratory impairment and associated oxidative stress is more severe in males than females following HI. Maximal brain mitochondrial respiration during oxidative phosphorylation was two-fold more impaired in males following HI. The endogenous antioxidant glutathione was 30% higher in the brain of sham females compared to males. Females also exhibited increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity following HI injury. Conversely, males displayed a reduction in mitochondrial GPx4 protein levels and mitochondrial GPx activity. Moreover, a 3-4-fold increase in oxidative protein carbonylation was observed in the cortex, perirhinal cortex, and hippocampus of injured males, but not females. These data provide the first evidence for sex-dependent mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and oxidative damage, which may contribute to the relative male susceptibility to adverse long-term outcomes following HI. Lower basal GSH levels, lower post-hypoxic mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase (mtGPx) activity, and mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase 4 (mtGPx4) protein levels may contribute to the susceptibility of the male brain to oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction following neonatal hypoxic-ischemia (HI). Treatment of male pups with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) protects against the loss of mtGPx activity, mtGPx4 protein, and increases in protein

  5. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by nitric oxide is independent of membrane fluidity modulation or oxidation of sulfhydryl groups.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rojas, Jazmin M; Muriel, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) modulates the fluidity of a variety of membranes. Thus, the aim of the present work was to study if the inhibitory effect of NO on mitochondrial respiration is associated with its effects on membrane fluidity. Liver mitochondria and an inner mitochondrial membrane fraction (IMMF) were isolated from male Wistar rats by differential centrifugation. Oxygen consumption was measured polarographically and fluidity by the fluorescence polarization method. S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) was used as a NO donor. It was observed that NO decreased IMMF fluidity and oxygen consumption in a concentration dependent fashion. However, SAM a fluidizing agent that prevented the decrement in fluidity produced by SNAP, failed to preserve oxygen consumption. Protection of sulfhydryl groups with dithiotreitol was utilized to evaluate the role of oxidation of these groups on IMMF respiration. Incubation with dithiotreitol did not preserve IMMF oxygen consumption. The data shown herein suggest that NO inhibits the respiratory chain by a mechanism not involving the modulation of membrane fluidity or the oxidation of sulfhydryl groups. Thus, it seems that the mechanism by which NO modulates mitochondrial respiration is by cytochrome oxidase inhibition, because (as reported by others) low concentrations of NO specifically inhibit reversibly cytochrome oxidase in competition with oxygen. PMID:16167323

  6. [Exercise training in hypoxia prevents hypoxia induced mitochondrial DNA oxidative damage in skeletal muscle].

    PubMed

    Bo, Hai; Li, Ling; Duan, Fu-Qiang; Zhu, Jiang

    2014-10-25

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of exercise training on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) oxidative damage and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (OGG1) expression in skeletal muscle of rats under continuous exposure to hypoxia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 8): normoxia control group (NC), normoxia training group (NT), hypoxia control group (HC), and hypoxia training group (HT). The hypoxia-treated animals were housed in normobaric hypoxic tent containing 11.3% oxygen for consecutive 4 weeks. The exercise-trained animals were exercised on a motor-driven rodent treadmill at a speed of 15 m/min, 5% grade for 60 min/day, 5 days per week for 4 weeks. The results showed that, compared with NC group, hypoxia attenuated complex I, II, IV and ATP synthase activities of the electron transport chain, and the level of mitochondrial membrane potential in HC group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Moreover, hypoxia decreased mitochondrial OGG1, MnSOD, and GPx activities (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), whereas elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the level of 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in mtDNA (P < 0.01). Furthermore, hypoxia attenuated muscle and mitochondrial [NAD⁺]/ [NADH] ratio, and SIRT3 protein expression (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Compared with HC group, exercise training in hypoxia elevated complex I, II, IV and ATP synthase activities, and the level of mitochondrial membrane potential in HT group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Moreover, exercise training in hypoxia increased MnSOD and GPx activities and mitochondrial OGG1 level (P < 0.01), whereas decreased ROS generation and the level of 8-oxodG in mtDNA (P < 0.01). Furthermore, exercise training in hypoxia increased muscle and mitochondrial [NAD⁺]/[NADH] ratio, as well as SIRT3 protein expression (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). These findings suggest that exercise training in hypoxia can decrease hypoxia-induced mtDNA oxidative damage in the skeletal muscle through up

  7. Oxidative Stress in Cancer-Prone Genetic Diseases in Pediatric Age: The Role of Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Serafina; Lotti, Federica; Geronzi, Ursula; Guidoni, Elisa; Longini, Mariangela; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a distinctive sign in several genetic disorders characterized by cancer predisposition, such as Ataxia-Telangiectasia, Fanconi Anemia, Down syndrome, progeroid syndromes, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, and Costello syndrome. Recent literature unveiled new molecular mechanisms linking oxidative stress to the pathogenesis of these conditions, with particular regard to mitochondrial dysfunction. Since mitochondria are one of the major sites of ROS production as well as one of the major targets of their action, this dysfunction is thought to be the cause of the prooxidant status. Deeper insight of the pathogenesis of the syndromes raises the possibility to identify new possible therapeutic targets. In particular, the use of mitochondrial-targeted agents seems to be an appropriate clinical strategy in order to improve the quality of life and the life span of the patients. PMID:27239251

  8. Oxidative Stress in Cancer-Prone Genetic Diseases in Pediatric Age: The Role of Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Longini, Mariangela; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a distinctive sign in several genetic disorders characterized by cancer predisposition, such as Ataxia-Telangiectasia, Fanconi Anemia, Down syndrome, progeroid syndromes, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, and Costello syndrome. Recent literature unveiled new molecular mechanisms linking oxidative stress to the pathogenesis of these conditions, with particular regard to mitochondrial dysfunction. Since mitochondria are one of the major sites of ROS production as well as one of the major targets of their action, this dysfunction is thought to be the cause of the prooxidant status. Deeper insight of the pathogenesis of the syndromes raises the possibility to identify new possible therapeutic targets. In particular, the use of mitochondrial-targeted agents seems to be an appropriate clinical strategy in order to improve the quality of life and the life span of the patients. PMID:27239251

  9. Animation Model to Conceptualize ATP Generation: A Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jena, Ananta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the molecular unit of intracellular energy and it is the product of oxidative phosphorylation of cellular respiration uses in cellular processes. The study explores the growth of the misconception levels amongst the learners and evaluates the effectiveness of animation model over traditional methods. The data…

  10. Ultrafine particulate pollutants induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Sioutas, Constantinos; Cho, Arthur; Schmitz, Debra; Misra, Chandan; Sempf, Joan; Wang, Meiying; Oberley, Terry; Froines, John; Nel, Andre

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether differences in the size and composition of coarse (2.5-10 micro m), fine (< 2.5 microm), and ultrafine (< 0.1 microm) particulate matter (PM) are related to their uptake in macrophages and epithelial cells and their ability to induce oxidative stress. The premise for this study is the increasing awareness that various PM components induce pulmonary inflammation through the generation of oxidative stress. Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles (UFPs) were collected by ambient particle concentrators in the Los Angeles basin in California and used to study their chemical composition in parallel with assays for generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability to induce oxidative stress in macrophages and epithelial cells. UFPs were most potent toward inducing cellular heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and depleting intracellular glutathione. HO-1 expression, a sensitive marker for oxidative stress, is directly correlated with the high organic carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of UFPs. The dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, a quantitative measure of in vitro ROS formation, was correlated with PAH content and HO-1 expression. UFPs also had the highest ROS activity in the DTT assay. Because the small size of UFPs allows better tissue penetration, we used electron microscopy to study subcellular localization. UFPs and, to a lesser extent, fine particles, localize in mitochondria, where they induce major structural damage. This may contribute to oxidative stress. Our studies demonstrate that the increased biological potency of UFPs is related to the content of redox cycling organic chemicals and their ability to damage mitochondria. PMID:12676598

  11. Mitochondrial phospholipid bilayer structure is ruined after liver oxidative injury in vivo.

    PubMed

    Megli, Francesco M; Sabatini, Karen

    2004-08-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether, after oxidative injury in vivo, liver mitochondrial phospholipids suffered from structural defects similar to those we have previously observed after either chemical oxidation or respiration state IV incubation of isolated mitochondria in vitro. Oxidative injury of the liver was simulated by endogastric administration of CCl4 to rats in variable amounts for different times, under various conditions. Measurements of the phospholipid bilayer packing order were carried out by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry of oriented planar samples of phospholipids extracted from liver mitochondria, spin labeled with 5-doxylstearoyl-lecithin. Disordering of the bilayer was revealed by the anisotropy loss of EPR spectra and reached a maximum value 4.5 h after CCl4 administration, vanishing thereafter. The observed disorder also increased with the amount of CCl4 administered, showing distinct dose-dependence, while administration of resveratrol soon after carbon tetrachloride decreased bilayer disordering by 50%. On the contrary, the order parameter S of spin labeled lecithin in isolated mitochondrial membranes from intoxicated rats revealed no change in membrane fluidity after oxidative stress. It is concluded that the phospholipid damage leading to disturbed bilayer geometry after oxidative attack already observed in model membranes and in isolated mitochondria in vitro also occurs in a simulated pathological state in vivo, indicating its possible occurrence also in real oxidative stress-linked pathologies as a contribution to the onset/sustaining of related diseases. PMID:15327977

  12. Mitochondrial NAD(P)H In vivo: Identifying Natural Indicators of Oxidative Phosphorylation in the 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Kevin E.; Ali, Amir S.; Flores, Brandon; Jubrias, Sharon A.; Shankland, Eric G.

    2016-01-01

    Natural indicators provide intrinsic probes of metabolism, biogenesis and oxidative protection. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolites (NAD(P)) are one class of indicators that have roles as co-factors in oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and anti-oxidant protection, as well as signaling in the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway. These many roles are made possible by the distinct redox states (NAD(P)+ and NAD(P)H), which are compartmentalized between cytosol and mitochondria. Here we provide evidence for detection of NAD(P)+ and NAD(P)H in separate mitochondrial and cytosol pools in vivo in human tissue by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS). These NAD(P) pools are identified by chemical standards (NAD+, NADP+, and NADH) and by physiological tests. A unique resonance reflecting mitochondrial NAD(P)H is revealed by the changes elicited by elevation of mitochondrial oxidation. The decline of NAD(P)H with oxidation is matched by a stoichiometric rise in the NAD(P)+ peak. This unique resonance also provides a measure of the improvement in mitochondrial oxidation that parallels the greater phosphorylation found after exercise training in these elderly subjects. The implication is that the dynamics of the mitochondrial NAD(P)H peak provides an intrinsic probe of the reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction in elderly muscle. Thus, non-invasive detection of NAD(P)+ and NAD(P)H in cytosol vs. mitochondria yields natural indicators of redox compartmentalization and sensitive intrinsic probes of the improvement of mitochondrial function with an intervention in human tissues in vivo. These natural indicators hold the promise of providing mechanistic insight into metabolism and mitochondrial function in vivo in a range of tissues in health, disease and with treatment. PMID:27065875

  13. Mitochondrial oxidative stress-induced hepatocyte apoptosis reflects increased molybdenum intake in caprine.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yu; Liu, Ping; Wang, Liqi; Luo, Junrong; Zhang, Caiying; Guo, Xiaoquan; Hu, Guoliang; Cao, Huabin

    2016-03-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential trace element for animals and humans. However, the high dietary intake of Mo leads to disease conditions in heavy metal pollution areas. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of high levels of Mo on the apoptosis of hepatocyte in goats has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present in vivo study was to investigate the impact of Mo on mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptosis genes in the liver using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Thirty-six healthy goats were randomly divided into three groups: two groups treated with ammonium molybdate [(NH4)6·Mo7O24·H2O] at 15 and 45 mg Mo kg(-1) BW, respectively, and a control group without treatment. Liver samples were collected from individual goats at different time intervals. The levels of oxidative stress in the mitochondrial membrane and expression of liver-related apoptosis genes, including Bcl-2, Cyt c, caspase-3, and Smac, were examined. The results demonstrated that the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) expression were significantly down-regulated in liver cells, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and total nitric oxide synthase (T-NOS) expression was up-regulated (P < 0.01). The expression of Smac, Cyt c, and caspase-3 was significantly up-regulated, whereas Bcl-2 expression was down-regulated in liver cells (P < 0.01). In addition, histopathological examination revealed varying degrees of vacuolization, irregularity, nuclear fission, and mitochondrial swelling and high-density electrons in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes in groups treated with 15 and 45 mg Mo kg(-1) BW. Thus, these results suggested that high molybdenum induced hepatocyte apoptosis and might involve a mitochondrial pathway. PMID:26208811

  14. Cisplatin upregulates mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase and peroxynitrite formation to promote renal injury

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Michaela; Sola, Anna

    2009-01-15

    The mitochondria are a critical target for cisplatin-associated nephrotoxicity. Though nitric oxide formation has been implicated in the toxicity of cisplatin, this formation has not so far been related to a possible activation of mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mNOS). We show here that the upregulation of oxide mNOS and peroxynitrite formation in cisplatin treatment are key events that influence the development of the harmful parameters described in cisplatin-associated kidney failure. We confirm this by isolating the mitochondrial fraction of the kidney and across different access routes such as the use of a specific inhibitor of neuronal NOS, L-NPA, a peroxynitrite scavenger, FeTMPyP, and a peroxynitrite donor, SIN-1. The in vitro studies corroborated the information obtained in the in vivo experiments. The administration of cisplatin reveals a clear upregulation in the transcription of neuronal NOS and an increase in the levels of nitrites in the mitochondrial fractions of the kidneys. The upregulated transcription directly affects the cytoskeleton structure and the apoptosis. The inhibition of neuronal NOS reduces the levels of nitrites, cell death, and cytoskeleton derangement. Peroxynitrite is involved in the mechanism promoting the NOS transcription. In addition, in controls SIN-1 imitates the effects of cisplatin. In summary, we demonstrate that upregulation of mNOS in cisplatin treatment is a key component in both the initiation and the spread of cisplatin-associated damage in the kidney. Furthermore, peroxynitrite formation is directly involved in this process.

  15. Prevention of oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in the intestine by different cranberry phenolic fractions.

    PubMed

    Denis, Marie-Claude; Desjardins, Yves; Furtos, Alexandra; Marcil, Valérie; Dudonné, Stéphanie; Montoudis, Alain; Garofalo, Carole; Delvin, Edgard; Marette, André; Levy, Emile

    2015-02-01

    Cranberry fruit has been reported to have high antioxidant effectiveness that is potentially linked to its richness in diversified polyphenolic content. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of cranberry polyphenolic fractions in oxidative stress (OxS), inflammation and mitochondrial functions using intestinal Caco-2/15 cells. The combination of HPLC and UltraPerformance LC®-tandem quadrupole (UPLC-TQD) techniques allowed us to characterize the profile of low, medium and high molecular mass polyphenolic compounds in cranberry extracts. The medium molecular mass fraction was enriched with flavonoids and procyanidin dimers whereas procyanidin oligomers (DP > 4) were the dominant class of polyphenols in the high molecular mass fraction. Pre-incubation of Caco-2/15 cells with these cranberry extracts prevented iron/ascorbate-mediated lipid peroxidation and counteracted lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation as evidenced by the decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and interleukin-6), cyclo-oxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2. Cranberry polyphenols (CP) fractions limited both nuclear factor κB activation and Nrf2 down-regulation. Consistently, cranberry procyanidins alleviated OxS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunctions as shown by the rise in ATP production and the up-regulation of Bcl-2, as well as the decline of protein expression of cytochrome c and apoptotic-inducing factor. These mitochondrial effects were associated with a significant stimulation of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1-α, a central inducing factor of mitochondrial biogenesis and transcriptional co-activator of numerous downstream mediators. Finally, cranberry procyanidins forestalled the effect of iron/ascorbate on the protein expression of mitochondrial transcription factors (mtTFA, mtTFB1, mtTFB2). Our findings provide evidence for the capacity of CP to reduce intestinal OxS and inflammation while improving mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID

  16. Effects of amiodarone on cardiac function and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation during ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Moreau, D; Clauw, F; Martine, L; Grynberg, A; Rochette, L; Demaison, L

    1999-04-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine if the efficiency of amiodarone, a class III antiarrhythmic agent, is associated with changes in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. A population of 30 rats were treated with amiodarone (100 mg/kg/day) for 5 days. A second population receiving only vehicle was used as control. The hearts were perfused according to the working mode. After 15 min of normoxic perfusion, the left main coronary artery was ligated and the ligation was maintained for 20 min. The ligation was removed and reperfusion continued for a further 30 min. The electrocardiogram was monitored continuously. At the end of perfusion, the ischemic and non ischemic areas were visually separated and mitochondria were harvested from each area. Their oxidative and energy metabolism were assessed with palmitoylcarnitine as substrate in 2 respiration media differing in their free calcium concentration (0 or 0.34 microm). In normoxic conditions, amiodarone treatment increased the cardiac metabolic efficiency (mechanical work to oxygen consumption ratio). The local ischemia decreased the aortic and coronary flows without modifying the cardiac metabolic efficiency. Amiodarone treatment maintained the aortic flow at a significantly higher value; the duration of severe arrhythmias was significantly decreased by the drug. The reperfusion of the ischemic area allowed the partial recovery of fluid dynamics. The coronary flow was restored to 89% of the pre ischemic value. Conversely, the aortic flow never exceeded that measured at the end of ischemia, partly due to the important development of severe arrhythmias. The recovery of aortic flow and metabolic efficiency during reperfusion was improved by amiodarone treatment; ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation duration were reduced. In the mitochondria issued from the normoxic area, the energy metabolism was not altered by the amiodarone treatment, but the presence of calcium in the respiration medium modified the

  17. Status Epilepticus in Immature Rats Is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Ješina, Pavel; Kubová, Hana; Druga, Rastislav; Otáhal, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurologic disorder, particularly frequent in infants and children where it can lead to serious consequences later in life. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders including epilepsy in adults. However, their role in immature epileptic brain is unclear since there have been two contrary opinions: oxidative stress is age-dependent and does not occur in immature brain during status epilepticus (SE) and, on the other hand, evidence of oxidative stress in immature brain during a specific model of SE. To solve this dilemma, we have decided to investigate oxidative stress following SE induced in immature 12-day-old rats by three substances with a different mechanism of action, namely 4-aminopyridine, LiCl-pilocarpine or kainic acid. Fluoro-Jade-B staining revealed mild brain damage especially in hippocampus and thalamus in each of the tested models. Decrease of glucose and glycogen with parallel rises of lactate clearly indicate high rate of glycolysis, which was apparently not sufficient in 4-AP and Li-Pilo status, as evident from the decreases of PCr levels. Hydroethidium method revealed significantly higher levels of superoxide anion (by ∼60%) in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and thalamus of immature rats during status. SE lead to mitochondrial dysfunction with a specific pronounced decrease of complex I activity that persisted for a long period of survival. Complexes II and IV activities remained in the control range. Antioxidant treatment with SOD mimetic MnTMPYP or peroxynitrite scavenger FeTPPS significantly attenuated oxidative stress and inhibition of complex I activity. These findings bring evidence that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are age and model independent, and may thus be considered a general phenomenon. They can have a clinical relevance for a novel approach to the treatment of epilepsy, allowing to target the mechanisms which play a crucial or

  18. Status Epilepticus in Immature Rats Is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Ješina, Pavel; Kubová, Hana; Druga, Rastislav; Otáhal, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurologic disorder, particularly frequent in infants and children where it can lead to serious consequences later in life. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders including epilepsy in adults. However, their role in immature epileptic brain is unclear since there have been two contrary opinions: oxidative stress is age-dependent and does not occur in immature brain during status epilepticus (SE) and, on the other hand, evidence of oxidative stress in immature brain during a specific model of SE. To solve this dilemma, we have decided to investigate oxidative stress following SE induced in immature 12-day-old rats by three substances with a different mechanism of action, namely 4-aminopyridine, LiCl-pilocarpine or kainic acid. Fluoro-Jade-B staining revealed mild brain damage especially in hippocampus and thalamus in each of the tested models. Decrease of glucose and glycogen with parallel rises of lactate clearly indicate high rate of glycolysis, which was apparently not sufficient in 4-AP and Li-Pilo status, as evident from the decreases of PCr levels. Hydroethidium method revealed significantly higher levels of superoxide anion (by ∼60%) in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and thalamus of immature rats during status. SE lead to mitochondrial dysfunction with a specific pronounced decrease of complex I activity that persisted for a long period of survival. Complexes II and IV activities remained in the control range. Antioxidant treatment with SOD mimetic MnTMPYP or peroxynitrite scavenger FeTPPS significantly attenuated oxidative stress and inhibition of complex I activity. These findings bring evidence that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are age and model independent, and may thus be considered a general phenomenon. They can have a clinical relevance for a novel approach to the treatment of epilepsy, allowing to target the mechanisms which play a crucial or

  19. Oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial function differ between human prostate tissue and cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Schöpf, Bernd; Schäfer, Georg; Weber, Anja; Talasz, Heribert; Eder, Iris E; Klocker, Helmut; Gnaiger, Erich

    2016-06-01

    Altered mitochondrial metabolism plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of various diseases, including cancer. Cell lines are frequently used as models to study mitochondrial (dys)function, but little is known about their mitochondrial respiration and metabolic properties in comparison to the primary tissue of origin. We have developed a method for assessment of oxidative phosphorylation in prostate tissue samples of only 2 mg wet weight using high-resolution respirometry. Reliable protocols were established to investigate the respiratory activity of different segments of the mitochondrial electron transfer system (ETS) in mechanically permeabilized tissue biopsies. Additionally, the widely used immortalized prostate epithelial and fibroblast cell lines, RWPE1 and NAF, representing the major cell types in prostate tissue, were analyzed and compared to the tissue of origin. Our results show that mechanical treatment without chemical permeabilization agents or sample processing constitutes a reliable preparation method for OXPHOS analysis in small amounts of prostatic tissue typically obtained by prostate biopsy. The cell lines represented the bioenergetic properties of fresh tissue to a limited extent only. Particularly, tissue showed a higher oxidative capacity with succinate and glutamate, whereas pyruvate was a substrate supporting significantly higher respiratory activities in cell lines. Several fold higher zinc levels measured in tissue compared to cells confirmed the role of aconitase for prostate-specific metabolism in agreement with observed respiratory properties. In conclusion, combining the flexibility of cell culture models and tissue samples for respirometric analysis are powerful tools for investigation of mitochondrial function and tissue-specific metabolism. PMID:27060259

  20. Enigma, a mitochondrial protein affecting lifespan and oxidative stress response in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Mourikis, Philippos; Hurlbut, Gregory D.; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Spyros

    2006-01-01

    Deregulation of energy metabolism by external interventions or mutations in metabolic genes can extend lifespan in a wide range of species. We describe mutations in Drosophila melanogaster that confer resistance to oxidative stress and display a longevity phenotype. These phenotypes are associated with molecular lesions in a hitherto uncharacterized gene we named Enigma. We show that Enigma encodes a mitochondrial protein with homology to enzymes of the β-oxidation of fatty acids and that mutations in this locus affect lipid homeostasis. Our analysis provides further support to the notion that lipid metabolism may play a central role in metazoan lifespan regulation. PMID:16434470

  1. Peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and inhibitors of the mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Skorin, C; Necochea, C; Johow, V; Soto, U; Grau, A M; Bremer, J; Leighton, F

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid oxidation was studied in the presence of inhibitors of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I), in normal and in peroxisome-proliferated rat hepatocytes. The oxidation decreased in mitochondria, as expected, but in peroxisomes it increased. These two effects were seen, in variable proportions, with (+)-decanoylcarnitine, 2-tetradecylglycidic acid (TDGA) and etomoxir. The decrease in mitochondrial oxidation (ketogenesis) affected saturated fatty acids with 12 or more carbon atoms, whereas the increase in peroxisomal oxidation (H2O2 production) affected saturated fatty acids with 8 or more carbon atoms. The peroxisomal increase was sensitive to chlorpromazine, a peroxisomal inhibitor. To study possible mechanisms, palmitoyl-, octanoyl- and acetyl-carnitine acyltransferase activities were measured, in homogenates and in subcellular fractions from control and TDGA-treated cells. The palmitoylcarnitine acyltransferase was inhibited, as expected, but the octanoyltransferase activity also decreased. The CoA derivative of TDGA was synthesized and tentatively identified as being responsible for inhibition of the octanoylcarnitine acyltransferase. These results show that inhibitors of the mitochondrial CPT I may also inhibit the peroxisomal octanoyl transferase; they also support the hypothesis that the octanoyltransferase has the capacity to control or regulate peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. PMID:1736904

  2. Kinetic control by limiting glutaredoxin amounts enables thiol oxidation in the reducing mitochondrial intermembrane space

    PubMed Central

    Kojer, Kerstin; Peleh, Valentina; Calabrese, Gaetano; Herrmann, Johannes M.; Riemer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) harbors an oxidizing machinery that drives import and folding of small cysteine-containing proteins without targeting signals. The main component of this pathway is the oxidoreductase Mia40, which introduces disulfides into its substrates. We recently showed that the IMS glutathione pool is maintained as reducing as that of the cytosol. It thus remained unclear how equilibration of protein disulfides with the IMS glutathione pool is prevented in order to allow oxidation-driven protein import. Here we demonstrate the presence of glutaredoxins in the IMS and show that limiting amounts of these glutaredoxins provide a kinetic barrier to prevent the thermodynamically feasible reduction of Mia40 substrates by the IMS glutathione pool. Moreover, they allow Mia40 to exist in a predominantly oxidized state. Consequently, overexpression of glutaredoxin 2 in the IMS results in a more reduced Mia40 redox state and a delay in oxidative folding and mitochondrial import of different Mia40 substrates. Our findings thus indicate that carefully balanced glutaredoxin amounts in the IMS ensure efficient oxidative folding in the reducing environment of this compartment. PMID:25392302

  3. Naringin protects memory impairment and mitochondrial oxidative damage against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Atish; Shur, Bhargabi; Kumar, Anil

    2013-09-01

    Aluminum has been indicated in neurodegenerative disorders and naringin, a bioflavonoid has been used to reduce neurotoxic effects of aluminum against aluminum chloride-induced rats. Therefore, present study has been designed to explore the possible role of naringin against aluminum-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage in rats. Aluminum (100 mg/kg) and naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg) drug treatment were administered orally for six weeks to male wistar rats. Various behavioral performance tasks, biochemical, mitochondrial oxidative parameters, and aluminum concentration in the brain were assessed. Aluminum chloride treatment significantly caused cognitive dysfunction and mitochondria oxidative damage as compared to vehicle treated control group. Besides, aluminum chloride treatment significantly increased acetyl cholinesterase activity and aluminum concentration in the brain as compared to sham. Chronic administration of naringin significantly improved cognitive performance and attenuated mitochondria oxidative damage, acetyl cholinesterase activity, and aluminum concentration in aluminum-treated rats as compared to control rats. Results of the study demonstrate neuroprotective potential of naringin against aluminum chloride-induced cognitive dysfunction and mitochondrial oxidative damage. PMID:23510099

  4. Nitric oxide inhibits capacitative Ca2+ entry by suppression of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling

    PubMed Central

    Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Malli, Roland; Schmidt, Kurt; Graier, Wolfgang F; Groschner, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key modulator of cellular Ca2+ signalling and a determinant of mitochondrial function. Here, we demonstrate that NO governs capacitative Ca2+ entry (CCE) into HEK293 cells by impairment of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling. Authentic NO as well as the NO donors 1-[2-(carboxylato)pyrrolidin-1-yl]diazem-1-ium-1,2-diolate (ProliNO) and 2-(N,N-diethylamino)-diazenolate-2-oxide (DEANO) suppressed CCE activated by thapsigargin (TG)-induced store depletion. Threshold concentrations for inhibition of CCE by ProliNO and DEANO were 0.3 and 1 μM, respectively. NO-induced inhibition of CCE was not mimicked by peroxynitrite (100 μM), the peroxynitrite donor 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1, 100 μM) or 8-bromoguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-BrcGMP, 1 mM). In addition, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazole[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 30 μM) failed to antagonize the inhibitory action of NO on CCE. DEANO (1–10 μM) suppressed mitochondrial respiration as evident from inhibition of cellular oxygen consumption. Experiments using fluorescent dyes to monitor mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial Ca2+ levels, respectively, indicated that DEANO (10 μM) depolarized mitochondria and suppressed mitochondrial Ca2+ sequestration. The inhibitory effect of DEANO on Ca2+ uptake into mitochondria was confirmed by recording mitochondrial Ca2+ during agonist stimulation in HEK293 cells expressing ratiometric-pericam in mitochondria. DEANO (10 μM) failed to inhibit Ba2+ entry into TG-stimulated cells when extracellular Ca2+ was buffered below 1 μM, while clear inhibition of Ba2+ entry into store depleted cells was observed when extracellular Ca2+ levels were above 10 μM. Moreover, buffering of intracellular Ca2+ by use of N,N′-[1,2-ethanediylbis(oxy-2,1-phenylene)] bis [N-[25-[(acetyloxy) methoxy]-2-oxoethyl

  5. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Jorge L; Billings, Frederic T; Bojanowski, Matthew T; Gilliam, Laura A; Yu, Chang; Roshanravan, Baback; Roberts, L Jackson; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Ikizler, T Alp; Brown, Nancy J

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondria abnormalities in skeletal muscle may contribute to frailty and sarcopenia, commonly present in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Dysfunctional mitochondria are also a major source of oxidative stress and may contribute to cardiovascular disease in CKD We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial structure and function worsens with the severity of CKD Mitochondrial volume density, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, BNIP3, and PGC1α protein expression were evaluated in skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from 27 subjects (17 controls and 10 with CKD stage 5 on hemodialysis). We also measured mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), plasma isofurans, and plasma F2-isoprostanes in 208 subjects divided into three groups: non-CKD (eGFR>60 mL/min), CKD stage 3-4 (eGFR 60-15 mL/min), and CKD stage 5 (on hemodialysis). Muscle biopsies from patients with CKD stage 5 revealed lower mitochondrial volume density, lower mtDNA copy number, and higher BNIP3 content than controls. mtDNA copy number in PBMCs was decreased with increasing severity of CKD: non-CKD (6.48, 95% CI 4.49-8.46), CKD stage 3-4 (3.30, 95% CI 0.85-5.75, P = 0.048 vs. non-CKD), and CKD stage 5 (1.93, 95% CI 0.27-3.59, P = 0.001 vs. non-CKD). Isofurans were higher in patients with CKD stage 5 (median 59.21 pg/mL, IQR 41.76-95.36) compared to patients with non-CKD (median 49.95 pg/mL, IQR 27.88-83.46, P = 0.001), whereas F2-isoprostanes did not differ among groups. Severity of CKD is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and markers of oxidative stress. Mitochondrial abnormalities, which are common in skeletal muscle from patients with CKD stage 5, may explain the muscle dysfunction associated with frailty and sarcopenia in CKD Further studies are required to evaluate mitochondrial function in vivo in patients with different CKD stages. PMID:27162261

  6. Mitochondrial dysfunction in fatty acid oxidation disorders: insights from human and animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Wajner, Moacir; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) plays a pivotal role in maintaining body energy homoeostasis mainly during catabolic states. Oxidation of fatty acids requires approximately 25 proteins. Inherited defects of FAO have been identified in the majority of these proteins and constitute an important group of inborn errors of metabolism. Affected patients usually present with severe hepatopathy, cardiomyopathy and skeletal myopathy, whereas some patients may suffer acute and/or progressive encephalopathy whose pathogenesis is poorly known. In recent years growing evidence has emerged indicating that energy deficiency/disruption of mitochondrial homoeostasis is involved in the pathophysiology of some fatty acid oxidation defects (FAOD), although the exact underlying mechanisms are not yet established. Characteristic fatty acids and carnitine derivatives are found at high concentrations in these patients and more markedly during episodes of metabolic decompensation that are associated with worsening of clinical symptoms. Therefore, it is conceivable that these compounds may be toxic. We will briefly summarize the current knowledge obtained from patients and genetic mouse models with these disorders indicating that disruption of mitochondrial energy, redox and calcium homoeostasis is involved in the pathophysiology of the tissue damage in the more common FAOD, including medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) and very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiencies. We will also provide evidence that the fatty acids and derivatives that accumulate in these diseases disrupt mitochondrial homoeostasis. The elucidation of the toxic mechanisms of these compounds may offer new perspectives for potential novel adjuvant therapeutic strategies in selected disorders of this group. PMID:26589966

  7. Methoxychlor causes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the mouse ovary

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.K.; Schuh, R.A.; Fiskum, G.; Flaws, J.A. . E-mail: jflaws@epi.umaryland.edu

    2006-11-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by causing ovarian atrophy, persistent estrous cyclicity, and antral follicle atresia (apoptotic cell death). Oxidative damage resulting from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation has been demonstrated to lead to toxicant-induced cell death. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that MXC causes oxidative damage to the mouse ovary and affects mitochondrial respiration in a manner that stimulates ROS production. For the in vitro experiments, mitochondria were collected from adult cycling mouse ovaries, treated with vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide; DMSO) or MXC, and subjected to polarographic measurements of respiration. For the in vivo experiments, adult cycling CD-1 mice were dosed with either vehicle (sesame oil) or MXC for 20 days. After treatment, ovarian mitochondria were isolated and subjected to measurements of respiration and fluorimetric measurements of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. Some ovaries were also fixed and processed for immunohistochemistry using antibodies for ROS production markers: nitrotyrosine and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHG). Ovaries from in vivo experiments were also used to measure the mRNA expression and activity of antioxidants such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and catalase (CAT). The results indicate that MXC significantly impairs mitochondrial respiration, increases production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, causes more staining for nitrotyrosine and 8-OHG in antral follicles, and decreases the expression and activity of SOD1, GPX, and CAT as compared to controls. Collectively, these data indicate that MXC inhibits mitochondrial respiration, causes ROS production, and decreases antioxidant expression and activity in the ovary, specifically in the antral follicles. Therefore, it is possible that MXC causes atresia of ovarian antral follicles by inducing oxidative stress through mitochondrial production of ROS.

  8. Stat3 promotes mitochondrial transcription and oxidative respiration during maintenance and induction of naive pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Carbognin, Elena; Betto, Riccardo M; Soriano, Maria E; Smith, Austin G; Martello, Graziano

    2016-03-15

    Transcription factor Stat3 directs self-renewal of pluripotent mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells downstream of the cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Stat3 upregulates pivotal transcription factors in the ES cell gene regulatory network to sustain naïve identity. Stat3 also contributes to the rapid proliferation of ES cells. Here, we show that Stat3 increases the expression of mitochondrial-encoded transcripts and enhances oxidative metabolism. Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals that Stat3 binds to the mitochondrial genome, consistent with direct transcriptional regulation. An engineered form of Stat3 that localizes predominantly to mitochondria is sufficient to support enhanced proliferation of ES cells, but not to maintain their undifferentiated phenotype. Furthermore, during reprogramming from primed to naïve states of pluripotency, Stat3 similarly upregulates mitochondrial transcripts and facilitates metabolic resetting. These findings suggest that the potent stimulation of naïve pluripotency by LIF/Stat3 is attributable to parallel and synergistic induction of both mitochondrial respiration and nuclear transcription factors. PMID:26903601

  9. Cationic uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation are inducers of mitochondrial permeability transition.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Y; Bandou, S; Kora, S; Kitamura, S; Inazumi, S; Terada, H

    1998-05-22

    To determine whether cationic uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation induce permeability transition in mitochondria, the effects of the divalent cationic sulfhydryl cross-linker copper-o-phenanthroline (Cu(OP)2) and the cyanine dye tri-S-C4(5) on rat liver mitochondria were examined. Like Ca2+, they accelerated mitochondrial respiration with succinate and induced mitochondrial swelling when inorganic phosphate (Pi) was present in the incubation medium. The acceleration of respiration and swelling were inhibited by the SH-reagent N-ethylmaleimide, and by the specific permeability transition inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA). In addition, these cations, like Ca2+, induced release of ADP entrapped in the mitochondrial matrix space, and the morphological change of mitochondria induced by these cations was essentially the same as that induced by Ca2+. It is concluded that the uncoupling actions of Cu(OP)2 and tri-S-C4(5) are due to induction of permeability transition in the inner mitochondrial membrane. PMID:9645482

  10. Ichthyotoxic Cochlodinium polykrikoides Induces Mitochondrial Mediated Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Rat Liver Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Jafar; Motallebi, Abbasali; Aghvami, Marjan; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2013-01-01

    In this research, we investigated the cytotoxic mechanisms of Cochlodinium polykrikoidescell lysate on isolated rat liver hepatocytes.This micro algae is responsible for a severe and widespread harmful algal bloom in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman (2008-2009). Isolated hepatocytes were obtained by collagenase perfusion of Sprague-Dawley rat liver.According to our results, incubation of algal lysate with isolated rat hepatocytescaused hepatocyte membrane lysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, glutathione depletion, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential,ATP depletion and increase in ADP/ATP ratio, cytochrome c release in to the hepatocyte cytosol,activation of caspase-3 (final mediator of apoptosis) and appearance of apoptosis phenotype. On the other hand, pre-treatment of antioxidants (α-tocopherol succinate and BHT), radical scavengers (mannitol and DMSO), mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore sealing agents (cyclosporine A, carnitine and trifluoperazine), NADPH P450 reductase inhibitor (Diphenyliodonium chloride), CYP2E1 inhibitors (Phenylimidazole and 4-Methylpyrazole) and ATP generators (L-glutamine, Fructose and Xylitol)inhibitedcaspase-3 activation and cell death in algal lysate treated hepatocytes.Our data also confirmed that algal lysate activates apoptosis signaling via oxidative stress and mitochondrial pathway. Thus, ROS formation caused by the lysate exposure could directly be involved in mitochondrial MPT pore opening and activation of caspase-3 leading to C.polykrikoides lysateinduced apoptosis on rat hepatocytes. These findings contribute to a better understanding of C.polykrikoides-toxic effects on mammalian liver cells. PMID:24523763

  11. Mitochondrial dependent oxidative stress in cell culture induced by laser radiation at 1265 nm.

    PubMed

    Saenko, Yury V; Glushchenko, Eugenia S; Zolotovskii, Igor O; Sholokhov, Evgeny; Kurkov, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy is the main technique applied for surface carcinoma treatment. This technique employs singlet oxygen generated via a laser excited photosensitizer as a main damaging agent. However, prolonged sensitivity to intensive light, relatively low tissue penetration by activating light the cost of photosensitizer (PS) administration can limit photodynamic therapy applications. Early was reported singlet oxygen generation without photosensitizer induced by a laser irradiation at the wavelength of 1250-1270 nm. Here, we study the dynamics of oxidative stress, DNA damage, changes of mitochondrial potential, and mitochondrial mass induced by a laser at 1265 nm have been studied in HCT-116 and CHO-K cells. Laser irradiation of HCT-116 and CHO-K cells has induced a dose-dependent cell death via increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration, increase of DNA damage, decrease of mitochondrial potential, and reduced glutathione. It has been shown that, along with singlet oxygen generation, the increase of the intracellular ROS concentration induced by mitochondrial damage contributes to the damaging effect of the laser irradiation at 1265 nm. PMID:26796703

  12. Long-Term Exposure to AZT, but not d4T, Increases Endothelial Cell Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Erik R.; Bassit, Leda; Hernandez-Santiago, Brenda I.; Detorio, Mervi A.; Liang, Bill; Kleinhenz, Dean J.; Walp, Erik R.; Dikalov, Sergey; Jones, Dean P.; Schinazi, Raymond F.

    2009-01-01

    Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), such as zidovudine (AZT) and stavudine (d4T), cause toxicities to numerous tissues, including the liver and vasculature. While much is known about hepatic NRTI toxicity, the mechanism of toxicity in endothelial cells is incompletely understood. Human aortic endothelial and HepG2 liver cells were exposed to 1 μM AZT or d4T for up to 5 weeks. Markers of oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, NRTI phosphorylation, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels, and cytotoxicity were monitored over time. In endothelial cells, AZT significantly oxidized glutathione redox potential, increased total cellular and mitochondrial-specific superoxide, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased lactate release, and caused cell death from weeks 3 through 5. Toxicity occurred in the absence of di- and tri-phosphorylated AZT and mtDNA depletion. These data show that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in endothelial cells occur with a physiologically relevant concentration of AZT, and require long-term exposure to develop. In contrast, d4T did not induce endothelial oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, or cytotoxicity despite the presence of d4T-triphosphate. Both drugs depleted mtDNA in HepG2 cells without causing cell death. Endothelial cells are more susceptible to AZT-induced toxicity than HepG2 cells, and AZT caused greater endothelial dysfunction than d4T because of its pro-oxidative effects. PMID:19067249

  13. Impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation in rats under cold-hypoxic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Arkadeb; Vats, Praveen; Singh, Vijay K.; Sharma, Yogendra K.; Singh, Som N.; Singh, Shashi B.

    2009-09-01

    Mitochondrial ß-oxidation of fatty acid provides a major source of energy in mammals. High altitude (HA), characterized by hypobaric hypoxia and low ambient temperatures, causes alteration in metabolic homeostasis. Several studies have depicted that hypoxic exposure in small mammals causes hypothermia due to hypometabolic state. Moreover, cold exposure along with hypoxia reduces hypoxia tolerance in animals. The present study investigated the rate of β-oxidation and key enzymes, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I (CPT-I) and hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (HAD), in rats exposed to cold-hypobaric hypoxic environment. Male Sprague Dawley rats (190-220 g) were randomly divided into eight groups ( n = 6 rats in each group): 1 day hypoxia (H1); 7 days hypoxia (H7); 1 day cold (C1); 7 days cold (C7); 1 day cold-hypoxia (CH1); 7 days cold-hypoxia (CH7) exposed; and unexposed control for 1 and 7 days (UC1 and UC7). After exposure, animals were anaesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg body weight) and xylazine (10 mg/kg body weight) intraperitonialy and sacrificed. Mitochondrial CPT-I, HAD, 14C-palmitate oxidation in gastrocnemius muscle and liver, and plasma leptin were measured. Mitochondrial CPT-I was significantly reduced in muscle and liver in CH1 and CH7 as compared to respective controls. HAD activity was significantly reduced in H1 and CH7, and in H1, H7, CH1, and CH7 as compared to unexposed controls in muscle and liver, respectively. A concomitant decrease in 14C-palmitate oxidation was found. Significant reduction in plasma leptin in hypoxia and cold-hypoxia suggested hypometabolic state. It can be concluded that ß-oxidation of fatty acids is reduced in rats exposed to cold-hypoxic environment due to the persisting hypometabolic state in cold-hypoxia exposure.

  14. MiR-25 protects cardiomyocytes against oxidative damage by targeting the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lei; Huang, Bi-Jun; Ma, Xiu-E; Wang, Shi-Yi; Feng, Jing; Lv, Fei; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yi; Li, Chang-Ming; Liang, Dan-Dan; Li, Jun; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yi-Han

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs, whose expression levels vary in different cell types and tissues. Emerging evidence indicates that tissue-specific and -enriched miRNAs are closely associated with cellular development and stress responses in their tissues. MiR-25 has been documented to be abundant in cardiomyocytes, but its function in the heart remains unknown. Here, we report that miR-25 can protect cardiomyocytes against oxidative damage by down-regulating mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). MiR-25 was markedly elevated in response to oxidative stimulation in cardiomyocytes. Further overexpression of miR-25 protected cardiomyocytes against oxidative damage by inactivating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. MCU was identified as a potential target of miR-25 by bioinformatical analysis. MCU mRNA level was reversely correlated with miR-25 under the exposure of H2O2, and MCU protein level was largely decreased by miR-25 overexpression. The luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-25 bound directly to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of MCU mRNA. MiR-25 significantly decreased H2O2-induced elevation of mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration, which is likely to be the result of decreased activity of MCU. We conclude that miR-25 targets MCU to protect cardiomyocytes against oxidative damages. This finding provides novel insights into the involvement of miRNAs in oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes. PMID:25764156

  15. Nitric Oxide Regulates Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Metabolism through Reversible Protein S-Nitrosylation **

    PubMed Central

    Doulias, Paschalis-Thomas; Tenopoulou, Margarita; Greene, Jennifer L.; Raju, Karthik; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine S-nitrosylation is a posttranslational modification by which nitric oxide regulates protein function and signaling. Studies of individual proteins have elucidated specific functional roles for S-nitrosylation, but knowledge of the extent of endogenous S-nitrosylation, the sites that are nitrosylated, and the regulatory consequences of S-nitrosylation remains limited. We used mass spectrometry-based methodologies to identify 1011 S-nitrosocysteine residues in 647 proteins in various mouse tissues. We uncovered selective S-nitrosylation of enzymes participating in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation, indicating that this posttranslational modification may regulate metabolism and mitochondrial bioenergetics. S-nitrosylation of the liver enzyme VLCAD (very long acyl-CoA dehydrogenase) at Cys238, which was absent in mice lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase, improved its catalytic efficiency. These data implicate protein S-nitrosylation in the regulation of β-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria. PMID:23281369

  16. Quantitative Mapping of Reversible Mitochondrial Complex I Cysteine Oxidation in a Parkinson Disease Mouse Model*

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Steven R.; Held, Jason M.; Oo, May; Riley, Rebeccah; Gibson, Bradford W.; Andersen, Julie K.

    2011-01-01

    Differential cysteine oxidation within mitochondrial Complex I has been quantified in an in vivo oxidative stress model of Parkinson disease. We developed a strategy that incorporates rapid and efficient immunoaffinity purification of Complex I followed by differential alkylation and quantitative detection using sensitive mass spectrometry techniques. This method allowed us to quantify the reversible cysteine oxidation status of 34 distinct cysteine residues out of a total 130 present in murine Complex I. Six Complex I cysteine residues were found to display an increase in oxidation relative to controls in brains from mice undergoing in vivo glutathione depletion. Three of these residues were found to reside within iron-sulfur clusters of Complex I, suggesting that their redox state may affect electron transport function. PMID:21196577

  17. Trolox-Sensitive Reactive Oxygen Species Regulate Mitochondrial Morphology, Oxidative Phosphorylation and Cytosolic Calcium Handling in Healthy Cells

    PubMed Central

    Distelmaier, Felix; Valsecchi, Federica; Forkink, Marleen; van Emst-de Vries, Sjenet; Swarts, Herman G.; Rodenburg, Richard J.T.; Verwiel, Eugène T.P.; Smeitink, Jan A.M.; Willems, Peter H.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Cell regulation by signaling reactive oxygen species (sROS) is often incorrectly studied through extracellular oxidant addition. Here, we used the membrane-permeable antioxidant Trolox to examine the role of sROS in mitochondrial morphology, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) handling in healthy human skin fibroblasts. Results and Innovation: Trolox treatment reduced the levels of 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2′,7′-dichlorodihydro-fluorescein (CM-H2DCF) oxidizing ROS, lowered cellular lipid peroxidation, and induced a less oxidized mitochondrial thiol redox state. This was paralleled by increased glutathione- and mitofusin-dependent mitochondrial filamentation, increased expression of fully assembled mitochondrial complex I, elevated activity of citrate synthase and OXPHOS enzymes, and a higher cellular O2 consumption. In contrast, Trolox did not alter hydroethidium oxidation, cytosolic thiol redox state, mitochondrial NAD(P)H levels, or mitochondrial membrane potential. Whole genome expression profiling revealed that Trolox did not trigger significant changes in gene expression, suggesting that Trolox acts downstream of this process. Cytosolic Ca2+ transients, induced by the hormone bradykinin, were of a higher amplitude and decayed faster in Trolox-treated cells. These effects were dose-dependently antagonized by hydrogen peroxide. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Trolox-sensitive sROS are upstream regulators of mitochondrial mitofusin levels, morphology, and function in healthy human skin fibroblasts. This information not only facilitates the interpretation of antioxidant effects in cell models (of oxidative-stress), but also contributes to a better understanding of ROS-related human pathologies, including mitochondrial disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 1657–1669. PMID:22559215

  18. Melatonin prevents the dynamin-related protein 1-dependent mitochondrial fission and oxidative insult in the cortical neurons after 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium treatment.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Jih-Ing; Pan, I-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-Yun; Huang, Chiu-Ying; Chen, Pei-Chun; Shin, Jyh Wei

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mitochondrial morphology is dynamic and precisely regulated by the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery. Aberrant mitochondrial fragmentation controlled by the mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), may result in cell death. Our previous results showed that melatonin protected neurons by inhibiting oxidative stress in a 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+) )-induced PD model. However, the effect of melatonin on mitochondrial dynamics remains uncharacterized. Herein, we investigated the effect of melatonin and the role of Drp1 on MPP(+) -induced mitochondrial fission in rat primary cortical neurons. We found that MPP(+) induced a rapid increase in the ratio of GSSG:total glutathione (a marker of oxidative stress) and mitochondrial fragmentation, Drp1 upregulation within 4 hours, and finally resulted in neuron loss 48 hours after the treatment. Neurons overexpressing wild-type Drp1 promoted mitochondrial and nuclear fragmentation; however, neurons overexpressing dominant-negative Drp1(K38A) or cotreated with melatonin exhibited significantly reduced MPP(+) -induced mitochondrial fragmentation and neuron death. Moreover, melatonin cotreatment prevented an MPP(+) -induced high ratio of GSSG and mitochondrial Drp1 upregulation. The prevention of mitochondrial fission by melatonin was not found in neurons transfected with wild-type Drp1. These results provide a new insight that the neuroprotective effect of melatonin against MPP(+) toxicity is mediated by inhibiting the oxidative stress and Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation. PMID:27159033

  19. Oxidants, antioxidants and mitochondrial function in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Carrizalez, Adolfo Daniel; Castellanos-González, José Alberto; Martínez-Romero, Esaú César; Miller-Arrevillaga, Guillermo; Villa-Hernández, David; Hernández-Godínez, Pedro Pablo; Ortiz, Genaro Gabriel; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín Paul; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto Germán; Miranda-Díaz, Alejandra Guillermina

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a preventable cause of visual disability. The aims of the present study were to investigate levels and behavior oxidative stress markers and mitochondrial function in non-proliferative DR (NPDR) and to establish the correlation between the severity of NPDR and markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function. Methods In a transverse analysis, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with mild, moderate and severe non-proliferative DR (NPDR) were evaluated for markers of oxidative stress (i.e. products of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) catabolites) and antioxidant activity (i.e. total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity of erythrocytes). Mitochondrial function was also determined as the fluidity of the submitochondrial particles of platelets and the hydrolytic activity of F0/F1-ATPase. Results Levels of LPO and NO were significantly increased in T2DM patients with severe NPDR (3.19 ± 0.05 μmol/mL and 45.62 ± 1.27 pmol/mL, respectively; P < 0.007 and P < 0.0001 vs levels in health volunteers, respectively), suggesting the presence of oxidative stress. TAC had significant decrease levels with minimum peak in severe retinopathy with 7.98 ± 0.48 mEq/mL (P < 0.0001). In contrast with TAC, erythrocyte catalase and GPx activity was increased in patients with severe NPDR (139.4 ± 4.4 and 117.13 ± 14.84 U/mg, respectively; P < 0.0001 vs healthy volunteers for both), suggesting an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants. The fluidity of membrane submitochondrial particles decreased significantly in T2DM patients with mild, moderate, or severe NPDR compared with that in healthy volunteers (P < 0.0001 for all). Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the hydrolytic activity of the F0/F1-ATPase in T2DM patients with mild NPDR (265.07 ± 29.55 nmol/PO4; P < 0.0001 vs healthy volunteers), suggesting

  20. Quercetin protects against aluminium induced oxidative stress and promotes mitochondrial biogenesis via activation of the PGC-1α signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Verma, Deepika; Priyanka, Kumari; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2015-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the protective effect of quercetin administration against aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of PGC-1α and its downstream targets, i.e. NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10mg/kg b.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats, which were pre-treated with quercetin 6h before aluminium (10mg/kg b.wt./day, intragastrically) for 12 weeks. We found a decrease in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and citrate synthase activity in the hippocampus (HC) and corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain treated with quercetin. Besides this an increase in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits - ND1, ND2, ND3, Cyt b, COX1, COX3 and ATPase6 along with increased expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A and COX5B of electron transport chain (ETC). In quercetin treated group an increase in the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both the regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was up regulated in quercetin treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant decrease in the mitochondrial cross-section area, mitochondrial perimeter length and increase in mitochondrial number in case of quercetin treated rats as compared to aluminium treated ones. Therefore it seems quercetin increases mitochondrial biogenesis and makes it an almost ideal flavanoid to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in many neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26493151

  1. Nickel(II)-induced nasal epithelial toxicity and oxidative mitochondrial damage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Lim, Soo-Sung; Baek, Byoung Joon; An, Je-Min; Nam, Hae-Seon; Woo, Kee-Min; Cho, Moon-Kyun; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Han

    2016-03-01

    In probing the underlying mechanisms of nickel(II)-induced cytotoxicity on nasal epithelium, we investigated the effects of nickel(II) acetate on nasal epithelial RPMI-2650 cells. Nickel(II) elicited apoptosis, as signified by pyknotic and fragmented nuclei, increased caspase-3/7 activity, and an increase in annexin V binding, hypodiploid DNA, and Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio. Nickel(II)-induced G2/M arrest was associated with up-regulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) expression, decrease in phosphorylation at Thr(161) of Cdc2, and down-regulation of cyclin B1. Associated with these responses, ROS generation and mitochondrial depolarization increased in a nickel(II) concentration-dependent fashion. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) attenuated these changes. p53 reporter gene assay and analyses of p53, Puma, Bax, and Bcl-2 protein levels indicated that NAC inhibited nickel(II)-induced activation of p53-mediated mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Collectively, our study provides evidences that nickel(II) may induce oxidative damage on nasal epithelium in which antioxidant NAC protects cells against nickel(II)-induced apoptosis through the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial damage. PMID:26809061

  2. Oxidative stress generated during monensin treatment contributes to altered Toxoplasma gondii mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Charvat, Robert A.; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The ionophore monensin displays potent activities against several coccidian parasites of veterinary and medical importance including the opportunistic pathogen of humans, Toxoplasma gondii. While monensin is used widely in animals, toxicity impedes its use in humans. Nonetheless, given its potency, understanding its mode of action would reveal vulnerable aspects of the parasite that can be exploited for drug development. We previously established that monensin induces Toxoplasma to undergo cell cycle arrest and an autophagy-like cell death. Interestingly, these effects are dependent on the mitochondrion-localized TgMSH-1 protein, suggesting that monensin disrupts mitochondrial function. We demonstrate that monensin treatment results in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and altered morphology. These effects are mitigated by the antioxidant compound N-acetyl-cysteine suggesting that monensin causes an oxidative stress, which was indeed the case based on direct detection of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, over-expression of the antioxidant proteins glutaredoxin and peroxiredoxin 2 protect Toxoplasma from the deleterious effects of monensin. Thus, our studies show that the effects of monensin on Toxoplasma are due to a disruption of mitochondrial function caused by the induction of an oxidative stress and implicate parasite redox biology as a viable target for the development of drugs against Toxoplasma and related pathogenic parasites. PMID:26976749

  3. Elimination of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy reduces mitochondrial oxidative stress and increases tolerance to trichothecenes.

    PubMed

    Bin-Umer, Mohamed Anwar; McLaughlin, John E; Butterly, Matthew S; McCormick, Susan; Tumer, Nilgun E

    2014-08-12

    Trichothecene mycotoxins are natural contaminants of small grain cereals and are encountered in the environment, posing a worldwide threat to human and animal health. Their mechanism of toxicity is poorly understood, and little is known about cellular protection mechanisms against trichothecenes. We previously identified inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a novel mechanism for trichothecene-induced cell death. To identify cellular functions involved in trichothecene resistance, we screened the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library for increased sensitivity to nonlethal concentrations of trichothecin (Tcin) and identified 121 strains exhibiting higher sensitivity than the parental strain. The largest group of sensitive strains had significantly higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels relative to the parental strain. A dose-dependent increase in ROS levels was observed in the parental strain treated with different trichothecenes, but not in a petite version of the parental strain or in the presence of a mitochondrial membrane uncoupler, indicating that mitochondria are the main site of ROS production due to toxin exposure. Cytotoxicity of trichothecenes was alleviated after treatment of the parental strain and highly sensitive mutants with antioxidants, suggesting that oxidative stress contributes to trichothecene sensitivity. Cotreatment with rapamycin and trichothecenes reduced ROS levels and cytotoxicity in the parental strain relative to the trichothecene treatment alone, but not in mitophagy deficient mutants, suggesting that elimination of trichothecene-damaged mitochondria by mitophagy improves cell survival. These results reveal that increased mitophagy is a cellular protection mechanism against trichothecene-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and a potential target for trichothecene resistance. PMID:25071194

  4. Phylogenomic Evidence for a Myxococcal Contribution to the Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Beta-Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Agatha; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; Pujol, Aurora

    2011-01-01

    Background The origin of eukaryotes remains a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Although it is clear that eukaryotic genomes are a chimeric combination of genes of eubacterial and archaebacterial ancestry, the specific ancestry of most eubacterial genes is still unknown. The growing availability of microbial genomes offers the possibility of analyzing the ancestry of eukaryotic genomes and testing previous hypotheses on their origins. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we have applied a phylogenomic analysis to investigate a possible contribution of the Myxococcales to the first eukaryotes. We conducted a conservative pipeline with homologous sequence searches against a genomic sampling of 40 eukaryotic and 357 prokaryotic genomes. The phylogenetic reconstruction showed that several eukaryotic proteins traced to Myxococcales. Most of these proteins were associated with mitochondrial lipid intermediate pathways, particularly enzymes generating reducing equivalents with pivotal roles in fatty acid β-oxidation metabolism. Our data suggest that myxococcal species with the ability to oxidize fatty acids transferred several genes to eubacteria that eventually gave rise to the mitochondrial ancestor. Later, the eukaryotic nucleocytoplasmic lineage acquired those metabolic genes through endosymbiotic gene transfer. Conclusions/Significance Our results support a prokaryotic origin, different from α-proteobacteria, for several mitochondrial genes. Our data reinforce a fluid prokaryotic chromosome model in which the mitochondrion appears to be an important entry point for myxococcal genes to enter eukaryotes. PMID:21760940

  5. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Asthma: Implications for Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a complex, inflammatory disorder characterized by airflow obstruction of variable degrees, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, and airway inflammation. Asthma is caused by environmental factors and a combination of genetic and environmental stimuli. Genetic studies have revealed that multiple loci are involved in the etiology of asthma. Recent cellular, molecular, and animal-model studies have revealed several cellular events that are involved in the progression of asthma, including: increased Th2 cytokines leading to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the airway, and an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction in the activated inflammatory cells, leading to tissue injury in the bronchial epithelium. Further, aging and animal model studies have revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are involved and play a large role in asthma. Recent studies using experimental allergic asthmatic mouse models and peripheral cells and tissues from asthmatic humans have revealed antioxidants as promising treatments for people with asthma. This article summarizes the latest research findings on the involvement of inflammatory changes, and mitochondrial dysfunction/oxidative stress in the development and progression of asthma. This article also addresses the relationship between aging and age-related immunity in triggering asthma, the antioxidant therapeutic strategies in treating people with asthma. PMID:21461182

  6. Plasma membrane oxidoreductase activity in cultured cells in relation to mitochondrial function and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Deleonardi, Giulia; Biondi, Annalisa; D'Aurelio, Marilena; Pich, Milena Merlo; Stankov, Karmen; Falasca, Anna; Formiggini, Gabriella; Bovina, Carla; Romeo, Giovanni; Lenaz, Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    Dichlorophenol indophenol (DCIP) reduction by intracellualr pyridine nucleotides was investigated in two different lines of cultured cells characterized by enhanced production of reacive oxygen species (ROS) with respect to suitable controls. The first line denominated XTC-UC1 was derived from a metastasis of an oxyphilic thyroid tumor characterized by mitochondrial hyperplasia and compared with a line (B-CPAP) derived from a papillary thyroid carcinoma with normal mitochondrial mass. The second line (170 MN) was a cybrid line derived from rho0 cells from an osteosarcoma line (143B) fused with platelets from a patient with a nucleotide 9957 mutation in mitochondrial DNA (encoding for cytochrome c oxidase subunit III) in comparison with the parent 143B line. The experimental lines had no major decreases of electron transfer activities with respect to the controls; both of them, however, exhibited an increased peroxide production. The XTC-UC1 cell line exhibited enhanced activity with respect to control of dicoumarol-sensitive DCIP reduction, identified with membrane bound DT-diaphorase, whereas dicoumarol insensitive DCIP reduction was not significantly changed. On the other hand the mtDNA mutated cybrids exhibited a strong increase of both dicoumarol sensitive and insensitive DCIP reduction. The results suggest that enhanced oxidative stress and not deficient respiratory activity per se is the stimulus triggering over-expression of plasma membrane oxidative enzymes. PMID:15706061

  7. Oxidative stress generated during monensin treatment contributes to altered Toxoplasma gondii mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Charvat, Robert A; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The ionophore monensin displays potent activities against several coccidian parasites of veterinary and medical importance including the opportunistic pathogen of humans, Toxoplasma gondii. While monensin is used widely in animals, toxicity impedes its use in humans. Nonetheless, given its potency, understanding its mode of action would reveal vulnerable aspects of the parasite that can be exploited for drug development. We previously established that monensin induces Toxoplasma to undergo cell cycle arrest and an autophagy-like cell death. Interestingly, these effects are dependent on the mitochondrion-localized TgMSH-1 protein, suggesting that monensin disrupts mitochondrial function. We demonstrate that monensin treatment results in decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and altered morphology. These effects are mitigated by the antioxidant compound N-acetyl-cysteine suggesting that monensin causes an oxidative stress, which was indeed the case based on direct detection of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, over-expression of the antioxidant proteins glutaredoxin and peroxiredoxin 2 protect Toxoplasma from the deleterious effects of monensin. Thus, our studies show that the effects of monensin on Toxoplasma are due to a disruption of mitochondrial function caused by the induction of an oxidative stress and implicate parasite redox biology as a viable target for the development of drugs against Toxoplasma and related pathogenic parasites. PMID:26976749

  8. Elimination of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy reduces mitochondrial oxidative stress and increases tolerance to trichothecenes

    PubMed Central

    Bin-Umer, Mohamed Anwar; McLaughlin, John E.; Butterly, Matthew S.; McCormick, Susan; Tumer, Nilgun E.

    2014-01-01

    Trichothecene mycotoxins are natural contaminants of small grain cereals and are encountered in the environment, posing a worldwide threat to human and animal health. Their mechanism of toxicity is poorly understood, and little is known about cellular protection mechanisms against trichothecenes. We previously identified inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis as a novel mechanism for trichothecene-induced cell death. To identify cellular functions involved in trichothecene resistance, we screened the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library for increased sensitivity to nonlethal concentrations of trichothecin (Tcin) and identified 121 strains exhibiting higher sensitivity than the parental strain. The largest group of sensitive strains had significantly higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels relative to the parental strain. A dose-dependent increase in ROS levels was observed in the parental strain treated with different trichothecenes, but not in a petite version of the parental strain or in the presence of a mitochondrial membrane uncoupler, indicating that mitochondria are the main site of ROS production due to toxin exposure. Cytotoxicity of trichothecenes was alleviated after treatment of the parental strain and highly sensitive mutants with antioxidants, suggesting that oxidative stress contributes to trichothecene sensitivity. Cotreatment with rapamycin and trichothecenes reduced ROS levels and cytotoxicity in the parental strain relative to the trichothecene treatment alone, but not in mitophagy deficient mutants, suggesting that elimination of trichothecene-damaged mitochondria by mitophagy improves cell survival. These results reveal that increased mitophagy is a cellular protection mechanism against trichothecene-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and a potential target for trichothecene resistance. PMID:25071194

  9. Peroxisomal and Mitochondrial β-Oxidation Pathways Influence the Virulence of the Pathogenic Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Matthias; Wang, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the connections between metabolism and elaboration of virulence factors during host colonization by the human-pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is important for developing antifungal therapies. Lipids are abundant in host tissues, and fungal pathogens in the phylum basidiomycota possess both peroxisomal and mitochondrial β-oxidation pathways to utilize this potential carbon source. In addition, lipids are important signaling molecules in both fungi and mammals. In this report, we demonstrate that defects in the peroxisomal and mitochondrial β-oxidation pathways influence the growth of C. neoformans on fatty acids as well as the virulence of the fungus in a mouse inhalation model of cryptococcosis. Disease attenuation may be due to the cumulative influence of altered carbon source acquisition or processing, interference with secretion, changes in cell wall integrity, and an observed defect in capsule production for the peroxisomal mutant. Altered capsule elaboration in the context of a β-oxidation defect was unexpected but is particularly important because this trait is a major virulence factor for C. neoformans. Additionally, analysis of mutants in the peroxisomal pathway revealed a growth-promoting activity for C. neoformans, and subsequent work identified oleic acid and biotin as candidates for such factors. Overall, this study reveals that β-oxidation influences virulence in C. neoformans by multiple mechanisms that likely include contributions to carbon source acquisition and virulence factor elaboration. PMID:22707485

  10. Spongionella Secondary Metabolites Protect Mitochondrial Function in Cortical Neurons against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Leirós, Marta; Sánchez, Jon A.; Alonso, Eva; Rateb, Mostafa E.; Houssen, Wael E.; Ebel, Rainer; Jaspars, Marcel; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    The marine habitat provides a large number of structurally-diverse bioactive compounds for drug development. Marine sponges have been studied over many years and are found to be a rich source of these bioactive chemicals. This study is focused on the evaluation of the activity of six diterpene derivatives isolated from Spongionella sp. on mitochondrial function using an oxidative in vitro stress model. The test compounds include the Gracilins (A, H, K, J and L) and tetrahydroaplysulphurin-1. Compounds were co-incubated with hydrogen peroxide for 12 hours to determine their protective capacities and their effect on markers of apoptosis and Nrf2/ARE pathways was evaluated. Results conclude that Gracilins preserve neurons against oxidative damage, and that in particular, tetrahydroaplysulphurin-1 shows a complete neuroprotective activity. Oxidative stress is linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and consequently to neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases, Friedreich ataxia or Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This neuroprotection against oxidation conditions suggest that these metabolites could be interesting lead candidates in drug development for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24473170

  11. Translocator Protein (TSPO) Affects Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation in Steroidogenic Cells.

    PubMed

    Tu, Lan N; Zhao, Amy H; Hussein, Mahmoud; Stocco, Douglas M; Selvaraj, Vimal

    2016-03-01

    Translocator protein (TSPO), also known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is a highly conserved outer mitochondrial membrane protein present in specific subpopulations of cells within different tissues. In recent studies, the presumptive model depicting mammalian TSPO as a critical cholesterol transporter for steroidogenesis has been refuted by studies examining effects of Tspo gene deletion in vivo and in vitro, biochemical testing of TSPO cholesterol transport function, and specificity of TSPO-mediated pharmacological responses. Nevertheless, high TSPO expression in steroid-producing cells seemed to indicate an alternate function for this protein in steroidogenic mitochondria. To seek an explanation, we used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated TSPO knockout steroidogenic MA-10 Leydig cell (MA-10:TspoΔ/Δ) clones to examine changes to core mitochondrial functions resulting from TSPO deficiency. We observed that 1) MA-10:TspoΔ/Δ cells had a shift in substrate utilization for energy production from glucose to fatty acids with significantly higher mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and increased reactive oxygen species production; and 2) oxygen consumption rate, mitochondrial membrane potential, and proton leak were not different between MA-10:TspoΔ/Δ and MA-10:Tspo+/+ control cells. Consistent with this finding, TSPO-deficient adrenal glands from global TSPO knockout (Tspo(-/-)) mice also showed up-regulation of genes involved in FAO compared with the TSPO floxed (Tspo(fl/fl)) controls. These results demonstrate the first experimental evidence that TSPO can affect mitochondrial energy homeostasis through modulation of FAO, a function that appears to be consistent with high levels of TSPO expression observed in cell types active in lipid storage/metabolism. PMID:26741196

  12. Palmitate induces ER calcium depletion and apoptosis in mouse podocytes subsequent to mitochondrial oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, S; Nam, S M; Kim, J-H; Das, R; Choi, S-K; Nguyen, T T; Quan, X; Choi, S J; Chung, C H; Lee, E Y; Lee, I-K; Wiederkehr, A; Wollheim, C B; Cha, S-K; Park, K-S

    2015-01-01

    Pathologic alterations in podocytes lead to failure of an essential component of the glomerular filtration barrier and proteinuria in chronic kidney diseases. Elevated levels of saturated free fatty acid (FFA) are harmful to various tissues, implemented in the progression of diabetes and its complications such as proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of palmitate cytotoxicity in cultured mouse podocytes. Incubation with palmitate dose-dependently increased cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential, impaired ATP synthesis and elicited apoptotic cell death. Palmitate not only evoked mitochondrial fragmentation but also caused marked dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Consistently, palmitate upregulated ER stress proteins, oligomerized stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in the subplasmalemmal ER membrane, abolished the cyclopiazonic acid-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) increase due to depletion of luminal ER Ca(2+). Palmitate-induced ER Ca(2+) depletion and cytotoxicity were blocked by a selective inhibitor of the fatty-acid transporter FAT/CD36. Loss of the ER Ca(2+) pool induced by palmitate was reverted by the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor edelfosine. Palmitate-dependent activation of PLC was further demonstrated by following cytosolic translocation of the pleckstrin homology domain of PLC in palmitate-treated podocytes. An inhibitor of diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase, which elevates cytosolic DAG, strongly promoted ER Ca(2+) depletion by low-dose palmitate. GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, partially prevented palmitate-induced ER Ca(2+) loss. Remarkably, the mitochondrial antioxidant mitoTEMPO inhibited palmitate-induced PLC activation, ER Ca(2+) depletion and cytotoxicity. Palmitate elicited cytoskeletal changes in podocytes and increased albumin permeability, which was also blocked by mitoTEMPO. These data suggest that oxidative stress caused by saturated FFA

  13. Palmitate induces ER calcium depletion and apoptosis in mouse podocytes subsequent to mitochondrial oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, S; Nam, S M; Kim, J-H; Das, R; Choi, S-K; Nguyen, T T; Quan, X; Choi, S J; Chung, C H; Lee, E Y; Lee, I-K; Wiederkehr, A; Wollheim, C B; Cha, S-K; Park, K-S

    2015-01-01

    Pathologic alterations in podocytes lead to failure of an essential component of the glomerular filtration barrier and proteinuria in chronic kidney diseases. Elevated levels of saturated free fatty acid (FFA) are harmful to various tissues, implemented in the progression of diabetes and its complications such as proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of palmitate cytotoxicity in cultured mouse podocytes. Incubation with palmitate dose-dependently increased cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential, impaired ATP synthesis and elicited apoptotic cell death. Palmitate not only evoked mitochondrial fragmentation but also caused marked dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Consistently, palmitate upregulated ER stress proteins, oligomerized stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) in the subplasmalemmal ER membrane, abolished the cyclopiazonic acid-induced cytosolic Ca2+ increase due to depletion of luminal ER Ca2+. Palmitate-induced ER Ca2+ depletion and cytotoxicity were blocked by a selective inhibitor of the fatty-acid transporter FAT/CD36. Loss of the ER Ca2+ pool induced by palmitate was reverted by the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor edelfosine. Palmitate-dependent activation of PLC was further demonstrated by following cytosolic translocation of the pleckstrin homology domain of PLC in palmitate-treated podocytes. An inhibitor of diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase, which elevates cytosolic DAG, strongly promoted ER Ca2+ depletion by low-dose palmitate. GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, partially prevented palmitate-induced ER Ca2+ loss. Remarkably, the mitochondrial antioxidant mitoTEMPO inhibited palmitate-induced PLC activation, ER Ca2+ depletion and cytotoxicity. Palmitate elicited cytoskeletal changes in podocytes and increased albumin permeability, which was also blocked by mitoTEMPO. These data suggest that oxidative stress caused by saturated FFA leads to

  14. Oxidative Stresses and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Age-Related Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Chisato

    2014-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), the progressive loss of hearing associated with aging, is the most common sensory disorder in the elderly population. The pathology of ARHL includes the hair cells of the organ of Corti, stria vascularis, and afferent spiral ganglion neurons as well as the central auditory pathways. Many studies have suggested that the accumulation of mitochondrial DNA damage, the production of reactive oxygen species, and decreased antioxidant function are associated with subsequent cochlear senescence in response to aging stress. Mitochondria play a crucial role in the induction of intrinsic apoptosis in cochlear cells. ARHL can be prevented in laboratory animals by certain interventions, such as caloric restriction and supplementation with antioxidants. In this review, we will focus on previous research concerning the role of the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathology of ARHL in both animal models and humans and introduce concepts that have recently emerged regarding the mechanisms of the development of ARHL. PMID:25110550

  15. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage: importance in non-SOD1 ALS

    PubMed Central

    Carrì, Maria Teresa; Valle, Cristiana; Bozzo, Francesca; Cozzolino, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that mitochondrial damage (MD) is both the major contributor to oxidative stress (OS) (the condition arising from unbalance between production and removal of reactive oxygen species) and one of the major consequences of OS, because of the high dependance of mitochondrial function on redox-sensitive targets such as intact membranes. Conditions in which neuronal cells are not able to cope with MD and OS seem to lead or contribute to several neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), at least in the most studied superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1)-linked genetic variant. As summarized in this review, new evidence indicates that MD and OS play a role also in non-SOD1 ALS and thus they may represent a target for therapy despite previous failures in clinical trials. PMID:25741238

  16. Uncouplers of rat-liver mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Parker, V. H.

    1965-01-01

    1. The ability of a series of compounds to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation of rat-liver mitochondria has been investigated. 2. The compounds were: 2-amino-1,1,3-tricyanopropene; carbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazone and its m-chloro and p-trifluoromethoxy derivatives; 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-, 5-chloro-4-nitro-, 5-nitro-and 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-1-methyl-benzotriazole; 4-hydroxy-3,5-di-iodo-, 3,5-di-bromo-4-hydroxy- and 3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxy-benzonitrile; and pentafluorophenol. 3. In a medium the components and physical condition of which were, as far as possible, kept constant, each compound was tested for ability to stimulate adenosine triphosphatase, to stimulate respiration in the presence of pyruvate as substrate, to inhibit phosphate uptake and to prevent swelling by trimethyltin. 4. Each compound was also examined with respect to its ability to produce rapid rigor mortis in mice. 5. The biological properties were compared with the dissociation constant and the hexane–water partition coefficient for each compound. 6. With the exception of 4,5,6,7-tetrachloro-1-methylbenzotriazole, all the compounds behaved qualitatively as 2,4-dinitrophenol. 7. Within each class of compound there is a relation between biological activity and the physical attributes measured. 8. The most efficient uncouplers were the most acidic and the most hydrophobic. PMID:5881655

  17. Salvianolate Protects Hepatocytes from Oxidative Stress by Attenuating Mitochondrial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiang; Peng, Yuan; Huang, Kai; Lei, Yang; Liu, Hong-Liang; Tao, Yan-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Salvianolate is widely used to treat angiocardiopathy in clinic in China, but its application in liver diseases remains unclear. Our study aims to investigate the effect of Salvianolate on rat hepatic injury by protecting hepatocyte mitochondria. To evaluate the effects of Salvianolate on injured hepatocytes, alpha mouse liver 12 (AML-12) cells were induced with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and treated with Salvianolate. Cell viability and MitoTracker Green for mitochondria and 5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethylbenzimidazole-carbocyanide iodine (JC-1) levels and cytochrome C (Cyto-C) expressions were detected in vitro. To identify the effect of Salvianolate on protecting against mitochondria injury, male Wistar rats were injected with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and treated with Salvianolate (40 mg·kg−1). Serum liver function, parameters for peroxidative damage, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) of hepatocyte mitochondria were assayed. Our results showed that Salvianolate effectively protected hepatocytes, increased mitochondria vitality, and decreased Cyto-C expressions in vitro. Besides, Salvianolate alleviated the liver function, attenuated the indicators of peroxidation, and relieved the mitochondria injury in vivo. In conclusion, Salvianolate is effective in protecting hepatocytes from injury in vitro and in vivo, and the mechanism might be related to its protective effect on hepatocyte mitochondria against oxidative stress. PMID:27340417

  18. Knockdown of IRF6 Attenuates Hydrogen Dioxide-Induced Oxidative Stress via Inhibiting Mitochondrial Dysfunction in HT22 Cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Min; Chen, Bo; Lv, Jian-Meng; Lei, Qi; Pan, Ya-Juan; Yang, Qian

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress-induced cell damage is involved in many neurological diseases. Interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6), a member of the IRF family of transcription factors, is required for the differentiation of skin, breast epithelium, and oral epithelium. However, the regulation and function of IRF6 in central nervous system remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role of IRF6 in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative neuronal injury in HT22 mouse hippocampal cells. Treatment with H2O2 significantly increased the expression of IRF6 at both mRNA and protein levels, and knockdown of IRF6 using specific small interfering RNA reduced H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, as evidenced by increased cell viability and decreased apoptosis. Knockdown of IRF6 attenuated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid peroxidation, and also preserved endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities. The inhibitory effect of IRF6 knockdown on mitochondrial dysfunction was demonstrated by reduced mitochondrial oxidative level, preserved mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP generation, as well as attenuated mitochondrial swelling. In addition, down-regulation of IRF6 inhibited the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic factors, whereas IRF6 knockdown together with caspase inhibitors had no extra effect on cell viability and LDH release. These results suggest that knockdown of IRF6 has protective effects against H2O2-induced oxidative stress by reducing ROS accumulation and apoptosis, and these protective effects are dependent on preservation of mitochondrial function. PMID:26620051

  19. The novel mitochondrial iron chelator 5-((methylamino)methyl)-8-hydroxyquinoline protects against mitochondrial-induced oxidative damage and neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Mena, Natalia P; García-Beltrán, Olimpo; Lourido, Fernanda; Urrutia, Pamela J; Mena, Raúl; Castro-Castillo, Vicente; Cassels, Bruce K; Núñez, Marco T

    2015-08-01

    Abundant evidence indicates that iron accumulation, oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction are common features of Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, Friedreich's ataxia and a group of disorders known as Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of two novel 8-OH-quinoline-based iron chelators, Q1 and Q4, to decrease mitochondrial iron accumulation and oxidative damage in cellular and animal models of PD. We found that at sub-micromolar concentrations, Q1 selectively decreased the mitochondrial iron pool and was extremely effective in protecting against rotenone-induced oxidative damage and death. Q4, in turn, preferentially chelated the cytoplasmic iron pool and presented a decreased capacity to protect against rotenone-induced oxidative damage and death. Oral administration of Q1 to mice protected substantia nigra pars compacta neurons against oxidative damage and MPTP-induced death. Taken together, our results support the concept that oral administration of Q1 is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of NBIA. PMID:26051278

  20. Trihalomethanes in liver pathology: Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Faustino-Rocha, Ana I; Rodrigues, D; da Costa, R Gil; Diniz, C; Aragão, S; Talhada, D; Botelho, M; Colaço, A; Pires, M J; Peixoto, F; Oliveira, P A

    2016-08-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are disinfection byproducts found in chlorinated water, and are associated with several different kinds of cancer in human populations and experimental animal models. Metabolism of THMs proceeds through enzymes such as GSTT1 and CYP2E1 and gives rise to reactive intermediates, which form the basis for their toxic activities. The aim of this study was to assess the mitochondrial dysfunction caused by THMs at low levels, and the resulting hepatic histological and biochemical changes in the mouse. Male ICR mice were administered with two THMs: dibromochloromethane (DBCM) and bromodichloromethane (BDCM); once daily, by gavage, to a total of four administrations. Animals were sacrificed four weeks after DBCM and BDCM administrations. Blood biochemistry was performed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB), albumin (Alb), total protein (TP), creatinine, and urea. Animals exposed to DBCM and BDCM showed elevated ALT and TB levels (p < 0.05) as compared with controls. Histological analysis confirmed the presence of vacuolar degenerescence and a multifocal necrotizing hepatitis in 33% of animals (n = 2). Mitochondrial analysis showed that THMs reduced mitochondrial bioenergetic activity (succinate dehydrogenase (SQR), cytochrome c oxidase (COX), and ATP synthase) and increased oxidative stress (glutathione S-transferase (GST)) in hepatic tissues (p < 0.05). These results add detail to the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying THM-induced toxicity, supporting the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in liver toxicity caused by DBCM and BDCM. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1009-1016, 2016. PMID:25640707

  1. Parallel activation of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism with increased cardiac energy expenditure is not dependent on fatty acid oxidation in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lufang; Cabrera, Marco E; Huang, Hazel; Yuan, Celvie L; Monika, Duda K; Sharma, Naveen; Bian, Fang; Stanley, William C

    2007-01-01

    Steady state concentrations of ATP and ADP in vivo are similar at low and high cardiac workloads; however, the mechanisms that regulate the activation of substrate metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation that supports this stability are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that (1) there is parallel activation of mitochondrial and cytosolic dehydrogenases in the transition from low to high workload, which increases NADH/NAD+ ratio in both compartments, and (2) this response does not require an increase in fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Anaesthetized pigs were subjected to either sham treatment, or an abrupt increase in cardiac workload for 5 min with dobutamine infusion and aortic constriction. Myocardial oxygen consumption and FAO were increased 3- and 2-fold, respectively, but ATP and ADP concentrations did not change. NADH-generating pathways were rapidly activated in both the cytosol and mitochondria, as seen in a 40% depletion in glycogen stores, a 3.6-fold activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, and a 50% increase in tissue NADH/NAD+. Simulations from a multicompartmental computational model of cardiac energy metabolism predicted that parallel activation of glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism results in an increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio in both cytosol and mitochondria. FAO was blocked by 75% in a third group of pigs, and a similar increase in and the NAHD/NAD+ ratio was observed. In conclusion, in the transition to a high cardiac workload there is rapid parallel activation of substrate oxidation that results in an increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio. PMID:17185335

  2. Mitochondrial-Derived Oxidants and Cellular Responses to Low Dose/Low LET Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, Douglas R.

    2009-11-09

    Exposure to ionizing radiation results in the immediate formation of free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been assumed that the subsequent injury processes leading to genomic instability and carcinogenesis following radiation, derive from the initial oxidative damage caused by these free radicals and ROS. It is now becoming increasingly obvious that metabolic oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions can be altered by irradiation leading to persistent increases in steady-state levels of intracellular free radicals and ROS that contribute to the long term biological effects of radiation exposure by causing chronic oxidative stress. The objective during the last period of support (DE-FG02-05ER64050; 5/15/05-12/31/09) was to determine the involvement of mitochondrial genetic defects in metabolic oxidative stress and the biological effects of low dose/low LET radiation. Aim 1 was to determine if cells with mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits C and D (SDHC and SDHD in mitochondrial complex II) demonstrated increases in steady-state levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS; O2•- and H2O2) as well as demonstrating increased sensitivity to low dose/low LET radiation (10 cGy) in cultured mammalian cells. Aim #2 was to determine if mitochondrially-derived ROS contributed to increased sensitivity to low dose/low LET radiation in mammalian cells containing mutations in SDH subunits. Aim #3 was to determine if a causal relationship existed between increases in mitochondrial ROS production, alterations in electron transport chain proteins, and genomic instability in the progeny of irradiated cells. Evidence gathered in the 2005-2009 period of support demonstrated that mutations in genes coding for mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins (ETC); either Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH) subunit C (SDHC) or subunit D (SDHD); caused increased ROS production, increased genomic instability, and increased sensitivity to low dose/low LET radiation

  3. NOX4 NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Aging-Associated Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vendrov, Aleksandr E.; Vendrov, Kimberly C.; Smith, Alberto; Yuan, Jinling; Sumida, Arihiro; Robidoux, Jacques; Madamanchi, Nageswara R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Increased oxidative stress and vascular inflammation are implicated in increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence with age. We and others demonstrated that NOX1/2 NADPH oxidase inhibition, by genetic deletion of p47phox, in Apoe−/− mice decreases vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and atherosclerosis in young age. The present study examined whether NOX1/2 NADPH oxidases are also pivotal to aging-associated CVD. Results: Both aged (16 months) Apoe−/− and Apoe−/−/p47phox−/− mice had increased atherosclerotic lesion area, aortic stiffness, and systolic dysfunction compared with young (4 months) cohorts. Cellular and mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) levels were significantly higher in aortic wall and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from aged wild-type and p47phox−/− mice. VSMCs from aged mice had increased mitochondrial protein oxidation and dysfunction and increased vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression, which was abrogated with (2-(2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl-4-ylamino)-2-oxoethyl)triphenylphosphonium chloride (MitoTEMPO) treatment. NOX4 expression was increased in the vasculature and mitochondria of aged mice and its suppression with shRNA in VSMCs from aged mice decreased mtROS levels and improved function. Increased mtROS levels were associated with enhanced mitochondrial NOX4 expression in aortic VSMCs from aged subjects, and NOX4 expression levels in arterial wall correlated with age and atherosclerotic severity. Aged Apoe−/− mice treated with MitoTEMPO and 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-4-methyl-5-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine-3,6(2H,5H)-dione had decreased vascular ROS levels and atherosclerosis and preserved vascular and cardiac function. Innovation and Conclusion: These data suggest that NOX4, but not NOX1/2, and mitochondrial oxidative stress are mediators of CVD in aging under hyperlipidemic conditions. Regulating NOX4 activity/expression and using mitochondrial antioxidants are

  4. Enhanced oxidative stress and aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells during methamphetamine induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.-W.; Ping, Y.-H.; Yen, J.-C.; Chang, C.-Y.; Wang, S.-F.; Yeh, C.-L.; Chi, C.-W.; Lee, H.-C. . E-mail: hclee2@ym.edu.tw

    2007-05-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an abused drug that may cause psychiatric and neurotoxic damage, including degeneration of monoaminergic terminals and apoptosis of non-monoaminergic cells in Brain. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these METH-induced neurotoxic effects remain to be clarified. In this study, we performed a time course assessment to investigate the effects of METH on intracellular oxidative stress and mitochondrial alterations in a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. We characterized that METH induces a temporal sequence of several cellular events including, firstly, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential within 1 h of the METH treatment, secondly, an extensive decline in mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 8 h of the treatment, thirdly, an increase in mitochondrial mass after the drug treatment for 24 h, and finally, a decrease in mtDNA copy number and mitochondrial proteins per mitochondrion as well as the occurrence of apoptosis after 48 h of the treatment. Importantly, vitamin E attenuated the METH-induced increases in intracellular ROS level and mitochondrial mass, and prevented METH-induced cell death. Our observations suggest that enhanced oxidative stress and aberrant mitochondrial biogenesis may play critical roles in METH-induced neurotoxic effects.

  5. Methionine restriction decreases endogenous oxidative molecular damage and increases mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling protein 4 in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Naudí, Alba; Caro, Pilar; Jové, Mariona; Gómez, José; Boada, Jordi; Ayala, Victoria; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Barja, Gustavo; Pamplona, Reinald

    2007-12-01

    Aging plays a central role in the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases. Caloric restriction (CR) mitigates oxidative stress by decreasing the rate of generation of endogenous damage, a mechanism that can contribute to the slowing of the aging rate induced by this intervention. Various reports have recently linked methionine to aging, and methionine restriction (MetR) without energy restriction also increases life span. We have thus hypothesized that MetR can be responsible, at least in part, for the decrease in endogenous oxidative damage in CR. In this investigation we subjected male rats to exactly the same dietary protocol of MetR that is known to increase their life span. We have found that MetR: (1) decreases the mitochondrial complex I content and activity, as well as complex III content, while the complex II and IV, the mitochondrial flavoprotein apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and ATP content are unchanged; (2) increases the mitochondrial biogenesis factor PGC-1alpha; (3) increases the resistance of brain to metabolic and oxidative stress by increasing mitochondrial uncoupling protein 4 uncoupling protein 4 (UCP4); and (4) decreases mitochondrial oxidative DNA damage and all five different markers of protein oxidation measured and lowers membrane unsaturation in rat brain. No changes were detected for protein amino acid composition. These beneficial MetR-induced changes likely derived from metabolic reprogramming at the cellular and tissue level can play a key role in the protection against aging-associated neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:17716000

  6. Hydroxytyrosol ameliorates oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Granados-Principal, Sergio; El-Azem, Nuri; Pamplona, Reinald; Ramirez-Tortosa, Cesar; Pulido-Moran, Mario; Vera-Ramirez, Laura; Quiles, Jose L; Sanchez-Rovira, Pedro; Naudí, Alba; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Perez-Lopez, Patricia; Ramirez-Tortosa, Mcarmen

    2014-07-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in several processes including cancer, aging and cardiovascular disease, and has been shown to potentiate the therapeutic effect of drugs such as doxorubicin. Doxorubicin causes significant cardiotoxicity characterized by marked increases in oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Herein, we investigate whether doxorubicin-associated chronic cardiac toxicity can be ameliorated with the antioxidant hydroxytyrosol in rats with breast cancer. Thirty-six rats bearing breast tumors induced chemically were divided into 4 groups: control, hydroxytyrosol (0.5mg/kg, 5days/week), doxorubicin (1mg/kg/week), and doxorubicin plus hydroxytyrosol. Cardiac disturbances at the cellular and mitochondrial level, mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I-IV and apoptosis-inducing factor, and oxidative stress markers have been analyzed. Hydroxytyrosol improved the cardiac disturbances enhanced by doxorubicin by significantly reducing the percentage of altered mitochondria and oxidative damage. These results suggest that hydroxytyrosol improve the mitochondrial electron transport chain. This study demonstrates that hydroxytyrosol protect rat heart damage provoked by doxorubicin decreasing oxidative damage and mitochondrial alterations. PMID:24727461

  7. Protein oxidative folding in the intermembrane mitochondrial space: more than protein trafficking.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Hugo; Ventura, Salvador

    2012-05-01

    The process of oxidative folding in the intermembrane mitochondrial space (IMS) is an exciting field of research because folding is simultaneously coupled to protein translocation and functional regulation. Contrary to the endoplasmatic reticulum ER where several chaperones of the disulfide isomerase family exist, oxidative folding in the IMS is exclusively catalyzed by the oxoreductase Mia40 that recognizes a group of proteins with characteristic cysteine motifs organized in twin CX(3)C, twin CX(9)C or CX(2)C motifs. In this review, we discuss the structural and biochemical studies leading to our current understanding of the Mia40 pathway as well as the open questions on the field. In fact, despite significant advances, several key points on the Mia40 pathway remain to clarify namely on the molecular mechanism trough which substrate oxidative folding is catalyzed. This issue is receiving increasing attention since failures in the import, sorting and folding of mitochondrial proteins is related to an increasing number of debilitating human disorders. PMID:22612783

  8. Phosphocreatine protects against LPS-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis by regulating mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhengwu; Lan, Xiaoyan; Ahsan, Anil; Xi, Yalin; Liu, Shumin; Zhang, Zonghui; Chu, Peng; Song, Yushu; Piao, Fengyuan; Peng, Jinyong; Lin, Yuan; Han, Guozhu; Tang, Zeyao

    2016-03-01

    Phosphocreatine (PCr) is an exogenous energy substance, which provides phosphate groups for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) cycle and promotes energy metabolism in cells. However, it is still unclear whether PCr has influenced on mitochondrial energy metabolism as well as oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHO) in previous studies. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of PCr on lipopolsaccharide (LPS)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mitochondrial OXPHO pathway. PCr protected HUVECs against LPS-induced apoptosis by suppressing the mitochondrial permeability transition, cytosolic release of cytochrome c (Cyt C), Ca(2+), reactive oxygen species and subsequent activation of caspases, and increasing Bcl2 expression, while suppressing Bax expression. More importantly, PCr significantly improved mitochondrial swelling and membrane potential, enhanced the activities of ATP synthase and mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKmt) in creatine shuttle, influenced on respiratory chain enzymes, respiratory control ratio, phosphorus/oxygen ratio and ATP production of OXPHO. Above PCr-mediated mitochondrial events were effectively more favorable to reduced form of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) pathway than reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotid pathway in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Our results revealed that PCr protects against LPS-induced HUVECs apoptosis, which probably related to stabilization of intracellular energy metabolism, especially for FADH2 pathway in mitochondrial respiratory chain, ATP synthase and CKmt. Our findings suggest that PCr may play a certain role in the treatment of atherosclerosis via protecting endothelial cell function. PMID:26708229

  9. 8-Oxoguanine accumulation in mitochondrial DNA causes mitochondrial dysfunction and impairs neuritogenesis in cultured adult mouse cortical neurons under oxidative conditions

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Julio; Sakumi, Kunihiko; Castillo, Erika; Sheng, Zijing; Oka, Sugako; Nakabeppu, Yusaku

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are implicated in aging-related neurodegenerative disorders. 8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a common oxidised base lesion, is often highly accumulated in brains from patients with neurodegenerative disorders. MTH1 hydrolyses 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine triphosphate (8-oxo-dGTP) to 8-oxo-dGMP and pyrophosphate in nucleotide pools, while OGG1 excises 8-oxoG paired with cytosine in DNA, thereby minimising the accumulation of 8-oxoG in DNA. Mth1/Ogg1-double knockout (TO-DKO) mice are highly susceptible to neurodegeneration under oxidative conditions and show increased accumulation of 8-oxoG in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in neurons, suggesting that 8-oxoG accumulation in mtDNA causes mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we evaluated the contribution of MTH1 and OGG1 to the prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction during neuritogenesis in vitro. We isolated cortical neurons from adult wild-type and TO-DKO mice and maintained them with or without antioxidants for 2 to 5 days and then examined neuritogenesis. In the presence of antioxidants, both TO-DKO and wild-type neurons exhibited efficient neurite extension and arborisation. However, in the absence of antioxidants, the accumulation of 8-oxoG in mtDNA of TO-DKO neurons was increased resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. Cells also exhibited poor neurite outgrowth with decreased complexity of neuritic arborisation, indicating that MTH1 and OGG1 are essential for neuritogenesis under oxidative conditions. PMID:26912170

  10. Selective downregulation of mitochondrial electron transport chain activity and increased oxidative stress in human atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Emelyanova, Larisa; Ashary, Zain; Cosic, Milanka; Negmadjanov, Ulugbek; Ross, Gracious; Rizvi, Farhan; Olet, Susan; Kress, David; Sra, Jasbir; Tajik, A Jamil; Holmuhamedov, Ekhson L; Shi, Yang; Jahangir, Arshad

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondria are critical for maintaining normal cardiac function, and a deficit in mitochondrial energetics can lead to the development of the substrate that promotes atrial fibrillation (AF) and its progression. However, the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and AF in humans is still not fully defined. The aim of this study was to elucidate differences in the functional activity of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes and oxidative stress in right atrial tissue from patients without (non-AF) and with AF (AF) who were undergoing open-heart surgery and were not significantly different for age, sex, major comorbidities, and medications. The overall functional activity of the electron transport chain (ETC), NADH:O2 oxidoreductase activity, was reduced by 30% in atrial tissue from AF compared with non-AF patients. This was predominantly due to a selective reduction in complex I (0.06 ± 0.007 vs. 0.09 ± 0.006 nmol·min(-1)·citrate synthase activity(-1), P = 0.02) and II (0.11 ± 0.012 vs. 0.16 ± 0.012 nmol·min(-1)·citrate synthase activity(-1), P = 0.003) functional activity in AF patients. Conversely, complex V activity was significantly increased in AF patients (0.21 ± 0.027 vs. 0.12 ± 0.01 nmol·min(-1)·citrate synthase activity(-1), P = 0.005). In addition, AF patients exhibited a higher oxidative stress with increased production of mitochondrial superoxide (73 ± 17 vs. 11 ± 2 arbitrary units, P = 0.03) and 4-hydroxynonenal level (77.64 ± 30.2 vs. 9.83 ± 2.83 ng·mg(-1) protein, P = 0.048). Our findings suggest that AF is associated with selective downregulation of ETC activity and increased oxidative stress that can contribute to the progression of the substrate for AF. PMID:27199126

  11. Oxidative folding in the mitochondrial intermembrane space: A regulated process important for cell physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Chatzi, Afroditi; Manganas, Phanee; Tokatlidis, Kostas

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are fundamental organelles with a complex internal architecture that fulfill important diverse functions including iron-sulfur cluster assembly and cell respiration. Intense work for more than 30 years has identified the key protein import components and the pathways involved in protein targeting and assembly. More recently, oxidative folding has been discovered as one important mechanism for mitochondrial proteostasis whilst several human disorders have been linked to this pathway. We describe the molecular components of this pathway in view of their putative redox regulation and we summarize available evidence on the connections of these pathways to human disorders. PMID:27033519

  12. The transcriptional coregulator PGC-1β controls mitochondrial function and anti-oxidant defence in skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Gali Ramamoorthy, Thanuja; Laverny, Gilles; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Zoll, Joffrey; Messaddeq, Nadia; Bornert, Jean-Marc; Panza, Salvatore; Ferry, Arnaud; Geny, Bernard; Metzger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptional coregulators PGC-1α and PGC-1β modulate the expression of numerous partially overlapping genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and energetic metabolism. The physiological role of PGC-1β is poorly understood in skeletal muscle, a tissue of high mitochondrial content to produce ATP levels required for sustained contractions. Here we determine the physiological role of PGC-1β in skeletal muscle using mice, in which PGC-1β is selectively ablated in skeletal myofibres at adulthood (PGC-1β((i)skm-/-) mice). We show that myofibre myosin heavy chain composition and mitochondrial number, muscle strength and glucose homeostasis are unaffected in PGC-1β((i)skm-/-) mice. However, decreased expression of genes controlling mitochondrial protein import, translational machinery and energy metabolism in PGC-1β((i)skm-/-) muscles leads to mitochondrial structural and functional abnormalities, impaired muscle oxidative capacity and reduced exercise performance. Moreover, enhanced free-radical leak and reduced expression of the mitochondrial anti-oxidant enzyme Sod2 increase muscle oxidative stress. PGC-1β is therefore instrumental for skeletal muscles to cope with high energetic demands. PMID:26674215

  13. The transcriptional coregulator PGC-1β controls mitochondrial function and anti-oxidant defence in skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Gali Ramamoorthy, Thanuja; Laverny, Gilles; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Zoll, Joffrey; Messaddeq, Nadia; Bornert, Jean-Marc; Panza, Salvatore; Ferry, Arnaud; Geny, Bernard; Metzger, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptional coregulators PGC-1α and PGC-1β modulate the expression of numerous partially overlapping genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and energetic metabolism. The physiological role of PGC-1β is poorly understood in skeletal muscle, a tissue of high mitochondrial content to produce ATP levels required for sustained contractions. Here we determine the physiological role of PGC-1β in skeletal muscle using mice, in which PGC-1β is selectively ablated in skeletal myofibres at adulthood (PGC-1β(i)skm−/− mice). We show that myofibre myosin heavy chain composition and mitochondrial number, muscle strength and glucose homeostasis are unaffected in PGC-1β(i)skm−/− mice. However, decreased expression of genes controlling mitochondrial protein import, translational machinery and energy metabolism in PGC-1β(i)skm−/− muscles leads to mitochondrial structural and functional abnormalities, impaired muscle oxidative capacity and reduced exercise performance. Moreover, enhanced free-radical leak and reduced expression of the mitochondrial anti-oxidant enzyme Sod2 increase muscle oxidative stress. PGC-1β is therefore instrumental for skeletal muscles to cope with high energetic demands. PMID:26674215

  14. Expression of the Ciona intestinalis alternative oxidase (AOX) in Drosophila complements defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Ayala, Daniel J M; Sanz, Alberto; Vartiainen, Suvi; Kemppainen, Kia K; Babusiak, Marek; Mustalahti, Eero; Costa, Rodolfo; Tuomela, Tea; Zeviani, Massimo; Chung, Jongkyeong; O'Dell, Kevin M C; Rustin, Pierre; Jacobs, Howard T

    2009-05-01

    Defects in mitochondrial OXPHOS are associated with diverse and mostly intractable human disorders. The single-subunit alternative oxidase (AOX) found in many eukaryotes, but not in arthropods or vertebrates, offers a potential bypass of the OXPHOS cytochrome chain under conditions of pathological OXPHOS inhibition. We have engineered Ciona intestinalis AOX for conditional expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Ubiquitous AOX expression produced no detrimental phenotype in wild-type flies. However, mitochondrial suspensions from AOX-expressing flies exhibited a significant cyanide-resistant substrate oxidation, and the flies were partially resistant to both cyanide and antimycin. AOX expression was able to complement the semilethality of partial knockdown of both cyclope (COXVIc) and the complex IV assembly factor Surf1. It also rescued the locomotor defect and excess mitochondrial ROS production of flies mutated in dj-1beta, a Drosophila homolog of the human Parkinson's disease gene DJ1. AOX appears to offer promise as a wide-spectrum therapeutic tool in OXPHOS disorders. PMID:19416715

  15. PGC-1α mediates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation to promote metastasis

    PubMed Central

    LeBleu, Valerie S.; O'Connell, Joyce T.; Herrera, Karina N. Gonzalez; Wikman-Kocher, Harriet; Pantel, Klaus; Haigis, Marcia C.; de Carvalho, Fernanda Machado; Damascena, Aline; Chinen, Ludmilla Thome Domingos; Rocha, Rafael M.; Asara, John M.; Kalluri, Raghu

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells can divert metabolites into anabolic pathways to support their rapid proliferation and to accumulate the cellular building blocks required for tumor growth. However, the specific bioenergetic profile of invasive and metastatic cancer cells is unknown. Here we report that migratory/invasive cancer cells specifically favor mitochondrial respiration and increased ATP production. Invasive cancer cells use transcription co-activator, PGC-1α to enhance oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial biogenesis and oxygen consumption rate. Clinical analysis of human invasive breast cancers revealed a strong correlation between PGC-1α expression in invasive cancer cells and formation of distant metastases. Silencing of PGC-1α in cancer cells suspended their invasive potential and attenuated metastasis without affecting proliferation, primary tumor growth or epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) program. While inherent genetics of cancer cells determine the transcriptome framework required for invasion and metastasis, mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration induced by PGC-1α is also essential for functional motility of cancer cells and metastasis. PMID:25241037

  16. A Computational Screen for Regulators of Oxidative Phosphorylation Implicates SLIRP in Mitochondrial RNA Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, Joshua M.; Nilsson, Roland; Gohil, Vishal M.; Arlow, Daniel H.; Gauhar, Zareen; Mootha, Vamsi K.

    2009-01-01

    The human oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) system consists of approximately 90 proteins encoded by nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and serves as the primary cellular pathway for ATP biosynthesis. While the core protein machinery for OxPhos is well characterized, many of its assembly, maturation, and regulatory factors remain unknown. We exploited the tight transcriptional control of the genes encoding the core OxPhos machinery to identify novel regulators. We developed a computational procedure, which we call expression screening, which integrates information from thousands of microarray data sets in a principled manner to identify genes that are consistently co-expressed with a target pathway across biological contexts. We applied expression screening to predict dozens of novel regulators of OxPhos. For two candidate genes, CHCHD2 and SLIRP, we show that silencing with RNAi results in destabilization of OxPhos complexes and a marked loss of OxPhos enzymatic activity. Moreover, we show that SLIRP plays an essential role in maintaining mitochondrial-localized mRNA transcripts that encode OxPhos protein subunits. Our findings provide a catalogue of potential novel OxPhos regulators that advance our understanding of the coordination between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes for the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. PMID:19680543

  17. Mitochondrial Lon protease at the crossroads of oxidative stress, ageing and cancer.

    PubMed

    Pinti, Marcello; Gibellini, Lara; Liu, Yongzhang; Xu, Shan; Lu, Bin; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Lon protease is a nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial enzyme highly conserved throughout evolution, involved in the degradation of damaged and oxidized proteins of the mitochondrial matrix, in the correct folding of proteins imported in mitochondria, and in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA. Lon expression is induced by various stimuli, including hypoxia and reactive oxygen species, and provides protection against cell stress. Lon down-regulation is associated with ageing and with cell senescence, while up-regulation is observed in tumour cells, and is correlated with a more aggressive phenotype of cancer. Lon up-regulation contributes to metabolic reprogramming observed in cancer, favours the switch from a respiratory to a glycolytic metabolism, helping cancer cell survival in the tumour microenvironment, and contributes to epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Silencing of Lon, or pharmacological inhibition of its activity, causes cell death in various cancer cells. Thus, Lon can be included in the growing class of proteins that are not responsible for oncogenic transformation, but that are essential for survival and proliferation of cancer cells, and that can be considered as a new target for development of anticancer drugs. PMID:26363553

  18. Oxidative Stress Is Not a Major Contributor to Somatic Mitochondrial DNA Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Itsara, Leslie S.; Kennedy, Scott R.; Fox, Edward J.; Yu, Selina; Hewitt, Joshua J.; Sanchez-Contreras, Monica; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando; Pallanck, Leo J.

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations is implicated in aging and common diseases of the elderly, including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. However, the mechanisms that influence the frequency of somatic mtDNA mutations are poorly understood. To develop a simple invertebrate model system to address this matter, we used the Random Mutation Capture (RMC) assay to characterize the age-dependent frequency and distribution of mtDNA mutations in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Because oxidative stress is a major suspect in the age-dependent accumulation of somatic mtDNA mutations, we also used the RMC assay to explore the influence of oxidative stress on the somatic mtDNA mutation frequency. We found that many of the features associated with mtDNA mutations in vertebrates are conserved in Drosophila, including a comparable somatic mtDNA mutation frequency (∼10−5), an increased frequency of mtDNA mutations with age, and a prevalence of transition mutations. Only a small fraction of the mtDNA mutations detected in young or old animals were G∶C to T∶A transversions, a signature of oxidative damage, and loss-of-function mutations in the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, Sod2, had no detectable influence on the somatic mtDNA mutation frequency. Moreover, a loss-of-function mutation in Ogg1, which encodes a DNA repair enzyme that removes oxidatively damaged deoxyguanosine residues (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine), did not significantly influence the somatic mtDNA mutation frequency of Sod2 mutants. Together, these findings indicate that oxidative stress is not a major cause of somatic mtDNA mutations. Our data instead suggests that somatic mtDNA mutations arise primarily from errors that occur during mtDNA replication. Further studies using Drosophila should aid in the identification of factors that influence the frequency of somatic mtDNA mutations. PMID:24516391

  19. Oxidative stress is not a major contributor to somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations.

    PubMed

    Itsara, Leslie S; Kennedy, Scott R; Fox, Edward J; Yu, Selina; Hewitt, Joshua J; Sanchez-Contreras, Monica; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando; Pallanck, Leo J

    2014-02-01

    The accumulation of somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations is implicated in aging and common diseases of the elderly, including cancer and neurodegenerative disease. However, the mechanisms that influence the frequency of somatic mtDNA mutations are poorly understood. To develop a simple invertebrate model system to address this matter, we used the Random Mutation Capture (RMC) assay to characterize the age-dependent frequency and distribution of mtDNA mutations in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Because oxidative stress is a major suspect in the age-dependent accumulation of somatic mtDNA mutations, we also used the RMC assay to explore the influence of oxidative stress on the somatic mtDNA mutation frequency. We found that many of the features associated with mtDNA mutations in vertebrates are conserved in Drosophila, including a comparable somatic mtDNA mutation frequency (∼10(-5)), an increased frequency of mtDNA mutations with age, and a prevalence of transition mutations. Only a small fraction of the mtDNA mutations detected in young or old animals were G∶C to T∶A transversions, a signature of oxidative damage, and loss-of-function mutations in the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, Sod2, had no detectable influence on the somatic mtDNA mutation frequency. Moreover, a loss-of-function mutation in Ogg1, which encodes a DNA repair enzyme that removes oxidatively damaged deoxyguanosine residues (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine), did not significantly influence the somatic mtDNA mutation frequency of Sod2 mutants. Together, these findings indicate that oxidative stress is not a major cause of somatic mtDNA mutations. Our data instead suggests that somatic mtDNA mutations arise primarily from errors that occur during mtDNA replication. Further studies using Drosophila should aid in the identification of factors that influence the frequency of somatic mtDNA mutations. PMID:24516391

  20. Mitochondrial ferritin suppresses MPTP-induced cell damage by regulating iron metabolism and attenuating oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    You, Lin-Hao; Li, Zhen; Duan, Xiang-Lin; Zhao, Bao-Lu; Chang, Yan-Zhong; Shi, Zhen-Hua

    2016-07-01

    Our previous work showed that mitochondrial ferritin (MtFt) played an important role in preventing neuronal damage in 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the role of MtFt in a PD model induced by MPTP is not clear. Here, we found that methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetra-pyridine (MPTP) significantly upregulated MtFt in the mouse hippocampus, substantia nigra (SN) and striatum. To explore the effect of MtFt upregulation on the MPTP-mediated injury to neural cells, MtFt-/- mice and MtFt-overexpressing cells were used to construct models of PD induced by MPTP. Our results showed that MPTP dramatically downregulated expression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and tyrosine hydroxylase and upregulated L-ferritin expression in the mouse striatum and SN. Interestingly, MPTP induced high levels of MtFt in these tissues, indicating that MtFt was involved in iron metabolism and influenced dopamine synthesis induced by MPTP. Meanwhile, the Bcl2/Bax ratio was decreased significantly by MPTP in the striatum and SN of MtFt knockout (MtFt-/-) mice compared with controls. Overexpression of MtFt increased TfR1 and decreased ferroportin 1 induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ions (MPP+). MtFt strongly inhibited mitochondrial damage through maintaining the mitochondrial membrane potential and protecting the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane. It also suppressed the increase of the labile iron pool, decreased production of reactive oxygen species and dramatically rescued the apoptosis induced by MPP+. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that MtFt plays an important role in preventing neuronal damage in the MPTP-induced parkinsonian phenotype by inhibiting cellular iron accumulation and subsequent oxidative stress. PMID:27017962

  1. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation transcriptome alterations in human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord and blood.

    PubMed

    Ladd, Amy C; Keeney, Paula M; Govind, Maria M; Bennett, James P

    2014-12-01

    Origins of onset and progression of motor neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are not clearly known, but may include impairment of mitochondrial bioenergetics. We used quantitative PCR approaches to analyze the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) transcriptomes of spinal cord tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from persons with sporadic ALS compared with those without neurological disease. Expression measurements of 88 different nuclear (n) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA-encoded OXPHOS genes showed mtDNA-encoded respiratory gene expression was significantly decreased in ALS spinal cord by 78-84% (ANOVA p < 0.002). We observed the same phenomenon in freshly isolated PBMC from ALS patients (reduced 24-35%, ANOVA p < 0.001) and reproduced it in a human neural stem cell model treated with 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC) (reduced 52-78%, ANOVA p < 0.001). nDNA-encoded OXPHOS genes showed heterogeneously and mostly decreased expression in ALS spinal cord tissue. In contrast, ALS PBMC and ddC-treated stem cells showed no significant change in expression of nDNA OXPHOS genes compared with controls. Genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, TFAM, ERRα, NRF1, NRF2 and POLG) were queried with inconclusive results. Here, we demonstrate there is a systemic decrease in mtDNA gene expression in ALS central and peripheral tissues that support pursuit of bioenergetic-enhancing therapies. We also identified a combined nDNA and mtDNA gene set (n = 26), downregulated in spinal cord tissue that may be useful as a biomarker in the development of cell-based ALS models. PMID:25081190

  2. Dietary lipid quality and mitochondrial membrane composition in trout: responses of membrane enzymes and oxidative capacities.

    PubMed

    Martin, N; Bureau, D P; Marty, Y; Kraffe, E; Guderley, H

    2013-04-01

    To examine whether membrane fatty acid (FA) composition has a greater impact upon specific components of oxidative phosphorylation or on overall properties of muscle mitochondria, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed two diets differing only in FA composition. Diet 1 was enriched in 18:1n-9 and 18:2n-6 while Diet 2 was enriched in 22:6n-3. The FA composition of mitochondrial phospholipids was strongly affected by diet. 22:6n-3 levels were twice as high (49%) in mitochondrial phospholipids of fish fed Diet 2 than in those fed Diet 1. 18:2n-6 content of the phospholipids also followed the diets, whereas 18:1n-9 changed little. All n-6 FA, most notably 22:5n-6, were significantly higher in fish fed Diet 1. Nonetheless, total saturated FA, total monounsaturated FA and total polyunsaturated FA in mitochondrial phospholipids varied little. Despite a marked impact of diet on specific FA levels in mitochondrial phospholipids, only non-phosphorylating (state 4) rates were higher in fish fed Diet 2. Phosphorylating rates (state 3), oxygen consumption due to flux through the electron transport chain complexes as well as the corresponding spectrophotometric activities did not differ with diet. Body mass affected state 4 rates and cytochrome c oxidase and F 0 F 1 ATPase activities while complex I showed a diet-specific effect of body mass. Only the minor FA that were affected by body mass were correlated with functional properties. The regulated incorporation of dietary FA into phospholipids seems to allow fish to maintain critical membrane functions even when the lipid quality of their diets varies considerably, as is likely in their natural environment. PMID:23052948

  3. Cytokine and Nitric Oxide Levels in Patients with Sepsis – Temporal Evolvement and Relation to Platelet Mitochondrial Respiratory Function

    PubMed Central

    Sjövall, Fredrik; Morota, Saori; Åsander Frostner, Eleonor; Hansson, Magnus J.; Elmér, Eskil

    2014-01-01

    Background The levels of nitric oxide (NO) and various cytokines are known to be increased during sepsis. These signaling molecules could potentially act as regulators and underlie the enhancement of mitochondrial function described in the later phase of sepsis. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between observed changes in platelet mitochondrial respiration and a set of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as NO plasma levels in patients with sepsis. Methods and Results Platelet mitochondrial respiration and levels of TNFα, MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein-1), INFγ (interferon-γ), IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-17 and NO were analyzed in 38 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock at three time points during one week following admission to the ICU. Citrate synthase, mitochondrial DNA and cytochrome c were measured as markers of cellular mitochondrial content. All mitochondrial respiratory states increased over the week analyzed (p<0.001). IL-8 levels correlated with maximal mitochondrial respiration on day 6–7 (p = 0.02, r2 = 0.22) and was also higher in non-survivors compared to survivors on day 3–4 and day 6–7 (p = 0.03 respectively). Neither NO nor any of the other cytokines measured correlated with respiration or mortality. Cytochrome c levels were decreased at day 1–2 by 24±5% (p = 0.03) and returned towards values of the controls at the last two time points. Citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial DNA levels were similar to controls and remained constant throughout the week. Conclusions Out of ten analyzed cytokines and nitric oxide, IL-8 correlated with the observed increase in mitochondrial respiration. This suggests that cytokines as well as NO do not play a prominent role in the regulation of platelet mitochondrial respiration in sepsis. Further, the respiratory increase was not accompanied by an increase in markers of mitochondrial content, suggesting a possible role for post

  4. Tetrahydrocannabinol induces brain mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction and increases oxidative stress: a potential mechanism involved in cannabis-related stroke.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Valérie; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Rouyer, Olivier; Charles, Anne-Laure; Singh, François; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Marescaux, Christian; Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis has potential therapeutic use but tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its main psychoactive component, appears as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young adults. We therefore evaluate the effects of THC on brain mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, key factors involved in stroke. Maximal oxidative capacities V max (complexes I, III, and IV activities), V succ (complexes II, III, and IV activities), V tmpd (complex IV activity), together with mitochondrial coupling (V max/V 0), were determined in control conditions and after exposure to THC in isolated mitochondria extracted from rat brain, using differential centrifugations. Oxidative stress was also assessed through hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, measured with Amplex Red. THC significantly decreased V max (-71%; P < 0.0001), V succ (-65%; P < 0.0001), and V tmpd (-3.5%; P < 0.001). Mitochondrial coupling (V max/V 0) was also significantly decreased after THC exposure (1.8±0.2 versus 6.3±0.7; P < 0.001). Furthermore, THC significantly enhanced H2O2 production by cerebral mitochondria (+171%; P < 0.05) and mitochondrial free radical leak was increased from 0.01±0.01 to 0.10±0.01% (P < 0.001). Thus, THC increases oxidative stress and induces cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction. This mechanism may be involved in young cannabis users who develop ischemic stroke since THC might increase patient's vulnerability to stroke. PMID:25654095

  5. Selenium reduces mobile phone (900 MHz)-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kahya, Mehmet Cemal; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Çiğ, Bilal

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to mobile phone-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) may affect biological systems by increasing free oxygen radicals, apoptosis, and mitochondrial depolarization levels although selenium may modulate the values in cancer. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of 900 MHz radiation on the antioxidant redox system, apoptosis, and mitochondrial depolarization levels in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Cultures of the cancer cells were divided into four main groups as controls, selenium, EMR, and EMR + selenium. In EMR groups, the cells were exposed to 900 MHz EMR for 1 h (SAR value of the EMR was 0.36 ± 0.02 W/kg). In selenium groups, the cells were also incubated with sodium selenite for 1 h before EMR exposure. Then, the following values were analyzed: (a) cell viability, (b) intracellular ROS production, (c) mitochondrial membrane depolarization, (d) cell apoptosis, and (e) caspase-3 and caspase-9 values. Selenium suppressed EMR-induced oxidative cell damage and cell viability (MTT) through a reduction of oxidative stress and restoring mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, selenium indicated anti-apoptotic effects, as demonstrated by plate reader analyses of apoptosis levels and caspase-3 and caspase-9 values. In conclusion, 900 MHz EMR appears to induce apoptosis effects through oxidative stress and mitochondrial depolarization although incubation of selenium seems to counteract the effects on apoptosis and oxidative stress. PMID:24965080

  6. Supplementation of T3 Recovers Hypothyroid Rat Liver Cells from Oxidatively Damaged Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Leading to Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sutapa; Samanta, Luna; Roy, Anita; Bhanja, Shravani; Chainy, Gagan B. N.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a growing medical concern. There are conflicting reports regarding the mechanism of oxidative stress in hypothyroidism. Mitochondrial oxidative stress is pivotal to thyroid dysfunction. The present study aimed to delineate the effects of hepatic inner mitochondrial membrane dysfunction as a consequence of 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Increased oxidative stress predominance in the submitochondrial particles (SMP) and altered antioxidant defenses in the mitochondrial matrix fraction correlated with hepatocyte apoptosis. In order to check whether the effects caused by hypothyroidism are reversed by T3, the above parameters were evaluated in a subset of T3-treated hypothyroid rats. Complex I activity was inhibited in hypothyroid SMP, whereas T3 supplementation upregulated electron transport chain complexes. Higher mitochondrial H2O2 levels in hypothyroidism due to reduced matrix GPx activity culminated in severe oxidative damage to membrane lipids. SMP and matrix proteins were stabilised in hypothyroidism but exhibited increased carbonylation after T3 administration. Glutathione content was higher in both. Hepatocyte apoptosis was evident in hypothyroid liver sections; T3 administration, on the other hand, exerted antiapoptotic and proproliferative effects. Hence, thyroid hormone level critically regulates functional integrity of hepatic mitochondria; hypothyroidism injures mitochondrial membrane lipids leading to hepatocyte apoptosis, which is substantially recovered upon T3 supplementation. PMID:24987693

  7. Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Brain Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Dysfunction and Increases Oxidative Stress: A Potential Mechanism Involved in Cannabis-Related Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Valérie; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Rouyer, Olivier; Charles, Anne-Laure; Singh, François; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Marescaux, Christian; Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis has potential therapeutic use but tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its main psychoactive component, appears as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young adults. We therefore evaluate the effects of THC on brain mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, key factors involved in stroke. Maximal oxidative capacities Vmax (complexes I, III, and IV activities), Vsucc (complexes II, III, and IV activities), Vtmpd (complex IV activity), together with mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0), were determined in control conditions and after exposure to THC in isolated mitochondria extracted from rat brain, using differential centrifugations. Oxidative stress was also assessed through hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, measured with Amplex Red. THC significantly decreased Vmax (−71%; P < 0.0001), Vsucc (−65%; P < 0.0001), and Vtmpd (−3.5%; P < 0.001). Mitochondrial coupling (Vmax/V0) was also significantly decreased after THC exposure (1.8±0.2 versus 6.3±0.7; P < 0.001). Furthermore, THC significantly enhanced H2O2 production by cerebral mitochondria (+171%; P < 0.05) and mitochondrial free radical leak was increased from 0.01±0.01 to 0.10±0.01% (P < 0.001). Thus, THC increases oxidative stress and induces cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction. This mechanism may be involved in young cannabis users who develop ischemic stroke since THC might increase patient's vulnerability to stroke. PMID:25654095

  8. A Survey of Stress-Related Illnesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashlock, Larry; Hayman, Peter

    The prevalence of stress-related medical conditions in clients of Readjustment Counseling Service at Veterans Centers was investigated. The purpose of the study was to gain further knowledge specifically pertaining to the long-term health consequences of exposure to combat trauma. A review of relevant literature is provided. Veterans Center…

  9. Legume-, fish-, or high-protein-based hypocaloric diets: effects on weight loss and mitochondrial oxidation in obese men.

    PubMed

    Abete, Itziar; Parra, Dolores; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2009-02-01

    The nutritional composition of dietary intake could produce specific effects on metabolic variables such as mitochondrial oxidation, whose understanding could contribute to apply more individualized weight-lowering strategies. This study assessed the effects of four hypocaloric diets with high protein content or different food distribution on metabolic changes and mitochondrial oxidation accompanying weight loss. Thirty-five obese men (body mass index of 31.8 +/- 3.0 kg/m(2) and 38 +/- 7 years old) were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments (8 weeks): control diet (C-diet); legume diet (L-diet); fatty fish diet (FF-diet); or high-protein diet (HP-diet). Body composition, blood pressure, resting energy expenditure, mitochondrial oxidation, blood biomarkers, and dietary intake were assessed. The HP-diet and L-diet achieved the greater body weight reduction (-8.4 +/- 1.2% and -8.3 +/- 2.9%, respectively), as compared to the C-diet (-5.5 +/- 2.5%; P = .042). The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were reduced in all dietary groups except for the FF-diet. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly improved by the L-diet (P < .05), while the homeostatic model assessment index of insulin resistance value was significantly reduced in those men following the HP-diet. Mitochondrial oxidation was specifically activated by the HP-diet and L-diet at the end of the study. Interestingly, a lineal regression model explained about 25% (P = .029) of the mitochondrial oxidation variability as influenced by the diet changes once adjusted by resting energy expenditure. The specific consumption of legumes or high protein content within a hypocaloric diet could activate mitochondrial oxidation, which could involve additional benefits to those associated with the weight reduction. PMID:19298202

  10. Regulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I during fasting in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) promotes increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Morash, Andrea J; McClelland, Grant B

    2011-01-01

    Periods of fasting, in most animals, are fueled principally by fatty acids, and changes in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation must exist to meet this change in metabolic substrate use. We examined the regulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I, to help explain changes in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation with fasting. After fasting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for 5 wk, the mitochondria were isolated from red muscle and liver to determine (1) mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation rate, (2) CPT I activity and the concentration of malonyl-CoA needed to inhibit this activity by 50% (IC(50)), (3) mitochondrial membrane fluidity, and (4) CPT I (all five known isoforms) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα and PPARβ) mRNA levels. Fatty acid oxidation in isolated mitochondria increased during fasting by 2.5- and 1.75-fold in liver and red muscle, respectively. Fasting also decreased sensitivity of CPT I to malonyl-CoA (increased IC(50)), by two and eight times in red muscle and liver, respectively, suggesting it facilitates the rate of fatty acid oxidation. In the liver, there was also a significant increase CPT I activity per milligram mitochondrial protein and in whole-tissue PPARα and PPARβ mRNA levels. However, there were no changes in mitochondrial membrane fluidity in either tissue, indicating that the decrease in CPT I sensitivity to malonyl-CoA is not due to bulk fluidity changes in the membrane. However, there were significant differences in CPT I mRNA levels during fasting. Overall, these data indicate some important changes in the regulation of CPT I that promote the increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation that occurs during fasting in trout. PMID:22030855

  11. Stable over-expression of the 2-oxoglutarate carrier enhances neuronal cell resistance to oxidative stress via Bcl-2-dependent mitochondrial GSH transport

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Heather M.; Brock, Samantha; Gray, Josie J.; Linseman, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) is a key endogenous antioxidant and its maintenance is critical for cell survival. Here, we generated stable NSC34 motor neuron-like cell lines over-expressing the mitochondrial GSH transporter, the 2-oxoglutarate carrier (OGC), to further elucidate the importance of mitochondrial GSH transport in determining neuronal resistance to oxidative stress. Two stable OGC cell lines displayed specific increases in mitochondrial GSH content and resistance to oxidative and nitrosative stressors, but not staurosporine. Inhibition of transport through OGC reduced levels of mitochondrial GSH and resensitized the stable cell lines to oxidative stress. The stable OGC cell lines displayed significant up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). This result was reproduced in parental NSC34 cells by chronic treatment with GSH monoethylester, which specifically increased mitochondrial GSH levels. Knockdown of Bcl-2 expression decreased mitochondrial GSH and resensitized the stable OGC cells to oxidative stress. Finally, endogenous OGC was co-immunoprecipitated with Bcl-2 from rat brain lysates in a GSH-dependent manner. These data are the first to show that increased mitochondrial GSH transport is sufficient to enhance neuronal resistance to oxidative stress. Moreover, sustained and specific enhancement of mitochondrial GSH leads to increased Bcl-2 expression, a required mechanism for the maintenance of increased mitochondrial GSH levels. PMID:24606213

  12. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation: tissue oxygen sensor for regulation of coronary flow.

    PubMed

    Nuutinen, E M; Wilson, D F; Erecińska, M

    1984-01-01

    The observation that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in vivo is dependent on oxygen tension throughout the physiological range (Wilson et al., 1979a , 1979b ) has made this metabolic pathway the most probable candidate for the tissue oxygen sensor in the regulation of local blood flow. We have utilized the oxygen dependent regulatory system for coronary blood flow to examine this possibility. Alterations in coronary flow were induced by: 1. Varied work load; 2. Infusion of Amytal (an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration); 3. Infusion of DNP; 4. Hypoxia. Increased work load caused increased coronary flow with no decrease in effluent oxygen tension while Amytal infusion and hypoxia caused vasodilation with increased and decreased O2 tension respectively. This indicates that oxygen tension per se cannot be responsible for the observed vasodilation. Tissue energy metabolism was evaluated by measuring metabolite levels in hearts which were freeze-clamped in each state of perfusion. In all four methods of vasodilation, a decrease in cellular energy state ratio ([ATP]f/[ADP]f[Pi]) expressed as the calculated ratio of free adenine nucleotides, was observed for conditions which increased flow. Systematic variation of work load, Amytal or DNP concentration resulted in quantitatively the same correlation between tissue [ATP]f/[ADP]f[Pi] and coronary flow. It is concluded that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is the oxygen sensor for the regulation of coronary blood flow by tissue oxygen tension. Infusion of adenosine, a known coronary vasodilator, induced vasodilation which was completely blocked by theophylline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6731096

  13. Mitochondrial redox studies of oxidative stress in kidneys from diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Sepideh; Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Staniszewski, Kevin; Sheibani, Nader; Sorenson, Christine M.; Ranji, Mahsa

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia during diabetes leads to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased oxidative stress (OS). Here we investigated whether changes in the metabolic state can be used as a marker of OS progression in kidneys. We examined redox states of kidneys from diabetic mice, Akita/+ and Akita/+;TSP1–/– mice (Akita mice lacking thrombospondin-1, TSP1) with increasing duration of diabetes. OS as measured by mitochondrial redox ratio (NADH/FAD) was detectable shortly after the onset of diabetes and further increased with the duration of diabetes. Thus, cryo fluorescence redox imaging was used as a quantitative marker of OS progression in kidneys from diabetic mice and demonstrated that alterations in the oxidative state of kidneys occur during the early stages of diabetes. PMID:22312580

  14. Humanin: a mitochondrial signaling peptide as a biomarker for impaired fasting glucose-related oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Annet; Jelinek, Herbert F

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondrial RNR-2 (mt-RNR2, humanin) has been shown to play a role in protecting several types of cells and tissues from the effects of oxidative stress. Humanin (HN) functions through extracellular and intracellular pathways adjusting mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production. Addition of HN improved insulin sensitivity in animal models of diabetes mellitus but no clinical studies have been carried out to measure HN levels in humans associated with hyperglycemia. The plasma levels of HN in participants attending a diabetes complications screening clinic were measured. Clinical history and anthropometric data were obtained from all participants. Plasma levels of HN were measured by a commercial ELISA kit. All data were analyzed applying nonparametric statistics and general linear modeling to correct for age and gender. A significant decrease (P = 0.0001) in HN was observed in the impaired fasting glucose (IFG) group (n = 23; 204.84 ± 92.87 pg mL(-1)) compared to control (n = 58; 124.3 ± 83.91 pg mL(-1)) consistent with an adaptive cellular response by HN to a slight increase in BGL. PMID:27173674

  15. Evidence linking oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation in the brain of individuals with autism

    PubMed Central

    Rossignol, Daniel A.; Frye, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders that are defined solely on the basis of behavioral observations. Therefore, ASD has traditionally been framed as a behavioral disorder. However, evidence is accumulating that ASD is characterized by certain physiological abnormalities, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and immune dysregulation/inflammation. While these abnormalities have been reported in studies that have examined peripheral biomarkers such as blood and urine, more recent studies have also reported these abnormalities in brain tissue derived from individuals diagnosed with ASD as compared to brain tissue derived from control individuals. A majority of these brain tissue studies have been published since 2010. The brain regions found to contain these physiological abnormalities in individuals with ASD are involved in speech and auditory processing, social behavior, memory, and sensory and motor coordination. This manuscript examines the evidence linking oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and immune dysregulation/inflammation in the brain of ASD individuals, suggesting that ASD has a clear biological basis with features of known medical disorders. This understanding may lead to new testing and treatment strategies in individuals with ASD. PMID:24795645

  16. Effects of Atorvastatin on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Mitochondrial Morphofunctionality in Hyperfibrinogenemia-Induced Atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Scribano, María de la Paz; Baez, María del Carmen; Florencia, Becerra; Tarán, Mariana Denise; Franco, Signorini; Balceda, Ariel G.; Moya, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    Relationship between hyperfibrinogenemia (HF), oxidative stress, and atherogenesis was established. Effect of atorvastatin (Ator) was assessed. Wistar male (6 months) rats were studied: Ctr, control, without HF induction; Ctr-Ator, without HF treated with atorvastatin; AI, atherogenesis induced, and AI-Ator, atherogenesis induced and treated with atorvastatin. Atherogenesis was induced by daily adrenaline injection (0.1 mL/day/rat) for 90 days; treatment started 15 days after induction. Fibrinogen (mg/dL) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured in plasma (mM) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (U/mL) in red cell lysate by spectrophotometry. Slices of aorta were analyzed by electron microscopy (EM). ANOVA and chi-square test were used; P < 0.05 was established. There were no significant differences between Ctr and Ctr-Atorv in fibrinogen, NO, and SOD values. Comparing Ctr with AI an increase of fibrinogen is observed (P < 0.001), but it decreased after administration of atorvastatin in AI-Ator (P < 0.001). NO diminished in AI relative to Ctr and increased in AI-Ator (P < 0.001). SOD showed an increase in AI and AI-Ator compared to Ctr (P < 0.001). EM revealed expansion of intermembrane space and disorganization of crests in AI. In AI-Ator mitochondrial areas and diameters were similar to control. Atorvastatin normalizes HF, stabilizes NO, increases SOD, and produces a partial regression of mitochondrial lesions. PMID:26556431

  17. CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through upregulating L-type calcium channel activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Xu, Huanbai; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-09-01

    A specialized culture medium termed ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) allows investigators to assess the peripheral effects of CNTF-induced activated astrocytes upon cultured neurons. CNTF-ACM has been shown to upregulate neuronal L-type calcium channel current activity, which has been previously linked to changes in mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate CNTF-ACM's effects upon mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in rat cortical neurons. Cortical neurons, CNTF-ACM, and untreated control astrocyte-conditioned medium (UC-ACM) were prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat cortical tissue. Neurons were cultured in either CNTF-ACM or UC-ACM for a 48-h period. Changes in the following parameters before and after treatment with the L-type calcium channel blocker isradipine were assessed: (i) intracellular calcium levels, (ii) mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), (iii) oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formation, (iv) intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels, (v) mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and (vi) susceptibility to the mitochondrial complex I toxin rotenone. CNTF-ACM neurons displayed the following significant changes relative to UC-ACM neurons: (i) increased intracellular calcium levels (p < 0.05), (ii) elevation in ΔΨm (p < 0.05), (iii) increased OCR and ATP formation (p < 0.05), (iv) increased intracellular NO levels (p < 0.05), (v) increased mitochondrial ROS production (p < 0.05), and (vi) increased susceptibility to rotenone (p < 0.05). Treatment with isradipine was able to partially rescue these negative effects of CNTF-ACM (p < 0.05). CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through elevating L-type calcium channel activity. PMID:27514537

  18. Stereoselective and nonstereoselective effects of ibuprofen enantiomers on mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Freneaux, E.; Fromenty, B.; Berson, A.; Labbe, G.; Degott, C.; Letteron, P.; Larrey, D.; Pessayre, D. , Hopital Beaujon, Clichy )

    1990-11-01

    The effects of the R-(-) and S-(+)ibuprofen enantiomers were first studied in vitro with mouse liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of various concentrations of exogenous coenzyme A. In the presence of a low concentration of coenzyme A (2.5 microM), the R-(-)enantiomer (which forms an acylcoenzyme A) inhibited stereoselectively the beta oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C)palmitic acid but not that of (1-{sup 14}C)palmitoyl-L-carnitine (which can directly enter the mitochondria). In the presence, however, of a concentration of coenzyme A (50 microM) reproducing that present in liver cell cytosol, both enantiomers (2 mM) slightly inhibited the beta oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C)palmitic acid and markedly inhibited the beta oxidation of (1-{sup 14}C)octanoic acid and (1-{sup 14}C)butyric acid. In vivo, both enantiomers (1 mmol.kg-1) similarly inhibited the formation of ({sup 14}C)CO{sub 2} from (1-{sup 14}C)fatty acids. Both enantiomers similarly decreased plasma ketone bodies. Both similarly increased hepatic triglycerides, and both produced mild microvesicular steatosis of the liver. We conclude that both ibuprofen enantiomers inhibit beta oxidation of fatty acids in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the R-(-)enantiomer may stereoselectively sequester coenzyme A; at low concentrations of coenzyme A in vitro, this may stereoselectively inhibit the mitochondrial uptake and beta oxidation of long chain fatty acids.

  19. The Emerging Nexus of Active DNA Demethylation and Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism in Post-Mitotic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Huan; Chen, Guiquan; Gao, Hui-Ming; Song, Xiaoyu; Shi, Yun; Cao, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The variable patterns of DNA methylation in mammals have been linked to a number of physiological processes, including normal embryonic development and disease pathogenesis. Active removal of DNA methylation, which potentially regulates neuronal gene expression both globally and gene specifically, has been recently implicated in neuronal plasticity, learning and memory processes. Model pathways of active DNA demethylation involve ten-eleven translocation (TET) methylcytosine dioxygenases that are dependent on oxidative metabolites. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidizing agents generate oxidative modifications of DNA bases that can be removed by base excision repair proteins. These potentially link the two processes of active DNA demethylation and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in post-mitotic neurons. We review the current biochemical understanding of the DNA demethylation process and discuss its potential interaction with oxidative metabolism. We then summarise the emerging roles of both processes and their interaction in neural plasticity and memory formation and the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration. Finally, possible therapeutic approaches for neurodegenerative diseases are proposed, including reprogramming therapy by global DNA demethylation and mitohormesis therapy for locus-specific DNA demethylation in post-mitotic neurons. PMID:25490140

  20. Oxidative damage of DNA induced by X-irradiation decreases the uterine endometrial receptivity which involves mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Liang, Jin-Xiao; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Chang; Liu, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Yan, Qiu

    2015-01-01

    X irradiation may lead to female infertility and the mechanism is still not clear. After X irradiation exposure, significantly morphological changes and functional decline in endometrial epithelial cells were observed. The mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunction and oxidative DNA damage were noticed after X irradiation. In addition, pretreatment with NAC, NH4Cl or Pep A reduced the X irradiation induced damages. These studies demonstrate that the oxidative DNA damage which involved dysfunctional lysosomal and mitochondrial contribute to X irradiation-induced impaired receptive state of uterine endometrium and proper protective reagents can be helpful in improving endometrial function. PMID:26064230

  1. Mitochondrial coupling and capacity of oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle of Inuit and Caucasians in the arctic winter.

    PubMed

    Gnaiger, E; Boushel, R; Søndergaard, H; Munch-Andersen, T; Damsgaard, R; Hagen, C; Díez-Sánchez, C; Ara, I; Wright-Paradis, C; Schrauwen, P; Hesselink, M; Calbet, J A L; Christiansen, M; Helge, J W; Saltin, B

    2015-12-01

    During evolution, mitochondrial DNA haplogroups of arctic populations may have been selected for lower coupling of mitochondrial respiration to ATP production in favor of higher heat production. We show that mitochondrial coupling in skeletal muscle of traditional and westernized Inuit habituating northern Greenland is identical to Danes of western Europe haplogroups. Biochemical coupling efficiency was preserved across variations in diet, muscle fiber type, and uncoupling protein-3 content. Mitochondrial phenotype displayed plasticity in relation to lifestyle and environment. Untrained Inuit and Danes had identical capacities to oxidize fat substrate in arm muscle, which increased in Danes during the 42 days of acclimation to exercise, approaching the higher level of the Inuit hunters. A common pattern emerges of mitochondrial acclimatization and evolutionary adaptation in humans at high latitude and high altitude where economy of locomotion may be optimized by preservation of biochemical coupling efficiency at modest mitochondrial density, when submaximum performance is uncoupled from VO2max and maximum capacities of oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:26589126

  2. Stable over-expression of the 2-oxoglutarate carrier enhances neuronal cell resistance to oxidative stress via Bcl-2-dependent mitochondrial GSH transport.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Heather M; Brock, Samantha; Gray, Josie J; Linseman, Daniel A

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial glutathione (GSH) is a key endogenous antioxidant and its maintenance is critical for cell survival. Here, we generated stable NSC34 motor neuron-like cell lines over-expressing the mitochondrial GSH transporter, the 2-oxoglutarate carrier (OGC), to further elucidate the importance of mitochondrial GSH transport in determining neuronal resistance to oxidative stress. Two stable OGC cell lines displayed specific increases in mitochondrial GSH content and resistance to oxidative and nitrosative stressors, but not staurosporine. Inhibition of transport through OGC reduced levels of mitochondrial GSH and resensitized the stable cell lines to oxidative stress. The stable OGC cell lines displayed significant up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). This result was reproduced in parental NSC34 cells by chronic treatment with GSH monoethylester, which specifically increased mitochondrial GSH levels. Knockdown of Bcl-2 expression decreased mitochondrial GSH and resensitized the stable OGC cells to oxidative stress. Finally, endogenous OGC was co-immunoprecipitated with Bcl-2 from rat brain lysates in a GSH-dependent manner. These data are the first to show that increased mitochondrial GSH transport is sufficient to enhance neuronal resistance to oxidative stress. Moreover, sustained and specific enhancement of mitochondrial GSH leads to increased Bcl-2 expression, a required mechanism for the maintenance of increased mitochondrial GSH levels. Stable over-expression of the 2-oxoglutarate carrier (OGC) in a motor neuronal cell line induced a specific increase in mitochondrial GSH and markedly enhanced resistance to oxidative stress. Over-expression of OGC also induced Bcl-2 expression which was owing to the specific increase in mitochondrial GSH. Intriguingly, enhanced expression of Bcl-2 was required to sustain OGC-dependent GSH transport into the mitochondria. Thus, OGC and Bcl-2 work in a concerted manner to maintain the

  3. The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α is essential for maximal and efficient cardiac mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and lipid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, John J.; Boudina, Sihem; Banke, Natasha Hausler; Sambandam, Nandakumar; Han, Xianlin; Young, Deanna M.; Leone, Teresa C.; Gross, Richard W.; Lewandowski, E. Douglas; Abel, E. Dale; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2008-01-01

    High-capacity mitochondrial ATP production is essential for normal function of the adult heart, and evidence is emerging that mitochondrial derangements occur in common myocardial diseases. Previous overexpression studies have shown that the inducible transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α is capable of activating postnatal cardiac myocyte mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, we generated mice deficient in PGC-1α (PGC-1α−/− mice), which survive with modestly blunted postnatal cardiac growth. To determine if PGC-1α is essential for normal cardiac energy metabolic capacity, mitochondrial function experiments were performed on saponin-permeabilized myocardial fibers from PGC-1α−/− mice. These experiments demonstrated reduced maximal (state 3) palmitoyl-l-carnitine respiration and increased maximal (state 3) pyruvate respiration in PGC-1α−/− mice compared with PGC-1α+/+ controls. ATP synthesis rates obtained during maximal (state 3) respiration in permeabilized myocardial fibers were reduced for PGC-1α−/− mice, whereas ATP produced per oxygen consumed (ATP/O), a measure of metabolic efficiency, was decreased by 58% for PGC-1α−/− fibers. Ex vivo isolated working heart experiments demonstrated that PGC-1α−/− mice exhibited lower cardiac power, reduced palmitate oxidation, and increased reliance on glucose oxidation, with the latter likely a compensatory response. 13C NMR revealed that hearts from PGC-1α−/− mice exhibited a limited capacity to recruit triglyceride as a source for lipid oxidation during β-adrenergic challenge. Consistent with reduced mitochondrial fatty acid oxidative enzyme gene expression, the total triglyceride content was greater in hearts of PGC-1α−/− mice relative to PGC-1α+/+ following a fast. Overall, these results demonstrate that PGC-1α is essential for the maintenance of maximal, efficient cardiac mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, ATP

  4. Oxidized Ferric and Ferryl Forms of Hemoglobin Trigger Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Injury in Alveolar Type I Cells.

    PubMed

    Chintagari, Narendranath Reddy; Jana, Sirsendu; Alayash, Abdu I

    2016-08-01

    Lung alveoli are lined by alveolar type (AT) 1 cells and cuboidal AT2 cells. The AT1 cells are likely to be exposed to cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) in multiple lung diseases; however, the role of Hb redox (reduction-oxidation) reactions and their precise contributions to AT1 cell injury are not well understood. Using mouse lung epithelial cells (E10) as an AT1 cell model, we demonstrate here that higher Hb oxidation states, ferric Hb (HbFe(3+)) and ferryl Hb (HbFe(4+)) and subsequent heme loss play a central role in the genesis of injury. Exposures to HbFe(2+) and HbFe(3+) for 24 hours induced expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 protein in E10 cells and HO-1 translocation in the purified mitochondrial fractions. Both of these effects were intensified with increasing oxidation states of Hb. Next, we examined the effects of Hb oxidation and free heme on mitochondrial bioenergetic function by measuring changes in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and oxygen consumption rate. In contrast to HbFe(2+), HbFe(3+) reduced basal oxygen consumption rate, indicating compromised mitochondrial activity. However, HbFe(4+) exposure not only induced early expression of HO-1 but also caused mitochondrial dysfunction within 12 hours when compared with HbFe(2+) and HbFe(3+). Exposure to HbFe(4+) for 24 hours also caused mitochondrial depolarization in E10 cells. The deleterious effects of HbFe(3+) and HbFe(4+) were reversed by the addition of scavenger proteins, haptoglobin and hemopexin. Collectively, these data establish, for the first time, a central role for cell-free Hb in lung epithelial injury, and that these effects are mediated through the redox transition of Hb to higher oxidation states. PMID:26974230

  5. Mitochondria-targeted Ogg1 and Aconitase-2 Prevent Oxidant-induced Mitochondrial DNA Damage in Alveolar Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Jo; Cheresh, Paul; Williams, David; Cheng, Yuan; Ridge, Karen; Schumacker, Paul T.; Weitzman, Sigmund; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Kamp, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria-targeted human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (mt-hOgg1) and aconitase-2 (Aco-2) each reduce oxidant-induced alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis, but it is unclear whether protection occurs by preventing AEC mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage. Using quantitative PCR-based measurements of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage, mtDNA damage was preferentially noted in AEC after exposure to oxidative stress (e.g. amosite asbestos (5–25 μg/cm2) or H2O2 (100–250 μm)) for 24 h. Overexpression of wild-type mt-hOgg1 or mt-long α/β 317–323 hOgg1 mutant incapable of DNA repair (mt-hOgg1-Mut) each blocked A549 cell oxidant-induced mtDNA damage, mitochondrial p53 translocation, and intrinsic apoptosis as assessed by DNA fragmentation and cleaved caspase-9. In contrast, compared with controls, knockdown of Ogg1 (using Ogg1 shRNA in A549 cells or primary alveolar type 2 cells from ogg1−/− mice) augmented mtDNA lesions and intrinsic apoptosis at base line, and these effects were increased further after exposure to oxidative stress. Notably, overexpression of Aco-2 reduced oxidant-induced mtDNA lesions, mitochondrial p53 translocation, and apoptosis, whereas siRNA for Aco-2 (siAco-2) enhanced mtDNA damage, mitochondrial p53 translocation, and apoptosis. Finally, siAco-2 attenuated the protective effects of mt-hOgg1-Mut but not wild-type mt-hOgg1 against oxidant-induced mtDNA damage and apoptosis. Collectively, these data demonstrate a novel role for mt-hOgg1 and Aco-2 in preserving AEC mtDNA integrity, thereby preventing oxidant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, p53 mitochondrial translocation, and intrinsic apoptosis. Furthermore, mt-hOgg1 chaperoning of Aco-2 in preventing oxidant-mediated mtDNA damage and apoptosis may afford an innovative target for the molecular events underlying oxidant-induced toxicity. PMID:24429287

  6. The anti-cancer agent guttiferone-A permeabilizes mitochondrial membrane: ensuing energetic and oxidative stress implications.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Nuñez-Figueredo, Yanier; Tudella, Valeria G; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Rodrigues, Fernando P; Pestana, Cezar R; Uyemura, Sérgio A; Leopoldino, Andreia M; Alberici, Luciane C; Curti, Carlos

    2011-06-15

    Guttiferone-A (GA) is a natural occurring polyisoprenylated benzophenone with cytotoxic action in vitro and anti-tumor action in rodent models. We addressed a potential involvement of mitochondria in GA toxicity (1-25 μM) toward cancer cells by employing both hepatic carcinoma (HepG2) cells and succinate-energized mitochondria, isolated from rat liver. In HepG2 cells GA decreased viability, dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential, depleted ATP and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In isolated rat-liver mitochondria GA promoted membrane fluidity increase, cyclosporine A/EGTA-insensitive membrane permeabilization, uncoupling (membrane potential dissipation/state 4 respiration rate increase), Ca²⁺ efflux, ATP depletion, NAD(P)H depletion/oxidation and ROS levels increase. All effects in cells, except mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, as well as NADPH depletion/oxidation and permeabilization in isolated mitochondria, were partly prevented by the a NAD(P)H regenerating substrate isocitrate. The results suggest the following sequence of events: 1) GA interaction with mitochondrial membrane promoting its permeabilization; 2) mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation; 3) NAD(P)H oxidation/depletion due to inability of membrane potential-sensitive NADP+ transhydrogenase of sustaining its reduced state; 4) ROS accumulation inside mitochondria and cells; 5) additional mitochondrial membrane permeabilization due to ROS; and 6) ATP depletion. These GA actions are potentially implicated in the well-documented anti-cancer property of GA/structure related compounds. PMID:21549140

  7. Age-related alterations in oxidatively damaged proteins of mouse skeletal muscle mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes

    PubMed Central

    Choksi, Kashyap B.; Nuss, Jonathan E.; DeFord, James H.; Papaconstantinou, John

    2010-01-01

    Age-associated mitochondrial dysfunction is a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative modification to proteins. Mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes I and III are the sites of ROS production and we hypothesize that proteins of the ETC complexes are primary targets of ROS-mediated modification which impairs their structure and function. The pectoralis, primarily an aerobic red muscle, and quadriceps, primarily an anaerobic white muscle, have different rates of respiration and oxygen-carrying capacity, and hence, different rates of ROS production. This raises the question of whether these muscles exhibit different levels of oxidative protein modification. Our studies reveal that the pectoralis shows a dramatic age-related decline in almost all complex activities that correlates with increased oxidative modification. Similar complex proteins were modified in the quadriceps, at a significantly lower level with less change in enzyme and ETC coupling function. We postulate that mitochondrial ROS causes damage to specific ETC subunits which increases with age and leads to further mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that physiological characteristics of the pectoralis vs quadriceps may play a role in age-associated rate of mitochondrial dysfunction and in the decline in tissue function. PMID:18598756

  8. Activity-Based Protein Profiling Reveals Mitochondrial Oxidative Enzyme Impairment and Restoration in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Angel, Thomas E.; Lewis, Michael P.; Pederson, Leeanna M.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Wiedner, Susan D.; Zink, Erika M.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2012-10-24

    High-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and concomitant development of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. However, it is not clear whether mitochondrial dysfunction is a direct effect of a HFD or if the mitochondrial function is reduced with increased HFD duration. We hypothesized that the function of mitochondrial oxidative and lipid metabolism functions in skeletal muscle mitochondria for HFD mice are similar or elevated relative to standard diet (SD) mice, thereby IR is neither cause nor consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction. We applied a chemical probe approach to identify functionally reactive ATPases and nucleotide-binding proteins in mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscle of C57Bl/6J mice fed HFD or SD chow for 2-, 8-, or 16-weeks; feeding time points known to induce IR. A total of 293 probe-labeled proteins were identified by mass spectrometry-based proteomics, of which 54 differed in abundance between HFD and SD mice. We found proteins associated with the TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and lipid metabolism were altered in function when comparing SD to HFD fed mice at 2-weeks, however by 16-weeks HFD mice had TCA cycle, β-oxidation, and respiratory chain function at levels similar to or higher than SD mice.

  9. Underlying mitochondrial dysfunction triggers flutamide-induced oxidative liver injury in a mouse model of idiosyncratic drug toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kashimshetty, Rohini; Desai, Varsha G.; Kale, Vijay M.; Lee, Taewon; Moland, Carrie L.; Branham, William S.; New, Lee S.; Chan, Eric C.Y.; Younis, Husam; Boelsterli, Urs A.

    2009-07-15

    Flutamide, a widely used nonsteroidal anti-androgen, but not its bioisostere bicalutamide, has been associated with idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury. Although the susceptibility factors are unknown, mitochondrial injury has emerged as a putative hazard of flutamide. To explore the role of mitochondrial sensitization in flutamide hepatotoxicity, we determined the effects of superimposed drug stress in a murine model of underlying mitochondrial abnormalities. Male wild-type or heterozygous Sod2{sup +/-} mice were injected intraperitoneously with flutamide (0, 30 or 100 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. A kinetic pilot study revealed that flutamide (100 mg/kg/day) caused approximately 10-fold greater exposure than the reported therapeutic mean plasma levels. Mutant (5/10), but not wild-type, mice in the high-dose group exhibited small foci of hepatocellular necrosis and an increased number of apoptotic hepatocytes. Hepatic GSSG/GSH, protein carbonyl levels, and serum lactate levels were significantly increased, suggesting oxidant stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Measurement of mitochondrial superoxide in cultured hepatocytes demonstrated that mitochondria were a significant source of flutamide-enhanced oxidant stress. Indeed, mitochondria isolated from flutamide-treated Sod2{sup +/-} mice exhibited decreased aconitase activity as compared to vehicle controls. A transcriptomics analysis using MitoChips revealed that flutamide-treated Sod2{sup +/-} mice exhibited a selective decrease in the expression of all complexes I and III subunits encoded by mitochondrial DNA. In contrast, Sod2{sup +/-} mice receiving bicalutamide (50 mg/kg/day) did not reveal any hepatic changes. These results are compatible with our concept that flutamide targets hepatic mitochondria and exerts oxidant stress that can lead to overt hepatic injury in the presence of an underlying mitochondrial abnormality.

  10. Troglitazone-induced hepatic mitochondrial proteome expression dynamics in heterozygous Sod2{sup +/-} mice: Two-stage oxidative injury

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.H. |; Chung, Maxey C.M. | Lin Qingsong; Boelsterli, Urs A. ||

    2008-08-15

    The determinants of susceptibility to troglitazone-induced idiosyncratic liver injury have not yet been determined; however, troglitazone has been shown to target mitochondria and induce mitochondria-mediated hepatocellular injury in vitro. The aim of this study was to use a systems approach to analyze the dynamics of mitochondrial changes at the proteome level and more clearly define the mechanisms and time course of troglitazone hepatotoxicity by using a previously characterized mouse model that is highly sensitized to troglitazone hepatotoxicity. Mice heterozygous in mitochondrial superoxide dismutase-2 (Sod2{sup +/-}) were injected intraperitoneally with troglitazone (30 mg/kg/day) or vehicle daily for 2 or 4 weeks. Hepatic mitochondria were isolated, purified, and subjected to two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). We found that among the {approx} 1500 resolved hepatic mitochondrial proteins, 70 exhibited significantly altered abundance after troglitazone treatment. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS analysis revealed that early changes (2 weeks) included increased levels of heat shock protein family members (mortalin, HSP7C), Lon protease, and catalase, indicating induction of a mitochondrial stress response. In contrast, after 4 weeks, a number of critical proteins including ATP synthase {beta}-subunit, aconitase-2, and catalase exhibited decreased abundance, and total protein carbonyls were significantly increased, suggesting uncompensated oxidative damage. Aconitase-2 (ACO2) was decreased at both time points, making this protein a potential sensitive and early biomarker for mitochondrial oxidant stress. These results show that, in this murine model of underlying clinically silent mitochondrial stress, superimposed troglitazone induces a two-stage response: an initial adaptive response, followed by a toxic response involving oxidant injury to mitochondrial proteins.

  11. Antineoplastic copper coordinated complexes (Casiopeinas) uncouple oxidative phosphorylation and induce mitochondrial permeability transition in cardiac mitochondria and cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Silva-Platas, Christian; Guerrero-Beltrán, Carlos Enrique; Carrancá, Mariana; Castillo, Elena Cristina; Bernal-Ramírez, Judith; Oropeza-Almazán, Yuriana; González, Lorena N; Rojo, Rocío; Martínez, Luis Enrique; Valiente-Banuet, Juan; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Bravo-Gómez, María Elena; García, Noemí; Carvajal, Karla; García-Rivas, Gerardo

    2016-02-01

    Copper-based drugs, Casiopeinas (Cas), exhibit antiproliferative and antineoplastic activities in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Unfortunately, the clinical use of these novel chemotherapeutics could be limited by the development of dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. In addition, the molecular mechanisms underlying Cas cardiotoxicity and anticancer activity are not completely understood. Here, we explore the potential impact of Cas on the cardiac mitochondria energetics as the molecular mechanisms underlying Cas-induced cardiotoxicity. To explore the properties on mitochondrial metabolism, we determined Cas effects on respiration, membrane potential, membrane permeability, and redox state in isolated cardiac mitochondria. The effect of Cas on the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was also evaluated in isolated cardiomyocytes by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Cas IIIEa, IIgly, and IIIia predominately inhibited maximal NADH- and succinate-linked mitochondrial respiration, increased the state-4 respiration rate and reduced membrane potential, suggesting that Cas also act as mitochondrial uncouplers. Interestingly, cyclosporine A inhibited Cas-induced mitochondrial depolarization, suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Similarly to isolated mitochondria, in isolated cardiomyocytes, Cas treatment decreased the Δψm and cyclosporine A treatment prevented mitochondrial depolarization. The production of H2O2 increased in Cas-treated mitochondria, which might also increase the oxidation of mitochondrial proteins such as adenine nucleotide translocase. In accordance, an antioxidant scavenger (Tiron) significantly diminished Cas IIIia mitochondrial depolarization. Cas induces a prominent loss of membrane potential, associated with alterations in redox state, which increases mPTP opening, potentially due to thiol-dependent modifications of the pore, suggesting that direct or indirect inhibition of mPTP opening might

  12. Study of oxidative, enzymatic mitochondrial respiratory chain function and apoptosis in perinatally HIV-infected pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Morén, Constanza; Garrabou, Glòria; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Rovira, Núria; Catalán, Marc; Hernández, Sandra; Tobías, Ester; Cardellach, Francesc; Fortuny, Clàudia; Miró, Òscar

    2013-10-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pediatric patients has been scarcely investigated. Limited data are available about HIV or antiretroviral (ARV)-mediated mitochondrial damage in this population group, specifically, regarding oxygen consumption and apoptosis approach. We aimed to elucidate whether a given mitochondrial DNA depletion is reflected at downstream levels, to gain insight on the pathology of HIV and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in perinatally HIV-infected pediatric patients. We studied 10 healthy control participants and 20 perinatally HIV-infected pediatric patients (10 under ARV treatment and 10 off treatment). We determined mitochondrial mass, subunits II and IV of complex IV, global and specific mitochondrial enzymatic and oxidative activities, and apoptosis from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Global oxygen consumption was significantly compromised in HIV-infected untreated patients, compared to the control group (0.76 ± 0.01 versus 1.59 ± 0.15; P = 0.014). Apoptosis showed a trend to increase in untreated patients as well. The overall complex (C) CI-III-IV activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) was significantly decreased in HIV-infected treated patients with respect to the control group (1.52 ± 0.38 versus 6.38 ± 1.53; P = 0.02). No statistically significant differences were found between untreated and HAART-treated patients. These findings suggest the pathogenic role of both HIV and HAART in mitochondrial dysfunction in vertical infection. The abnormalities in mitochondrial genome may be downstream reflected through a global alteration of the MRC. Mitochondrial impairment associated with HIV and HAART was generalized, rather than localized, in this series of perinatally HIV-infected patients. PMID:23534415

  13. Increased susceptibility to oxidation of vitamin E in mitochondrial fractions compared with synaptosomal fractions from rat brains.

    PubMed

    Vatassery, G T; Smith, W E; Quach, H T

    1994-01-01

    The in vitro oxidation of vitamin E (alpha tocopherol) in rat brain synaptosomes and mitochondria by 2,2'-azo-bis-(2'-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (ABAPH), a free radical generator, was studied. Subcellular fractions (300 micrograms total protein) were suspended in different buffers at pH 7.4 and incubated at 37 degrees C. In the presence of 0.5 mM ABAPH the mitochondrial alpha tocopherol began to get oxidized after a lag time or induction time of 15 min compared with a lag time of 30 min for the synaptosomal fraction. Thus the reserve of reducing compounds that are responsible for delaying tocopherol oxidation is less in mitochondria than in synaptosomes. More tocopherolquinone was produced during incubations without ABAPH compared with incubations in the presence of ABAPH suggesting that the mechanism of oxidation of tocopherol differs under these two conditions. When mitochondria were incubated in buffer without oxidants the production of tocopherolquinone preceded that of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, an indicator of peroxidation of fatty acids. Therefore, alpha tocopherol is active as an anti-oxidant in mitochondrial membranes and the production of alpha tocopherolquinone could be a monitor of mild membrane oxidation under in vitro conditions. The ease of oxidation of mitochondrial tocopherol suggests a general vulnerability of the mitochondrial membranes to oxidation. Adding vitamin E or its water soluble analogs during in vitro experiments may improve the stability and viability of mitochondria. Furthermore, antioxidant protection by vitamin E may be crucial for the maintenance of tissues, such as brain, whose function is critically dependent upon the availability of high energy phosphates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8130733

  14. Effect of nitric oxide on mitochondrial activity of human synovial cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Nitric oxide (NO) is a messenger implicated in the destruction and inflammation of joint tissues. Cartilage and synovial membrane from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) have high levels of NO. NO is known to modulate various cellular pathways and, thus, inhibit the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) of chondrocytes and induce the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death in multiple cell types. For these reasons, and because of the importance of the synovial membrane in development of OA pathology, we investigated the effects of NO on survival, mitochondrial function, and activity of fibroblastic human OA synovial cells. Methods Human OA synovia were obtained from eight patients undergoing hip joint replacement. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was used as a NO donor compound and cell viability was evaluated by MTT assays. Mitochondrial function was evaluated by analyzing the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) with flow cytometry using the fluorofore DePsipher. ATP levels were measured by luminescence assays, and the activities of the respiratory chain complexes (complex I: NADH CoQ1 reductase, complex II: succinate dehydrogenase, complex III: ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, complex IV: cytochrome c oxidase) and citrate synthase (CS) were measured by enzymatic assay. Protein expression analyses were performed by western blot. Results SNP at a concentration of 0.5 mM induced cell death, shown by the MTT method at different time points. The percentages of viable cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours were 86.11 ± 4.9%, 74.31 ± 3.35%, and 43.88 ± 1.43%, respectively, compared to the basal level of 100% (*p < 0.05). SNP at 0.5 mM induced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane at 12 hours with a decrease in the ratio of polarized cells (basal = 2.48 ± 0.28; SNP 0.5 mM = 1.57 ± 0.11; *p < 0.01). The time course analyses of treatment with SNP at 0.5 mM demonstrated that treatment reliably and

  15. Oxidative Damage and Mitochondrial Injuries Are Induced by Various Irrigation Pressures in Rabbit Models of Mild and Severe Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhixiu; Yu, Weimin; Li, Wei; Cheng, Fan; Rao, Ting; Yao, Xiaobing; Zhang, Xiaobin; Larré, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to study whether tolerance to irrigation pressure could be modified by evaluating the oxidative damage of obstructed kidneys based on rabbit models experiencing different degrees of hydronephrosis. Methods A total of 66 rabbits were randomly divided into two experimental groups and a control group. In the experimental groups, the rabbits underwent a surgical procedure inducing mild (group M, n=24) or severe (group S, n=24) hydronephrosis. In each experimental group, the rabbits were then randomly divided into 4 subgroups (M0-M3 and S0-S3) consisting of 6 rabbits each. Group 0 received no perfusion. Groups 1 through 3 were perfused with 20, 60 and 100 mmHg fluid, respectively. For the control group, after a sham operation was performed, the rabbits were divided into 4 subgroups and were perfused with fluid at 0, 20, 60 or 100 mmHg of pressure. Kidney injuries was evaluated by neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL). Oxidative damage was assessed by analyzing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and peroxide (H2O2) levels, mitochondrial injuries was assessed by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the mitochondrial ultrastructure and tubular cell apoptosis. Results In the experimental groups, all results were similar for groups 0 and 1. In group 2, abnormalities were observed in the S group only, and the kidneys of rabbits in group 3 suffered oxidative damage and mitochondrial injuries with increased NGAL, decreased Mn-SOD, GR and CAT,increased MDA and H2O2, lower levels of MMP, mitochondrial vacuolization and an increased apoptotic index. Conclusion In rabbits, severely obstructed kidneys were more susceptible to oxidative damage and mitochondrial injury than mildly obstructed kidneys when subjected to higher degrees of kidney perfusion pressure. PMID:26090815

  16. Linkage of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunctions to Spontaneous Culture Degeneration in Aspergillus nidulans*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Hu, Xiao; Xia, Yongliang; Xiao, Guohua; Zheng, Peng; Wang, Chengshu

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi including mushrooms frequently and spontaneously degenerate during subsequent culture maintenance on artificial media, which shows the loss or reduction abilities of asexual sporulation, sexuality, fruiting, and production of secondary metabolites, thus leading to economic losses during mass production. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of fungal degeneration, the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans was employed in this study for comprehensive analyses. First, linkage of oxidative stress to culture degeneration was evident in A. nidulans. Taken together with the verifications of cell biology and biochemical data, a comparative mitochondrial proteome analysis revealed that, unlike the healthy wild type, a spontaneous fluffy sector culture of A. nidulans demonstrated the characteristics of mitochondrial dysfunctions. Relative to the wild type, the features of cytochrome c release, calcium overload and up-regulation of apoptosis inducing factors evident in sector mitochondria suggested a linkage of fungal degeneration to cell apoptosis. However, the sector culture could still be maintained for generations without the signs of growth arrest. Up-regulation of the heat shock protein chaperones, anti-apoptotic factors and DNA repair proteins in the sector could account for the compromise in cell death. The results of this study not only shed new lights on the mechanisms of spontaneous degeneration of fungal cultures but will also provide alternative biomarkers to monitor fungal culture degeneration. PMID:24345786

  17. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes exist in the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun; Kim, Seung-Hyeob; Lee, Jae-Seon; Yang, Yun-Hee; Nam, Jwa-Min; Kim, Bong-Woo; Ko, Young-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Although proteomic analyses have revealed the presence of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins in the plasma membrane, there have been no in-depth evaluations of the presence or function of OXPHOS I-V in the plasma membrane. Here, we demonstrate the in situ localization of OXPHOS I-V complexes to the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. A portion of the OXPHOS I-V complex proteins was not co-stained with MitoTracker but co-localized with caveolin-3 in the sarcolemma of mouse gastrocnemius. Mitochondrial matrix-facing OXPHOS complex subunits were ectopically expressed in the sarcolemma of the non-permeabilized muscle fibers and C2C12 myotubes. The sarcolemmal localization of cytochrome c was also observed from mouse gastrocnemius muscles and C2C12 myotubes, as determined by confocal and total internal resonance fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. Based on these data, we conclude that a portion of OXPHOS complexes is localized in the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle and may have non-canonical functions. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(2): 116-121] PMID:26645635

  18. Aspergillus fumigatus mitochondrial electron transport chain mediates oxidative stress homeostasis, hypoxia responses, and fungal pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Grahl, Nora; Dinamarco, Taisa Magnani; Willger, Sven D.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Cramer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We previously observed that hypoxia is an important component of host microenvironments during pulmonary fungal infections. However, mechanisms of fungal growth in these in vivo hypoxic conditions are poorly understood. Here, we report that mitochondrial respiration is active in hypoxia (1% oxygen) and critical for fungal pathogenesis. We generated Aspergillus fumigatus alternative oxidase (aoxA) and cytochrome C (cycA) null mutants and assessed their ability to tolerate hypoxia, macrophage killing, and virulence. In contrast to ΔaoxA, ΔcycA was found to be significantly impaired in conidia germination, growth in normoxia and hypoxia, and displayed attenuated virulence. Intriguingly, loss of cycA results in increased levels of AoxA activity, which results in increased resistance to oxidative stress, macrophage killing, and long-term persistence in murine lungs. Thus, our results demonstrate a previously unidentified role for fungal mitochondrial respiration in the pathogenesis of aspergillosis, and lay the foundation for future research into its role in hypoxia signaling and adaptation. PMID:22443190

  19. Time-Dependent and Organ-Specific Changes in Mitochondrial Function, Mitochondrial DNA Integrity, Oxidative Stress and Mononuclear Cell Infiltration in a Mouse Model of Burn Injury.

    PubMed

    Szczesny, Bartosz; Brunyánszki, Attila; Ahmad, Akbar; Oláh, Gabor; Porter, Craig; Toliver-Kinsky, Tracy; Sidossis, Labros; Herndon, David N; Szabo, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces a pathophysiological response that affects most of the organs within the body; liver, heart, lung, skeletal muscle among others, with inflammation and hyper-metabolism as a hallmark of the post-burn damage. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a key component in development of inflammatory and metabolic responses induced by burn. The goal of the current study was to evaluate several critical mitochondrial functions in a mouse model of severe burn injury. Mitochondrial bioenergetics, measured by Extracellular Flux Analyzer, showed a time dependent, post-burn decrease in basal respiration and ATP-turnover but enhanced maximal respiratory capacity in mitochondria isolated from the liver and lung of animals subjected to burn injury. Moreover, we detected a tissue-specific degree of DNA damage, particularly of the mitochondrial DNA, with the most profound effect detected in lungs and hearts of mice subjected to burn injury. Increased mitochondrial biogenesis in lung tissue in response to burn injury was also observed. Burn injury also induced time dependent increases in oxidative stress (measured by amount of malondialdehyde) and neutrophil infiltration (measured by myeloperoxidase activity), particularly in lung and heart. Tissue mononuclear cell infiltration was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The amount of poly(ADP-ribose) polymers decreased in the liver, but increased in the heart in later time points after burn. All of these biochemical changes were also associated with histological alterations in all three organs studied. Finally, we detected a significant increase in mitochondrial DNA fragments circulating in the blood immediately post-burn. There was no evidence of systemic bacteremia, or the presence of bacterial DNA fragments at any time after burn injury. The majority of the measured parameters demonstrated a sustained elevation even at 20-40 days post injury suggesting a long-lasting effect of thermal injury on organ

  20. Time-Dependent and Organ-Specific Changes in Mitochondrial Function, Mitochondrial DNA Integrity, Oxidative Stress and Mononuclear Cell Infiltration in a Mouse Model of Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Szczesny, Bartosz; Brunyánszki, Attila; Ahmad, Akbar; Oláh, Gabor; Porter, Craig; Toliver-Kinsky, Tracy; Sidossis, Labros; Herndon, David N.; Szabo, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces a pathophysiological response that affects most of the organs within the body; liver, heart, lung, skeletal muscle among others, with inflammation and hyper-metabolism as a hallmark of the post-burn damage. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a key component in development of inflammatory and metabolic responses induced by burn. The goal of the current study was to evaluate several critical mitochondrial functions in a mouse model of severe burn injury. Mitochondrial bioenergetics, measured by Extracellular Flux Analyzer, showed a time dependent, post-burn decrease in basal respiration and ATP-turnover but enhanced maximal respiratory capacity in mitochondria isolated from the liver and lung of animals subjected to burn injury. Moreover, we detected a tissue-specific degree of DNA damage, particularly of the mitochondrial DNA, with the most profound effect detected in lungs and hearts of mice subjected to burn injury. Increased mitochondrial biogenesis in lung tissue in response to burn injury was also observed. Burn injury also induced time dependent increases in oxidative stress (measured by amount of malondialdehyde) and neutrophil infiltration (measured by myeloperoxidase activity), particularly in lung and heart. Tissue mononuclear cell infiltration was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The amount of poly(ADP-ribose) polymers decreased in the liver, but increased in the heart in later time points after burn. All of these biochemical changes were also associated with histological alterations in all three organs studied. Finally, we detected a significant increase in mitochondrial DNA fragments circulating in the blood immediately post-burn. There was no evidence of systemic bacteremia, or the presence of bacterial DNA fragments at any time after burn injury. The majority of the measured parameters demonstrated a sustained elevation even at 20–40 days post injury suggesting a long-lasting effect of thermal injury on

  1. Nuclear Recruitment of Neuronal Nitric-oxide Synthase by α-Syntrophin Is Crucial for the Induction of Mitochondrial Biogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Aquilano, Katia; Baldelli, Sara; Ciriolo, Maria R.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) has various splicing variants and different subcellular localizations. nNOS can be found also in the nucleus; however, its exact role in this compartment is still not completely defined. In this report, we demonstrate that the PDZ domain allows the recruitment of nNOS to nuclei, thus favoring local NO production, nuclear protein S-nitrosylation, and induction of mitochondrial biogenesis. In particular, overexpression of PDZ-containing nNOS (nNOSα) increases S-nitrosylated CREB with consequent augmented binding on cAMP response element consensus sequence on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator (PGC)-1α promoter. The resulting PGC-1α induction is accompanied by the expression of mitochondrial genes (e.g., TFAM, MtCO1) and increased mitochondrial mass. Importantly, full active nNOS lacking PDZ domain (nNOSβ) does not localize in nuclei and fails in inducing the expression of PGC-1α. Moreover, we substantiate that the mitochondrial biogenesis normally accompanying myogenesis is associated with nuclear translocation of nNOS. We demonstrate that α-Syntrophin, which resides in nuclei of myocytes, functions as the upstream mediator of nuclear nNOS translocation and nNOS-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis. Overall, our results indicate that altered nNOS splicing and nuclear localization could be contributing factors in human muscular diseases associated with mitochondrial impairment. PMID:24235139

  2. New Insights into the Role of Mitochondrial Dynamics and Autophagy during Oxidative Stress and Aging in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Yoshiyuki; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Rubattu, Speranza; Volpe, Massimo; Frati, Giacomo; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    The heart is highly sensitive to the aging process. In the elderly, the heart tends to become hypertrophic and fibrotic. Stiffness increases with ensuing systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Aging also affects the cardiac response to stress. At the molecular level, the aging process is associated with accumulation of damaged proteins and organelles, partially due to defects in protein quality control systems. The accumulation of dysfunctional and abnormal mitochondria is an important pathophysiological feature of the aging process, which is associated with excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrial fusion and fission and mitochondrial autophagy are crucial mechanisms for maintaining mitochondrial function and preserving energy production. In particular, mitochondrial fission allows for selective segregation of damaged mitochondria, which are afterward eliminated by autophagy. Unfortunately, recent evidence indicates that mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy are progressively impaired over time, contributing to the aging process. This suggests that restoration of these mechanisms could delay organ senescence and prevent age-associated cardiac diseases. Here, we discuss the current understanding of the close relationship between mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy, oxidative stress, and aging, with a particular focus on the heart. PMID:25132912

  3. Profiling mitochondrial proteins in radiation-induced genome-unstable cell lines with persistent oxidative stress by mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, John H.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Morgan, William F.; Yang, Austin; Wan, Yunhu; Aypar, Umut; Peters, Jonathan S.; Springer, David L.

    2008-06-01

    Radiation-induced genome instability (RIGI) is a response to radiation exposure in which the progeny of surviving cells exhibit increased frequency of chromosomal changes many generations after the initial insult. Persistently elevated oxidative stress accompanying RIGI and the ability of free-radical scavengers, given before irradiation, to reduce the incidence of instability suggest that radiation induced alterations to mitochondrial function likely play a role in RIGI. To further elucidate this mechanism, we performed high-throughput quantitative mass spectrometry on samples enriched in mitochondrial proteins from three chromosomally-unstable GM10115 Chinese-hamster-ovary cell lines and their stable parental cell line. Out of several hundred identified proteins, sufficient data were collected on 74 mitochondrial proteins to test for statistically significant differences in their abundance between unstable and stable cell lines. Each of the unstable cell lines showed a distinct profile of statistically-significant differential abundant mitochondrial proteins. The LS-12 cell line was characterized by 8 downregulated proteins, whereas the CS-9 cell line exhibited 5 distinct up-regulated proteins. The unstable 115 cell line had two down-regulated proteins, one of which was also downregulated in LS-12, and one up-regulated protein relative to stable parental cells. The mitochondrial protein profiles for LS-12 and C-9 provide further evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the genome instability of these cell lines.

  4. Neutrophil extracellular traps enriched in oxidized mitochondrial DNA are interferogenic and contribute to lupus-like disease

    PubMed Central

    Lood, Christian; Blanco, Luz P.; Purmalek, Monica M.; Carmona-Rivera, Carmelo; De Ravin, Suk S.; Smith, Carolyne K.; Malech, Harry L.; Ledbetter, Jeffrey A.; Elkon, Keith B.; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are implicated in autoimmunity but how they are generated and their roles in sterile inflammation remain unclear. Ribonucleoprotein immune complexes, inducers of NETosis, require mitochondrial ROS for maximal NET stimulation. During this process, mitochondria become hypopolarized and translocate to the cell surface. Extracellular release of oxidized mitochondrial DNA is proinflammatory in vitro and, when injected into mice, stimulates type-I interferon (IFN) signaling through a pathway dependent on the DNA sensor, STING. Mitochondrial ROS is also necessary for spontaneous NETosis of low-density granulocytes from individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This was also observed in individuals with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), which lack NADPH-oxidase activity, but still develop autoimmunity and type I-IFN signatures. Mitochondrial ROS inhibition in vivo reduces disease severity and type-I IFN responses in a mouse model of lupus. These findings highlight a role for mitochondria in the generation not only of NETs but also of pro-inflammatory oxidized mitochondrial DNA in autoimmune diseases. PMID:26779811

  5. Neutrophil extracellular traps enriched in oxidized mitochondrial DNA are interferogenic and contribute to lupus-like disease.

    PubMed

    Lood, Christian; Blanco, Luz P; Purmalek, Monica M; Carmona-Rivera, Carmelo; De Ravin, Suk S; Smith, Carolyne K; Malech, Harry L; Ledbetter, Jeffrey A; Elkon, Keith B; Kaplan, Mariana J

    2016-02-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are implicated in autoimmunity, but how they are generated and their roles in sterile inflammation remain unclear. Ribonucleoprotein immune complexes (RNP ICs), inducers of NETosis, require mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) for maximal NET stimulation. After RNP IC stimulation of neutrophils, mitochondria become hypopolarized and translocate to the cell surface. Extracellular release of oxidized mitochondrial DNA is proinflammatory in vitro, and when this DNA is injected into mice, it stimulates type I interferon (IFN) signaling through a pathway dependent on the DNA sensor STING. Mitochondrial ROS are also necessary for spontaneous NETosis of low-density granulocytes from individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus. This was also observed in individuals with chronic granulomatous disease, who lack NADPH oxidase activity but still develop autoimmunity and type I IFN signatures. Mitochondrial ROS inhibition in vivo reduces disease severity and type I IFN responses in a mouse model of lupus. Together, these findings highlight a role for mitochondria in the generation not only of NETs but also of pro-inflammatory oxidized mitochondrial DNA in autoimmune diseases. PMID:26779811

  6. AMPK activation promotes lipid droplet dispersion on detyrosinated microtubules to increase mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Herms, Albert; Bosch, Marta; Reddy, Babu J.N.; Schieber, Nicole L.; Fajardo, Alba; Rupérez, Celia; Fernández-Vidal, Andrea; Ferguson, Charles; Rentero, Carles; Tebar, Francesc; Enrich, Carlos; Parton, Robert G.; Gross, Steven P.; Pol, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles that provide fatty acids (FAs) to cellular processes including synthesis of membranes and production of metabolic energy. While known to move bidirectionally along microtubules (MTs), the role of LD motion and whether it facilitates interaction with other organelles are unclear. Here we show that during nutrient starvation, LDs and mitochondria relocate on detyrosinated MT from the cell centre to adopt a dispersed distribution. In the cell periphery, LD–mitochondria interactions increase and LDs efficiently supply FAs for mitochondrial beta-oxidation. This cellular adaptation requires the activation of the energy sensor AMPK, which in response to starvation simultaneously increases LD motion, reorganizes the network of detyrosinated MTs and activates mitochondria. In conclusion, we describe the existence of a specialized cellular network connecting the cellular energetic status and MT dynamics to coordinate the functioning of LDs and mitochondria during nutrient scarcity. PMID:26013497

  7. Metabolic interplay between glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidation: The reverse Warburg effect and its therapeutic implication

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minjong; Yoon, Jung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis, i.e., the Warburg effect, may contribute to the aggressive phenotype of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, increasing evidence highlights the limitations of the Warburg effect, such as high mitochondrial respiration and low glycolysis rates in cancer cells. To explain such contradictory phenomena with regard to the Warburg effect, a metabolic interplay between glycolytic and oxidative cells was proposed, i.e., the “reverse Warburg effect”. Aerobic glycolysis may also occur in the stromal compartment that surrounds the tumor; thus, the stromal cells feed the cancer cells with lactate and this interaction prevents the creation of an acidic condition in the tumor microenvironment. This concept provides great heterogeneity in tumors, which makes the disease difficult to cure using a single agent. Understanding metabolic flexibility by lactate shuttles offers new perspectives to develop treatments that target the hypoxic tumor microenvironment and overcome the limitations of glycolytic inhibitors. PMID:26322173

  8. Survivin promotes oxidative phosphorylation, subcellular mitochondrial repositioning, and tumor cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Rivadeneira, Dayana B.; Caino, M. Cecilia; Seo, Jae Ho; Angelin, Alessia; Wallace, Douglas C.; Languino, Lucia R.; Altieri, Dario C.

    2015-01-01

    Survivin promotes cell division and suppresses apoptosis in many human cancers, and increased abundance correlates with metastasis and poor prognosis. Here, we showed that a pool of survivin that localized to the mitochondria of certain tumor cell lines enhanced the stability of oxidative phosphorylation Complex II, which promoted cellular respiration. Survivin also supported the subcellular trafficking of mitochondria to the cortical cytoskeleton of tumor cells, which was associated with increased membrane ruffling, increased focal adhesion complex turnover, and increased tumor cell migration and invasion in cultured cells, and enhanced metastatic dissemination in vivo. Therefore, we found that mitochondrial respiration enhanced by survivin contributes to cancer metabolism, and relocalized mitochondria may provide a “regional” energy source to fuel tumor cell invasion and metastasis. PMID:26268608

  9. The Biochemistry and Physiology of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid β-Oxidation and Its Genetic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Houten, Sander M; Violante, Sara; Ventura, Fatima V; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) is the major pathway for the degradation of fatty acids and is essential for maintaining energy homeostasis in the human body. Fatty acids are a crucial energy source in the postabsorptive and fasted states when glucose supply is limiting. But even when glucose is abundantly available, FAO is a main energy source for the heart, skeletal muscle, and kidney. A series of enzymes, transporters, and other facilitating proteins are involved in FAO. Recessively inherited defects are known for most of the genes encoding these proteins. The clinical presentation of these disorders may include hypoketotic hypoglycemia, (cardio)myopathy, arrhythmia, and rhabdomyolysis and illustrates the importance of FAO during fasting and in hepatic and (cardio)muscular function. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on the biochemistry and physiological functions of FAO and discuss the pathophysiological processes associated with FAO disorders. PMID:26474213

  10. Mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative status disruption in brainstem of weaned rats: Immediate response to maternal protein restriction.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Diorginis José Soares; da Silva Pedroza, Anderson Apolônio; Braz, Glauber Ruda Feitoza; da Silva-Filho, Reginaldo Correia; Lima, Talitta Arruda; Fernandes, Mariana Pinheiro; Doi, Sonia Q; Lagranha, Claudia Jacques

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial bioenergetics dysfunction has been postulated as an important mechanism associated to a number of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. One of the hypotheses is that this is caused by the metabolic challenge generated by the mismatch between prenatal predicted and postnatal reality. Perinatal low-protein diet produces several effects that are manifested in the adult animal, including altered sympathetic tone, increased arterial blood pressure and oxidative stress in the brainstem. The majority of the studies related to nutritional programming postulates that the increased risk levels for non-communicable diseases are associated with the incompatibility between prenatal and postnatal environment. However, little is known about the immediate effects of maternal protein restriction on the offspring's brainstem. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that a maternal low-protein diet causes tissue damage immediately after exposure to the nutritional insult that can be assessed in the brainstem of weaned offspring. In this regard, a series of assays was conducted to measure the mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative stress biomarkers in the brainstem, which is the brain structure responsible for the autonomic cardiovascular control. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed ad libitum with normoprotein (NP; 17% casein) or low-protein (LP; 8% casein) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation periods. At weaning, the male offsprings were euthanized and the brainstem was quickly removed to assess the mitochondria function, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane electric potential (ΔΨm), oxidative biomarkers, antioxidant defense and redox status. Our data demonstrated that perinatal LP diet induces an immediate mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the protein restriction induced a marked increase in ROS production, with a decrease in antioxidant defense and redox status. Altogether, our findings suggest that LP-fed animals may be at

  11. Hepatic mitochondrial alterations and increased oxidative stress in nutritional diabetes-prone Psammomys obesus model.

    PubMed

    Bouderba, Saida; Sanz, M Nieves; Sánchez-Martín, Carlos; El-Mir, M Yehia; Villanueva, Gloria R; Detaille, Dominique; Koceïr, E Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered to be a pivotal component of insulin resistance and associated metabolic diseases. Psammomys obesus is a relevant model of nutritional diabetes since these adult animals exhibit a state of insulin resistance when fed a standard laboratory chow, hypercaloric for them as compared to their natural food. In this context, alterations in bioenergetics were studied. Using liver mitochondria isolated from these rats fed such a diet for 18 weeks, oxygen consumption rates, activities of respiratory complexes, and content in cytochromes were examined. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and gluthatione (GSH) were measured in tissue homogenates. Diabetic Psammomys showed a serious liver deterioration (hepatic mass accretion, lipids accumulation), accompanied by an enhanced oxidative stress (MDA increased, GSH depleted). On the other hand, both ADP-dependent and uncoupled respirations greatly diminished below control values, and the respiratory flux to cytochrome oxydase was mildly lowered. Furthermore, an inhibition of complexes I and III together with an activation of complex II were found. With emergence of oxidative stress, possibly related to a defect in oxidative phosphorylation, some molecular adjustments could contribute to alleviate, at least in part, the deleterious outcomes of insulin resistance in this gerbil species. PMID:22675340

  12. In vitro mitochondrial failure and oxidative stress mimic biochemical features of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Selvatici, Rita; Marani, Luca; Marino, Silvia; Siniscalchi, Anna

    2013-08-01

    Primary cortical neurons exposed to the mitochondrial toxin NaN3 (0.1-3 mM) were submitted to oxidative stress with H2O2 (30-150 μM), to mimic conditions observed in neurodegenerative disorders. The effects of such treatment on a series of parameters useful in characterizing neuronal damage were investigated: (i) the basal release of glutamate, evaluated as (3)H-d-Aspartate efflux, was sharply, concentration-dependently, increased; (ii) the phosphorylation status of intracellular markers known to be involved in the neurodegenerative processes, in particular in Alzheimer disease: tau and GSK3β were increased, as well as the protein level of β-secretase (BACE1) and p35/25 evaluated by Western blotting, while (iii) the cell metabolic activity, measured with the MTT method, was reduced, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The latter effect, as well as tau hyperphosphorylation, was prevented both by a mixture of antioxidant drugs (100 μM ascorbic acid, 10 μM trolox, 100 μM glutathione) and by the anti-Alzheimer drug, memantine, 20 μM. Since it is well known that hippocampal cholinergic neurons are particularly affected in Alzheimer disease, the effects of NaN3 and H2O2 were also studied in electrically stimulated rat hippocampal slices, evaluating the (3)H-Choline efflux, as an index of acetylcholine release. The neurotoxic treatment depressed the neurosecretory function and the mixture of antioxidant drugs, as well as memantine, were able to restore it. The neuronal damage induced by the in vitro protocol adopted in the present work displays peculiarities of neurodegenerative disorders, e.g. Alzheimer disease, underlining the role of mitochondrial failure and oxidative stress, which appear to occur upstream the neurodegenerative process; such protocol could be utilized to test the efficacy of neuroprotective treatments. PMID:23722080

  13. AMPK Activation through Mitochondrial Regulation Results in Increased Substrate Oxidation and Improved Metabolic Parameters in Models of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Foretz, Marc; Li, Wei; Nguyen, Henry; Li, Yingwu; Pan, Alison; Uy, Gerald; Gross, Lisa; Baltgalvis, Kristen; Yung, Stephanie L.; Gururaja, Tarikere; Kinoshita, Taisei; Owyang, Alexander; Smith, Ira J.; McCaughey, Kelly; White, Kathy; Godinez, Guillermo; Alcantara, Raniel; Choy, Carmen; Ren, Hong; Basile, Rachel; Sweeny, David J.; Xu, Xiang; Issakani, Sarkiz D.; Carroll, David C.; Goff, Dane A.; Shaw, Simon J.; Singh, Rajinder; Boros, Laszlo G.; Laplante, Marc-André; Marcotte, Bruno; Kohen, Rita; Viollet, Benoit; Marette, André; Payan, Donald G.; Kinsella, Todd M.; Hitoshi, Yasumichi

    2013-01-01

    Modulation of mitochondrial function through inhibiting respiratory complex I activates a key sensor of cellular energy status, the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of AMPK results in the mobilization of nutrient uptake and catabolism for mitochondrial ATP generation to restore energy homeostasis. How these nutrient pathways are affected in the presence of a potent modulator of mitochondrial function and the role of AMPK activation in these effects remain unclear. We have identified a molecule, named R419, that activates AMPK in vitro via complex I inhibition at much lower concentrations than metformin (IC50 100 nM vs 27 mM, respectively). R419 potently increased myocyte glucose uptake that was dependent on AMPK activation, while its ability to suppress hepatic glucose production in vitro was not. In addition, R419 treatment of mouse primary hepatocytes increased fatty acid oxidation and inhibited lipogenesis in an AMPK-dependent fashion. We have performed an extensive metabolic characterization of its effects in the db/db mouse diabetes model. In vivo metabolite profiling of R419-treated db/db mice showed a clear upregulation of fatty acid oxidation and catabolism of branched chain amino acids. Additionally, analyses performed using both 13C-palmitate and 13C-glucose tracers revealed that R419 induces complete oxidation of both glucose and palmitate to CO2 in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, confirming that the compound increases mitochondrial function in vivo. Taken together, our results show that R419 is a potent inhibitor of complex I and modulates mitochondrial function in vitro and in diabetic animals in vivo. R419 may serve as a valuable molecular tool for investigating the impact of modulating mitochondrial function on nutrient metabolism in multiple tissues and on glucose and lipid homeostasis in diabetic animal models. PMID:24339975

  14. The anti-cancer agent guttiferone-A permeabilizes mitochondrial membrane: Ensuing energetic and oxidative stress implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L.; Tudella, Valeria G.

    2011-06-15

    Guttiferone-A (GA) is a natural occurring polyisoprenylated benzophenone with cytotoxic action in vitro and anti-tumor action in rodent models. We addressed a potential involvement of mitochondria in GA toxicity (1-25 {mu}M) toward cancer cells by employing both hepatic carcinoma (HepG2) cells and succinate-energized mitochondria, isolated from rat liver. In HepG2 cells GA decreased viability, dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential, depleted ATP and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In isolated rat-liver mitochondria GA promoted membrane fluidity increase, cyclosporine A/EGTA-insensitive membrane permeabilization, uncoupling (membrane potential dissipation/state 4 respiration rate increase), Ca{sup 2+} efflux, ATP depletion, NAD(P)H depletion/oxidation and ROS levels increase. All effects in cells, except mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, as well as NADPH depletion/oxidation and permeabilization in isolated mitochondria, were partly prevented by the a NAD(P)H regenerating substrate isocitrate. The results suggest the following sequence of events: 1) GA interaction with mitochondrial membrane promoting its permeabilization; 2) mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation; 3) NAD(P)H oxidation/depletion due to inability of membrane potential-sensitive NADP{sup +} transhydrogenase of sustaining its reduced state; 4) ROS accumulation inside mitochondria and cells; 5) additional mitochondrial membrane permeabilization due to ROS; and 6) ATP depletion. These GA actions are potentially implicated in the well-documented anti-cancer property of GA/structure related compounds. - Graphical abstract: Guttiferone-A permeabilizes mitochondrial membrane and induces cancer cell death Display Omitted Highlights: > We addressed the involvement of mitochondria in guttiferone (GA) toxicity toward cancer cells. > GA promoted membrane permeabilization, membrane potential dissipation, NAD(P)H depletion, ROS accumulation and ATP depletion. > These actions

  15. Deficiency in Cardiolipin Reduces Doxorubicin-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Damage in Human B-Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Aryal, Baikuntha; Rao, V. Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is an inner mitochondrial membrane phospholipid which plays an important role in mitochondrial function. Perturbation in CL biosynthesis alters mitochondrial bioenergetics causing a severe genetic disorder commonly known as Barth syndrome. Barth syndrome patients are known to have a reduced concentration and altered composition of CL. Cardiolipin is also known to have a high affinity for the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (Dox), resulting in an extensive mitochondrial accumulation of the drug. Our results indicate that B-lymphocytes from healthy individuals are more sensitive to Dox-induced oxidative stress and cellular toxicity compared to the B-lymphocytes from Barth syndrome as indicated by greater cell death and greater level of cleaved caspase-3 following Dox treatment. Barth lymphocytes, when compared to healthy lymphocytes, showed a greater basal level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mito-ROS), yet exhibited a lower level of induced mito-ROS production in response to Dox. Significantly less ATP content and slightly greater OXPHOS protein levels were detected in healthy cells compared to Barth cells after Dox treatment. Consistent with greater mitochondrial ROS, treatment with Dox induced a higher level of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation in healthy lymphocytes compared to Barth lymphocytes. The final remodeling of CL during CL synthesis is catalyzed by the tafazzin protein. Knockdown of tafazzin gene in H9c2 cardiomyocytes using siRNA showed decreased oxidant-induced damage, as observed in Barth lymphocytes. Our findings demonstrate that a deficiency in CL might provide a therapeutic advantage in favor of oxidant-induced anticancer activities. PMID:27434059

  16. Implications of Altered Glutathione Metabolism in Aspirin-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) induces cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells. In the present study, we have further elucidated that altered glutathione (GSH)-redox metabolism in HepG2 cells play a critical role in ASA-induced cytotoxicity. Using selected doses and time point for ASA toxicity, we have demonstrated that when GSH synthesis is inhibited in HepG2 cells by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), prior to ASA treatment, cytotoxicity of the drug is augmented. On the other hand, when GSH-depleted cells were treated with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), cytotoxicity/apoptosis caused by ASA was attenuated with a significant recovery in oxidative stress, GSH homeostasis, DNA fragmentation and some of the mitochondrial functions. NAC treatment, however, had no significant effects on the drug-induced inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity and ATP synthesis in GSH-depleted cells. Our results have confirmed that aspirin increases apoptosis by increased reactive oxygen species production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory functions. These effects were further amplified when GSH-depleted cells were treated with ASA. We have also shown that some of the effects of aspirin might be associated with reduced GSH homeostasis, as treatment of cells with NAC attenuated the effects of BSO and aspirin. Our results strongly suggest that GSH dependent redox homeostasis in HepG2 cells is critical in preserving mitochondrial functions and preventing oxidative stress associated complications caused by aspirin treatment. PMID:22558435

  17. Overexpression of Amyloid- β Protein Precursor Induces Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Activates the Intrinsic Apoptotic Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, Matthew G.; Marquardt, Kristin; Kirchhof, Danielle; Wilkins, Heather M.; Patterson, David; Linseman, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating cognitive disorder which is characterized pathologically by amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Aberrant processing of amyloid beta protein precursor (AβPP) into amyloid-β fragments underlies the formation of senile plaques. Moreover, amyloid-β fragments, particularly Aβ42, exert direct toxic effects within neurons including the induction of mitochondrial oxidative stress (MOS). Interestingly, individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) frequently develop early onset AD as a major co-morbid phenotype. One hypothesis for AD associated with DS involves the overexpression of wild type (WT) AβPP protein, due to its location on chromosome 21. However, the mechanism by which the overexpression of WT AβPP might trigger MOS and induce cell death is presently unclear. Here we show that transient overexpression of DsRed2-tagged AβPP (WT) in CHO cells induces the activation of caspase-3 and nuclear fragmentation indicative of apoptosis. AβPP localizes to the mitochondrial fraction of transfected CHO cells and its overexpression causes glutathione (GSH)-sensitive opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and cytochrome c release. MOS and intrinsic apoptosis induced by AβPP were significantly inhibited by the co-expression of Bcl-2 or treatment with either GSH or Boc, a pan-caspase inhibitor. Furthermore, the mPTP inhibitor, cyclosporin A, also significantly protected CHO cells from apoptosis induced by AβPP overexpression. Finally, co-treatment with a β-secretase inhibitor did not significantly protect CHO cells from AβPP overexpression and Aβ42 levels were undetectable in transfected CHO cells. Therefore, the mechanism of AβPP induced MOS and apoptosis is independent of the production of Aβ42. However, a γ-secretase inhibitor showed significant protection of the CHO cells against AβPP overexpression. Thus, suggesting a possible role of the AβPP intracellular domain in this apoptotic

  18. Oxidative modification enhances the immunostimulatory effects of extracellular mitochondrial DNA on plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Pazmandi, Kitti; Agod, Zsofia; Kumar, Brahma V; Szabo, Attila; Fekete, Tunde; Sogor, Viktoria; Veres, Agota; Boldogh, Istvan; Rajnavolgyi, Eva; Lanyi, Arpad; Bacsi, Attila

    2014-12-01

    Inflammation is associated with oxidative stress and characterized by elevated levels of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules released from injured or even living cells into the surrounding microenvironment. One of these endogenous danger signals is the extracellular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) containing evolutionary conserved unmethylated CpG repeats. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by recruited inflammatory cells modify mtDNA oxidatively, resulting primarily in accumulation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) lesions. In this study, we examined the impact of native and oxidatively modified mtDNAs on the phenotypic and functional properties of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), which possess a fundamental role in the regulation of inflammation and T cell immunity. Treatment of human primary pDCs with native mtDNA up-regulated the expression of a costimulatory molecule (CD86), a specific maturation marker (CD83), and a main antigen-presenting molecule (HLA-DQ) on the cell surface, as well as increased TNF-α and IL-8 production from the cells. These effects were more apparent when pDCs were exposed to oxidatively modified mtDNA. Neither native nor oxidized mtDNA molecules were able to induce interferon (IFN)-α secretion from pDCs unless they formed a complex with human cathelicidin LL-37, an antimicrobial peptide. Interestingly, simultaneous administration of a Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 antagonist abrogated the effects of both native and oxidized mtDNAs on human pDCs. In a murine model, oxidized mtDNA also proved a more potent activator of pDCs compared to the native form, except for induction of IFN-α production. Collectively, we demonstrate here for the first time that elevated levels of 8-oxoG bases in the extracellular mtDNA induced by oxidative stress increase the immunostimulatory capacity of mtDNA on pDCs. PMID:25301097

  19. Activating HSP72 in rodent skeletal muscle increases mitochondrial number and oxidative capacity and decreases insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Henstridge, Darren C; Bruce, Clinton R; Drew, Brian G; Tory, Kálmán; Kolonics, Attila; Estevez, Emma; Chung, Jason; Watson, Nadine; Gardner, Timothy; Lee-Young, Robert S; Connor, Timothy; Watt, Matthew J; Carpenter, Kevin; Hargreaves, Mark; McGee, Sean L; Hevener, Andrea L; Febbraio, Mark A

    2014-06-01

    Induction of heat shock protein (HSP)72 protects against obesity-induced insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that HSP72 plays a pivotal role in increasing skeletal muscle mitochondrial number and oxidative metabolism. Mice overexpressing HSP72 in skeletal muscle (HSP72Tg) and control wild-type (WT) mice were fed either a chow or high-fat diet (HFD). Despite a similar energy intake when HSP72Tg mice were compared with WT mice, the HFD increased body weight, intramuscular lipid accumulation (triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol but not ceramide), and severe glucose intolerance in WT mice alone. Whole-body VO2, fatty acid oxidation, and endurance running capacity were markedly increased in HSP72Tg mice. Moreover, HSP72Tg mice exhibited an increase in mitochondrial number. In addition, the HSP72 coinducer BGP-15, currently in human clinical trials for type 2 diabetes, also increased mitochondrial number and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Together, these data identify a novel role for activation of HSP72 in skeletal muscle. Thus, the increased oxidative metabolism associated with activation of HSP72 has potential clinical implications not only for type 2 diabetes but also for other disorders where mitochondrial function is compromised. PMID:24430435

  20. Mitochondrial DNA oxidative damage contributes to cardiomyocyte ischemia/reperfusion-injury in rats: cardioprotective role of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Yue, Rongchuan; Xia, Xuewei; Jiang, Jiahui; Yang, Dezhong; Han, Yu; Chen, Xiongwen; Cai, Yue; Li, Liangpeng; Wang, Wei Eric; Zeng, Chunyu

    2015-09-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) dysfunction and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. Lycopene, a lipophilic antioxidant found mainly in tomatoes and in other vegetables and fruits, can protect mtDNA against oxidative damage. However, the role of mtDNA in myocardial I/R-injury is unclear. In the present study, we aimed to determine if and how lycopene protects cardiomyocytes from I/R-injury. In both in vitro and in vivo studies, I/R-injury increased mt 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OHdG) content, decreased mtDNA content and mtDNA transcription levels, and caused mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiomyocytes. These effects of I/R injury on cardiomycoytes were blocked by pre-treatment with lycopene. MtDNA depletion alone was sufficient to induce cardiomyocyte death. I/R-injury decreased the protein level of a key activator of mt transcription, mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), which was blocked by lycopene. The protective effect of lycopene on mtDNA was associated with a reduction in mitochondrial ROS production and stabilization of Tfam. In conclusion, lycopene protects cardiomyocytes from the oxidative damage of mtDNA induced by I/R-injury. PMID:25656550

  1. L-Carnitine reverses maternal cigarette smoke exposure-induced renal oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Long T; Stangenberg, Stefanie; Chen, Hui; Al-Odat, Ibrahim; Chan, Yik L; Gosnell, Martin E; Anwer, Ayad G; Goldys, Ewa M; Pollock, Carol A; Saad, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    Maternal smoking is associated with metabolic disorders, renal underdevelopment, and a predisposition to chronic kidney disease in offspring, yet the underlying mechanisms are unclear. By exposing female Balb/c mice to cigarette smoke for 6 wk premating and during gestation and lactation, we showed that maternal smoke exposure induced glucose intolerance, renal underdevelopment, inflammation, and albuminuria in male offspring. This was associated with increased renal oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction at birth and in adulthood. Importantly, we demonstrated that dietary supplementation of l-carnitine, an amino acid shown to increase antioxidant defenses and mitochondrial function in numerous diseases, in smoke-exposed mothers during pregnancy and lactation significantly reversed the detrimental maternal impacts on kidney pathology in these male offspring. It increased SOD2 and glutathione peroxidase 1, reduced ROS accumulation, and normalized levels of mitochondrial preprotein translocases of the outer membrane, and oxidative phosphorylation complexes I-V in the kidneys of mouse progeny after intrauterine cigarette smoke exposure. These findings support the hypothesis that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are closely linked to the adverse effects of maternal smoking on male offspring renal pathology. The results of our study suggest that l-carnitine administration in cigarette smoke-exposed mothers mitigates these deleterious renal consequences. PMID:25608965

  2. In Vivo Determination of Mitochondrial Function Using Luciferase-Expressing Caenorhabditis elegans: Contribution of Oxidative Phosphorylation, Glycolysis, and Fatty Acid Oxidation to Toxicant-Induced Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Luz, Anthony L; Lagido, Cristina; Hirschey, Matthew D; Meyer, Joel N

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are a target of many drugs and environmental toxicants; however, how toxicant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the progression of human disease remains poorly understood. To address this issue, in vivo assays capable of rapidly assessing mitochondrial function need to be developed. Here, using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, we describe how to rapidly assess the in vivo role of the electron transport chain, glycolysis, or fatty acid oxidation in energy metabolism following toxicant exposure, using a luciferase-expressing ATP reporter strain. Alterations in mitochondrial function subsequent to toxicant exposure are detected by depleting steady-state ATP levels with inhibitors of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, glycolysis, or fatty acid oxidation. Differential changes in ATP following short-term inhibitor exposure indicate toxicant-induced alterations at the site of inhibition. Because a microplate reader is the only major piece of equipment required, this is a highly accessible method for studying toxicant-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27479364

  3. Oxidative Stress Induced Mitochondrial Failure and Vascular Hypoperfusion as a Key Initiator for the Development of Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aliev, Gjumrakch; Palacios, Hector H.; Gasimov, Eldar; Obrenovich, Mark E.; Morales, Ludis; Leszek, Jerzy; Bragin, Valentin; Herrera, Arturo Solís; Gokhman, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction may be a principal underlying event in aging, including age-associated brain degeneration. Mitochondria provide energy for basic metabolic processes. Their decay with age impairs cellular metabolism and leads to a decline of cellular function. Alzheimer disease (AD) and cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) are two leading causes of age-related dementia. Increasing evidence strongly supports the theory that oxidative stress, largely due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), induces mitochondrial damage, which arises from chronic hypoperfusion and is primarily responsible for the pathogenesis that underlies both disease processes. Mitochondrial membrane potential, respiratory control ratios and cellular oxygen consumption decline with age and correlate with increased oxidant production. The sustained hypoperfusion and oxidative stress in brain tissues can stimulate the expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and brain endothelium probably increase the accumulation of oxidative stress products, which therefore contributes to blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and brain parenchymal cell damage. Determining the mechanisms behind these imbalances may provide crucial information in the development of new, more effective therapies for stroke and AD patients in the near future.

  4. PGC-1α Regulates Expression of Myocardial Mitochondrial Antioxidants and Myocardial Oxidative Stress After Chronic Systolic Overload

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhongbing; Xu, Xin; Hu, Xinli; Fassett, John; Zhu, Guangshuo; Tao, Yi; Li, Jingxin; Huang, Yimin; Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Baolu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondria are a principal site for generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the heart. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) plays an important role in regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and myocardial metabolism, but whether PGC-1α can simultaneously upregulate myocardial mitochondrial antioxidants has not been studied. In the present study, we examined the effect of PGC-1α deficiency (PGC-1α−/−) on oxidative stress and expression of a group of mitochondrial antioxidants in normal hearts and in hearts exposed to chronic systolic pressure overload produced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). We found that PGC-1α−/− caused moderate but significant decreases of myocardial mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes such as SOD2, and thioredoxin (Trx2), but had no effect on expression of myocardial oxidative stress markers and left ventricular (LV) function under basal conditions. However, in response to TAC for 6 weeks, PGC-1α−/− mice showed greater increases of myocardial oxidative stress markers 3’-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxynonenal, more severe LV hypertrophy and dilatation, pulmonary congestion, and a greater reduction of LV fractional shortening and dP/dtmax than did wild-type hearts. SOD mimetic MnTMPyP treatment (6 mg/kg/day) significantly attenuated TAC-induced LV hypertrophy and dysfunction in PGC-1α−/− mice. These data indicate that PGC-1α plays an important role in regulating expression of myocardial mitochondrial antioxidants SOD2 and Trx2 and in protecting hearts against TAC-induced myocardial oxidative stress, hypertrophy, and dysfunction. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 1011–1022. PMID:20406135

  5. Inflammation in adult women with a history of child maltreatment: The involvement of mitochondrial alterations and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Boeck, Christina; Koenig, Alexandra Maria; Schury, Katharina; Geiger, Martha Leonie; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Wilker, Sarah; Waller, Christiane; Gündel, Harald; Fegert, Jörg Michael; Calzia, Enrico; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2016-09-01

    The experience of maltreatment during childhood is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pro-inflammatory phenotype remain unclear. Mitochondria were recently found to principally coordinate inflammatory processes via both inflammasome activation and inflammasome-independent pathways. To this end, we hypothesized that alterations in immune cell mitochondrial functioning and oxidative stress might be at the interface between the association of maltreatment experiences during childhood and inflammation. We analyzed pro-inflammatory biomarkers (levels of C-reactive protein, cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro, PBMC composition, lysophosphatidylcholine levels), serum oxidative stress levels (arginine:citrulline ratio, l-carnitine and acetylcarnitine levels) and mitochondrial functioning (respiratory activity and density of mitochondria in PBMC) in peripheral blood samples collected from 30 women (aged 22-44years) with varying degrees of maltreatment experiences in form of abuse and neglect during childhood. Exposure to maltreatment during childhood was associated with an increased ROS production, higher levels of oxidative stress and an increased mitochondrial activity in a dose-response relationship. Moreover, the increase in mitochondrial activity and ROS production were positively associated with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by PBMC. Decreased serum levels of lysophosphatidylcholines suggested higher inflammasome activation with increasing severity of child maltreatment experiences. Together these findings offer preliminary evidence for the association of alterations in immune cell mitochondrial functioning, oxidative stress and the pro-inflammatory phenotype observed in individuals with a history of maltreatment during childhood. The results emphasize that the early prevention of child abuse and neglect warrants more attention, as the

  6. Left Ventricular Transmural Gradient in Mitochondrial Respiration Is Associated with Increased Sub-Endocardium Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species Productions

    PubMed Central

    Kindo, Michel; Gerelli, Sébastien; Bouitbir, Jamal; Hoang Minh, Tam; Charles, Anne-Laure; Mazzucotelli, Jean-Philippe; Zoll, Joffrey; Piquard, François; Geny, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Left ventricle (LV) transmural gradient in mitochondrial respiration has been recently reported. However, to date, the physiological mechanisms involved in the lower endocardium mitochondrial respiration chain capacity still remain to be determined. Since, nitric oxide (NO) synthase expression in the heart has spatial heterogeneity and might impair mitochondrial function, we investigated a potential association between LV transmural NO and mitochondrial function gradient. Methods: Maximal oxidative capacity (VMax) and relative contributions of the respiratory chain complexes II, III, IV (VSucc) and IV (VTMPD), mitochondrial content (citrate synthase activity), coupling, NO (electron paramagnetic resonance), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (H2O2 and dihydroethidium (DHE) staining) were determined in rat sub-endocardium (Endo) and sub-epicardium (Epi). Further, the effect of a direct NO donor (MAHMA NONOate) on maximal mitochondrial respiratory rates (Vmax) was determined. Results: Mitochondrial respiratory chain activities were reduced in the Endo compared with the Epi (−16.92%; P = 0.04 for Vmax and –18.73%; P = 0.02, for Vsucc, respectively). NO production was two-fold higher in the Endo compared with the Epi (P = 0.002) and interestingly, increasing NO concentration reduced Vmax. Mitochondrial H2O2 and LV ROS productions were significantly increased in Endo compared to Epi, citrate synthase activity and mitochondrial coupling being similar in the two layers. Conclusions: LV mitochondrial respiration transmural gradient is likely related to NO and possibly ROS increased production in the sub-endocardium. PMID:27582709

  7. Leishmania major Telomerase TERT Protein Has a Nuclear/Mitochondrial Eclipsed Distribution That Is Affected by Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Campelo, Riward; Díaz Lozano, Isabel; Figarella, Katherine; Osuna, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In its canonical role the reverse transcriptase telomerase recovers the telomeric repeats that are lost during DNA replication. Other locations and activities have been recently described for the telomerase protein subunit TERT in mammalian cells. In the present work, using biochemistry, molecular biology, and electron microscopy techniques, we found that in the human parasite Leishmania major, TERT (and telomerase activity) shared locations between the nuclear, mitochondrial, and cytoplasmic compartments. Also, some telomerase activity and TERT protein could be found in ∼100-nm nanovesicles. In the mitochondrial compartment, TERT appears to be mainly associated with the kinetoplast DNA. When Leishmania cells were exposed to H2O2, TERT changed its relative abundance and activity between the nuclear and mitochondrial compartments, with the majority of activity residing in the mitochondrion. Finally, overexpression of TERT in Leishmania transfected cells not only increased the parasitic cell growth rate but also increased their resistance to oxidative stress. PMID:25312950

  8. Fatty Acid Oxidation-Driven Src Links Mitochondrial Energy Reprogramming and Regulation of Oncogenic Properties in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Hyoung; Vithayathil, Sajna; Kumar, Santosh; Sung, Pi-Lin; Dobrolecki, Lacey Elizabeth; Putluri, Vasanta; Bhat, Vadiraja B.; Bhowmik, Salil Kumar; Gupta, Vineet; Arora, Kavisha; Wu, Danli; Tsouko, Efrosini; Zhang, Yiqun; Maity, Suman; Donti, Taraka R.; Graham, Brett H.; Frigo, Daniel E.; Coarfa, Cristian; Yotnda, Patricia; Putluri, Nagireddy; Sreekumar, Arun; Lewis, Michael T.; Creighton, Chad J.; Wong, Lee-Jun C.; Kaipparettu, Benny Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Summary Transmitochondrial cybrids and multiple OMICs approaches were used to understand mitochondrial reprogramming and mitochondria-regulated cancer pathways in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Analysis of cybrids and established breast cancer (BC) cell lines showed that metastatic TNBC maintains high levels of ATP through fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) and activates Src oncoprotein through autophosphorylation at Y419. Manipulation of FAO including the knocking down of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) and 2 (CPT2), the rate-limiting proteins of FAO, and analysis of patient-derived xenograft models, confirmed the role of mitochondrial FAO in Src activation and metastasis. Analysis of TCGA and other independent BC clinical data further reaffirmed the role of mitochondrial FAO and CPT genes in Src regulation and their significance in BC metastasis. PMID:26923594

  9. Fatty Acid Oxidation-Driven Src Links Mitochondrial Energy Reprogramming and Oncogenic Properties in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Hyoung; Vithayathil, Sajna; Kumar, Santosh; Sung, Pi-Lin; Dobrolecki, Lacey Elizabeth; Putluri, Vasanta; Bhat, Vadiraja B; Bhowmik, Salil Kumar; Gupta, Vineet; Arora, Kavisha; Wu, Danli; Tsouko, Efrosini; Zhang, Yiqun; Maity, Suman; Donti, Taraka R; Graham, Brett H; Frigo, Daniel E; Coarfa, Cristian; Yotnda, Patricia; Putluri, Nagireddy; Sreekumar, Arun; Lewis, Michael T; Creighton, Chad J; Wong, Lee-Jun C; Kaipparettu, Benny Abraham

    2016-03-01

    Transmitochondrial cybrids and multiple OMICs approaches were used to understand mitochondrial reprogramming and mitochondria-regulated cancer pathways in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Analysis of cybrids and established breast cancer (BC) cell lines showed that metastatic TNBC maintains high levels of ATP through fatty acid β oxidation (FAO) and activates Src oncoprotein through autophosphorylation at Y419. Manipulation of FAO including the knocking down of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (CPT1) and 2 (CPT2), the rate-limiting proteins of FAO, and analysis of patient-derived xenograft models confirmed the role of mitochondrial FAO in Src activation and metastasis. Analysis of TCGA and other independent BC clinical data further reaffirmed the role of mitochondrial FAO and CPT genes in Src regulation and their significance in BC metastasis. PMID:26923594

  10. Mitochondrial DNA Alterations and Reduced Mitochondrial Function in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Sadie L.; Lanza, Ian R.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA increases with aging. This damage has the potential to affect mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription which could alter the abundance or functionality of mitochondrial proteins. This review describes mitochondrial DNA alterations and changes in mitochondrial function that occur with aging. Age-related alterations in mitochondrial DNA as a possible contributor to the reduction in mitochondrial function are discussed. PMID:20307565

  11. Protective effect of boldine on oxidative mitochondrial damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Jang, Y Y; Song, J H; Shin, Y K; Han, E S; Lee, C S

    2000-10-01

    Increased oxidative stress has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic tissue damage. Several antioxidants have been described as beneficial for oxidative stress-associated diseases. Boldine ([s]-2,9-dihydroxy-1, 10-dimethoxyaporphine) is a major alkaloid found in the leaves and bark of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina), and has been shown to possess antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects. From this point of view, the possible anti-diabetic effect of boldine and its mechanism were evaluated. The experiments were performed on male rats divided into four groups: control, boldine (100 mg kg(-1), daily in drinking water), diabetic [single dose of 80 mg kg(-1)of streptozotocin (STZ), i.p.] and diabetic simultaneously fed with boldine for 8 weeks. Diabetic status was evaluated periodically with changes of plasma glucose levels and body weight in rats. The effect of boldine on the STZ-induced diabetic rats was examined with the formation of malondialdehydes and carbonyls and the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) in mitochondria of the pancreas, kidney and liver. The scavenging action of boldine on oxygen free radicals and the effect on mitochondrial free-radical production were also investigated. The treatment of boldine attenuated the development of hyperglycemia and weight loss induced by STZ injection in rats. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyls in liver, kidney and pancreas mitochondria were significantly increased in STZ-treated rats and decreased after boldine administration. The activities of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the liver, pancreas and kidney were significantly elevated in STZ-treated rats. Boldine administration decreased STZ-induced elevation of MnSOD activity in kidney and pancreas mitochondria, but not in liver mitochondria. In the STZ-treated group, glutathione peroxidase activities decreased in liver

  12. Low oxygen alters mitochondrial function and response to oxidative stress in human neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Lages, Yury M.; Nascimento, Juliana M.; Lemos, Gabriela A.; Galina, Antonio; Castilho, Leda R.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen concentration should be carefully regulated in all living tissues, beginning at the early embryonic stages. Unbalances in oxygen regulation can lead to cell death and disease. However, to date, few studies have investigated the consequences of variations in oxygen levels for fetal-like cells. Therefore, in the present work, human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from pluripotent stem cells grown in 3% oxygen (v/v) were compared with NPCs cultured in 21% (v/v) oxygen. Low oxygen concentrations altered the mitochondrial content and oxidative functions of the cells, which led to improved ATP production, while reducing generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NPCs cultured in both conditions showed no differences in proliferation and glucose metabolism. Furthermore, antioxidant enzymatic activity was not altered in NPCs cultured in 3% oxygen under normal conditions, however, when exposed to external agents known to induce oxidative stress, greater susceptibility to DNA damage was observed. Our findings indicate that the management of oxygen levels should be considered for in vitro models of neuronal development and drug screening. PMID:26713239

  13. Steady-state coupling of four membrane systems in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Hill, T L

    1979-05-01

    According to Alexandre, Reynafarje, and Lehninger, four different membrane systems are involved, with definite stoichiometry, in the mitochondrial synthesis of ATP by electron transport, via proton transport. We adopt this model and pursue some of its thermodynamic consequences. At steady state, each of the four systems must have the same flux J through the membrane and the overall thermodynamic force X for oxidative phosphorylation is the sum of the four separate forces. From these properties, using an empirical linear flux-force relation for each system, it is easy to obtain J as a function of X. In turn, X depends on the inside [NAD+]/[NADH] and the outside [ATP]/[ADP][Pi] quotients (and on the pH inside). Thus, J is related to these quotients. The relationship we derive is similar to that described by Erecińska and Wilson, as deduced from a quite different model of oxidative phosphorylation. Proton transport is involved explicitly in three of the four systems of the present model. However, because of the steady-state stoichiometric coupling of the four systems, proton transport does not appear in the overall reaction. On the other hand, Erecińska and Wilson use, in their model, a direct connection between electron transport and ATP synthesis. The present paper demonstrates that J can be related to the quotients mentioned above without this direct connection. PMID:287064

  14. PPARδ Agonism Activates Fatty Acid Oxidation via PGC-1α but Does Not Increase Mitochondrial Gene Expression and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner, Sandra; Nguyen-Tran, Van; Baré, Olivia; Huang, Xueming; Spiegelman, Bruce; Wu, Zhidan

    2009-01-01

    PPARδ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ) is a regulator of lipid metabolism and has been shown to induce fatty acid oxidation (FAO). PPARδ transgenic and knock-out mice indicate an involvement of PPARδ in regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity; however, the precise mechanisms by which PPARδ regulates these pathways in skeletal muscle remain unclear. In this study, we determined the effect of selective PPARδ agonism with the synthetic ligand, GW501516, on FAO and mitochondrial gene expression in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that activation of PPARδ by GW501516 led to a robust increase in mRNA levels of key lipid metabolism genes. Mitochondrial gene expression and function were not induced under the same conditions. Additionally, the activation of Pdk4 transcription by PPARδ was coactivated by PGC-1α. PGC-1α, but not PGC-1β, was essential for full activation of Cpt-1b and Pdk4 gene expression via PPARδ agonism. Furthermore, the induction of FAO by PPARδ agonism was completely abolished in the absence of both PGC-1α and PGC-1β. Conversely, PGC-1α-driven FAO was independent of PPARδ. Neither GW501516 treatment nor knockdown of PPARδ affects PGC-1α-induced mitochondrial gene expression in primary myotubes. These results demonstrate that pharmacological activation of PPARδ induces FAO via PGC-1α. However, PPARδ agonism does not induce mitochondrial gene expression and function. PGC-1α-induced FAO and mitochondrial biogenesis appear to be independent of PPARδ. PMID:19435887

  15. Effect of uric acid on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Zhou, Y; Cheng, S; Sun, J L; Yao, H; Ma, L

    2016-01-01

    Here, we investigated the effect of uric acid (UA) on hepatocyte mitochondria. Hepatocytes cultured in vitro were treated with varying concentrations of UA. The change in apoptotic activity was detected by flow cytometry. The DNA damage index 8-hydroxy-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG) and mitochondrial function indices succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome C oxidase (CCO), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were detected by enzyme assays. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was confirmed by a dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate assay. We observed an increase in apoptotic activity, ROS accumulation, and 8-OHdG activity in hepatocytes treated with UA for extended periods, indicating DNA damage; specifically, we observed a significant increase in these activities 48, 72, and 96 h after UA addition, compared to those observed at 24 h (P < 0.05). Cells treated with 30 mg/dL UA for 96 h showed a peak in apoptotic activity. We also observed a significant decrease in ATP, SDH, and CCO activities with the increase in uric acid concentration over time. Cells treated with 30 mg/dL UA for 96 h showed the highest ATP levels, while SDH and CCO activities at 48, 72, and 96 h post-UA treatment were significantly lower than those at 24 h (P < 0.01). Moreover, cells treated with 30 mg/dL UA showed a 0.02 ± 0.02 and 0.15 ± 0.01 mmol/ mg/min decrease in SDH and CCO levels after 72 h. Therefore, we concluded that high concentrations of UA may induce oxidative stress in hepatocyte mitochondria, increasing ROS production and ultimately resulting in mitochondrial damage. PMID:27420973

  16. Apoptosis-Inducing Factor Modulates Mitochondrial Oxidant Stress in Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bajt, Mary Lynn; Ramachandran, Anup; Yan, Hui-Min; Lebofsky, Margitta; Farhood, Anwar; Lemasters, John J.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes liver injury in humans and mice. DNA fragmentation is a hallmark of APAP-induced cell death, and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) correlates with DNA fragmentation after APAP overdose. To test the hypothesis that AIF may be a critical mediator of APAP-induced cell death, fasted male AIF-deficient Harlequin (Hq) mice and respective wild-type (WT) animals were treated with 200 mg/kg APAP. At 6 h after APAP, WT animals developed severe liver injury as indicated by the increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities (8600 ± 1870 U/l) and 61 ± 8% necrosis. This injury was accompanied by massive DNA strand breaks in centrilobular hepatocytes (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling [TUNEL] assay) and release of DNA fragments into the cytosol (anti-histone ELISA). In addition, there was formation of reactive oxygen (increase in liver glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels and mitochondrial protein carbonyls) and peroxynitrite (nitrotyrosine [NT] staining) together with mitochondrial translocation of activated c-jun-N-terminal kinase (P-JNK) and release of AIF from the mitochondria. In contrast, Hq mice had significantly less liver injury (ALT: 330 ± 130 U/l; necrosis: 4 ± 2%), minimal nuclear DNA damage, and drastically reduced oxidant stress (based on all parameters) at 6 h. WT and Hq mice had the same baseline levels of cyp2E1 and of glutathione. The initial depletion of glutathione (20 min after APAP) was the same in both groups suggesting that there was no relevant difference in metabolic activation of APAP. Thus, AIF has a critical function in APAP hepatotoxicity by facilitating generation of reactive oxygen in mitochondria and, after nuclear translocation, AIF can be involved in DNA fragmentation. PMID:21572097

  17. Apoptosis-inducing factor modulates mitochondrial oxidant stress in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bajt, Mary Lynn; Ramachandran, Anup; Yan, Hui-Min; Lebofsky, Margitta; Farhood, Anwar; Lemasters, John J; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2011-08-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes liver injury in humans and mice. DNA fragmentation is a hallmark of APAP-induced cell death, and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) correlates with DNA fragmentation after APAP overdose. To test the hypothesis that AIF may be a critical mediator of APAP-induced cell death, fasted male AIF-deficient Harlequin (Hq) mice and respective wild-type (WT) animals were treated with 200 mg/kg APAP. At 6 h after APAP, WT animals developed severe liver injury as indicated by the increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities (8600 ± 1870 U/l) and 61 ± 8% necrosis. This injury was accompanied by massive DNA strand breaks in centrilobular hepatocytes (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling [TUNEL] assay) and release of DNA fragments into the cytosol (anti-histone ELISA). In addition, there was formation of reactive oxygen (increase in liver glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels and mitochondrial protein carbonyls) and peroxynitrite (nitrotyrosine [NT] staining) together with mitochondrial translocation of activated c-jun-N-terminal kinase (P-JNK) and release of AIF from the mitochondria. In contrast, Hq mice had significantly less liver injury (ALT: 330 ± 130 U/l; necrosis: 4 ± 2%), minimal nuclear DNA damage, and drastically reduced oxidant stress (based on all parameters) at 6 h. WT and Hq mice had the same baseline levels of cyp2E1 and of glutathione. The initial depletion of glutathione (20 min after APAP) was the same in both groups suggesting that there was no relevant difference in metabolic activation of APAP. Thus, AIF has a critical function in APAP hepatotoxicity by facilitating generation of reactive oxygen in mitochondria and, after nuclear translocation, AIF can be involved in DNA fragmentation. PMID:21572097

  18. A novel immunofluorescent assay to investigate oxidative phosphorylation deficiency in mitochondrial myopathy: understanding mechanisms and improving diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Mariana C; Grady, John P; Grünewald, Anne; Vincent, Amy; Dobson, Philip F; Taylor, Robert W; Turnbull, Doug M; Rygiel, Karolina A

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative phosphorylation defects in human tissues are often challenging to quantify due to a mosaic pattern of deficiency. Biochemical assays are difficult to interpret due to the varying enzyme deficiency levels found in individual cells. Histochemical analysis allows semi-quantitative assessment of complex II and complex IV activities, but there is no validated histochemical assay to assess complex I activity which is frequently affected in mitochondrial pathology. To help improve the diagnosis of mitochondrial disease and to study the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial abnormalities in disease, we have developed a quadruple immunofluorescent technique enabling the quantification of key respiratory chain subunits of complexes I and IV, together with an indicator of mitochondrial mass and a cell membrane marker. This assay gives precise and objective quantification of protein abundance in large numbers of individual muscle fibres. By assessing muscle biopsies from subjects with a range of different mitochondrial genetic defects we have demonstrated that specific genotypes exhibit distinct biochemical signatures in muscle, providing evidence for the diagnostic use of the technique, as well as insight into the underlying molecular pathology. Stringent testing for reproducibility and sensitivity confirms the potential value of the technique for mechanistic studies of disease and in the evaluation of therapeutic approaches. PMID:26469001

  19. A novel immunofluorescent assay to investigate oxidative phosphorylation deficiency in mitochondrial myopathy: understanding mechanisms and improving diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Mariana C.; Grady, John P.; Grünewald, Anne; Vincent, Amy; Dobson, Philip F.; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Doug M.; Rygiel, Karolina A.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative phosphorylation defects in human tissues are often challenging to quantify due to a mosaic pattern of deficiency. Biochemical assays are difficult to interpret due to the varying enzyme deficiency levels found in individual cells. Histochemical analysis allows semi-quantitative assessment of complex II and complex IV activities, but there is no validated histochemical assay to assess complex I activity which is frequently affected in mitochondrial pathology. To help improve the diagnosis of mitochondrial disease and to study the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial abnormalities in disease, we have developed a quadruple immunofluorescent technique enabling the quantification of key respiratory chain subunits of complexes I and IV, together with an indicator of mitochondrial mass and a cell membrane marker. This assay gives precise and objective quantification of protein abundance in large numbers of individual muscle fibres. By assessing muscle biopsies from subjects with a range of different mitochondrial genetic defects we have demonstrated that specific genotypes exhibit distinct biochemical signatures in muscle, providing evidence for the diagnostic use of the technique, as well as insight into the underlying molecular pathology. Stringent testing for reproducibility and sensitivity confirms the potential value of the technique for mechanistic studies of disease and in the evaluation of therapeutic approaches. PMID:26469001

  20. Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation Compensation May Preserve Vision in Patients with OPA1-Linked Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Van Bergen, Nicole J.; Crowston, Jonathan G.; Kearns, Lisa S.; Staffieri, Sandra E.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Cohn, Amy C.; Mackey, David A.; Trounce, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy (ADOA) is the most common inherited optic atrophy where vision impairment results from specific loss of retinal ganglion cells of the optic nerve. Around 60% of ADOA cases are linked to mutations in the OPA1 gene. OPA1 is a fission-fusion protein involved in mitochondrial inner membrane remodelling. ADOA presents with marked variation in clinical phenotype and varying degrees of vision loss, even among siblings carrying identical mutations in OPA1. To determine whether the degree of vision loss is associated with the level of mitochondrial impairment, we examined mitochondrial function in lymphoblast cell lines obtained from six large Australian OPA1-linked ADOA pedigrees. Comparing patients with severe vision loss (visual acuity [VA]<6/36) and patients with relatively preserved vision (VA>6/9) a clear defect in mitochondrial ATP synthesis and reduced respiration rates were observed in patients with poor vision. In addition, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymology in ADOA patients with normal vision revealed increased complex II+III activity and levels of complex IV protein. These data suggest that OPA1 deficiency impairs OXPHOS efficiency, but compensation through increases in the distal complexes of the respiratory chain may preserve mitochondrial ATP production in patients who maintain normal vision. Identification of genetic variants that enable this response may provide novel therapeutic insights into OXPHOS compensation for preventing vision loss in optic neuropathies. PMID:21731710

  1. C-Phycocyanin Confers Protection against Oxalate-Mediated Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in MDCK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Shukkur M.; Boppana, Nithin B.; Asokan, Devarajan; Sekaran, Shamala D.; Shankar, Esaki M.; Li, Chunying; Gopal, Kaliappan; Bakar, Sazaly A.; Karthik, Harve S.; Ebrahim, Abdul S.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate toxicity is mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via a process that is partly dependent on mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we investigated whether C-phycocyanin (CP) could protect against oxidative stress-mediated intracellular damage triggered by oxalate in MDCK cells. DCFDA, a fluorescence-based probe and hexanoyl-lysine adduct (HEL), an oxidative stress marker were used to investigate the effect of CP on oxalate-induced ROS production and membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO). The role of CP against oxalate-induced oxidative stress was studied by the evaluation of mitochondrial membrane potential by JC1 fluorescein staining, quantification of ATP synthesis and stress-induced MAP kinases (JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2). Our results revealed that oxalate-induced cells show markedly increased ROS levels and HEL protein expression that were significantly decreased following pre-treatment with CP. Further, JC1 staining showed that CP pre-treatment conferred significant protection from mitochondrial membrane permeability and increased ATP production in CP-treated cells than oxalate-alone-treated cells. In addition, CP treated cells significantly decreased the expression of phosphorylated JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2 as compared to oxalate-alone-treated cells. We concluded that CP could be used as a potential free radical-scavenging therapeutic strategy against oxidative stress-associated diseases including urolithiasis. PMID:24691130

  2. Inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition by low pH is associated with less extensive membrane protein thiol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, B M; Kowaltowski, A J; Castilho, R F; Vercesi, A E

    1999-12-01

    Ca2+ and inorganic phosphate-induced mitochondrial swelling and membrane protein thiol oxidation, which are associated with mitochondrial permeability transition, are inhibited by progressively decreasing the incubation medium pH between 7.2 and 6.0. Nevertheless, the detection of mitochondrial H2O2 production under these conditions is increased. Permeability transition induced by phenylarsine oxide, which promotes membrane protein thiol cross-linkage in a process independent of Ca2+ or reactive oxygen species, is also strongly inhibited in acidic incubation media. In addition, we observed that the decreased protein thiol reactivity with phenylarsine oxide or phenylarsine oxide-induced swelling at pH 6.0 is reversed by diethyl pyrocarbonate, in a hydroxylamine-sensitive manner. These results provide evidence that the inhibition of mitrochondrial permeability transition observed at lower incubation medium pH is mediated by a decrease in membrane protein thiol reactivity, related to the protonation of protein histidyl residues. PMID:10841269

  3. Mitochondrial activity and oxidative stress markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Gubert, Carolina; Stertz, Laura; Pfaffenseller, Bianca; Panizzutti, Bruna Schilling; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza; Massuda, Raffael; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Gama, Clarissa Severino; Kapczinski, Flávio; Kunz, Maurício

    2013-10-01

    Evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, the exact mechanisms underlying this dysfunction are not well understood. Impaired activity of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes has been described in these disorders and may reflect changes in mitochondrial metabolism and oxidative stress markers. The objective of this study was to compare ETC complex activity and protein and lipid oxidation markers in 12 euthymic patients with BD type I, in 18 patients with stable chronic SZ, and in 30 matched healthy volunteers. Activity of complexes I, II, and III was determined by enzyme kinetics of mitochondria isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Protein oxidation was evaluated using the protein carbonyl content (PCC) method, and lipid peroxidation, the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay kit. A significant decrease in complex I activity was observed (p = 0.02), as well as an increase in plasma levels of TBARS (p = 0.00617) in patients with SZ when compared to matched controls. Conversely, no significant differences were found in complex I activity (p = 0.17) or in plasma TBARS levels (p = 0.26) in patients with BD vs. matched controls. Our results suggest that mitochondrial complex I dysfunction and oxidative stress play important roles in the pathophysiology of SZ and may be used in potential novel adjunctive therapy for SZ, focusing primarily on cognitive impairment and disorder progression. PMID:23870796

  4. Rosiglitazone causes cardiotoxicity via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-independent mitochondrial oxidative stress in mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    He, Huamei; Tao, Hai; Xiong, Hui; Duan, Sheng Zhong; McGowan, Francis X; Mortensen, Richard M; Balschi, James A

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to test the hypothesis that thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone (RSG), a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, causes cardiotoxicity independently of PPARγ. Energy metabolism and mitochondrial function were measured in perfused hearts isolated from C57BL/6, cardiomyocyte-specific PPARγ-deficient mice, and their littermates. Cardiac function and mitochondrial oxidative stress were measured in both in vitro and in vivo settings. Treatment of isolated hearts with RSG at the supratherapeutic concentrations of 10 and 30 μM caused myocardial energy deficiency as evidenced by the decreases in [PCr], [ATP], ATP/ADP ratio, energy charge with a concomitant cardiac dysfunction as indicated by the decreases in left ventricular systolic pressure, rates of tension development and relaxation, and by an increase in end-diastolic pressure. When incubated with tissue homogenate or isolated mitochondria at these same concentrations, RSG caused mitochondrial dysfunction as evidenced by the decreases in respiration rate, substrate oxidation rates, and activities of complexes I and IV. RSG also increased complexes I- and III-dependent O₂⁻ production, decreased glutathione content, inhibited superoxide dismutase, and increased the levels of malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine in mitochondria, consistent with oxidative stress. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) 20 mM prevented RSG-induced above toxicity at those in vitro settings. Cardiomyocyte-specific PPARγ deletion and PPARγ antagonist GW9662 did not prevent the observed cardiotoxicity. Intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg RSG also caused cardiac dysfunction and oxidative stress, 600 mg/kg NAC antagonized these adverse effects. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that RSG at supratherapeutic concentrations causes cardiotoxicity via a PPARγ-independent mechanism involving oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse hearts. PMID:24449420

  5. The effect of Leonurus cardiaca herb extract and some of its flavonoids on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in the heart.

    PubMed

    Bernatoniene, Jurga; Kopustinskiene, Dalia M; Jakstas, Valdas; Majiene, Daiva; Baniene, Rasa; Kuršvietiene, Lolita; Masteikova, Ruta; Savickas, Arunas; Toleikis, Adolfas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

    2014-05-01

    Motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca) possesses antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities, and is used as a complementary remedy to improve heart function and blood circulation. Since cardiovascular diseases are often associated with an alteration of mitochondria, the main producers of ATP in cardiac muscle cells, the aim of our work was to determine bioactive constituents present in motherwort aerial parts extract in ethanol and investigate their effects on the functions of cardiac mitochondria. Quantitative determination of polyphenols in L. cardiaca herb extract was performed by HPLC. Mitochondrial respiration rates were evaluated using a Clark-type oxygen electrode. Mitochondrial ROS generation was determined fluorimetrically with Amplex Red and horseradish peroxidase. The results showed that constituents (chlorogenic acid, orientin, quercetin, hyperoside, and rutin) of L. cardiaca herb extract uncouple (by 20-90 %) mitochondrial oxidation from phosphorylation, partially inhibit (by ~ 40 %) the mitochondrial respiratory chain in cases of pyruvate and malate as well as succinate oxidation, and effectively attenuate the generation of free radicals in mitochondria. Since partial uncoupling of mitochondria, respiratory inhibition, and decreased ROS production are proposed as possible mechanisms of cardioprotection, our results imply that L. cardiaca herb extract could be a useful remedy to protect cardiac muscles from the effects of pathogenic processes. PMID:24841965

  6. Mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes, catalase and markers of oxidative stress in platelets of patients with severe aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Anand, R; Sharma, D R; Verma, D; Bhalla, A; Gill, K D; Singh, S

    2013-08-01

    Aluminum phosphide (ALP), a widely used fumigant and rodenticide, leads to high mortality if ingested. Its toxicity is due to phosphine that is liberated when it comes in contact with moisture. The exact site or mechanism of action of phosphine is not known, although it is widely believed that it affects mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Basic serum biochemical parameters, activity of mitochondrial complexes, antioxidant enzymes and parameters of oxidative stress were estimated in the platelets of 21 patients who developed severe poisoning following ALP ingestion. These parameters were compared with 32 healthy controls and with 22 patients with shock due to other causes (cardiogenic shock (11), septic shock (9) and hemorrhagic shock (2)). The serum levels of creatine kinase-muscle brain and lactate dehydrogenase were higher in patients poisoned with ALP, whereas a significant decrease was observed in the activities of mitochondrial complexes I, II and IV. The activity of catalase was lower but the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were unaffected in them. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation was observed, whereas total blood thiol levels were lower. In patients severely poisoned with ALP, not only cytochrome c oxidase but also other complexes are involved in mitochondrial electron transport, and enzymes are also inhibited. PMID:23821638

  7. Resveratrol Induces a Mitochondrial Complex I-dependent Increase in NADH Oxidation Responsible for Sirtuin Activation in Liver Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Gueguen, Naïg; Leman, Géraldine; Baron, Stéphanie; Nivet-Antoine, Valérie; Chupin, Stéphanie; Chevrollier, Arnaud; Vessières, Emilie; Ayer, Audrey; Ferré, Marc; Bonneau, Dominique; Henrion, Daniel; Reynier, Pascal; Procaccio, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) has been shown to be involved in the regulation of energetic metabolism, generating increasing interest in therapeutic use. SIRT1 has been described as the main target of RSV. However, recent reports have challenged the hypothesis of its direct activation by RSV, and the signaling pathways remain elusive. Here, the effects of RSV on mitochondrial metabolism are detailed both in vivo and in vitro using murine and cellular models and isolated enzymes. We demonstrate that low RSV doses (1–5 μm) directly stimulate NADH dehydrogenases and, more specifically, mitochondrial complex I activity (EC50 ∼1 μm). In HepG2 cells, this complex I activation increases the mitochondrial NAD+/NADH ratio. This higher NAD+ level initiates a SIRT3-dependent increase in the mitochondrial substrate supply pathways (i.e. the tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acid oxidation). This effect is also seen in liver mitochondria of RSV-fed animals (50 mg/kg/day). We conclude that the increase in NADH oxidation by complex I is a crucial event for SIRT3 activation by RSV. Our results open up new perspectives in the understanding of the RSV signaling pathway and highlight the critical importance of RSV doses used for future clinical trials. PMID:24178296

  8. The impact of partial manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2)-deficiency on mitochondrial oxidant stress, DNA fragmentation and liver injury during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, Anup; Lebofsky, Margitta; Weinman, Steven A.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2011-03-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in many countries. The mechanism of cell death is initiated by formation of a reactive metabolite that binds to mitochondrial proteins and promotes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidant stress. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is a critical defense enzyme located in the mitochondrial matrix. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the functional consequences of partial SOD2-deficiency (SOD2+/-) on intracellular signaling mechanisms of necrotic cell death after APAP overdose. Treatment of C57Bl/6J wild type animals with 200 mg/kg APAP resulted in liver injury as indicated by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activities (2870 {+-} 180 U/L) and centrilobular necrosis at 6 h. In addition, increased tissue glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels and GSSG-to-GSH ratios, delayed mitochondrial GSH recovery, and increased mitochondrial protein carbonyls and nitrotyrosine protein adducts indicated mitochondrial oxidant stress. In addition, nuclear DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay) correlated with translocation of Bax to the mitochondria and release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Furthermore, activation of c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) was documented by the mitochondrial translocation of phospho-JNK. SOD2+/- mice showed 4-fold higher ALT activities and necrosis, an enhancement of all parameters of the mitochondrial oxidant stress, more AIF release and more extensive DNA fragmentation and more prolonged JNK activation. Conclusions: the impaired defense against mitochondrial superoxide formation in SOD2+/- mice prolongs JNK activation after APAP overdose and consequently further enhances the mitochondrial oxidant stress leading to exaggerated mitochondrial dysfunction, release of intermembrane proteins with nuclear DNA fragmentation and more necrosis.

  9. The oxidized phospholipid PazePC promotes permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes by Bax.

    PubMed

    Lidman, Martin; Pokorná, Šárka; Dingeldein, Artur P G; Sparrman, Tobias; Wallgren, Marcus; Šachl, Radek; Hof, Martin; Gröbner, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria play a crucial role in programmed cell death via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, which is tightly regulated by the B-cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein family. Intracellular oxidative stress causes the translocation of Bax, a pro-apoptotic family member, to the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) where it induces membrane permeabilization. Oxidized phospholipids (OxPls) generated in the MOM during oxidative stress directly affect the onset and progression of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Here we use MOM-mimicking lipid vesicles doped with varying concentrations of 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PazePC), an OxPl species known to significantly enhance Bax-membrane association, to investigate three key aspects of Bax's action at the MOM: 1) induction of Bax pores in membranes without additional mediator proteins, 2) existence of a threshold OxPl concentration required for Bax-membrane action and 3) mechanism by which PazePC disturbs membrane organization to facilitate Bax penetration. Fluorescence leakage studies revealed that Bax-induced leakage, especially its rate, increased with the vesicles' PazePC content without any detectable threshold neither for OxPl nor Bax. Moreover, the leakage rate correlated with the Bax to lipid ratio and the PazePC content. Solid state NMR studies and calorimetric experiments on the lipid vesicles confirmed that OxPl incorporation disrupted the membrane's organization, enabling Bax to penetrate into the membrane. In addition, 15N cross polarization (CP) and insensitive nuclei enhanced by polarization transfer (INEPT) MAS NMR experiments using uniformly (15)N-labeled Bax revealed dynamically restricted helical segments of Bax embedded in the membrane, while highly flexible protein segments were located outside or at the membrane surface. PMID:26947183

  10. Evidence for Physical Association of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation and Oxidative Phosphorylation Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yudong; Mohsen, Al-Walid; Mihalik, Stephanie J.; Goetzman, Eric S.; Vockley, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are key pathways involved in cellular energetics. Reducing equivalents from FAO enter OXPHOS at the level of complexes I and III. Genetic disorders of FAO and OXPHOS are among the most frequent inborn errors of metabolism. Patients with deficiencies of either FAO or OXPHOS often show clinical and/or biochemical findings indicative of a disorder of the other pathway. In this study, the physical and functional interactions between these pathways were examined. Extracts of isolated rat liver mitochondria were subjected to blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BNGE) to separate OXPHOS complexes and supercomplexes followed by Western blotting using antisera to various FAO enzymes. Extracts were also subjected to sucrose density centrifugation and fractions analyzed by BNGE or enzymatic assays. Several FAO enzymes co-migrated with OXPHOS supercomplexes in different patterns in the gels. When palmitoyl-CoA was added to the sucrose gradient fractions containing OXPHOS supercomplexes in the presence of potassium cyanide, cytochrome c was reduced. Cytochrome c reduction was completely blocked by myxothiazol (a complex III inhibitor) and 3-mercaptopropionate (an inhibitor of the first step of FAO), but was only partially inhibited by rotenone (a complex I inhibitor). Although palmitoyl-CoA and octanoyl-CoA provided reducing equivalents to OXPHOS-containing supercomplex fractions, no accumulation of their intermediates was detected. In contrast, short branched acyl-CoA substrates were not metabolized by OXPHOS-containing supercomplex fractions. These data provide evidence of a multifunctional FAO complex within mitochondria that is physically associated with OXPHOS supercomplexes and promotes metabolic channeling. PMID:20663895

  11. Mitochondrial Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Mock

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria contain the respiratory chain enzyme complexes that carry out oxidative phosphorylation and produce the main part of cellular energy in the form of ATP. Although several proteins related with signalling, assembling, transporting, and enzymatic function can be impaired in mitochondrial diseases, most frequently the activity of the respiratory chain protein complexes is primarily or secondarily affected, leading to impaired oxygen utilization and reduced energy production. Mitochondrial diseases usually show a chronic, slowly progressive course and present with multiorgan involvement with varying onset between birth and late adulthood. Neuromuscular system is frequently affected in mitochondrial diseases. Although there is actually no specific therapy and cure for mitochondrial diseases, the understanding of the pathophysiology may further facilitate the diagnostic approach and open perspectives to future in mitochondrial diseases. PMID:24649452

  12. RIP1 maintains DNA integrity and cell proliferation by regulating PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, W; Wang, Q; Bai, L; Chen, W; Wang, X; Tellez, C S; Leng, S; Padilla, M T; Nyunoya, T; Belinsky, S A; Lin, Y

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect contributes to cancer cell proliferation; however, how this glucose metabolism pathway is precisely regulated remains elusive. Here we show that receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), a cell death and survival signaling factor, regulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis. Loss of RIP1 in lung cancer cells suppressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression, impairing mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and accelerating glycolysis, resulting in spontaneous DNA damage and p53-mediated cell proliferation inhibition. Thus, although aerobic glycolysis within a certain range favors cancer cell proliferation, excessive glycolysis causes cytostasis. Our data suggest that maintenance of glycolysis by RIP1 is pivotal to cancer cell energy homeostasis and DNA integrity and may be exploited for use in anticancer therapy. PMID:24583643

  13. Mitochondrial oxidative stress as a novel therapeutic target to overcome intrinsic drug resistance in melanoma cell subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Cierlitza, Monika; Chauvistré, Heike; Bogeski, Ivan; Zhang, Xin; Hauschild, Axel; Herlyn, Meenhard; Schadendorf, Dirk; Vogt, Thomas; Roesch, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent success in melanoma therapy, most patients with metastatic disease still undergo deadly progression. We have identified a novel mechanism of multidrug resistance allowing a small subpopulation of slow-cycling melanoma cells to survive based on elevated oxidative bioenergy metabolism. In this study, we asked whether such slow-cycling cells could be eliminated by co-treatment with the copper-chelator elesclomol. Elesclomol–copper complexes can cause oxidative stress by disruption of the mitochondrial respiration chain or by indirect non-mitochondrial induction of reactive oxygen species. We have found that elesclomol effectively kills the slow-cycling subpopulation and prevents the selective enrichment for slow-cycling cells, which usually results after monotreatment. We hypothesize that elesclomol could overcome the multidrug resistance of slow-cycling melanoma cells and prevent tumor repopulation in melanoma patients in future. PMID:25453510

  14. Mitochondrial oxidative stress as a novel therapeutic target to overcome intrinsic drug resistance in melanoma cell subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Cierlitza, Monika; Chauvistré, Heike; Bogeski, Ivan; Zhang, Xin; Hauschild, Axel; Herlyn, Meenhard; Schadendorf, Dirk; Vogt, Thomas; Roesch, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Despite recent success in melanoma therapy, most patients with metastatic disease still undergo deadly progression. We have identified a novel mechanism of multidrug resistance allowing a small subpopulation of slow-cycling melanoma cells to survive based on elevated oxidative bioenergy metabolism. In this study, we asked whether such slow-cycling cells could be eliminated by co-treatment with the copper-chelator elesclomol. Elesclomol-copper complexes can cause oxidative stress by disruption of the mitochondrial respiration chain or by indirect non-mitochondrial induction of reactive oxygen species. We have found that elesclomol effectively kills the slow-cycling subpopulation and prevents the selective enrichment for slow-cycling cells, which usually results after monotreatment. We hypothesize that elesclomol could overcome the multidrug resistance of slow-cycling melanoma cells and prevent tumor repopulation in melanoma patients in future. PMID:25453510

  15. Low molecular weight guluronate prevents TNF-α-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Dun, Yun-lou; Zhou, Xiao-lin; Guan, Hua-shi; Yu, Guang-li; Li, Chun-xia; Hu, Ting; Zhao, Xia; Cheng, Xiao-lei; He, Xiao-xi; Hao, Jie-jie

    2015-09-01

    Muscle wasting is associated with a variety of chronic or inflammatory disorders. Evidence suggests that inflammatory cytokines play a vital role in muscle inflammatory pathology and this may result in oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. In our study, we used microwave degradation to prepare a water-soluble low molecular weight guluronate (LMG) of 3000 Da from Fucus vesiculosus obtained from Canada, the Atlantic Ocean. We demonstrated the structural characteristics, using HPLC, FTIR and NMR of LMG and investigated its effects on oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), a cell inflammatory cytokine. The results indicated that LMG could alleviate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes (GSH and SOD), promote mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and upregulate the expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain protein in TNF-α-induced C2C12 cells. LMG supplement also increased the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial biogenesis related genes in TNF-α-induced C2C12 cells. LMG may exert these protective effects through the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. These suggest that LMG is capable of protecting TNF-α-induced C2C12 cells against oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26205038

  16. GM-CSF provides autocrine protection for murine alveolar epithelial cells from oxidant-induced mitochondrial injury.

    PubMed

    Sturrock, Anne; Seedahmed, Elfateh; Mir-Kasimov, Mustafa; Boltax, Jonathan; McManus, Michael L; Paine, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Exposure of mice to hyperoxia induces alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) injury, acute lung injury and death. Overexpression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the lung protects against these effects, although the mechanisms are not yet clear. Hyperoxia induces cellular injury via effects on mitochondrial integrity, associated with induction of proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. We hypothesized that GM-CSF protects AEC through effects on mitochondrial integrity. MLE-12 cells (a murine type II cell line) and primary murine type II AEC were subjected to oxidative stress by exposure to 80% oxygen and by exposure to H(2)O(2). Exposure to H(2)O(2) induced cytochrome c release and decreased mitochondrial reductase activity in MLE-12 cells. Incubation with GM-CSF significantly attenuated these effects. Protection induced by GM-CSF was associated with Akt activation. GM-CSF treatment also resulted in increased expression of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family member, Mcl-1. Primary murine AEC were significantly more tolerant of oxidative stress than MLE-12 cells. In contrast to MLE-12 cells, primary AEC expressed significant GM-CSF at baseline and demonstrated constitutive activation of Akt and increased baseline expression of Mcl-1. Treatment with exogenous GM-CSF further increased Akt activation and Mcl-1 expression in primary AEC. Conversely, suppression of AEC GM-CSF expression by use of GM-CSF-specific small interfering RNA resulted in decreased tolerance of oxidative stress, Furthermore, silencing of Mcl-1 prevented GM-CSF-induced protection. We conclude that GM-CSF protects alveolar epithelial cells against oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial injury via the Akt pathway and its downstream components, including Mcl-1. Epithelial cell-derived GM-CSF may contribute to intrinsic defense mechanisms limiting lung injury. PMID:22140071

  17. Preventing cell death induced by carbonyl stress, oxidative stress or mitochondrial toxins with vitamin B anti-AGE agents.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rhea; Shangari, Nandita; O'Brien, Peter J

    2008-03-01

    Carbonyls generated by autoxidation of carbohydrates or lipid peroxidation have been implicated in advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation in tissues adversely affected by diabetes complications. Tissue AGE and associated pathology have been decreased by vitamin B(1)/B(6) in trials involving diabetic animal models. To understand the molecular cytoprotective mechanisms involved, the effects of B(1)/B(6) vitamers against cytotoxicity induced by AGE/advanced lipid end product (ALE) carbonyl precursors (glyoxal/acrolein) have been compared to cytotoxicity induced by oxidative stress (hydroperoxide) or mitochondrial toxins (cyanide/copper). Thiamin was found to be best at preventing cell death induced by carbonyl stress and mitochondrial toxins but not oxidative stress cell death suggesting that thiamin pyrophosphate restored pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenases inhibited by mitochondrial toxicity. However, B(6) vitamers were most effective at preventing oxidative stress or lipid peroxidation cytotoxicity suggesting that pyridoxal or pyridoxal phosphate were antioxidants and/or Fe/Cu chelators. A therapeutic vitamin cocktail could provide maximal prevention against carbonyl stress toxicity associated with diabetic complications. PMID:17918169

  18. Effect of Syzygium cumini and Bauhinia forficata aqueous-leaf extracts on oxidative and mitochondrial parameters in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ecker, Assis; Araujo Vieira, Francielli; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Mulling dos Santos, Matheus; Ramos, Angelica; Dias Ferreira, Rafael; Teixeira de Macedo, Gabriel; Vargas Klimaczewski, Claudia; Lopes Seeger, Rodrigo; Teixeira da Rocha, João Batista; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda B.

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous-leaf extract of Syzygium cumini and Bauhinia forficata are traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes and cancer, especially in South America, Africa, and Asia. In this study, we analyzed the effects of these extracts on oxidative and mitochondrial parameters in vitro, as well as their protective activities against toxic agents. Phytochemical screenings of the extracts were carried out by HPLC analysis. The in vitro antioxidant capacities were compared by DPPH radical scavenging and Fe2+ chelating activities. Mitochondrial parameters observed were swelling, lipid peroxidation and dehydrogenase activity. The major chemical constituent of S. cumini was rutin. In B. forficata were predominant quercetin and gallic acid. S. cumini reduced DPPH radical more than B. forficata, and showed iron chelating activity at all tested concentrations, while B. forficata had not similar property. In mitochondria, high concentrations of B. forficata alone induced a decrease in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, but low concentrations of this extract prevented the effect induced by Fe2++H2O2. This was also observed with high concentrations of S. cumini. Both extracts partially prevented the lipid peroxidation induced by Fe2+/citrate. S. cumini was effective against mitochondrial swelling induced by Ca2+, while B. forficata alone induced swelling more than Ca2+. This study suggests that leaf extract of S. cumini might represent a useful therapeutic for the treatment of diseases related with mitochondrial dysfunctions. On the other hand, the consumption of B. forficata should be avoided because mitochondrial damages were observed, and this possibly may pose risk to human health. PMID:27152111

  19. Mitochondrial and liver oxidative stress alterations induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine: relevance for hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria M; Teixeira, José C; Vasconcelos-Nóbrega, Cármen; Felix, Luis M; Sardão, Vilma A; Colaço, Aura A; Oliveira, Paula A; Peixoto, Francisco P

    2013-06-01

    The most significant toxicological effect of nitrosamines like N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) is their carcinogenic activity, which may result from exposure to a single large dose or from chronic exposure to relatively small doses. However, its effects on mitochondrial liver bioenergetics were never investigated. Liver is the principal organ responsible for BBN metabolic activation, and mitochondria have a central function in cellular energy production, participating in multiple metabolic pathways. Therefore any negative effect on mitochondrial function may affect cell viability. In the present work, ICR male mice were given 0.05% of BBN in drinking water for a period of 12 weeks and were sacrificed one week later. Mitochondrial physiology was characterized in BBN- and control-treated mice. Transmembrane electric potential developed by mitochondria was significantly affected when pyruvate-malate was used, with an increase in state 4 respiration observed for pyruvate-malate (46%) and succinate (38%). A decrease in the contents of one subunit of mitochondrial complex I and in one subunit of mitochondrial complex IV was also observed. In addition, the activity of both complexes I and II was also decreased by BBN treatment. The treatment with BBN increases the susceptibility of liver mitochondria to the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. This susceptibility could be related with the increase in the production of H2 O2 by mitochondria and increased oxidative stress confirmed by augmented susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. These results lead to the conclusion that hepatic mitochondria are one primary target for BBN toxic action during liver metabolism. PMID:22095756

  20. Eicosapentaenoic acid but not docosahexaenoic acid restores skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity in old mice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew L; Lalia, Antigoni Z; Dasari, Surendra; Pallauf, Maximilian; Fitch, Mark; Hellerstein, Marc K; Lanza, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is often observed in aging skeletal muscle and is implicated in age-related declines in physical function. Early evidence suggests that dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) improve mitochondrial function. Here, we show that 10 weeks of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation partially attenuated the age-related decline in mitochondrial function in mice, but this effect was not observed with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The improvement in mitochondrial function with EPA occurred in the absence of any changes in mitochondrial abundance or biogenesis, which was evaluated from RNA sequencing, large-scale proteomics, and direct measurements of muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis rates. We find that EPA improves muscle protein quality, specifically by decreasing mitochondrial protein carbamylation, a post-translational modification that is driven by inflammation. These results demonstrate that EPA attenuated the age-related loss of mitochondrial function and improved mitochondrial protein quality through a mechanism that is likely linked with anti-inflammatory properties of n-3 PUFAs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that EPA and DHA exert some common biological effects (anticoagulation, anti-inflammatory, reduced FXR/RXR activation), but also exhibit many distinct biological effects, a finding that underscores the importance of evaluating the therapeutic potential of individual n-3 PUFAs. PMID:26010060

  1. Effects of an 8-weeks erythropoietin treatment on mitochondrial and whole body fat oxidation capacity during exercise in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Plenge, Ulla; Helbo, Signe; Kristensen, Marianne; Andersen, Peter Riis; Fago, Angela; Belhage, Bo; Dela, Flemming; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration and angiogenesis. Recombinant erythropoietin was administered by subcutaneous injections (5000 IU) in six healthy male volunteers (aged 21 ± 2 years; fat mass 18.5 ± 2.3%) over 8 weeks. The participants performed two graded cycle ergometer exercise tests before and after the intervention where VO2max and maximal fat oxidation were measured. Biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained before and after the intervention. Recombinant erythropoietin treatment increased mitochondrial O2 flux during ADP stimulated state 3 respiration in the presence of complex I and II substrates (malate, glutamate, pyruvate, succinate) with additional electron input from β-oxidation (octanoylcarnitine) (from 60 ± 13 to 87 ± 24 pmol · s(-1) · mg(-1) P < 0.01). β-hydroxy-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase activity was higher after treatment (P < 0.05), whereas citrate synthase activity also tended to increase (P = 0.06). Total myoglobin increased by 16.5% (P < 0.05). Capillaries per muscle area tended to increase (P = 0.07), whereas capillaries per fibre as well as the total expression of vascular endothelial growth factor remained unchanged. Whole body maximal fat oxidation was not increased after treatment. Eight weeks of recombinant erythropoietin treatment increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation capacity and myoglobin concentration without any effect on whole body maximal fat oxidation. PMID:25259652

  2. Brimonidine Blocks Glutamate Excitotoxicity-Induced Oxidative Stress and Preserves Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A in Ischemic Retinal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dongwook; Kim, Keun-Young; Noh, You Hyun; Chai, Stephen; Lindsey, James D.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Ju, Won-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate excitotoxicity-induced oxidative stress have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in retinal ischemia and optic neuropathies including glaucoma. Brimonindine (BMD), an alpha 2-adrenergic receptor agonist, contributes to the neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) against glutamate excitotoxicity or oxidative stress. However, the molecular mechanisms of BMD-associated mitochondrial preservation in RGC protection against glutamate excitotoxicity-induced oxidative stress following retinal ischemic injury remain largely unknown. Here, we tested whether activation of alpha 2 adrenergic receptor by systemic BMD treatment blocks glutamate excitotoxicity-induced oxidative stress, and preserves the expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex in ischemic retina. Sprague-Dawley rats received BMD (1 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (0.9% saline) systemically and then transient ischemia was induced by acute intraocular pressure elevation. Systemic BMD treatment significantly increased RGC survival at 4 weeks after ischemia. At 24 hours, BMD significantly decreased Bax expression but increased Bcl-xL and phosphorylated Bad protein expression in ischemic retina. Importantly. BMD significantly blocked the upregulations of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors 1 and 2A protein expression, as well as of SOD2 protein expression in ischemic retina at 24 hours. During the early neurodegeneration following ischemic injury (12–72 hours), Tfam and OXPHOS complex protein expression were significantly increased in vehicle-treated retina. At 24 hours after ischemia, Tfam immunoreactivity was increased in the outer plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, inner plexiform layer and ganglion cell layer. Further, Tfam protein was expressed predominantly in RGCs. Finally, BMD preserved Tfam immunoreactivity in RGCs as well as Tfam/OXPHOS complex protein expression in the retinal extracts against ischemic injury. Our findings suggest

  3. Uncouplers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are not substrates of the erythrocyte glutathione-S-conjugate pump.

    PubMed

    Sokal, A; Bartosz, G

    1998-01-01

    Uncouplers of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, dinitrophenol (DNP) and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), were found to stimulate Mg(2+)-ATPase activity of human erythrocyte membranes in a manner competitive with respect to 2,4-dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione (DNP-SG) which suggested that these compounds may also be substrates of the glutathione-S-conjugate pump. We confirm that the stimulation of erythrocyte membrane ATPase activity by DNP and by another uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), is competitive with respect to DNP-SG. However, we found no evidence for active transport of DNP and CCCP out of erythrocytes and demonstrate that they inhibit the low-affinity component of DNP-SG transport noncompetitively while stimulating the high-affinity DNP-SG transport (mediated by multidrug resistance-associated protein, MRP1). Implications of these findings may indicate the electrogenic nature of MRP1-mediated transport of glutathione-S conjugates and stimulation of aminophospholipid translocase (flippase) rather than the glutathione-S-conjugate pump by the uncouplers. PMID:9439589

  4. Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation System (OXPHOS) Deficits in Schizophrenia: Possible Interactions with Cellular Processes.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Oded; Ben-Shachar, Dorit

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are key players in the generation and regulation of cellular bioenergetics, producing the majority of adenosine triphosphate molecules by the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). Linked to numerous signaling pathways and cellular functions, mitochondria, and OXPHOS in particular, are involved in neuronal development, connectivity, plasticity, and differentiation. Impairments in a variety of mitochondrial functions have been described in different general and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia (SCZ), a severe, chronic, debilitating illness that heavily affects the lives of patients and their families. This article reviews findings emphasizing the role of OXPHOS in the pathophysiology of SCZ. Evidence accumulated during the past few decades from imaging, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic studies points at OXPHOS deficit involvement in SCZ. Abnormalities have been reported in high-energy phosphates generated by the OXPHOS, in the activity of its complexes and gene expression, primarily of complex I (CoI). In addition, cellular signaling such as cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) and Ca(+2), neuronal development, connectivity, and plasticity have been linked to OXPHOS function and are reported to be impaired in SCZ. Finally, CoI has been shown as a site of interaction for both dopamine (DA) and antipsychotic drugs, further substantiating its role in the pathology of SCZ. Understanding the role of mitochondria and the OXPHOS in particular may encourage new insights into the pathophysiology and etiology of this debilitating disorder. PMID:27412728

  5. Inhibition of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase by nitric oxide-mediated S-nitrosylation

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Kim, Bong-Jo; Song, Byoung J.

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is responsible for the metabolism of acetaldehyde and other toxic lipid aldehydes. Despite many reports about the inhibition of ALDH2 by toxic chemicals, it is unknown whether nitric oxide (NO) can alter the ALDH2 activity in intact cells or in vivo animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NO on ALDH2 activity in H4IIE-C3 rat hepatoma cells. NO donors such as S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, and 3-morpholinosydnonimine significantly increased the nitrite concentration while they inhibited the ALDH2 activity. Addition of GSH-ethylester (GSH-EE) completely blocked the GSNO-mediated ALDH2 inhibition and increased nitrite concentration. To directly demonstrate the NO-mediated S-nitrosylation and inactivation, ALDH2 was immunopurified from control or GSNO-treated cells and subjected to immunoblot analysis. The anti-nitrosocysteine antibody recognized the immunopurified ALDH2 only from the GSNO-treated samples. All these results indicate that S-nitrosylation of ALDH2 in intact cells leads to reversible inhibition of ALDH2 activity. PMID:16242127

  6. A novel intermembrane space–targeting signal docks cysteines onto Mia40 during mitochondrial oxidative folding

    PubMed Central

    Sideris, Dionisia P.; Petrakis, Nikos; Katrakili, Nitsa; Mikropoulou, Despina; Gallo, Angelo; Ciofi-Baffoni, Simone; Banci, Lucia; Bertini, Ivano

    2009-01-01

    Mia40 imports Cys-containing proteins into the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) by ensuring their Cys-dependent oxidative folding. In this study, we show that the specific Cys of the substrate involved in docking with Mia40 is substrate dependent, the process being guided by an IMS-targeting signal (ITS) present in Mia40 substrates. The ITS is a 9-aa internal peptide that (a) is upstream or downstream of the docking Cys, (b) is sufficient for crossing the outer membrane and for targeting nonmitochondrial proteins, (c) forms an amphipathic helix with crucial hydrophobic residues on the side of the docking Cys and dispensable charged residues on the other side, and (d) fits complementary to the substrate cleft of Mia40 via hydrophobic interactions of micromolar affinity. We rationalize the dual function of Mia40 as a receptor and an oxidase in a two step–specific mechanism: an ITS-guided sliding step orients the substrate noncovalently, followed by docking of the substrate Cys now juxtaposed to pair with the Mia40 active Cys. PMID:20026652

  7. Pathological Consequences of Long-Term Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in the Mouse Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Soo-jung; Krebs, Mark P.; Mao, Haoyu; Jones, Kyle; Conners, Mandy; Lewin, Alfred S.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is hypothesized to be a major contributor to the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a critical antioxidant protein that scavenges the highly reactive superoxide radical. We speculated that specific reduction of MnSOD in the RPE will increase the level of reactive oxygen species in the retina/RPE/choroid complex leading to pathogenesis similar to geographic atrophy. To test this hypothesis, an Sod2-specific hammerhead ribozyme (Rz), delivered by AAV2/1 and driven by the human VMD2 promoter was injected subretinally into C57BL/6J mice. Dark-adapted full field electroretinogram (ERG) detected a decrease in the response to light. We investigated the age-dependent phenotypic and morphological changes of the outer retina digital fundus imaging and SD-OCT measurement of ONL thickness. Fundus microscopy revealed pigmentary abnormalities in the retina and these corresponded to sub-retinal and sub-RPE deposits seen in SD-OCT B-scans. Light and electron microscopy documented the localization of apical deposits and thickening of the RPE. In RPE flat-mounts we observed abnormally displaced nuclei and regions of apparent fibrosis in the central retina of the oldest mice. This region was surrounded by enlarged and irregular RPE cells that have been observed in eyes donated by AMD patients and in other mouse models of AMD. PMID:22687918

  8. Enhancing hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation stimulates eating in food-deprived mice

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Abdelhak; Pacheco-López, Gustavo; Ramachandran, Deepti; Arnold, Myrtha; Leitner, Claudia; Prip-Buus, Carina; Langhans, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic fatty acid oxidation (FAO) has long been implicated in the control of eating. Nevertheless, direct evidence for a causal relationship between changes in hepatic FAO and changes in food intake is still missing. Here we tested whether increasing hepatic FAO via adenovirus-mediated expression of a mutated form of the key regulatory enzyme of mitochondrial FAO carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1mt), which is active but insensitive to inhibition by malonyl-CoA, affects eating and metabolism in mice. CPT1mt expression increased hepatocellular CPT1 protein levels. This resulted in an increase in circulating ketone body levels in fasted CPT1mt-expressing mice, suggesting an increase in hepatic FAO. These mice did not show any significant changes in cumulative food intake, energy expenditure, or respiratory quotient after 4-h food deprivation. After 24-h food deprivation, however, the CPT1mt-expressing mice displayed increased food intake. Thus expression of CPT1mt in the liver increases hepatic FAO capacity, but does not inhibit eating. Rather, it may even stimulate eating after prolonged food deprivation. These data do not support the hypothesis that an increase in hepatic FAO decreases food intake. PMID:25427767

  9. Chasing great paths of Helmut Sies "Oxidative Stress".

    PubMed

    Majima, Hideyuki J; Indo, Hiroko P; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Suenaga, Shigeaki; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichiro; Matsui, Hirofumi; Minamiyama, Yukiko; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Yen, Hsiu-Chuan; Hawkins, Clare L; Davies, Michael J; Ozawa, Toshihiko; St Clair, Daret K

    2016-04-01

    Prof. Dr. Helmut Sies is a pioneer of "Oxidative Stress", and has published over 18 papers with the name of "Oxidative Stress" in the title. He has been Editor-in-Chief of the journal "Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics" for many years, and is a former Editor-in-Chief of the journal "Free Radical Research". He has clarified our understanding of the causes of chronic developing diseases, and has studied antioxidant factors. In this article, importance of "Oxidative Stress" and our mitochondrial oxidative stress studies; roles of mitochondrial ROS, effects of vitamin E and its homologues in oxidative stress-related diseases, effects of antioxidants in vivo and in vitro, and a mitochondrial superoxide theory for oxidative stress diseases and aging are introduced, and some of our interactions with Helmut are described, congratulating and appreciating his great path. PMID:27095216

  10. Acrolein cytotoxicity in hepatocytes involves endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Avila, Diana; Zhang, Jingwen; Barve, Shirish; Arteel, Gavin; McClain, Craig; Joshi-Barve, Swati

    2012-11-15

    Acrolein is a common environmental, food and water pollutant and a major component of cigarette smoke. Also, it is produced endogenously via lipid peroxidation and cellular metabolism of certain amino acids and drugs. Acrolein is cytotoxic to many cell types including hepatocytes; however the mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the molecular mechanisms underlying acrolein hepatotoxicity in primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. Acrolein, at pathophysiological concentrations, caused a dose-dependent loss of viability of hepatocytes. The death was apoptotic at moderate and necrotic at high concentrations of acrolein. Acrolein exposure rapidly and dramatically decreased intracellular glutathione and overall antioxidant capacity, and activated the stress-signaling MAP-kinases JNK, p42/44 and p38. Our data demonstrate for the first time in human hepatocytes, that acrolein triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activated eIF2α, ATF-3 and -4, and Gadd153/CHOP, resulting in cell death. Notably, the protective/adaptive component of ER stress was not activated, and acrolein failed to up-regulate the protective ER-chaperones, GRP78 and GRP94. Additionally, exposure to acrolein disrupted mitochondrial integrity/function, and led to the release of pro-apoptotic proteins and ATP depletion. Acrolein-induced cell death was attenuated by N-acetyl cysteine, phenyl-butyric acid, and caspase and JNK inhibitors. Our data demonstrate that exposure to acrolein induces a variety of stress responses in hepatocytes, including GSH depletion, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress (without ER-protective responses) which together contribute to acrolein toxicity. Our study defines basic mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by reactive aldehyde pollutants such as acrolein. -- Highlights: ► Human primary hepatocytes and cultured cell lines are used. ► Multiple cell death signaling pathways are activated by acrolein. ► Novel finding of

  11. Nitric oxide interacts with mitochondrial complex III producing antimycin-like effects.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Darío E; Bombicino, Silvina S; Valdez, Laura B; Boveris, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    The effect of NO between cytochromes b and c of the mitochondrial respiratory chain were studied using submitochondrial particles (SMP) from bovine heart and GSNO and SPER-NO as NO sources. Succinate-cytochrome c reductase (complex II-III) activity (222 ± 4 nmol/min. mg protein) was inhibited by 51% in the presence of 500 μM GSNO and by 48% in the presence of 30 μM SPER-NO, in both cases at ~1.25 μM NO. Neither GSNO nor SPER-NO were able to inhibit succinate-Q reductase activity (complex II; 220 ± 9 nmol/min. mg protein), showing that NO affects complex III. Complex II-III activity was decreased (36%) when SMP were incubated with l-arginine and mtNOS cofactors, indicating that this effect is also produced by endogenous NO. GSNO (500 μM) reduced cytochrome b562 by 71%, in an [O2] independent manner. Hyperbolic increases in O2(•-) (up to 1.3 ± 0.1 nmol/min. mg protein) and H2O2 (up to 0.64 ± 0.05 nmol/min. mg protein) productions were observed with a maximal effect at 500 μM GSNO. The O2(•-)/H2O2 ratio was 1.98 in accordance with the stoichiometry of the O2(•-) disproportionation. Moreover, H2O2 production was increased by 72-74% when heart coupled mitochondria were exposed to 500 μM GSNO or 30 μM SPER-NO. SMP incubated in the presence of succinate showed an EPR signal (g=1.99) compatible with a stable semiquinone. This EPR signal was increased not only by antimycin but also by GSNO and SPER-NO. These signals were not modified under N2 atmosphere, indicating that they are not a consequence to the effect of NOx species on complex III area. These results show that NO interacts with ubiquinone-cytochrome b area producing antimycin-like effects. This behaviour comprises the inhibition of electron transfer, the interruption of the oxidation of cytochromes b, and the enhancement of [UQH(•)]ss which, in turn, leads to an increase in O2(•-) and H2O2 mitochondrial production rates. PMID:26456055

  12. Arsenic trioxide induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in human leukemia (HL-60) cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which accounts for approximately 10% of all acute myloid leukemia cases. It is a blood cancer that is formed by chromosomal mutation. Each year in the United States, APL affects about 1,500 patients of all age groups and causes approximately 1.2% of cancer deaths. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been used successfully for treatment of APL patients, and both induction and consolidated therapy have resulted in complete remission. Recently published studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that ATO pharmacology as an anti-leukemic drug is associated with cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in leukemia cells. Methods In the present study, we further investigated the detailed molecular mechanism of ATO-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis; using HL-60 cells as a test model. Oxidative stress was assessed by spectrophotometric measurements of MDA and GSH levels while genotoxicity was determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay). Apoptosis pathway was analyzed by Western blot analysis of Bax, Bcl2 and caspase 3 expression, as well as immunocytochemistry and confocal imaging of Bax and Cyt c translocation and mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization. Results ATO significantly (p < 0.05) induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and caspase 3 activityin HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. It also activated the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis by significantly modulating (p < 0.05) the expression and translocation of apoptotic molecules and decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential in leukemia cells. Conclusion Taken together, our research demonstrated that ATO induces mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in HL-60 cells. This apoptotic signaling is modulated via oxidative stress, DNA damage, and change in mitochondrial membrane potential, translocation and upregulation of apoptotic proteins leading programmed cell death. PMID:24887205

  13. Optical imaging of tissue mitochondrial redox state in intact rat lungs in two models of pulmonary oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Staniszewski, Kevin; Maleki, Sepideh; Jacobs, Elizabeth R; Audi, Said; Ranji, Mahsa

    2012-04-01

    Ventilation with enhanced fractions of O(2) (hyperoxia) is a common and necessary treatment for hypoxemia in patients with lung failure, but prolonged exposure to hyperoxia causes lung injury. Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of lung tissue is common in lung transplant or crush injury to the chest. These conditions are associated with apoptosis and decreased survival of lung tissue. The objective of this work is to use cryoimaging to evaluate the effect of exposure to hyperoxia and IR injury on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in rats. The autofluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are electron carriers in ATP generation. These intrinsic fluorophores were imaged for rat lungs using low-temperature fluorescence imaging (cryoimaging). Perfused lungs from four groups of rats were studied: normoxia (control), control perfused with an mitochondrial complex IV inhibitor (potassium cyanide, KCN), rats exposed to hyperoxia (85% O(2)) for seven days, and from rats subjected to lung IR in vivo 24 hours prior to study. Each lung was sectioned sequentially in the transverse direction, and the images were used to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3-D) rendering. In KCN perfused lungs the respiratory chain was more reduced, whereas hyperoxic and IR lung tissue have a more oxidized respiratory chain than control lung tissue, consistent with previously measured mitochondrial dysfunction in both hyperoxic and IR lungs. PMID:22559688

  14. Optical imaging of tissue mitochondrial redox state in intact rat lungs in two models of pulmonary oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Staniszewski, Kevin; Maleki, Sepideh; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Audi, Said; Ranji, Mahsa

    2012-04-01

    Ventilation with enhanced fractions of O2 (hyperoxia) is a common and necessary treatment for hypoxemia in patients with lung failure, but prolonged exposure to hyperoxia causes lung injury. Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of lung tissue is common in lung transplant or crush injury to the chest. These conditions are associated with apoptosis and decreased survival of lung tissue. The objective of this work is to use cryoimaging to evaluate the effect of exposure to hyperoxia and IR injury on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in rats. The autofluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are electron carriers in ATP generation. These intrinsic fluorophores were imaged for rat lungs using low-temperature fluorescence imaging (cryoimaging). Perfused lungs from four groups of rats were studied: normoxia (control), control perfused with an mitochondrial complex IV inhibitor (potassium cyanide, KCN), rats exposed to hyperoxia (85% O2) for seven days, and from rats subjected to lung IR in vivo 24 hours prior to study. Each lung was sectioned sequentially in the transverse direction, and the images were used to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3-D) rendering. In KCN perfused lungs the respiratory chain was more reduced, whereas hyperoxic and IR lung tissue have a more oxidized respiratory chain than control lung tissue, consistent with previously measured mitochondrial dysfunction in both hyperoxic and IR lungs.

  15. Insulin acutely improves mitochondrial function of rat and human skeletal muscle by increasing coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Nisr, Raid B; Affourtit, Charles

    2014-02-01

    Insulin is essential for the regulation of fuel metabolism and triggers the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle. The imported glucose is either stored or broken down, as insulin stimulates glycogenesis and ATP synthesis. The mechanism by which ATP production is increased is incompletely understood at present and, generally, relatively little functional information is available on the effect of insulin on mitochondrial function. In this paper we have exploited extracellular flux technology to investigate insulin effects on the bioenergetics of rat (L6) and human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes. We demonstrate that a 20-min insulin exposure significantly increases (i) the cell respiratory control ratio, (ii) the coupling efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and (iii) the glucose sensitivity of anaerobic glycolysis. The improvement of mitochondrial function is explained by an insulin-induced immediate decrease of mitochondrial proton leak. Palmitate exposure annuls the beneficial mitochondrial effects of insulin. Our data improve the mechanistic understanding of insulin-stimulated ATP synthesis, and reveal a hitherto undisclosed insulin sensitivity of cellular bioenergetics that suggests a novel way of detecting insulin responsiveness of cells. PMID:24212054

  16. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Lombes, A; Bonilla, E; Dimauro, S

    1989-01-01

    Increasingly numerous studies are being devoted to mitochondrial diseases, notably those which involve the neuromuscular system. Our knowledge and understanding of these diseases is progressing rapidly. We owe to Luft et al. (1962) the first description of this type of diseases. Their patient, a woman, presented with clinical symptoms suggestive of mitochondrial dysfunction, major histological abnormalities of skeletal muscle mitochondria and defective oxidative phosphorylation coupling clearly demonstrated in mitochondria isolated from muscle. This clinical, histological and biochemical triad led to the definition of mitochondrial myopathies. Subsequently, the triad was seldom encountered, and most mitochondrial myopathies were primarily defined by the presence of morphological abnormalities of muscle mitochondria. This review deals with the morphological, clinical, biochemical and genetic aspects of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. The various morphological abnormalities of mitochondria are described. These are not specific of any particular disease. They may be present in some non-mitochondrial diseases and may be lacking in diseases due to specific defects of mitochondrial enzymes (e.g. carnitine palmityl-transferase or pyruvate dehydrogenase). The clinical classification of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies is discussed. There are two main schools of thought: the "lumpers" do not recognize specific syndromes within the spectrum of mitochondrial "cytopathies", the "splitters" try to identify specific syndromes while recognizing the existence of borderline cases. The following syndromes are described: chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), MERRF syndrome (myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers), MELAS syndrome (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like episodes) and Leigh and Alpers syndromes. The biochemical classification comprises five types of abnormalities: defects of transport

  17. Activation of the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway Produces Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Damage in Hepatocytes That Contribute to Liver Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Hikita, Hayato; Kodama, Takahiro; Tanaka, Satoshi; Saito, Yoshinobu; Nozaki, Yasutoshi; Nakabori, Tasuku; Shimizu, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yoshito; Li, Wei; Shigekawa, Minoru; Sakamori, Ryotaro; Miyagi, Takuya; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2015-08-01

    Chronic hepatitis, including viral hepatitis and steatihepatitis, is a well-known high-risk condition for hepatocellular carcinoma. We previously reported that continuous hepatocyte apoptosis drives liver tumors in hepatocyte-specific Bcl-xL or Mcl-1 knockout mice. In this study, we further examine the underlying cellular mechanisms of generating tumors in apoptosis-prone liver. In cultured hepatocytes, the administration of ABT-737, a Bcl-xL/-2/-w inhibitor, led to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as activation of caspases. Mitochondria isolated from murine liver, upon administration of truncated-Bid, a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein, released cytochrome c and produced ROS, which was dependent on mitochondrial respiration. Hepatic apoptosis, regeneration, accumulation of oxidative damages, and tumorigenesis observed in hepatocyte-specific Mcl-1 knockout mice were substantially attenuated by further deficiency of Bax or Bid, suggesting that a balance of mitochondrial Bcl-2 family proteins governs generation of oxidative stress and other pathologies. Whole-exome sequencing clarified that C>A/G>T transversion, which is often caused by oxidative DNA damage in proliferating cells, was a frequently observed mutation pattern in liver tumors of Mcl-1 knockout mice. The administration of antioxidant L-N-acetylcysteine did not affect apoptosis, compensatory regeneration, or fibrotic responses but significantly reduced oxidative DNA damage and incidence and multiplicity of live tumors in Mcl-1 knockout mice. In conclusion, activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in hepatocytes accumulates intracellular oxidative damages, leading to liver tumorigenesis, independently of liver regeneration or fibrosis. This study supports a concept that antioxidant therapy may be useful for suppressing liver carcinogenesis in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:26038117

  18. Protective efficacy of mitochondrial targeted antioxidant MitoQ against dichlorvos induced oxidative stress and cell death in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Gudup, Satish; Sunkaria, Aditya; Bal, Amanjit; Singh, Parvinder Pal; Kandimalla, Ramesh J L; Sharma, Deep Raj; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2011-12-01

    Dichlorvos is a synthetic insecticide that belongs to the family of chemically related organophosphate (OP) pesticides. It can be released into the environment as a major degradation product of other OPs, such as trichlorfon, naled, and metrifonate. Dichlorvos exerts its toxic effects in humans and animals by inhibiting neural acetylcholinesterase. Chronic low-level exposure to dichlorvos has been shown to result in inhibition of the mitochondrial complex I and cytochrome oxidase in rat brain, resulting in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Enhanced ROS production leads to disruption of cellular antioxidant defense systems and release of cytochrome c (cyt c) from mitochondria to cytosol resulting in apoptotic cell death. MitoQ is an antioxidant, selectively targeted to mitochondria and protects it from oxidative damage and has been shown to decrease mitochondrial damage in various animal models of oxidative stress. We hypothesized that if oxidative damage to mitochondria does play a significant role in dichlorvos induced neurodegeneration, then MitoQ should ameliorate neuronal apoptosis. Administration of MitoQ (100 μmol/kg body wt/day) reduced dichlorvos (6 mg/kg body wt/day) induced oxidative stress (decreased ROS production, increased MnSOD activity and glutathione levels) with decreased lipid peroxidation, protein and DNA oxidation. In addition, MitoQ also suppressed DNA fragmentation, cyt c release and caspase-3 activity in dichlorvos treated rats compared to the control group. Further electron microscopic studies revealed that MitoQ attenuates dichlorvos induced mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae and chromatin condensation. These results indicate that MitoQ may be beneficial against OP (dichlorvos) induced neurodegeneration. PMID:21784090

  19. The role of nitric oxide signaling in food intake; insights from the inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase 2 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Changjie; Zhao, Qingguo; Lu, Baisong

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in feeding control through involvement in brain lipid sensing, and regulating NPY/AgRP and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Nitric oxide is a signaling molecule in neurons and it stimulates feeding in many species. Whether reactive oxygen species affect feeding through interaction with nitric oxide is unclear. We previously reported that Immp2l mutation in mice causes excessive mitochondrial superoxide generation, which causes infertility and early signs of aging. In our present study, reduced food intake in mutant mice resulted in significantly reduced body weight and fat composition while energy expenditure remained unchanged. Lysate from mutant brain showed a significant decrease in cGMP levels, suggesting insufficient nitric oxide signaling. Thus, our data suggests that reactive oxygen species may regulate food intake through modulating the bioavailability of nitric oxide. PMID:24251118

  20. Oxidative modifications, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired protein degradation in Parkinson's disease: how neurons are lost in the Bermuda triangle.

    PubMed

    Malkus, Kristen A; Tsika, Elpida; Ischiropoulos, Harry

    2009-01-01

    While numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the theory of oxidative stress has received considerable support. Although many correlations have been established and encouraging evidence has been obtained, conclusive proof of causation for the oxidative stress hypothesis is lacking and potential cures have not emerged. Therefore it is likely that other factors, possibly in coordination with oxidative stress, contribute to neuron death. Using Parkinson's disease (PD) as the paradigm, this review explores the hypothesis that oxidative modifications, mitochondrial functional disruption, and impairment of protein degradation constitute three interrelated molecular pathways that execute neuron death. These intertwined events are the consequence of environmental exposure, genetic factors, and endogenous risks and constitute a "Bermuda triangle" that may be considered the underlying cause of neurodegenerative pathogenesis. PMID:19500376

  1. The enzymology of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation and its application to follow-up analysis of positive neonatal screening results

    PubMed Central

    Ruiter, Jos P. N.; IJlst, Lodewijk; Waterham, Hans R.; Houten, Sander M.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria is a key physiological process in higher eukaryotes including humans. The importance of the mitochondrial beta-oxidation system in humans is exemplified by the existence of a group of genetic diseases in man caused by an impairment in the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids. Identification of patients with a defect in mitochondrial beta-oxidation has long remained notoriously difficult, but the introduction of tandem-mass spectrometry in laboratories for genetic metabolic diseases has revolutionalized the field by allowing the rapid and sensitive analysis of acylcarnitines. Equally important is that much progress has been made with respect to the development of specific enzyme assays to identify the enzyme defect in patients subsequently followed by genetic analysis. In this review, we will describe the current state of knowledge in the field of fatty acid oxidation enzymology and its application to the follow-up analysis of positive neonatal screening results. PMID:20490924

  2. Escin, a novel triterpene, mitigates chronic MPTP/p-induced dopaminergic toxicity by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Govindasamy Pushpavathi; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Rekha, Karamkolly R; Jayaraj, Richard L; Elangovan, Namasivayam

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common, chronic, and debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons due to unknown factors. In the present study, we have evaluated if escin, a triterpene saponin from seeds of horse chestnut tree (Aesculus hippocastanum), offers neuroprotection against chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid (MPTP/p)-induced toxicity using a mouse model. Chronic administration of MPTP/p deteriorated the loss of TH immunoreactivity in striatum. Subsequently, MPTP/p also enhanced oxidative stress by mitochondrial complex I inhibition, thereby ensuing dopaminergic denervation via modulation of Bcl-2, Bax, Cyto-C, and cleaved caspases expressions. However, we observed that pretreatment with escin (4 mg/kg) significantly attenuated MPTP/p-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Furthermore, behavioral studies and ultrastructural analysis of mitochondria and intracellular components were in support of these findings. Therefore, we speculate that escin might be a promising candidate for the prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction-induced apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders such as PD. PMID:24788336

  3. Mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel opening inhibits isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy by preventing oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Lemos Caldas, Francisco Rodrigo; Rocha Leite, Iago Mateus; Tavarez Filgueiras, Ana Beatriz; de Figueiredo Júnior, Isaias Lima; Gomes Marques de Sousa, Tereza Amália; Martins, Pamela Reis; Kowaltowski, Alicia Juliana; Fernandes Facundo, Heberty di Tarso

    2015-04-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a chronic complex disease that occurs in response to hemodynamic load and is accompanied by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K channels (mitoKATPs) have previously been shown to prevent oxidative cardiac damage under conditions of ischemia/reperfusion. However, the effect of these channels on cardiac hypertrophy has not been tested to date. In this study, we show that treatment of Swiss mice with isoproterenol (30 mg·kg·d) induces cardiac hypertrophy while significantly decreasing the levels of reduced protein thiols, glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity, indicative of a condition of oxidative imbalance. Treatment with diazoxide (a mitoKATP opener, 5 mg·kg·d) normalized the levels of protein thiols and reduced glutathione, rescued superoxide dismutase activity, and significantly prevented cardiac hypertrophy. The protective effects of diazoxide were mitigated by the mitoKATP blockers 5-hydroxydecanoate (5 mg·kg·d) and glibenclamide (3 mg·kg·d), demonstrating that they were related to activation of the channel. Taken together, our results establish that mitoKATP activation promotes very robust prevention of cardiac hypertrophy and associated oxidative imbalance and suggest that these channels can be important drug targets for the pharmacological control of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25850726

  4. Expression of estrogen receptor α in human breast cancer cells regulates mitochondrial oxidative stress under simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hong-xia; Tian, Wei-ming; Yan, Hong-ji; Jiang, Hua-dong; Liu, Shan-shan; Yue, Lei; Han, Fang; Wei, Li-jun; Chen, Xiong-biao; Li, Yu

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated intracellular oxidative stress and its underlying mechanisms in a rotary cell culture system used to achieve a simulated microgravity (SMG) environment. Experiments were conducted with human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (an estrogen receptor (ER) α positive cell line) and MDA-MB-231 (an ERα negative cell line) encapsulated in alginate/collagen carriers. After 48 h, SMG led to oxidative stress and DNA damage in the MDA-MB-231 cells but a significant increase in mitochondrial activity and minimal DNA damage in the MCF-7 cells. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased in the MCF-7 cells and decreased in MDA-MB-231 cells in the SMG environment compared with a standard gravity control. Moreover, SMG promoted expression of ERα and protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon in MCF-7 cells treated with PKC inhibitor Gö6983. Overall, exposure to SMG increased mitochondrial activity in ERα positive cells but induced cellular oxidative damage in ERα negative cells. Thus, ERα may play an important role in protecting cells from oxidative stress damage under simulated microgravity.

  5. The pathways of glutamate and glutamine oxidation by tumor cell mitochondria. Role of mitochondrial NAD(P)+-dependent malic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Moreadith, R W; Lehninger, A L

    1984-05-25

    Little evidence has been available on the oxidative pathways of glutamine and glutamate, the major respiratory substrates of cancer cells. Glutamate formed from glutamine by phosphate-dependent glutaminase undergoes quantitative transamination by aerobic tumor mitochondria to yield aspartate. However, when malate is also added there is a pronounced decrease in aspartate production and a large formation of citrate and alanine, in both state 3 and 4 conditions. In contrast, addition of malate to normal rat heart, liver, or kidney mitochondria oxidizing glutamate causes a marked increase in aspartate production. Further analysis showed that extramitochondrial malate is oxidized almost quantitatively to pyruvate + CO2 by NAD(P)+-linked malic enzyme, present in the mitochondria of all tumors tested, but absent in heart, liver, and kidney mitochondria. On the other hand intramitochondrial malate generated from glutamate is oxidized quantitatively to oxalacetate by mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase of tumors. Acetyl-CoA derived from extramitochondrial malate via pyruvate and oxalacetate derived from glutamate via intramitochondrial malate are quantitatively converted into citrate, which is extruded. No evidence was found that malic enzyme of tumor mitochondria converts glutamate-derived malate into pyruvate as postulated in other reports. Possible mechanisms for the integration of mitochondrial malic enzyme and malate dehydrogenase activities in tumors are discussed. PMID:6144677

  6. Visible Light-Controlled Nitric Oxide Release from Hindered Nitrobenzene Derivatives for Specific Modulation of Mitochondrial Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kai; Kawaguchi, Mitsuyasu; Ieda, Naoya; Miyata, Naoki; Nakagawa, Hidehiko

    2016-05-20

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a physiological signaling molecule, whose biological production is precisely regulated at the subcellular level. Here, we describe the design, synthesis, and evaluation of novel mitochondria-targeted NO releasers, Rol-DNB-mor and Rol-DNB-pyr, that are photocontrollable not only in the UV wavelength range but also in the biologically favorable visible wavelength range (530-590 nm). These caged NO compounds consist of a hindered nitrobenzene as the NO-releasing moiety and a rhodamine chromophore. Their NO-release properties were characterized by an electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping method and fluorometric analysis using NO probes, and their mitochondrial localization in live cells was confirmed by costaining. Furthermore, we demonstrated visible light control of mitochondrial fragmentation via activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) by means of precisely controlled NO delivery into mitochondria of cultured HEK293 cells, utilizing Rol-DNB-pyr. PMID:26878937

  7. NAC Attenuates LPS-Induced Toxicity in Aspirin-Sensitized Mouse Macrophages via Suppression of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie; Shafarin, Jasmin

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. Our aim was to study the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an antioxidant precursor of GSH synthesis, on aspirin-sensitized macrophages treated with LPS. We investigated the effects of LPS alone and in conjunction with a sub-toxic concentration of ASA, on metabolic and oxidative stress, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function using J774.2 mouse macrophage cell line. Protection from LPS-induced toxicity by NAC was also studied. LPS alone markedly induced ROS production and oxidative stress in macrophage cells. When ASA was added to LPS-treated macrophages, the increase in oxidative stress was significantly higher than that with LPS alone. Similarly, alteration in glutathione-dependent redox metabolism was also observed in macrophages after treatment with LPS and ASA. The combination of LPS and ASA selectively altered the CYP 3A4, CYP 2E1 and CYP 1A1 catalytic activities. Mitochondrial respiratory complexes and ATP production were also inhibited by LPS-ASA treatment. Furthermore a higher apoptotic cell death was also observed in LPS-ASA treated macrophages. NAC pre-treatment showed protection against oxidative stress induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. These effects are presumed, at least in part, to be associated with alterations in NF-κB/Nrf-2 mediated cell signaling. These results suggest that macrophages are more sensitive to LPS when challenged with ASA and that NAC pre-treatment protects the macrophages from these deleterious effects. PMID:25075522

  8. Endogenous 3, 4- Dihydroxyphenylalanine and Dopaquinone Modifications on Protein Tyrosine: links to mitochondrially derived oxidative stress via hydroxyl radical

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xu; Monroe, Matthew E.; Chen, Baowei; Chin, Mark H.; Heibeck, Tyler H.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Yang, Feng; Petritis, Brianne O.; Camp, David G.; Pounds, Joel G.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Desmond J.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2010-06-02

    Oxidative modifications of protein tyrosines have been implicated in multiple human diseases. Among these modifications, elevations in levels of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), a major product of hydroxyl radical addition to tyrosine, has been observed in a number of pathologies. Here we report the first global proteome survey of endogenous site-specific modifications, i.e, DOPA and its further oxidation product dopaquinone (DQ) in mouse brain and heart tissues. Results from LC-MS/MS analyses included 203 and 71 DOPA-modified tyrosine sites identified from brain and heart, respectively, with a false discovery rate of ~1%; while only a few nitrotyrosine containing peptides, a more commonly studied marker of oxidative stress, were detectable, suggesting the much higher abundance for DOPA modification as compared with tyrosine nitration. Moreover, 57 and 29 DQ modified peptides were observed from brain and heart, respectively; nearly half of these peptides were also observed with DOPA modification on the same sites. For both tissues, these modifications are preferentially found in mitochondrial proteins with metal-binding properties, consistent with metal catalyzed hydroxyl radical formation from mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. These modifications also link to a number of mitochondria-associated and other signaling pathways. Furthermore, many of the modification sites were common sites of previously reported tyrosine phosphorylation suggesting potential disruption of signaling pathways. Structural aspects of DOPA-modified tyrosine sequences are distinct from those of nitrotyrosines suggesting that each type of modifications provides a marker for different in vivo reactive chemistries and can be used to predict sensitive protein targets. Collectively, the results suggest that these modifications are linked with mitochondrially-derived oxidative stress, and may serve as sensitive markers for disease pathologies.

  9. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Induce Autophagosome Accumulation through Multiple Mechanisms: Lysosome Impairment, Mitochondrial Damage, and ER Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Zhang, Hongqiu; Liang, Xin; Zhang, Jinxie; Tao, Wei; Zhu, Xianbing; Chang, Danfeng; Zeng, Xiaowei; Liu, Gan; Mei, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Magnetite (iron oxide, Fe3O4) nanoparticles have been widely used for drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Previous studies have shown that many metal-based nanoparticles including Fe3O4 nanoparticles can induce autophagosome accumulation in treated cells. However, the underlying mechanism is still not clear. To investigate the biosafety of Fe3O4 and PLGA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles, some experiments related to the mechanism of autophagy induction by these nanoparticles have been investigated. In this study, the results showed that Fe3O4, PLGA-coated Fe3O4, and PLGA nanoparticles could be taken up by the cells through cellular endocytosis. Fe3O4 nanoparticles extensively impair lysosomes and lead to the accumulation of LC3-positive autophagosomes, while PLGA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles reduce this destructive effect on lysosomes. Moreover, Fe3O4 nanoparticles could also cause mitochondrial damage and ER and Golgi body stresses, which induce autophagy, while PLGA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles reduce the destructive effect on these organelles. Thus, the Fe3O4 nanoparticle-induced autophagosome accumulation may be caused by multiple mechanisms. The autophagosome accumulation induced by Fe3O4 was also investigated. The Fe3O4, PLGA-coated Fe3O4, and PLGA nanoparticle-treated mice were sacrificed to evaluate the toxicity of these nanoparticles on the mice. The data showed that Fe3O4 nanoparticle treated mice would lead to the extensive accumulation of autophagosomes in the kidney and spleen in comparison to the PLGA-coated Fe3O4 and PLGA nanoparticles. Our data clarifies the mechanism by which Fe3O4 induces autophagosome accumulation and the mechanism of its toxicity on cell organelles and mice organs. These findings may have an important impact on the clinical application of Fe3O4 based nanoparticles. PMID:27287467

  10. Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial caspase-dependent signaling pathways in murine splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anoop; Sasmal, D; Bhaskar, Amand; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal; Thakur, Aman; Sharma, Neelima

    2016-07-01

    Deltamethrin (DLM) is a well-known pyrethroid insecticide used extensively in pest control. Exposure to DLM has been demonstrated to cause apoptosis in various cells. However, the immunotoxic effects of DLM on mammalian system and its mechanism is still an open question to be explored. To explore these effects, this study has been designed to first observe the interactions of DLM to immune cell receptors and its effects on the immune system. The docking score revealed that DLM has strong binding affinity toward the CD45 and CD28 receptors. In vitro study revealed that DLM induces apoptosis in murine splenocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. The earliest markers of apoptosis such as enhanced reactive oxygen species and caspase 3 activation are evident as early as 1 h by 25 and 50 µM DLM. Western blot analysis demonstrated that p38 MAP kinase and Bax expression is increased in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas Bcl 2 expression is significantly reduced after 3 h of DLM treatment. Glutathione depletion has been also observed at 3 and 6 h by 25 and 50 µM concentration of DLM. Flow cytometry results imply that the fraction of hypodiploid cells has gradually increased with all the concentrations of DLM at 18 h. N-acetyl cysteine effectively reduces the percentage of apoptotic cells, which is increased by DLM. In contrast, buthionine sulfoxamine causes an elevation in the percentage of apoptotic cells. Phenotyping data imply the effect of DLM toxicity in murine splenocytes. In brief, the study demonstrates that DLM causes apoptosis through its interaction with CD45 and CD28 receptors, leading to oxidative stress and activation of the mitochondrial caspase-dependent pathways which ultimately affects the immune functions. This study provides mechanistic information by which DLM causes toxicity in murine splenocytes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 808-819, 2016. PMID:25534813

  11. Direct real-time quantification of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation efficiency in permeabilized skeletal muscle myofibers.

    PubMed

    Lark, Daniel S; Torres, Maria J; Lin, Chien-Te; Ryan, Terence E; Anderson, Ethan J; Neufer, P Darrell

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) efficiency, defined as the ATP-to-O ratio, is a critical feature of mitochondrial function that has been implicated in health, aging, and disease. To date, however, the methods to measure ATP/O have primarily relied on indirect approaches or entail parallel rather than simultaneous determination of ATP synthesis and O2 consumption rates. The purpose of this project was to develop and validate an approach to determine the ATP/O ratio in permeabilized fiber bundles (PmFBs) from simultaneous measures of ATP synthesis (JATP) and O2 consumption (JO2 ) rates in real time using a custom-designed apparatus. JO2 was measured via a polarigraphic oxygen sensor and JATP via fluorescence using an enzyme-linked assay system (hexokinase II, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) linked to NADPH production. Within the dynamic linear range of the assay system, ADP-stimulated increases in steady-state JATP mirrored increases in steady-state JO2 (r(2) = 0.91, P < 0.0001, n = 57 data points). ATP/O ratio was less than one under low rates of respiration (15 μM ADP) but increased to more than two at moderate (200 μM ADP) and maximal (2,000 μM ADP) rates of respiration with an interassay coefficient of variation of 24.03, 16.72, and 11.99%, respectively. Absolute and relative (to mechanistic) ATP/O ratios were lower in PmFBs (2.09 ± 0.251, 84%) compared with isolated mitochondria (2.44 ± 0.124, 98%). ATP/O ratios in PmFBs were not affected by the activity of adenylate kinase or creatine kinase. These findings validate an enzyme-linked respiratory clamp system for measuring OXPHOS efficiency in PmFBs and provide evidence that OXPHOS efficiency increases as energy demand increases. PMID:27335172

  12. Potential roles of PINK1 for increased PGC-1α-mediated mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and their associations with Alzheimer disease and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joungil; Ravipati, Avinash; Nimmagadda, Vamshi; Schubert, Manfred; Castellani, Rudolph J.; Russell, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Down-regulation of PINK1 and PGC-1α proteins is implicated in both mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress potentially linking metabolic abnormality and neurodegeneration. Here, we report that PGC-1α and PINK1 expression is markedly decreased in Alzheimer disease (AD) and diabetic brains. We observed a significant down-regulation of PGC-1α and PINK1 protein expression in H2O2-treated cells but not in those cells treated with N-acetyl cysteine. The protein levels of two key enzymes of the mitochondrial β-oxidation machinery, acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, very long chain (ACADVL) and mitochondrial trifunctional enzyme subunit α are significantly decreased in AD and diabetic brains. Moreover, we observed a positive relationship between ACADVL and 64 kDa PINK1 protein levels in AD and diabetic brains. Overexpression of PGC-1α decreases lipid-droplet accumulation and increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation; down-regulation of PINK1 abolishes these effects. Together, these results provide new insights into potential cooperative roles of PINK1 and PGC-1α in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, suggesting possible regulatory roles for mitochondrial function in the pathogenesis of AD and diabetes. PMID:25260493

  13. Gypenosides alleviate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via attenuation of oxidative stress and preservation of mitochondrial function in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haijie; Guan, Qigang; Guo, Liang; Zhang, Haishan; Pang, Xuefeng; Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Xingang; Sun, Yingxian

    2016-05-01

    Gypenosides (GP) are the predominant components of Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a Chinese herb medicine that has been widely used for the treatment of chronic inflammation, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. GP has been demonstrated to exert protective effects on the liver and brain against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, yet whether it is beneficial to the heart during myocardial I/R is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that pre-treatment with GP dose-dependently limits infarct size, alleviates I/R-induced pathological changes in the myocardium, and preserves left ventricular function in a rat model of cardiac I/R injury. In addition, GP pre-treatment reduces oxidative stress and protects the intracellular antioxidant machinery in the myocardium. Further, we show that the cardioprotective effect of GP is associated with the preservation of mitochondrial function in the cardiomyocytes, as indicated by ATP level, enzymatic activities of complex I, II, and IV on the mitochondrial respiration chain, and the activity of citrate synthase in the citric acid cycle for energy generation. Moreover, GP maintains mitochondrial membrane integrity and inhibits the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol. The cytoprotective effect of GP is further confirmed in vitro in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell line with oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R), and the results indicate that GP protects cell viability, reduces oxidative stress, and preserves mitochondrial function. In conclusion, our study suggests that GP may be of clinical value in cytoprotection during acute myocardial infarction and reperfusion. PMID:26800973

  14. Possible nitric oxide modulation in protective effect of FK-506 against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced behavioral, oxidative, neurochemical, and mitochondrial alterations in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Puneet; Kalonia, Harikesh; Kumar, Anil

    2010-10-01

    FK-506 is an immunosuppressant being widely used for allograft rejection cases in the present clinical scenario. Recently, the neuroprotective effect of FK-506 has also been reported against a number of neurodegenerative diseases in rodents. This study was designed to explore the possible protective effect of FK-506 and its interaction with nitric-oxide modulators against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical, and mitochondrial alterations in striatum, cortex, and hippocampus regions of the brain. Systemic administration of 3-nitropropionic acid produces Huntington-like symptoms in rats. 3-NP (10 mg/kg) treatment for 14 days impaired locomotor activity, grip strength, and body weight. 3-NP treatment significantly raised malondialdehyde, nitrite concentration, depleted antioxidant enzymes (SOD and catalase), and levels of bioamines (dopamine and norepinephrine) in striatum, cortex, and hippocampus areas of rat brain. Significant alterations in mitochondrial enzyme complexes (I, II, and IV) activities and mitochondrial redox activity have also been altered significantly by 3-NP. Pretreatment with FK-506 (0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg) significantly reversed these behavioral, biochemical, and cellular alterations. L-arginine treatment with a subeffective dose FK-506 (1 mg/kg) reversed the protective effect of FK-506. However, L-NAME pretreatment with FK-506 (1 mg/kg) potentiated the protective effect of FK-506. The present study shows that FK-506 attenuates 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity and nitric-oxide modulation might be involved in its protective action. PMID:20550427

  15. Cofactor Strap regulates oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial p53 activity through ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Maniam, S; Coutts, A S; Stratford, M R; McGouran, J; Kessler, B; La Thangue, N B

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer cells. Strap (stress-responsive activator of p300) is a novel TPR motif OB-fold protein that contributes to p53 transcriptional activation. We show here that, in addition to its established transcriptional role, Strap is localised at mitochondria where one of its key interaction partners is ATP synthase. Significantly, the interaction between Strap and ATP synthase downregulates mitochondrial ATP production. Under glucose-limiting conditions, cancer cells are sensitised by mitochondrial Strap to apoptosis, which is rescued by supplementing cells with an extracellular source of ATP. Furthermore, Strap augments the apoptotic effects of mitochondrial p53. These findings define Strap as a dual regulator of cellular reprogramming: first as a nuclear transcription cofactor and second in the direct regulation of mitochondrial respiration. PMID:25168243

  16. Maximal oxidative capacity during exercise is associated with skeletal muscle fuel selection and dynamic changes in mitochondrial protein acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Overmyer, Katherine A.; Evans, Charles R.; Qi, Nathan R.; Minogue, Catherine E.; Carson, Joshua J.; Chermside-Scabbo, Christopher J.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Pagliarini, David J.; Coon, Joshua J.; Burant, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Maximal exercise-associated oxidative capacity is strongly correlated with health and longevity in humans. Rats selectively bred for high running capacity (HCR) have improved metabolic health and are longer-lived than their low capacity counterparts (LCR). Using metabolomic and proteomic profiling, we show that HCR efficiently oxidize fatty acids (FA) and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), sparing glycogen and reducing accumulation of short- and medium-chain acylcarnitines. HCR mitochondria have reduced acetylation of mitochondrial proteins within oxidative pathways at rest, and there is rapid protein deacetylation with exercise, which is greater in HCR than LCR. Fluxomic analysis of valine degradation with exercise demonstrates a functional role of differential protein acetylation in HCR and LCR. Our data suggest efficient FA and BCAA utilization contribute to high intrinsic exercise capacity and the health and longevity benefits associated with enhanced fitness. PMID:25738461

  17. Mosaic Deficiency in Mitochondrial Oxidative Metabolism Promotes Cardiac Arrhythmia during Aging.

    PubMed

    Baris, Olivier R; Ederer, Stefan; Neuhaus, Johannes F G; von Kleist-Retzow, Jürgen-Christoph; Wunderlich, Claudia M; Pal, Martin; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Peeva, Viktoriya; Zsurka, Gabor; Kunz, Wolfram S; Hickethier, Tilman; Bunck, Alexander C; Stöckigt, Florian; Schrickel, Jan W; Wiesner, Rudolf J

    2015-05-01

    Aging is a progressive decline of body function, during which many tissues accumulate few cells with high levels of deleted mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), leading to a defect of mitochondrial functions. Whether this mosaic mitochondrial deficiency contributes to organ dysfunction is unknown. To investigate this, we generated mice with an accelerated accumulation of mtDNA deletions in the myocardium, by expressing a dominant-negative mutant mitochondrial helicase. These animals accumulated few randomly distributed cardiomyocytes with compromised mitochondrial function, which led to spontaneous ventricular premature contractions and AV blocks at 18 months. These symptoms were not caused by a general mitochondrial dysfunction in the entire myocardium, and were not observed in mice at 12 months with significantly lower numbers of dysfunctional cells. Therefore, our results suggest that the disposition to arrhythmia typically found in the aged human heart might be due to the random accumulation of mtDNA deletions and the subsequent mosaic respiratory chain deficiency. PMID:25955204

  18. Centella asiatica attenuates β-amyloid-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Nora E.; Sampath, Harini; Zweig, Jonathan A.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Soumyanath, Amala

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously showed that a water extract of the medicinal plant Centella asiatica (CAW) attenuates β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced cognitive deficits in vivo, and prevents Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Yet the neuroprotective mechanism of CAW is unknown. Objective The goal of this study was to identify biochemical pathways altered by CAW using in vitro models of Aβ toxicity. Methods The effects of CAW on aberrations in antioxidant response, calcium homeostasis and mitochondrial function induced by Aβ were evaluated in MC65 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Results CAW decreased intracellular ROS and calcium levels elevated in response to Aβ, and induced the expression of antioxidant response genes in both cell lines. In SH-SY5Y cells, CAW increased basal and maximal oxygen consumption without altering spare capacity, and attenuated Aβ-induced decreases in mitochondrial respiration. CAW also prevented Aβ –induced decreases in ATP and induced the expression of mitochondrial genes and proteins in both cell types. Caffeoylquinic acids from CAW were shown to have a similar effect on antioxidant and mitochondrial gene expression in neuroblastoma cells. Primary rat hippocampal neurons treated with CAW also showed an increase in mitochondrial and antioxidant gene expression. Conclusions These data suggest an effect of CAW on mitochondrial biogenesis, which in conjunction with activation of antioxidant response genes and normalizing calcium homeostasis, likely contributes to its neuroprotective action against Aβ toxicity. PMID:25633675

  19. Alterations in mitochondrial respiratory functions, redox metabolism and apoptosis by oxidant 4-hydroxynonenal and antioxidants curcumin and melatonin in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, Haider John, Annie; Brown, Eric M.; Benedict, Sheela; Kambal, Amr

    2008-01-15

    Cellular oxidative stress and alterations in redox metabolisms have been implicated in the etiology and pathology of many diseases including cancer. Antioxidant treatments have been proven beneficial in controlling these diseases. We have recently shown that 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a by-product of lipid peroxidation, induces oxidative stress in PC12 cells by compromising the mitochondrial redox metabolism. In this study, we have further investigated the deleterious effects of 4-HNE on mitochondrial respiratory functions and apoptosis using the same cell line. In addition, we have also compared the effects of two antioxidants, curcumin and melatonin, used as chemopreventive agents, on mitochondrial redox metabolism and respiratory functions in these cells. 4-HNE treatment has been shown to cause a reduction in glutathione (GSH) pool, an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein carbonylation and apoptosis. A marked inhibition in the activities of the mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and aconitase was observed after 4-HNE treatment. Increased nuclear translocation of NF-kB/p65 protein was also observed after 4-HNE treatment. Curcumin and melatonin treatments, on the other hand, maintained the mitochondrial redox and respiratory functions without a marked effect on ROS production and cell viability. These results suggest that 4-HNE-induced cytotoxicity may be associated, at least in part, with the altered mitochondrial redox and respiratory functions. The alterations in mitochondrial energy metabolism and redox functions may therefore be critical in determining the difference between cell death and survival.

  20. Prolonged fasting identifies heat shock protein 10 as a Sirtuin 3 substrate: elucidating a new mechanism linking mitochondrial protein acetylation to fatty acid oxidation enzyme folding and function.