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Sample records for oxide inhibits capacitative

  1. Nitric oxide inhibits capacitative Ca2+ entry by suppression of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling

    PubMed Central

    Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Malli, Roland; Schmidt, Kurt; Graier, Wolfgang F; Groschner, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key modulator of cellular Ca2+ signalling and a determinant of mitochondrial function. Here, we demonstrate that NO governs capacitative Ca2+ entry (CCE) into HEK293 cells by impairment of mitochondrial Ca2+ handling. Authentic NO as well as the NO donors 1-[2-(carboxylato)pyrrolidin-1-yl]diazem-1-ium-1,2-diolate (ProliNO) and 2-(N,N-diethylamino)-diazenolate-2-oxide (DEANO) suppressed CCE activated by thapsigargin (TG)-induced store depletion. Threshold concentrations for inhibition of CCE by ProliNO and DEANO were 0.3 and 1 μM, respectively. NO-induced inhibition of CCE was not mimicked by peroxynitrite (100 μM), the peroxynitrite donor 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1, 100 μM) or 8-bromoguanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-BrcGMP, 1 mM). In addition, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazole[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 30 μM) failed to antagonize the inhibitory action of NO on CCE. DEANO (1–10 μM) suppressed mitochondrial respiration as evident from inhibition of cellular oxygen consumption. Experiments using fluorescent dyes to monitor mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial Ca2+ levels, respectively, indicated that DEANO (10 μM) depolarized mitochondria and suppressed mitochondrial Ca2+ sequestration. The inhibitory effect of DEANO on Ca2+ uptake into mitochondria was confirmed by recording mitochondrial Ca2+ during agonist stimulation in HEK293 cells expressing ratiometric-pericam in mitochondria. DEANO (10 μM) failed to inhibit Ba2+ entry into TG-stimulated cells when extracellular Ca2+ was buffered below 1 μM, while clear inhibition of Ba2+ entry into store depleted cells was observed when extracellular Ca2+ levels were above 10 μM. Moreover, buffering of intracellular Ca2+ by use of N,N′-[1,2-ethanediylbis(oxy-2,1-phenylene)] bis [N-[25-[(acetyloxy) methoxy]-2-oxoethyl

  2. Capacitive behavior of highly-oxidized graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciszewski, Mateusz; Mianowski, Andrzej

    2014-09-01

    Capacitive behavior of a highly-oxidized graphite is presented in this paper. The graphite oxide was synthesized using an oxidizing mixture of potassium chlorate and concentrated fuming nitric acid. As-oxidized graphite was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed with respect to the oxygen content and the species of oxygen-containing groups. Electrochemical measurements were performed in a two-electrode symmetric cell using KOH electrolyte. It was shown that prolonged oxidation causes an increase in the oxygen content while the interlayer distance remains constant. Specific capacitance increased with oxygen content in the electrode as a result of pseudo-capacitive effects, from 0.47 to 0.54 F/g for a scan rate of 20 mV/s and 0.67 to 1.15 F/g for a scan rate of 5 mV/s. Better cyclability was observed for the electrode with a higher oxygen amount.

  3. Cigarette smoke affects posttranslational modifications and inhibits capacitation-induced changes in human sperm proteins.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Vibha; Marmor, Hannah; Chernyak, Sholom; Goldstein, Marc; Feliciano, Miriam; Vigodner, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Sperm are highly dependent on posttranslational modifications of proteins. Massive phosphorylation on tyrosine residue is required for sperm capacitation. Sumoylation has also been recently implicated in spermatogenesis and sperm functions. Cigarette smoke is known to cause oxidative stress in different tissues, and several studies suggest that it causes oxidative stress in sperm. Whether tobacco affects posttranslational modifications in human sperm is currently unknown. In this study, we show that a short exposure of human sperm to physiological concentrations of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) causes the partial de-sumoylation of many sperm proteins. Furthermore, the presence of a low concentration of CSE in the human tubal fluid during an induction of in vitro capacitation inhibits the capacitation-associated increase in protein phosphorylation. Collectively, changes in posttranslational modifications may be one of the mechanisms through which exposure to tobacco can negatively affect sperm functions and cause fertility problems. PMID:24345728

  4. Nitric oxide inhibition strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Vivian (Wai Chong); Lerner, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide is involved in many physiologic processes. There are efforts, described elsewhere in this volume, to deliver nitric oxide to tissues as a therapy. Nitric oxide also contributes to pathophysiologic processes. Inhibiting nitric oxide or its production can thus also be of therapeutic benefit. This article addresses such inhibitory strategies. PMID:26634146

  5. Seminal plasma proteins inhibit in vitro- and cooling-induced capacitation in boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Vadnais, Melissa L; Roberts, Kenneth P

    2010-01-01

    Dilute boar seminal plasma (SP) has been shown to inhibit in vitro capacitation and cooling-induced capacitation-like changes in boar spermatozoa, as assessed by the ability of the spermatozoa to undergo an ionophore-induced acrosome reaction. We hypothesised that the protein component of SP is responsible for this effect. To test this hypothesis, varying concentrations of total SP protein or SP proteins fractionated by heparin binding were assayed for their ability to inhibit in vitro capacitation, as well as cooling- and cryopreservation-induced capacitation-like changes. In vitro capacitation and cooling-induced capacitation-like changes were prevented by 10% whole SP, as well as by total proteins extracted from SP at concentrations greater than 500 microg mL(-1). No amount of SP protein was able to prevent cryopreservation-induced capacitation-like changes. Total SP proteins were fractionated based on their heparin-binding properties and the heparin-binding fraction was shown to possess capacitation inhibitory activity at concentrations as low as 250 microg mL(-1). The proteins in the heparin-binding fraction were subjected to mass spectrometry and identified. The predominant proteins were three members of the spermadhesin families, namely AQN-3, AQN-1 and AWN, and SP protein pB1. We conclude that one or more of these heparin-binding SP proteins is able to inhibit in vitro capacitation and cooling-induced capacitation-like changes, but not cryopreservation-induced capacitation-like changes, in boar spermatozoa. PMID:20591323

  6. Are sperm capacitation and apoptosis the opposite ends of a continuum driven by oxidative stress?

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Robert J; Baker, Mark A; Nixon, Brett

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the possibility that capacitation and apoptosis are linked processes joined by their common dependence on the continued generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). According to this model capacitation is initiated in spematozoa following their release into the female reproductive tract as a consequence of intracellular ROS generation, which stimulates intracellular cAMP generation, inhibits tyrosine phosphatase activity and enhances the formation of oxysterols prior to their removal from the sperm surface by albumin. The continued generation of ROS by capacitating populations of spermatozoa eventually overwhelms the limited capacity of these cells to protect themselves from oxidative stress. As a result the over-capacitation of spermatozoa leads to a state of senescence and the activation of a truncated intrinsic apoptotic cascade characterized by enhanced mitochondrial ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, motility loss, caspase activation and phosphatidylserine externalization. The latter may be particularly important in instructing phagocytic leukocytes that the removal of senescent, moribund spermatozoa should be a silent process unaccompanied by the generation of proinflammatory cytokines. These observations reveal the central role played by redox chemistry in defining the life and death of spermatozoa. A knowledge of these mechanisms may help us to engineer novel solutions to both support and preserve the functionality of these highly specialized cells. PMID:25999358

  7. Material characteristics and equivalent circuit models of stacked graphene oxide for capacitive humidity sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kook In; Kim, Seung Du; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Hyeong Seok; Shin, Myunghun; Kim, Jong Pil; Lee, In Gyu; Cho, Byung Jin; Hwang, Wan Sik

    2016-03-01

    The oxidation properties of graphene oxide (GO) are systematically correlated with their chemical sensing properties. Based on an impedance analysis, the equivalent circuit models of the capacitive sensors are established, and it is demonstrated that capacitive operations are related to the degree of oxidation. This is also confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis. Finally, highly sensitive stacked GO sensors are shown to detect humidity in capacitive mode, which can be useful in various applications requiring low power consumption.

  8. Aptamer-modified anodized aluminum oxide-based capacitive sensor for the detection of bisphenol A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Bongkeun; Kim, Joo Hyoung; Kim, Soyoun; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2011-02-01

    We describe a rapid, sensitive, and low-cost method to detect bisphenol A (BPA) using an anodized aluminum oxide-based capacitive sensor. BPA is detected by measuring the change in capacitance caused by the biospecific binding of BPA with a BPA aptamer that is immobilized on the electrode surface. For a solution containing 100 pM BPA, the capacitance decreased by approximately 3%. In addition, we fabricated a capacitive sensor array and demonstrated that BPA in environmental samples can be measured using our capacitive sensor.

  9. Composite metal-oxide device has voltage sensitive capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattauch, R. J.; Viola, T. J., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Device with step function variation of the capacitance is useful for voltage-controlled oscillator circuits and as a voltage-sensitive switch. Simplicity of construction makes the device suitable for large-scale integration, microelectronic circuits.

  10. on the two-state inversion capacitance at varied frequencies of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tzu-Yu; Hwu, Jenn-Gwo

    2014-09-01

    Two-state inversion capacitances of a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAP) at varied AC frequencies after negative/positive constant voltage stress (negative/positive CVS) treatments are investigated. When the device was biased into inversion, a low/high inversion-capacitance state (set state/reset state) was achieved after the negative/positive CVS treatments with/without a few trapped electrons in the ultrathin SiO2 layer. The inversion capacitances of set states were frequency independent, whereas those of reset states increased with the decreasing frequencies. It is different from the general characteristics of an MOSCAP whose inversion capacitances disperse at low frequencies. For this observed finding of the two-state inversion capacitances at varied frequencies, a mechanism of trapped-electrons-induced screening effect on the inversion electrons is proposed. The number of the trapped electrons in the SiO2 layer affects the number of the inversion electrons, and thus dominates the values of the inversion capacitances. Besides, simulation curves of the inversion capacitances of set states are demonstrated. They are fitted well with the experimental data utilizing the mechanism we proposed. This work investigates further into the influence of the trapped electrons in the ultrathin SiO2 layer on the inversion capacitance response.

  11. Manganese oxide micro-supercapacitors with ultra-high areal capacitance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Myers, Benjamin D; Yan, Jian; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Dravid, Vinayak; Lee, Pooi See

    2013-05-21

    A symmetric micro-supercapacitor is constructed by electrochemically depositing manganese oxide onto micro-patterned current collectors. High surface-to-volume ratio of manganese oxide and short diffusion distance between electrodes give an ultra-high areal capacitance of 56.3 mF cm(-2) at a current density of 27.2 μA cm(-2). PMID:23563785

  12. Influence of surface oxidation on ion dynamics and capacitance in porous and nonporous carbon electrodes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dyatkin, Boris; Zhang, Yu; Mamontov, Eugene; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Cheng, Yongqiang; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Cummings, Peter T.; Gogotsi, Yury G.

    2016-04-07

    Here, we investigate the influence of surface chemistry and ion confinement on capacitance and electrosorption dynamics of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) in supercapacitors. Using air oxidation and vacuum annealing, we produced defunctionalized and oxygen-rich surfaces of carbide-derived carbons (CDCs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). While oxidized surfaces of porous CDCs improve capacitance and rate handling abilities of ions, defunctionalized nonporous GNPs improve charge storage densities on planar electrodes. Quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) probed the structure, dynamics, and orientation of RTIL ions confined in divergently functionalized pores. Oxidized, ionophilic surfaces draw ions closer to pore surfaces andmore » enhance potential-driven ion transport during electrosorption. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations corroborated experimental data and demonstrated the significance of surface functional groups on ion orientations, accumulation densities, and capacitance.« less

  13. Effect of reducing system on capacitive behavior of reduced graphene oxide film: Application for supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Akbi, Hamdane; Yu, Lei; Wang, Bin; Liu, Qi; Wang, Jun; Liu, Jingyuan; Song, Dalei; Sun, Yanbo; Liu, Lianhe

    2015-01-15

    To determine the best chemical reduction of graphene oxide film with hydriodic acid that gives maximum energy and power density, we studied the effect of two reducing systems, hydriodic acid/water and hydriodic acid/acetic acid, on the morphology and electrochemical features of reduced graphene oxide film. Using acetic acid as solvent results in high electrical conductivity (5195 S m{sup −1}), excellent specific capacitance (384 F g{sup −1}) and good cyclic stability (about 98% of its initial response after 4000 cycles). Using water as a solvent, results in an ideal capacitive behavior and excellent cyclic stability (about 6% increase of its initial response after 2100 cycles). - Graphical abstract: The choice of reducing system determines the morphology and structure of the chemically reduced graphene film and, as a result, affects largely the capacitive behavior. - Highlights: • The structure of the graphene film has a pronounced effect on capacitive behavior. • The use of water/HI as reducing system results in an ideal capacitive behavior. • The use of acetic acid/HI as reducing system results in a high specific capacitance.

  14. Facile labelling of graphene oxide for superior capacitive energy storage and fluorescence applications.

    PubMed

    Eng, Alex Yong Sheng; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2016-04-14

    The majority of supercapacitor research studies on graphene materials today have been based upon developing electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) using reduced graphenes. In contrast, graphene oxide (GO) is often neglected as a supercapacitor candidate due to its low electrical conductivity and surface area. Nonetheless, we present herein a fast (1 h) labelling of GO with o-phenylenediamine (PD) to produce PD-GO, exploiting inherent oxygen groups in creating new functionalities that exhibit capacitive enhancement from pseudo-capacitance. A high specific capacitance of 191 F g(-1) was obtained (at 0.2 A g(-1)), comparable to recent binder-free graphene supercapacitors. The large surface-normalized capacitance of up to 628 μF cm(-2) is also many times greater than the intrinsic capacitance of single-layer graphene (21 μF cm(-2)) as a result of additional pseudo-capacitance. A high capacity retention of ∼85% with each 10-fold increase in current density further indicates excellent rate performance. Hence, this approach in enhancing GO pseudo-capacitance may be similarly feasible as graphene EDLCs. Additionally, PD-GO was also found to exhibit a bright green fluorescence with a 540 nm maximum. The strongest fluorescence intensities arose from the smallest PD-GO fragments, and we attribute the origin to localised sp(2) domains and newly formed phenazine edge groups. The dual enhancement of dissimilar properties such as capacitance and fluorescence emphasizes the continued significance of covalent functionalisation towards tuning of properties in graphene-type materials. PMID:26998537

  15. Effect of temperature annealing on capacitive and structural properties of hydrous ruthenium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Wei-Chuan; Huang, Jin-Hua; Chen, Li-Chyong; Su, Yuh-Long Oliver; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    The structure-property relationships of hydrous ruthenium oxides, fabricated by electro deposition on Ti foil, were investigated with different annealing conditions. The annealing temperature was found to play an important role in affecting the electrochemical performance of the annealed hydrous ruthenium oxides. The results indicate that annealing hydrous ruthenium oxide at its crystallization threshold temperature, ∼200 °C, may help to create suitable nanostructure in the oxide that supports the establishment of interpenetrating percolation paths for balanced electron and proton conduction, thereby improving the capacitive response of the oxide dramatically. This finding is useful for fabrication of electrodes with enhanced electrochemical performance for application in microsupercapacitor.

  16. Zinc oxide nanowire-poly(methyl methacrylate) dielectric layers for polymer capacitive pressure sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Sheng; Hsieh, Gen-Wen; Chen, Shih-Ping; Tseng, Pin-Yen; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-14

    Polymer capacitive pressure sensors based on a dielectric composite layer of zinc oxide nanowire and poly(methyl methacrylate) show pressure sensitivity in the range of 2.63 × 10(-3) to 9.95 × 10(-3) cm(2) gf(-1). This represents an increase of capacitance change by as much as a factor of 23 over pristine polymer devices. An ultralight load of only 10 mg (corresponding to an applied pressure of ∼0.01 gf cm(-2)) can be clearly recognized, demonstrating remarkable characteristics of these nanowire-polymer capacitive pressure sensors. In addition, optical transmittance of the dielectric composite layer is approximately 90% in the visible wavelength region. Their low processing temperature, transparency, and flexible dielectric film makes them a highly promising means for flexible touching and pressure-sensing applications. PMID:25494204

  17. Manganese oxide micro-supercapacitors with ultra-high areal capacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Myers, Benjamin D.; Yan, Jian; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Dravid, Vinayak; Lee, Pooi See

    2013-05-01

    A symmetric micro-supercapacitor is constructed by electrochemically depositing manganese oxide onto micro-patterned current collectors. High surface-to-volume ratio of manganese oxide and short diffusion distance between electrodes give an ultra-high areal capacitance of 56.3 mF cm-2 at a current density of 27.2 μA cm-2.A symmetric micro-supercapacitor is constructed by electrochemically depositing manganese oxide onto micro-patterned current collectors. High surface-to-volume ratio of manganese oxide and short diffusion distance between electrodes give an ultra-high areal capacitance of 56.3 mF cm-2 at a current density of 27.2 μA cm-2. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental procedures; optical images of micro-supercapacitors; areal capacitances of samples M-0.3C, M-0.6C and M-0.9C; illustration of interdigital finger electrodes; Nyquist plot of Co(OH)2 deposited on micro-electrodes. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00210a

  18. Nanocellulose coupled flexible polypyrrole@graphene oxide composite paper electrodes with high volumetric capacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Tammela, Petter; Strømme, Maria; Nyholm, Leif

    2015-02-01

    A robust and compact freestanding conducting polymer-based electrode material based on nanocellulose coupled polypyrrole@graphene oxide paper is straightforwardly prepared via in situ polymerization for use in high-performance paper-based charge storage devices, exhibiting stable cycling over 16 000 cycles at 5 A g-1 as well as the largest specific volumetric capacitance (198 F cm-3) so far reported for flexible polymer-based electrodes.A robust and compact freestanding conducting polymer-based electrode material based on nanocellulose coupled polypyrrole@graphene oxide paper is straightforwardly prepared via in situ polymerization for use in high-performance paper-based charge storage devices, exhibiting stable cycling over 16 000 cycles at 5 A g-1 as well as the largest specific volumetric capacitance (198 F cm-3) so far reported for flexible polymer-based electrodes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07251k

  19. Charge storage in a nitride-oxide-silicon medium by scanning capacitance microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, R. C.; Quate, C. F.

    1991-09-01

    In this paper we describe a variant of the scanning capacitance microscope (SCaM) which is based on the atomic force microscope. Our SCaM involves a cantilever beam that is used to press a conducting tip against a conducting substrate coated with a dielectric film. A capacitance sensor is then used to measure the tip-sample capacitance as a function of lateral position. The deflection of the cantilever can also be used to measure independently the surface topography. This microscope can be used to measure electrical properties of dielectric films and their underlying substrates. We have applied this microscope to the study of the nitride-oxide-silicon (NOS) system. This system has been studied extensively because of its ability to store information by trapping charge in the silicon nitride. Commercial semiconductor nonvolatile memories have been designed using this NOS technology. We have used the SCaM tip to apply a localized bias to the NOS sample, causing charge to tunnel through the oxide layer and to be trapped in the nitride film. This trapped charge induces a depletion region in the silicon substrate, which can be detected by the resulting depletion capacitance between the tip and sample. The stored charge can be interpreted as a digital memory. Bit sizes as small as 750 Å full width at half maximum have been stored using this technique. The stored charge has been observed to be stable over a period of seven days. The stored charge can be removed by applying a reverse bias to the region, and the bit can be subsequently rewritten. By simultaneously measuring capacitance and topography images, we have demonstrated that the stored information is not the result of any topographic change to the surface. Simulations of the potential distributions resulting from this trapped charge have been performed and are compared with the experiments. Finally, a discussion is presented on the ultimate density and speed limits of such a storage technology.

  20. High capacitive performance of nanostructured Mn-Ni-Co oxide composites for supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Jianmin; Gao Bo; Zhang Xiaogang

    2008-05-06

    Nanostructured Mn-Ni-Co oxide composites (MNCO) were prepared by thermal decomposition of the precursor obtained by chemical co-precipitation of Mn, Ni and Co salts. The chemical composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical capacitance of MNCO electrode was examined by cyclic voltammetry, impedance and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The results showed that MNCO electrode exhibited the good electrochemical characteristics. A maximum capacitance value of 1260 F g{sup -1} could be obtained within the potential range of -0.1 to 0.4 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE) in 6 mol L{sup -1} KOH electrolyte.

  1. Electrochemical capacitance of iron oxide nanotube (Fe-NT): effect of annealing atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Biplab; Jurovitzki, Abraham L.; Ray, Rupashree S.; Smith, York R.; Mohanty, Swomitra K.; Misra, Mano

    2015-07-01

    The effect of annealing atmosphere on the supercapacitance behavior of iron oxide nanotube (Fe-NT) electrodes has been explored and reported here. Iron oxide nanotubes were synthesized on a pure iron substrate through an electrochemical anodization process in an ethylene glycol solution containing 3% H2O and 0.5 wt.% NH4F. Subsequently, the annealing of the nanotubes was carried out at 500 °C for 2 h in various gas atmospheres such as air, oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), and argon (Ar). The morphology and crystal phases evolved after the annealing processes were examined via field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical capacitance properties of the annealed Fe-NT electrodes were evaluated by conducting cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests in the Li2SO4 electrolyte. Based on these experiments, it was found that the capacitance of the Fe-NT electrodes annealed in air and O2 atmospheres shows mixed behavior comprising both the electric double layer and pseudocapacitance. However, annealing in N2 and Ar environments resulted in well-defined redox peaks in the CV profiles of the Fe-NT electrodes, which are therefore attributed to the relatively higher pseudonature of the capacitance in these electrodes. Based on the galvanostatic charge-discharge studies, the specific capacitance achieved in the Fe-NT electrode after annealing in Ar was about 300 mF cm-2, which was about twice the value obtained for N2-annealed Fe-NTs and three times higher than those annealed in air and O2. The experiments also demonstrated excellent cycle stability for the Fe-NT electrodes with 83%-85% capacitance retention, even after many charge-discharge cycles, irrespective of the gas atmospheres used during annealing. The increase in the specific capacitance was discussed in terms of increased oxygen vacancies as a result of the

  2. A model for the frequency dispersion of the high-k metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitance in accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, B.; Fang, Z. B.; Zhu, Y. Y.; Ji, T.; He, G.

    2012-05-01

    High-frequency capacitance-voltage measurements have been made on metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors by using single crystalline Er2O3 high-k gate dielectrics. Based on our analysis, it has been found that frequency dispersion of Er2O3 capacitance in accumulation decreases consistently with the increase of the frequency. A correction model is proposed to explain these frequency dispersion phenomena and the capacitance-frequency equations are obtained from the impedance expression of the equivalent circuit. Based on the simulated capacitance-frequency, it can be concluded that frequency dispersion of Er2O3 capacitance in accumulation originates from the existence of the parasitic resistances, the series resistances, and the formed SiOx interfacial layer.

  3. Inhibiting Wet Oxidation of Ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onisko, D. B. L.

    1985-01-01

    Simple modification of wet-oxidation process for treating organicwaste reduces loss of fixed nitrogen, potentially valuable byproduct of process. Addition of sufficient sulfuric acid to maintain reaction pH below 3 greatly reduces oxidation of ammonia to free nitrogen. No equipment modification required.

  4. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  5. Index-matched indium tin oxide electrodes for capacitive touch screen panel applications.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chan-Hwa; Shin, Jae-Heon; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Nae-Man; Kim, Bo-Sul; Cheong, Woo-Seok

    2013-11-01

    Index-matched indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes for capacitive touch screen panels have been fabricated to improve optical transmittance and reduce the difference of reflectance (deltaR) between the etched and un-etched regions. 8.5 nm Nb2O5 and 49 nm SiO2 thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering as index-matching layers between an ITO electrode and a glass substrate. In case of 30 nm ITO electrode, a 4.3% improvement in the optical transmittance and a deltaR of less than 1% were achieved, along with a low sheet resistance of 90 omega/square. PMID:24245328

  6. Study of GaAs-oxide interface by transient capacitance spectroscopy - Discrete energy interface states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamieniecki, E.; Kazior, T. E.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    Interface states and bulk GaAs energy levels were simultaneously investigated in GaAs MOS structures prepared by anodic oxidation. These two types of energy levels were successfully distinguished by carrying out a comparative analysis of deep level transient capacitance spectra of the MOS structures and MS structures prepared on the same samples of epitaxially grown GaAs. The identification and study of the interface states and bulk levels was also performed by investigating the transient capacitance spectra as a function of the filling pulse magnitude. It was found that in the GaAs-anodic oxide interface there are states present with a discrete energy rather than with a continuous energy distribution. The value of the capture cross section of the interface states was found to be 10 to the 14th to 10 to the 15th/sq cm, which is more accurate than the extremely large values of 10 to the -8th to 10 to the -9th/sq cm reported on the basis of conductance measurements.

  7. Substrate dependant capacitive performance of spray pyrolysed titanium oxide (TiO2) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fugare, B. Y.; Ingole, R. S.; Ambare, R. C.; Lokhande, B. J.

    2016-04-01

    Using 60 ml, 0.06 M aqueous solution of potassium titanium oxalate (pto), thin films of titanium oxide were prepared by using well known spray pyrolysis technique. Depositions of the films carried out at 723° K by maintain the spray rate 12 Cc/min. prepared thin films were characterized structurally, morphologically and electrochemically. Sample shows tetragonal crystal structure with rutile as prominent phase at very low deposition temperature. SEM morphology shows porous, dense, nanorods and nanoplates like morphology. The electrochemical cyclic voltammetery shows mixed capacitive behavior. The specific capacitance values observed from cyclic voltammetery in 1 M NaOH are 2497.19, 29.60, 424.22 F/g. for the electrode deposited on copper, FTO and stainless steel (SS) respectively. Charge discharge behavior was observed for the samples deposited on stainless steel gives specific energy (SE), specific power (SP) and efficiency (η) are 43.25 Wh/kg, 35.25 kW/kg and 98.22 % respectively. Impedance study was carried out in the frequency range 1 mHz to 1 MHz exhibits very less internal resistance 1.066 Ohm for the deposited electrode.

  8. Facile preparation of polypyrrole/graphene oxide nanocomposites with large areal capacitance using electrochemical codeposition for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haihan; Han, Gaoyi; Xiao, Yaoming; Chang, Yunzhen; Zhai, Hua-Jin

    2014-10-01

    A simple and low-cost electrochemical codeposition method has been introduced to fabricate polypyrrole/graphene oxide (PPy/GO) nanocomposites and the areal capacitance of conducting polymer/GO composites is reported for the first time. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are implemented to determine the PPy/GO nanocomposites are successfully prepared and the interaction between PPy and GO. The as-prepared PPy/GO nanocomposites show the curly sheet-like morphology, superior capacitive behaviors and cyclic stability. Furthermore, the varying deposition time is implemented to investigate the impact of the loading amount on electrochemical behavior of the composites, and a high areal capacitance of 152 mF cm-2 is achieved at 10 mV s-1 CV scan. However, the thicker films caused by the long deposition time would result in larger diffusion resistance of electrolyte ions, consequently exhibit the relatively lower capacitance value at the high current density. The GCD tests indicate moderate deposition time is more suitable for the fast charge/discharge. Considering the very simple and effective synthetic process, the PPy/GO nanocomposites with relatively high areal capacitance are competitive candidate for supercapacitor application, and its capacitive performances can be easily tuned by varying the deposition time.

  9. Enhancing capacitance behaviour of CoOOH nanostructures using transition metal dopants by ambient oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanhui; Zhou, Junfeng; Maguire, Pierce; O’Connell, Robert; Schmitt, Wolfgang; Li, Yonghe; Yan, Zhengguang; Zhang, Yuefei; Zhang, Hongzhou

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt hydrate and doped binary Co0.9M0.1OOH (M = Ni, Mn, Fe) nanorings of 100–300 nm were fabricated in solution through a facile ambient oxidation method. A transformation from Co0.9Ni0.1(OH)2 nanodiscs to hollow Co0.9Ni0.1OOH nanorings was observed with prolonged reaction time. Core-shell nanodiscs have elemental segregation with a Co(OH)2 core and Ni(OH)2 shell. Co0.9Ni0.1OOH nanorings displayed a higher electrochemical capacitance than Mn and Fe doped nanorings materials or materials with disc-like geometries. PMID:26853105

  10. Pseudo capacitive performance of copper oxide thin films grown by RF sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, B. Purusottam; Ganesh, K. Sivajee; Hussain, O. M.

    2015-06-24

    Thin films of Copper Oxide were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on steel substrates maintained at 250°C under different RF powers ranging from 150W to 250W by keeping the sputtering pressure at 5.7×10{sup −3} mbar and O{sub 2}:Ar ratio of 1:7. The influence of RF power on the pseudo capacitive performance of thin films was studied. The X-ray diffraction studies and Raman studies indicates that all the thin films exhibits CuO phase. The electrochemical studies was done by using three electrode configuration with platinum as reference electrode. From the cyclic voltammetry studies a high rate pseudocapacitance of 227 mFcm{sup −2} at 0.5 mVs{sup −1} and 77% of capacity retention after 1000 cycles was obtained for the CuO thin films prepared at an RF power of 220W.

  11. A novel flexible capacitive touch pad based on graphene oxide film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Ren, Tian-Ling; Shu, Yi; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Cang-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Recently, graphene oxide (GO) supercapacitors with ultra-high energy densities have received significant attention. In addition to energy storage, GO capacitors might also have broad applications in renewable energy engineering, such as vibration and sound energy harvesting. Here, we experimentally create a macroscopic flexible capacitive touch pad based on GO film. An obvious touch ``ON'' to ``OFF'' voltage ratio up to ~60 has been observed. Moreover, we tested the capacitor structure on both flat and curved surfaces and it showed high response sensitivity under fast touch rates. Collectively, our results raise the exciting prospect that the realization of macroscopic flexible keyboards with large-area graphene based materials is technologically feasible, which may open up important applications in control and interface design for solar cells, speakers, supercapacitors, batteries and MEMS systems.

  12. A novel flexible capacitive touch pad based on graphene oxide film.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Ren, Tian-Ling; Shu, Yi; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Sun, Hui; Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Cang-Hai

    2013-02-01

    Recently, graphene oxide (GO) supercapacitors with ultra-high energy densities have received significant attention. In addition to energy storage, GO capacitors might also have broad applications in renewable energy engineering, such as vibration and sound energy harvesting. Here, we experimentally create a macroscopic flexible capacitive touch pad based on GO film. An obvious touch "ON" to "OFF" voltage ratio up to ∼60 has been observed. Moreover, we tested the capacitor structure on both flat and curved surfaces and it showed high response sensitivity under fast touch rates. Collectively, our results raise the exciting prospect that the realization of macroscopic flexible keyboards with large-area graphene based materials is technologically feasible, which may open up important applications in control and interface design for solar cells, speakers, supercapacitors, batteries and MEMS systems. PMID:23247540

  13. Effect of oxidation of carbon material on suspension electrodes for flow electrode capacitive deionization.

    PubMed

    Hatzell, Kelsey B; Hatzell, Marta C; Cook, Kevin M; Boota, Muhammad; Housel, Gabrielle M; McBride, Alexander; Kumbur, E Caglan; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-03-01

    Flow electrode deionization (FCDI) is an emerging area for continuous and scalable deionization, but the electrochemical and flow properties of the flow electrode need to be improved to minimize energy consumption. Chemical oxidation of granular activated carbon (AC) was examined here to study the role of surface heteroatoms on rheology and electrochemical performance of a flow electrode (carbon slurry) for deionization processes. Moreover, it was demonstrated that higher mass densities could be used without increasing energy for pumping when using oxidized active material. High mass-loaded flow electrodes (28% carbon content) based on oxidized AC displayed similar viscosities (∼21 Pa s) to lower mass-loaded flow electrodes (20% carbon content) based on nonoxidized AC. The 40% increased mass loading (from 20% to 28%) resulted in a 25% increase in flow electrode gravimetric capacitance (from 65 to 83 F g(-1)) without sacrificing flowability (viscosity). The electrical energy required to remove ∼18% of the ions (desalt) from of the feed solution was observed to be significantly dependent on the mass loading and decreased (∼60%) from 92 ± 7 to 28 ± 2.7 J with increased mass densities from 5 to 23 wt %. It is shown that the surface chemistry of the active material in a flow electrode effects the electrical and pumping energy requirements of a FCDI system. PMID:25633260

  14. Crystalline ternary rare earth oxide with capacitance equivalent thickness below 1 nm for high-K application

    SciTech Connect

    Laha, Apurba; Bugiel, E.; Osten, H.J.; Fissel, A.

    2006-04-24

    Ternary neodymium-gadolinium oxide (NGO) thin films were grown epitaxially on Si(001) substrates using modified molecular beam epitaxy. The electrical properties of NGO thin films demonstrate that this ternary oxide could be one of the most promising candidates to replace the conventionally used SiO{sub 2} or SiO{sub x}N{sub y} in complementary metal oxide semiconductor devices. The films were characterized with various methods. The capacitance equivalent oxide thickness of 4.5 nm thin films extracted from capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics was 0.9 nm. For such films, leakage current density and the density of interface traps were 2.6x10{sup -4} A/cm{sup 2} at vertical bar V{sub g}-V{sub FBV} vertical bar=1 V and 1.4x10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} eV{sup -1}, respectively.

  15. Vanadium Oxide Electrochemical Capacitors: An Investigation into Aqueous Capacitive Degradation, Alternate Electrolyte-Solvent Systems, Whole Cell Performance and Graphene Oxide Composite Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, Allison Michelle

    Vanadium oxide has emerged as a potential electrochemical capacitor material due to its attractive pseudocapacitive performance; however, it is known to suffer from capacitive degradation upon sustained cycling. In this work, the electrochemical cycling behavior of anodically electrodeposited vanadium oxide films with various surface treatments in aqueous solutions is investigated at different pH. Quantitative compositional analysis and morphological studies provide additional insight into the mechanism responsible for capacitive degradation. Furthermore, the capacitance and impedance behavior of vanadium oxide electrochemical capacitor electrodes is compared for both aqueous and nonaqueous electrolyte-solvent systems. Alkali metal chloride and bromide electrolytes were studied in aqueous systems, and nonaqueous systems containing alkali metal bromides were studied in polar aprotic propylene carbonate (PC) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvents. The preferred aqueous and nonaqueous systems identified in the half-cell studies were utilized in symmetric vanadium oxide whole-cells. An aqueous system utilizing a 3.0 M NaCl electrolyte at pH 3.0 exhibited an excellent 96% capacitance retention over 3000 cycles at 10 mV s-1. An equivalent system tested at 500 mV s-1 displayed an increase in capacitance over the first several thousands of cycles, and eventually stabilized over 50,000 cycles. Electrodes cycled in nonaqueous 1.0 M LiBr in PC exhibited mostly non-capacitive charge-storage, and electrodes cycled in LiBr-DMSO exhibited a gradual capacitive decay over 10,000 cycles at 500 mV s-1. Morphological and compositional analyses, as well as electrochemical impedance modeling, provide additional insight into the cause of the cycing behavior. Lastly, reduced graphene oxide and vanadium oxide nanowire composites have been successfully synthesized using electrophoretic deposition for electrochemical capacitor electrodes. The composite material was found to perform with a

  16. Nitric oxide scavengers differentially inhibit ammonia oxidation in ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Laura A; Ross, Ashley A; Neufeld, Josh D

    2016-04-01

    Differential inhibitors are important for measuring the relative contributions of microbial groups, such as ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), to biogeochemical processes in environmental samples. In particular, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (PTIO) represents a nitric oxide scavenger used for the specific inhibition of AOA, implicating nitric oxide as an intermediate of thaumarchaeotal ammonia oxidation. This study investigated four alternative nitric oxide scavengers for their ability to differentially inhibit AOA and AOB in comparison to PTIO. Caffeic acid, curcumin, methylene blue hydrate and trolox were tested onNitrosopumilus maritimus, two unpublished AOA representatives (AOA-6f and AOA-G6) as well as the AOB representativeNitrosomonas europaea All four scavengers inhibited ammonia oxidation by AOA at lower concentrations than for AOB. In particular, differential inhibition of AOA and AOB by caffeic acid (100 μM) and methylene blue hydrate (3 μM) was comparable to carboxy-PTIO (100 μM) in pure and enrichment culture incubations. However, when added to aquarium sponge biofilm microcosms, both scavengers were unable to inhibit ammonia oxidation consistently, likely due to degradation of the inhibitors themselves. This study provides evidence that a variety of nitric oxide scavengers result in differential inhibition of ammonia oxidation in AOA and AOB, and provides support to the proposed role of nitric oxide as a key intermediate in the thaumarchaeotal ammonia oxidation pathway. PMID:26946536

  17. Zinc oxide nanoring embedded lacey graphene nanoribbons in symmetric/asymmetric electrochemical capacitive energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Vikrant; Goel, Shubhra; Sharma, Raj Kishore; Singh, Gurmeet

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoring embedded graphene nanoribbons. Patterned holes (mesopore dia.) in graphene nanoribbons are chemically generated, leading to a high density of the edge planes. These planes carry negatively charged surface groups (like -COOH and -OH) and therefore anchor the metal ions in a cordial fashion forming a string of metal ions along the edge planes. These strings of imbibed metal ions precipitate as tiny ZnO nanorings over lacey graphene nanoribbons. The thus obtained graphene nanoribbon (GNR) based hierarchical ZnO mesoporous structures are three dimensionally accessible to the electrolyte and demonstrate high performance in capacitive energy storage. The ZnO/GNR nanocomposite electrode in an asymmetric supercapacitor device with lacey reduced graphene oxide nanoribbons (LRGONRs) as a negative electrode exhibits a 2.0 V potential window in the aqueous electrolyte and an ultra-short time constant (0.08 s). The wide potential window consequently increased the energy density from 6.8 Wh kg-1 (ZnO/GNR symmetric) to 9.4 Wh kg-1 (ZnO/GNR||LRGONR asymmetric). The relaxation time constant obtained for the asymmetric supercapacitor device was three orders of magnitude less compared to the ZnO (symmetric, 33 s) supercapacitor device. The high cycling stability of ZnO/GNR||LRGONR up to 96.7% capacitance retention, after 5000 GCD cycles at 2 mA cm-2, paves the way to a high performance aqueous electrochemical supercapacitive energy storage.This article describes the synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanoring embedded graphene nanoribbons. Patterned holes (mesopore dia.) in graphene nanoribbons are chemically generated, leading to a high density of the edge planes. These planes carry negatively charged surface groups (like -COOH and -OH) and therefore anchor the metal ions in a cordial fashion forming a string of metal ions along the edge planes. These strings of imbibed metal ions precipitate as tiny Zn

  18. Low-Dimensional Polyoxometalate Molecules/Tantalum Oxide Hybrids for Non-Volatile Capacitive Memories.

    PubMed

    Balliou, Angelika; Papadimitropoulos, Giorgos; Skoulatakis, George; Kennou, Stella; Davazoglou, Dimitrios; Gardelis, Spiros; Glezos, Nikos

    2016-03-23

    Transition-metal-oxide hybrids composed of high surface-to-volume ratio Ta2O5 matrices and a molecular analogue of transition metal oxides, tungsten polyoxometalates ([PW12O40](3-)), are introduced herein as a charge storage medium in molecular nonvolatile capacitive memory cells. The polyoxometalate molecules are electrostatically self-assembled on a low-dimensional Ta2O5 matrix, functionalized with an aminosilane molecule with primary amines as the anchoring moiety. The charge trapping sites are located onto the metal framework of the electron-accepting molecular entities as well as on the molecule/oxide interfaces which can immobilize negatively charged mobile oxygen vacancies. The memory characteristics of this novel nanocomposite were tested using no blocking oxide for extraction of structure-specific characteristics. The film was formed on top of the 3.1 nm-thick SiO2/n-Si(001) substrates and has been found to serve as both SiO2/Si interface states' reducer (i.e., quality enhancer) and electron storage medium. The device with the polyoxometalates sandwiched between two Ta2O5 films results in enhanced internal scattering of carriers. Thanks to this, it exhibits a significantly larger memory window than the one containing the plain hybrid and comparable retention time, resulting in a memory window of 4.0 V for the write state and a retention time around 10(4) s without blocking medium. Differential distance of molecular trapping centers from the cell's gate and electronic coupling to the space charge region of the underlying Si substrate were identified as critical parameters for enhanced electron trapping for the first time in such devices. Implementing a numerical electrostatic model incorporating structural and electronic characteristics of the molecular nodes derived from scanning probe and spectroscopic characterization, we are able to interpret the hybrid's electrical response and gain some insight into the electrostatics of the trapping medium. PMID

  19. Inhibition of Oxidation in Nuclear Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Phil Winston; James W. Sterbentz; William E. Windes

    2013-10-01

    Graphite is a fundamental material of high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactors, providing both structure and neutron moderation. Its high thermal conductivity, chemical inertness, thermal heat capacity, and high thermal structural stability under normal and off normal conditions contribute to the inherent safety of these reactor designs. One of the primary safety issues for a high temperature graphite reactor core is the possibility of rapid oxidation of the carbon structure during an off normal design basis event where an oxidizing atmosphere (air ingress) can be introduced to the hot core. Although the current Generation IV high temperature reactor designs attempt to mitigate any damage caused by a postualed air ingress event, the use of graphite components that inhibit oxidation is a logical step to increase the safety of these reactors. Recent experimental studies of graphite containing between 5.5 and 7 wt% boron carbide (B4C) indicate that oxidation is dramatically reduced even at prolonged exposures at temperatures up to 900°C. The proposed addition of B4C to graphite components in the nuclear core would necessarily be enriched in B-11 isotope in order to minimize B-10 neutron absorption and graphite swelling. The enriched boron can be added to the graphite during billet fabrication. Experimental oxidation rate results and potential applications for borated graphite in nuclear reactor components will be discussed.

  20. Rescaling of metal oxide nanocrystals for energy storage having high capacitance and energy density with robust cycle life

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyung Mo; Choi, Kyung Min; Cheng, Tao; Lee, Dong Ki; Zhou, Renjia; Ock, Il Woo; Milliron, Delia J.; Goddard, William A.; Kang, Jeung Ku

    2015-01-01

    Nanocrystals are promising structures, but they are too large for achieving maximum energy storage performance. We show that rescaling 3-nm particles through lithiation followed by delithiation leads to high-performance energy storage by realizing high capacitance close to the theoretical capacitance available via ion-to-atom redox reactions. Reactive force-field (ReaxFF) molecular dynamics simulations support the conclusion that Li atoms react with nickel oxide nanocrystals (NiO-n) to form lithiated core–shell structures (Ni:Li2O), whereas subsequent delithiation causes Ni:Li2O to form atomic clusters of NiO-a. This is consistent with in situ X-ray photoelectron and optical spectroscopy results showing that Ni2+ of the nanocrystal changes during lithiation–delithiation through Ni0 and back to Ni2+. These processes are also demonstrated to provide a generic route to rescale another metal oxide. Furthermore, assembling NiO-a into the positive electrode of an asymmetric device enables extraction of full capacitance for a counter negative electrode, giving high energy density in addition to robust capacitance retention over 100,000 cycles. PMID:26080421

  1. Fabrication and Evaluation of a Graphene Oxide-Based Capacitive Humidity Sensor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jinfeng; Kang, Xiaoxu; Zuo, Qingyun; Yuan, Chao; Wang, Weijun; Zhao, Yuhang; Zhu, Limin; Lu, Hanwei; Chen, Juying

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a CMOS compatible capacitive humidity sensor structure was designed and fabricated on a 200 mm CMOS BEOL Line. A top Al interconnect layer was used as an electrode with a comb/serpent structure, and graphene oxide (GO) was used as sensing material. XRD analysis was done which shows that GO sensing material has a strong and sharp (002) peak at about 10.278°, whereas graphite has (002) peak at about 26°. Device level CV and IV curves were measured in mini-environments at different relative humidity (RH) level, and saturated salt solutions were used to build these mini-environments. To evaluate the potential value of GO material in humidity sensor applications, a prototype humidity sensor was designed and fabricated by integrating the sensor with a dedicated readout ASIC and display/calibration module. Measurements in different mini-environments show that the GO-based humidity sensor has higher sensitivity, faster recovery time and good linearity performance. Compared with a standard humidity sensor, the measured RH data of our prototype humidity sensor can match well that of the standard product. PMID:26938538

  2. Fabrication and Evaluation of a Graphene Oxide-Based Capacitive Humidity Sensor †

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jinfeng; Kang, Xiaoxu; Zuo, Qingyun; Yuan, Chao; Wang, Weijun; Zhao, Yuhang; Zhu, Limin; Lu, Hanwei; Chen, Juying

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a CMOS compatible capacitive humidity sensor structure was designed and fabricated on a 200 mm CMOS BEOL Line. A top Al interconnect layer was used as an electrode with a comb/serpent structure, and graphene oxide (GO) was used as sensing material. XRD analysis was done which shows that GO sensing material has a strong and sharp (002) peak at about 10.278°, whereas graphite has (002) peak at about 26°. Device level CV and IV curves were measured in mini-environments at different relative humidity (RH) level, and saturated salt solutions were used to build these mini-environments. To evaluate the potential value of GO material in humidity sensor applications, a prototype humidity sensor was designed and fabricated by integrating the sensor with a dedicated readout ASIC and display/calibration module. Measurements in different mini-environments show that the GO-based humidity sensor has higher sensitivity, faster recovery time and good linearity performance. Compared with a standard humidity sensor, the measured RH data of our prototype humidity sensor can match well that of the standard product. PMID:26938538

  3. Three-dimensional graphene/metal oxide nanoparticle hybrids for high-performance capacitive deionization of saline water.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huajie; Zhao, Shenlong; Wan, Jiawei; Tang, Hongjie; Chang, Lin; He, Liangcan; Zhao, Huijun; Gao, Yan; Tang, Zhiyong

    2013-11-20

    A novel and general method is proposed to construct three-dimensional graphene/metal oxide nanoparticle hybrids. For the first time, it is demonstrated that this graphene-based composite with open pore structures can be used as the high-performance capacitive deionization (CDI) electrode materials, which outperform currently reported materials. This work will offer a promising way to develop highly effective CDI electrode materials. PMID:23963808

  4. Measurement of n-type Dry Thermally Oxidized 6H-SiC Metal-oxide Semiconductor Diodes by Quasistatic and High-Frequency Capacitance Versus Voltage and Capacitance Transient Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, P.; Kang, S.; Petit, J.; Tabib-Azar, M.

    1994-01-01

    Dry-oxidized n-type 6H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors are investigated using quasistatic capacitance versus voltage (C-V), high-frequency C-V, and pulsed high-frequency capacitance transient (C-t) analysis over the temperature range from 297 to 573 K. The quasistatic C - V characteristics presented are the first reported for 6H-SiC MOS capacitors, and exhibit startling nonidealities due to nonequilibrium conditions that arise from the fact that the recombination/generation process in 6H-SiC is extraordinarily slow even at the highest measurement temperature employed. The high-frequency dark C-V characteristics all showed deep depletion with no observable hysteresis. The recovery of the high-frequency capacitance from deep depletion to inversion was used to characterize the minority-carrier generation process as a function of temperature. Zerbst analysis conducted on the resulting C-t transients, which were longer than 1000 s at 573 K, showed a generation lifetime thermal activation energy of 0.49 eV.

  5. Current, charge, and capacitance during scanning probe oxidation of silicon. II. Electrostatic and meniscus forces acting on cantilever bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagata, J. A.; Perez-Murano, F.; Martin, C.; Kuramochi, H.; Yokoyama, H.

    2004-08-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the electrical current passing through the tip-substrate junction during oxidation of silicon by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is presented. This analysis identifies the electronic and ionic contributions to the total current, especially at the initial stages of the reaction, determines the effective contact area of the tip-substrate junction, and unifies the roles of space charge and meniscus formation. In this work, we concentrate on noncontact SPM oxidation. We analyze simultaneous force-distance and current-distance curves to demonstrate that total current flow during noncontact oxidation is significantly less for noncontact mode than for contact oxidation, although the resulting oxide volume is nearly identical. Ionization of water layers and mobile charge reorganization prior to and following meniscus formation is also shown to alter the tip-substrate capacitance and, therefore, the bending of the SPM cantilever.

  6. Method for inhibiting oxidation of metal sulfide-containing material

    DOEpatents

    Elsetinow, Alicia; Borda, Michael J.; Schoonen, Martin A.; Strongin, Daniel R.

    2006-12-26

    The present invention provides means for inhibiting the oxidation of a metal sulfide-containing material, such as ore mine waste rock or metal sulfide taiulings, by coating the metal sulfide-containing material with an oxidation-inhibiting two-tail lipid coating (12) thereon, thereby inhibiting oxidation of the metal sulfide-containing material in acid mine drainage conditions. The lipids may be selected from phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and combinations thereof.

  7. Oxidation inhibits iron-induced blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Vermeulen, Natasha; Lipinski, Boguslaw

    2013-01-01

    Blood coagulation under physiological conditions is activated by thrombin, which converts soluble plasma fibrinogen (FBG) into an insoluble clot. The structure of the enzymatically-generated clot is very characteristic being composed of thick fibrin fibers susceptible to the fibrinolytic degradation. However, in chronic degenerative diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and neurological disorders, fibrin clots are very different forming dense matted deposits (DMD) that are not effectively removed and thus create a condition known as thrombosis. We have recently shown that trivalent iron (ferric ions) generates hydroxyl radicals, which subsequently convert FBG into abnormal fibrin clots in the form of DMDs. A characteristic feature of DMDs is their remarkable and permanent resistance to the enzymatic degradation. Therefore, in order to prevent thrombotic incidences in the degenerative diseases it is essential to inhibit the iron-induced generation of hydroxyl radicals. This can be achieved by the pretreatment with a direct free radical scavenger (e.g. salicylate), and as shown in this paper by the treatment with oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide, methylene blue, and sodium selenite. Although the actual mechanism of this phenomenon is not yet known, it is possible that hydroxyl radicals are neutralized by their conversion to the molecular oxygen and water, thus inhibiting the formation of dense matted fibrin deposits in human blood. PMID:23170793

  8. Nitric oxide synthases: structure, function and inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Alderton, W K; Cooper, C E; Knowles, R G

    2001-01-01

    This review concentrates on advances in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) structure, function and inhibition made in the last seven years, during which time substantial advances have been made in our understanding of this enzyme family. There is now information on the enzyme structure at all levels from primary (amino acid sequence) to quaternary (dimerization, association with other proteins) structure. The crystal structures of the oxygenase domains of inducible NOS (iNOS) and vascular endothelial NOS (eNOS) allow us to interpret other information in the context of this important part of the enzyme, with its binding sites for iron protoporphyrin IX (haem), biopterin, L-arginine, and the many inhibitors which interact with them. The exact nature of the NOS reaction, its mechanism and its products continue to be sources of controversy. The role of the biopterin cofactor is now becoming clearer, with emerging data implicating one-electron redox cycling as well as the multiple allosteric effects on enzyme activity. Regulation of the NOSs has been described at all levels from gene transcription to covalent modification and allosteric regulation of the enzyme itself. A wide range of NOS inhibitors have been discussed, interacting with the enzyme in diverse ways in terms of site and mechanism of inhibition, time-dependence and selectivity for individual isoforms, although there are many pitfalls and misunderstandings of these aspects. Highly selective inhibitors of iNOS versus eNOS and neuronal NOS have been identified and some of these have potential in the treatment of a range of inflammatory and other conditions in which iNOS has been implicated. PMID:11463332

  9. Expression of Trp3 determines sensitivity of capacitative Ca2+ entry to nitric oxide and mitochondrial Ca2+ handling: evidence for a role of Trp3 as a subunit of capacitative Ca2+ entry channels.

    PubMed

    Thyagarajan, B; Poteser, M; Romanin, C; Kahr, H; Zhu, M X; Groschner, K

    2001-12-21

    The role of Trp3 in cellular regulation of Ca(2+) entry by NO was studied in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. In vector-transfected HEK293 cells (controls), thapsigargin (TG)-induced (capacitative Ca(2+) entry (CCE)-mediated) intracellular Ca(2+) signals and Mn(2+) entry were markedly suppressed by the NO donor 2-(N,N-diethylamino)diazenolate-2-oxide sodium salt (3 microm) or by authentic NO (100 microm). In cells overexpressing Trp3 (T3-9), TG-induced intracellular Ca(2+) signals exhibited an amplitude similar to that of controls but lacked sensitivity to inhibition by NO. Consistently, NO inhibited TG-induced Mn(2+) entry in controls but not in T3-9 cells. Moreover, CCE-mediated Mn(2+) entry into T3-9 cells exhibited a striking sensitivity to inhibition by extracellular Ca(2+), which was not detectable in controls. Suppression of mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling with the uncouplers carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (300 nm) or antimycin A(1) (-AA(1)) mimicked the inhibitory effect of NO on CCE in controls but barely affected CCE in T3-9 cells. T3-9 cells exhibited enhanced carbachol-stimulated Ca(2+) entry and clearly detectable cation currents through Trp3 cation channels. NO as well as carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone slightly promoted carbachol-induced Ca(2+) entry into T3-9 cells. Simultaneous measurement of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) and membrane currents revealed that Trp3 cation currents are inhibited during Ca(2+) entry-induced elevation of cytoplasmic Ca(2+), and that this negative feedback regulation is blunted by NO. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of Trp3 generates phospholipase C-regulated cation channels, which exhibit regulatory properties different from those of endogenous CCE channels. Moreover, we show for the first time that Trp3 expression determines biophysical properties as well as regulation of CCE channels by NO and mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling. Thus, we propose Trp3 as a subunit of CCE channels. PMID:11600493

  10. Coexistence of high performance resistance and capacitance memory based on multilayered metal-oxide structures

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J. -M.

    2013-01-01

    The Au/DyMnO3/Nb:SrTiO3/Au stack was demonstrated to be not only a high performance memristor but also a good memcapacitor. The switching time is below 10 ns, the retention is longer than 105 s, and the change ratio of resistance (or capacitance) is larger than 100 over the 108 switching cycles. Moreover, this stack has a broad range of intermediate states that are tunable by the operating voltages. It is indicated that the memory effects originate from the Nb:SrTiO3/Au junction where the barrier profile is electrically modulated. The serial connected Au/DyMnO3/Nb:SrTiO3 stack behaves as a high nonlinear resistor paralleling with a capacitor, which raises the capacitance change ratio and enhances the memory stability of the device. PMID:23963467

  11. Frequency dependent negative capacitance effect and dielectric properties of swift heavy ion irradiated Ni/oxide/n-GaAs Schottky diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobby, A.; Shiwakoti, N.; Verma, S.; Asokan, K.; Antony, B. K.

    2016-05-01

    The Ni/n-GaAs Schottky barrier diode having thin interfacial oxide layer was subjected to 25 MeV C4+ ion irradiation at selected fluences. The in-situ capacitance and dielectric properties were investigated in the 1 KHz to 5 MHz frequency range. The results show a decrease in capacitance with increase in ion fluence at low frequencies. Interestingly, a negative capacitance effect was also observed in this frequency range in all the samples. As a consequence, changes were observed in parameters like series resistance, conductance, dielectric loss, dielectric constant, loss tangent and ac electrical conductivity. At high frequencies, the capacitance reaches the geometric value 'C0'. The results were interpreted in terms of the generation of irradiation induced traps, carrier capture and emission from deep and shallow states and its frequency dependent saturation effects.

  12. The influence of electron energy quantization in a space-charge region on the accumulation capacitance of InAs metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Kovchavtsev, A. P. Tsarenko, A. V.; Guzev, A. A.; Polovinkin, V. G.; Nastovjak, A. E.; Valisheva, N. A.; Aksenov, M. S.

    2015-09-28

    The influence of electron energy quantization in a space-charge region on the accumulation capacitance of the InAs-based metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) has been investigated by modeling and comparison with the experimental data from Au/anodic layer(4-20 nm)/n-InAs(111)A MOSCAPs. The accumulation capacitance for MOSCAPs has been calculated by the solution of Poisson equation with different assumptions and the self-consistent solution of Schrödinger and Poisson equations with quantization taken into account. It was shown that the quantization during the MOSCAPs accumulation capacitance calculations should be taken into consideration for the correct interface states density determination by Terman method and the evaluation of gate dielectric thickness from capacitance-voltage measurements.

  13. Low-temperature and solution-processed indium tin oxide films and their applications in flexible transparent capacitive pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jian; Chen, Sujie; Wang, Nana; Ye, Zhizhen; Qi, Hang; Guo, Xiaojun; Jin, Yizheng

    2016-04-01

    It is of great interest to fabricate indium tin oxide (ITO) films by solution-based techniques at low temperatures. Here, we combined the use of colloidal ITO nanoflowers synthesized by the strategy of limited ligand protection and oxygen plasma treatment which effectively remove the surface ligands of ITO nanocrystals to meet this goal. These efforts led to high-quality ITO films with resistivity as low as 2.33 × 10-2 Ω cm, which is the best result for solution-processed ITO nanocrystal films deposited at temperatures lower than 200 °C. The annealing-free processing allowed us to deposit ITO nanoflower films onto plastic substrates and apply them in flexible capacitive pressure sensors. The single-pixel device showed decent sensitivity and reproducibility, and the arrayed sensors exhibited good spatial resolution.

  14. Methylene Blue Inhibits Caspases by Oxidation of the Catalytic Cysteine

    PubMed Central

    Pakavathkumar, Prateep; Sharma, Gyanesh; Kaushal, Vikas; Foveau, Bénédicte; LeBlanc, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Methylene blue, currently in phase 3 clinical trials against Alzheimer Disease, disaggregates the Tau protein of neurofibrillary tangles by oxidizing specific cysteine residues. Here, we investigated if methylene blue can inhibit caspases via the oxidation of their active site cysteine. Methylene blue, and derivatives, azure A and azure B competitively inhibited recombinant Caspase-6 (Casp6), and inhibited Casp6 activity in transfected human colon carcinoma cells and in serum-deprived primary human neuron cultures. Methylene blue also inhibited recombinant Casp1 and Casp3. Furthermore, methylene blue inhibited Casp3 activity in an acute mouse model of liver toxicity. Mass spectrometry confirmed methylene blue and azure B oxidation of the catalytic Cys163 cysteine of Casp6. Together, these results show a novel inhibitory mechanism of caspases via sulfenation of the active site cysteine. These results indicate that methylene blue or its derivatives could (1) have an additional effect against Alzheimer Disease by inhibiting brain caspase activity, (2) be used as a drug to prevent caspase activation in other conditions, and (3) predispose chronically treated individuals to cancer via the inhibition of caspases. PMID:26400108

  15. Methylene Blue Inhibits Caspases by Oxidation of the Catalytic Cysteine.

    PubMed

    Pakavathkumar, Prateep; Sharma, Gyanesh; Kaushal, Vikas; Foveau, Bénédicte; LeBlanc, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Methylene blue, currently in phase 3 clinical trials against Alzheimer Disease, disaggregates the Tau protein of neurofibrillary tangles by oxidizing specific cysteine residues. Here, we investigated if methylene blue can inhibit caspases via the oxidation of their active site cysteine. Methylene blue, and derivatives, azure A and azure B competitively inhibited recombinant Caspase-6 (Casp6), and inhibited Casp6 activity in transfected human colon carcinoma cells and in serum-deprived primary human neuron cultures. Methylene blue also inhibited recombinant Casp1 and Casp3. Furthermore, methylene blue inhibited Casp3 activity in an acute mouse model of liver toxicity. Mass spectrometry confirmed methylene blue and azure B oxidation of the catalytic Cys163 cysteine of Casp6. Together, these results show a novel inhibitory mechanism of caspases via sulfenation of the active site cysteine. These results indicate that methylene blue or its derivatives could (1) have an additional effect against Alzheimer Disease by inhibiting brain caspase activity, (2) be used as a drug to prevent caspase activation in other conditions, and (3) predispose chronically treated individuals to cancer via the inhibition of caspases. PMID:26400108

  16. RF Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Capacitive Switches Using Ultra Thin Hafnium Oxide Dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Onodera, Kazumasa; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2006-01-01

    A π-type RF capacitive switch using about 45-nm-thick HfO2 dielectric layer was fabricated. High isolation performance was obtained in wide-band range when the switch was down-state. The isolation was better than -40 dB at the frequency range of 4-35 GHz. Particularly, the isolation was better than -50 dB in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz, i.e., X band. HfO2 showed excellent process compatibility with conventional microfabrication procedure. The 45-nm-thick HfO2 film was prepared using sputtering at room temperature so that it was feasible to be integrated into RF switch and other microwave circuits. The results of constant bias stressing showed that the ultra thin HfO2 had excellent reliability. The electric breakdown of HfO2 was observed, which had no apparent negative effects on the reliability of the dielectric. HfO2 dielectrics were attractive in the application of RF micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) switch for new generation of low-loss high-linearity microwave circuits.

  17. Capacitance-voltage characteristics of Si and Ge nanomembrane based flexible metal-oxide-semiconductor devices under bending conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Minkyu; Seo, Jung-Hun; Park, Dong-Wook; Zhou, Weidong; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2016-06-01

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) device is the basic building block for field effect transistors (FET). The majority of thin-film transistors (TFTs) are FETs. When MOSFET are mechanically bent, the MOS structure will be inevitably subject to mechanical strain. In this paper, flexible MOS devices using single crystalline Silicon (Si) and Germanium (Ge) nanomembranes (NM) with SiO2, SiO, and Al2O3 dielectric layers are fabricated on a plastic substrate. The relationships between semiconductor nanomembranes and various oxide materials are carefully investigated under tensile/compressive strain. The flatband voltage, threshold voltage, and effective charge density in various MOS combinations revealed that Si NM-SiO2 configuration shows the best interface charge behavior, while Ge NM-Al2O3 shows the worst. This investigation of flexible MOS devices can help us understand the impact of charges in the active region of the flexible TFTs and capacitance changes under the tensile/compressive strains on the change in electrical characteristics in flexible NM based TFTs.

  18. Low-temperature CO oxidation over a ternary oxide catalyst with high resistance to hydrocarbon inhibition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Binder, Andrew J.; Toops, Todd J.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Parks, II, James E.; Dai, Sheng

    2015-09-11

    Platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts are the current standard for control of pollutants in automotive exhaust streams. Aside from their high cost, PGM catalysts struggle with CO oxidation at low temperatures (<200 °C) due to inhibition by hydrocarbons in exhaust streams. Here we present a ternary mixed oxide catalyst composed of copper oxide, cobalt oxide, and ceria (dubbed CCC) that outperforms synthesized and commercial PGM catalysts for CO oxidation in simulated exhaust streams while showing no signs of inhibition by propene. Diffuse reflectance IR (DRIFTS) and light-off data both indicate low interaction between propene and the CO oxidation active sitemore » on this catalyst, and a separation of adsorption sites is proposed as the cause of this inhibition resistance. In conclusion, this catalyst shows great potential as a low-cost component for low temperature exhaust streams that are expected to be a characteristic of future automotive systems.« less

  19. Low-temperature CO oxidation over a ternary oxide catalyst with high resistance to hydrocarbon inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Binder, Andrew J.; Toops, Todd J.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Parks, II, James E.; Dai, Sheng

    2015-09-11

    Platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts are the current standard for control of pollutants in automotive exhaust streams. Aside from their high cost, PGM catalysts struggle with CO oxidation at low temperatures (<200 °C) due to inhibition by hydrocarbons in exhaust streams. Here we present a ternary mixed oxide catalyst composed of copper oxide, cobalt oxide, and ceria (dubbed CCC) that outperforms synthesized and commercial PGM catalysts for CO oxidation in simulated exhaust streams while showing no signs of inhibition by propene. Diffuse reflectance IR (DRIFTS) and light-off data both indicate low interaction between propene and the CO oxidation active site on this catalyst, and a separation of adsorption sites is proposed as the cause of this inhibition resistance. In conclusion, this catalyst shows great potential as a low-cost component for low temperature exhaust streams that are expected to be a characteristic of future automotive systems.

  20. Low-Temperature CO Oxidation over a Ternary Oxide Catalyst with High Resistance to Hydrocarbon Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Binder, Andrew J; Toops, Todd J; Unocic, Raymond R; Parks, James E; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts are the current standard for control of pollutants in automotive exhaust streams. Aside from their high cost, PGM catalysts struggle with CO oxidation at low temperatures (<200 °C) due to inhibition by hydrocarbons in exhaust streams. Here we present a ternary mixed oxide catalyst composed of copper oxide, cobalt oxide, and ceria (dubbed CCC) that outperforms synthesized and commercial PGM catalysts for CO oxidation in simulated exhaust streams while showing no signs of inhibition by propene. Diffuse reflectance IR (DRIFTS) and light-off data both indicate low interaction between propene and the CO oxidation active site on this catalyst, and a separation of adsorption sites is proposed as the cause of this inhibition resistance. This catalyst shows great potential as a low-cost component for low temperature exhaust streams that are expected to be a characteristic of future automotive systems. PMID:26360804

  1. Nitric Oxide Inhibits Coxiella burnetii Replication and Parasitophorous Vacuole Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Dale; Barrows, Lorraine F.; Lindstrom, Nicole M.; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a recognized cytotoxic effector against facultative and obligate intracellular bacteria. This study examined the effect of nitric oxide produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) up-regulated in response to cytokine stimulation, or by a synthetic nitric oxide donor, on replication of obligately intracellular Coxiella burnetii in murine L-929 cells. Immunoblotting and nitrite assays revealed that C. burnetii infection of L-929 cells augments expression of iNOS up-regulated in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Infection in the absence of cytokine stimulation did not result in demonstrable up-regulation of iNOS expression or in increased nitrite production. Nitrite production by cytokine-treated cells was significantly inhibited by the iNOS inhibitor S-methylisothiourea (SMT). Treatment of infected cells with IFN-γ and TNF-α or the synthetic nitric oxide donor 2,2′-(hydroxynitrosohydrazino)bis-ethanamine (DETA/NONOate) had a bacteriostatic effect on C. burnetii replication. Inhibition of replication was reversed upon addition of SMT to the culture medium of cytokine-treated cells. Microscopic analysis of infected cells revealed that nitric oxide (either cytokine induced or donor derived) inhibited formation of the mature (large) parasitophorous vacuole that is characteristic of C. burnetii infection of host cells. Instead, exposure of infected cells to nitric oxide resulted in the formation of multiple small, acidic vacuoles usually containing one C. burnetii cell. Removal of nitrosative stress resulted in the coalescence of small vacuoles to form a large vacuole harboring multiple C. burnetii cells. These experiments demonstrate that nitric oxide reversibly inhibits replication of C. burnetii and formation of the parasitophorous vacuole. PMID:12183564

  2. Dexmedetomidine inhibits vasoconstriction via activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Nong, Lidan; Ma, Jue; Zhang, Guangyan; Deng, Chunyu; Mao, Songsong; Li, Haifeng; Cui, Jianxiu

    2016-09-01

    Despite the complex vascular effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX), its actions on human pulmonary resistance arteries remain unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that DEX inhibits vascular tension in human pulmonary arteries through the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mediated production of nitric oxide (NO). Pulmonary artery segments were obtained from 62 patients who underwent lung resection. The direct effects of DEX on human pulmonary artery tension and changes in vascular tension were determined by isometric force measurements recorded on a myograph. Arterial contractions caused by increasing concentrations of serotonin with DEX in the presence or absence of L-NAME (endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist) and indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor) as antagonists were also measured. DEX had no effect on endothelium-intact pulmonary arteries, whereas at concentrations of 10(-8)~10(-6) mol/L, it elicited contractions in endothelium-denuded pulmonary arteries. DEX (0.3, 1, or 3×10(-9) mmol/L) inhibited serotonin-induced contraction in arteries with intact endothelium in a dose-dependent manner. L-NAME and yohimbine abolished DEX-induced inhibition, whereas indomethacin had no effect. No inhibitory effect was observed in endothelium-denuded pulmonary arteries. DEX-induced inhibition of vasoconstriction in human pulmonary arteries is mediated by NO production induced by the activation of endothelial α2-adrenoceptor and nitric oxide synthase. PMID:27610030

  3. Dexmedetomidine inhibits vasoconstriction via activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Nong, Lidan; Ma, Jue; Zhang, Guangyan; Deng, Chunyu; Mao, Songsong; Li, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Despite the complex vascular effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX), its actions on human pulmonary resistance arteries remain unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that DEX inhibits vascular tension in human pulmonary arteries through the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mediated production of nitric oxide (NO). Pulmonary artery segments were obtained from 62 patients who underwent lung resection. The direct effects of DEX on human pulmonary artery tension and changes in vascular tension were determined by isometric force measurements recorded on a myograph. Arterial contractions caused by increasing concentrations of serotonin with DEX in the presence or absence of L-NAME (endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist) and indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor) as antagonists were also measured. DEX had no effect on endothelium-intact pulmonary arteries, whereas at concentrations of 10–8~10–6 mol/L, it elicited contractions in endothelium-denuded pulmonary arteries. DEX (0.3, 1, or 3×10–9 mmol/L) inhibited serotonin-induced contraction in arteries with intact endothelium in a dose-dependent manner. L-NAME and yohimbine abolished DEX-induced inhibition, whereas indomethacin had no effect. No inhibitory effect was observed in endothelium-denuded pulmonary arteries. DEX-induced inhibition of vasoconstriction in human pulmonary arteries is mediated by NO production induced by the activation of endothelial α2-adrenoceptor and nitric oxide synthase. PMID:27610030

  4. Antioxidant capacity of foods for scavenging reactive oxidants and inhibition of plasma lipid oxidation induced by multiple oxidants.

    PubMed

    Niki, Etsuo

    2016-05-18

    Unregulated oxidation of biological molecules induced by multiple oxidants has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Consequently, the effects of antioxidants contained in foods, beverages and supplements on the maintenance of health and prevention of diseases have attracted much attention of the public as well as scientists. However, recent human studies have shown inconsistent results and failed to demonstrate the beneficial effects of antioxidants. The mechanisms and dynamics of antioxidant action and assessment of antioxidant capacity have been the subject of extensive studies and arguments. In the present article, the antioxidant capacity has been reviewed focusing on two main issues: the capacity of antioxidants to scavenge multiple reactive oxidants and to inhibit plasma lipid oxidation induced by different biological oxidants. It is emphasized that the capacity of antioxidants to scavenge reactive oxidants does not always correlate linearly with the capacity to inhibit lipid oxidation and that it is necessary to specify the oxidant to assess the efficacy of antioxidants, since multiple oxidants contribute to oxidative damage in vivo and the effects of antioxidants depend on the nature of oxidants. A convenient and rapid method using a microplate reader is discussed for assessing the antioxidant capacity against plasma lipid oxidation induced by multiple oxidants including peroxyl radicals, peroxynitrite, hypochlorite, 15-lipoxygenase, and singlet oxygen. PMID:27090496

  5. AIF inhibits tumor metastasis by protecting PTEN from oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shao-Ming; Guo, Meng; Xiong, Zhong; Yu, Yun; Zhao, Xu-Yun; Zhang, Fei-Fei; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) exerts dual roles on cell death and survival, but its substrates as a putative oxidoreductase and roles in tumorigenesis remain elusive. Here, we report that AIF physically interacts with and inhibits the oxidation of phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN), a tumor suppressor susceptible for oxidation-mediated inactivation. More intriguingly, we also identify PTEN as a mitochondrial protein and the ectopic expression of mitochondrial targeting sequence-carrying PTEN almost completely inhibits Akt phosphorylation in PTEN-deficient cells. AIF knockdown causes oxidation-mediated inactivation of the lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN, with ensuing activation of Akt kinase, phosphorylation of the Akt substrate GSK-3β, and activation of β-catenin signaling in cancer cells. Through its effect on β-catenin signaling, AIF inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis of cancer cells in vitro and in orthotopically implanted xenografts. Accordingly, the expression of AIF is correlated with the survival of human patients with cancers of multiple origins. These results identify PTEN as the substrate of AIF oxidoreductase and reveal a novel function for AIF in controlling tumor metastasis. PMID:26415504

  6. High-Performance Capacitive Deionization Disinfection of Water with Graphene Oxide-graft-Quaternized Chitosan Nanohybrid Electrode Coating.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilei; El-Deen, Ahmed G; Li, Peng; Oh, Bernice H L; Guo, Zanru; Khin, Mya Mya; Vikhe, Yogesh S; Wang, Jing; Hu, Rebecca G; Boom, Remko M; Kline, Kimberly A; Becker, David L; Duan, Hongwei; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2015-10-27

    Water disinfection materials should ideally be broad-spectrum-active, nonleachable, and noncontaminating to the liquid needing sterilization. Herein, we demonstrate a high-performance capacitive deionization disinfection (CDID) electrode made by coating an activated carbon (AC) electrode with cationic nanohybrids of graphene oxide-graft-quaternized chitosan (GO-QC). Our GO-QC/AC CDID electrode can achieve at least 99.9999% killing (i.e., 6 log reduction) of Escherichia coli in water flowing continuously through the CDID cell. Without the GO-QC coating, the AC electrode alone cannot kill the bacteria and adsorbs a much smaller fraction (<82.8 ± 1.8%) of E. coli from the same biocontaminated water. Our CDID process consists of alternating cycles of water disinfection followed by electrode regeneration, each a few minutes duration, so that this water disinfection process can be continuous and it only needs a small electrode voltage (2 V). With a typical brackish water biocontamination (with 10(4) CFU mL(-1) bacteria), the GO-QC/AC electrodes can kill 99.99% of the E. coli in water for 5 h. The disinfecting GO-QC is securely attached on the AC electrode surface, so that it is noncontaminating to water, unlike many other chemicals used today. The GO-QC nanohybrids have excellent intrinsic antimicrobial properties in suspension form. Further, the GO component contributes toward the needed surface conductivity of the CDID electrode. This CDID process offers an economical method toward ultrafast, contaminant-free, and continuous killing of bacteria in biocontaminated water. The proposed strategy introduces a green in situ disinfectant approach for water purification. PMID:26389519

  7. Oxidative stress inhibits distant metastasis by human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Piskounova, Elena; Agathocleous, Michalis; Murphy, Malea M.; Hu, Zeping; Huddlestun, Sara E.; Zhao, Zhiyu; Leitch, A. Marilyn; Johnson, Timothy M.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Morrison, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    Solid cancer cells commonly enter the blood and disseminate systemically but are highly inefficient at forming distant metastases for poorly understood reasons. We studied human melanomas that differed in their metastasis histories in patients and in their capacity to metastasize in NSG mice. All melanomas had high frequencies of cells that formed subcutaneous tumours, but much lower percentages of cells that formed tumours after intravenous or intrasplenic transplantation, particularly among inefficient metastasizers. Melanoma cells in the blood and visceral organs experienced oxidative stress not observed in established subcutaneous tumours. Successfully metastasizing melanomas underwent reversible metabolic changes during metastasis that increased their capacity to withstand oxidative stress, including increased dependence upon NADPH-generating enzymes in the folate pathway. Anti-oxidants promoted distant metastasis in NSG mice. Folate pathway inhibition using low-dose methotrexate, ALDH1L2 knockdown, or MTHFD1 knockdown inhibited distant metastasis without significantly affecting the growth of subcutaneous tumors in the same mice. Oxidative stress thus limits distant metastasis by melanoma cells in vivo. PMID:26466563

  8. High areal capacitance three-dimensional Ni@Ni(OH)2 foams via in situ oxidizing Ni foams in mild aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qingfeng; Cui, Mangwei; Tao, Keyu; Yang, Yongzhen; Liu, Xuguang; Kang, Litao

    2016-03-01

    In this work, commercial Ni foams are directly oxidized into Ni@Ni(OH)2 foams in a mild NH4NO3 solution at 80 °C. When used as binder-free electrodes, these Ni@Ni(OH)2 electrodes demonstrate a high areal capacitance of 6.4 F/cm2 at a current density of 2.5 mA/cm2, or 1.62 F/cm2 at a high current density of 30 mA/cm2. Nevertheless, they show a poor cycling ability with 70.4% (or 42%) capacitance retention after 2000 (or 5000) cycles at 30 mA/cm2. This kind of electrodes has a promising application in low-cost, high-performance supercapacitor, if an effective strategy is found to improve their cycling ability.

  9. Fabrication of SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC (0001) interface with nearly ideal capacitance-voltage characteristics by thermal oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Richard Heihachiro; Kita, Koji

    2014-07-21

    We fabricated SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC (0001) metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with nearly ideal capacitance-voltage characteristics, simply by the control of thermal oxidation conditions which were selected based on thermodynamic and kinetic considerations of SiC oxidation. The interface with low interface defect state density <10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1} for the energy range of 0.1–0.4 eV below the conduction band of SiC was obtained by thermal oxidation at 1300 °C in a ramp-heating furnace with a short rise/fall time, followed by low temperature O{sub 2} anneal at 800 °C.

  10. Inhibition of arm regeneration by Ophioderma brevispina (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) by tributyltin oxide and triphenyltin oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, G.E.; McLaughlin, L.L.; Louie, M.K.; Deans, C.H.; Lores, E.M.

    1986-08-01

    Effects of water-bourne toxicants on regeneration of arms by the brittle star, Ophioderma brevispina, are described. Regeneration was inhibited by 0.1 micrograms liter-1 bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide and bis(triphenyltin)oxide. Both substances are known to act upon the nervous system, and it is suggested that inhibition was caused by neurotoxicological action of the tin compounds or by their direct effect upon tissue at the breakage point. The former is most likely because regeneration is mediated by the radial nerves of brittle stars.

  11. Cordycepin prevents oxidative stress-induced inhibition of osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Yin, Peipei; Lu, Ye; Zhou, Zubin; Jiang, Chaolai; Liu, Yingjie; Yu, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is known to be involved in impairment of osteogenesis and age-related osteoporosis. Cordycepin is one of the major bioactive components of Cordyceps militaris that has been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, there are few reports available regarding the effects of cordycepin on osteogenesis and the underlying mechanism. In this study, we investigated the potential osteoprotective effects of cordycepin and its mechanism systematically using both in vitro model as well as in vivo mouse models. We discovered that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced inhibition of osteogenesis which was rescued by cordycepin treatment in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). Cordycepin exerted its protective effects partially by increasing or decreasing expression of osteogenic and osteoclastogenesis marker genes. Treatment with cordycepin increased Wnt-related genes' expression whereas supplementation of Wnt pathway inhibitor reversed its protective effects. In addition, administration of cordycepin promoted osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs by reducing oxidative stress in both ovariectomized and aged animal models. Taken together, these results support the protective effects of cordycepin on oxidative stress induced inhibition of osteogenesis by activation of Wnt pathway. PMID:26462178

  12. Inhibition of Frying Oil Oxidation by Carbon Dioxide Blanketing.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Inoue, Ryota; Yawata, Miho

    2016-06-01

    The oxidation of oil starts, in general, from the penetration of atmospheric oxygen into oil. Inhibition of the vigorous oxidation of oil at deep-frying temperature under carbon dioxide flow, by disrupting the contact between oil and air, was first demonstrated using oil in a round bottom flask. Next, the minimum carbon dioxide flow rate necessary to blanket 4 L of frying oil in an electric fryer (surface area 690 cm(2)) installed with nonwoven fabric cover, was found to be 40 L/h. Then deep-frying of potato was done accordingly; immediately after deep-frying, an aluminum cover was placed on top of the nonwoven fabric cover to prevent the loss of carbon dioxide and the carbon dioxide flow was shut off. In conclusion, the oxidation of oil both at deep-frying temperature and during standing was remarkably inhibited by carbon dioxide blanketing at a practical flow rate and volume. Under the deep-frying conditions employed in this study, the increase in polar compound content was reduced to half of that of the control. PMID:27181248

  13. Cordycepin prevents oxidative stress-induced inhibition of osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Yin, Peipei; Lu, Ye; Zhou, Zubin; Jiang, Chaolai; Liu, Yingjie; Yu, Xiaowei

    2015-11-01

    Oxidative stress is known to be involved in impairment of osteogenesis and age-related osteoporosis. Cordycepin is one of the major bioactive components of Cordyceps militaris that has been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, there are few reports available regarding the effects of cordycepin on osteogenesis and the underlying mechanism. In this study, we investigated the potential osteoprotective effects of cordycepin and its mechanism systematically using both in vitro model as well as in vivo mouse models. We discovered that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced inhibition of osteogenesis which was rescued by cordycepin treatment in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). Cordycepin exerted its protective effects partially by increasing or decreasing expression of osteogenic and osteoclastogenesis marker genes. Treatment with cordycepin increased Wnt-related genes' expression whereas supplementation of Wnt pathway inhibitor reversed its protective effects. In addition, administration of cordycepin promoted osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs by reducing oxidative stress in both ovariectomized and aged animal models. Taken together, these results support the protective effects of cordycepin on oxidative stress induced inhibition of osteogenesis by activation of Wnt pathway. PMID:26462178

  14. Inhibition of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation by Surface Coating Agents: Batch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Ji, M. K.; Yun, H. S.; Park, Y. T.; Gee, E. D.; Lee, W. R.; Jeon, B.-H.

    2012-04-01

    Mining activities and mineral industries have impacted on rapid oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) which leads to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) formation. Some of the abandoned mines discharge polluted water without proper environmental remediation treatments, largely because of financial constraints in treating AMD. Magnitude of the problem is considerable, especially in countries with a long history of mining. As metal sulfides become oxidized during mining activities, the aqueous environment becomes acid and rich in many metals, including iron, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others. The toxic heavy metals are responsible for the environmental deterioration of stream, groundwater and soils. Several strategies to remediate AMD contaminated sites have been proposed. Among the source inhibition and prevention technologies, microencapsulation (coating) has been considered as a promising technology. The encapsulation is based on inhibition of O2 diffusion by surface coating agent and is expected to control the oxidation of pyrite for a long time. Potential of several surface coating agents for preventing oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from both Young-Dong coal mine and Il-Gwang gold mine were examined by conducting batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). Batch experiments with Young-Dong coal mine samples showed least SO42- production in presence of KMnO4 (16% sulfate production compared to no surface coating agents) or cement (4%) within 8 days. In the case of Il-Gwang mine samples, least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) within 8 days. Field-scale pilot tests at Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased sulfate production from 200 to

  15. Nitric oxide inhibits falcipain, the Plasmodium falciparum trophozoite cysteine protease.

    PubMed

    Venturini, G; Colasanti, M; Salvati, L; Gradoni, L; Ascenzi, P

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a pluripotent regulatory molecule possessing, among others, an antiparasitic activity. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of NO on the catalytic activity of falcipain, the papain-like cysteine protease involved in Plasmodium falciparum trophozoite hemoglobin degradation, is reported. In particular, NO donors S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), (+/-)-(E)-p6ethyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-3-hexenami de (NOR-3), 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) inhibit dose-dependently the falcipain activity present in the P. falciparum trophozoite extract, this effect likely attributable to S-nitrosylation of the Cys25 catalytic residue. The results represent a new insight into the modulation mechanism of falcipain activity, thereby being relevant in developing new strategies for inhibition of the P. falciparum life cycle. PMID:10623597

  16. Design and Development for Capacitive Humidity Sensor Applications of Lead-Free Ca,Mg,Fe,Ti-Oxides-Based Electro-Ceramics with Improved Sensing Properties via Physisorption.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Ashis; Pramanik, Sumit; Manna, Ayan; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Azrin Shah, Nabila Farhana; Radzi, Zamri; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2016-01-01

    Despite the many attractive potential uses of ceramic materials as humidity sensors, some unavoidable drawbacks, including toxicity, poor biocompatibility, long response and recovery times, low sensitivity and high hysteresis have stymied the use of these materials in advanced applications. Therefore, in present investigation, we developed a capacitive humidity sensor using lead-free Ca,Mg,Fe,Ti-Oxide (CMFTO)-based electro-ceramics with perovskite structures synthesized by solid-state step-sintering. This technique helps maintain the submicron size porous morphology of the developed lead-free CMFTO electro-ceramics while providing enhanced water physisorption behaviour. In comparison with conventional capacitive humidity sensors, the presented CMFTO-based humidity sensor shows a high sensitivity of up to 3000% compared to other materials, even at lower signal frequency. The best also shows a rapid response (14.5 s) and recovery (34.27 s), and very low hysteresis (3.2%) in a 33%-95% relative humidity range which are much lower values than those of existing conventional sensors. Therefore, CMFTO nano-electro-ceramics appear to be very promising materials for fabricating high-performance capacitive humidity sensors. PMID:27455263

  17. Design and Development for Capacitive Humidity Sensor Applications of Lead-Free Ca,Mg,Fe,Ti-Oxides-Based Electro-Ceramics with Improved Sensing Properties via Physisorption

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Ashis; Pramanik, Sumit; Manna, Ayan; Bhuyan, Satyanarayan; Azrin Shah, Nabila Farhana; Radzi, Zamri; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2016-01-01

    Despite the many attractive potential uses of ceramic materials as humidity sensors, some unavoidable drawbacks, including toxicity, poor biocompatibility, long response and recovery times, low sensitivity and high hysteresis have stymied the use of these materials in advanced applications. Therefore, in present investigation, we developed a capacitive humidity sensor using lead-free Ca,Mg,Fe,Ti-Oxide (CMFTO)-based electro-ceramics with perovskite structures synthesized by solid-state step-sintering. This technique helps maintain the submicron size porous morphology of the developed lead-free CMFTO electro-ceramics while providing enhanced water physisorption behaviour. In comparison with conventional capacitive humidity sensors, the presented CMFTO-based humidity sensor shows a high sensitivity of up to 3000% compared to other materials, even at lower signal frequency. The best also shows a rapid response (14.5 s) and recovery (34.27 s), and very low hysteresis (3.2%) in a 33%–95% relative humidity range which are much lower values than those of existing conventional sensors. Therefore, CMFTO nano-electro-ceramics appear to be very promising materials for fabricating high-performance capacitive humidity sensors. PMID:27455263

  18. Cyclooxygenase-inhibiting nitric oxide donators for osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Wallace, John L; Viappiani, Serena; Bolla, Manlio

    2009-03-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) remain the most commonly used medications for the treatment of the symptoms of many chronic inflammatory diseases, including osteoarthritis. Unfortunately, the toxicity of NSAIDs substantially limits their long-term use. Some newer NSAIDs, namely selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors, exhibit greater gastrointestinal safety, and concomitant use of anti-secretory drugs can also reduce NSAID-induced gastropathy. However, NSAIDs also adversely affect the cardiovascular system. A new class of anti-inflammatory drugs, COX-inhibiting nitric oxide donators (CINODs), has been designed to exert similar anti-inflammatory effects as NSAIDs, but with an improved safety profile. CINODs release nitric oxide, providing protective effects in the gastrointestinal tract and attenuating the detrimental effects on blood pressure normally associated with NSAIDs. We provide an outline of the rationale for CINODs and their activity, in addition to an overview of the pre-clinical and clinical profile of the most advanced CINOD, naproxcinod. PMID:19230986

  19. Reduction method of gate-to-drain capacitance by oxide spacer formation in tunnel field-effect transistor with elevated drain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Dae Woong; Kim, Jang Hyun; Park, Euyhwan; Lee, Junil; Park, Taehyung; Lee, Ryoongbin; Kim, Sihyun; Park, Byung-Gook

    2016-06-01

    A novel fabrication method is proposed to reduce large gate-to-drain capacitance (C GD) and to improve AC switching characteristics in tunnel field-effect transistor (TFETs) with elevated drain (TFETED). In the proposed method, gate oxide at drain region (GDOX) is selectively formed through oxide deposition and spacer-etch process. Furthermore, the thicknesses of the GDOX are simply controlled by the amount of the oxide deposition and etch. Mixed-mode device and circuit technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulations are performed to verify the effects of the GDOX thickness on DC and AC switching characteristics of a TFETED inverter. As a result, it is found that AC switching characteristics such as output voltage pre-shoot and falling/rising delay are improved with nearly unchanged DC characteristics by thicker GDOX. This improvement is explained successfully by reduced C GD and positive shifted gate voltage (V G) versus C GD curves with the thicker GDOX.

  20. Capacitive and oxidant generating properties of black-colored TiO2 nanotube array fabricated by electrochemical self-doping.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choonsoo; Kim, Seonghwan; Lee, Jaehan; Kim, Jiye; Yoon, Jeyong

    2015-04-15

    Recently, black-colored TiO2 NTA (denoted as black TiO2 NTA) fabricated by self-doping of TiO2 NTA with the amorphous phase led to significant success as a visible-light-active photocatalyst. This enhanced photocatalytic activity is largely attributed to a higher charge carrier density as an effect of electrochemical self-doping resulting in a higher optical absorbance and lower transport resistance. Nevertheless, the potential of black TiO2 NTA for other electrochemical applications, such as a supercapacitor and an oxidant-generating anode, has not been fully investigated. Here, we report the capacitive and oxidant generating properties of black TiO2 NTA. The black TiO2 NTA exhibited significantly a high value for areal capacitance with a good rate capability and novel electrocatalytic activity in generating (•)OHs and Cl2 compared to pristine TiO2 NTA with the anatase phase. This study suggests that the black TiO2 NTA be applied as a supercapacitor and an oxidant generating anode. PMID:25793300

  1. Rutin inhibits amylin-induced neurocytotoxicity and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Lin; Li, Ya-Nan; Zhang, He; Su, Ya-Jing; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Zi-Ping; Wang, Shao-Wei; Xu, Peng-Xin; Wang, Yu-Jiong; Liu, Rui-Tian

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence showed that amylin deposition is not only found in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, but also in other peripheral organs, such as kidneys, heart and brain. Circulating amylin oligomers that cross the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the brain may be an important contributor to diabetic cerebral injury and neurodegeneration. Moreover, increasing epidemiological studies indicate that there is a significant association between T2DM and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amylin and β-amyloid (Aβ) may share common pathophysiology and show strikingly similar neurotoxicity profiles in the brain. To explore the potential effects of rutin on AD, we here investigated the effect of rutin on amylin aggregation by thioflavin T dyeing, evaluated the effect of rutin on amylin-induced neurocytotoxicity by the MTT assay, and assessed oxidative stress, as well as the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in neuronal cells. Our results showed that the flavonoid antioxidant rutin inhibited amylin-induced neurocytotoxicity, decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), NO, glutathione disulfide (GSSG), malondialdehyde (MDA) and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, attenuated mitochondrial damage and increased the GSH/GSSG ratio. These protective effects of rutin may have resulted from its ability to inhibit amylin aggregation, enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduce inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity. These in vitro results indicate that rutin is a promising natural product for protecting neuronal cells from amylin-induced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress, and rutin administration could be a feasible therapeutic strategy for preventing AD development and protecting the aging brain or slowing neurodegenerative processes. PMID:26242245

  2. Inhibition of transcription by oxidative DNA damage products

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, S.; Reines, D.; Doetsch, P.W. )

    1991-03-11

    Thymine glycol is a major oxidative DNA base damage product that can be produced spontaneously in normal cells or by certain chemicals and ionizing radiation. This lesion as well as other oxidatively damaged bases are recognized and removed in eukaryotic cells by the DNA repair enzyme redoxyendonuclease which the authors have identified in a variety of cell types. Transcriptional regulation is a key element in the control of gene expression. Deficiencies in the various steps of transcription of an essential gene may have catastrophic effects for a cell. In terminally differentiated cells, the removal of RNA-polymerase blocking lesions could be viewed as a critical function for DNA repair systems in such cells. Very little information exists on the effects of oxidative base damage products on the process of transcription. The authors show here that thymine glycol containing DNA templates can inhibit transcriptional elongation when these lesions are chemically introduced into a DNA template. A DNA segment containing a region of the human H3.3 histone gene was utilized to determine the effects of oxidative DNA base damage on transcription by pure E. coli core RNA polymerase and rat liver RNA polymerase II. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic RNA polymerases are blocked by the presence of thymine glycols appearing in certain clusters of thymines in the oxidatively damaged transcription template. To obtain quantitative efficiencies of transcriptional arrest, the authors are engineering a DNA template containing a single defined oxidatively damaged residue. The authors' results support the idea that an important function of DNA repair systems in terminally differentiated cells is to ensure the efficient transcription of genes necessary for normal cellular function.

  3. Cloricromene inhibits the induction of nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Zingarelli, B; Carnuccio, R; Di Rosa, M

    1993-10-19

    The effect of cloricromene, a coumarin derivative, was investigated on the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) synthase induction in intact aortas from endotoxin shocked rats and in the murine macrophage cell line J774. Rings of thoracic aortas from lipopolysaccharide (4 mg/kg, i.v.)-shocked rats, contracted with phenylephrine, showed a progressive decrease in tone, that was of a greater magnitude than that of aortas from naive rats. Moreover, a decreased response to the constrictor effect of phenylephrine was observed in aortas from shocked rats. In vivo treatment with cloricromene (2 mg/kg, i.v.) 30 min before lipopolysaccharide administration partially prevented the loss in tone of aortic rings and improved their reactivity to phenylephrine. Murine J774 macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide (100 ng/ml) produced significant amounts of nitrites (NO2-; 28.2 +/- 3.5 nmol/10(6) cells per 24 h). Cloricromene (2, 20 or 200 microM) added to the cells concomitantly with lipopolysaccharide inhibited NO2- production in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum inhibition (84.0 +/- 8.0%) was observed when cloricromene (200 microM) was added to the cells 6 h before lipopolysaccharide, whereas it was ineffective when given 6 h after endotoxin. These results demonstrate that cloricromene inhibits the expression but not the activity of the inducible NO synthase. PMID:7506214

  4. Oxidative Tea Polyphenols Greatly Inhibit the Absorption of Atenolol

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Yun; Zhang, Mengmeng; Wang, Tengfei; Huang, Qin; Yin, Dan; Xiang, Zemin; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative tea polyphenols (OTPs) is the oxidative polymerization product of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) forms during the process of Pu-er tea fermentation, and possesses absorption property, which may absorbs on drugs thus impact the drug bioavailability when taking medicines with Pu-er tea. Here we demonstrated that OTP inhibited the absorption of atenolol in the intestine, which was determined by testing atenolol levels of plasma via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After administration of atenolol (50 mg/kg), atenolol was absorbed (Tmax: 1.867 h) with the half-life (t1/2) of 6.663 h in control group; Compared with atenolol group, AUC0-t (h*ng/ml), AUC0-∞(h∗ng/ml), and Cmax of OTP+atenolol group (OTP 500 mg/kg + atenolol 50 mg/kg) reduced 38.7, 27, and 51%, respectively, the atenolol concentration of plasma was reduced by OTP approximately 43, 49, and 55.5% at 30 min, 1 and 2 h, respectively, (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the level of atenolol in feces was higher in the OTP+atenolol group, indicating that the absorption of atenolol in rats was inhibited by OTP. Isothermal titration calorimetry assay identified that EGCG can bind to atenolol and the in vitro results showed that OTP absorbed on atenolol and formed precipitate in acid condition, demonstrating a significant positive relationship between atenolol levels and OTP dosage. Taken together, these results suggested that consuming Pu-er tea with atenolol might inhibit atenolol absorption and possible other drugs. PMID:27445825

  5. Capacitive Extensometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perusek, Gail P. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides for measurements of the principal strain magnitudes and directions, and maximum shear strain that occurs in a porous specimen, such as plastic, ceramic or porous metal, when it is loaded (or subjected to a load). In one embodiment the invention includes a capacitive delta extensometer arranged with six sensors in a three piece configuration, with each sensor of each pair spaced apart from each other by a predetermined angle, such as 120 degrees.

  6. p46Shc Inhibits Thiolase and Lipid Oxidation in Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Tomilov, Alexey; Tomilova, Natalia; Shan, Yuxi; Hagopian, Kevork; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Kim, Kyoungmi; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Haj, Fawaz; Ramsey, Jon; Cortopassi, Gino

    2016-06-10

    Although the p46Shc isoform has been known to be mitochondrially localized for 11 years, its function in mitochondria has been a mystery. We confirmed p46Shc to be mitochondrially localized and showed that the major mitochondrial partner of p46Shc is the lipid oxidation enzyme 3-ketoacylCoA thiolase ACAA2, to which p46Shc binds directly and with a strong affinity. Increasing p46Shc expression inhibits, and decreasing p46Shc stimulates enzymatic activity of thiolase in vitro Thus, we suggest p46Shc to be a negative mitochondrial thiolase activity regulator, and reduction of p46Shc expression activates thiolase. This is the first demonstration of a protein that directly binds and controls thiolase activity. Thiolase was thought previously only to be regulated by metabolite balance and steady-state flux control. Thiolase is the last enzyme of the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation spiral, and thus is important for energy metabolism. Mice with reduction of p46Shc are lean, resist obesity, have higher lipid oxidation capacity, and increased thiolase activity. The thiolase-p46Shc connection shown here in vitro and in organello may be an important underlying mechanism explaining the metabolic phenotype of Shc-depleted mice in vivo. PMID:27059956

  7. Difference in chemical reactions in bulk plasma and sheath regions during surface modification of graphene oxide film using capacitively coupled NH3 plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Youp; Kim, Chan; Kim, Hong Tak

    2015-09-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) films were obtained from capacitively coupled NH3 plasma treatment of spin-coated graphene oxide (GO) films at room temperature. Variations were evaluated according to the two plasma treatment regions: the bulk plasma region (Rbulk) and the sheath region (Rsheath). Reduction and nitridation of the GO films began as soon as the NH3 plasma was exposed to both regions. However, with the increase in treatment time, the reduction and nitridation reactions differed in each region. In the Rbulk, NH3 plasma ions reacted chemically with oxygen functional groups on the GO films, which was highly effective for reduction and nitridation. While in the Rsheath, physical reactions by ion bombardment were dominant because plasma ions were accelerated by the strong electrical field. The accelerated plasma ions reacted not only with the oxygen functional groups but also with the broken carbon chains, which caused the removal of the GO films by the formation of hydrocarbon gas species. These results showed that reduction and nitridation in the Rbulk using capacitively coupled NH3 plasma were very effective for modifying the properties of r-GO films for application as transparent conductive films.

  8. Difference in chemical reactions in bulk plasma and sheath regions during surface modification of graphene oxide film using capacitively coupled NH{sub 3} plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sung-Youp; Kim, Chan; Kim, Hong Tak

    2015-09-14

    Reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) films were obtained from capacitively coupled NH{sub 3} plasma treatment of spin-coated graphene oxide (GO) films at room temperature. Variations were evaluated according to the two plasma treatment regions: the bulk plasma region (R{sub bulk}) and the sheath region (R{sub sheath}). Reduction and nitridation of the GO films began as soon as the NH{sub 3} plasma was exposed to both regions. However, with the increase in treatment time, the reduction and nitridation reactions differed in each region. In the R{sub bulk}, NH{sub 3} plasma ions reacted chemically with oxygen functional groups on the GO films, which was highly effective for reduction and nitridation. While in the R{sub sheath}, physical reactions by ion bombardment were dominant because plasma ions were accelerated by the strong electrical field. The accelerated plasma ions reacted not only with the oxygen functional groups but also with the broken carbon chains, which caused the removal of the GO films by the formation of hydrocarbon gas species. These results showed that reduction and nitridation in the R{sub bulk} using capacitively coupled NH{sub 3} plasma were very effective for modifying the properties of r-GO films for application as transparent conductive films.

  9. Production of high-density capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge plasma by high-secondary-electron-emission oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtsu, Yasunori; Fujita, Hiroharu

    2004-11-22

    High-density capacitively coupled radio-frequency plasma with electron density n{sub e}>10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} was produced using MgO electrodes with a high secondary-electron-emission coefficient. It was found that in the case of MgO electrodes, both plasma density and optical emission intensity were about one order of magnitude higher than those in the case of Al electrodes.

  10. Copper oxide nanoparticles inhibit the metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mashock, Michael J; Kappell, Anthony D; Hallaj, Nadia; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2016-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are used increasingly in industrial applications and consumer products and thus may pose risk to human and environmental health. The interaction of CuO NPs with complex media and the impact on cell metabolism when exposed to sublethal concentrations are largely unknown. In the present study, the short-term effects of 2 different sized manufactured CuO NPs on metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. The role of released Cu(2+) during dissolution of NPs in the growth media and the CuO nanostructure were considered. Characterization showed that the 28 nm and 64 nm CuO NPs used in the present study have different primary diameter, similar hydrodynamic diameter, and significantly different concentrations of dissolved Cu(2+) ions in the growth media released from the same initial NP mass. Exposures to CuO NPs or the released Cu(2+) fraction, at doses that do not have impact on cell viability, showed significant inhibition on S. cerevisiae cellular metabolic activity. A greater CuO NP effect on the metabolic activity of S. cerevisiae growth under respiring conditions was observed. Under the tested conditions the observed metabolic inhibition from the NPs was not explained fully by the released Cu ions from the dissolving NPs. PMID:26178758

  11. Oxidative stress of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy inhibits Candida albicans virulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Ilka Tiemy; Prates, Renato Araujo; Tegos, George P.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Simões Ribeiro, Martha

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is based on the principal that microorganisms will be inactivated using a light source combined to a photosensitizing agent in the presence of oxygen. Oxidative damage of cell components occurs by the action of reactive oxygen species leading to cell death for microbial species. It has been demonstrated that PACT is highly efficient in vitro against a wide range of pathogens, however, there is limited information for its in vivo potential. In addition, it has been demonstrated that sublethal photodynamic inactivation may alter the virulence determinants of microorganisms. In this study, we explored the effect of sublethal photodynamic inactivation to the virulence factors of Candida albicans. Methylene Blue (MB) was used as photosensitizer for sublethal photodynamic challenge on C. albicans associated with a diode laser irradiation (λ=660nm). The parameters of irradiation were selected in causing no reduction of viable cells. The potential effects of PACT on virulence determinants of C. albicans cells were investigated by analysis of germ tube formation and in vivo pathogenicity assays. Systemic infection was induced in mice by the injection of fungal suspension in the lateral caudal vein. C. albicans exposed to sublethal photodynamic inactivation formed significantly less germ tube than untreated cells. In addition, mice infected with C. albicans submitted to sublethal PACT survived for a longer period of time than mice infected with untreated cells. The oxidative damage promoted by sublethal photodynamic inactivation inhibited virulence determinants and reduced in vivo pathogenicity of C. albicans.

  12. Contact resistance and overlapping capacitance in flexible sub-micron long oxide thin-film transistors for above 100 MHz operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münzenrieder, Niko; Salvatore, Giovanni A.; Petti, Luisa; Zysset, Christoph; Büthe, Lars; Vogt, Christian; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Tröster, Gerhard

    2014-12-01

    In recent years new forms of electronic devices such as electronic papers, flexible displays, epidermal sensors, and smart textiles have become reality. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the basic blocks of the circuits used in such devices and need to operate above 100 MHz to efficiently treat signals in RF systems and address pixels in high resolution displays. Beyond the choice of the semiconductor, i.e., silicon, graphene, organics, or amorphous oxides, the junctionless nature of TFTs and its geometry imply some limitations which become evident and important in devices with scaled channel length. Furthermore, the mechanical instability of flexible substrates limits the feature size of flexible TFTs. Contact resistance and overlapping capacitance are two parasitic effects which limit the transit frequency of transistors. They are often considered independent, while a deeper analysis of TFTs geometry imposes to handle them together; in fact, they both depend on the overlapping length (LOV) between source/drain and the gate contacts. Here, we conduct a quantitative analysis based on a large number of flexible ultra-scaled IGZO TFTs. Devices with three different values of overlap length and channel length down to 0.5 μm are fabricated to experimentally investigate the scaling behavior of the transit frequency. Contact resistance and overlapping capacitance depend in opposite ways on LOV. These findings establish routes for the optimization of the dimension of source/drain contact pads and suggest design guidelines to achieve megahertz operation in flexible IGZO TFTs and circuits.

  13. Total dose dependence of oxide charge, interstrip capacitance and breakdown behavior of sLHC prototype silicon strip detectors and test structures of the SMART collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Betancourt, C.; Heffern, R.; Henderson, I.; Pixley, J.; Polyakov, A.; Wilder, M.; Boscardin, M.; Piemonte, C.; Pozza, A.; Zorzi, N.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Resta, G.; Bruzzi, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Borrello, L.; Messineo, A.; Creanza, D.; Manna, N.

    2007-09-01

    Within the R&D Program for the luminosity upgrade proposed for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), silicon strip detectors (SSD) and test structures (TS) were manufactured on several high-resistivity substrates: p-type Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) and Float Zone (FZ), and n-type FZ. To test total dose (TID) effects they were irradiated with 60Co gammas and the impact of surface radiation damage on the detector properties was studied. Selected results from the pre-rad and post-rad characterization of detectors and TS are presented, in particular interstrip capacitance and resistance, break-down voltage, flatband voltage and oxide charge. Surface damage effects show saturation after 150 krad and breakdown performance improves considerably after 210 krad. Annealing was performed both at room temperature and at 60 °C, and large effects on the surface parameters observed.

  14. INHIBITION OF ARM REGENERATION BY 'OPHIODERMA BREVISPINA' (ECHINODERMATA, OPHIUROIDEA) BY TRIBUTYLIN OXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tributyltinoxide (TBTO) and triphenyltin oxide (TPTO) inhibited regeneration of arms of the brittle star, Ophioderma brevispina, at low concentrations. Statistically significant inhibition of growth was caused by 0.1 micrograms/l of both compounds, and inhibition was indicated in...

  15. NiCo2S4 nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide sheets: In-situ synthesis and enhanced capacitive performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongchun; Ji, Xuan; Han, Jie; Hu, Yimin; Guo, Rong

    2016-09-01

    A facile hydrothermal process is developed for the synthesis of NiCo2S4/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hybrid and NiCo2S4 hollow spheres. The morphology and microstructure are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) mapping. NiCo2S4 nanoparticles with the diameter of about 20-30nm were in-situ grown on RGO sheets. NiCo2S4 hollow spheres were obtained with the diameter of about 300-400nm and the width of shell in the range of 30-40nm in the absence of graphene oxide (GO). GO as a substrate material can offer abundant active sites for nucleation of NiCo2S4 and can be reduced to RGO, providing excellent electron transfer path and high conduction, which enable the fast surface redox reaction. Supercapacitor based on NiCo2S4/RGO hybrid shows a high specific capacitance of 1804.7F/g at a current density of 0.5A/g. Due to the high capacitive performance of NiCo2S4/RGO hybrid, the NiCo2S4/RGO//AC asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) possesses an extended voltage window of 1.5V, high energy density of 24.4Wh/kg at a power density of 750W/kg in 2mol/LKOH electrolyte. NiCo2S4/RGO hybrid can serve as a promising electrode material for high performance supercapacitors. PMID:27240243

  16. Inhibition of methane oxidation by Methylococcus capsulatus with hydrochlorofluorocarbons and fluorinated methanes

    SciTech Connect

    Matheson, L.J.; Oremland, R.S.; Jahnke, L.L.

    1997-07-01

    Concerns about stratospheric ozone and global warming have focused some inquiries upon the microbial degradation of some atmospheric halocarbons. Little is known about the interaction of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). This study examines possible interactions, including the inhibition of methane oxidation by chlorinated solvents, whether oxidation products formed may have inhibitory effects of their own, and whether other fluorinated methanes inhibit methane oxidation by whole cells. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Propionate Oxidation by and Methanol Inhibition of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Güven, Didem; Dapena, Ana; Kartal, Boran; Schmid, Markus C.; Maas, Bart; van de Pas-Schoonen, Katinka; Sozen, Seval; Mendez, Ramon; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Strous, Marc; Schmidt, Ingo

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a recently discovered microbial pathway and a cost-effective way to remove ammonium from wastewater. Anammox bacteria have been described as obligate chemolithoautotrophs. However, many chemolithoautotrophs (i.e., nitrifiers) can use organic compounds as a supplementary carbon source. In this study, the effect of organic compounds on anammox bacteria was investigated. It was shown that alcohols inhibited anammox bacteria, while organic acids were converted by them. Methanol was the most potent inhibitor, leading to complete and irreversible loss of activity at concentrations as low as 0.5 mM. Of the organic acids acetate and propionate, propionate was consumed at a higher rate (0.8 nmol min−1 mg of protein−1) by Percoll-purified anammox cells. Glucose, formate, and alanine had no effect on the anammox process. It was shown that propionate was oxidized mainly to CO2, with nitrate and/or nitrite as the electron acceptor. The anammox bacteria carried out propionate oxidation simultaneously with anaerobic ammonium oxidation. In an anammox enrichment culture fed with propionate for 150 days, the relative amounts of anammox cells and denitrifiers did not change significantly over time, indicating that anammox bacteria could compete successfully with heterotrophic denitrifiers for propionate. In conclusion, this study shows that anammox bacteria have a more versatile metabolism than previously assumed. PMID:15691967

  18. Redox regulation of mammalian sperm capacitation

    PubMed Central

    O’Flaherty, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Capacitation is a series of morphological and metabolic changes necessary for the spermatozoon to achieve fertilizing ability. One of the earlier happenings during mammalian sperm capacitation is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that will trigger and regulate a series of events including protein phosphorylation, in a time-dependent fashion. The identity of the sperm oxidase responsible for the production of ROS involved in capacitation is still elusive, and several candidates are discussed in this review. Interestingly, ROS-induced ROS formation has been described during human sperm capacitation. Redox signaling during capacitation is associated with changes in thiol groups of proteins located on the plasma membrane and subcellular compartments of the spermatozoon. Both, oxidation of thiols forming disulfide bridges and the increase on thiol content are necessary to regulate different sperm proteins associated with capacitation. Reducing equivalents such as NADH and NADPH are necessary to support capacitation in many species including humans. Lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phospohate dehydrogenase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase are responsible in supplying NAD (P) H for sperm capacitation. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are newly described enzymes with antioxidant properties that can protect mammalian spermatozoa; however, they are also candidates for assuring the regulation of redox signaling required for sperm capacitation. The dysregulation of PRDXs and of enzymes needed for their reactivation such as thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase system and glutathione-S-transferases impairs sperm motility, capacitation, and promotes DNA damage in spermatozoa leading to male infertility. PMID:25926608

  19. Inhibiting the photosensitized oxidation of anthracene and tryptophan by means of natural antioxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksenova, N. A.; Vyzhlova, E. N.; Malinovskaya, V. V.; Parfenov, V. V.; Solov'eva, A. B.; Timashev, P. S.

    2013-08-01

    It is shown that model reactions of photosensitized oxidation of anthracene and tryptophan can be used for evaluation and comparison of antioxidant activity of various classes of compounds. Inhibition of the oxidation of substrates in the presence of the familiar antioxidants tocopherol (vitamin E), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and mixtures of these vitamins with methionine, and in the presence of reputed antioxidants dihydroquercetin and taurine, are considered. It is concluded that all of the above compounds except for taurine have antioxidant properties; i.e., they reduce the rate constants of the photosensitized oxidation of anthracene and tryptophan. It is found that the inhibition of oxidation is associated with the interaction between antioxidants and singlet oxygen. Analysis of the kinetic dependences of the photosensitized oxidation of substrates in the presence of antioxidants reveals that a mixture of vitamins inhibits the process most efficiently, and inhibition occurs at the initial stages due to more active interaction between singlet oxygen and vitamin C

  20. Triazine herbicides inhibit relaxin signaling and disrupt nitric oxide homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Park, Si Eun; Lim, Sa Rang; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Bae, Jeehyeon

    2016-09-15

    Triazines are herbicides that are widely used worldwide, and we previously observed that the maternal exposure of mice to simazine (50 or 500μg/kg) resulted in smaller ovaries and uteri of their female offspring. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism that may account for the reproductive dysfunction induced by simazine. We found that following maternal exposure, simazine is transmitted to the offspring, as evidenced by its presence in the offspring ovaries. Analyses of the simazine-exposed offspring revealed that the expression of the relaxin hormone receptor, relaxin-family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), prominently decreased in their ovaries and uteri. In addition, downstream target genes of the relaxin pathway including nitric oxide (NO) synthase 2 (Nos2), Nos3, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (Mmp9), and vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) were downregulated in their ovaries. Moreover, AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) levels and their phosphorylated active forms decreased in simazine-exposed ovaries. In vitro exposure of the human ovarian granulosa cells (KGN) and uterine endometrium cells (Hec-1A) to very low concentrations (0.001 to 1nM) of triazines including atrazine, terbuthylazine, and propazine repressed NO production with a concurrent reduction in RXFP1, NOS2, and NOS3. The inhibitory action of triazines on NO release was dependent on RXFP1, phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT, and ERK. Radioligand-binding assay also confirmed that triazines competitively inhibited the binding of relaxin to its receptor. Therefore, the present study suggests that triazine herbicides act as endocrine disrupters by interfering with relaxin hormone signaling. Thus, further evaluation of their impact on human health is imperative. PMID:27431321

  1. Contact resistance and overlapping capacitance in flexible sub-micron long oxide thin-film transistors for above 100 MHz operation

    SciTech Connect

    Münzenrieder, Niko Salvatore, Giovanni A.; Petti, Luisa; Zysset, Christoph; Büthe, Lars; Vogt, Christian; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Tröster, Gerhard

    2014-12-29

    In recent years new forms of electronic devices such as electronic papers, flexible displays, epidermal sensors, and smart textiles have become reality. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) are the basic blocks of the circuits used in such devices and need to operate above 100 MHz to efficiently treat signals in RF systems and address pixels in high resolution displays. Beyond the choice of the semiconductor, i.e., silicon, graphene, organics, or amorphous oxides, the junctionless nature of TFTs and its geometry imply some limitations which become evident and important in devices with scaled channel length. Furthermore, the mechanical instability of flexible substrates limits the feature size of flexible TFTs. Contact resistance and overlapping capacitance are two parasitic effects which limit the transit frequency of transistors. They are often considered independent, while a deeper analysis of TFTs geometry imposes to handle them together; in fact, they both depend on the overlapping length (L{sub OV}) between source/drain and the gate contacts. Here, we conduct a quantitative analysis based on a large number of flexible ultra-scaled IGZO TFTs. Devices with three different values of overlap length and channel length down to 0.5 μm are fabricated to experimentally investigate the scaling behavior of the transit frequency. Contact resistance and overlapping capacitance depend in opposite ways on L{sub OV}. These findings establish routes for the optimization of the dimension of source/drain contact pads and suggest design guidelines to achieve megahertz operation in flexible IGZO TFTs and circuits.

  2. Nitric oxide inhibits calpain-mediated proteolysis of talin in skeletal muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koh, T. J.; Tidball, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide can inhibit cytoskeletal breakdown in skeletal muscle cells by inhibiting calpain cleavage of talin. The nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside prevented many of the effects of calcium ionophore on C(2)C(12) muscle cells, including preventing talin proteolysis and release into the cytosol and reducing loss of vinculin, cell detachment, and loss of cellular protein. These results indicate that nitric oxide inhibition of calpain protected the cells from ionophore-induced proteolysis. Calpain inhibitor I and a cell-permeable calpastatin peptide also protected the cells from proteolysis, confirming that ionophore-induced proteolysis was primarily calpain mediated. The activity of m-calpain in a casein zymogram was inhibited by sodium nitroprusside, and this inhibition was reversed by dithiothreitol. Previous incubation with the active site-targeted calpain inhibitor I prevented most of the sodium nitroprusside-induced inhibition of m-calpain activity. These data suggest that nitric oxide inhibited m-calpain activity via S-nitrosylation of the active site cysteine. The results of this study indicate that nitric oxide produced endogenously by skeletal muscle and other cell types has the potential to inhibit m-calpain activity and cytoskeletal proteolysis.

  3. Fabrication of dynamic oxide semiconductor random access memory with 3.9 fF storage capacitance and greater than 1 h retention by using c-axis aligned crystalline oxide semiconductor transistor with L of 60 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuki, Tatsuya; Kato, Kiyoshi; Nomura, Masumi; Yakubo, Yuto; Nagatsuka, Shuhei; Matsuzaki, Takanori; Hondo, Suguru; Hata, Yuki; Okazaki, Yutaka; Nagai, Masaharu; Atsumi, Tomoaki; Sakakura, Masayuki; Okuda, Takashi; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Yamazaki, Shunpei

    2015-04-01

    A dynamic oxide semiconductor random access memory (DOSRAM) array that achieves reduction in storage capacitance (Cs) and decrease in refresh rate has been fabricated by using a c-axis aligned crystalline oxide semiconductor (CAAC-OS) transistor (L = 60 nm) with an extremely low off-state current. We have confirmed that this array, composed of cells that include a CAAC-OS transistor with W/L = 40 nm/60 nm using InGaZnO and a 3.9 fF storage capacitor, operates with write and read times of 5 ns. Therefore, DOSRAM can ensure sufficient Cs while maintaining operation speed comparable to that of dynamic random access memory (DRAM). We have found that the read signal voltage of DOSRAM is changed by approximately 30 mV after 1 h at 85 °C. Thus, DOSRAM is a promising replacement for DRAM.

  4. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition and oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases: possible therapeutic targets?

    PubMed

    Rochette, Luc; Lorin, Julie; Zeller, Marianne; Guilland, Jean-Claude; Lorgis, Luc; Cottin, Yves; Vergely, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is synthetized enzymatically from l-arginine (l-Arg) by three NO synthase isoforms, iNOS, eNOS and nNOS. The synthesis of NO is selectively inhibited by guanidino-substituted analogs of l-Arg or methylarginines such as asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), which results from protein degradation in cells. Many disease states, including cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, are associated with increased plasma levels of ADMA. The N-terminal catalytic domain of these NOS isoforms binds the heme prosthetic group as well as the redox cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) associated with a regulatory protein, calmodulin (CaM). The enzymatic activity of NOS depends on substrate and cofactor availability. The importance of BH(4) as a critical regulator of eNOS function suggests that BH(4) may be a rational therapeutic target in vascular disease states. BH(4) oxidation appears to be a major contributor to vascular dysfunction associated with hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes and other cardiovascular diseases as it leads to the increased formation of oxygen-derived radicals due to NOS uncoupling rather than NO. Accordingly, abnormalities in vascular NO production and transport result in endothelial dysfunction leading to various cardiovascular disorders. However, some disorders including a wide range of functions in the neuronal, immune and cardiovascular system were associated with the over-production of NO. Inhibition of the enzyme should be a useful approach to treat these pathologies. Therefore, it appears that both a lack and excess of NO production in diseases can have various important pathological implications. In this context, NOS modulators (exogenous and endogenous) and their therapeutic effects are discussed. PMID:23859953

  5. Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Onysko, S.J.; Kleinmann, R.L.P.; Erickson, P.M.

    1984-07-01

    Thiobacillus ferrooxidans promote indirect oxidation of pyrite through the catalysis of the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron, which is an effective oxidant of pyrite. These bacteria also may catalyze direct oxidation of pyrite by oxygen. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous iron to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage microorganisms. In this study, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds.

  6. Intensification of chemiluminescence in the inhibited oxidation of oils

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolayevskii, A.N.; Filippenko, T.A.; Sergovskaya, T.S.

    1982-01-01

    Chemiluminescence is intensified upon the addition of inhibitors (phloroglucinol, p-phenylenediamine, hydroquinone) to oxidized sunflower oil. The formation of a further source of chemiluminescence is explained by reactions of the oxidized oil and the inhibitors. Oxidation initiated by azoisobutyronitrile of sunflower oil using atmospheric oxygen was performed at 70/sup 0/C in chlorobenzene solution; 9,10-dibromoanthracene was the luminescence activator. 4 figures.

  7. Counteracting oxidative phosphorylation-mediated resistance of melanomas to MAPK pathway inhibition.

    PubMed

    McQuade, Jennifer L; Vashisht Gopal, Yn

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) induces resistance to MAPK pathway inhibitors in melanoma. However, therapeutic targeting of mitochondria is challenging. In a recent study, we showed that inhibition of mTOR kinase activity resensitized resistant melanomas by indirectly inhibiting OxPhos via a novel mechanism. Here, we discuss the implications of these findings. PMID:27308473

  8. Counteracting oxidative phosphorylation-mediated resistance of melanomas to MAPK pathway inhibition

    PubMed Central

    McQuade, Jennifer L; Vashisht Gopal, Yn

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) induces resistance to MAPK pathway inhibitors in melanoma. However, therapeutic targeting of mitochondria is challenging. In a recent study, we showed that inhibition of mTOR kinase activity resensitized resistant melanomas by indirectly inhibiting OxPhos via a novel mechanism. Here, we discuss the implications of these findings. PMID:27308473

  9. Hibiscus anthocyanins-rich extract inhibited LDL oxidation and oxLDL-mediated macrophages apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yun-Ching; Huang, Kai-Xun; Huang, An-Chung; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2006-07-01

    The oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Anti-oxidative reagents, which can effectively inhibit LDL oxidation, may prevent atherosclerosis via reducing early atherogenesis, and slowing down the progression to advance stages. As shown in previous studies Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a natural plant containing a lot of pigments that was found to possess anti-oxidative of activity. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) by measuring their effects on LDL oxidation (in cell-free system) and anti-apoptotic abilities (in RAW264.7 cells). HAs have been tested in vitro examining their relative electrophoretic mobility (REM), Apo B fragmentation, thiobarbituric acid relative substances (TBARS) and radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay. The anti-oxidative activity of HAs was defined by relative electrophoretic mobility of oxLDL (decrease of 50% at 2 mg/ml), fragmentation of Apo B (inhibition of 61% at 1mg/ml), and TBARS assay (IC(50): 0.46 mg/ml) in the Cu(2+)-mediated oxidize LDL. Furthermore, the addition of >0.1 mg/ml of HAs could scavenge over 95% of free DPPH radicals, HAs showed strong potential in inhibiting LDL oxidation induced by copper. In addition, to determine whether oxLDL-induced apoptosis in macrophages is inhibited by HAs, we studied the viability, morphology and caspase-3 expression of RAW 264.7 cells. MTT assay, Leukostate staining analysis and Western blotting reveals that HAs could inhibit oxLDL-induced apoptosis. According to these findings, we suggest that HAs may be used to inhibit LDL oxidation and oxLDL-mediated macrophage apoptosis, serving as a chemopreventive agent. However, further investigations into the specificity and mechanism(s) of HAs are needed. PMID:16473450

  10. The production of nitric oxide by marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea and inhibition of archaeal ammonia oxidation by a nitric oxide scavenger.

    PubMed

    Martens-Habbena, Willm; Qin, Wei; Horak, Rachel E A; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Schauer, Andrew J; Moffett, James W; Armbrust, E Virginia; Ingalls, Anitra E; Devol, Allan H; Stahl, David A

    2015-07-01

    Nitrification is a critical process for the balance of reduced and oxidized nitrogen pools in nature, linking mineralization to the nitrogen loss processes of denitrification and anammox. Recent studies indicate a significant contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) to nitrification. However, quantification of the relative contributions of AOA and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to in situ ammonia oxidation remains challenging. We show here the production of nitric oxide (NO) by Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1. Activity of SCM1 was always associated with the release of NO with quasi-steady state concentrations between 0.05 and 0.08 μM. NO production and metabolic activity were inhibited by the nitrogen free radical scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5,-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO). Comparison of marine and terrestrial AOB strains with SCM1 and the recently isolated marine AOA strain HCA1 demonstrated a differential sensitivity of AOB and AOA to PTIO and allylthiourea (ATU). Similar to the investigated AOA strains, bulk water column nitrification at coastal and open ocean sites with sub-micromolar ammonia/ammonium concentrations was inhibited by PTIO and insensitive to ATU. These experiments support predictions from kinetic, molecular and biogeochemical studies, indicating that marine nitrification at low ammonia/ammonium concentrations is largely driven by archaea and suggest an important role of NO in the archaeal metabolism. PMID:25420929

  11. Origin and Tunability of Unusually Large Surface Capacitance in Doped Cerium Oxide Studied by Ambient-Pressure X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Chirranjeevi Balaji; Gabaly, Farid El; McDaniel, Anthony H; Chueh, William C

    2016-06-01

    The volumetric redox (chemical) capacitance of the surface of CeO2-δ films is quantified in situ to be 100-fold larger than the bulk values under catalytically relevant conditions. Sm addition slightly lowers the surface oxygen nonstoichiometry, but effects a 10-fold enhancement in surface chemical capacitance by mitigating defect interactions, highlighting the importance of differential nonstoichiometry for catalysis. PMID:27031580

  12. Inhibition of palm oil oxidation by zeolite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Awala, Hussein; Mukti, Rino R; Wong, Ka-Lun; Rigaud, Baptiste; Ling, Tau Chuan; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A; Koleva, Iskra Z; Vayssilov, Georgi N; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-05-13

    The efficiency of zeolite X nanocrystals (FAU-type framework structure) containing different extra-framework cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)) in slowing the thermal oxidation of palm oil is reported. The oxidation study of palm oil is conducted in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals (0.5 wt %) at 150 °C. Several characterization techniques such as visual analysis, colorimetry, rheometry, total acid number (TAN), FT-IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and Karl Fischer analyses are applied to follow the oxidative evolution of the oil. It was found that zeolite nanocrystals decelerate the oxidation of palm oil through stabilization of hydroperoxides, which are the primary oxidation product, and concurrently via adsorption of the secondary oxidation products (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters). In addition to the experimental results, periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to elucidate further the oxidation process of the palm oil in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals. The DFT calculations show that the metal complexes formed with peroxides are more stable than the complexes with alkenes with the same ions. The peroxides captured in the zeolite X nanocrystals consequently decelerate further oxidation toward formation of acids. Unlike the monovalent alkali metal cations in the zeolite X nanocrystals (K(+), Na(+), and Li(+)), Ca(2+) reduced the acidity of the oil by neutralizing the acidic carboxylate compounds to COO(-)(Ca(2+))1/2 species. PMID:25897618

  13. Inhibition of dimethyl ether and methane oxidation in Methylococcus capsulatus and Methylosinus trichosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R; Hou, C T; Felix, A

    1976-01-01

    Metal-chelating or -binding agents inhibited the oxidation of dimethyl ether and methane, but not methanol, by cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus and Methylosinus trichosporium. Evidence suggests that the involvement of metal-containing enzymatic systems in the initial step of oxidation of dimethyl ether and methane. PMID:4428

  14. Determination of active doping in highly resistive boron doped silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 by capacitance voltage measurement on inverted metal oxide semiconductor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tian; Puthen-Veettil, Binesh; Wu, Lingfeng; Jia, Xuguang; Lin, Ziyun; Yang, Terry Chien-Jen; Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the Capacitance-Voltage (CV) measurement to study the electrically active boron doping in Si nanocrystals (ncSi) embedded in SiO2. The ncSi thin films with high resistivity (200-400 Ω cm) can be measured by using an inverted metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) structure (Al/ncSi (B)/SiO2/Si). This device structure eliminates the complications from the effects of lateral current flow and the high sheet resistance in standard lateral MOS structures. The characteristic MOS CV curves observed are consistent with the effective p-type doping. The CV modeling method is presented and used to evaluate the electrically active doping concentration. We find that the highly boron doped ncSi films have electrically active doping of 1018-1019 cm-3 despite their high resistivity. The saturation of doping at about 1.4 × 1019 cm-3 and the low doping efficiency less than 5% are observed and discussed. The calculated effective mobility is in the order of 10-3 cm2/V s, indicating strong impurity/defect scattering effect that hinders carriers transport.

  15. Determination of active doping in highly resistive boron doped silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2} by capacitance voltage measurement on inverted metal oxide semiconductor structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Tian Puthen-Veettil, Binesh; Wu, Lingfeng; Jia, Xuguang; Lin, Ziyun; Yang, Terry Chien-Jen; Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan

    2015-10-21

    We investigate the Capacitance-Voltage (CV) measurement to study the electrically active boron doping in Si nanocrystals (ncSi) embedded in SiO{sub 2}. The ncSi thin films with high resistivity (200–400 Ω cm) can be measured by using an inverted metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) structure (Al/ncSi (B)/SiO{sub 2}/Si). This device structure eliminates the complications from the effects of lateral current flow and the high sheet resistance in standard lateral MOS structures. The characteristic MOS CV curves observed are consistent with the effective p-type doping. The CV modeling method is presented and used to evaluate the electrically active doping concentration. We find that the highly boron doped ncSi films have electrically active doping of 10{sup 18}–10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} despite their high resistivity. The saturation of doping at about 1.4 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} and the low doping efficiency less than 5% are observed and discussed. The calculated effective mobility is in the order of 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V s, indicating strong impurity/defect scattering effect that hinders carriers transport.

  16. A Comparison of the Effects of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition on Cartilage Damage

    PubMed Central

    Gokay, Nevzat Selim; Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Demiroz, Ahu Senem; Gokce, Alper; Dervisoglu, Sergülen; Gokay, Banu Vural

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cartilage regeneration. The study involved 27 Wistar rats that were divided into five groups. On Day 1, both knees of 3 rats were resected and placed in a formalin solution as a control group. The remaining 24 rats were separated into 4 groups, and their right knees were surgically damaged. Depending on the groups, the rats were injected with intra-articular normal saline solution, neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (50 mg/kg), inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor amino-guanidine (30 mg/kg), or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (200 mg/kg). After 21 days, the right and left knees of the rats were resected and placed in formalin solution. The samples were histopathologically examined by a blinded evaluator and scored on 8 parameters. Although selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition exhibited significant (P = 0.044) positive effects on cartilage regeneration following cartilage damage, it was determined that inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no statistically significant effect on cartilage regeneration. It was observed that the nitric oxide synthase activation triggered advanced arthrosis symptoms, such as osteophyte formation. The fact that selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were observed to have mitigating effects on the severity of the damage may, in the future, influence the development of new agents to be used in the treatment of cartilage disorders. PMID:27382570

  17. Pimaradienoic Acid Inhibits Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Leukocyte Recruitment and Edema in Mice: Inhibition of Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide and Cytokine Production

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A.

    2016-01-01

    Pimaradienoic acid (PA; ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid) is a pimarane diterpene found in plants such as Vigueira arenaria Baker (Asteraceae) in the Brazilian savannas. Although there is evidence on the analgesic and in vitro inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways, and paw edema by PA, its anti-inflammatory effect deserves further investigation. Thus, the objective of present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of PA in carrageenan-induced peritoneal and paw inflammation in mice. Firstly, we assessed the effect of PA in carrageenan-induced leukocyte recruitment in the peritoneal cavity and paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity. Next, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of PA. The effect of PA on carrageenan-induced oxidative stress in the paw skin and peritoneal cavity was assessed. We also tested the effect of PA on nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and inflammatory cytokine production in the peritoneal cavity. PA inhibited carrageenan-induced recruitment of total leukocytes and neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner. PA also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity in the paw skin. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of PA depended on maintaining paw skin antioxidant activity as observed by the levels of reduced glutathione, ability to scavenge the ABTS cation and reduce iron as well as by the inhibition of superoxide anion and nitric oxide production in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, PA inhibited carrageenan-induced peritoneal production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. PA presents prominent anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced inflammation by reducing oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and cytokine production. Therefore, it seems to be a promising anti-inflammatory molecule that merits further investigation. PMID:26895409

  18. Pimaradienoic Acid Inhibits Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Leukocyte Recruitment and Edema in Mice: Inhibition of Oxidative Stress, Nitric Oxide and Cytokine Production.

    PubMed

    Mizokami, Sandra S; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Carvalho, Thacyana T; Zarpelon, Ana C; Possebon, Maria I; de Souza, Anderson R; Veneziani, Rodrigo C S; Arakawa, Nilton S; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2016-01-01

    Pimaradienoic acid (PA; ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid) is a pimarane diterpene found in plants such as Vigueira arenaria Baker (Asteraceae) in the Brazilian savannas. Although there is evidence on the analgesic and in vitro inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways, and paw edema by PA, its anti-inflammatory effect deserves further investigation. Thus, the objective of present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of PA in carrageenan-induced peritoneal and paw inflammation in mice. Firstly, we assessed the effect of PA in carrageenan-induced leukocyte recruitment in the peritoneal cavity and paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity. Next, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of PA. The effect of PA on carrageenan-induced oxidative stress in the paw skin and peritoneal cavity was assessed. We also tested the effect of PA on nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and inflammatory cytokine production in the peritoneal cavity. PA inhibited carrageenan-induced recruitment of total leukocytes and neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent manner. PA also inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity in the paw skin. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of PA depended on maintaining paw skin antioxidant activity as observed by the levels of reduced glutathione, ability to scavenge the ABTS cation and reduce iron as well as by the inhibition of superoxide anion and nitric oxide production in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, PA inhibited carrageenan-induced peritoneal production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. PA presents prominent anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced inflammation by reducing oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and cytokine production. Therefore, it seems to be a promising anti-inflammatory molecule that merits further investigation. PMID:26895409

  19. Ferrous iron oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: inhibition with benzoic acid, sorbic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Onysko, S.J.

    1984-07-01

    Acid mine drainage is formed by the weathering or oxidation of pyritic material exposed during coal mining. The rate of pyritic material oxidation can be greatly accelerated by certain acidophilic bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans which catalyse the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron. A number of organic compounds, under laboratory conditions, can apparently inhibit both the oxidation of ferrous to ferric iron by T. ferrooxidans and the weathering of pyritic material by mixed cultures of acid mine drainage micro-organisms. Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), an anionic surfactant has proved effective in this respect. Benzoic acid, sorbic acid and SLS at low concentrations, each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of T. ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low pH, sterile, batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations of any of the compounds.

  20. Proliferation of macrophages due to the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis by oxidized low-density lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Monika; Gruber, Miriam; Schmid, Diethart; Baran, Halina; Moeslinger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is assumed to be a major causal agent in hypercholesteraemia-induced atherosclerosis. Because the proliferation of lipid-loaden macrophages within atherosclerotic lesions has been described, we investigated the dependence of macrophage proliferation on the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by hypochlorite oxidized LDL. Ox-LDL induces a dose dependent inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthesis in lipopolysaccharide-interferon stimulated mouse macrophages (J774.A1) with concomitant macrophage proliferation as assayed by cell counting, tritiated-thymidine incorporation and measurement of cell protein. Native LDL did not influence macrophage proliferation and inducible nitric oxide synthesis. iNOS protein and mRNA was reduced by HOCl-oxidized LDL (0-40 µg/ml) as revealed by immunoblotting and competitive semiquantitative PCR. Macrophage proliferation was increased by the addition of the iNOS inhibitor L-NAME. The addition of ox-LDL to L-NAME containing incubations induced no further statistically significant increase in cell number. Nitric oxide donors decreased ox-LDL induced macrophage proliferation and nitric oxide scavengers restored macrophage proliferation to the initial values achieved by ox-LDL. The decrease of cytosolic DNA fragments in stimulated macrophages incubated with ox-LDL demonstrates that the proliferative actions of ox-LDL are associated with a decrease of NO-induced apoptosis. Our data show that inhibition of iNOS dependent nitric oxide production caused by hypochlorite oxidized LDL enhances macrophage proliferation. This might be a key event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:26600745

  1. PPARγ Inhibits VSMC Proliferation and Migration via Attenuating Oxidative Stress through Upregulating UCP2

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Ming-Jie; Li, Bing-Hu; Chen, Lei; Pi, Yan; Yin, Yan-Wei; Long, Chun-Yan; Wang, Xu; Sun, Meng-Jiao; Chen, Xue; Gao, Chang-Yue; Li, Jing-Cheng; Zhang, Li-Li

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence showed that abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are common event in the pathophysiology of many vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. Among the underlying mechanisms, oxidative stress is one of the principal contributors to the proliferation and migration of VSMCs. Oxidative stress occurs as a result of persistent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently, the protective effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) against oxidative stress/ROS in other cell types provide new insights to inhibit the suggests that PPARγ may regulate VSMCs function. However, it remains unclear whether activation of PPARγ can attenuate oxidative stress and further inhibit VSMC proliferation and migration. In this study, we therefore investigated the effect of PPARγ on inhibiting VSMC oxidative stress and the capability of proliferation and migration, and the potential role of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in oxidative stress. It was found that platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) induced VSMC proliferation and migration as well as ROS production; PPARγ inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation, migration and oxidative stress; PPARγ activation upregulated UCP2 expression in VSMCs; PPARγ inhibited PDGF-BB-induced ROS in VSMCs by upregulating UCP2 expression; PPARγ ameliorated injury-induced oxidative stress and intimal hyperplasia (IH) in UCP2-dependent manner. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that activation of PPARγ can attenuate ROS and VSMC proliferation and migration by upregulating UCP2 expression, and thus inhibit IH following carotid injury. These findings suggest PPARγ may represent a prospective target for the prevention and treatment of IH-associated vascular diseases. PMID:27144886

  2. Astragalus polysaccharides inhibits PCV2 replication by inhibiting oxidative stress and blocking NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hongxia; Gan, Fang; Zhang, Zheqian; Hu, Junfa; Chen, Xingxiang; Huang, Kehe

    2015-11-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD). Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), as one kind of biological macromolecule extracted from Astragalus, has antiviral activities. This study was undertaken to explore the effect of APS on PCV2 replication in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that adding APS before PCV2 infection decreased significantly PCV2 DNA copies, the number of infected cells, MDA level, ROS level and NF-κB activation in PK15 cells and increased significantly GSH contents and SOD activity compared to control without APS. Oxidative stress induced by BSO could eliminate the effect of PCV2 replication inhibition by APS. LPS, as a NF-κB activator, could attenuate the effect of PCV2 replication inhibition by APS. BAY 11-7082, as a NF-κB inhibitor, could increase the effect of PCV2 replication inhibition by APS. In conclusion, APS inhibits PCV2 replication by decreasing oxidative stress and the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway, which suggests that APS might be employed for the prevention of PCV2 infection. PMID:26226456

  3. Vanillic Acid Inhibits Inflammatory Pain by Inhibiting Neutrophil Recruitment, Oxidative Stress, Cytokine Production, and NFκB Activation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Calixto-Campos, Cássia; Carvalho, Thacyana T; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Fattori, Victor; Manchope, Marília F; Zarpelon, Ana C; Baracat, Marcela M; Georgetti, Sandra R; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2015-08-28

    Vanillic acid (1) is a flavoring agent found in edible plants and fruits. It is an oxidized form of vanillin. Phenolic compounds form a substantial part of plant foods used as antioxidants with beneficial biological activities. These compounds have received considerable attention because of their role in preventing human diseases. Especially, 1 presents antibacterial, antimicrobial, and chemopreventive effects. However, the mechanisms by which 1 exerts its anti-inflammatory effects in vivo are incompletely understood. Thus, the effect of 1 was evaluated in murine models of inflammatory pain. Treatment with 1 inhibited the overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, phenyl-p-benzoquinone, the second phase of the formalin test, and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Treatment with 1 also inhibited carrageenan- and CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia, paw edema, myeloperoxidase activity, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of 1 involved the inhibition of oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and NFκB activation in the carrageenan model. The present study demonstrated 1 presents analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in a wide range of murine inflammation models, and its mechanisms of action involves antioxidant effects and NFκB-related inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. PMID:26192250

  4. Functionalization of Titanium Alloy Surface by Graphene Nanoplatelets and Metal Oxides: Corrosion Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Jayanta; Aarik, Lauri; Kozlova, Jekaterina; Niilisk, Ahti; Mändar, Hugo; Mäeorg, Uno; Simões, Alda; Sammelselg, Väino

    2015-09-01

    Corrosion inhibition of metallic substrates is an important and crucial step for great economical as well as environmental savings. In this paper, we introduce an extra thin effective corrosion inhibitive material having layered structure designed for protection and functionalization of Ti Grade 5 alloy substrates. The coating consists of a first layer made of thin graphene nanoplatelets, on top of which a multilayer Al2O3 and TiO2 films is applied by low-temperature atomic layer deposition. The amorphous structure of the metal oxide films was confirmed by micro-Raman and X-ray diffraction analysis. Corrosion inhibition ability of the prepared coatings was analyzed by open circuit potential, potentiodynamic plot and by voltammetric analysis, in aqueous potassium bromide solution. The open circuit potential of the graphene-metal oxide coated substrate showed much passive nature than bare substrate or graphene coated or only metal oxide coated substrates. The localized corrosion potential of the graphene-metal oxide coated, only metal oxide coated, and bare substrates were found 5.5, 3.0, and 1.1 V, respectively. In addition, corrosion current density values of the graphene-metal oxide and only metal oxide coated substrates showed much more passive nature than the bare and graphene coated substrates. Long immersion test in the salt solution further clarified the effective corrosion inhibition of the graphene-metal oxide coated substrate. The analyzed results reflect that the graphene-metal oxide films can be used to prepare better and effective corrosion inhibition coatings for the Ti Grade 5 alloy to increase their lifetime. PMID:26716209

  5. Nitric oxide inhibition sustains vasopressin-induced vasoconstriction.

    PubMed Central

    Dworkin, M. J.; Carnochan, P.; Allen-Mersh, T. G.

    1995-01-01

    Hepatic parenchymal vasoconstriction increases cytotoxic drug uptake into hepatic metastases by increasing the tumour to liver blood flow ratio. Prolonged infusion of the vasoconstrictor vasopressin does not result in sustained vasoconstriction, and this may limit the benefit of vasopressin in infusional chemotherapy. We have assessed whether loss of vasopressin-induced vasoconstriction is mediated by nitric oxide. Hepatic and tumour blood flow were continuously monitored, in an animal hepatic tumour model, by laser Doppler flowmetry. The response to regionally infused vasopressin and the nitric oxide inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) were assessed over a 30 min infusion period. The vasopressin-induced vasoconstrictor effect diminished after 15 min despite continued infusion. Vasoconstriction was significantly prolonged when L-NAME was infused in addition to vasopressin. The increase in tumour to normal blood flow ratio was greater over the infusion period when L-NAME was co-administered with vasopressin. Our results suggest that the loss of vasopressin-induced vasoconstriction seen in liver parenchyma after regional infusion is prevented by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-name and may be mediated by nitric oxide. PMID:7734317

  6. A Simple Approach to Boost Capacitance: Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Manganese Oxides@MOFs via Chemically Induced In Situ Self-Transformation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Zhou; Cheng, Tao; Wang, Yang; Lai, Wen-Yong; Pang, Huan; Huang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    An extremely simple in situ self-transformation methodology is developed to introduce pseudocapacitance into the MOF system resulting in a largely boosted electrochemical performance: a three-fold increase in capacitance as well as improved rate capacity. An all-solid-state hybrid flexible supercapacitor is fabricated based on the obtained MnOx -MHCF composite and activated carbon with an areal capacitance of 175 mF cm(-2) at 0.5 mA cm(-2) . PMID:27145232

  7. Inhibited Ru(bpy)3 2+ electrochemiluminescence related to electrochemical oxidation activity of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yuwu; Dong, Yongqiang; Chen, Guonan

    2007-06-15

    Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) has been accepted by the analytical chemist as a powerful tool for detection of many inorganic and organic compounds. Ru(bpy)3 2+ has been the most popular ECL system, and many investigations have been focused on the application based on the enhancement or inhibition of Ru(bpy)3 2+ ECL system. However, not much attention has been paid to the theoretical investigation of this ECL system, especially to the inhibiting mechanism for the Ru(bpy)3 2+ ECL system. In the present study, many of the inorganic and organic compounds with electrochemical oxidation activity were found to strongly inhibit Ru(bpy)3 2+ ECL. To explain these inhibited ECL phenomena, a new "electrochemical oxidation inhibiting" mechanism has been proposed via the establishment of a corresponding model. The effects of applied potential, uncompensated resistance, and concentration of inhibitor on the inhibited ECL derived from the model have been verified by experiments. The new ECL inhibition mechanism can be commonly used to explain many kinds of inhibited ECL presently observed, and it is envisioned to result in finding of more inhibitors of this type and establishment of new sensitive ECL detection methods for them. PMID:17489558

  8. Inhibition of Methane Oxidation by Methylococcus capsulatus with Hydrochlorofluorocarbons and Fluorinated Methanes.

    PubMed

    Matheson, L J; Jahnke, L L; Oremland, R S

    1997-07-01

    The inhibition of methane oxidation by cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) exposed to hydrochlorofluorocarbon 21 (HCFC-21; difluorochloromethane [CHF(inf2)Cl]), HCFC-22 (fluorodichloromethane [CHFCl(inf2)]), and various fluorinated methanes was investigated. HCFC-21 inhibited methane oxidation to a greater extent than HCFC-22, for both the particulate and soluble methane monooxygenases. Among the fluorinated methanes, both methyl fluoride (CH(inf3)F) and difluoromethane (CH(inf2)F(inf2)) were inhibitory while fluoroform (CHF(inf3)) and carbon tetrafluoride (CF(inf4)) were not. The inhibition of methane oxidation by HCFC-21 and HCFC-22 was irreversible, while that by methyl fluoride was reversible. The HCFCs also proved inhibitory to methanol dehydrogenase, which suggests that they disrupt other aspects of C(inf1) catabolism in addition to methane monooxygenase activity. PMID:16535662

  9. Inhibition of Methane Oxidation by Methylococcus capsulatus with Hydrochlorofluorocarbons and Fluorinated Methanes

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, L. J.; Jahnke, L. L.; Oremland, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The inhibition of methane oxidation by cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) exposed to hydrochlorofluorocarbon 21 (HCFC-21; difluorochloromethane [CHF(inf2)Cl]), HCFC-22 (fluorodichloromethane [CHFCl(inf2)]), and various fluorinated methanes was investigated. HCFC-21 inhibited methane oxidation to a greater extent than HCFC-22, for both the particulate and soluble methane monooxygenases. Among the fluorinated methanes, both methyl fluoride (CH(inf3)F) and difluoromethane (CH(inf2)F(inf2)) were inhibitory while fluoroform (CHF(inf3)) and carbon tetrafluoride (CF(inf4)) were not. The inhibition of methane oxidation by HCFC-21 and HCFC-22 was irreversible, while that by methyl fluoride was reversible. The HCFCs also proved inhibitory to methanol dehydrogenase, which suggests that they disrupt other aspects of C(inf1) catabolism in addition to methane monooxygenase activity. PMID:16535662

  10. Nitric oxide inhibits the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX and protoporphyrin IX.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Hayashi, Nobutaka; Nishimura, Takanori; Hattori, Akihito

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which curing agents, especially nitrite, inhibit the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZPP) in dry-cured hams such as Parma ham. The oxidation-reduction potential of model solutions was increased by the addition of nitrite, but it was not clear whether the formation of ZPP is inhibited by the oxidizing property of nitrite. The effect of nitric oxide (NO) produced from nitrite on the formation of ZPP was examined. The amount of ZPP formed was decreased by the addition of NO donors. The amount of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), which is the precursor of ZPP, was also decreased by the addition of NO donors. It is concluded that NO produced from nitrite inhibited the formation of PPIX and ZPP was therefore not formed in cured meat products with the addition of nitrite or nitrate. PMID:20374763

  11. Inhibition of methane oxidation by Methylococcus capsulatus with hydrochlorofluorocarbons and fluorinated methanes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matheson, L.J.; Jahnke, L.L.; Oremland, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    The inhibition of methane oxidation by cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) exposed to hydrochlorofluorocarbon 21 (HCFC-21; difluorochloromethane [CHF2Cl]), HCFC-22 (fluorodichloromethane [CHFCl2]), and various fluorinated methanes was investigated. HCFC-21 inhibited methane oxidation to a greater extent than HCFC-22, for both the particulate and soluble methane monooxygenases. Among the fluorinated methanes, both methyl fluoride (CH3F) and difluoromethane (CH2F2) were inhibitory while fluoroform (CHF3) and carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) were not. The inhibition of methane oxidation by HCFC-21 and HCFC-22 was irreversible, while that by methyl fluoride was reversible. The HCFCs also proved inhibitory to methanol dehydrogenase, which suggests that they disrupt other aspects of C1 catabolism in addition to methane monooxygenase activity.

  12. Peach skin powder inhibits oxidation in cooked turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Han, I; Bridges, W C; Dawson, P L

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the antioxidant activity of peach skin and test the antioxidant effect of peach skin powder on cooked ground turkey meat during 12 d of refrigerated storage. Antioxidant activity of 3 cultivars of peaches grown in South Carolina was first evaluated by 3 antioxidant assays. The peach variety O'Henry showed the greatest antioxidant effect and therefore was used for further study. Two levels of peach skin powder (0.5%, 1%) and 0.01% butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA) were applied to ground turkey meat. Oxidation of cooked turkey meat was measured by detection of hexanal using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results indicated that all levels of peach skin powder used in this study had an antioxidant effect on ground turkey with a greater effect at the higher concentration. O'Henry peach skin powder was as effective as BHA in preventing oxidation at the levels tested. PMID:27252372

  13. Enhancement in ion adsorption rate and desalination efficiency in a capacitive deionization cell through improved electric field distribution using electrodes composed of activated carbon cloth coated with zinc oxide nanorods.

    PubMed

    Laxman, Karthik; Myint, Myo Tay Zar; Bourdoucen, Hadj; Dutta, Joydeep

    2014-07-01

    Electrodes composed of activated carbon cloth (ACC) coated with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods are compared with plain ACC electrodes, with respect to their desalination efficiency of a 17 mM NaCl solution at different applied potentials. Polarization of the ZnO nanorods increased the penetration depth and strength of the electric field between the electrodes, leading to an increase in the capacitance and charge efficiency at reduced input charge ratios. Uniform distribution of the electric field lines between two electrodes coated with ZnO nanorods led to faster ion adsorption rates, reduced the electrode saturation time, and increased the average desalination efficiency by ∼45% for all applied potentials. The electrodes were characterized for active surface area, capacitance from cyclic voltammetry, theoretical assessment of surface area utilization, and the magnitude of electric field force acting on an ion of unit charge for each potential. PMID:24940607

  14. Nitric oxide synthases activation and inhibition by metallacarborane cluster-based isoform-specific affectors

    PubMed Central

    Kaplánek, Robert; Martásek, Pavel; Grüner, Bohumír; Panda, Satya; Rak, Jakub; Masters, Bettie Sue Siler; Král, Vladimír; Roman, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    A small library of boron cluster and metallacarborane cluster-based ligands was designed, prepared and tested for isoform-selective activation or inhibition of the three nitric oxide synthase isoforms. Based on the concept of creating a hydrophobic analog of a natural substrate, a stable and non-toxic basic boron cluster system, previously used for boron neutron capture therapy, was modified by the addition of positively charged moieties to its periphery, providing hydrophobic and non-classical hydrogen bonding interactions with the protein. Several of these compounds show efficacy for inhibition of NO synthesis with differential effects on the various nitric oxide synthase isoforms. PMID:23075390

  15. Anthocyanin Interactions with DNA: Intercalation, Topoisomerase I Inhibition and Oxidative Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Michael R.; Min, Kyungmi; Ebeler, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Anthocyanins and their aglycone anthocyanidins are pigmented flavonoids found in significant amounts in many commonly consumed foods. They exhibit a complex chemistry in aqueous solution, which makes it difficult to study their chemistry under physiological conditions. Here we used a gel electrophoresis assay employing supercoiled DNA plasmid to examine the ability of these compounds (1) to intercalate DNA, (2) to inhibit human topoisomerase I through both inhibition of plasmid relaxation activity (catalytic inhibition) and stabilization of the cleavable DNA-topoisomerase complex (poisoning), and (3) to inhibit or enhance oxidative single-strand DNA nicking. We found no evidence of DNA intercalation by anthocyan(id)ins in the physiological pH range for any of the compounds used in this study—cyanidin chloride, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside, malvidin 3-O-glucoside and luteolinidin chloride. The anthocyanins inhibited topoisomerase relaxation activity only at high concentrations (> 50 μM) and we could find no evidence of topoisomerase I cleavable complex stabilization by these compounds. However, we observed that all of the anthocyan(id)ins used in this study were capable of inducing significant oxidative DNA strand cleavage (nicking) in the presence of 1 mM DTT (dithiothreitol), while the free radical scavenger, DMSO, at concentrations typically used in similar studies, completely inhibited DNA nicking. Finally, we propose a mechanism to explain the anthocyan(id)in induced oxidative DNA cleavage observed under our experimental conditions. PMID:19924259

  16. Anthocyanin Interactions with DNA: Intercalation, Topoisomerase I Inhibition and Oxidative Reactions.

    PubMed

    Webb, Michael R; Min, Kyungmi; Ebeler, Susan E

    2008-09-23

    Anthocyanins and their aglycone anthocyanidins are pigmented flavonoids found in significant amounts in many commonly consumed foods. They exhibit a complex chemistry in aqueous solution, which makes it difficult to study their chemistry under physiological conditions. Here we used a gel electrophoresis assay employing supercoiled DNA plasmid to examine the ability of these compounds (1) to intercalate DNA, (2) to inhibit human topoisomerase I through both inhibition of plasmid relaxation activity (catalytic inhibition) and stabilization of the cleavable DNA-topoisomerase complex (poisoning), and (3) to inhibit or enhance oxidative single-strand DNA nicking. We found no evidence of DNA intercalation by anthocyan(id)ins in the physiological pH range for any of the compounds used in this study-cyanidin chloride, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-O-diglucoside, malvidin 3-O-glucoside and luteolinidin chloride. The anthocyanins inhibited topoisomerase relaxation activity only at high concentrations (> 50 muM) and we could find no evidence of topoisomerase I cleavable complex stabilization by these compounds. However, we observed that all of the anthocyan(id)ins used in this study were capable of inducing significant oxidative DNA strand cleavage (nicking) in the presence of 1 mM DTT (dithiothreitol), while the free radical scavenger, DMSO, at concentrations typically used in similar studies, completely inhibited DNA nicking. Finally, we propose a mechanism to explain the anthocyan(id)in induced oxidative DNA cleavage observed under our experimental conditions. PMID:19924259

  17. Selective inhibition of fatty acid oxidation in colonocytes by ibuprofen: a cause of colitis?

    PubMed Central

    Roediger, W E; Millard, S

    1995-01-01

    Ibuprofen is associated with initiation or exacerbation of ulcerative colitis. As ibuprofen selectively inhibited fatty acid oxidation in the liver or caused mitochondrial damage in intestinal cells, its effect on substrate oxidation by isolated colonocytes of man and rat was examined. Ibuprofen dose dependently (2.0-7.5 mmol/l) and selectively inhibited 14CO2 production from labelled n-butyrate in colonocytes from the proximal and distal human colon (n = 12, p = < 0.001). Glucose oxidation was either unaltered or increased. Because short chain fatty acid oxidation is the main source of acetyl-CoA for long chain fatty acid synthesis, the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by ibuprofen in the colonic mucosa could also occur at this level. Because the concentrations of ibuprofen that can be attained in the human colon are not known, conclusions drawn from current dosages are tentative. The inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by ibuprofen may be biochemically implicated in the initiation and exacerbation of ulcerative colitis, manifestation of which would depend on the ibuprofen concentrations reached in the colon. PMID:7890237

  18. Ferrostatins Inhibit Oxidative Lipid Damage and Cell Death in Diverse Disease Models

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) inhibits ferroptosis, a form of regulated, oxidative, nonapoptotic cell death. We found that Fer-1 inhibited cell death in cellular models of Huntington’s disease (HD), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), and kidney dysfunction; Fer-1 inhibited lipid peroxidation, but not mitochondrial reactive oxygen species formation or lysosomal membrane permeability. We developed a mechanistic model to explain the activity of Fer-1, which guided the development of ferrostatins with improved properties. These studies suggest numerous therapeutic uses for ferrostatins, and that lipid peroxidation mediates diverse disease phenotypes. PMID:24592866

  19. Isolated tumoral pyruvate dehydrogenase can synthesize acetoin which inhibits pyruvate oxidation as well as other aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Baggetto, L G; Lehninger, A L

    1987-05-29

    Oxidation of 1 mM pyruvate by Ehrlich and AS30-D tumor mitochondria is inhibited by acetoin, an unusual and important metabolite of pyruvate utilization by cancer cells, by acetaldehyde, methylglyoxal and excess pyruvate. The respiratory inhibition is reversed by other substrates added to pyruvate and also by 0.5 mM ATP. Kinetic properties of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex isolated from these tumor mitochondria have been studied. This complex appears to be able to synthesize acetoin from acetaldehyde plus pyruvate and is competitively inhibited by acetoin. The role of a new regulatory pattern for tumoral pyruvate dehydrogenase is presented. PMID:3593337

  20. Oxidative inhibition of red blood cell ATPases by glyceraldehyde.

    PubMed

    Mira, M L; Martinho, F; Azevedo, M S; Manso, C F

    1991-11-01

    Glyceraldehyde and other simple monosaccharides autoxidize under physiological conditions, forming dicarbonyl compounds and hydrogen peroxide via intermediate free radicals. These products may have deleterious effects on cell components. In this paper we study the effect of glyceraldehyde autoxidation on red-cell ATPase activities. The autoxidation of glyceraldehyde in imidazole-glycylglycine buffer, measured by oxygen consumption, depends on the buffer concentration and decreases in the presence of superoxide dismutase and catalase. The addition of DETAPAC inhibits the autoxidation almost completely. When human red-blood-cell membranes are incubated with glyceraldehyde, the red-blood-cell ATPase activities decrease significantly. The addition of DETAPAC, GSH and DTE (dithioerythritol) protects the enzyme from inactivation, but superoxide dismutase and catalase have no effect. Methylglyoxal (a dicarbonyl which is analogous to hydroxypyruvaldehyde derived from glyceraldehyde autoxidation) proved to have a powerful inhibitory action on ATPase activities. The addition of DTE completely protects the enzyme from inactivation, suggesting that the sulphydryl groups of the active site of the enzyme are the critical targets for dicarbonyl compounds. PMID:1836354

  1. Atorvastatin protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress by inhibiting LOX-1 expression and cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Cheng, Linfang; Wang, Qiqi; Zhou, Dongchen; Wu, Zhigang; Shen, Ling; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major health problem worldwide. The most severe form of CAD is acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Recent studies have demonstrated the beneficial role of atorvastatin in ACS; however, the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been fully clarified. Growing evidence indicates that activation of the lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis during ACS. In this study, we examined whether atorvastatin inhibits H2O2-induced LOX-1 expression and H9c2 cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and investigated the underlying signaling pathway. Treatment of H9c2 cardiomyocytes with H2O2 resulted in elevated expression of LOX-1 mRNA and protein, as well as increased caspase-3 and -9 protein expression and cell apoptosis. H2O2-induced LOX-1 expression, caspase protein expression, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were attenuated by pretreatment with atorvastatin. Atorvastatin activated H2O2-inhibited phosphorylation of Akt in a concentration-dependent manner. The Akt inhibitor, LY294002, inhibited the effect of atorvastatin on inducing Akt phosphorylation and on suppressing H2O2-mediated caspase up-regulation and cell apoptosis. These findings indicate that atorvastatin protects cardiomyocyte from oxidative stress via inhibition of LOX-1 expression and apoptosis, and that activation of H2O2-inhibited phosphorylation of Akt may play an important role in the protective function of atorvastatin. PMID:25630653

  2. A Modified Capacitance-Voltage Method Used for Leff Extraction and Process Monitoring in Advanced 0.15 μm Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Technology and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Heng-Sheng; Shiu, Jen-Shiuan; Lin, Shyh-Jye; Chou, Jih-Wen; Lee, Ryan; Chen, Coming; Hong, Gary

    2001-03-01

    In this paper, an alternative approach for the extraction of effective channel length, Leff, using a modified capacitance-voltage (C-V) method [the capacitance-ratio (C-R) method], which considers depletion effect compensation is proposed. In general, we define Leff=Lmask-Δ L, where Δ L is the sum of the polysilicon gate lithography bias and two times the overlap length of the polysilicon gate and source/drain (S/D) extension (Δ L=Lpb+2Lovlap). Using the modified C-V method, more consistent and reasonable Leff data can be extracted as compared to those obtained using the newest current-voltage (I-V) method (shift and ratio method). In using the proposed C-R method, we can electrically measure the exact Lpb and Lovlap numbers that can both be used as process monitor parameters. The within-wafer uniformities of Leff (or Δ L), Lpb and Lovlap have also been checked among devices of various sizes. After the Leff is extracted, a stable S/D resistance Rsd, with Vg independence, is determined and verified using the I-V method. The parasitic capacitance Cgd is another extracted parameter that is as important as Rsd in SPICE modeling for RF complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) applications.

  3. Flavone inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, nitric oxide production and protein S-nitrosylation in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Yang, Bingwu; Fu, Huiling; Ma, Long; Liu, Tingting; Chai, Rongfei; Zheng, Zhaodi; Zhang, Qunye; Li, Guorong

    2015-03-13

    As the core structure of flavonoids, flavone has been proved to possess anticancer effects. Flavone's growth inhibitory functions are related to NO. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and generally increased in a variety of cancer cells. NO regulates multiple cellular responses by S-nitrosylation. In this study, we explored flavone-induced regulations on nitric oxide (NO)-related cellular processes in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that, flavone suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Flavone restrains NO synthesis by does-dependent inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity. The decrease of NO generation was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Flavone-induced inhibitory effect on NOS activity is dependent on intact cell structure. For the NO-induced protein modification, flavone treatment significantly down-regulated protein S-nitrosylation, which was detected by “Biotin-switch” method. The present study provides a novel, NO-related mechanism for the anticancer function of flavone. - Highlights: • Flavone inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. • Flavone decreases nitric oxide production by inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity in breast cancer cells. • Flavone down-regulates protein S-nitrosylation.

  4. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by nitric oxide is independent of membrane fluidity modulation or oxidation of sulfhydryl groups.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rojas, Jazmin M; Muriel, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) modulates the fluidity of a variety of membranes. Thus, the aim of the present work was to study if the inhibitory effect of NO on mitochondrial respiration is associated with its effects on membrane fluidity. Liver mitochondria and an inner mitochondrial membrane fraction (IMMF) were isolated from male Wistar rats by differential centrifugation. Oxygen consumption was measured polarographically and fluidity by the fluorescence polarization method. S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) was used as a NO donor. It was observed that NO decreased IMMF fluidity and oxygen consumption in a concentration dependent fashion. However, SAM a fluidizing agent that prevented the decrement in fluidity produced by SNAP, failed to preserve oxygen consumption. Protection of sulfhydryl groups with dithiotreitol was utilized to evaluate the role of oxidation of these groups on IMMF respiration. Incubation with dithiotreitol did not preserve IMMF oxygen consumption. The data shown herein suggest that NO inhibits the respiratory chain by a mechanism not involving the modulation of membrane fluidity or the oxidation of sulfhydryl groups. Thus, it seems that the mechanism by which NO modulates mitochondrial respiration is by cytochrome oxidase inhibition, because (as reported by others) low concentrations of NO specifically inhibit reversibly cytochrome oxidase in competition with oxygen. PMID:16167323

  5. Carboxyamidotriazole inhibits oxidative phosphorylation in cancer cells and exerts synergistic anti-cancer effect with glycolysis inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ju, Rui; Guo, Lei; Li, Juan; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Xiaoli; Chen, Chen; Chen, Wei; Ye, Caiying; Zhang, Dechang

    2016-01-28

    Targeting cancer cell metabolism is a promising strategy against cancer. Here, we confirmed that the anti-cancer drug carboxyamidotriazole (CAI) inhibited mitochondrial respiration in cancer cells for the first time and found a way to enhance its anti-cancer activity by further disturbing the energy metabolism. CAI promoted glucose uptake and lactate production when incubated with cancer cells. The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in cancer cells was inhibited by CAI, and the decrease in the activity of the respiratory chain complex I could be one explanation. The anti-cancer effect of CAI was greatly potentiated when being combined with 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG). The cancer cells treated with the combination of CAI and 2-DG were arrested in G2/M phase. The apoptosis and necrosis rates were also increased. In a mouse xenograft model, this combination was well tolerated and retarded the tumor growth. The impairment of cancer cell survival was associated with significant cellular ATP decrease, suggesting that the combination of CAI and 2-DG could be one of the strategies to cause dual inhibition of energy pathways, which might be an effective therapeutic approach for a broad spectrum of tumors. PMID:26522259

  6. Variable Synthetic Capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    Feedback amplifier circuit synthesizes electronically variable capacitance. Variable Synthetic Capacitor is amplifier circuit with follower/feedback configuration. Effective input capacitance depends on input set current. If synthetic capacitor is connected across resonant element of oscillator, oscillator frequency controlled via input set current. Circuit especially suitable for fine frequency adjustments of piezoelectric-crystal or inductor/capacitor resonant oscillators.

  7. Nitric Oxide Suppresses β-Cell Apoptosis by Inhibiting the DNA Damage Response.

    PubMed

    Oleson, Bryndon J; Broniowska, Katarzyna A; Naatz, Aaron; Hogg, Neil; Tarakanova, Vera L; Corbett, John A

    2016-08-01

    Nitric oxide, produced in pancreatic β cells in response to proinflammatory cytokines, plays a dual role in the regulation of β-cell fate. While nitric oxide induces cellular damage and impairs β-cell function, it also promotes β-cell survival through activation of protective pathways that promote β-cell recovery. In this study, we identify a novel mechanism in which nitric oxide prevents β-cell apoptosis by attenuating the DNA damage response (DDR). Nitric oxide suppresses activation of the DDR (as measured by γH2AX formation and the phosphorylation of KAP1 and p53) in response to multiple genotoxic agents, including camptothecin, H2O2, and nitric oxide itself, despite the presence of DNA damage. While camptothecin and H2O2 both induce DDR activation, nitric oxide suppresses only camptothecin-induced apoptosis and not H2O2-induced necrosis. The ability of nitric oxide to suppress the DDR appears to be selective for pancreatic β cells, as nitric oxide fails to inhibit DDR signaling in macrophages, hepatocytes, and fibroblasts, three additional cell types examined. While originally described as the damaging agent responsible for cytokine-induced β-cell death, these studies identify a novel role for nitric oxide as a protective molecule that promotes β-cell survival by suppressing DDR signaling and attenuating DNA damage-induced apoptosis. PMID:27185882

  8. Capacitance measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, W.H. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    A capacitance measuring circuit is provided in which an unknown capacitance is measured by comparing the charge stored in the unknown capacitor with that stored in a known capacitance. Equal and opposite voltages are repetitively simultaneously switched onto the capacitors through an electronic switch driven by a pulse generator to charge the capacitors during the ''on'' portion of the cycle. The stored charge is compared by summing discharge currents flowing through matched resistors at the input of a current sensor during the ''off'' portion of the switching cycle. The net current measured is thus proportional to the difference in value of the two capacitances. The circuit is capable of providing much needed accuracy and stability to a great variety of capacitance-based measurement devices at a relatively low cost.

  9. Mechanism of inhibition of NiFe hydrogenase by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Ceccaldi, Pierre; Etienne, Emilien; Dementin, Sébastien; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Léger, Christophe; Burlat, Bénédicte

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogenases reversibly catalyze the oxidation of molecular hydrogen and are inhibited by several small molecules including O2, CO and NO. In the present work, we investigate the mechanism of inhibition by NO of the oxygen-sensitive NiFe hydrogenase from Desulfovibrio fructosovorans by coupling site-directed mutagenesis, protein film voltammetry (PFV) and EPR spectroscopy. We show that micromolar NO strongly inhibits NiFe hydrogenase and that the mechanism of inhibition is complex, with NO targeting several metallic sites in the protein. NO reacts readily at the NiFe active site according to a two-step mechanism. The first and faster step is the reversible binding of NO to the active site followed by a slower and irreversible transformation at the active site. NO also induces irreversible damage of the iron-sulfur centers chain. We give direct evidence of preferential nitrosylation of the medial [3Fe-4S] to form dinitrosyl-iron complexes. PMID:26827939

  10. Time course of cardiac inflammation during nitric oxide synthase inhibition in SHR: impact of prior transient ACE inhibition.

    PubMed

    Biwer, Lauren A; D'souza, Karen M; Abidali, Ali; Tu, Danni; Siniard, Ashley L; DeBoth, Matthew; Huentelman, Matthew; Hale, Taben M

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition with enalapril produces persistent effects that protect against future nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (L-arginine methyl ester, L-NAME)-induced cardiac dysfunction and outer wall collagen deposition in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In the present study, we dissect the cytokine/chemokine release profile during NOS inhibition, its correlation to pathological cardiac remodeling and the impact of transient ACE inhibition on these effects. Adult male SHR were treated with enalapril (E+L) or tap water (C+L) for 2 weeks followed by a 2-week washout period. Rats were then subjected to 0, 3, 7 or 10 days of L-NAME treatment. The temporal response to NOS inhibition was evaluated by measuring arterial pressure, cardiac remodeling and cytokine/chemokine levels. L-NAME equivalently increased blood pressure and myocardial and vascular injury in C+L and E+L rats. However, pulse pressure (PP) was only transiently altered in C+L rats. The levels of several inflammatory mediators were increased during L-NAME treatment. However, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were uniquely increased in C+L hearts; whereas IL-4 and fractalkine were only elevated in E+L hearts. By days 7 and 10 of L-NAME treatment, there was a significant increase in the cardiac density of macrophages and proliferating cells, respectively only in C+L rats. Although myocardial injury was similar in both treatment groups, PP was not changed and there was a distinct cardiac chemokine/cytokine signature in rats previously treated with enalapril that may be related to the lack of proliferative response and macrophage infiltration in these hearts. PMID:26490086

  11. The myeloperoxidase-derived oxidant hypothiocyanous acid inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatases via oxidation of key cysteine residues.

    PubMed

    Cook, Naomi L; Moeke, Cassidy H; Fantoni, Luca I; Pattison, David I; Davies, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues is critical to cellular processes, and is regulated by kinases and phosphatases (PTPs). PTPs contain a redox-sensitive active site Cys residue, which is readily oxidized. Myeloperoxidase, released from activated leukocytes, catalyzes thiocyanate ion (SCN(-)) oxidation by H2O2 to form hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN), an oxidant that targets Cys residues. Dysregulated phosphorylation and elevated MPO levels have been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases where HOSCN can be generated. Previous studies have shown that HOSCN inhibits isolated PTP1B and induces cellular dysfunction in cultured macrophage-like cells. The present study extends this previous work and shows that physiologically-relevant concentrations of HOSCN alter the activity and structure of other members of the wider PTP family (including leukocyte antigen-related PTP, PTP-LAR; T-cell PTP, TC-PTP; CD45 and Src homology phosphatase-1, Shp-1) by targeting Cys residues. Isolated PTP activity, and activity in lysates of human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) was inhibited by 0-100 µM HOSCN with this being accompanied by reversible oxidation of Cys residues, formation of sulfenic acids or sulfenyl-thiocyanates (detected by Western blotting, and LC-MS as dimedone adducts), and structural changes. LC-MS/MS peptide mass-mapping has provided data on the modified Cys residues in PTP-LAR. This study indicates that inflammation-induced oxidants, and particularly myeloperoxidase-derived species, can modulate the activity of multiple members of the PTP superfamily via oxidation of Cys residues to sulfenic acids. This alteration of the balance of PTP/kinase activity may perturb protein phosphorylation and disrupt cell signaling with subsequent induction of apoptosis at sites of inflammation. PMID:26616646

  12. Oxidative stress-mediated inhibition of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation by silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Christie; Zane, Andrew; Knight, Deborah A; Hommel, Elizabeth; Dutta, Prabir K; Waldman, W James

    2015-10-01

    Given the increasing use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) by the food and food packaging industries, this study investigated potential consequences of Ag NP ingestion in intestinal epithelial C2BBe1 cells. Treatment of proliferating cells (<10,000 cells/cm(2)) with 0.25 μg/cm(2) (1.25 μg/mL) of 23 nm Ag NP for 24 h induced 15% necrotic cell death and an 80% reduction in metabolic activity and decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio, indicating oxidative stress. G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and complete inhibition of cell proliferation was also induced by Ag NP treatment. Simulated in vitro digestion of Ag NP prior to cell exposure required the use of slightly higher doses to induce the same toxicity, likely due to slower Ag dissolution. Treatment of cells with silica, titania, and ZnO NP partially inhibited cell proliferation, but inhibition at low doses was unique to Ag NP. These data suggest that Ag NP induces oxidative stress, cell cycle arrest, and the inhibition of cell proliferation. However, toxicity and induction of oxidative stress were not observed in confluent cells (>100,000 cells/cm(2)) treated with 10 μg/cm(2) (40-50 μg/mL) Ag NP, indicating that these cells are less sensitive to Ag NP. PMID:26196530

  13. Salinomycin inhibits prostate cancer growth and migration via induction of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Ketola, K; Hilvo, M; Hyötyläinen, T; Vuoristo, A; Ruskeepää, A-L; Orešič, M; Kallioniemi, O; Iljin, K

    2012-01-01

    Background: We have shown that a sodium ionophore monensin inhibits prostate cancer cell growth. A structurally related compound to monensin, salinomycin, was recently identified as a putative cancer stem cell inhibitor. Methods: The growth inhibitory potential of salinomycin was studied in a panel of prostate cells. To get insights into the mechanism of action, a variety of assays such as gene expression and steroid profiling were performed in salinomycin-exposed prostate cancer cells. Results: Salinomycin inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells, but did not affect non-malignant prostate epithelial cells. Salinomycin impacted on prostate cancer stem cell functions as evidenced by reduced aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and the fraction of CD44+ cells. Moreover, salinomycin reduced the expression of MYC, AR and ERG, induced oxidative stress as well as inhibited nuclear factor-κB activity and cell migration. Furthermore, profiling steroid metabolites revealed increased levels of oxidative stress-inducing steroids 7-ketocholesterol and aldosterone and decreased levels of antioxidative steroids progesterone and pregnenolone in salinomycin-exposed prostate cancer cells. Conclusion: Our results indicate that salinomycin inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and migration by reducing the expression of key prostate cancer oncogenes, inducing oxidative stress, decreasing the antioxidative capacity and cancer stem cell fraction. PMID:22215106

  14. Inhibition of phagocytic activity of ARPE-19 cells by free radical mediated oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Olchawa, Magdalena M; Pilat, Anna K; Szewczyk, Grzegorz M; Sarna, Tadeusz Jan

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative stress is a main factor responsible for key changes leading to the onset of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) that occur in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which is involved in phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments (POS). In this study, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), H2O2 and iron ions (Fe) or rose Bengal (RB) in the presence of NADH and Fe were used to model free radical mediated oxidative stress to test if free radicals and singlet oxygen have different efficiency to inhibit phagocytosis of ARPE-19 cells. Free radical mediated oxidative stress was confirmed by HPLC-EC(Hg) measurements of cholesterol hydroperoxides in treated cells. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping was employed to detect superoxide anion. Cell survival was analyzed by the MTT assay. Specific phagocytosis of fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate-labeled POS and non-specific phagocytosis of fluorescent beads were measured by flow cytometry. HPLC analysis of cells photosensitized with RB in the presence of NADH and Fe indicated substantial increase in formation of free radical-dependent 7α/7β-hydroperoxides. EPR spin trapping confirmed the photogeneration of superoxide anion in samples enriched with RB, NADH and Fe. For all three protocols sub-lethal oxidative stress induced significant inhibition of the specific phagocytosis of POS. In contrast, non-specific phagocytosis was inhibited only by H2O2 or H2O2 and Fe treatment. Inhibition of phagocytosis was transient and recoverable by 24 h. These results suggest that free radicals may exert similar to singlet oxygen efficiency in inhibiting phagocytosis of RPE cells, and that the effect depends on the location where initial reactive species are formed. PMID:27225587

  15. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation in ascites tumor mitochondria and cells by intramitochondrial Ca2+.

    PubMed

    Villalobo, A; Lehninger, A L

    1980-03-25

    Accumulation of Ca2+ (+ phosphate) by respiring mitochondria from Ehrlich ascites or AS30-D hepatoma tumor cells inhibits subsequent phosphorylating respiration in response to ADP. The respiratory chain is still functional since a proton-conducting uncoupler produces a normal stimulation of electron transport. The inhibition of phosphorylating respiration is caused by intramitochondrial Ca2+ (+ phosphate). ATP + Mg2+ together, but not singly, prevents the inhibitory action of Ca2+. Neither AMP, GTP, GDP, nor any other nucleoside 5'-triphosphate or 5'-diphosphate could replace ATP in this effect. Phosphorylating respiration on NAD(NADP)-linked substrates was much more susceptible to the inhibitory effect of intramitochondrial Ca2+ than succinate-linked respiration. Significant inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation is given by the endogenous Ca2+ present in freshly isolated tumor mitochondria. The phosphorylating respiration of permeabilized Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is also inhibited by Ca2+ accumulated by the mitochondria in situ. Possible causes of the Ca2+-induced inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation are considered. PMID:6766937

  16. Field-Scale Inhibition and Recovery of Atmospheric-Methane Oxidation in Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroth, M. H.; Dax, A.; Genter, F.; Henneberger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Aerobic methane (CH4) oxidation in upland soils is the only known terrestrial sink for atmospheric CH4. It is mediated by methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) that possess a high-affinity form of the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO), allowing utilization of CH4 at near-atmospheric, low concentrations (≤ 1.9 µL/L). As cultivation attempts for high-affinity MOB have shown little success to date, there remains much speculation regarding their functioning in different environmental systems. For quantification of microbial functions at the field scale, inhibition experiments are often used as a control and to verify that observed substrate turnover is microbially mediated. Targeting MMO, several compounds have been proposed as inhibitors of CH4 oxidation. However, previous inhibition experiments were mostly conducted in systems dominated by low-affinity MOB, which mediate CH4 oxidation at elevated CH4 concentrations. On the contrary, inhibition experiments targeting high-affinity MOB are scare, particularly at the field scale. We present results of field-scale experiments to investigate effectiveness of and recovery from inhibition of atmospheric CH4 oxidation using the competitive inhibitors CH3F and CH2F2, as well as the non-competitive inhibitor C2H2. The latter is of particular interest, because C2H2 irreversibly binds to MMO, requiring de-novo synthesis of MMO for recovery of CH4 oxidation activity. Experiments were conducted during both winter and summer seasons in a sandy soil. Atmospheric CH4 oxidation was quantified in regular intervals at reference and treatment locations using the soil-profile method with concurrent measurements of soil-water contents and -temperature. Whereas C2H2 inhibition was highly effective in both seasons, the time required for recovery to the level of the reference location was much shorter during the summer experiment (~1 mo compared with 4 mo during winter). Our data provide new insights into the physiology of high-affinity MOB.

  17. Inhibition of the oxidative stress response by heat stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Crombie, Timothy A; Tang, Lanlan; Choe, Keith P; Julian, David

    2016-07-15

    It has long been recognized that simultaneous exposure to heat stress and oxidative stress shows a synergistic interaction that reduces organismal fitness, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying this interaction. We investigated the role of molecular stress responses in driving this synergistic interaction using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans To induce oxidative stress, we used the pro-oxidant compounds acrylamide, paraquat and juglone. As expected, we found that heat stress and oxidative stress interact synergistically to reduce survival. Compared with exposure to each stressor alone, during simultaneous sublethal exposure to heat stress and oxidative stress the normal induction of key oxidative-stress response (OxSR) genes was generally inhibited, whereas the induction of key heat-shock response (HSR) genes was not. Genetically activating the SKN-1-dependent OxSR increased a marker for protein aggregation and decreased whole-worm survival during heat stress alone, with the latter being independent of HSF-1. In contrast, compared with wild-type worms, inactivating the HSR by HSF-1 knockdown, which would be expected to decrease basal heat shock protein expression, increased survival during oxidative stress alone. Taken together, these data suggest that, in C. elegans, the HSR and OxSR cannot be simultaneously activated to the same extent that each can be activated during a single stressor exposure. We conclude that the observed synergistic reduction in survival during combined exposure to heat stress and oxidative stress is due, at least in part, to inhibition of the OxSR during activation of the HSR. PMID:27207646

  18. Transglutaminase inhibition protects against oxidative stress-induced neuronal death downstream of pathological ERK activation

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Manuela; Berlin, Jill; Li, Xia; Sleiman, Sama F.; Ko, Brendan; Haskew-Layton, Renee; Kim, Eunhee; Antonyak, Marc A.; Cerione, Richard A.; Iismaa, Siiri E.; Willis, Dianna; Cho, Sunghee; Ratan, Rajiv R.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular deletion of transglutaminase 2 (TG2) has been shown to improve function and survival in a host of neurological conditions including stroke, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. However, unifying schemes by which these crosslinking or polyaminating enzymes participate broadly in neuronal death have yet to be presented. Unexpectedly, we found that in addition to TG2, TG1 gene expression level is significantly induced following stroke in vivo or due to oxidative stress in vitro. Forced expression of TG1 or TG2 proteins is sufficient to induce neuronal death in Rattus novergicus cortical neurons in vitro. Accordingly, molecular deletion of TG2 alone is insufficient to protect Mus musculus neurons from oxidative death. By contrast, structurally diverse inhibitors used at concentrations that inhibit TG1 and TG2 simultaneously are neuroprotective. These small molecules inhibit increases in neuronal transamidating activity induced by oxidative stress; they also protect neurons downstream of pathological ERK activation when added well after the onset of the death stimulus. Together, these studies suggest that multiple TG isoforms, not only TG2, participate in oxidative stress-induced cell death signaling; and that isoform non-selective inhibitors of TG will be most efficacious in combating oxidative death in neurological disorders. PMID:22573678

  19. Inhibition by acetyl-CoA of hepatic carnitine acyltransferase and fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, K; Notar-Francesco, V J; Sriwatanakul, K

    1983-01-01

    At micromolar concentrations, acetyl-CoA inhibited hepatic carnitine acyltransferase activity and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. The inhibitory effects were not nearly as potent on a molar basis as those of malonyl-CoA; nevertheless, the cytosolic concentrations of acetyl-CoA, as yet unknown, may be sufficient (greater than 30 microM) to curtail appreciably the mitochondrial transfer of long-chain acyl-CoA units and fatty acid oxidation. Hence acetyl-CoA may also partially regulate hepatic ketogenesis. PMID:6661211

  20. Oxidative pentose phosphate pathway inhibition is a key determinant of antimalarial induced cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Salas, E; Roy, S; Marsh, T; Rubin, B; Debnath, J

    2016-06-01

    Despite immense interest in using antimalarials as autophagy inhibitors to treat cancer, it remains unclear whether these agents act predominantly via autophagy inhibition or whether other pathways direct their anti-cancer properties. By comparing the treatment effects of the antimalarials chloroquine (CQ) and quinacrine (Q) on KRAS mutant lung cancer cells, we demonstrate that inhibition of the oxidative arm of the pentose phosphate pathway (oxPPP) is required for antimalarial induced apoptosis. Despite inhibiting autophagy, neither CQ treatment nor RNAi against autophagy regulators (ATGs) promote cell death. In contrast, Q triggers high levels of apoptosis, both in vitro and in vivo, and this phenotype requires both autophagy inhibition and p53-dependent inhibition of the oxPPP. Simultaneous genetic targeting of the oxPPP and autophagy is sufficient to trigger apoptosis in lung cancer cells, including cells lacking p53. Thus, in addition to reduced autophagy, oxPPP inhibition serves as an important determinant of antimalarial cytotoxicity in cancer cells. PMID:26434592

  1. Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway Inhibition Is A Key Determinant of Antimalarial Induced Cancer Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Eduardo; Roy, Srirupa; Marsh, Timothy; Rubin, Brian; Debnath, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    Despite immense interest in employing antimalarials as autophagy inhibitors to treat cancer, it remains unclear if these agents act predominantly via autophagy inhibition or whether other pathways direct their anti-cancer properties. By comparing the treatment effects of the antimalarials chloroquine (CQ) and quinacrine (Q) on KRAS mutant lung cancer cells, we demonstrate that inhibition of the oxidative arm of the pentose phosphate pathway (oxPPP) is required for antimalarial induced apoptosis. Despite inhibiting autophagy, neither CQ treatment nor RNAi against autophagy regulators (ATGs) promote cell death. In contrast, Q triggers high levels of apoptosis, both in vitro and in vivo, and this phenotype requires both autophagy inhibition and p53-dependent inhibition of the oxPPP. Simultaneous genetic targeting of the oxPPP and autophagy is sufficient to trigger apoptosis in lung cancer cells, including cells lacking p53. Thus, in addition to reduced autophagy, oxPPP inhibition serves as an important determinant of antimalarial cytotoxicity in cancer cells. PMID:26434592

  2. [Experience in developing and using capacitive electrodes].

    PubMed

    Grishanovich, A P; Iarmolinskiĭ, V I

    1984-01-01

    A capacitive-type electrode using titanium or tantalum oxide obtained through anodizing is described. Incorporated in the electrode is a source for a buffer amplifier. A shielding cap is used as an indifferent electrode. High performance allows using the electrodes for ECG, EEG, and other signal recording in clinical practice and researches. PMID:6708763

  3. Inhibition of Lipid Oxidation in Oil-in-Water Emulsions by Interface-Adsorbed Myofibrillar Protein.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiayi; Xiong, Youling L

    2015-10-14

    This study investigated the role of interfacial myofibrillar protein (MFP) in the oxidative stabilization of meat emulsions. Emulsions with 10% oil were prepared using either 2% (w/v) Tween 20 or 0.25, 0.5, and 1% (w/v) MFP and then subjected to hydroxyl radical oxidation at 4 °C for 0, 2, and 24 h. MFP was more readily oxidized (intrinsic fluorescence quenching, sulfur losses, and carbonyl formation) than oil [conjugated dienes and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)]. However, oxidized MFP in the continuous phase stimulated lipid oxidation after 24 h, sharply contrasting with interface-adsorbed MFP that inhibited TBARS formation nearly 90% (p < 0.05). Interfacial MFP from 2 h oxidized samples exhibited greater losses of fluorescence and more extensive polymerization of myosin (detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) than MFP present in the continuous phase. Results indicated that, due to the physical localization, interface-adsorbed MFP in general and myosin in particular provided accentuated protection of emulsions against oxidation. PMID:26414649

  4. Inhibition of a biological sulfide oxidation under haloalkaline conditions by thiols and diorgano polysulfanes.

    PubMed

    Roman, Pawel; Lipińska, Joanna; Bijmans, Martijn F M; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Keesman, Karel J; Janssen, Albert J H

    2016-09-15

    A novel approach has been developed for the simultaneous description of reaction kinetics to describe the formation of polysulfide and sulfate anions from the biological oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) using a quick, sulfide-dependent respiration test. Next to H2S, thiols are commonly present in sour gas streams. We investigated the inhibition mode and the corresponding inhibition constants of six thiols and the corresponding diorgano polysulfanes on the biological oxidation of H2S. A linear relationship was found between the calculated IC50 values and the lipophilicity of the inhibitors. Moreover, a mathematical model was proposed to estimate the biomass activity in the absence and presence of sulfurous inhibitors. The biomass used in the respiration tests originated from a full-scale biodesulfurization reactor. A microbial community analysis of this biomass revealed that two groups of microorganism are abundant, viz. Ectothiorhodospiraceae and Piscirickettsiaceae. PMID:27295619

  5. Oxidative stress inhibits caveolin-1 palmitoylation and trafficking in endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parat, Marie-Odile; Stachowicz, Rafal Z.; Fox, Paul L.

    2002-01-01

    During normal and pathological conditions, endothelial cells (ECs) are subjected to locally generated reactive oxygen species, produced by themselves or by other vessel wall cells. In excess these molecules cause oxidative injury to the cell but at moderate levels they might modulate intracellular signalling pathways. We have investigated the effect of oxidative stress on the palmitoylation and trafficking of caveolin-1 in bovine aortic ECs. Exogenous H2O2 did not alter the intracellular localization of caveolin-1 in ECs. However, metabolic labelling experiments showed that H2O2 inhibited the trafficking of newly synthesized caveolin-1 to membrane raft domains. Several mechanisms potentially responsible for this inhibition were examined. Impairment of caveolin-1 synthesis by H2O2 was not responsible for diminished trafficking. Similarly, the inhibition was independent of H2O2-induced caveolin-1 phosphorylation as shown by the markedly different concentration dependences. We tested the effect of H2O2 on palmitoylation of caveolin-1 by the incorporation of [3H]palmitic acid. Exposure of ECs to H2O2 markedly inhibited the palmitoylation of caveolin-1. Comparable inhibition was observed after treatment of cells with H2O2 delivered either as a bolus or by continuous delivery with glucose and glucose oxidase. Kinetic studies showed that H2O2 did not alter the rate of caveolin-1 depalmitoylation but instead decreased the 'on-rate' of palmitoylation. Together these results show for the first time the modulation of protein palmitoylation by oxidative stress, and suggest a cellular mechanism by which stress might influence caveolin-1-dependent cell activities such as the concentration of signalling proteins and cholesterol trafficking.

  6. Enhancing the pharmacodynamic profile of a class of selective COX-2 inhibiting nitric oxide donors.

    PubMed

    Biava, Mariangela; Battilocchio, Claudio; Poce, Giovanna; Alfonso, Salvatore; Consalvi, Sara; Di Capua, Angela; Calderone, Vincenzo; Martelli, Alma; Testai, Lara; Sautebin, Lidia; Rossi, Antonietta; Ghelardini, Carla; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Giordani, Antonio; Persiani, Stefano; Colovic, Milena; Dovizio, Melania; Patrignani, Paola; Anzini, Maurizio

    2014-01-15

    We report herein the development, synthesis, physicochemical and pharmacological characterization of a novel class of pharmacodynamic hybrids that selectively inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) isoform and present suitable nitric oxide releasing properties. The replacement of the ester moiety with the amide group gave access to in vivo more stable and active derivatives that highlighted outstanding pharmacological properties. In particular, the glycine derivative proved to be extremely active in suppressing hyperalgesia and edema. PMID:24373735

  7. Capacitance pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Eaton, William P.; Staple, Bevan D.; Smith, James H.

    2000-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) capacitance pressure sensor integrated with electronic circuitry on a common substrate and a method for forming such a device are disclosed. The MEM capacitance pressure sensor includes a capacitance pressure sensor formed at least partially in a cavity etched below the surface of a silicon substrate and adjacent circuitry (CMOS, BiCMOS, or bipolar circuitry) formed on the substrate. By forming the capacitance pressure sensor in the cavity, the substrate can be planarized (e.g. by chemical-mechanical polishing) so that a standard set of integrated circuit processing steps can be used to form the electronic circuitry (e.g. using an aluminum or aluminum-alloy interconnect metallization).

  8. Capacitive chemical sensor

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  9. System for Measuring Capacitance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNichol, Randal S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A system has been developed for detecting the level of a liquid in a tank wherein a capacitor positioned in the tank has spaced plates which are positioned such that the dielectric between the plates will be either air or the liquid, depending on the depth of the liquid in the tank. An oscillator supplies a sine wave current to the capacitor and a coaxial cable connects the capacitor to a measuring circuit outside the tank. If the cable is very long or the capacitance to be measured is low, the capacitance inherent in the coaxial cable will prevent an accurate reading. To avoid this problem, an inductor is connected across the cable to form with the capacitance of the cable a parallel resonant circuit. The impedance of the parallel resonant circuit is infinite, so that attenuation of the measurement signal by the stray cable capacitance is avoided.

  10. Diallyl trisulfide attenuates ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lian-Yun; Chen, Qin; Cheng, Yi-Feng; Jin, Huan-Huan; Kong, De-Song; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Li; Shao, Jiang-Juan; Zheng, Shi-Zhong

    2016-04-01

    Inhibiting the major characteristics of alcoholic fatty liver (AFL) such as lipid accumulation, oxidative stress and apoptosis is a promising strategy of treating AFL. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is the major constituent isolated from garlic, which shows promise in the treatment of chronic liver disease. However, the effects of DATS on ethanol-induced liver injury and the related mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective effects of DATS on AFL and the potential mechanisms. A single intragastric dose of ethanol was given to rats in vivo, while ethanol-stimulated LO2 cells were used as an in vitro model. Our results demonstrated that DATS prevented ethanol-induced injury, as indicated by the reduced activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the serum and culture medium, and inhibition of cell apoptosis. Furthermore, DATS reduced hepatic steatosis by up-regulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) and down-regulating the expression of sterolregulatory element binding protein 1c(SREBP-1c). In addition, DATS alleviated ethanol-induced oxidative stress by enhancing non-enzymatic antioxidant and enzymatic antioxidants contents and by reducing the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA). These data collectively revealed that DATS protected ethanol-induced liver injury by inhibiting lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. PMID:27044810

  11. Edaravone protects osteoblastic cells from dexamethasone through inhibiting oxidative stress and mPTP opening.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen-xiao; Zheng, Hai-ya; Lan, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Existing evidences have emphasized an important role of oxidative stress in dexamethasone (Dex)-induced osteoblastic cell damages. Here, we investigated the possible anti-Dex activity of edaravone in osteoblastic cells, and studied the underlying mechanisms. We showed that edaravone dose-dependently attenuated Dex-induced death and apoptosis of established human or murine osteoblastic cells. Further, Dex-mediated damages to primary murine osteoblasts were also alleviated by edaravone. In osteoblastic cells/osteoblasts, Dex induced significant oxidative stresses, tested by increased levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, which were remarkably inhibited by edaravone. Meanwhile, edaravone repressed Dex-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, or mitochondrial membrane potential reduction, in osteoblastic cells/osteoblasts. Significantly, edaravone-induced osteoblast-protective activity against Dex was alleviated with mPTP inhibition through cyclosporin A or cyclophilin-D siRNA. Together, we demonstrate that edaravone protects osteoblasts from Dex-induced damages probably through inhibiting oxidative stresses and following mPTP opening. PMID:26179849

  12. Pulmonary surfactant inhibits LPS-induced nitric oxide production by alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Miles, P R; Bowman, L; Rao, K M; Baatz, J E; Huffman, L

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation were 1) to report that pulmonary surfactant inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (. NO) production by rat alveolar macrophages, 2) to study possible mechanisms for this effect, and 3) to determine which surfactant component(s) is responsible. NO produced by the cells in response to LPS is due to an inducible. NO synthase (iNOS). Surfactant inhibits LPS-induced. NO formation in a concentration-dependent manner;. NO production is inhibited by approximately 50 and approximately 75% at surfactant levels of 100 and 200 microg phospholipid/ml, respectively. The inhibition is not due to surfactant interference with the interaction of LPS with the cells or to disruption of the formation of iNOS mRNA. Also, surfactant does not seem to reduce. NO formation by directly affecting iNOS activity or by acting as an antioxidant or radical scavenger. However, in the presence of surfactant, there is an approximately 80% reduction in the amount of LPS-induced iNOS protein in the cells. LPS-induced. NO production is inhibited by Survanta, a surfactant preparation used in replacement therapy, as well as by natural surfactant. NO formation is not affected by the major lipid components of surfactant or by two surfactant-associated proteins, surfactant protein (SP) A or SP-C. However, the hydrophobic SP-B inhibits. NO formation in a concentration-dependent manner;. NO production is inhibited by approximately 50 and approximately 90% at SP-B levels of 1-2 and 10 microgram/ml, respectively. These results show that lung surfactant inhibits LPS-induced. NO production by alveolar macrophages, that the effect is due to a reduction in iNOS protein levels, and that the surfactant component responsible for the reduction is SP-B. PMID:9887071

  13. NMI-1182, a gastro-protective cyclo-oxygenase-inhibiting nitric oxide donor.

    PubMed

    Ellis, James L; Augustyniak, Michael E; Cochran, Edward D; Earl, Richard A; Garvey, David S; Gordon, Laura J; Janero, David R; Khanapure, Subhash P; Letts, L Gordon; Melim, Terry L; Murty, Madhavi G; Schwalb, David J; Shumway, Matthew J; Selig, William M; Trocha, A Mark; Young, Delano V; Zemtseva, Irina S

    2005-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat inflammation and to provide pain relief but suffer from a major liability concerning their propensity to cause gastric damage. As nitric oxide (NO) is known to be gastro-protective we have synthesized a NO-donating prodrug of naproxen named NMI-1182. We evaluated two cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-inhibiting nitric oxide donors (CINODs), NMI-1182 and AZD3582, for their ability to be gastro-protective compared to naproxen and for their anti-inflammatory activity. NMI-1182 and AZD3582 were found to produce similar inhibition of COX activity to that produced by naproxen. Both NMI-1182 and AZD3582 produced significantly less gastric lesions after oral administration than naproxen. All three compounds effectively inhibited paw swelling in the rat carrageenan paw edema model. In the carrageenan air pouch model all three compounds significantly reduced PGE2 levels in the pouch exudate but only NMI-1182 and naproxen inhibited leukocyte influx. These data demonstrate that NMI-1182 has comparable anti-inflammatory activity to naproxen but with a much reduced likelihood to cause gastric damage. PMID:16259719

  14. Beta2-adrenergic receptor stimulation inhibits nitric oxide generation by Mycobacterium avium infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Boomershine, C S; Lafuse, W P; Zwilling, B S

    1999-11-01

    Catecholamine regulation of nitric oxide (NO) production by IFNgamma-primed macrophages infected with Mycobacterium avium was investigated. Epinephrine treatment of IFNgamma-primed macrophages at the time of M. avium infection inhibited the anti-mycobacterial activity of the cells. The anti-mycobacterial activity of macrophages correlated with NO production. Using specific adrenergic receptor agonists, the abrogation of mycobacterial killing and decreased NO production by catecholamines was shown to be mediated via the beta2-adrenergic receptor. Elevation of intracellular cAMP levels mimicked the catecholamine-mediated inhibition of NO in both M. avium infected and LPS stimulated macrophages. Specific inhibitors of both adenylate cyclase and protein kinase A prevented the beta2-adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of nitric oxide production. Beta2-adrenoreceptor stimulation at the time of M. avium infection of IFNgamma-primed macrophages also inhibited expression of iNOS mRNA. These observations show that catecholamine hormones can affect the outcome of macrophage-pathogen interactions and suggest that one result of sympathetic nervous system activation is the suppression of the capacity of macrophages to produce anti-microbial effector molecules. PMID:10580815

  15. Bisdemethoxycurcumin inhibits ovarian cancer via reducing oxidative stress mediated MMPs expressions

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Haifeng; Yang, Yi; Cui, Lin; Yang, Jiong; Li, Xiuchuan; Yang, Yongjian; Duan, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    As one main active compound of curcuminoids, Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) possesses several biological activities, such as anti-inflammation and anti-cancer activities. However, the detailed mechanism of BDMC’s anti-metastasis activity in ovarian cancer has not been clearly elucidated yet. In the present study, cell proliferation, wound healing motility, cell adhesion and invasion with or without BDMC were determined. In addition, western blot was used to examine proteins expressions. The lucigenin-enhanced luminescence was introduced to assess cellular oxidative stress. The luciferase reporter gene assay was introduced to evaluate the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Finally, BDMC significantly inhibited the adhesion, migration, invasion and metastasis of SKOV-3 cells. Moreover, BDMC inhibited expressions of several degradation-associated proteins, such as matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), CD147, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), whereas increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, BDMC reduced generation of cellular superoxide in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, BDMC inhibited the phosphorylation levels of NF-κB p65 and IκB-α, and consequently reduced NF-κB-driven luciferase expression. Collectively, BDMC serves as a therapeutic medicine to suppress ovarian cancer, perhaps via inhibiting cellular oxidative stress and subsequently inactivating NF-κB pathway. PMID:27349797

  16. Modeling Species Inhibition of NO Oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2011-04-20

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data. Such inhibition models will improve the accuracy of model based control design for integrated DPF-SCR aftertreatment systems.

  17. Impact of GaN cap on charges in Al₂O₃/(GaN/)AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures analyzed by means of capacitance measurements and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ťapajna, M. Jurkovič, M.; Válik, L.; Haščík, Š.; Gregušová, D.; Kuzmík, J.; Brunner, F.; Cho, E.-M.; Hashizume, T.

    2014-09-14

    Oxide/semiconductor interface trap density (D{sub it}) and net charge of Al₂O₃/(GaN)/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT) structures with and without GaN cap were comparatively analyzed using comprehensive capacitance measurements and simulations. D{sub it} distribution was determined in full band gap of the barrier using combination of three complementary capacitance techniques. A remarkably higher D{sub it} (∼5–8 × 10¹²eV⁻¹ cm⁻²) was found at trap energies ranging from EC-0.5 to 1 eV for structure with GaN cap compared to that (D{sub it} ∼ 2–3 × 10¹²eV⁻¹ cm⁻²) where the GaN cap was selectively etched away. D{sub it} distributions were then used for simulation of capacitance-voltage characteristics. A good agreement between experimental and simulated capacitance-voltage characteristics affected by interface traps suggests (i) that very high D{sub it} (>10¹³eV⁻¹ cm⁻²) close to the barrier conduction band edge hampers accumulation of free electron in the barrier layer and (ii) the higher D{sub it} centered about EC-0.6 eV can solely account for the increased C-V hysteresis observed for MOS-HEMT structure with GaN cap. Analysis of the threshold voltage dependence on Al₂O₃ thickness for both MOS-HEMT structures suggests that (i) positive charge, which compensates the surface polarization, is not necessarily formed during the growth of III-N heterostructure, and (ii) its density is similar to the total surface polarization charge of the GaN/AlGaN barrier, rather than surface polarization of the top GaN layer only. Some constraints for the positive surface compensating charge are discussed.

  18. Inhibition of pyrite oxidation by surface coating: a long-term field study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chan-Ung; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Park, Seong-Sook; Kang, Jin-Soo; Kim, Kang-Ho; Kim, Dong-Kwan; Choi, Ui-Kyu; Kim, Sun-Joon

    2016-10-01

    Pyrite and other iron sulfides are readily oxidized by dissolved oxygen in aqueous phase, producing acidity and Fe(2+), which causes significant environmental problems. Applications of surface coating agents (Na2SiO3 and KH2PO4) were conducted at Boeun (Chungbuk, South Korea) outcrop site, and their efficiencies to inhibit the oxidation of sulfide minerals were monitored for a long-term period (449 days). The rock sample showed positive Net Acid Production Potential (NAPP = 20.23) and low Net Acid Generation pH (NAGpH = 2.42) values, suggesting that the rock sample was categorized in the potential acid-forming group. For the monitored time period (449 days), field study results showed that the application of Na2SiO3 effectively inhibited the pyrite oxidation as compared to KH2PO4. Na2SiO3 as a surface coating agent maintained pH 5-6 and reduced oxidation of pyrite surface up to 99.95 and 97.70 % indicated by Fe(2+) and SO4 (2-) release, respectively. The scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer analysis indicated that the morphology of rock surface was completely changed attributable to formation of iron silicate coating. The experimental results suggested that the treatment with Na2SiO3 was highly effective and it might be applicable on field for inhibition of iron sulfide oxidation. PMID:26493832

  19. Bismuth oxide aqueous colloidal nanoparticles inhibit Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Delgadillo, Rene; Velasco-Arias, Donaji; Martinez-Sanmiguel, Juan Jose; Diaz, David; Zumeta-Dube, Inti; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Cabral-Romero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Multiresistance among microorganisms to common antimicrobials has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanomaterials are a new alternative to successfully treat the multiresistant microorganisms. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. Recently, it was demonstrated that the bactericidal activity of zero-valent bismuth colloidal nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans; however the antimycotic potential of bismuth nanostructured derivatives has not yet been studied. The main objective of this investigation was to analyze the fungicidal activity of bismuth oxide nanoparticles against Candida albicans, and their antibiofilm capabilities. Our results showed that aqueous colloidal bismuth oxide nanoparticles displayed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans growth (reducing colony size by 85%) and a complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are better than those obtained with chlorhexidine, nystatin, and terbinafine, the most effective oral antiseptic and commercial antifungal agents. In this work, we also compared the antimycotic activities of bulk bismuth oxide and bismuth nitrate, the precursor metallic salt. These results suggest that bismuth oxide colloidal nanoparticles could be a very interesting candidate as a fungicidal agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic. Additionally, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for the synthesized aqueous colloidal Bi2O3 nanoparticles. PMID:23637533

  20. Proteasome inhibition and oxidative reactions disrupt cellular homeostasis during heme stress

    PubMed Central

    Vallelian, F; Deuel, J W; Opitz, L; Schaer, C A; Puglia, M; Lönn, M; Engelsberger, W; Schauer, S; Karnaukhova, E; Spahn, D R; Stocker, R; Buehler, P W; Schaer, D J

    2015-01-01

    Dual control of cellular heme levels by extracellular scavenger proteins and degradation by heme oxygenases is essential in diseases associated with increased heme release. During severe hemolysis or rhabdomyolysis, uncontrolled heme exposure can cause acute kidney injury and endothelial cell damage. The toxicity of heme was primarily attributed to its pro-oxidant effects; however additional mechanisms of heme toxicity have not been studied systematically. In addition to redox reactivity, heme may adversely alter cellular functions by binding to essential proteins and impairing their function. We studied inducible heme oxygenase (Hmox1)-deficient mouse embryo fibroblast cell lines as a model to systematically explore adaptive and disruptive responses that were triggered by intracellular heme levels exceeding the homeostatic range. We extensively characterized the proteome phenotype of the cellular heme stress responses by quantitative mass spectrometry of stable isotope-labeled cells that covered more than 2000 individual proteins. The most significant signals specific to heme toxicity were consistent with oxidative stress and impaired protein degradation by the proteasome. This ultimately led to an activation of the response to unfolded proteins. These observations were explained mechanistically by demonstrating binding of heme to the proteasome that was linked to impaired proteasome function. Oxidative heme reactions and proteasome inhibition could be differentiated as synergistic activities of the porphyrin. Based on the present data a novel model of cellular heme toxicity is proposed, whereby proteasome inhibition by heme sustains a cycle of oxidative stress, protein modification, accumulation of damaged proteins and cell death. PMID:25301065

  1. Terminalia bellirica Extract Inhibits Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Macrophage Inflammatory Response in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Miori; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saita, Emi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Taguchi, Chie; Iida, Kaoruko; Kondo, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The deciduous tree Terminalia bellirica found in Southeast Asia is extensively used in traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of hypertension, rheumatism, and diabetes. The anti-atherogenic effect of Terminalia bellirica fruit has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of Terminalia bellirica extract (TBE) on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and inflammation in macrophages. TBE showed 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (EC50: 7.2 ± 1.2 μg/mL) and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. TBE also significantly inhibited free radical-induced LDL oxidation compared to the solvent control in vitro. In THP-1 macrophages, TBE treatment resulted in significant decreases of the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). TBE also reduced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 secretion and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in THP-1 macrophages. These results show that TBE has the inhibitory effects on LDL oxidation and macrophage inflammatory response in vitro, suggesting that its in vivo use might inhibit atherosclerosis plaque progression. PMID:27314393

  2. Terminalia bellirica Extract Inhibits Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Macrophage Inflammatory Response in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miori; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saita, Emi; Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Taguchi, Chie; Iida, Kaoruko; Kondo, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The deciduous tree Terminalia bellirica found in Southeast Asia is extensively used in traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of hypertension, rheumatism, and diabetes. The anti-atherogenic effect of Terminalia bellirica fruit has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of Terminalia bellirica extract (TBE) on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and inflammation in macrophages. TBE showed 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (EC50: 7.2 ± 1.2 μg/mL) and 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. TBE also significantly inhibited free radical-induced LDL oxidation compared to the solvent control in vitro. In THP-1 macrophages, TBE treatment resulted in significant decreases of the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). TBE also reduced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 secretion and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in THP-1 macrophages. These results show that TBE has the inhibitory effects on LDL oxidation and macrophage inflammatory response in vitro, suggesting that its in vivo use might inhibit atherosclerosis plaque progression. PMID:27314393

  3. TIA1 oxidation inhibits stress granule assembly and sensitizes cells to stress-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Arimoto-Matsuzaki, Kyoko; Saito, Haruo; Takekawa, Mutsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs) are multimolecular aggregates of stalled translation pre-initiation complexes that prevent the accumulation of misfolded proteins, and that are formed in response to certain types of stress including ER stress. SG formation contributes to cell survival not only by suppressing translation but also by sequestering some apoptosis regulatory factors. Because cells can be exposed to various stresses simultaneously in vivo, the regulation of SG assembly under multiple stress conditions is important but unknown. Here we report that reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as H2O2 oxidize the SG-nucleating protein TIA1, thereby inhibiting SG assembly. Thus, when cells are confronted with a SG-inducing stress such as ER stress caused by protein misfolding, together with ROS-induced oxidative stress, they cannot form SGs, resulting in the promotion of apoptosis. We demonstrate that the suppression of SG formation by oxidative stress may underlie the neuronal cell death seen in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26738979

  4. ATF4 deficiency protects hepatocytes from oxidative stress via inhibiting CYP2E1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunxia; Li, Houkai; Meng, Qingshu; Du, Ying; Xiao, Fei; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Junjie; Li, Kai; Chen, Shanghai; Huang, Zhiying; Liu, Bin; Guo, Feifan

    2014-01-01

    Activating transcription factor (ATF) 4 is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress in fibroblasts and neurons. The role of ATF4 in hepatocytes, however, is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ATF4 in hepatocytes in oxidative stress under a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, we showed that palmitate-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and triglyceride (TG) accumulation is blocked by ATF4 deficiency in primary hepatocytes. Consistently, HFD-induced oxidative stress, TG accumulation and expression of cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily, polypeptide 1 (CYP2E1) are also blocked by knocking down ATF4 expression in the mouse liver. This suggests that ATF4 might regulate oxidative stress viaCYP2E1 under an HFD. In addition, we observed that expression of CYP2E1 is indirectly regulated by ATF4 in a cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB)-dependent manner, which can directly activate the CYP2E1 promoter activity. Notably, ATF4-stimulated ROS production is inhibited in vivo by treatment with diallyl sulphide, a selective CYP2E1 inhibitor. Finally, we showed that ATF4 expression in the liver is responsible for the protective effects against HFD-induced CYP2E1 expression, oxidative stress, and TG accumulation. Taken together, these observations suggest that ATF4 is a novel regulator of oxidative stress as well as accumulation of TG in response to HFD. PMID:24373582

  5. Inhibition of plasmonically enhanced interdot energy transfer in quantum dot solids via photo-oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi, S. M.; Nejat, A.; West, R. G.

    2012-11-15

    We studied the impact of photophysical and photochemical processes on the interdot Forster energy transfer in monodisperse CdSe/ZnS quantum dot solids. For this, we investigated emission spectra of CdSe/ZnS quantum dot solids in the vicinity of gold metallic nanoparticles coated with chromium oxide. The metallic nanoparticles were used to enhance the rate of the energy transfer between the quantum dots, while the chromium oxide coating led to significant increase of their photo-oxidation rates. Our results showed that irradiation of such solids with a laser beam can lead to unique spectral changes, including narrowing and blue shift. We investigate these effects in terms of inhibition of the plasmonically enhanced interdot energy transfer between quantum dots via the chromium-oxide accelerated photo-oxidation process. We demonstrate this considering energy-dependent rate of the interdot energy transfer process, plasmonic effects, and the way photo-oxidation enhances non-radiative decay rates of quantum dots with different sizes.

  6. Clinical pharmacokinetics of the cyclooxygenase inhibiting nitric oxide donator (CINOD) AZD3582.

    PubMed

    Fagerholm, Urban; Björnsson, Marcus A

    2005-12-01

    The clinical pharmacokinetics of the COX-inhibiting nitric oxide donator (CINOD) AZD3582 and its metabolites, including naproxen, nitric oxide and nitrate, are summarized. AZD3582 has low aqueous solubility, moderate and passive intestinal permeability and is degraded by intestinal esterases. Its oral bioavailability (F) appears to be maximally a few per cent, and increases by several-fold after food intake. Ninety-four per cent or more of an AZD3582 dose is absorbed, of which at least 9-20% appears to be taken up as intact substance. AZD3582 has a predicted plasma protein binding degree of approximately 0.1%, a half-life (t1/2) of 3 to 10 h and does not accumulate after repeated once- and twice-daily dosing. In patients AZD3582 does not provide a significantly better gastrointestinal (GI) side-effect profile than the highly permeable and locally irritating naproxen. Possible reasons for this include considerable GI uptake as naproxen, limited duration and extent of nitric oxide donation in the GI mucosa and the circulation, tolerance development (involving auto-inhibition of nitric oxide catalysing enzymes) and mucosal damage caused by nitric oxide. Blood pressure data suggest that nitric oxide is mainly donated within 3 h. The uptake of naproxen is slightly slower and lower (> or = 94% relative GI uptake and 80-85% relative F) after AZD3582 administration compared with naproxen dosing. The naproxen t1/2 and trough steady-state concentrations after AZD3582 and naproxen dosing are similar. The average systemic nitrate exposure is approximately doubled after dosing of 375 to 750 mg AZD3582 twice daily. PMID:16354398

  7. Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron by lead nitrate in sulfate-rich systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Hongmei; Gong, Linfeng; Cravotta, Charles A., III; Yang, Xiaofen; Tuovinen, Olli H.; Dong, Hailiang; Fu, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe(II)) by Pb(NO3)2 was investigated with a mixed culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The culture was incubated at 30 °C in ferrous-sulfate medium amended with 0–24.2 mM Pb(II) added as Pb(NO3)2. Anglesite (PbSO4) precipitated immediately upon Pb addition and was the only solid phase detected in the abiotic controls. Both anglesite and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) were detected in inoculated cultures. Precipitation of anglesite maintained dissolved Pb concentrations at 16.9–17.6 μM regardless of the concentrations of Pb(NO3)2 added. Fe(II) oxidation was suppressed by 24.2 mM Pb(NO3)2 addition even when anglesite was removed before inoculation. Experiments with 0–48 mM KNO3 demonstrated that bacterial Fe(II) oxidation decreased as nitrate concentration increased. Therefore, inhibition of Fe(II) oxidation at 24.2 mM Pb(NO3)2 addition resulted from nitrate toxicity instead of Pb addition. Geochemical modeling that considered the initial precipitation of anglesite to equilibrium followed by progressive oxidation of Fe(II) and the precipitation of jarosite and an amorphous iron hydroxide phase, without allowing plumbojarosite to precipitate were consistent with the experimental time-series data on Fe(II) oxidation under biotic conditions. Anglesite precipitation in mine tailings and other sulfate-rich systems maintains dissolved Pb concentrations below the toxicity threshold of A. ferrooxidans.

  8. Glyphosate Inhibits PPAR Gamma Induction and Differentiation of Preadipocytes and is able to Induce Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Martini, Claudia N; Gabrielli, Matías; Brandani, Javier N; Vila, María Del C

    2016-08-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides (GF) are extensively used for weed control. Thus, it is important to investigate their putative toxic effects. We have reported that GF at subagriculture concentrations inhibits proliferation and differentiation to adipocytes of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. In this investigation, we evaluated the effect of GF on genes upregulated during adipogenesis. GF was able to inhibit the induction of PPAR gamma, the master gene in adipogenesis but not C/EBP beta, which precedes PPAR gamma activation. GF also inhibited differentiation and proliferation of another model of preadipocyte: mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In exponentially growing 3T3-L1 cells, GF increased lipid peroxidation and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase. We also found that proliferation was inhibited with lower concentrations of GF when time of exposure was extended. Thus, GF was able to inhibit proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes and to induce oxidative stress, which is indicative of its ability to alter cellular physiology. PMID:27044015

  9. eNOS activation and NO function: pregnancy adaptive programming of capacitative entry responses alters nitric oxide (NO) output in vascular endothelium--new insights into eNOS regulation through adaptive cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Boeldt, D S; Yi, F X; Bird, I M

    2011-09-01

    In pregnancy, vascular nitric oxide (NO) production is increased in the systemic and more so in the uterine vasculature, thereby supporting maximal perfusion of the uterus. This high level of functionality is matched in the umbilical vein, and in corresponding disease states such as pre-eclampsia, reduced vascular responses are seen in both uterine artery and umbilical vein. In any endothelial cell, NO actually produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is determined by the maximum capacity of the cell (eNOS expression levels), eNOS phosphorylation state, and the intracellular [Ca(2+)](i) concentration in response to circulating hormones or physical forces. Herein, we discuss how pregnancy-specific reprogramming of NO output is determined as much by pregnancy adaptation of [Ca(2+)](i) signaling responses as it is by eNOS expression and phosphorylation. By examining the changes in [Ca(2+)](i) signaling responses from human hand vein endothelial cells, uterine artery endothelial cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells in (where appropriate) nonpregnant, normal pregnant, and pathological pregnant (pre-eclamptic) state, it is clear that pregnancy adaptation of NO output occurs at the level of sustained phase 'capacitative entry' [Ca(2+)](i) response, and the adapted response is lacking in pre-eclamptic pregnancies. Moreover, gap junction function is an essential permissive regulator of the capacitative response and impairment of NO output results from any inhibitor of gap junction function, or capacitative entry using TRPC channels. Identifying these [Ca(2+)](i) signaling mechanisms underlying normal pregnancy adaptation of NO output not only provides novel targets for future treatment of diseases of pregnancy but may also apply to other common forms of hypertension. PMID:21555345

  10. Hydrogenase activity in Azospirillum brasilense is inhibited by nitrite, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and acetylene

    SciTech Connect

    Tibelius, K.H.; Knowles, R.

    1984-10-01

    Nitrite, NO, CO, and C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ inhibited O/sub 2/-dependent H/sub 2/ uptake (H/sup 3/H oxidation) in denitrifying Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 grown anaerobically on N/sub 2/O or NO/sub 3//sup -/. The apparent K/sub i/ values for inhibition of O/sub 2/-dependent H/sub 2/ uptake were 20 ..mu..M for NO/sub 2//sup -/, 0.4 ..mu..M for NO, 28 ..mu..M for CO, and 88 ..mu..M for C/sub 2/H/sub 2/. These inhibitors also affected methylene blue-dependent H/sub 2/ uptake, presumably by acting directly on the hydrogenase. Nitrite and NO inhibited H/sub 2/ uptake irreversibly, whereas inhibition due to CO was easily reversed by repeatedly evacuating and backfilling with N/sub 2/. The C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ inhibition was not readily reversed, partly due to difficulty in removing the last traces of this gas from solution. The NO/sub 2//sup -/ inhibition of malate-dependent respiration was readily reversed by repeatedly washing the cells, in contrast to the effect of NO/sub 2//sup -/ on H/sub 2/-dependent respiration. These results suggest that the low hydrogenase activities observed in NO/sub 3//sup -/-grown cultures of A. brasilense may be due to the irreversible inhibition of hydrogenase by NO/sub 2//sup -/ and NO produced by NO/sub 3//sup -/ reduction.

  11. L-arginine inhibits isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy through nitric oxide and polyamine pathways.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Wang, Li-Na; Xi, Yu-Hui; Li, Hong-Zhu; Xiao, Feng-Gang; Zhao, Ya-Jun; Tian, Ye; Yang, Bao-Feng; Xu, Chang-Qing

    2008-08-01

    Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Nitric oxide exhibits antihypertrophic functions and inhibits cardiac remodelling. However, the metabolism of polyamines and the potential interactions with nitric oxide in cardiac hypertrophy remain unclear. We randomly divided Wistar rats into four treatment groups: controls, isoproterenol (ISO), ISO and L-arginine, and L-arginine. Isoproterenol (5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously) and/or L-arginine (800 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) was administered once daily for 7 days. The expression of atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and fibrogenesis of heart was assessed by Van Gieson staining. Polyamines were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography, and plasma nitric oxide content and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined with a spectrophotometer. The expression levels of ornithine decarboxylase, spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were analysed by Western blot. Heart-to-body weight ratio, left ventricle-to-body weight ratio, atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA expression, collagen fibres and LDH activity were elevated, both ornithine decarboxylase and SSAT proteins were up-regulated, and total polyamines were increased in the group treated with ISO. Additionally, the expression of iNOS was up-regulated, eNOS was down-regulated, and nitric oxide levels were low. Notably, cotreatment with L-arginine reversed most of these changes except for SSAT expression,which was further up-regulated. We propose that increased polyamines and decreased nitric oxide are involved in cardiac hypertrophy induced by ISO and suggest that L-arginine pre-treatment can attenuate cardiac hypertrophy through the regulation of key enzymes of the polyamine and nitric oxide pathways. PMID:18816294

  12. Peroxide-mediated oxidation and inhibition of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1.

    PubMed

    Innes, Brendan T; Sowole, Modupeola A; Gyenis, Laszlo; Dubinsky, Michelle; Konermann, Lars; Litchfield, David W; Brandl, Christopher J; Shilton, Brian H

    2015-05-01

    Pin1 is a phosphorylation-dependent peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that plays a critical role in mediating protein conformational changes involved in signaling processes related to cell cycle control. Pin1 has also been implicated as being neuroprotective in aging-related neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease where Pin1 activity is diminished. Notably, recent proteomic analysis of brain samples from patients with mild cognitive impairment revealed that Pin1 is oxidized and also displays reduced activity. Since the Pin1 active site contains a functionally critical cysteine residue (Cys113) with a low predicted pK(a), we hypothesized that Cys113 is sensitive to oxidation. Consistent with this hypothesis, we observed that treatment of Pin1 with hydrogen peroxide results in a 32Da mass increase, likely resulting from the oxidation of Cys113 to sulfinic acid (Cys-SO(2)H). This modification results in loss of peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity. Notably, Pin1 with Cys113 substituted by aspartic acid retains activity and is no longer sensitive to oxidation. Structural studies by X-ray crystallography revealed increased electron density surrounding Cys113 following hydrogen peroxide treatment. At lower concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, oxidative inhibition of Pin1 can be partially reversed by treatment with dithiothreitol, suggesting that oxidation could be a reversible modification with a regulatory role. We conclude that the loss of Pin1 activity upon oxidation results from oxidative modification of the Cys113 sulfhydryl to sulfenic (Cys-SOH) or sulfinic acid (Cys-SO(2)H). Given the involvement of Pin1 in pathological processes related to neurodegenerative diseases and to cancer, these findings could have implications for the prevention or treatment of disease. PMID:25595659

  13. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) Attenuates Traumatic Brain Injury by Inhibition of Edema Formation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Bing; Cao, Shuhua

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and long-term disability, which can decrease quality of life. In spite of numerous studies suggesting that Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been used as a therapeutic agent for a broad range of disorders, the effect of EGCG on TBI remains unknown. In this study, a weight drop model was established to evaluate the therapeutic potential of EGCG on TBI. Rats were administered with 100 mg/kg EGCG or PBS intraperitoneally. At different times following trauma, rats were sacrificed for analysis. It was found that EGCG (100 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment significantly reduced brain water content and vascular permeability at 12, 24, 48, 72 hour after TBI. Real-time PCR results revealed that EGCG inhibited TBI-induced IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA expression. Importantly, CD68 mRNA expression decreasing in the brain suggested that EGCG inhibited microglia activation. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry results showed that administering of EGCG significantly inhibited the levels of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. TBI-induced oxidative stress was remarkably impaired by EGCG treatment, which elevated the activities of SOD and GSH-PX. Conversely, EGCG significantly reduced the contents of MDA after TBI. In addition, EGCG decreased TBI-induced NADPH oxidase activation through inhibition of p47phox translocation from cytoplasm to plasma membrane. These data demonstrate that EGCG treatment may be an effective therapeutic strategy for TBI and the underlying mechanism involves inhibition of oxidative stress. PMID:26557015

  14. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) Attenuates Traumatic Brain Injury by Inhibition of Edema Formation and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Bing; Cao, Shuhua; Wang, Yongqiang

    2015-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and long-term disability, which can decrease quality of life. In spite of numerous studies suggesting that Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been used as a therapeutic agent for a broad range of disorders, the effect of EGCG on TBI remains unknown. In this study, a weight drop model was established to evaluate the therapeutic potential of EGCG on TBI. Rats were administered with 100 mg/kg EGCG or PBS intraperitoneally. At different times following trauma, rats were sacrificed for analysis. It was found that EGCG (100 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment significantly reduced brain water content and vascular permeability at 12, 24, 48, 72 hour after TBI. Real-time PCR results revealed that EGCG inhibited TBI-induced IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA expression. Importantly, CD68 mRNA expression decreasing in the brain suggested that EGCG inhibited microglia activation. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry results showed that administering of EGCG significantly inhibited the levels of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. TBI-induced oxidative stress was remarkably impaired by EGCG treatment, which elevated the activities of SOD and GSH-PX. Conversely, EGCG significantly reduced the contents of MDA after TBI. In addition, EGCG decreased TBI-induced NADPH oxidase activation through inhibition of p47(phox) translocation from cytoplasm to plasma membrane. These data demonstrate that EGCG treatment may be an effective therapeutic strategy for TBI and the underlying mechanism involves inhibition of oxidative stress. PMID:26557015

  15. Opposing effects of nitric oxide and prostaglandin inhibition on muscle mitochondrial Vo(2) during exercise.

    PubMed

    Boushel, Robert; Fuentes, Teresa; Hellsten, Ylva; Saltin, Bengt

    2012-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PG) together play a role in regulating blood flow during exercise. NO also regulates mitochondrial oxygen consumption through competitive binding to cytochrome-c oxidase. Indomethacin uncouples and inhibits the electron transport chain in a concentration-dependent manner, and thus, inhibition of NO and PG synthesis may regulate both muscle oxygen delivery and utilization. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent and combined effects of NO and PG synthesis blockade (L-NMMA and indomethacin, respectively) on mitochondrial respiration in human muscle following knee extension exercise (KEE). Specifically, this study examined the physiological effect of NO, and the pharmacological effect of indomethacin, on muscle mitochondrial function. Consistent with their mechanism of action, we hypothesized that inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and PG synthesis would have opposite effects on muscle mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondrial respiration was measured ex vivo by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized fibers following 6 min KEE in control (CON; n = 8), arterial infusion of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; n = 4) and Indo (n = 4) followed by combined inhibition of NOS and PG synthesis (L-NMMA + Indo, n = 8). ADP-stimulated state 3 respiration (OXPHOS) with substrates for complex I (glutamate, malate) was reduced 50% by Indo. State 3 O(2) flux with complex I and II substrates was reduced less with both Indo (20%) and L-NMMA + Indo (15%) compared with CON. The results indicate that indomethacin reduces state 3 mitochondrial respiration primarily at complex I of the respiratory chain, while blockade of NOS by L-NMMA counteracts the inhibition by Indo. This effect on muscle mitochondria, in concert with a reduction of blood flow accounts for in vivo changes in muscle O(2) consumption during combined blockade of NOS and PG synthesis. PMID:22552792

  16. Inhibition of the Fe(III)-catalyzed dopamine oxidation by ATP and its relevance to oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dianlu; Shi, Shuyun; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Lin; Ding, Bingrong; Zhao, Bingqing; Yagnik, Gargey; Zhou, Feimeng

    2013-09-18

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic cells, which implicates a role of dopamine (DA) in the etiology of PD. A possible DA degradation pathway is the Fe(III)-catalyzed oxidation of DA by oxygen, which produces neuronal toxins as side products. We investigated how ATP, an abundant and ubiquitous molecule in cellular milieu, affects the catalytic oxidation reaction of dopamine. For the first time, a unique, highly stable DA-Fe(III)-ATP ternary complex was formed and characterized in vitro. ATP as a ligand shifts the catecholate-Fe(III) ligand metal charge transfer (LMCT) band to a longer wavelength and the redox potentials of both DA and the Fe(III) center in the ternary complex. Remarkably, the additional ligation by ATP was found to significantly reverse the catalytic effect of the Fe(III) center on the DA oxidation. The reversal is attributed to the full occupation of the Fe(III) coordination sites by ATP and DA, which blocks O2 from accessing the Fe(III) center and its further reaction with DA. The biological relevance of this complex is strongly implicated by the identification of the ternary complex in the substantia nigra of rat brain and its attenuation of cytotoxicity of the Fe(III)-DA complex. Since ATP deficiency accompanies PD and neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) induced PD, deficiency of ATP and the resultant impairment toward the inhibition of the Fe(III)-catalyzed DA oxidation may contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. Our finding provides new insight into the pathways of DA oxidation and its relationship with synaptic activity. PMID:23823941

  17. Borna disease virus P protein inhibits nitric oxide synthase gene expression in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Guiqing; Zhang Fengmin; Zhang Qi; Wu Kailang; Zhu Fan; Wu Jianguo

    2007-09-30

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is one of the potential infectious agents involved in the development of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Neurons and astrocytes are the main targets of BDV infection, but little is known about the roles of BDV infection in the biological effects of astrocytes. Here we reported that BDV inhibits the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in murine astrocytes induced by bacterial LPS and PMA. To determine which protein of BDV is responsible for the regulation of iNOS expression, we co-transfected murine astrocytes with reporter plasmid iNOS-luciferase and plasmid expressing individual BDV proteins. Results from analyses of reporter activities revealed that only the phosphoprotein (P) of BDV had an inhibitory effect on the activation of iNOS. In addition, P protein inhibits nitric oxide production through regulating iNOS expression. We also reported that the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) binding element, AP-1 recognition site, and interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) on the iNOS promoter were involved in the repression of iNOS gene expression regulated by the P protein. Functional analysis indicated that sequences from amino acids 134 to 174 of the P protein are necessary for the regulation of iNOS. These data suggested that BDV may suppress signal transduction pathways, which resulted in the inhibition of iNOS activation in astrocytes.

  18. Modeling Species Inhibition of NO oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2010-09-15

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data.

  19. Use of Walnut Shell Powder to Inhibit Expression of Fe(2+)-Oxidizing Genes of Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhui; Liu, Yehao; Tan, Huifang; Zhang, Yifeng; Yue, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a Gram-negative bacterium that obtains energy by oxidizing Fe(2+) or reduced sulfur compounds. This bacterium contributes to the formation of acid mine drainage (AMD). This study determined whether walnut shell powder inhibits the growth of A. ferrooxidans. First, the effects of walnut shell powder on Fe(2+) oxidization and H⁺ production were evaluated. Second, the chemical constituents of walnut shell were isolated to determine the active ingredient(s). Third, the expression of Fe(2+)-oxidizing genes and rus operon genes was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Finally, growth curves were plotted, and a bioleaching experiment was performed to confirm the active ingredient(s) in walnut shells. The results indicated that both walnut shell powder and the phenolic fraction exert high inhibitory effects on Fe(2+) oxidation and H⁺ production by A. ferrooxidans cultured in standard 9K medium. The phenolic components exert their inhibitory effects by down-regulating the expression of Fe(2+)-oxidizing genes and rus operon genes, which significantly decreased the growth of A. ferrooxidans. This study revealed walnut shell powder to be a promising substance for controlling AMD. PMID:27144574

  20. Effect of Extra-Framework Cations of LTL Nanozeolites to Inhibit Oil Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Cham, Hooi-Ying; Awala, Hussein; Ling, Tau Chuan; Mukti, Rino R.; Wong, Ka-Lun; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-06-01

    Lubricant oils take significant part in current health and environmental considerations since they are an integral and indispensable component of modern technology. Antioxidants are probably the most important additives used in oils because oxidative deterioration plays a major role in oil degradation. Zeolite nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven as another option as green antioxidants in oil formulation. The anti-oxidative behavior of zeolite NPs is obvious; however, the phenomenon is still under investigation. Herein, a study of the effect of extra-framework cations stabilized on Linde Type L (LTL) zeolite NPs (ca. 20 nm) on inhibition of oxidation in palm oil-based lubricant oil is reported. Hydrophilic LTL zeolites with a Si/Al ratio of 3.2 containing four different inorganic cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Ca2+) were applied. The oxidation of the lubricant oil was followed by visual observation, colorimetry, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, total acid number (TAN), and rheology analyses. The effect of extra-framework cations to slow down the rate of oil oxidation and to control the viscosity of oil is demonstrated. The degradation rate of the lubricant oil samples is decreased considerably as the polarizability of cation is increased with the presence of zeolite NPs. More importantly, the microporous zeolite NPs have a great influence in halting the steps that lead to the polymerization of the oils and thus increasing the lifetime of oils.

  1. Effect of Extra-Framework Cations of LTL Nanozeolites to Inhibit Oil Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Cham, Hooi-Ying; Awala, Hussein; Ling, Tau Chuan; Mukti, Rino R; Wong, Ka-Lun; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-12-01

    Lubricant oils take significant part in current health and environmental considerations since they are an integral and indispensable component of modern technology. Antioxidants are probably the most important additives used in oils because oxidative deterioration plays a major role in oil degradation. Zeolite nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven as another option as green antioxidants in oil formulation. The anti-oxidative behavior of zeolite NPs is obvious; however, the phenomenon is still under investigation. Herein, a study of the effect of extra-framework cations stabilized on Linde Type L (LTL) zeolite NPs (ca. 20 nm) on inhibition of oxidation in palm oil-based lubricant oil is reported. Hydrophilic LTL zeolites with a Si/Al ratio of 3.2 containing four different inorganic cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+)) were applied. The oxidation of the lubricant oil was followed by visual observation, colorimetry, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, total acid number (TAN), and rheology analyses. The effect of extra-framework cations to slow down the rate of oil oxidation and to control the viscosity of oil is demonstrated. The degradation rate of the lubricant oil samples is decreased considerably as the polarizability of cation is increased with the presence of zeolite NPs. More importantly, the microporous zeolite NPs have a great influence in halting the steps that lead to the polymerization of the oils and thus increasing the lifetime of oils. PMID:26058517

  2. Use of Walnut Shell Powder to Inhibit Expression of Fe2+-Oxidizing Genes of Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuhui; Liu, Yehao; Tan, Huifang; Zhang, Yifeng; Yue, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a Gram-negative bacterium that obtains energy by oxidizing Fe2+ or reduced sulfur compounds. This bacterium contributes to the formation of acid mine drainage (AMD). This study determined whether walnut shell powder inhibits the growth of A. ferrooxidans. First, the effects of walnut shell powder on Fe2+ oxidization and H+ production were evaluated. Second, the chemical constituents of walnut shell were isolated to determine the active ingredient(s). Third, the expression of Fe2+-oxidizing genes and rus operon genes was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Finally, growth curves were plotted, and a bioleaching experiment was performed to confirm the active ingredient(s) in walnut shells. The results indicated that both walnut shell powder and the phenolic fraction exert high inhibitory effects on Fe2+ oxidation and H+ production by A. ferrooxidans cultured in standard 9K medium. The phenolic components exert their inhibitory effects by down-regulating the expression of Fe2+-oxidizing genes and rus operon genes, which significantly decreased the growth of A. ferrooxidans. This study revealed walnut shell powder to be a promising substance for controlling AMD. PMID:27144574

  3. Inhibition of oxidative hemolysis in erythrocytes by mitochondria-targeted antioxidants of SkQ series.

    PubMed

    Omarova, E O; Antonenko, Y N

    2014-02-01

    In the present work we studied the effect of antioxidants of the SkQ1 family (10-(6'-plastoquinonyl)decyltriphenylphosphonium) on the oxidative hemolysis of erythrocytes induced by a lipophilic free radical initiator 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (AMVN) and a water-soluble free radical initiator 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). SkQ1 was found to protect erythrocytes from hemolysis, 2 μM being the optimal concentration. Both the oxidized and reduced SkQ1 forms exhibited protective properties. Both forms of SkQ1 also inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes induced by the lipophilic free radical initiator AMVN as detected by accumulation of malondialdehyde. However, in the case of induction of erythrocyte oxidation by AAPH, the accumulation of malondialdehyde was not inhibited by SkQ1. In the case of AAPH-induced hemolysis, the rhodamine-containing analog SkQR1 exerted a comparable protective effect at the concentration of 0.2 μM. At higher SkQ1 and SkQR1 concentrations, the protective effect was smaller, which was attributed to the ability of these compounds to facilitate hemolysis in the absence of oxidative stress. We found that plastoquinone in the oxidized form of SkQ1 could be reduced by erythrocytes, which apparently accounted for its protective action. Thus, the protective effect of SkQ in erythrocytes, which lack mitochondria, proceeded at concentrations that are two to three orders of magnitude higher than those that were active in isolated mitochondria. PMID:24794729

  4. Inhibition of pyrite oxidation by surface coating agents: Batch and field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Do Gee, Eun; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Ram Lee, Woo; Park, Young-Tae

    2013-04-01

    The potential of several surface coating agents to inhibit the oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from Young-Dong coal mine and the Il-Gwang gold mine was examined by conducting laboratory scale batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). For the observed time period (8 days), Young-Dong coal mine samples exhibited the least sulfate (SO42-) production in the presence of KMnO4 (16%) or cement (4%) while, for Il-Gwang mine samples, the least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) compared to control. Field-scale pilot tests at the Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased SO42- production from 200 to 13 mg L-1 and it also reduced Cu and Mn from 8 and 3 mg L-1, respectively to <0.05 mg L-1 (below ICP-OES detection limits). The experimental results suggested that the use of surface coating agents is a promising alternative for sulfide oxidation inhibition at acid mine drainage sites.

  5. Inhibition of sulfide mineral oxidation by surface coating agents: batch and field studies.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Gee, Eun-Do; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Woo-Ram; Park, Young-Tae; Khan, Moonis Ali; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2012-08-30

    The potential of several surface coating agents to inhibit the oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from Young-Dong coal mine and the Il-Gwang gold mine was examined by conducting laboratory scale batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH(2)PO(4), MgO and KMnO(4) as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H(2)O(2) or NaClO). For the observed time period (8 days), Young-Dong coal mine samples exhibited the least sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) production in the presence of KMnO(4) (16%) or cement (4%) while, for Il-Gwang mine samples, the least SO(4)(2-) production was observed in presence of KH(2)PO(4) (8%) or cement (2%) compared to control. Field-scale pilot tests at the Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH(2)PO(4) decreased SO(4)(2-) production from 200 to 13 mg L(-1) and it also reduced Cu and Mn from 8 and 3 mg L(-1), respectively to <0.05 mg L(-1) (below ICP-OES detection limits). The experimental results suggested that the use of surface coating agents is a promising alternative for sulfide oxidation inhibition at acid mine drainage sites. PMID:22727481

  6. Evidence for antiviral effect of nitric oxide. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication.

    PubMed Central

    Croen, K D

    1993-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of infectious pathogens, but an antiviral effect has not been reported. The impact of NO, from endogenous and exogenous sources, on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) replication was studied in vitro. HSV 1 replication in RAW 264.7 macrophages was reduced 1,806-fold in monolayers induced to make NO by activation with gamma IFN and LPS. A competitive and a noncompetitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase substantially reduced the antiviral effect of activated RAW macrophages. S-nitroso-L-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) is a donor of NO and was added to the media of infected monolayers to assess the antiviral properties of NO in the absence of gamma IFN and LPS. A single dose of S-nitroso-L-acetyl penicillamine 3 h after infection inhibited HSV 1 replication in Vero, HEp2, and RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Neither virucidal nor cytocidal effects of NO were observed under conditions that inhibited HSV 1 replication. Nitric oxide had inhibitory effects, comparable to that of gamma IFN/LPS, on protein and DNA synthesis as well as on cell replication. This report demonstrates that, among its diverse properties, NO has an antiviral effect. PMID:8390481

  7. In Vitro Inhibition of 4-Nitroquinoline-1-Oxide Genotoxicity by Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC501.

    PubMed

    Bocci, Alessandro; Sebastiani, Bartolomeo; Trotta, Francesca; Federici, Ermanno; Cenci, Giovanni

    2015-10-28

    Inhibition of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) genotoxicity by a probiotic strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (IMC501) was assessed by the prokaryotic short-term bioassay SOSChromotest, using Escherichia coli PQ37 as the target organism. Results showed the ability of strain IMC501 to rapidly and markedly counteract, in vitro, the DNA damage originated by the considered genotoxin. The inhibition was associated with a spectroscopic hypsochromic shift of the original 4-NQO profile and progressive absorbance increase of a new peak. IR-Raman and GC-MS analyses confirmed the disappearance of 4-NQO after contact with the microorganism, showing also the absence of any genotoxic molecule potentially available for metabolic activation (i.e., 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide and 4-nitrosoquinoline-1-oxide). Furthermore, we have shown the presence of the phenyl-quinoline and its isomers as major non-genotoxic conversion products, which led to the hypothesis of a possible pattern of molecular transformation. These findings increase knowledge on lactobacilli physiology and contribute to the further consideration of antigenotoxicity as a nonconventional functional property of particular probiotic strains. PMID:26059518

  8. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits growth of mouse ovarian antral follicles through an oxidative stress pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei Craig, Zelieann R. Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S. Gupta, Rupesh K. Flaws, Jodi A.

    2012-01-15

    Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer that has been shown to inhibit growth of mouse antral follicles, however, little is known about the mechanisms by which DEHP does so. Oxidative stress has been linked to follicle growth inhibition as well as phthalate-induced toxicity in non-ovarian tissues. Thus, we hypothesized that DEHP causes oxidative stress and that this leads to inhibition of the growth of antral follicles. To test this hypothesis, antral follicles isolated from CD-1 mice (age 31–35 days) were cultured with vehicle control (dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO]) or DEHP (1–100 μg/ml) ± N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant at 0.25–1 mM). During culture, follicles were measured daily. At the end of culture, follicles were collected and processed for in vitro reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays to measure the presence of free radicals or for measurement of the expression and activity of various key antioxidant enzymes: Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT). The results indicate that DEHP inhibits the growth of follicles compared to DMSO control and that NAC (0.25–1 mM) blocks the ability of DEHP to inhibit follicle growth. Furthermore, DEHP (10 μg/ml) significantly increases ROS levels and reduces the expression and activity of SOD1 compared to DMSO controls, whereas NAC (0.5 mM) rescues the effects of DEHP on ROS levels and SOD1. However, the expression and activity of GPX and CAT were not affected by DEHP treatment. Collectively, these data suggest that DEHP inhibits follicle growth by inducing production of ROS and by decreasing the expression and activity of SOD1. -- Highlights: ► DEHP inhibits growth and increases reactive oxygen species in ovarian antral follicles in vitro. ► NAC rescues the effects of DEHP on the growth and reactive oxygen species levels in follicles. ► DEHP decreases the expression and activity of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, which can be rescued by NAC, in antral

  9. Inhibition of rat platelet aggregation by the diazeniumdiolate nitric oxide donor MAHMA NONOate

    PubMed Central

    Homer, Kerry L; Wanstall, Janet C

    2002-01-01

    Inhibition of rat platelet aggregation by the nitric oxide (NO) donor MAHMA NONOate (Z-1-{N-methyl-N-[6-(N-methylammoniohexyl)amino]}diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate) was investigated. The aims were to compare its anti-aggregatory effect with vasorelaxation, to determine the effects of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one), and to investigate the possible role of activation of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA), independent of soluble guanylate cyclase, using thapsigargin. MAHMA NONOate concentration-dependently inhibited sub-maximal aggregation responses to collagen (2–10 μg ml−1) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP; 2 μM) in platelet rich plasma. It was (i) more effective at inhibiting aggregation induced by collagen than by ADP, and (ii) less potent at inhibiting platelet aggregation than relaxing rat pulmonary artery. ODQ (10 μM) caused only a small shift (approximately half a log unit) in the concentration-response curve to MAHMA NONOate irrespective of the aggregating agent. The NO-independent activator of soluble guanylate cyclase, YC-1 (3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole; 1–100 μM), did not inhibit aggregation. The cGMP analogue, 8-pCPT-cGMP (8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine 3′5′ cyclic monophosphate; 0.1–1 mM), caused minimal inhibition. On collagen-aggregated platelets responses to MAHMA NONOate (ODQ 10 μM present) were abolished by thapsigargin (200 nM). On ADP-aggregated platelets thapsigargin caused partial inhibition. Results with S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) resembled those with MAHMA NONOate. Glyceryl trinitrate and sodium nitroprusside were poor inhibitors of aggregation. Thus inhibition of rat platelet aggregation by MAHMA NONOate (like GSNO) is largely ODQ-resistant and, by implication, independent of soluble guanylate cyclase. A likely mechanism of inhibition is activation of SERCA. PMID:12429580

  10. Ostene, a New Alkylene Oxide Copolymer Bone Hemostatic Material, Does Not Inhibit Bone Healing

    PubMed Central

    Magyar, Clara E.; Aghaloo, Tara L.; Atti, Elisa; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In this study, we investigate the effects of a soft bone hemostatic wax comprised of water-soluble alkylene oxide copolymers (Ostene; Ceremed, Inc., Los Angeles, CA) on bone healing in a rat calvaria defect model. We compared the effects with a control (no hemostatic agent) and bone wax, an insoluble and nonresorbable material commonly used for bone hemostasis. METHODS Two bilateral 3-mm circular noncritical-sized defects were made in the calvariae of 30 rats. Alkylene oxide copolymer or bone wax was applied or no hemostatic material was used (control). After 3, 6, and 12 weeks, rats were sacrificed and the calvariae excised. Bone healing, expressed as fractional bone volume (± standard error of the mean), was measured by microcomputed tomography. RESULTS Immediate hemostasis was achieved equally with bone wax and alkylene oxide copolymer. Bone wax-filled defects remained unchanged at all time points with negligible healing observed. At 3 weeks, no evidence of alkylene oxide copolymer was observed at the application site, with fractional bone volume significantly greater than bone wax-treated defects (0.20 ± 0.03 versus 0.02 ± 0.01; P = 0.0003). At 6 and 12-weeks, alkylene oxide copolymer-treated defects continued to show significantly greater healing versus bone wax (0.18 ± 0.04 versus 0.05 ± 0.01 and 0.31 ± 0.04 versus 0.06 ± 0.02, respectively). At all time points, alkylene oxide copolymer-treated and control defects showed good healing with no significant difference. CONCLUSION Alkylene oxide copolymer is an effective hemostatic agent that does not inhibit osteogenesis or bone healing. PMID:18981846

  11. Reversal of Oxidative Stress-Induced Anxiety by Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase-2 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Anbrin; Nadeem, Ahmed; Mustafa, S. Jamal; O’Donnell, James M.

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression, has been linked to oxidative stress, in part via alterations in cyclic nucleotide signaling. Phosphodiesterase-2 (PDE2), which regulates cGMP and cAMP signaling, may affect anxiety-related behavior through reduction of oxidative stress. The present study evaluated the effects of oxidative stress on behavior and assessed the anxiolytic effects of the PDE2 inhibitor Bay 60-7550 [(2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-7-{(1R)-1-[(1R)-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-phenylbutyl}-5-methyl imidazo-[5,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4(3H)-one)]. Treatment of mice with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (300 mg/kg), an inducer of oxidative stress, caused anxiety-like behavioral effects in elevated plus-maze, open-field, and hole-board tests through the NADPH oxidase pathway; these effects were antagonized by Bay 60-7550 (3 mg/kg) and apocynin (3 mg/kg), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. The Bay 60-7550-mediated decrease in oxidative stress (i.e., superoxide anion and reactive oxygen species generation in cultured neurons and total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxides in amygdala and hypothalamus) and expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (i.e., p47 phox and gp91 phox expression in amygdala, hypothalamus, and cultured neurons) was associated with increased cGMP and phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein at Ser239, suggesting an important role of cGMP-protein kinase G signaling in reduction of anxiety. Overall, the present results indicate that oxidative stress induces anxiety-like behavior in mice and that PDE2 inhibition reverses it through an increase in cGMP signaling. Thus, PDE2 may be a novel pharmacological target for treatment of anxiety in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders that involve oxidative stress. PMID:18456873

  12. Reversal of oxidative stress-induced anxiety by inhibition of phosphodiesterase-2 in mice.

    PubMed

    Masood, Anbrin; Nadeem, Ahmed; Mustafa, S Jamal; O'Donnell, James M

    2008-08-01

    The pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression, has been linked to oxidative stress, in part via alterations in cyclic nucleotide signaling. Phosphodiesterase-2 (PDE2), which regulates cGMP and cAMP signaling, may affect anxiety-related behavior through reduction of oxidative stress. The present study evaluated the effects of oxidative stress on behavior and assessed the anxiolytic effects of the PDE2 inhibitor Bay 60-7550 [(2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-7-{(1R)-1-[(1R)-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-phenylbutyl}-5-methyl imidazo-[5,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4(3H)-one)]. Treatment of mice with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (300 mg/kg), an inducer of oxidative stress, caused anxiety-like behavioral effects in elevated plusmaze, open-field, and hole-board tests through the NADPH oxidase pathway; these effects were antagonized by Bay 60-7550 (3 mg/kg) and apocynin (3 mg/kg), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. The Bay 60-7550-mediated decrease in oxidative stress (i.e., superoxide anion and reactive oxygen species generation in cultured neurons and total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxides in amygdala and hypothalamus) and expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (i.e., p47 phox and gp91 phox expression in amygdala, hypothalamus, and cultured neurons) was associated with increased cGMP and phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein at Ser239, suggesting an important role of cGMP-protein kinase G signaling in reduction of anxiety. Overall, the present results indicate that oxidative stress induces anxiety-like behavior in mice and that PDE2 inhibition reverses it through an increase in cGMP signaling. Thus, PDE2 may be a novel pharmacological target for treatment of anxiety in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders that involve oxidative stress. PMID:18456873

  13. [Inhibiting effects of three components of Astragalus membranaceus on oxidative stress in Chang Liver cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Han, Lin; Ma, Yu-fang; Huang, Yi-fan

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of astragaloside IV, calycosin separately glucoside, formononetin on oxidative stress in Chang Liver cells induced by H2O2. In the experiments, Chang Liver cells (a kind of normal human hepatocytes) were used as the research object, bifendate which has a clear hepatoprotective effect was used as the positive control drug, then the oxidative damage model of Chang Liver cells were established by H2O2. Cells were divided into six groups: blank control group, oxidative stress group, astragaloside IV group, calycosin separately glucoside group, formononetin group and positive control group. Then endogenous antioxidant system related indexes were detected by micro plate and colorimetric method; intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by DCFH-DA fluorescent probe; and the expressions of CYP2E1 were evaluated by liver microsomes, mRNA, and protein, respectively with spectrophotometry, Real-time PCR method, and Western blot technique. Results showed that H2O2 decreased antioxidant activity, and increased ROS level and expression of CYP2E1. The above oxidative stress status had been changed with protections of the three components of Astragalus membranaceus (compared with oxidative stress group, P < 0.05, P < 0.01), which taken as a whole had equivalent effects as the drug of positive control group( bifendate). Taken together, three Astragalus membranaceus ingredients all had significant or extremely significant inhibiting effects on oxidative damaged Chang Liver cells which were induced by H2O2, and the oxidative damage of Chang Liver cells had been relieved. PMID:26080566

  14. MiR-590-5p Inhibits Oxidized- LDL Induced Angiogenesis by Targeting LOX-1

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yao; Zhang, Zhigao; Cao, Yongxiang; Mehta, Jawahar L.; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is, at least in part, responsible for angiogenesis in atherosclerotic regions. This effect of ox-LDL has been shown to be mediated through a specific receptor LOX-1. Here we describe the effect of miR-590-5p on ox-LDL-mediated angiogenesis in in vitro and in vivo settings. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were transfected with miR-590-5p mimic or inhibitor followed by treatment with ox-LDL. In other experiments, Marigel plugs were inserted in the mice subcutaneous space. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that miR-590-5p mimic (100 nM) inhibited the ox-LDL-mediated angiogenesis (capillary tube formation, cell proliferation and migration as well as pro-angiogenic signals- ROS, MAPKs, pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion-related proteins). Of note, miR-590-5p inhibitor (200 nM) had the opposite effects. The inhibitory effect of miR-590-5p on angiogenesis was mediated by inhibition of LOX-1 at translational level. The inhibition of LOX-1 by miR-590-5p was confirmed by luciferase assay. In conclusion, we show that MiR-590-5p inhibits angiogenesis by targeting LOX-1 and suppressing redox-sensitive signals. PMID:26932825

  15. MiR-590-5p Inhibits Oxidized- LDL Induced Angiogenesis by Targeting LOX-1.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yao; Zhang, Zhigao; Cao, Yongxiang; Mehta, Jawahar L; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is, at least in part, responsible for angiogenesis in atherosclerotic regions. This effect of ox-LDL has been shown to be mediated through a specific receptor LOX-1. Here we describe the effect of miR-590-5p on ox-LDL-mediated angiogenesis in in vitro and in vivo settings. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were transfected with miR-590-5p mimic or inhibitor followed by treatment with ox-LDL. In other experiments, Marigel plugs were inserted in the mice subcutaneous space. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that miR-590-5p mimic (100 nM) inhibited the ox-LDL-mediated angiogenesis (capillary tube formation, cell proliferation and migration as well as pro-angiogenic signals- ROS, MAPKs, pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion-related proteins). Of note, miR-590-5p inhibitor (200 nM) had the opposite effects. The inhibitory effect of miR-590-5p on angiogenesis was mediated by inhibition of LOX-1 at translational level. The inhibition of LOX-1 by miR-590-5p was confirmed by luciferase assay. In conclusion, we show that MiR-590-5p inhibits angiogenesis by targeting LOX-1 and suppressing redox-sensitive signals. PMID:26932825

  16. Low levels of graphene and graphene oxide inhibit cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Jiang, Wei; Wu, Bing; Yu, Jing; Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Cherr, Gary N

    2016-06-01

    Low levels of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are considered to be environmentally safe. In this study, we analyzed the potential effects of graphene and GO at relatively low concentrations on cellular xenobiotic defense system mediated by efflux transporters. The results showed that graphene (<0.5 μg/mL) and GO (<20 μg/mL) did not decrease cell viability, generate reactive oxygen species, or disrupt mitochondrial function. However, graphene and GO at the nontoxic concentrations could increase calcein-AM (CAM, an indicator of membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter) activity) accumulation, indicating inhibition of ABC transporters' efflux capabilities. This inhibition was observed even at 0.005 μg/mL graphene and 0.05 μg/mL GO, which are 100 times and 400 times lower than their lowest toxic concentration from cytotoxicity experiments, respectively. The inhibition of ABC transporters significantly increased the toxicity of paraquat and arsenic, known substrates of ABC transporters. The inhibition of ABC transporters was found to be based on graphene and GO damaging the plasma membrane structure and fluidity, thus altering functions of transmembrane ABC transporters. This study demonstrates that low levels of graphene and GO are not environmentally safe since they can significantly make cell more susceptible to other xenobiotics, and this chemosensitizing activity should be considered in the risk assessment of graphene and GO. PMID:26554512

  17. Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated Bacterial Biofilm Inhibition via Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Statistical Determination

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Sourabh; Wahab, Rizwan; Khan, Farheen; Mishra, Yogendra K.; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of bacterial biofilm is a major challenge in clinical applications. The main aim of this study is to describe the synthesis, characterization and biocidal potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) against bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These nanoparticles were synthesized via soft chemical solution process in a very short time and their structural properties have been investigated in detail by using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements. In this work, the potential of synthesized ZnO-NPs (∼10–15 nm) has been assessed in-vitro inhibition of bacteria and the formation of their biofilms was observed using the tissue culture plate assays. The crystal violet staining on biofilm formation and its optical density revealed the effect on biofilm inhibition. The NPs at a concentration of 100 µg/mL significantly inhibited the growth of bacteria and biofilm formation. The biofilm inhibition by ZnO-NPs was also confirmed via bio-transmission electron microscopy (Bio-TEM). The Bio-TEM analysis of ZnO-NPs treated bacteria confirmed the deformation and damage of cells. The bacterial growth in presence of NPs concluded the bactericidal ability of NPs in a concentration dependent manner. It has been speculated that the antibacterial activity of NPs as a surface coating material, could be a feasible approach for controlling the pathogens. Additionally, the obtained bacterial solution data is also in agreement with the results from statistical analytical methods. PMID:25402188

  18. Inhibition of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase by nitric oxide-mediated S-nitrosylation

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Kim, Bong-Jo; Song, Byoung J.

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is responsible for the metabolism of acetaldehyde and other toxic lipid aldehydes. Despite many reports about the inhibition of ALDH2 by toxic chemicals, it is unknown whether nitric oxide (NO) can alter the ALDH2 activity in intact cells or in vivo animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NO on ALDH2 activity in H4IIE-C3 rat hepatoma cells. NO donors such as S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, and 3-morpholinosydnonimine significantly increased the nitrite concentration while they inhibited the ALDH2 activity. Addition of GSH-ethylester (GSH-EE) completely blocked the GSNO-mediated ALDH2 inhibition and increased nitrite concentration. To directly demonstrate the NO-mediated S-nitrosylation and inactivation, ALDH2 was immunopurified from control or GSNO-treated cells and subjected to immunoblot analysis. The anti-nitrosocysteine antibody recognized the immunopurified ALDH2 only from the GSNO-treated samples. All these results indicate that S-nitrosylation of ALDH2 in intact cells leads to reversible inhibition of ALDH2 activity. PMID:16242127

  19. Minimally oxidized LDL inhibits macrophage selective cholesteryl ester uptake and native LDL-induced foam cell formation[S

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jason M.; Ji, Ailing; Cai, Lei; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R.

    2014-01-01

    Scavenger receptor-mediated uptake of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) is thought to be the major mechanism of foam cell generation in atherosclerotic lesions. Recent data has indicated that native LDL is also capable of contributing to foam cell formation via low-affinity receptor-independent LDL particle pinocytosis and selective cholesteryl ester (CE) uptake. In the current investigation, Cu2+-induced LDL oxidation was found to inhibit macrophage selective CE uptake. Impairment of selective CE uptake was significant with LDL oxidized for as little as 30 min and correlated with oxidative fragmentation of apoB. In contrast, LDL aggregation, LDL CE oxidation, and the enhancement of scavenger receptor-mediated LDL particle uptake required at least 3 h of oxidation. Selective CE uptake did not require expression of the LDL receptor (LDL-R) and was inhibited similarly by LDL oxidation in LDL-R−/− versus WT macrophages. Inhibition of selective uptake was also observed when cells were pretreated or cotreated with minimally oxidized LDL, indicating a direct inhibitory effect of this oxLDL on macrophages. Consistent with the effect on LDL CE uptake, minimal LDL oxidation almost completely prevented LDL-induced foam cell formation. These data demonstrate a novel inhibitory effect of mildly oxidized LDL that may reduce foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. PMID:24891335

  20. Inhibition of the neutrophil oxidative response induced by the oral administration of nimesulide in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ottonello, L; Dapino, P; Pastorino, G; Dallegri, F

    1992-01-01

    The superoxide (O2) production by phagocytes (neutrophils plus monocytes) and the lactoferrin release by neutrophils were measured in normal volunteers before and after the oral administration of the anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide. The chemotactic factor N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) and opsonized zymosan particles (OPZ) were used as activating stimuli. The oral administration of nimesulide lowered the phagocyte ability to generate O2- in response to both FMLP (percent inhibition = 67.62) and OPZ (percent inhibition = 36.75). The lactoferrin release by neutrophils was unaffected, proving that the drug does not affect the exocytosis of specific granules. The results provide direct evidence that the oral administration of nimesulide efficiently reduces the oxidative potential of phagocytes, particularly neutrophils, without interfering with mechanisms related to exocytosis of specific granules and involved in the amplification of the cell responses to inflammatory mediators. PMID:1340506

  1. Naringin Alleviates Diabetic Kidney Disease through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fenqin; Zhang, Ning; Ma, Xiaoyu; Huang, Ting; Shao, Ying; Wu, Can; Wang, Qiuyue

    2015-01-01

    Naringin, a flavanone glycoside extracted from Citrus grandis Osbeck, has a wide range of pharmacological effects. In the present study we aimed at demonstrating the protective effect of naringin against diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and elucidating its possible molecular mechanism underlying. The beneficial effect of naringin was assessed in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and high glucose-induced HBZY-1 cells. According to our results, first we found that naringin relieved kidney injury, improved renal function and inhibited collagen formation and renal interstitial fibrosis. Second, we confirmed that naringin restrained oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 antioxidant pathway. Moreover, the results suggested that naringin significantly resisted inflammatory reaction by inhibiting NF- κ B signaling pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate that naringin effectively alleviates DKD, which provide theoretical basis for naringin clinically used to treatment of DKD. PMID:26619044

  2. In-situ metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and capacitance-voltage characterizations of Al2O3 on Ga-face GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Yeluri, R.; Kim, J.; Lal, S.; Raman, A.; Lund, C.; Wienecke, S.; Lu, J.; Laurent, M.; Keller, S.; Mishra, U. K.

    2013-07-01

    The in-situ metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of Al2O3 on Ga-face GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) is reported. Al2O3 is grown using trimethylaluminum and O2 in the same reactor as GaN without breaking the vacuum. The in-situ MOSCAPs are subjected to a series of capacitance-voltage measurements combined with stress and ultraviolet-assisted techniques, and the results are discussed based on the presence of near-interface states with relatively fast and slow electron emission characteristics. The in-situ MOSCAPs with Al2O3 grown at 900 and 1000 °C exhibit very small hystereses and charge trappings as well as average near-interface state densities on the order of 1012 cm-2eV-1.

  3. Eugenol-inhibited root growth in Avena fatua involves ROS-mediated oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Nitina; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Plant essential oils and their constituent monoterpenes are widely known plant growth retardants but their mechanism of action is not well understood. We explored the mechanism of phytotoxicity of eugenol, a monoterpenoid alcohol, proposed as a natural herbicide. Eugenol (100-1000 µM) retarded the germination of Avena fatua and strongly inhibited its root growth compared to the coleoptile growth. We further investigated the underlying physiological and biochemical alterations leading to the root growth inhibition. Eugenol induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress and membrane damage in the root tissue. ROS generation measured in terms of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical content increased significantly in the range of 24 to 144, 21 to 91, 46 to 173% over the control at 100 to 1000 µM eugenol, respectively. The disruption in membrane integrity was indicated by 25 to 125% increase in malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation byproduct), and decreased conjugated diene content (~10 to 41%). The electrolyte leakage suggesting membrane damage increased both under light as well as dark conditions measured over a period from 0 to 30 h. In defense to the oxidative damage due to eugenol, a significant upregulation in the ROS-scavenging antioxidant enzyme machinery was observed. The activities of superoxide dismutases, catalases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases and glutathione reductases were elevated by ~1.5 to 2.8, 2 to 4.3, 1.9 to 5.0, 1.4 to 3.9, 2.5 to 5.5 times, respectively, in response to 100 to 1000 µM eugenol. The study concludes that eugenol inhibits early root growth through ROS-mediated oxidative damage, despite an activation of the antioxidant enzyme machinery. PMID:25752432

  4. Diet Restriction Inhibits Apoptosis and HMGB1 Oxidation and Promotes Inflammatory Cell Recruitment during Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Antoine, Daniel James; Williams, Dominic P; Kipar, Anja; Laverty, Hugh; Park, B Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a major cause of acute liver failure and serves as a paradigm to elucidate mechanisms, predisposing factors and therapeutic interventions. The roles of apoptosis and inflammation during APAP hepatotoxicity remain controversial. We investigated whether fasting of mice for 24 h can inhibit APAP-induced caspase activation and apoptosis through the depletion of basal ATP. We also investigated in fasted mice the critical role played by inhibition of caspase-dependent cysteine 106 oxidation within high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) released by ATP depletion in dying cells as a mechanism of immune activation. In fed mice treated with APAP, necrosis was the dominant form of hepatocyte death. However, apoptosis was also observed, indicated by K18 cleavage, DNA laddering and procaspase-3 processing. In fasted mice treated with APAP, only necrosis was observed. Inflammatory cell recruitment as a consequence of hepatocyte death was observed only in fasted mice treated with APAP or fed mice cotreated with a caspase inhibitor. Hepatic inflammation was also associated with loss in detection of serum oxidized-HMGB1. A significant role of HMGB1 in the induction of inflammation was confirmed with an HMGB1-neutralizing antibody. The differential response between fasted and fed mice was a consequence of a significant reduction in basal hepatic ATP, which prevented caspase processing, rather than glutathione depletion or altered APAP metabolism. Thus, the inhibition of caspase-driven apoptosis and HMGB1 oxidation by ATP depletion from fasting promotes an inflammatory response during drug-induced hepatotoxicity/liver pathology. PMID:20811657

  5. Diet restriction inhibits apoptosis and HMGB1 oxidation and promotes inflammatory cell recruitment during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Daniel James; Williams, Dominic P; Kipar, Anja; Laverty, Hugh; Park, B Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a major cause of acute liver failure and serves as a paradigm to elucidate mechanisms, predisposing factors and therapeutic interventions. The roles of apoptosis and inflammation during APAP hepatotoxicity remain controversial. We investigated whether fasting of mice for 24 h can inhibit APAP-induced caspase activation and apoptosis through the depletion of basal ATP. We also investigated in fasted mice the critical role played by inhibition of caspase-dependent cysteine 106 oxidation within high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) released by ATP depletion in dying cells as a mechanism of immune activation. In fed mice treated with APAP, necrosis was the dominant form of hepatocyte death. However, apoptosis was also observed, indicated by K18 cleavage, DNA laddering and procaspase-3 processing. In fasted mice treated with APAP, only necrosis was observed. Inflammatory cell recruitment as a consequence of hepatocyte death was observed only in fasted mice treated with APAP or fed mice cotreated with a caspase inhibitor. Hepatic inflammation was also associated with loss in detection of serum oxidized-HMGB1. A significant role of HMGB1 in the induction of inflammation was confirmed with an HMGB1-neutralizing antibody. The differential response between fasted and fed mice was a consequence of a significant reduction in basal hepatic ATP, which prevented caspase processing, rather than glutathione depletion or altered APAP metabolism. Thus, the inhibition of caspase-driven apoptosis and HMGB1 oxidation by ATP depletion from fasting promotes an inflammatory response during drug-induced hepatotoxicity/liver pathology. PMID:20811657

  6. Glycoxidized HDL, HDL enriched with oxidized phospholipids and HDL from diabetic patients inhibit platelet function

    PubMed Central

    Lê, Quang Huy; El Alaoui, Meddy; Véricel, Evelyne; Ségrestin, Bérénice; Soulère, Laurent; Guichardant, Michel; Lagarde, Michel; Moulin, Philippe; Calzada, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Context High-density lipoproteins (HDL) possess atheroprotective properties including anti-thrombotic and antioxidant effects. Very few studies relate to the functional effects of oxidized HDL on platelets in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Objective The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of in vitro glycoxidized HDL, and HDL from T2D patients on platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid signaling cascade. At the same time, the contents of hydroxylated fatty acids were assessed in HDL. Results Compared to control HDL, in vitro glycoxidized HDL had decreased proportions of linoleic (LA) and arachidonic (AA) acids in phospholipids and cholesteryl esters, and increased concentrations of hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (9-HODE and 13-HODE) and 15-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), derived from LA and AA respectively, especially hydroxy derivatives esterified in phospholipids. Glycoxidized HDL dose-dependently decreased collagen-induced platelet aggregation by binding to SR-BI. Glycoxidized HDL prevented collagen-induced increased phosphorylation of platelet p38 MAPK and cytosolic phospholipase A2, as well as intracellular calcium mobilization. HDL enriched with oxidized phospholipids, namely PC(16:0/13-HODE) dose-dependently inhibited platelet aggregation. Increased concentrations of 9-HODE, 13-HODE and 15-HETE in phospholipids (2.1, 2.1 and 2.4-fold increase respectively) were found in HDL from patients with T2D, and these HDL also inhibited platelet aggregation via SR-BI. Conclusions Altogether, our results indicate that in vitro glycoxidized HDL as well as HDL from T2D patients inhibit platelet aggregation, and suggest that oxidized LA-containing phospholipids may contribute to the anti-aggregatory effects of glycoxidized HDL and HDL from T2D patients. PMID:25794249

  7. Inhibition of the lymphocyte metabolic switch by the oxidative burst of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Philip A; Prichard, Lynn; Chacko, Balu; Ravi, Saranya; Overton, E Turner; Heath, Sonya L; Darley-Usmar, Victor

    2015-09-01

    Activation of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase-2 (NOX-2) in neutrophils is a critical process in the innate immune system and is associated with elevated local concentrations of superoxide, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hypochlorous acid. Under pathological conditions, NOX-2 activity has been implicated in the development of autoimmunity, indicating a role in modulating lymphocyte effector function. Notably, T-cell clonal expansion and subsequent cytokine production requires a metabolic switch from mitochondrial respiration to aerobic glycolysis. Previous studies demonstrate that H2O2 generated from activated neutrophils suppresses lymphocyte activation but the mechanism is unknown. We hypothesized that activated neutrophils would prevent the metabolic switch and suppress the effector functions of T-cells through a H2O2-dependent mechanism. To test this, we developed a model co-culture system using freshly isolated neutrophils and lymphocytes from healthy human donors. Extracellular flux analysis was used to assess mitochondrial and glycolytic activity and FACS analysis to assess immune function. The neutrophil oxidative burst significantly inhibited the induction of lymphocyte aerobic glycolysis, caused inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and suppressed lymphocyte activation through a H2O2-dependent mechanism. Hydrogen peroxide and a redox cycling agent, DMNQ, were used to confirm the impact of H2O2 on lymphocyte bioenergetics. In summary, we have shown that the lymphocyte metabolic switch from mitochondrial respiration to glycolysis is prevented by the oxidative burst of neutrophils. This direct inhibition of the metabolic switch is then a likely mechanism underlying the neutrophil-dependent suppression of T-cell effector function. PMID:25951298

  8. Inhibition and deactivation effects in catalytic wet oxidation of high-strength alcohol-distillery liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Belkacemi, K.; Larachi, F.; Hamoudi, S.; Turcotte, G.; Sayari, A.

    1999-06-01

    The removal efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) from raw high-strength alcohol-distillery waste liquors was evaluated using three different treatments: thermolysis (T), noncatalytic wet oxidation (WO), and solid-catalyzed wet oxidation (CWO). The distillery liquors (TOC = 22,500 mg/l, sugars = 18,000 mg/l, and proteins = 13,500 mg/l) were produced by alcoholic fermentation of enzymatic hydrolyzates from steam-exploded timothy grass. TOC-abatement studies were conducted batchwise in a stirred autoclave to evaluate the influence of the catalyst (7:3, MnO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2} mixed oxide), oxygen partial pressure (0.5--2.5 MPa), and temperature (453--523 K) on T, WO, and CWO processes. Although CWO outperformed T and WO, TOC conversions did not exceed {approximately}60% at the highest temperature used. Experiments provided prima facie evidence for a gradual fouling of the catalyst and a developing inhibition in the liquors which impaired deep TOC removals. Occurrence of catalyst deactivation by carbonaceous deposits was proven experimentally through quantitative and qualitative experiments such as elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Inhibition toward further degradation of the liquors was ascribed to the occurrence of highly stable antioxidant intermediates via the Maillard reactions between dissolved sugars and proteins. A lumping kinetic model involving both reaction inhibition by dissolved intermediates and catalyst deactivation by carbonaceous deposits was proposed to account for the distribution of carbon in the liquid, solid, and the vapor phases.

  9. PARP-1 inhibition influences the oxidative stress response of the human lens.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew J O; Ball, Simon S R; Bowater, Richard P; Wormstone, I Michael

    2016-08-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is best characterised for its involvement in DNA repair. PARP-1 activity is also linked to cell fate, confounding its roles in maintaining genome integrity. The current study assessed the functional roles of PARP-1 within human lens cells in response to oxidative stress. The human lens epithelial cell line FHL124 and whole human lens cultures were used as experimental systems. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was employed to induce oxidative stress and cell death was assessed by LDH release. The functional influence of PARP-1 was assessed using targeted siRNA and chemical inhibition (by AG14361). Immunocytochemistry and western blotting were used to assess PARP-1 expression and the alkaline comet assay determined the levels of DNA strand breaks. PARP-1 was generally observed in the cell nucleus in both the FHL124 cell line and whole human lenses. PARP-1 inhibition rendered FHL124 cells more susceptible to H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks. Interestingly, reduction of PARP-1 activity significantly inhibited H2O2-induced cell death relative to control cells. Inhibition of PARP-1 in whole human lenses resulted in a reduced level of lens opacity and cell death following exposure to H2O2 relative to matched pair controls. Thus, we show that PARP-1 could play a role in the fate of human lens cells, and these first observations in human lenses suggest that it could impact on lens opacity. Further studies are required to elucidate the regulatory processes that give rise to these effects. PMID:26990173

  10. Inhibition of cell-free oxidative bactericidal activity by erythrocytes and hemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Hand, W L

    1984-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia and other chronic hemolytic anemias are associated with an increased frequency of bacterial infections. There is evidence to suggest that in hemolytic states massive erythrocyte (RBC) ingestion by macrophages interferes with their antibacterial function, thereby predisposing infection. Stimulated by this possibility, we recently demonstrated that erythrophagocytosis by macrophages markedly inhibited intracellular killing of bacteria, and that zymosan-stimulated superoxide generation and chemiluminescence were also suppressed by RBC ingestion. We examined the effects of RBC components on generation of chemiluminescence, superoxide, and bactericidal activity by cell-free oxidative systems. Generation of chemiluminescence by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase was depressed in the presence of human RBC lysate or column-fractionated hemoglobin but not crystallized human hemoglobin (methemoglobin) (peak cpms of 15,522 [P = 0.00024], 28,360 [P = 0.0088], and 50,041 [P = 0.37], respectively, compared with 59,898 for positive controls). Similarly, hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase production of superoxide was inhibited in the presence of column-fractionated human hemoglobin (43.8 versus 17.4 nmol per tube, P = 0.000001). A cell-free bactericidal system, acetaldehyde and xanthine oxidase with or without myeloperoxidase and Cl-, was markedly inhibited by column-purified hemoglobin. For example, after 2 h of incubation, surviving numbers of Staphylococcus aureus were: control (buffer only), 2.5 X 10(6)/ml; bactericidal system, none; bactericidal system plus hemoglobin, 2.2 X 10(6)/ml (P less than or equal to 0.03, bactericidal system versus other systems). Our studies have documented that interactions between RBC (hemoglobin) and reactive products of oxygen metabolism inhibit oxidative bactericidal mechanisms in cell-free systems as well as in macrophages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6325349

  11. PARP-1 inhibition influences the oxidative stress response of the human lens

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew J.O.; Ball, Simon S.R.; Bowater, Richard P.; Wormstone, I. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is best characterised for its involvement in DNA repair. PARP-1 activity is also linked to cell fate, confounding its roles in maintaining genome integrity. The current study assessed the functional roles of PARP-1 within human lens cells in response to oxidative stress. The human lens epithelial cell line FHL124 and whole human lens cultures were used as experimental systems. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was employed to induce oxidative stress and cell death was assessed by LDH release. The functional influence of PARP-1 was assessed using targeted siRNA and chemical inhibition (by AG14361). Immunocytochemistry and western blotting were used to assess PARP-1 expression and the alkaline comet assay determined the levels of DNA strand breaks. PARP-1 was generally observed in the cell nucleus in both the FHL124 cell line and whole human lenses. PARP-1 inhibition rendered FHL124 cells more susceptible to H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks. Interestingly, reduction of PARP-1 activity significantly inhibited H2O2-induced cell death relative to control cells. Inhibition of PARP-1 in whole human lenses resulted in a reduced level of lens opacity and cell death following exposure to H2O2 relative to matched pair controls. Thus, we show that PARP-1 could play a role in the fate of human lens cells, and these first observations in human lenses suggest that it could impact on lens opacity. Further studies are required to elucidate the regulatory processes that give rise to these effects. PMID:26990173

  12. Ultrahigh Temperature Capacitive Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harsh, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Robust, miniaturized sensing systems are needed to improve performance, increase efficiency, and track system health status and failure modes of advanced propulsion systems. Because microsensors must operate in extremely harsh environments, there are many technical challenges involved in developing reliable systems. In addition to high temperatures and pressures, sensing systems are exposed to oxidation, corrosion, thermal shock, fatigue, fouling, and abrasive wear. In these harsh conditions, sensors must be able to withstand high flow rates, vibration, jet fuel, and exhaust. In order for existing and future aeropropulsion turbine engines to improve safety and reduce cost and emissions while controlling engine instabilities, more accurate and complete sensor information is necessary. High-temperature (300 to 1,350 C) capacitive pressure sensors are of particular interest due to their high measurement bandwidth and inherent suitability for wireless readout schemes. The objective of this project is to develop a capacitive pressure sensor based on silicon carbon nitride (SiCN), a new class of high-temperature ceramic materials, which possesses excellent mechanical and electric properties at temperatures up to 1,600 C.

  13. Genipin ameliorates age-related insulin resistance through inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lili; Feng, Haiyan; Gong, Dezheng; Zhao, Xu; Cai, Li; Wu, Qiong; Yuan, Bo; Yang, Mei; Zhao, Jie; Zou, Yuan

    2013-12-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) increases with age and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are supposed to be major factors leading to age-related IR. Genipin, an extract from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit, has been reported to stimulate insulin secretion in pancreatic islet cells by regulating mitochondrial function. In this study, we first investigated the effects of genipin on insulin sensitivity and the potential mitochondrial mechanisms in the liver of aging rats. The rats were randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either 25mg/kg genipin or vehicle once daily for 12days. The aging rats showed hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance as examined by the decreased glucose decay constant rate during insulin tolerance test (kITT). The hepatic tissues showed steatosis and reduced glycogen content. Hepatic malondialdehyde level and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were higher, and levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP were lower as compared with the normal control rats. Administration of genipin ameliorated systemic and hepatic insulin resistance, alleviated hyperinsulinemia, hyperglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis, relieved hepatic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in aging rats. Furthermore, genipin not only improved insulin sensitivity by promoting insulin-stimulated glucose consumption and glycogen synthesis, inhibited cellular ROS overproduction and alleviated the reduction of levels of MMP and ATP, but also reversed oxidative stress-associated JNK hyperactivation and reduced Akt phosphorylation in palmitate-treated L02 hepatocytes. In conclusion, genipin ameliorates age-related insulin resistance through inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24041487

  14. Arginase Inhibition in Airways from Normal and Nitric Oxide Synthase 2-Knockout Mice Exposed to Ovalbumin

    PubMed Central

    Bratt, Jennifer M.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; O’Roark, Erin M.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Last, Jerold A.

    2011-01-01

    Arginase1 and nitric oxide synthase2 (NOS2) utilize L-arginine as a substrate, with both enzymes expressed at high levels in the asthmatic lung. Inhibition of arginase in ovalbumin-exposed C57BL/6 mice with the transition state inhibitor Nω-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA) significantly increased total L-arginine content in the airway compartment. We hypothesized that such an increase in L-arginine content would increase the amount of nitric oxide (NO) being produced in the airways and thereby decrease airway hyper-reactivity and eosinophilic influx. We further hypothesized that despite arginase inhibition, NOS2 knockout (NOS2−/−) mice would be unable to up-regulate NO production in response to allergen exposure and would demonstrate higher amounts of airway hyper-reactivity and eosinophilia under conditions of arginase inhibition than C57BL/6 animals. We found that administration of nor-NOHA significantly decreased airway hyper-reactivity and eosinophilic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-exposed C57BL/6 mice, but these parameters were unchanged in ovalbumin-exposed NOS2−/− mice. Arginase1 protein content was increased in mice exposed to ovalbumin, an effect that was reversed upon nor-NOHA treatment in C57BL/6 mice. Arginase1 protein content in the airway compartment directly correlated with the degree of airway hyper-reactivity in all treatment groups. NOS2−/− mice had a significantly greater arginase1 and arginase2 concentrations compared to their respective C57BL/6 groups, indicating that inhibition of arginase may be dependent upon NOS2 expression. Arginase1 and 2 content were not affected by nor-NOHA administration in the NOS2−/− mice. We conclude that L-arginine metabolism plays an important role in the development of airway hyper-reactivity and eosinophilic airway inflammation. Inhibition of arginase early in the allergic inflammatory response decreases the severity of the chronic inflammatory phenotype. These effects appear to be

  15. Arginase inhibition in airways from normal and nitric oxide synthase 2-knockout mice exposed to ovalbumin.

    PubMed

    Bratt, Jennifer M; Franzi, Lisa M; Linderholm, Angela L; O'Roark, Erin M; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Last, Jerold A

    2010-01-01

    Arginase1 and nitric oxide synthase2 (NOS2) utilize l-arginine as a substrate, with both enzymes expressed at high levels in the asthmatic lung. Inhibition of arginase in ovalbumin-exposed C57BL/6 mice with the transition state inhibitor N(omega)-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine (nor-NOHA) significantly increased total l-arginine content in the airway compartment. We hypothesized that such an increase in l-arginine content would increase the amount of nitric oxide (NO) being produced in the airways and thereby decrease airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic influx. We further hypothesized that despite arginase inhibition, NOS2 knockout (NOS2-/-) mice would be unable to up-regulate NO production in response to allergen exposure and would demonstrate higher amounts of airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilia under conditions of arginase inhibition than C57BL/6 animals. We found that administration of nor-NOHA significantly decreased airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-exposed C57BL/6 mice, but these parameters were unchanged in ovalbumin-exposed NOS2-/- mice. Arginase1 protein content was increased in mice exposed to ovalbumin, an effect that was reversed upon nor-NOHA treatment in C57BL/6 mice. Arginase1 protein content in the airway compartment directly correlated with the degree of airway hyperreactivity in all treatment groups. NOS2-/- mice had significantly greater arginase1 and arginase2 concentrations compared to their respective C57BL/6 groups, indicating that inhibition of arginase may be dependent upon NOS2 expression. Arginase1 and 2 content were not affected by nor-NOHA administration in the NOS2-/- mice. We conclude that l-arginine metabolism plays an important role in the development of airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic airway inflammation. Inhibition of arginase early in the allergic inflammatory response decreases the severity of the chronic inflammatory phenotype. These effects appear to be attributable to NOS2, which

  16. Arginase inhibition in airways from normal and nitric oxide synthase 2-knockout mice exposed to ovalbumin

    SciTech Connect

    Bratt, Jennifer M.; Franzi, Lisa M.; Linderholm, Angela L.; O'Roark, Erin M.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Last, Jerold A.

    2010-01-01

    Arginase1 and nitric oxide synthase2 (NOS2) utilize L-arginine as a substrate, with both enzymes expressed at high levels in the asthmatic lung. Inhibition of arginase in ovalbumin-exposed C57BL/6 mice with the transition state inhibitor N{sup o}mega-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA) significantly increased total L-arginine content in the airway compartment. We hypothesized that such an increase in L-arginine content would increase the amount of nitric oxide (NO) being produced in the airways and thereby decrease airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic influx. We further hypothesized that despite arginase inhibition, NOS2 knockout (NOS2-/-) mice would be unable to up-regulate NO production in response to allergen exposure and would demonstrate higher amounts of airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilia under conditions of arginase inhibition than C57BL/6 animals. We found that administration of nor-NOHA significantly decreased airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-exposed C57BL/6 mice, but these parameters were unchanged in ovalbumin-exposed NOS2-/- mice. Arginase1 protein content was increased in mice exposed to ovalbumin, an effect that was reversed upon nor-NOHA treatment in C57BL/6 mice. Arginase1 protein content in the airway compartment directly correlated with the degree of airway hyperreactivity in all treatment groups. NOS2-/- mice had significantly greater arginase1 and arginase2 concentrations compared to their respective C57BL/6 groups, indicating that inhibition of arginase may be dependent upon NOS2 expression. Arginase1 and 2 content were not affected by nor-NOHA administration in the NOS2-/- mice. We conclude that L-arginine metabolism plays an important role in the development of airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic airway inflammation. Inhibition of arginase early in the allergic inflammatory response decreases the severity of the chronic inflammatory phenotype. These effects appear to be attributable to NOS2

  17. Newly synthesized salicylidene-4,4‧-dimorpholine (SDM) assembled on nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiONPs) and its inhibitive effect on mild steel in 2 N hydrochloric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhwani, Poonam M.; Panchal, Vikram K.; Shah, Nisha K.

    2015-03-01

    Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution by salicylidene-4,4‧-dimorpholine (SDM) and SDM assembled on nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiONPs) has been studied with gravimetric, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization techniques. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the inhibitors. While studying the temperature effect on corrosion behaviour of SDM and SDM assembled on NiONPs, the inhibition efficiency decreases for SDM only but increases for SDM assembled on NiONPs. The adsorption of both the inhibitors on the mild steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The activation energy as well as other thermodynamic parameters (ΔH* and ΔS*) for the inhibition process was calculated. EIS analysis results showed that the capacitive loops for SDM assembled on NiONPs were far away from blank when compared with SDM only. Polarization curve shows that the inhibitors are of mixed type. Further, the protective layer formation was confirmed from atomic force microscopy (AFM) results. Various methods such as EIS-MS, 1H NMR, XRD, FTIR, and DLS were performed for the confirmation of the structure, interaction of SDM with NiONPs and size of NiONPs.

  18. Ultrafine nickel oxide quantum dots enbedded with few-layer exfoliative graphene for an asymmetric supercapacitor: Enhanced capacitances by alternating voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Mingjun; Wang, Chiwei; Hou, Hongshuai; Wu, Zhibin; Zhu, Yirong; Yang, Yingchang; Jia, Xinnan; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Xiaobo

    2015-12-01

    A green and one-step method of electrochemical alternating voltage has been utilized to form NiO quantum dots/graphene flakes (NiO-dots/Gh) for supercapacitor applications. NiO quantum dots (∼3 nm) are uniformly deposited on few-layer graphene surfaces by oxygen functional groups on graphene surface that is naturally utilized to bridge NiO and graphene through Ni-O-C bands, which exhibits outstanding specific capacitance 1181.1 F g-1 at a current density of 2.1 A g-1 and rate behavior 66.2% at 42 A g-1 as NiO dots can be fleetly wired up to current collector through the underlying graphene two-dimensional layers. The NiO-dots/Gh composite is further undertaken in asymmetric supercapacitors with high energy density (27.3 Wh kg-1 at 1562.6 W kg-1).

  19. N-acetylcysteine inhibits in vivo oxidation of native low-density lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuqi; Narasimhulu, Chandrakala A.; Liu, Lingjuan; Zhang, Qingbin; Liu, Patrick Z.; Li, Xin; Xiao, Yuan; Zhang, Jia; Hao, Hong; Xie, Xiaoyun; He, Guanglong; Cui, Lianqun; Parthasarathy, Sampath; Liu, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is non-atherogenic, while oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) is critical to atherosclerosis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has anti-atherosclerotic effect with largely unknown mechanisms. The present study aimed to determine if NAC could attenuate in vivo LDL oxidation and inhibit atherosclerosis. A single dose of human native LDL was injected intravenously into male C57BL/6 mice with and without NAC treatment. Serum human ox-LDL was detected 30 min after injection, reached the peak in 3 hours, and became undetectable in 12 hours. NAC treatment significantly reduced serum ox-LDL level without detectable serum ox-LDL 6 hours after LDL injection. No difference in ox-LDL clearance was observed in NAC-treated animals. NAC treatment also significantly decreased serum ox-LDL level in patients with coronary artery diseases and hyperlipidemia without effect on LDL level. Intracellular and extracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) production was significantly increased in the animals treated with native LDL, or ox-LDL and in hyperlipidemic LDL receptor knockout (LDLR−/−) mice that was effectively prevented with NAC treatment. NAC also significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemic LDLR−/− mice. NAC attenuated in vivo oxidation of native LDL and ROS formation from ox-LDL associated with decreased atherosclerotic plaque formation in hyperlipidemia. PMID:26536834

  20. Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in lymphocytes of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Reynolds, P Dominic; Baumgartner, Adolf; Jerwood, David; Anderson, Diana

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is partly caused by oxidative stress from free radicals and reduced antioxidant levels. Using hydrogen peroxide to induce oxidative stress in vitro in peripheral lymphocytes we investigated the induction of DNA damage supplemented with ethanolic extract of Chaga mushroom as a protective antioxidant. Lymphocytes were obtained from 20 IBD patients and 20 healthy volunteers. For treatment, a constant H_{2}O_{2 } dose (50 microg/ml) was used with variable doses of Chaga extract (10-500 microg/ml). DNA damage was evaluated in 50 cells per individual and dose using the Comet assay (making 1000 observations per experimental point ensuring appropriate statistical power). Chaga supplementation resulted in a 54.9% (p < 0.001) reduction of H_{2}O_{2 } induced DNA damage within the patient group and 34.9% (p < 0.001) within the control group. Lymphocytes from Crohn's disease (CD) patients had a greater basic DNA damage than Ulcerative Colitis (UC) patients (p < 0.001). Conclusively, Chaga extract reduces oxidative stress in lymphocytes from IBD patients and also healthy individuals when challenged in vitro. Thus, Chaga extract could be a possible and valuable supplement to inhibit oxidative stress in general. PMID:18997282

  1. Intermedin ameliorates IgA nephropathy by inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhong; Tian, Jihua; Guo, Haixiu; Mi, Yang; Zhang, Ruijing; Li, Rongshan

    2016-05-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most frequent form of glomerulonephritis worldwide. The role of oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of IgAN has been reported. Intermedin (IMD) is a newly discovered peptide that is closely related to adrenomedullin. We have recently reported that IMD can significantly reduce renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by diminishing oxidative stress and suppressing inflammation. The present study was designed to explore whether IMD ameliorates IgAN via oxidative stress- and inflammation-dependent mechanisms. Our results showed that IMD administration resulted in the prevention of albuminuria and ameliorated renal pathomorphological changes. These findings were associated with (1) decreased renal TGF-β1 and collagen IV expression, (2) an increased SOD level and reduced MDA level, (3) the inhibition of the renal activation of NF-κB p65 and (4) the downregulation of the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, MCP-1 and MMP-9) in the kidney. These results indicate that IMD in the kidney protects against IgAN by reducing oxidative stress and suppressing inflammation. PMID:25916508

  2. Nitric Oxide Loaded Echogenic Liposomes for Nitric Oxide Delivery and Inhibition of Intimal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shao-Ling; Kee, Patrick H.; Kim, Hyunggun; Moody, Melanie R.; Chrzanowski, Stephen M.; MacDonald, Robert C.; McPherson, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a new bioactive gas delivery method using echogenic liposomes (ELIP) as the gas carrier. Background Nitric oxide (NO) is a bioactive gas with potent therapeutic effects. Bioavailability of NO by systemic delivery is low with potential systemic effects. Methods Liposomes containing phospholipids and cholesterol were prepared using a new freezing under pressure method. The encapsulation and release profile of NO from NO containing-ELIP (NO-ELIP) or a mixture of NO/Argon (NO/Ar-ELIP was studied. Uptake of NO from NO-ELIP by cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) both in the absence and presence of hemoglobin was determined. The effect of NO-ELIP delivery to attenuate intimal hyperplasia in a balloon-injured artery was determined. Results Coencapsulation of NO with argon (Ar) enabled the adjustment the amount of encapsulated NO. A total of 10 µl of gas can be encapsulated into 1 mg liposomes. The release profile of NO from NO-ELIP demonstrated an initial rapid release followed by a slower release over 8 hours. Sixty-eight percent of cells remained viable when incubated with 80 µg/ml of NO/Ar-ELIP for 4 hours. NO delivery to VSMC using NO/Ar-ELIP was 7-fold higher than unencapsulated NO. NO/Ar-ELIP remained effective NO delivery to VSMC even in the presence of hemoglobin. Local NO-ELIP administration to balloon-injured carotid arteries attenuated the development of intimal hyperplasia and reduced arterial wall thickening by 41±9%. Conclusions Liposomes can protect and deliver a bioactive gas to target tissues with the potential for both visualization of gas delivery and controlled therapeutic gas release. PMID:19660697

  3. Online capacitive densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Porges, Karl G.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is an apparatus for measuring fluid density of mixed phase fluid flow. The apparatus employs capacitive sensing of the mixed phased flow combined with means for uniformizing the electric field between the capacitor plates to account for flow line geometry. From measurement of fluid density, the solids feedrate can be ascertained.

  4. Steerable Capacitive Proximity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenstrom, Del T.; Mcconnell, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Steerable capacitive proximity sensor of "capaciflector" type based partly on sensing units described in GSC-13377 and GSC-13475. Position of maximum sensitivity adjusted without moving sensor. Voltage of each driven shield adjusted separately to concentrate sensing electric field more toward one side or other.

  5. Digital capacitance measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The hardware phase of a digital capacitance measuring system is presented with the major emphasis placed on the electrical design and operation. Test results are included of the three units fabricated. The system's interface is applicable to existing requirements for the space shuttle vehicle.

  6. Online capacitive densitometer

    DOEpatents

    Porges, K.G.

    1988-01-21

    This invention is an apparatus for measuring fluid density of mixed phase fluid flow. The apparatus employs capacitive sensing of the mixed phased flow combined with means for uniformizing the electric field between the capacitor plates to account for flow line geometry. From measurement of fluid density, the solids feedrate can be ascertained. 7 figs.

  7. Dihydrolipoic acid inhibits skin tumor promotion through anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yuan-Soon; Lai, Ching-Shu; Liu, Hsin-I; Ho, Sheng-Yow; Tai, Chein; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Wang, Ying-Jan

    2007-06-01

    alpha-Lipoic acid (LA) has been intensely investigated as a therapeutic agent for several diseases, including hepatic disorder and diabetic polyneuropathy. However, the effects of LA or its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), on cancer chemoprevention has never been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of DHLA/LA on the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and the formation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), two important mediators associated with inflammation. DHLA/LA significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO and PGE(2) formation in RAW 264.7 cells. Meanwhile, treatment with DHLA/LA suppressed the expression of iNOS protein but, unexpectedly, did not affect or increase the expression of COX-2 protein. The in vivo anti-inflammatory and antitumor-promoting activities were evaluated by a topical 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) application to mouse skin with measurement of edema formation, epidermal thickness and hydrogen peroxide production. DHLA significantly inhibited the priming and activation stages of skin inflammation induced by a double TPA application, by decreasing the inflammatory parameters. Furthermore, DHLA inhibited DMBA (0.3 micromol)/TPA (2.0 nmol)-induced skin tumor formation by reducing the tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity. When applied topically onto the shaven backs of mice prior to TPA, DHLA markedly inhibited the expression of iNOS protein. DHLA also strongly and directly inhibited COX-2 activity. These results suggest that DHLA can be a possible chemopreventive agent in inflammation-associated tumorigenesis. PMID:17403519

  8. Phenylarsine oxide and vanadate: apparent paradox of inhibition of protein phosphotyrosine phosphatases in rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Elberg, G; Shechter, Y

    1996-07-24

    Vanadate mimics, whereas phenylarsine oxide (PAO) antagonizes, the effects of insulin in rat adipocytes. Both vanadate and PAO are documented inhibitors of protein-phosphotyrosine phosphatases. The relationship between the inhibition of 'inhibitory' PTPase and 'stimulatory' PTPase has been studied here in primary rat adipocytes. Low concentrations of PAO (IC50 = 0.6-2.0 microM) blocked the stimulating effects of insulin, vanadate and pervanadate on hexose uptake and glucose metabolism. Inhibition of isoproterenol-mediating lipolysis by vanadate and insulin was not blocked by PAO. The activating effects of okadaic acid on hexose uptake and glucose metabolism, which occur at points downstream to tyrosine phosphorylation, were also not blocked by PAO. Subsequent studies suggested that the PAO-sensitive PTPase comprises a minute fraction of the total adipocytic PTPase activity. To identify its location we applied procedures involving fractionations and activation of non-receptor adipocytic protein tyrosine kinase by PAO and vanadate in cell free assays. We found that the 'inhibitory' PTPase is exclusively associated with the membrane fraction whereas the 'stimulatory' PTPases are present in both the cytosolic and plasma membrane compartments. We next searched for markers, possibly associated with PAO-dependent desensitization and found that several proteins became phosphorylated on tyrosine moieties in the supernatant of PAO but not in vanadate pretreated adipocytes. In summary, we propose the presence of a minute, plasma membrane associated PTPase in primary rat adipocytes, inhibition of which arrests the activation of glucose metabolism. In contrast, inhibition of all the other cellular adipose PTPases, ultimately activates rather than inhibits these same bioeffects. PMID:8703991

  9. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis aggravates reperfusion injury after hepatic ischemia and endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Mathews, W R; Guido, D M; Farhood, A; Jaeschke, H

    1995-10-01

    The potential role of nitric oxide (NO) was investigated in the pathophysiology of liver injury after priming with 20 min hepatic ischemia-reperfusion and administration of .5 mg/kg Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin. Liver injury during the early reperfusion phase of 4 h was characterized by severe vascular oxidant stress, lipid peroxidation (LPO), neutrophil infiltration, and a 33% reduction of the microvascular blood flow in the liver. Inhibition of NO synthesis with N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) aggravated liver injury by 90%, reduced LPO, and did not affect liver neutrophils but further impaired microvascular blood flow. Treatment with the NO-donor spermine-NONOate or L-arginine did not affect these parameters in postischemic animals, however, treatment did restore all values of L-NAME-treated animals back to disease control levels. These data suggest that endogenous NO formation is sufficient to limit ischemic liver injury during reperfusion but inhibition of NO synthesis will result in additional ischemic damage. NO may also be involved in scavenging of superoxide in the vasculature and in inducing LPO. PMID:8564557

  10. Zinc oxide nanoparticle suspensions and layer-by-layer coatings inhibit staphylococcal growth.

    PubMed

    McGuffie, Matthew J; Hong, Jin; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Glynos, Emmanouil; Green, Peter F; Kotov, Nicholas A; Younger, John G; VanEpps, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    Despite a decade of engineering and process improvements, bacterial infection remains the primary threat to implanted medical devices. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have demonstrated antimicrobial properties. Their microbial selectivity, stability, ease of production, and low cost make them attractive alternatives to silver NPs or antimicrobial peptides. Here we sought to (1) determine the relative efficacy of ZnO-NPs on planktonic growth of medically relevant pathogens; (2) establish the role of bacterial surface chemistry on ZnO-NP effectiveness; (3) evaluate NP shape as a factor in the dose-response; and (4) evaluate layer-by-layer (LBL) ZnO-NP surface coatings on biofilm growth. ZnO-NPs inhibited bacterial growth in a shape-dependent manner not previously seen or predicted. Pyramid shaped particles were the most effective and contrary to previous work, larger particles were more effective than smaller particles. Differential susceptibility of pathogens may be related to their surface hydrophobicity. LBL ZnO-NO coatings reduced staphylococcal biofilm burden by >95%. From the Clinical Editor: The use of medical implants is widespread. However, bacterial colonization remains a major concern. In this article, the authors investigated the use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) to prevent bacterial infection. They showed in their experiments that ZnO-NPs significantly inhibited bacterial growth. This work may present a new alternative in using ZnO-NPs in medical devices. PMID:26515755