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Sample records for oxy-fuel combustion systems

  1. Oxy-fuel combustion systems for pollution free coal fired power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Gross, Dietrich; Patrick, Brian; Gross, Alex; Dogan, Cindy; Summers, Cathy A.; Simmons, William; Schoenfeld, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Jupiter Oxygen's patented oxy-fuel combustion systems1 are capable of economically generating power from coal with ultra-low emissions and increased boiler efficiency. Jupiter's system uses pure oxygen as the combustion agent, excluding air and thus nitrogen, concentrating CO2 and pollutants for efficient capture with near zero NOx production, reducing exhaust mass flow, and increasing radiant heat transfer. Flue-gas recirculation rates can be varied to add flexibility to new boiler designs using this technology. Computer modeling and thermal analysis have identified important design considerations in retrofit applications.

  2. System approach to the analysis of an integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Gładysz, Paweł

    2014-09-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion (OFC) belongs to one of the three commonly known clean coal technologies for power generation sector and other industry sectors responsible for CO2 emissions (e.g., steel or cement production). The OFC capture technology is based on using high-purity oxygen in the combustion process instead of atmospheric air. Therefore flue gases have a high concentration of CO2. Due to the limited adiabatic temperature of combustion some part of CO2 must be recycled to the boiler in order to maintain a proper flame temperature. An integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant constitutes a system consisting of the following technological modules: boiler, steam cycle, air separation unit, cooling water and water treatment system, flue gas quality control system and CO2 processing unit. Due to the interconnections between technological modules, energy, exergy and ecological analyses require a system approach. The paper present the system approach based on the `input-output' method to the analysis of the: direct energy and material consumption, cumulative energy and exergy consumption, system (local and cumulative) exergy losses, and thermoecological cost. Other measures like cumulative degree of perfection or index of sustainable development are also proposed. The paper presents a complex example of the system analysis (from direct energy consumption to thermoecological cost) of an advanced integrated OFC power plant.

  3. Combustion instabilities in sudden expansion oxy-fuel flames

    SciTech Connect

    Ditaranto, Mario; Hals, Joergen

    2006-08-15

    An experimental study on combustion instability is presented with focus on oxy-fuel type combustion. Oxidants composed of CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} and methane are the reactants flowing through a premixer-combustor system. The reaction starts downstream a symmetric sudden expansion and is at the origin of different instability patterns depending on oxygen concentration and Reynolds number. The analysis has been conducted through measurement of pressure, CH* chemiluminescence, and velocity. As far as stability is concerned, oxy-fuel combustion with oxygen concentration similar to that found in air combustion cannot be sustained, but requires at least 30% oxygen to perform in a comparable manner. Under these conditions and for the sudden expansion configuration used in this study, the instability is at low frequency and low amplitude, controlled by the flame length inside the combustion chamber. Above a threshold concentration in oxygen dependent on equivalence ratio, the flame becomes organized and concentrated in the near field. Strong thermoacoustic instability is then triggered at characteristic acoustic modes of the system. Different modes can be triggered depending on the ratio of flame speed to inlet velocity, but for all types of instability encountered, the heat release and pressure fluctuations are linked by a variation in mass-flow rate. An acoustic model of the system coupled with a time-lag-based flame model made it possible to elucidate the acoustic mode selection in the system as a function of laminar flame speed and Reynolds number. The overall work brings elements of reflection concerning the potential risk of strong pressure oscillations in future gas turbine combustors for oxy-fuel gas cycles. (author)

  4. The potential for clean energy production using oxy-fuel combustion and integrated pollutant removal

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Weber, Thomas .; Summers, Cathy A.

    2005-05-01

    Effective remediation of flue gas produced by an oxy-fuel coal combustion process has been proven at bench scale in the course of cooperative research between USDOE’s Albany Research Center (ARC) and Jupiter Oxygen Corporation. All combustion gas pollutants were captured, including CO2 which was compressed to a liquefied state suitable for sequestration. Current laboratory-scale research and the future of combined oxy-fuel/IPR systems are discussed.

  5. Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-02-01

    Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems. PMID:23301852

  6. The next generation of oxy-fuel boiler systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Gross, Alex; Patrick, Brian; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    Research in the area of oxy-fuel combustion which is being pioneered by Jupiter Oxygen Corporation combined with boiler research conducted by the USDOE/Albany Research Center has been applied to designing the next generation of oxy-fuel combustion systems. The new systems will enhance control of boiler systems during turn-down and improve response time while improving boiler efficiency. These next generation boiler systems produce a combustion product that has been shown to be well suited for integrated pollutant removal. These systems have the promise of reducing boiler foot-print and boiler construction costs. The modularity of the system opens the possibility of using this design for replacement of boilers for retrofit on existing systems.

  7. NO emission during oxy-fuel combustion of lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, K.; Normann, F.; Johnsson, F.; Leckner, B.

    2008-03-15

    This work presents experimental results and modeling of the combustion chemistry of the oxy-fuel (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} recycle) combustion process with a focus on the difference in NO formation between oxy-fired and air-fired conditions. Measurements were carried out in a 100 kW test unit, designed for oxy-fuel combustion with flue gas recycling. Gas concentration and temperature profiles in the furnace were measured during combustion of lignite. The tests comprise a reference test in air and three oxy-fuel cases with different oxygen fractions in the recycled feed gas. With the burner settings used, lignite oxy-combustion with a global oxygen fraction of 25 vol % in the feed gas results in flame temperatures close to those of air-firing. Similar to previous work, the NO emission (mg/MJ) during oxy-fuel operation is reduced to less than 30% of that of air-firing. Modeling shows that this reduction is caused by increased destruction of formed and recycled NO. The reverse Zeldovich mechanism was investigated by detailed modeling and was shown to significantly reduce NO at high temperature, given that the nitrogen content is low (low air leakage) and that the residence time is sufficient.

  8. A comprehensive evaluation of the influence of air combustion and oxy-fuel combustion flue gas constituents on Hg(0) re-emission in WFGD systems.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-González, Raquel; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2014-07-15

    This paper evaluates the influence of the main constituents of flue gases from coal combustion (CO2, O2, N2 and water vapor), in air and oxy-fuel combustion conditions on the re-emission of Hg(0) in wet scrubbers. It was observed that the concentration of water vapor does not affect the re-emission of mercury, whereas O2 and CO2 have a notable influence. High concentrations of O2 in the flue gas prevent the re-emission of Hg(0) due to the reaction of oxygen with the metals present in low oxidation states. High concentrations of CO2, which cause a decrease in the pH and the redox potential of gypsum slurries, reduce the amount of Hg(0) that is re-emitted. As a consequence, the high content of CO2 in oxy-fuel combustion may decrease the re-emission of Hg(0) due to the solubility of CO2 in the suspension and the decrease in the pH. It was also found that O2 affects the stabilization of Hg(2+) species in gypsum slurries. The results of this study confirm that the amount of metals present in limestone as well as the redox potential and pH of the slurries in wet desulphurization plants need to be strictly controlled to reduce Hg(0) re-emissions from power plants operating under oxy-fuel combustion conditions. PMID:24887118

  9. Fireside corrosion in oxy-fuel combustion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph; Meier, Gerald H.; Jung, Kee Young; Mu, Nan; Yanar, Nazik M.; Pettit, Frederick S.

    2011-08-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is based on burning fossil fuels in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen, rather than in air. An optimized oxy-combustion power plant will have ultra-low emissions since the flue gas that results from oxy-fuel combustion consists almost entirely of CO2 and water vapor. Once the water vapor is condensed, it is relatively easy to sequester the CO2 so that it does not escape into the atmosphere. A variety of laboratory tests comparing air-firing to oxy-firing conditions, and tests examining specific simpler combinations of oxidants, were conducted at 650-700 C. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys, commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. Furthermore, the observed corrosion behavior shows accelerated corrosion even with sulfate additions that remain solid at the tested temperatures, encapsulation of ash components in outer iron oxide scales, and a differentiation between oxy-fuel combustion flue gas recirculation choices.

  10. Fireside corrosion in oxy-fuel combustion of coal

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Tylczak, Joseph; Meier, Gerald H.; Jung, Kee Young; Mu, Nan; Yanar, Nazik M.; Pettit, Frederick S.

    2011-08-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is based on burning fossil fuels in a mixture of recirculated flue gas and oxygen, rather than in air. An optimized oxy-combustion power plant will have ultra-low emissions since the flue gas that results from oxy-fuel combustion consists almost entirely of CO2 and water vapor. Once the water vapor is condensed, it is relatively easy to sequester the CO2 so that it does not escape into the atmosphere. A variety of laboratory tests comparing air-firing to oxy-firing conditions, and tests examining specific simpler combinations of oxidants, were conducted at 650-700 C. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr and Ni-Crmore » alloys, commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. Furthermore, the observed corrosion behavior shows accelerated corrosion even with sulfate additions that remain solid at the tested temperatures, encapsulation of ash components in outer iron oxide scales, and a differentiation between oxy-fuel combustion flue gas recirculation choices.« less

  11. Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; B. Lutz; K. Jung; N. Mu; N. M. Yanar; F. S. Pettit; J. Zhu; A. Wise; D. Laughlin; S. Sridhar

    2012-05-20

    Oxy-fuel combustion is burning a fuel in oxygen rather than air. The low nitrogen flue gas that results is relatively easy to capture CO{sub 2} from for reuse or sequestration. Corrosion issues associated with the environment change (replacement of much of the N{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} and higher sulfur levels) from air- to oxy-firing were examined. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr alloys and commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. The corrosion behavior is described in terms of corrosion rates, scale morphologies, and scale/ash interactions for the different environmental conditions.

  12. Developments in integrated pollutant removal for low-emission oxy-fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Summers, Cathy A.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Patrick, Brian; Ochs, Thomas L.

    2005-09-01

    A complete coal combustion and flue gas treatment scheme was designed, constructed, and operated at bench scale as a product of cooperative research between US DOE’s Albany Research Center (ARC) and Jupiter Oxygen Corporation. The combustion gas generated using this oxy-fuel coal combustion process was effectively captured using an integrated pollutant removal (IPR) process. Supporting laboratory-scale research focuses on elements of IPR such as extraction of particulates, SO2, and mercury, and on the character of the liquid and vapor phase compositions for the CO2 - N2 - O2 mixture at the temperature and pressure conditions found at the end of the process. Future pilot-scale work will be necessary to generate economic and engineering data that will apply to full-scale oxy-fuel/IPR systems.

  13. Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion of Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R; Tylczak, Joseph; Meier, Gerald H; Lutz, Bradley; Jung, Keeyoung; Mu, Nan; Yanar, Nazik M; Pettit, Frederick S; Zhu, Jingxi; Wise, Adam; Laughlin, David E.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2013-11-25

    Oxy-fuel combustion is burning a fuel in oxygen rather than air for ease of capture of CO2 from for reuse or sequestration. Corrosion issues associated with the environment change (replacement of much of the N2 with CO2 and higher sulfur levels) from air- to oxy-firing were examined. Alloys studied included model Fe–Cr alloys and commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. The corrosion behavior is described in terms of corrosion rates, scale morphologies, and scale/ash interactions for the different environmental conditions. Evidence was found for a hreshold for severe attack between 10-4 and 10-3 atm of SO3 at 700ºC.

  14. Nitrogen oxides, sulfur trioxide, and mercury emissions during oxy-fuel fluidized bed combustion of Victorian brown coal.

    PubMed

    Roy, Bithi; Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2014-12-16

    This study investigates, for the first time, the NOx, N2O, SO3, and Hg emissions from combustion of a Victorian brown coal in a 10 kWth fluidized bed unit under oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Compared to air combustion, lower NOx emissions and higher N2O formation were observed in the oxy-fuel atmosphere. These NOx reduction and N2O formations were further enhanced with steam in the combustion environment. The NOx concentration level in the flue gas was within the permissible limit in coal-fired power plants in Victoria. Therefore, an additional NOx removal system will not be required using this coal. In contrast, both SO3 and gaseous mercury concentrations were considerably higher under oxy-fuel combustion compared to that in the air combustion. Around 83% of total gaseous mercury released was Hg(0), with the rest emitted as Hg(2+). Therefore, to control harmful Hg(0), a mercury removal system may need to be considered to avoid corrosion in the boiler and CO2 separation units during the oxy-fuel fluidized-bed combustion using this coal. PMID:25402169

  15. Combustion Characteristics of Oxy-fuel Burners for CO2 Capturing Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joon; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Choi, Kyu Sung

    Oxy-fuel boilers have been developed to capture CO2 from the exhaust gas. A 50 kW class model burner has been developed and tested in a furnace type boiler. The burner has been scaled up to 0.5 and 3 MW class for fire-tube type boilers. The burners are commonly laid out in a coaxial type to effectively heat the combustion chamber of boilers. Burners are devised to support air and oxy-fuel combustion modes for the retrofitting scenario. FGR (flue gas recirculation) has been tried during the scale-up procedure. Oxy-fuel combustion yields stretched flame to uniformly heat the combustion chamber. It also provides the high CO2 concentration, which is over 90% in dry base. However, pure oxy-fuel combustion increases NO concentration, because of the reduced flow rate. The FGR can suppress the thermal NOx induced by the infiltration of the air.

  16. Characterization of high velocity oxy-fuel combustion sprayed hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Haman, J D; Lucas, L C; Crawmer, D

    1995-02-01

    Bioceramic coatings, created by the high velocity oxy-fuel combustion spraying of hydroxyapatite (HA) powders onto commercially pure titanium, were characterized in order to determine whether this relatively new coating process can be successfully applied to bioceramic coatings of orthopaedic and dental implants. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize both the HA starting powders and coatings. A 12 wk immersion test was conducted and the resulting changes in the coatings were also characterized. Calcium ion release during dissolution was measured with flame atomic absorption during the first 6 weeks of the immersion study. A comparison of powder and coating X-ray diffraction patterns and lattice parameters revealed an HA-type coating with some loss in crystallinity. Fourier transform infrared results showed a partial loss of the OH- group during spraying, however the phosphate groups were still present. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed a lamellar structure with very close coating-to-substrate apposition. The coatings experienced a loss of calcium during the immersion study, with the greatest release in calcium occurring during the first 6 days of the study. No significant structural or chemical changes were observed during the 12 wk immersion study. These results indicate that the high velocity oxy-fuel process can produce an HA-type coating; however, the process needs further optimization, specifically in the areas of coating-to-substrate bond strength and minimization of phases present other than HA, before it would be recommended for commercial use. PMID:7749000

  17. CO2 and H2O diluted oxy-fuel combustion for zero-emission power

    SciTech Connect

    G A Richards; K H Casleton; B T Chorpening

    2005-01-01

    Concerns about climate change have encouraged significant interest in concepts for zero-emission power generation systems. These systems are intended to produce power without releasing CO2 into the atmosphere. One method to achieve this goal is to produce hydrogen from the gasification of fossil or biomass fuels. Using various membrane and reforming technologies, the carbon in the parent fuel can be shifted to CO2 and removed from the fuel stream, followed by direct CO2 sequestration. The hydrogen fuel can be used directly in gas turbines fitted with low-NOx combustors. A second approach to producing zero-emission power is to replace the nitrogen diluent that accompanies conventional combustion in air with either CO2 or H2O. In this concept, CO2 or H2O is added to oxygen to control combustion temperatures in oxygen–fuel reactions. In the absence of nitrogen, the primary combustion products for any hydrocarbon under lean conditions are then simply CO2 and H2O. Thus, merely cooling the exhaust stream condenses the water and produces an exhaust of pure CO2, ready for sequestration. The dilute oxy-fuel combustion strategy can be incorporated in power cycles that are similar to Brayton or Rankine configurations, using CO2 or H2O as the primary diluent respectively. While the relativemerits of the various strategies to zero-emission power are the subject of various technical and economic studies, very little work has focused on defining the combustion issues associated with the dilute oxy-fuel option. In this paper, the expected combustion performance of CO2 and H2O diluted systems are compared. Experimental results from a high-pressure oxy-fuel combustor are also presented.

  18. Combustion space modelling of oxy-fuel fired glass melter

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, W. , Irvine, CA ); Kobayashi, Hisashi )

    1990-01-01

    A three-dimensional heat transfer code based on the zonal method was applied to evaluate the oxygen-fuel firing of a cross-fired regenerative glass melter. A furnace end section which includes the bridge wall and a pair of the regenerator ports was modelled in detail for a base air case and several oxy-fuel firing cases. The firing rates of two oxy-fuel burners that matched the heat flux distribution of the base air case were determined. The effects of the height and angle of the oxy-fuel burners on the temperature and heat flux distributions were predicted to evaluate the optimum burner placement of the oxy-fuel burners. The main conclusions of the simulation are that; (1) in spite of the small flame diameters, the high momentum low flame temperature oxy-fuel burners can create temperature and heat flux distributions equivalent to those of the base air case with a wide flame and (2) both lower burner elevation and angling of the oxy-fuel burners toward the glass surface tend to increase heat transfer to glass surface and reduce the peak refractory temperatures. 12 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Ammonia chemistry in oxy-fuel combustion of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Mendiara, Teresa; Glarborg, Peter

    2009-10-15

    The oxidation of NH{sub 3} during oxy-fuel combustion of methane, i.e., at high [CO{sub 2}], has been studied in a flow reactor. The experiments covered stoichiometries ranging from fuel rich to very fuel lean and temperatures from 973 to 1773 K. The results have been interpreted in terms of an updated detailed chemical kinetic model. A high CO{sub 2} level enhanced formation of NO under reducing conditions while it inhibited NO under stoichiometric and lean conditions. The detailed chemical kinetic model captured fairly well all the experimental trends. According to the present study, the enhanced CO concentrations and alteration in the amount and partitioning of O/H radicals, rather than direct reactions between N-radicals and CO{sub 2}, are responsible for the effect of a high CO{sub 2} concentration on ammonia conversion. When CO{sub 2} is present as a bulk gas, formation of NO is facilitated by the increased OH/H ratio. Besides, the high CO levels enhance HNCO formation through NH{sub 2}+CO. However, reactions NH{sub 2}+ O to form HNO and NH{sub 2}+H to form NH are inhibited due to the reduced concentration of O and H radicals. Instead reactions of NH{sub 2} with species from the hydrocarbon/methylamine pool preserve reactive nitrogen as reduced species. These reactions reduce the NH{sub 2} availability to form NO by other pathways like via HNO or NH and increase the probability of forming N{sub 2} instead of NO. (author)

  20. GRH 12-01 Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-fuel Combustion Poster 0108

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; B. Lutz; K. Jung; N. Mu; N. M. Yanar; F. S. Pettit; J. Zhu; A. Wise; D. Laughlin; S. Sridhar

    2012-05-20

    The goals are to: (1) Achieve 90% CO{sub 2} capture at no more than a 35% increase in levelized cost of electricity of post-combustion capture for new and existing conventional coal-fired power plants; (2) Provide high-temperature corrosion information to aid in materials development and selection for oxy-fuel combustion; and (3) Identify corrosion mechanism and behavior differences between air- and oxy-firing.

  1. Experimental study of oxy-fuel combustion and sulfur capture in a mini-CFBC

    SciTech Connect

    L. Jia; Y. Tan; C. Wang; E.J. Anthony

    2007-12-15

    Oxy-fuel technology uses effectively pure oxygen for fossil fuel combustion in order to obtain a highly concentrated CO{sub 2} stream, suitable for direct compression and sequestration. It is an effective technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere from large point sources such as power generation plants. Oxy-fuel FBC technology has the combined advantage of producing high CO{sub 2} concentration flue gas and allowing excellent fuel flexibility. In addition, with external cooling of the recirculated solids, the flue gas recirculation ratio can be reduced. CETC-Ottawa has carried out oxy-fuel fluidized bed combustion with flue gas recirculation on its modified mini-CFBC. The mini-CFBC has an internal diameter of 100 mm and internal height of 5000 mm. Both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals were fired. Limestone was premixed with coal and fed to the mini-CFBC. Recirculated solids were cooled in the return leg of the mini-CFBC. The bed temperature was controlled at about 850{sup o}C, while the oxygen concentration in the primary gas was about 25% and in the secondary gas was about 50%. With flue gas recycle, the CO{sub 2} concentration in the flue gas reached 82-90%. Sulfur capture efficiency and CO and NOx concentrations were also measured and were all at acceptable levels. The transition from air firing to oxy-fuel firing was a fast and relatively smooth process, and operation of the mini-CFBC under oxy-fuel firing conditions was similar to that of air firing. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Oxy-fuel combustion with integrated pollution control

    DOEpatents

    Patrick, Brian R.; Ochs, Thomas Lilburn; Summers, Cathy Ann; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Turner, Paul Chandler

    2012-01-03

    An oxygen fueled integrated pollutant removal and combustion system includes a combustion system and an integrated pollutant removal system. The combustion system includes a furnace having at least one burner that is configured to substantially prevent the introduction of air. An oxygen supply supplies oxygen at a predetermine purity greater than 21 percent and a carbon based fuel supply supplies a carbon based fuel. Oxygen and fuel are fed into the furnace in controlled proportion to each other and combustion is controlled to produce a flame temperature in excess of 3000 degrees F. and a flue gas stream containing CO2 and other gases. The flue gas stream is substantially void of non-fuel borne nitrogen containing combustion produced gaseous compounds. The integrated pollutant removal system includes at least one direct contact heat exchanger for bringing the flue gas into intimated contact with a cooling liquid to produce a pollutant-laden liquid stream and a stripped flue gas stream and at least one compressor for receiving and compressing the stripped flue gas stream.

  3. Pyrolysis and oxy-fuel combustion characteristics and kinetics of petrochemical wastewater sludge using thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianbiao; Mu, Lin; Cai, Jingcheng; Yao, Pikai; Song, Xigeng; Yin, Hongchao; Li, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    The pyrolysis and oxy-fuel combustion characteristics of petrochemical wastewater sludge (PS) were studied in air (O2/N2) and oxy-fuel (O2/CO2) atmospheres using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Pyrolysis experiments showed that the weight loss profiles were almost similar up to 1050K in both N2 and CO2 atmospheres, while further weight loss took place in CO2 atmosphere at higher temperatures due to char-CO2 gasification. Compared with 20%O2/80%N2, the drying and devolatilization stage of PS were delayed in 20%O2/80%CO2 due to the differences in properties of the diluting gases. In oxy-fuel combustion experiments, with O2 concentration increasing, characteristic temperatures decreased, while characteristic combustion rates and combustion performance indexes increased. Kinetic analysis of PS decomposition under various atmospheres was performed using Coats-Redfern approach. The results indicated that, with O2 concentration increasing, the activation energies of Step 1 almost kept constant, while the values of subsequent three steps increased. PMID:26386413

  4. Oxy-fuel Combustion and Integrated Pollutant Removal as Retrofit Technologies for Removing CO2 from Coal Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, T.L.; Oryshchyn, D.B.; Summers, C.A.; Gerdemann, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    One third of the US installed capacity is coal-fired, producing 49.7% of net electric generation in 20051. Any approach to curbing CO2 production must consider the installed capacity and provide a mechanism for preserving this resource while meeting CO2 reduction goals. One promising approach to both new generation and retrofit is oxy-fuel combustion. Using oxygen instead of air as the oxidizer in a boiler provides a concentrated CO2 combustion product for processing into a sequestration-ready fluid.... Post-combustion carbon capture and oxy-fuel combustion paired with a compression capture technology such as IPR are both candidates for retrofitting pc combustion plants to meet carbon emission limits. This paper will focus on oxy-fuel combustion as applied to existing coal power plants.

  5. A comprehensive evaluation of different radiation models in a gas turbine combustor under conditions of oxy-fuel combustion with dry recycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kez, V.; Liu, F.; Consalvi, J. L.; Ströhle, J.; Epple, B.

    2016-03-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion is a promising CO2 capture technology from combustion systems. This process is characterized by much higher CO2 concentrations in the combustion system compared to that of the conventional air-fuel combustion. To accurately predict the enhanced thermal radiation in oxy-fuel combustion, it is essential to take into account the non-gray nature of gas radiation. In this study, radiation heat transfer in a 3D model gas turbine combustor under two test cases at 20 atm total pressure was calculated by various non-gray gas radiation models, including the statistical narrow-band (SNB) model, the statistical narrow-band correlated-k (SNBCK) model, the wide-band correlated-k (WBCK) model, the full spectrum correlated-k (FSCK) model, and several weighted sum of gray gases (WSGG) models. Calculations of SNB, SNBCK, and FSCK were conducted using the updated EM2C SNB model parameters. Results of the SNB model are considered as the benchmark solution to evaluate the accuracy of the other models considered. Results of SNBCK and FSCK are in good agreement with the benchmark solution. The WBCK model is less accurate than SNBCK or FSCK. Considering the three formulations of the WBCK model, the multiple gases formulation is the best choice regarding the accuracy and computational cost. The WSGG model with the parameters of Bordbar et al. (2014) [20] is the most accurate of the three investigated WSGG models. Use of the gray WSSG formulation leads to significant deviations from the benchmark data and should not be applied to predict radiation heat transfer in oxy-fuel combustion systems. A best practice to incorporate the state-of-the-art gas radiation models for high accuracy of radiation heat transfer calculations at minimal increase in computational cost in CFD simulation of oxy-fuel combustion systems for pressure path lengths up to about 10 bar m is suggested.

  6. Modeling energy in an Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) system with CO{sub 2} capture integrated with oxy-fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Harendra, Sivaram; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Oxy-coal combustion is one of the technical solutions for mitigating CO{sub 2} in thermal power plants. Many processes have been evolved in past the decade to capture CO{sub 2} from process industries. Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have patented a process, integrated pollutant removal (IPR), that uses off the shelf technology to produce a sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. The IPR process as it is realized at the Jupiter Oxygen Burner Test Facility is a spray tower (direct-contact heat exchanger) followed by four stages of compression with intercooling. To study the energy flows of the oxy-combustion process, a 15 MW{sub t}h oxy-combustion pulverized-coal-fired plant integrated with the IPR system was simulated and analyzed using ASPEN Plus and ASPEN energy analyzer. This paper discusses flue-gas recycle, energy flow, recovery, and optimization of IPR systems. ASPEN models of heat- and mass-transfer processes in aflue-gas-condensing heat-exchanger system were developed to predict the heat transferred from flue gas to cooling water. The flue-gas exit temperature, cooling water outlet temperature, and energy flows of IPR streams were computed using ASPEN models. Pinch principles are deployed for targeting design and operation-guiding purposes and balancing the heat and mass transfer in the IPR system. The results are expected to support sophistication of the IPR system design, improving its application in a variety of settings. They open the door for valuable IPR efficiency improvements and generalization of methodology for simultaneous management of energy resources.

  7. Combustion characteristics and air pollutant formation during oxy-fuel co-combustion of microalgae and lignite.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Tahmasebi, Arash; Dou, Jinxiao; Yu, Jianglong

    2016-05-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels is seen as one of the key technologies for carbon capture to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The combustion characteristics of lignite coal, Chlorella vulgaris microalgae, and their blends under O2/N2 and O2/CO2 conditions were studied using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer-Mass Spectroscopy (TG-MS). During co-combustion of blends, three distinct peaks were observed and were attributed to C. vulgaris volatiles combustion, combustion of lignite, and combustion of microalgae char. Activation energy during combustion was calculated using iso-conventional method. Increasing the microalgae content in the blend resulted in an increase in activation energy for the blends combustion. The emissions of S- and N-species during blend fuel combustion were also investigated. The addition of microalgae to lignite during air combustion resulted in lower CO2, CO, and NO2 yields but enhanced NO, COS, and SO2 formation. During oxy-fuel co-combustion, the addition of microalgae to lignite enhanced the formation of gaseous species. PMID:26894568

  8. Proof of concept for integrating oxy-fuel combustion and the removal of all pollutants from a coal fired flame

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Patrick, Brian; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Gross, Alex; Summers, Cathy A.; Simmons, William; Schoenfield, Mark; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    The USDOE/Albany Research Center and Jupiter Oxygen Corporation, working together under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, have demonstrated proof-of-concept for the integration of Jupiter’s oxy-fuel combustion and an integrated system for the removal of all stack pollutants, including CO2, from a coal-fired flame. The components were developed using existing process technology with the addition of a new oxy-coal combustion nozzle. The results of the test showed that the system can capture SOx, NOx, particulates, and even mercury as a part of the process of producing liquefied CO2 for sequestration. This is part of an ongoing research project to explore alternative methods for CO2 capture that will be applicable to both retrofit and new plant construction.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis and comparison on oxy-fuel power generation process - article no. 053001

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, S.M.; Hynes, R.

    2009-09-15

    In this paper, pressurized oxy-fuel combustion power generation processes are modeled and analyzed based on a 350 MW subcritical reheat boiler associated with a condensing steam turbine. The performance results are obtained. Furthermore, the influences of slurry concentration and coal properties on power plant performance are investigated. An oxy-fuel configuration operating at ambient pressure is studied to compare the performance with pressurized oxy-fuel configuration. Thermodynamic analysis reveals the true potentials of the pressurized oxy-fuel process. Based on the system integration, an improved configuration is proposed in which plant efficiency of pressurized oxy-fuel process is increased by 1.36%.

  10. Development/Demonstration of an Advanced Oxy-Fuel Front-End System

    SciTech Connect

    Mighton, Steven, J.

    2007-08-06

    Owens Corning and other glass manufacturers have used oxy-fuel combustion technology successfully in furnaces to reduce emissions, increase throughput, reduce fuel consumption and, depending on the costs of oxygen and fuel, reduce energy costs. The front end of a fiberglass furnace is the refractory channel system that delivers glass from the melter to the forming process. After the melter, it is the second largest user of energy in a fiberglass plant. A consortium of glass companies and suppliers, led by Owens Corning, was formed to develop and demonstrate oxy/fuel combustion technology for the front end of a fiberglass melter, to demonstrate the viability of this energy saving technology to the U.S. glass industry, as a D.O.E. sponsored project. The project goals were to reduce natural gas consumption and CO2 green house gas emissions by 65 to 70% and create net cost savings after the purchase of oxygen to achieve a project payback of less than 2 years. Project results in Jackson, TN included achieving a 56% reduction in gas consumption and CO2 emissions. A subsequent installation in Guelph ON, not impacted by unrelated operational changes in Jackson, achieved a 64% reduction. Using the more accurate 64% reduction in the payback calculation yielded a 2.2 year payback in Jackson. The installation of the demonstration combustion system saves 77,000 DT/yr of natural gas or 77 trillion Btu/yr and eliminates 4500 tons/yr of CO2 emissions. This combustion system is one of several energy and green house gas reduction technologies being adopted by Owens Corning to achieve aggressive goals relating to the company’s global facility environmental footprint.

  11. Comparison of chars obtained under oxy-fuel and conventional pulverized coal combustion atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Angeles G. Borrego; Diego Alvarez

    2007-12-15

    In this study, two coals of different rank (a high volatile and a low volatile bituminous) have been burned in a drop tube reactor using O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures with increasing oxygen content from 0 to 21%. Various oxygen concentrations have been selected for each set of experiments in order to follow both the progress of combustion and the influence of oxygen content in the devolatilization behavior of coal. Results show that a higher amount of O{sub 2} in CO{sub 2} than in N{sub 2} is needed to achieve similar burnout levels. Significant differences were found in the influence of oxygen content on the devolatilization behavior of the lower and higher rank coal. The limited amount of oxygen in the reacting atmosphere resulted in volatile release inhibition for the high volatile bituminous coal, whereas the more plastic low volatile coal was hardly affected. The presence of variable amounts of oxygen in CO{sub 2} had a small influence on the char particle appearance. The chars from both the combustion series (O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) and the oxy-fuel series (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) were similar for each parent coal in terms of reactivity and micropore surface area measured by CO{sub 2} adsorption. The main difference between both series of chars relied on the surface area determined by N{sub 2} adsorption (SBET) and on the size distribution of pores which was shifted to a larger size for the oxy-fuel series. The difference between both series of chars was larger for the high volatile bituminous coal chars than for the low volatile bituminous coal chars. This might have important implications for combustion under the diffusion-controlled regime. 29 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Investigation on Flame Characteristics and Burner Operability Issues of Oxy-Fuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-09-30

    Oxy-fuel combustion has been used previously in a wide range of industrial applications. Oxy- combustion is carried out by burning a hydrocarbon fuel with oxygen instead of air. Flames burning in this configuration achieve higher flame temperatures which present opportunities for significant efficiency improvements and direct capture of CO2 from the exhaust stream. In an effort to better understand and characterize the fundamental flame characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion this research presents the experimental measurements of flame stability of various oxyfuel flames. Effects of H2 concentration, fuel composition, exhaust gas recirculation ratio, firing inputs, and burner diameters on the flame stability of these fuels are discussed. Effects of exhaust gas recirculation i.e. CO2 and H2O (steam) acting as diluents on burner operability are also presented. The roles of firing input on flame stability are then analyzed. For this study it was observed that many oxy-flames did not stabilize without exhaust gas recirculation due to their higher burning velocities. In addition, the stability regime of all compositions was observed to decrease as the burner diameter increased. A flashback model is also presented, using the critical velocity gradient gF) values for CH4-O2-CO2 flames. The second part of the study focuses on the experimental measurements of the flow field characteristics of premixed CH4/21%O2/79%N2 and CH4/38%O2/72%CO2 mixtures at constant firing input of 7.5 kW, constant, equivalence ratio of 0.8, constant swirl number of 0.92 and constant Reynolds Numbers. These measurements were taken in a swirl stabilized combustor at atmospheric pressure. The flow field visualization using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) technique is implemented to make a better understanding of the turbulence characteristics of

  13. Analysis of the cumulative exergy consumption of an integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Gładysz, Paweł

    2013-09-01

    In order to analyze the cumulative exergy consumption of an integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant the method of balance equations was applied based on the principle that the cumulative exergy consumption charging the products of this process equals the sum of cumulative exergy consumption charging the substrates. The set of balance equations of the cumulative exergy consumption bases on the `input-output method' of the direct energy consumption. In the structure of the balance we distinguished main products (e.g. electricity), by-products (e.g. nitrogen) and external supplies (fuels). In the balance model of cumulative exergy consumption it has been assumed that the cumulative exergy consumption charging the supplies from outside is a quantity known a priori resulting from the analysis of cumulative exergy consumption concerning the economy of the whole country. The byproducts are charged by the cumulative exergy consumption resulting from the principle of a replaced process. The cumulative exergy consumption of the main products is the final quantity.

  14. Development of a biomass torrefaction process integrated with oxy-fuel combustion.

    PubMed

    Tran, Khanh-Quang; Trinh, Trung Ngoc; Bach, Quang-Vu

    2016-01-01

    Torrefaction of forest residues was studied under conditions relevant to oxy-fuel combustion flue gases. The results showed that the torrefaction in CO2 had a lower solid mass yield (81.36%) than that (83.06%) in N2. Addition of steam into CO2 (CO2/H2O=1/0.7 mole/mole) resulted in a higher mass yield (83.30%) compared to 81.36% in CO2. The energy yield was consistently increased from 79.17% to 84.12% or 88.32% for the torrefaction in N2, CO2, or the CO2 and steam mixture, respectively. On the other hand, additions of O2 into the mixture of steam and CO2 led to reductions in both mass yield (from 83.30% to 82.57% or 76.44%) and energy yield (from 88.32% to 84.65% or 79.16%, for the torrefaction in steam and CO2 without O2, with 5% v/v, or 10% v/v of O2, respectively). PMID:26362464

  15. Oxy-fuel combustion of coal and biomass, the effect on radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, John P.; Patel, Rajeshriben; Riley, Gerry S.

    2010-12-15

    This paper focuses on results of co-firing coal and biomass under oxy-fuel combustion conditions on the RWEn 0.5 MWt Combustion Test Facility (CTF). Results are presented of radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout measurements. Two coals were fired: a South African coal and a Russian Coal under air and oxy-fuel firing conditions. The two coals were also co-fired with Shea Meal at a co-firing mass fraction of 20%. Shea Meal was also co-fired at a mass fraction of 40% and sawdust at 20% with the Russian Coal. An IFRF Aerodynamically Air Staged Burner (AASB) was used. The thermal input was maintained at 0.5 MWt for all conditions studied. The test matrix comprised of varying the Recycle Ratio (RR) between 65% and 75% and furnace exit O{sub 2} was maintained at 3%. Carbon-in-ash samples for burnout determination were also taken. Results show that the highest peak radiative heat flux and highest flame luminosity corresponded to the lowest recycle ratio. The effect of co-firing of biomass resulted in lower radiative heat fluxes for corresponding recycle ratios. Furthermore, the highest levels of radiative heat flux corresponded to the lowest convective heat flux. Results are compared to air firing and the air equivalent radiative and convective heat fluxes are fuel type dependent. Reasons for these differences are discussed in the main text. Burnout improves with biomass co-firing under both air and oxy-fuel firing conditions and burnout is also seen to improve under oxy-fuel firing conditions compared to air. (author)

  16. Speciation, behaviour, and fate of mercury under oxy-fuel combustion conditions.

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Patricia; Maroto-Valer, M; Delgado, Miguel Angel; Diego, Ruth; Font, Oriol; Querol, Xavier

    2016-02-01

    The work presented here reports the first study in which the speciation, behaviour and fate of mercury (Hg) have been evaluated under oxy-fuel combustion at the largest oxy-Pulverised Coal Combustion (oxy-PCC) demonstration plant to date during routine operating conditions and partial exhaust flue gas re-circulation to the boiler. The effect of the CO2-rich flue gas re-circulation on Hg has also been evaluated. Results reveal that oxy-PCC operational conditions play a significant role on Hg partitioning and fate because of the continuous CO2-rich flue gas re-circulations to the boiler. Mercury escapes from the cyclone in a gaseous form as Hg(2+) (68%) and it is the prevalent form in the CO2-rich exhaust flue gas (99%) with lower proportions of Hg(0) (1.3%). The overall retention rate for gaseous Hg is around 12%; Hg(0) is more prone to be retained (95%) while Hg(2+) shows a negative efficiency capture for the whole installation. The negative Hg(2+) capture efficiencies are due to the continuous CO2-rich exhaust flue gas recirculation to the boiler with enhanced Hg contents. Calculations revealed that 44mg of Hg were re-circulated to the boiler as a result of 2183 re-circulations of CO2-rich flue gas. Especial attention must be paid to the role of the CO2-rich exhaust flue gas re-circulation to the boiler on the Hg enrichment in Fly Ashes (FAs). PMID:26697809

  17. Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development; Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, Rebecca

    2013-03-31

    Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in 2005 to study and develop a competing technology for use in future fossil-fueled power generation facilities that could operate with near zero emissions. CES’s background in oxy-fuel (O-F) rocket technology lead to the award of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42645, “Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development,” where CES was to first evaluate the potential of these O-F power cycles, then develop the detailed design of a commercial-scale O-F combustor for use in these clean burning fossil-fueled plants. Throughout the studies, CES found that in order to operate at competitive cycle efficiencies a high-temperature intermediate pressure turbine was required. This led to an extension of the Agreement for, “Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications” where CES was to also develop an intermediate-pressure O-F turbine (OFT) that could be deployed in O-F industrial plants that capture and sequester >99% of produced CO2, at competitive cycle efficiencies using diverse fuels. The following report details CES’ activities from October 2005 through March 2013, to evaluate O-F power cycles, develop and validate detailed designs of O-F combustors (main and reheat), and to design, manufacture, and test a commercial-scale OFT, under the three-phase Cooperative Agreement.

  18. Experimental study on the minimum ignition temperature of coal dust clouds in oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dejian; Norman, Frederik; Verplaetsen, Filip; Van den Bulck, Eric

    2016-04-15

    BAM furnace apparatus tests were conducted to investigate the minimum ignition temperature of coal dusts (MITC) in O2/CO2 atmospheres with an O2 mole fraction from 20 to 50%. Three coal dusts: Indonesian Sebuku coal, Pittsburgh No.8 coal and South African coal were tested. Experimental results showed that the dust explosion risk increases significantly with increasing O2 mole fraction by reducing the minimum ignition temperature for the three tested coal dust clouds dramatically (even by 100°C). Compared with conventional combustion, the inhibiting effect of CO2 was found to be comparatively large in dust clouds, particularly for the coal dusts with high volatile content. The retardation effect of the moisture content on the ignition of dust clouds was also found to be pronounced. In addition, a modified steady-state mathematical model based on heterogeneous reaction was proposed to interpret the observed experimental phenomena and to estimate the ignition mechanism of coal dust clouds under minimum ignition temperature conditions. The analysis revealed that heterogeneous ignition dominates the ignition mechanism for sub-/bituminous coal dusts under minimum ignition temperature conditions, but the decrease of coal maturity facilitates homogeneous ignition. These results improve our understanding of the ignition behaviour and the explosion risk of coal dust clouds in oxy-fuel combustion atmospheres. PMID:26799218

  19. Impact of oxy-fuel combustion gases on mercury retention in activated carbons from a macroalgae waste: effect of water.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Anton, M A; Ferrera-Lorenzo, N; Fuente, E; Díaz-Somoano, M; Suarez-Ruíz, I; Martínez-Tarazona, M R; Ruiz, B

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the different sorption behaviors of mercury species on activated carbons in the oxy-fuel combustion of coal and the effect of high quantities of water vapor on the retention process. The work evaluates the interactions between the mercury species and a series of activated carbons prepared from a macroalgae waste (algae meal) from the agar-agar industry in oxy-combustion atmospheres, focussing on the role that the high concentration of water in the flue gases plays in mercury retention. Two novel aspects are considered in this work (i) the impact of oxy-combustion gases on the retention of mercury by activated carbons and (ii) the performance of activated carbons prepared from biomass algae wastes for this application. The results obtained at laboratory scale indicate that the effect of the chemical and textural characteristics of the activated carbons on mercury capture is not as important as that of reactive gases, such as the SOx and water vapor present in the flue gas. Mercury retention was found to be much lower in the oxy-combustion atmosphere than in the O2+N2 (12.6% O2) atmosphere. However, the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg0) to form oxidized mercury (Hg2+) amounted to 60%, resulting in an enhancement of mercury retention in the flue gas desulfurization units and a reduction in the amalgamation of Hg0 in the CO2 compression unit. This result is of considerable importance for the development of technologies based on activated carbon sorbents for mercury control in oxy-combustion processes. PMID:25585865

  20. Results of initial operation of the Jupiter Oxygen Corporation oxy-fuel 15 MWth burner test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Ochs, Danylo Oryshchyn, Rigel Woodside, Cathy Summers, Brian Patrick, Dietrich Gross, Mark Schoenfield, Thomas Weber and Dan O'Brien

    2009-04-01

    Jupiter Oxygen Corporation (JOC), in cooperation with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), constructed a 15 MWth oxy-fuel burner test facility with Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPRTM) to test high flame temperature oxy-fuel combustion and advanced carbon capture. Combustion protocols include baseline air firing with natural gas, oxygen and natural gas firing with and without flue gas recirculation, and oxygen and pulverized coal firing with flue gas recirculation. Testing focuses on characterizing burner performance, determining heat transfer characteristics, optimizing CO2 capture, and maximizing heat recovery, with an emphasis on data traceability to address retrofit of existing boilers by directly transforming burner systems to oxy-fuel firing.

  1. Glass problems conference focuses on oxy-fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, G.

    1996-03-01

    More than 550 people attended the 56th Conference on Glass Problems, held October 24--25, 1995, at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign), to discuss melting, refractories, combustion, energy and environmental issues. As in the past few years, oxy-fuel-related papers made up a large percentage of the program. Since 1991, the fiber, container and specialty glass industries have accepted the oxy-fuel process as an alternative to regenerative and recuperative air-fuel furnaces. According to one source, more than 50 major (> 20 ton/day) furnaces have been converted to oxy-fuel combustion technology. The advantages of oxy-fuel over air-fuel combustion systems have been well documented in numerous articles. Benefits include reduced NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions and particulate carryover. Improvements in glass quality and higher throughputs also have been realized. Economics, burner technology, refractory corrosion, and modeling are discussed in this summary. The complete proceedings of this conference are published in Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc., 17 [2] (1996).

  2. Elucidating the mechanism of Cr(VI) formation upon the interaction with metal oxides during coal oxy-fuel combustion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Jiao, Facun; Zhang, Lian; Yao, Hong; Ninomiya, Yoshihiko

    2013-10-15

    The thermodynamics underpinning the interaction of Cr-bearing species with basic metal oxides, i.e. K2O, Fe2O3, MgO and CaO, during the air and oxy-fuel combustion of coal have been examined. The synchrotron-based X-ray adsorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) was used for Cr speciation. For the oxides tested, Cr(VI) formation is dominated by the reduction potential of the metals. The oxides of Ca(2+) with high reduction potential favored the oxidation of Cr(III), same for K(+). The other two basic metals, Fe2O3 and MgO with lower reduction potentials reacted with Cr(III) to form the corresponding chromites at the temperatures above 600°C. Coal combustion experiments in drop-tube furnace have confirmed the rapid capture of Cr vapors, either trivalent or hexavalent, by CaO into solid ash. The existence of HCl in flue gas favored the vaporization of Cr as CrO2Cl2, which was in turn captured by CaO into chromate. Both Fe2O3 and MgO exhibited less capability on scavenging the Cr(VI) vapor. Particularly, MgO alone exhibited a low capability for capturing the vaporized Cr(III) vapors. However, its co-existence with CaO in the furnace inhibited the Cr(VI) formation. This is beneficial for minimizing the toxicity of Cr in the coal combustion-derived fly ash. PMID:23969010

  3. Direct sulfation of limestone based on oxy-fuel combustion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.M.; Zhao, C.S.; Liu, S.T.; Wang, C.B.

    2009-10-15

    With limestone as the sorbent, the sulfation reaction can proceed via two different routes depending on whether calcination of the limestone takes place under the given reaction conditions. The direct sulfation reaction is defined as the sulfation reaction between sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and limestone in an uncalcined state. This reaction, based on oxyfuel combustion technology, was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Surface morphologies of the limestone particles after sulfation were examined by a scanning electron microscope. Results show that there are more pores or gaps in the product layer formed by direct sulfation of limestone than by indirect sulfation, which can be attributed to the generation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at a reaction interface. Compared with indirect sulfation, direct sulfation of limestone can yield much higher conversion and has a much higher reaction rate. For direct sulfation, the greater porosity in the product layer greatly reduces the solid-state ion diffusion distance, resulting in a higher reaction rate and higher conversion.

  4. Effects of total pressure on non-grey gas radiation transfer in oxy-fuel combustion using the LBL, SNB, SNBCK, WSGG, and FSCK methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Huaqiang; Gu, Mingyan; Consalvi, Jean-Louis; Liu, Fengshan; Zhou, Huaichun

    2016-03-01

    The effects of total pressure on gas radiation heat transfer are investigated in 1D parallel plate geometry containing isothermal and homogeneous media and an inhomogeneous and non-isothermal CO2-H2O mixture under conditions relevant to oxy-fuel combustion using the line-by-line (LBL), statistical narrow-band (SNB), statistical narrow-band correlated-k (SNBCK), weighted-sum-of-grey-gases (WSGG), and full-spectrum correlated-k (FSCK) models. The LBL calculations were conducted using the HITEMP2010 and CDSD-1000 databases and the LBL results serve as the benchmark solution to evaluate the accuracy of the other models. Calculations of the SNB, SNBCK, and FSCK were conducted using both the 1997 EM2C SNB parameters and their recently updated 2012 parameters to investigate how the SNB model parameters affect the results under oxy-fuel combustion conditions at high pressures. The WSGG model considered is the recently developed one by Bordbar et al. [19] for oxy-fuel combustion based on LBL calculations using HITEMP2010. The total pressure considered ranges from 1 up to 30 atm. The total pressure significantly affects gas radiation transfer primarily through the increase in molecule number density and only slightly through spectral line broadening. Using the 1997 EM2C SNB model parameters the accuracy of SNB and SNBCK is very good and remains essentially independent of the total pressure. When using the 2012 EM2C SNB model parameters the SNB and SNBCK results are less accurate and their error increases with increasing the total pressure. The WSGG model has the lowest accuracy and the best computational efficiency among the models investigated. The errors of both WSGG and FSCK using the 2012 EM2C SNB model parameters increase when the total pressure is increased from 1 to 10 atm, but remain nearly independent of the total pressure beyond 10 atm. When using the 1997 EM2C SNB model parameters the accuracy of FSCK only slightly decreases with increasing the total pressure.

  5. Radiation intensity of lignite-fired oxy-fuel flames

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Klas; Johansson, Robert; Hjaertstam, Stefan; Johnsson, Filip; Leckner, Bo

    2008-10-15

    The radiative heat transfer in oxy-fuel flames is compared to corresponding conditions in air-fuel flames during combustion of lignite in the Chalmers 100 kW oxy-fuel test facility. In the oxy-fuel cases the flue-gas recycle rate was varied, so that, in principle, the same stoichiometry was kept in all cases, whereas the oxygen fraction in the recycled flue-gas mixture ranged from 25 to 29 vol.%. Radial profiles of gas concentration, temperature and total radiation intensity were measured in the furnace. The temperature, and thereby the total radiation intensity of the oxy-fuel flames, increases with decreasing flue-gas recycle rate. The ratio of gas and total radiation intensities increases under oxy-fuel conditions compared to air-firing. However, when radiation overlap between gas and particles is considered the ratios for air-firing and oxy-fuel conditions become more similar, since the gas-particle overlap is increased in the CO{sub 2}-rich atmosphere. A large fraction of the radiation in these lignite flames is emitted by particles whose radiation was not significantly influenced by oxy-fuel operation. Therefore, an increment of gas radiation due to higher CO{sub 2} concentration is not evident because of the background of particle radiation, and, the total radiation intensities are similar during oxy-fuel and air-fuel operation as long as the temperature distributions are similar. (author)

  6. Computational fluid dynamic modeling of gas flow characteristics in a high-velocity oxy-fuel thermal spray system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, S.; Eastwick, C. N.; Simmons, K. A.; McCartney, D. G.

    2001-09-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to predict gas dynamic behavior in a high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray gun in which premixed oxygen and propylene are burnt in a 12 mm combustion chamber linked to a parallel-sided nozzle. The CFD analysis is applied to investigate axisymmetric, steady-state, turbulent, compressible, and chemically combusting flow both within the gun and in a free jet region between the gun and the substrate to be coated. The combustion of oxygen and propylene is modeled using a single-step, finite-rate chemistry model that also allows for dissociation of the reaction products. Results are presented to show the effect of (1) fuel-to-oxygen gas ratio and (2) total gas flow rate on the gas dynamic behavior. Along the centerline, the maximum temperature reached is insensitive to the gas ratio but depends on the total flow. However, the value attained (˜2500 K) is significantly lower than the maximum temperature (˜3200 K) of the annular flame in the combustion chamber. By contrast, the centerline gas velocity depends on both total flow and gas ratio, the highest axial gas velocity being attained with the higher flow and most fuel-rich mixture. The gas Mach number increases through the gun and reaches a maximum value of approximately 1.6 around 5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. The numerical calculations also show that the residual oxygen level is principally dependent on the fuel-to-oxygen ratio and decreases by approximately fivefold as the ratio is varied from 90 to 69% of the stoichiometric requirement. The CFD model is also used to investigate the effect of changes in combustion chamber size and geometry on gas dynamics, and the results are compared with the nominal 12 mm chamber baseline calculations.

  7. Ignition and Combustion of Pulverized Coal and Biomass under Different Oxy-fuel O2/N2 and O2/CO2 Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatami Firoozabadi, Seyed Reza

    This work studied the ignition and combustion of burning pulverized coals and biomasses particles under either conventional combustion in air or oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Oxy-fuel combustion is a 'clean-coal' process that takes place in O2/CO2 environments, which are achieved by removing nitrogen from the intake gases and recirculating large amounts of flue gases to the boiler. Removal of nitrogen from the combustion gases generates a high CO2-content, sequestration-ready gas at the boiler effluent. Flue gas recirculation moderates the high temperatures caused by the elevated oxygen partial pressure in the boiler. In this study, combustion of the fuels took place in a laboratory laminar-flow drop-tube furnace (DTF), electrically-heated to 1400 K, in environments containing various mole fractions of oxygen in either nitrogen or carbon-dioxide background gases. The experiments were conducted at two different gas conditions inside the furnace: (a) quiescent gas condition (i.e., no flow or inactive flow) and, (b) an active gas flow condition in both the injector and furnace. Eight coals from different ranks (anthracite, semi-snthracite, three bituminous, subbituminous and two lignites) and four biomasses from different sources were utilized in this work to study the ignition and combustion characteristics of solid fuels in O2/N2 or O2/CO2 environments. The main objective is to study the effect of replacing background N2 with CO2, increasing O2 mole fraction and fuel type and rank on a number of qualitative and quantitative parameters such as ignition/combustion mode, ignition temperature, ignition delay time, combustion temperatures, burnout times and envelope flame soot volume fractions. Regarding ignition, in the quiescent gas condition, bituminous and sub-bituminous coal particles experienced homogeneous ignition in both O2/N 2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres, while in the active gas flow condition, heterogeneous ignition was evident in O2/CO 2. Anthracite, semi

  8. Ranking of enabling technologies for oxy-fuel based carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, T.L.; Oryshchyn, D.L.; Ciferno, J.P.

    2007-06-01

    The USDOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has begun a process to identify and rank enabling technologies that have significant impacts on pulverized coal oxy-fuel systems. Oxy-fuel combustion has been identified as a potential method for effectively capturing carbon in coal fired power plants. Presently there are a number of approaches for carbon capture via oxy-fuel combustion and it is important to order those approaches so that new research can concentrate on those technologies with high potentials to substantially lower the cost of reduced carbon electricity generation. NETL evaluates these technologies using computer models to determine the energy use of each technology and the potential impact of improvements in the technologies on energy production by a power plant. Near-term sub-critical boiler technologies are targeted for this analysis because: • most of the world continues to build single reheat sub-critical plants; • the overwhelming number of coal fired power plants requiring retrofit for CO2 capture are sub-critical plants. In addition, even in the realm of new construction, subcritical plants are common because they are well understood, easy to operate and maintain, fuel tolerant, and reliable. Following the initial investigation into sub-critical oxy-fuel technology, future investigations will move into the supercritical range.

  9. Modelling and kinetics studies of a corn-rape blend combustion in an oxy-fuel atmosphere.

    PubMed

    López, R; Fernández, C; Martínez, O; Sánchez, M E

    2015-05-01

    A kinetic oxy-combustion study of a previously optimized lignocellulose blend is proposed. Kinetic and diffusion control mechanism are considered. The proposed correlations fit properly with the experimental results and diffusion effects are identified as be important enough to be taken into account. Afterwards, with the results obtained in the kinetic study, a detailed consecutive and parallel kinetic scheme is proposed for modelling the oxy-combustion of the blend. A discussion of the temperature and concentration profiles are included. Variation of products final distribution is considered. Smaller particles than 0.001 m are proposed for reducing temperature and concentration profiles and obtaining a good final product distribution. CO2-char reaction is identified as one of the most important step to be optimized for obtaining the lowest final residue. In this study, char is mainly oxidised at 950 K and this situation is attributed to an optimized blending of the bioresidues. PMID:25731924

  10. The analysis of parameters of the cryogenic oxygen unit cooperating with power plant to realize oxy-fuel combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnydiuk-Stefan, Anna; Składzień, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The paper examines from the thermodynamic point of view operation of coal fired power unit cooperating with the cryogenic oxygen unit, with a particular emphasis on the characteristic performance parameters of the oxygen unit. The relatively high purity technical oxygen produced in the oxygen unit is then used as the oxidant in the fluidized bed boiler of the modern coal fired power unit with electric power output of approximately 460 MW. The analyzed oxygen unit has a classical two-column structure with an expansion turbine (turboexpander), which allows the use of relatively low pressure initially compressed air. Multivariant calculations were performed, the main result being the loss of power and efficiency of the unit due to the need to ensure adequate driving power to the compressor system of the oxygen generating plant.

  11. Impact of Oxy-Fuel Conditions on Elemental Mercury Re-Emission in Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Miranda, Nuria; Lopez-Anton, M Antonia; Torre-Santos, Teresa; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluates some of the variables that may influence mercury retention in wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) plants, focusing on oxy-coal combustion processes and differences when compared with atmospheres enriched in N2. The main drawback of using WFGD for mercury capture is the possibility of unwanted reduction of dissolved Hg(2+), leading to the re-emission of insoluble elemental mercury (Hg(0)), which decreases efficiency. To acquire a better understanding of the mercury re-emission reactions in WFGD systems, this work analyses different variables that influence the behavior of mercury in slurries obtained from two limestones, under an oxy-combustion atmosphere. The O2 supplied to the reactor, the influence of the pH, the concentration of mercury in the gas phase, and the enhancement of mercury in the slurry were the variables considered. The study was performed at laboratory scale, where possible reactions between the components in the scrubber can be individually evaluated. It was found that in an oxy-combustion atmosphere (mostly CO2), the re-emission of Hg(0) is lower than under a N2-enriched atmosphere, and the mercury is mainly retained as Hg(2+) in the liquid phase. PMID:27329988

  12. Task 2: Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holcolm, Gordon R.; McGhee, Barry

    2009-05-01

    The PowerPoint presentation provides an overview of the tasks for the project: Characterize advanced boiler (oxy-fuel combustion, biomass co-fired) gas compositions and ash deposits; Generate critical data on the effects of environmental conditions; develop a unified test method with a view to future standardization; Generate critical data for coating systems for use in advanced boiler systems; Generate critical data for flue gas recycle piping materials for oxy-fuel systems; and, Compile materials performance data from laboratory and pilot plant exposures of candidate alloys for use in advanced boiler systems.

  13. Water Vapor Effects on the Oxidation Behavior of Fe-Cr and Ni-Cr Alloys in Atmospheres Relevant to Oxy-fuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Mu, N.; Jung, K. Y.; Yanar, N. M.; Meier, G. H.; Pettit, F. S.; Holcomb, G. R.

    2011-10-01

    The oxidation behavior of a number of Fe–Cr- and Ni–Cr-based alloys was studied in atmospheres relevant to oxyfuel combustion at 650 °C. Oxidation was greatly enhanced in ferritic model alloys exposed in low p(O{sub 2}) CO{sub 2} + 30%H{sub 2}O and Ar + 30%H{sub 2}O gases. Rapidly growing iron oxides appear to be porous and gas permeable. Transition from non-protective to protective oxidation occurs on alloys with higher Cr contents between 13.5 and 22 wt% in H{sub 2}O. Excess oxygen, usually found in the actual oxyfuel combustion environments, disrupts the selective oxidation of Fe–Cr alloys by accelerating vaporization of early-formed Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} in combination with accelerated chromia growth induced by the H{sub 2}O. Rapid Cr consumption leads to the nucleation and rapid growth of iron oxides. On the contrary, Ni–Cr alloys are less affected by the presence of H{sub 2}O and excess O{sub 2}. The difference between Fe–Cr and Ni–Cr alloys is not clear but is postulated to involve less acceleration of chromia growth by water vapor for the latter group of alloys.

  14. Use of synchrotron XANES and Cr-doped coal to further confirm the vaporization of organically bound Cr and the formation of chromium(VI) during coal oxy-fuel combustion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Jiao, Facun; Zhang, Lian; Yao, Hong; Ninomiya, Yoshihiko

    2012-03-20

    Through the use of synchrotron XANES and Cr-doped brown coal, extensive efforts have been made to clarify the volatility of organically bound Cr during oxy-fuel combustion and the mode of occurrence and leachability of Cr in resulting fly ashes. As the continuation of our previous study using raw coal, the Cr-doped coal has been tested in this study to improve the signal-to-noise ratio for Cr K-edge XANES spectra, and hence the accuracy for Cr(VI) quantification. As has been confirmed, the abundant CO(2) as a balance gas for oxy-firing has the potential to inhibit the decomposition of organically bound Cr, thereby favoring its retention in solid ash. It also has the potential to promote the oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) to a minor extent. Increasing the oxygen partial pressure, particularly in the coexistence of HCl in flue gas, favored the oxidation of Cr(III) into gaseous Cr(VI)-bearing species such as CrO(2)Cl(2). Regarding the solid impurities including Na(2)SO(4) and CaO, Na(2)SO(4) has proven to preferentially capture the Cr(III)-bearing species at a low furnace temperature such as 600 °C. Its promoting effect on the oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI), although thermodynamically available at the temperatures examined here, is negligible in a lab-scale drop tube furnace (DTF), where the particle residence time is extremely short. In contrast, CaO has proven facilitating the capture of Cr(VI)-bearing species particularly oxychloride vapors at 1000 °C, forming Ca chromate with the formulas of CaCrO(4) and Ca(3)(CrO(4))(2) via a direction stabilization of Cr(VI) oxychloride vapor by CaO particle or an indirect oxidation of Cr(III) via the initial formation of Ca chromite. The fly ash collected from the combustion of Cr-doped coal alone has a lower water solubility (i.e., 58.7%) for its Cr(VI) species, due to the formation of Ba/Pb chromate and/or the incorporation of Cr(VI) vapor into a slagging phase which is water-insoluble. Adding CaO to coal increased the

  15. RADIATIVE PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF OXY-FUEL FLAMES

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton R. Bedick; Stephen K. Beer; Kent H. Casleton; Benjamin T. Chorpening; David W. Shaw; M. Joseph Yip

    2011-03-01

    As part of the DOE Existing Plants, Emissions and Capture (EPEC) program, oxy-combustion is being investigated as a method to simplify carbon capture and reduce the parasitic energy penalties associated with separating CO2 from a dilute flue gas. Gas-phase radiation heat transfer in boilers becomes significant when shifting from air-firing to oxycombustion, and must be accurately represented in models. Currently, radiative property data are not widely available in the literature for conditions appropriate to this environment. In order to facilitate the development and validation of accurate oxy-combustion models, NETL conducted a series of studies to measure radiation properties of oxy-fuel flames at adiabatic flame temperatures of 1750 - 1950K, and product molar concentrations ranging from 95% CO2 to 100% steam, determined by equilibrium calculations. Transmission coefficients were measured as a function of wavelength using a mid-IR imaging spectrometer and a blackbody radiation source. Additionally, flame temperatures were calculated using data collected within CO2 and H2O absorption bands. Experimental results were compared to two statistical narrowband models and experimental data from literature sources. These comparisons showed good overall agreement, although differences between the models and experimental results were noted, particularly for the R branch of the 2.7 μm H2O band.

  16. Process gases for high velocity oxy-fuel thermal spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Creffield, G.K.; Chapman, I.F.; Cole, M.A.; Page, W.J.; McDonough, T.

    1994-12-31

    The importance of fuel and other process gases for high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying and especially the delivery of them to the point of use is well recognized. Problems associated with the supply of liquid fuel gases, at the high flow rates and pressures required by this process, have been addressed. Considerable development work has gone into designing an appropriate liquid withdrawal and vaporizer system for propylene, which overcomes these previous difficulties and enables users to maintain adequate fuel gas flow rates in order to ensure optimum operating conditions for the production of high quality coatings. A feature of the thermal spray process is that the temperature of the workpiece is kept low, typically below 150 C, in order to reduce residual stresses in the coating and to protect heat sensitive substrates. Traditionally this has been by compressed air, however, improved cooling has been achieved using carbon dioxide. Specially designed equipment is now available which provides and directs a cold mixture of carbon dioxide gas and solid particles (snow) via suitable nozzles, on the workpiece. The position of the cooling stream can be varied, depending on the application. These developments emphasize the importance now attached to providing dedicated gas installation packages for HVOF.

  17. Development of a Novel Oxygen Supply Process and its Integration with an Oxy-Fuel Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    2006-12-31

    BOC, the world's second largest industrial gas company, has developed a novel high temperature sorption based technology referred to as CAR (Cyclic Autothermal Recovery) for oxygen production and supply to oxy-fuel boilers with flue gas recycle. This technology is based on sorption and storage of oxygen in a fixed bed containing mixed ionic and electronic conductor materials. The objective of the proposed work was to construct a CAR PDU that was capable of producing 10-scfm of oxygen, using steam or recycled flue gas as the sweep gas, and install it in the Combustion Test Facility. The unit was designed and fabricated at BOC/The Linde Group, Murray Hill, New Jersey. The unit was then shipped to WRI where the site had been prepared for the unit by installation of air, carbon dioxide, natural gas, nitrogen, computer, electrical and infrastructure systems. Initial experiments with the PDU consisted of flowing air into both sides of the absorption systems and using the air heaters to ramp up the bed temperatures. The two beds were tested individually to operational temperatures up to 900 C in air. The cycling process was tested where gases are flowed alternatively from the top then bottom of the beds. The PDU unit behaved properly with respect to flow, pressure and heat during tests. The PDU was advanced to the point where oxygen production testing could begin and integration to the combustion test facility could occur.

  18. Aerodynamic study on supersonic flows in high-velocity oxy-fuel thermal spray process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katanoda, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Kuroda, Seiji; Kawakita, Jin; Fukanuma, Hirotaka; Matsuo, Kazuyasu

    2005-06-01

    To clarify the characteristics of gas flow in high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray gun, aerodynamic research is performed using a special gun. The gun has rectangular cross-sectional area and sidewalls of optical glass to visualize the internal flow. The gun consists of a supersonic nozzle with the design Mach number of 2.0 followed by a straight passage called barrel. Compressed dry air up to 0.78 MPa is used as a process gas instead of combustion gas which is used in a commercial HVOF gun. The high-speed gas flows with shock waves in the gun and jets are visualized by schlieren technique. Complicated internal and external flow-fields containing various types of shock wave as well as expansion wave are visualized.

  19. System issues and tradeoffs associated with syngas production and combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A.; Breault, R.W.

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the basic technology of coal gasification for the production of syngas and the utilization of that syngas in power generation. The common gasifier types, fixed/moving bed, fluidized bed, entrained flow, and transport, are described, and accompanying typical product syngas compositions are shown for different coal ranks. Substantial variation in product gas composition is observed with changes in gasifier and coal feed type. Fuel contaminants such as sulfur, nitrogen, ash, as well as heavy metals such as mercury, arsenic, and selenium, can be removed to protect the environment and downstream processes. A variety of methods for syngas utilization for power production are discussed, including both present (gas turbine and internal combustion engines) and future technologies, including oxy-fuel, chemical looping, fuel cells, and hybrids. Goals to improve system efficiencies, further reduce NOx emissions, and provide options for CO2 sequestration require advancements in many aspects of IGCC plants, including the combustion system. Areas for improvements in combustion technology that could minimize these tradeoffs between cost, complexity, and performance are discussed.

  20. System Issues and Tradeoffs Associated with Syngas Production and Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Kent H. Casleton; Ronald W. Breault; George A. Richards

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the basic technology of coal gasification for the production of syngas and the utilization of that syngas in power generation. The common gasifier types, fixed=moving bed, fluidized bed, entrained flow, and transport, are described, and accompanying typical product syngas compositions are shown for different coal ranks. Substantial variation in product gas composition is observed with changes in gasifier and coal feed type. Fuel contaminants such as sulfur, nitrogen, ash, as well as heavy metals such as mercury, arsenic, and selenium, can be removed to protect the environment and downstream processes. A variety of methods for syngas utilization for power production are discussed, including both present (gas turbine and internal combustion engines) and future technologies, including oxy-fuel, chemical looping, fuel cells, and hybrids. Goals to improve system efficiencies, further reduce NOx emissions, and provide options for CO2 sequestration require advancements in many aspects of IGCC plants, including the combustion system. Areas for improvements in combustion technology that could minimize these tradeoffs between cost, complexity, and performance are discussed.

  1. Fireside Corrosion in Oxy-Fuel Combustion of Coal

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; K. Jung; N. Mu; N. M. Yanar; F. S. Pettit

    2011-10-09

    The goal is to develop technologies for pulverized coal boilers with >90% CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration and <35% increase in the cost of electricity. Air-fired power plant experience shows a corrosion loss max at 680-700 C. Low melting point alkali metal trisulfates, such as (K,Na){sub 3}Fe(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, become thermally unstable above this temperature range. Some overall conclusions are: (1) CO{sub 2} + 30% H{sub 2}O more corrosive than Ar + 30% H{sub 2}O; (2) Excess O{sub 2} in H{sub 2}O can, in some cases, greatly increase oxidation; (3) Coal ash is generally innocuous without SO{sub 3}3 in gas phase; and (4) Long-term exposures are starting to establish differences between air-firing and oxy-firing conditions.

  2. The Gas Dynamics of High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Thermal Sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackett, Charles Marcou

    An experimental study of the gas dynamics of the High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray process has been performed. With this process, a hot, combustion-driven, supersonic jet is used to propel particles onto a surface, thus forming metal coatings that provide wear, temperature, and corrosion resistance. The fundamental physics of the spray process were studied and several key areas of interest were identified for in-depth study. Optical diagnostic techniques, including microsecond -exposure schlieren and shadowgraph imaging, were used to visualize the hot supersonic jet produced during the spray process. Energetic turbulent mixing of the jet with the surrounding atmosphere was observed. Measurements of oxide levels in aluminum and mild steel coatings sprayed for a range of conditions indicated that the turbulent mixing influences coating oxidation. However, experiments conducted with a low-speed coaxial shroud of inert gas demonstrated that coating oxide formation can be effectively controlled during the spray process. A simple numerical model was developed to predict the behavior of a spray particle in the HVOF jet. The results of computations indicated that independent control of spray particle velocity and temperature was possible through systematic variations in combustion chamber pressure and particle injection location within the nozzle. This hypothesis was confirmed through a series of experiments in which stainless steel particle velocity and temperature were measured using trace velocimetry and two-color radiative pyrometry, respectively. Combustion chamber pressure had a strong effect on particle velocity. Injection location was used to control the residence time of a particle within the flow, thus allowing manipulation of particle temperature without a measurable effect on velocity. Thus, the results of these experiments revealed that the gas dynamics--the behavior of the compressible gas flow--of the HVOF spray process strongly influenced spray

  3. High-Efficiency, High-Capacity, Low-NOx Aluminum Melting Using Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    D'Agostini, M.D.

    2000-06-02

    This report describes the development and application of a novel oxygen enhanced combustion system with an integrated vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) oxygen supply providing efficient, low NOx melting in secondary aluminum furnaces. The mainstay of the combustion system is a novel air-oxy-natural gas burner that achieves high productivity and energy efficiency with low NOx emissions through advanced mixing concepts and the use of separate high- and low-purity oxidizer streams. The technology was installed on a reverberatory, secondary aluminum melting plant at the Wabash Aluminum Alloy's Syracuse, N.Y. plant, where it is currently in operation. Field testing gave evidence that the new burner technology meets the stringent NOx emissions target of 0.323 lb NO2/ton aluminum, thus complying with regulations promulgated by Southern California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). Test results also indicated that the burner technology exceeded fuel efficiency and melting capacity goals. Economic modeling showed that the novel air-oxy-fuel (ADF) combustion technology provides a substantial increase in furnace profitability relative to air-fuel operation. Model results also suggest favorable economics for the air-oxy-fuel technology relative to a full oxy-fuel conversion of the furnace.

  4. Coal combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.; Tramm, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  5. Control of flames by tangential jet actuators in oxy-fuel burners

    SciTech Connect

    Boushaki, Toufik; Sautet, Jean-Charles; Labegorre, Bernard

    2009-11-15

    The active control of oxy-fuel flames from burners with separated jets is investigated. The control system consists of four small jet actuators, placed tangential to the exit of the main jets to generate a swirling flow. These actuators are able to modify the flow structure and to act on mixing between the reactants and consequently on the flame behavior. The burner (25 kW) is composed of separated jets, one jet of natural gas and one or two jets of pure oxygen. Experiments are conducted with three burner configurations, according to the number of jets, the jet exit velocities, and the separation distance between the jets. OH chemiluminescence measurements, particle image velocimetry, and measurements of NO{sub x} emissions are used to characterize the flow and the flame structure. Results show that the small jet actuators have a significant influence on the behavior of jets and the flame characteristics, particularly in the stabilization zone. It is shown that the control leads to a decrease in lift-off heights and to better stability of the flame. The use of jet actuators induces high jet spreading and an increase in turbulence intensity, which improves the mixing between the reactants and the surrounding fluid. Pollutant measurements show important results in terms of NO{sub x} reductions (up to 60%), in particular for low swirl intensity. The burner parameters, such as the number of jets and the spacing between the jets, also impact the flame behavior and NO{sub x} formation. (author)

  6. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  7. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Kamo, Roy; Kakwani, Ramesh M.; Valdmanis, Edgars; Woods, Melvins E.

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  8. WASTE COMBUSTION SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of biomass combustion alternatives. The objective was to evaluate the thermal performance and costs of available and developing biomass systems. The characteristics of available biomass fuels were reviewed, and the performance parameters of alt...

  9. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of a Novel, Low-Cost Oxygen Supply Process and its Integration with Oxy-Fuel Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Krish Krishnamurthy; Divy Acharya; Frank Fitch

    2008-09-30

    In order to achieve DOE targets for carbon dioxide capture, it is crucial not only to develop process options that will generate and provide oxygen to the power cycle in a cost-effective manner compared to the conventional oxygen supply methods based on cryogenic air separation technology, but also to identify effective integration options for these new technologies into the power cycle with carbon dioxide capture. The Linde/BOC developed Ceramic Autothermal Recovery (CAR) process remains an interesting candidate to address both of these issues by the transfer of oxygen from the air to a recycled CO{sub 2} rich flue-gas stream in a cyclic process utilizing the high temperature sorption properties of perovskites. Good progress was made on this technology in this project, but significant challenges remain to be addressed before CAR oxygen production technology is ready for commercial exploitation. Phase 1 of the project was completed by the end of September 2008. The two-bed 0.7 tons/day O2 CAR process development unit (PDU) was installed adjacent to WRI's pilot scale coal combustion test facility (CTF). Start-up and operating sequences for the PDU were developed and cyclic operation of the CAR process demonstrated. Controlled low concentration methane addition allowed the beds to be heated up to operational temperature (800-900 C) and then held there during cyclic operation of the 2-bed CAR process, in this way overcoming unavoidable heat losses from the beds during steady state operation. The performance of the PDU was optimized as much as possible, but equipment limitations prevented the system from fully achieving its target performance. Design of the flue gas recirculation system to integrate CAR PDU with the CTF and the system was completed and integrated tests successfully performed at the end of the period. A detailed techno-economic analysis was made of the CAR process for supplying the oxygen in oxy-fuel combustion retrofit option using AEP's 450 MW

  10. Combustion engine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, John (Inventor); Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A flow through catalytic reactor which selectively catalytically decomposes methanol into a soot free hydrogen rich product gas utilizing engine exhaust at temperatures of 200 to 650 C to provide the heat for vaporizing and decomposing the methanol is described. The reactor is combined with either a spark ignited or compression ignited internal combustion engine or a gas turbine to provide a combustion engine system. The system may be fueled entirely by the hydrogen rich gas produced in the methanol decomposition reactor or the system may be operated on mixed fuels for transient power gain and for cold start of the engine system. The reactor includes a decomposition zone formed by a plurality of elongated cylinders which contain a body of vapor permeable, methanol decomposition catalyst preferably a shift catalyst such as copper-zinc.

  11. Application of Argonne's Glass Furnace Model to longhorn glass corporation oxy-fuel furnace for the production of amber glass.

    SciTech Connect

    Golchert, B.; Shell, J.; Jones, S.; Energy Systems; Shell Glass Consulting; Anheuser-Busch Packaging Group

    2006-09-06

    The objective of this project is to apply the Argonne National Laboratory's Glass Furnace Model (GFM) to the Longhorn oxy-fuel furnace to improve energy efficiency and to investigate the transport of gases released from the batch/melt into the exhaust. The model will make preliminary estimates of the local concentrations of water, carbon dioxide, elemental oxygen, and other subspecies in the entire combustion space as well as the concentration of these species in the furnace exhaust gas. This information, along with the computed temperature distribution in the combustion space may give indications on possible locations of crown corrosion. An investigation into the optimization of the furnace will be performed by varying several key parameters such as the burner firing pattern, exhaust number/size, and the boost usage (amount and distribution). Results from these parametric studies will be analyzed to determine more efficient methods of operating the furnace that reduce crown corrosion. Finally, computed results from the GFM will be qualitatively correlated to measured values, thus augmenting the validation of the GFM.

  12. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  13. Dry low combustion system with means for eliminating combustion noise

    DOEpatents

    Verdouw, Albert J.; Smith, Duane; McCormick, Keith; Razdan, Mohan K.

    2004-02-17

    A combustion system including a plurality of axially staged tubular premixers to control emissions and minimize combustion noise. The combustion system includes a radial inflow premixer that delivers the combustion mixture across a contoured dome into the combustion chamber. The axially staged premixers having a twist mixing apparatus to rotate the fluid flow and cause improved mixing without causing flow recirculation that could lead to pre-ignition or flashback.

  14. Combustion-gas recirculation system

    DOEpatents

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean

    2007-10-09

    A combustion-gas recirculation system has a mixing chamber with a mixing-chamber inlet and a mixing-chamber outlet. The combustion-gas recirculation system may further include a duct connected to the mixing-chamber inlet. Additionally, the combustion-gas recirculation system may include an open inlet channel with a solid outer wall. The open inlet channel may extend into the mixing chamber such that an end of the open inlet channel is disposed between the mixing-chamber inlet and the mixing-chamber outlet. Furthermore, air within the open inlet channel may be at a pressure near or below atmospheric pressure.

  15. Carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum nanocomposite via plasma and high velocity oxy-fuel spray forming.

    PubMed

    Laha, T; Liu, Y; Agarwal, A

    2007-02-01

    Free standing structures of hypereutectic aluminum-23 wt% silicon nanocomposite with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) reinforcement have been successfully fabricated by two different thermal spraying technique viz Plasma Spray Forming (PSF) and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) Spray Forming. Comparative microstructural and mechanical property evaluation of the two thermally spray formed nanocomposites has been carried out. Presence of nanosized grains in the Al-Si alloy matrix and physically intact and undamaged carbon nanotubes were observed in both the nanocomposites. Excellent interfacial bonding between Al alloy matrix and MWCNT was observed. The elastic modulus and hardness of HVOF sprayed nanocomposite is found to be higher than PSF sprayed composites. PMID:17450788

  16. Monopropellant combustion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Gerald R. (Inventor); Mueller, Donn C. (Inventor); Parish, Mark W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An apparatus and method are provided for decomposition of a propellant. The propellant includes an ionic salt and an additional fuel. Means are provided for decomposing a major portion of the ionic salt. Means are provided for combusting the additional fuel and decomposition products of the ionic salt.

  17. Semi-automated structural characterisation of high velocity oxy fuel thermally sprayed WC-Co based coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, M. W.; Han, Y.; McCartney, G.; Korpiola, K.; Brown, P. D.

    2008-08-01

    The application of an automated procedure for the rapid assessment of selected area electron diffraction patterns is described. Comparison with complementary EDX spectra has enabled the thermal decomposition reactions within high velocity oxy-fuel thermally sprayed WC-Co coatings to be investigated.

  18. Mult-Pollutant Control Through Novel Approaches to Oxygen Enhanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Axelbaum; Pratim Biswas

    2009-02-28

    Growing concerns about global climate change have focused effortss on identifying approaches to stabilizing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. One approach utilizes oxy-fuel combustion to produce a concentrated flue gas that will enable economical CO{sub 2} capture by direct methods. Oxy-fuel combustion rewuires an Air Separation Unit (ASU) to provide a high-purity stream of oxygen as well as a Compression and Purification Unit (CPU) to clean and compress the CO{sub 2} for long term storage. Overall plant efficiency will suffer from the parasitic load of both the ASU and CPU and researchers are investigating techniques to enhance other aspects of the combustion and gas cleanup proceses to improve the benefit-to-cost ratio. This work examines the influence of oxy-fuel combustion and non-carbon based sorbents on the formation and fate of multiple combustion pollutants both numerically and experimentally.

  19. Erosion Resistance of High Velocity Oxy-Fuel WC-Co-Cr Thermal Spray Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imeson, Chris

    Thermal spray coatings have been incorporated in oil and gas extraction efforts for many years. Recently, High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) has become increasingly incorporated where erosive environments are present. This study investigates the microstructural and mechanical properties of HVOF WC-Co-Cr coatings deposited at SharkSkin Coatings ltd. The deposited coatings exhibited a low porosity with high adhesion strength, hardness, and superior erosion resistance. In this study, a recirculating solid particle erosion testing machine was designed and fabricated to simulate an erosive environment on a laboratory scale. This study was also aimed at improving microstructures and mechanical properties of the coatings by modifying the two coating deposition parameters e.g. standoff and pre-cycle heating. It was determined that pre-spray substrate heating negatively affected the coatings microstructures e.g. porosity, while reducing the stand-off distance positively influenced the coating microstructures and mechanical properties, e.g. erosion resistance.

  20. Experimental and numerical evaluation of the performance of supersonic two-stage high-velocity oxy-fuel thermal spray (Warm Spray) gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katanoda, H.; Morita, H.; Komatsu, M.; Kuroda, S.

    2011-03-01

    The water-cooled supersonic two-stage high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray gun was developed to make a coating of temperature-sensitive material, such as titanium, on a substrate. The gun has a combustion chamber (CC) followed by a mixing chamber (MC), in which the combustion gas is mixed with the nitrogen gas at room temperature. The mixed gas is accelerated to supersonic speed through a converging-diverging (C-D) nozzle followed by a straight passage called the barrel. This paper proposes an experimental procedure to estimate the cooling rate of CC, MC and barrel separately. Then, the mathematical model is presented to predict the pressure and temperature in the MC for the specific mass flow rates of fuel, oxygen and nitrogen by assuming chemical equilibrium with water-cooling in the CC and MC, and frozen flow with constant specific heat from stagnant condition to the throat in the CC and MC. Finally, the present mathematical model was validated by comparing the calculated and measured stagnant pressures of the CC of the two-stage HVOF gun.

  1. Research on Potential Environmental Impacts of Oxy-fuel Combustion at EPA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An existing 35kW laboratory-scale combustor located at the U.S. EPA’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, has been modified for performing oxy-natural gas and oxy-coal experiments by adding O2 operation and flue gas recycling capa...

  2. Combustion pinhole camera system

    DOEpatents

    Witte, Arvel B.

    1984-02-21

    A pinhole camera system utilizing a sealed optical-purge assembly which provides optical access into a coal combustor or other energy conversion reactors. The camera system basically consists of a focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly, a conventional TV vidicon receiver, an external, variable density light filter which is coupled electronically to the vidicon automatic gain control (agc). The key component of this system is the focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly which utilizes a purging inert gas to keep debris from entering the port and a lens arrangement which transfers the pinhole to the outside of the port assembly. One additional feature of the port assembly is that it is not flush with the interior of the combustor.

  3. Combustion pinhole camera system

    DOEpatents

    Witte, A.B.

    1984-02-21

    A pinhole camera system is described utilizing a sealed optical-purge assembly which provides optical access into a coal combustor or other energy conversion reactors. The camera system basically consists of a focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly, a conventional TV vidicon receiver, an external, variable density light filter which is coupled electronically to the vidicon automatic gain control (agc). The key component of this system is the focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly which utilizes a purging inert gas to keep debris from entering the port and a lens arrangement which transfers the pinhole to the outside of the port assembly. One additional feature of the port assembly is that it is not flush with the interior of the combustor. 2 figs.

  4. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this

  5. SO{sub 2} effects on CO oxidation in a CO{sub 2} atmosphere, characteristic of oxy-fuel conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gimenez-Lopez, J.; Martinez, M.; Millera, A.; Bilbao, R.; Alzueta, M.U.

    2011-01-15

    SO{sub 2} is an important pollutant formed during many combustion processes which may affect the oxidation of the fuel. The current work focuses on the evaluation of the effect of the presence of SO{sub 2} on CO oxidation in a CO{sub 2} atmosphere, found in oxy-fuel combustion, in comparison to a N{sub 2} dilution characteristic of air combustion. A flow reactor experimental and kinetic modeling study of the gas-phase interaction of SO{sub 2} with the radical pool during CO oxidation under CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} diluted conditions has been carried out for different stoichiometries in the 800-1800 K temperature range. The presence of SO{sub 2} is seen to inhibit the oxidation of CO in both atmospheres for all the stoichiometries studied, although the inhibition is significantly higher as the stoichiometry becomes more reducing. The inhibiting effect of SO{sub 2} in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere is caused by similar radical recombination mechanisms than those occurring with N{sub 2}. Under fuel-rich conditions, the inhibition is governed by the SO{sub 2}/HOSO inter-conversion and is less pronounced as the CO{sub 2} concentration increases. However, as the conditions are more fuel-lean, the SO{sub 2} inhibiting effect is comparable in both atmospheres due to the higher importance of the SO{sub 2} + O recombination. As the SO{sub 2} concentration increases, its interaction with the radical pool is enhanced and the inhibition of CO oxidation is higher. An updated kinetic mechanism is used for calculations and provides a very good description of the experimental results for all the operating conditions analyzed. (author)

  6. In vitro performance of ceramic coatings obtained by high velocity oxy-fuel spray.

    PubMed

    Melero, H; Garcia-Giralt, N; Fernández, J; Díez-Pérez, A; Guilemany, J M

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings obtained by plasma-spraying have been used for many years to improve biological performance of bone implants, but several studies have drawn attention to the problems arising from high temperatures and the lack of mechanical properties. In this study, plasma-spraying is substituted by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray, with lower temperatures reached, and TiO2 is added in low amounts to hydroxyapatite in order to improve the mechanical properties. Four conditions have been tested to evaluate which are those with better biological properties. Viability and proliferation tests, as well as differentiation assays and morphology observation, are performed with human osteoblast cultures onto the studied coatings. The hydroxyapatite-TiO2 coatings maintain good cell viability and proliferation, especially the cases with higher amorphous phase amount and specific surface, and promote excellent differentiation, with a higher ALP amount for these cases than for polystyrene controls. Observation by SEM corroborates this excellent behaviour. In conclusion, these coatings are a good alternative to those used industrially, and an interesting issue would be improving biological behaviour of the worst cases, which in turn show the better mechanical properties. PMID:25201392

  7. Residual Stresses in High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Metallic Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Terry C. Totemeier; Richard N. Wright; W. David Swank

    2004-06-01

    X-ray based residual stress measurements were made on type 316 stainless steel and Fe3A1 coatings that were high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed onto low-carbon and stainless steel substrates. Nominal coating thicknesses varied from 250 to 1500 mm. The effect of HVOF spray particle velocity on residual stress and deposition efficiency was assessed by preparing coatings at three different torch chamber pressures. The effect of substrate thickness on residual stress was determined by spraying coatings onto thick (6.4 mm) and thin (1.4 mm) substrates. Residual stresses were compressive for both coating materials and increased in magnitude with spray velocity. For coatings applied to thick substrates, near-surface residual stresses were essentially constant with increasing coating thickness. Difference in thermal expansion coefficient between low-carbon and stainless steels led to a 180 MPa difference in residual stress for Fe3A1 coatings. Deposition efficiency for both materials is maximized at an intermediate (~600 m/s) velocity. Considerations for X-ray measurement of residual stresses in HVOF coatings are also presented.

  8. Combustion engineering issues for solid fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Miller; David Tillman

    2008-05-15

    The book combines modeling, policy/regulation and fuel properties with cutting edge breakthroughs in solid fuel combustion for electricity generation and industrial applications. This book provides real-life experiences and tips for addressing the various technical, operational and regulatory issues that are associated with the use of fuels. Contents are: Introduction; Coal Characteristics; Characteristics of Alternative Fuels; Characteristics and Behavior of Inorganic Constituents; Fuel Blending for Combustion Management; Fuel Preparation; Conventional Firing Systems; Fluidized-Bed Firing Systems; Post-Combustion Emissions Control; Some Computer Applications for Combustion Engineering with Solid Fuels; Gasification; Policy Considerations for Combustion Engineering.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, CATALYTICA COMBUSTION SYSTEMS, INC., XONON FLAMELESS COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Xonon Cool Combustion System manufactured by Catalytica Energy Systems, Inc., formerly Catalytica Combustion Systems, Inc., to control NOx emissions from gas turbines that operate wit...

  10. High-temperature-oxidation-induced ordered structure in Inconel 939 superalloy exposed to oxy-combustion environments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jingxi; Wise, Adam; Nuhfer, Thomas; Holcomb, Gordon R; Jablonski, Paul D; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Laughlin, David E

    2013-04-20

    In the integrated oxy-fuel combustion and turbine power generation system, turbine alloys are exposed to high temperature and an atmosphere comprised of steam, CO2 and O2. While surface and internal oxidation of the alloy takes place, the microstructure in the subsurface region also changes due to oxidation that results in the loss of the strengthening precipitates. In an earlier study of the oxidation of Inconel 939 Ni-based superalloy exposed to oxy-fuel combustion environment for up to 1000 hours, a high-temperature-oxidation-induced phase transformation in the sub-surface region was noticed and a two-phase region formed at the expense of strengthening γ' phase. While one of the two phases was identified as the Ni-matrix (γ solid solution, face-center-cubic) phase, the other product phase remained unidentified. In this study, the crystal structure of the unknown phase and its orientation relationship with the parent Ni-matrix phase was investigated through electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that the crystal structure of the unknown phase could be modeled as a ternary derivative of the ordered η-Ni3Ti phase (D024) structure with lattice parameters of a = 0.5092 nm and c = 0.8336 nm, α = 90º, β = 90º and γ = 120º.

  11. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Joel Meier; Mosbacher, David Matthew; Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian; Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan

    2011-03-22

    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  12. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, Antoni K.; Maxson, James A.; Hensinger, David M.

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  13. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1993-12-21

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

  14. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  15. Wire melting and droplet atomization in a high velocity oxy-fuel jet

    SciTech Connect

    Neiser, R.A.; Brockmann, J.E.; O`Hern, T.J.

    1995-07-01

    Coatings produced by feeding a steel wire into a high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) torch are being intensively studied by the automotive industry as a cost-effective alternative to the more expensive cast iron sleeves currently used in aluminum engine blocks. The microstructure and properties of the sprayed coatings and the overall economics of the process depend critically on the melting and atomization occurring at the wire tip. This paper presents results characterizing several aspects of wire melting and droplet breakup in an HVOF device. Fluctuations in the incandescent emission of the plume one centimeter downstream from the wire tip were recorded using a fast photodiode. A Fourier transform of the light traces provided a measure of the stripping rate of molten material from the wire tip. Simultaneous in-flight measurement of atomized particle size and velocity distributions were made using a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA). The recorded size distributions approximate a log-normal distribution. Small particles traveled faster than large particles, but the difference was considerably smaller than simple aerodynamic drag arguments would suggest. A set of experiments was carried out to determine the effect that variations in torch gas flow rates have on wire melt rate, average particle size, and average particle velocity. The observed variation of particle size with spray condition is qualitatively consistent with a Weber breakup of the droplets coming off the wire. The measurements also showed that it was possible to significantly alter atomized particle size and velocity without appreciably changing the wire melt rate.

  16. Subsurface characterization of an oxidation-induced phase transformation and twinning in nickel-based superalloy exposed to oxy-combustion environments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jingxi; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Wise, Adam; Li, Jia; Laughlin, David E.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-07-30

    In the integration of oxy-fuel combustion to turbine power generation system, turbine alloys are exposed to high temperature and an atmosphere comprised of steam, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. While surface and internal oxidation of the alloy takes place, the microstructure in the subsurface region also changes due to oxidation. In this study, bare metal coupons of Ni-base superalloys were exposed in oxy-fuel combustion environment for up to 1000 h and the oxidation-related microstructures were examined. Phase transformation occurred in the subsurface region in Ni-based superalloy and led to twinning. The transformation product phases were analyzed through thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and various electron microscopy techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanism by which the phase transformation and the formation of the microstructure occurred was also discussed. The possible effects of the product phases on the performance of the alloy in service were discussed.

  17. Method and system for controlled combustion engines

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1990-01-01

    A system for controlling combustion in internal combustion engines of both the Diesel or Otto type, which relies on establishing fluid dynamic conditions and structures wherein fuel and air are entrained, mixed and caused to be ignited in the interior of a multiplicity of eddies, and where these structures are caused to sequentially fill the headspace of the cylinders.

  18. CATALYTIC COMBUSTION COMPONENT AND SYSTEM PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop the components required for catalytic combustion system operation and evaluation. The systems investigated (firetube boiler, watertube boiler, and gas turbine), when integrated with the catalytic combustor, have potential for both ...

  19. Titanium dioxide reinforced hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Khor, K A; Cheang, P

    2002-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings with titania addition were produced by the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray process. Mechanical properties of the as-sprayed coatings in terms of adhesive strength, shear strength and fracture toughness were investigated to reveal the effect of the titania reinforcement on HA. Qualitative phase analysis with X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that mutual chemical reaction between TiO2 and HA, that formed CaTiO3 occurred during coating formation. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of the starting powders showed that the mutual chemical reaction temperature was approximately 1410 degrees C and the existence of TiO2 can effectively inhibit the decomposition of HA at elevated temperatures. The positive influence of TiO2 addition on the shear strength was revealed. The incorporation of 10 vol% TiO2 significantly improved the Young's modulus of HA coatings from 24.82 (+/- 2.44) GPa to 43.23 (+/- 3.20) GPa. It decreased to 38.51 (+/- 3.65) GPa as the amount of TiO2 increased to 20 vol%. However, the addition of TiO2 has a negative bias on the adhesive strength of HA coatings especially when the content of TiO2 reached 20 vol%. This is attributed to the weak chemical bonding and brittle phases existing at the splats' interface that resulted from mutual chemical reactions. The fracture toughness exhibited values of 0.48 (+/- 0.08) MPa m0.5, 0.60 (+/- 0.07) MPa m0.5 and 0.67 (+/- 0.06) MPa m0.5 for the HA coating, 10 vol% TiO2 blended HA coating and 20 vol% TiO2 blended HA coating respectively. The addition of TiO2 in HA coating with the amount of less than 20 vol% is suggested for satisfactory toughening effect in HVOF HA coating. PMID:11762858

  20. Oil shale retorting and combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Pitrolo, Augustine A.; Mei, Joseph S.; Shang, Jerry Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

  1. Particulate emissions from combustion of biomass in conventional combustion (air) and oxy-combustion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruscio, Amanda Deanne

    Oxy-fuel combustion is a viable technology for new and existing coal-fired power plants, as it facilitates carbon capture and thereby, can reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The use of biomass as an energy source is another popular strategy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions as they are considered nearly carbon dioxide neutral. If the use of biomass is combined with oxy-fuel combustion, negative net emissions of carbon dioxide are possible. This work examined the particulate emissions from combustion of pulverized biomass residues burning in either conventional or oxy-fuel environments. Combustion of three biomasses (olive residue, corn residue, and torrefied pine sawdust) occurred in a laboratory-scale laminar-flow drop tube furnace (DTF) heated to 1400 K. The O2 mole fraction was increased from 20% to 60% in N2 environments while a range of 30% to 60% O2 mole fractions were used in CO2 environments to represent plausible dry oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Submicron particulate matter (PM1) emission yields of all three fuels were typically lower in O2/CO2 environments than in O2/N2 environments. When the oxygen mole fraction was increased, the PM1 yields typically increased. The mass fractions of submicron particulate matter (PM1/PM18) collected from biomass combustion were higher than those of coal combustion. PM 1 constituted approximately 50 wt% of the collected ash particles in PM18 in each environment, whereas the corresponding submicron emissions from coal constituted approximately 20 wt%. Changing the background gas had little effect on the chemical composition of the PM1 particles. Unlike the submicron particles collected from coal which contained high amounts of silicon and aluminum, high amounts of alkalis (potassium, calcium, and sodium) and chlorine were the major elements observed in PM1 from the biomasses. In addition, phosphorous and sulfur also existed in high amounts in PM1 of corn residue. Super-micron particles (PM1-18) yields exhibited no clear

  2. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H.; Brewster, B.S.; Kramer, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    Goal of DOE`s Advanced Turbine Systems program is to develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Primary objective of the program here is to develop a comprehensive combustion model for advanced gas turbine combustion systems using natural gas (coal gasification or biomass fuels). The efforts included code evaluation (PCGC-3), coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, and laser-induced fluorescence.

  3. A laboratory scale supersonic combustive flow system

    SciTech Connect

    Sams, E.C.; Zerkle, D.K.; Fry, H.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

    1995-02-01

    A laboratory scale supersonic flow system [Combustive Flow System (CFS)] which utilizes the gaseous products of methane-air and/or liquid fuel-air combustion has been assembled to provide a propulsion type exhaust flow field for various applications. Such applications include providing a testbed for the study of planar two-dimensional nozzle flow fields with chemistry, three-dimensional flow field mixing near the exit of rectangular nozzles, benchmarking the predictive capability of various computational fluid dynamic codes, and the development and testing of advanced diagnostic techniques. This paper will provide a detailed description of the flow system and data related to its operation.

  4. Annual Report: Advanced Combustion (30 September 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Hawk, Jeffrey; Richards, George

    2012-09-30

    The Advanced Combustion Project addresses fundamental issues of fire-side and steam-side corrosion and materials performance in oxy-fuel combustion environments and provides an integrated approach into understanding the environmental and mechanical behavior such that environmental degradation can be ameliorated and long-term microstructural stability, and thus, mechanical performance can lead to longer lasting components and extended power plant life. The technical tasks of this effort are Oxy-combustion Environment Characterization, Alloy Modeling and Life Prediction, and Alloy Manufacturing and Process Development.

  5. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: SONOTECH PULSE COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sonotech has targeted waste incineration as a potential application for this technology. Based on bench-scale rotary-kiln simulator tests, Sonotech proposed a demonstration under the SITE program to evaluate the Sonotech pulse combustion system on a larger scale at EPA's IRF in J...

  6. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, A.; Yoshioka, S.; Oda, H.; Tokushima, T.

    1988-11-22

    This patent describes a fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and a combustion chamber, the system comprising (a) an intake passage for introducing an intake gas into the combustion chamber and provided with an intake valve; (b) a fuel injection valve for injecting fuel into the intake passage in the vicinity of the combustion chamber; (c) operating condition detecting means for detecting the operating condition of the engine and outputting a signal corresponding to the thus detected operating condition; (d) fuel injection amount determining means which receives an output signal of the operating conditions detecting means, thereby determining the amount of fuel to be supplied to the combustion chamber, and outputs a signal corresponding to thus determined amount; (e) crankshaft angle detecting means for detecting the rotation angle of the crankshaft; (f) injection timing control means which receives signals from the fuel injection amount determining means and crankshaft angle detecting means, outputs a start signal for actuating the fuel injection valve and a termination signal for terminating the actuation of the fuel injection valve, and actuates the fuel injection valve for the duration between the start and termination signals, thereby supplying an amount of fuel determined by the fuel injection amount determining means; (g) the start and termination signals being set against the crankshaft angle so that the whole fuel injection from the injection valve to the intake passage under light load operation of the engine reaches the combustion chamber substantially in the latter half of the intake stroke before the intake valve is closed.

  7. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  8. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H.

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to help develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in the utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Combustion modeling, including emission characteristics, has been identified as a needed, high-priority technology by key professionals in the gas turbine industry.

  9. The Effects of Gravity on Combustion and Structure Formation During Combustion Synthesis in Gasless Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, Arvind; Mukasyan, Alexander; Pelekh, Aleksey

    1997-01-01

    There have been relatively few publications examining the role of gravity during combustion synthesis (CS), mostly involving thermite systems. The main goal of this research was to study the influence of gravity on the combustion characteristics of heterogeneous gasless systems. In addition, some aspects of microstructure formation processes which occur during gasless CS were also studied. Four directions for experimental investigation have been explored: (1) the influence of gravity force on the characteristic features of heterogeneous combustion wave propagation (average velocity, instantaneous velocities, shape of combustion front); (2) the combustion of highly porous mixtures (with porosity greater than that for loose powders), which cannot be obtained in normal gravity; (3) the effect of gravity on sample expansion during combustion, in order to produce highly porous materials under microgravity conditions; and (4) the effect of gravity on the structure formation mechanism during the combustion synthesis of poreless composite materials.

  10. Characterization of the bone-like apatite precipitated on high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed calcium phosphate deposits.

    PubMed

    Khor, K A; Li, H; Cheang, P

    2003-02-01

    Bone-like apatite was precipitated on the surface of thermal sprayed calcium phosphate coatings following in vitro incubation in a simulated body fluid. The coatings were initially deposited on titanium alloy substrates by the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray technique. Structural characterization and mechanical evaluation of the precipitated apatite layer were conducted. Results showed that the precipitation rate was directly influenced by the local Ca(2+) concentration in the vicinity of the coating's surface and that preferential dissolution of certain phases was found to accelerate the precipitation of the bone-like apatite. The dense precipitates exhibited a competitive Young's modulus value of approximately 120GPa, which was obtained through nanoindentation. This compared favorably to the calcium phosphate matrix. Differences in microstructure at various locations within the layer resulted in altered Young's modulus and microhardness values. Precipitation mechanism investigation was carried out through a comparative experiment. Chemical analysis showed that the precipitation of bone-like apatite on the calcium phosphate coating was quite conceivably a partial diffusion-controlled process. PMID:12485795

  11. Properties of heat-treated calcium phosphate coatings deposited by high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spray.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Khor, K A; Cheang, P

    2002-05-01

    The influence of crystallization, upon heat treatment, on the properties of high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings was investigated. The characterization of the HA coating was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) was employed to determine the crystallization temperature of the amorphous phase in an as-sprayed HA coating. The study demonstrated the effect of crystallization on the coating properties by considering the changes in materials chemistry, crystallinity level, and mechanical performance. Results showed that complete crystallization of the amorphous phase occurred at approximately 700 degrees C and the crystallization temperature was dependent on sample heating rate in the DSC test. The changes of ion groups were detected by FTIR, before and after the phase transformation. The crystallization of the coating after annealing at 750 degrees C resulted in a significant increase of the coatings' adhesive strength and shear strength, which attained maximum values 34 +/- 3 and 14.1 -/+ 0.8 MPa, respectively. Young's modulus increased from 21 +/- 1 to 25 +/- 2 GPa. Microhardness measurements confirmed the changes in coating properties. It is also found that the transformation from the amorphous phase has crystalline HA as the only resultant phase detected by XRD. PMID:11962650

  12. Analytical and mechanical testing of high velocity oxy-fuel thermal sprayed and plasma sprayed calcium phosphate coatings.

    PubMed

    Haman, J D; Chittur, K K; Crawmer, D E; Lucas, L C

    1999-01-01

    Plasma spraying (PS) is the most frequently used coating technique for implants; however, in other industries a cheaper, more efficient process, high-velocity oxy-fuel thermal spraying (HVOF), is in use. This process provides higher purity, denser, more adherent coatings than plasma spraying. The primary objective of this work was to determine if the use of HVOF could improve the mechanical properties of calcium phosphate coatings. Previous studies have shown that HVOF calcium phosphate coatings are more crystalline than plasma sprayed coatings. In addition, because the coatings are exposed to more complex loading profiles in vivo than standard ASTM tensile tests provide, a secondary objective of this study was to determine the applicability of four-point bend testing for these coatings. Coatings produced by HVOF and PS were analyzed by profilometry, diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, four-point bend, and ASTM C633 tensile testing. HVOF coatings were found to have lower amorphous calcium phosphate content, higher roughness values, and lower ASTM C633 bond strengths than PS coatings; however, both coatings had similar crystal unit cell sizes, phases present (including hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and tetracalcium phosphate), and four-point bend bond strengths. Thus, the chemical, structural, and mechanical results of this study, in general, indicate that the use of HVOF to produce calcium phosphate coatings is equivalent to those produced by plasma spraying. PMID:10556851

  13. Combustion pinhole-camera system

    DOEpatents

    Witte, A.B.

    1982-05-19

    A pinhole camera system is described utilizing a sealed optical-purge assembly which provides optical access into a coal combustor or other energy conversion reactors. The camera system basically consists of a focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly, a conventional TV vidicon receiver, an external, variable density light filter which is coupled electronically to the vidicon automatic gain control (agc). The key component of this system is the focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly which utilizes a purging inert gas to keep debris from entering the port and a lens arrangement which transfers the pinhole to the outside of the port assembly. One additional feature of the port assembly is that it is not flush with the interior of the combustor.

  14. Combustion powered thermophotovoltaic emitter system

    SciTech Connect

    McHenry, R.S.

    1995-07-01

    The US Naval Academy (USNA) has recently completed an engineering design project for a high temperature thermophotovoltaic (TPV) photon emitter. The final apparatus was to be portable, completely self contained, and was to incorporate cycle efficiency optimization such as exhaust stream recuperation. Through computer modeling and prototype experimentation, a methane fueled emitter system was designed from structural ceramic materials to fulfill the high temperature requirements necessary for high system efficiency. This paper outlines the engineering design process, discusses obstacles and solutions encountered, and presents the final design.

  15. Multi-Point Combustion System: Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goeke, Jerry; Pack, Spencer; Zink, Gregory; Ryon, Jason

    2014-01-01

    A low-NOx emission combustor concept has been developed for NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) program to meet N+2 emissions goals for a 70,000 lb thrust engine application. These goals include 75 percent reduction of LTO NOx from CAEP6 standards without increasing CO, UHC, or smoke from that of current state of the art. An additional key factor in this work is to improve lean combustion stability over that of previous work performed on similar technology in the early 2000s. The purpose of this paper is to present the final report for the NASA contract. This work included the design, analysis, and test of a multi-point combustion system. All design work was based on the results of Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling with the end results tested on a medium pressure combustion rig at the UC and a medium pressure combustion rig at GRC. The theories behind the designs, results of analysis, and experimental test data will be discussed in this report. The combustion system consists of five radially staged rows of injectors, where ten small scale injectors are used in place of a single traditional nozzle. Major accomplishments of the current work include the design of a Multipoint Lean Direct Injection (MLDI) array and associated air blast and pilot fuel injectors, which is expected to meet or exceed the goal of a 75 percent reduction in LTO NOx from CAEP6 standards. This design incorporates a reduced number of injectors over previous multipoint designs, simplified and lightweight components, and a very compact combustor section. Additional outcomes of the program are validation that the design of these combustion systems can be aided by the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict and reduce emissions. Furthermore, the staging of fuel through the individually controlled radially staged injector rows successfully demonstrated improved low power operability as well as improvements in emissions over previous multipoint designs. Additional comparison

  16. Technical and economic aspects of oxygen separation for oxy-fuel purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, Maciej; Gizicki, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    Oxy combustion is the most promising technology for carbon dioxide, originated from thermal power plants, capture and storage. The oxygen in sufficient quantities can be separated from air in cryogenic installations. Even the state-of-art air separation units are characterized by high energy demands decreasing net efficiency of thermal power plant by at least 7%. This efficiency decrease can be mitigated by the use of waste nitrogen, e.g., as the medium for lignite drying. It is also possible to store energy in liquefied gases and recover it by liquid pressurization, warm-up to ambient temperature and expansion. Exergetic efficiency of the proposed energy accumulator may reach 85%.

  17. TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION SUMMARY: THE AMERICAN COMBUSTION PYRETRON THERMAL DESTRUCTION SYSTEM AT THE U.S. EPA'S COMBUSTION FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The American Combustion Pyretron Thermal Destruction System at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Research Facility. Under the auspices of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation, or SITE, program, a critical assessment was made of the American Combustion Pyretron™ oxygen enha...

  18. 14 CFR 25.833 - Combustion heating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heating systems. 25.833 Section 25.833 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Combustion heating systems. Combustion heaters must be approved. Pressurization...

  19. 14 CFR 25.833 - Combustion heating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heating systems. 25.833 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.833 Combustion heating systems. Combustion heaters must be approved. Pressurization...

  20. 14 CFR 25.833 - Combustion heating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combustion heating systems. 25.833 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.833 Combustion heating systems. Combustion heaters must be approved. Pressurization...

  1. 14 CFR 25.833 - Combustion heating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Combustion heating systems. 25.833 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.833 Combustion heating systems. Combustion heaters must be approved. Pressurization...

  2. 14 CFR 25.833 - Combustion heating systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Combustion heating systems. 25.833 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.833 Combustion heating systems. Combustion heaters must be approved. Pressurization...

  3. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  4. Combustion powered thermophotovoltaic emitter system

    SciTech Connect

    McHenry, R.S.; Harper, M.J.; Lindler, K.W.

    1995-12-31

    The United States Naval Academy, under interagency agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE), has recently completed an engineering design project for a high temperature thermophotovoltaic (TPV) photon emitter. The design was constrained by the physical geometry and photovoltaic cell type of the DOE TPV generator so that a cylindrical emitter at 1,756 K (2,700 F) was dictated. The final apparatus was to be portable, completely self contained, and was to incorporate cycle efficiency optimization such as exhaust stream recuperation. Through computer modeling and prototype experimentation, a methane fueled emitter system was designed from structural ceramic materials to fulfill the DOE requirements. This paper outlines the engineering design process, discusses obstacles and solutions encountered, and presents the final design. The concept of thermophotovoltaic energy conversion dates to the 1960s and has been the subject of broad research effort. This is a direct energy conversion process that converts thermal energy into electricity with only photonic coupling. The process offers high theoretical efficiency, versatile application as a primary or secondary power cycle, and a number of operational advantages resulting from the lack of a working substance or moving parts.

  5. Future fundamental combustion research for aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Physical fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and chemical kinetic processes which occur in the combustion chamber of aeropropulsion systems were investigated. With the component requirements becoming more severe for future engines, the current design methodology needs the new tools to obtain the optimum configuration in a reasonable design and development cycle. Research efforts in the last few years were encouraging but to achieve these benefits research is required into the fundamental aerothermodynamic processes of combustion. It is recommended that research continues in the areas of flame stabilization, combustor aerodynamics, heat transfer, multiphase flow and atomization, turbulent reacting flows, and chemical kinetics. Associated with each of these engineering sciences is the need for research into computational methods to accurately describe and predict these complex physical processes. Research needs in each of these areas are highlighted.

  6. Methods and systems for combustion dynamics reduction

    DOEpatents

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Srinivasan, Shiva; Lynch, John Joseph; Yilmaz, Ertan; Kim, Kwanwoo; Lacy, Benjamin; Crothers, Sarah; Singh, Kapil Kumar

    2009-08-25

    Methods and systems for combustion dynamics reduction are provided. A combustion chamber may include a first premixer and a second premixer. Each premixer may include at least one fuel injector, at least one air inlet duct, and at least one vane pack for at least partially mixing the air from the air inlet duct or ducts and fuel from the fuel injector or injectors. Each vane pack may include a plurality of fuel orifices through which at least a portion of the fuel and at least a portion of the air may pass. The vane pack or packs of the first premixer may be positioned at a first axial position and the vane pack or packs of the second premixer may be positioned at a second axial position axially staggered with respect to the first axial position.

  7. Wood combustion systems: status of environmental concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Dunwoody, J.E.; Takach, H.; Kelley, C.S.; Opalanko, R.; High, C.; Fege, A.

    1980-01-01

    This document addresses the uncertainties about environmental aspects of Wood Combustion Systems that remain to be resolved through research and development. The resolution of these uncertainties may require adjustments in the technology program before it can be commercialized. The impacts and concerns presented in the document are treated generically without reference to specific predetermined sites unless these are known. Hence, site-specific implications are not generally included in the assessment. The report consists of two main sections which describe the energy resource base involved, characteristics of the technology, and introduce the environmental concerns of implementing the technology; and which review the concerns related to wood combustion systems which are of significance for the environment. It also examines the likelihood and consequence of findings which might impede wood commercialization such as problems and uncertainties stemming from current or anticipated environmental regulation, or costs of potential environmental controls. This document is not a formal NEPA document. Appropriate NEPA documentation will be prepared after a formal wood combustion commercialization program is approved by DOE.

  8. Novel metal-organic frameworks for efficient stationary sources via oxyfuel combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina; Parkes, Marie Vernell; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Paap, Scott M; Williams, Timothy; Shaddix, Christopher R.

    2015-09-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is a well-known approach to improve the heat transfer associated with stationary energy processes. Its overall penetration into industrial and power markets is constrained by the high cost of existing air separation technologies for generating oxygen. Cryogenic air separation is the most widely used technology for generating oxygen but is complex and expensive. Pressure swing adsorption is a competing technology that uses activated carbon, zeolites and polymer membranes for gas separations. However, it is expensive and limited to moderate purity O₂ . MOFs are cutting edge materials for gas separations at ambient pressure and room temperature, potentially revolutionizing the PSA process and providing dramatic process efficiency improvements through oxy-fuel combustion. This LDRD combined (1) MOF synthesis, (2) gas sorption testing, (3) MD simulations and crystallography of gas siting in pores for structure-property relationship, (4) combustion testing and (5) technoeconomic analysis to aid in real-world implementation.

  9. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  10. Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Michael F.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  11. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced concept system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    DONLEE Technologies Inc. is developing with support of the US Department of Energy an advanced circulating fluidized bed technology known as the Vortex{trademark} Fluidized Bed Combustor (VFBC). The unique feature of the VFBC is the injection of a significant portion of the combustion air into the cyclone. Since as much as one-half of the total combustion air is injected into the cyclone, the cross-sectional area of the circulating fluidized bed is considerably smaller than typical circulating fluidized beds. The technology is being developed for two applications: Industrial-scale boilers ranging from 20,000 to 100,000 pounds per hour steam generating capacity; and two-stage combustion in which a substoichiometric Vortex Fluidized Bed Combustor (2VFBC) or precombustor is used to generate a combustible gas for use primarily in boiler retrofit applications. This Level II analysis of these two applications indicates that both have merit. An industrial-scale VFBC boiler (60,000 lb/hr of steam) is projected to be economically attractive with coal prices as high as $40 per ton and gas prices between $4 and $5 per thousand cubic feet. The payback time is between 3 and 4 years. The 2VFBC system was evaluated at three capacities of application: 20,000; 60,000 and 100,000 lb/hr of steam. The payback times for these three capacities are 4.5, 2.1 and 1.55 years, respectively. The 2VFBC has potential applications for retrofit of existing pulverized coal-fired boilers or as a new large (utility) boiler. Pressurized operation of the 2VFBC has considerable potential for combined cycle power generation applications. Experimental development of both applications is presented here to demonstrate the potential of these two technologies.

  12. On the gas dynamics of HVOF thermal sprays. [HVOF (High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel)

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, C.M.; Settles, G.S.; Miller, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study has been performed on the gas dynamic aspects of the HVOF thermal spray process. A commercially-available HVOF gun (Hobart Tafa JP-5000) is used in this study. Optical diagnostic techniques including microsecond-exposure schlieren and shadowgraph imaging are applied to visualize the hot supersonic jet produced by this equipment without any particle injection. Rapid turbulent mixing of the jet with the surrounding atmosphere is observed, which is an issue of concern in coating quality because of the possibility of oxidation of the sprayed particles. This mixing appears principally to be a function of the density ratio between the hot jet and the cold atmosphere, rather than depending upon the combustion-chamber pressure or barrel length. The supersonic core of the HVOF jet dissipates rapidly due to the, mixing, so that the jet is no longer supersonic when it impinges upon the target surface being sprayed. Secondary issues also observed in this study include strong jet-noise radiation from the HVOF plume and the entrainment and induced bulk motion of the surrounding air. All these issues have a background in the field of gas dynamics which has not been previously applied to thermal spray technology.

  13. Development of wear resistant nanostructured duplex coatings by high velocity oxy-fuel process for use in oil sands industry.

    PubMed

    Saha, Gobinda C; Khan, Tahir I; Glenesk, Larry B

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands deposits in Northern Alberta, Canada represent a wealth of resources attracting huge capital investment and significant research focus in recent years. As of 2005, crude oil production from the current oil sands operators accounted for 50% of Canada's domestic production. Alberta's oil sands deposits contain approximately 1.7 trillion barrels of bitumen, of which over 175 billion are recoverable with current technology, and 315 billion barrels are ultimately recoverable with technological advances. A major problem of operating machinery and equipment in the oil sands is the unpredictable failure from operating in this highly aggressive environment. One of the significant causes of that problem is premature material wear. An approach to minimize this wear is the use of protective coatings and, in particular, a cermet thin coating. A high level of coating homogeneity is critical for components such as bucketwheels, draglines, conveyors, shovels, heavyhauler trucks etc. that are subjected to severe degradation through abrasive wear. The identification, development and application of optimum wear solutions for these components pose an ongoing challenge. Nanostructured cermet coatings have shown the best results of achieving the degree of homogeneity required for these applications. In this study, WC-17Co cermet powder with nanocrystalline WC core encapsulated with 'duplex' Co layer was used to obtain a nanostructured coating. To apply this coating, high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying technique was used, as it is known for producing wear-resistant coatings superior to those obtained from plasma-based techniques. Mechanical, sliding wear and microstructural behavior of the coating was compared with those of the microstructured coating obtained from spraying WC-10Co-4Cr cermet powder by HVOF technique. Results from the nanostructured coating, among others, showed an average of 25% increase in microhardness, 30% increase in sliding wear resistance and

  14. 76 FR 16646 - Circadian, Inc., Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Circadian, Inc., Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems, Inc... concerning the securities of Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems,...

  15. Spark ignition systems for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Gol, G.; Hill, W.F.

    1980-08-26

    An internal combustion engine spark ignition system is provided which ensures that sparks are inhibited if the engine temperature exceeds a maximum safe level. The ignition circuit includes an input transistor which is switched on and off by an engine shaft transducer. The input transistor controls charging and discharging of a capacitor the voltage on which determines whether switching of the input transistor causes a spark to be produced via an output amplifier and ignition coil. A temperature sensing element determines both the rate at which the capacitor can charge and the final voltage to which it can be charged.

  16. Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

    2011-07-01

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO2 capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This work focused on two classes of oxygen carrier, one that merely undergoes a change in oxidation state, such as Fe3O4/Fe2O3 and one that is converted from its higher to its lower oxidation state by the release of oxygen on heating, i.e., CuO/Cu2O. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification (3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratory-scale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability (4) the identification of mechanisms and rates for the copper, cuprous oxide, and cupric oxide system using thermogravimetric analysis.

  17. High efficiency stoichiometric internal combustion engine system

    DOEpatents

    Winsor, Richard Edward; Chase, Scott Allen

    2009-06-02

    A power system including a stoichiometric compression ignition engine in which a roots blower is positioned in the air intake for the engine to control air flow. Air flow is decreased during part power conditions to maintain the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber of the engine at stoichiometric, thus enabling the use of inexpensive three-way catalyst to reduce oxides of nitrogen. The roots blower is connected to a motor generator so that when air flow is reduced, electrical energy is stored which is made available either to the roots blower to temporarily increase air flow or to the system electrical load and thus recapture energy that would otherwise be lost in reducing air flow.

  18. Optical fiber system for combustion quality analysis in power boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Waldemar; Surtel, Wojciech; Smolarz, Andrzej; Kotyra, Andrzej; Komada, Pawel

    2001-06-01

    The introduction of low emission techniques of combustion caused side-effects like oxygen lean corrosion. It also enforced more precise management of technological air, better coal milling and application of devices for combustion process monitoring. In the article authors presented their own solution of optical fiber system for combustion quality evaluation, already operating on power boiler type OP-650. Its functionality was described together with selected results of measurements. Directions of further development of the system were also indicated.

  19. Lubricating system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, T.

    1988-12-27

    This patent describes a lubricating system for an internal combustion engine having at least one cylinder, crankcase, a crankshaft, a balancer shaft rotated by the crankshaft through gears, and an oil pump, comprising: a cover secured to the crankcase to form a part of the crankcase, the crankshaft being supported by a first bearing provided in the cover and by a second bearing provided in the crankcase; a first oil passage provided in the crankcase and cover and extending from an opening at a bottom of the crankcase to an inlet of the oil pump; a second oil passage provided in the cover and extending from an outlet of the oil pump to a first opening which opens to a journal of the crankshaft; a third oil passage provided in the crankshaft and extending from a second opening corresponding to the first opening to third openings which open to the first and second bearings and to connecting rods at crankpins of the crankshaft.

  20. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CELLO PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER SYSTEM/SONOTECH INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sonotech, Inc. (Sonotech), of Atlanta, GA, the developer of the Cello® pulse combustion burner, claims that its burner system can be beneficial to a variety of combustion processes. The system incorporates a combustor that can be tuned to induce large amplitude sonic pulsation...

  1. System and method for cooling a combustion gas charge

    DOEpatents

    Massey, Mary Cecelia; Boberg, Thomas Earl

    2010-05-25

    The present invention relates to a system and method for cooling a combustion gas charge prior. The combustion gas charge may include compressed intake air, exhaust gas, or a mixture thereof. An evaporator is provided that may then receive a relatively high temperature combustion gas charge and discharge at a relatively lower temperature. The evaporator may be configured to operate with refrigeration cycle components and/or to receive a fluid below atmospheric pressure as the phase-change cooling medium.

  2. Considerations on the external combustion system of the Stirling hot gas engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zacharias, F.

    1983-01-01

    After an introduction on the Stirling engine the external combustion system as well as the general loss division and efficiencies are described. The requirements for the combustion system and different variants of the combustion system are compared and discussed.

  3. Hybrid lean premixing catalytic combustion system for gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Critchley, Ian L.

    2003-12-09

    A system and method of combusting a hydrocarbon fuel is disclosed. The system combines the accuracy and controllability of an air staging system with the ultra-low emissions achieved by catalytic combustion systems without the need for a pre-heater. The result is a system and method that is mechanically simple and offers ultra-low emissions over a wide range of power levels, fuel properties and ambient operating conditions.

  4. PROCEEDINGS OF THE STATIONARY SOURCE COMBUSTION SYMPOSIUM (3RD). VOLUME III. STATIONARY ENGINE AND INDUSTRIAL PROCESS COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ;Contents: Stationary engines and industrial process combustion systems--(Application of advanced combustion modifications to industrial process equipment--process heater subscale tests, Pollutant emissions from 'dirty' low and medium - Btu gases, Some aspects of afterburner perf...

  5. Enthalpy approach to the investigation of the combustion process. II results of thermal analysis of some combustible systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kashporov, L.Y.; Rabinovich, V.A.; Sheludyak, Y.E.

    1994-09-01

    Thermal parameters of the critical cross section of the steady-state combustion wave in gaseous mixtures, explosives, nitrocellulose powders, and pyrotechnic and SHS systems are determined from analysis of experimental combustion rates.

  6. Fluidic systems may improve combustion in automotive engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangion, C.

    1972-01-01

    Application of fluidic devices to reduce generation of noxious exhausts from internal combustion engines is discussed. Operation of fluidic system to provide bypass of fuel air mixture into heated loop to provide more complete combustion is explanined. Advantage lies in no moving parts required for fluidic by-pass action.

  7. Technology Awareness Workshop on Active Combustion Control (ACC) in Propulsion Systems: JANNAF Combustion Subcommittee Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    A JANNAF Combustion Subcommittee Technology Awareness Seminar on Active Combustion Control (ACC) in Propulsion Systems' was held 12 November 1997 at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC), Cleveland, Ohio. The objectives of the seminar were: 1) Define the need and potential of ACC to meet future requirements for gas turbines and ramjets; 2) Explain general principles of ACC and discuss recent successes to suppress combustion instabilities, increase combustion efficiency, reduce emission, and extend flammability limits; 3) Identify R&D barriers/needs for practical implementation of ACC; 4) Explore potential for improving coordination of future R&D activities funded by various government agencies. Over 40 individuals representing senior management from over 20 industry and government organizations participated. This document summarizes the presentations and findings of this seminar.

  8. Performance of high-velocity oxy-fuel-sprayed chromium carbide-nickel chromium coating in an actual boiler environment of a thermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, T.S.; Prakash, S.; Agrawal, R.D.

    2007-09-15

    The present study aims to evaluate the performance of a high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF)-sprayed Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr (chromium carbide-nickel chromium) coating on a nickel-based super-alloy in an actual industrial environment of a coal-fired boiler, with the objective to protect the boiler super-heater and reheater tubes from hot corrosion. The tests were performed in the platen super heater zone of a coal-fired boiler for 1,000 h at 900 degrees C under cyclic conditions. The Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr coating imparted the necessary protection to the nickel-based super alloy in the given environment. The dense and flat splat structure of the coating, and the formation of oxides of chromium and nickel and their spinels, might have protected the substrate super alloy from the inward permeation of corrosive species.

  9. Supercharger control system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Nagase, H.; Hirayama, T.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a supercharger control system for an internal combustion engine. The system has a throttle valve with a throttle operating lever, an engine air inlet passage, and a venturi-type carburetor. It consists of: a supercharger located in the engine air inlet passage upstream of the throttle valve, the supercharger being driven by the engine, a bypass within the engine inlet passage around the supercharger, a control valve with a control lever located within the bypass to control air flow, a diaphragm device, a first side of the diaphragm device being in communication with the engine inlet passage at the exit of the supercharger, a second side of the diaphragm being in communication with the venturi carburetor, a valve control linkage being constructed and arranged to open the control valve with increased vacuum in the first side of the diaphragm, spring means biasing the diaphragm to open the control valve, an activation lever with a stopper protrustion, the activation lever being pivotally mounted about the throttle valve, a first stop pin in the intake passage wall, a second stop pin on the throttle operating lever to selectively engage the activation lever, a regulation lever pivotally mounted about the control valve, a third stop pin on the control lever to selectively engage the regulating lever, an activation linkage connecting the activation lever and the regulating lever so as to create reciprocating motion, and spring means biasing both the regulating lever against the third stop pin when the control valve is in the fully open position and the stopper protrusion is against the first stop pin.

  10. Chemical Looping Combustion Reactions and Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sarofim, Adel; Lighty, JoAnn; Smith, Philip; Whitty, Kevin; Eyring, Edward; Sahir, Asad; Alvarez, Milo; Hradisky, Michael; Clayton, Chris; Konya, Gabor; Baracki, Richard; Kelly, Kerry

    2014-03-01

    Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is one promising fuel-combustion technology, which can facilitate economic CO{sub 2} capture in coal-fired power plants. It employs the oxidation/reduction characteristics of a metal, or oxygen carrier, and its oxide, the oxidizing gas (typically air) and the fuel source may be kept separate. This topical report discusses the results of four complementary efforts: (5.1) the development of process and economic models to optimize important design considerations, such as oxygen carrier circulation rate, temperature, residence time; (5.2) the development of high-performance simulation capabilities for fluidized beds and the collection, parameter identification, and preliminary verification/uncertainty quantification; (5.3) the exploration of operating characteristics in the laboratoryscale bubbling bed reactor, with a focus on the oxygen carrier performance, including reactivity, oxygen carrying capacity, attrition resistance, resistance to deactivation, cost and availability; and (5.4) the identification of kinetic data for copper-based oxygen carriers as well as the development and analysis of supported copper oxygen carrier material. Subtask 5.1 focused on the development of kinetic expressions for the Chemical Looping with Oxygen Uncoupling (CLOU) process and validating them with reported literature data. The kinetic expressions were incorporated into a process model for determination of reactor size and oxygen carrier circulation for the CLOU process using ASPEN PLUS. An ASPEN PLUS process model was also developed using literature data for the CLC process employing an iron-based oxygen carrier, and the results of the process model have been utilized to perform a relative economic comparison. In Subtask 5.2, the investigators studied the trade-off between modeling approaches and available simulations tools. They quantified uncertainty in the high-performance computing (HPC) simulation tools for CLC bed applications. Furthermore

  11. Supercharging system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, J.

    1987-09-29

    This patent describes a supercharging control system for an internal combustion engine (ICE) having an exhaust gas turbine driven by exhaust gases from the ICE; a main air compressor driven by the exhaust gas turbine and providing compressed air to an inlet manifold of the ICE, an auxiliary air compressor driven by rotary power derived from the ICE to provide additional air to the main compressor; a controlled clutch drivingly connected to the auxiliary compressor and the ICE to selectively establish or disconnect rotary drive power between the ICE and the auxiliary compressor; fuel quantity sensing means for sensing quantity of fuel being supplied to the ICE and providing a fuel quantity signal; air pressure sensing means coupled to an air inlet of the ICE for sensing charging air pressure and providing an air pressure signal; and comprising; a memory and controller coupled to control, selectively, establishment and disconnection of the rotary drive power between the ICE and the auxiliary compressor, and wherein the memory and controller is coupled to receive the air pressure signal and the fuel quantity signal and storing the relationship between air supply pressure and fuel quantity for desired performance of the ICE; the memory and controller provides an output signal coupled to and controlling the controlled clutch to obtain the desired performance; and wherein the main compressor comprises a centrifugal compressor including nozzles positioned about the outer circumference of a chamber within which rotary blades of the centrifugal compressor operate. The nozzles receive compressed air from the auxiliary compressor and are oriented to apply additional drive power to the main compressor.

  12. Combustion system for hybrid solar fossil fuel receiver

    DOEpatents

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2004-05-25

    A combustion system for a hybrid solar receiver comprises a pre-mixer which combines air and fuel to form an air-fuel mixture. The mixture is introduced tangentially into a cooling jacket. A burner plenum is fluidically connected to the cooling jacket such that the burner plenum and the cooling jacket are arranged in thermal contact with one another. The air-fuel mixture flows through the cooling jacket cooling the burner plenum to reduce pre-ignition of the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum. A combustion chamber is operatively associated with and open to the burner plenum to receive the air-fuel mixture from the burner plenum. An igniter is operatively positioned in the combustion chamber to combust the air-fuel mixture, releasing heat. A recuperator is operatively associated with the burner plenum and the combustion chamber and pre-heats the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum with heat from the combustion chamber. A heat-exchanger is operatively associated and in thermal contact with the combustion chamber. The heat-exchanger provides heat for the hybrid solar receiver.

  13. Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project is presented. The overview includes project metrics, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on some of the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Objective: Development of comprehensive detailed and reduced kinetic mechanisms of jet fuels for chemically-reacting flow modeling. Scientific Challenges: 1) Developing experimental facilities capable of handling higher hydrocarbons and providing benchmark combustion data. 2) Determining and understanding ignition and combustion characteristics, such as laminar flame speeds, extinction stretch rates, and autoignition delays, of jet fuels and hydrocarbons relevant to jet surrogates. 3) Developing comprehensive kinetic models for jet fuels.

  14. Combustion system processes leading to corrosive deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Rosner, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    Degradation of turbine engine hot gas path components by high temperature corrosion can usually be associated with deposits even though other factors may also play a significant role. The origins of the corrosive deposits are traceable to chemical reactions which take place during the combustion process. In the case of hot corrosion/sulfidation, sodium sulfate was established as the deposited corrosive agent even when none of this salt enters the engine directly. The sodium sulfate is formed during the combustion and deposition processes from compounds of sulfur contained in the fuel as low level impurities and sodium compounds, such as sodium chloride, ingested with intake air. In other turbine and power generation situations, corrosive and/or fouling deposits can result from such metals as potassium, iron, calcium, vanadium, magnesium, and silicon.

  15. Combustion system processes leading to corrosive deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Rosner, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    Degradation of turbine engine hot gas path components by high temperature corrosion can usually be associated with deposits even though other factors may also play a significant role. The origins of the corrosive deposits are traceable to chemical reactions which take place during the combustion process. In the case of hot corrosion/sulfidation, sodium sulfate was established as the deposited corrosive agent even when none of this salt enters the engine directly. The sodium sulfate is formed during the combustion and deposition processes from compounds of sulfur contained in the fuel as low level impurities and sodium compounds, such as sodium chloride, ingested with intake air. In other turbine and power generation situations, corrosive and/or fouling deposits can result from such metals as potassium, iron, calcium, vanadium, magnesium, anad silicon. Previously announced in STAR as N81-23243

  16. Practical approaches to field problems of stationary combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC) business plan dictates collaboration with industrial clients and other government agencies to promote energy efficiency, health and safety, pollution reduction and productivity enhancement. The Advanced Combustion Technologies group of CETC provides consultation to numerous organizations in combustion related areas by conducting laboratory and field investigations of fossil fuel-fired combustion equipment. CETC, with its modern research facilities and technical expertise, has taken this practical approach since the seventies and has assisted many organizations in overcoming field problems and in providing cost saving measures and improved profit margins. This paper presents a few selected research projects conducted for industrial clients in north and central America. The combustion systems investigated are mostly liquid fuel fired, with the exception of the utility boiler which was coal-fired. The key areas involved include fuel quality, fuel storage/delivery system contamination, waste derived oils, crude oil combustion, unacceptable pollutant emissions, ambient soot deposition, slagging, fouling, boiler component degradation, and particulate characterization. Some of the practical approaches taken to remedy these field problems on several combustion systems including residential, commercial and industrial scale units are discussed.

  17. Identification of oxygenated compounds in combustion systems.

    PubMed

    De Joannon, M; Ragucci, R; Cavaliere, A; Ciajolo, A

    2001-01-01

    An attempt for the spectroscopic identification of oxygenated compounds produced in combustion processes under different environmental conditions is reported in this paper. A deeper knowledge about presence and evolution of such species in dependence of the operating conditions of practical burner represents a fundamental hint to the objective of an advancement of the control of combustion process and reduction of pollutant emissions. This paper mainly focuses on species characterized by the presence of carbonyl functionality since aldehydes, ketones and diketones are among the principal intermediate species and products of hydrocarbon oxidation. They are by themselves to be considered atmospheric pollutants and are also indicators of actual pathways followed during the chemical reactions occurring in the combustion process. For these reasons they are most suitable for the exploitation of the above indicated objectives. In this paper, a classification of spectroscopic features and markers of these classes of carbonyl compounds is presented on the basis of both literature and spectra collected from sample species. This interpretative scheme is then used for the attribution of fluorescence signals collected from a tetradecane spray in different environmental conditions. PMID:11219711

  18. Improved low NOx firing systems for pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, K.; Laux, S.; Grusha, J.; Rosin, T.; Hausman, G.L.

    1999-07-01

    More stringent emission limits or the addition of post combustion NOx control create the need for improvements of NOx emissions from pulverized coal boilers. Many boilers retrofitted with Low NOx technology during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the CAAA fail or marginally meet their requirements. Technical solutions range from addition of overfire air and state-of-the-art low NOx burners to low cost additions of combustion enhancements. Regardless of the combustion NOx control method used, stoichiometries local to the burners must be maintained at the designed values at all times to provide high NOx performance at low efficiency loss due to unburned fuel. This paper describes Foster Wheeler's approach to NOx emission improvements for existing low NOx firing systems. The technology to measure air and coal flow individually for each burner and to control the parameters for optimum combustion are presented and discussed. Field experience shows the installation and advantages of the technology.

  19. System and method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Zuo, Baifang; York, William David

    2015-09-01

    A system for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes an end cap having an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface, and tube bundles extend from the upstream surface through the downstream surface. A divider inside a tube bundle defines a diluent passage that extends axially through the downstream surface, and a diluent supply in fluid communication with the divider provides diluent flow to the diluent passage. A method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes flowing a fuel through tube bundles, flowing a diluent through a diluent passage inside a tube bundle, wherein the diluent passage extends axially through at least a portion of the end cap into a combustion chamber, and forming a diluent barrier in the combustion chamber between the tube bundle and at least one other adjacent tube bundle.

  20. System and method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Zuo, Baifang; York, William David

    2013-08-20

    A system for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes an end cap having an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface, and tube bundles extend through the end cap. A diluent supply in fluid communication with the end cap provides diluent flow to the end cap. Diluent distributors circumferentially arranged inside at least one tube bundle extend downstream from the downstream surface and provide fluid communication for the diluent flow through the end cap. A method for reducing combustion dynamics in a combustor includes flowing fuel through tube bundles that extend axially through an end cap, flowing a diluent through diluent distributors into a combustion chamber, wherein the diluent distributors are circumferentially arranged inside at least one tube bundle and each diluent distributor extends downstream from the end cap, and forming a diluent barrier in the combustion chamber between at least one pair of adjacent tube bundles.

  1. Social Combustion Theory: Dynamics of Social System Deterioration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Wen-Yuan

    Social Harmony Equation (SHE) leads the social system to the evolution direction of social by accumulation of “social combustion substances”, i.e., the accumulation of microcosmic entropy increase “basic particles” (individual) in social system from assimilated “basic social energy” to dissimilated one; meanwhile, the catalysis of “social combustion promoter” (social excitation energy) has enhanced the “social temperature” of disordering process of social system and completed the energy accumulation of social entropy increase that can generate the transition. Finally, ignited by the “social trigger threshold”, the social system has completed the abrupt change from orderliness to disorderliness. The continuous variation of the above-mentioned three basic non-linear processes has jointly composed the whole contents of social combustion theory. Under the restriction of such conditions of different time (t), different space (α) and different scale (β), it is finally explained as a comprehensive dynamics of social system deterioration.

  2. Combustion waves in hydraulically resisted systems.

    PubMed

    Brailovsky, I; Kagan, L; Sivashinsky, G

    2012-02-13

    The effects of hydraulic resistance on the burning of confined/obstacle-laden gaseous and gas-permeable solid explosives are discussed on the basis of recent research. Hydraulic resistance is found to induce a new powerful mechanism for the reaction spread (diffusion of pressure) allowing for both fast subsonic as well as supersonic propagation. Hydraulic resistance appears to be of relevance also for the multiplicity of detonation regimes as well as for the transitions from slow conductive to fast convective, choked or detonative burning. A quasi-one-dimensional Fanno-type model for premixed gas combustion in an obstructed channel open at the ignition end is discussed. It is shown that, similar to the closed-end case studied earlier, the hydraulic resistance causes a gradual precompression and preheating of the unburned gas adjacent to the advancing deflagration, which leads (after an extended induction period) to a localized autoignition that triggers an abrupt transition from deflagrative to detonative combustion. In line with the experimental observations, the ignition at the open end greatly encumbers the transition (compared with the closed-end case), and the deflagration practically does not accelerate up to the very transition point. Shchelkin's effect, that ignition at a small distance from the closed end of a tube facilitates the transition, is described. PMID:22213662

  3. Corrosion performance of materials for advanced combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Yanez-Herrero, M.; Fornasieri, C.

    1993-12-01

    Conceptual designs of advanced combustion systems that utilize coal as a feedstock require high-temperature furnaces and heat transfer surfaces capable of operating at more elevated temperatures than those prevalent in current coal-fired power plants. The combination of elevated temperatures and hostile combustion environments necessitates development/application of advanced ceramic materials in these designs. This report characterizes the chemistry of coal-fired combustion environments over the wide temperature range that is of interest in these systems and discusses preliminary experimental results on several materials (alumina, Hexoloy, SiC/SiC, SiC/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, ZIRCONIA, INCONEL 677 and 617) with potential for application in these systems.

  4. A sustained-arc ignition system for internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    A sustained-arc ignition system was developed for internal combustion engines. It produces a very-long-duration ignition pulse with an energy in the order of 100 millijoules. The ignition pulse waveform can be controlled to predetermined actual ignition requirements. The design of the sustained-arc ignition system is presented in the report.

  5. LOW NOX COMBUSTION SYSTEMS WITH SO2 CONTROL USING LIMESTONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes EPA work on low NOx combustion systems with SO2 control using limestone. Although SO2 control in low NOx systems for both stoker and pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is under investigation at EPA, most of the current work is with pulverized coal. EPA's Limestone...

  6. Numerical modeling of in-flight characteristics of inconel 625 particles during high-velocity oxy-fuel thermal spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, S.; McCartney, D. G.; Eastwick, C. N.; Simmons, K.

    2004-06-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to predict particle dynamic behavior in a high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) thermal spray gun in which premixed oxygen and propylene are burnt in a combustion chamber linked to a long, parallel-sided nozzle. The particle transport equations are solved in a Lagrangian manner and coupled with the two-dimensional, axisymmetric, steady state, chemically reacting, turbulent gas flow. Within the particle transport model, the total flow of the particle phase is modeled by tracking a small number of particles through the continuum gas flow, and each of these individual particles is tracked independently through the continuous phase. Three different combustion chamber designs were modeled, and the in-flight particle characteristics of Inconel were 625 studied. Results are presented to show the effect of process parameters, such as particle injection speed and location, total gas flow rate, fuel-to-oxygen gas ratio, and particle size on the particle dynamic behavior for a parallel-sided, 12 mm long combustion chamber. The results indicate that the momentum and heat transfer to particles are primarily influenced by total gas flow. The 12 mm long chamber can achieve an optimum performance for Inconel 625 powder particles ranging in diameter from 20 to 40 µm. At a particular spraying distance, an optimal size of particles is observed with respect to particle temperature. The effect of different combustion chamber dimensions on particle dynamics was also investigated. The results obtained for both a 22 mm long chamber and also one with a conical, converging design are compared with the baseline data for the 12 mm chamber.

  7. Method and apparatus for detecting combustion instability in continuous combustion systems

    DOEpatents

    Benson, Kelly J.; Thornton, Jimmy D.; Richards, George A.; Straub, Douglas L.

    2006-08-29

    An apparatus and method to sense the onset of combustion stability is presented. An electrode is positioned in a turbine combustion chamber such that the electrode is exposed to gases in the combustion chamber. A control module applies a voltage potential to the electrode and detects a combustion ionization signal and determines if there is an oscillation in the combustion ionization signal indicative of the occurrence of combustion stability or the onset of combustion instability. A second electrode held in a coplanar but spaced apart manner by an insulating member from the electrode provides a combustion ionization signal to the control module when the first electrode fails. The control module broadcasts a notice if the parameters indicate the combustion process is at the onset of combustion instability or broadcasts an alarm signal if the parameters indicate the combustion process is unstable.

  8. Apparatus and method for gas turbine active combustion control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umeh, Chukwueloka (Inventor); Kammer, Leonardo C. (Inventor); Shah, Minesh (Inventor); Fortin, Jeffrey B. (Inventor); Knobloch, Aaron (Inventor); Myers, William J. (Inventor); Mancini, Alfred Albert (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An Active Combustion Control System and method provides for monitoring combustor pressure and modulating fuel to a gas turbine combustor to prevent combustion dynamics and/or flame extinguishments. The system includes an actuator, wherein the actuator periodically injects pulsed fuel into the combustor. The apparatus also includes a sensor connected to the combustion chamber down stream from an inlet, where the sensor generates a signal detecting the pressure oscillations in the combustor. The apparatus controls the actuator in response to the sensor. The apparatus prompts the actuator to periodically inject pulsed fuel into the combustor at a predetermined sympathetic frequency and magnitude, thereby controlling the amplitude of the pressure oscillations in the combustor by modulating the natural oscillations.

  9. Simulation of Combustion Systems with Realistic g-Jitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mell, W. E.; McGrattan, K. B.; Nakamura, Y.; Baum, H. R.

    2001-01-01

    A number of facilities are available for microgravity combustion experiments: aircraft, drop towers, sounding rockets, the space shuttle, and, in the future, the International Space Station (ISS). Acceleration disturbances or g-jitter about the background level of reduced gravity exist in all these microgravity facilities. While g-jitter is routinely measured, a quantitative comparison of the quality of g-jitter among the different microgravity facilities, in terms of its affects on combustion experiments, has not been compiled. Low frequency g-jitter (< 1 Hz) has been repeatedly observed to disturb a number of combustion systems. Guidelines regarding tolerable levels of acceleration disturbances for combustion experiments have been developed for use in the design of ISS experiments. The validity of these guidelines, however, remains unknown. In this project a transient, 3-D numerical model is under development to simulate the effects of realistic g-jitter on a number of combustion systems. The measured acceleration vector or some representation of it can be used as input to the simulation.

  10. Simulation of Combustion Systems with Realistic g-jitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mell, William E.; McGrattan, Kevin B.; Baum, Howard R.

    2003-01-01

    In this project a transient, fully three-dimensional computer simulation code was developed to simulate the effects of realistic g-jitter on a number of combustion systems. The simulation code is capable of simulating flame spread on a solid and nonpremixed or premixed gaseous combustion in nonturbulent flow with simple combustion models. Simple combustion models were used to preserve computational efficiency since this is meant to be an engineering code. Also, the use of sophisticated turbulence models was not pursued (a simple Smagorinsky type model can be implemented if deemed appropriate) because if flow velocities are large enough for turbulence to develop in a reduced gravity combustion scenario it is unlikely that g-jitter disturbances (in NASA's reduced gravity facilities) will play an important role in the flame dynamics. Acceleration disturbances of realistic orientation, magnitude, and time dependence can be easily included in the simulation. The simulation algorithm was based on techniques used in an existing large eddy simulation code which has successfully simulated fire dynamics in complex domains. A series of simulations with measured and predicted acceleration disturbances on the International Space Station (ISS) are presented. The results of this series of simulations suggested a passive isolation system and appropriate scheduling of crew activity would provide a sufficiently "quiet" acceleration environment for spherical diffusion flames.

  11. Comparison of the Mechanical and Electrochemical Properties of WC-25Co Coatings Obtained by High Velocity Oxy-Fuel and Cold Gas Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, M.; Dosta, S.; Fernández, J.; Guilemany, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Cold gas spray (CGS) coatings were previously produced by spraying WC-25Co cermet powders onto Al7075-T6 and low-carbon steel substrates. Unlike conventional flame spray techniques (e.g., high-velocity oxy-fuel; HVOF), no melting of the powder occurs; the particles are deformed and bond together after being sprayed by a supersonic jet of compressed gas, thereby building up several layers and forming a coating. WC-Co cermets are used in wear-resistant parts, because of their combination of mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. XRD tests were previously run on the initial powder and the coatings to determine possible phase changes during spraying. The bonding strength of the coatings was measured by adhesion tests. Here, WC-25Co coatings were also deposited on the same substrates by HVOF spraying. The wear resistance and fracture toughness of the coatings obtained previously by CGS and the HVOF coatings obtained here were studied. Their corrosion resistance was determined by electrochemical measurements. It was possible to achieve thick, dense, and hard CGS coatings on Al7075-T6 and low-carbon steel substrates, with better or the same mechanical and electrochemical properties as those of the HVOF coatings; making the former a highly competitive method for producing WC-25Co coatings.

  12. Improvement in wear and corrosion resistance of AISI 1020 steel by high velocity oxy-fuel spray coating containing Ni-Cr-B-Si-Fe-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prince, M.; Thanu, A. Justin; Gopalakrishnan, P.

    2012-04-01

    In this investigation, AISI 1020 low carbon steel has been selected as the base material. The Ni based super alloy powder NiCrBSiFeC was sprayed on the base material using high velocity oxy-fuel spraying (HVOF) technique. The thickness of the coating was approximately 0.5 mm (500 μm). The coating was characterized using optical microscopy, Vickers microhardness testing, X-ray diffraction technique and scanning electron microscopy. Dry sliding wear tests were carried out at 3 m/s sliding speed under the load of 10 N for 1000 m sliding distance at various temperatures i.e., 35° C, 250° C and 350° C. The corrosion test was carried out in 1 M copper chloride in acetic acid solution. The polarization studies were also conducted for both base material and coating. The improvement in microhardness from 1.72 GPa (175 HV0.05) to 10.54 GPa (1075 HV0.05) was observed. The coatings exhibited 3-6 times improved wear resistance as compared with base material. Also, the corrosion rate was reduced by 3.5 times due to the presence of coatings.

  13. Microstructural Characterization and Wear Behavior of Nano-Boride Dispersed Coating on AISI 304 Stainless Steel by Hybrid High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spraying Laser Surface Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prashant; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2015-07-01

    The current study concerns the detailed microstructural characterization and investigation of wear behavior of nano-boride dispersed coating developed on AISI 304 stainless steel by high velocity oxy-fuel spray deposition of nickel-based alloy and subsequent laser melting. There is a significant refinement and homogenization of microstructure with improvement in microhardness due to laser surface melting (1200 VHN as compared to 945 VHN of as-sprayed and 250 VHN of as-received substrate). The high temperature phase stability of the as-coated and laser melted surface has been studied by differential scanning calorimeter followed by detailed phase analysis at room and elevated temperature. There is a significant improvement in wear resistance of laser melted surface as compared to as-sprayed and the as-received one due to increased hardness and reduced coefficient of friction. The mechanism of wear has been investigated in details. Corrosion resistance of the coating in a 3.56 wt pct NaCl solution is significantly improved (4.43 E-2 mm/year as compared to 5 E-1 mm/year of as-sprayed and 1.66 mm/year of as-received substrate) due to laser surface melting as compared to as-sprayed surface.

  14. Effect of nano-crystallization of high velocity oxy-fuel-sprayed amorphous NiCrBSi alloy on properties of the coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chang-Jiu; Wang, Yu-Yue; Li, Hua

    2004-09-01

    NiCrBSi self-fluxing alloy coatings were deposited by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spraying. Annealing treatment was applied to the as-sprayed coatings to develop the microstructure of the Ni-based coating. The microstructure of the coating was characterized using optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The crystallization behavior of the amorphous coating was also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. The properties of the coating were characterized by microhardness and abrasive wear tests. The results showed that the as-sprayed HVOF coating deposited by well melted spray particles exhibited a dense microstructure of amorphous phase. It was revealed that the crystallization of the amorphous phase in HVOF NiCrBSi coating occurs at a temperature of about 502°C. Annealing at temperature a little higher than recrystallization temperature leads to the formation of the nano-crystalline microstructure. The subsequent nanostructured Ni-based coating presents higher microhardness and excellent wear performance. With the further increase in annealing temperature, the growth of the nano-crystalline grains occurs and, accordingly, the microhardness of the coating and the wear performance decrease. Thereafter, the microstructure and properties of the Ni-based self-fluxing alloy coating can be controlled through postannealing treatment.

  15. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

    1998-07-21

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

  16. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOEpatents

    Huber, David John; Briesch, Michael Scot

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  17. Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Wilkes, Colin; Mongia, Hukam C.

    1993-01-01

    A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  18. Physics and chemistry of the influence of excited molecules on combustion enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Starik, A. M.; Loukhovitski, B. I.; Sharipov, A. S.; Titova, N. S

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses detailed analysis of kinetic processes in the H2−O2, CO−O2 and CH4−O2-reactive systems upon the presence of singlet oxygen molecules O2(a1Δg) and and the influence of the activation of oxygen molecules in electric discharge on the acceleration of ignition in the H2−O2 and CH4−O2 mixtures. The possibility of the intensification of CO oxidation due to excitation of O2 and N2 molecule vibrations and generation of singlet oxygen molecules is also considered. It is shown that the effect of accelerating the ignition strongly depends on the reduced electric field and, as a consequence, on the composition of discharge plasma as well as on the features of chain mechanism development in oxy-fuel systems. It is revealed that the most effective approach for the intensification of CO oxidation both in the moist air and in the products of hydrocarbon combustion in air is the generation of O2(a1Δg) molecules by electric discharge. Computations showed that the presence of 1% O2(a1Δg) in the total oxygen allowed one to convert CO to CO2 even at the temperature T=850–900 K in the time of 10−2 s. The excitation of O2 and N2 molecule vibrations is less effective for such a conversion. PMID:26170425

  19. Physics and chemistry of the influence of excited molecules on combustion enhancement.

    PubMed

    Starik, A M; Loukhovitski, B I; Sharipov, A S; Titova, N S

    2015-08-13

    The paper addresses detailed analysis of kinetic processes in the H(2)-O(2), CO-O(2) and CH(4)-O(2)-reactive systems upon the presence of singlet oxygen molecules O(2)(a(1)Δg) and [Formula: see text] and the influence of the activation of oxygen molecules in electric discharge on the acceleration of ignition in the H(2)-O(2) and CH(4)-O(2) mixtures. The possibility of the intensification of CO oxidation due to excitation of O(2) and N(2) molecule vibrations and generation of singlet oxygen molecules is also considered. It is shown that the effect of accelerating the ignition strongly depends on the reduced electric field and, as a consequence, on the composition of discharge plasma as well as on the features of chain mechanism development in oxy-fuel systems. It is revealed that the most effective approach for the intensification of CO oxidation both in the moist air and in the products of hydrocarbon combustion in air is the generation of O(2)(a(1)Δg) molecules by electric discharge. Computations showed that the presence of 1% O(2)(a(1)Δg) in the total oxygen allowed one to convert CO to CO(2) even at the temperature T=850-900 K in the time of 10(-2) s. The excitation of O(2) and N(2) molecule vibrations is less effective for such a conversion. PMID:26170425

  20. EMISSIONS ASSESSMENT OF CONVENTIONAL STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS: SUMMARY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a characterization of multimedia emissions from 39 source categories of conventional stationary combustion systems. In the assessment, existing emissions data were first examined to determine the adequacy of the data base. This was followed by a measur...

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A VORTEX CONTAINMENT COMBUSTOR FOR COAL COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of a vortex containment combustor (VCC) for coal combustion systems, designed to solve major problems facing the conversion of oil- and gas-fired boilers to coal (e.g., derating, inorganic impurities in coal, and excessive formation of NOx and...

  2. PROCEEDINGS OF THE STATIONARY SOURCE COMBUSTION SYMPOSIUM (2ND) HELD IN NEW ORLEANS, LA. ON AUGUST 29-SEPTEMBER 1, 1977. VOLUME III. STATIONARY ENGINE, INDUSTRIAL PROCESS COMBUSTION SYSTEMS, AND ADVANCED PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ;Contents: Application of combustion modifications to industrial combustion equipment; Boiler burner design criteria for retrofit with low-Btu gases; Environmental assessment of afterburner combustion systems; Advanced combustion systems for stationary gas turbine engines; Develo...

  3. Simulation of Combustion Systems with Realistic g-Jitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mell, William E.; McGrattan, Kevin B.; Baum, Howard R.

    1999-01-01

    A number of facilities are available for microgravity combustion experiments: aircraft, drop tower, sounding rocket, space shuttle and, in the future, the international space station (ISS). Acceleration disturbances or g-jitter about the background level of reduced gravity exist in all the microgravity facilities. While g-jitter is routinely measured, a quantitative comparison of the quality of g-jitter among the different microgravity facilities has not been compiled. Low frequency g-jitter (< 1 Hz) has been repeatedly observed to disturb a number of combustion systems. Guidelines regarding tolerable levels of acceleration disturbances for a given combustion system have been developed for use in the design of ISS experiments. The validity of these guidelines, however, remains unknown. In this project, recently funded by NASA, a transient, fully three-dimensional simulation code will be developed to simulate the effects of realistic g-jitter on a number of combustion systems. Acceleration disturbances of realistic orientation, magnitude and time dependence will be included in the simulation. Since this is a newly funded project with code development just under-way no simulation results will be presented. Instead, first a short review of the relevant background concerning g-jitter will be given followed by a section on the proposed technical approach.

  4. Chemical Looping Combustion System-Fuel Reactor Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gamwo, I.K.; Jung, J.; Anderson, R.R.; Soong, Y.

    2007-04-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a process in which an oxygen carrier is used for fuel combustion instead of air or pure oxygen as shown in the figure below. The combustion is split into air and fuel reactors where the oxidation of the oxygen carrier and the reduction of the oxidized metal occur respectively. The CLC system provides a sequestration-ready CO2 stream with no additional energy required for separation. This major advantage places combustion looping at the leading edge of a possible shift in strict control of CO2 emissions from power plants. Research in this novel technology has been focused in three distinct areas: techno-economic evaluations, integration of the system into power plant concepts, and experimental development of oxygen carrier metals such as Fe, Ni, Mn, Cu, and Ca. Our recent thorough literature review shows that multiphase fluid dynamics modeling for CLC is not available in the open literature. Here, we have modified the MFIX code to model fluid dynamic in the fuel reactor. A computer generated movie of our simulation shows bubble behavior consistent with experimental observations.

  5. Materials Challenges for Advanced Combustion and Gasification Fossil Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, S.; Rozzelle, P.; Morreale, B.; Alman, D.

    2011-04-01

    This special section of Metallurgical and Materials Transactions is devoted to materials challenges associated with coal based energy conversion systems. The purpose of this introductory article is to provide a brief outline to the challenges associated with advanced combustion and advanced gasification, which has the potential of providing clean, affordable electricity by improving process efficiency and implementing carbon capture and sequestration. Affordable materials that can meet the demanding performance requirements will be a key enabling technology for these systems.

  6. An Efficient Microelectromechanical System Based on Combustion of Nanoporous Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolbik, A. V.; Labunov, V. A.; Vysotskii, V. B.

    2013-05-01

    A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) has been fabricated by using a well-developed silicon oxidation process. This system includes combustion chambers formed in macropores of a silicon substrate, nozzles based on pyramidal pits and nanoporous silicon impregnated by solid state oxidants as a fuel. The estimated impulse of such a MEMS reaches 10 mN·s that is the highest value up to date.

  7. EMISSIONS ASSESSMENT OF CONVENTIONAL STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS: VOLUME IV. COMMERCIAL/INSTITUTIONAL COMBUSTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report characterizes air emissions from commercial/institutional external combustion sources and reciprocating engines and is the fourth of a series of five project reports characterizing emissions from conventional combustion sources. This characterization was based on a cri...

  8. NCC: A Multidisciplinary Design/Analysis Tool for Combustion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Quealy, Angela

    1999-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary design/analysis tool for combustion systems is critical for optimizing the low-emission, high-performance combustor design process. Based on discussions between NASA Lewis Research Center and the jet engine companies, an industry-government team was formed in early 1995 to develop the National Combustion Code (NCC), which is an integrated system of computer codes for the design and analysis of combustion systems. NCC has advanced features that address the need to meet designer's requirements such as "assured accuracy", "fast turnaround", and "acceptable cost". The NCC development team is comprised of Allison Engine Company (Allison), CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC), GE Aircraft Engines (GEAE), NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC), and Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This development team operates under the guidance of the NCC steering committee. The "unstructured mesh" capability and "parallel computing" are fundamental features of NCC from its inception. The NCC system is composed of a set of "elements" which includes grid generator, main flow solver, turbulence module, turbulence and chemistry interaction module, chemistry module, spray module, radiation heat transfer module, data visualization module, and a post-processor for evaluating engine performance parameters. Each element may have contributions from several team members. Such a multi-source multi-element system needs to be integrated in a way that facilitates inter-module data communication, flexibility in module selection, and ease of integration.

  9. Fe-Al Weld Overlay and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel Thermal Spray Coatings for Corrosion Protection of Waterwalls in Fossil Fired Plants with Low NOx Burners

    SciTech Connect

    Regina, J.R.

    2002-02-08

    Iron-aluminum-chromium coatings were investigated to determine the best candidates for coatings of boiler tubes in Low NOx fossil fueled power plants. Ten iron-aluminum-chromium weld claddings with aluminum concentrations up to 10wt% were tested in a variety of environments to evaluate their high temperature corrosion resistance. The weld overlay claddings also contained titanium additions to investigate any beneficial effects from these ternary and quaternary alloying additions. Several High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings with higher aluminum concentrations were investigated as well. Gaseous corrosion testing revealed that at least 10wt%Al is required for protection in the range of environments examined. Chromium additions were beneficial in all of the environments, but additions of titanium were beneficial only in sulfur rich atmospheres. Similar results were observed when weld claddings were in contact with corrosive slag while simultaneously, exposed to the corrosive environments. An aluminum concentration of 10wt% was required to prevent large amounts of corrosion to take place. Again chromium additions were beneficial with the greatest corrosion protection occurring for welds containing both 10wt%Al and 5wt%Cr. The exposed thermal spray coatings showed either significant cracking within the coating, considerable thickness loss, or corrosion products at the coating substrate interface. Therefore, the thermal spray coatings provided the substrate very little protection. Overall, it was concluded that of the coatings studied weld overlay coatings provide superior protection in these Low NOx environments; specifically, the ternary weld composition of 10wt%Al and 5wt%Cr provided the best corrosion protection in all of the environments tested.

  10. Chemical Kinetics of Hydrocarbon Ignition in Practical Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C.K.

    2000-07-07

    Chemical kinetic factors of hydrocarbon oxidation are examined in a variety of ignition problems. Ignition is related to the presence of a dominant chain branching reaction mechanism that can drive a chemical system to completion in a very short period of time. Ignition in laboratory environments is studied for problems including shock tubes and rapid compression machines. Modeling of the laboratory systems are used to develop kinetic models that can be used to analyze ignition in practical systems. Two major chain branching regimes are identified, one consisting of high temperature ignition with a chain branching reaction mechanism based on the reaction between atomic hydrogen with molecular oxygen, and the second based on an intermediate temperature thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic models are then used to describe ignition in practical combustion environments, including detonations and pulse combustors for high temperature ignition, and engine knock and diesel ignition for intermediate temperature ignition. The final example of ignition in a practical environment is homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) which is shown to be a problem dominated by the kinetics intermediate temperature hydrocarbon ignition. Model results show why high hydrocarbon and CO emissions are inevitable in HCCI combustion. The conclusion of this study is that the kinetics of hydrocarbon ignition are actually quite simple, since only one or two elementary reactions are dominant. However, there are many combustion factors that can influence these two major reactions, and these are the features that vary from one practical system to another.

  11. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AFTERBURNER COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an environmental assessment of afterburner control systems (fume incinerators). It consisted of a review of available data and literature, and the planning of a subsequent experimental program, intended to consist of laboratory and/or field emission me...

  12. Combustion and Reacting Systems for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the foloving: 1. Spacecraft Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression. 2. Advanced Life Support. Air/water revitalization, waste management. 3. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Fuel/consumables from regolith/atmosphere. 4. Extra vehicular Activity. Air revitalization, power systems (MEMS scale combustors). 5. In-situ Fabrication and Repair.Of these we have the lead responsibility in Fire Safety.

  13. Comparison of waste combustion and waste electrolysis - A systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Little, Frank E.

    1989-01-01

    A steady state model of a closed environmental system has been developed which includes higher plant growth for food production, and is designed to allow wastes to be combusted or electrolyzed. The stoichiometric equations have been developed to evaluate various trash compositions, food items (both stored and produced), metabolic rates, and crew sizes. The advantages of waste electrolysis versus combustion are: (1) oxygen is not required (which reduces the load on the oxygen producing system); (2) the CO2 and H2 products are produced in pure form (reducing the load on the separators); and (3) nitrogen is converted to nitrate (which is directly usable by plants). Weight tradeoff studies performed using this model have shown that waste electrolysis reduces the life support weight of a 4-person crew by 1000 to 2000 kg.

  14. Exhaust system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenoya, Y.; Otani, J.

    1982-10-19

    An exhaust system for an engine of a motorcycle is disclosed having catalytic and silencing mufflers arranged in adjacent side -by-side series flow relationship, the catalytic muffler extending rearwardly of the motorcycle, and, adjacent its rear end, being interconnected with the silencing muffler, the silencing muffler including plural expansion chambers which are interconnected in flow reversal relationship for gases to be exhausted rearwardly of the motorcycle.

  15. Combustion chemical vapor desposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B.

    1995-10-01

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings.

  16. Preliminary tests of an advanced high-temperature combustion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.; Trout, A. M.; Smith, J. M.; Jacobs, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    A combustion system has been developed to operate efficiently and with good durability at inlet pressures to 4.05 MPa (40 atm), inlet air temperatures to 900 K, and exhaust gas temperatures to 2480 K. A preliminary investigation of this system was conducted at inlet pressures to 0.94 MPa (9 atm), a nominal inlet air temperature of 560 K, and exhaust gas temperatures to 2135 K. A maximum combustion efficiency of 98.5 percent was attained at a fuel-air ratio of 0.033; the combustion efficiency decreased to about 90 percent as the fuel-air ratio was increased to 0.058. An average liner metal temperature of 915 K, 355 kelvins greater than the nominal inlet air temperature, was reached with an average exhaust gas temperature of 2090 K. The maximum local metal temperature at this condition was about 565 kelvins above the nominal inlet air temperature and decreased to 505 kelvins above with increasing combustor pressure. Tests to determine the isothermal total pressure loss of the combustor showed a liner loss of 1.1 percent and a system loss of 6.5 percent.

  17. Camshaft driving system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hiroshima, K.A.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes camshaft driving system for a double overhead camshaft engine cylinder rows extend parallel to the crankshaft of the engine. The second cylinder row is rearwardly displaced from the first cylinder row in the axial direction of the crankshaft so that vacant spaces are formed respectively behind the first cylinder row and in front of the second cylinder row. All the pistons in the cylinders of the first and second cylinder rows are connected to the crankshaft and a pair of camshafts for driving the intake and exhaust valves are provided in the cylinder head of each cylinder row to extend in the direction of the crankshaft. The camshaft driving system comprises a timing pulley provided on one of the intake and exhaust camshafts of each cylinder row to rotate together with the camshaft; A crank pulley is driven by the crankshaft; A first driving force transmission means transmits rotation of the crank pulley to the timing pulleys of the first and second cylinder rows; a second driving force transmission means transmits rotation of the timing pulley of the first cylinder row to the other of the camshafts of the first cylinder row; and a third driving force transmission means transmits rotation of the timing pulley of the second cylinder row to the other of the camshafts of the second cylinder row. The second driving force transmission means is disposed in the vacant space behind the first cylinder row and the third driving force transmission means is disposed in the vacant space in front of the second cylinder row.

  18. Advanced radiant combustion system. Final report, September 1989--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.D.; Carswell, M.G.; Long, F.S.

    1996-09-01

    Results of the Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) project are presented in this report. This work was performed by Alzeta Corporation as prime contractor under a contract to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies as part of a larger DOE program entitled Research Program for Advanced Combustion Systems. The goals of the Alzeta ARCS project were to (a) Improve the high temperature performance characteristics of porous surface ceramic fiber burners, (b) Develop an Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) that combines combustion controls with an advanced radiant burner, and (c) Demonstrate the advanced burner and controls in an industrial application. Prior to the start of this project, Alzeta had developed and commercialized a porous surface radiant burner, the Pyrocore{trademark} burner. The product had been commercially available for approximately 5 years and had achieved commercial success in a number of applications ranging from small burners for commercial cooking equipment to large burners for low temperature industrial fluid heating applications. The burner was not recommended for use in applications with process temperatures above 1000{degrees}F, which prevented the burner from being used in intermediate to high temperature processes in the chemical and petroleum refining industries. The interest in increasing the maximum use temperature of the burner was motivated in part by a desire to expand the number of applications that could use the Pyrocore product, but also because many of the fluid sensitive heating applications of interest would benefit from the distributed flux characteristic of porous surface burners. Background information on porous surface radiant burners, and a discussion of advantages that would be provided by an improved product, are presented in Section 2.

  19. Rotary valve system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.G.

    1992-05-12

    This patent describes a fuel intake and exhaust system for use with a four stroke engine of a type having an engine block formed with at least one piston cavity having an upper opening in the top surface of the block, a piston having an upper surface reciprocating in the cavity toward and away from the upper opening, a crankshaft and a connecting rod secured to the piston and crankshaft. This patent describes improvement in a housing disposed over the block and having an interior chamber formed with a lower opening located directly over the upper opening and the lower opening having approximately the same dimension as the upper opening; the housing formed with fuel intake and exhaust ports; a rotor shaft rotatably received in the chamber; a triangular rotor having first second and third surfaces carried out by the shaft and movable therewith; means connecting the crankshaft to the rotor shaft for relative rotative movement therebetween; the first surface of the rotor spanning the upper opening at a particular rotative disposition of the rotor while isolating the intake and exhaust ports from the piston cavity.

  20. Port fuel injection and induction system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bishai, M.N.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes an engine having a valve cover with a PVC valve to vent a valve chamber so as to eliminate oil and gas fumes there from and an automotive fuel injection system having a port fuel injector connected to a fuel supply and to an air manifold for injecting an air/fuel mixture into the injector for producing a fuel spray pattern at the outlet of an air induction passage form a throttle body assembly and upstream of an inlet valve to the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine characterized by an integral electric motor driven pump assembly means supplying the injection air to the air manifold; the motor pump assembly means having a pump inlet connected to the PVC valve for providing a lubrication mist to the pump during the operation thereof and the motor pump assembly means having a pump outlet connected to the inlet of the air manifold.

  1. Large Eddy Simulations of Colorless Distributed Combustion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdulrahman, Husam F.; Jaberi, Farhad; Gupta, Ashwani

    2014-11-01

    Development of efficient and low-emission colorless distributed combustion (CDC) systems for gas turbine applications require careful examination of the role of various flow and combustion parameters. Numerical simulations of CDC in a laboratory-scale combustor have been conducted to carefully examine the effects of these parameters on the CDC. The computational model is based on a hybrid modeling approach combining large eddy simulation (LES) with the filtered mass density function (FMDF) equations, solved with high order numerical methods and complex chemical kinetics. The simulated combustor operates based on the principle of high temperature air combustion (HiTAC) and has shown to significantly reduce the NOx, and CO emissions while improving the reaction pattern factor and stability without using any flame stabilizer and with low pressure drop and noise. The focus of the current work is to investigate the mixing of air and hydrocarbon fuels and the non-premixed and premixed reactions within the combustor by the LES/FMDF with the reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for the same flow conditions and configurations investigated experimentally. The main goal is to develop better CDC with higher mixing and efficiency, ultra-low emission levels and optimum residence time. The computational results establish the consistency and the reliability of LES/FMDF and its Lagrangian-Eulerian numerical methodology.

  2. Fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Freyer, E.; Steinwart, J.; Will, P.

    1981-01-06

    A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine includes an air suction pipe, a throttle valve located in the pipe, and a member, upstream of the throttle valve, which is actuatable by air flowing through the suction pipe so as to move a piston valve to dose a quantity of fuel to a fuel injection nozzle. The system includes a duct which bypasses the throttle valve, the duct having a valve which closes the duct when the throttle valve is closed and when the engine is above the idling speed. Dosing of fuel is thereby stopped during coasting of a vehicle, leading to decreased fuel consumption.

  3. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced concept system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    DONLEE Technologies Inc. is developing with support of the US Department of Energy an advanced circulating fluidized bed technology known as the Vortex{trademark} Fluidized Bed Combustor (VFBC). The unique feature of the VFBC is the injection of a significant portion of the combustion air into the cyclone. Since as much as one-half of the total combustion air is injected into the cyclone, the cross-sectional area of the circulating fluidized bed is considerably smaller than typical circulating fluidized beds. The technology is being developed for two applications: Industrial-scale boilers ranging from 20,000 to 100,000 pounds per hour steam generating capacity; and two-stage combustion in which a substoichiometric Vortex Fluidized Bed Combustor (2VFBC) or precombustor is used to generate a combustible gas for use primarily in boiler retrofit applications. This Level II analysis of these two applications indicates that both have merit. An industrial-scale VFBC boiler (60,000 lb/hr of steam) is projected to be economically attractive with coal prices as high as $40 per ton and gas prices between $4 and $5 per thousand cubic feet. The payback time is between 3 and 4 years. The 2VFBC system was evaluated at three capacities of application: 20,000; 60,000 and 100,000 lb/hr of steam. The payback times for these three capacities are 4.5, 2.1 and 1.55 years, respectively. The 2VFBC has potential applications for retrofit of existing pulverized coal-fired boilers or as a new large (utility) boiler. Pressurized operation of the 2VFBC has considerable potential for combined cycle power generation applications. Experimental development of both applications is presented here to demonstrate the potential of these two technologies.

  4. National Combustion Code: A Multidisciplinary Combustor Design System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, Robert M.; Liu, Nan-Suey

    1997-01-01

    The Internal Fluid Mechanics Division conducts both basic research and technology, and system technology research for aerospace propulsion systems components. The research within the division, which is both computational and experimental, is aimed at improving fundamental understanding of flow physics in inlets, ducts, nozzles, turbomachinery, and combustors. This article and the following three articles highlight some of the work accomplished in 1996. A multidisciplinary combustor design system is critical for optimizing the combustor design process. Such a system should include sophisticated computer-aided design (CAD) tools for geometry creation, advanced mesh generators for creating solid model representations, a common framework for fluid flow and structural analyses, modern postprocessing tools, and parallel processing. The goal of the present effort is to develop some of the enabling technologies and to demonstrate their overall performance in an integrated system called the National Combustion Code.

  5. Characterization of degeneration process in combustion instability based on dynamical systems theory.

    PubMed

    Gotoda, Hiroshi; Okuno, Yuta; Hayashi, Kenta; Tachibana, Shigeru

    2015-11-01

    We present a detailed study on the characterization of the degeneration process in combustion instability based on dynamical systems theory. We deal with combustion instability in a lean premixed-type gas-turbine model combustor, one of the fundamentally and practically important combustion systems. The dynamic behavior of combustion instability in close proximity to lean blowout is dominated by a stochastic process and transits to periodic oscillations created by thermoacoustic combustion oscillations via chaos with increasing equivalence ratio [Chaos 21, 013124 (2011); Chaos 22, 043128 (2012)]. Thermoacoustic combustion oscillations degenerate with a further increase in the equivalence ratio, and the dynamic behavior leads to chaotic fluctuations via quasiperiodic oscillations. The concept of dynamical systems theory presented here allows us to clarify the nonlinear characteristics hidden in complex combustion dynamics. PMID:26651761

  6. Characterization of degeneration process in combustion instability based on dynamical systems theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotoda, Hiroshi; Okuno, Yuta; Hayashi, Kenta; Tachibana, Shigeru

    2015-11-01

    We present a detailed study on the characterization of the degeneration process in combustion instability based on dynamical systems theory. We deal with combustion instability in a lean premixed-type gas-turbine model combustor, one of the fundamentally and practically important combustion systems. The dynamic behavior of combustion instability in close proximity to lean blowout is dominated by a stochastic process and transits to periodic oscillations created by thermoacoustic combustion oscillations via chaos with increasing equivalence ratio [Chaos 21, 013124 (2011), 10.1063/1.3563577; Chaos 22, 043128 (2012), 10.1063/1.4766589]. Thermoacoustic combustion oscillations degenerate with a further increase in the equivalence ratio, and the dynamic behavior leads to chaotic fluctuations via quasiperiodic oscillations. The concept of dynamical systems theory presented here allows us to clarify the nonlinear characteristics hidden in complex combustion dynamics.

  7. Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

  8. Heat pipe gas combustion system endurance test for Stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrle, P.

    1990-12-01

    Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc. has been developing a general purpose Heat Pipe Gas Combustion (HPGC) system suitable for use with the STM4-120 Stirling engine. The HPGC consists of a parallel plate recuperative preheater, a finned heat pipe evaporator, and a film-cooled gas combustor. The principal component is the heat pipe evaporator which collects and distributes the liquid sodium over the heat transfer surfaces. The liquid sodium evaporates and flows to the condensers where it delivers its latent heat. Given here are the test results of the endurance tests run on a Gas Fired Stirling Engine (GFSE).

  9. Staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Joseph S.; Halow, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A staged fluidized-bed combustion and filter system for substantially reducing the quantity of waste through the complete combustion into ash-type solids and gaseous products. The device has two fluidized-bed portions, the first primarily as a combustor/pyrolyzer bed, and the second as a combustor/filter bed. The two portions each have internal baffles to define stages so that material moving therein as fluidized beds travel in an extended route through those stages. Fluidization and movement is achieved by the introduction of gases into each stage through a directional nozzle. Gases produced in the combustor/pyrolyzer bed are permitted to travel into corresponding stages of the combustor/filter bed through screen filters that permit gas flow but inhibit solids flow. Any catalyst used in the combustor/filter bed is recycled. The two beds share a common wall to minimize total volume of the system. A slightly modified embodiment can be used for hot gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration. Either side-by-side rectangular beds or concentric beds can be used. The system is particularly suited to the processing of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste.

  10. Praxair's dilute oxygen combustion technology for pyrometallurgical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, M. F.; Kobayashi, H.; Deneys, A. C.

    2001-05-01

    Dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) technology uses separate high-velocity fuel and oxygen jets to generate strong in-furnace gas recirculation, producing combustion between the fuel and a highly diluted oxygen and furnace-gas mixture. These very low NOx oxy-fuel burners have been developed and commercially demonstrated in steel reheating furnaces. The burner design meets industry needs for increased productivity and lower operating costs with minimal capital expense and low maintenance. The performance of DOC technology has been measured under laboratory and industrial conditions encompassing both natural gas and coke oven gas firing, and a wide range of furnace temperatures and nitrogen levels that simulate air infiltration. This paper describes the results of the tests using natural gas as the fuel and lists potential applications for DOC technology in the non-ferrous metals industry.

  11. Canadian R&D on oil-fired combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, A.C.S.; Entchev, E.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes research and development presently being conducted on oil-fired space and tap water heating systems by the Advanced Combustion Technology Group, CCRL/ERL/CANMET, in Ottawa, Canada. The presentation will focus on R&D activities at CCRL in support of the Canadian Oil Heat Association (COHA) and of the energy policy initiatives of Natural Resources Canada. Progress will be reported on activities to develop suitable oil-fired integrated systems to satisfy the low energy demands of new homes. The utilization of fuzzy logic-based control heating systems including fan coils for a complete range of old and new North American housing will be discussed. Additional activities to be discussed in the presentation will relate to the development of appropriate seasonal efficiency standards for complex integrated space/water heating systems, as well as an evaluation of alternative sidewall venting technologies and their implications for seasonal energy efficiency.

  12. MULTIOBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS INVOLVING CHEMICAL LOOPING COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Juan M. Salazar; Urmila M. Diwekar; Stephen E. Zitney

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system using coal gasification is an important approach for future energy options. This work focuses on understading the system operation and optimizing it in the presence of uncertain operating conditions using ASPEN Plus and CAPE-OPEN compliant stochastic simulation and multiobjective optimization capabilities developed by Vishwamitra Research Institute. The feasible operating surface for the IGCC system is generated and deterministic multiobjective optimization is performed. Since the feasible operating space is highly non-convex, heuristics based techniques that do not require gradient information are used to generate the Pareto surface. Accurate CFD models are simultaneously developed for the gasifier and chemical looping combustion system to characterize and quantify the process uncertainty in the ASPEN model.

  13. Oxy-Combustion Environment Characterization: Fire- and Steam-Side Corrosion in Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; G. H. Meier; B. S. Lutz; N. M. Yanar; F. S. Pettit; J. Zhu; A. Wise; D. E. Laughlin; S. Sridhar

    2012-09-25

    Oxy-fuel combustion is burning a fuel in oxygen rather than air. The low nitrogen flue gas that results is relatively easy to capture CO{sub 2} from for reuse or sequestration. Corrosion issues associated with the environment change (replacement of much of the N{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} and higher sulfur levels) from air- to oxy-firing were examined. Alloys studied included model Fe-Cr alloys and commercial ferritic steels, austenitic steels, and nickel base superalloys. The corrosion behavior is described in terms of corrosion rates, scale morphologies, and scale/ash interactions for the different environmental conditions. Additionally, the progress towards laboratory oxidation tests in advanced ultra-supercritical steam is updated.

  14. Operational characteristics of a parallel jet MILD combustion burner system

    SciTech Connect

    Szegoe, G.G.; Dally, B.B.; Nathan, G.J.

    2009-02-15

    This study describes the performance and stability characteristics of a parallel jet MILD (Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution) combustion burner system in a laboratory-scale furnace, in which the reactants and exhaust ports are all mounted on the same wall. Thermal field measurements are presented for cases with and without combustion air preheat, in addition to global temperature and emission measurements for a range of equivalence ratio, heat extraction, air preheat and fuel dilution levels. The present furnace/burner configuration proved to operate without the need for external air preheating, and achieved a high degree of temperature uniformity. Based on an analysis of the temperature distribution and emissions, PSR model predictions, and equilibrium calculations, the CO formation was found to be related to the mixing patterns and furnace temperature rather than reaction quenching by the heat exchanger. The critical equivalence ratio, or excess air level, which maintains low CO emissions is reported for different heat exchanger positions, and an optimum operating condition is identified. Results of CO and NO{sub x} emissions, together with visual observations and a simplified two-dimensional analysis of the furnace aerodynamics, demonstrate that fuel jet momentum controls the stability of this multiple jet system. A stability diagram showing the threshold for stable operation is reported, which is not explained by previous stability criteria. (author)

  15. Precision distributorless ignition control system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Long, A.

    1987-03-17

    An electronic ignition system is described for controlling as a function of a selected engine parameter the ignition instants of an internal combustion engine having at least one cylinder, a piston, and a rotatable crankshaft coupled to the piston to be rotatably driven as combustions within the cylinder occur at the ignition instants. The crankshaft has at least one first reference position defining a positional relationship of the crankshaft to the cylinder, the crankshaft having a second reference position disposed a fixed angular distance before the first reference position considering the rotational direction of the crankshaft. The ignition instant is intended to occur upon the termination of a variable crankshaft arc beginning at the second reference position, the length of the crankshaft arc determined as a function of the selected engine parameter. The electronic ignition system comprises: (a) a rotor coupled to rotate with the crankshaft and having at least one first reference indicium and N second reference indicia thereon for each first reference indicium, the first reference indicium positionally related to the second reference position. The second reference indicia includes at least one second reference indicium aligned with the first reference indicium, the second reference indicia being spaced from each other by substantially equal angles; and (b) first and second signal generating means disposed at a point fixed in relation to the rotation of the crankshaft for providing respectively a first train of signals and a second train of signals.

  16. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  17. Systems and methods of storing combustion waste products

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Shen-En; Wang, Peng; Miao, Xiexing; Feng, Qiyan; Zhu, Qianlin

    2016-04-12

    In one aspect, methods of storing one or more combustion waste products are described herein. Combustion waste products stored by a method described herein can include solid combustion waste products such as coal ash and/or gaseous combustion products such as carbon dioxide. In some embodiments, a method of storing carbon dioxide comprises providing a carbon dioxide storage medium comprising porous concrete having a macroporous and microporous pore structure and flowing carbon dioxide captured from a combustion flue gas source into the pore structure of the porous concrete.

  18. Stagnation point reverse flow combustor for a combustion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinn, Ben T. (Inventor); Neumeier, Yedidia (Inventor); Seitzman, Jerry M. (Inventor); Jagoda, Jechiel (Inventor); Hashmonay, Ben-Ami (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A combustor assembly includes a combustor vessel having a wall, a proximate end defining an opening and a closed distal end opposite said proximate end. A manifold is carried by the proximate end. The manifold defines a combustion products exit. The combustion products exit being axially aligned with a portion of the closed distal end. A plurality of combustible reactant ports is carried by the manifold for directing combustible reactants into the combustion vessel from the region of the proximate end towards the closed distal end.

  19. SEALED COMBUSTION SYSTEM WITH DIAGNOSTIC SELF-TUNING.

    SciTech Connect

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2004-09-30

    This task grew out of a proposal to develop a ''concept'' oil-fired heating system that would incorporate advanced technologies available and suitable for a residential system. Discussions among the program and project personnel resulted in the identification of a sealed combustion system as of programmatic interest and the objective was to develop an approach to a sealed system with diagnostic self-tuning. The major conclusion with regard to the specific objective for this task is that a measurement of the static pressure in the input pipe can be used to provide a measure of the excess air for a limit control. Its implementation would require a suitable pressure sensor, and a circuit to combine its output signal, at the appropriate time in the operating cycle, to the burner control. The sensor and control combination will also have to be tested successfully under all conceivable contingencies that can cause the airflow to decrease. It could also be implemented, possibly even more reliably, if a mass flow sensor, such as is used in automobile engines and hence may be cheap, could be used. The pressure measurements reported here, both steady and transient, represent only the subset of a much larger set that gave a useful answer to meet the objective. These measurements suggest that they can provide useful insights into both the combustion and gas flow performance of the system. Of course, this could be extended to other types of heating systems, such as those with natural draft, those with different burners, burners with different atomization schemes (air atomization etc.), blue flame burners etc.

  20. Slag monitoring system for combustion chambers of steam boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Taler, J.; Taler, D.

    2009-07-01

    The computer-based boiler performance system presented in this article has been developed to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of furnace and convective surface cleanliness. Temperature, pressure, and flow measurements and gas analysis data are used to perform heat transfer analysis in the boiler furnace and evaporator. Power boiler efficiency is calculated using an indirect method. The on-line calculation of the exit flue gas temperature in a combustion chamber allows for an on-line heat flow rate determination, which is transferred to the boiler evaporator. Based on the energy balance for the boiler evaporator, the superheated steam mass flow rate is calculated taking into the account water flow rate in attemperators. Comparing the calculated and the measured superheated steam mass flow rate, the effectiveness of the combustion chamber water walls is determined in an on-line mode. Soot-blower sequencing can be optimized based on actual cleaning requirements rather than on fixed time cycles contributing to lowering of the medium usage in soot blowers and increasing of the water-wall lifetime.

  1. Engine valve operating system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, S.; Matsumoto, Y.; Matayoshi, Y.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes an engine valve operating system for an internal combustion engine. The system consists of: a driving cam rotatable in timed relation to engine revolution; a rocker arm having a first end section drivingly connected to an engine valve and a second end section drivably connected to the driving cam; an elongated lever pivoted at a first end section and disposed in fulcrum contact with the rocker arm; an apparatus for biasing the rocker arm and the lever away from each other; and a hydraulic actuator having a movable end section which is in contact with a second end section of the lever and movable to control the pivotal location of the lever in accordance with an engine operating condition.

  2. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  3. 46 CFR 62.35-35 - Starting systems for internal-combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. 62.35... Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. The starting systems for propulsion engines and for prime...-2/11.11 of the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 62.05-1)....

  4. 46 CFR 62.35-35 - Starting systems for internal-combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. 62.35... Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. The starting systems for propulsion engines and for prime...-2/11.11 of the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 62.05-1)....

  5. 46 CFR 62.35-35 - Starting systems for internal-combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. 62.35... Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. The starting systems for propulsion engines and for prime...-2/11.11 of the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 62.05-1)....

  6. 46 CFR 62.35-35 - Starting systems for internal-combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. 62.35... Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. The starting systems for propulsion engines and for prime...-2/11.11 of the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 62.05-1)....

  7. 46 CFR 62.35-35 - Starting systems for internal-combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. 62.35... Starting systems for internal-combustion engines. The starting systems for propulsion engines and for prime...-2/11.11 of the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 62.05-1)....

  8. Ignition timing control system for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.; Kimura, S.

    1988-05-31

    An ignition timing control system for an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft is described comprising: magnetic pick-up means for magnetically sensing the angular position of the crankshaft and for generating an output signal indictive thereof; and control means for controlling the ignition timing of the engine based on the output signal from the magnetic pick-up means. The control means includes correction means for correcting a basic ignition timing, which is determined in accordance with at least one engine operating parameter, by the use of a correction value, which is determined in accordance with a time delay in the generation of the output signal from the magnetic pick-up means with respect to the angular position of the crankshaft and which increases with a rise in the rotational speed of the engine.

  9. Axially staged combustion system for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Bland, Robert J.

    2009-12-15

    An axially staged combustion system is provided for a gas turbine engine comprising a main body structure having a plurality of first and second injectors. First structure provides fuel to at least one of the first injectors. The fuel provided to the one first injector is adapted to mix with air and ignite to produce a flame such that the flame associated with the one first injector defines a flame front having an average length when measured from a reference surface of the main body structure. Each of the second injectors comprising a section extending from the reference surface of the main body structure through the flame front and having a length greater than the average length of the flame front. Second structure provides fuel to at least one of the second injectors. The fuel passes through the one second injector and exits the one second injector at a location axially spaced from the flame front.

  10. Multiple fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Crothers, William T.

    1977-01-01

    A multiple fuel supply or an internal combustion engine wherein phase separation of components is deliberately induced. The resulting separation permits the use of a single fuel tank to supply components of either or both phases to the engine. Specifically, phase separation of a gasoline/methanol blend is induced by the addition of a minor amount of water sufficient to guarantee separation into an upper gasoline phase and a lower methanol/water phase. A single fuel tank holds the two-phase liquid with separate fuel pickups and separate level indicators for each phase. Either gasoline or methanol, or both, can be supplied to the engine as required by predetermined parameters. A fuel supply system for a phase-separated multiple fuel supply contained in a single fuel tank is described.

  11. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2011-03-01

    A technical feasibility assessment was performed for retrofitting oxy-fuel technology to an existing power plant burning low sulfur PRB fuel and high sulfur bituminous fuel. The focus of this study was on the boiler/power generation island of a subcritical steam cycle power plant. The power plant performance in air and oxy-firing modes was estimated and modifications required for oxy-firing capabilities were identified. A 460 MWe (gross) reference subcritical PC power plant was modeled. The reference air-fired plant has a boiler efficiency (PRB/Bituminous) of 86.7%/89.3% and a plant net efficiency of 35.8/36.7%. Net efficiency for oxy-fuel firing including ASU/CPU duty is 25.6%/26.6% (PRB/Bituminous). The oxy-fuel flue gas recirculation flow to the boiler is 68%/72% (PRB/bituminous) of the flue gas (average O{sub 2} in feed gas is 27.4%/26.4%v (PRB/bituminous)). Maximum increase in tube wall temperature is less than 10ºF for oxy-fuel firing. For oxy-fuel firing, ammonia injected to the SCR was shut-off and the FGD is applied to remove SOx from the recycled primary gas stream and a portion of the SOx from the secondary stream for the high sulfur bituminous coal. Based on CFD simulations it was determined that at the furnace outlet compared to air-firing, SO{sub 3}/SO{sub 2} mole ratio is about the same, NOx ppmv level is about the same for PRB-firing and 2.5 times for bituminous-firing due to shutting off the OFA, and CO mole fraction is approximately double. A conceptual level cost estimate was performed for the incremental equipment and installation cost of the oxyfuel retrofit in the boiler island and steam system. The cost of the retrofit is estimated to be approximately 81 M$ for PRB low sulfur fuel and 84 M$ for bituminous high sulfur fuel.

  12. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Merkel, Timothy C; Baker, Richard W.

    2011-10-11

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  13. Energy Efficient Engine (E3) combustion system component technology performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrus, D. L.; Chahrour, C. A.; Foltz, H. L.; Sabla, P. E.; Seto, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The Energy Efficient Engine (E3) combustor effort was conducted as part of the overall NASA/GE E3 Program. This effort included the selection of an advanced double-annular combustion system design. The primary intent of this effort was to evolve a design that meets the stringent emissions and life goals of the E3, as well as all of the usual performance requirements of combustion systems for modern turbofan engines. Numerous detailed design studies were conducted to define the features of the combustion system design. Development test hardware was fabricated, and an extensive testing effort was undertaken to evaluate the combustion system subcomponents in order to verify and refine the design. Technology derived from this effort was incorporated into the engine combustion hardware design. The advanced engine combustion system was then evaluated in component testing to verify the design intent. What evolved from this effort was an advanced combustion system capable of satisfying all of the combustion system design objectives and requirements of the E3.

  14. New Compressor Added to Glenn's 450- psig Combustion Air System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    In September 1999, the Central Process Systems Engineering Branch and the Maintenance and the Central Process Systems Operations Branch, released for service a new high pressure compressor to supplement the 450-psig Combustion Air System at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The new compressor, designated C-18, is located in Glenn s Central Air Equipment Building and is remotely operated from the Central Control Building. C-18 can provide 40 pounds per second (pps) of airflow at pressure to our research customers. This capability augments our existing system capacity (compressors C 4 at 38 pps and C-5 at 32 pps), which is generated from Glenn's Engine Research Building. The C-18 compressor was originally part of Glenn's 21-Inch Hypersonic Tunnel, which was transferred from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to Glenn in the mid-1980's. With the investment of construction of facilities funding, the compressor was modified, new mechanical and electrical support equipment were purchased, and the unit was installed in the basement of the Central Air Equipment Building. After several weeks of checkout and troubleshooting, the new compressor was ready for long-term, reliable operations. With a total of 110 pps in airflow now available, Glenn is well positioned to support the high-pressure air test requirements of our research customers.

  15. Effect [of] co-combustion of sewage sludge and biomass on combustion behavior and emissions in pulverized fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G.

    1999-07-01

    Biomass not only has a considerable potential as an additional fuel source but also shows a reasonable cost level in comparison to other renewable energies. The practicable fuel types are both residual material from forestry and agriculture, such as wood or straw, and especially cultivated reproducible feedstock such as Miscanthus Sinensis, whole cereal plants, poplars, or willows. Besides as single fuel, it is also considered to be sensible to utilize biomass in co-combustion in existing firing systems, such as pc-fired power stations. Biomass or sewage sludge utilized as additional fuel in coal combustion systems has consequences on combustion behavior, emissions, corrosion and residual matter. The effects of burning sewage sludge and agricultural residuals such as straw and manure as well as specially grown energy plants in combination with coal were studied in a 0.5 MW pulverized fuel test facility and a 20 kW electrically heated combustor. A major aspect of the investigations had been the required preparation and milling of the additional fuels. The investigations showed that in co-combustion of straw with coal, a grinding of 6 mm and finer is sufficient. The definitely coarser milling degree of biomass delays combustion and is observable by in-flame measurements. The investigations reveal that biomass addition has a positive effect on emissions. Since biomass in most cases contains considerably less sulphur than coal, an increasing biomass share in the thermal output makes the SO{sub 2} emissions decrease proportionally. In addition, SO{sub 2} can partly be captured in the ash by the alkaline-earth fractions of the biomass ash. As for sewage sludge, the emissions of SO{sub 2} correlate with the sulphur content of the fuel and, hence, rise with an increasing share of this biomass. Independently from the type, biomass shows a considerably stronger release of volatile matter. This latter fact may have a positive impact on NOx emissions when NOx

  16. Low emission U-fired boiler combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Ake, Terence; Beittel, Roderick; Lisauskas, Robert A.; Reicker, Eric

    2000-01-01

    At least one main combustion chamber contains at least one pulverized coal burner. Each pulverized coal burner is operatively arranged for minimizing NO.sub.X production and for maintaining a predetermined operating temperature to liquefy ash within the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber includes a slag drain for removing slag from the combustion chamber. A slag screen is positioned in a generally U-shaped furnace flow pattern. The slag screen is positioned between the combustion chamber and a radiant furnace. The radiant furnace includes a reburning zone for in-furnace No.sub.X reduction. The reburning zone extends between a reburning fuel injection source and at least one overfire air injection port for injecting air.

  17. System and method for optical monitoring of a combustion flame

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Dale M; Sandvik, Peter M; Fedison, Jeffrey B; Matocha, Kevin S; Johnson, Thomas E

    2006-09-26

    An optical spectrometer for combustion flame temperature determination includes at least two photodetectors positioned for receiving light from a combustion flame, each of the at least two photodetectors having a different, overlapping bandwidth for detecting a respective output signal in an ultraviolet emission band; and a computer for subtracting a respective output signal of a first one of the at least two photodetectors from a respective output signal of a second one of the at least two photodetectors to obtain a segment signal, and using the segment signal to determine the combustion flame temperature.

  18. Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Jeffrey

    2008-09-30

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine, which was developed by Solar under the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems program (DOE contract number DE-FC21-95MC31173). As a generator set, the Mercury 50 is used for distributed power and combined heat and power generation and is designed to achieve 38.5% electrical efficiency, reduced cost of electricity, and single digit emissions. The original program goal was 20,000 hours life, however, this goal was increased to be consistent with Solar's standard 30,000 hour time before overhaul for production engines. Through changes to the combustor design to incorporate effusion cooling in the Generation 3 Mercury 50 engine, which resulted in a drop in the combustor wall temperature, the current standard thermal barrier coated liner was predicted to have 18,000 hours life. With the addition of the advanced materials technology being evaluated under this program, the combustor life is predicted to be over 30,000 hours. The ultimate goal of the program was to demonstrate a fully integrated Mercury 50 combustion system, modified with advanced materials technologies, at a host site for a minimum of 4,000 hours. Solar was the Prime Contractor on the program team, which includes participation of other gas turbine manufacturers, various advanced material and coating suppliers, nationally recognized test laboratories, and multiple industrial end-user field demonstration sites. The program focused on a dual path development route to define an optimum mix of technologies for the Mercury 50 and future gas turbine products. For liner and injector

  19. Integrated optical system for investigation and diagnostics of abnormal combustion in an automotive engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piernikarski, Dariusz

    2004-09-01

    The paper presents a research project oriented towards development of existing measurement methods which use optical sensors for the research and diagnostics of the combustion process in the internal-combustion automotive enigne. Experiments assume usage of photometric techniques and in particular spectrophotometry of the flames existing in the combustion chamber. Gathered results will enable expanding knowledge about processes taking place during combustion of air-fuel mixture and accompanying phenomena (i.e. knock, misfires). The work is also aimed at designing a diagnostic system which will enable an on-line identification of unfavorable phenomena like knocking combustion or misfires (lack of combustion). Extracted synthetic quality indexes will be used in the improvement of combustion process and as a feedback signals in the engine control algorithms. Research is made on the typical automotive engine equipped with an optical sensor located in the engine head and having direct access into the combustion chamber. The sensor enables on-line transmission of the optical signal during the combustion through the bundle of optical waveguides and two parallel filtering paths. Then optical signal was filtered with set of interference filters. The paper is illustrated with some results obtained during preliminary experiments.

  20. A numerical model of combustion in gasless pyrotechnic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boddington, T.; Cottrell, A.; Laye, P.G.

    1989-04-01

    A simple numerical model has been developed for the propagation of a combustion wave through a gasless pyrotechnic mixture. A pseudo one-dimensional approach has been adopted in which an allowance for heat loss has been made by the inclusion of a simple Newtonian heat transfer term. Implementation requires a knowledge of the thermal and kinetic properties of the pyrotechnic mixture. The model reproduces the observed trends in burning velocity and predicts conditions leading to combustion failure.

  1. Detection and control of combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory.

    PubMed

    Gotoda, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yuta; Kobayashi, Masaki; Okuno, Yuta; Tachibana, Shigeru

    2014-02-01

    We propose an online method of detecting combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory, including the characterization of the dynamic behavior of combustion instability. As an important case study relevant to combustion instability encountered in fundamental and practical combustion systems, we deal with the combustion dynamics close to lean blowout (LBO) in a premixed gas-turbine model combustor. The relatively regular pressure fluctuations generated by thermoacoustic oscillations transit to low-dimensional intermittent chaos owing to the intermittent appearance of burst with decreasing equivalence ratio. The translation error, which is characterized by quantifying the degree of parallelism of trajectories in the phase space, can be used as a control variable to prevent LBO. PMID:25353548

  2. Detection and control of combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotoda, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yuta; Kobayashi, Masaki; Okuno, Yuta; Tachibana, Shigeru

    2014-02-01

    We propose an online method of detecting combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory, including the characterization of the dynamic behavior of combustion instability. As an important case study relevant to combustion instability encountered in fundamental and practical combustion systems, we deal with the combustion dynamics close to lean blowout (LBO) in a premixed gas-turbine model combustor. The relatively regular pressure fluctuations generated by thermoacoustic oscillations transit to low-dimensional intermittent chaos owing to the intermittent appearance of burst with decreasing equivalence ratio. The translation error, which is characterized by quantifying the degree of parallelism of trajectories in the phase space, can be used as a control variable to prevent LBO.

  3. Emission control system and method for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, L.

    1980-06-03

    Fresh air is introduced into the exhaust pipe leading to the muffler for an internal combustion engine, while the air and exhaust gas mixture is cooled, not only in the muffler but also in a circuitous tube which extends from the muffler to the normal discharge or tail pipe and in which a special cooler may be installed. From the outlet of the special cooling tube, which faces forwardly, a portion of the air and exhaust gas mixture, now cooled, is led from a Y-connection to the intake tube of the air filter, so that the air and exhaust gas mixture will be introduced into the intake system prior to the carburetor. A rearwardly slanting arm of the Y-connection connects the front end of the special cooling pipe with the normal tail pipe. The carburetor has one or more air bleed tubes leading into the mixture passage at or below the butterfly valves, so that at idling speeds, a small amount of fresh air is introduced, irrespective of the position of the butterfly valves, to overcome any tendency for the engine, when idling, to cough or sputter due to the introduction of an air and exhaust gas mixture to the air filter intake.

  4. Crank angle detecting system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, S.

    1989-05-09

    A crank angle detecting system for an internal combustion engine is described, comprising: means secured to the crankshaft having crankshaft marks, each mark representing a compression top dead center of a cylinder; means provided adjacent to the first decision means for detecting the crankshaft marks for producing a crankshaft signal when each crankshaft mark is detected; means secured to the camshaft having camshaft marks representing the cylinders, respectively; means provided adjacent to the second decision means for detecting the camshaft marks and for producing a cylinder signal when each respective camshaft mark is detected; means for detecting the number of the cylinder detected responsive to the cylinder signal and for producing a corresponding signal corresponding with the number of the cylinder; and means for discriminating a compression top dead center of the detected cylinder responsive to the crankshaft signal occurring after the corresponding signal so as to accurately detect the crank angle corresponding to the number of the cylinder of the plurality of cylinders.

  5. Exhaust particle removing system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shinzawa, M.

    1986-08-05

    An exhaust particle removing system is described for an internal combustion engine, comprising: (a) a filter disposed in an engine exhaust passage for trapping particles suspended in exhaust gas; (b) a burner for burning off the particles deposited on the filter; (c) means for sensing the pressure in the exhaust passage at a point upstream of the filter; (d) means for sensing the pressure in the exhaust passage at a point downstream of the filter; (e) means for determining whether or not the sensed upstream pressure is lower than a preset level; (f) means for, when the sensed upstream pressure is not lower than the preset level, deducing the degree of clogging of the filter on the basis of the sensed upstream and downstream pressures; (g) means for, when the sensed upstream pressure is lower than the preset level, measuring a time elapsed since the moment at which the sensed upstream pressure dropped below the preset level; (h) means for, when the sensed upstream pressure is lower than the preset level, deducing the degree of clogging of the filter on the basis of the time elapsed and the sensed upstream and downstream pressures obtained immediately prior to the moment at which the sensed upstream pressure dropped below the preset level; and (i) means for controlling the burner on the basis of the deduced degree of clogging of the filter.

  6. Dual spark plug ignition system for motorcycle internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeptner, H.W.

    1991-04-02

    This patent describes an ignition system for a motorcycle two cylinder internal combustion engine, the system including magnetically coupled primary and secondary coil means, two spark plugs at each of the cylinders, a source of electrical current, and a single set of contacts controlling electrical current flow to the primary coil means for producing high voltage outputs from the secondary coil means to be delivered to all four of the spark plugs, the secondary coil means including certain secondary coil means operatively connected via the primary coil means with both the of spark plugs at one cylinder, a single cam controlling only the contacts, and a single magnetic core between the primary coil means and both the secondary coil means, and wherein the spark plugs include: two plugs at one cylinder and connected with the certain secondary coil means, two plugs at the second cylinder and connected with the other secondary coil means, the primary coil means including certain primary coil means magnetically coupled to the certain secondary coil means, and other primary coil means magnetically coupled to the other secondary coil means, the certain and other primary coil means being connected in series, electrically, the two spark plugs at one cylinder being electrically connected to opposite ends of the certain secondary coil means, and the two spark plugs at the other cylinder are electrically connected to opposite ends of the other secondary coil means. It comprises the cam driven by the engine for controlling opening of the contacts, the cam rotatable about a first axis, carrier means carrying the contacts, and adjustably rotatable about the axis.

  7. Seventh International Workshop on Microgravity Combustion and Chemically Reacting Systems. Rev. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    The Seventh International Workshop on Microgravity Combustion and Chemically Reacting Systems was planned for June 3-6, 2003, in Cleveland, Ohio, near the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The new name for the workshop is based on the decision to broaden our scope to encompass support for future space exploration through basic and applied research in reacting systems that in some cases may not look like combustion. The workshop has been lengthened to 4 days with focus sessions on spacecraft fire safety and exploration-related research. We believe that the microgravity combustion science community is almost uniquely positioned to make substantial contributions to this new effort.

  8. POSSIBLE ROLE OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN BACK-DRAFTING RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION APPLIANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of a computational sensitivity analysis conducted to identify conditions under which residential active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction might contribute to or create back-drafting of natural draft combustion appliances. Par...

  9. Ultrafast Structural Dynamics in Combustion Relevant Model Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Peter M.

    2014-03-31

    molecular species in the hot environments of combustion processes, there are several features that make the Rydberg ionization spectroscopy uniquely useful. First, the Rydberg electron’s orbit is quite large and covers the entire molecule for most molecular structures of combustion interest. Secondly, the ionization does not change vibrational quantum numbers, so that even complicated and large molecules can be observed with fairly well resolved spectra. In fact, the spectroscopy is blind to vibrational excitation of the molecule. This has the interesting consequence for the study of chemical dynamics, where the molecules are invariably very energetic, that the molecular structures are observed unobstructed by the vibrational congestion that dominates other spectroscopies. This implies also that, as a tool to probe the time-dependent structural dynamics of chemically interesting molecules, Rydberg spectroscopy may well be better suited than electron or x-ray diffraction. With recent progress in calculating Rydberg binding energy spectra, we are approaching the point where the method can be evolved into a structure determination method. To implement the Rydberg ionization spectroscopy we use a molecular beam based, time-resolved pump-probe multi-photon ionization/photoelectron scheme in which a first laser pulse excites the molecule to a Rydberg state, and a probe pulse ionizes the molecule. A time-of-flight detector measures the kinetic energy spectrum of the photoelectrons. The photoelectron spectrum directly provides the binding energy of the electron, and thereby reveals the molecule’s time-dependent structural fingerprint. Only the duration of the laser pulses limits the time resolution. With a new laser system, we have now reached time resolutions better than 100 fs, although very deep UV wavelengths (down to 190 nm) have slightly longer instrument functions. The structural dynamics of molecules in Rydberg-excited states is obtained by delaying the probe ionization

  10. The Development of a Rebust Accelerometer-Based Start of Combustion Sensing System

    SciTech Connect

    Jim Huang; David Mumford

    2009-01-31

    The development of modern combustion systems increasingly relies on detailed knowledge of the combustion event. As the limits of combustion are approached, tight control of combustion leads to improved emissions and higher efficiencies, while retaining and even improving engine reliability and durability. While developing a novel HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) technology for large natural gas engines, Westport found that there was no reliable cost-effective technology to monitor the combustion event. As a result, Westport began working on developing a solution based on commercially available knock sensors. While initially developed around HCCI, Westport has identified that numerous other forms of combustion (high EGR systems, Homogeneous Charge Direct Injection, etc) will require combustion sensors. This requirement is also reflected in the development of other technologies in this field. However, the potential low system cost and the lack of intrusion into the cylinder head area are significant benefits for the Westport approach. Previous work by Westport has proven the method on two different large compression ignition gas engines. The objective of the current work is to improve the robustness of this technology; particularly, to identify and reduce the sensor-to-sensor and engine-to-engine variations.

  11. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. ); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. ); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. ); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexingt

    1992-11-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of the mechanisms governing the ash aerosol size segregated composition resulting from the combustion of pulverized coal in a laboratory scale down-flow combustor are described. The results of modeling activities used to interpret the results of the experiments conducted under his subtask are also described in this section. Although results from the entire program are included, Phase II studies which emphasized: (1) alkali behavior, including a study of the interrelationship between potassium vaporization and sodium vaporization; and (2) iron behavior, including an examination of the extent of iron-aluminosilicate interactions, are highlighted. Idealized combustion determination of ash particle formation and surface stickiness are also described.

  12. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    2005-09-30

    increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  13. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1997-10-31

    increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  14. Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NO{sub x} emissions below 5{times}10{sup -3} g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O{sub 2} dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300{degree}F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in- furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, with increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, requires additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  15. Effect of oxy-combustion flue gas on mercury oxidation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Miranda, Nuria; Lopez-Anton, M Antonia; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2014-06-17

    This study evaluates the effect of the gases present in a typical oxy-coal combustion atmosphere on mercury speciation and compares it with the mercury speciation produced in conventional air combustion atmospheres. The work was performed at laboratory scale at 150 °C. It was found that the minor constituents (SO2, NOx, and HCl) significantly modify the percentages of Hg(2+) in the gas. The influence of these species on mercury oxidation was demostrated when they were tested individually and also when they were blended in different gas compositions, although the effect was different to the sum of their individual effects. Of the minor constituents, NOx were the main species involved in oxidation of mercury. Moreover, it was found that a large concentration of H2O vapor also plays an important role in mercury oxidation. Around 50% of the total mercury was oxidized in atmospheres with H2O vapor concentrations typical of oxy-combustion conditions. When the atmospheres have similar concentrations of SO2, NO, NO2, HCl, and H2O, the proportion of Hg(0)/Hg(2+) is similar regardless of whether CO2 (oxy-fuel combustion) or N2 (air combustion) are the main components of the gas. PMID:24877895

  16. Computational Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  17. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems: Subscale combustion testing. Topical report, Task 3.1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This is the final report on the Subscale Combustor Testing performed at Textron Defense Systems` (TDS) Haverhill Combustion Laboratories for the Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine System Program of the Westinghouse Electric Corp. This program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1986 as an R&D effort to establish the technology base for the commercial application of direct coal-fired gas turbines. The combustion system under consideration incorporates a modular staged, rich-lean-quench, Toroidal Vortex Slogging Combustor (TVC) concept. Fuel-rich conditions in the first stage inhibit NO{sub x} formation from fuel-bound nitrogen; molten coal ash and sulfated sorbent are removed, tapped and quenched from the combustion gases by inertial separation in the second stage. Final oxidation of the fuel-rich gases, and dilution to achieve the desired turbine inlet conditions are accomplished in the third stage, which is maintained sufficiently lean so that here, too, NO{sub x} formation is inhibited. The primary objective of this work was to verify the feasibility of a direct coal-fueled combustion system for combustion turbine applications. This has been accomplished by the design, fabrication, testing and operation of a subscale development-type coal-fired combustor. Because this was a complete departure from present-day turbine combustors and fuels, it was considered necessary to make a thorough evaluation of this design, and its operation in subscale, before applying it in commercial combustion turbine power systems.

  18. Advanced combustion system for industrial boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, August 1987--October 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Attig, R.C.; Foote, J.P.; Millard, W.P.; Schulz, R.J.; Wagoner, C.L.

    1987-12-31

    The purpose of this project is to develop an advanced coal-combustion system for industrial boilers. With the new combustion system, coal could be used to replace oil and possibly gas as fuel for many industrial boilers. The advanced combustion system is comprised of several parts: (1) A new burner-design concept for coal fuels, developed from the familiar gas turbine combustor-can designs that have proven efficient, reliable, durable, and safe for the combustion of liquid fuel oils. (2) A coal storage and dense-phase feed system for injecting clean, ultrafine pulverized coal into the burner at a low velocity. (3) An automatic control system based on feedback from low-cost automotive combustion-quality transducers. A cold flow model of an initial phase of the new burner design and the associated laser flow-visualization techniques were developed during this quarter. A series of modifications of the initial cold flow model will be tested to establish details of design for the new burner. Also a 200 hp firetube boiler has been installed and tested using number 2 oil as a fuel. This boiler will be used for future combustion testing with the new burner and ultrafine pulverized coal. Additionally an ultrafine-coal injector has been designed which will be evaluated separately as a replacement for the oil gun in the firetube boiler. Two tons of deep-cleaned, ultrafine coal were received for initial tests with the coal injector.

  19. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford Smith

    2003-09-01

    Application and testing of the new combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this 12th quarterly report. In this quarter, continued validation and testing of the combustion LES code was performed for the DOE-SimVal combustor. Also, beta testing by six consortium members was performed for various burner and combustor configurations. A list of suggested code improvements by the beta testers was itemized. Work will continue in FY04. A conditional modification to the contract will be granted. The additional work will focus on modeling/analyzing the SimVal experiments.

  20. Heat transfer improvement and NOx reduction in an industrial furnace by regenerative combustion system

    SciTech Connect

    Suzukawa, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Syunichi; Mori, Isao

    1996-12-31

    Recent development of the regenerative combustion system, in which ceramic honeycomb is used as a heat storage medium in a regenerator, has raised preheated air temperature up to 1,600 K. By preheating the combustion air, the heating potential of the furnace gas is increased and the fuel consumption is reduced dramatically. However, higher air temperature increases the potential of NOx formation. Therefore, to apply this technology for commercial use, development of low NOx burner is strongly requested. In this paper, newly developed low NOx burner as well as the high performance honeycomb regenerator is explained. Also, theoretical and numerical analysis of fuel saving by the high preheated air combustion is discussed.

  1. Compression ignition engine having fuel system for non-sooting combustion and method

    SciTech Connect

    Bazyn, Timothy; Gehrke, Christopher

    2014-10-28

    A direct injection compression ignition internal combustion engine includes a fuel system having a nozzle extending into a cylinder of the engine and a plurality of spray orifices formed in the nozzle. Each of the spray orifices has an inner diameter dimension of about 0.09 mm or less, and define inter-orifice angles between adjacent spray orifice center axes of about 36.degree. or greater such that spray plumes of injected fuel from each of the spray orifices combust within the cylinder according to a non-sooting lifted flame and gas entrainment combustion pattern. Related methodology is also disclosed.

  2. Characterization of degeneration process in thermo-acoustic combustion instability using dynamical systems theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kenta; Gotoda, Hiroshi; Okuno, Yuta; Tachibana, Shigeru; Tokyo University of Science Collaboration; Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    We have experimentally investigated the degeneration process of combustion instability in a lean premixed gas-turbine model combustor on the basis of dynamical systems theory. Our previous study reported that with increasing the equivalence ratio, the dynamical behavior of combustion state close to lean blowout transits from stochastic fluctuations to periodic thermoacoustic combustion oscillations via low-dimensional chaotic oscillations. The further increase in the equivalence ratio gives rise to the quasi-periodic oscillations and the subsequent chaotic oscillations with small amplitudes. The route to chaotic oscillations is quantitatively shown by the use of nonlinear time series analysis involving the color recurrence plots, permutation entropy and local predictor.

  3. Device to lower NOx in a gas turbine engine combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Laster, Walter R; Schilp, Reinhard; Wiebe, David J

    2015-02-24

    An emissions control system for a gas turbine engine including a flow-directing structure (24) that delivers combustion gases (22) from a burner (32) to a turbine. The emissions control system includes: a conduit (48) configured to establish fluid communication between compressed air (22) and the combustion gases within the flow-directing structure (24). The compressed air (22) is disposed at a location upstream of a combustor head-end and exhibits an intermediate static pressure less than a static pressure of the combustion gases within the combustor (14). During operation of the gas turbine engine a pressure difference between the intermediate static pressure and a static pressure of the combustion gases within the flow-directing structure (24) is effective to generate a fluid flow through the conduit (48).

  4. Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, and chemical reactant sources

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C

    2013-11-26

    Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, chemical reactant sources, and related methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor system comprising a reaction chamber, a combustion torch positioned to direct a flame into the reaction chamber, and one or more reactant feed assemblies configured to electrically energize at least one electrically conductive solid reactant structure to form a plasma and feed each electrically conductive solid reactant structure into the plasma to form at least one product is disclosed. In an additional embodiment, a chemical reactant source for a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor comprising an elongated electrically conductive reactant structure consisting essentially of at least one chemical reactant is disclosed. In further embodiments, methods of forming a chemical reactant source and methods of chemically converting at least one reactant into at least one product are disclosed.

  5. Internal combustion engine system with fog injection and heat exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Munk, M.

    1987-10-27

    An improved turbine apparatus is described comprising: a turbine power generator, including a source of input air, and a source of fuel, a compressor which receives the input air, a combustion chamber which receives air from the output of the compressor and fuel from the source of fuel, a turbine which receives exhaust gases from the combustion chamber; and an electrical generator mechanically coupled with the turbine; a fogging device communicating with the input air. The fogging device is adapted to receive a fogger air supply and a fogger water supply, and to generate a fog in the input air, an adjustable heat exchanger for exchanging heat from the exhaust of the turbine to the input air to be fogged; and means for adjusting the level of heat exchange of the heat exchanger in accordance with properties of the input air and the level of fog being generated.

  6. Analysis of pressure spectra measurements in a ducted combustion system. Ph.D. Thesis - Toledo Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Combustion noise propagation in an operating ducted liquid fuel combustion system is studied in relation to the development of combustion noise prediction and suppression techniques. The presence of combustor emissions in the duct is proposed as the primary mechanism producing the attenuation and dispersion of combustion noise propagating in an operating liquid fuel combustion system. First, a complex mathematical model for calculating attenuation and dispersion taking into account mass transfer, heat transfer, and viscosity effects due to the presence of liquid fuel droplets or solid soot particles is discussed. Next, a simpler single parameter model for calculating pressure auto-spectra and cross-spectra which takes into account dispersion and attenuation due to heat transfer between solid soot particles and air is developed. Then, auto-spectra and cross-spectra obtained from internal pressure measurements in a combustion system consisting of a J-47 combustor can, a spool piece, and a long duct are presented. Last, analytical results obtained with the single parameter model are compared with the experimental measurements. The single parameter model results are shown to be in excellent agreement with the measurements.

  7. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. ); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. ); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. ); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexingt

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles What determines their composition Whether or not particles deposit How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  8. Solid Fuel Delivery System Developed for Combustion Testing on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frate, David T.

    2004-01-01

    NASA initiated Bioastronautics and Human Research Initiatives in 2001 and 2003, respectively, to enhance the safety and performance of humans in space. The Flow Enclosure Accommodating Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids (FEANICS) is a multiuser facility being built at the NASA Glenn Research Center to advance these initiatives by studying fire safety and the combustion of solid fuels in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS). One of the challenges for the FEANICS team was to build a system that allowed for several consecutive combustion tests to be performed with minimal astronaut crew interaction. FEANICS developed a fuel carousel that contains a various number of fuel samples, depending on the fuel width, and introduces them one at a time into a flow tunnel in which the combustion testing takes place. This approach will allow the science team to run the experiments from the ground, while only requiring the crew to change out carousels after several tests have been completed.

  9. Oxy-combustion of pulverized coal : modeling of char-combustion kinetics.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaddix, Christopher R.; Haynes, Brian S.; Geier, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    In this study, char combustion of pulverized coal under oxy-fuel combustion conditions was investigated on the basis of experimentally observed temperature-size characteristics and corresponding predictions of numerical simulations. Using a combustion-driven entrained flow reactor equipped with an optical particle-sizing pyrometer, combustion characteristics (particle temperatures and apparent size) of pulverized coal char particles was determined for combustion in both reduced oxygen and oxygen-enriched atmospheres with either a N{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} bath gas. The two coals investigated were a low-sulfur, high-volatile bituminous coal (Utah Skyline) and a low-sulfur subbituminous coal (North Antelope), both size-classified to 75-106 {micro}m. A particular focus of this study lies in the analysis of the predictive modeling capabilities of simplified models that capture char combustion characteristics but exhibit the lowest possible complexity and thus facilitate incorporation in existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation codes. For this purpose, char consumption characteristics were calculated for char particles in the size range 10-200 {micro}m using (1) single-film, apparent kinetic models with a chemically 'frozen' boundary layer, and (2) a reacting porous particle model with detailed gas-phase kinetics and three separate heterogeneous reaction mechanisms of char-oxidation and gasification. A comparison of model results with experimental data suggests that single-film models with reaction orders between 0.5 and 1 with respect to the surface oxygen partial pressure may be capable of adequately predicting the temperature-size characteristics of char consumption, provided heterogeneous (steam and CO{sub 2}) gasification reactions are accounted for.

  10. Oxy-combustion of pulverized coal : modeling of char combustion kinetics.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaddix, Christopher R.; Haynes, Brian S.; Geier, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    In this study, char combustion of pulverized coal under oxy-fuel combustion conditions was investigated on the basis of experimentally observed temperature-size characteristics and corresponding predictions of numerical simulations. Using a combustion-driven entrained flow reactor equipped with an optical particle-sizing pyrometer, combustion characteristics (particle temperatures and apparent size) of pulverized coal char particles was determined for combustion in both reduced oxygen and oxygen-enriched atmospheres with either a N{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} bath gas. The two coals investigated were a low-sulfur, high-volatile bituminous coal (Utah Skyline) and a low-sulfur subbituminous coal (North Antelope), both size-classified to 75-106 {micro}m. A particular focus of this study lies in the analysis of the predictive modeling capabilities of simplified models that capture char combustion characteristics but exhibit the lowest possible complexity and thus facilitate incorporation in existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation codes. For this purpose, char consumption characteristics were calculated for char particles in the size range 10-200 {micro}m using (1) single-film, apparent kinetic models with a chemically 'frozen' boundary layer, and (2) a reacting porous particle model with detailed gas-phase kinetics and three separate heterogeneous reaction mechanisms of char-oxidation and gasification. A comparison of model results with experimental data suggests that single-film models with reaction orders between 0.5 and 1 with respect to the surface oxygen partial pressure may be capable of adequately predicting the temperature-size characteristics of char consumption, provided heterogeneous (steam and CO{sub 2}) gasification reactions are accounted for.

  11. Assessment of external combustion, Brayton-cycle engine potential in total and integrated energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marciniak, T.J.; Bratis, J.C.; Davis, A.; Jain, M.L.; Ashe, T.L.; Six, L.D.; Trimble, S.W.

    1980-03-01

    The history, advantages, disadvantages, and performance and cost characteristics of the external-combustion, Brayton engine are discussed. Included are studies of external combustion, Brayton engines in Integrated Energy Systems, and comparisons with current technologies, such as diesels and gas turbines, as well as with other advanced prime-mover technologies, such as large Stirling engines and adiabatic turbocompound diesel engines. Lastly, a development program, one that would lead to a commercializable external combustion, Brayton engine using an atmospheric fluidized bed combustor is described. The fluidized bed offers a method for burning coal in an environmentally acceptable manner at a fairly reasonable cost so that the external combustion Brayton concept can be used in the residential/commercial sector. Based on this study, it appears that the external combustion, Brayton engine, using a fluidized-bed combustion system, offers a technologically sound alternative for developing an economically viable, environmentally acceptable method for using non-scarce fuels. Although the efficiency of the engine is not as high as that projected for large diesel and Stirling engines, the capital cost advantages, fuel flexibility, relatively low developmental costs, and high chance of success make it an attractive alternative.

  12. Bleederless ventilation systems as a spontaneous combustion control measure in US coal mines. Information circular/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.C.; Diamond, W.P.; Mucho, T.P.; Organiscak, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a worldwide literature review of bleederless ventilation practices to evaluate their use as a spontaneous combustion control measure in U.S. coal mines. Factors that must be taken into account in the design and use of these systems include seal construction, the use of ventilation control devices, the use of methane-drainage systems in gassy mines, and the ground control plan. Monitoring for the detection of spontaneous combustion and the control of methane when methane-drainage techniques are employed is critical to the successful use of a bleederless ventilation system. The report describes the types of ventilation systems used throughout the world and the spontaneous combustion risks associated with these systems.

  13. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF THE LINDE OXYGEN COMBUSTION SYSTEM ON THE EPA MOBILE INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes the various system performance tests and the long-term operating experience of the LINDE(r) Oxygen Combustion System (OCS) installed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Mobile Incineration System (MIS) when it was in operation at the Denney F...

  14. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF THE LINDE OXYGEN COMBUSTION SYSTEM ON THE EPA MOBILE INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes the various system performance tests and the long-term operating experience of the LINDE Oxygen Combustion System installed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mobile Incineration System (MIS) when it was in operation at the Denney Farm site in sou...

  15. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford E. Smith; Steven M. Cannon; Virgil Adumitroaie; David L. Black; Karl V. Meredith

    2005-01-01

    In this project, an advanced computational software tool was developed for the design of low emission combustion systems required for Vision 21 clean energy plants. Vision 21 combustion systems, such as combustors for gas turbines, combustors for indirect fired cycles, furnaces and sequestrian-ready combustion systems, will require innovative low emission designs and low development costs if Vision 21 goals are to be realized. The simulation tool will greatly reduce the number of experimental tests; this is especially desirable for gas turbine combustor design since the cost of the high pressure testing is extremely costly. In addition, the software will stimulate new ideas, will provide the capability of assessing and adapting low-emission combustors to alternate fuels, and will greatly reduce the development time cycle of combustion systems. The revolutionary combustion simulation software is able to accurately simulate the highly transient nature of gaseous-fueled (e.g. natural gas, low BTU syngas, hydrogen, biogas etc.) turbulent combustion and assess innovative concepts needed for Vision 21 plants. In addition, the software is capable of analyzing liquid-fueled combustion systems since that capability was developed under a concurrent Air Force Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. The complex physics of the reacting flow field are captured using 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods, in which large scale transient motion is resolved by time-accurate numerics, while the small scale motion is modeled using advanced subgrid turbulence and chemistry closures. In this way, LES combustion simulations can model many physical aspects that, until now, were impossible to predict with 3D steady-state Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis, i.e. very low NOx emissions, combustion instability (coupling of unsteady heat and acoustics), lean blowout, flashback, autoignition, etc. LES methods are becoming more and more practical by linking together tens

  16. Advanced Combustion Systems for Next Generation Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Haynes; Jonathan Janssen; Craig Russell; Marcus Huffman

    2006-01-01

    Next generation turbine power plants will require high efficiency gas turbines with higher pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures than currently available. These increases in gas turbine cycle conditions will tend to increase NOx emissions. As the desire for higher efficiency drives pressure ratios and turbine inlet temperatures ever higher, gas turbines equipped with both lean premixed combustors and selective catalytic reduction after treatment eventually will be unable to meet the new emission goals of sub-3 ppm NOx. New gas turbine combustors are needed with lower emissions than the current state-of-the-art lean premixed combustors. In this program an advanced combustion system for the next generation of gas turbines is being developed with the goal of reducing combustor NOx emissions by 50% below the state-of-the-art. Dry Low NOx (DLN) technology is the current leader in NOx emission technology, guaranteeing 9 ppm NOx emissions for heavy duty F class gas turbines. This development program is directed at exploring advanced concepts which hold promise for meeting the low emissions targets. The trapped vortex combustor is an advanced concept in combustor design. It has been studied widely for aircraft engine applications because it has demonstrated the ability to maintain a stable flame over a wide range of fuel flow rates. Additionally, it has shown significantly lower NOx emission than a typical aircraft engine combustor and with low CO at the same time. The rapid CO burnout and low NOx production of this combustor made it a strong candidate for investigation. Incremental improvements to the DLN technology have not brought the dramatic improvements that are targeted in this program. A revolutionary combustor design is being explored because it captures many of the critical features needed to significantly reduce emissions. Experimental measurements of the combustor performance at atmospheric conditions were completed in the first phase of the program

  17. System for improving internal combustion engine fuel efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, J.S.

    1980-10-28

    A motor vehicle internal combustion engine is described having a pair of heat risers on the exhaust manifold and a plenum chamber positioned about the carburator fuel reservoir. Air from one of the heat risers is directed into the front of the air cleaner assembly. Air from the other heat riser is directed into the plenum where it preheats the fuel in the reservoir, and then exhausts into the air cleaner assembly where it is mixed with the air received from the first heat riser. Significant savings in fuel consumed by the engine have been noted by thus preheating the air and the fuel without vapor lock occurrences.

  18. Combustion in a Bomb with a Fuel-Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Mildred; Spencer, Robert C

    1935-01-01

    Fuel injected into a spherical bomb filled with air at a desired density and temperature could be ignited with a spark a few thousandths of a second after injection, an interval comparable with the ignition lag in fuel-injection engines. The effect of several variables on the extent and rate of combustion was investigated: time intervals between injection and ignition of fuel of 0.003 to 0.06 second and one of 5 minutes; initial air temperatures of 100 degrees C. to 250 degrees C.; initial air densities equivalent to 5, 10, and 15 absolute atmospheres pressure at 100 degrees C.; and air-fuel ratios of 5 to 25.

  19. Heat exchanger. [rocket combustion chambers and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, D. E. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A heat exchanger, as exemplified by a rocket combustion chamber, is constructed by stacking thin metal rings having microsized openings therein at selective locations to form cooling passages defined by an inner wall, an outer wall and fins. Suitable manifolds are provided at each end of the rocket chamber. In addition to the cooling channel openings, coolant feed openings may be formed in each of rings. The coolant feed openings may be nested or positioned within generally U-shaped cooling channel openings. Compression on the stacked rings may be maintained by welds or the like or by bolts extending through the stacked rings.

  20. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. ); Kang, Shim-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. ); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. ); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the computer codes developed for the coal combustion project. In Subsection B.1 the FORTRAN code developed for the percolative fragmentation model (or the discrete model, since a char is expressed as a collection of discrete elements in a discrete space) is presented. In Subsection B.2 the code for the continuum model (thus named because mineral inclusions are distributed in a continuum space) is presented. A stereological model code developed to obtain the pore size distribution from a two-dimensional data is presented in Subsection B.3.

  1. Dynamics of phase forming processes in the combustion of metal-gas systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khomenko, I.O.; Mukasyn, A.S.; Ponomaryev, V.I.; Borovinskaya, I.P.; Merzhanov, A.G. )

    1993-02-01

    The dynamics of phase formation in the combustion wave of the titanium-nitrogen, titanium-oxygen, and titanium-air systems have been investigated. The experiments were on an installation composed of a position detector and a standard x-ray apparatus. The combustion wave in the Ti-N[sub 2] system has been found to propagate as a result of the formation of titanium nitride, which is the final product. The phase formation process in the Ti-O[sub 2] system is caused by oxidation of titanium to titanium dioxide without formation of any intermediate oxide phases. In the Ti-air system the combustion front propagation is induced by the formation of the intermediate phase, titanium nitride, which converts to the final product, titanium dioxide, via two oxynitride intermediates.

  2. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Ping Pan; Kunlei Liu; John T. Riley

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' in this quarter (September-December of 2003). The main tasks in this quarter consisted of the following four parts. First, all documents for managing this project have been prepared and sent to the Office of Project Management at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Second, plans for the renovation of space for a new combustion laboratory for the CFBC system has progressed smoothly. Third, considerable progress in the design of the CFBC system has been made. Finally, a lab-scale simulated fluidized-bed combustion facility has been set up in order to make some fundamental investigations of the co-firing of coal with waste materials in the next quarter. Proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  3. Laser Spectrometric Measurement System for Local Express Diagnostics of Flame at Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobtsev, V. D.; Kozlov, D. N.; Kostritsa, S. A.; Smirnov, V. V.; Stel'makh, O. M.; Tumanov, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    A laboratory laser spectrometric measurement system for investigation of spatial distributions of local temperatures in a flame at combustion of vapors of various liquid hydrocarbon fuels in oxygen or air at atmospheric pressure is presented. The system incorporates a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectrometer with high spatial resolution for local thermometry of nitrogen-containing gas mixtures in a single laser shot and a continuous operation burner with a laminar diffusion flame. The system test results are presented for measurements of spatial distributions of local temperatures in various flame zones at combustion of vapor—gas n-decane/nitrogen mixtures in air. Its applicability for accomplishing practical tasks in comparative laboratory investigation of characteristics of various fuels and for research on combustion in turbulent flames is discussed.

  4. Methods and systems to facilitate reducing NO.sub.x emissions in combustion systems

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lipinski, John Joseph; Ziminsky, Willy Steve

    2011-02-15

    A method for assembling a gas turbine combustor system is provided. The method includes providing a combustion liner including a center axis, an outer wall, a first end, and a second end. The outer wall is orientated substantially parallel to the center axis. The method also includes coupling a transition piece to the liner second end. The transition piece includes an outer wall. The method further includes coupling a plurality of lean-direct injectors along at least one of the liner outer wall and the transition piece outer wall such that the injectors are spaced axially apart along the wall.

  5. Revolutionary systems for catalytic combustion and diesel catalytic particulate traps.

    SciTech Connect

    Stuecker, John Nicholas; Witze, Peter O.; Ferrizz, Robert Matthew; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Miller, James Edward

    2004-12-01

    This report is a summary of an LDRD project completed for the development of materials and structures conducive to advancing the state of the art for catalyst supports and diesel particulate traps. An ancillary development for bio-medical bone scaffolding was also realized. Traditionally, a low-pressure drop catalyst support, such as a ceramic honeycomb monolith, is used for catalytic reactions that require high flow rates of gases at high-temperatures. A drawback to the traditional honeycomb monoliths under these operating conditions is poor mass transfer to the catalyst surface in the straight-through channels. ''Robocasting'' is a unique process developed at Sandia National Laboratories that can be used to manufacture ceramic monoliths with alternative 3-dimensional geometries, providing tortuous pathways to increase mass transfer while maintaining low-pressure drops. These alternative 3-dimensional geometries may also provide a foundation for the development of self-regenerating supports capable of trapping and combusting soot particles from a diesel engine exhaust stream. This report describes the structures developed and characterizes the improved catalytic performance that can result. The results show that, relative to honeycomb monolith supports, considerable improvement in mass transfer efficiency is observed for robocast samples synthesized using an FCC-like geometry of alternating rods. Also, there is clearly a trade-off between enhanced mass transfer and increased pressure drop, which can be optimized depending on the particular demands of a given application. Practical applications include the combustion of natural gas for power generation, production of syngas, and hydrogen reforming reactions. The robocast lattice structures also show practicality for diesel particulate trapping. Preliminary results for trapping efficiency are reported as well as the development of electrically resistive lattices that can regenerate the structure by combusting the

  6. Air supply system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Eftink, A.J.

    1991-03-12

    This patent describes a reciprocating piston internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and at least two cylinders, each cylinder having a displacement volume V{sub 1}, the improved means for supplying air to each cylinder. It comprises: a rotary, trochoidal chamber air pump defining at least one pair of pumping chambers, the number of pumping chambers being equal to the number of cylinders in the engine; air intake conduits connecting each pumping chamber to one cylinder of the engine; a rotor rotatable in each pair of pumping chambers, the rotor having three faces such that passage of a face of the rotor through a pumping chamber forces air in the pumping chamber into the associated air intake conduit and, consequently, into the engine cylinder; and means interconnecting the rotor and the crankshaft so as to rotate the rotor approximately one revolution for every three revolutions of the crankshaft.

  7. Progress towards an Optimization Methodology for Combustion-Driven Portable Thermoelectric Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Shankar; Karri, Naveen K.; Gogna, Pawan K.; Chase, Jordan R.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Hendricks, Terry J.

    2012-03-13

    Enormous military and commercial interests exist in developing quiet, lightweight, and compact thermoelectric (TE) power generation systems. This paper investigates design integration and analysis of an advanced TE power generation system implementing JP-8 fueled combustion and thermal recuperation. Design and development of a portable TE power system using a JP-8 combustor as a high temperature heat source and optimal process flows depend on efficient heat generation, transfer, and recovery within the system are explored. Design optimization of the system required considering the combustion system efficiency and TE conversion efficiency simultaneously. The combustor performance and TE sub-system performance were coupled directly through exhaust temperatures, fuel and air mass flow rates, heat exchanger performance, subsequent hot-side temperatures, and cold-side cooling techniques and temperatures. Systematic investigation of this system relied on accurate thermodynamic modeling of complex, high-temperature combustion processes concomitantly with detailed thermoelectric converter thermal/mechanical modeling. To this end, this work reports on design integration of systemlevel process flow simulations using commercial software CHEMCADTM with in-house thermoelectric converter and module optimization, and heat exchanger analyses using COMSOLTM software. High-performance, high-temperature TE materials and segmented TE element designs are incorporated in coupled design analyses to achieve predicted TE subsystem level conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%. These TE advances are integrated with a high performance microtechnology combustion reactor based on recent advances at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Predictions from this coupled simulation established a basis for optimal selection of fuel and air flow rates, thermoelectric module design and operating conditions, and microtechnology heat-exchanger design criteria. This paper will discuss this

  8. Technology evaluation report: SITE (Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation) program demonstration test. The American Combustion Pyretron Thermal Destruction System at the US EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) combustion research facility

    SciTech Connect

    Waterland, L.; Lee, J.W.

    1989-04-01

    A series of demonstration tests of the American Combustion, Inc., Thermal Destruction System was performed under the SITE program. This oxygen-enhanced combustion system was retrofit to the rotary-kiln incinerator at EPA's Combustion Research Facility. The system's performance was tested firing contaminated soil from the Stringfellow Superfund Site, both alone and mixed with a coal tar waste (KO87). Comparative performance with conventional incinerator operation was also tested. Compliance with the incinerator performance standards of 99.99% principal organic hazardous constituents (POHC) destruction and removal efficiency and particulate emissions of less than 180 mg/dscm at 7% O2 was measured for all tests. The Pyretron system was capable of in-compliance performance at double the mixed waste feedrate and at a 60% increase in batch waste charge mass than possible with conventional incineration. Scrubber blowdown and kiln ash contained no detectable levels of any of the POHCs chosen.

  9. Study of instrumentation needs for process control and safety in coal fluidized-bed combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, C.L.; Griggs, K.E.; Henry, R.F.; Podolski, W.F.

    1981-02-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the current state of the art of instrumentation for planned and operating fluidized-bed combustion systems. This study is intended to identify instrumentation needs and serve as a data base for projects to develop this instrumentation. A considerable number of needs for measurements for which presently available instrumentation is not suitable were reported by respondents. The identified deficiencies are presented with the associated physical parameter ranges for FBC processes. New techniques and instrumentation under development, as well as some available alternative instruments, are discussed briefly. Also, newly instituted mechanisms for technical information exchange on instrumentation for fossil energy applications are identified. Development of instruments to meet the identified measurement deficiencies is recommended in order to ensure the feasibility of automatic control of large-scale fluidized-bed combustion systems, and to advance the state of the art of fluidized-bed combustion technology.

  10. Fiber optic sensing system for temperature and gas monitoring in coal waste pile combustion environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viveiros, D.; Ribeiro, J.; Ferreira, J.; Lopez-Albada, A.; Pinto, A. M. R.; Perez-Herrera, R. A.; Diaz, S.; Lopez-Gil, A.; Dominguez-Lopez, A.; Esteban, O.; Martin-Lopez, S.; Auguste, J.-L.; Jamier, R.; Rougier, S.; Silva, S. O.; Frazão, O.; Santos, J. L.; Flores, D.; Roy, P.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M.; Lopez-Amo, M.; Baptista, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    It is presented an optical fiber sensing system projected to operate in the demanding conditions associated with coal waste piles in combustion. Distributed temperature measurement and spot gas sensing are requirements for such a system. A field prototype has been installed and is continuously gathering data, which will input a geological model of the coal waste piles in combustion aiming to understand their dynamics and evolution. Results are presented on distributed temperature and ammonia measurement, being noticed any significant methane emission in the short time period considered. Carbon dioxide is also a targeted gas for measurement, with validated results available soon. The assessment of this technology as an effective and reliable tool to address the problem of monitoring coal waste piles in combustion opens the possibility of its widespread application in view of the worldwide presence of coal related fires.

  11. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford E. Smith

    2005-04-01

    Vision 21 combustion systems will require innovative low emission designs and low development costs if Vision 21 goals are to be realized. In this three-year project, an advanced computational software tool will be developed for the design of low emission combustion systems required for Vision 21 clean energy plants. The combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) software will be able to accurately simulate the highly transient nature of gaseous-fueled turbulent combustion so that innovative concepts can be assessed and developed with fewer high-cost experimental tests. During the first year, the project included the development and implementation of improved chemistry (reduced GRI mechanism), subgrid turbulence (localized dynamic), and subgrid combustion-turbulence interaction (Linear Eddy) models into the CFDACE+ code. University expertise (Georgia Tech and UC Berkeley) was utilized to help develop and implement these advanced submodels into the unstructured, parallel CFD flow solver, CFD-ACE+. Efficient numerical algorithms that rely on in situ look-up tables or artificial neural networks were implemented for chemistry calculations. In the second year, the combustion LES software was evaluated and validated using experimental data from lab-scale and industrial test configurations. This code testing (i.e., alpha testing) was performed by CFD Research Corporation's engineers. During the third year, six industrial and academic partners used the combustion LES code and exercised it on problems of their choice (i.e., beta testing). Final feedback and optimizations were then be implemented in the final release version of the combustion LES software that will be licensed to the general public. An additional one-year task was added for the fourth year of this program entitled, ''LES Simulations of SIMVAL Results''. For this task, CFDRC performed LES calculations of selected SIMVAL cases, and compared predictions with measurements. In addition to comparisons with NO{sub x

  12. Attrition Rate of Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feilen, Harry Martin

    This project developed an evaluation methodology for determining, accurately and rapidly, the attrition resistance of oxygen carrier materials used in chemical looping technologies. Existing test protocols, to evaluate attrition resistance of granular materials, are conducted under non-reactive and ambient temperature conditions. They do not accurately reflect the actual behavior under the unique process conditions of chemical looping, including high temperatures and cyclic operation between oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. This project developed a test method and equipment that represented a significant improvement over existing protocols. Experimental results obtained from this project have shown that hematite exhibits different modes of attrition, including both due to mechanical stresses and due to structural changes in the particles due to chemical reaction at high temperature. The test methodology has also proven effective in providing reactivity changes of the material with continued use, a property, which in addition to attrition, determines material life. Consumption/replacement cost due to attrition or loss of reactivity is a critical factor in the economic application of the chemical looping technology. This test method will allow rapid evaluation of a wide range of materials that are best suited for this technology. The most important anticipated public benefit of this project is the acceleration of the development of chemical looping technology for lowering greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion.

  13. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Boni, A.A.; Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G. ); Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. ); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L. ); Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E. )

    1990-11-01

    Objectives of this project are: (1) define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and (2) characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail; elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and develop, based on the information required in a. and b. above, a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products. The work discussed highlights recent accomplishments in modeling synthetic char particle combustion times and temperatures with allowance for oxygen dissociation in the char boundary layer; in developing a continuum model for residual ash information and char fragmentation, permitting a more detailed time-resolved study of ash coalescence within a burning char particle; and in continuing development of the engineering model for ash particle formation. 40 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Exhaust gas recirculation system for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshioka, S.; Nomoto, Y.; Oda, T.; Yokooku, K.

    1984-09-18

    An internal combustion engine is provided with an exhaust gas recirculating passage for communicating the intake passage and the exhaust passage thereof. The recirculating passage is provided with a valve for controlling the amount of recirculated exhaust gas. A fundamental air-fuel ratio control value for regulating the air-fuel ratio of the intake gas to a predetermined value is corrected by an operating condition correction value according to the operating condition of the engine. The operating condition correction value is successively changed to an optimal value by comparing the actually obtained air-fuel ratio with a predetermined value. The operating condition correction value for correcting the fundamental air-fuel ratio control value when the exhaust gas recirculation is carried out is changed independently from the same for correcting the fundamental air-fuel ratio correction value when the exhaust gas recirculation is not carried out. The initial values of the former correction value and the latter correction value are compared with each other, while the present values of the former correction value and the latter correction value are compared with each other. The comparison value of the initial values and the comparison value of the present values are compared with each other to detect clogging of the recirculating passage. When clogging is detected, the valve is controlled to compensate for the clogging.

  15. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Cannon; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Clifford Smith

    2002-07-01

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this seventh quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, the Localized Dynamic subgrid Kinetic energy Model (LDKM) was improved and an initial Turbulent Artificial Neural Net (TANN) was developed. Validation and testing of the combustion LES code was performed for the Vanderbilt lean premixed combustor and the Loughborough University combustor port flow experiment. Next quarter, LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will continue to be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of the subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the In Situ Adaptive Tabulation (ISAT) approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the TANN approach in CFD-ACE+ will be accomplished.

  16. Internal combustion engine system having a power turbine with a broad efficiency range

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Todd Mathew; Vuk, Carl Thomas

    2010-04-13

    An engine system incorporating an air breathing, reciprocating internal combustion engine having an inlet for air and an exhaust for products of combustion. A centripetal turbine receives products of the combustion and has a housing in which a turbine wheel is rotatable. The housing has first and second passages leading from the inlet to discrete, approximately 180.degree., portions of the circumference of the turbine wheel. The passages have fixed vanes adjacent the periphery of the turbine wheel and the angle of the vanes in one of the passages is different than those in the other so as to accommodate different power levels providing optimum approach angles between the gases passing the vanes and the blades of the turbine wheel. Flow through the passages is controlled by a flapper valve to direct it to one or the other or both passages depending upon the load factor for the engine.

  17. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  18. PARTITIONING OF THE REFRACTORY METALS, NICKEL AND CHROMIUM, IN COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The partitioning of nickel (Ni) and Chromium (Cr) in combustion systems was investigated theoretically and experimentally. In comparison to other volatile and semi-volatile metals, both Ni and Cr are usually considered to be refractory (non-volatile). Theoretical predictions ba...

  19. SIMPLIFIED SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM FOR THE DETERMINATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN COMBUSTION EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study to provide a design for a simplified sampling system to support engineering projects for waste combustion requiring numerous semiroutine sampling tests. Sorbents and tandem-bed sorbent sampling tubes were evaluated to develop a rugged, compact c...

  20. SYSTEMS RELIABILITY AND PERFORMANCE: PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CHLORINATED BENZENES AT THE COMBUSTION RESEARCH FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of 34 test burns was conducted between August 1983 and January 1984 in the pilot-scale rotary kiln incineration system at the USEPA Combustion Research Facility (CRF), using chlorinated benzenes as surrogate Principal Organic Hazardous Components (POHCs), over a range of...

  1. Recovery and Sequestration of CO2 from Stationary Combustion Systems by Photosynthesis of Microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

    2003-11-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 July to 30 September 2003 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch and PSI continued preparation work on direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch started the first full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases. Aquasearch started to model the costs associated with biomass harvest from different microalgal strains. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  2. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO{sub 2} FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Nakamura

    2004-04-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2003 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run first pilot scale production run with coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch started the second full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases. Aquasearch also conducted modeling work to study the change in alkalinity in the medium resulting form microalgal photosynthesis and growth. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  3. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO{sub 2} FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

    2004-07-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 January to 31 March 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run first pilot scale production run with coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch started the second full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases. Aquasearch also conducted modeling work to study the change in alkalinity in the medium resulting form microalgal photosynthesis and growth. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  4. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Increased emphasis is placed on fundamental and generic research at Lewis Research Center with less systems development efforts. This is especially true in combustion research, where the study of combustion fundamentals has grown significantly in order to better address the perceived long term technical needs of the aerospace industry. The main thrusts for this combustion fundamentals program area are as follows: analytical models of combustion processes, model verification experiments, fundamental combustion experiments, and advanced numeric techniques.

  5. LASER STABILIZATION FOR NEAR ZERO NO{sub x} GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Vivek Khanna

    2002-09-30

    Historically, the development of new industrial gas turbines has been primarily driven by the intent to achieve higher efficiency, lower operating costs and lower emissions. Higher efficiency and lower cost is obtained through higher turbine operating temperatures, while reduction in emissions is obtained by extending the lean operating limit of the combustor. However reduction in the lean stability limit of operation is limited greatly by the chemistry of the combustion process and by the occurrence of thermo-acoustic instabilities. Solar Turbines, CFD Research Corporation, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have teamed to advance the technology associated with laser-assisted ignition and flame stabilization, to a level where it could be incorporated onto a gas turbine combustor. The system being developed is expected to enhance the lean stability limit of the swirl stabilized combustion process and assist in reducing combustion oscillations. Such a system has the potential to allow operation at the ultra-lean conditions needed to achieve NO{sub x} emissions below 5 ppm without the need of exhaust treatment or catalytic technologies. The research effort was focused on analytically modeling laser-assisted flame stabilization using advanced CFD techniques, and experimentally demonstrating the technology, using a solid-state laser and low-cost durable optics. A pulsed laser beam was used to generate a plasma pool at strategic locations within the combustor flow field such that the energy from the plasma became an ignition source and helped maintain a flame at ultra lean operating conditions. The periodic plasma generation and decay was used to nullify the fluctuations in the heat release from the flame itself, thus decoupling the heat release from the combustor acoustics and effectively reducing the combustion oscillations. The program was built on an existing technology base and includes: extending LANL's existing laser stabilization experience to a sub

  6. Progress Towards an Optimization Methodology for Combustion-Driven Portable Thermoelectric Power Generation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Shankar; Karri, Naveen K.; Gogna, Pawan K.; Chase, Jordan R.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Hendricks, Terry J.

    2012-06-01

    There is enormous military and commercial interest in developing quiet, lightweight, and compact thermoelectric (TE) power generation systems. This paper investigates design integration and analysis of an advanced TE power generation system implementing JP-8 fueled combustion and thermal recuperation. In the design and development of this portable TE power system using a JP-8 combustor as a high-temperature heat source, optimal process flows depend on efficient heat generation, transfer, and recovery within the system. The combustor performance and TE subsystem performance were coupled directly through combustor exhaust temperatures, fuel and air mass flow rates, heat exchanger performance, subsequent hot-side temperatures, and cold-side cooling techniques and temperatures. Systematic investigation and design optimization of this TE power system relied on accurate thermodynamic modeling of complex, high-temperature combustion processes concomitantly with detailed TE converter thermal/mechanical modeling. To this end, this paper reports integration of system-level process flow simulations using CHEMCAD™ commercial software with in-house TE converter and module optimization, and heat exchanger analyses using COMSOL™ software. High-performance, high-temperature TE materials and segmented TE element designs are incorporated in coupled design analyses to achieve predicted TE subsystem-level conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%. These TE advances are integrated with a high-performance microtechnology combustion reactor based on recent advances at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Predictions from this coupled simulation approach lead directly to system efficiency-power maps defining potentially available optimal system operating conditions and regimes. Further, it is shown that, for a given fuel flow rate, there exists a combination of recuperative effectiveness and hot-side heat exchanger effectiveness that provides a higher specific power output from

  7. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2008-05-31

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Clear Skies Initiative, a legislative proposal to control the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and mercury from power plants. In response to this initiative, the National Energy Technology Laboratory organized a Combustion Technology University Alliance and hosted a Solid Fuel Combustion Technology Alliance Workshop. The workshop identified multi-pollutant control; improved sorbents and catalysts; mercury monitoring and capture; and improved understanding of the underlying reaction chemistry occurring during combustion as the most pressing research needs related to controlling environmental emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The Environmental Control Technology Laboratory will help meet these challenges and offer solutions for problems associated with emissions from fossil-fueled power plants. The goal of this project was to develop the capability and technology database needed to support municipal, regional, and national electric power generating facilities to improve the efficiency of operation and solve operational and environmental problems. In order to effectively provide the scientific data and the methodologies required to address these issues, the project included the following aspects: (1) Establishing an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory using a laboratory-scale, simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) system; (2) Designing, constructing, and operating a bench-scale (0.6 MW{sub th}), circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) system as the main component of the Environmental Control Technology Laboratory; (3) Developing a combustion technology for co-firing municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural waste, and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with high sulfur coals; (4) Developing a control strategy for gaseous emissions, including NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, organic compounds, and heavy metals; and (5) Developing new mercury capturing sorbents and new

  8. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-03

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications'' is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec's Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

  9. National Combustion Code, a Multidisciplinary Combustor Design System, Will Be Transferred to the Commercial Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and Flow Parametrics will enter into an agreement to commercialize the National Combustion Code (NCC). This multidisciplinary combustor design system utilizes computer-aided design (CAD) tools for geometry creation, advanced mesh generators for creating solid model representations, a common framework for fluid flow and structural analyses, modern postprocessing tools, and parallel processing. This integrated system can facilitate and enhance various phases of the design and analysis process.

  10. JANNAF 35th Combustion Subcommittee and 17th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting: Joint Sessions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor); Rognan, Melanie (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This publication is a compilation of 15 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 1998 meeting of the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) held jointly with the Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS). The meeting was held on 7 - 11 December 1 998 at Raytheon Systems Company and the Marriott Hotel, Tucson, AZ. Topics covered include advanced ingredients and reaction kinetics in solid propellants and experimental diagnostic techniques.

  11. BIOMASS COMBUSTION IN GAS-TURBINE-BASED SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparative evaluation of a range of biomass power generation systems. he objective was to identify systems most suitable for unique properties of biomass. he characteristics of biomass fuels were reviewed, and the performance of several gas-turbine-b...

  12. A Brief Study on Toxic Combustion Products of the Polymers Used in High-Pressure Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hshieh, Fu-Yu; Beeson, Harold D.

    2005-01-01

    One likely cause of polymer ignition in a high-pressure oxygen system is the adiabatic-compression heating of polymers caused by pneumatic impact. Oxidative pyrolysis or combustion of polymers in a high-pressure oxygen system could generate toxic gases. This paper investigates the feasibility of using the NASA pneumatic-impact system to conduct adiabatic-compression combustion tests and determines the toxic combustion products produced from the burning of five selected polymers. Five polymers commonly used in high-pressure oxygen systems, Zytel(Registered TradeMark) 42 (Nylon 6/6), Buna N (nitrile rubber), Witon(Registered TradeMark) A (copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropylene), Neoflon(Registered TradeMark) (polychlorotrifluoroethylene), and Teflon(Registered TradeMark) (polytetrafluoroethylene), were tested in the NASA pneumatic-impact test system at 17.2-MPa oxygen pressure. The polymers were ignited and burned; combustion products were collected in a stainless-steel sample bottle and analyzed using various methods. The results show that the NASA pneumatic-impact system is an appropriate test system to conduct adiabatic-compression combustion tests and to collect combustion products for further chemical analysis. The composition of the combustion product gas generated from burning the five selected polymers are presented and discussed.

  13. Principles and mechanism of combustion in the zirconium-carbon-hydrogen system

    SciTech Connect

    Martirosyan, N.A.; Dolvkhanyan, S.K.; Merzhanov, A.G.

    1986-03-01

    The authors examine the principles and mechanism of combustion in the Zr-C-H/sub 2/ system in order to clarify the generality of the effects observed previously. The experiments were performed in a constant-pressure vessel with type M-41 powdered zirconium, carbon black, and gaseous hydrogen. Chemical analysis was performed for the total and free contents of carbon, zirconium and hydrogen, and x-ray studies were performed using a DRON-0.5 analyzer. In the Zr-C-H/sub 2/ system the general tendency inherent in Me-C-H/sub 2/ systems toward completion of the hydrogenation and carbonization reactions is maintained. In this mixture, as in Ti-C-H/sub 2/, the steady-state combustion regimes are not the same when ignition sources of different temperatures are used.

  14. Development of eddy current testing system for inspection of combustion chambers of liquid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, D. F.; Zhang, Y. Z.; Shiwa, M.; Moriya, S.

    2013-01-01

    An eddy current testing (ECT) system using a high sensitive anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) sensor was developed. In this system, a 20 turn circular coil with a diameter of 3 mm was used to produce the excitation field. A high sensitivity AMR sensor was used to measure the magnetic field produced by the induced eddy currents. A specimen made of copper alloy was prepared to simulate the combustion chamber of liquid rocket. Scanning was realized by rotating the chamber with a motor. To reduce the influence of liftoff variance during scanning, a dual frequency excitation method was used. The experimental results proved that ECT system with an AMR sensor could be used to check liquid rocket combustion chamber.

  15. Development of eddy current testing system for inspection of combustion chambers of liquid rocket engines.

    PubMed

    He, D F; Zhang, Y Z; Shiwa, M; Moriya, S

    2013-01-01

    An eddy current testing (ECT) system using a high sensitive anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) sensor was developed. In this system, a 20 turn circular coil with a diameter of 3 mm was used to produce the excitation field. A high sensitivity AMR sensor was used to measure the magnetic field produced by the induced eddy currents. A specimen made of copper alloy was prepared to simulate the combustion chamber of liquid rocket. Scanning was realized by rotating the chamber with a motor. To reduce the influence of liftoff variance during scanning, a dual frequency excitation method was used. The experimental results proved that ECT system with an AMR sensor could be used to check liquid rocket combustion chamber. PMID:23387673

  16. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Cannon; Baifang Zuo; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Cliff Smith

    2002-01-01

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this fifth quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, in-situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for efficient chemical rate storage and retrieval was further tested in the LES code. The use of multiple trees and periodic tree dumping was investigated. Implementation of the Linear Eddy Model (LEM) for subgrid chemistry was finished for serial applications. Validation of the model on a backstep reacting case was performed. Initial calculations of the SimVal experiment were performed for various barrel lengths, equivalence ratio, combustor shapes, and turbulence models. The effects of these variables on combustion instability was studied. Georgia Tech continues the effort to parameterize the LEM over composition space so that a neural net can be used efficiently in the combustion LES code. Next quarter, the 2nd consortium meeting will be held at CFDRC. LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the ISAT approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the neural net approach, for chemical kinetics speed-up in CFD-ACE+, should be accomplished.

  17. Corrosion and its effect on mechanical properties of materials for advanced combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Freeman, M.; Mathur, M.

    1996-05-01

    Conceptual designs of advanced combustion systems that utilize coal as a feedstock require high-temperature furnaces and heat transfer surfaces that can operate at temperatures much higher than those prevalent in current coal-fired power plants. The combination of elevated temperatures and hostile combustion environments necessitates development and application of advanced ceramic materials in these designs. The objectives of the present program are to evaluate (a) the chemistry of gaseous and condensed products that arise during combustion of coal; (b) the corrosion behavior of candidate materials in air, slag and salt environments for application in the combustion environments; and (c) the residual mechanical properties of the materials after corrosion. The program emphasizes temperatures in the range of 1000-1400{degrees}C for ceramic materials and 600-1000{degrees}C for metallic alloys. Coal/ash chemistries developed on the basis of thermodynamic/kinetic calculations, together with slags from actual combustors, are used in the program. The materials being evaluated include monolithic silicon carbide from several sources: silicon, nitride, silicon carbide in alumina composites, silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide- matrix composite, and some advanced nickel-base alloys. The paper presents results from an ongoing program on corrosion performance of candidate ceramic materials exposed to air, salt and slag environments and their affect on flexural strength and energy absorbed during fracture of these materials.

  18. Modelling and simulation of wood chip combustion in a hot air generator system.

    PubMed

    Rajika, J K A T; Narayana, Mahinsasa

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on modelling and simulation of horizontal moving bed/grate wood chip combustor. A standalone finite volume based 2-D steady state Euler-Euler Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed for packed bed combustion. Packed bed combustion of a medium scale biomass combustor, which was retrofitted from wood log to wood chip feeding for Tea drying in Sri Lanka, was evaluated by a CFD simulation study. The model was validated by the experimental results of an industrial biomass combustor for a hot air generation system in tea industry. Open-source CFD tool; OpenFOAM was used to generate CFD model source code for the packed bed combustion and simulated along with an available solver for free board region modelling in the CFD tool. Height of the packed bed is about 20 cm and biomass particles are assumed to be spherical shape with constant surface area to volume ratio. Temperature measurements of the combustor are well agreed with simulation results while gas phase compositions have discrepancies. Combustion efficiency of the validated hot air generator is around 52.2 %. PMID:27512625

  19. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

    2004-12-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 July to 30 September 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run the first set of experiments with actual coal combustion gases with two different strains of microalgae. In addition further, full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases were conducted. Aquasearch continued testing modifications to the coal combustor to allow for longer-term burns.

  20. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

    2005-03-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run the first set of experiments with actual coal combustion gases with two different strains of microalgae. In addition further, full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases were conducted. Aquasearch continued testing modifications to the coal combustor to allow for longer-term burns.

  1. Improving the Surface Properties of Inconel 718 BY Applying a CO2 Laser Heat Treatment to a High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Coating of WC-CrCo Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, T. Y.; Yoon, J. H.; Joo, Y. K.; Zhang, S. H.; Cho, J. Y.; Kang, J. H.; Chun, H. G.; Kwon, S. C.; Li, Ming-Xi

    A micron-sized WC-CrCo powder was coated onto an IN718 substrate using high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying. To further improve the surface properties, the HVOF coating was heat-treated by a CO2 laser. The surface properties of both the coating and the laser-heated coating were then compared. The HVOF optimal coating process (OCP) for a coating with the highest surface hardness was determined with the Taguchi program. The friction and wear behaviors of the coating, an electrolytic hard chrome (EHC)-plated coating and IN718, were comparatively investigated via a reciprocating sliding wear test at both 25 and 450°C. The friction coefficient (FC) for all three samples decreased when the sliding surface temperature increased from 25 to 450°C. The FC of the coating decreased with increasing surface temperature: 0.33 ± 0.02 at 25°C to 0.26 ± 0.02 at 450°C the coating had the lowest FC among the three samples. At both temperatures, the coating wear depth (WD) was smaller than those of the EHC sample and IN718. At room temperature, WC-CrCo and the EHC coatings had good wear resistance and had only a shallow WD. IN718, however, had poor wear resistance with 50 μm deep grooves created from fretting corrosion that arose during the 1500 reciprocating slides (2.5 Hz, 10 min sliding wear test). At 450°C, the coating WDs were much shallower than those for the EHC coating and IN718: 0.5-μm deep grooves compared to 60-70-μm deep grooves. These results proved that the coating provided a protective coating for IN718 and other metal components. With the OCP coating fabricated from the powders on the IN718 surface, the surface hardness increased 316% from 399 Hv to 1260 Hv. Furthermore, by laser heating the coating surface for 0.6 s, the hardness increased 44% from 1260 ±30 Hv to 1820 ±100 Hv, porosity decreased more than five times from 2.2 ± 0.3% to 0.4 ± 0.1%, and the coating thickness decreased 17% from 300 to 250 μm. These results showed that both the WC

  2. A Preliminary Study on the Toxic Combustion Products Testing of Polymers Used in High-Pressure Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hshieh, Fu-Yu; Beeson, Harold D.

    2004-01-01

    One likely cause of polymer ignition in a high-pressure oxygen system is adiabatic-compression heating of polymers caused by pneumatic impact. Oxidative _ pyrolysis or combustion of polymers in a high-pressure oxygen system could generate toxic gases. This paper reports the preliminary results of toxic combustion product testing of selected polymers in a pneumatic-impact test system. Five polymers commonly used in high-pressure oxygen systems, Nylon 6/6, polychlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), fluoroelastomer (Viton(TradeMark) A), and nitrile rubber (Buna N), were tested in a pneumatic-impact test system at 2500- or 3500-psia oxygen pressure. The polymers were ignited and burned, then combustion products were collected in a stainless-steel sample bottle and analyzed by GC/MS/IRD, GC/FID, and GC/Methanizer/FID. The results of adiabatic-compression tests show that combustion of hydrocarbon polymers, nitrogen-containing polymers, and halogenated polymers in high-pressure oxygen systems are relatively complete. Toxicity of the combustion product gas is presumably much lower than the combustion product gas generated from ambient-pressure oxygen (or air) environments. The NASA-Lewis equilibrium code was used to determine the composition of combustion product gas generated from a simulated, adiabatic-compression test of nine polymers. The results are presented and discussed.

  3. System study on partial gasification combined cycle with CO{sub 2} recovery - article no. 051801

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.J.; Jin, H.G.; Lin, R.M.; Han, W.

    2008-09-15

    S partial gasification combined cycle with CO{sub 2} recovery is proposed in this paper. Partial gasification adopts cascade conversion of the composition of coal. Active composition of coal is simply gasified, while inactive composition, that is char, is burnt in a boiler. Oxy-fuel combustion of syngas produces only CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, so the CO{sub 2} can be separated through cooling the working fluid. This decreases the amount of energy consumption to separate CO{sub 2} compared with conventional methods. The novel system integrates the above two key technologies by injecting steam from a steam turbine into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine to combine the Rankine cycle with the Brayton cycle. The thermal efficiency of this system will be higher based on the cascade utilization of energy level. Compared with the conventional integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), the compressor of the gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and gasifier are substituted for a pump, reheater, and partial gasifier, so the system is simplified. Furthermore, the novel system is investigated by means of energy-utilization diagram methodology and provides a simple analysis of their economic and environmental performance. As a result, the thermal efficiency of this system may be expected to be 45%, with CO{sub 2} recovery of 41.2%, which is 1.5-3.5% higher than that of an IGCC system. At the same time, the total investment cost of the new system is about 16% lower than that of an IGCC. The comparison between the partial gasification technology and the IGCC technology is based on the two representative cases to identify the specific feature of the proposed system.

  4. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  5. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

    2004-10-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2004 through September 30, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building have started. Second, the design if the component parts of the CFBC system have been reviewed and finalized so that the drawings may be released to the manufacturers during the next quarter. Third, the experiments for solid waste (chicken litter) incineration have been conducted using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). This is in preparation for testing in the simulated fluidized-bed combustor. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  6. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

    2009-06-30

    This report summarizes Year 1 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Through the course of Year 1 activities, great progress was made toward understanding the issues associated with oxy-combustion retrofit of coal-fired boilers. All four Year 1 milestones and objectives have been, or will be, completed on schedule and within budget. Progress in the four milestone areas may be summarized as follows: • University of Utah has performed size segregated ash composition measurements in the Oxy-Fuel Combustor (OFC). These experiments indicate that oxy-combustion retrofit may impact ash aerosol mineral matter composition. Both flame temperature and flue gas composition have been observed to influence the concentration of calcium, magnesium and iron in the fine particulate. This could in turn impact boiler fouling and slagging. • Sandia National Labs has shown that char oxidation rate is dependent on particle size (for sizes between 60 and 100 microns) by performing fundamental simulations of reacting char particles. These predictions will be verified by making time-resolved optical measurements of char particle temperature, velocity and size in bench-scale experiments before the end of Year 1. • REI and Siemens have completed the design of an oxy-research burner that will be mounted on University of Utah’s pilot-scale furnace, the L1500. This burner will accommodate a wide range of O2, FGR and mixing strategies under conditions relevant for utility boiler operation. Through CFD modeling of the different burner designs, it was determined that the key factor influencing flame stabilization location is particle heat-up rate. The new oxy-research burner and associated equipment is scheduled for delivery before the end of Year 1. • REI has completed a literature survey of slagging and

  7. Development of models and online diagnostic monitors of the high-temperature corrosion of refractories in oxy/fuel glass furnaces : final project report.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Stewart K.; Gupta, Amul; Walsh, Peter M.; Rice, Steven F.; Velez, Mariano; Allendorf, Mark D.; Pecoraro, George A.; Nilson, Robert H.; Wolfe, H. Edward; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Bugeat, Benjamin American Air Liquide, Countryside, IL); Spear, Karl E.; Marin, Ovidiu American Air Liquide, Countryside, IL); Ghani, M. Usman

    2005-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a five-year effort to understand the mechanisms and develop models that predict the corrosion of refractories in oxygen-fuel glass-melting furnaces. Thermodynamic data for the Si-O-(Na or K) and Al-O-(Na or K) systems are reported, allowing equilibrium calculations to be performed to evaluate corrosion of silica- and alumina-based refractories under typical furnace operating conditions. A detailed analysis of processes contributing to corrosion is also presented. Using this analysis, a model of the corrosion process was developed and used to predict corrosion rates in an actual industrial glass furnace. The rate-limiting process is most likely the transport of NaOH(gas) through the mass-transport boundary layer from the furnace atmosphere to the crown surface. Corrosion rates predicted on this basis are in better agreement with observation than those produced by any other mechanism, although the absolute values are highly sensitive to the crown temperature and the NaOH(gas) concentration at equilibrium and at the edge of the boundary layer. Finally, the project explored the development of excimer laser induced fragmentation (ELIF) fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of gas-phase alkali hydroxides (e.g., NaOH) that are predicted to be the key species causing accelerated corrosion in these furnaces. The development of ELIF and the construction of field-portable instrumentation for glass furnace applications are reported and the method is shown to be effective in industrial settings.

  8. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2006-07-01

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period April 1, 2006 through June 30, 2006. Substantial progress was made on the development and application of software for the effective operation and safe control of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor, as well as for the display and logging of acquired data and operating parameters.

  9. The proposed combustion standards and DOE thermal treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    McFee, J.; Hinman, M.B.; Eaton, D.; NcNeel, K.

    1997-08-01

    Under the provisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA) concerning emission of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the proposed Revised Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors on April 19, 1996 (EPA, 1996). These standards would apply to the existing Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive and mixed waste incinerators, and may be applied to several developing alternatives to incineration. The DOE has reviewed the basis for these regulations and prepared extensive comments to present concerns about the bases and implications of the standards. DOE is now discussing compliance options with the EPA for regulation of radioactive and mixed waste thermal treatment systems.

  10. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

    2005-07-30

    This purpose of this report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. The following tasks have been completed. First, the new Combustion Laboratory was occupied on June 15, 2005, and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building is in the final painting stage. Second, the fabrication and manufacturing contract for the CFBC Facility was awarded to Sterling Boiler & Mechanical, Inc. of Evansville, Indiana. Sterling is manufacturing the assembly and component parts of the CFBC system. The erection of the CFBC system is expected to start September 1, 2005. Third, mercury emissions from the cofiring of coal and chicken waste was studied experimentally in the laboratory-scale simulated fluidized-bed combustion facility. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described.

  11. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Takashi Nakamura

    2003-04-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2002 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on feasibility demonstration of direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection and characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  12. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Takashi Nakamura

    2003-09-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2003 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, PSI delivered its coal reactor to Aquasearch. Aquasearch and PSI continued preparation work on direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch started their effort on economic analyses of commercial scale photobioreactor. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  13. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Ping Pan, Kunlei Liu; John T. Riley

    2004-07-30

    This report presents the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the quarter April 1--June 30, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, the final specifications for the renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the CFB Combustor Building have been delivered to the architect, and invitations for construction bids for the two tasks have been released. Second, the component parts of the CFBC system have been designed after the design work for assembly parts of the CFBC system was completed. Third, the literature pertaining to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDD) and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDF) released during the incineration of solid waste, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) have been reviewed, and an experimental plan for fundamental research of MSW incineration on a simulated fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) facility has been prepared. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  14. Factors affecting the corrosion rates of ceramics in coal combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    The concentrations of approximately a dozen elements in the products of coal combustion affect the corrosion rates of ceramics used to construct the combustion system. The elements, including H, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe, affect corrosion rates in three ways: as primary corrodants of the materials, as secondary corrodants that affect the activities of the primary corrodants, and by affecting the mass transport rate of the primary corrodants. A full factorial study of corrosion rates performed by varying the concentrations of these elements would involve X{sup n} tests, where X is the number of variations of each element and n is the number of different elements. For three variations (low, medium, and high concentrations) of each of 12 elements, the number of tests is 531,441 for a single temperature and pressure condition. The numbers can be reduced with the use of a fractional factorial test matrix, but the most effective way to perform corrosion tests is to base them on realistic system conditions. In this paper, the effects of the composition and physical state of the products of coal combustion on ceramic corrosion rates are given along with suggestions of appropriate test conditions for specific system components.

  15. Results of a qualitative analysis of the nonstationary combustion equations of porous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ermolaev, B.S.; Khasainov, B.A.; Posvyanskii, V.S.; Sulimov, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models describing convective combustion are complex and usually analyzed by numerical methods. This paper applies a method of estimating the terms of the equation to the model of the process under consideration, to obtain a system of algebraic equations that approximates the initial system of partial differential equations and the boundary conditions. The time scale is determined. It is found that the pressure drop acting along the charge and growing with the lapse of time causes a redistribution of the propellant particle mass. The specific form of the dependence w on the properties of the propellant t and the instantaneous pressure pB is determined by the energy transfer mechanism in the ignition wave. The formulas derived are compared to the results of numerical integration of the problem and are found to be in good agreement. This new data relative to the mechanism and properties of the convective combustion of a wave must be taken into account in constructing a complete theory of the transition of porous system combustion into detonation.

  16. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-12-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 July to 30 September 2002 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on feasibility demonstration of direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection and characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  17. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. T. Nakamura

    2003-05-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 January to 31 March 2003 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, PSI conducted preparation work on direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae and developed a design concept for photobioreactors for biofixation of CO{sub 2} and photovoltaic power generation. Aquasearch continued their effort on characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration and preparation for pilot scale demonstration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  18. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-10-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2002 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on feasibility demonstration of direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection and characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  19. Toward the Oxidation of the Phenyl Radical and Prevention of PAH Formation in Combustion Systems.

    PubMed

    Parker, Dorian S N; Kaiser, Ralf I; Troy, Tyler P; Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid; Mebel, Alexander M

    2015-07-16

    The reaction of the phenyl radical (C6H5) with molecular oxygen (O2) plays a central role in the degradation of poly- and monocyclic aromatic radicals in combustion systems which would otherwise react with fuel components to form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eventually soot. Despite intense theoretical and experimental scrutiny over half a century, the overall reaction channels have not all been experimentally identified. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet photoionization in conjunction with a combustion simulating chemical reactor uniquely provides the complete isomer specific product spectrum and branching ratios of this prototype reaction. In the reaction of phenyl radicals and molecular oxygen at 873 K and 1003 K, ortho-benzoquinone (o-C6H4O2), the phenoxy radical (C6H5O), and cyclopentadienyl radical (C5H5) were identified as primary products formed through emission of atomic hydrogen, atomic oxygen and carbon dioxide. Furan (C4H4O), acrolein (C3H4O), and ketene (C2H2O) were also identified as primary products formed through ring opening and fragmentation of the 7-membered ring 2-oxepinoxy radical. Secondary reaction products para-benzoquinone (p-C6H4O2), phenol (C6H5OH), cyclopentadiene (C5H6), 2,4-cyclopentadienone (C5H4O), vinylacetylene (C4H4), and acetylene (C2H2) were also identified. The pyranyl radical (C5H5O) was not detected; however, electronic structure calculations show that it is formed and isomerizes to 2,4-cyclopentadienone through atomic hydrogen emission. In combustion systems, barrierless phenyl-type radical oxidation reactions could even degrade more complex aromatic radicals. An understanding of these elementary processes is expected to lead to a better understanding toward the elimination of carcinogenic, mutagenic, and environmentally hazardous byproducts of combustion systems such as PAHs. PMID:25354358

  20. Mercury in coal and the impact of coal quality on mercury emissions from combustion systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, A.; Senior, C.L.; Quick, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of Hg in coal feedstock that is emitted by stack gases of utility power stations is a complex function of coal chemistry and properties, combustion conditions, and the positioning and type of air pollution control devices employed. Mercury in bituminous coal is found primarily within Fe-sulfides, whereas lower rank coal tends to have a greater proportion of organic-bound Hg. Preparation of bituminous coal to reduce S generally reduces input Hg relative to in-ground concentrations, but the amount of this reduction varies according to the fraction of Hg in sulfides and the efficiency of sulfide removal. The mode of occurrence of Hg in coal does not directly affect the speciation of Hg in the combustion flue gas. However, other constituents in the coal, notably Cl and S, and the combustion characteristics of the coal, influence the species of Hg that are formed in the flue gas and enter air pollution control devices. The formation of gaseous oxidized Hg or particulate-bound Hg occurs post-combustion; these forms of Hg can be in part captured in the air pollution control devices that exist on coal-fired boilers, without modification. For a given coal type, the capture efficiency of Hg by pollution control systems varies according to type of device and the conditions of its deployment. For bituminous coal, on average, more than 60% of Hg in flue gas is captured by fabric filter (FF) and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Key variables affecting performance for Hg control include Cl and S content of the coal, the positioning (hot side vs. cold side) of the system, and the amount of unburned C in coal ash. Knowledge of coal quality parameters and their effect on the performance of air pollution control devices allows optimization of Hg capture co-benefit. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-16

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications has been selected for Phase III development under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting, recycling, and refining processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase HI research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing glass frits and wool fiber from boiler and incinerator ashes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes has begun. In order to accurately estimate the cost of the primary process vessels, preliminary designs for 25, 50, and 100 ton/day systems have been started under Task 1. This data will serve as input data for life cycle cost analysis performed as part of techno-economic evaluations. The economic evaluations of commercial CMS systems will be an integral part of the commercialization plan.

  2. Exhaust particle removing system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Shinzawa, M.

    1988-07-12

    An exhaust particle removing system is described for an engine, comprising: (a) a filter for trapping particles in exhaust from the engine; (b) means for determining whether or not the degree of clogging of the filter is unacceptable; (c) means for detecting an operating condition of the engine; (d) means for when the degree of clogging of the filter is unacceptable, throttling the flow of intake air into the engine and thus varying the pressure of the intake air in accordance with the detected engine operating condition in cases where the detected engine operating condition resides in a first predetermined range within which the temperature of the engine exhaust would be inadequate to burn off the trapped particles if the intake air flow were not throttled, the throttling means comprising a movable throttle valve disposed in an air intake passage, a bypass passage connected to the air intake passage and bypassing the throttle valve, and a movable bypass valve disposed in the bypass passage; and (e) means for, when the degree of clogging of the filter is unacceptable, allowing free flow of the intake air in cases where the detected engine operating condition resides in a second predetermined range within which the temperature of the engine exhaust would be adequate to burn off the trapped particles even if the intake air flow were not throttled.

  3. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

    2005-01-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period October 1, 2004 through December 31, 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, the renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building have proceeded well. Second, the detailed design of supporting and hanging structures for the CFBC was completed. Third, the laboratory-scale simulated fluidized-bed facility was modified after completing a series of pretests. The two problems identified during the pretest were solved. Fourth, the carbonization of chicken waste and coal was investigated in a tube furnace and a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  4. Risk analysis of highly combustible gas storage, supply, and distribution systems in PWR plants

    SciTech Connect

    Simion, G.P.; VanHorn, R.L.; Smith, C.L.; Bickel, J.H.; Sattison, M.B.; Bulmahn, K.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the potential safety concerns for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) identified in Generic Safety Issue 106, Piping and the Use of Highly Combustible Gases in Vital Areas. A Westinghouse four-loop PWR plant was analyzed for the risk due to the use of combustible gases (predominantly hydrogen) within the plant. The analysis evaluated an actual hydrogen distribution configuration and conducted several sensitivity studies to determine the potential variability among PWRs. The sensitivity studies were based on hydrogen and safety-related equipment configurations observed at other PWRs within the United States. Several options for improving the hydrogen distribution system design were identified and evaluated for their effect on risk and core damage frequency. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to determine whether alternatives considered were justifiable based on the safety improvement and economics of each possible improvement.

  5. System and method for reducing combustion dynamics and NO.sub.x in a combustor

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong H.; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2015-11-20

    A system for reducing combustion dynamics and NO.sub.x in a combustor includes a tube bundle that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor, wherein the tube bundle comprises an upstream surface axially separated from a downstream surface. A shroud circumferentially surrounds the upstream and downstream surfaces. A plurality of tubes extends through the tube bundle from the upstream surface through the downstream surface, wherein the downstream surface is stepped to produce tubes having different lengths through the tube bundle. A method for reducing combustion dynamics and NO.sub.x in a combustor includes flowing a working fluid through a plurality of tubes radially arranged between an upstream surface and a downstream surface of an end cap that extends radially across at least a portion of the combustor, wherein the downstream surface is stepped.

  6. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; Songgeng Li

    2006-04-01

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Work was performed on the following activities. First, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility were completed. The riser, primary cyclone and secondary cyclone of Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Combustor have been erected. Second, the Mercury Control Workshop and the Grand Opening of Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET) were successfully held on February 22 and 23, 2006, respectively. Third, effects of hydrogen chlorine (HCl) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) on mercury oxidation were studied in a drop tube reactor. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

  7. Cogeneration system with low NO sub x combustion of fuel gas

    SciTech Connect

    Garbo, P.W.

    1991-06-25

    This patent describes a cogeneration system for the production of electricity and refrigeration with low NO{sub x} combustion of fuel gas supplied at a high pressure. It comprises a heat exchanger to heat the fuel gas at high pressure; a turbo-expander connected to receive and expand the heated fuel gas from the heat exchanger; a centrifugal compressor driven by the turbo-expander the compressor being the refrigerant compressor of a refrigeration system; a porous fiber burner connected to receive the expanded fuel gas from the turbo-expander together with the requisite combustion air; a high-pressure steam boiler heated by the combustion of the expanded fuel gas on the outer surface of the porous fiber burner, the boiler being connected to pass the resulting flue gas with low NO{sub x} content through the heat exchanger to heat the fuel gas at high pressure; a steam turbine connected to receive and expand highpressure steam from the boiler and to return expanded and condensed steam to the boiler; and an electric generator driven by the steam turbine.

  8. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  9. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor'. The details of the task 5 effort are

  10. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Steven M.; Adumitroaie, Virgil; McDaniel, Keith S.; Smith, Clifford E.

    2001-11-06

    In this project, an advanced computational software tool will be developed for the design of low emission combustion systems required for Vision 21 clean energy plants. This computational tool will utilize Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods to predict the highly transient nature of turbulent combustion. The time-accurate software will capture large scale transient motion, while the small scale motion will be modeled using advanced subgrid turbulence and chemistry closures. This three-year project is composed of: Year 1--model development/implementation, Year 2--software alpha validation, and Year 3--technology transfer of software to industry including beta testing. In this first year of the project, subgrid models for turbulence and combustion are being developed through university research (Suresh Menon-Georgia Tech and J.-Y. Chen- UC Berkeley) and implemented into a leading combustion CFD code, CFD-ACE+. The commercially available CFDACE+ software utilizes unstructured , parallel architecture and 2nd-order spatial and temporal numerics. To date, the localized dynamic turbulence model and reduced chemistry models (up to 19 species) for natural gas, propane, hydrogen, syngas, and methanol have been incorporated. The Linear Eddy Model (LEM) for subgrid combustion-turbulence interaction has been developed and implementation into CFD-ACE+ has started. Ways of reducing run-time for complex stiff reactions is being studied, including the use of in situ tabulation and neural nets. Initial validation cases have been performed. CFDRC has also completed the integration of a 64 PC cluster to get highly scalable computing power needed to perform the LES calculations ({approx} 2 million cells) in several days. During the second year, further testing and validation of the LES software will be performed. Researchers at DOE-NETL are working with CFDRC to provide well-characterized high-pressure test data for model validation purposes. To insure practical, usable software is

  11. Boron Particles Agglomeration and Slag Formation During Combustion of Energetic Condensed Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerov, D.; Monogarov, K.; Bragin, A.; Frolov, Yu.; Nikiforova, Anna

    Boron is a promising component of energetic condensed systems due to its high gravimetric heat value, which is significantly higher than that one of aluminum. In the present work, two non-equilibrium processes, i.e., boron particles agglomeration and framework (slag) formation during combustion of high-energy compositions were investigated experimentally. The quench particle collection bomb technique was used to collect the condensed combustion products formed under nitrogen pressures of 0.1 - 4 MPa. The formation of a framework was visualized using high-speed video registration (1200 fps). Particle size, morphology, and surface structure of collected condensed products were evaluated using laser diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. In the experiments, the weight of the collected condensed combustion products was about 30% of the initial sample weight, where 26% belonged to the products collected from the gas phase and 4% were remained in a highly-porous framework. The initial amorphous boron powder consisted of 1-micron particles, whereas agglomerated particles, which were collected from the gas phase, were 10 μm in diameter. The burning rate of compositions without binder was 4 times higher and the diameter of collected agglomerates was 10 times larger than those for compositions with binder.

  12. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Cannon; Clifford Smith

    2003-04-01

    Application and testing of the new combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this 10th quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation has developed the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, validation and testing of the combustion LES code was performed for the DOE-Simval combustor. Also, Beta testing by consortium members was performed for various burner and combustor configurations. In the two quarters ahead, CFDRC will validate the code on the new DOE SimVal experiments. Experimental data from DOE should be available in June 2003, though LES calculations are currently being performed. This will ensure a truly predictive test of the software. CFDRC will also provide help to the consortium members on running their cases, and incorporate improvements to the software suggested by the beta testers. The beta testers will compare their predictions with experimental measurements and other numerical calculations. At the end of this project (October, 2003), a final released version of the software will be available for licensing to the general public.

  13. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Nakamura

    2004-11-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run further, pilot and full scale, carbon sequestration tests with actual propane combustion gases utilizing two different strains of microalgae. Aquasearch continued testing modifications to the coal combustor to allow for longer-term burns. Aquasearch also tested an alternative cell separation technology. University of Hawaii performed experiments at the Mera Pharmaceuticals facility in Kona in mid June to obtain data on the carbon venting rate out of the photobioreactor; gas venting rates were measured with an orifice flow meter and gas samples were collected for GC analysis to determine the carbon content of the vented gases.

  14. H2-O2 combustion powered steam-MHD central power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Smith, J. M.; Nichols, L. D.

    1974-01-01

    Estimates are made for both the performance and the power costs of H2-O2 combustion powered steam-MHD central power systems. Hydrogen gas is assumed to be transmitted by pipe from a remote coal gasifier into the city and converted to electricity in a steam MHD plant having an integral gaseous oxygen plant. These steam MHD systems appear to offer an attractive alternative to both in-city clean fueled conventional steam power plants and to remote coal fired power plants with underground electric transmission into the city.

  15. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    Funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 ENVIRON International Corporation, in collaboration with Callidus Technologies by Honeywell and Shell Global Solutions, Inc., will develop and demonstrate a full-scale fuel blending and combustion system. This system will allow a broad range of opportunity fuel compositions, including syngas, biogas, natural gas, and refinery fuel gas, to be safely, cost-effectively, and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria pollutants. The project will develop a commercial technology for application in refinery and chemical plant process heaters where opportunity fuels are used.

  16. Material handling systems for the fluidized-bed combustion boiler at Rivesville, West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branam, J. G.; Rosborough, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    The 300,000 lbs/hr steam capacity multicell fluidized-bed boiler (MFB) utilizes complex material handling systems. The material handling systems can be divided into the following areas: (1) coal preparation; transfer and delivery, (2) limestone handling system, (3) fly-ash removal and (4) bed material handling system. Each of the above systems are described in detail and some of the potential problem areas are discussed. A major potential problem that exists is the coal drying system. The coal dryer is designed to use 600 F preheated combustion air as drying medium and the dryer effluent is designed to enter a hot electrostatic precipitator (730 F) after passage through a cyclone. Other problem areas to be discussed include the steam generator coal and limestone feed system which may have operating difficulties with wet coal and/or coal fines.

  17. Combustion control system adding a liquid, exhaust gases, and PCV gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, J.E.

    1980-01-15

    A combustion control system is disclosed that adds a fluid and heat energy to the air-fuel mixture of the induction system of an internal combustion engine in response to engine need to improve combustion, to increase power, to improve efficiency, and to reduce emissions. The system incorporates fluidic control mechanisms which provide the control functions without any moving parts. The system incorporates one or more variable impedance flow control mechanisms, each of which produces an impedance to flow through the control mechanism which varies in a controlled relationship to the pressure differential across the control mechanism. In one embodiment, the main variable impedance control mechanism is a vortex chamber. The outlet of the vortex chamber is connected to the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) inlet to intake manifold downstream of the butterfly valve. The vortex chamber has inputs for supplying air, the liquid, exhaust gases, and PCV gases for mixing within the vortex chamber. The incoming liquid, air, exhaust gases, and PCV gases are transmitted into the main vortex chamber by input constructions which, in themselves, provide for controlled regulation of both the relative proportions and total amounts of the incoming liquid and gases. In a specific embodiment, the input constructions include a liquid-exhaust gas acceleration chamber for mixing liquid with exhaust gases and a PCV-exhaust gas vortex chamber for mixing exhaust gases with PCV gases and air and swirl producing devices for causing controlled choking of the inlets of one or more of the vortex chambers. The system also incorporates a variable impedance syphon break in the line connecting the liquid source with the liquid-exhaust gas acceleration chamber.

  18. Gas chromatograph-combustion system for 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Cameron P; Sylva, Sean P; Roberts, Mark L

    2009-08-01

    A gas chromatograph-combustion (GC-C) system is described for the introduction of samples as CO(2) gas into a (14)C accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system with a microwave-plasma gas ion source. Samples are injected into a gas chromatograph fitted with a megabore capillary column that uses H(2) as the carrier gas. The gas stream from the outlet of the column is mixed with O(2) and Ar gas and passed through a combustion furnace where the H(2) carrier gas and separated components are quantitatively oxidized to CO(2) and H(2)O. Water vapor is removed using a heated nafion dryer. The Ar carries the CO(2) to the ion source. The system is able to separate and oxidize up to 10 microg of compound and transfer the products from 7.6 mL/min of H(2) carrier gas into 0.2-1.0 mL/min of Ar carrier gas. Chromatographic performance and isotopic fidelity satisfy the requirements of the (14)C-AMS system for natural abundance measurements. The system is a significant technical advance for GC-AMS and may be capable of providing an increase in sensitivity for other analytical systems such as an isotope-ratio-monitoring GC/MS. PMID:19572555

  19. Multichannel fiber optic pressure sensor system for parametric emission monitoring in combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poorman, Thomas J.; Kalashnikov, Sergey P.; Wlodarczyk, Marek T.; Daire, Adam; Goeke, Wayne; Kropp, Richard; Kamat, Pradip

    1995-09-01

    A multichannel fiber-optic combustion pressure sensor system is described dedicated to parametric emission monitoring systems (PEMS) for use in natural gas-fueled, stationary, and reciprocating engines. In view of the emerging 1995 emission regulations for large stationary engines, the natural gas pipeline operators have turned their attention to PEMS' for predicting and controlling the amount of polluting emissions such as NOx and HC. We present design considerations and performance data of a 8-channel pressure monitoring system employing fiber-optic combustion pressure sensors. The control/monitoring unit offers capabilities of sensor calibration, health monitoring, and real-time data acquisition. Using an engine position sensor trigger, the monitoring unit can calculate peak pressure, indicative mean pressure, and location of peak pressure. The system allows for 50 kHz, burst mode transfer of multisensor data to a host PC. We demonstrated performance data collected on three large-bore engines and long-term endurance test data. While initially intended for stationary engines, the system can be used in applications requiring portability including moving vehicles.

  20. Atmospheric emission characterization of a novel sludge drying and co-combustion system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shengyong; Yang, Liqin; Zhou, Fa; Wang, Fei; Yan, Jianhua; Li, Xiaodong; Chi, Yong; Cen, Kefa

    2013-10-01

    A novel system combining sludge drying and co-combustion with coal was applied in disposing sludge and its atmospheric emission characteristics were tested. The system was composed of a hollow blade paddle dryer, a thermal drying exhaust gas control system, a 75 tons/hr circulating fluidized bed and a flue gas cleaning system. The emissions of NH3, SO2, CH4 and some other pollutants released from thermal drying, and pollutants such as NOx, SO2 etc. discharged by the incinerator, were all tested. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the flue gas from the incinerator were investigated as well. The results indicated that the concentrations of NOx and SO2 in the flue gas from the incinerator were 145 and 16 mg/m3, respectively. and the I-TEQ concentration of 2,3,7,8-substitued PCDD/Fs was 0.023 ng I-TEQ/Nm3. All these values were greatly lower than the emission standards of China. In addition, there was no obvious odor in the air around the sludge dryer. The results demonstrated that this drying and co-combustion system is efficient in controlling pollutants and is a feasible way for large-scale treatment of industrial sludge and sewage sludge. PMID:24494496

  1. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31

    A comprehensive corrosion research project consisting of pilot-scale combustion testing and long-term laboratory corrosion study has been successfully performed. A pilot-scale combustion facility available at Brigham Young University was selected and modified to enable burning of pulverized coals under the operating conditions typical for advanced coal-fired utility boilers. Eight United States (U.S.) coals were selected for this investigation, with the test conditions for all coals set to have the same heat input to the combustor. In addition, the air/fuel stoichiometric ratio was controlled so that staged combustion was established, with the stoichiometric ratio maintained at 0.85 in the burner zone and 1.15 in the burnout zone. The burner zone represented the lower furnace of utility boilers, while the burnout zone mimicked the upper furnace areas adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters. From this staged combustion, approximately 3% excess oxygen was attained in the combustion gas at the furnace outlet. During each of the pilot-scale combustion tests, extensive online measurements of the flue gas compositions were performed. In addition, deposit samples were collected at the same location for chemical analyses. Such extensive gas and deposit analyses enabled detailed characterization of the actual combustion environments existing at the lower furnace walls under reducing conditions and those adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters under oxidizing conditions in advanced U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. The gas and deposit compositions were then carefully simulated in a series of 1000-hour laboratory corrosion tests, in which the corrosion performances of different commercial candidate alloys and weld overlays were evaluated at various temperatures for advanced boiler systems. Results of this laboratory study led to significant improvement in understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating on the furnace walls as well as superheaters and reheaters in

  2. Experimental study of a staged combustion system for stationary gas turbine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamont, Warren G.

    Two optically accessible experimental test rigs were designed and constructed to investigate a staged or distributed combustion system for stationary gas turbine applications. The test rigs were fuelled with natural gas and featured two combustion zones: the main combustion zone (MCZ) and the secondary combustion zone (SCZ). The MCZ is a swirl stabilized dump combustor and the SCZ, which is axially downstream from the MCZ, is formed by a transverse jet injecting a premixed fuel/air mixture into the vitiated stream. After installing and commissioning the test rig, an emission survey was conducted to investigate the SCZ conditions, equivalence ratio and momentum ratio, that produce low NOx emissions and give a higher temperature rise before a simulated high pressure turbine than firing only the MCZ. The emission survey found several operating conditions that show the benefit of combustion staging. These beneficial conditions had an SCZ equivalence ratio between 0.41 and 1.12. The data from the emission survey was then used to create an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN used a multi-layer feed-forward network architecture and was trained with experimental data using the backpropagation training algorithm. The ANN was then used to create performance maps and optimum operational regions were sought. Lastly, optical diagnostics were used to obtain information on the nature of the SCZ reactive jet. The diagnostics included high speed CH* chemiluminescence, OH planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The chemiluminescence and PLIF were used to qualitatively determine the size and shape of the transverse jet reaction zone. Dual-pump CARS was used to quantitatively determine the temperature and H2/N2 concentration ratio profile at the mid-plane of the transverse jet. Dual-pump CARS data was collected for four operating conditions but only one is presented in this dissertation. For the condition presented, the

  3. From orbital debris capture systems through internal combustion engines on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The investigation and conceptualization of an orbital debris collector was the primary area of design. In addition, an alternate structural design for Space Station Freedom and systems supporting resource utilization at Mars and the moon were studied. Hardware for production of oxygen from simulate Mars atmosphere was modified to permit more reliable operation at low pressures (down to 10 mb). An internal combustion engine was altered to study how Mars atmosphere could be used as a diluent to control combustion temperatures and avoid excess Mars propellant production requirements that would result from either methane-rich or oxygen-rich, methane-oxygen combustion. An elastic loop traction system that could be used for lunar construction vehicles was refined to permit testing. A parabolic heat rejection radiator system was designed and built to determine whether it was capable of increasing heat rejection rates during lunar daytime operation. In addition, an alternate space station truss design, utilizing a pre-integrated concept, was studied and found to reduce estimate extravehicular activity (EVA) time and increase the structural integrity when compared to the original Warren truss concept. An orbital-debris-capturing spacecraft design which could be mated with the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle was studied. The design identified Soviet C-1B boosters as the best targets of opportunity in Earth orbits between an altitude of 900 km and 1100 km and at an inclination of 82.9 deg. A dual robot pallet, which could be spun to match the tumbling rate of the C-1B booster, was developed as the conceptual design.

  4. From orbital debris capture systems through internal combustion engines on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The investigation and conceptualization of an orbital debris collector was the primary area of design. In addition, an alternate structural design for Space Station Freedom and systems supporting resource utilization at Mars and the moon were studied. Hardware for production of oxygen from simulate Mars atmosphere was modified to permit more reliable operation at low pressures (down to 10 mb). An internal combustion engine was altered to study how Mars atmosphere could be used as a diluent to control combustion temperatures and avoid excess Mars propellant production requirements that would result from either methane-rich or oxygen-rich, methane-oxygen combustion. An elastic loop traction system that could be used for lunar construction vehicles was refined to permit testing. A parabolic heat rejection radiator system was designed and built to determine whether it was capable of increasing heat rejection rates during lunar daytime operation. In addition, an alternate space station truss design, utilizing a pre-integrated concept, was studied and found to reduce estimate extravehicular activity (EVA) time and increase the structural integrity when compared to the original Warren truss concept. An orbital-debris-capturing spacecraft design which could be mated with the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle was studied. The design identified Soviet C-1B boosters as the best targets of opportunity in Earth orbits between an altitude of 900 km and 1100 km and at an inclination of 82.9 deg. A dual robot pallet, which could be spun to match the tumbling rate of the C-1B booster, was developed as the conceptual design.

  5. A Small Angle Scattering Sensor System for the Characterization of Combustion Generated Particulate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feikema, Douglas A.; Kim, W.; Sivathanu, Yudaya

    2007-01-01

    One of the critical issues for the US space program is fire safety of the space station and future launch vehicles. A detailed understanding of the scattering signatures of particulate is essential for the development of a false alarm free fire detection system. This paper describes advanced optical instrumentation developed and applied for fire detection. The system is being designed to determine four important physical properties of disperse fractal aggregates and particulates including size distribution, number density, refractive indices, and fractal dimension. Combustion generated particulate are the primary detection target; however, in order to discriminate from other particulate, non-combustion generated particles should also be characterized. The angular scattering signature is measured and analyzed using two photon optical laser scattering. The Rayleigh-Debye-Gans (R-D-G) scattering theory for disperse fractal aggregates is utilized. The system consists of a pulsed laser module, detection module and data acquisition system and software to analyze the signals. The theory and applications are described.

  6. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K.

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  7. Large-scale commercial combustion systems for producing energy from municipal solid waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-02-01

    The large scale combustion systems available on the US market today that use MSW only as fuel are reviewed. Its purpose is to provide waste to energy project participants with basic technical information to facilitate an understanding of the operation and performance of the technologies employed. General technical descriptions of the two types of large scale systems, mass burning and refuel derived fuel burning, are presented. Performance characteristics of each system, based on material and energy balances, are discussed. A description of the typical energy product options (steam only, cogeneration of steam and electricity, or ejectricity only) that may be considered for both types of systems depending on the available market(s) for energy is included. The sources and types of emissions from these systems (air, water, ash and other residue, noise, and odor) are discussed.

  8. Structured grid generation using a CAD solid model for an aero-gas turbine combustion system

    SciTech Connect

    Eccles, N.C.; Manners, A.P.

    1996-12-31

    An aero-gas turbine combustion system was used to demonstrate the problems of creating a single block structured grid suitable for CFD predictions from a designer`s parametric solid model. The solid model had to be filtered of sub-grid detail and computational fluid volumes generated from the solid model of the metal. Alternative methods of transferring the geometry from the CAD package to the grid generator were considered. The type and method of grid generation was found to influence all stages in manipulating the geometry.

  9. Ultrasound Imaging System Implementation and Ignition Protocol for the Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, David C.; Anthenien, Ralph A.; Roslon, Mark; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Urban, David L.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smolder, both in microgravity and normal earth gravity. Experiments have been conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle in the Get Away Special Canister (GAS-CAN), an apparatus requiring completely remote operation. Future GAS-CAN experiments will utilize an ultrasound imaging system (UIS) which has been incorporated into the MSC experimental apparatus. Thermocouples are currently used to measure temperature and reaction front velocities. A less intrusive method is desirable, however, as smolder is a very weak reaction and it has been found that heat transfer along the thermocouple is sufficient to affect the smolder reaction. It is expected that the UIS system will eventually replace the existing array of thermocouples as a non-intrusive technique without compromising data acquisition. The UIS measures line of sight permeability, providing information about the reaction front position and extent. Additionally, the ignition sequence of the MSC experiments has been optimized from previous experiments to provide longer periods of self-supported smolder. An ignition protocol of a fixed power to the igniter for a fixed time is now implemented. This, rather than a controlled temperature profile ignition protocol at the igniter surface, along with the UIS system, will allow for better study of the effect of gravity on a smolder reaction.

  10. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Steven M. Masutani

    2001-08-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  11. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-07-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  12. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-01-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report is the summary first year report covering the reporting period 1 October 2000 to 30 September 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  13. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-03-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  14. EMISSIONS ASSESSMENT OF CONVENTIONAL STATIONARY SYSTEMS: VOLUME III. EXTERNAL COMBUSTION SOURCES FOR ELECTRICITY GENERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report characterizes multimedia emissions from external combustion sources for electricity generation. Study results indicate that external combustion sources for electricity generation contribute significantly to the nationwide emissions burden. Flue gas emissions of NOx, SO...

  15. Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

  16. Truck co-generation system based on combustion heated thermoelectric conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Meleta, Ye.A.; Yarygin, V.I.; Klepikov, V.V.; Wolff, L.R.

    1997-12-31

    Among the micro-co-generation systems using direct conversion of combustion heat into electricity (thermionic, thermoelectric converters) and fuel cells with an electric power of up to several kW, only the thermoelectric co-generation systems have a demonstrated life-time of up to 10 years. This is one of the most important factors making these systems a more likely commercialization candidate. The report deals with a conceptual design of a combustion heated thermoelectric cogeneration system to be applied in vehicles (truck, trailer, yacht, etc.). The authors named these systems the Thermoelectric Transport Co-generation Systems (TTCS). The report is concerned with one example of these systems--the Thermoelectric Truck Co-generation System (TT-kCS) designed to support the lives of both the driver and the car, when operating in the northern regions. In particular, the TT-kCS should provide the start-up of the cold engine of a truck at an ambient temperature of down to 50 C below zero and create comfortable conditions for a driver during the long-term halts and in emergency situations. The estimates made for a standard truck with an engine of 210 HP employed in Russia showed that the TT-kCS should generate {approximately}600 W of electrical power and {approximately}18 kW of heat. The report deals with two options for the thermoelectric converter design: one of them using the planar geometry of thermoelectric batteries, and the other one using a radial-cylindrical thermoelectric battery configuration. The economic feasibility of the TT-kCS application is based on a considerable reduction in fuel consumption of the TT-kCS equipped truck as compared to that of a conventional truck when the engine is idling. Another advantage is the prolongation of the engine`s service life.

  17. Evaluation of unthrottled combustion system options for light duty applications with future syncrude derived fuels. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Needham, J. R.; Cooper, B. M.; Norris-Jones, S. R.

    1982-12-01

    An experimental program examining the interaction between several fuel and light duty automotive engine combinations is detailed. Combustion systems addressed covered indirect and direct injection diesel and spark ignited stratified charge. Fuels primarily covered D2, naphtha and intermediate broadcut blends. Low ignition quality diesel fuels were also evaluated. The results indicate the baseline fuel tolerance of each combustion system and enable characteristics of the systems to be compared. Performance, gaseous and particulate emissions aspects were assessed. The data obtained assists in the selection of candidate combustion systems for potential future fuels. Performance and environmental penalties as appropriate are highlighted relative to the individual candidates. Areas of further work for increased understanding are also reviewed.

  18. Development of methods to predict agglomeration and deposition in fluidized-bed combustion systems (FBCS). Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.L.; Allan, S.E.

    1996-02-01

    The successful design and operation of advanced combustion systems require the ability to control and mitigate ash-related problems. The major ash-related problems are slag flow control, slag attack on the refractory, ash deposition on heat-transfer surfaces, corrosion and erosion of equipment materials, and emissions control. These problems are the result of physical and chemical interactions of the fuels, bed materials, and system components. The interactions that take place and ultimately control ash behavior in fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) systems are controlled by the abundance and association of the inorganic components in coal and by the system conditions. Because of the complexity of the materials and processes involved, the design and operations engineer often lacks the information needed to predict ash behavior and reduce ash-related problems. The deposition of ashes from the fluidized bed combustion of lignite and petroleum coke is described in this paper.

  19. Recovery and Sequestration of CO2 from Stationary Combustion Systems by Photosynthesis of Microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    T. Nakamura; C.L. Senior

    2005-04-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October 2000 to 31 March 2005 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. This report discusses results of the work pertaining to five tasks: Task 1--Supply of CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas to Photobioreactor; Task 2--Selection of Microalgae; Task 3--Optimization and Demonstration of Industrial Scale Photobioreactor; Task 4--Carbon Sequestration System Design; and Task 5--Economic Analysis. Based on the work conducted in each task summary conclusion is presented.

  20. Ignition control system for internal combustion engines with simplified crankshaft sensing and improved coil charging

    SciTech Connect

    Wilens, D.L.; Long, A.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes an electronic ignition system for controlling as a function of at least one selected engine parameter the ignition instant of an internal combustion engine having at least one cylinder, the cylinder having a piston and a rotatable crankshaft coupled to the piston to be rotatably driven as combustions occur within the cylinder at the ignition instants, the crankshaft having at least one reference position defining a positional relationship of the crankshaft to the cylinder. The electronic ignition system comprising: (a) a rotor affixed to rotate with the crankshaft and having a plurality of reference indicia thereon positionally related with respect to the reference position. The reference indicia being disposed at points equally spaced by a predetermined arc of crankshaft rotation from each other about the rotor, at least one of the points having a missing indicium and disposed in a predetermined relation to the reference position of the crankshaft; (b) a single sensor disposed at a point fixed in relation to the rotation of the crankshaft for providing a train of signals, each signal occurring in time when each of the plurality of reference indicia rotates past the fixed point (c) missing indicium means responsive to each sensor signal of the train for measuring an arc of crankshaft rotation from the corresponding, current indicium and if the measured arc of crankshaft rotation exceeds the predetermined arc of crankshaft rotation, for providing a missing indicium signal.

  1. Torsional system parameter identification of internal combustion engines under normal operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Östman, Fredrik; Toivonen, Hannu T.

    2011-05-01

    For internal combustion engines, lumped-mass models of the crankshaft system are frequently used for torque estimation in control and diagnostic applications, such as cylinder balancing and misfire detection. Due to inherent model uncertainties and changing system dynamics it may be necessary to adapt the model parameters from time to time in order to preserve the required model accuracy. In this paper a frequency-domain method for on-line identification of the parameters describing the torsional dynamics of internal combustion engines is presented. In the proposed method, the engine is excited by adjusting the cylinder-wise injected fuel amounts, and the measured responses in torsional vibration frequency components are used for parameter estimation. As the fuel-injection adjustments can be determined in such a way that the net indicated torque is unaffected, the identification can be performed on-line without disturbing normal engine operation. The procedure can be applied to estimate the torsional stiffness and damping parameters of the flexible coupling connecting the engine and the load. In addition, the gains which describe how the cylinder-wise fuel injections affect the amplitudes of relevant torsional vibratory frequency components are obtained. The parameter identification method is successfully evaluated in full-scale engine tests on a 6.6 MW six-cylinder medium-speed common-rail diesel engine.

  2. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Cannon; Baifang Zuo; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Clifford Smith

    2002-04-30

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this sixth quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, in-situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for efficient chemical rate storage and retrieval was implemented and tested within the Linear Eddy Model (LEM). ISAT type 3 is being tested so that extrapolation can be performed and further improve the retrieval rate. Further testing of the LEM for subgrid chemistry was performed for parallel applications and for multi-step chemistry. Validation of the software on backstep and bluff-body reacting cases were performed. Initial calculations of the SimVal experiment at Georgia Tech using their LES code were performed. Georgia Tech continues the effort to parameterize the LEM over composition space so that a neural net can be used efficiently in the combustion LES code. A new and improved Artificial Neural Network (ANN), with log-transformed output, for the 1-step chemistry was implemented in CFDRC's LES code and gave reasonable results. This quarter, the 2nd consortium meeting was held at CFDRC. Next quarter, LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will continue to be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the ISAT approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the neural net approach, for multi-step chemical kinetics speed-up in CFD-ACE+, will be accomplished.

  3. Fundamental characterization of alternate fuel effects in continuous combustion systems. Summary technical progress report, August 15, 1978-January 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Blazowski, W.S.; Edelman, R.B.; Wong, E.

    1980-02-27

    The overall objective of this contract is to assist in the development of fuel-flexible combustion systems for gas turbines as well as Rankine and Stirling cycle engines. The primary emphasis of the program is on liquid hydrocarbons produced from non-petroleum resources. Fuel-flexible combustion systems will provide for more rapid transition of these alternative fuels into important future energy utilization centers (especially utility power generation with the combined cycle gas turbine). The specific technical objectives of the program are: (a) develop an improved understanding of relationships between alternative fuel properties and continuous combustion system effects, and (b) provide analytical modeling/correlation capabilities to be used as design aids for development of fuel-tolerant combustion systems. This is the second major report of the program. Key experimental findings during this reporting period concern stirred combustor soot production during operation at controlled temperature conditions, soot production as a function of combustor residence time, an improved measurement technique for total hydrocarbons and initial stirred combustor results of fuel nitrogen conversion. While the results to be presented concern a stirred combustor which utilizes premixed fuel vapor/oxidant mixtures, a new combustor which combusts liquid fuel injected into the reactor as a spray has been developed and will be described. Analytical program progress includes the development of new quasiglobal models of soot formation and assessment of needs for other submodel development.

  4. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-30

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was completing the system modification installation designs, completing the TSCA ash testing, and conducting additional industry funded testing. Final detailed installation designs for the integrated test system configuration are being completed.

  5. Method and apparatus for efficiently controlling the incineration of combustible materials in a multiple hearth furnace system

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, F.M.

    1984-07-17

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for controlling the operation of a multiple hearth furnace system for efficiently incinerating combustible materials, such as sludge in which the air of combustion is essentially all introduced at the bottom of the furnace to incinerate solid materials. This control involves the following essential steps: scanning the temperature of two or more combustion hearths to determine which is the hottest hearth; controlling the temperature of the thus-determined hottest hearth at a predetermined temperature set point value; controlling the oxygen content of the system exhaust gas at least as high as the predetermined set point value; and maintaining the system exhaust temperature at least as high as the predetermined set point value.

  6. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Ping Pan; Andy Wu; John T. Riley

    2005-04-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period January 1, 2005 through March 31, 2005. The following tasks have been completed. First, the renovation of the new Combustion Laboratory is nearly complete, and the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building is in the final stages. Second, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility is being discussed with a potential contractor. Discussions with potential contactor regarding the availability of materials and current machining capabilities have resulted in the modification of the original designs. The selection of the fabrication contractor for the CFBC Facility is expected during the next quarter. Third, co-firing experiments conducted with coal and chicken waste have been initiated in the laboratory-scale simulated fluidized-bed facility. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

  7. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Cannon; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Cliff Smith

    2001-10-01

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this fourth quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, in-situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for efficient chemical rate storage and retrieval was further tested in the LES code. A more efficient PK binary tree data structure is being developed and implemented to replace the original BSP-tree structure. Implementation of the Linear Eddy Model (LEM) for subgrid chemistry has also started. In addition, Georgia Tech has shown that a chemical neural net (1-step chemistry) trained at certain turbulent conditions can be used at different turbulent conditions without expensive chemical kinetic integrations. Initial evaluations of the code accuracy have also been carried out. The evaluations cases included the unstable DOE-NETL combustor and a lid-driven cavity. Next quarter, the ISAT algorithm for efficient chemistry will be tested for the unstable DOE-NETL combustor. Initial flame calculations, with the LEM subgrid chemistry model are planned. Also, demonstration of the neural net approach, for chemical kinetics speed-up, should be demonstrated for more advanced chemistry (8-species and 19-species mechanisms).

  8. Implementation of a Water Flow Control System into the ISS'S Planned Fluids & Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Daryl A.

    2003-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) will become an ISS facility capable of performing basic combustion and fluids research. The facility consists of two independent payload racks specifically configured to support multiple experiments over the life of the ISS. Both racks will depend upon the ISS's Moderate Temperature Loop (MTL) for removing waste heat generated by the avionics and experiments operating within the racks. By using the MTL, constraints are imposed by the ISS vehicle on how the coolant resource is used. On the other hand, the FCF depends upon effective thermal control for maximizing life of the hardware and for supplying proper boundary conditions for the experiments. In the implementation of a design solution, significant factors in the selection of the hardware included ability to measure and control relatively low flow rates, ability to throttle flow within the time constraints of the ISS MTL, conserve energy usage, observe low mass and small volume requirements. An additional factor in the final design solution selection was considering how the system would respond to a loss of power event. This paper describes the method selected to satisfy the FCF design requirements while maintaining the constraints applied by the ISS vehicle.

  9. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. C.L. Senior

    2001-05-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 January to 31 March 2001 in which Aquasearch tested 24 different species of microalgae for growth at three different temperatures. Eleven species were analyzed for the presence of high-value pigments. Most of the algae analyzed were good sources of industrially valuable pigments. Analysis of the methods for introducing and dissolving CO{sub 2} in the commercial bioreactor was begun this quarter.

  10. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY WITH A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Ping Pan; Kunlei Liu; John T. Riley

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the quarter January--March 2004. The following tasks have been completed. First, plans for the renovation of space for a new Combustion Laboratory for the CFBC Facility have progressed smoothly. Second, the design calculations, including the mass balances, energy balances, heat transfer, and strength calculations have been completed. Third, considerable modifications have been made on the draft design of the CFBC Facility based on discussions conducted during the project kick-off meeting held on January 13, 2004 at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Comments received from various experts were also used to improve the design. Finally, the drawings of all assembly parts have been completed in order to develop specifications for the fabrication of individual parts. At the same time, the proposed work for the next quarter has been outlined in this report.

  11. Development of a Dual-Pump CARS System for Measurements in a Supersonic Combusting Free Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnotti, Gaetano; Cutler, Andrew D.; Danehy, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the development of a dual-pump CARS system for simultaneous measurements of temperature and absolute mole fraction of N2, O2 and H2 in a laboratory scale supersonic combusting free jet. Changes to the experimental set-up and the data analysis to improve the quality of the measurements in this turbulent, high-temperature reacting flow are described. The accuracy and precision of the instrument have been determined using data collected in a Hencken burner flame. For temperature above 800 K, errors in absolute mole fraction are within 1.5, 0.5, and 1% of the total composition for N2, O2 and H2, respectively. Estimated standard deviations based on 500 single shots are between 10 and 65 K for the temperature, between 0.5 and 1.7% of the total composition for O2, and between 1.5 and 3.4% for N2. The standard deviation of H2 is 10% of the average measured mole fraction. Results obtained in the jet with and without combustion are illustrated, and the capabilities and limitations of the dual-pump CARS instrument discussed.

  12. Development of a coal combustion product (CCP) database system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Leary, E.M.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.

    1997-09-01

    Nearly 90 million tons of coal combustion products (CCPs) are produced annually in the United States. The value of CCPs is well established by research and commercial practice; however, only 25% of these products are utilized. The objective of this project was to develop a computer program containing a database of advanced analytical and comprehensive engineering information on CCPs, accessible through a user-friendly interface. Version 1.0 of the ACAA CCP Data Manager was specifically designed to: perform multiple-criteria queries to produce a set of sample for in-depth study; view and print standard test reports, such as C618 reports; compare and contrast analytical results in graphs and tables; graph utilization information by application and region; and save data to a file for use in other computer applications, such as spreadsheet programs. The program was designed to contain descriptive information about a given CCP sample, including sample formation data (material type, sample location, fuel type, collection device etc.), combustion system design data (steam generator type, furnace type, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control information, ash-handling configurations), test data (chemical, mineralogical, and physical characterization data), and utilization potential of the CCP. The location of the plant is identified by region. The database has been initially populated with information on over 800 CCP samples, taken from the Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC). An installation package and user`s guide was developed for unlimited distribution by the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA).

  13. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. C.L. Senior

    2001-03-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period from 1 October to 31 December 2000. During this period planning of chemostat experiments at Aquasearch was initiated. These experiments will be used to select microalgae for the photobioreactor demonstrations. An initial survey of techniques for removing CO{sub 2} from coal-fired flue gas was begun. Chemical adsorption using MEA is the most mature technology and looks to be the most economically viable in the near future.

  14. Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) System for Flue-Gas Derived Water From Oxy-Combustion Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaram Harendra; Danylo Oryshchyn; Thomas Ochs; Stephen J. Gerdemann; John Clark

    2011-10-16

    Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) located in Albany, Oregon, have patented a process - Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Capturing CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel combustion generates a significant water product which can be tapped for use in the power plant and its peripherals. Water condensed in the IPR{reg_sign} process may contain fly ash particles, sodium (from pH control), and sulfur species, as well as heavy metals, cations and anions. NETL is developing a treatment approach for zero liquid discharge while maximizing available heat from IPR. Current treatment-process steps being studied are flocculation/coagulation, for removal of cations and fine particles, and reverse osmosis, for anion removal as well as for scavenging the remaining cations. After reverse osmosis process steps, thermal evaporation and crystallization steps will be carried out in order to build the whole zero liquid discharge (ZLD) system for flue-gas condensed wastewater. Gypsum is the major product from crystallization process. Fast, in-line treatment of water for re-use in IPR seems to be one practical step for minimizing water treatment requirements for CO{sub 2} capture. The results obtained from above experiments are being used to build water treatment models.

  15. Air intake side secondary air supply system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, H.; Tomobe, N.

    1987-03-10

    This patent describes an air intake side secondary air supply system for an internal combustion engine having a choke valve and a throttle valve in an intake air passage. The system is adapted to supply an air intake side secondary air into an intake air passage downstream of the throttle valve by a control valve and in response to an operating condition of the engine during a cold operation of the engine. The improvement described here comprises means for detecting a no-load operating state of the engine during the cold operation of the engine in which the choke valve is actuated to close the intake air passage, and means for stopping a supply of the air intake side secondary air upon detection of the non-load operating state so as to enrich an air-fuel mixture supplied to the engine.

  16. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Ping Pan; Zhongxian Cheng; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2006-09-30

    This report is to present the progress made on the project entitled ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2006 through September 30, 2006. The following activities have been completed: the steel floor grating around the riser in all levels and the three-phase power supply for CFBC System was installed. Erection of downcomers, loop seals, ash bunker, thermal expansion joints, fuel and bed material bunkers with load cells, rotary air-lock valves and fuel flow monitors is underway. Pilot-scale slipstream tests conducted with bromine compound addition were performed for two typical types of coal. The purposes of the tests were to study the effect of bromine addition on mercury oxidization. From the test results, it was observed that there was a strong oxidization effect for Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. The proposed work for next quarter and project schedule are also described.

  17. System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Sellnau, Mark C.

    2015-08-04

    A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.

  18. Particulate and gaseous emissions from manually and automatically fired small scale combustion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidl, Christoph; Luisser, Markus; Padouvas, Emmanuel; Lasselsberger, Leopold; Rzaca, Magdalena; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Handler, Markus; Peng, Ge; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2011-12-01

    In an extensive wood combustion source test series 2 automatically and 2 manually fired appliances, and 8 fuel types were investigated with respect to their particulate (PM10) and gaseous emissions. Softwood briquettes, beech, oak and spruce logs, wood pellets as well as further biogenic fuels: wood chips, miscanthus (elephant grass) pellets and triticale ("energy crop") pellets were tested. Gaseous emissions were measured continuously while PM10 was sampled with a dilution system and averaged over standard test cycles. Manually fired stoves exhibited highly variable emissions resulting in an uncertainty of 30% for most measured compounds, determined in a series of replicate experiments. Average PM10 emissions from manually fired appliances were around 130 mg m -3 (standard conditions for temperature and pressure (STP), 13%O 2, dry gas), equivalent to 90 mg MJ -1. Wood pellets and chips combustion under full load operation with automatically fired appliances emit almost one order of magnitude less PM10, respectively: 12-21 mg m -3 (STP, 13%O 2, dry gas), or 8-14 mg MJ -1. Around 30% of total particle mass from manually fired systems account for elemental carbon and 30-40% for organic carbon, resulting in carbonaceous fraction content of around 90%. On average around 5% of PM10 emitted by manually fired stoves consisted of levoglucosan while this anhydrous sugar was below detection limit in full- and part load operation of automatically fired systems. Generally, emissions from automated systems were relatively constant for the same fuel type predominantly consisting of inorganic constituents. Emissions are mainly influenced by the mode of operation, start-up, full load or part load for a given fuel type. Surprisingly high emissions were observed for triticale pellets: 184 mg m -3 (125 mg MJ -1,) PM10 and 466 mg m -3 (395 mg MJ -1) NO x, (under full load operation, STP, 13%O 2, dry gas), originating from high chlorine and nitrogen contents of the fuel.

  19. Low-pressure performance of annular, high-pressure (40 atm) high-temperature (2480 K) combustion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental tests were conducted to develop a combustion system for a 40 atmosphere pressure, 2480 K exhaust gas temperature, turbine cooling facility. The tests were conducted in an existing facility with a maximum pressure capability of 10 atmospheres and where inlet air temperatures as high as 894 K could be attained. Exhaust gas temperatures were as high as 2365 K. Combustion efficiences were about 100 percent over a fuel air ratio range of 0.016 to 0.056. Combustion efficiency decreased at leaner and richer ratios when the inlet air temperature was 589 K. Data are presented that show the effect of fuel air ratio and inlet air temperature on liner metal temperature. Isothermal system pressure loss as a function of diffuser inlet Mach number is also presented. Data included exhaust gas pattern factors; unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen emission index values; and smoke numbers.

  20. The development of a combustion system for B&W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Sivy, J.L.; Kaufman, K.C.; McDonald, D.K.

    1997-07-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has been leading a team in the development of an advanced coal-fired low emission boiler system (LEBS). The project objective is to design a new pulverized coal (PC) powered generating system equipped with improved combustion and heat transfer subsystems and advanced environmental control technologies capable of achieving emissions of NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates far below current New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). The objectives of the program are to achieve continuous NO{sub x} emissions below 0.2 lb NO{sub x}/MBtu with a specified design coal, through combustion techniques only, with a further target of 0.1 lb NO{sub x}/MBtu using supplementary advanced flue gas cleanup technologies if necessary. The SO{sub 2} limit for the project has been set at 0.1 lb SO{sub 2}/MBtu, with a particulate emission limit of 0.01 lb particulate/MBtu. The net plant efficiency is specified to be at least 42% (HHV), while overall the cost of electricity must not increase relative to a conventional plant meeting cur-rent NSPS. The B&W LEBS plant uses conventional state-of-the-art equipment along with developing new technologies to meet the program goals. To meet this goal, B&W has coupled advanced environmental control technologies capable of achieving emission of NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate far below current NSPS with an advanced boiler equipped with improved combustion and heat transfer subsystems. Phase I of the LEBS program began with a thorough review and assessment of potential advanced technologies and techniques. Through engineering analysis, pilot-scale testing, and numerical modeling in Phases I and II, a near full-scale 100 MBtu/hr advanced NO{sub x} emissions control system was designed, fabricated, and tested. Further experimental testing and numerical modeling has continued to refine the LEBS concept.

  1. Methods and systems to thermally protect fuel nozzles in combustion systems

    DOEpatents

    Helmick, David Andrew; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

    2013-12-17

    A method of assembling a gas turbine engine is provided. The method includes coupling a combustor in flow communication with a compressor such that the combustor receives at least some of the air discharged by the compressor. A fuel nozzle assembly is coupled to the combustor and includes at least one fuel nozzle that includes a plurality of interior surfaces, wherein a thermal barrier coating is applied across at least one of the plurality of interior surfaces to facilitate shielding the interior surfaces from combustion gases.

  2. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Ping Pan; Songgeng Li

    2006-01-01

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period October 1, 2005 through December 31, 2005. Work was performed on the following activities. First, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility is nearly completed. The erection of the CFBC facility is expected to start in the second week of February, 2006. Second, effect of flue gas components on mercury oxidation was investigated in a drop tube reactor. As a first step, experiment for mercury oxidation by chlorine was investigated. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

  3. Development of a topping combustor for advanced concept pressurized fluidized-bed combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Domeracki, W.F.; Dowdy, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.

    1995-11-01

    A project team consisting of Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Gilbert/Commonwealth and the Institute of Gas Technology, are developing a Second Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed System. Foster Wheeler is developing a carbonizer (a partial gasifier) and a pressurized fluidized bed combustor. Both these units operate at a nominal 1600{degrees}F (870{degrees}C) for optimal sulfur capture. Since this temperature is well below the current combustion turbine combustor outlet operating temperature of 2350{degrees}F (1290{degrees}C), to reach commercialization, a topping combustor and hot gas cleanup (HGCU) equipment must be developed. Westinghouse`s efforts are focused on the development of the high temperature gas cleanup equipment and the topping combustor. This paper concentrates on the design and test of the topping combustor, which must use a low heating value syngas from the carbonizer at approximately 1600{degrees}F and 150 to 210 psi.

  4. Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine

    DOEpatents

    Twerdochlib, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature.

  5. Reference concepts for a space-based hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator, burst power system

    SciTech Connect

    Edenburn, M.W.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform. All of the concepts are open''; that is, they exhaust hydrogen or a mixture of hydrogen and water vapor into space. We considered the situation where hydrogen is presumed to be free to the power system because it is also needed to cool the platform's weapon and the situation where hydrogen is not free and its mass must be added to that of the power system. We also considered the situation where water vapor is an acceptable exhaust and the situation where it is not. The combination of these two sets of situations required four different power generation systems, and this report describes each, suggests parameter values, and estimates masses for each of the four. These reference concepts are expected to serve as a baseline'' to which other types of power systems can be compared, and they are expected to help guide technology development efforts in that they suggest parameter value ranges that will lead to optimum system designs. 7 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Hot spot detection system for vanes or blades of a combustion turbine

    DOEpatents

    Twerdochlib, M.

    1999-02-02

    This invention includes a detection system that can determine if a turbine component, such as a turbine vane or blade, has exceeded a critical temperature, such as a melting point, along any point along the entire surface of the vane or blade. This system can be employed in a conventional combustion turbine having a compressor, a combustor and a turbine section. Included within this system is a chemical coating disposed along the entire interior surface of a vane or blade and a closed loop cooling system that circulates a coolant through the interior of the vane or blade. If the temperature of the vane or blade exceeds a critical temperature, the chemical coating will be expelled from the vane or blade into the coolant. Since while traversing the closed loop cooling system the coolant passes through a detector, the presence of the chemical coating in the coolant will be sensed by the system. If the chemical coating is detected, this indicates that the vane or blade has exceeded a critical temperature. 5 figs.

  7. NCC: A Physics-Based Design and Analysis Tool for Combustion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Quealy, Angela

    2000-01-01

    The National Combustion Code (NCC) is an integrated system of computer codes for physics-based design and analysis of combustion systems. It uses unstructured meshes and runs on parallel computing platforms. The NCC is composed of a set of distinct yet closely related modules. They are: (1) a gaseous flow module solving 3-D Navier-Stokes equations; (2) a turbulence module containing the non-linear k-epsilon models; (3) a chemistry module using either the conventional reduced kinetics approach of solving species equations or the Intrinsic Low Dimensional Manifold (ILDM) kinetics approach of table looking up in conjunction with solving the equations of the progressive variables; (4) a turbulence-chemistry interaction module including the option of solving the joint probability density function (PDF) for species and enthalpy; and (5) a spray module for solving the liquid phase equations. In early 1995, an industry-government team was formed to develop the NCC. In July 1998, the baseline beta version was completed and presented in two NCC sessions at the 34th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, July 1998. An overview of this baseline beta version was presented at the NASA HPCCP/CAS Workshop 98, August 1998. Since then, the effort has been focused on the streamlining, validation, and enhancement of the th baseline beta version. The progress is presented in two NCC sessions at the AIAA 38 Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, January 2000. At this NASA HPCCP/CAS Workshop 2000, an overview of the NCC papers presented at the AIAA 38 th Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit is presented, with emphasis on the reduction of analysis time of simulating the (gaseous) reacting flows in full combustors. In addition, results of NCC simulation of a modern turbofan combustor will also be reported.

  8. Feasibility demonstration of the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) for high-pressure natural-gas-injected engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kalwani, R.M.; McNulty, D.; Badgley, P.; Kamo, R.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the program was the feasibility demonstration of the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept for the ignition and combustion of high-pressure injected natural gas. The TICS concept relies on the ignition of fuel by high-temperature combustion chamber walls without external ignition sources like spark plug, glow plug, or pilot diesel fuel. The program was successful in achieving ignition and combustion of natural gas in a single cylinder diesel engine with the TICS concept. An electronically controlled gas injector, designed and fabricated in the program, was used to inject natural gas at 13.8 to 20.7 MPa (2000 to 3000 psig) pressure in the TICS chamber. Cold starting of the test engine was achieved by external heating of the chamber for a few minutes. Natural gas ignition and combustion was then sustained by the high-temperature TICS chamber. The test engine was operated from idle to full load and from 600 to 1400 rpm engine-speed range.

  9. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Co-production Plant Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Haynes; Justin Brumberg; Venkatraman Iyer; Jonathan Janssen; Ben Lacy; Matt Mosbacher; Craig Russell; Ertan Yilmaz; Williams York; Willy Ziminsky; Tim Lieuwen; Suresh Menon; Jerry Seitzman; Ashok Anand; Patrick May

    2008-12-31

    Future high-efficiency, low-emission generation plants that produce electric power, transportation fuels, and/or chemicals from fossil fuel feed stocks require a new class of fuel-flexible combustors. In this program, a validated combustor approach was developed which enables single-digit NO{sub x} operation for a future generation plants with low-Btu off gas and allows the flexibility of process-independent backup with natural gas. This combustion technology overcomes the limitations of current syngas gas turbine combustion systems, which are designed on a site-by-site basis, and enable improved future co-generation plant designs. In this capacity, the fuel-flexible combustor enhances the efficiency and productivity of future co-production plants. In task 2, a summary of market requested fuel gas compositions was created and the syngas fuel space was characterized. Additionally, a technology matrix and chemical kinetic models were used to evaluate various combustion technologies and to select two combustor concepts. In task 4 systems analysis of a co-production plant in conjunction with chemical kinetic analysis was performed to determine the desired combustor operating conditions for the burner concepts. Task 5 discusses the experimental evaluation of three syngas capable combustor designs. The hybrid combustor, Prototype-1 utilized a diffusion flame approach for syngas fuels with a lean premixed swirl concept for natural gas fuels for both syngas and natural gas fuels at FA+e gas turbine conditions. The hybrid nozzle was sized to accommodate syngas fuels ranging from {approx}100 to 280 btu/scf and with a diffusion tip geometry optimized for Early Entry Co-generation Plant (EECP) fuel compositions. The swozzle concept utilized existing GE DLN design methodologies to eliminate flow separation and enhance fuel-air mixing. With changing business priorities, a fully premixed natural gas & syngas nozzle, Protoytpe-1N, was also developed later in the program. It did

  10. Dynamics of self-excited thermoacoustic instability in a combustion system: Pseudo-periodic and high-dimensional nature.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Yuta; Small, Michael; Gotoda, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    We have examined the dynamics of self-excited thermoacoustic instability in a fundamentally and practically important gas-turbine model combustion system on the basis of complex network approaches. We have incorporated sophisticated complex networks consisting of cycle networks and phase space networks, neither of which has been considered in the areas of combustion physics and science. Pseudo-periodicity and high-dimensionality exist in the dynamics of thermoacoustic instability, including the possible presence of a clear power-law distribution and small-world-like nature. PMID:25933655

  11. Combustion of liquid paint wastes in fluidized bed boiler as element of waste management system in the paint factory

    SciTech Connect

    Soko, W.A.; Biaecka, B.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper the solution to waste problems in the paint industry is presented by describing their combustion in a fluidized bed boiler as a part of the waste management system in the paint factory. Based on the Cleaner Production idea and concept of integration of design process with a future exploitation of equipment, some modifications of the waste management scheme in the factory are discussed to reduce the quantity of toxic wastes. To verify this concept combustion tests of paint production wastes and cocombustion of paint wastes with coal in an adopted industrial boiler were done. Results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  12. Method for simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.X pollutants from exhaust of a combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Levendis, Yiannis A.; Wise, Donald L.

    1994-05-17

    A method is disclosed for removing pollutants from the exhaust of combustion systems burning fuels containing substantial amounts of sulfur and nitrogen. An exemplary method of the invention involves the formation and reaction of a sorbent comprising calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). The CMA is either dry-sprayed (in the form of a fine powder) or wet-sprayed in an aqueous solution in a high temperature environment such as a combustion chamber. The latter technique is feasible since CMA is a uniquely water-soluble form of calcium and magnesium. When the dispersed particles of CMA are heated to a high temperature, fine calcium and magnesium oxide particles, which are hollow with thin and highly porous walls are formed, affording optimum external and internal accessibility for reacting with toxic gaseous emissions such as SO.sub.2. Further, the combustion of the organic acetate portion of the sorbent results in the conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2.

  13. SPCDC: A user-friendly computational tool for the design and refinement of practical pulse combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, P.K.; Keller, J.O.; Kezerle, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper reports on the development and use of a user-friendly, PC-executable computer code that can assist engineers in designing pulse combustors for specific applications and in refining existing units. This code represents the culmination of over 10 years of research and development in the field of pulse combustion. The Sandia Pulse Combustor Design Code, or SPCDC, couples both the fuel-air injection and the energy release to the time-varying pressure wave. Because the injection and combustion processes both drive and are driven by the wave dynamics, this model couples the major processes that occur in a pulse combustor. SPCDC can supplement the time-proven method of actually building and testing a prototype unit, and significantly reduce the number of units that must be tested. It will help produce a superior pulse combustion system tailored to a specific application and should help widen the range of successful applications.

  14. Tripropellant combustion process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmiec, T. D.; Carroll, R. G.

    1988-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants in large rocket booster engines has the potential to enhance the system stability. Programs being conducted to evaluate the effects of hydrogen on the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants at supercritical pressures are described. Combustion instability has been a problem during the development of large hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. At the higher combustion chamber pressures expected for the next generation of booster engines, the effect of unstable combustion could be even more destructive. The tripropellant engine cycle takes advantage of the superior cooling characteristics of hydrogen to cool the combustion chamber and a small amount of the hydrogen coolant can be used in the combustion process to enhance the system stability. Three aspects of work that will be accomplished to evaluate tripropellant combustion are described. The first is laboratory demonstration of the benefits through the evaluation of drop size, ignition delay and burning rate. The second is analytical modeling of the combustion process using the empirical relationship determined in the laboratory. The third is a subscale demonstration in which the system stability will be evaluated. The approach for each aspect is described and the analytical models that will be used are presented.

  15. Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap: A Technology Roadmap by and for the Industrial Combustion Community (1999)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1999-04-01

    Combustion system users and manufacturers joined forces in 1999 to develop the Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap. The roadmap outlines R&D priorities for developing advanced, highly efficient combustion systems that U.S. industry will require in the future.

  16. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Cannon; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Cliff Smith

    2001-05-01

    Further development of a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this second quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. CFDRC has implemented and tested Smagorinsky and localized dynamic subgrid turbulence models on a 2.1 million cell DOE-NETL combustor case and a 400,000 cell nonreacting backstep case. Both cases showed good agreement between predicted and experimental results. The large DOE-NETL case results provided better agreement with the measured oscillation frequency than previous attempts because massive parallel computing (on a cluster of 24 pcs) allowed the entire computational domain, including the swirler vanes and fuel spokes, to be modeled. Subgrid chemistry models, including the conditional moment closure (CMC) and linear eddy model (LEM), are being tested and implemented. Reduced chemical mechanisms have been developed for emissions, ignition delay, extinction, and flame propagation using a computer automated reduction method (CARM). A 19-species natural gas mechanism, based on GRI2.11 and Miller-NO{sub x}, was shown to predict rich NO{sub x} emissions better than any previously published mechanisms. The ability to handle this mechanism in CFD-ACE+ was demonstrated by implementing operator splitting and a stiff ODE solver (DVODE). Efficient tabulation methods, including in situ adaptation and artificial neural nets, are being studied and will be implemented in the LES code. The LES combustion code development and testing is on schedule. Next quarter, initial results (including the DOE-NETL unstable combustor) with the CMC and LEM subgrid chemistry models will be completed and summarized.

  17. Low and High Temperature Combustion Chemistry of Butanol Isomers in Premixed Flames and Autoignition Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sarathy, S M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Yasunaga, K; Curran, H J; Tsujimura, T; Osswald, P; Kohse-Hoinghaus, K

    2010-12-12

    Butanol is a fuel that has been proposed as a bio-derived alternative to conventional petroleum derived fuels. The structural isomer in traditional 'bio-butanol' fuel is n-butanol, but newer conversion technologies produce iso-butanol as a fuel. In order to better understand the combustion chemistry of bio-butanol, this study presents a comprehensive chemical kinetic model for all the four isomers of butanol (e.g., 1-, 2-, iso- and tert-butanol). The proposed model includes detailed high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways. In this study, the primary experimental validation target for the model is premixed flat low-pressure flame species profiles obtained using molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). The model is also validated against previously published data for premixed flame velocity and n-butanol rapid compression machine and shock tube ignition delay. The agreement with these data sets is reasonably good. The dominant reaction pathways at the various pressures and temperatures studied are elucidated. At low temperature conditions, we found that the reaction of alphahydroxybutyl with O{sub 2} was important in controlling the reactivity of the system, and for correctly predicting C{sub 4} aldehyde profiles in low pressure premixed flames. Enol-keto isomerization reactions assisted by HO{sub 2} were also found to be important in converting enols to aldehydes and ketones in the low pressure premixed flames. In the paper, we describe how the structural features of the four different butanol isomers lead to differences in the combustion properties of each isomer.

  18. SONOTECH, INC. FREQUENCY-TUNABLE PULSE COMBUSTION SYSTEM (CELLO PULSE BURNER) - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sonotech, Inc. (Sonotech) of Atlanta, Georgia, has developed a pulse combustion burner technology that claims to offer benefits when applied in a variety of combustion processes. The technology incorporates a combustor that can be tuned to induce large-amplitude acoustic or soni...

  19. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-29

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, a majority of the effort was spent relining the separator/reservoir and the cyclone melter. The relinings were completed, the cyclonemelter was reinstalled, and the test system was returned to operational status. The wet ESP was delivered and placed on its foundation. The focus during the upcoming months will be completing the integration ofthe wet ESP and conducting the first industrial proof-of-concept test. The other system modifications are well underway with the designs of the recuperator installation and the batch/coal feed system progressing smoothly. The program is still slightly behind the original schedule but it is anticipated that it will be back on schedule by the end of the year. The commercialization planning is continuing with the identification of seven potential near-term commercial demonstration opportunities.

  20. CO2 post-combustion capture in coal-fired power plants integrated with solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapellucci, R.; Giordano, L.; Vaccarelli, M.

    2015-11-01

    The majority of the World's primary energy consumption is still based on fossil fuels, representing the largest source of global CO2 emissions. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), such emissions must be significantly reduced in order to avoid the dramatic consequences of global warming. A potential way to achieve this ambitious goal is represented by the implementation of CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technologies. However, the significant amount of energy required by the CCS systems still represents one the major barriers for their deployment. Focusing on post-combustion capture based on amine absorption, several interesting options have been investigated to compensate the energy losses due to solvent regeneration, also using renewable energy sources. One of the most promising is based on the use of concentrating solar power (CSP), providing a part of the energy requirement of the capture island. In this study the integration of a CSP system into a coal-fired power plant with CO2 postcombustion capture is investigated. Basically, a CSP system is used to support the heat requirement for amine regeneration, by producing saturated steam at low temperature. This allows to reduce or even eliminate the conventional steam extraction from the main power plant, affecting positively net power production and efficiency. The energy analysis of the whole system is carried out using the GateCycle software to simulate the coal-fired power plant and ChemCad platform for the CO2 capture process based on amine absorption.

  1. Experimental and theoretical studies of iterative methods for nonlinear, nonsymmetric systems arising in combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Hagstrom, T.; Radhakrishnan, K.

    1994-12-31

    The authors report on some iterative methods which they have tested for use in combustion simulations. In particular, they have developed a code to solve zero Mach number reacting flow equations with complex reaction and diffusion physics. These equations have the form of a nonlinear parabolic system coupled with constraints. In semi-discrete form, one obtains DAE`s of index two or three depending on the number of spatial dimensions. The authors have implemented a fourth order (fully implicit) BDF method in time, coupled with a suite of fourth order explicit and implicit spatial difference approximations. Most codes they know of for simulating reacting flows use a splitting strategy to march in time. This results in a sequence of nonlinear systems to solve, each of which has a simpler structure than the one they are faced with. The rapid and robust solution of the coupled system is the essential requirement for the success of their approach. They have implemented and analyzed nonlinear generalizations of conjugate gradient-like methods for nonsymmetric systems, including CGS and the quasi-Newton based method of Eirola and Nevanlinna. They develop a general framework for the nonlinearization of linear methods in terms of the acceleration of fixed-point iterations, where the latter is assumed to include the {open_quote}preconditioning{open_quote}. Their preconditioning is a single step of a split method, using lower order spatial difference approximations as well as simplified (Fickian) approximations of the diffusion physics.

  2. A Unique Power System For The ISS Fluids And Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, David A.; Poljak, Mark D.

    2001-01-01

    Unique power control technology has been incorporated into an electrical power control unit (EPCU) for the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The objective is to maximize science throughput by providing a flexible power system that is easily reconfigured by the science payload. Electrical power is at a premium on the International Space Station (ISS). The EPCU utilizes advanced power management techniques to maximize the power available to the FCF experiments. The EPCU architecture enables dynamic allocation of power from two ISS power channels for experiments. Because of the unique flexible remote power controller (FRPC) design, power channels can be paralleled while maintaining balanced load sharing between the channels. With an integrated and redundant architecture, the EPCU can tolerate multiple faults and still maintain FCF operation. It is important to take full advantage of the EPCU functionality. The EPCU acts as a buffer between the experimenter and the ISS power system with all its complex requirements. However, FCF science payload developers will still need to follow guidelines when designing the FCF payload power system. This is necessary to ensure power system stability, fault coordination, electromagnetic compatibility, and maximum use of available power for gathering scientific data.

  3. A Combustion Laboratory for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a combustion laboratory facility and experiments for a senior-level (undergraduate) course in mechanical engineering. The experiment reinforces basic thermodynamic concepts and provides many students with their first opportunity to work with a combustion system. (DH)

  4. MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER SLUDGE COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The publication describes and evaluates the various municipal sludge combustion systems. It also emphasizes the necessity for considering and evaluating the costs involved in the total sludge management train, including dewatering, combustion, air pollution control, and ash dispo...

  5. High-repetition-rate three-dimensional OH imaging using scanned planar laser-induced fluorescence system for multiphase combustion.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kevin Y; Satija, Aman; Pourpoint, Timothée L; Son, Steven F; Lucht, Robert P

    2014-01-20

    Imaging dynamic multiphase combusting events is challenging. Conventional techniques can image only a single plane of an event, capturing limited details. Here, we report on a three-dimensional, time-resolved, OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (3D OH PLIF) technique that was developed to measure the relative OH concentration in multiphase combustion flow fields. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a 3D OH PLIF technique has been reported in the open literature. The technique involves rapidly scanning a laser sheet across a flow field of interest. The overall experimental system consists of a 5 kHz OH PLIF system, a high-speed detection system (image intensifier and CMOS camera), and a galvanometric scanning mirror. The scanning mirror was synchronized with a 500 Hz triangular sweep pattern generated using Labview. Images were acquired at 5 kHz corresponding to six images per mirror scan, and 1000 scans per second. The six images obtained in a scan were reconstructed into a volumetric representation. The resulting spatial resolution was 500×500×6 voxels mapped to a field of interest covering 30  mm×30  mm×8  mm. The novel 3D OH PLIF system was applied toward imaging droplet combustion of methanol gelled with hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) (3 wt. %, 6 wt. %), as well as solid propellant combustion, and impinging jet spray combustion. The resulting 3D dataset shows a comprehensive view of jetting events in gelled droplet combustion that was not observed with high-speed imaging or 2D OH PLIF. Although the scan is noninstantaneous, the temporal and spatial resolution was sufficient to view the dynamic events in the multiphase combustion flow fields of interest. The system is limited by the repetition rate of the pulsed laser and the step response time of the galvanometric mirror; however, the repetition rates are sufficient to resolve events in the order of 100 Hz. Future upgrade includes 40 kHz pulsed UV laser system, which can reduce

  6. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. ne primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order toevaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, three preliminary coal-fired tests were successfully completed. These tests used industrial boiler flyash, sewer sludge ash, and waste glass collet as feedstocks. The coal-fired ash vitrification tests are considered near term potential commercial applications of the CMS technology. The waste glass cullet provided necessary dam on the effect of coal firing with respect to vitrified product oxidation state. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the proof-of-concept tests are continuing. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes is continuing. Preliminary designs for 15, 25, 100 and 400 ton/day systems are in progress. This dam will serve as input data to the life cycle cost analysis which will be-an integral part of the CMS commercialization plan.

  7. Spontaneous Raman Scattering Diagnostics: Applications in Practical Combustion Systems. Chapter 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Viet-Nguyen, Quang; Lackner, Maximilian (Editor); Winter, Franz (Editor); Agarwal, Avinash (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the recent advancements and practical aspects of laser SRS diagnostics have been reviewed wi til regards to applications in practical combustion systems. Clearly, SRS represents a theoretically and experimentally mature diagnostic technology that has become an essential tool for multiscalar measurements in turbulent combustion at elevated pressures. Today, time-, space-, spectrally, and even polarization-resolved S RS diagnostics is at hand, with aid from recent innovations in theoretical and technological developments on electro-optical or electromechanical devices. Whilst a linear increase in SRS signals can be expected in high-pressure systems (this is perhaps one of the most important advantages for using SRS in high-pressure systems), there are practical (often severe) restrictions associated with pressurized vessels, due mainly to the limited degree of optical access. This narrows ti,e available choice of diagnostics that can be employed at any given time. Point-wise SRS diagnostics provides the highest accuracy on the chemical species and temperature measurements, and will continue to remain a vital approach for the study in such harsh environments. The practical design considerations and hands-on set-up guide for SRS diagnostics provided in this chapter are rarely presented elsewhere. Although the second-harmonic Nd:YAG pulsed laser (532 nm), combined with pulse-stretching optics or the recently introduced White Cell-based laser, seems to be the most favored excitation source of choice by the research community, UV excitation will undoubtedly continue to be used on many occasions, and especially in sooting flames. Detection methods may be divided into ICCD-based nanosecond-gate detection or a rotary-chopper electromechanical shutter-based CCD array detection, and the levels of background flame emission in individual cases would determine this critical design choice. Here, a process of Raman signal calibration based on ti,e crosstalk matrix

  8. Cogeneration system with low N0 sub x combustion of liquid fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Garbo, P.W.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a cogeneration system for the production of electricity and carbon dioxide with low NO{sub x} combustion of liquid fuel. It comprises a high- pressure steam boiler, a porous fiber burner within the boiler, a countercurrent heat exchanger connected to receive the flow of flue gas from the boiler, an air blower connected to the heat exchanger for the flow of air countercurrent to the flow of the flue gas, a feed tube connected to the porous fiber burner, a pipe connected for the flow of hot air from the heat exchanger to the feed tube, a pump connected to feed liquid fuel to the feed tube, a steam turbine connected to receive and expand high-pressure steam from the boiler and to return expanded and condensed steam to the boiler, an electric generator driven by the steam turbine, a flue gas blower connected to receive flue gas from the heat exchanger, and an amine absorption system for the recovery of carbon dioxide from flue gas supplied by the flue gas blower, the absorption system having a stripping column with a reboiler connected so as to be heated by steam withdrawn through a port at an intermediate pressure stage of the steam turbine.

  9. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-30

    Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a ``Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications`` is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the designs of the remaining major components of the integrated system were completed and the equipment was ordered. DOE has elected to modify the scope of the existing R&D program being conducted under this contract to include testing of a simulated TSCA incinerator ash. The modification will be in the form of an additional Task (Task 8 -- TSCA Ash Testing) to the original Statement of Work.

  10. Implications of Low Particulate Matter Emissions on System Fuel Efficiency for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y

    2009-01-01

    Advanced diesel combustion regimes such as High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) offer the benefits of reduced engine out NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Lower PM emissions during advanced combustion reduce the demand on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) and can, thereby, reduce the fuel penalty associated with DPF regeneration. In this study, a SiC DPF was loaded and regenerated on a 1.7-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine operated in conventional and advanced combustion modes at different speed and load conditions. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a lean NOX trap (LNT) were also installed in the exhaust stream. Five steady-state speed and load conditions were weighted to estimate Federal Test Procedure (FTP) fuel efficiency. The DPF was loaded using lean-rich cycling with frequencies that resulted in similar levels of NOX emissions downstream of the LNT. The pressure drop across the DPF was measured at a standard point (1500 rpm, 5.0 bar) before and after loading, and a P rise rate was determined for comparison between conventional and advanced combustion modes. Higher PM emissions in conventional combustion resulted in a higher rate of backpressure rise across the DPF at all of the load points leading to more frequent DPF regenerations and higher fuel penalty. The fuel penalty during conventional combustion was 4.2% compared with 3.1% for a mixture of conventional and advanced modes.

  11. COMBUSTION - RISK MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research involves the characterization of waste combustion systems and their emissions along with the development and evaluation of techniques to prevent emissions formation and/or control their release. This area addresses incinerators and industrial systems burning wastes...

  12. Method and system for the removal of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur from combustion processes

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, John V.

    1987-12-15

    A process for removing oxide contaminants from combustion gas, and employing a solid electrolyte reactor, includes: (a) flowing the combustion gas into a zone containing a solid electrolyte and applying a voltage and at elevated temperature to thereby separate oxygen via the solid electrolyte, (b) removing oxygen from that zone in a first stream and removing hot effluent gas from that zone in a second stream, the effluent gas containing contaminant, (c) and pre-heating the combustion gas flowing to that zone by passing it in heat exchange relation with the hot effluent gas.

  13. New approaches to the design of the combustion system for thermophotovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangelo, G.; de Risi, A.; Laforgia, D.

    2003-05-01

    A thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generator for electric vehicles has been designed and developed. In this paper we focus on the combustion system and the heat regenerator. The system has been designed to work as a range extender for electric vehicles. This solution would provide energy always available on the vehicle, which would run even if the battery level were low. Several configurations for the burner and for the heat exchanger have been investigated and a comparison of these is presented. The different solutions have been studied both theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, we report on the work carried out to build a TPV device capable of yielding 6 kW of electric power to recharge the battery pack of an electric city-car. The project has been divided into four steps: (1) pre-design of different configurations of the burner and heat exchanger using non-commercial software 'TPV Design Tool 1.0'; (2) testing of the pre-designed generators with a CFD code (Fluent 6); (3) testing of the chosen configurations on the experimental bench to validate the results from CFD simulations and to highlight technological limits of the chosen configurations; (4) selection of the best configuration. After the design and testing of the devices, a two-burner modular configuration has been proven to be a good compromise between the geometric constraints and the objectives of the project. The designed generator is relatively compact and light with good efficiency and emissions performance.

  14. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  15. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1992--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-03

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a ``Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications`` is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec`s Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

  16. Reverse Monte Carlo ray-tracing for radiative heat transfer in combustion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaojing

    Radiative heat transfer is a dominant heat transfer phenomenon in high temperature systems. With the rapid development of massive supercomputers, the Monte-Carlo ray tracing (MCRT) method starts to see its applications in combustion systems. This research is to find out if Monte-Carlo ray tracing can offer more accurate and efficient calculations than the discrete ordinates method (DOM). Monte-Carlo ray tracing method is a statistical method that traces the history of a bundle of rays. It is known as solving radiative heat transfer with almost no approximation. It can handle nonisotropic scattering and nongray gas mixtures with relative ease compared to conventional methods, such as DOM and spherical harmonics method, etc. There are two schemes in Monte-Carlo ray tracing method: forward and backward/reverse. Case studies and the governing equations demonstrate the advantages of reverse Monte-Carlo ray tracing (RMCRT) method. The RMCRT can be easily implemented for domain decomposition parallelism. In this dissertation, different efficiency improvements techniques for RMCRT are introduced and implemented. They are the random number generator, stratified sampling, ray-surface intersection calculation, Russian roulette, and important sampling. There are two major modules in solving the radiative heat transfer problems: the RMCRT RTE solver and the optical property models. RMCRT is first fully verified in gray, scattering, absorbing and emitting media with black/nonblack, diffuse/nondiffuse bounded surface problems. Sensitivity analysis is carried out with regard to the ray numbers, the mesh resolutions of the computational domain, optical thickness of the media and effects of variance reduction techniques (stratified sampling, Russian roulette). Results are compared with either analytical solutions or benchmark results. The efficiency (the product of error and computation time) of RMCRT has been compared to DOM and suggest great potential for RMCRT's application

  17. Observations from the Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) Ultrasound Imaging System (UIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, D.C.; Fernandez-Pello, A. C.; Anthenien, R. A.; Urban, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smolder, both in microgravity and normal earth gravity. Experiments have been conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle in the GAS-CAN, an apparatus requiring completely remote operation. Future GAS-CAN experiments will utilize an ultrasound imaging system (UIS). Thermocouples are currently used to measure temperature and reaction front velocities, but a less intrusive method is desirable, as smolder is affected by heat transfer along the thermocouple. It is expected that the UIS will eventually replace the existing array of thermocouples as a non-intrusive technique without compromising data acquisition. Smoldering is defined as a non-flaming, self-sustaining, propagating, exothermic, surface reaction, deriving its principal heat from heterogeneous oxidation of the fuel. Smolder of cable insulation is of particular concern in the space program; to date there have been a few minor incidents of overheated and charred cables and electrical components reported on Space Shuttle flights. Recently, the establishment of the International Space Station and other space facilities has increased interest in the study of smoldering in microgravity because of the need to preempt the possibility, and/or to minimize the effect of a smolder initiated fire during the operation of these facilities. The ignition and propagation of smolder are examined using both thermocouples and the UIS. The UIS has been implemented into the MSC flight hardware. The system provides information about local permeability variations within a smoldering sample, which can, in turn, be interpreted to track the propagation of the smolder reaction. The method utilizes the observation that transmission of an ultrasonic signal through a porous material

  18. Intelligent Control via Wireless Sensor Networks for Advanced Coal Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aman Behal; Sunil Kumar; Goodarz Ahmadi

    2007-08-05

    Numerical Modeling of Solid Gas Flow, System Identification for purposes of modeling and control, and Wireless Sensor and Actor Network design were pursued as part of this project. Time series input-output data was obtained from NETL's Morgantown CFB facility courtesy of Dr. Lawrence Shadle. It was run through a nonlinear kernel estimator and nonparametric models were obtained for the system. Linear and first-order nonlinear kernels were then utilized to obtain a state-space description of the system. Neural networks were trained that performed better at capturing the plant dynamics. It is possible to use these networks to find a plant model and the inversion of this model can be used to control the system. These models allow one to compare with physics based models whose parameters can then be determined by comparing them against the available data based model. On a parallel track, Dr. Kumar designed an energy-efficient and reliable transport protocol for wireless sensor and actor networks, where the sensors could be different types of wireless sensors used in CFB based coal combustion systems and actors are more powerful wireless nodes to set up a communication network while avoiding the data congestion. Dr. Ahmadi's group studied gas solid flow in a duct. It was seen that particle concentration clearly shows a preferential distribution. The particles strongly interact with the turbulence eddies and are concentrated in narrow bands that are evolving with time. It is believed that observed preferential concentration is due to the fact that these particles are flung out of eddies by centrifugal force.

  19. Emissions from biomass combustion in a fluidized bed combustor and gas cleanup system

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, B.; Lighty, J.S.; Inkley, D.; Eddings, E.; Overacker, D.; Davis, K.; Lee, C.; Sarofim, A.

    1999-07-01

    The University of Utah Department of Chemical and Fuels Engineering and Reaction Engineering International have designed and tested a fluidized bed for resource recovery in a Mars or lunar space station for feed streams consisting of inedible plant biomass and solid human waste. In conjunction with the combustor, the system has an extensive flue gas clean-up system to meet Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). This paper discusses the selection of a rich low-temperature combustion mode that minimizes the ash fusion problems with the high potassium feed and which generates sufficient unburned carbon monoxide to enable the reduction of NO. The components of the gas clean-up stream include: particle removal; HCl removal; NO{sub x} reduction; hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide destruction; sulfur capture; and a final gas polishing unit. Major developmental efforts were required to develop systems for trouble-free waste feeding and NO{sub x} reduction. The combustor is operated at temperatures below 700 C since the ash component of the hydroponically grown inedible biomass has a very low melting point. Low temperature operation results in high levels of CO and unburned hydrocarbons, which can be used as reducing agents for NO{sub x} in the downstream catalytic unit. This is more desirable than using ammonia, which is hazardous, and an expendable reagent that must be stored in sufficient quantity for the duration of a mission. The paper will discuss the results of an innovative catalyst system to reduce NO{sub x}, hydrocarbons, and CO. One important feature of this totally regenerative system is the potential reuse of potassium and sulfur captured in the ash for the hydroponic plant solution.

  20. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial processing heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The test program consisted of one test run, with a duration of 100 hours at a nominal feed rate of 1000 lbs/hr. Throughout the test, the CMS was fired with coal and a coal by-product (i.e. coal-fired boiler fly ash) as the primary fuels. Natural gas was used as an auxiliary fuel as necessary to provide process trim. The feedstock consisted of a coal-fired utility boiler fly ash and dolomite and produced a stable, fully-reacted vitrified product. The fly ash, supplied by PENELEC, contained between 6 and 12% by weight of carbon because of the low NOx burners on the PENELEC boilers. Therefore, a substantial portion of the required thermal input came from the fly ash.

  1. High-heat transfer low-NO.sub.x combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Abbasi, Hamid A.; Hobson, Jr., William J.; Rue, David M.; Smirnov, Valeriy

    2005-09-06

    A combustion apparatus comprising a pre-combustor stage and a primary combustion stage, the pre-combustor stage having two co-axial cylinders, one for oxidant and one for fuel gas, in which the fuel gas is preheated and the primary combustion stage having rectangular co-axial passages through which fuel and oxidant are admitted into a refractory burner block. Both passages converge in the vertical plane and diverge in the horizontal plane. The passage through the refractory burner block also has a rectangular profile and diverges in the horizontal plane. The outlets to the primary combustion stage are recessed in the refractory burner block at a distance which may be varied.

  2. A three-beam water vapor sensor system for combustion diagnostics using a 1390 nm tunable diode laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.G.; Vay, S.

    1995-12-31

    H{sub 2}O(v) is an important species in combustion and hypersonic flow measurements because it is a primary combustion product. Measurements of water vapor can be used to determine performance parameters, such as extent and efficiency of combustion in propulsion and aerodynamics facilities. Water vapor concentration measurement in these high-temperature hypervelocity combustion conditions requires very high sensitivity and fast time response. A three-beam diode laser H{sub 2}O(v) measurement system for nonintrusive combustion diagnostics has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully tested and installed at GASL NASA HYPULSE facility for routine operation. The system was built using both direct laser absorption spectroscopy and frequency modulation laser spectroscopy. The output beam from a distributed feedback (DFB) InGaAsP diode laser (emitting around 1.39 {micro}m) is split into three equal-powered equal-distanced parallel beams with separation of 9 mm. With three beams, the authors are able to obtain water vapor number densities at three locations. Frequency modulation spectroscopy technique is used to achieve high detection sensitivity. The diode laser is modulated at radio frequency (RF), while the wavelength of the diode laser is tuned to scan over a strong water vapor absorption line. The detected RF signal is then demodulated at the fundamental frequency of the modulation (one-F demodulation). A working model and a computer software code have been developed for data process and data analysis. Water vapor number density measurements are achieved with consideration of temperature dependence. Experimental results and data analysis will be presented.

  3. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  4. Beta Testing of CFD Code for the Analysis of Combustion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Emma; Wey, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary version of OpenNCC was tested to assess its accuracy in generating steady-state temperature fields for combustion systems at atmospheric conditions using three-dimensional tetrahedral meshes. Meshes were generated from a CAD model of a single-element lean-direct injection combustor, and the latest version of OpenNCC was used to calculate combustor temperature fields. OpenNCC was shown to be capable of generating sustainable reacting flames using a tetrahedral mesh, and the subsequent results were compared to experimental results. While nonreacting flow results closely matched experimental results, a significant discrepancy was present between the code's reacting flow results and experimental results. When wide air circulation regions with high velocities were present in the model, this appeared to create inaccurately high temperature fields. Conversely, low recirculation velocities caused low temperature profiles. These observations will aid in future modification of OpenNCC reacting flow input parameters to improve the accuracy of calculated temperature fields.

  5. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale, Coal-Fired Combustion System: Phase 3.

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1997-04-21

    In the first quarter of calendar year 1997, 17 days of combustor- boiler tests were performed, including one day of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a slagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days required to meet the task 5 project plan. The key project objectives in the areas of combustor performance and environmental performance have been exceeded. With sorbent injection in the combustion gas train, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu have been measured in tests in this quarter. Tests in the present quarter have resulted in further optimizing the sorbent injection and NO{sub x} control processes. A very important milestone in this quarter was two successful combustor tests on a very high ash (37%) Indian coal. Work in the next quarter will focus on commercialization of the combustor- boiler system. In addition, further tests of the NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} control process and on the Indian coal will be performed.

  6. Cooling system of an internal combustion engine having a turbo-charger

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, M.; Fukuda, T.

    1986-09-02

    A cooling system of an internal combustion engine is described having a turbo-charger, comprising a cooling water circulation passageway filled with cooling water for cooling the engine including at least a cylinder head cooling portion, a cooling water circulation passageway for cooling the turbo-charger including a turbo-charger cooling portion, and means for supplying a part of the engine cooling water to the turbo-charger cooling water ciruclation passageway and returning it from there to the engine cooling water cirulation passageway, characterized in that the turbo-charger cooling portion is positioned at the same level or higher than the cylinder head cooling portion of the engine, the turbo-charger cooling water circulation passageway includes a water volume positioned at a level higher than the turbo-charger cooling portion. The volume is connected to a cooling water reservoir tank via a pressure relief valve which is opened when pressure in the volume exceeds a predetermined value to supply cooling water to the volume.

  7. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Ping Pan; Songgeng Li; John T. Riley

    2005-10-01

    This report is to present the progress made on the project ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period July 1, 2005 through September 30, 2005. The following tasks have been completed. First, the construction of the Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Combustor Building was completed. The experimental facilities have been moved into the CFB Combustor Building. Second, the fabrication and manufacture of the CFBC Facility is in the final stage and is expected to be completed before November 30, 2005. Third, the drop tube reactor has been remodeled and installed to meet the specific requirements for the investigation of the effects of flue gas composition on mercury oxidation. This study will start in the next quarter. Fourth, the effect of sulfur dioxide on molecular chlorine via the Deacon reaction was investigated. The experimental results from this study are presented in this report. Finally, the proposed work for the next quarter is described in this report.

  8. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    DOEpatents

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Cole, Roger L.

    1997-01-01

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  9. Fundamental combustion research applied to pollution formation. Volume 2a. Physics and chemistry of two-phase systems: flame-combustion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Seeker, W.R.; Heap, M.P.

    1988-01-01

    The reports included in the three-part volume describe eight studies by various investigators, to better understand the physics and chemistry of two-phase combustion with respect to pollution formation. Volume IIa describes mechanisms of fuel nitrogen processing in large-scale utility flames burning pulverized coal and heavy fuel oils, in three parts: (1) high-temperature decomposition and combustion of pulverized-coal (EERC); (2) detailed measurement of long pulverized coal flames for the characterization of pollutant formation (International Flame Research Foundation); and (3) heavy-oil combustion in shear layers (United Technologies Research Center).

  10. Combustion synthesis of ceramic-metal composite materials - The TiC-Al2O3-Al system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, H. J.; Moore, John J.; Wirth, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Combustion synthesis was applied for producing ceramic-metal composites with reduced levels of porosity, by allowing an excess amount of liquid metal, generated by the exothermic reaction during synthesis, to infiltrate the pores. It is shown that this method, when applied to TiC-Al2O3 system, led to a decreased level of porosity in the resulting TiC-Al2O3-Al product, as compared with that of TiC-Al2O3 system. This in situ procedure is more efficient than the two-stage conventional processes (i.e., sintering followed by liquid metal infiltration), although there are limitations with respect to total penetration of the liquid metal and maintaining a stable propagation of the combustion reaction.

  11. Submerged combustion melting processes for producing glass and similar materials, and systems for carrying out such processes

    DOEpatents

    Charbonneau, Mark William

    2015-08-04

    Processes of controlling submerged combustion melters, and systems for carrying out the methods. One process includes feeding vitrifiable material into a melter vessel, the melter vessel including a fluid-cooled refractory panel in its floor, ceiling, and/or sidewall, and heating the vitrifiable material with a burner directing combustion products into the melting zone under a level of the molten material in the zone. Burners impart turbulence to the molten material in the melting zone. The fluid-cooled refractory panel is cooled, forming a modified panel having a frozen or highly viscous material layer on a surface of the panel facing the molten material, and a sensor senses temperature of the modified panel using a protected thermocouple positioned in the modified panel shielded from direct contact with turbulent molten material. Processes include controlling the melter using the temperature of the modified panel. Other processes and systems are presented.

  12. Application of a high-repetition-rate laser diagnostic system for single-cycle-resolved imaging in internal combustion engines.

    PubMed

    Hult, Johan; Richter, Mattias; Nygren, Jenny; Aldén, Marcus; Hultqvist, Anders; Christensen, Magnus; Johansson, Bengt

    2002-08-20

    High-repetition-rate laser-induced fluorescence measurements of fuel and OH concentrations in internal combustion engines are demonstrated. Series of as many as eight fluorescence images, with a temporal resolution ranging from 10 micros to 1 ms, are acquired within one engine cycle. A multiple-laser system in combination with a multiple-CCD camera is used for cycle-resolved imaging in spark-ignition, direct-injection stratified-charge, and homogeneous-charge compression-ignition engines. The recorded data reveal unique information on cycle-to-cycle variations in fuel transport and combustion. Moreover, the imaging system in combination with a scanning mirror is used to perform instantaneous three-dimensional fuel-concentration measurements. PMID:12206207

  13. Method of detecting abnormality in a reference crank angle position detection system of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.

    1987-05-12

    A method is described of detecting abnormality in a reference crank angle position detection system of a control system for controlling an internal combustion engine. The method comprises a crankshaft, the control system using at least reference pulses generated, respectively, at predetermined crank angles of the crankshaft and detected by the reference crank angle position detection system. Crank angle pulses are generated, respectively, at other predetermined angles of the crankshaft and with a pulse repetition period shorter than that of the reference pulses, for controlling the engine.

  14. High-Efficiency Low-Dross Combustion System for Aluminum Remelting Reverberatory Furnaces, Project Final Report, July 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Soupos, V.; Zelepouga, S.; Rue, D.

    2005-06-30

    GTI, and its commercial partners, have developed a high-efficiency low-dross combustion system that offers environmental and energy efficiency benefits at lower capital costs for the secondary aluminum industry users of reverberatory furnaces. The high-efficiency low-dross combustion system, also called Self-Optimizing Combustion System (SOCS), includes the flex-flame burner firing an air or oxygen-enriched natural gas flame, a non-contact optical flame sensor, and a combustion control system. The flex-flame burner, developed and tested by GTI, provides an innovative firing process in which the flame shape and velocity can be controlled. The burner produces a flame that keeps oxygen away from the bath surface by including an O2-enriched fuel-rich zone on the bottom and an air-fired fuel-lean zone on the top. Flame shape and velocity can be changed at constant firing rate or held constant over a range of firing conditions. A non-intrusive optical sensor is used to monitor the flame at all times. Information from the optical sensor(s) and thermocouples can be used to control the flow of natural gas, air, and oxygen to the burner as needed to maintain desired flame characteristics. This type of control is particularly important to keep oxygen away from the melt surface and thus reduce dross formation. This retrofit technology decreases fuel usage, increases furnace production rate, lowers gaseous emissions, and reduces dross formation. The highest priority research need listed under Recycled Materials is to turn aluminum process waste into usable materials which this technology accomplishes directly by decreasing dross formation and therefore increasing aluminum yield from a gas-fired reverberatory furnace. Emissions of NOx will be reduced to approximately 0.3 lb/ton of aluminum, in compliance with air emission regulations.

  15. Studies in premixed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashinsky, G.I.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on premixed combustion: theory of turbulent flame propagation; pattern formation in premixed flames and related problems; and pattern formation in extended systems. (LSP)

  16. Centrifugal effects on combustion synthesis of (Ti-B-C) compound system

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Eiji; Odawara, Osamu

    2003-07-14

    A centrifugal force plays an important role on the control of combustion synthesis. In the present work, the data of reaction propagation rates obtained by changing the direction of reaction propagation and centrifugal force are evaluated in order to make clear the effect of centrifugal force on reaction propagations and product formation. As a result, the reaction propagation rate in the case of the direction of centrifugal force inverse to reaction propagation is larger than that in the case of the same direction, and product grains become smaller in size. It is confirmed that the centrifugal effect is much larger for the present combustion synthesis process in the case that the reaction propagates inversely to the direction of centrifugal force. Since molten titanium near combustion front tends to coalesce into larger drops in that case, reactants of boron and carbon would diffuse more sufficiently into titanium.

  17. Feasibility demonstration of a variable frequency driver-microwave transient regression rate measurement system. [for solid propellant combustion response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strand, L. D.; Mcnamara, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of a system capable of rapidly and directly measuring the low-frequency (motor characteristics length bulk mode) combustion response characteristics of solid propellants has been investigated. The system consists of a variable frequency oscillatory driver device coupled with an improved version of the JPL microwave propellant regression rate measurement system. The ratio of the normalized regression rate and pressure amplitudes and their relative phase are measured as a function of varying pressure level and frequency. Test results with a well-characterized PBAN-AP propellant formulation were found to compare favorably with the results of more conventional stability measurement techniques.

  18. A System for Controlling the Oxygen Content of a Gas Produced by Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A mixture of air, CH4 and OH(2) is burned in a combustion chamber to produce a product gas in the test section. The OH(2) content of the product gas is compared with the OH(2) content of reference air in an OH(2) sensor. If there is a difference an error signal is produced at the output of a control circuit which by the means of a solenoid valve, regulates the flow of OH(2) into the combustion chamber to make the error signal zero. The product gas in the test section has the same oxygen content as air.

  19. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 2, Sections 6 and 7: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A.; Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M.; Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A.

    1992-11-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of the mechanisms governing the ash aerosol size segregated composition resulting from the combustion of pulverized coal in a laboratory scale down-flow combustor are described. The results of modeling activities used to interpret the results of the experiments conducted under his subtask are also described in this section. Although results from the entire program are included, Phase II studies which emphasized: (1) alkali behavior, including a study of the interrelationship between potassium vaporization and sodium vaporization; and (2) iron behavior, including an examination of the extent of iron-aluminosilicate interactions, are highlighted. Idealized combustion determination of ash particle formation and surface stickiness are also described.

  20. Effect of degree of fuel vaporization upon emissions for a premixed prevaporized combustion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, L. P.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental and analytical study of the combustion of partially vaporized fuel/air mixtures was performed to assess the impact of the degree of fuel vaporization upon emissions for a premixing-prevaporizing flametube combustor. Data collected showed near-linear increases in NOx emmissions with decreasing vaporization at equivalence ratios of 0.6. For equivalence ratios of 0.72, the degree of vaporization had very little impact on NOx emissions. A simple mechanism which accounts for the combustion of liquid droplets in partially vaporized mixtures was found to agree with the measured results with fair accuracy with respect to both trends and magnitudes.

  1. Contact diagnostics of combustion products of rocket engines, their units, and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, N. N.; Ivanov, A. N.

    2013-12-01

    This article is devoted to a new block-module device used in the diagnostics of condensed combustion products of rocket engines during research and development with liquid-propellant rocket engines (Glushko NPO Energomash; engines RD-171, RD-180, and RD-191) and solid-propellant rocket motors. Soot samplings from the supersonic high-temperature jet of a high-power liquid-propellant rocket engine were taken by the given device for the first time in practice for closed-exhaust lines. A large quantity of significant results was also obtained during a combustion investigation of solid propellants within solid-propellant rocket motors.

  2. Application of advanced laser diagnostics to hypersonic wind tunnels and combustion systems.

    SciTech Connect

    North, Simon W.; Hsu, Andrea G.; Frank, Jonathan H.

    2009-09-01

    This LDRD was a Sandia Fellowship that supported Andrea Hsu's PhD research at Texas A&M University and her work as a visitor at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility. The research project at Texas A&M University is concerned with the experimental characterization of hypersonic (Mach>5) flowfields using experimental diagnostics. This effort is part of a Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) and is a collaboration between the Chemistry and Aerospace Engineering departments. Hypersonic flight conditions often lead to a non-thermochemical equilibrium (NTE) state of air, where the timescale of reaching a single (equilibrium) Boltzmann temperature is much longer than the timescale of the flow. Certain molecular modes, such as vibrational modes, may be much more excited than the translational or rotational modes of the molecule, leading to thermal-nonequilibrium. A nontrivial amount of energy is therefore contained within the vibrational mode, and this energy cascades into the flow as thermal energy, affecting flow properties through vibrational-vibrational (V-V) and vibrational-translational (V-T) energy exchanges between the flow species. The research is a fundamental experimental study of these NTE systems and involves the application of advanced laser and optical diagnostics towards hypersonic flowfields. The research is broken down into two main categories: the application and adaptation of existing laser and optical techniques towards characterization of NTE, and the development of new molecular tagging velocimetry techniques which have been demonstrated in an underexpanded jet flowfield, but may be extended towards a variety of flowfields. In addition, Andrea's work at Sandia National Labs involved the application of advanced laser diagnostics to flames and turbulent non-reacting jets. These studies included quench-free planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide (NO) and mixture fraction measurements via Rayleigh scattering.

  3. Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion System

    SciTech Connect

    Wei-Ping Pan; Yan Cao; John Smith

    2007-03-31

    This report is to present the progress made on the project entitled ''Establishment of an Environmental Control Technology Laboratory (ECTL) with a Circulating Fluidized-Bed Combustion (CFBC) System'' during the period January 1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. The effort in this quarter has concentrated on installing the CFBC Facility and for conducting cold fluidization operations tests in the CFBC facility. The assembly of the ash recirculation pipe duct from the cyclones back to the bed area of the combustor, including the upper and lower loop seals was completed. The electric bed pre-heater was installed to heat the fluidizing air as it enters the wind box. The induced draft fan along with its machine base and power supply was received and installed. The flue gas duct from secondary cyclone outlet to induced draft fan inlet was received and installed, as well as the induced fan flue gas discharge duct. Pressure testing from the forced draft fan to the outlet of the induced fan was completed. In related research a pilot-scale halogen addition test was conducted in the empty slipstream reactor (without (Selective Catalytic Reduction) SCR catalyst loading) and the SCR slipstream reactor with two commercial SCR catalysts. The greatest benefits of conducting slipstream tests can be flexible control and isolation of specific factors. This facility is currently used in full-scale utility and will be combined into 0.6MW CFBC in the future. This work attempts to first investigate performance of the SCR catalyst in the flue gas atmosphere when burning Powder River Basin (PRB), including the impact of PRB coal flue gas composition on the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) under SCR conditions. Secondly, the impacts of hydrogen halogens (Hydrogen fluoride (HF), Hydrogen chloride (HCl), Hydrogen Bromide (HBr) and Hydrogen Iodine (HI)) on Hg(0) oxidation and their mechanisms can be explored.

  4. High-bandwidth Modulation of H2/Syngas Fuel to Control Combustion Dynamics in Micro-Mixing Lean Premix Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Melzak; Tim Lieuwen; Adel Mansour

    2012-01-31

    The goal of this program was to develop and demonstrate fuel injection technologies that will facilitate the development of cost-effective turbine engines for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants, while improving efficiency and reducing emissions. The program involved developing a next-generation multi-point injector with enhanced stability performance for lean premix turbine systems that burn hydrogen (H2) or synthesis gas (syngas) fuels. A previously developed injector that demonstrated superior emissions performance was improved to enhance static flame stability through zone staging and pilot sheltering. In addition, piezo valve technology was implemented to investigate the potential for enhanced dynamic stability through high-bandwidth modulation of the fuel supply. Prototype injector and valve hardware were tested in an atmospheric combustion facility. The program was successful in meeting its objectives. Specifically, the following was accomplished: Demonstrated improvement of lean operability of the Parker multi-point injector through staging of fuel flow and primary zone sheltering; Developed a piezo valve capable of proportional and high-bandwidth modulation of gaseous fuel flow at frequencies as high as 500 Hz; The valve was shown to be capable of effecting changes to flame dynamics, heat release, and acoustic signature of an atmospheric combustor. The latter achievement indicates the viability of the Parker piezo valve technology for use in future adaptively controlled systems for the mitigation of combustion instabilities, particularly for attenuating combustion dynamics under ultra-lean conditions.

  5. Simulating Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, G.; Schwarz, C.; Stiesch, G.; Otto, F.

    The content spans from simple thermodynamics of the combustion engine to complex models for the description of the air/fuel mixture, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation considering the engine periphery of petrol and diesel engines. Thus the emphasis of the book is on the simulation models and how they are applicable for the development of modern combustion engines. Computers can be used as the engineers testbench following the rules and recommendations described here.

  6. Heavy metal enrichment characteristics in ash of municipal solid waste combustion in CO2/O2 atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Tang, YuTing; Ma, XiaoQian; Yu, QuanHeng; Zhang, Can; Lai, Zhiyi; Zhang, Xiaoshen

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigated the behavior of six heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn) in the bottom ashes of recycled polyvinyl chloride pellets (PVC), wood sawdust (WS) and paper mixture (PM), representing the common components of municipal solid waste (MSW), obtained during combustion in CO2/O2 atmosphere in a lab-scale electrically heated tube furnace. Replacement of N2 by CO2 did not obviously change the shape of relative enrichment factor (RE) curves and subsequent order of heavy metals, but increased enrichment of these heavy metals in bottom ashes of WS, PM and PVC. The increment of O2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmosphere further increased RE values. It was only when the temperature was higher than or equal to 700°C that the increment of the combustion temperature reduced the RE values of heavy metals. The effect of temperature on heavy metals evaporation was the most pronounced for the medium volatile metal Pb, and the least for the low volatiles Cr and Ni. The effect of temperature was more pronounced for PVC ash than for WS and PM ashes. This paper contributes to the control of heavy metals during MSW incineration and management of MSW oxy-fuel residues. PMID:26130169

  7. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-30

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy awarded Vortec Corporation this Phase III contract (No. DE-AC22-91PC91161) for the development of {open_quotes}A Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes}. The effective contrast start date was September 3, 1991. The contract period of performance is 36 months. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. Final detailed installation designs for the integrated test system configuration are being completed. The equipment is being fabricated and deliveries have begun. The industry funded testing consisted of vitrifying Spent Aluminum Potliner (SPL) which is a listed hazardous waste. This testing has verified that SPL can be vitrified into a safe recyclable glass product.

  8. EVALUATION OF TRACE ELEMENT RELEASE FROM FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of four trace elements: lead, beryllium, mercury, and fluorine. The chemical fate of minor and trace elements is important in assessing the environmental impact of the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) process and, for certain elements, i...

  9. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL-FIRED FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates potential pollutants which could be generated in coal-fired fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) processes. The primary emphasis is on organic compounds, trace elements, inorganic compounds (other than SO2 and Nox), and particulates. Using available bench scale or ...

  10. Engineering systems analysis of pressurized fluidized-bed-combustion power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.L.; Griffin, F.P.; Lackey, M.E.

    1982-04-01

    This effort was conducted to provde supporting data for the research and development program on pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) systems being continued under the auspices of the Office of Coal Utilization of DOE. This report deals with the first phase of the effort, designated Task 1, which was scoped to be a somewhat broad review of PFBC technology and an analysis to determine its potential and sensitivity to key development needs. Background information pertaining to the application of PFBC to the market for coal-fired technology is included. The status of development is reviewed and the deficiencies in data are identified. Responses to a survey of PFBC developers are reviewed with emphasis on the high risk areas of the PFBC concept. Some of these problems are: uncertainty of life of gas turbine components; lack of demonstration of load following; and hot solids handling. Some high risk areas, such as the gas cleanup or gas turbine systems, can be relieved by reducing the severity of design conditions such as the turbine inlet temperature. Alternate turbine designs or plant configurations are also possible solutions. Analyses were performed to determine whether the advantages held by PFBC systems in cost, efficiency, and emissions would be nullified by measures taken to reduce risk. In general, the results showed that the attractive features of the PFBC could be preserved.

  11. Thermo-mechanical analysis of an internal cooling system with various configurations of a combustion liner after shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hokyu; Kim, Kyung Min; Park, Jun Su; Kim, Beom Seok; Cho, Hyung Hee

    2015-12-01

    The after-shell section, which is part of the gas turbine combustion liner, is exposed to the hottest combustion gas. Various cooling schemes have been applied to protect against severe thermal load. However, there is a significant discrepancy in the thermal expansion with large temperature differences, resulting in thermo-mechanical crack formation. In this study, to reduce combustion liner damage, thermo-mechanical analysis was conducted on three after-shell section configurations: inline-discrete divider wall, staggered divider wall, and swirler wall arrays. These array components are well-known heat-transfer enhancement structures in the duct. In the numerical analyses, the heat transfer characteristics, temperature and thermo-mechanical stress distribution were evaluated using finite volume method and finite element method commercial codes. As a result, we demonstrated that the temperature and the thermo-mechanical stress distribution were readily dependent on the structural array for cooling effectiveness and structural support in each modified cooling system. Compared with the reference model, the swirler wall array was most effective in diminishing the thermo-mechanical stress concentration, especially on the inner ring that is vulnerable to crack formation.

  12. Combustion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Barsin, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    The presentation will cover the highlights of sludge, providing information as to where it comes from, projection of how much more is expected, what is sludge, what can be done with them, and finally focus in one combustion technology that can be utilized and applied to recycle sludge. The author is with Gotaverken Energy Systems Inc. where for the past 100 years they have been involved in the recovery of chemicals in chemical pulp mills. One week ago, our name was changed to Kvaerner Pulping Inc. to better reflect our present make-up which is a combination of Kamyr AB (suppliers of proprietary highly engineered totally chlorine free chemical pulp manufacturing systems, including digesters, O{sub 2} delignification systems, and bleach plant systems) and Goetaverken. Sludges that we are concerned with derive from several sources within chemical pulp mills such as: such as primary clarifier sludges, secondary clarifier sludges, and most recently those sludges derived from post consumer paper and board recycle efforts including de-inking and those from the thermal mechanical pulping processes. These sludges have been classified as non-hazardous therefore, residue can be landfilled, but the volumes involved are growing at an alarming rate.

  13. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was concentrated on conducting the 100 hour demonstration test. The test was successfully conducted from September 12th through the 16th. The test program consisted of one test run, with a duration of 100 hours at a nominal feed rate of 1000 lbs/hr. Throughout the test, the CMS was fired with coal and a coal by-product (i.e. coal-fired boiler flyash) as the primary fuels. Natural gas was used as an auxiliary fuel as necessary to provide process trim. The feedstock consisted of a coal-fired utility boiler flyash and dolomite and produced a stable, fully-reacted vitrified product. The fly ash, supplied by PENELEC, contained between 6 and 12% by weight of carbon because of the low NO{sub x} burners on the PENELEC boilers.

  14. An experimental and theoretical investigation of a fuel system tuner for the suppression of combustion driven oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarborough, David E.

    Manufacturers of commercial, power-generating, gas turbine engines continue to develop combustors that produce lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x) in order to meet the environmental standards of governments around the world. Lean, premixed combustion technology is one technique used to reduce NOx emissions in many current power and energy generating systems. However, lean, premixed combustors are susceptible to thermo-acoustic oscillations, which are pressure and heat-release fluctuations that occur because of a coupling between the combustion process and the natural acoustic modes of the system. These pressure oscillations lead to premature failure of system components, resulting in very costly maintenance and downtime. Therefore, a great deal of work has gone into developing methods to prevent or eliminate these combustion instabilities. This dissertation presents the results of a theoretical and experimental investigation of a novel Fuel System Tuner (FST) used to damp detrimental combustion oscillations in a gas turbine combustor by changing the fuel supply system impedance, which controls the amplitude and phase of the fuel flowrate. When the FST is properly tuned, the heat release oscillations resulting from the fuel-air ratio oscillations damp, rather than drive, the combustor acoustic pressure oscillations. A feasibility study was conducted to prove the validity of the basic idea and to develop some basic guidelines for designing the FST. Acoustic models for the subcomponents of the FST were developed, and these models were experimentally verified using a two-microphone impedance tube. Models useful for designing, analyzing, and predicting the performance of the FST were developed and used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the FST. Experimental tests showed that the FST reduced the acoustic pressure amplitude of an unstable, model, gas-turbine combustor over a wide range of operating conditions and combustor configurations. Finally, combustor

  15. A novel high-heat transfer low-NO{sub x} natural gas combustion system. Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rue, D.M.; Fridman, A.; Viskanta, R.; Neff, D.

    1997-11-01

    Phase I of the project focused on acquiring the market needs, modeling, design, and test plan information for a novel high-heat transfer low-NO{sub x} natural gas combustion system. All goals and objectives were achieved. The key component of the system is an innovative burner technology which combines high temperature natural gas preheating with soot formation and subsequent soot burnout in the flame, increases the system`s energy efficiency and furnace throughput, while minimizing the furnace air emissions, all without external parasitic systems. Work has included identifying industry`s needs and constraints, modeling the high luminosity burner system, designing the prototype burner for initial laboratory-scale testing, defining the test plan, adapting the burner technology to meet the industry`s needs and constraints, and outlining the Industrial Adoption Plan.

  16. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Yung-Yi; Sadhukhan, Pasupati; Fraley, Lowell D.; Hsiao, Keh-Hsien

    1986-01-01

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  17. Real-time prediction of hydrocarbon emissions from liquid combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, R.G.; Riale, M.; McCampbell, D.; VanDyne, M.

    1997-12-31

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the ability of heuristic computational techniques to predict hydrocarbon emissions using data from simple process and optical monitors. A mini-pilot scale combustion research facility located at Midwest Research Institute was used was used in the study. The facility`s operational and emissions characteristics have been well defined in previous studies. The facility was fired with fuel oil and operated at wide range of combustion conditions. All operating parameters including fuel feed rate, air feed rates and chamber temperature were monitored. In addition, a CCD-array video camera was used to monitor the flame. An array of conventional continuous emissions monitors for CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and THC sampled the exhaust gases. The operational data and the optical field data were combined with the emissions data to form a training data set for a neural network. The trained network was then used to predict the THC emissions.

  18. Hypersonic shock-induced combustion in a hydrogen-air system

    SciTech Connect

    Ahuja, J.K.; Tiwari, S.N.; Singh, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical study was carried out to investigate the shock-induced combustion in premixed hydrogen-air mixture. The calculations have been carried out for Mach 5.11 and 6.46. The Mach 5.11 case was found to be unsteady with periodic oscillations. The frequency of oscillations was calculated and was found to be in good agreement with the experimentally observed frequency. The Mach 6.46 case was found to be of a very high frequency and very low-amplitude phenomena. Thus it can be considered as macroscopically stable. This supports the existing view that it is possible to stabilize the shock-induced combustion phenomena with sufficient level of overdrive. 16 refs.

  19. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase 3, Technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this Phase III program for the development of a commercial scale, coal-fired combustion system is to develop and integrate all system components from fuel through total system controls building upon the prior Phase I and II development accomplishments of the MTCI pulse combustion technology and to then field test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During this 13th quarter, a steam generation cost model was developed to compare the economics of steam production in the commercial-scale, coal-fired pulse combustion system with that in a natural gas- or oil-fired system. The purpose of this model is to define the competitive capital cost range for the MTCI system under a specified set of technical and economic conditions. A current preliminary estimate of the MTCI pulse coal combustion system capital cost turns out to be about $120,000 and this is within the target range of the US commercial boiler market sector. European differential fuel costs are expected to be more favorable. Several conceptual arrangements for coal reburn and char burnout were evaluated. The arrangement was selected based on the following considerations viz. utilization of the existing pulse combustor as is, minimization of footprint and vertical space requirement, good mixing of coal, steam and combustion products in the reburn section, and adequate char residence time in the char burnout section.

  20. FUNDAMENTAL COMBUSTION RESEARCH APPLIED TO POLLUTION FORMATION. VOLUME 2A. PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF TWO-PHASE SYSTEMS: FLAME COMBUSTION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reports included in the three-part volume describe eight studies by various investigators, to better understand the physics and chemistry of two-phase combustion with respect to pollution formation. Volume IIa describes mechanisms of fuel nitrogen processing in large-scale ut...

  1. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Second-Generation System Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    A. Robertson; D. Horazak; R. Newby; H. Goldstein

    2002-11-01

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DE-AC21-86MC21023 to develop a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant--called a Second-Generation or Advanced Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (APCFB) plant--offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 45% (HHV), with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized-coal-fired plants with scrubbers. The APCFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized bed boiler (PCFB), and the combustion of carbonizer syngas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2300 F and higher. A conceptual design was previously prepared for this new type of plant and an economic analysis presented, all based on the use of a Siemens Westinghouse W501F gas turbine with projected carbonizer, PCFB, and topping combustor performance data. Having tested these components at the pilot plant stage, the referenced conceptual design is being updated to reflect more accurate performance predictions together with the use of the more advanced Siemens Westinghouse W501G gas turbine and a conventional 2400 psig/1050 F/1050 F/2-1/2 in. steam turbine. This report describes the updated plant which is projected to have an HHV efficiency of 48% and identifies work completed for the October 2001 through September 2002 time period.

  2. Modeling the behavior of selenium in Pulverized-Coal Combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Senior, Constance; Otten, Brydger Van; Wendt, Jost O.L.; Sarofim, Adel

    2010-11-15

    The behavior of Se during coal combustion is different from other trace metals because of the high degree of vaporization and high vapor pressures of the oxide (SeO{sub 2}) in coal flue gas. In a coal-fired boiler, these gaseous oxides are absorbed on the fly ash surface in the convective section by a chemical reaction. The composition of the fly ash (and of the parent coal) as well as the time-temperature history in the boiler therefore influences the formation of selenium compounds on the surface of the fly ash. A model was created for interactions between selenium and fly ash post-combustion. The reaction mechanism assumed that iron reacts with selenium at temperatures above 1200 C and that calcium reacts with selenium at temperatures less than 800 C. The model also included competing reactions of SO{sub 2} with calcium and iron in the ash. Predicted selenium distributions in fly ash (concentration versus particle size) were compared against measurements from pilot-scale experiments for combustion of six coals, four bituminous and two low-rank coals. The model predicted the selenium distribution in the fly ash from the pilot-scale experiments reasonably well for six coals of different compositions. (author)

  3. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 1, sections 1--5: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A.; Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M.; Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A.

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles? What determines their composition? Whether or not particles deposit? How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes? remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  4. Coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. This includes new installations and those existing installations that were originally designed for oil or gas firing. The data generated by these projects must be sufficient for private-sector decisions on the feasibility of using coal as the fuel of choice. This work should also provide incentives for the private sector to continue and expand the development, demonstration, and application of these combustion systems. Vortec Corporation`s Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications is being developed under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 as part of this DOE development program. The current contract represents the third phase of a three-phase development program. Phase I of the program addressed the technical and economic feasibility of the process, and was initiated in 1987 and completed 1989. Phase II was initiated in 1989 and completed in 1990. During Phase II of the development, design improvements were made to critical components and the test program addressed the performance of the process using several different feedstocks. Phase III of the program was initiated September 1991 and is scheduled for completion in 1994. The Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value-added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and selected industrial wastes.

  5. Method and system for low-NO.sub.x dual-fuel combustion of liquid and/or gaseous fuels

    DOEpatents

    Gard, Vincent; Chojnacki, Dennis A; Rabovitser, Ioseph K

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus for combustion in which a pressurized preheated liquid fuel is atomized and a portion thereof flash vaporized, creating a mixture of fuel vapor and liquid droplets. The mixture is mixed with primary combustion oxidant, producing a fuel/primary oxidant mixture which is then injected into a primary combustion chamber in which the fuel/primary oxidant mixture is partially combusted, producing a secondary gaseous fuel containing hydrogen and carbon oxides. The secondary gaseous fuel is mixed with a secondary combustion oxidant and injected into the second combustion chamber wherein complete combustion of the secondary gaseous fuel is carried out. The resulting second stage flue gas containing very low amounts of NO.sub.x is then vented from the second combustion chamber.

  6. An automatic closed-loop control system of boiler load for combined joint and separate combustion of gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismatkhodzhaev, S. K.

    2014-10-01

    A system for automatic closed-loop control of drum boiler heat load for combined joint and separate combustion of blast-furnace, coke, and natural gases under the conditions of randomly changed flow rates of blast-furnace and coke gases is considered. For achieving more efficient operation of the automatic control system, it is proposed to introduce circuits for compensating random disturbances in the flow rates of these gases in addition to the standard automatic control system using the heat signal. The estimated parameters of the control channels transfer functions are presented for different ratios between the flow rates of fired gases and boiler loads. The results obtained from an investigation of the combined system are described, and its effectiveness with the boiler operating in different modes is demonstrated.

  7. Combustion detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimpi, R. L.; Nealy, J. E.; Grose, W. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A device has been developed for generating a rapid response signal upon the radiation-emitting combustion reaction of certain gases in order to provide a means for the detection and identification of such reaction and concurrently discriminate against spurious signals. This combustion might be the first stage of a coal mine explosion process, and thereby this device could provide a warning of the impending explosion in time to initiate quenching action. This device has the capability of distinguishing between the light emitted from a combustion reaction and the light emitted by miners' lamps, electric lamps, welding sparks or other spurious events so that the quenching mechanism is triggered only when an explosion-initiating combustion occurs.

  8. Combustion in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Dry, F.J.; La Nauze, R.D. )

    1990-07-01

    Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) combustion systems have become popular since the late 1970s, and, given the current level of activity in the area,it is clear that this technology has a stable future in the boiler market. For standard coal combustion applications, competition is fierce with mature pulverized-fuel-based (PF) technology set to maintain a strong profile. CFB systems, however, can be more cost effective than PF systems when emission control is considered, and, as CFB technology matures, it is expected that an ever-increasing proportion of boiler installations will utilize the CFB concept. CFB systems have advantages in the combustion of low-grade fuels such as coal waste and biomass. In competition with conventional bubbling beds, the CFB boiler often demonstrates superior carbon burn-out efficiency. The key to this combustion technique is the hydrodynamic behavior of the fluidized bed. This article begins with a description of the fundamental fluid dynamic behavior of the CFB system. This is followed by an examination of the combustion process in such an environment and a discussion of the current status of the major CFB technologies.

  9. Combustion physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  10. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Air-fuel ratio control system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, T.; Suzuki, M.

    1981-09-29

    The air-fuel ratio for an internal combustion engine is controlled at the three stages: (A) when the engine temperature is lower than a first predetermined value, the air-fuel ratio is controlled only by a choke valve, (B) when the engine is at a temperature of the first predetermined value to a second predetermined value, the air-fuel ratio is controlled according to the output signals of engine temperature detecting means, and (C) when the engine temperature is higher than the second predetermined value, the air-fuel ratio is controlled according to the signals from air-fuel ratio detecting means.

  12. Opportunities for ceramics in the ERDA/NASA Continuous Combustion Propulsion Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, C. P.; Schulz, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA/NASA Continuous Combustion Highway Vehicles Program is concerned with the development of improved automotive powerplants. Specific program goals are related to an achievement of an improved fuel economy, low emissions, multifuel capability, and marketability. An employment of high temperature ceramic materials is considered in connection with the development of improved gas turbine and Stirling engines. The ceramic materials technology project is discussed, taking into account the characterization of ceramic materials, improved ceramic materials, and questions of component design, fabrication, and testing.

  13. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 3, Appendices: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A.; Kang, Shim-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M.; Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A.

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the computer codes developed for the coal combustion project. In Subsection B.1 the FORTRAN code developed for the percolative fragmentation model (or the discrete model, since a char is expressed as a collection of discrete elements in a discrete space) is presented. In Subsection B.2 the code for the continuum model (thus named because mineral inclusions are distributed in a continuum space) is presented. A stereological model code developed to obtain the pore size distribution from a two-dimensional data is presented in Subsection B.3.

  14. PCS Nitrogen: Combustion Fan System Optimization Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-01-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program case study describes how, in 2003, PCS Nitrogen, Inc., improved the efficiency of the combustion fan on a boiler at the company's chemical fertilizer plant in Augusta, Georgia. The project saved $420,000 and 76,400 million British thermal units (MBtu) per year. In addition, maintenance needs declined, because there is now less stress on the fan motor and bearings and less boiler feed water usage. This project was so successful that the company has implemented more efficiency improvements that should result in energy cost savings of nearly $1 million per year.

  15. Acoustic Instabilities Driven by Slip Between a Condensed Phase and the Gas Phase in Combustion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiCicco, M.; Buckmaster, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the context of gas turbine combustion chambers, this study describes how slip affects the response time of fuel sprays to pressure fluctuations in a gaseous flow field. Slip between the condensed and gas phases is shown to cause fuel vapor mass fraction fluctuations upstream of the reaction zone. A resulting oscillating heat release can drive the pressure fluctuations, depending on the phase difference between them. This generates an acoustic instability. With relevance to previous experimental results, differences are explored in the evaporation characteristics among three different fuel sprays (JP-4, JP-5, and D-2) in relation to their effect on the magnitude of the fuel vapor mass fraction perturbations.

  16. Apparatus and filtering systems relating to combustors in combustion turbine engines

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Zuo, Baifang; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-07-24

    A combustor for a combustion turbine engine, the combustor that includes: a chamber defined by an outer wall and forming a channel between windows defined through the outer wall toward a forward end of the chamber and at least one fuel injector positioned toward an aft end of the chamber; a screen; and a standoff comprising a raised area on an outer surface of the outer wall near the periphery of the windows; wherein the screen extends over the windows and is supported by the standoff in a raised position in relation to the outer surface of the outer wall and the windows.

  17. Literature review of arc/plasma, combustion, and joule-heated melter vitrification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, C.J.; Abrigo, G.P.; Shafer, P.J.; Merrill, R.A.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides reviews of papers and reports for three basic categories of melters: arc/plasma-heated melters, combustion-heated melters, and joule-heated melters. The literature reviewed here represents those publications which may lend insight to phase I testing of low-level waste vitrification being performed at the Hanford Site in FY 1995. For each melter category, information from those papers and reports containing enough information to determine steady-state mass balance data is tabulated at the end of each section. The tables show the composition of the feed processed, the off-gas measured via decontamination factors, gross energy consumptions, and processing rates, among other data.

  18. CONCEPTUAL STUDIES OF A FUEL-FLEXIBLE LOW-SWIRL COMBUSTION SYSTEM FOR THE GAS TURBINE IN CLEAN COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.O.; Littlejohn, David; Therkelsen, Peter; Cheng, Robert K.; Ali, S.

    2009-11-30

    This paper reports the results of preliminary analyses that show the feasibility of developing a fuel flexible (natural gas, syngas and high-hydrogen fuel) combustion system for IGCC gas turbines. Of particular interest is the use of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's DLN low swirl combustion technology as the basis for the IGCC turbine combustor. Conceptual designs of the combustion system and the requirements for the fuel handling and delivery circuits are discussed. The analyses show the feasibility of a multi-fuel, utility-sized, LSI-based, gas turbine engine. A conceptual design of the fuel injection system shows that dual parallel fuel circuits can provide range of gas turbine operation in a configuration consistent with low pollutant emissions. Additionally, several issues and challenges associated with the development of such a system, such as flashback and auto-ignition of the high-hydrogen fuels, are outlined.

  19. Trends in the spin combustion of thermites

    SciTech Connect

    Dvoryankin, A.V.; Merzhanov, A.G.; Strunina, A.G.

    1982-09-01

    This article presents results on the main laws of spin combustion for thermite compositions. Examines the combustion in various thermite systems with various degrees of component dilution with reaction products in order to choose the objects. Discusses effects of external factors, effects of system parameters, and temperature distribution in spin combustion. Finds that oscillatory combustion (synchronous pulsation in the combustion rate at all points on the front) and spin modes (spiral displacement of a luminous focus) are separated by a combustion mode in the form of a set of luminous points moving in a random fashion over the combustion front; the low-calorie spin mode is sensitive to shift in the general heat balance in either sense during the combustion; and in the spin mode, the combustion is substantially influenced by the topology of the surface.

  20. Combustion furnace and burner

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, J. G.

    1985-12-03

    The combustion system includes a hearth lined with refractory, a combustion chamber formed in the refractory, an air manifold mounted on the hearth, a plurality of gas manifold extending through the air manifold and into the combustion chamber, and a diffuser mounted on the manifolds to cause turbulence in the air/gas mixture. The gas manifolds include aspirating means for combining the air and gas. The combustion chamber is elongated and has an elongated neck with a flue gas exit slot over which the work piece passes. The flue gas from the combustion of the air/gas mixture in the combustion chamber increases in velocity as the flue gas passes through the elongated neck and exits the flue gas exit slot. The slot has a length sufficient to permit the work piece to rotate 360/sup 0/ as the work piece rotates and travels through the hearth. This causes the work piece to be uniformly heated over every square inch of its surface.