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Sample records for oxygen enhanced combustion

  1. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  2. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2002-01-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program in the seventh quarter October-December 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of oxygen injection strategies was performed during the quarter resulting in data that suggest the oxygen injection reduces NOx emissions while reducing LOI. Pilot-scale testing activities concluded at the University of Utah this quarter. Testing demonstrated that some experimental conditions can lead to NOx emissions well below the 0.15 lb/MMBtu limit. Evaluation of alternative OTM materials with improved mechanical properties continued this quarter. Powder procedure optimization continued and sintering trial began on an element with a new design. Several OTM elements were tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility under various conditions. A modified PSO1d element demonstrated stable oxygen product purity of >98% and oxygen flux of 68% of target. Updated test results and projected economic performance have been reviewed with the Utility Industrial Advisors. The economic comparison remains very favorable for O{sub 2} enhanced combustion. Discussions regarding possible Beta sites have been held with three other utilities in addition to the industrial advisors. Proposals will be prepared after the completion of full scale burner testing. Beta test cost estimating work has been initiated.

  3. Enhancing SNCR-aided combustion with oxygen addition

    DOEpatents

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Wu, Kuang Tsai; Bool, III, Lawrence E.

    2004-03-09

    NOx emissions from combustion are reduced, NOx reduction efficiency by SNCR is improved, and other efficiencies are realized, by injecting oxygen into a fuel-rich combustion zone under controlled conditions.

  4. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels

    DOEpatents

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Wu, Kuang Tsai

    2004-03-02

    A furnace that combusts fuel, such as coal, of a given minimum energy content to obtain a stated minimum amount of energy per unit of time is enabled to combust fuel having a lower energy content, while still obtaining at least the stated minimum energy generation rate, by replacing a small amount of the combustion air fed to the furnace by oxygen. The replacement of oxygen for combustion air also provides reduction in the generation of NOx.

  5. THE SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE AMERICAN COMBUSTION PYRETRON OXYGEN-ENHANCED BURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of the American Combustion PyretronTM oxygen-enhanced burner ws conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The Demonstration was conducted at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Research Facility (CRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas....

  6. SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE AMERICAN COMBUSTION PYRETRON OXYGEN-ENHANCED BURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of the American Combustion Pyretron TM oxygen-enhanced burner was conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. he Demonstration was conducted at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Research Facility (CRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas. n eight wee...

  7. Mult-Pollutant Control Through Novel Approaches to Oxygen Enhanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Axelbaum; Pratim Biswas

    2009-02-28

    Growing concerns about global climate change have focused effortss on identifying approaches to stabilizing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. One approach utilizes oxy-fuel combustion to produce a concentrated flue gas that will enable economical CO{sub 2} capture by direct methods. Oxy-fuel combustion rewuires an Air Separation Unit (ASU) to provide a high-purity stream of oxygen as well as a Compression and Purification Unit (CPU) to clean and compress the CO{sub 2} for long term storage. Overall plant efficiency will suffer from the parasitic load of both the ASU and CPU and researchers are investigating techniques to enhance other aspects of the combustion and gas cleanup proceses to improve the benefit-to-cost ratio. This work examines the influence of oxy-fuel combustion and non-carbon based sorbents on the formation and fate of multiple combustion pollutants both numerically and experimentally.

  8. High-Efficiency, High-Capacity, Low-NOx Aluminum Melting Using Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    D'Agostini, M.D.

    2000-06-02

    This report describes the development and application of a novel oxygen enhanced combustion system with an integrated vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) oxygen supply providing efficient, low NOx melting in secondary aluminum furnaces. The mainstay of the combustion system is a novel air-oxy-natural gas burner that achieves high productivity and energy efficiency with low NOx emissions through advanced mixing concepts and the use of separate high- and low-purity oxidizer streams. The technology was installed on a reverberatory, secondary aluminum melting plant at the Wabash Aluminum Alloy's Syracuse, N.Y. plant, where it is currently in operation. Field testing gave evidence that the new burner technology meets the stringent NOx emissions target of 0.323 lb NO2/ton aluminum, thus complying with regulations promulgated by Southern California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). Test results also indicated that the burner technology exceeded fuel efficiency and melting capacity goals. Economic modeling showed that the novel air-oxy-fuel (ADF) combustion technology provides a substantial increase in furnace profitability relative to air-fuel operation. Model results also suggest favorable economics for the air-oxy-fuel technology relative to a full oxy-fuel conversion of the furnace.

  9. Numerical study of the enhancement of combustion performance in a scramjet combustor due to injection of electric-discharge-activated oxygen molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starik, A. M.; Bezgin, L. V.; Kopchenov, V. I.; Loukhovitski, B. I.; Sharipov, A. S.; Titova, N. S.

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the efficiency of an approach based on the injection of a thin oxygen stream, subjected to a tailored electric discharge, into a supersonic H2-air flow to enhance the combustion performance in the mixing layer and in the scramjet combustor is conducted. It is shown that for such an approach there exist optimal values of reduced electric field E/N and transversal dimension d of the injected oxygen stream, which provide the minimal length of induction zone in the mixing layer. The optimal values of E/N and d depend on air flow parameters and the specific energy put into the oxygen. The injection of a thin oxygen stream (d = 1 mm) subjected to an electric discharge with E/N = 50-100 Td, which produces mostly singlet oxygen O2(a 1?g) and O_{2}(b\\,^{1}\\Sigma_{g}^{+} ) molecules and atomic oxygen, allows one to arrange stable combustion in a scramjet duct at an extremely low air temperature Tair = 900 K and pressure Pair = 0.3 bar even at a small specific energy put into the oxygen Es = 0.2 J ncm-3, and to provide rather high combustion completeness ? = 0.73. The advance in the energy released during combustion is much higher (hundred times), in this case, than the energy supplied to the oxygen stream in the electric discharge. This approach also makes it possible to ensure the rather high combustion completeness in the scramjet combustor with reduced length. The main reason for the combustion enhancement of the H2-air mixture in the scramjet duct is the intensification of chain-branching reactions due to the injection of a small amount of cold non-equilibrium oxygen plasma comprising highly reactive species, O2(a 1?g) and O_{2}(b\\,^{1}\\Sigma_{g}^{+} ) molecules and O atoms, into the H2-air supersonic flow.

  10. Dilute Oxygen Combustion - Phase 3 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Michael F.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good, and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel's standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion on furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  11. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 3 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.F.; Ryan, H.M.

    2000-05-31

    Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) burners have been successfully installed and operated in the reheat furnace at Auburn Steel Co., Inc., Auburn, NY, under Phase 3 of the Dilute Oxygen Combustion project. Two new preheat zones were created employing a total of eight 6.5 MMBtu/hr capacity burners. The preheat zones provide a 30 percent increase in maximum furnace production rate, from 75 tph to 100 tph. The fuel rate is essentially unchanged, with the fuel savings expected from oxy-fuel combustion being offset by higher flue gas temperatures. When allowance is made for the high nitrogen level and high gas phase temperature in the furnace, measured NOx emissions are in line with laboratory data on DOC burners developed in Phase 1 of the project. Burner performance has been good and there have been no operating or maintenance problems. The DOC system continues to be used as part of Auburn Steel?s standard reheat furnace practice. High gas phase temperature is a result of the high firing density needed to achieve high production rates, and little opportunity exists for improvement in that area. However, fuel and NOx performance can be improved by further conversion of furnace zones to DOC burners, which will lower furnace nitrogen levels. Major obstacles are cost and concern about increased formation of oxide scale on the steel. Oxide scale formation may be enhanced by exposure of the steel to higher concentrations of oxidizing gas components (primarily products of combustion) in the higher temperature zones of the furnace. Phase 4 of the DOC project will examine the rate of oxide scale formation in these higher temperature zones and develop countermeasures that will allow DOC burners to be used successfully in these furnace zones.

  12. Catalytically enhanced combustion process

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, C.

    1992-05-26

    This patent describes a fuel having improved combustion efficiency. It comprises a petroleum based liquid hydrocarbon; and a combustion catalyst comprising from about 18 to about 21 weight percent naphthalene, from about 75 to about 80 weight percent toluene, and from about 2.8 to about 3.2 weight percent benzyl alcohol.

  13. Oxygen Compatibility Screening Tests in Oxygen-Rich Combustion Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckel, Anerew J.

    1997-01-01

    The identification and characterization of oxygen-rich compatible materials enables full-flow, staged combustion designs. Although these oxygen-rich designs offer significant cost, performance, and reliability benefits over existing systems, they have never been used operationally by the United States. If these systems are to be realized, it is critical to understand the long-term oxidative stability in high-temperature, high-pressure, oxygen-rich combustion environments. A unique facility has been constructed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to conduct tests of small-scale rocket engine materials and subcomponents in an oxygen-rich combustion environment that closely approximates a full-scale rocket engine. Thus, a broad range of advanced materials and concepts can be screened in a timely manner and at a relatively low cost.

  14. Hydrogen-oxygen powered internal combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, H.; Morgan, N.

    1970-01-01

    Hydrogen at 300 psi and oxygen at 800 psi are injected sequentially into the combustion chamber to form hydrogen-rich mixture. This mode of injection eliminates difficulties of preignition, detonation, etc., encountered with carburated, spark-ignited, hydrogen-air mixtures. Ignition at startup is by means of a palladium catalyst.

  15. SITE PROGRAM APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS ASSESSMENT OF SUPERFUND APPLICATIONS FOR THE AMERICAN COMBUSTION INC. PYRETRON OXYGEN ENHANCED BURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incineration is widely used to clean up Superfund sites. Modifications which improve the efficiency with which waste can be incinerated are therefore of interest to EPA. Oxygen/air burners are of interest because their installation on conventional incinerators can allow for signi...

  16. Combustion of bulk titanium in oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, A. F.; Moulder, J. C.; Runyan, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    The combustion of bulk titanium in one atmosphere oxygen is studied using laser ignition and several analytical techniques. These were high-speed color cinematography, time and space resolved spectra in the visible region, metallography (including SEM) of specimens quenched in argon gas, X-ray and chemical product analyses, and a new optical technique, the Hilbert transform method. The cinematographic application of this technique for visualizing phase objects in the combustion zone is described. The results indicate an initial vapor phase reaction immediately adjacent to the molten surface but as the oxygen uptake progresses the evaporation approaches the point of congruency and a much reduced evaporation rate. This and the accumulation of the various soluble oxides soon drive the reaction zone below the surface where gas formation causes boiling and ejection of particles. The buildup of rutile cuts off the oxygen supply and the reaction ceases.

  17. ENHANCED COMBUSTION WOODSTOVE (ECW) TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses Enhanced Combustion Woodstove (ECW) technology, developed by EPA in response to the field observation that woodstoves certified by EPA as being clean burning were not achieving the level of emission control "seen" in laboratory tests. ts development was also i...

  18. Quantitative measurement of oxygen in microgravity combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Joel A.

    1995-01-01

    This research combines two innovations in an experimental system which should result in a new capability for quantitative, nonintrusive measurement of major combustion species. Using a newly available vertical cavity surface-emitting diode laser (VCSEL) and an improved spatial scanning method, we plan to measure the temporal and spatial profiles of the concentrations and temperatures of molecular oxygen in a candle flame and in a solid fuel (cellulose sheet) system. The required sensitivity for detecting oxygen is achieved by the use of high frequency wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). Measurements will be performed in the NASA Lewis 2.2-second Drop Tower Facility. The objective of this research is twofold. First, we want to develop a better understanding of the relative roles of diffusion and reaction of oxygen in microgravity combustion. As the primary oxidizer species, oxygen plays a major role in controlling the observed properties of flames, including flame front speed (in solid or liquid flames), extinguishment characteristics, flame size, and flame temperature. The second objective is to develop better diagnostics based on diode laser absorption which can be of real value in microgravity combustion research. We will also demonstrate diode lasers' potential usefulness for compact, intrinsically-safe monitoring sensors aboard spacecraft. Such sensors could be used to monitor any of the major cabin gases as well as important pollutants.

  19. Test Would Quantify Combustion Oxygen From Different Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapphorn, Ralph M.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed isotope-enrichment scheme enables determination of contributions of dual sources of oxygen for combustion. Liquid oxygen or other artificial stream enriched with O(18) to about 1 percent by weight. Combustion products analyzed by mass spectrometer to measure relative abundances of H2O(18) and H2O(16). From relative abundances of water products measured, one computes relative contribution of oxygen extracted from stream compared to other source of oxygen in combustion process. Used to determine contributions of natural oxygen in air and liquid oxygen supplied in separate stream mixed with air or sent directly into combustion chamber.

  20. Bimetallic Fe-Ni Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Bhavsar, Saurabh; Veser, Goetz

    2013-11-06

    The relative abundance, low cost, and low toxicity of iron make Fe-based oxygen carriers of great interest for chemical looping combustion (CLC), an emerging technology for clean and efficient combustion of fossil and renewable fuels. However, Fe also shows much lower reactivity than other metals (such as Ni and Cu). Here, we demonstrate strong improvement of Fe-based carriers by alloying the metal phase with Ni. Through a combination of carrier synthesis and characterization with thermogravimetric and fixed-bed reactor studies, we demonstrate that the addition of Ni results in a significant enhancement in activity as well as an increase in selectivity for total oxidation. Furthermore, comparing alumina and ceria as support materials highlights the fact that reducible supports can result in a strong increase in oxygen carrier utilization.

  1. Quantitative Measurement of Oxygen in Microgravity Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Joel A.

    1997-01-01

    A low-gravity environment, in space or in ground-based facilities such as drop towers, provides a unique setting for studying combustion mechanisms. Understanding the physical phenomena controlling the ignition and spread of flames in microgravity has importance for space safety as well as for better characterization of dynamical and chemical combustion processes which are normally masked by buoyancy and other gravity-related effects. Due to restrictions associated with performing measurements in reduced gravity, diagnostic methods which have been applied to microgravity combustion studies have generally been limited to capture of flame emissions on film or video, laser Schlieren imaging and (intrusive) temperature measurements using thermocouples. Given the development of detailed theoretical models, more sophisticated diagnostic methods are needed to provide the kind of quantitative data necessary to characterize the properties of microgravity combustion processes as well as provide accurate feedback to improve the predictive capabilities of the models. When the demands of space flight are considered, the need for improved diagnostic systems which are rugged, compact, reliable, and operate at low power becomes apparent. The objective of this research is twofold. First, we want to develop a better understanding of the relative roles of diffusion and reaction of oxygen in microgravity combustion. As the primary oxidizer species, oxygen plays a major role in controlling the observed properties of flames, including flame front speed (in solid or liquid flames), extinguishment characteristics, flame size and flame temperature. The second objective is to develop better diagnostics based on diode laser absorption which can be of real value in both microgravity combustion research and as a sensor on-board Spacelab as either an air quality monitor or as part of a fire detection system. In our prior microgravity work, an eight line-of-sight fiber optic system measured water vapor mole fractions in the NASA Lewis 2.2-sec Drop Tower. In that system, the laser and all electronics resided at the top of the drop tower and was connected via a fiber optic cable to the rig, on which a 'pitch and catch' set of fiber collimating lenses were used to transmit the laser beam across a jet diffusion flame. This system required eight independent detection/demodulation units and had poor spatial resolution. This research builds on this earlier work, resulting in an improved capability for quantitative, nonintrusive measurement of major combustion species. A vertical cavity surface-emitting diode laser (VCSEL) and a continuous spatial scanning method permit the measurement of temporal and spatial profiles of the concentrations and temperatures of molecular oxygen. High detection sensitivity is achieved with wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). One-g experiments are performed using a slot diffusion flame. Microgravity measurements on a solid fuel (cellulose sheet) system are planned for the NASA Lewis 2.2-second Drop Tower Facility.

  2. Low NOx combustion using cogenerated oxygen and nitrogen streams

    DOEpatents

    Kobayashi, Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY); Bool, Lawrence E. (East Aurora, NY); Snyder, William J. (Ossining, NY)

    2009-02-03

    Combustion of hydrocarbon fuel is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding the fuel into a slightly oxygen-enriched atmosphere, and separating air into oxygen-rich and nitrogen-rich streams which are fed separately into the combustion device.

  3. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    2005-09-30

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  4. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1997-10-31

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  5. Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NO{sub x} emissions below 5{times}10{sup -3} g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O{sub 2} dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300{degree}F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in- furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, with increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, requires additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

  6. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.F.

    2003-04-30

    Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations are critical. DOC technology will continue to have a highly competitive role in retrofit applications requiring increases in furnace productivity.

  7. Gasdynamic enhancement of nonpremixed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, F.E.

    1994-12-31

    To promote efficient performance of very high speed air-breathing propulsion systems, the combustor Mach number must be of the order of six for a flight Mach number of 18. Because of this high gas speed through the combustor, mixing rates of hydrogen fuel with air must be very rapid in order to allow a combustor of reasonable length. It is proposed to enhance the rate of mixing and combustion of hydrogen and air, and thereby reduce combustor length, through the introduction of streamwise vorticity generated by the interaction of a weak oblique shock wave with the density gradient between air and a cylindrical jet of hydrogen. Because of the high Mach number flow in the combustor, the oblique shock traverses the jet at a small angle with respect to the free stream direction, and the principle of slender body theory allows one conceptually to replace the three-dimensional steady flow with a two-dimensional unsteady flow. As a consequence, two-dimensional time-dependent computational studies and an extensive experimental shock tube investigation were employed to assess mixing rates for the steady flow in the combustor. The results indicated that under realistic conditions, adequate mixing could be accomplished within 1 ms, a rate that was technologically interesting. Encouraged by these experiments, a ``practical`` injector, utilizing shock-enhanced mixing, was designed for a combustor having a free stream Mach number of 6.0. A detailed aerodynamic and mixing investigation was carried out in the Mach 6 High Reynolds Number Tunnel at the NASA-Langley Research Center. The results confirmed both the details and the overall effectiveness of the shock-enhanced mixing concept.

  8. The combustion kinetics of coal chars in oxygen-enriched environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaddix, Christopher R.; Murphy, Jeffrey J.

    2004-09-01

    Oxygen-enhanced and oxygen-fired pulverized coal combustion is actively being investigated to achieve emission reductions and reductions in flue gas cleanup costs, as well as for coal-bed methane and enhanced oil recovery applications. To fully understand the results of pilot scale tests and to accurately predict scale-up performance through CFD modeling, accurate rate expressions are needed to describe coal char combustion under these unconventional combustion conditions. In the work reported here, the combustion rates of two pulverized coal chars have been measured in both conventional and oxygen-enriched atmospheres. A combustion-driven entrained flow reactor equipped with an optical particle-sizing pyrometry diagnostic and a rapid-quench sampling probe has been used for this investigation. Highvale subbituminous coal and a high-volatile eastern United States bituminous coal have been investigated, over oxygen concentrations ranging from 6 to 36 mol% and gas temperatures of 1320-1800 K. The results from these experiments demonstrate that pulverized coal char particles burn under increasing kinetic control in elevated oxygen environments, despite their higher burning rates in these environments. Empirical fits to the data have been successfully performed over the entire range of oxygen concentrations using a single-film oxidation model. Both a simple nth-order Arrhenius expression and an nth-order Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic equation provide good fits to the data. Local fits of the nth-order Arrhenius expression to the oxygen-enriched and oxygen-depleted data produce lower residuals in comparison to fits of the entire dataset. These fits demonstrate that the apparent reaction order varies from 0.1 under near-diffusion-limit oxygen-depleted conditions to 0.5 under oxygen-enriched conditions. Burnout predictions show good agreement with measurements. Predicted char particle temperatures tend to be low for combustion in oxygen-depleted environments.

  9. ENHANCED SO3 EMISSIONS FROM STAGED COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an experimental study to determine if staged combustion can increase (enhance) the SO3 level in a combustion gas, relative to that observed in a similar single-stage process. Methane flames doped with H2S were used to examine the staging effects, emplo...

  10. Engine valve actuation for combustion enhancement

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Rutland, Christopher J.; Jhavar, Rahul

    2008-03-04

    A combustion chamber valve, such as an intake valve or an exhaust valve, is briefly opened during the compression and/or power strokes of a 4-strokes combustion cycle in an internal combustion engine (in particular, a diesel or CI engine). The brief opening may (1) enhance mixing withing the combustion chamber, allowing more complete oxidation of particulates to decrease engine emissions; and/or may (2) delay ignition until a more desirable time, potentially allowing a means of timing ignition in otherwise difficult-to-control conditions, e.g., in HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) conditions.

  11. Engine Valve Actuation For Combustion Enhancement

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Rutland, Christopher J.; Jhavar, Rahul

    2004-05-18

    A combustion chamber valve, such as an intake valve or an exhaust valve, is briefly opened during the compression and/or power strokes of a 4-stroke combustion cycle in an internal combustion engine (in particular, a diesel or CI engine). The brief opening may (1) enhance mixing withing the combustion chamber, allowing more complete oxidation of particulates to decrease engine emissions; and/or may (2) delay ignition until a more desirable time, potentially allowing a means of timing ignition in otherwise difficult-to-control conditions, e.g., in HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) conditions.

  12. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: THE PYRETRON OXYGEN BURNER, AMERICAN COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pyretron is a burner which is designed to allow for the injection of oxygen into the combustion air stream for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of a hazardous waste incinerator. The SITE demonstration of the Pyretron took place at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Re...

  13. Ignition and combustion of metals in oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, Frank J.; Zhu, S.

    1987-01-01

    Tests in which metals were rubbed against themselves in oxygen have revealed that increasing oxygen pressure does not always increase the potential for ignition. It is believed that there exists a specific pressure above which convective heat loss due to higher oxygen density will overcome the potential increase in the oxidation rate afforded by the increase in oxygen pressure. Test results have shown that, once a specific oxygen pressure is exceeded, greater rates of frictional energy were required for ignition of metals as pressure is increased. Other test results have indicated that as oxygen pressure is increased during the rubbing process, the bulk sample equilibrium temperatures decrease. These results support the belief that increases in convective heat loss as pressure is increased can raise the energy requirements for ignition of metals or lower their ignition potentials. Testing has also indicated that, when metals were exposed to a rubbing process and oxygen pressure was increased, metals such as carbon steel exhibited a decrease in their bulk ignition temperatures, whereas metals such as Monel showed bulk ignition temperatures independent of pressure.

  14. Effects of oxygen dissociation on hypervelocity combustion experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakos, R. J.; Morgan, R. G.; Tamagno, J.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of a comparative experimental study conducted to measure the effects of the test gas oxygen dissociation produced in reflected shock tunnels on hypervelocity combustion. An identical combustor model was tested in a reflected shock tunnel with test gas containing about 50 pct by mass of oxygen in dissociated form, as either nitric oxide or atomic oxygen, and in an expansion tube with test gas having negligible dissociated oxygen. Comparisons are made at two test conditions that are energy equivalent to flight conditions at Mach 13.5 and 17.

  15. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-08-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  16. Combustion Enhancement with a Silent Discharge Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosocha, Louis

    2003-10-01

    It is well known that the application of an external electric field to a flame can affect its propagation speed, stability, and combustion chemistry (Lawton & Weinberg 1969). External electrodes, arc discharges, and plasma jets have been employed to allow combustible gas mixtures to operate outside their flammability limits by gas heating, injection of free radicals, and field-promoted flame stabilization (Yagodnikov & Voronetskii 1994). Other investigators have carried out experiments with silent electrical discharges applied to propagating flames (Inomata et al 1983, Kim et al 2003). These have demonstrated that the flame propagation velocity is actually decreased (combustion retarded) when a silent discharge is applied directly to the flame region, but that the flame propagation velocity is increased (combustion promoted) when a silent discharge is applied to the unburned gas mixture upstream of a flame. Two other recent works have considered the possibility of combustion enhancement in aircraft gas turbine engine combustor mixers by using a plasma-generating fuel nozzle, that employs an electric-arc or microwave plasma generator, to produce dissociated fuel or ionized fuel (Johnson et al 2001); and pulsed corona-enhanced detonation of fuel-air mixtures in jet engines (Wang et al 2003). In contrast to these prior works, we have employed a silent discharge plasma (SDP) reactor to break up large fuel molecules into smaller molecules and create free radicals or other active species in a gas stream before the fuel is mixed with an oxidizer and combusted. In experiments reported here, a cylindrical SDP reactor was used to 'activate' propane before mixing it with air and igniting the combustible gas mixture. With the plasma, the physical appearance of the flame changes and substantial changes in mass spectrometer fragmentation peaks are observed (e.g., propane fragments decrease and water and carbon dioxide increase). This indicates that the combustion process is enhanced with the application of the plasma. Results of changes in the degree of combustion will be discussed in terms of variations in the plasma specific energy.

  17. Research on ignition and combustion in oxygen systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    The work on ignition and combustion research in oxygen systems under the sponsorship of NASA's Aerospace Safety Research and Data Institute is described. Preliminary results of ignition of nonmetallic materials by electric arc and mechanical impact are presented. Ignition by a resonant process involving repeated shock waves has been demonstrated and some of the results included. In addition, results of studies concerned with ignition due to the rapid rupture of metal films and diaphragms are reviewed. Burning rate studies of three nonmetallic materials in oxygen enriched environments were completed and the results presented. A brief description of these combustion studies under zero gravity is also included. These results are compared to combustion under one gravity.

  18. Simulation and experiment for oxygen-enriched combustion engine using liquid oxygen to solidify CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Jia, Xiaoshe; Pei, Pucheng; Lu, Yong; Yi, Li; Shi, Yan

    2016-01-01

    For capturing and recycling of CO2 in the internal combustion engine, Rankle cycle engine can reduce the exhaust pollutants effectively under the condition of ensuring the engine thermal efficiency by using the techniques of spraying water in the cylinder and optimizing the ignition advance angle. However, due to the water spray nozzle need to be installed on the cylinder, which increases the cylinder head design difficulty and makes the combustion conditions become more complicated. In this paper, a new method is presented to carry out the closing inlet and exhaust system for internal combustion engines. The proposed new method uses liquid oxygen to solidify part of cooled CO2 from exhaust system into dry ice and the liquid oxygen turns into gas oxygen which is sent to inlet system. The other part of CO2 is sent to inlet system and mixed with oxygen, which can reduce the oxygen-enriched combustion detonation tendency and make combustion stable. Computing grid of the IP52FMI single-cylinder four-stroke gasoline-engine is established according to the actual shape of the combustion chamber using KIVA-3V program. The effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate are analyzed on the temperatures, the pressures and the instantaneous heat release rates when the EGR rate is more than 8%. The possibility of enclosing intake and exhaust system for engine is verified. The carbon dioxide trapping device is designed and the IP52FMI engine is transformed and the CO2 capture experiment is carried out. The experimental results show that when the EGR rate is 36% for the optimum EGR rate. When the liquid oxygen of 35.80-437.40 g is imported into the device and last 1-20 min, respectively, 21.50-701.30 g dry ice is obtained. This research proposes a new design method which can capture CO2 for vehicular internal combustion engine.

  19. Characteristics of non-premixed oxygen-enhanced combustion: II. Flame structure effects on soot precursor kinetics resulting in soot-free flames

    SciTech Connect

    Skeen, S.A.; Axelbaum, R.L.; Yablonsky, G.

    2010-09-15

    A detailed computational study was performed to understand the effects of the flame structure on the formation and destruction of soot precursors during ethylene combustion. Using the USC Mech Version II mechanism the contributions of different pathways to the formation of benzene and phenyl were determined in a wide domain of Z{sub st} values via a reverse-pathway analysis. It was shown that for conventional ethylene-air flames two sequential reversible reactions play primary roles in the propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) chemistry, namely (1) C{sub 2}H{sub 2}+CH{sub 3}= pC{sub 3} H{sub 4}+H, (2) pC{sub 3} H{sub 4}= C{sub 3} H{sub 3}+ H with the corresponding overall endothermic reaction of propargyl formation (3) C{sub 2} H{sub 2}+CH{sub 3}= C{sub 3} H{sub 3}+2H. The contributions of these reactions to propyne (pC{sub 3}H{sub 4}) and propargyl formation and propargyl self-combination leading to benzene and phenyl were studied as a function of physical position, temperature, Z{sub st}, and H concentration. In particular, the role of H radicals on soot precursor destruction was studied in detail. At low Z{sub st}, Reactions 1 and 2 contribute significantly to propyne and propargyl formation on the fuel side of the radical pool at temperatures greater than approx. 1600 K. At higher local temperatures near the radical pool where the concentration of H is significant, the reverse reactions begin to dominate resulting in soot precursor destruction. As Z{sub st} is increased, these regions merge and only net propargyl consumption is observed. Based on the equilibrium constant of Reaction 3, a Z{sub st} value was estimated above which the rate of propargyl formation as a soot precursor is greatly reduced (Z{sub st} = 0.3). This condition compares well with the experimental results for permanently blue counterflow flames in the literature. (author)

  20. Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study. Phase 2: 100 percent oxygen enriched combustion in regenerative glass melters, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tuson, G.B.; Kobayashi, H.; Campbell, M.J.

    1994-08-01

    The field test project described in this report was conducted to evaluate the energy and environmental performance of 100% oxygen enriched combustion (100% OEC) in regenerative glass melters. Additional objectives were to determine other impacts of 100% OEC on melter operation and glass quality, and to verify on a commercial scale that an on-site Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant can reliably supply oxygen for glass melting with low electrical power consumption. The tests constituted Phase 2 of a cooperative project between the United States Department of Energy, and Praxair, Inc. Phase 1 of the project involved market and technical feasibility assessments of oxygen enriched combustion for a range of high temperature industrial heating applications. An assessment of oxygen supply options for these applications was also performed during Phase 1, which included performance evaluation of a pilot scale 1 ton per day PSA oxygen plant. Two regenerative container glass melters were converted to 100% OEC operation and served as host sites for Phase 2. A 75 ton per day end-fired melter at Carr-Lowrey Glass Company in Baltimore, Maryland, was temporarily converted to 100% OEC in mid- 1990. A 350 tpd cross-fired melter at Gallo Glass Company in Modesto, California was rebuilt for permanent commercial operation with 100% OEC in mid-1991. Initially, both of these melters were supplied with oxygen from liquid storage. Subsequently, in late 1992, a Pressure Swing Adsorption oxygen plant was installed at Gallo to supply oxygen for 100% OEC glass melting. The particular PSA plant design used at Gallo achieves maximum efficiency by cycling the adsorbent beds between pressurized and evacuated states, and is therefore referred to as a Vacuum/Pressure Swing Adsorption (VPSA) plant.

  1. Combustion of coal chars in oxygen-enriched atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Bejarano, P.A.; Levendis, Y.A.

    2007-07-01

    This work pertains to the high-temperature combustion of pulverized coal chars under oxygen-enriched atmospheres. Single char particles were burned in a drop-tube furnace, electrically-heated to 1300-1500 K, in 21%, 50% and 100% O{sub 2}, in a balance of N{sub 2}. Their luminous combustion histories were observed with two-color ratio pyrometry. A solution of the Planckian ratio-pyrometry equation for temperature was implemented, extending on Wien's approximation. The temperature and time histories for 45-53 {mu}m bituminous chars experienced wide particle-to-particle disparity, and varied depending on oxygen mole fraction and furnace temperature. Average char surface temperatures increased from 1600-1800 K in air, to 2100-2300 K in 50% O-2, to 2300-2400 K in 100% O{sub 2}, at gas temperatures of 1300-1500 K, respectively. Combustion durations decreased from 25-45 ms in air, to 8-17 ms in 50% O{sub 2}, to 6-13 in 100% O{sub 2}. Thus, average particle temperatures increased by up to 45%, whereas burnout times decreased by up to 87% as combustion was progressively enriched in O{sub 2} until 100% was attained. The apparent and intrinsic reactivity of the chars burning at 1500 K gas temperature were found to increase by factors of to 8 and 35, respectively, as the oxygen mole fraction increased by a factor of five, from 21% to 100%.

  2. Kinetics of Coal Char Combustion in Oxygen-Enriched Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czakiert, T.; Nowak, W.

    The influence of oxygen-enriched gaseous atmosphere on coal char combustion was studied. Two different coals, i.e. lignite and bituminous coal, were used as a basic fuel and the reacting gases of oxygen & CO2 were used to simulate flue gas recirculation. Moreover, a broad range of in-furnace conditions, i.e. five temperatures of 873, 973, 1073, 1173, 1273K and five oxygen concentrations of 20, 40, 60, 80, 100%vol., was investigated. Thermogravimetric method of measurement was employed to obtain the processing data on fuel conversion rate under foregoing investigated conditions. For further calculations, simplified Shrinking-Core Model was introduced. Finally, fundamental kinetic parameters, i.e. pre-exponential factor, activation energy and reaction order, were established and then on the basis of their values reaction-controlling regime for coal char combustion in oxygen-enriched environment was predicted. The investigations, financially supported by Polish Government, are a part of Framework Project "Supercritical Coal-fired Power Units".

  3. Powdered aluminum and oxygen rocket propellants: Subscale combustion experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Mike L.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum combined with oxygen has been proposed as a potential lunar in situ propellant for ascent/descent and return missions for future lunar exploration. Engine concepts proposed to use this propellant have not previously been demonstrated, and the impact on performance from combustion and two-phase flow losses could only be estimated. Therefore, combustion tests were performed for aluminum and aluminum/magnesium alloy powders with oxygen in subscale heat-sink rocket engine hardware. The metal powder was pneumatically injected, with a small amount of nitrogen, through the center orifice of a single element O-F-O triplet injector. Gaseous oxygen impinged on the fuel stream. Hot-fire tests of aluminum/oxygen were performed over a mixture ratio range of 0.5 to 3.0, and at a chamber pressure of approximately 480 kPa (70 psia). The theoretical performance of the propellants was analyzed over a mixture ratio range of 0.5 to 5.0. In the theoretical predictions the ideal one-dimensional equilibrium rocket performance was reduced by loss mechanisms including finite rate kinetics, two-dimensional divergence losses, and boundary layer losses. Lower than predicted characteristic velocity and specific impulse performance efficiencies were achieved in the hot-fire tests, and this was attributed to poor mixing of the propellants and two-phase flow effects. Several tests with aluminum/9.8 percent magnesium alloy powder did not indicate any advantage over the pure aluminum fuel.

  4. Infrared multiphoton ignition and enhancement of combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lavid, M.; Poulos, A.T.

    1986-08-01

    The research demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining reliable ignition and enhancement of combustion by a novel concept, Infrared Multiphoton Absorption/Dissociation (IRMPA/IRMPD). A methanol-oxygen system was chosen to test this concept because methanol is a potential alternative fuel susceptible to IRMPD. Multiphoton absorption, dissociation, and ignition experiments were conducted in closed pyrex reaction cells with IR-transmitting NaCl windows. Various pressures of pure methanol and methanol-oxygen mixtures were irradiated with single pulses from a TEA CO/sub 2/ laser usually tuned at 10.33 micrometers and focused to fluences in the range 1-80 J/cm2. Temporal and spatial ignition behaviors were investigated and successful ignitions were obtained by multiphoton absorption processes. The research scope was expanded to include a second alcohol, 2-propanol.

  5. REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSION FROM COAL COMBUSTION THROUGH OXYGEN ENRICHMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Western Research Institute

    2006-07-01

    BOC Process Gas Solutions and Western Research Institute (WRI) conducted a pilot-scale test program to evaluate the impact of oxygen enrichment on the emissions characteristics of pulverized coal. The combustion test facility (CTF) at WRI was used to assess the viability of the technique and determine the quantities of oxygen required for NOx reduction from coal fired boiler. In addition to the experimental work, a series of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were made of the CTF under comparable conditions. A series of oxygen enrichment test was performed using the CTF. In these tests, oxygen was injected into one of the following streams: (1) the primary air (PA), (2) the secondary air (SA), and (3) the combined primary and secondary air. Emission data were collected from all tests, and compared with the corresponding data from the baseline cases. A key test parameter was the burner stoichiometry ratio. A series of CFD simulation models were devised to mimic the initial experiments in which secondary air was enriched with oxygen. The results from these models were compared against the experimental data. Experimental evidence indicated that oxygen enrichment does appear to be able to reduce NOx levels from coal combustion, especially when operated at low over fire air (OFA) levels. The reductions observed however are significantly smaller than that reported by others (7-8% vs. 25-50%), questioning the economic viability of the technique. This technique may find favor with fuels that are difficult to burn or stabilize at high OFA and produce excessive LOI. While CFD simulation appears to predict NO amounts in the correct order of magnitude and the correct trend with staging, it is sensitive to thermal conditions and an accurate thermal prediction is essential. Furthermore, without development, Fluent's fuel-NO model cannot account for a solution sensitive fuel-N distribution between volatiles and char and thus cannot predict the trends seen in the experiment.

  6. Polymer-Oxygen Compatibility Testing: Effect of Oxygen Aging on Ignition and Combustion Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Haas, Jon P.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The oxygen compatibility of six polymers used in oxygen service was evaluated after exposure for 48 hours to oxygen pressures ranging from 350 to 6200 kPa (50 to 900 psia), and temperatures ranging from 50 to 250 C (122 to 302 F). Three elastomers were tested: CR rubber (C873-70), FKM fluorocarbon rubber (Viton A), and MPQ silicone rubber (MIL-ZZ-765, Class 2); and three thermoplastics were tested: polyhexamethylene adipamide (Zytel 42), polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon TFE), and polychlorotrifluoroethylene (Neoflon CTFE M400H). Post-aging changes in mass, dimensions, tensile strength, elongation at break, and durometer hardness were determined. Also, the compression set was determined for the three elastomers. Results show that the properties under investigation were more sensitive to oxygen pressure at low to moderate temperatures, and more sensitive to temperature at low to moderate oxygen pressures. Inspection of the results also suggested that both chain scissioning and cross-linking processes were operative, consistent with heterogeneous oxidation. Attempts are underway to verify conclusively the occurrence of heterogeneous oxidation using a simple modulus profiling technique. Finally, the effect of aging at 620 kpa (90 psia) and 121 C (250 F) on ignition and combustion resistance was determined. As expected, aged polymers were less ignitable and combustible (had higher AlTs and lower heats of combustion). Special attention was given to Neoflon CTFE. More specifically, the effect of process history (compression versus extrusion molding) and percent crystallinity (quick- versus slow-quenched) on the AIT, heat of combustion, and impact sensitivity of Neoflon CTFE was investigated. Results show the AIT, heat of combustion, and impact sensitivity to be essentially independent of Neoflon CTFE process history and structure.

  7. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Diesel Combustion with Oxygenated Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Curran, H J; Fisher, E M; Glaude, P-A; Marinov, N M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Flynn, P F; Durrett, R P; zur Loye, A O; Akinyemi, O C; Dryer, F L

    2000-01-11

    Emission standards for diesel engines in vehicles have been steadily reduced in recent years, and a great deal of research and development effort has been focused on reducing particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions. One promising approach to reducing emissions involves the addition of oxygen to the fuel, generally by adding an oxygenated compound to the normal diesel fuel. Miyamoto et al. [1] showed experimentally that particulate levels can be significantly reduced by adding oxygenated species to the fuel. They found the Bosch smoke number (a measure of the particulate or soot levels in diesel exhaust) falls from about 55% for conventional diesel fuel to less than 1% when the oxygen content of the fuel is above about 25% by mass, as shown in Figure 1. It has been well established that addition of oxygenates to automotive fuel, including both diesel fuel as well as gasoline, reduces NOx and CO emissions by reducing flame temperatures. This is the basis for addition of oxygenates to produce reformulated gasoline in selected portions of the country. Of course, this is also accompanied by a slight reduction in fuel economy. A new overall picture of diesel combustion has been developed by Dec [2], in which laser diagnostic studies identified stages in diesel combustion that had not previously been recognized. These stages are summarized in Figure 2. The evolution of the diesel spray is shown, starting as a liquid jet that vaporizes and entrains hot air from the combustion chamber. This relatively steady process continues as long as fuel is being injected. In particular, Dec showed that the fuel spray vaporizes and mixes with air and products of earlier combustion to provide a region in which a gas phase, premixed fuel-rich ignition and burn occurs. The products of this ignition are then observed experimentally to lead rapidly to formation of soot particles, which subsequently are consumed in a diffusion flame. Recently, Flynn et al. [3] used a chemical kinetic and mixing model to study the premixed, rich ignition process. Using n-heptane as a representative diesel fuel, they showed that addition of an oxygenated additive, methanol, to the fuel reduced the concentrations of a number of hydrocarbon species in the products of the rich ignition. Specifically, methanol addition reduced the total concentrations of acetylene, ethylene and 1,3-butadiene, as well as propargyl and vinyl radicals, in the ignition products. These are the same species shown in a number of studies [4-6] to be responsible for formation of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic species in flames, species which lead eventually to production of soot. Flynn et al. did not, however, examine the kinetic processes responsible for the computed reduction in production of soot precursor species. At least two hypotheses have been advanced to explain the role that oxygenated species play in diesel ignition and the reduction in the concentrations of these species. The first is that the additive, methanol in the case of Flynn et al., does not contain any C-C bonds and cannot then produce significant levels of the species such as acetylene, ethylene or the unsaturated radicals which are known to lead to aromatic species. The second hypothesis is that the product distribution changes very naturally as oxygen is added and the overall equivalence ratio is reduced. In the present study, we repeat the ignition calculations of Flynn et al. and include a number of other oxygenated species to determine which of these theories is more applicable to this model.

  8. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

    2006-09-30

    For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing firing system technologies do not provide a means to meet current or anticipated regulations absent the use of an SCR. The DOE/ALSTOM program performed large pilot scale combustion testing in ALSTOM's Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut. During this work, the near-field combustion environment was optimized to maximize NOx reduction while minimizing the impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down under globally reducing conditions. Initially, ALSTOM utilized computational fluid dynamic modeling to evaluate a series of burner and/or near field stoichiometry controls in order to screen promising design concepts in advance of the large pilot scale testing. The third and final test, to be executed, will utilize several variants of the best nozzle tip configuration and compare performance with 3 different coals. The fuels to be tested will cover a wide range of coals commonly fired at US utilities. The completion of this work will provide sufficient data to allow ALSTOM to design, construct, and demonstrate a commercial version of an enhanced combustion low NOx pulverized coal burner. A preliminary cost/performance analysis of the developed enhanced combustion low NOx burner applied to ALSTOM's state-of-the-art TFS 2000 firing system was performed to show that the burner enhancements is a cost effective means to reduce NOx.

  9. Modeling the effects of late cycle oxygen enrichment on diesel engine combustion and emissions.

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, D. K.; Foster, D. E.; Poola, R. B.; Longman, D. E.; Chanda, A.; Vachon, T. J.

    2002-02-28

    A multidimensional simulation of Auxiliary Gas Injection (AGI) for late cycle oxygen enrichment was exercised to assess the merits of AGI for reducing the emissions of soot from heavy duty diesel engines while not adversely affecting the NO{sub x} emissions of the engine. Here, AGI is the controlled enhancement of mixing within the diesel engine combustion chamber by high speed jets of air or another gas. The engine simulated was a Caterpillar 3401 engine. For a particular operating condition of this engine, the simulated soot emissions of the engine were reduced by 80% while not significantly affecting the engine-out NO{sub x} emissions compared to the engine operating without AGI. The effects of AGI duration, timing, and orientation are studied to confirm the window of opportunity for realizing lower engine-out soot while not increasing engine out NO{sub x} through controlled enhancement of in-cylinder mixing. These studies have shown that this window occurs during the late combustion cycle, from 20 to 60 crank angle degrees after top-dead-center. During this time, the combustion chamber temperatures are sufficiently high that soot oxidation increases in response in increased mixing, but the temperature is low enough that NO{sub x} reactions are quenched. The effect of the oxygen composition of the injected air is studied for the range of compositions between 21% and 30% oxygen by volume. This is the range of oxygen enrichment that is practical to produce from an air separation membrane. Simulations showed that this level of oxygen enrichment is insufficient to provide an additional benefit by either increasing the level of soot oxidation or prolonging the window of opportunity for increasing soot oxidation through enhanced mixing.

  10. Methanol Droplet Combustion in Oxygen-Inert Environments in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayagam, Vedha; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Hicks, Michael C.; Williams, Forman A.

    2013-01-01

    The Flame Extinguishment (FLEX) experiment that is currently underway in the Combustion Integrated Rack facility onboard the International Space Station is aimed at understanding the effects of inert diluents on the flammability of condensed phase fuels. To this end, droplets of various fuels, including alkanes and alcohols, are burned in a quiescent microgravity environment with varying amounts of oxygen and inert diluents to determine the limiting oxygen index (LOI) for these fuels. In this study we report experimental observations of methanol droplets burning in oxygen-nitrogen-carbon dioxide and oxygen-nitrogen-helium gas mixtures at 0.7 and 1 atmospheric pressures. The initial droplet size varied between approximately 1.5 mm and 4 mm to capture both diffusive extinction brought about by insufficient residence time at the flame and radiative extinction caused by excessive heat loss from the flame zone. The ambient oxygen concentration varied from a high value of 30% by volume to as low as 12%, approaching the limiting oxygen index for the fuel. The inert dilution by carbon dioxide and helium varied over a range of 0% to 70% by volume. In these experiments, both freely floated and tethered droplets were ignited using symmetrically opposed hot-wire igniters and the burning histories were recorded onboard using digital cameras, downlinked later to the ground for analysis. The digital images yielded droplet and flame diameters as functions of time and subsequently droplet burning rate, flame standoff ratio, and initial and extinction droplet diameters. Simplified theoretical models correlate the measured burning rate constant and the flame standoff ratio reasonably well. An activation energy asymptotic theory accounting for time-dependent water dissolution or evaporation from the droplet is shown to predict the measured diffusive extinction conditions well. The experiments also show that the limiting oxygen index for methanol in these diluent gases is around 12% to 13% oxygen by volume.

  11. Kinetic mechanism of combustion of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, G. Ya.; Shatalov, O. P.

    2013-09-01

    Based on the analysis of the databases published in the scientific literature and concerned with the reaction rate constants in the H2/O2 system, a new kinetic mechanism is suggested for describing the processes of ignition, combustion, and detonation in hydrogen-oxygen gaseous mixtures. Attention is mainly focused on consideration of a low-temperature region ( T < 1000 K) where a chain of reactions of the formation and subsequent decomposition of hydrogen peroxide plays the major role in the system ignition. The proposed mechanism has been tested by comparing computational results with available data on measurement of the ignition-delay time in shock tubes.

  12. Simulation of the Combustion of Thin Iron Rods in Oxygen in the Adiabatic Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabunya, S. I.; Martynenko, V. V.; Ignatenko, V. I.; Rostaing, J.-Ch.

    2014-11-01

    A mathematical model of the combustion of a thin iron rod in the atmosphere of oxygen with no forced air flow around it has been constructed. This model includes an adjustment parameter that relates the rate of combustion of the rod with its diameter and the content of oxygen. The problem on the combustion of a thin iron rod in oxygen was solved analytically in the adiabatic approximation. The results of calculations were compared with the corresponding experimental data.

  13. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to behave in-between the subbituminous coal and the Midwest bituminous coal. CFD modeling was used to gain insight into the mechanisms governing nozzle tip performance with respect to NOx emissions. The CFD simulations were run as steady state, turbulent, non-reacting flow with heat transfer and focused on predicting the near field mixing and particle dispersion rates. CFD results were used to refine the proposed tip concepts before they were built, as well as to help identify and evaluate possible improvements to the tips for subsequent test weeks.

  14. Thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of gaseous products resulting from combustion of methane-air-oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Results of calculations to determine thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of combustion product gases are presented. The product gases are those resulting from combustion of methane-air-oxygen and methane-oxygen mixtures. The oxygen content of products resulting from the combustion of methane-air-oxygen mixtures was similiar to that of air; however, the oxygen contained in products of methane-oxygen combustion ranged from 20 percent by volume to zero for stoichiometric combustion. Calculations were made for products of reactant mixtures with fuel percentages, by mass, of 7.5 to 20. Results are presented for specific mixtures for a range of pressures varying from 0.0001 to 1,000 atm and for temperatures ranging from 200 to 3,800 K.

  15. An investigation of plasma enhanced combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woo Kyung

    This study examines the use of plasma discharges in flame stabilization. Three different types of plasma discharges are applied to a lifted jet diffusion flame in coflow, and evaluated for their abilities to enhance flame stabilization. A single electrode corona discharge (SECD) is found to maintain the flame at a 20 % higher coflow speed than that without the discharge. A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) results in flame stabilization at up to 50 % higher coflow speed. Finally, an ultra short-pulsed repetitive discharge (USRD) is found to increase the stability limit by nearly ten-fold. The stabilization process is sensitive to the positioning of the discharge in the flow field, and the optimal position of the discharge is mapped into mixture fraction space. The result shows that the local mixture fraction at the optimal position is much leaner than that of a conventional lifted jet flame. Parametric studies are conducted in a plasma-assisted methane/air premixed flame system using USRD. Criteria for optimal electrode selection are suggested. Platinum provides the best result at low frequency operation (< 20 kHz) but tungsten shows better performance at high frequency operation (> 20 kHz). The increase in the flame stability limit is also investigated. The flame stability limit extends from an equivalence ratio of 0.7 to 0.47. Nitric oxide (NO) concentration in the premixed flame is measured. The discharge is a potential source of NO. Under certain conditions, we observed the presence of a cold pre-flame, located between the discharge and the main flame. It is found that the pre-flame partially consumes some NO. The flame kernel structure and ignition mechanism of plasma-assisted premixed combustion are discussed. It is observed that the pre-flame has an abundance of OH radicals. The key physics of the flame ignition is the diffusion of an OH stream (from the pre-flame) into the surrounding combustible mixture to form the main flame. Lastly, the proposed flame kernel structure is numerically validated using the OPPDIF code. The simulation shows that possibly three reaction zones, one pre-flame and two main flames, exist in this flame configuration.

  16. Kinetics of heterogeneous reactions of carbon and oxygen during combustion of porous carbon particles in oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Gremyachkin, V.M.

    2006-05-15

    A model of combustion of a high-porosity carbon particle in oxygen is considered, which takes into account heterogeneous and homogeneous chemical reactions inside the particles and radiative heat transfer. The boundaries of the domain where the burning rate depends on the particle temperature are determined. The possibility of two combustion regimes is demonstrated: regime with a high burning rate, where the carbon-oxygen reaction proceeds in a layer adjacent to the particle surface, and regime with a low burning rate, where the reaction proceeds in the entire particle volume. In the regime with a high burning rate, the main product of the reaction between carbon and oxygen is carbon monoxide, whereas both carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide can be formed in the regime with a low burning rate. The kinetic equations of heterogeneous reactions C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2} and 2C + O{sub 2} = 2CO are determined, which reveal the retarding effect of carbon monoxide and dioxide on the rates of these reactions.

  17. Synergetic effects of mixed copper-iron oxides oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-06-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean energy production from fuels. CLC produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}-streams without a significant energy penalty. Development of efficient oxygen carriers is essential to successfully operate a CLC system. Copper and iron oxides are promising candidates for CLC. Copper oxide possesses high reactivity but it has issues with particle agglomeration due to its low melting point. Even though iron oxide is an inexpensive oxygen carrier it has a slower reactivity. In this study, mixed metal oxide carriers containing iron and copper oxides were evaluated for coal and methane CLC. The components of CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were optimized to obtain good reactivity while maintaining physical and chemical stability during cyclic reactions for methane-CLC and solid-fuel CLC. Compared with single metal oxygen carriers, the optimized Cu–Fe mixed oxide oxygen carriers demonstrated high reaction rate, better combustion conversion, greater oxygen usage and improved physical stability. Thermodynamic calculations, XRD, TGA, flow reactor studies and TPR experiments suggested that there is a strong interaction between CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contributing to a synergistic effect during CLC reactions. The amount of oxygen release of the mixed oxide carrier in the absence of a fuel was similar to that of the single metal oxides. However, in the presence of fuels, the oxygen consumption and the reaction profiles of the mixed oxide carriers were significantly better than that of the single metal oxides. The nature of the fuel not only influenced the reactivity, but also the final reduction status of the oxygen carriers during chemical looping combustion. Cu oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced metallic copper with both coal and methane. Fe oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced Fe metal with methane but it was reduced to only FeO with coal. Possible mechanisms of how the presence of CuO enhances the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are discussed.

  18. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of chemical looping combustion process with calcium sulphate oxygen carrier - article no. A19

    SciTech Connect

    Baosheng Jin; Rui Xiao; Zhongyi Deng; Qilei Song

    2009-07-01

    To concentrate CO{sub 2} in combustion processes by efficient and energy-saving ways is a first and very important step for its sequestration. Chemical looping combustion (CLC) could easily achieve this goal. A chemical-looping combustion system consists of a fuel reactor and an air reactor. Two reactors in the form of interconnected fluidized beds are used in the process: (1) a fuel reactor where the oxygen carrier is reduced by reaction with the fuel, and (2) an air reactor where the reduced oxygen carrier from the fuel reactor is oxidized with air. The outlet gas from the fuel reactor consists of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, while the outlet gas stream from the air reactor contains only N{sub 2} and some unused O{sub 2}. The water in combustion products can be easily removed by condensation and pure carbon dioxide is obtained without any loss of energy for separation. Until now, there is little literature about mathematical modeling of chemical-looping combustion using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. In this work, the reaction kinetic model of the fuel reactor (CaSO{sub 4}+ H{sub 2}) is developed by means of the commercial code FLUENT and the effects of partial pressure of H{sub 2} (concentration of H{sub 2}) on chemical looping combustion performance are also studied. The results show that the concentration of H{sub 2} could enhance the CLC performance.

  19. Carbon Deposition Model for Oxygen-Hydrocarbon Combustion, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, R.; Ito, J. I.; Niiya, K. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are details of the design, fabrication, and testing of subscale hardware used in the evaluation of carbon deposition characteristics of liquid oxygen and three hydrocarbon fuels for both main chamber and preburner/gas generator operating conditions. In main chamber conditions, the deposition of carbon on the combustion chamber wall was investigated at mixture ratios of 2.0 to 4.0 and at chamber pressures of 1000 to 1500 psia. No carbon deposition on chamber walls was detected at these main chamber mixture ratios. In preburner/gas generator operating conditions, the deposition of carbon on the turbine simulator tubes was evaluated at mixture ratios of 0.20 to 0.60 and at chamber pressures of 720 to 1650 psia. The results of the tests showed carbon deposition rate to be a strong function of mixture ratio and a weak function of chamber pressure. Further analyses evaluated the operational concequences of carbon deposition on preburner/gas generator performance. This is Volume 2 of the report, which contains data plots of all the test programs.

  20. Carbon deposition model for oxygen-hydrocarbon combustion, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, R.; Ito, J. I.; Niiya, K. Y.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are details of the design, fabrication, and testing of subscale hardware used in the evaluation of carbon deposition characteristics of liquid oxygen and three hydrocarbon fuels for both main chamber and preburner/gas generator operating conditions. In main chamber conditions, the deposition of carbon on the combustion chamber wall was investigated at mixture ratios of 2.0 to 4.0 and at pressures of 1000 to 1500 psia. No carbon deposition on the chamber walls was detected at these main chamber mixture ratios. In preburner/gas generator operating conditions, the deposition of carbon on the turbine simulator tubes was evaluated at mixture ratios of 0.20 to 0.60 and at chamber pressures of 720 to 1650 psia. The results of the tests showed carbon deposition rate to be a strong function of mixture ratio and a weak function of chamber pressure. Further analyses evaluated the operational consequences of carbon deposition on preburner/gas generator performance. The report is in two volumes, of which this is Volume 1 covering the main body of the report plus Appendixes A through D.

  1. Metallized gelled propellants: Oxygen/RP-1/aluminum combustion experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1994-01-01

    A series of combustion experiments using metallized gelled liquid propellants were conducted. These experiments used a small 30- to 40-lb(sub f) thrust engine composed of a modular injector, igniter, chamber and nozzle. The fuels used were traditional liquid RP-1 and gelled RP-1 with 0-wt percent, 5-wt percent, and 44-wt percent loadings of aluminum and gaseous oxygen and the oxidizer. Ten different injectors were used during the testing: 6 were for the baseline O2/RP-1 tests and 4 for the gelled fuels. Relatively high C-star efficiencies were obtained with gelled RP-1 (0-wt% RP-1/Al) and metallized 5-wt% RP-1/Al over the O/F range tested: 90-98%. A peak of 98 percent efficiency was reached with ungelled O2/RP-1 and up to 95% efficiency was obtained with gelled RP-1/Al (55-wt% Al). Injector erosion was evident with the 55-wt% testing, while there was little or no erosion seen with the gelled RP-1 with 0 and 5-wt% Al. A protective layer of gelled fuel formed in the firings that minimized the damage to the rocket injector face. This effect may provide a useful technique for engine cooling.

  2. National Combustion Code Parallel Performance Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quealy, Angela; Benyo, Theresa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The National Combustion Code (NCC) is being developed by an industry-government team for the design and analysis of combustion systems. The unstructured grid, reacting flow code uses a distributed memory, message passing model for its parallel implementation. The focus of the present effort has been to improve the performance of the NCC code to meet combustor designer requirements for model accuracy and analysis turnaround time. Improving the performance of this code contributes significantly to the overall reduction in time and cost of the combustor design cycle. This report describes recent parallel processing modifications to NCC that have improved the parallel scalability of the code, enabling a two hour turnaround for a 1.3 million element fully reacting combustion simulation on an SGI Origin 2000.

  3. Algorithmic Enhancements for Unsteady Aerodynamics and Combustion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Sankaran; Olsen, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Research in the FY01 focused on the analysis and development of enhanced algorithms for unsteady aerodynamics and chemically reacting flowfields. The research was performed in support of NASA Ames' efforts to improve the capabilities of the in-house computational fluid dynamics code, OVERFLOW. Specifically, the research was focused on the four areas: (1) investigation of stagnation region effects; (2) unsteady preconditioning dual-time procedures; (3) dissipation formulation for combustion; and (4) time-stepping methods for combustion.

  4. Mathematical simulation of hydrogen-oxygen combustion in rocket engines using LOGOS code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betelin, V. B.; Shagaliev, R. M.; Aksenov, S. V.; Belyakov, I. M.; Deryuguin, Yu. N.; Korchazhkin, D. A.; Kozelkov, A. S.; Nikitin, V. F.; Sarazov, A. V.; Zelenskiy, D. K.

    2014-03-01

    Hydrogen-oxygen fuels are very attractive now for rocket engines designers, because this pair is ecology friendly. Computer aided design of new effective and clean hydrogen engines needs mathematical tools for supercomputer modeling of hydrogen-oxygen components mixing and combustion in rocket engines. The paper presents the results of developing, verification and validation of mathematical model making it possible to simulate unsteady processes of ignition and combustion in rocket engines.

  5. Plasma enhancement of combustion of solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2006-03-15

    Plasma fuel systems that increase the coal burning efficiency are discussed. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free startup of boilers and stabilizating a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burner and burning all types of power-generating coal. Plasma ignition, thermochemical treatment of an air-fuel mixture prior to combustion, and its burning in a power-generating boiler were numerically simulated. Environmental friendliness of the plasma technology was demonstrated.

  6. Combustion of 316 stainless steel in high-pressure gaseous oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, Frank; Steinberg, Theodore A.; Janoff, Dwight

    1989-01-01

    Upward combustion of 316 stainless steel (SS) rods is discussed and a combustion model is presented. The effects of varying oxygen pressure and rod diameter on the rate limiting processes for combustion of 316 SS are evaluated. The rate-limiting steps for combustion up 316 SS rods are shown to be dependent on the incorporation and mass transport of oxygen in the molten mass, and heat transfer between the molten mass and rod. Both these rate-limiting steps are shown to be dependent on rod diameter. Small (d/r/ = 0.051 cm) 316 SS rods are shown to be dependent on convective heat transfer, and larger rods (d/r/ not less than 0.32 cm) are shown to be dependent on oxygen incorporation and mass transport in the molten mass.

  7. Development and performance of Cu-based oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.Y.; Dennis, J.S.; Hayhurst, A.N.; Scott, S.A.

    2008-07-15

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has the inherent property of separating the product CO{sub 2} from flue gases. Instead of air, it uses an oxygen carrier, usually in the form of a metal oxide, to provide oxygen for combustion. This paper focuses on the development and performance of a suitable Cu-based oxygen carrier for burning solid fuels using CLC. Carriers were made from CuO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (as a support) in three different ways: mechanical mixing, wet impregnation, and co-precipitation. The reactivity of these solids was assessed by measuring their ability to oxidize CO, when in a hot bed of sand fluidized by a mixture of CO and N{sub 2}. After that, the Cu in the carrier was oxidized back to CuO by fluidizing the hot bed with air. These oxygen carriers were tested over many such cycles of reduction and oxidation. This work confirms that supporting CuO on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} enhances the ability of the resulting particles to withstand mechanical and thermal stresses in a fluidized bed. Also, only co-precipitation produces particles that have a high loading of copper and do not agglomerate at 800-900 C. The performance of co-precipitated particles of CuO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at oxidizing CO to CO{sub 2} was significantly affected by the pH of the solution in which precipitation occurred: a high pH (9.7) gave particles that reacted completely and rapidly. After 18 cycles, such a co-precipitated carrier with 82.5 wt% CuO yielded all its oxygen when oxidizing CO. X-ray analysis showed that when heated, CuO reacted with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to form CuAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which was fully reducible, so CuO experienced no loss in extent of reaction after forming this mixed oxide. An increase in operating temperature from 800 to 900 C led to the CuO providing slightly less oxygen; this was because a little of the CuO decomposed to Cu{sub 2}O between its reduction and oxidation, when the bed was fluidized by pure N{sub 2}. (author)

  8. Combustion of solid fuel in very low speed oxygen streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, James S.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Grayson, Gary D.

    1993-01-01

    In reduced gravity, the combustion of solid fuel in low-speed flow can be studied. The flame behavior in this low-speed regime will fill a void in our understanding of the flow effect on combustion. In addition, it is important for spacecraft fire safety considerations. In this work, modeling and experimental work on low-speed forced-concurrent-flow flame spread are carried out. In addition, experiments on reduced-gravity buoyant-flow flame spread are performed.

  9. Experimental Research of the Oxygen-Enriched Combustion of Sewage Sludge and Coal in CFB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, S. W.; Lu, X. F.; Liu, H. Z.

    Sewage sludge is the by-products of sewage treatment, and it is a fuel of high moisture, high ash and low caloric. Oxygen-enriched combustion technology is one of the new and clean coal combustion technologies that can control pollutant emission, which makes CO2 separation, SO2 treatment become easier, and NOx emission reduced. In this paper, we carried out the experimental research on the advantages of oxygen-enriched combustion and the characteristics of sewage sludge in a CFB incinerator that the diameter of the furnace is 100 mm, It is an important foundation for the industrialized application of the oxygen-enriched combustion of sewage sludge and coal in CFB. Experimental analyzed on the combustion characteristics of three conditions in the oxygen concentration of 21%35%, which were the weight ratio of coal and sludge were 1?1, 1?2 and also the coal was given. Furthermore, the change of gas composition along with the change of oxygen content and the temperature of dense phase region was analyzed. The results showed that the combustion characteristics differ from the different mixing rate between coal and sludge in different oxygen atmosphere, when the fluidized air velocity was 1.56 m/s1.88 m/s, the combustion stability; When the amount of the fuel was constant, as the increase of the oxygen contents in the experimental atmosphere, the total air volume decreased, the furnace temperature increased gradually, the concentration of SO2 and NOx showed increasing trend, which is beneficial to the removal of SO2; The concentration of NOx was increased gradually as temperature of the fluidized bed increased.

  10. Rocket combustion chamber life-enhancing design concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Quentmeyer, R.J.

    1990-07-01

    NASA continues to pursue technologies which can lead to an increase in life and reduce the costs of fabrication of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The joint NASA/Air Force Advanced Launch System Program has set its prime objectives to be high reliability and low cost for their new advanced booster engine. In order to meet these objectives, NASA will utilize the results of several ongoing programs to provide the required technologies. An overview is presented of those programs which address life enhancing design concepts for the combustion chamber. Seven different design concepts, which reduce the thermal strain and/or increase the material strength of the combustion chamber liner wall are discussed. Subscale rocket test results are presented, where available, for life enhancing design concepts. Two techniques for reducing chamber fabrication costs are discussed, as well as issues relating to hydrocarbon fuels/combustion chamber liner materials compatibility.

  11. Enhancement of pulverized coal combustion by plasma technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gorokhovski, M.A.; Jankoski, Z.; Lockwood, F.C.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2007-07-01

    Plasma-assisted pulverized coal combustion is a promising technology for thermal power plants (TPP). This article reports one- and three- dimensional numerical simulations, as well as laboratory and industrial measurements of coal combustion using a plasma-fuel system (PFS). The chemical kinetic and fluid mechanics involved in this technology are analysed. The results show that a PFS, can be used to promote early ignition and enhanced stabilization of a pulverized coal flame. It is shown that this technology, in addition to enhancing the combustion efficiency of the flame, reduces harmful emissions from power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures). Data summarising the experience of 27 pulverized coal boilers in 16 thermal power plants in several countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Ukraine, Slovakia, Mongolia and China), embracing steam productivities from 75 to 670 tons per hour (TPH), are presented. Finally, the practical computation of the characteristics of the PFS, as function of coal properties, is discussed.

  12. Rocket combustion chamber life-enhancing design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quentmeyer, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA continues to pursue technologies which can lead to an increase in life and reduce the costs of fabrication of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The joint NASA/Air Force Advanced Launch System Program has set its prime objectives to be high reliability and low cost for their new advanced booster engine. In order to meet these objectives, NASA will utilize the results of several ongoing programs to provide the required technologies. An overview is presented of those programs which address life enhancing design concepts for the combustion chamber. Seven different design concepts, which reduce the thermal strain and/or increase the material strength of the combustion chamber liner wall are discussed. Subscale rocket test results are presented, where available, for life enhancing design concepts. Two techniques for reducing chamber fabrication costs are discussed, as well as issues relating to hydrocarbon fuels/combustion chamber liner materials compatibility.

  13. Combustion Enhancement in Scramjet-Operation of a RBCC Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadatake Tomioka, By; Ryohei Kobayashi; Murakami, Atsuo; Shuichi Ueda; Komuro, Tomoyuki; Katsuhiro Itoh, And

    Combination of a scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) flow-pass with embedded rocket engines (the combined system termed as Rocket Based Combined Cycle engine) are expected to be the most effective propulsion system for Booster stage of space launch vehicles. At hypersonic regime, it will be operated at rather high rocket engine output for final acceleration with some Isp gains due to air-breathing effects. In this regime, attaining thrust at this high-speed regime becomes very difficult, so that parallel injection of the fuel for scramjet combustion is favorable as the momentum of the injection can contribute to the thrust production. Thus, embedded rocket chamber was supposed to the operated as fuel rich gas generator at very high output. This configuration was tested at simulated flight Mach number of 7-11 at High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel (HIEST) with detonation tube as the source of the simulated rocket exhaust. However, combustion of the residual fuel in the rocket exhaust with airflow could not be attained. Direct-connect combustor tests were performed to evaluate effectiveness of a combustion enhancement technique termed auxiliary injection, i.e., a portion of fuel to be directly injected into airflow to provide ignition source for the residual fuel. Results of both the engine model tests at HIEST and the direct-connect tests are summarized and presented, and modification to the engine model for combustion enhancement was proposed.

  14. Pressurized chemical-looping combustion of coal with an iron ore-based oxygen carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Rui; Song, Min; Zhang, Shuai; Shen, Laihong; Song, Qilei; Lu, Zuoji

    2010-06-15

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a new combustion technology with inherent separation of CO{sub 2}. Most of the previous investigations on CLC of solid fuels were conducted under atmospheric pressure. A pressurized CLC combined cycle (PCLC-CC) system is proposed as a promising coal combustion technology with potential higher system efficiency, higher fuel conversion, and lower cost for CO{sub 2} sequestration. In this study pressurized CLC of coal with Companhia Valedo Rio Doce (CVRD) iron ore was investigated in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. CVRD iron ore particles were exposed alternately to reduction by 0.4 g of Chinese Xuzhou bituminous coal gasified with 87.2% steam/N{sub 2} mixture and oxidation with 5% O{sub 2} in N{sub 2} at 970 C. The operating pressure was varied between 0.1 MPa and 0.6 MPa. First, control experiments of steam coal gasification over quartz sand were performed. H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} are the major components of the gasification products, and the operating pressure influences the gas composition. Higher concentrations of CO{sub 2} and lower fractions of CO, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} during the reduction process with CVRD iron ore was achieved under higher pressures. The effects of pressure on the coal gasification rate in the presence of the oxygen carrier were different for pyrolysis and char gasification. The pressurized condition suppresses the initial coal pyrolysis process while it also enhances coal char gasification and reduction with iron ore in steam, and thus improves the overall reaction rate of CLC. The oxidation rates and variation of oxygen carrier conversion are higher at elevated pressures reflecting higher reduction level in the previous reduction period. Scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses show that particles become porous after experiments but maintain structure and size after several cycles. Agglomeration was not observed in this study. An EDX analysis demonstrates that there is very little coal ash deposited on the oxygen carrier particles but no appreciable crystalline phases change as verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Overall, the limited pressurized CLC experiments carried out in the present work suggest that PCLC of coal is promising and further investigations are necessary. (author)

  15. Combustion in a multiburner furnace with selective flow of oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Kobayashi, Hisashi

    2004-03-02

    Improved operational characteristics such as improved fuel efficiency, reduction of NOx formation, reduction of the amount of unburned carbon in the ash, and lessened tendency to corrosion at the tube wall, in a multi-burner furnace are obtained by reducing the flow rate of combustion air to the burners and selectively individually feeding oxidant to only some of the burners.

  16. Sensor for measuring the oxygen content in the exhaust gas of combustion engines and method thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Bozon, A.; Koberstein, E.; Pletka, H.; Voelker, H.

    1982-12-07

    An improved lambda sensor is disclosed for the measurement of the oxygen content in the exhaust gas of internal combustion engines in which the sensor element is provided with a gas permeable wrapping coated with a catalyst. The sensor delivers a clear well defined signal in the so-called rich exhaust gas, which makes possible a more precise adjustment of the fuel-air mixture fed to the internal combustion engine.

  17. NOx reduction in combustion with concentrated coal streams and oxygen injection

    DOEpatents

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Snyder, William J.

    2004-03-02

    NOx formation in the combustion of solid hydrocarbonaceous fuel such as coal is reduced by obtaining, from the incoming feed stream of fuel solids and air, a stream having a ratio of fuel solids to air that is higher than that of the feed steam, and injecting the thus obtained stream and a small amount of oxygen to a burner where the fuel solids are combusted.

  18. New type of microengine using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetovoy, Vitaly B.; Sanders, Remco G. P.; Ma, Kechun; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

    2014-03-01

    Microsystems become part of everyday life but their application is restricted by lack of strong and fast motors (actuators) converting energy into motion. For example, widespread internal combustion engines cannot be scaled down because combustion reactions are quenched in a small space. Here we present an actuator with the dimensions 100 × 100 × 5 μm3 that is using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen as part of its working cycle. Water electrolysis driven by short voltage pulses creates an extra pressure of 0.5-4 bar for a time of 100-400 μs in a chamber closed by a flexible membrane. When the pulses are switched off this pressure is released even faster allowing production of mechanical work in short cycles. We provide arguments that this unexpectedly fast pressure decrease is due to spontaneous combustion of the gases in the chamber. This actuator is the first step to truly microscopic combustion engines.

  19. New type of microengine using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Svetovoy, Vitaly B.; Sanders, Remco G. P.; Ma, Kechun; Elwenspoek, Miko C.

    2014-01-01

    Microsystems become part of everyday life but their application is restricted by lack of strong and fast motors (actuators) converting energy into motion. For example, widespread internal combustion engines cannot be scaled down because combustion reactions are quenched in a small space. Here we present an actuator with the dimensions 100 100 5??m3 that is using internal combustion of hydrogen and oxygen as part of its working cycle. Water electrolysis driven by short voltage pulses creates an extra pressure of 0.54?bar for a time of 100400??s in a chamber closed by a flexible membrane. When the pulses are switched off this pressure is released even faster allowing production of mechanical work in short cycles. We provide arguments that this unexpectedly fast pressure decrease is due to spontaneous combustion of the gases in the chamber. This actuator is the first step to truly microscopic combustion engines. PMID:24599052

  20. Real gas CFD simulations of hydrogen/oxygen supercritical combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, S.; Jarczyk, M.; Pfitzner, M.; Rogg, B.

    2013-03-01

    A comprehensive numerical framework has been established to simulate reacting flows under conditions typically encountered in rocket combustion chambers. The model implemented into the commercial CFD Code ANSYS CFX includes appropriate real gas relations based on the volume-corrected Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) for the flow field and a real gas extension of the laminar flamelet combustion model. The results indicate that the real gas relations have a considerably larger impact on the flow field than on the detailed flame structure. Generally, a realistic flame shape could be achieved for the real gas approach compared to experimental data from the Mascotte test rig V03 operated at ONERA when the differential diffusion processes were only considered within the flame zone.

  1. Oxygen index: An approximate value for the evaluation of combustion characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zartmann, I.; Reinwardt, D.; Franke, A.

    1986-01-01

    The oxygen index has gained international recognition for the determination of combustion characteristics of plastic material. The amounts of oxygen and nitrogen were more accurately determined for existing test equipment in order to specify the oxygen index as precisely and as reproducible as possible. Parameters are outlined such as the size of the ignition flame, ignition of test pieces, test piece sizes and test temperature. The minimum oxygen index was determined by the dimension and duration of the fire. The results are sufficiently accurate for factory operating conditions and are also reproducible.

  2. Combustion Effects in Laser-oxygen Cutting: Basic Assumptions, Numerical Simulation and High Speed Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, Alexander V.; Ermolaev, Grigory V.

    Laser-oxygen cutting is very complicated for theoretical description technological process. Iron-oxygen combustion playing a leading role making it highly effective, able to cut thicker plates and, at the same time, producing special types of striations and other defects on the cut surface. In this paper results of numerical simulation based on elementary assumptions on iron-oxygen combustion are verified with high speed visualization of laser-oxygen cutting process. On a base of assumption that iron oxide lost its protective properties after melting simulation of striation formation due cycles of laser induced non self-sustained combustion is proposed. Assumption that reaction limiting factor is oxygen transport from the jet to cutting front allows to calculate reaction intensity by solving Navier - Stokes and diffusion system in gas phase. Influence of oxygen purity and pressure is studied theoretically. The results of numerical simulation are examined with high speed visualization of laser-oxygen cutting of 4-20 mm mild steel plates at cutting conditions close to industrial.

  3. Combustion and Performance Analyses of Coaxial Element Injectors with Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, J. R.; Jones, G. W.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid rocket engines using oxygen and methane propellants are being considered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for in-space vehicles. This propellant combination has not been previously used in a flight-qualified engine system, so limited test data and analysis results are available at this stage of early development. NASA has funded several hardware-oriented activities with oxygen and methane propellants over the past several years with the Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, under the Exploration Technology Development Program. As part of this effort, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted combustion, performance, and combustion stability analyses of several of the configurations. This paper summarizes the analyses of combustion and performance as a follow-up to a paper published in the 2008 JANNAF/LPS meeting. Combustion stability analyses are presented in a separate paper. The current paper includes test and analysis results of coaxial element injectors using liquid oxygen and liquid methane or gaseous methane propellants. Several thrust chamber configurations have been modeled, including thrust chambers with multi-element swirl coax element injectors tested at the NASA MSFC, and a uni-element chamber with shear and swirl coax injectors tested at The Pennsylvania State University. Configurations were modeled with two one-dimensional liquid rocket combustion analysis codes, the Rocket Combustor Interaction Design and Analysis (ROCCID), and the Coaxial Injector Combustion Model (CICM). Significant effort was applied to show how these codes can be used to model combustion and performance with oxygen/methane propellants a priori, and what anchoring or calibrating features need to be applied or developed in the future. This paper describes the test hardware configurations, presents the results of all the analyses, and compares the results from the two analytical methods

  4. BIOLOGICALLY ENHANCED OXYGEN TRANSFER IN THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS (JOURNAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biologically enhanced oxgyen transfer has been a hypothesis to explain observed oxygen transfer rates in activated sludge systems that were well above that predicted from aerator clean-water testing. The enhanced oxygen transfer rates were based on tests using BOD bottle oxygen ...

  5. Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing spinning gas.

    PubMed

    Geyko, V I; Fisch, N J

    2014-08-01

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A remarkable gain in fuel efficiency is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in efficiency. PMID:25215720

  6. Enhanced Efficiency of Internal Combustion Engines By Employing Spinning Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Geyko, Vasily; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-27

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A gain in fuel efficiency of several percent is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in the efficiency.

  7. Enhanced efficiency of internal combustion engines by employing spinning gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyko, V. I.; Fisch, N. J.

    2014-08-01

    The efficiency of the internal combustion engine might be enhanced by employing spinning gas. A gas spinning at near sonic velocities has an effectively higher heat capacity, which allows practical fuel cycles, which are far from the Carnot efficiency, to approach more closely the Carnot efficiency. A remarkable gain in fuel efficiency is shown to be theoretically possible for the Otto and Diesel cycles. The use of a flywheel, in principle, could produce even greater increases in efficiency.

  8. PROGRESS IN DETAILED KINETIC MODELING OF THE COMBUSTION OF OXYGENATED COMPONENTS OF BIOFUELS

    PubMed Central

    Sy Tran, Luc; Sirjean, Baptiste; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Fournet, René; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    Due to growing environmental concerns and diminishing petroleum reserves, a wide range of oxygenated species has been proposed as possible substitutes to fossil fuels: alcohols, methyl esters, acyclic and cyclic ethers. After a short review the major detailed kinetic models already proposed in the literature for the combustion of these molecules, the specific classes of reactions considered for modeling the oxidation of acyclic and cyclic oxygenated molecules respectively, are detailed. PMID:23700355

  9. OXYGEN-ENRICHED COAL COMBUSTION WITH CARBON DIOXIDE RECYCLE AND RECOVERY: SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Veranth; Gautham Krishnamoorthy

    2001-04-01

    This report examines coal combustion using oxygen feed with carbon dioxide recycle to control the adiabatic flame temperature. Computer simulations using an existing state-of-the-art 3-dimensional computer code for turbulent reacting flows with reacting particles were employed to study the effects of increased carbon dioxide mole fraction on the char burnout, radiant heat transfer, metal partitioning, and NOx formation.

  10. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF THE LINDE OXYGEN COMBUSTION SYSTEM ON THE EPA MOBILE INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes the various system performance tests and the long-term operating experience of the LINDE(r) Oxygen Combustion System (OCS) installed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Mobile Incineration System (MIS) when it was in operation at the Denney F...

  11. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF THE LINDE OXYGEN COMBUSTION SYSTEM ON THE EPA MOBILE INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes the various system performance tests and the long-term operating experience of the LINDE Oxygen Combustion System installed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mobile Incineration System (MIS) when it was in operation at the Denney Farm site in sou...

  12. Computational kinetics and sensitivity analysis of hydrogen-oxygen combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, Eugene P.; Rabitz, Herschel

    1980-06-01

    Kinetic modeling calculations on the H2-O2 system have been carried out with an extensive reaction set to probe the vicinity of the three explosion limits. Sensitivity analysis is used throughout this investigation to study system behavior, in particular, to elucidate mechanistic details. The concentrations and sensitivity profiles are discussed in light of the appropriate experimental results and existing theories of hydrogen combustion. The results indicate the present model to be useful over a wide pressure-temperature range. The reaction set is also used to probe the sensitivities for an experimental study designed to measure the rate constant of an important elementary reaction, H+O2+M?HO2+M, involved in this system. The versatility of the reaction set is also demonstrated by a study of a related chemical reaction, the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Finally, prospects for utilizing the methods and results of this study to examine other complex kinetic schemes are discussed.

  13. Thermite combustion enhancement resulting from biomodal luminum distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K. M.; Pantoya, M.; Son, S. F.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years many studies that incorporated nano-scale or ultrafine aluminum (Al) as part of an energetic formulation and demonstrated significant performance enhancement. Decreasing the fuel particle size from the micron to nanometer range alters the material's chemical and thermal-physical properties. The result is increased particle reactivity that translates to an increase in the combustion wave speed and ignition sensitivity. Little is known, however, about the critical level of nano-sized fuel particles needed to enhance the performance of the energetic composite. Ignition sensitivity and combustion wave speed experiments were performed using a thermite composite of Al and MoO{sub 3} pressed to a theoretical maximum density of 50% (2 g/cm{sup 3}). A bimodal Al particle size distribution was prepared using 4 or 20 {mu}m Al fuel particles that were replaced in 10% increments by 80 nm Al particles until the fuel was 100% 80 nm Al. These bimodal distributions allow the unique characteristics of nano-scale materials to be better understood. The pellets were ignited using a 50W CO{sub 2} laser. High speed imaging diagnostics were used to measure the ignition delay time and combustion wave speed.

  14. Reactive oxygen species enhance insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Kim; Deng, Haiyang; Fukushima, Atsushi; Cai, Xiaochu; Boivin, Benoit; Galic, Sandra; Bruce, Clinton; Shields, Benjamin J.; Skiba, Beata; Ooms, Lisa M.; Stepto, Nigel; Wu, Ben; Mitchell, Christina A.; Tonks, Nicholas K.; Watt, Matthew J.; Febbraio, Mark A.; Crack, Peter J.; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Tiganis, Tony

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Chronic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by mitochondria may contribute to the development of insulin resistance, a primary feature of type 2 diabetes. In recent years it has become apparent that ROS generation in response to physiological stimuli such as insulin may also facilitate signaling by reversibly oxidizing and inhibiting protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Here we report that mice lacking one of the key enzymes involved in the elimination of physiological ROS, glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), were protected from high fat diet-induced insulin resistance. The increased insulin sensitivity in Gpx1−/− mice was attributed to insulin-induced phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signaling and glucose uptake in muscle and could be reversed by the anti-oxidant N-acetylcysteine. Increased insulin signaling correlated with enhanced oxidation of the PTP family member PTEN, which terminates signals generated by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase. These studies provide causal evidence for the enhancement of insulin signaling by ROS in vivo. PMID:19808019

  15. Experimental study on improving cement quality with oxygen- enriched combustion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. Q.; Zhang, A. M.; Qing, S.; Li, F. S.; Yang, S. P.; Yang, Z. F.

    2015-12-01

    With the intensification of the global energy crisis, the production cost of enterprises is continuously increasing because of the rising fuel prices and high requirements for environmental protection. As result, energy savings and environmental protection are vital considerations for a variety of enterprises. As a practical energy-saving technology, oxygen- enriched combustion has played a major role in energy saving and emissions reduction as its application in industrial furnaces has been popularized in recent years. This experiment was conducted in a cement rotary kiln with a capacity of 4000 t/d in a factory in China. Based on measured data in the oxygen-enriched combustion experiment, we determined the patterns of variation in the main parameters of the cement rotary kiln under oxygen-enriched production conditions. The results provide important theoretical and practical base for the cement building materials industry in energy saving and emissions reduction.

  16. Promoted Combustion of Metals in a High-Pressure, Flowing Oxygen Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maes, M. J.; Stoltzfus, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Traditional promoted combustion testing has used 0.125 inch diameter samples that are ignited in a pressurized, oxygen-enriched environment. Many years of testing this sample size have yielded useful data regarding threshold pressure, or the minimum oxygen pressure required to support self-sustained combustion. However, when a material is tested in a flowing system, the threshold pressure changes. White Sands Test Facility has developed a test system to burn samples in flowing gaseous oxygen. Current sample configurations are 0.5 inch diameter rods and 1.25 inch diameter pipes with pressures ranging up to 2000 psi and gas velocities reaching 200 ft/s. This paper describes the test apparatus, modifications made as the result of a fire, and a description of the tests currently being performed.

  17. Use of coal as fuel for chemical-looping combustion with Ni-based oxygen carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Z.P.; Shen, L.H.; Xiao, J.; Qing, C.J.; Song, Q.L.

    2008-12-15

    Chemical-looping combustion is an indirect combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. The feasibility of using NiO as an oxygen carrier during chemical-looping combustion of coal has been investigated experimentally at 800-960{degree}C in the present work. The experiments were carried out in a fluidized bed, where the steam acted as the gasification-fluidization medium. Coal gasification and the reaction of oxygen carrier with the water gas take place simultaneously in the reactor. The oxygen carrier particles exhibit high reactivity above 900{degree}C, and the dry basis concentration of CO{sub 2} in the exit gas of the reactor is nearly 95%. The flue gas composition as a function of the reactor temperature and cyclic reduction number is discussed. At 800-960{degree}C, the dry basis concentration of CO{sub 2} in the flue gas presents a monotonously increasing trend, whereas the dry basis concentration of CO, H{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} decreases monotonously. The concentrations of CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} in the flue gas as a function of cyclic reduction number present a para-curve characteristic at 900{degree}C. With the increase of cyclic reduction number, the dry basis concentration of CO{sub 2} decreases remarkably, while the dry basis concentrations of CO, H{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} increase rapidly. Moreover, the peak value of H{sub 2} concentration is less than that of CO. The performance of the NiO-based oxygen carriers was also evaluated using an X-ray diffractometer and a scanning electron microscope to characterize the solid residues of oxygen carrier. The results indicate that NiO is one of the suitable oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion of coal.

  18. A mechanistic investigation of a calcium-based oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Laihong; Zheng, Min; Xiao, Jun; Xiao, Rui

    2008-08-15

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) has been suggested as an energy-efficient method for the capture of carbon dioxide from combustion. It is indirect combustion by the use of an oxygen carrier, which can be used for CO{sub 2} capture in power-generating processes. The possibility of CLC using a calcium-based oxygen carrier is investigated in this paper. In the air reactor air is supplied to oxidize CaS to CaSO{sub 4}, where oxygen is transferred from air to the oxygen carrier; the reduction of CaSO{sub 4} to CaS takes place in the fuel reactor. The exit gas from the fuel reactor is CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. After condensation of water, almost pure CO{sub 2} could be obtained. The thermodynamic and kinetic problem of the reduction reactions of CaSO{sub 4} with CO and H{sub 2} and the oxidization reactions of CaS with O{sub 2} is discussed in the paper to investigate the technique possibility. To prevent SO{sub 2} release from the process of chemical looping combustion using a calcium-based oxygen carrier, thermochemical CaSO{sub 4} reduction and CaS oxidation are discussed. Thermal simulation experiments are carried out using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The properties of the products are characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and the optimal reaction parameters are evaluated. The effects of reaction temperature, reductive gas mixture, and oxygen partial pressure on the composition of flue gas are discussed. The suitable temperature of the air reactor is between 1050 and 1150 C and the optimal temperature of the fuel reactor between 900 and 950 C. (author)

  19. Performance and Stability Analyses of Rocket Combustion Devices Using Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, James R.; Jones, G. W.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid rocket engines using oxygen and methane propellants are being considered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for in-space vehicles. This propellant combination has not been previously used in flight-qualified engine systems, so limited test data and analysis results are available at this stage of early development. NASA has funded several hardware-oriented programs with oxygen and methane propellants over the past several years with the Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, under the Exploration Technology Development Program. As part of this effort, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted combustion, performance, and combustion stability analyses of several of the configurations on these programs. This paper summarizes these analyses. Test and analysis results of impinging and coaxial element injectors using liquid oxygen and liquid methane propellants are included. Several cases with gaseous methane are included for reference. Several different thrust chamber configurations have been modeled, including thrust chambers with multi-element like-on-like and swirl coax element injectors tested at NASA MSFC, and a unielement chamber with shear and swirl coax injectors tested at The Pennsylvania State University. Configurations were modeled with two one-dimensional liquid rocket combustion analysis codes, the Rocket Combustor Interaction Design and Analysis (ROCCID), and the Coaxial Injector Combustion Model (CICM). Significant effort was applied to show how these codes can be used to model combustion and performance with oxygen/methane propellants a priori, and what anchoring or calibrating features need to be applied or developed in the future. This paper describes the test hardware configurations, presents the results of all the analyses, and compares the results from the two analytical methods.

  20. A System for Controlling the Oxygen Content of a Gas Produced by Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L. (inventors)

    1984-01-01

    A mixture of air, CH4 and OH(2) is burned in a combustion chamber to produce a product gas in the test section. The OH(2) content of the product gas is compared with the OH(2) content of reference air in an OH(2) sensor. If there is a difference an error signal is produced at the output of a control circuit which by the means of a solenoid valve, regulates the flow of OH(2) into the combustion chamber to make the error signal zero. The product gas in the test section has the same oxygen content as air.

  1. Carbon dioxide remediation via oxygen-enriched combustion using dense ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Bose, Arun C. (Pittsburgh, PA); McIlvried, Howard G. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A method of combusting pulverized coal by mixing the pulverized coal and an oxidant gas to provide a pulverized coal-oxidant gas mixture and contacting the pulverized coal-oxidant gas mixture with a flame sufficiently hot to combust the mixture. An oxygen-containing gas is passed in contact with a dense ceramic membrane of metal oxide material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity that is gas-impervious until the oxygen concentration on one side of the membrane is not less than about 30% by volume. An oxidant gas with an oxygen concentration of not less than about 30% by volume and a CO.sub.2 concentration of not less than about 30% by volume and pulverized coal is contacted with a flame sufficiently hot to combust the mixture to produce heat and a flue gas. One dense ceramic membrane disclosed is selected from the group consisting of materials having formulae SrCo.sub.0.8 Fe.sub.0.2 O.sub.x, SrCo.sub.0.5 FeO.sub.x and La.sub.0.2 Sr.sub.0.8 Co.sub.0.4 Fe.sub.0.6 O.sub.x.

  2. Investigation of spontaneous combustion of hydrogen-oxygen mixture using DSMC simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao; Sun, Quanhua

    2014-12-09

    Combustion has been widely studied in the literature, but very little work was focused on the microscopic level. In this paper, the DSMC method is applied to simulate the microscopic behavior of the spontaneous combustion of hydrogen oxygen mixture. It is found that the ignition delay time of the mixture depends on many factors, such as the physical size, temperature, pressure, and dilution. Comparison between DSMC and CFD results shows that more atomic hydrogen is consumed through reaction HO{sub 2}+H→H{sub 2}+O{sub 2} at temperature close to the extended second explosion limit due to localized distribution of reactants, which may indicate the importance of microscopic behavior on low temperature combustion.

  3. A Preliminary Study on the Toxic Combustion Products Testing of Polymers Used in High-Pressure Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hshieh, Fu-Yu; Beeson, Harold D.

    2004-01-01

    One likely cause of polymer ignition in a high-pressure oxygen system is adiabatic-compression heating of polymers caused by pneumatic impact. Oxidative _ pyrolysis or combustion of polymers in a high-pressure oxygen system could generate toxic gases. This paper reports the preliminary results of toxic combustion product testing of selected polymers in a pneumatic-impact test system. Five polymers commonly used in high-pressure oxygen systems, Nylon 6/6, polychlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), fluoroelastomer (Viton(TradeMark) A), and nitrile rubber (Buna N), were tested in a pneumatic-impact test system at 2500- or 3500-psia oxygen pressure. The polymers were ignited and burned, then combustion products were collected in a stainless-steel sample bottle and analyzed by GC/MS/IRD, GC/FID, and GC/Methanizer/FID. The results of adiabatic-compression tests show that combustion of hydrocarbon polymers, nitrogen-containing polymers, and halogenated polymers in high-pressure oxygen systems are relatively complete. Toxicity of the combustion product gas is presumably much lower than the combustion product gas generated from ambient-pressure oxygen (or air) environments. The NASA-Lewis equilibrium code was used to determine the composition of combustion product gas generated from a simulated, adiabatic-compression test of nine polymers. The results are presented and discussed.

  4. Enhanced Glow Discharge Production of Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, Robert; Zhong, Shi

    1998-01-01

    Studies starting in late seventies have shown Mars atmosphere can be used as a feedstock for oxygen production using simple chemical processing systems during early phases of the Mars exploration program. This approach has been recognized as one of the most important in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) concepts for enabling future round trip Mars missions. It was determined a decade ago that separation of oxygen can be accomplished efficiently by permeation through a silver membrane at temperatures well below 1000 K. This process involves adsorption of atomic oxygen on the surface and its subsequent diffusion through a silver lattice via an oxygen concentration gradient. We have determined recently that glow discharge can be used to liberate atomic oxygen from Mars atmosphere and that the oxygen can be collected through a silver permeation membrane. Recently, we demonstrated a substantial increase in energy efficiency of the process by applying a radio frequency discharge in combination with a silver permeation membrane. The experiments were performed using pure carbon dioxide in the pressure range equal to Mars surface conditions. Energy efficiency was defined as the ratio of the energy required to dissociate a unit mass of oxygen from carbon dioxide to the (electrical) energy consumed by the overall system during the dissociation and collection process. The research effort, started at NASA Langley Research Center, continued with this project. Oxygen production apparatus, built and operated under the research grant NAG1-1140 was relocated to the Atomic Beams Laboratory at ODU in July 1996, being since then in fall operation.

  5. A mechanistic investigation of the oxygen fixation hypothesis and oxygen enhancement ratio

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, David Robert; Partridge, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The presence of oxygen in tumours has substantial impact on treatment outcome; relative to anoxic regions, well-oxygenated cells respond better to radiotherapy by a factor 2.5–3. This increased radio-response is known as the oxygen enhancement ratio. The oxygen effect is most commonly explained by the oxygen fixation hypothesis, which postulates that radical-induced DNA damage can be permanently ‘fixed’ by molecular oxygen, rendering DNA damage irreparable. While this oxygen effect is important in both existing therapy and for future modalities such a radiation dose-painting, the majority of existing mathematical models for oxygen enhancement are empirical rather than based on the underlying physics and radiochemistry. Here we propose a model of oxygen-enhanced damage from physical first principles, investigating factors that might influence the cell kill. This is fitted to a range of experimental oxygen curves from literature and shown to describe them well, yielding a single robust term for oxygen interaction obtained. The model also reveals a small thermal dependency exists but that this is unlikely to be exploitable. PMID:26925254

  6. Emission of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from indoor solid fuel combustion.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guofeng; Tao, Shu; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yifeng; Ding, Junnan; Xue, Miao; Min, Yujia; Zhu, Chen; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Wang, Wentao; Wang, Xilong; Russell, Armistead G

    2011-04-15

    Indoor solid fuel combustion is a dominant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and the latter are believed to be more toxic than the former. However, there is limited quantitative information on the emissions of OPAHs from solid fuel combustion. In this study, emission factors of OPAHs (EF(OPAH)) for nine commonly used crop residues and five coals burnt in typical residential stoves widely used in rural China were measured under simulated kitchen conditions. The total EF(OPAH) ranged from 2.8 0.2 to 8.1 2.2 mg/kg for tested crop residues and from 0.043 to 71 mg/kg for various coals and 9-fluorenone was the most abundant specie. The EF(OPAH) for indoor crop residue burning were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those from open burning, and they were affected by fuel properties and combustion conditions, like moisture and combustion efficiency. For both crop residues and coals, significantly positive correlations were found between EFs for the individual OPAHs and the parent PAHs. An oxygenation rate, R(o), was defined as the ratio of the EFs between the oxygenated and parent PAH species to describe the formation potential of OPAHs. For the studied OPAH/PAH pairs, mean R(o) values were 0.16-0.89 for crop residues and 0.03-0.25 for coals. R(o) for crop residues burned in the cooking stove were much higher than those for open burning and much lower than those in ambient air, indicating the influence of secondary formation of OPAH and loss of PAHs. In comparison with parent PAHs, OPAHs showed a higher tendency to be associated with particulate matter (PM), especially fine PM, and the dominate size ranges were 0.7-2.1 ?m for crop residues and high caking coals and <0.7 ?m for the tested low caking briquettes. PMID:21375317

  7. Emission of Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Indoor Solid Fuel Combustion

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Tao, Shu; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yifeng; Ding, Junnan; Xue, Miao; Min, Yujia; Zhu, Chen; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Wang, Wentao; Wang, Xilong; Russell, Armistead G.

    2011-01-01

    Indoor solid fuel combustion is a dominant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and the latter are believed to be more toxic than the former. However, there is limited quantitative information on the emissions of OPAHs from solid fuel combustion. In this study, emission factors of OPAHs (EFOPAH) for nine commonly used crop residues and five coals burnt in typical residential stoves widely used in rural China were measured under simulated kitchen conditions. The total EFOPAH ranged from 2.80.2 to 8.12.2 mg/kg for tested crop residues and from 0.043 to 71 mg/kg for various coals and 9-fluorenone was the most abundant specie. The EFOPAH for indoor crop residue burning were 1~2 orders of magnitude higher than those from open burning, and they were affected by fuel properties and combustion conditions, like moisture and combustion efficiency. For both crop residues and coals, significantly positive correlations were found between EFs for the individual OPAHs and the parent PAHs. An oxygenation rate, Ro, was defined as the ratio of the EFs between the oxygenated and parent PAH species to describe the formation potential of OPAHs. For the studied OPAH/PAH pairs, mean Ro values were 0.16 ~ 0.89 for crop residues and 0.03 ~ 0.25 for coals. Ro for crop residues burned in the cooking stove were much higher than those for open burning and much lower than those in ambient air, indicating the influence of secondary formation of OPAH and loss of PAHs. In comparison with parent PAHs, OPAHs showed a higher tendency to be associated with particulate matter (PM), especially fine PM, and the dominate size ranges were 0.7 ~ 2.1 m for crop residues and high caking coals and < 0.7 m for the tested low caking briquettes. PMID:21375317

  8. Chemical looping combustion of biomass-derived syngas using ceria-supported oxygen carriers.

    PubMed

    Huang, H B; Aisyah, L; Ashman, P J; Leung, Y C; Kwong, C W

    2013-07-01

    Cu, Ni and Fe oxides supported on ceria were investigated for their performance as oxygen carriers during the chemical looping combustion of biomass-derived syngas. A complex gas mixture containing CO, H2, CO2, CH4 and other hydrocarbons was used to simulate the complex fuel gas environment derived from biomass gasification. Results show that the transfer of the stored oxygen into oxidants for the supported Cu and Ni oxides at 800°C for the combustion of syngas was effective (>85%). The unsupported Cu oxide showed high oxygen carrying capacity but particle sintering was observed at 800°C. A reaction temperature of 950°C was required for the supported Fe oxides to transfer the stored oxygen into oxidants effectively. Also, for the complex fuel gas environment, the supported Ni oxide was somewhat effective in reforming CH4 and other light hydrocarbons into CO, which may have benefits for the reduction of tar produced during biomass pyrolysis. PMID:23711944

  9. Functionalized graphene sheet colloids for enhanced fuel/propellant combustion.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Justin L; Dabbs, Daniel M; Yetter, Richard A; Dryer, Frederick L; Aksay, Ilhan A

    2009-12-22

    We have compared the combustion of the monopropellant nitromethane with that of nitromethane containing colloidal particles of functionalized graphene sheets or metal hydroxides. The linear steady-state burning rates of the monopropellant and colloidal suspensions were determined at room temperature, under a range of pressures (3.35-14.4 MPa) using argon as a pressurizing fluid. The ignition temperatures were lowered and burning rates increased for the colloidal suspensions compared to those of the liquid monopropellant alone, with the graphene sheet suspension having significantly greater burning rates (i.e., greater than 175%). The relative change in burning rate from neat nitromethane increased with increasing concentrations of fuel additives and decreased with increasing pressure until at high pressures no enhancement was found. PMID:19925013

  10. Effect of temperature on reduction of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier in chemical-looping combustion of simulated coal gas in a fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Q.L.; Xiao, R.; Deng, Z.Y.; Shen, L.H.; Xiao, J.; Zhang, M.Y.

    2008-12-15

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a promising combustion technology for gaseous and solid fuel with efficient use of energy and inherent separation of CO{sub 2}. The concept of a coal-fueled CLC system using, calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) as oxygen carrier is proposed in this study. Reduction tests of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier with simulated coal gas were performed in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactor in the temperature range of 890-950{degree}C. A high concentration of CO{sub 2} was obtained at the initial reduction period. CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier exhibited high reactivity initially and decreased gradually at the late period of reduction. The sulfur release during the reduction of CaSO{sub 4} as oxygen carrier was also observed and analyzed. H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} conversions were greatly influenced by reduction temperature. The oxygen carrier conversion and mass-based reaction rates during the reduction at typical temperatures were compared. Higher temperatures would enhance reaction rates and result in high conversion of oxygen carrier. An XRD patterns study indicated that CaS was the dominant product of reduction and the variation of relative intensity with temperature is in agreement with the solid conversion. ESEM analysis indicated that the surface structure of oxygen carrier particles changed significantly from impervious to porous after reduction. EDS analysis also demonstrated the transfer of oxygen from the oxygen carrier to the fuel gas and a certain amount of sulfur loss and CaO formation on the surface at higher temperatures. The reduction kinetics of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier was explored with the shrinking unreacted-core model. The apparent kinetic parameters were obtained, and the kinetic equation well predicted the experimental data. Finally, some basic considerations on the use of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier in a CLC system for solid fuels were discussed.

  11. Combustion Stability Analyses of Coaxial Element Injectors with Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid rocket engines using oxygen and methane propellants are being considered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for in-space vehicles. This propellant combination has not been previously used in a flight-qualified engine system, so limited test data and analysis results are available at this stage of early development. NASA has funded several hardware-oriented activities with oxygen and methane propellants over the past several years with the Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project, under the Exploration Technology Development Program. As part of this effort, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted combustion stability analyses of several of the configurations. This paper presents test data and analyses of combustion stability from the recent PCAD-funded test programs at the NASA MSFC. These test programs used swirl coaxial element injectors with liquid oxygen and liquid methane propellants. Oxygen was injected conventionally in the center of the coaxial element, and swirl was provided by tangential entry slots. Injectors with 28-element and 40-element patterns were tested with several configurations of combustion chambers, including ablative and calorimeter spool sections, and several configurations of fuel injection design. Low frequency combustion instability (chug) occurred with both injectors, and high-frequency combustion instability occurred at the first tangential (1T) transverse mode with the 40-element injector. In most tests, a transition between high-amplitude chug with gaseous methane flow and low-amplitude chug with liquid methane flow was readily observed. Chug analyses of both conditions were conducted using techniques from Wenzel and Szuch and from the Rocket Combustor Interactive Design and Analysis (ROCCID) code. The 1T mode instability occurred in several tests and was apparent by high-frequency pressure measurements as well as dramatic increases in calorimeter-measured heat flux throughout the chamber. Analyses of the transverse mode were conducted with ROCCID and empirical methods such as Hewitt d/V. This paper describes the test hardware configurations, test data, analysis methods, and presents results of the various analyses.

  12. Oxygen bomb combustion of biological samples for inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Gilberto B.; Carrilho, Elma Neide V. M.; Oliveira, Camila V.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.; Nbrega, Joaquim A.

    2002-12-01

    A rapid sample preparation method is proposed for decomposition of milk powder, corn bran, bovine and fish tissues, containing certified contents of the analytes. The procedure involves sample combustion in a commercial stainless steel oxygen bomb operating at 25 bar. Most of the samples were decomposed within 5 min. Diluted nitric acid or water-soluble tertiary amines 10% v/v were used as absorption solutions. Calcium, Cu, K, Mg, Na, P, S and Zn were recovered with the bomb washings and determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Ethanol mixed with paraffin was used as a combustion aid to allow complete combustion. A cooling step prior releasing of the bomb valve was employed to increase the efficiency of sample combustion. Iodine was also determined in milk samples spiked with potassium iodide to evaluate the volatilization and collection of iodine in amine CFA-C medium and the feasibility of its determination by ICP-OES with axial view configuration. Most of the element recoveries in the samples were between 91 and 105% and the certified and found contents exhibited a fair agreement at a 95% confidence level.

  13. Reduction Kinetics of a CasO4 Based Oxygen Carrier for Chemical-Looping Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, R.; Song, Q. L.; Zheng, W. G.; Deng, Z. Y.; Shen, L. H.; Zhang, M. Y.

    The CaSO4 based oxygen carrier has been proposed as an alternative low cost oxygen carrier for Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of coal. The reduction of CaSO4 to CaS is an important step for the cyclic process of reduction/oxidation in CLC of coal with CaSO4 based oxygen carrier. Thermodynamic analysis of CaSO4 oxygen carrier with CO based on the principle of Gibbs free energy minimization show that the essentially high purity of CO2 can be obtained, while the solid product is CaS instead of CaO. The intrinsic reduction kinetics of a CaSO4 based oxygen carrier with CO was investigated in a differential fixed bed reactor. The effects of gas partial pressure (20%-70%) and temperature (880-950°C) on the reduction were investigated. The reduction was described with shrinking unreacted core model. Experimental results of CO partial pressure on the solid conversion show that the reduction of fresh oxygen carriers is of first order with respect to the CO partial pressure. Both chemical reaction control and product layer diffusion control determine the reduction rate. The dependences of reaction rate constant and effective diffusivity with temperature were both obtained. The kinetic equation well predicted the experimental data.

  14. A Brief Study on Toxic Combustion Products of the Polymers Used in High-Pressure Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hshieh, Fu-Yu; Beeson, Harold D.

    2005-01-01

    One likely cause of polymer ignition in a high-pressure oxygen system is the adiabatic-compression heating of polymers caused by pneumatic impact. Oxidative pyrolysis or combustion of polymers in a high-pressure oxygen system could generate toxic gases. This paper investigates the feasibility of using the NASA pneumatic-impact system to conduct adiabatic-compression combustion tests and determines the toxic combustion products produced from the burning of five selected polymers. Five polymers commonly used in high-pressure oxygen systems, Zytel(Registered TradeMark) 42 (Nylon 6/6), Buna N (nitrile rubber), Witon(Registered TradeMark) A (copolymer of vinylidene fluoride and hexafluoropropylene), Neoflon(Registered TradeMark) (polychlorotrifluoroethylene), and Teflon(Registered TradeMark) (polytetrafluoroethylene), were tested in the NASA pneumatic-impact test system at 17.2-MPa oxygen pressure. The polymers were ignited and burned; combustion products were collected in a stainless-steel sample bottle and analyzed using various methods. The results show that the NASA pneumatic-impact system is an appropriate test system to conduct adiabatic-compression combustion tests and to collect combustion products for further chemical analysis. The composition of the combustion product gas generated from burning the five selected polymers are presented and discussed.

  15. Photographic Study of Combustion in a Rocket Engine I : Variation in Combustion of Liquid Oxygen and Gasoline with Seven Methods of Propellant Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellman, Donald R; Humphrey, Jack C

    1948-01-01

    Motion pictures at camera speeds up to 3000 frames per second were taken of the combustion of liquid oxygen and gasoline in a 100-pound-thrust rocket engine. The engine consisted of thin contour and injection plates clamped between two clear plastic sheets forming a two-dimensional engine with a view of the entire combustion chamber and nozzle. A photographic investigation was made of the effect of seven methods of propellant injection on the uniformity of combustion. From the photographs, it was found that the flame front extended almost to the faces of the injectors with most of the injection methods, all the injection systems resulted in a considerable nonuniformity of combustion, and luminosity rapidly decreased in the divergent part of the nozzle. Pressure vibration records indicated combustion vibrations that approximately corresponded to the resonant frequencies of the length and the thickness of the chamber. The combustion temperature divided by the molecular weight of the combustion gases as determined from the combustion photographs was about 50 to 70 percent of the theoretical value.

  16. Nanocomposite oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion of sulfur-contaminated synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Rahul D. Solunke; Goetz Veser

    2009-09-15

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean combustion. We have previously demonstrated that the embedding of metal nanoparticles into a nanostructured ceramic matrix can result in unusually active and sinter-resistant nanocomposite oxygen carrier materials for CLC, which combine the high reactivity of metals with the high-temperature stability of ceramics. In the present study, we investigate the effect of H{sub 2}S in a typical coal-derived syngas on the stability and redox kinetics of Ni- and Cu-based nanostructured oxygen carriers. Both carriers show excellent structural stability and only mildly changed redox kinetics upon exposure to H{sub 2}S, despite a significant degree of sulfide formation. Surprisingly, partial sulfidation of the support results in a strong increase in oxygen carrier capacity in both cases because of the addition of a sulfide-sulfate cycle. Overall, the carriers show great potential for use in CLC of high-sulfur fuels. 21 refs., 13 figs. 1 tab.

  17. Chemicl-looping combustion of coal with metal oxide oxygen carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, R.; Tian, H.; Richards, G.; Simonyi, T.; Poston, J.

    2009-01-01

    The combustion and reoxidation properties of direct coal chemical-looping combustion (CLC) over CuO, Fe2O3, Co3O4, NiO, and Mn2O3 were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and bench-scale fixed-bed flow reactor studies. When coal is heated in either nitrogen or carbon dioxide (CO2), 50% of weight loss was observed because of partial pyrolysis, consistent with the proximate analysis. Among various metal oxides evaluated, CuO showed the best reaction properties: CuO can initiate the reduction reaction as low as 500 °C and complete the full combustion at 700 °C. In addition, the reduced copper can be fully reoxidized by air at 700 °C. The combustion products formed during the CLC reaction of the coal/metal oxide mixture are CO2 and water, while no carbon monoxide was observed. Multicycle TGA tests and bench-scale fixed-bed flow reactor tests strongly supported the feasibility of CLC of coal by using CuO as an oxygen carrier. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of solid reaction products indicated some changes in the surface morphology of a CuO-coal sample after reduction/oxidation reactions at 800 °C. However, significant surface sintering was not observed. The interactions of fly ash with metal oxides were investigated by X-ray diffraction and thermodynamic analysis. Overall, the results indicated that it is feasible to develop CLC with coal by metal oxides as oxygen carriers.

  18. Chemical-looping combustion of coal with metal oxide oxygen carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjani Siriwardane; Hanjing Tian; George Richards; Thomas Simonyi; James Poston

    2009-08-15

    The combustion and reoxidation properties of direct coal chemical-looping combustion (CLC) over CuO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CO{sub 3}O{sub 4}, NiO, and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and bench-scale fixed-bed flow reactor studies. When coal is heated in either nitrogen or carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), 50% of weight loss was observed because of partial pyrolysis, consistent with the proximate analysis. Among various metal oxides evaluated, CuO showed the best reaction properties: CuO can initiate the reduction reaction as low as 500{sup o}C and complete the full combustion at 700{sup o}C. In addition, the reduced copper can be fully reoxidized by air at 700{sup o}C. The combustion products formed during the CLC reaction of the coal/metal oxide mixture are CO{sub 2} and water, while no carbon monoxide was observed. Multicycle TGA tests and bench-scale fixed-bed flow reactor tests strongly supported the feasibility of CLC of coal by using CuO as an oxygen carrier. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of solid reaction products indicated some changes in the surface morphology of a CuO-coal sample after reduction/oxidation reactions at 800 {sup o}C. However, significant surface sintering was not observed. The interactions of fly ash with metal oxides were investigated by X-ray diffraction and thermodynamic analysis. Overall, the results indicated that it is feasible to develop CLC with coal by metal oxides as oxygen carriers. 22 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    DOEpatents

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Cole, Roger L.

    1997-01-01

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  20. Corrosion prevention in copper combustion chamber liners of liquid oxygen/methane booster engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, S. D.; Gage, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of a protective gold coating for preventing the corrosion of copper combustion chamber liners in liquid oxygen/methane booster engines is discussed with reference to experimental results. Gold-plated and unplated copper alloy specimens were tested in a carbothermal test facility providing realistic simulations of booster engine cooling channel conditions, such as temperature, pressure, flow velocity, and heat flux. Metallographic examinations of the unplated specimens showed severe corrosion as a result of the reaction with the sulfur-containing contaminant in the fuel. In contrast, gold-plated specimens showed no corrosion under similar operating conditions.

  1. Singlet oxygen generation enhanced by silver-pectin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Luciana S A; Gomes, Anderson S L; Saska, Sybele; Nigoghossian, Karina; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J L; de Araujo, Renato E

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate the potential application of silver-pectin nanoparticles on photodynamic therapy, on a solution-base platform. Photodynamic therapy is a medical technique which uses a combination of photosensitizing drugs and light to induce selective damage on the target tissue, by electronically excited and highly reactive singlet state of oxygen. Metal enhanced singlet oxygen generation in riboflavin water solution with silver-pectin nanoparticles was observed and quantified. Here 13 nm silver nanospheres enclosed by a pectin layer were synthesized and it interaction with riboflavin molecule was analyzed. Pectin, a complex carbohydrate found in plants primary cell walls, was used to increase the biocompatibility of the silver nanoparticles and to improve metal enhanced singlet oxygen generation (28.5 %) and metal-enhanced fluorescence (30.7 %) processes at room temperature. The singlet oxygen sensor fluorescent green reagent was used to quantify the enhancement of the riboflavin singlet oxygen production induced by the silver colloid. We report a 1.7-fold increase of riboflavin emission and a 1.8-fold enhancement of singlet oxygen production. PMID:22843254

  2. Combustion Synthesis of Yttrium BARIUM(2) COPPER(3) OXYGEN(6+X) Superconductor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Sy-Chyi

    YBa_2Cu_3 O_{rm 6 + x} was produced from copper, barium peroxide, and yttrium oxide by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) and thermal explosion methods. The SHS process was conducted in two modes: a horizontal combustion and a vertical combustion. The influence of copper particle size on the stability of the reaction front was studied. In contrast to previous studies, a stable reaction front could be maintained even when relatively large copper particles (smaller than 325 mesh) were used. In the horizontal SHS process, large diameter pellets (larger than 22 mm in diameter) enabled stable combustion at room temperature. Elevated ambient temperatures (400 {~} 500^circ C) were needed to stabilize the combustion front movement in small diameter pellets. The product had an average concentration of 84 wt% YBa_2Cu _3O_{rm 6 + x}. In the vertical SHS process, with the aid of a booster, the combustion front moved more rapidly and smoothly than that in the horizontal SHS process and gave a product concentration of about 90 wt% YBa _2Cu_3O_ {rm 6 + x}. High quality product (above 95 wt% YBa_2Cu_3 O_{rm 6 + x}) may be obtained by sintering/calcining the SHS product in an oxygen atmosphere. Three different sintering/calcining processes were studied and the required temperature and the time for each process were determined. The temperature at the center of the pellet in a vertical SHS was measured by thermocouples. The pellet temperature rise is a two step process. The first temperature rise is caused by the oxidation of the copper and the second is caused by the reaction between yttrium oxide and barium cuprate. A reaction mechanism is proposed to explain this behavior. A thermal explosion process was conducted in a continuous rotary kiln. In this mode a pellet was introduced suddenly into a heated rotary kiln causing it to be combusted. After the combustion, the pellet was sintered at 900 to 980 ^circC and a product containing about 95 wt% YBa_2Cu_3 O_{rm 6 + x} was obtained. The impacts of the thermal explosion temperature and the sintering conditions on the product quality were studied. The best temperature was found to be 800 ^circC and 100 minutes was sufficient for the pellet to reach equilibrium.

  3. Carbon monoxide and oxygen combustion experiments: A demonstration of Mars in situ propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of using carbon monoxide and oxygen as rocket propellants was examined both experimentally and theoretically. The steady-state combustion of carbon monoxide and oxygen was demonstrated for the first time in a subscale rocket engine. Measurements of experimental characteristic velocity, vacuum specific impulse, and thrust coefficient efficiency were obtained over a mixture ratio range of 0.30 to 2.0 and a chamber pressures of 1070 and 530 kPa. The theoretical performance of the propellant combination was studied parametrically over the same mixture ratio range. In addition to one dimensional ideal performance predictions, various performance reduction mechanisms were also modeled, including finite-rate kinetic reactions, two-dimensional divergence effects and viscous boundary layer effects.

  4. Carbon monoxide and oxygen combustion experiments - A demonstration of Mars in situ propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of using carbon monoxide and oxygen as rocket propellants was examined both experimentally and theoretically. The steady-state combustion of carbon monoxide and oxygen was demonstrated for the first time in a subscale rocket engine. Measurements of experimental characteristic velocity, vacuum specific impulse, and thrust coefficient efficiency were obtained over a mixture ratio range of 0.30 to 2.0 and a chamber pressures of 1070 and 530 kPa. The theoretical performance of the propellant combination was studied parametrically over the same mixture ratio range. In addition to one dimensional ideal performance predictions, various performance reduction mechanisms were also modeled, including finite-rate kinetic reactions, two-dimensional divergence effects and viscous boundary layer effects.

  5. Oxygen carrier development for chemical looping combustion of coal derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, R.V.; Chaudhari, K.; Zinn, A.N.; Simonyi, T.; Robinson, Clark; Poston, J.A.

    2006-09-01

    In the present work, NETL researchers have studied chemical looping combustion (CLC) with an oxygen carrier NiO/bentonite (60 wt.% NiO) for the IGCC systems utilizing simulated synthesis gas. Multi cycle CLC was conducted with NiO/Bentonite in TGA at atmospheric pressure and in a high pressure reactor in a temperature range between 700-900°C. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation as a function of conversion were calculated for all oxidation-reduction cycles utilizing the TGA data. The effect of particle size of the oxygen carrier on CLC was studied for the size between 20-200 mesh. The multi cycle CLC tests conducted in a high pressure packed bed flow reactor indicated constant total production of CO2 from fuel gas at 800°C and 900°C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction.

  6. Combustion Stability Characteristics of the Project Morpheus Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, J. C.; Morehead, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The Project Morpheus liquid oxygen (LOX) / liquid methane rocket engines demonstrated acousticcoupled combustion instabilities during sea-level ground-based testing at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Stennis Space Center (SSC). High-amplitude, 1T, 1R, 1T1R (and higher order) modes appear to be triggered by injector conditions. The instability occurred during the Morpheus-specific engine ignition/start sequence, and did demonstrate the capability to propagate into mainstage. However, the instability was never observed to initiate during mainstage, even at low power levels. The Morpheus main engine is a JSC-designed 5,000 lbf-thrust, 4:1 throttling, pressure-fed cryogenic engine using an impinging element injector design. Two different engine designs, named HD4 and HD5, and two different builds of the HD4 engine all demonstrated similar instability characteristics. Through the analysis of more than 200 hot fire tests on the Morpheus vehicle and SSC test stand, a relationship between ignition stability and injector/chamber pressure was developed. The instability has the distinct characteristic of initiating at high relative injection pressure drop (dP) at low chamber pressure (Pc); i.e., instabilities initiated at high dP/Pc at low Pc during the start sequence. The high dP/Pc during start results during the injector /chamber chill-in, and is enhanced by hydraulic flip in the injector orifice elements. Because of the fixed mixture ratio of the existing engine design (the main valves share a common actuator), it is not currently possible to determine if LOX or methane injector dP/Pc were individual contributors (i.e., LOX and methane dP/Pc typically trend in the same direction within a given test). The instability demonstrated initiation characteristic of starting at or shortly after methane injector chillin. Colder methane (e.g., sub-cooled) at the injector inlet prior to engine start was much more likely to result in an instability. A secondary effect of LOX sub-cooling was also possibly observed; greater LOX sub- cooling improved stability. Some tests demonstrated a low-amplitude 1L-1T instability prior to LOX injector chill-in. The Morpheus main engine also demonstrated chug instabilities during some engine shutdown sequences on the flight vehicle and SSC test stand. The chug instability was also infrequently observed during the startup sequence. The chug instabilities predictably initiated at low dP/Pc at low Pc. The chug instabilities were always self-limiting; startup chug instabilities terminated during throttle-up and shutdown chug instabilities decayed by shutdown termination.

  7. Measurement and modelling of oxygenated organic compounds from smoldering combustion of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, L.M.; Richards, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    Biomass fires emit a myriad of compounds, some of which are toxic and/or globally significant as photochemically reactive, tropospheric trace gases, greenhouse gases and precursors to stratospheric ozone-destroying radicals. 35 oxygenated organic compounds in condensed (-45{degrees}C) smoke from 29 bench scale fires of ponderosa pine sapwood, needles, bark, litter, duff, and humus have been identified and quantified. These fires ranged from flaming to low intensity smoldering. In addition, five low intensity fires of intact ponderosa pine forest floor (litter, duff, and humus) were carried out on a larger scale in a combustion chamber. The condensates were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the gas phase was analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. Acetic acid, vinyl acetate and acetol were major condensable emissions. The dependence of oxygenated organic emissions on fuel chemistry and combustion efficiency has been investigated, along with correlations between emissions. Molar emission ratios of individual compounds to CO have been calculated and used to estimate possible exposure levels for wildland firefighters.

  8. Chemical-looping combustion of simulated synthesis gas using nickel oxide oxygen carrier supported on bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, R.V.; Chaudhari, K.; Poston, J.A.; Zinn, A.; Simonyi, T.; Robinson, C.

    2007-05-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology for clean and efficient utilization of fossil fuels for energy production. This process which produces sequestration ready CO2 systems is a promising technology to be utilized with coal gasification systems. In the present work, chemical-looping combustion has been studied with an oxygen carrier, NiO/bentonite (60 wt % NiO) for the gasification systems utilizing simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation as a function of conversion were calculated for oxidation-reduction cycles utilizing the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data on multicycle tests conducted with NiO/bentonite at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900 °C. The rate of reduction increased slightly with an increase in temperature, while the rate of oxidation decreased at 900 °C. The effect of particle size of the oxygen carrier on CLC was studied for the particle size between 20 and 200 mesh. The rates of reactions depended on the particle size of the oxygen carrier. The smaller the particle size, the higher the reaction rates. The multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for the production of CO2 from fuel gas at 800 and 900 °C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. The data from a one cycle test on the effect of the pressure on the performance with NiO/bentonite utilizing the tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) showed a positive effect of the pressure on the global rates of reduction-oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the presence of the NiO phase in NiO/bentonite with the oxidized sample in the highpressure reactor and Ni phase with the reduced sample. The presence of a small amount of NiO in the reduced sample detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) may be due to its exposure to air during sample transfer from the reactor to XPS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed no significant changes in morphology of NiO/bentonite reacted in the temperature range 700-800 °C in an atmospheric TGA for 10 oxidation-reduction cycles, but some loss of surface area and porosity was observed at 900 °C. This effect was found to be greater with increase in the particle size of the oxygen carrier.

  9. Exfoliation of layered double hydroxides for enhanced oxygen evolution catalysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Fang; Hu, Xile

    2014-01-01

    The oxygen evolution reaction is a key reaction in water splitting. The common approach in the development of oxygen evolution catalysts is to search for catalytic materials with new and optimized chemical compositions and structures. Here we report an orthogonal approach to improve the activity of catalysts without alternating their compositions or structures. Specifically, liquid phase exfoliation is applied to enhance the oxygen evolution activity of layered double hydroxides. The exfoliated single-layer nanosheets exhibit significantly higher oxygen evolution activity than the corresponding bulk layered double hydroxides in alkaline conditions. The nanosheets from nickel iron and nickel cobalt layered double hydroxides outperform a commercial iridium dioxide catalyst in both activity and stability. The exfoliation creates more active sites and improves the electronic conductivity. This work demonstrates the promising catalytic activity of single-layered double hydroxides for the oxygen evolution reaction. PMID:25030209

  10. Exfoliation of layered double hydroxides for enhanced oxygen evolution catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Fang; Hu, Xile

    2014-07-01

    The oxygen evolution reaction is a key reaction in water splitting. The common approach in the development of oxygen evolution catalysts is to search for catalytic materials with new and optimized chemical compositions and structures. Here we report an orthogonal approach to improve the activity of catalysts without alternating their compositions or structures. Specifically, liquid phase exfoliation is applied to enhance the oxygen evolution activity of layered double hydroxides. The exfoliated single-layer nanosheets exhibit significantly higher oxygen evolution activity than the corresponding bulk layered double hydroxides in alkaline conditions. The nanosheets from nickel iron and nickel cobalt layered double hydroxides outperform a commercial iridium dioxide catalyst in both activity and stability. The exfoliation creates more active sites and improves the electronic conductivity. This work demonstrates the promising catalytic activity of single-layered double hydroxides for the oxygen evolution reaction.

  11. Numerical Investigation of Combustion and Flow Dynamics in a High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel Thermal Spray Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Song, Qiuzhi; Yu, Zhiyi

    2016-02-01

    The combustion and flow behavior within a high velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray gun is very complex and involves multiphase flow, heat transfer, chemical reactions, and supersonic/subsonic transitions. Additionally, this behavior has a significant effect on the formation of a coating. Non-premixed combustion models have been developed and are able to provide insight into the underlying physics of the process. Therefore, this investigation employs a non-premixed combustion model and the SST k - ω turbulence model to simulate the flow field of the JP5000 (Praxair-TAFA, US) HVOF thermal spray gun. The predicted temperature and velocity have a high level of agreement with experimental data when using the non-premixed combustion model. The results are focused on the fuel combustion, the subsequent gas dynamics within the HVOF gun, and the development of a supersonic free jet outside the gun. Furthermore, the oxygen/fuel inlet turbulence intensity, the fuel droplet size, and the oxygen/fuel ratio are investigated to determine their effect on the supersonic flow characteristics of the combustion gas.

  12. Numerical Investigation of Combustion and Flow Dynamics in a High Velocity Oxygen-Fuel Thermal Spray Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Song, Qiuzhi; Yu, Zhiyi

    2015-12-01

    The combustion and flow behavior within a high velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray gun is very complex and involves multiphase flow, heat transfer, chemical reactions, and supersonic/subsonic transitions. Additionally, this behavior has a significant effect on the formation of a coating. Non-premixed combustion models have been developed and are able to provide insight into the underlying physics of the process. Therefore, this investigation employs a non-premixed combustion model and the SST k - ? turbulence model to simulate the flow field of the JP5000 (Praxair-TAFA, US) HVOF thermal spray gun. The predicted temperature and velocity have a high level of agreement with experimental data when using the non-premixed combustion model. The results are focused on the fuel combustion, the subsequent gas dynamics within the HVOF gun, and the development of a supersonic free jet outside the gun. Furthermore, the oxygen/fuel inlet turbulence intensity, the fuel droplet size, and the oxygen/fuel ratio are investigated to determine their effect on the supersonic flow characteristics of the combustion gas.

  13. Trityl-based EPR probe with enhanced sensitivity to oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Bobko, Andrey A.; Dhimitruka, Ilirian; Eubank, Timothy D.; Marsh, Clay B.; Zweier, Jay L.; Khramtsov, Valery V.

    2009-01-01

    An asymmetric derivative of triarylmethyl radical, TAM-H, containing one aldehyde and two carboxyl groups was synthesized. The electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR, spectrum of TAM-H is characterized by a doublet of narrow lines with linewidth of 105 mG in anoxic conditions and hyperfine interaction constant 245 mG. The partial overlap of the components of the doublet results in enhanced sensitivity of the spectral amplitudes ratio to oxygen compared with oxygen-induced linewidth broadening of a single line. Application of the TAM-H probe allows for EPR measurements in an extended range of oxygen pressures from atmospheric to 1 mmHg whereas the EPR spectrum linewidth of the popular TAM-based oxygen sensor, Oxo63, is practically insensitive to oxygen partial pressures below 20 mmHg. Enhanced sensitivity of TAM-H probe relative to Oxo63 was demonstrated in detection of oxygen consumption by Met-1 cancer cells. The TAM-H probe allowed prolonged measurements of oxygen depletion during the hypoxia stage and down to true anoxia (? 1.5 mmHg). PMID:19523513

  14. Trityl-based EPR probe with enhanced sensitivity to oxygen.

    PubMed

    Bobko, Andrey A; Dhimitruka, Ilirian; Eubank, Timothy D; Marsh, Clay B; Zweier, Jay L; Khramtsov, Valery V

    2009-09-01

    An asymmetric derivative of the triarylmethyl radical, TAM-H, containing one aldehyde and two carboxyl groups, was synthesized. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of TAM-H is characterized by a doublet of narrow lines with a linewidth of 105 mG under anoxic conditions and hyperfine interaction constant of 245 mG. The partial overlap of the components of the doublet results in enhanced sensitivity of the spectral amplitudes ratio to oxygen compared with oxygen-induced linewidth broadening of a single line. Application of the TAM-H probe allows for EPR measurements in an extended range of oxygen pressures from atmospheric to 1 mm Hg, whereas the EPR spectrum linewidth of the popular TAM-based oxygen sensor Oxo63 is practically insensitive to oxygen partial pressures below 20 mm Hg. Enhanced sensitivity of the TAM-H probe relative to Oxo63 was demonstrated in the detection of oxygen consumption by Met-1 cancer cells. The TAM-H probe allowed prolonged measurements of oxygen depletion during the hypoxia stage and down to true anoxia (

  15. Emissions of parent, nitrated, and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from indoor corn straw burning in normal and controlled combustion conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Wei, Siye; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Lv, Yan; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bin; Wu, Haisuo; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Emission factors (EFs) of parent polycyclic aromatic (pPAHs), nitrated PAHs (nPAHs), and oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) were measured for indoor corn straw burned in a cooking brick stove in both normal and controlled burning conditions. EFs of total 28 pPAHs, 6 nPAHs and 4 oPAHs were 7.9±3.4, 6.5±1.6×10-3, and 6.1±1.4×10-1 mg/kg, respectively. By controlling the burning conditions, it was found that the influence of fuel charge size on EFs of the pPAHs and derivatives was insignificant. Measured EFs increased significantly in a fast burning mainly because of the oxygen deficient atmosphere formed in the stove chamber with a small volume. In both restricted and enhance air supply conditions, EFs of pPAHs, nPAHs and oPAHs were significantly higher than those measured in normal burning conditions. Though EFs varied in different burning conditions, the composition profiles and calculated isomer ratios were similar without significant differences. The results from the stepwise regression model showed that fuel burning rate, air supply amount, and modified combustion efficiency were three most significant influencing factors, explaining 72-85% of the total variations. PMID:24494494

  16. Emissions of parent, nitrated, and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from indoor corn straw burning in normal and controlled combustion conditions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Wei, Siye; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Lv, Yan; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bing; Wu, Haisuo; Tao, Shu

    2013-10-01

    Emission factors (EFs) of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs), nitrated PAHs (nPAHs), and oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) were measured for indoor corn straw burned in a brick cooking stove under different burning conditions. The EFs of total 28 pPAHs, 6 nPAHs and 4 oPAHs were (7.9 +/- 3.4), (6.5 +/- 1.6) x 10(-3), and (6.1 +/- 1.4) x 10(-1) mg/kg, respectively. Fuel charge size had insignificant influence on the pollutant emissions. Measured EFs increased significantly in a fast burning due to the oxygen deficient atmosphere formed in the stove chamber. In both restricted and enhanced air supply conditions, the EFs of pPAHs, nPAHs and oPAHs were significantly higher than those measured in normal burning conditions. Though EFs varied among different burning conditions, the composition profiles and calculated isomer ratios were similar, without significant differences. The results from the stepwise regression model showed that fuel burning rate, air supply amount, and modified combustion efficiency were the three most significant influencing factors, explaining 72%-85% of the total variations. PMID:24494494

  17. CONTROL OF TRANSIENT INCINERATOR EMISSIONS WITH AN OXYGEN BASED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The subject of this paper is the experience with a novel and field-proven method for the enhanced control of transient emissions from rotary kiln incinerators using oxygen enrichment. hen high-BTU content wastes are fed into rotary kiln incinerators in an intermittent mode (typic...

  18. Emissions of Parent, Nitro, and Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Residential Wood Combustion in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, Guofeng; TAO, Shu; WEI, Siye; ZHANG, Yanyan; WANG, Rong; WANG, Bin; LI, Wei; SHEN, Huizhong; HUANG, Ye; CHEN, Yuanchen; CHEN, Han; YANG, Yifeng; WANG, Wei; WANG, Xilong; LIU, Wenxin; SIMONICH, Staci L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Residential wood combustion is one of the important sources of air pollution in developing countries. Among the pollutants emitted, parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their derivatives, including nitrated and oxygenated PAHs (nPAHs and oPAHs), are of concern because of their mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. In order to evaluate their impacts on regional air quality and human health, emission inventories, based on realistic emission factors (EFs), are needed. In this study, the EFs of 28 pPAHs (EFPAH28), 9 nPAHs (EFPAHn9) and 4 oPAHs (EFPAHo4) were measured for residential combustion of 27 wood fuels in rural China. The measured EFPAH28, EFPAHn9, and EFPAHo4 for brushwood were 86.7±67.6, 3.22±1.95×10−2, and 5.56±4.32 mg/kg, which were significantly higher than 12.7±7.0, 8.27±5.51×10−3, and 1.19±1.87 mg/kg for fuel wood combustion (p < 0.05). Sixteen U.S. EPA priority pPAHs contributed approximately 95% of the total of the 28 pPAHs measured. EFs of pPAHs, nPAHs, and oPAHs were positively correlated with one another. Measured EFs varied obviously depending on fuel properties and combustion conditions. The EFs of pPAHs, nPAHs, and oPAHs were significantly correlated with modified combustion efficiency and fuel moisture. Nitro-naphthalene and 9-fluorenone were the most abundant nPAHs and oPAHs identified. Both nPAHs and oPAHs showed relatively high tendencies to be present in the particulate phase than pPAHs due to their lower vapor pressures. The gas-particle partitioning of freshly emitted pPAHs, nPAHs and oPAHs was primarily controlled by organic carbon absorption. PMID:22765266

  19. Oxygen-Rich Combustion Experiments in LOX/GH2 Uni-Element Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, S. A.; Ryan, H. M.; Pal, S.; Santoro, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Research efforts are directed towards understanding specific technical issues that must be resolved to minimize the risk and cost associated with developing oxygen-rich rocket preburners. The experiments concentrate on hot-fire uni-element tests to demonstrate concepts which can be incorporated into hardware design and development. Two concepts under consideration are direct injection of propellants at high O/F (oxidizer/fuel ratio), and stoichiometric injection followed by downstream injection of LOX to achieve the high O/F. The specific results given here address the performance, ignition, combustion stability, and wall heat transfer aspects of a direct-injection swirl coaxial element design operating at high O/F.

  20. Fate of hazardous air pollutants in oxygen-fired coal combustion with different flue gas recycling.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ye; Pavlish, John H

    2012-04-17

    Experiments were performed to characterize transformation and speciation of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), including SO(2)/SO(3), NO(x), HCl, particulate matter, mercury, and other trace elements in oxygen-firing bituminous coal with recirculation flue gas (RFG) from 1) an electrostatic precipitator outlet or 2) a wet scrubber outlet. The experimental results showed that oxycombustion with RFG generated a flue gas with less volume and containing HAPs at higher levels, while the actual emissions of HAPs per unit of energy produced were much less than that of air-blown combustion. NO(x) reduction was achieved in oxycombustion because of the elimination of nitrogen and the destruction of NO in the RFG. The elevated SO(2)/SO(3) in flue gas improved sulfur self-retention. SO(3) vapor could reach its dew point in the flue gas with high moisture, which limits the amount of SO(3) vapor in flue gas and possibly induces material corrosion. Most nonvolatile trace elements were less enriched in fly ash in oxycombustion than air-firing because of lower oxycombustion temperatures occurring in the present study. Meanwhile, Hg and Se were found to be enriched on submicrometer fly ash at higher levels in oxy-firing than in air-blown combustion. PMID:22439940

  1. Kinetic mechanism for low-pressure oxygen/methane ignition and combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavinskaya, N. A.; Wiegand, M.; Starcke, J. H.; Riedel, U.; Haidn, O. J.; Suslov, D.

    2013-03-01

    It is known that during a launch of a rocket, the interaction of the exhaust gases of rocket engines with the atmosphere causes a local depletion of the ozone layer. In order to study these chemical processes in detail, a chemical reaction mechanism of the methane oxidation appropriate for high- and low-pressure conditions and a chemical reactor network to reproduce operating conditions in rocket engines and in the environment have been developed. An earlier developed detailed chemical kinetic model for the high-pressure CH4/O2 combustion has been improved for the low pressure and low temperature methane combustion and augmented with a submodel for NOx formation. The main model improvements are related to the pressure depending reactions. The model has been validated for operating conditions of 0.02 < p < 100 atm, 300 < T < 1800 K and 0.5 < ? < 3.0. The network of chemical reactors available in CHEMICAL WORKBENCH software has been successfully developed to simulate chemical processes in the convergent divergent rocket nozzle and in the exhaust-jet. Simulations performed have shown that the exhaust gases of a methane/oxygen propelled liquid rocket engine contain high amounts of active radicals, which can influence the formation of nitrogen compounds and consume ozone in the atmosphere.

  2. Investigation of Coal Fueled Chemical Looping Combustion Using Fe3O4 as Oxygen Carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xlang, Wenguo; Sun, Xiaoyan; Wangt, Sha; Tian, Wendong; Xu, Xiang; Xu, Yanji; Xiao, Yunhan

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel combustion technique with CO2 separation. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was selected as the oxygen carrier and Shenhua coal (Inner Mongolia, China) as the fuel for this study. The influences of operation temperatures, and coal to Fe3O4 mass ratios on the reduction characteristics of the oxygen carrier were investigated using an atmosphere TGA. The sample, comprised of 2.25mg coal and 12.75mg Fe3O4, was heated to 1000°C. Experimental results show that the reaction between the coal volatile and Fe3O4 began at 700°C while the reaction between the coal char and Fe3O4 occurred at 800°C and reached a peak at 900°C. Fe3O4 was fully reduced into FeO, while some FeO was further reduced to Fe. As the operation temperature rises, the reduction conversion rate increases. At the temperatures of 850°C, 900°C, and 950°C, the reduction conversion rates were 37.1%, 46.5%, and 54.1% respectively. When the mass ratios of coal to Fe3O4 were 5/95, 10/90, 15/85, and 20/80, the reduction conversion rates were 29.5%,40.8%,46.5%, and 46.6% respectively. With the increase of coal to Fe3O4 mass ratio, the conversion rate increases first and then changes no more. There exists an optimal coal to Fe3O4 mass ratio.

  3. Longevity, oxygen toxicity and radiation-enhanced resistance to oxygen in tribolium confusum

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.J.

    1985-01-01

    Sublethal doses of ionizing radiation increase longevity in a variety of insects suggesting that irradiation may retard the age-dependent decline of physiological functions. There have been no systematic investigations of the response of irradiated populations to stress, however. The authors have demonstrated that resistance of adult flour beetles, Tribolium confusum, to oxygen poisoning declines progressively with age. They have examined oxygen resistance of irradiated populations of T. confusum as a function of age at irradiation, of time after irradiation, and of radiation dose and of dose-modifying factors. Shortly after gamma-irradiation, flour beetles exhibited a decline in resistance to oxygen toxicity. Then, about two weeks after irradiation, the LD/sub 50/ exposure time in pure oxygen was much greater than that of nonirradiated beetles, and this enhanced resistance persisted for about 6 months. The magnitude of the enhancement was a function of dose, decreased with increasing age at irradiation, and was modified by radiation factors. Sublethal irradiation under anoxia, at low dose rate, or with dose fractionation reduced the development of oxygen resistance to approximately the same degree that it reduced acute radiation lethality . Radiation-enhanced resistance to stress may be an important factor in the increased longevity of irradiated insects.

  4. Experiments on chemical looping combustion of coal with a NiO based oxygen carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Laihong; Wu, Jiahua; Xiao, Jun

    2009-03-15

    A chemical looping combustion process for coal using interconnected fluidized beds with inherent separation of CO{sub 2} is proposed in this paper. The configuration comprises a high velocity fluidized bed as an air reactor, a cyclone, and a spout-fluid bed as a fuel reactor. The high velocity fluidized bed is directly connected to the spout-fluid bed through the cyclone. Gas composition of both fuel reactor and air reactor, carbon content of fly ash in the fuel reactor, carbon conversion efficiency and CO{sub 2} capture efficiency were investigated experimentally. The results showed that coal gasification was the main factor which controlled the contents of CO and CH{sub 4} concentrations in the flue gas of the fuel reactor, carbon conversion efficiency in the process of chemical looping combustion of coal with NiO-based oxygen carrier in the interconnected fluidized beds. Carbon conversion efficiency reached only 92.8% even when the fuel reactor temperature was high up to 970 C. There was an inherent carbon loss in the process of chemical looping combustion of coal in the interconnected fluidized beds. The inherent carbon loss was due to an easy elutriation of fine char particles from the freeboard of the spout-fluid bed, which was inevitable in this kind of fluidized bed reactor. Further improvement of carbon conversion efficiency could be achieved by means of a circulation of fine particles elutriation into the spout-fluid bed or the high velocity fluidized bed. CO{sub 2} capture efficiency reached to its equilibrium of 80% at the fuel reactor temperature of 960 C. The inherent loss of CO{sub 2} capture efficiency was due to bypassing of gases from the fuel reactor to the air reactor, and the product of residual char burnt with air in the air reactor. Further experiments should be performed for a relatively long-time period to investigate the effects of ash and sulfur in coal on the reactivity of nickel-based oxygen carrier in the continuous CLC reactor. (author)

  5. Burning of solids in oxygen-rich environments in normal and reduced gravity. [combustion of cellulose acetates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andracchio, C. R.; Cochran, T. H.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate the combustion characteristics of solids burning in a weightless environment. The combustion characteristics of thin cellulose acetate material were obtained from specimens burned in supercritical as well as in low pressure oxygen atmospheres. Flame spread rates were measured and found to depend on material thickness and pressure in both normal gravity (1-g) and reduced gravity (0-g). A gravity effect on the burning process was also observed; the ratio of 1-g to 0-g flame spread rate becomes larger with increasing material thickness. Qualitative results on the combustion characteristics of metal screens (stainless steel, Inconel, copper, and aluminum) burning in supercritical oxygen and normal gravity are also presented. Stainless steel (300 sq mesh) was successfully ignited in reduced gravity; no apparent difference in the flame spread pattern was observed between 1-g and 0-g.

  6. Effect of fuel gas composition in chemical-looping combustion with Ni-based oxygen carriers. 1. Fate of sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Labiano, F.; de Diego, L.F.; Gayan, P.; Adanez, J.; Abad, A.; Dueso, C.

    2009-03-15

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has been suggested among the best alternatives to reduce the economic cost of CO{sub 2} capture using fuel gas because CO{sub 2} is inherently separated in the process. For gaseous fuels, natural gas, refinery gas, or syngas from coal gasification can be used. These fuels may contain different amounts of sulfur compounds, such as H{sub 2}S and COS. An experimental investigation of the fate of sulfur during CH{sub 4} combustion in a 500 W{sub th} CLC prototype using a Ni-based oxygen carrier has been carried out. The effect on the oxygen carrier behavior and combustion efficiency of several operating conditions such as temperature and H{sub 2}S concentration has been analyzed. Nickel sulfide, Ni3S{sub 2}, was formed at all operating conditions in the fuel reactor, which produced an oxygen carrier deactivation and lower combustion efficiencies. However, the oxygen carrier recovered their initial reactivity after certain time without sulfur addition. The sulfides were transported to the air reactor where SO{sub 2} was produced as final gas product. Agglomeration problems derived from the sulfides formation were never detected during continuous operation. Considering both operational and environmental aspects, fuels with sulfur contents below 100 vppm H{sub 2}S seem to be adequate to be used in an industrial CLC plant.

  7. Low Oxygen Tension Enhances Hepatitis C Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Kalliampakou, K. I.; Kotta-Loizou, I.; Befani, C.; Liakos, P.; Simos, G.; Mentis, A. F.; Kalliaropoulos, A.; Doumba, P. P.; Smirlis, D.; Foka, P.; Bauhofer, O.; Poenisch, M.; Windisch, M. P.; Lee, M. E.; Koskinas, J.; Bartenschlager, R.

    2013-01-01

    Low oxygen tension exerts a significant effect on the replication of several DNA and RNA viruses in cultured cells. In vitro propagation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has thus far been studied under atmospheric oxygen levels despite the fact that the liver tissue microenvironment is hypoxic. In this study, we investigated the efficiency of HCV production in actively dividing or differentiating human hepatoma cells cultured under low or atmospheric oxygen tensions. By using both HCV replicons and infection-based assays, low oxygen was found to enhance HCV RNA replication whereas virus entry and RNA translation were not affected. Hypoxia signaling pathway-focused DNA microarray and real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses revealed an upregulation of genes related to hypoxic stress, glycolytic metabolism, cell growth, and proliferation when cells were kept under low (3% [vol/vol]) oxygen tension, likely reflecting cell adaptation to anaerobic conditions. Interestingly, hypoxia-mediated enhancement of HCV replication correlated directly with the increase in anaerobic glycolysis and creatine kinase B (CKB) activity that leads to elevated ATP production. Surprisingly, activation of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-?) was not involved in the elevation of HCV replication. Instead, a number of oncogenes known to be associated with glycolysis were upregulated and evidence that these oncogenes contribute to hypoxia-mediated enhancement of HCV replication was obtained. Finally, in liver biopsy specimens of HCV-infected patients, the levels of hypoxia and anaerobic metabolism markers correlated with HCV RNA levels. These results provide new insights into the impact of oxygen tension on the intricate HCV-host cell interaction. PMID:23269812

  8. Combustion, respiration and intermittent exercise: a theoretical perspective on oxygen uptake and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Scott, Christopher B

    2014-01-01

    While no doubt thought about for thousands of years, it was Antoine Lavoisier in the late 18th century who is largely credited with the first "modern" investigations of biological energy exchanges. From Lavoisier's work with combustion and respiration a scientific trend emerges that extends to the present day: the world gains a credible working hypothesis but validity goes missing, often for some time, until later confirmed using proper measures. This theme is applied to glucose/glycogen metabolism where energy exchanges are depicted as conversion from one form to another and, transfer from one place to another made by both the anaerobic and aerobic biochemical pathways within working skeletal muscle, and the hypothetical quantification of these components as part of an oxygen (O2) uptake measurement. The anaerobic and aerobic energy exchange components of metabolism are represented by two different interpretations of O2 uptake: one that contains a glycolytic component (1 L O2 = 21.1 kJ) and one that does not (1 L O2 = 19.6 kJ). When energy exchange transfer and oxygen-related expenditures are applied separately to exercise and recovery periods, an increased energy cost for intermittent as compared to continuous exercise is hypothesized to be a direct result. PMID:24833508

  9. Combustion, Respiration and Intermittent Exercise: A Theoretical Perspective on Oxygen Uptake and Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    While no doubt thought about for thousands of years, it was Antoine Lavoisier in the late 18th century who is largely credited with the first “modern” investigations of biological energy exchanges. From Lavoisier’s work with combustion and respiration a scientific trend emerges that extends to the present day: the world gains a credible working hypothesis but validity goes missing, often for some time, until later confirmed using proper measures. This theme is applied to glucose/glycogen metabolism where energy exchanges are depicted as conversion from one form to another and, transfer from one place to another made by both the anaerobic and aerobic biochemical pathways within working skeletal muscle, and the hypothetical quantification of these components as part of an oxygen (O2) uptake measurement. The anaerobic and aerobic energy exchange components of metabolism are represented by two different interpretations of O2 uptake: one that contains a glycolytic component (1 L O2 = 21.1 kJ) and one that does not (1 L O2 = 19.6 kJ). When energy exchange transfer and oxygen-related expenditures are applied separately to exercise and recovery periods, an increased energy cost for intermittent as compared to continuous exercise is hypothesized to be a direct result. PMID:24833508

  10. High-Rate Diamond Deposition by Combustion Flame Method Using Twin Acetylene/Oxygen Gas Welding Torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Yasutaka; Tobe, Shogo; Tahara, Hirokazu

    2009-12-01

    To develop a high-rate diamond deposition process using combustion flame method, diamond deposition equipment with twin acetylene/oxygen welding torch was manufactured, and diamond deposition by using this equipment was carried out. 304 Stainless steel plates and molybdenum plates were used as substrates. The diamond deposition was conducted under the following conditions: oxygen flow rate: 1.25 SLM, acetylene/oxygen flow ratio: 1.15, and diamond deposition temperature: around 1473 K. Consequently, diamonds could be deposited even on the stainless steel substrate, and diamond deposition rate was promoted by using twin torch equipment. Besides, the diamond/molybdenum hybrid coating using diamonds deposited by twin torch equipment have the same wear-resistant property as that using diamonds by the single torch equipment. From these results, this technique was thought to have high potential for high-rate diamond deposition in combustion flame method.

  11. Some observations on plasma-assisted combustion enhancement using dielectric barrier discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jie; Zhao, Wei; Duan, Yixiang

    2011-08-01

    We explore an effective way to promote propane combustion by applying a plasma discharge for efficiency enhancement. A coaxial-cylinder, dielectric barrier discharge is used to activate propane and air before they are mixed with each other and ignited for combustion. The characteristics of the combustion flame are well studied and evaluated by varying various operational parameters. It is found that the combustion process can be enhanced by applying a plasma on either the propane or air stream, and the combustion stability is found to be somewhat sensitive to the lean burning conditions and confined to a relatively narrow operating window. The temperature and spectrum of the flame in the main combustion zone are investigated with a 4 W plasma in the on or off state. The main components are identified, and the possible physical and chemical reaction mechanisms are discussed. A comparative analysis of these spectra and temperatures obtained in the main flame suggests that the energy generated from the 4 W plasma is partially used to heat the reaction gases in the flame, and another part of the energy is used to increase the luminosity, especially for activation of air. We also observe that combustion of high flow rate propane and/or air requires more discharge energy density under certain conditions. A comparison of combustion enhancement through different activation methods in flame blowout tests shows that reactive species derived from activation of air play a more critical role in the blowout limit of propane combustion flame than those generated by activation of propane at low equivalence ratio and propane flow.

  12. Combustion of solid fuel slabs with gaseous oxygen in a hybrid motor analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.; Lu, Yeu-Cherng; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Serin, Nadir; Johnson, David K.

    1995-01-01

    Using a high-pressure, two-dimensional hybrid motor, an experimental investigation was conducted on fundamental processes involved in hybrid rocket combustion. HTPB (Hydroxyl-terminated Polybutadiene) fuel cross-linked with diisocyanate was burned with gaseous oxygen (GOX) under various operating conditions. Large-amplitude pressure oscillations were encountered in earlier test runs. After identifying the source of instability and decoupling the GOX feed-line system and combustion chamber, the pressure oscillations were drastically reduced from plus or minus 20% of the localized mean pressure to an acceptable range of plus or minus 1.5%. Embedded fine--wire thermocouples indicated that the surface temperature of the burning fuel was around 1000 K depending upon axial locations and operating conditions. Also, except near the leading edge region, the subsurface thermal wave profiles in the upstream locations are thicker than those in the downstream locations since the solid-fuel regression rate, in general, increases with distance along the fuel slab. The recovered solid fuel slabs in the laminar portion of the boundary layer exhibited smooth surfaces, indicating the existence of a liquid melt layer on the burning fuel surface in the upstream region. After the transition section, which displayed distinct transverse striations, the surface roughness pattern became quite random and very pronounced in the downstream turbulent boundary-layer region. Both real-time X-ray radiography and ultrasonic pulse echo techniques were used to determine the instantaneous web thicknesses and instantaneous solid-fuel regression rates over certain portions of the fuel slabs. Globally averaged and axially dependent but time-averaged regression rates were also obtained and presented. Several tests were conducted using, simultaneously, one translucent fuel slab and one fuel slab processed with carbon black powder. The addition of carbon black did not affect the measured regression rates or surface temperatures in comparison to the translucent fuel slabs.

  13. Does oxygen enhance the radiation-induced inactivation of penicillinase

    SciTech Connect

    Samuni, A.; Kalkstein, A.; Czapski, G.

    1980-04-01

    The radiation-induced inactivation of penicillinase (..beta..-lactamase, EC 3.5.2.6) in dilute aqueous solutions buffered with phosphate was studied by examining enzyme radiosensitivity in the presence of various gases (He, O/sub 2/, H/sub 2/, N/sub 2/O and N/sub 2/O + O/sub 2/). The introduction of either N/sub 2/O or O/sub 2/ was found to reduce the radiodamage. On the other hand, H/sub 2/ or N/sub 2/O + O/sub 2/ gas mixture enhanced the radiosensitivity. In the presence of formate and oxygen no enzyme inactivation was detected. The results indicated that the specific damaging efficiency of H atoms is more than twofold higher than that of OH radicals; therefore, in 50 mM phosphate buffer, where more than half the free radicals are H atoms, the H radicals are responsible for the majority of the damage. The superoxide radicals appeared to be completely inactive and did not contribute to enzyme inactivation. Oxygen affected the radiosensitivity in two ways: (1) it protected by converting e/sub aq//sup -/ and H into harmless O/sub 2/-radicals; and (2) it increased inactivation by enhancing the damage brought about by OH radicals (OER = 2.6). In oxygenated buffer the protection effect of oxygen exceeded that of sensitization, thus giving rise to a moderate overall protection effect.

  14. Embryonic oxygen enhances learning ability in hatchling lizards

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Producing smart offspring is an important fitness trait; individuals with enhanced cognitive ability should be more adept at responding to complex environmental demands. Cognitive ability can be influenced by conditions experienced during embryonic development. Although oxygen is necessary for embryonic development, availability can be limited within the nest environment because of substrate type, hydric conditions, and temperature. We do not yet understand, however, whether oxygen availability during embryonic development influences offspring fitness, especially cognitive ability. To address this question we incubated Mongolian Racerunner lizard (Eremias argus) eggs under hypoxic (12% O2), normoxic (21% O2), and hyperoxic conditions (30% O2). Results Hypoxia not only slowed hatching time, but also resulted in constrained cognitive ability relative to hatchlings experiencing normoxic or hyperoxic incubation conditions. Oxygen did not influence hatching success, body size or sprint speed of hatchlings. Conclusions Oxygen availability during embryonic development has important influences on incubation duration and cognitive ability of hatchling lizards. This study provides the first evidence that oxygen availability during embryonic development can modify cognitive ability of oviparous reptiles. PMID:24589451

  15. Enhancement by platelets of oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, K.K.; Powell, J.; Johnson, K.J.; Ward, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    When human blood neutrophils were incubated with immune complexes (consisting of IgG antibody) in the presence of platelets, there was a 2 to 10 fold enhancement in the generation of O-/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. This enhancement phenomenon was proportional to the dose of immune complex added and the number of platelets present. The response was not agonist specific since similar enhancement also occurred with the following agonists: phorbol myristate acetate, opsonized zymosan particles and the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-met-leu-phe. The platelet related phenomenon of enhanced O-/sub 2/ generation could not be reproduced by the addition of serotonin, histamine or platelet-derived growth factor and was not affected by prior treatment of platelets with cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin, piroxicam) or lipoxygenase inhibitors (nafazatrom, BW755C or nordihydroguaiaretic acid). However, activation of platelets by thrombin caused release into the platelet supernatant fluid of a factor that, only in the presence of immune complexes, caused enhanced O-/sub 2/ responses to neutrophils. These data indicate that platelets potentiate oxygen radical responses of human neutrophils and suggest a mechanisms by which platelets may participate in tissue injury which is mediated by oxygen radical products from activated neutrophils.

  16. Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project is presented. The overview includes project metrics, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on some of the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Objective: Development of comprehensive detailed and reduced kinetic mechanisms of jet fuels for chemically-reacting flow modeling. Scientific Challenges: 1) Developing experimental facilities capable of handling higher hydrocarbons and providing benchmark combustion data. 2) Determining and understanding ignition and combustion characteristics, such as laminar flame speeds, extinction stretch rates, and autoignition delays, of jet fuels and hydrocarbons relevant to jet surrogates. 3) Developing comprehensive kinetic models for jet fuels.

  17. Solid waste management of a chemical-looping combustion plant using Cu-based oxygen carriers.

    PubMed

    García-Labiano, Francisco; Gayán, Pilar; Adánez, Juan; De Diego, Luis F; Forero, Carmen R

    2007-08-15

    Waste management generated from a Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) plant using copper-based materials is analyzed by two ways: the recovery and recycling of the used material and the disposal of the waste. A copper recovery process coupled to the CLC plant is proposed to avoid the loss of active material generated by elutriation from the system. Solid residues obtained from a 10 kWth CLC prototype operated during 100 h with a CuO-Al2O3 oxygen carrier prepared by impregnation were used as raw material in the recovery process. Recovering efficiencies of approximately 80% were obtained in the process, where the final products were an eluate of Cu(NO3)2 and a solid. The eluate was used for preparation of new oxygen carriers by impregnation, which exhibited high reactivity for reduction and oxidation reactions as well as adequate physical and chemical properties to be used in a CLC plant. The proposed recovery process largely decreases the amount of natural resources (Cu and Al203) employed in a CLC power plant as well as the waste generated in the process. To determine the stability of the different solid streams during deposition in a landfill, these were characterized with respect to their leaching behavior according to the European Union normative. The solid residue finally obtained in the CLC plant coupled to the recovery process (composed by Al2O3 and CuAl2O4) can be classified as a stable nonreactive hazardous waste acceptable at landfills for nonhazardous wastes. PMID:17874801

  18. Reference concepts for a space-based hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator, burst power system

    SciTech Connect

    Edenburn, M.W.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes reference concepts for a hydrogen-oxygen combustion, turboalternator power system that supplies power during battle engagement to a space-based, ballistic missile defense platform. All of the concepts are open''; that is, they exhaust hydrogen or a mixture of hydrogen and water vapor into space. We considered the situation where hydrogen is presumed to be free to the power system because it is also needed to cool the platform's weapon and the situation where hydrogen is not free and its mass must be added to that of the power system. We also considered the situation where water vapor is an acceptable exhaust and the situation where it is not. The combination of these two sets of situations required four different power generation systems, and this report describes each, suggests parameter values, and estimates masses for each of the four. These reference concepts are expected to serve as a baseline'' to which other types of power systems can be compared, and they are expected to help guide technology development efforts in that they suggest parameter value ranges that will lead to optimum system designs. 7 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. OXYGEN-ENRICHED COAL COMBUSTION WITH CARBON DIOXIDE RECYCLE AND RECOVERY: SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Veranth; Gautham Krishnamoorthy

    2002-02-28

    Two computational problems were worked on for this study. The first chapter examines the option of coal combustion using oxygen feed with carbon dioxide recycle to control the adiabatic flame temperature. Computer simulations using an existing state-of-the-art 3-dimensional computer code for turbulent reacting flows with reacting particles were employed to study the effects of increased carbon dioxide mole fraction on the char burnout, radiant heat transfer, metal partitioning, and NOx formation. The second chapter compares assumptions for the CO/CO{sub 2} ratio at the surface of mineral inclusions made in previous studies to predictions obtained from a pseudo-steady state kinetic model (SKIPPY) for a single porous particle. The detailed kinetic simulations from SKIPPY for varying particle sizes and bulk gas compositions were used to develop algebraic expressions for the CO/CO{sub 2} ratio that can be incorporated into metal vaporization sub-models run as a post processor to detailed furnace simulations. Vaporization rate controls the formation of metal-enriched sub-micron particles in pulverized coal fired power plants.

  20. Enhanced capability of the Combustion-Heated Scramjet Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, Kenneth E.; Andrews, Earl H.; Eggers, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The Combustion-Heated Scramjet Test Facility (CHSTF) is described together with its modifications. The expanded simulation capabilities of the facility are documented. Nozzle exit surveys and tunnel calibration information are presented. It is noted that these modifications included a new heat-sink nickel liner heater, a new Mach 4.7 nozzle, and a new 70-ft vacuum sphere exhaust system. It is found that the facility in the air ejector mode of operation performed similarly to that prior to the addition of the vacuum sphere ducting.

  1. Sulfur behavior in chemical looping combustion with NiO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxygen carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Laihong; Gao, Zhengping; Wu, Jiahua; Xiao, Jun

    2010-05-15

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a novel technology where CO{sub 2} is inherently separated during combustion. Due to the existence of sulfur contaminants in the fossil fuels, the gaseous products of sulfur species and the interaction of sulfur contaminants with oxygen carrier are a big concern in the CLC practice. The reactivity of NiO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxygen carrier reduction with a gas mixture of CO/H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S is investigated by means of a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrum analyzer in this study. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) are used to evaluate the phase characterization of reacted oxygen carrier, and the formation mechanisms of the gaseous products of sulfur species are elucidated in the process of chemical looping combustion with a gaseous fuel containing hydrogen sulfide. The results show that the rate of NiO reduction with H{sub 2}S is higher than the one with CO. There are only Ni and Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} phases of nickel species in the fully reduced oxygen carrier, and no evidence for the existence of NiS or NiS{sub 2}. The formation of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} is completely reversible during the process of oxygen carrier redox. A liquid phase sintering on the external surface of reduced oxygen carriers is mainly attributed to the production of the low melting of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} in the nickel-based oxygen carrier reduction with a gaseous fuel containing H{sub 2}S. Due to the sintering of metallic nickel grains on the external surface of the reduced oxygen carrier, further reaction of the oxygen carrier with H{sub 2}S is constrained, and there is no increase of the sulfidation index of the reduced oxygen carrier with the cyclical reduction number. Also, a continuous operation with a syngas of carbon monoxide and hydrogen containing H{sub 2}S is carried out in a 1 kW{sub th} CLC prototype based on the nickel-based oxygen carrier, and the effect of the fuel reactor temperature on the release of gaseous products of sulfur species is investigated. (author)

  2. Oxygen functional groups in graphitic carbon nitride for enhanced photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shizhen; Li, Degang; Sun, Hongqi; Ang, Ha Ming; Tadé, Moses O; Wang, Shaobin

    2016-04-15

    Metal-free semiconductors offer a new opportunity for environmental photocatalysis toward a potential breakthrough in high photo efficiency with complete prevention of metal leaching. In this study, graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) modified by oxygen functional groups was synthesized by a hydrothermal treatment of pristine GCN at different temperatures with H2O2. Insights into the emerging characteristics of the modified GCN in photocatalysis were obtained by determining the optical properties, band structure, electrochemical activity and pollutant degradation efficiency. It was found that the introduction of GCN with oxygen functional groups can enhance light absorption and accelerate electron transfer so as to improve the photocatalytic reaction efficiency. The photoinduced reactive radicals and the associated photodegradation were investigated by in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The reactive radicals, O2(-) and OH, were responsible for organic degradation. PMID:26845029

  3. Metallized Gelled Propellants: Oxygen/RP-1/Aluminum Rocket Heat Transfer and Combustion Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan; Zakany, James S.

    1996-01-01

    A series of rocket engine heat transfer experiments using metallized gelled liquid propellants was conducted. These experiments used a small 20- to 40-lb/f thrust engine composed of a modular injector, igniter, chamber and nozzle. The fuels used were traditional liquid RP-1 and gelled RP-1 with 0-, 5-, and 55-percentage by weight loadings of aluminum particles. Gaseous oxygen was used as the oxidizer. Three different injectors were used during the testing: one for the baseline O(2)/RP-1 tests and two for the gelled and metallized gelled fuel firings. Heat transfer measurements were made with a rocket engine calorimeter chamber and nozzle with a total of 31 cooling channels. Each chamber used a water flow to carry heat away from the chamber and the attached thermocouples and flow meters allowed heat flux estimates at each of the 31 stations. The rocket engine Cstar efficiency for the RP-1 fuel was in the 65-69 percent range, while the gelled 0 percent by weight RP-1 and the 5-percent by weight RP-1 exhibited a Cstar efficiency range of 60 to 62% and 65 to 67%, respectively. The 55-percent by weight RP-1 fuel delivered a 42-47% Cstar efficiency. Comparisons of the heat flux and temperature profiles of the RP-1 and the metallized gelled RP-1/A1 fuels show that the peak nozzle heat fluxes with the metallized gelled O2/RP-1/A1 propellants are substantially higher than the baseline O2/RP-1: up to double the flux for the 55 percent by weight RP-1/A1 over the RP-1 fuel. Analyses showed that the heat transfer to the wall was significantly different for the RP-1/A1 at 55-percent by weight versus the RP-1 fuel. Also, a gellant and an aluminum combustion delay was inferred in the 0 percent and 5-percent by weight RP-1/A1 cases from the decrease in heat flux in the first part of the chamber. A large decrease in heat flux in the last half of the chamber was caused by fuel deposition in the chamber and nozzle. The engine combustion occurred well downstream of the injector face based on the heat flux estimates from the temperature measurements.

  4. Enhancing the combustible properties of bamboo by torrefaction.

    PubMed

    Rousset, Patrick; Aguiar, Clarissa; Labb, Nicole; Commandr, Jean-Michel

    2011-09-01

    Bamboo has wide range of moisture content, low bulk energy density and is difficult to transport, handle, store and feed into existing combustion and gasification systems. Because of its important fuel characteristics such as low ash content, alkali index and heating value, bamboo is a promising energy crop for the future. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of torrefaction on the main energy properties of Bambusa vulgaris. Three different torrefaction temperatures were employed: 220, 250 and 280C. The elemental characteristics of lignite and coal were compared to the torrefied bamboo. The characteristics of the biomass fuels tend toward those of low rank coals. Principal component analysis of FTIR data showed a clear separation between the samples by thermal treatment. The loadings plot indicated that the bamboo samples underwent chemical changes related to carbonyl groups, mostly present in hemicelluloses, and to aromatic groups present in lignin. PMID:21703854

  5. Enhanced performance of an electric oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, D. L.; Benavides, G. F.; Zimmerman, J. W.; Woodard, B. S.; Day, M. T.; Palla, A. D.; Verdeyen, J. T.; Solomon, W. C.

    2010-02-01

    Experiments and modeling have led to continued enhancements in the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (ElectricOIL) system. This continuous wave (cw) laser operating on the 1315 nm transition of atomic iodine is pumped by the production of O2(a) in a radio-frequency (RF) discharge in an O2/He/NO gas mixture. New discharge geometries have led to improvements in O2(a) production and efficiency. A 95% enhancement in cw laser power was achieved via a 50% increase in gain length, flow rates, and discharge power. A further 87% increase in extracted laser power was obtained using a larger mode volume resonator. The gain has improved by more than 100-fold from the initial demonstration of 0.002% cm-1 to 0.26% cm-1, and similarly the outcoupled laser power has improved more than 500-fold from 0.16 W to 102 W.

  6. Metallized Gelled Propellants: Oxygen/RP-1/aluminum Rocket Combustion Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan; Zakany, James S.

    1995-01-01

    A series of combustion experiments were conducted to measure the specific impulse, Cstar-, and specific-impulse efficiencies of a rocket engine using metallized gelled liquid propellants. These experiments used a small 20- to 40-1bf (89- to 178-N) thrust, modular engine consisting of an injector, igniter, chamber and nozzle. The fuels used were traditional liquid RP-1 and gelled RP-1 with 0-, 5-, and 55-wt% loadings of aluminum and gaseous oxygen was the oxidizer. Ten different injectors were used during the testing: 6 for the baseline 02/RP-1 tests and 4 for the gelled fuel tests which covered a wide range of mixture ratios. At the peak of the Isp versus oxidizer-to-fuel ratio (O/F) data, a range of 93 to 99% Cstar efficiency was reached with ungelled 02/RP-1. A Cstar efficiency range of 75 to 99% was obtained with gelled RP-l (0-wt% RP-1/Al) while the metallized 5-wt% RP-1/Al delivered a Cstar efficiency of 94 to 99% at the peak Isp in the O/F range tested. An 88 to 99% Cstar efficiency was obtained at the peak Isp of the gelled RP1/Al with 55-wt% Al. Specific impulse efficiencies for the 55-wt% RP-1/Al of 67%-83% were obtained at a 2.4:1 expansion ratio. Injector erosion was evident with the 55-wt% testing, while there was little or no erosion seen with the gelled RP-1 with 0- and 5-wt% Al. A protective layer of gelled fuel formed in the firings that minimized the damage to the rocket injector face. This effect may provide a useful technique for engine cooling. These experiments represent a first step in characterizing the performance of and operational issues with gelled RP-1 fuels.

  7. Chemical-looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas over copper oxide oxygen carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, H.; Chaudhari, K.; Simonyi, T.; Poston, J.; Liu, T.; Sanders, T.; Veser, G.; Siriwardane, R.

    2008-01-01

    CuO/bentonite and CuO-BHA nanocomposites were studied as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation, as the function of reaction conversion, were calculated from 10-cycle oxidation/reduction tests utilizing thermogravimetric analysis at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900 °C. It was found that the reduction reactions are always faster than oxidation reactions; reaction temperature and particle size do not significantly affect the reaction performance of CuO/bentonite. Multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for production of CO2 from fuel gas at 800 and 900 °C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. Results of the tapered element oscillating microbalance showed a negative effect of pressure on the global rates of reduction-oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of CuO in the bulk phase of the oxidized sample. Electron microanalysis showed significant morphology changes of reacted CuO/bentonite samples after the 10 oxidation-reduction cycles above 700 °C in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer. The nanostructured CuO-BHA carrier also showed excellent stability and, in comparison to the CuO/bentonite system, slightly accelerated redox kinetics albeit at the expense of significantly increased complexity of manufacturing. Overall, both types of CuO carriers exhibited excellent reaction performance and thermal stability for the CLC process at 700-900 °C.

  8. Chemical-looping Combustion of Coal-derived Synthesis Gas Over Copper Oxide Oxygen Carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Hanjing; Chaudhari, K P; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, J A; Liu, Tengfei; Sanders, Tom; Veser, Goetz; Siriwardane, R V

    2008-11-01

    CuO/bentonite and CuO-BHA nanocomposites were studied as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation, as the function of reaction conversion, were calculated from 10-cycle oxidation/reduction tests utilizing thermogravimetric analysis at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900 °C. It was found that the reduction reactions are always faster than oxidation reactions; reaction temperature and particle size do not significantly affect the reaction performance of CuO/bentonite. Multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for production of CO2 from fuel gas at 800 and 900 °C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. Results of the tapered element oscillating microbalance showed a negative effect of pressure on the global rates of reduction-oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of CuO in the bulk phase of the oxidized sample. Electron microanalysis showed significant morphology changes of reacted CuO/bentonite samples after the 10 oxidation-reduction cycles above 700 °C in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer. The nanostructured CuO-BHA carrier also showed excellent stability and, in comparison to the CuO/bentonite system, slightly accelerated redox kinetics albeit at the expense of significantly increased complexity of manufacturing. Overall, both types of CuO carriers exhibited excellent reaction performance and thermal stability for the CLC process at 700-900 °C.

  9. Chemical-looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas over copper oxide oxygen carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Hanjing Tian; Karuna Chaudhari; Thomas Simonyi; James Poston; Tengfei Liu; Tom Sanders; Goetz Veser; Ranjani Siriwardane

    2008-11-15

    CuO/bentonite and CuO-BHA nanocomposites were studied as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation, as the function of reaction conversion, were calculated from 10-cycle oxidation/reduction tests utilizing thermogravimetric analysis at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900{degree}C. It was found that the reduction reactions are always faster than oxidation reactions; reaction temperature and particle size do not significantly affect the reaction performance of CuO/bentonite. Multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for production of CO{sub 2} from fuel gas at 800 and 900{degree}C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. Results of the tapered element oscillating microbalance showed a negative effect of pressure on the global rates of reduction-oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of CuO in the bulk phase of the oxidized sample. Electron microanalysis showed significant morphology changes of reacted CuO/bentonite samples after the 10 oxidation-reduction cycles above 700{degree}C in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer. The nanostructured CuO-BHA carrier also showed excellent stability and, in comparison to the CuO/bentonite system, slightly accelerated redox kinetics albeit at the expense of significantly increased complexity of manufacturing. Overall, both types of CuO carriers exhibited excellent reaction performance and thermal stability for the CLC process at 700-900{degree}C. 48 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Combustion Stability Characteristics of the Project Morpheus Liquid Oxygen / Liquid Methane Main Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melcher, John C.; Morehead, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The project Morpheus liquid oxygen (LOX) / liquid methane (LCH4) main engine is a Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed 5,000 lbf-thrust, 4:1 throttling, pressure-fed cryogenic engine using an impinging element injector design. The engine met or exceeded all performance requirements without experiencing any in- ight failures, but the engine exhibited acoustic-coupled combustion instabilities during sea-level ground-based testing. First tangential (1T), rst radial (1R), 1T1R, and higher order modes were triggered by conditions during the Morpheus vehicle derived low chamber pressure startup sequence. The instability was never observed to initiate during mainstage, even at low power levels. Ground-interaction acoustics aggravated the instability in vehicle tests. Analysis of more than 200 hot re tests on the Morpheus vehicle and Stennis Space Center (SSC) test stand showed a relationship between ignition stability and injector/chamber pressure. The instability had the distinct characteristic of initiating at high relative injection pressure drop at low chamber pressure during the start sequence. Data analysis suggests that the two-phase density during engine start results in a high injection velocity, possibly triggering the instabilities predicted by the Hewitt stability curves. Engine ignition instability was successfully mitigated via a higher-chamber pressure start sequence (e.g., 50% power level vs 30%) and operational propellant start temperature limits that maintained \\cold LOX" and \\warm methane" at the engine inlet. The main engine successfully demonstrated 4:1 throttling without chugging during mainstage, but chug instabilities were observed during some engine shutdown sequences at low injector pressure drop, especially during vehicle landing.

  11. The Tapioca Bomb: A Demonstration to Enhance Learning about Combustion and Chemical Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeratichamroen, Wasana; Dechsri, Precharn; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2010-01-01

    In any demonstration to students, producing light and sound usually ensures interest and can enhance understanding and retention of the concepts involved. A guided inquiry (Predict, Observe, Explain: POE) approach was used to involve the students actively in their learning about the explosive combustion of fine flour particles in air in the…

  12. The Tapioca Bomb: A Demonstration to Enhance Learning about Combustion and Chemical Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeratichamroen, Wasana; Dechsri, Precharn; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2010-01-01

    In any demonstration to students, producing light and sound usually ensures interest and can enhance understanding and retention of the concepts involved. A guided inquiry (Predict, Observe, Explain: POE) approach was used to involve the students actively in their learning about the explosive combustion of fine flour particles in air in the

  13. Plasma torch for ignition, flameholding and enhancement of combustion in high speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, Walter F. (Inventor); Billingsley, Matthew C. (Inventor); Sanders, Darius D. (Inventor); Schetz, Joseph A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Preheating of fuel and injection into a plasma torch plume fro adjacent the plasma torch plume provides for only ignition with reduced delay but improved fuel-air mixing and fuel atomization as well as combustion reaction enhancement. Heat exchange also reduced erosion of the anode of the plasma torch. Fuel mixing atomization, fuel mixture distribution enhancement and combustion reaction enhancement are improved by unsteady plasma torch energization, integral formation of the heat exchanger, fuel injection nozzle and plasma torch anode in a more compact, low-profile arrangement which is not intrusive on a highspeed air flow with which the invention is particularly effective and further enhanced by use of nitrogen as a feedstock material and inclusion of high pressure gases in the fuel to cause effervescence during injection.

  14. Enhanced deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation with global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froelicher, T. L.; Jaccard, S.; Dunne, J. P.; Paynter, D.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-first century coupled climate model simulations, observations from the recent past, and theoretical arguments suggest a consistent trend towards warmer ocean temperatures and fresher polar surface oceans in response to increased radiative forcing resulting in increased upper ocean stratification and reduced ventilation and oxygenation of the deep ocean. Paleo-proxy records of the warming at the end of the last ice age, however, suggests a different outcome, namely a better ventilated and oxygenated deep ocean with global warming. Here we use a four thousand year global warming simulation from a comprehensive Earth System Model (GFDL ESM2M) to show that this conundrum is a consequence of different rates of warming and that the deep ocean is actually better ventilated and oxygenated in a future warmer equilibrated climate consistent with paleo-proxy records. The enhanced deep ocean ventilation in the Southern Ocean occurs in spite of increased positive surface buoyancy fluxes and a constancy of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds - circumstances that would otherwise be expected to lead to a reduction in deep ocean ventilation. This ventilation recovery occurs through a global scale interaction of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation undergoing a multi-centennial recovery after an initial century of transient decrease and transports salinity-rich waters inform the subtropical surface ocean to the Southern Ocean interior on multi-century timescales. The subsequent upwelling of salinity-rich waters in the Southern Ocean strips away the freshwater cap that maintains vertical stability and increases open ocean convection and the formation of Antarctic Bottom Waters. As a result, the global ocean oxygen content and the nutrient supply from the deep ocean to the surface are higher in a warmer ocean. The implications for past and future changes in ocean heat and carbon storage will be discussed.

  15. Highly Efficient Oxygen-Storage Material with Intrinsic Coke Resistance for Chemical Looping Combustion-Based CO2 Capture.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Qasim; Kurlov, Alexey; Rupp, Jennifer Lilia Marguerite; Müller, Christoph Rüdiger

    2015-06-22

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) and chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) are emerging thermochemical CO2 capture cycles that allow the capture of CO2 with a small energy penalty. Here, the development of suitable oxygen carrier materials is a key aspect to transfer these promising concepts to practical installations. CuO is an attractive material for CLC and CLOU because of its high oxygen-storage capacity (20 wt %), fast reaction kinetics, and high equilibrium partial pressure of oxygen at typical operating temperatures (850-1000 °C). However, despite its promising characteristics, its low Tammann temperature requires the development of new strategies to phase-stabilize CuO-based oxygen carriers. In this work, we report a strategy based on stabilization by co-precipitated ceria (CeO2-x ), which allowed us to increase the oxygen capacity, coke resistance, and redox stability of CuO-based oxygen carriers substantially. The performance of the new oxygen carriers was evaluated in detail and compared to the current state-of-the-art materials, that is, Al2 O3 -stabilized CuO with similar CuO loadings. We also demonstrate that the higher intrinsic oxygen uptake, release, and mobility in CeO2-x -stabilized CuO leads to a three times higher carbon deposition resistance compared to that of Al2 O3 -stabilized CuO. Moreover, we report a high cyclic stability without phase intermixing for CeO2-x -supported CuO. This was accompanied by a lower reduction temperature compared to state-of-the-art Al2 O3 -supported CuO. As a result of its high resistance towards carbon deposition and fast oxygen uncoupling kinetics, CeO2-x -stabilized CuO is identified as a very promising material for CLC- and CLOU-based CO2 capture architectures. PMID:25916240

  16. Measurements of combustion properties in a microwave enhanced flame

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, Emanuel S.; Zaidi, Sohail H.; Miles, Richard B.; Carter, Campbell D.; Ryan, Michael D.

    2009-07-15

    Microwave induced flame speed enhancement is quantified in a laminar, premixed CH{sub 4}/air wall stagnation flat flame. Experiments were performed in a high Q microwave cavity with the cavity tuned so that the maximum microwave field is located in the vicinity of a flat flame front. Equivalence ratios were varied between 0.6 and 0.8. When the flame is radiated by a continuous wave microwave field of approximately 5 kV/cm, the flame front is observed to move towards the burner exit and stabilize at a standoff distance corresponding to a flame speed increase of up to 20%. No microwave discharge is observed, indicating that the enhanced flame speed arises from microwave energy deposited directly into the reaction zone through coupling to the weakly ionized gas in that region. Laser diagnostics were performed to quantify temperature increase, the laminar flame speed enhancement, and changes in the OH radical concentration through filtered Rayleigh scattering, particle image velocimetry, and planar laser induced fluorescence, respectively. These measurements indicate that microwave radiation may prove to be an effective means to non-invasively control and enhance flame stability in combustors. (author)

  17. Infrared multiphoton ignition and combustion enhancement of natural gas. Final report, November 1989-October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lavid, M.; Poulos, A.T.; Gulati, S.K.; Stevens, J.G.; Lempert, W.R.

    1993-11-30

    This research program has demonstrated the feasibility of using Infrared Multiphoton (IRMP) processes for reliable ignition and combustion enhancement of natural gas. Hydrocarbon constituents of natural gas are excited with focused, pulsed infrared lasers tuned to discrete resonant frequencies causing their dissociation to very reactive radicals. These radicals participate in chain-branching and chain-propagating reactions significantly improving the combustion of natural gas. Experimental and computational tasks were performed to discern IR laser conditions needed to reliably obtain IRMP ignition and reduction in ignition delay time.

  18. Demonstration of oxygen-enriched combustion system on a light-duty vehicle to reduce cold-start emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.; Poola, R.B.

    1997-08-01

    The oxygen content in the ambient air drawn by combustion engines can be increased by polymer membranes. The authors have previously demonstrated that 23 to 25% (concentration by volume) oxygen-enriched intake air can reduce hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), air toxics, and ozone-forming potential (OFP) from flexible-fueled vehicles (FFVs) that use gasoline or M85. When oxygen-enriched air was used only during the initial start-up and warm-up periods, the emission levels of all three regulated pollutants [CO, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and NO{sub x}] were lower than the U.S. EPA Tier II (year 2004) standards (without adjusting for catalyst deterioration factors). In the present work, an air separation membrane module was installed on the intake of a 2.5-L FFV and tested at idle and free acceleration to demonstrate the oxygen-enrichment concept for initial start-up and warm-up periods. A bench-scale, test set-up was developed to evaluate the air separation membrane characteristics for engine applications. On the basis of prototype bench tests and from vehicle tests, the additional power requirements and module size for operation of the membrane during the initial period of the cold-phase, FTP-75 cycle were evaluated. A prototype membrane module (27 in. long, 3 in. in diameter) supplying about 23% oxygen-enriched air in the engine intake only during the initial start-up and warm-up periods of a 2.5-L FFV requires additional power (blower) of less than one horsepower. With advances in air separation membranes to develop compact modules, oxygen enrichment of combustion air has the potential of becoming a more practical technique for controlling exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles.

  19. Analytical chemical kinetic investigation of the effects of oxygen, hydrogen, and hydroxyl radicals on hydrogen-air combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, G. T., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Quantitative values were computed which show the effects of the presence of small amounts of oxygen, hydrogen, and hydroxyl radicals on the finite-rate chemical kinetics of premixed hydrogen-air mixtures undergoing isobaric autoignition and combustion. The free radicals were considered to be initially present in hydrogen-air mixtures at equivalence ratios of 0.2, 0.6, 1.0, and 1.2. Initial mixture temperatures were 1100 K, 1200 K, and 1500 K, and pressures were 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 atm. Of the radicals investigated, atomic oxygen was found to be the most effective for reducing induction time, defined as the time to 5 percent of the total combustion temperature rise. The reaction time, the time between 5 percent and 95 percent of the temperature rise, is not decreased by the presence of free radicals in the initial hydrogen-air mixture. Fuel additives which yield free radicals might be used to effect a compact supersonic combustor design for efficient operation in an otherwise reaction-limited combustion regime.

  20. Preliminary Study of Oxygen-Enhanced Longitudinal Relaxation in MRI: A Potential Novel Biomarker of Oxygenation Changes in Solid Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, James P.B.; Naish, Josephine H.; Parker, Geoff J.M.; Waterton, John C.; Watson, Yvonne; Jayson, Gordon C.; Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A.; Cheung, Sue; Buckley, David L.; McGrath, Deirdre M.; West, Catharine M.L.; Davidson, Susan E.; Roberts, Caleb; Mills, Samantha J.; Mitchell, Claire L.; Hope, Lynn; Ton, N. Chan; Jackson, Alan

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: There is considerable interest in developing non-invasive methods of mapping tumor hypoxia. Changes in tissue oxygen concentration produce proportional changes in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) longitudinal relaxation rate (R{sub 1}). This technique has been used previously to evaluate oxygen delivery to healthy tissues and is distinct from blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging. Here we report application of this method to detect alteration in tumor oxygenation status. Methods and materials: Ten patients with advanced cancer of the abdomen and pelvis underwent serial measurement of tumor R{sub 1} while breathing medical air (21% oxygen) followed by 100% oxygen (oxygen-enhanced MRI). Gadolinium-based dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was then performed to compare the spatial distribution of perfusion with that of oxygen-induced DELTAR{sub 1}. Results: DELTAR{sub 1} showed significant increases of 0.021 to 0.058 s{sup -1} in eight patients with either locally recurrent tumor from cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas or metastases from ovarian and colorectal carcinomas. In general, there was congruency between perfusion and oxygen concentration. However, regional mismatch was observed in some tumor cores. Here, moderate gadolinium uptake (consistent with moderate perfusion) was associated with low area under the DELTAR{sub 1} curve (consistent with minimal increase in oxygen concentration). Conclusions: These results provide evidence that oxygen-enhanced longitudinal relaxation can monitor changes in tumor oxygen concentration. The technique shows promise in identifying hypoxic regions within tumors and may enable spatial mapping of change in tumor oxygen concentration.

  1. Characterization of single coal particle combustion within oxygen-enriched environments using high-speed OH-PLIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kser, J.; Becker, L. G.; Vorobiev, N.; Schiemann, M.; Scherer, V.; Bhm, B.; Dreizler, A.

    2015-10-01

    This work presents first-of-its-kind high-speed planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the hydroxyl radical in the boundary layer of single coal particles. Experiments were performed in a laminar flow reactor providing an oxygen-enriched exhaust gas environment at elevated temperatures. Single coal particles in a sieve fraction of 90-125 m and a significant amount of volatiles (36 wt%) were injected along the burner's centerline. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy measurements were taken to characterize the gas-phase temperature. Time-resolved imaging of the OH distribution at 10 kHz allowed identifying reaction and post-flame zones and gave access to the temporal evolution of burning coal particles. During volatile combustion, a symmetric diffusion flame was observed around the particle starting from a distance of ~150 m from the particle surface. For subsequent char combustion, this distance decreased and the highest OH signals appeared close to the particle surface.

  2. Characterization of single coal particle combustion within oxygen-enriched environments using high-speed OH-PLIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köser, J.; Becker, L. G.; Vorobiev, N.; Schiemann, M.; Scherer, V.; Böhm, B.; Dreizler, A.

    2015-12-01

    This work presents first-of-its-kind high-speed planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the hydroxyl radical in the boundary layer of single coal particles. Experiments were performed in a laminar flow reactor providing an oxygen-enriched exhaust gas environment at elevated temperatures. Single coal particles in a sieve fraction of 90-125 µm and a significant amount of volatiles (36 wt%) were injected along the burner's centerline. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy measurements were taken to characterize the gas-phase temperature. Time-resolved imaging of the OH distribution at 10 kHz allowed identifying reaction and post-flame zones and gave access to the temporal evolution of burning coal particles. During volatile combustion, a symmetric diffusion flame was observed around the particle starting from a distance of ~150 µm from the particle surface. For subsequent char combustion, this distance decreased and the highest OH signals appeared close to the particle surface.

  3. Resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization studies of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixit, S. N.; Levin, D.; Mckoy, V.

    1987-01-01

    In resonant enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI), an atom absorbs several photons making a transition to a resonant intermediate state and subsequently ionizing out of it. With currently available tunable narrow-band lasers, the extreme sensitivity of REMPI to the specific arrangement of levels can be used to selectively probe minute amounts of a single species (atom) in a host of background material. Determination of the number density of atoms from the observed REMPI signal requires a knowledge of the multiphoton ionization cross sections. The REMPI of atomic oxygen was investigated through various excitation schemes that are feasible with available light sources. Using quantum defect theory (QDT) to estimate the various atomic parameters, the REMPI dynamics in atomic oxygen were studied incorporating the effects of saturation and a.c. Stark shifts. Results are presented for REMPI probabilities for excitation through various 2p(3) (4S sup o) np(3)P and 2p(3) (4S sup o) nf(3)F levels.

  4. Vapor hydrogen and oxygen isotopes reflect water of combustion in the urban atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Gorski, Galen; Strong, Courtenay; Good, Stephen P.; Bares, Ryan; Ehleringer, James R.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic modification of the water cycle involves a diversity of processes, many of which have been studied intensively using models and observations. Effective tools for measuring the contribution and fate of combustion-derived water vapor in the atmosphere are lacking, however, and this flux has received relatively little attention. We provide theoretical estimates and a first set of measurements demonstrating that water of combustion is characterized by a distinctive combination of H and O isotope ratios. We show that during periods of relatively low humidity and/or atmospheric stagnation, this isotopic signature can be used to quantify the concentration of water of combustion in the atmospheric boundary layer over Salt Lake City. Combustion-derived vapor concentrations vary between periods of atmospheric stratification and mixing, both on multiday and diurnal timescales, and respond over periods of hours to variations in surface emissions. Our estimates suggest that up to 13% of the boundary layer vapor during the period of study was derived from combustion sources, and both the temporal pattern and magnitude of this contribution were closely reproduced by an independent atmospheric model forced with a fossil fuel emissions data product. Our findings suggest potential for water vapor isotope ratio measurements to be used in conjunction with other tracers to refine the apportionment of urban emissions, and imply that water vapor emissions associated with combustion may be a significant component of the water budget of the urban boundary layer, with potential implications for urban climate, ecohydrology, and photochemistry. PMID:25733906

  5. Vapor hydrogen and oxygen isotopes reflect water of combustion in the urban atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Galen; Strong, Courtenay; Good, Stephen P; Bares, Ryan; Ehleringer, James R; Bowen, Gabriel J

    2015-03-17

    Anthropogenic modification of the water cycle involves a diversity of processes, many of which have been studied intensively using models and observations. Effective tools for measuring the contribution and fate of combustion-derived water vapor in the atmosphere are lacking, however, and this flux has received relatively little attention. We provide theoretical estimates and a first set of measurements demonstrating that water of combustion is characterized by a distinctive combination of H and O isotope ratios. We show that during periods of relatively low humidity and/or atmospheric stagnation, this isotopic signature can be used to quantify the concentration of water of combustion in the atmospheric boundary layer over Salt Lake City. Combustion-derived vapor concentrations vary between periods of atmospheric stratification and mixing, both on multiday and diurnal timescales, and respond over periods of hours to variations in surface emissions. Our estimates suggest that up to 13% of the boundary layer vapor during the period of study was derived from combustion sources, and both the temporal pattern and magnitude of this contribution were closely reproduced by an independent atmospheric model forced with a fossil fuel emissions data product. Our findings suggest potential for water vapor isotope ratio measurements to be used in conjunction with other tracers to refine the apportionment of urban emissions, and imply that water vapor emissions associated with combustion may be a significant component of the water budget of the urban boundary layer, with potential implications for urban climate, ecohydrology, and photochemistry. PMID:25733906

  6. Shock enhancement and control of hypersonic mixing and combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marble, Frank E.; Zukoski, Edward E.; Jacobs, Jeffrey; Hendricks, Gavin; Waitz, Ian

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and computational analyses of the possibility that shock-enhanced mixing can substantially increase the rate of mixing between coflowing streams of hydrogen and air are discussed. Numerical computations indicate that the steady interaction between a weak shock in air with a coflowing hydrogen jet can be approximated by the two-dimensional time-dependent interaction between a weak shock and an initially circular region filled with hydrogen imbedded in air. Experimental results obtained in a shock tube and contoured wall injector are presented. It is shown that the shock impinging process causes the light gas cylinder to split into two parts; one of these mixes rapidly with air and the other forms a stably stratified vortex pair which mixes more slowly. The geometry of the flow field and the mixing process and scaling parameters are assessed.

  7. Development of Nanofiller-Modulated Polymeric Oxygen Enrichment Membranes for Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides in Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Jianzhong Lou; Shamsuddin Ilias

    2010-12-31

    North Carolina A&T State University in Greensboro, North Carolina, has undertaken this project to develop the knowledge and the material to improve the oxygen-enrichment polymer membrane, in order to provide high-grade oxygen-enriched streams for coal combustion and gasification applications. Both experimental and theoretical approaches were used in this project. The membranes evaluated thus far include single-walled carbon nano-tube, nano-fumed silica polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and zeolite-modulated polyimide membranes. To document the nanofiller-modulated polymer, molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted to calculate the theoretical oxygen molecular diffusion coefficient and nitrogen molecular coefficient inside single-walled carbon nano-tube PDMS membranes, in order to predict the effect of the nano-tubes on the gas-separation permeability. The team has performed permeation and diffusion experiments using polymers with nano-silica particles, nano-tubes, and zeolites as fillers; studied the influence of nano-fillers on the self diffusion, free volume, glass transition, oxygen diffusion and solubility, and perm-selectivity of oxygen in polymer membranes; developed molecular models of single-walled carbon nano-tube and nano-fumed silica PDMS membranes, and zeolites-modulated polyimide membranes. This project partially supported three graduate students (two finished degrees and one transferred to other institution). This project has resulted in two journal publications and additional publications will be prepared in the near future.

  8. Electron mobility enhancement in (100) oxygen-inserted silicon channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Nuo; Takeuchi, Hideki; Hytha, Marek; Cody, Nyles W.; Stephenson, Robert J.; Kwak, Byungil; Cha, Seon Yong; Mears, Robert J.; King Liu, Tsu-Jae

    2015-09-01

    High performance improvement (+88% in peak Gm and >30% in linear and saturation region drain currents) was observed for N-MOSFETs with Oxygen-Inserted (OI) Si channel. From TCAD analysis of the C-V measurement data, the improvement was confirmed to be due to electron mobility enhancement of the OI Si channel (+75% at Ninv = 4.0 1012 cm-2 and +25% at Ninv = 8.0 1012 cm-2). Raman and high-resolution Rutherford backscattering measurements confirmed that negligible strain is induced in the OI Si layer, and hence, it cannot be used to explain the origin of mobility improvement. Poisson-Schrdinger based quantum mechanical simulation was performed, taking into account phonon, surface roughness and Coulomb scatterings. The OI layer was modeled as a "quasi barrier" region with reference to the Si conduction band edge to confine inversion electrons. Simulation explains the measured electron mobility enhancement as the confinement effect of inversion electrons while the formation of an super-steep retrograde well doping profile in the channel (as a result of dopant diffusion blocking effect accompanied by introduction of the OI layer) also contributes 50%-60% of the mobility improvement.

  9. Enhanced formation of dioxins and furans from combustion devices by addition of trace quantities of bromine

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Ryan, J.V.

    1998-12-31

    Past pilot-scale experimental studies have shown a dramatic increase in the formation of certain chlorinated products of incomplete combustion (PICs) caused by the addition of trace amounts of bromine (Br). Emissions of trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, generated as PICs from the fuel-lean combustion of methylene chloride, were enhanced by up to 3 orders of magnitude by introducing Br in the form of methylene bromide at a constant halogen molar input rate with a 1:10 Br/chlorine (Cl) molar ratio. The two chlorinated PICs in question are both potential ring growth precursors, which could lead to enhanced formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The experiments described in this paper expand on this earlier work by examining the effect of trace amounts of Br on the formation of PCDDs/PCDFs, in addition to other chlorinated, brominated, and mixed bromo-chloro organic PICs.

  10. Infrared multiphoton ignition and combustion enhancement of natural gas. Final report, February 1988-May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Lavid, M.; Poulos, A.T.

    1990-08-14

    The Phase I feasibility study has demonstrated the potential of using Infrared Multiphoton (IRMP) processes for ignition and combustion enhancement of natural gas. Experiments with IR lasers were conducted to investigate the effects of IRMP techniques on methane, ethane, isotopically substituted surrogates, and sensitized mixtures. Major findings include: (1) Identification of HF/DF laser as an appropriate source for IRMP; (2) Demonstration of IRMP decomposition of deuterated methane with CO{sub 2} laser; (3) Successful IRMP ignition of deuterated methane and ethane mixtures; (4) Successful IRMP ignition of methane mixtures using photo-sensitizers. These experimental findings support the concept that IRMP processes are capable of dissociating methane, other minor constituents of natural gas, or sensitizers to reactive, combustion-enhancing radicals. A comprehensive Phase II contract to bring the concept closer to commercial implementation is underway.

  11. Thermochemical conversion of biomass in smouldering combustion across scales: The roles of heterogeneous kinetics, oxygen and transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinyan; Rein, Guillermo

    2016-05-01

    The thermochemical conversion of biomass in smouldering combustion is investigated here by combining experiments and modeling at two scales: matter (1mg) and bench (100g) scales. Emphasis is put on the effect of oxygen (0-33vol.%) and oxidation reactions because these are poorly studied in the literature in comparison to pyrolysis. The results are obtained for peat as a representative biomass for which there is high-quality experimental data published previously. Three kinetic schemes are explored, including various steps of drying, pyrolysis and oxidation. The kinetic parameters are found using the Kissinger-Genetic Algorithm method, and then implemented in a one-dimensional model of heat and mass transfer. The predictions are validated with thermogravimetric and bench-scale experiments and then analyzed to unravel the role of heterogeneous reaction. This is the first time that the influence of oxygen on biomass smouldering is explained in terms of both chemistry and transport phenomena across scales. PMID:26901090

  12. Gas sensor construction, particularly to determine oxygen content of combustion exhaust gases, particularly from internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, B.; Dietz, H.; Friese, K.

    1981-12-15

    To facilitate manufacture of a sensor, particularly a polarographic sensor which has no sealing or heat expansion difficulties and only low heat capacity in the measuring range and electrical connections, a solid electrolyte is formed as a plate extending transversely across a bottom opening of a preferably ceramic tube, the plate having two electrodes applied to its major sides. The side facing the opening is covered with a ceramic layer having a predetermined diffusion or migration resistance to oxygen molecules. The electrical connections are formed by a conductive track extending on the inside of the ceramic tube, in contact with the sensing electrode on one side of the plate; and a counter head connected to a conductive bolt or pin and resiliently spring pressed against the electrode, and holding the plate and the diffusion barrier thereon in position in the sensor. The test gas is applied to the diffusion resistance layer through a ceramic heat storage plate, for instance, having openings therethrough, which has a film-type heater applied thereto, connected to a current source by conductive tracks positioned on the outside of the ceramic tube.

  13. Modeling of the chemical-looping combustion of methane using a Cu-based oxygen-carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Abad, Alberto; Adanez, Juan; Garcia-Labiano, Francisco; de Diego, Luis F.; Gayan, Pilar

    2010-03-15

    A mathematical model for a bubbling fluidized bed has been developed to simulate the performance of the fuel-reactor in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) systems. This model considers both the fluid dynamic of the fluidized bed and freeboard and the kinetics of reduction of the oxygen-carrier, here CuO impregnated on alumina. The main outputs of the model are the conversion of the carrier and the gas composition at the reactor exit, the axial profiles of gas concentrations and the fluid dynamical structure of the reactor. The model was validated using measurements when burning CH{sub 4} in a 10 kW{sub th} prototype using a Cu-based oxygen-carrier. The influence of the circulation rate of solids, the load of fuel gas, the reactor temperature and size of the oxygen-carrier particles were analyzed. Combustion efficiencies predicted by the model showed a good agreement with measurements. Having validated the model, the implications for designing and optimizing a fuel-reactor were as follows. The inventory of solids for a high conversion of the fuel was sensitive to the reactor's temperature, the solids' circulation rate and the extent to which the solids entering to the reactor had been regenerated. The optimal ratio of oxygen-carrier to fuel was found to be 1.7-4 for the Cu-based oxygen-carrier used here. In this range, the inventory of solids to obtain a combustion efficiency of 99.9% at 1073 K was less than 130 kg/MW{sub th}. In addition, the model's results were very sensitive to the resistance to gas diffusing between the emulsion and bubble phases in the bed, to the decay of solids' concentration in the freeboard and to the efficiency contact between gas and solids in the freeboard. Thus, a simplified model, ignoring any restriction to gas and solids contacting each other, will under-predict the inventory of solids by a factor of 2-10. (author)

  14. Investigation of coal fueled chemical looping combustion using Fe3O4 as oxygen carrier: Influence of variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Xiang, Wenguo; Wang, Sha; Tian, Wendong; Xu, Xiang; Xu, Yanji; Xiao, Yunhan

    2010-06-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel combustion technique with inherent CO2 separation. Magnetite (Fe3O4) was selected as the oxygen carrier. Shenhua coal (Inner Mongolia, China), straw coke and natural coke were used as fuels for this study. Influences of operation temperatures, coal to Fe3O4 mass ratios, and different kinds of fuels on the reduction characteristics of the oxygen carrier were investigated using an atmosphere thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyse the characteristic of the solid residues. Experimental results shown that the reaction between the coal and the oxygen carrier become strong at a temperature of higher than 800°C. As the operation temperature rises, the reduction conversion rate increases. At the temperatures of 850°C, 900°C, and 950°C, the reduction conversion rates were 37.1%, 46.5%, and 54.1% respectively. However, SEM images show that at the temperature of higher than 950°C, the iron oxides become melted and sintered. The possible operation temperature should be kept around 900°C. When the mass ratios of coal to Fe3O4 were 5/95, 10/90, 15/85, and 20/80, the reduction conversion rates were 29.5%, 40.8%, 46.5%, and 46.6% respectively. With the increase of coal, the conversion rate goes up. But there exist an optimal ratio around 15/85. Comparisons based on different kinds of fuels show that the solid fuel with a higher volatile and a more developed pore structure is conducive to the reduction reactivity of the oxygen carrier.

  15. Oxygen-diffusion limited metal combustions in Zr, Ti, and Fe foils: Time- and angle-resolved x-ray diffraction studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Haoyan; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Chen, Jing-Yin; Shen, Guoyin

    2012-04-30

    The transient phase and chemical transformations of diffusion controlled metal combustions in bulk Zr, Ti, and Fe foils have been investigated, in situ, using novel time- and angle-resolved x-ray diffraction (TARXD). The TARXD employs monochromatic synchrotron x-rays and a fast-rotating diffracted beam chopper resolving the diffraction image temporally in time-resolution of {approx}45 {mu}s along the azimuth on a 2D pixel array detector. The metal foil strips (10-25 {mu}m in thickness) are ignited using a pulsed electrical heating with a typical heating rate of {approx}10{sup 6} K/s. The x-ray results indicate that the combustion occurs in molten metals, producing a wide range of stoichiometric solid oxides. It reflects an enhanced oxygen solubility and mobility of molten metals with respect to those of solid metals. However, the initial oxides formed are mainly oxygen-deficient metal oxides of ZrO, TiO, and FeO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} - the lowest suboxides stable at these high temperatures. These transition metal monoxides further react with unreacted molten metals, yielding the secondary products of Zr{sub 3}O, Ti{sub 3}O, and Ti{sub 2}O - but not in FeO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. On the other hand, the higher stoichiometric oxides of ZrO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} are formed in the later time only on the metal surface. These results clearly indicate that the combustion process of metal strips is diffusion limited and strongly depends on the solubility and diffusivity of oxygen into molten metals. The time-resolved diffraction data reveals no evidence for metal oxidation in solids, but a series of temperature-induced polymorphic phase transitions. The dynamic thermal expansibility of Fe measured in the present fast heating experiments is similar to those in static conditions (3.3*10{sup -5}/K vs 3.5*10{sup -5}/K for {alpha}-Fe and 6.5*10{sup -5}/K versus 7.0*10{sup -5}/K for {gamma}-Fe).

  16. Oxygen-diffusion limited metal combustions in Zr, Ti, and Fe foils: Time- and angle-resolved x-ray diffraction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Haoyan; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Chen, Jing-Yin; Shen, Guoyin

    2012-03-01

    The transient phase and chemical transformations of diffusion controlled metal combustions in bulk Zr, Ti, and Fe foils have been investigated, in situ, using novel time- and angle-resolved x-ray diffraction (TARXD). The TARXD employs monochromatic synchrotron x-rays and a fast-rotating diffracted beam chopper resolving the diffraction image temporally in time-resolution of 45 ?s along the azimuth on a 2D pixel array detector. The metal foil strips (10-25 ?m in thickness) are ignited using a pulsed electrical heating with a typical heating rate of 106 K/s. The x-ray results indicate that the combustion occurs in molten metals, producing a wide range of stoichiometric solid oxides. It reflects an enhanced oxygen solubility and mobility of molten metals with respect to those of solid metals. However, the initial oxides formed are mainly oxygen-deficient metal oxides of ZrO, TiO, and FeO/Fe3O4 the lowest suboxides stable at these high temperatures. These transition metal monoxides further react with unreacted molten metals, yielding the secondary products of Zr3O, Ti3O, and Ti2O but not in FeO/Fe3O4. On the other hand, the higher stoichiometric oxides of ZrO2 and TiO2 are formed in the later time only on the metal surface. These results clearly indicate that the combustion process of metal strips is diffusion limited and strongly depends on the solubility and diffusivity of oxygen into molten metals. The time-resolved diffraction data reveals no evidence for metal oxidation in solids, but a series of temperature-induced polymorphic phase transitions. The dynamic thermal expansibility of Fe measured in the present fast heating experiments is similar to those in static conditions (3.3*10-5/K vs 3.5*10-5/K for ?-Fe and 6.5*10-5/K versus 7.0*10-5/K for ?-Fe).

  17. High-pressure calorimeter chamber tests for liquid oxygen/kerosene (LOX/RP-1) rocket combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, Philip A.; Armstrong, Elizabeth S.; Price, Harold G.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate the rocket combustion and heat transfer characteristics of liquid oxygen/kerosene (LOX/RP-1) mixtures at high chamber pressures. Two water-cooled calorimeter chambers of different combustion lengths were tested using 37- and 61-element oxidizer-fuel-oxidizer triplet injectors. The tests were conducted at nominal chamber pressures of 4.1, 8.3, and 13.8 MPa abs (600, 1200, and 2000 psia). Heat flux Q/A data were obtained for the entire calorimeter length for oxygen/fuel mixture ratios of 1.8 to 3.3. Test data at 4.1 MPa abs compared favorably with previous test data from another source. Using an injector with a fuel-rich outer zone reduced the throat heat flux by 47 percent with only a 4.5 percent reduction in the characteristic exhaust velocity efficiency C* sub eff. The throat heat transfer coefficient was reduced approximately 40 percent because of carbon deposits on the chamber wall.

  18. Physics and chemistry of the influence of excited molecules on combustion enhancement.

    PubMed

    Starik, A M; Loukhovitski, B I; Sharipov, A S; Titova, N S

    2015-08-13

    The paper addresses detailed analysis of kinetic processes in the H2-O2, CO-O2 and CH4-O2-reactive systems upon the presence of singlet oxygen molecules O2(a(1)?g) and [Formula: see text] and the influence of the activation of oxygen molecules in electric discharge on the acceleration of ignition in the H2-O2 and CH4-O2 mixtures. The possibility of the intensification of CO oxidation due to excitation of O2 and N2 molecule vibrations and generation of singlet oxygen molecules is also considered. It is shown that the effect of accelerating the ignition strongly depends on the reduced electric field and, as a consequence, on the composition of discharge plasma as well as on the features of chain mechanism development in oxy-fuel systems. It is revealed that the most effective approach for the intensification of CO oxidation both in the moist air and in the products of hydrocarbon combustion in air is the generation of O2(a(1)?g) molecules by electric discharge. Computations showed that the presence of 1% O2(a(1)?g) in the total oxygen allowed one to convert CO to CO2 even at the temperature T=850-900?K in the time of 10(-2)?s. The excitation of O2 and N2 molecule vibrations is less effective for such a conversion. PMID:26170425

  19. Variation of antioxidative activity and growth enhancement of Brassicaceae induced by low-pressure oxygen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2015-06-01

    The mechanism of growth enhancement induced by active oxygen species generated in an oxygen plasma is investigated. The plant growth enhancement induced by the active oxygen species would relate to an antioxidative activity, which is one of the biological responses. The amount of generated active oxygen species is varied by the oxygen gas pressure in a low-pressure RF glow discharge plasma. The antioxidative activity of sprouts of Brassicaceae induced by the oxygen plasma is maximized at pressures between 30 and 40 Pa, whereas the antioxidative activity becomes small at around 60 and 80 Pa. The pressure dependence of the antioxidative activity of sprout stems is opposite to that of the stem length of the sprouts. The growth enhancement would be induced by the increase in the concentration of active oxygen species in plants owing to the decrease in the amount of antioxidative substances.

  20. Intramolecular distribution of stable nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrous oxide emitted during coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Mitsuteru; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2005-11-01

    The intramolecular distribution of stable isotopes in nitrous oxide that is emitted during coal combustion was analyzed using an isotopic ratio mass spectrometer equipped with a modified ion collector system (IRMS). The coal was combusted in a test furnace fitted with a single burner and the flue gases were collected at the furnace exit following removal of SO(x), NO(x), and H2O in order to avoid the formation of artifact nitrous oxide. The nitrous oxide in the flue gases proved to be enriched in 15N relative to the fuel coal. In air-staged combustion experiments, the staged air ratio was controlled over a range of 0 (unstaged combustion), 20%, and 30%. As the staged air ratio increased, the delta15N and delta18O of the nitrous oxide in the flue gases became depleted. The central nitrogen of the nitrous oxide molecule, N(alpha), was enriched in 15N relative to that occupying the end position of the molecule, N(beta), but this preference, expressed as delta15N(alpha)-delta15N(beta), decreased with the increase in the staged air ratio. Thermal decomposition and hydrogen reduction experiments carried out using a tube reactor allowed qualitative estimates of the kinetic isotope effects that occurred during the decomposition of the nitrous oxide and quantitative estimates of the extent to which the nitrous oxide had decomposed. The site preference of nitrous oxide increased with the extent of the decomposition reactions. Assuming that no site preference exists in nitrous oxide before decomposition, the behavior of nitrous oxide in the test combustion furnace was analyzed using the Rayleigh equation based on a single distillation model. As a result, the extent of decomposition of nitrous oxide was estimated as 0.24-0.26 during the decomposition reaction governed by the thermal decomposition and as 0.35-0.38 during the decomposition reaction governed by the hydrogen reduction in staged combustion. The intramolecular distribution of nitrous oxide can be a valuable parameter to estimate the extent of decomposition reaction and to understand the reaction pathway of nitrous oxide at the high temperature. PMID:15993467

  1. Effect of Ozone Addition on Combustion Efficiency of Hydrogen: Liquid-Oxygen Propellant in Small Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Riley O.; Brown, Dwight D.

    1959-01-01

    An experimental study shows that 2 percent by weight ozone in oxygen has little effect on overall reactivity for a range of oxidant-fuel weight ratios from 1 to 6. This conclusion is based on characteristic-velocity measurements in 200-pound-thrust chambers at a pressure of 300 pounds per square inch absolute with low-efficiency injectors. The presence of 9 percent ozone in oxygen also did not affect performance in an efficient chamber. Explosions were encountered when equipment or procedure permitted ozone to concentrate locally. These experiments indicate that even small amounts of ozone in oxygen can cause operational problems.

  2. The influence of oxygen concentration on the combustion of a fuel/oxidizer mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Biteau, H.; Fuentes, A.; Marlair, G.; Torero, J.L.

    2010-04-15

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the influence of the O{sub 2} concentration on the combustion behaviour of a fuel/oxidizer mixture. The material tested is a ternary mixture of lactose, starch, and potassium nitrate, which has already been used in an attempt to estimate heat release rate using the FM-Global Fire Propagation Apparatus. It provides a well-controlled combustion chamber to study the evolution of the combustion products when varying the O{sub 2} concentration, between air and low oxidizer conditions. Different chemical behaviours have been exhibited. When the O{sub 2} concentration was reduced beyond 18%, large variations were observed in the CO{sub 2} and CO concentrations. This critical O{sub 2} concentration seems to be the limit before which the material only uses its own oxidizer to react. On the other hand, mass loss did not highlight this change in chemical reactions and remained similar whatever the test conditions. This presumes that the oxidation of CO into CO{sub 2} are due to reactions occurring in the gas phase especially for large O{sub 2} concentrations. This actual behaviour can be verified using a simplified flammability limit model adapted for the current work. Finally, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to underline the influence of CO concentration in the evaluation of heat release rate using typical calorimetric methods. The results of this study provide a critical basis for the investigation of the combustion of a fuel/oxidizer mixture and for the validation of future numerical models. (author)

  3. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

  4. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST, THE AMERICAN COMBUSTION PYRETRON THERMAL DESTRUCTION SYSTEM AT THE U.S. EPA'S COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of demonstration tests of the American Combustion, Inc. Thermal Destruction System was performed under the SITE program. his oxygen-enhanced combustion system was retrofit to the rotary kiln incinerator at EPA's Combustion Research Facility. his system's performeance was...

  5. Application of oxygen-enriched combustion for locomotive diesel engines. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R.; Assanis, D.N.

    1996-09-01

    A thermodynamic simulation is used to study the effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on the performance and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. The parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the oxygen-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, the gross and net power outputs of an engine operating under different levels of oxygen enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in an increase in net engine power of approximately 13% when intake air with an oxygen content of 28% by volume is used and fuel injection timing is retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure improves power by only 4%. If part of the significantly higher exhaust enthalpies available as a result of oxygen enrichment are recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met, resulting in substantial net power improvements. Oxygen enrichment reduces particulate and visible smoke emissions but increases NO emissions. However, a combination of retarded fuel injection timing and post-treatment of exhaust gases may be adequate to meet the locomotive diesel engine NO{sub x} standards. Exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required to realize the full potential of oxygen enrichment. Economic analysis shows that oxygen-enrichment technology is economically feasible and provides high returns on investment. The study also indicates the strong influence of membrane parasitic requirements and exhaust energy recovery on economic benefits. To obtain an economic advantage while using a membrane with higher parasitic power requirements, it is necessary to recover a part of the exhaust energy.

  6. Review of the PDWA Concept for Combustion Enhancement in a Supersonic Air-Breathing Combustor Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canbier, Jean-Luc; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the design of the Pulsed Detonation Wave Augmentor (PDWA) concept and the preliminary computational fluid dynamics studies that supported it. The PDWA relies on the rapid generation of detonation waves in a small tube, which are then injected into the supersonic stream of the main combustor. The blast waves thus generated are used to stimulate the mixing and combustion inside the main combustor. The mixing enhancement relies on various forms of the baroclinic interaction, where misaligned pressure and density gradients combine to produce vortical flow. By using unsteady shock waves, the concept also uses the Richtmyer-Meshkov effect to further increase the rate of mixing. By carefully designing the respective configurations of the combustor and the detonation tubes, one can also increase the penetration of the fuel into the supersonic air stream. The unsteady shocks produce lower stagnation pressure losses than steady shocks. Combustion enhancement can also be obtained through the transient shock-heating of the fuel-air interface, and the lowering of the ignition delay in these regions. The numerical simulations identify these processes, and show which configurations give the best results. Engineering considerations are also presented, and discuss the feasibility of the concept. Of primary importance are the enhancements in performance, the design simplicity, the minimization of the power, cost, and weight, and the methods to achieve very rapid cycling.

  7. Determination of Local Experimental Heat-Transfer Coefficients on Combustion Side of an Ammonia-Oxygen Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Ehlers, Robert C.

    1961-01-01

    Local experimental heat-transfer coefficients were measured in the chamber and throat of a 2400-pound-thrust ammonia-oxygen rocket engine with a nominal chamber pressure of 600 pounds per square inch absolute. Three injector configurations were used. The rocket engine was run over a range of oxidant-fuel ratio and chamber pressure. The injector that achieved the best performance also produced the highest rates of heat flux at design conditions. The heat-transfer data from the best-performing injector agreed well with the simplified equation developed by Bartz at the throat region. A large spread of data was observed for the chamber. This spread was attributed generally to the variations of combustion processes. The spread was least evident, however, with the best-performing injector.

  8. Performance and Stability Characteristics of a Uni-Element Swirl Injector for Oxygen-Rich Stage Combustion Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, S.; Kalitan, D.; Woodward, R. D.; Santoro, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    A uni-element liquid propellant combustion performance and instability study for liquid RP-1 and hot oxygen-rich pre-burner products was conducted, at a chamber pressure of about 1000 psi. using flush and recessed swirl injectors. High-frequency pressure transducer measurements were analyzed to yield the characteristic frequencies which were compared to expected frequencies of the chamber. Modes, which were discovered to be present within the main chamber included, the first longitudinal, detected at approximately 1950 Hz, and the second longitudinal mode at approximately 3800 Hz. An additional first longitudinal quarter wave mode was measured at a frequency of approximately 23000 Hz for the recessed swirl injector configuration. The characteristic instabilities resulting from these experiments were relatively weak averaging 0.2% to 0.3% of the chamber pressure.

  9. Carbon deposition model for oxygen-hydrocarbon combustion. Task 6: Data analysis and formulation of an empirical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makel, Darby B.; Rosenberg, Sanders D.

    1990-01-01

    The formation and deposition of carbon (soot) was studied in the Carbon Deposition Model for Oxygen-Hydrocarbon Combustion Program. An empirical, 1-D model for predicting soot formation and deposition in LO2/hydrocarbon gas generators/preburners was derived. The experimental data required to anchor the model were identified and a test program to obtain the data was defined. In support of the model development, cold flow mixing experiments using a high injection density injector were performed. The purpose of this investigation was to advance the state-of-the-art in LO2/hydrocarbon gas generator design by developing a reliable engineering model of gas generator operation. The model was formulated to account for the influences of fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, and gas generator hardware design on soot formation and deposition.

  10. Regenerable MgO promoted metal oxide oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion

    DOEpatents

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Miller, Duane D.

    2014-08-19

    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier comprised of a plurality of metal oxide particles in contact with a plurality of MgO promoter particles. The MgO promoter particles increase the reaction rate and oxygen utilization of the metal oxide when contacting with a gaseous hydrocarbon at a temperature greater than about 725.degree. C. The promoted oxide solid is generally comprised of less than about 25 wt. % MgO, and may be prepared by physical mixing, incipient wetness impregnation, or other methods known in the art. The oxygen carrier exhibits a crystalline structure of the metal oxide and a crystalline structure of MgO under XRD crystallography, and retains these crystalline structures over subsequent redox cycles. In an embodiment, the metal oxide is Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and the gaseous hydrocarbon is comprised of methane.

  11. Mechanism of enhanced oxygen transfer in fermentation using emulsified oxygen-vectors.

    PubMed

    Rols, J L; Condoret, J S; Fonade, C; Goma, G

    1990-02-20

    Limitations of oxygen transfer in fermentation can be solved using auxiliary liquids immiscible in the aqueous phase. The liquids (called oxygen-vectors) used in this study were hydrocarbon (n-dodecane) and perfluorocarbon (forane F66E) in which oxygen is highly soluble (54.9 mg/L in n-dodecane and 118 mg/L in forane F66E at 35 degrees C in contact with air at atmospheric pressure). It has been demonstrated that the use of n-dodecane emulsion in a culture of Aerobacter aerogenes enabled a 3. 5-fold increase of the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient(k(L)a) calculated on a per-liter aqueous phase basis. The droplet size of the vector played a crucial role in the phenomena. When a static contact between gas bubble and vector droplet was established in water, the vector covered the bubble, in agreement with positive values of the spreading coefficient for these fluids. The determination of the oxygen transfer coefficients (k(L)) in a reactor with a definite interfacial area enabled the main resistance to be located in the boundary layer of the waterside either for a gas-water or a vector-water interface. Because oxygen consumption by weakly hydrophobic cells can only occur in the aqueous phase, the oxygen transfer is achieved according to the following pathway: gas-vector-water-cell. Finally, a mechanism for oxygen transfer within this four-phased system is proposed. PMID:18592535

  12. Enhancement of hybrid rocket combustion performance using nano-sized energetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risha, Grant Alexander

    Until now, the regression rate of classical hybrid rocket engines have typically been an order of magnitude lower than solid propellant motors; thus, hybrids require a relatively large fuel surface area for a given thrust level. In addition to low linear regression rates, relatively low combustion efficiency (87 to 92%), low mass burning rates, varying oxidizer-to-fuel ratio during operation, and lack of scaling laws have been reported. These disadvantages can be ameliorated by introducing nano-sized energetic powder additives into the solid fuel. The addition of nano-sized energetic particles into the solid fuel enhances performance as measured by parameters such as: density specific impulse, mass and linear burning rates, and thrust. Thermophysical properties of the solid fuel such as density, heat of combustion, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity are also enhanced. The types of nano-sized energetic particles used in this study include aluminum, boron, boron carbide, and some Viton-A coated particles. Since the combustion process of solid fuels in a hybrid rocket engine is governed by the mass flux of the oxidizer entering the combustion chamber, the rate-limiting process is the mixing and reacting of the pyrolysis products of the fuel grain with the incoming oxidizer. The overall goal of this research was to determine the relative propulsive and combustion behavior for a family of newly-developed HTPB-based solid-fuel formulations containing various nano-sized energetic particles. Seventeen formulations contained 13% additive by weight, one formulation (SF4) contained 6.5% additive by weight, and one formulation (SF19) contained 5.65% boron by weight. The two hybrid rocket engines which were used in this investigation were the Long Grain Center-Perforated (LGCP) rocket engine and the X-Ray Transparent Casing (XTC) rocket engine. The smaller scale LGCP rocket engine was used to evaluate all of the formulations because conducting experiments using the LGCP required much less preparation and materials. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. Ignition delays, heats of combustion, and reaction rates of aluminum alkyl derivatives used as ignition and combustion enhancers for supersonic combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, T. W., III; Harlowe, W. W.; Schwab, S.

    1992-01-01

    The work was based on adapting an apparatus and procedure developed at Southwest Research Institute for rating the ignition quality of fuels for diesel engines. Aluminum alkyls and various Lewis-base adducts of these materials, both neat and mixed 50/50 with pure JP-10 hydrocarbon, were injected into the combustion bomb using a high-pressure injection system. The bomb was pre-charged with air that was set at various initial temperatures and pressures for constant oxygen density. The ignition delay times were determined for the test materials at these different initial conditions. The data are presented in absolute terms as well as comparisons with the parent alkyls. The relative heats of reaction of the various test materials were estimated based on a computation of the heat release, using the pressure data recorded during combustion in the bomb. In addition, the global reaction rates for each material were compared at a selected tmperature and pressure.

  14. Effect of pressure on the behavior of copper-, iron-, and nickel-based oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Francisco Garcia-Labiano; Juan Adanez; Luis F. de Diego; Pilar Gayan; Alberto Abad

    2006-02-01

    This work analyzes the main characteristics related to the chemical looping combustion (CLC) process necessary to use the syngas obtained in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. The kinetics of reduction with H{sub 2} and CO and oxidation with O{sub 2} of three high-reactivity oxygen carriers used in the CLC system have been determined in a thermogravimetric analyzer at atmospheric pressure. The iron- and nickel-based oxygen carriers were prepared by freeze-granulation, and the copper-based oxygen carrier was prepared by impregnation. The changing grain size model (CGSM) was used for the kinetic determination, assuming spherical grains for the freeze-granulated particles containing iron and nickel and a platelike geometry for the reacting surface of the copper-based impregnated particles. The dependence of the reaction rates on temperature was low, with the activation energy values varying from 14 to 33 kJ mol{sup -1} for the reduction and 7 to 15 kJ mol{sup -1} for the oxidation. The reaction order depended on the reacting gas and oxygen carrier, with values ranging from 0.25 to 1. However, an increase in the operating pressure for the IGCC + CLC system increases the thermal efficiency of the process, and the CO{sub 2} is recovered as a high pressure gas, decreasing the energy demand for further compression. The effect of pressure on the behavior of the oxygen carriers has been analyzed in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer at 1073 K and pressures up to 30 atm. It has been found that an increase in total pressure has a negative effect on the reaction rates of all the oxygen carriers. Moreover, the use of the CGSM with the kinetic parameters obtained at atmospheric pressure predicted higher reaction rates than those experimentally obtained at higher pressures, and therefore, the kinetic parameters necessary to design pressurized CLC plants must be determined at the operating pressure. 34 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. OXYGEN-ENRICHED COAL COMBUSTION WITH CARBON DIOXIDE RECYCLE AND RECOVERY: SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Veranth; Gautham Krishnamoorthy

    2002-01-01

    An accurate estimation of the CO/CO{sub 2} ratio at the surface of an ash inclusion in coal during combustion is necessary to predict the equilibrium partial pressure of volatile reduced metal species inside the burning particle and the rate of vaporization of metal oxides. Assumptions that have been made previously for the CO/CO{sub 2} ratio at the surface of mineral inclusions are compared to those obtained from a steady state detailed kinetics code for a single porous particle (SKIPPY). The detailed kinetic simulations from SKIPPY for varying particle sizes and bulk gas compositions were used to develop algebraic expressions for the CO/CO{sub 2} ratio that can be incorporated into metal vaporization sub-models run as a post processor to detailed furnace simulations.

  16. Combustion of solid fuel slabs with gaseous oxygen in a hybrid motor analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaverini, Martin J.; Harting, George C.; Lu, Yeu-Cherng; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Serin, Nadir; Johnson, David K.

    1995-01-01

    Using a high-pressure, two-dimensional hybrid motor, an experimental investigation was conducted on fundamental processes involved in hybrid rocket combustion. HTPB (Hydroxyl-terminated- Polybutadiene) fuel cross linked with diisocyanate was burned with GOX under various operating conditions. Large amplitude pressure oscillations were encountered in earlier test runs. After identifying the source of instability and decoupling the GOX feed line system and combustion chamber, the pressure oscillations were drastically reduced from +/- 20% of the localized mean pressure to an acceptable range of +/- 1.5%. Embedded fine-wire thermocouples indicated that the surface temperature of the burning fuel was around 1000 K depending upon axial locations and operating conditions. Also, except near the leading-edge region, the subsurface thermal wave profiles in the upstream locations arc thicker than those in the downstream locations since the solid-fuel regression rate, in general, increases with distance along the fuel slab. The recovered solid fuel slabs in the laminar portion of the boundary layer exhibited smooth surfaces, indicating the existence of a liquid melt layer on the burning fuel surface in the upstream region. After the transition section, which displayed distinct transverse striations, the surface roughness pattern became quite random and very pronounced in the downstream turbulent boundary-layer region. Both real time X-ray radiography and ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques were used to determine the instantaneous web thicknesses and instantaneous solid-fuel regression rates over certain portions of the fuel slabs. Globally averaged and axially dependent but time-averaged regression rates were also obtained and presented. Several tests were conducted using, simultaneously, one translucent fuel slab and one fuel slab processed with carbon black powder. The addition of carbon black did not affect the measured regression rates or surface temperatures in comparison to the translucent fuel slabs.

  17. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Oxygen Sensor: Enhanced Oxygen Sensitivity at Room Temperature and Mechanism of Sensing.

    PubMed

    Rajavel, Krishnamoorthy; Lalitha, Murugan; Radhakrishnan, Joghee Kullan; Senthilkumar, Lakshmipathi; Rajendra Kumar, Ramasamy Thangavelu

    2015-11-01

    A pyrolysis assisted method was applied for the synthesis of defect controlled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by varying different growth temperatures. The fabricated resistive devices containing a random network of CNTs were tested for oxygen sensing under standard room-temperature and pressure conditions. Nanotubes grown at moderate growth temperatures (870 C), when exposed to different concentrations of oxygen, displayed a higher sensitivity (3.6%), with fast response and recovery times of about 60 and 180 s, respectively, compared to nanotubes grown at higher and lower temperatures. A room-temperature oxygen detection concentration as low as 0.3% is achieved. The fast response and recovery of CNTs are explained in terms of physisorption of oxygen molecules at (i) carboxyl functional sites and (ii) graphitic carbon sites (pristine CNT) rather than chemisorption at (iii) defected sites. Interestingly, the density functional theory simulated interaction energies (Eads) of oxygen molecules with defected CNTs (-3.381 eV) and pristine CNTs (-0.753 eV) are higher than that of the carboxyl functional sites (-0.551 eV) and are well correlated with the observed sensing response and recovery times of CNT sensors. Our results show that the carboxyl sites provide lower activation energy or shorter time for desorption of oxygen molecules to yield higher response and fast recovery of the CNT sensors. PMID:26488419

  18. Reduction kinetics of iron-based oxygen carriers using methane for chemical-looping combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Shuzhong; Wang, Longfei; Lv, Mingming

    2014-12-01

    The performance of three iron-based oxygen carriers (pure Fe2O3, synthetic Fe2O3/MgAl2O4 and iron ore) in reduction process using methane as fuel is investigated in thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA). The reaction rate and mechanism between three oxygen carriers and methane are investigated. On the basis of reactivity in reduction process, it may be concluded that Fe2O3/MgAl2O4 has the best reactivity with methane. The reaction rate constant is found to be in the following order: Fe2O3/MgAl2O4 > pure Fe2O3 > iron ore and the activation energy varies between 49 and 184 kJ mol-1. Reduction reactions for the pure Fe2O3 and synthetic Fe2O3/MgAl2O4 are well represented by the reaction controlling mechanism, and for the iron ore the phase-boundary controlled (contracting cylinder) model dominates. The particles of iron ore and synthetic Fe2O3/MgAl2O4 have better stability than that of pure Fe2O3 when the reaction temperature is limited to lower than 1223 K. These preliminary results suggest that iron-based mixed oxygen carrier particles are potential to be used in methane chemical looping process, but the reactivity of the iron ore needs to be increased.

  19. Enhanced diffusion of oxygen depending on Fermi level position in heavily boron-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Torigoe, Kazuhisa Fujise, Jun; Ono, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Kozo

    2014-11-21

    The enhanced diffusivity of oxygen in heavily boron doped silicon was obtained by analyzing oxygen out-diffusion profile changes found at the interface between a lightly boron-doped silicon epitaxial layer and a heavily boron-doped silicon substrate by secondary ion mass spectrometry. It was found that the diffusivity is proportional to the square root of boron concentration in the range of 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}–10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} at temperatures from 750 °C to 950 °C. The model based on the diffusion of oxygen dimers in double positive charge state could explain the enhanced diffusion. We have concluded that oxygen diffusion enhanced in heavily boron-doped silicon is attributed to oxygen dimers ionized depending on Fermi level position.

  20. Hydration of spent limestone and dolomite to enhance sulfation in fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, J.A.; Smith, G.W.; Moulton, D.S.; Turner, C.B.; Myles, K.M.; Johnson, I.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization of CaO in fluidized bed combustion can be markedly increased to reduce the cost and environmental impact of quarrying and disposing of large quantities of solid waste. A new method of treatment of spent bed material to reactivate its SO/sub 2/ capturing ability has been found. Partially sulfated spent overflow material from a fluidized-bed combustor is treated with water and then reintroduced to the combustor as renewed feed that further reacts with SO/sub 2/. This material has sufficient physical integrity, due to the outer layer of CaSO/sub 4/, and high reactivity to make it suitable as a sorbent feedstock. The work reported here details observations on a number of limestones and dolomites reacted in laboratory furnaces under simulated combustion conditions as well as verification of the effectiveness of the method in a 15-cm-ID process development unit scale atmospheric fluidized-bed coal combustor. Initial kinetic studies have also been made on the hydration reaction of partially sulfated limestone. A proposed mechanism of interaction is discussed to explain the enhanced reactivity. Changes in total porosity and pore size distribution in the partially sulfated material due to Ca(OH)/sub 2/ formation and its dehydration serve to open up the particle interior and its residual CaO to further reaction with SO/sub 2/. Almost complete utilization of the available CaO can be achieved by successive applications of this promising new technique.

  1. Kinetic modeling of electronically enhanced reaction pathways in Plasma Assisted Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsey, Guy; G?l, Yaman; Verboncoeur, John; Christlieb, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    The use of plasma energy to enhance and control the chemical reactions during combustion, a technology referred to as ``plasma assisted combustion'' (PAC), can result in a variety of beneficial effects: e.g. stable lean operation, pollution reduction, and wider range of p-T operating conditions. While experimental evidence abounds, theoretical understanding of PAC is at best incomplete, and numerical tools still lack in reliable predictive capabilities. In the context of a joint experimental-numerical effort at Michigan State University, we present here a modular Python framework dedicated to the dynamic optimization of non-equilibrium PAC systems. We first describe a novel kinetic global model, which aims at exploring scaling laws in parameter space, as well as the effect of a non-Maxwellian electron energy distribution function (EEDF). With such a model, we reproduce literature results and we critically review the effect of data uncertainty and limiting assumptions. Then, we explore means of measuring a non-Maxwellian EEDF through the use of a detailed collisional-radiative model, coupled to optical emission spectroscopy. Finally, we investigate the effect of different numerical integrators, as well as customized routines specifically designed to solve stiff sparse ODE systems.

  2. New diagnostic methods for laser plasma- and microwave-enhanced combustion.

    PubMed

    Miles, Richard B; Michael, James B; Limbach, Christopher M; McGuire, Sean D; Chng, Tat Loon; Edwards, Matthew R; DeLuca, Nicholas J; Shneider, Mikhail N; Dogariu, Arthur

    2015-08-13

    The study of pulsed laser- and microwave-induced plasma interactions with atmospheric and higher pressure combusting gases requires rapid diagnostic methods that are capable of determining the mechanisms by which these interactions are taking place. New rapid diagnostics are presented here extending the capabilities of Rayleigh and Thomson scattering and resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) detection and introducing femtosecond laser-induced velocity and temperature profile imaging. Spectrally filtered Rayleigh scattering provides a method for the planar imaging of temperature fields for constant pressure interactions and line imaging of velocity, temperature and density profiles. Depolarization of Rayleigh scattering provides a measure of the dissociation fraction, and multi-wavelength line imaging enables the separation of Thomson scattering from Rayleigh scattering. Radar REMPI takes advantage of high-frequency microwave scattering from the region of laser-selected species ionization to extend REMPI to atmospheric pressures and implement it as a stand-off detection method for atomic and molecular species in combusting environments. Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) generates highly excited molecular species and dissociation through the focal zone of the laser. The prompt fluorescence from excited molecular species yields temperature profiles, and the delayed fluorescence from recombining atomic fragments yields velocity profiles. PMID:26170432

  3. Sulfur evolution in chemical looping combustion of coal with MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baowen; Gao, Chuchang; Wang, Weishu; Zhao, Haibo; Zheng, Chuguang

    2014-05-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of coal has gained increasing attention as a novel combustion technology for its advantages in CO2 capture. Sulfur evolution from coal causes great harm from either the CLC operational or environmental perspective. In this research, a combined MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier (OC) was synthesized and its reaction with a typical Chinese high sulfur coal, Liuzhi (LZ) bituminous coal, was performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA)-Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. Evolution of sulfur species during reaction of LZ coal with MnFe2O4 OC was systematically investigated through experimental means combined with thermodynamic simulation. TGA-FTIR analysis of the LZ reaction with MnFe2O4 indicated MnFe2O4 exhibited the desired superior reactivity compared to the single reference oxides Mn3O4 or Fe2O3, and SO2 produced was mainly related to oxidization of H2S by MnFe2O4. Experimental analysis of the LZ coal reaction with MnFe2O4, including X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, verified that the main reduced counterparts of MnFe2O4 were Fe3O4 and MnO, in good agreement with the related thermodynamic simulation. The obtained MnO was beneficial to stabilize the reduced MnFe2O4 and avoid serious sintering, although the oxygen in MnO was not fully utilized. Meanwhile, most sulfur present in LZ coal was converted to solid MnS during LZ reaction with MnFe2O4, which was further oxidized to MnSO4. Finally, the formation of both MnS and such manganese silicates as Mn2SiO4 and MnSiO3 should be addressed to ensure the full regeneration of the reduced MnFe2O4. PMID:25079636

  4. A laboratory model of a hydrogen/oxygen engine for combustion and nozzle studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morren, Sybil H.; Myers, Roger M.; Benko, Stephen E.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Reed, Brian D.

    1993-06-01

    A small laboratory diagnostic thruster was developed in order to evaluate approaches for the use of temperature and pressure sensors for the investigation of low thrust rocket flowfields. Tests were performed at chamber pressures of about 255 kPa, 370 kPa, and 500 kPa with oxidizer/fuel mixture ratios between 4.0 and 8.0. Two gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen injector designs were tested with 60 and 75 fuel film cooling. The results of hot-wire tests showed the thruster and instrumentation designs to be effective. Azimuthal temperature distributions were found to be a function of operating conditions and hardware configuration. Results indicated that small differences in injector design can result in dramatically different thruster performance and wall temperature behavior. However, the importance of these injector effects may be decreased by operating at a high fuel film cooling rate.

  5. A laboratory model of a hydrogen/oxygen engine for combustion and nozzle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morren, Sybil H.; Myers, Roger M.; Benko, Stephen E.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Reed, Brian D.

    1993-01-01

    A small laboratory diagnostic thruster was developed in order to evaluate approaches for the use of temperature and pressure sensors for the investigation of low thrust rocket flowfields. Tests were performed at chamber pressures of about 255 kPa, 370 kPa, and 500 kPa with oxidizer/fuel mixture ratios between 4.0 and 8.0. Two gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen injector designs were tested with 60 and 75 fuel film cooling. The results of hot-wire tests showed the thruster and instrumentation designs to be effective. Azimuthal temperature distributions were found to be a function of operating conditions and hardware configuration. Results indicated that small differences in injector design can result in dramatically different thruster performance and wall temperature behavior. However, the importance of these injector effects may be decreased by operating at a high fuel film cooling rate.

  6. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and other methods to enhance oxygen transport

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, S

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen is essential for life, and the body has developed an exquisite method to collect oxygen in the lungs and transport it to the tissues. Hb contained within red blood cells (RBCs), is the key oxygen-carrying component in blood, and levels of RBCs are tightly controlled according to demand for oxygen. The availability of oxygen plays a critical role in athletic performance, and agents that enhance oxygen delivery to tissues increase aerobic power. Early methods to increase oxygen delivery included training at altitude, and later, transfusion of packed RBCs. A breakthrough in understanding how RBC formation is controlled included the discovery of erythropoietin (Epo) and cloning of the EPO gene. Cloning of the EPO gene was followed by commercial development of recombinant human Epo (rHuEpo). Legitimate use of this and other agents that affect oxygen delivery is important in the treatment of anaemia (low Hb levels) in patients with chronic kidney disease or in cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced anaemia. However, competitive sports was affected by illicit use of rHuEpo to enhance performance. Testing methods for these agents resulted in a cat-and-mouse game, with testing labs attempting to detect the use of a drug or blood product to improve athletic performance (doping) and certain athletes developing methods to use the agents without being detected. This article examines the current methods to enhance aerobic performance and the methods to detect illicit use. PMID:18362898

  7. Experimental study of O{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} production for the oxyfuel combustion using a Co-based oxygen carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.S.; Zhang, T.; Cai, N.S.

    2008-10-01

    Production of O{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} mixed gases for the oxyfuel combustion using a Co-based oxygen carrier packed in a fixed bed reactor was investigated. The reaction kinetics of CoO with O{sub 2} and the decomposition kinetics of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} in CO{sub 2} atmosphere at different temperatures were studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Both desorption and sorption processes exhibit a high reaction rate. Multiple sorption and desorption cycles indicated that Co-based oxygen carrier has high reactivity and cyclic stability. The results of X-ray diffraction indicated that Co-based oxygen carrier does not react with CO{sub 2} during the desorption stage, and this is especially important for oxyfuel combustion. The high temperature sorption process for production of O{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} gas mixtures in a fixed bed reactor packed with Co-based oxygen carrier particles through air separation with carbon dioxide as the purge gas is investigated. Oxygen is absorbed, and heat is stored by the Co-based oxygen carrier particles with air being fed. An O{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained when the fixed bed is regenerated with carbon dioxide as the desorption gas. O{sub 2} fraction in the O{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} gas mixtures can be controlled by adjusting the flow rate of CO{sub 2} regeneration gas. This Co-based oxygen carrier offers potential for further study in the O{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} production for the oxyfuel coal combustion process.

  8. Catalytic enhancement of singlet oxygen production and optical gain in electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seonkyung; Rawlins, Wilson T.; Hicks, Adam J.; Konen, Ian M.; Plumb, Emily P.; Davis, Steven J.

    2011-03-01

    We are investigating catalytically enhanced production of singlet oxygen, O2(a1▵g), observed by reaction of O2/He discharge effluents over an iodine oxide film surface in a microwave discharge-flow reactor at 320 K. We have previously reported a two-fold increase in the O2(a) yields by this process, and corresponding enhancement of I(2P1/2) excitation and small-signal gain upon injection of I2 and NO2. In this paper we review observed I* excitation behavior and correlations of the catalytically generated O2(a) with atomic oxygen over a large range of discharge-flow conditions to develop a conceptual reaction mechanism for the phenomena. We describe a first-generation catalytic module for the PSI supersonic MIDJet/EOIL reactor, and tests with this module for catalyst coating deposition and enhancement of the small-signal gain observed in the supersonic flow. The results present compelling evidence for catalytic production of vibrationally excited O2(X,v) and its participation in the I* excitation process. The observed catalytic effects could significantly benefit the development of high-power electrically driven oxygen-iodine laser systems.

  9. Atmospheric pressure glow discharge for enhanced combustion. Final report, November 1993-April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, C.H.; Dreizin, E.L.; Hoffmann, V.K.; Calcote, H.F.

    1995-08-15

    The goal of this program was to further develop a unique atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium glow discharge in natural gas to enhance combustion; specifically to produce soot to increase radiant heat transfer, to decrease NOx, to increase flame stability, and to improve ignition properties. Injection of the products directly into air dramatically increased radiation from a natural gas - air diffusion flame so that it could not be observed without protective glasses. Electrical and chemical conversion efficiencies were both high. The electrical efficiency was 82%; 26% of the electrical power input went into chemical change and 56% into heating the discharge gas. Means for recovering the lost energy are discussed. For the first time, a glow discharge was initiated at one atmosphere.

  10. A Laboratory Model of a Hydrogen/Oxygen Engine for Combustion and Nozzle Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morren, Sybil Huang; Myers, Roger M.; Benko, Stephen E.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Reed, Brian D.

    1993-01-01

    A small laboratory diagnostic thruster was developed to augment present low thrust chemical rocket optical and heat flux diagnostics at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The objective of this work was to evaluate approaches for the use of temperature and pressure sensors for the investigation of low thrust rocket flow fields. The nominal engine thrust was 110 N. Tests were performed at chamber pressures of about 255 kPa, 370 kPa, and 500 kPa with oxidizer to fuel mixture ratios between 4.0 and 8.0. Two gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen injector designs were tested with 60 percent and 75 percent fuel film cooling. The thruster and instrumentation designs were proven to be effective via hot fire testing. The thruster diagnostics provided inner wall temperature and static pressure measurements which were compared to the thruster global performance data. For several operating conditions, the performance data exhibited unexpected trends which were correlated with changes in the axial wall temperature distribution. Azimuthal temperature distributions were found to be a function of operating conditions and hardware configuration. The static pressure profiles showed that no severe pressure gradients were present in the rocket. The results indicated that small differences in injector design can result in dramatically different thruster performance and wall temperature behavior, but that these injector effects may be overshadowed by operating at a high fuel film cooling rate.

  11. The upper airway response to pollen is enhanced by exposure to combustion particulates: a pilot human experimental challenge study.

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Russ; Rice, Timothy M; Krishna Murthy, G G; Wand, Matt P; Lewis, Daniel; Bledsoe, Toni; Paulauskis, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Although human experimental studies have shown that gaseous pollutants enhance the inflammatory response to allergens, human data on whether combustion particulates enhance the inflammatory response to allergen are limited. Therefore, we conducted a human experimental study to investigate whether combustion particulates enhance the inflammatory response to aeroallergens. "Enhancement" refers to a greater-than-additive response when combustion particulates are delivered with allergen, compared with the responses when particulates and allergen are delivered alone. Eight subjects, five atopic and three nonatopic, participated in three randomized exposure-challenge sessions at least 2 weeks apart (i.e., clean air followed by allergen, particles followed by no allergen, or particles followed by allergen). Each session consisted of nasal exposure to combustion particles (target concentration of 1.0 mg/m3) or clean air for 1 hr, followed 3 hr later by challenge with whole pollen grains or placebo. Nasal lavage was performed immediately before particle or clean air exposure, immediately after exposure, and 4, 18 and 42 hr after pollen challenge. Cell counts, differentials, and measurement of cytokines were performed on each nasal lavage. In atopic but not in nonatopic subjects, when allergen was preceded by particulates, there was a significant enhancement immediately after pollen challenge in nasal lavage leukocytes and neutrophils (29.7 X 10(3) cells/mL and 25.4 X 10(3) cells/mL, respectively). This represents a 143% and 130% enhancement, respectively. The enhanced response for interleukin-4 was 3.23 pg/mL (p = 0.06), a 395% enhancement. In atopic subjects there was evidence of an enhanced response when particulates, as compared to clean air, preceded the allergen challenge. PMID:12676601

  12. Peroxide-based oxygen generating topical wound dressing for enhancing healing of dermal wounds.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Prafulla K; Ross, Christina L; Smith, Leona C; Jeong, Seon S; Kim, Jaehyun; Yoo, James J; Harrison, Benjamin S

    2015-11-12

    Oxygen generating biomaterials represent a new trend in regenerative medicine that aims to generate and supply oxygen at the site of requirement, to support tissue healing and regeneration. To enhance the healing of dermal wounds, we have developed a highly portable, in situ oxygen generating wound dressings that uses sodium percarbonate (SPO) and calcium peroxide (CPO) as chemical oxygen sources. The dressing continuously generated oxygen for more than 3 days, after which it was replaced. In the in vivo testing on porcine full-thickness porcine wound model, the SPO/CPO dressing showed enhanced wound healing during the 8 week study period. Quantitative measurements of wound healing related parameters, such as wound closure, reepithelialization, epidermal thickness and collagen content of dermis showed that supplying oxygen topically using the SPO/CPO dressing significantly accelerated the wound healing. An increase in neovascularization, as determined using Von Willebrand factor (vWF) and CD31 staining, was also observed in the presence of SPO/CPO dressing. This novel design for a wound dressing that contains oxygen generating biomaterials (SPO/CPO) for supplying topical oxygen, may find utility in treating various types of acute to chronic wounds. PMID:26053405

  13. Enhanced carbon-oxygen log interpretations using supplemental log curves

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.F. Jr.; Jacobson, L.A.; Fox, P.

    1994-12-31

    Supplemental measurements from induced nuclear spectrometry tools are examined to demonstrate what additional information they provide about the well and reservoir conditions. Logs in shut-in wells from Indonesia provide examples of oxygen activation measurements showing cross-flow from one reservoir to another via open perforations. Leaking squeezed perforations were also observed. An example from Alaska shows radioactive scale build-up in the casing which spectral analysis identifies as a mixture of uranium and thorium salts. Another log, where the casing fluid was replaced with crude oil, demonstrates a technique for identifying cement channels. Logs from Nigeria comparing oil saturation estimates before and after a squeeze operation illustrate the effect of casing fluid flushing of the formation through open perforations. Understanding the diagnostic character of these curves leads to higher confidence in the overall log interpretation process.

  14. Thermofluid analysis of the SSME preburner using a gas-gas diffusion model for oxygen and hydrogen combustion at supercritical pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, C.; Singhal, A. K.; Shafer, C.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the thermofluid analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) fuelside preburner. The governing equations have been solved numerically to predict flow, heat transfer, mixing, and combustion. A two-fluid approach is adopted in which oxygen is regarded as one fluid and hydrogen is regarded as the other fluid. The chemical kinetics is assumed to be very fast so that combustion is primarily controlled by the rate of mixing between oxygen and hydrogen. The preburner pressure is much greater than the critical pressures of oxygen and hydrogen; hence, a gas-gas diffusion model (rather than an evaporation model) has been developed to compute the rate of interphase mixing. Empirical correlations have been incorporated to account for the effect of slip on the interphase exchange. A sensitivity study has been performed with various model parameters. It is observed that the model can predict possibility of incomplete combustion and local regions of high temperatures under steady operating conditions. Some of these anomalies have been observed in actual tests, and the numerical model is useful for understanding possible causes and remedies. At least some measurements are needed for quantitative verification of the model.

  15. Reducible Supports for Ni-based Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Bhavsar, Saurabh; Veser, Goetz

    2013-04-01

    Nuclear spin relaxation, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) techniques are used to determine supramolecular arrangement of 3-methyl-1-octyl-4-phenyl-1H-triazol-1,2,3-ium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [OMPhTz][Tf{sub 2}N], an example of a triazolium-based ionic liquid. The results obtained showed first-order thermodynamic dependence for nuclear spin relaxation of the anion. First-order relaxation dependence is interpreted as through-bond dipolar relaxation. Greater than first-order dependence was found in the aliphatic protons, aromatic carbons (including nearest neighbors), and carbons at the end of the aliphatic tail. Greater than first order thermodynamic dependence of spin relaxation rates is interpreted as relaxation resulting from at least one mechanism additional to through-bond dipolar relaxation. In rigid portions of the cation, an additional spin relaxation mechanism is attributed to anisotropic effects, while greater than first order thermodynamic dependence of the octyl side chain’s spin relaxation rates is attributed to cation–cation interactions. Little interaction between the anion and the cation was observed by spin relaxation studies or by ESI-MS. No extended supramolecular structure was observed in this study, which was further supported by MS and SAXS. nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) factors are used in conjunction with spin–lattice relaxation time (T{sub 1}) measurements to calculate rotational correlation times for C–H bonds (the time it takes for the vector represented by the bond between the two atoms to rotate by one radian). The rotational correlation times are used to represent segmental reorientation dynamics of the cation. A combination of techniques is used to determine the segmental interactions and dynamics of this example of a triazolium-based ionic liquid.

  16. Enhanced electroreduction of oxygen and stripping voltammetry on PdPt nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loganathan, Moorthi; Kakade, Bhalchandra; Swami, Anita; Tamaki, Takanori; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2015-06-01

    Enhanced oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on PdPt nanopartiles has been demonstrated after their synthesis using a simple co-precipitation method in presence of reducing agent like N-methylpyrrolidone. Enhancement in the ORR activity of PdPt over commercial Pt catalyst has been discussed based on formation of extent of deleterious oxygenated species on catalytic active sites and the same has been studied quantitatively using stripping voltammetry. An improved specific activity (Is) of 500 A/cm2.Pt for PdPt has been observed versus 200 A/cm2.Pt for Pt catalyst at 0.9 V.

  17. Enhanced oxidative vaporization of Cr2O3 and chromium by oxygen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryburg, G. C.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Rates of oxidative vaporization of Cr2O3 have been found to be markedly enhanced in the presence of oxygen atoms. Investigations were conducted over the temperature range 200-1250 C. For Cr2O3 the enhancement was about 10 to the 9th power at 550 C in oxygen containing 2.5% atoms. Rapid oxidative vaporization of bare chromium was observed below 800 C, the rate being about one-half that of Cr2O3. Results are interpreted in terms of thermochemical analysis.

  18. Waste to energy operability enhancement under waste uncertainty via oxygen enrichment.

    PubMed

    Tsiliyannis, Christos Aristeides

    2014-08-19

    Waste to energy (WTE) performance is evaluated by maximization of electrical energy production and throughput, while maintaining low operational costs and complying with emission limits. Uncertainty in the quantities, composition and heating values of received wastes, pose severe operability problems and impair performance and emissions. The present work demonstrates and quantifies the possibility of improving WTE efficiency under feedstock uncertainty via oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Acting essentially as a nitrogen depletion mechanism, oxygen enrichment has reverse effects compared to excess air (EA); synergistic use provides extended capabilities for performance improvement, without impairing final emissions, while satisfying capacity constraints. Increased oxygen enrichment is required at higher EA to maintain temperature. Lower charging rates of rich wastes (plastics, paper, etc.) or diminishing heating values, require higher oxygen enrichment or lower EA. The opposite holds for lower charging rates of poor wastes (biodegradables, biosludge, inerts, etc.) or rising heating values. The results establish the possibility of nominal designs to respond to feedstock variations and may be useful for low range excess air operation (low cost) or adiabatic operation (high EA, combustor temperature controlled by large fluegas volumes). The vector formulation facilitates digital coding for applications featuring multiple waste mixture variability. A 700000 tpa WTE facility in Athens, now under public-private-partnership contract tender is investigated. PMID:25036380

  19. Oxygen plasma surface modification enhances immobilization of simvastatin acid.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, Masao; Hayakawa, Tohru; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Inoue, Takashi; Oda, Yutaka; Shimono, Masaki; Ide, Takaharu; Tanaka, Teruo

    2006-02-01

    Simvastatin acid (SVA) has been reported to stimulate bone formation with increased expression of BMP-2. Therefore, immobilization of SVA onto dental implants is expected to promote osteogenesis at the bone tissue/implant interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immobilization behavior of SVA onto titanium (Ti), O(2)-plasma treated titanium (Ti + O(2)), thin-film coatings of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), and O(2)-plasma treated HMDSO (HMDSO + O(2)) by using the quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) technique. HMDSO surfaces were activated by the introduction of an OH group and/or O(2)-functional groups by O(2)-plasma treatment. In contrast, titanium surfaces showed no appreciable compositional changes by O(2)-plasma treatment. The QCM-D technique enabled evaluation even at the adsorption behavior of a substance with a low molecular weight such as simvastatin. The largest amount of SVA was adsorbed on O(2)-plasma treated HMDSO surfaces compared to untreated titanium, HMDSO-coated titanium, and O(2)-plasma treated titanium. These findings suggested that the adsorption of SVA was enhanced on more hydrophilic surfaces concomitant with the presence of an OH group and/or O(2)-functional group resulting from the O(2)-plasma treatment, and that an organic film of HMDSO followed by O(2)-plasma treatment is a promising method for the adsorption of SVA in dental implant systems. PMID:16543663

  20. Efficiency evaluation of oxygen enrichment in energy conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bomelburg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    The extent to which energy conversion efficiencies can be increased by using oxygen or oxygen-enriched air for combustion was studied. Combustion of most fuels with oxygen instead of air was found to have five advantages: increases combustion temperature and efficiency, improves heat transfer at high temperatures, reduces nitrous oxide emissions, permits a high ration of exhaust gas recirculation and allows combustion of certain materials not combustible in air. The same advantages, although to a lesser degree, are apparent with oxygen-enriched air. The cost-effectiveness of the process must necessarily be improved by about 10% when using oxygen instead of air before such use could become justifiable on purely economic terms. Although such a modest increase appears to be attainable in real situations, this study ascertained that it is not possible to generally assess the economic gains. Rather, each case requires its own evaluation. For certain processes industry has already proven that the use of oxygen leads to more efficient plant operation. Several ideas for essentially new applications are described. Specifically, when oxygen is used with exhaust gas recirculation in external or internal combustion engines. It appears also that the advantages of pulse combustion can be amplified further if oxygen is used. When burning wet fuels with oxygen, direct steam generation becomes possible. Oxygen combustion could also improve processes for in situ gasification of coals, oil shales, peats, and other wet fuels. Enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding methods might also become more effective if oxygen is used. The cold energy contained in liquid oxygen can be substantially recovered in the low end of certain thermodynamic cycles. Further efforts to develop certain schemes for using oxygen for combustion appear to be justified from both the technical and economic viewpoints.

  1. Enhancement of fine-scale mixing for fuel-rich plume combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schadow, K. C.; Gutmark, E.; Parr, T. P.; Parr, D. M.; Wilson, K. J.; Ferrell, G. B.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of enhancing small-scale turbulent structures on the combustion intensity and flame stability was studied in nonreacting and reacting flows. Hot-wire anemometry was used to map the mean and turbulent flow fields of the nonreacting flows. Reacting flows were studied in a free flame and in a ducted gas-generator fuel-rich plume using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence, a rake of thermocouples and high speed photography. A modified circular nozzle having several backward facing steps upstream of its exit was used to introduce numerous inflection points in the initial mean velocity profiles, thus producing multiple corresponding sources of small-scale turbulence generators. Cold flow tests showed turbulence increases of up to six times the initial turbulence level relative to a circular nozzle. The ensuing result was that the flame of this nozzle was more intense with a homogeneous heat release. The fuel-rich plume was stable even in supersonic speeds, and secondary ignition was obtained under conditions that prevented sustained afterburning using the circular nozzle.

  2. Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles enhance reactive oxygen levels and tumour growth inhibition in photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuhao; Cheng, Hao; Jiang, Chenxiao; Qiu, Xuefeng; Wang, Kaikai; Huan, Wei; Yuan, Ahu; Wu, Jinhui; Hu, Yiqiao

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) kills cancer cells by converting tumour oxygen into reactive singlet oxygen ((1)O2) using a photosensitizer. However, pre-existing hypoxia in tumours and oxygen consumption during PDT can result in an inadequate oxygen supply, which in turn hampers photodynamic efficacy. Here to overcome this problem, we create oxygen self-enriching photodynamic therapy (Oxy-PDT) by loading a photosensitizer into perfluorocarbon nanodroplets. Because of the higher oxygen capacity and longer (1)O2 lifetime of perfluorocarbon, the photodynamic effect of the loaded photosensitizer is significantly enhanced, as demonstrated by the accelerated generation of (1)O2 and elevated cytotoxicity. Following direct injection into tumours, in vivo studies reveal tumour growth inhibition in the Oxy-PDT-treated mice. In addition, a single-dose intravenous injection of Oxy-PDT into tumour-bearing mice significantly inhibits tumour growth, whereas traditional PDT has no effect. Oxy-PDT may enable the enhancement of existing clinical PDT and future PDT design. PMID:26525216

  3. Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles enhance reactive oxygen levels and tumour growth inhibition in photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuhao; Cheng, Hao; Jiang, Chenxiao; Qiu, Xuefeng; Wang, Kaikai; Huan, Wei; Yuan, Ahu; Wu, Jinhui; Hu, Yiqiao

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) kills cancer cells by converting tumour oxygen into reactive singlet oxygen (1O2) using a photosensitizer. However, pre-existing hypoxia in tumours and oxygen consumption during PDT can result in an inadequate oxygen supply, which in turn hampers photodynamic efficacy. Here to overcome this problem, we create oxygen self-enriching photodynamic therapy (Oxy-PDT) by loading a photosensitizer into perfluorocarbon nanodroplets. Because of the higher oxygen capacity and longer 1O2 lifetime of perfluorocarbon, the photodynamic effect of the loaded photosensitizer is significantly enhanced, as demonstrated by the accelerated generation of 1O2 and elevated cytotoxicity. Following direct injection into tumours, in vivo studies reveal tumour growth inhibition in the Oxy-PDT-treated mice. In addition, a single-dose intravenous injection of Oxy-PDT into tumour-bearing mice significantly inhibits tumour growth, whereas traditional PDT has no effect. Oxy-PDT may enable the enhancement of existing clinical PDT and future PDT design. PMID:26525216

  4. The Effect of Varying Magnetic Field Gradient on Combustion Dynamic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzdalenko, Vera; Zake, Maija; Barmina, Inesa; Gedrovics, Martins

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the recent experimental research is to provide control of the combustion dynamics and complex measurements (flame temperature, heat production rate, and composition of polluting emissions) for pelletized wood biomass using a non-uniform magnetic field that produces magnetic force interacting with magnetic moment of paramagnetic oxygen. The experimental results have shown that a gradient magnetic field provides enhanced mixing of the flame compounds by increasing combustion efficiency and enhancing the burnout of volatiles.

  5. The enhancement of the mixing and combustion processes in supersonic flow applied to scramjet engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kopchenov, V.I.; Lomkov, K.E. )

    1992-07-01

    The Reynolds averaged parabolized Navier-Stokes equations are employed for the numerical study of turbulent mixing and combustion of a supersonic hydrogen jet in a supersonic airflow. A one-equation differential turbulence model is utilized. The simplified flame sheet model is employed for the numerical simulation of the supersonic combustion. 24 refs.

  6. Enhanced Bifunctional Oxygen Catalysis in Strained LaNiO3 Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Petrie, Jonathan R; Cooper, Valentino R; Freeland, John W; Meyer, Tricia L; Zhang, Zhiyong; Lutterman, Daniel A; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2016-03-01

    Strain is known to greatly influence low-temperature oxygen electrocatalysis on noble metal films, leading to significant enhancements in bifunctional activity essential for fuel cells and metal-air batteries. However, its catalytic impact on transition-metal oxide thin films, such as perovskites, is not widely understood. Here, we epitaxially strain the conducting perovskite LaNiO3 to systematically determine its influence on both the oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reaction. Uniquely, we found that compressive strain could significantly enhance both reactions, yielding a bifunctional catalyst that surpasses the performance of noble metals such as Pt. We attribute the improved bifunctionality to strain-induced splitting of the eg orbitals, which can customize orbital asymmetry at the surface. Analogous to strain-induced shifts in the d-band center of noble metals relative to the Fermi level, such splitting can dramatically affect catalytic activity in this perovskite and other potentially more active oxides. PMID:26866808

  7. Promotion of multi-electron transfer for enhanced photocatalysis: A review focused on oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changhua; Zhang, Xintong; Liu, Yichun

    2015-12-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysis has attracted significant interest for solar light induced environmental remediation and solar fuel generation. As is well known, photocatalytic performance is determined by three steps: photoexcitation, separation and transport of photogenerated charge carriers, and surface reactions. To achieve higher efficiency, significant efforts have been made on improvement of efficiency of above first two steps, which have been well documented in recent review articles. In contrast, this review intends to focus on strategies moving onto the third step of improvement for enhanced photocatalysis wherein active oxygen species including superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical are in situ detected. Particularly, surface electron-transfer reduction of oxygen over single component photocatalysts is reviewed and systems enabling multi-electron transfer induced oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are highlighted. It is expected this review could provide a guideline for readers to better understand the critical role of ORR over photocatalyst in charge carrier separation and transfer and obtain reliable results for enhanced aerobic photocatalysis.

  8. RF Glow-discharge Enhanced Production of Oxygen from Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhong; Ash, Robert L.

    1996-10-01

    An experimental study of energy-efficient, RF glow-discharge enhanced production of oxygen from carbon dioxide is conducted. This effort has important applications for advanced life support system at space station to recover oxygen from waste carbon dioxide and in situ resource utilization for round trip planetary missions.(R. L. Ash, W. L. Dowler, and G. Varsi, Acta Astronautica, 5), 705, (1978). The system consists of a glow-discharge chamber and a silver permeation membrane used to separate oxygen from other species. The behavior of RF glow-discharge and the oxygen production rate was investigated as functions of discharge power, eletrodes geometry, membrane operating temperature, gas pressure, and RF frequency. Description of the experimental set up and the measured results compared with previous DC glow-discharge data (D. Wu, R. A. Outlaw, and R. L. Ash, J. Applied Phys., 74), 4990, (1993). will be presented at the conference.

  9. Enhanced formation of sulfate and nitrate associated with the use of oxygenated Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Y.; Ren, Y.; Mangelson, N.F.; Eatough, D.J.; Cooper, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    Oxygenated fuels are used in some western mountain valley communities to help in the control of CO during winter inversions. However, it is possible that oxygenated fuel use will increase PM{sub 2.5} concentrations. The oxygen in these fuels may lead to increased concentrations of oxidants. In turn, the concentrations of atmospheric oxidants involved in SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} chemistry may increase. This may lead to increased conversion of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} to particulate sulfate and nitrate. To explore the possible presence of this enhanced atmospheric chemistry, samples of gas and particulate sulfur and nitrogen oxides were collected in 5/day sample sets during four 3-day inversion episodes at two locations in the urban areas of Utah Valley. Two of the episodes occurred during December 1995 when oxygenated fuels were used in the valley. The last two episodes occurred in February 1996 after the end of oxygenated fuel use on January 15. Fogs were absent during all four episodes. The results indicate that the conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate and NO{sub 2} to nitrate are both increased about two-fold during the use of oxygenated fuels, as compared to the non-oxygenated fuel periods. The results, possible chemistry which may be related to the observed differences and implications for attainment of both the present and proposed new PM standard will be presented.

  10. Ignition delays, heats of combustion, and reaction rates of aluminum alkyl derivatives used as ignition and combustion enhancers for supersonic combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Thomas W., III; Schwab, S. T.; Harlowe, W. W.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the design of supersonic combustors which will be required in order to achieve the needed reaction rates in a reasonable sized combustor. A fuel additive approach, which is the focus of this research, is the use of pyrophorics to shorten the ignition delay time and to increase the energy density of the fuel. Pyrophoric organometallic compounds may also provide an ignition source and flame stabilization mechanism within the combustor, thus permitting use of hydrocarbon fuels in supersonic combustion systems. Triethylaluminum (TEA) and trimethylaluminum (TMA) were suggested for this application due to their high energy density and reactivity. The objective here is to provide comparative data for the ignition quality, the energy content, and the reaction rates of several different adducts of both TEA and TMA. The results of the experiments indicate the aluminum alkyls and their more stable derivatives reduce the ignition delay and total reaction time to JP-10 jet fuel. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of ignition delay and total reaction time of the blends of the adducts are significantly lower than in neat JP-10.

  11. Long term analysis of the biomass content in the feed of a waste-to-energy plant with oxygen-enriched combustion air.

    PubMed

    Fellner, Johann; Cencic, Oliver; Zellinger, Gnter; Rechberger, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    Thermal utilization of municipal solid waste and commercial wastes has become of increasing importance in European waste management. As waste materials are generally composed of fossil and biogenic materials, a part of the energy generated can be considered as renewable and is thus subsidized in some European countries. Analogously, CO(2) emissions of waste incinerators are only partly accounted for in greenhouse gas inventories. A novel approach for determining these fractions is the so-called balance method. In the present study, the implementation of the balance method on a waste-to-energy plant using oxygen-enriched combustion air was investigated. The findings of the 4-year application indicate on the one hand the general applicability and robustness of the method, and on the other hand the importance of reliable monitoring data. In particular, measured volume flows of the flue gas and the oxygen-enriched combustion air as well as corresponding O(2) and CO(2) contents should regularly be validated. The fraction of renewable (biogenic) energy generated throughout the investigated period amounted to between 27 and 66% for weekly averages, thereby denoting the variation in waste composition over time. The average emission factor of the plant was approximately 45 g CO(2) MJ(-1) energy input or 450 g CO(2) kg(-1) waste incinerated. The maximum error of the final result was about 16% (relative error), which was well above the error (<8%) of the balance method for plants with conventional oxygen supply. PMID:21382872

  12. Orbital Kondo effect due to assisted hopping; Superconductivity, mass enhancement in copper oxides with apical oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Zawadowski, A. ); Penc, K. ); Zimanyi, G.T. )

    1992-03-01

    Orbital Kondo effect is treated in a model, where additional to the conduction band there are localized orbitals with energy not very far from the Fermi energy. If the hopping between the conduction band and the localized heavy orbitals depends on the occupation of the conduction band orbital then orbital Kondo correlation occurs. The assisted hopping vertex is enhanced due to the Coulomb interaction between the heavy orbital and the conduction band. The enhanced hopping results in mass enhancement and attractive interaction in the conduction band. In this paper the superconductivity transition temperature is calculated. The models of this type can be applied to the high-T{sub c} superconductors where the non-bonding oxygen orbitals of the apical oxygens play the role of heavy orbitals. For an essential range of the parameters the T{sub c} obtained is about 100K.

  13. ENHANCED FORMATION OF DIOXINS AND FURANS FROM COMBUSTION DEVICES BY ADDITION OF TRACE QUANTITIES OF BROMINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past pilot-scale experimental studies have shown a dramatic increase in the formation of certain chlorinated products of incomplete combustion (PICs) caused by the addition of trace amounts of bromine (Br). Emissions of trichloroethylene and tetrachloorethylene, generated as PICs...

  14. Comparative investigation on chemical looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas containing H2S over supported NiO oxygen carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Ksepko, E.; Siriwardane, R.; Tian, H.; Simonyi, T.; Sciazko, M.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of simulated coal-derived synthesis gas was conducted with NiO oxygen carriers supported on SiO2, ZrO2, TiO2, and sepiolite. The effect of H2S on the performance of these samples for the CLC process was also evaluated. Five-cycle thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests at 800 #1;C indicated that all oxygen carriers had a stable performance at 800 #1;C, except NiO/SiO2. Full reduction/oxidation reactions of the oxygen carrier were obtained during the five-cycle test. It was found that support had a significant effect on reaction performance of NiO both in reduction and oxidation rates. The reduction reaction was significantly faster than the oxidation reaction for all oxygen carriers, while the oxidation reaction is fairly slow due to oxygen diffusion on NiO layers. The reaction profile was greatly affected by the presence of H2S, but there was no effect on the capacity due to the presence of H2S in synthesis gas. The presence of H2S decreased reduction reaction rates significantly, but oxidation rates of reduced samples increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of the oxidized samples after a five-cycle test showed stable crystalline phases without any formation of sulfides or sulfites/sulfates. Increase in reaction temperature to 900 #1;C had a positive effect on the performance.

  15. Detection of molecular oxygen at low concentrations using quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pohlktter, Andreas; Khring, Michael; Willer, Ulrike; Schade, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Molecular oxygen is detected at low concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy despite its unfavorable photoacoustic properties. The system consists of a seed laser diode, a tapered amplifier and a quartz tuning fork based spectrophone, thus employing quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS). With this system a detection limit of 13 ppm is reached with a compact and long term stable setup. Further improvement of the detection limit is possible by adding suitable gases to the sample gas that promote the radiationless de-excitation of the oxygen molecules. PMID:22163666

  16. Detection of Molecular Oxygen at Low Concentrations Using Quartz Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pohlktter, Andreas; Khring, Michael; Willer, Ulrike; Schade, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Molecular oxygen is detected at low concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy despite its unfavorable photoacoustic properties. The system consists of a seed laser diode, a tapered amplifier and a quartz tuning fork based spectrophone, thus employing quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS). With this system a detection limit of 13 ppm is reached with a compact and long term stable setup. Further improvement of the detection limit is possible by adding suitable gases to the sample gas that promote the radiationless de-excitation of the oxygen molecules. PMID:22163666

  17. Oxygen-Enhanced MRI Accurately Identifies, Quantifies, and Maps Tumor Hypoxia in Preclinical Cancer Models.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, James P B; Boult, Jessica K R; Jamin, Yann; Babur, Muhammad; Finegan, Katherine G; Williams, Kaye J; Little, Ross A; Jackson, Alan; Parker, Geoff J M; Reynolds, Andrew R; Waterton, John C; Robinson, Simon P

    2016-02-15

    There is a clinical need for noninvasive biomarkers of tumor hypoxia for prognostic and predictive studies, radiotherapy planning, and therapy monitoring. Oxygen-enhanced MRI (OE-MRI) is an emerging imaging technique for quantifying the spatial distribution and extent of tumor oxygen delivery in vivo. In OE-MRI, the longitudinal relaxation rate of protons (?R1) changes in proportion to the concentration of molecular oxygen dissolved in plasma or interstitial tissue fluid. Therefore, well-oxygenated tissues show positive ?R1. We hypothesized that the fraction of tumor tissue refractory to oxygen challenge (lack of positive ?R1, termed "Oxy-R fraction") would be a robust biomarker of hypoxia in models with varying vascular and hypoxic features. Here, we demonstrate that OE-MRI signals are accurate, precise, and sensitive to changes in tumor pO2 in highly vascular 786-0 renal cancer xenografts. Furthermore, we show that Oxy-R fraction can quantify the hypoxic fraction in multiple models with differing hypoxic and vascular phenotypes, when used in combination with measurements of tumor perfusion. Finally, Oxy-R fraction can detect dynamic changes in hypoxia induced by the vasomodulator agent hydralazine. In contrast, more conventional biomarkers of hypoxia (derived from blood oxygenation-level dependent MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI) did not relate to tumor hypoxia consistently. Our results show that the Oxy-R fraction accurately quantifies tumor hypoxia noninvasively and is immediately translatable to the clinic. Cancer Res; 76(4); 787-95. 2015 AACR. PMID:26659574

  18. Enhanced CO2 Resistance for Robust Oxygen Separation Through Tantalum-doped Perovskite Membranes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Tian, Hao; Yang, Dong; Sunarso, Jaka; Liu, Jian; Liu, Shaomin

    2016-03-01

    Oxygen selective membranes with enhanced oxygen permeability and CO2 resistance are highly required in sustainable clean energy generation technologies. Here, we present novel, cobalt-free, SrFe1-x Tax O3-δ (x=0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2) perovskite membranes. Ta-doping induced lattice structure progression from orthorhombic (x=0) to cubic (x=0.05). SrFe0.95 Ta0.05 O3-δ (SFT0.05) showed the highest oxygen flux rates reaching 0.85 mL min(-1)  cm(-2) at 950 °C on a 1.0 mm-thick membrane. Surface decoration can increase the permeation rate further. Ta inclusion within the perovskite lattice of SrFeO3-δ (SF) enhanced the CO2 resistance of the membranes significantly as evidenced by the absence of the carbonate functional groups on the FTIR spectrum when exposed to CO2 atmosphere at 850 °C. The CO2 resistance of Ta-doped SF compounds correlates with the lower basicity and the higher binding energy for the lattice oxygen. SFT0.05 demonstrated high stability during long-term permeation tests under 10 % CO2 atmosphere. PMID:26813048

  19. Diamagnetic levitation enhances growth of liquid bacterial cultures by increasing oxygen availability.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Camelia E; Larkin, Oliver J; Anthony, Paul; Davey, Michael R; Eaves, Laurence; Rees, Catherine E D; Hill, Richard J A

    2011-03-01

    Diamagnetic levitation is a technique that uses a strong, spatially varying magnetic field to reproduce aspects of weightlessness, on the Earth. We used a superconducting magnet to levitate growing bacterial cultures for up to 18 h, to determine the effect of diamagnetic levitation on all phases of the bacterial growth cycle. We find that diamagnetic levitation increases the rate of population growth in a liquid culture and reduces the sedimentation rate of the cells. Further experiments and microarray gene analysis show that the increase in growth rate is owing to enhanced oxygen availability. We also demonstrate that the magnetic field that levitates the cells also induces convective stirring in the liquid. We present a simple theoretical model, showing how the paramagnetic force on dissolved oxygen can cause convection during the aerobic phases of bacterial growth. We propose that this convection enhances oxygen availability by transporting oxygen around the liquid culture. Since this process results from the strong magnetic field, it is not present in other weightless environments, e.g. in Earth orbit. Hence, these results are of significance and timely to researchers considering the use of diamagnetic levitation to explore effects of weightlessness on living organisms and on physical phenomena. PMID:20667843

  20. Diamagnetic levitation enhances growth of liquid bacterial cultures by increasing oxygen availability

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Camelia E.; Larkin, Oliver J.; Anthony, Paul; Davey, Michael R.; Eaves, Laurence; Rees, Catherine E. D.; Hill, Richard J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Diamagnetic levitation is a technique that uses a strong, spatially varying magnetic field to reproduce aspects of weightlessness, on the Earth. We used a superconducting magnet to levitate growing bacterial cultures for up to 18 h, to determine the effect of diamagnetic levitation on all phases of the bacterial growth cycle. We find that diamagnetic levitation increases the rate of population growth in a liquid culture and reduces the sedimentation rate of the cells. Further experiments and microarray gene analysis show that the increase in growth rate is owing to enhanced oxygen availability. We also demonstrate that the magnetic field that levitates the cells also induces convective stirring in the liquid. We present a simple theoretical model, showing how the paramagnetic force on dissolved oxygen can cause convection during the aerobic phases of bacterial growth. We propose that this convection enhances oxygen availability by transporting oxygen around the liquid culture. Since this process results from the strong magnetic field, it is not present in other weightless environments, e.g. in Earth orbit. Hence, these results are of significance and timely to researchers considering the use of diamagnetic levitation to explore effects of weightlessness on living organisms and on physical phenomena. PMID:20667843

  1. Root effect hemoglobin may have evolved to enhance general tissue oxygen delivery.

    PubMed

    Rummer, Jodie L; McKenzie, David J; Innocenti, Alessio; Supuran, Claudiu T; Brauner, Colin J

    2013-06-14

    The Root effect is a pH-dependent reduction in hemoglobin-O2 carrying capacity. Specific to ray-finned fishes, the Root effect has been ascribed specialized roles in retinal oxygenation and swimbladder inflation. We report that when rainbow trout are exposed to elevated water carbon dioxide (CO2), red muscle partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) increases by 65%--evidence that Root hemoglobins enhance general tissue O2 delivery during acidotic stress. Inhibiting carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the plasma abolished this effect. We argue that CA activity in muscle capillaries short-circuits red blood cell (RBC) pH regulation. This acidifies RBCs, unloads O2 from hemoglobin, and elevates tissue PO2, which could double O2 delivery with no change in perfusion. This previously undescribed mechanism to enhance O2 delivery during stress may represent the incipient function of Root hemoglobins in fishes. PMID:23766325

  2. Surface-diffusion enhanced Ga incorporation in ZnO nanowires by oxygen vacancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianyu; Sun, Huabin; Sheng, Yun; Yang, Lijun; Gao, Fan; Yin, Yao; Hu, Zheng; Wan, Qin; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou; Shi, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The surface diffusion process substantially influences the epitaxial growth of semiconductor nanowires. The spontaneous incorporation of Ga and the uniform axial-distribution over long ZnO nanowires are experimentally observed, which is attributed to the surface diffusion on ZnO sidewalls. The existence of abundant oxygen vacancies on the nanowire sidewalls greatly enhances the surface diffusion. Simulation on the diffusion dynamics is performed, and the strong bond energy between Ga and O atoms is verified. With the assistance of an oxygen vacancy, the diffusion barrier for Ga atoms decreased from 1.26 to 0.85 eV, resulting in a two orders of magnitude increase in the surface diffusion coefficient. The present work demonstrates the key role of surface diffusion process in the enhanced impurity incorporation during the growth of nanostructured semiconductors.

  3. The analysis of parameters of the cryogenic oxygen unit cooperating with power plant to realize oxy-fuel combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnydiuk-Stefan, Anna; Sk?adzie?, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The paper examines from the thermodynamic point of view operation of coal fired power unit cooperating with the cryogenic oxygen unit, with a particular emphasis on the characteristic performance parameters of the oxygen unit. The relatively high purity technical oxygen produced in the oxygen unit is then used as the oxidant in the fluidized bed boiler of the modern coal fired power unit with electric power output of approximately 460 MW. The analyzed oxygen unit has a classical two-column structure with an expansion turbine (turboexpander), which allows the use of relatively low pressure initially compressed air. Multivariant calculations were performed, the main result being the loss of power and efficiency of the unit due to the need to ensure adequate driving power to the compressor system of the oxygen generating plant.

  4. Combustion-derived flame generated ultrafine soot generates reactive oxygen species and activates Nrf2 antioxidants differently in neonatal and adult rat lungs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urban particulate matter (PM) has been epidemiologically correlated with multiple cardiopulmonary morbidities and mortalities, in sensitive populations. Children exposed to PM are more likely to develop respiratory infections and asthma. Although PM originates from natural and anthropogenic sources, vehicle exhaust rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) can be a dominant contributor to the PM2.5 and PM0.1 fractions and has been implicated in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Objectives Current studies of ambient PM are confounded by the variable nature of PM, so we utilized a previously characterized ethylene-combusted premixed flame particles (PFP) with consistent and reproducible physiochemical properties and 1) measured the oxidative potential of PFP compared to ambient PM, 2) determined the ability of PFPs to generate oxidative stress and activate the transcription factor using in vitro and ex vivo models, and 3) we correlated these responses with antioxidant enzyme expression in vivo. Methods We compared oxidative stress response (HMOX1) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and PRDX6) expression in vivo by performing a time-course study in 7-day old neonatal and young adult rats exposed to a single 6-hour exposure to 22.4 μg/m3 PFPs. Results We showed that PFP is a potent ROS generator that induces oxidative stress and activates Nrf2. Induction of the oxidative stress responsive enzyme HMOX1 in vitro was mediated through Nrf2 activation and was variably upregulated in both ages. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme expression had age and lung compartment variations post exposure. Of particular interest was SOD1, which had mRNA and protein upregulation in adult parenchyma, but lacked a similar response in neonates. Conclusions We conclude that PFPs are effective ROS generators, comparable to urban ambient PM2.5, that induce oxidative stress in neonatal and adult rat lungs. PFPs upregulate a select set of antioxidant enzymes in young adult animals, that are unaffected in neonates. We conclude that the inability of neonatal animals to upregulate the antioxidant response may, in part, explain enhanced their susceptibility to ultrafine particles, such as PFP. PMID:23902943

  5. Enhancement of reactive oxygen species and induction of apoptosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats under hyperbaric oxygen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Matsunami, Tokio; Sato, Yukita; Hasegawa, Yuki; Ariga, Satomi; Kashimura, Haruka; Sato, Takuya; Yukawa, Masayoshi

    2011-01-01

    An important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, which on activation induces superoxide production via oxidation in the mitochondria, inflammation and stress; such ROS are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, including neuropathy. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments are applied various diseases including diabetic patients with unhealing foot ulcers, however, and also increases the formation of ROS. In a previous study, we showed that a clinically recommended HBO treatment significantly enhanced oxidative stress of pancreatic tissue in the diabetic rats. However, no study has been undertaken with regard to the effects of HBO on the activity and gene expression of the NADPH oxidase complex and on apoptosis in the pancreas of diabetic animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of HBO exposure on gene expression of the NADPH complex, and pancreatic expression of genes related to apoptosis via the mitochondria, using the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. The mRNA expression of genes related to NADPH oxidase complex and apoptosis increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the pancreas of diabetic rats under HBO exposure. Similarly, activities of NADPH oxidase and caspase-3 changed in parallel with mRNA levels. These results suggest that oxidative stress caused by HBO exposure in diabetic animals induces further ROS production and apoptosis, potentially through the up-regulation of NADPH oxidase complex. Thus, this study can contribute to development of a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis via the mitochondria in diabetes, under HBO exposure. PMID:21487521

  6. Enhancement of oxidative vaporization of chromium (III) oxide and chromium by oxygen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryburg, G. C.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Rates of oxidative vaporization of Cr2O3 were found to be markedly enhanced in the presence of O atoms. Investigations were conducted over the temperature range 470 to 1520 K. For Cr2O3 the enhancement was about 10 to the 9th power at 820 K in oxygen containing 2.5 percent atoms. Rapid oxidative vaporization of bare chromium was observed below 1070 K, the rate being about one-half that of Cr2O3. Results are interpreted in terms of thermochemical analysis.

  7. Ultraviolet irradiation-dependent fluorescence enhancement of hemoglobin catalyzed by reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Pan, Leiting; Wang, Xiaoxu; Yang, Shuying; Wu, Xian; Lee, Imshik; Zhang, Xinzheng; Rupp, Romano A; Xu, Jingjun

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light has a potent effect on biological organisms. Hemoglobin, an oxygen-transport protein, plays an irreplaceable role in sustaining life of all vertebrates. In this study we scrutinize the effects of ultraviolet irradiation (UVI) as well as visible irradiation on the fluorescence characteristics of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) in vitro. Data show that UVI results in fluorescence enhancement of BHb in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, UVI-induced fluorescence enhancement is significantly increased when BHb is pretreated with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), a type of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Meanwhile, The water-soluble antioxidant vitamin C suppresses this UVI-induced fluorescence enhancement. In contrast, green light irradiation does not lead to fluorescence enhancement of BHb no matter whether H(2)O(2) is acting on the BHb solution or not. Taken together, these results indicate that catalysis of ROS and UVI-dependent irradiation play two key roles in the process of UVI-induced fluorescence enhancement of BHb. PMID:22952902

  8. Toward enhanced hydrogen generation from water using oxygen permeating LCF membranes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Yu; Chang, Le; Uddi, Mruthunjaya; Kirchen, Patrick; Ghoniem, Ahmed F

    2015-04-21

    Hydrogen production from water thermolysis can be enhanced by the use of perovskite-type mixed ionic and electronic conducting (MIEC) membranes, through which oxygen permeation is driven by a chemical potential gradient. In this work, water thermolysis experiments were performed using 0.9 mm thick La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-? (LCF-91) perovskite membranes at 990 C in a lab-scale button-cell reactor. We examined the effects of the operating conditions such as the gas species concentrations and flow rates on the feed and sweep sides on the water thermolysis rate and oxygen flux. A single step reaction mechanism is proposed for surface reactions, and three-resistance permeation models are derived. Results show that water thermolysis is facilitated by the LCF-91 membrane especially when a fuel is added to the sweep gas. Increasing the gas flow rate and water concentration on the feed side or the hydrogen concentration on the sweep side enhances the hydrogen production rate. In this work, hydrogen is used as the fuel by construction, so that a single-step surface reaction mechanism can be developed and water thermolysis rate parameters can be derived. Both surface reaction rate parameters for oxygen incorporation/dissociation and hydrogen-oxygen reactions are fitted at 990 C. We compare the oxygen fluxes in water thermolysis and air separation experiments, and identify different limiting steps in the processes involving various oxygen sources and sweep gases for this 0.9 mm thick LCF-91 membrane. In the air feed-inert sweep case, the bulk diffusion and sweep side surface reaction are the two limiting steps. In the water feed-inert sweep case, surface reaction on the feed side dominates the oxygen permeation process. Yet in the water feed-fuel sweep case, surface reactions on both the feed and sweep sides are rate determining when hydrogen concentration in the sweep side is in the range of 1-5 vol%. Furthermore, long term studies show that the surface morphology changes and silica impurities have little impact on the oxygen flux for either water thermolysis or air separation. PMID:25790173

  9. Characterization of mercury-enriched coal combustion residues from electric utilities using enhanced sorbents for mercury control

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, F.; Keeney, R.; Kosson, D.; Delapp, R.

    2006-02-15

    This report evaluates changes that may occur to coal-fired power plant air pollution control residues from the use of activated carbon and other enhanced sorbents for reducing air emissions of mercury and evaluates the potential for captured pollutants leaching during the disposal or use of these residues. Leaching of mercury, arsenic, and selenium during land disposal or beneficial use of coal combustion residues (CCRs) is the environmental impact pathway evaluated in this report. Coal combustion residues refer collectively to fly ash and other air pollution control solid residues generated during the combustion of coal collected through the associated air pollution control system. This research is part of an on-going effort by US Environmental protection Agency (EPA) to use a holistic approach to account for the fate of mercury and other metals in coal throughout the life-cycle stages of CCR management. This report focuses on facilities that use injected sorbents for mercury control. It includes four facilities with activated carbon injection (ACI) and two facilities using brominated ACI. Fly ash has been obtained from each facility with and without operation of the sorbent injection technology for mercury control. Each fly ash sampled was evaluated in the laboratory for leaching as a function of pH and liquid-to-solid ratio. Mercury, arsenic and selenium were the primary constituent of interest; results for these elements are presented here. 30 refs., 30 figs., 14 tabs., 10 apps.

  10. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF ENHANCED COMBUSTION VIA IMPROVED WOOD STOVE FIREBOX DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an examination of materials that might be used within the firebox of a wood-burning stove to produce more uniform and complete combustion. Although many materials were initially considered, refractory materials appear to possess the qualities desired re...

  11. Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for Enhanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    E. Meeks; A. U. Modak; C.V. Naik; K. V. Puduppakkam; C. Westbrook; F. N. Egolfopoulos; T. Tsotsis; S. H. Roby

    2009-07-01

    The objectives of this project have been to develop a comprehensive set of fundamental data regarding the combustion behavior of biodiesel fuels and appropriately associated model fuels that may represent biodiesels in automotive engineering simulation. Based on the fundamental study results, an auxiliary objective was to identify differentiating characteristics of molecular fuel components that can be used to explain different fuel behavior and that may ultimately be used in the planning and design of optimal fuel-production processes. The fuels studied in this project were BQ-9000 certified biodiesel fuels that are certified for use in automotive engine applications. Prior to this project, there were no systematic experimental flame data available for such fuels. One of the key goals has been to generate such data, and to use this data in developing and verifying effective kinetic models. The models have then been reduced through automated means to enable multi-dimensional simulation of the combustion characteristics of such fuels in reciprocating engines. Such reliable kinetics models, validated against fundamental data derived from laminar flames using idealized flow models, are key to the development and design of optimal engines, engine operation and fuels. The models provide direct information about the relative contribution of different molecular constituents to the fuel performance and can be used to assess both combustion and emissions characteristics. During this project, we completed a major and thorough validation of a set of biodiesel surrogate components, allowing us to begin to evaluate the fundamental combustion characteristics for B100 fuels.

  12. Plasma-Enhanced Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Fuel Blends Using Nanosecond Pulsed Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Cappelli, Mark; Mungal, M Godfrey

    2014-10-28

    This project had as its goals the study of fundamental physical and chemical processes relevant to the sustained premixed and non-premixed jet ignition/combustion of low grade fuels or fuels under adverse flow conditions using non-equilibrium pulsed nanosecond discharges.

  13. Simulation study of dose enhancement in a cell due to nearby carbon and oxygen in particle radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Ik; Cho, Ilsung; Cho, Sungho; Kim, Eun Ho; Song, Yongkeun; Jung, Won-Gyun; Yoo, SeungHoon; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Yoon, Myonggeun; Incerti, S.ebastian; Geso, Moshi; Rosenfeld, Anatoly B.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the dose-deposition enhancement due to alpha-particle irradiation in a cellular model by using the carbon and the oxygen chemical compositions. A simulation study was performed to study dose enhancement due to carbon and oxygen for a human cell where the Geant4 code used for alpha-particle irradiation of a cellular phantom. The characteristics of the dose enhancements based on the concentrations of carbon and oxygen in the nucleus and cytoplasm by the alpha-particle radiation was investigated and was compared with those obtained by gold and gadolinium. The results showed that both the carbon- and the oxygen-induced dose enhancements were more effective than those of gold and gadolinium. We found that the dose enhancement effect was more dominant in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm if the carbon or the oxygen were uniformly distributed in the whole cell. For the condition that the added chemical composition was inserted only into the cytoplasm, the effect of the dose enhancement in the nucleus was weak. We showed that high-stopping-power materials offer a more effective dose enhancement efficacy and suggest that carbon nanotubes and oxygenation are promising candidates for dose enhancement tools in particle therapy.

  14. Ultraviolet irradiation induces autofluorescence enhancement via production of reactive oxygen species and photodecomposition in erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xian; Pan, Leiting; Wang, Zhenhua; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Xinzheng; Rupp, Romano A.; Xu, Jingjun

    2010-06-11

    Ultraviolet (UV) light has a significant influence on human health. In this study, human erythrocytes were exposed to UV light to investigate the effects of UV irradiation (UVI) on autofluorescence. Our results showed that high-dose continuous UVI enhanced erythrocyte autofluorescence, whereas low-dose pulsed UVI alone did not have this effect. Further, we found that H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, one type of reactive oxygen species (ROS), accelerated autofluorescence enhancement under both continuous and pulsed UVI. In contrast, continuous and pulsed visible light did not result in erythrocyte autofluorescence enhancement in the presence or absence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Moreover, NAD(P)H had little effect on UVI-induced autofluorescence enhancement. From these studies, we conclude that UVI-induced erythrocyte autofluorescence enhancement via both UVI-dependent ROS production and photodecomposition. Finally, we present a theoretical study of this autofluorescence enhancement using a rate equation model. Notably, the results of this theoretical simulation agree well with the experimental data further supporting our conclusion that UVI plays two roles in the autofluorescence enhancement process.

  15. Cathodic current enhancement via manganese and oxygen related reactions in marine biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, Matthew James

    Corrosion is a threat that has economic, and environmental impacts worldwide. Many types of corrosive attack are the subject of ongoing research. One of these areas of research is microbiologically influenced corrosion, which is the enhancement and/or initiation of corrosion events caused by microorganisms. It is well known that colonies of microorganisms can enhance cathodic currents through biofilm formation. The aim of the present work was to elucidate the role of manganese in enhancing cathodic currents in the presence of biofilms. Repeated polarizations conducted in Delaware Bay waters, on biofilm coated Cr identified potentially sustainable reduction reactions. The reduction of MnO2 and the enhancement of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were proven to be factors that influence cathodic current enhancement. The removal of ambient oxygen during polarizations resulted in a shutdown of cathodic current enhancement. These field data led to an exploration of the synergistic relationship between MnO2 and the ORR. Laboratory studies of the catalysis of peroxide disproportionation by MnO2 were monitored using a hanging mercury drop electrode. Experiments were run at an ambient sweater pH of 8 and pH 9, which simulated the near-surface conditions typical of cathodes immersed in seawater. Rapid reoxidation at the more basic pH was shown to allow manganese to behave as a persistent catalyst under the typical electrochemical surface conditions of a cathode. As a result a mechanism for ORR enhancement by manganese was proposed as a unique mechanism for cathodic current enhancement in biofilms. A separate field study of Delaware biofilms on stainless steel coupled to a sacrificial Al anode was carried out to identify the ORR enhancement mechanism and sustainable redox reactions at the cathode. Chemical treatments of glutaraldehyde and formaldoxime were applied to cathodes with biofilms to distinguish between enzymatic and MnO2 related ORR enhancement. The results ruled out the enzymatic catalysis of ORR and supported the catalysis by MnO2. Sustainable redox reactions at the cathode were evaluated by monitoring the cathodic current of biofilm coated stainless steel for a year under different polarization intensities. The results showed that sustainable cathodic reactions were present in marine biofilms but their influence on the cathodic current was negligible until a potential was reached where the ORR could take place. Additionally seasonal variability was observed in the enhanced cathodic current in Delaware Bay biofilms. This was attributed to the seasonal variability of manganese in the water column.

  16. Coating Hydrostatic Bearings To Resist Ignition In Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funkhouser, Merle E.

    1993-01-01

    Coats of superalloy MA754 plasma-sprayed onto occasionally rubbing surfaces of hydrostatic journal bearings operating in liquid and/or gaseous oxygen, according to proposal. Prevents ignition and combustion occurring when components made of stainless steels or other conventional bearing alloys rub against each other in oxygen. Eliminates need for runner and enhances control over critical bearing clearance.

  17. Characterization of chemical looping combustion of coal in a 1 kW{sub th} reactor with a nickel-based oxygen carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Laihong; Wu, Jiahua; Gao, Zhengping; Xiao, Jun

    2010-05-15

    Chemical looping combustion is a novel technology that can be used to meet the demand on energy production without CO{sub 2} emission. To improve CO{sub 2} capture efficiency in the process of chemical looping combustion of coal, a prototype configuration for chemical looping combustion of coal is made in this study. It comprises a fast fluidized bed as an air reactor, a cyclone, a spout-fluid bed as a fuel reactor and a loop-seal. The loop-seal connects the spout-fluid bed with the fast fluidized bed and is fluidized by steam to prevent the contamination of the flue gas between the two reactors. The performance of chemical looping combustion of coal is experimentally investigated with a NiO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxygen carrier in a 1 kW{sub th} prototype. The experimental results show that the configuration can minimize the amount of residual char entering into the air reactor from the fuel reactor with the external circulation of oxygen carrier particles giving up to 95% of CO{sub 2} capture efficiency at a fuel reactor temperature of 985 C. The effect of the fuel reactor temperature on the release of gaseous products of sulfur species in the air and fuel reactors is carried out. The fraction of gaseous sulfur product released in the fuel reactor increases with the fuel reactor temperature, whereas the one in the air reactor decreases correspondingly. The high fuel reactor temperature results in more SO{sub 2} formation, and H{sub 2}S abatement in the fuel reactor. The increase of SO{sub 2} in the fuel reactor accelerates the reaction of SO{sub 2} with CO to form COS, and COS concentration in the fuel reactor exit gas increases with the fuel reactor temperature. The SO{sub 2} in the air reactor exit gas is composed of the product of sulfur in residual char burnt with air and that of nickel sulfide oxidization with air in the air reactor. Due to the evident decrease of residual char in the fuel reactor with increasing fuel reactor temperature, it results in the decrease of residual char entering the air reactor from the fuel reactor, and the decrease of SO{sub 2} from sulfur in the residual char burnt with air in the air reactor. (author)

  18. Combustion synthesized TiO{sub 2} for enhanced photocatalytic activity under the direct sunlight-optimization of titanylnitrate synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Daya Mani, A.; Laporte, V.; Ghosal, P.; Subrahmanyam, Ch.

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Effect of oxidant on the combustion synthesis of TiO{sub 2} has been studied by preparing titanylnitrate in four different ways from Ti(IV) iso-propoxide. It is observed that oxidant preparation method has a significant effect on physico-chemical as well as photocatalytic properties of TiO{sub 2}. All the catalysts showed excellent photocatalytic activity than Degussa P-25 under direct sunlight for the degradation of a textile dye (methylene blue), without the need of external light sources, oxygen supply and reactor systems. Highlights: ► Optimized synthesis of titanylnitrate. ► Influence of titanylnitrate synthesis on the physico-chemical properties of TiO{sub 2} prepared by combustion synthesis. ► Development of highly efficient TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts those are active under the direct sunlight in open atmosphere. ► Degradation of the textile dye (methylene blue) under direct sunlight. -- Abstract: Optimized synthesis of Ti-precursor ‘titanylnitrate’ for one step combustion synthesis of N- and C-doped TiO{sub 2} catalysts were reported and characterized by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffused reflectance UV–vis spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD confirmed the formation of TiO{sub 2} anatase and nano-crystallite size which was further confirmed by TEM. UV-DRS confirmed the decrease in the band gap to less than 3.0 eV, which was assigned due to the presence of C and N in the framework of TiO{sub 2} as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution under the direct sunlight was carried out and typical results indicated the better performance of the synthesized catalysts than Degussa P-25.

  19. Environmental enhancement of creep crack growth in Inconel 718 by oxygen and water vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio, P.; Gao, M.; Wei, R.P. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics)

    1994-05-15

    Inconel 718 alloy is widely used in high temperature applications. Because of its sensitivity to environmentally enhanced crack growth at high temperatures, its use has been limited to modest temperatures (i.e., below 973 K). To improve its performance and to better predict its service life, it is important to develop a better understanding of the processes of crack growth at high temperatures in this alloy. It has been shown that the creep crack growth rates (CCGR) in air are at least two orders of magnitude faster than those in vacuum or inert environments. CCGR were also found to depend strongly on temperature. Fractographic studies showed that crack growth was intergranular in air and in vacuum with brittle appearing grain boundary separation in air and extensive cavity formation in vacuum. The increased CCGR in air has been attributed to the enhancement by oxygen; principally through enhanced cavity nucleation and growth by high-pressure carbon monoxide/dioxide formed by the reactions of oxygen that diffused into the material with the grain boundary carbides. The appropriateness of this mechanism, however, may be questioned by the absence of cavitation on the crack surfaces produced in air. As such the mechanism for crack growth needs to be re-examined. Because of the presence of moisture in air, the possible influence of hydrogen needs to be considered as well. In this study, preliminary experiments were conducted to examine the process of environmentally enhanced creep crack growth in Inconel 718 alloy in terms of possible mechanisms and rate controlling processes. Creep crack growth experiments were carried out in air, oxygen (from 2.67 to 100 kPa), moist argon (water vapor) and pure argon at temperatures from 873 to 973 K.

  20. Root Effect Haemoglobins in Fish May Greatly Enhance General Oxygen Delivery Relative to Other Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Rummer, Jodie L.; Brauner, Colin J.

    2015-01-01

    The teleost fishes represent over half of all extant vertebrates; they occupy nearly every body of water and in doing so, occupy a diverse array of environmental conditions. We propose that their success is related to a unique oxygen (O2) transport system involving their extremely pH-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb). A reduction in pH reduces both Hb-O2 affinity (Bohr effect) and carrying capacity (Root effect). This, combined with a large arterial-venous pH change (ΔpHa-v) relative to other vertebrates, may greatly enhance tissue oxygen delivery in teleosts (e.g., rainbow trout) during stress, beyond that in mammals (e.g., human). We generated oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs) at five different CO2 tensions for rainbow trout and determined that, when Hb-O2 saturation is 50% or greater, the change in oxygen partial pressure (ΔPO2) associated with ΔpHa-v can exceed that of the mammalian Bohr effect by at least 3-fold, but as much as 21-fold. Using known ΔpHa-v and assuming a constant arterial-venous PO2 difference (Pa-vO2), Root effect Hbs can enhance O2 release to the tissues by 73.5% in trout; whereas, the Bohr effect alone is responsible for enhancing O2 release by only 1.3% in humans. Disequilibrium states are likely operational in teleosts in vivo, and therefore the ΔpHa-v, and thus enhancement of O2 delivery, could be even larger. Modeling with known Pa-vO2 in fish during exercise and hypoxia indicates that O2 release from the Hb and therefore potentially tissue O2 delivery may double during exercise and triple during some levels of hypoxia. These characteristics may be central to performance of athletic fish species such as salmonids, but may indicate that general tissue oxygen delivery may have been the incipient function of Root effect Hbs in fish, a trait strongly associated with the adaptive radiation of teleosts. PMID:26436414

  1. Root Effect Haemoglobins in Fish May Greatly Enhance General Oxygen Delivery Relative to Other Vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Rummer, Jodie L; Brauner, Colin J

    2015-01-01

    The teleost fishes represent over half of all extant vertebrates; they occupy nearly every body of water and in doing so, occupy a diverse array of environmental conditions. We propose that their success is related to a unique oxygen (O2) transport system involving their extremely pH-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb). A reduction in pH reduces both Hb-O2 affinity (Bohr effect) and carrying capacity (Root effect). This, combined with a large arterial-venous pH change (ΔpHa-v) relative to other vertebrates, may greatly enhance tissue oxygen delivery in teleosts (e.g., rainbow trout) during stress, beyond that in mammals (e.g., human). We generated oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs) at five different CO2 tensions for rainbow trout and determined that, when Hb-O2 saturation is 50% or greater, the change in oxygen partial pressure (ΔPO2) associated with ΔpHa-v can exceed that of the mammalian Bohr effect by at least 3-fold, but as much as 21-fold. Using known ΔpHa-v and assuming a constant arterial-venous PO2 difference (Pa-vO2), Root effect Hbs can enhance O2 release to the tissues by 73.5% in trout; whereas, the Bohr effect alone is responsible for enhancing O2 release by only 1.3% in humans. Disequilibrium states are likely operational in teleosts in vivo, and therefore the ΔpHa-v, and thus enhancement of O2 delivery, could be even larger. Modeling with known Pa-vO2 in fish during exercise and hypoxia indicates that O2 release from the Hb and therefore potentially tissue O2 delivery may double during exercise and triple during some levels of hypoxia. These characteristics may be central to performance of athletic fish species such as salmonids, but may indicate that general tissue oxygen delivery may have been the incipient function of Root effect Hbs in fish, a trait strongly associated with the adaptive radiation of teleosts. PMID:26436414

  2. Enhanced in-situ biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons using passive addition of oxygen to groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, D.J.A.; Wilson, R.D.; Byerley, B.T.; Chapman, S.W.; Mackay, D.M.

    1995-09-01

    A field trial incorporating the addition of oxygen to ground water through a passive interception system to ground water in a shallow sand aquifer beneath a former gasoline station in southwestern Ontario (Canada) has been initiated. The purpose of the trial is to evaluate the degree of remediation by oxygen-enhanced biodegradation. Based on the results of preliminary tests, the selected oxygen source is an oxygen-releasing compound (ORC), a proprietary metal peroxide powder. The ORC is mixed with sand, wrapped in a permeable filter sock and lowered down an unpumped well to the ground water zone in a retrievable plastic harness. In the design configuration adopted for the test, seven source wells constructed of 20 cm diameter PVC plastic were installed across a segment of a plume containing elevated concentrations of BTEX. The wells were screened (No. 8 slot) across the water table from 3 m below ground surface to their terminal depths at 6 m. The source wells were installed at 0.8 m centers in staggered fashion in two adjacent rows separated by 0.8 m. The experiment was designed with the intent of inducing convergent flow of ground water through the source wells to ensure interception of the plume across the trial segment by maintaining hydraulic conductivity of the ORC-filled chambers within the wells above that of the surrounding aquifer materials.

  3. Biologically enhanced cathode design for improved capacity and cycle life for lithium-oxygen batteries

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dahyun; Qi, Jifa; Lu, Yi-Chun; Zhang, Yong; Shao-Horn, Yang; Belcher, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-oxygen batteries have a great potential to enhance the gravimetric energy density of fully packaged batteries by 2–3 times that of lithium-ion cells. Recent studies have focused on finding stable electrolytes to address poor cycling capability and improve practical limitations of current lithium-oxygen batteries. In this study, the catalyst electrode, where discharge products are deposited and decomposed, was investigated since it plays a critical role in the operation of rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries. Here we report the electrode design principle to improve specific capacity and cycling performance of lithium-oxygen batteries by utilizing high efficiency nanocatalysts assembled by M13 virus with earth abundant elements, such as manganese oxides. By incorporating only 3–5 wt % of palladium nanoparticles in the electrode, this hybrid nanocatalyst achieves 13,350 mAh g−1c (7,340 mAh g−1c+catalyst) of specific capacity at 0.4 A g−1c and a stable cycle life up to 50 cycles (4,000 mAh g−1c, 400 mAh g−1c+catalyst) at 1 A g−1c. PMID:24220635

  4. Tuning the surface oxygen concentration of {111} surrounded ceria nanocrystals for enhanced photocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei; Kaneti, Yusuf Valentino; Li, Sean

    2015-12-17

    For oxide semiconductors, the morphology, particle size and oxygen vacancies are usually considered as key influential parameters for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants/dyes. It is widely accepted that cation doping not only modifies their phase and microstructures but also introduces variations in oxygen vacancy concentration. Herein, we report the fabrication of sub-10 nm sized pure and indium doped CeO2 nanocrystals (NCs) via a facile, green hydrothermal method for the investigation of photocatalytic activities. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were employed to examine the crystal phase and morphology of the as-prepared nanocrystals. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques were implemented to investigate the presence and variations in oxygen vacancy concentration in un-doped and indium doped CeO2 nanocrystals. The photocatalytic activity results revealed that 10 at% doping is the optimal indium doping level to demonstrate superior dye removal efficiency (?40%) over un-doped and doped CeO2 NCs. Moreover, the 10% In-doped CeO2 nanocrystals expressed excellent cycling stability and superior photocatalytic performance toward other dye pollutants. Finally, on the basis of our findings, a possible photocatalytic mechanism in which indium doping can generate more surface oxygen vacancies in the ceria lattice which delay the electron-hole recombination rates, thus increasing the lifetime of electron-hole separation for enhanced photocatalytic performances was proposed. PMID:26616275

  5. Oxygen and relative humidity monitoring with films tailored for enhanced photoluminescence

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cui, Weipan; Liu, Rui; Manna, Eeshita; Park, Joong -Mok; Fungura, Fadzai; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2014-10-31

    In this study, approaches to generate porous or doped sensing films, which significantly enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of oxygen optical sensors, and thus improve the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, are presented. Tailored films, which enable monitoring the relative humidity (RH) as well, are also presented. Effective porous structures, in which the O2-sensitive dye Pt octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) or the Pd analog PdOEP was embedded, were realized by first generating blend films of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with polystyrene (PS) or with ethyl cellulose (EC), and then immersing the dried films in water to remove the water-soluble PEG. This approach creates pores (voids) inmore » the sensing films. The dielectric contrast between the films’ constituents and the voids increases photon scattering, which in turn increases the optical path of the excitation light within the film, and hence light absorption by the dye, and its PL. Optimized sensing films with a PEG:PS ratio of 1:4 (PEG’s molecular weight Mw ~8000) led to ~4.4× enhancement in the PL (in comparison to PS films). Lower Mw ~200 PEG with a PEG:EC ratio of 1:1 led to a PL enhancement of ~4.7×. Film-dependent PL enhancements were observed at all oxygen concentrations. The strong PL enhancement enables (i) using lower dye (luminophore) concentrations, (ii) reducing power consumption and enhancing the sensor’s operational lifetime when using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources, (iii) improving performance when using compact photodetectors with no internal gain, and (iv) reliably extending the dynamic range.« less

  6. Oxygen and relative humidity monitoring with films tailored for enhanced photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Weipan; Liu, Rui; Manna, Eeshita; Park, Joong -Mok; Fungura, Fadzai; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2014-10-31

    In this study, approaches to generate porous or doped sensing films, which significantly enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of oxygen optical sensors, and thus improve the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, are presented. Tailored films, which enable monitoring the relative humidity (RH) as well, are also presented. Effective porous structures, in which the O2-sensitive dye Pt octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) or the Pd analog PdOEP was embedded, were realized by first generating blend films of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with polystyrene (PS) or with ethyl cellulose (EC), and then immersing the dried films in water to remove the water-soluble PEG. This approach creates pores (voids) in the sensing films. The dielectric contrast between the films constituents and the voids increases photon scattering, which in turn increases the optical path of the excitation light within the film, and hence light absorption by the dye, and its PL. Optimized sensing films with a PEG:PS ratio of 1:4 (PEGs molecular weight Mw ~8000) led to ~4.4 enhancement in the PL (in comparison to PS films). Lower Mw ~200 PEG with a PEG:EC ratio of 1:1 led to a PL enhancement of ~4.7. Film-dependent PL enhancements were observed at all oxygen concentrations. The strong PL enhancement enables (i) using lower dye (luminophore) concentrations, (ii) reducing power consumption and enhancing the sensors operational lifetime when using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources, (iii) improving performance when using compact photodetectors with no internal gain, and (iv) reliably extending the dynamic range.

  7. Reactivity deterioration of NiO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion of coal in a 10 kW{sub th} reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Laihong; Wu, Jiahua; Gao, Zhengping; Xiao, Jun

    2009-07-15

    A relatively long-term experiment for chemical looping combustion of coal with NiO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxygen carrier was carried out in a 10 kW{sub th} continuous reactor of interconnected fluidized beds, and 100 h of operation was reached with the same batch of the oxygen carrier. The reactivity deterioration of the oxygen carriers was present during the experimental period. The reactivity deterioration of reacted oxygen carriers at different experimental stages was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. SEM analysis showed no significant change in the morphology of the nickel-based oxygen carrier at the fuel reactor temperature {<=}940 C, but loss of surface area and porosity of reacted oxygen carriers was observed when the fuel reactor temperature exceeded 960 C. The results show that the sintering effect have mainly contributed to the reactivity deterioration of reacted oxygen carriers in the CLC process for coal, while the effects of coal ash and sulfur can be ignored. The oxidization of reduced oxygen carrier with air was an intensive exothermic process, and the high temperature of oxygen carrier particles led to sintering on the surface of oxygen carrier particles in the air reactor. Attention must be paid to control the external circulation of oxygen carrier particles in the interconnected fluidized beds in order to efficiently transport heat from the air reactor to the fuel reactor, and reduce the temperature of oxygen carrier particles in the air reactor. Improvement of reactivity deterioration of reacted oxygen carriers was achieved by the supplement of steam into the fuel reactor. Nevertheless, NiO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is still one of the optimal oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion of coal if the sintering of oxygen carrier is minimized at the suitable reactor temperature. (author)

  8. Sol-gel-derived NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion by coal char

    SciTech Connect

    Haibo Zhao; Liming Liu; Baowen Wang; Di Xu; Linlin Jiang; Chuguang Zheng

    2008-03-15

    This paper focuses on the investigation of Ni-based oxygen carriers for CLC by coal char. First, Al(OC{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 3} and Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} are selected as the main raw materials to prepare sol-gel-derived NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxygen carriers. The oxygen carrier with a mass content of 60% NiO, a sintering temperature of 1300{sup o}C, and a sintering time of 6 h performs comparatively well. Second, the reduction reaction of the NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxygen carriers with char and the circular reduction/oxidation reactions of the NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxygen carriers with char/air or hydrogen/air are carried out in a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) instrument to investigate the reactivities and chemical life of the prepared NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxygen carriers. The experimental results show that (a) when the TGA temperature is higher than 850{sup o}C, NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} starts to react with coal char rapidly, which indicates that CLC of coal char using NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} as oxygen carriers is a feasible technology of energy utilization in principle; (b) NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which maintains its activity over single-cycle reduction/oxidation reactions with char/air or multiple-cycle reduction/oxidation reactions with hydrogen/air, exhibits extremely good recyclablity; (c) the porous beehive structure of the NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} particle is maintained, and the sintering behavior between different particles is not observed during cyclic studies. Those experimental results prove the sol-gel-derived oxygen carrier NiO/NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} is capable of being used in chemical-looping combustion fueled by coal char or H{sub 2}. 51 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Kinetics of Oxidation of a Reduced Form of the Cu-Based Oxygen-Carrier for Use in Chemical-Looping Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Dennis, J. S.; Hayhurst, A. N.; Scott, S. A.

    A co-precipitated mixture of CuO and Al2O3 is a good oxygen-carrier for chemical-looping combustion. The kinetics of regeneration of this reduced oxygen-carrier (355 - 500 urn) were measured from 300 to 750°C when reacting it with O2. Care was taken to ensure these measurements were not affected by interphase mass transfer. Efforts were also made to minimise sampling problems by using a rapid-response mass spectrometer for reactions lasting for 45 s or less; otherwise, a paramagnetic analyser for O2 was used, since the mass spectrometer drifted with time. The order of reaction with respect to O2 was found to be ˜ unity at 300 to 750°C. Below 600°C, the reduced oxygen-carrier was incompletely oxidised to a mixture of CU2O and Al2O3. Above 600°C, regeneration was completely to CuO and Al2O3 and was controlled to a considerable extent by external mass transfer. At these higher temperatures, regeneration involved a shrinking core mechanism and the two consecutive steps: 2Cu + 1/2O_2 to Cu_2 O, Cu_2 O + 1/2O_2 to 2CuO. The activation energies and pre-exponential factors for both reactions were measured from initial rates. The kinetics in the first cycle of operations were found to be similar to those in the subsequent cycles.

  10. Combustion synthesized rod-like nanostructure hematite with enhanced lithium storage properties

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Q.Q.; Shi, S.J.; Tang, H.; Wang, X.L.; Gu, C.D.; Tu, J.P.

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods are synthesized by combustion method using alcohol as both solvent and fuel. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorod electrode delivers good electrochemical performance. - Highlights: • We prepared Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorod by a facile and powerful combustion method. • The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorod shows high capacity, good cycle stability, and rate performance. • Combustion saves time and energy to meet the demand of green and sustainable industry. - Abstract: Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods are synthesized by combustion method using alcohol as both solvent and fuel, which is a facile and effective strategy for the large-scale and inexpensive fabrication. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods are with the well distributed diameters of 20–30 nm and length ranging from 80 to 100 nm. As an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorod electrode delivers a high discharge capacity of 761.7 mA h g{sup −1} after 60 cycles at 500 mA g{sup −1}, and 727.2 mA h g{sup −1} at a high current density of 2000 mA g{sup −1}. The good electrochemical performance is attributed to the sufficient contact of active material and electrolyte, large surface area, and short diffusion length of Li{sup +}.

  11. DURIP: Spontaneous Raman system for the study of enhanced combustion and non-thermal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Richard B.

    1990-02-01

    The instrumentation purchased on the DURIP grant and the research work that this instrumentation will support is described. The objective of the grant was to acquire elements of a spontaneous Raman system for gas phase diagnostic work on currently funded combustion studies. Toward this end, a neodymium: YAG pulsed laser was acquired with frequency doubling, an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA), a computer system required to operate the OMA, and a flat flame burner for validation and testing of the Raman set-up.

  12. Global deep ocean oxygenation by enhanced ventilation in the Southern Ocean under long-term global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, A.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Shigemitsu, M.; Oka, A.; Takahashi, K.; Ohgaito, R.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2015-10-01

    Global warming is expected to decrease ocean oxygen concentrations by less solubility of surface ocean and change in ocean circulation. The associated expansion of the oxygen minimum zone would have adverse impacts on marine organisms and ocean biogeochemical cycles. Oxygen reduction is expected to persist for a thousand years or more, even after atmospheric carbon dioxide stops rising. However, long-term changes in ocean oxygen and circulation are still unclear. Here we simulate multimillennium changes in ocean circulation and oxygen under doubling and quadrupling of atmospheric carbon dioxide, using a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model and an offline biogeochemical model. In the first 500 years, global oxygen concentration decreases, consistent with previous studies. Thereafter, however, the oxygen concentration in the deep ocean globally recovers and overshoots at the end of the simulations, despite surface oxygen decrease and weaker Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. This is because, after the initial cessation, the recovery and overshooting of deep ocean convection in the Weddell Sea enhance ventilation and supply oxygen-rich surface waters to deep ocean. Another contributor to deep ocean oxygenation is seawater warming, which reduces the export production and shifts the organic matter remineralization to the upper water column. Our results indicate that the change in ocean circulation in the Southern Ocean potentially drives millennial-scale oxygenation in deep ocean, which is opposite to the centennial-scale global oxygen reduction and general expectation.

  13. Overhauser enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for tumor oximetry: Coregistration of tumor anatomy and tissue oxygen concentration

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Murali C.; English, Sean; Yamada, Kenichi; Yoo, John; Murugesan, Ramachandran; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Cook, John A.; Golman, Klaes; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Subramanian, Sankaran; Mitchell, James B.

    2002-01-01

    An efficient noninvasive method for in vivo imaging of tumor oxygenation by using a low-field magnetic resonance scanner and a paramagnetic contrast agent is described. The methodology is based on Overhauser enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI), a functional imaging technique. OMRI experiments were performed on tumor-bearing mice (squamous cell carcinoma) by i.v. administration of the contrast agent Oxo63 (a highly derivatized triarylmethyl radical) at nontoxic doses in the range of 27 mmol/kg either as a bolus or as a continuous infusion. Spatially resolved pO2 (oxygen concentration) images from OMRI experiments of tumor-bearing mice exhibited heterogeneous oxygenation profiles and revealed regions of hypoxia in tumors (<10 mmHg; 1 mmHg = 133 Pa). Oxygenation of tumors was enhanced on carbogen (95% O2/5% CO2) inhalation. The pO2 measurements from OMRI were found to be in agreement with those obtained by independent polarographic measurements using a pO2 Eppendorf electrode. This work illustrates that anatomically coregistered pO2 maps of tumors can be readily obtained by combining the good anatomical resolution of water proton-based MRI, and the superior pO2 sensitivity of EPR. OMRI affords the opportunity to perform noninvasive and repeated pO2 measurements of the same animal with useful spatial (?1 mm) and temporal (2 min) resolution, making this method a powerful imaging modality for small animal research to understand tumor physiology and potentially for human applications. PMID:11854518

  14. Overhauser enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for tumor oximetry: Coregistration of tumor anatomy and tissue oxygen concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Murali C.; English, Sean; Yamada, Kenichi; Yoo, John; Murugesan, Ramachandran; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Cook, John A.; Golman, Klaes; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Subramanian, Sankaran; Mitchell, James B.

    2002-02-01

    An efficient noninvasive method for in vivo imaging of tumor oxygenation by using a low-field magnetic resonance scanner and a paramagnetic contrast agent is described. The methodology is based on Overhauser enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI), a functional imaging technique. OMRI experiments were performed on tumor-bearing mice (squamous cell carcinoma) by i.v. administration of the contrast agent Oxo63 (a highly derivatized triarylmethyl radical) at nontoxic doses in the range of 2-7 mmol/kg either as a bolus or as a continuous infusion. Spatially resolved pO2 (oxygen concentration) images from OMRI experiments of tumor-bearing mice exhibited heterogeneous oxygenation profiles and revealed regions of hypoxia in tumors (<10 mmHg; 1 mmHg = 133 Pa). Oxygenation of tumors was enhanced on carbogen (95% O2/5% CO2) inhalation. The pO2 measurements from OMRI were found to be in agreement with those obtained by independent polarographic measurements using a pO2 Eppendorf electrode. This work illustrates that anatomically coregistered pO2 maps of tumors can be readily obtained by combining the good anatomical resolution of water proton-based MRI, and the superior pO2 sensitivity of EPR. OMRI affords the opportunity to perform noninvasive and repeated pO2 measurements of the same animal with useful spatial (≈1 mm) and temporal (2 min) resolution, making this method a powerful imaging modality for small animal research to understand tumor physiology and potentially for human applications.

  15. Mechanistic insights into perovskite photoluminescence enhancement: light curing with oxygen can boost yield thousandfold.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuxi; Peter, Maximilian; Unger, Eva; Abdellah, Mohamed; Zheng, Kaibo; Pullerits, Tnu; Yartsev, Arkady; Sundstrm, Villy; Scheblykin, Ivan G

    2015-10-14

    A light-induced photoluminescence (PL) enhancement in surface-deposited methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskites was investigated in detail using time-resolved luminescence microscopy. We found the PL intensity to increase up to three orders of magnitude upon light illumination with an excitation power density of 0.01-1 W cm(-2). The PL enhancement is accompanied by an increase of the PL lifetime from several nanoseconds to several hundred nanoseconds and also by an increase of the initial amplitude of the PL decay. The latter suggests excited state quenching at the subpicosecond timescale. We propose a model where the trapping sites responsible for non-radiative charge recombination can be de-activated by a photochemical reaction involving oxygen. The reaction zone is spatially limited by the excitation light-penetration depth and diffusion length of the charge carriers. The latter increases in the course of the light-curing process making the reaction zone spreading from the surface towards the interior of the crystal. The PL enhancement can be reversed by switching on/off the excitation light or switching the atmosphere between oxygen and nitrogen. Slow diffusion of the reactants and products and equilibrium between the active and "cured" trapping sites are proposed to be the reasons for peculiar responses of PL to such varied experimental conditions. PMID:26343504

  16. Enhancement of photocatalytic activity of combustion-synthesized CeO2/C3N4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong-Feng; Yang, Ke; Wang, Xiao-qin; Ma, Ya-Li; Huang, Gui-Fang; Huang, Wei-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Nanocrystalline CeO2/C3N4 was synthesized via a one-step solution combustion method using urea as fuel for the first time. The effects of the molar ratio of urea to cerium chloride on the photocatalytic activity of the synthesized samples were investigated. The synthesized nanocrystalline CeO2/C3N4 shows small size and large surface exposure area. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue demonstrates that the synthesized nanocrystalline CeO2/C3N4 possesses enhanced photocatalytic activity. It is proposed that the enhanced photocatalytic activity might be related to the favorable morphology and structure, and the effective charge separation between C3N4 and CeO2 in the photocatalytic process.

  17. Enhanced Formation of Oxidants from Bimetallic Nickel-Iron Nanoparticles in the Presence of Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changha; Sedlak, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticulate zero-valent iron (nZVI) rapidly reacts with oxygen to produce strong oxidants, capable of transforming organic contaminants in water. However, the low yield of oxidants with respect to the iron added normally limits the application of this system. Bimetallic nickel-iron nanoparticles (nNi-Fe; i.e., Ni-Fe alloy and Ni-coated Fe nanoparticles) exhibited enhanced yields of oxidants compared to nZVI. nNi-Fe (Ni-Fe alloy nanoparticles with [Ni]/[Fe] = 0.28 and Ni-coated Fe nanoparticles with [Ni]/[Fe] = 0.035) produced approximately 40% and 85% higher yields of formaldehyde from the oxidation of methanol relative to nZVI at pH 4 and 7, respectively. Ni-coated Fe nanoparticles showed a higher efficiency for oxidant production relative to Ni-Fe alloy nanoparticles based on Ni content. Addition of Ni did not enhance the oxidation of 2-propanol or benzoic acid, indicating that Ni addition did not enhance hydroxyl radical formation. The enhancement in oxidant yield was observed over a pH range of 4 9. The enhanced production of oxidant by nNi-Fe appears to be attributable to two factors. First, the nNi-Fe surface is less reactive toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than the nZVI surface, which favors the reaction of H2O2 with dissolved Fe(II) (the Fenton reaction). Second, the nNi-Fe surface promotes oxidant production from the oxidation of ferrous ion by oxygen at neutral pH values. PMID:19068843

  18. Reduction kinetics of Cu-, Ni-, and Fe-based oxygen carriers using syngas (CO + H{sub 2}) for chemical-looping combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Alberto Abad; Francisco Garcia-Labiano; Luis F. de Diego; Pilar Gayn; Juan Adnez

    2007-08-15

    The reactivity of three Cu-, Fe-, and Ni-based oxygen carriers to be used in a chemical-looping combustion (CLC) system using syngas as fuel has been analyzed. The oxygen carriers exhibited high reactivity during reduction with fuel gases present in syngas (H{sub 2} and CO), with average values in the range 8-30% min{sup -1}. No effect of the gas products (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}) on the reduction reaction rate was detected. The kinetic parameters of reaction with H{sub 2} and CO have been determined by thermogravimetric analysis. The grain model with spherical or platelike geometry in the grain was used for the kinetic determination, in which the chemical reaction controlled the global reaction rate. The activation energies determined for these reactions were low, with values ranging from 14 to 33 kJ mol{sup -1}. The reaction order depended on the reacting gas, and values from 0.5 to 1 were found. Moreover, the reactivity of the oxygen carriers when both H{sub 2} and CO are simultaneously present in the reacting gases has been analyzed, both at atmospheric and pressurized conditions. For the Cu- and Fe-based oxygen carriers, the reaction rate of the oxygen carrier with syngas corresponded to the addition of the reaction rates for the individual fuel gases, H{sub 2} and CO. For the Ni-based oxygen carrier, the reaction rate was that corresponding to the fuel gas that reacted faster with the oxygen carrier at the reacting conditions (fuel concentration, temperature, and pressure). The consequences of the behavior of the reaction of syngas and the water-gas shift (WGS) equilibrium on the design of the fuel reactor of a CLC system have been analyzed. A preliminary estimation of the solids inventory for the use of syngas in the fuel reactor of a CLC system gave values in the range of 19-34 kg MW{sup -1} when the WGS equilibrium was considered to be instantaneous. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Identification of combustion intermediates in a low-pressure premixed laminar 2,5-dimethylfuran/oxygen/argon flame with tunable synchrotron photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xuesong; Huang, Zuohua; Wei, Lixia; Yuan, Tao; Zhang, Kuiwen

    2009-07-15

    Low-pressure (4.0 kPa) premixed laminar 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF)/oxygen/argon flame with an equivalence ratio of 2.0 was studied with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation photoionization and molecular-beam mass spectrometry. Photoionization mass spectra of DMF/O{sub 2}/Ar flame were recorded and the photoionization efficiency curves of the combustion intermediates were measured. Flame species, including isomeric intermediates, are identified by comparing the measured ionization energies with those reported in literatures or those calculated with Gaussian-3 procedure. More than 70 species have been detected, including furan and its derivatives, aromatics, and free radicals. Possible reaction pathways of DMF, 2-methylfuran, and furan are proposed based on the intermediates identified. DMF can be consumed by H-abstraction and pyrolysis reactions. 2-Methylfuran and furan can be consumed by H-abstraction, H-addition and pyrolysis reactions. (author)

  20. Enhancing oxygen transport through Mixed-Ionic-and-Electronic-Conducting ceramic membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Anthony S.

    Ceramic membranes based on Mixed-Ionic-and-Electronic-Conducting (MIEC) oxides are capable of separating oxygen from air in the presence of an oxygen partial-pressure gradient. These MIEC membranes show great promise for oxygen consuming industrial processes, such as the production of syngas from steam reforming of natural gas (SRM), as well as for electricity generation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). For both applications, the overall performance is dictated by the rate of oxygen transport across the membrane. Oxygen transport across MIEC membranes is composed of a bulk oxygen-ion diffusion process and surface processes, such as surface reactions and adsorption/desorption of gaseous reactants/products. The main goal of this thesis was to determine which process is rate-limiting in order to significantly enhance the overall rate of oxygen transport in MIEC membrane systems. The rate-limiting step was determined by evaluating the total resistance to oxygen transfer, Rtot. Rtot is the sum of a bulk diffusion resistance in the membrane itself, Rb, and interfacial loss components, Rs. Rb is a function of the membrane's ionic conductivity and thickness, while Rs arises primarily from slow surface-exchange kinetics that cause the P(O2) at the surfaces of the membrane to differ from the P(O 2) in the adjacent gas phases. Rtot can be calculated from the Nernst potential across the membrane and the measured oxygen flux. The rate-limiting process can be determined by evaluating the relative contributions of the various losses, Rs and Rb, to Rtot. Using this method, this thesis demonstrates that for most membrane systems, Rs is the dominating factor. In the development of membrane systems with high oxygen transport rates, thin membranes with high ionic conductivities are required to achieve fast bulk oxygen-ion diffusion. However, as membrane thickness is decreased, surface reaction kinetics become more important in determining the overall transport rate. The two approaches to increase surface reaction kinetics and decrease Rs that were examined in this thesis involved modifying the surface microstructure, as well as adding both metallic (e.g. Pt) and oxide (e.g. CeO2, La0.8Sr0.2FeO3) catalysts to both membrane surfaces. These two approaches were investigated for single-phase MIEC membrane reactors (La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-delta ), as well as composite membrane reactors composed of an electronic conductor (La0.8Sr-0.2CrO3-delta) and an ionic conductor (YSZ). The use of catalysts and microstructure modifications to decrease interfacial losses is equally important for SOFCs. In this thesis, the electrochemical activity and microstructure of metallic catalysts formed by "ex-solving" metals from an oxide lattice, and oxide catalysts deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) were investigated. It is shown that these methods for depositing catalysts resulted in very different effects on electrode performance when compared to the same catalysts deposited by wet impregnation. For example, when transition metals, such as Ni and Co, were "ex-solved" from a La0.8Sr0.2CrO3-delta anode lattice, these "ex-solved" metal particles not only exhibited great catalytic activity, they were also less prone to coking compared to their wet impregnated counterparts. On the cathode side, thin layers of various oxides (e.g. Al 2O3, CeOx, SrO) that were deposited using ALD also exhibited drastically different electrochemical activity compared to their wet impregnated counterparts. It was determined that differences in electrochemical activity could be attributed to a difference in the oxide morphology, showing that a catalyst's microstructure and morphology are very important in dictating its overall activity in SOFC electrodes.

  1. Enhanced oxygen separation through robust freeze-cast bilayered dual-phase membranes.

    PubMed

    Gaudillere, Cyril; Garcia-Fayos, Julio; Balaguer, María; Serra, José M

    2014-09-01

    Dual-phase oxygen-permeable asymmetric membranes with enhanced oxygen permeation were prepared by combining freeze-casting, screen-printing, and constraint-sintering techniques. The membranes were evaluated under oxyfuel operating conditions. The prepared membranes are composed of an original ice-templated La(0.6)Sr(0.4)Co(0.2)Fe(0.8)O(3-δ) support with hierarchically oriented porosity and a top fully densified bilayered coating comprising a 10 μm-thick La(0.6)Sr(0.4)Co(0.2)Fe(0.8)O(3-δ) layer and a top protective 8 μm-thick layer made of an optimized NiFe2O4/Ce(0.8)Tb(0.2)O(2-δ) composite synthesized by the one-pot Pechini method. Preliminary analysis confirmed the thermochemical compatibility of the three involved phases at high temperature without any additional phase detected. This membrane exhibited a promising oxygen permeation value of 4.8 mL min(-1)  cm(-2) at 1000 °C upon using Ar and air as the sweep and feed gases, respectively. Mimicking oxyfuel operating conditions by switching argon to pure CO2 as a sweep gas at 1000 °C and air as feed enabled an oxygen flux value of 5.6 mL min(-1)  cm(-2) to be reached. Finally, under the same conditions and increasing the oxygen partial pressure to 0.1 MPa in the feed, the oxygen permeation reached 12 mL min(-1)  cm(-2). The influence of CO2 content in the sweep gas was studied and its reversible and positive effect over oxygen permeation at temperatures equal to or above 950 °C was revealed. Finally, the membrane stability over a period of 150 h under CO2-rich sweep gas showed a low degradation rate of 2.4×10(-2)  mL min(-1)  cm(-2) per day. PMID:25070608

  2. Enhanced gas sensing performance of Li-doped ZnO nanoparticle film by the synergistic effect of oxygen interstitials and oxygen vacancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Xie, Changsheng; Yang, Li; Zhang, Shunping; Zhang, Guozhu; Cai, Ziming

    2015-03-01

    Li doped ZnO (Zn1-xLixO) nanoparticles with different content were synthesized. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that the ratio of oxygen to zinc for ZnO increased with increasing of Li content from x = 0 to 0.2, which had been attributed to the introduction of oxygen interstitial by Li dopant. The sensing performance and the temperature-dependent conductivity were investigated. It is observed that Li doped ZnO showed higher sensitivity and selectivity compared to the undoped ZnO. The 0.1 Li doped ZnO performed the maximum responses of 71.5 and 40.2 for 100 ppm methanol and formaldehyde, respectively, at 350 C. The research showed that the oxygen vacancies served as active sites which supported the oxygen adsorption and reaction, oxygen interstitials served as active sites to oxidize the reducing gases and produce electrons. The enhanced sensing performance of Li doped ZnO was attributed to the synergistic effect of oxygen interstitials and oxygen vacancies.

  3. Reversed flow fluidized-bed combustion apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Wilson, John S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a fluidized-bed combustion apparatus provided with a U-shaped combustion zone. A cyclone is disposed in the combustion zone for recycling solid particulate material. The combustion zone configuration and the recycling feature provide relatively long residence times and low freeboard heights to maximize combustion of combustible material, reduce nitrogen oxides, and enhance sulfur oxide reduction.

  4. Sensitivity enhancement of carbon nanotube based ammonium ion sensors through surface modification by using oxygen plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Sanghak; Woong Jang, Chi; Lee, Seok; Min Jhon, Young; Choi, Changrok

    2013-02-18

    We have shown that the sensitivity of carbon nanotube (CNT) based sensors can be enhanced as high as 74 times through surface modification by using the inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition method with oxygen. The plasma treatment power was maintained as low as 10 W within 20 s, and the oxygen plasma was generated far away from the sensors to minimize the plasma damage. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, we found that the concentration of oxygen increased with the plasma treatment time, which implies that oxygen functional groups or defect sites were generated on the CNT surface.

  5. Two-Photon Antenna-Core Oxygen Probe with Enhanced Performance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent development of two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) of oxygen enabled first noninvasive high-resolution measurements of tissue oxygenation in vivo in 3D, providing valuable physiological information. The so far developed two-photon-enhanced phosphorescent probes comprise antenna-core constructs, in which two-photon absorbing chromophores (antenna) capture and channel excitation energy to a phosphorescent core (metalloporphyrin) via intramolecular excitation energy transfer (EET). These probes allowed demonstration of the methods potential; however, they suffer from a number of limitations, such as partial loss of emissivity to competing triplet state deactivation pathways (e.g., electron transfer) and suboptimal sensitivity to oxygen, thereby limiting spatial and temporal resolution of the method. Here we present a new probe, PtTCHP-C307, designed to overcome these limitations. The key improvements include significant increase in the phosphorescence quantum yield, higher efficiency of the antenna-core energy transfer, minimized quenching of the phosphorescence by electron transfer and increased signal dynamic range. For the same excitation flux, the new probe is able to produce up to 6-fold higher signal output than previously reported molecules. Performance of PtTCHP-C307 was demonstrated in vivo in pO2 measurements through the intact mouse skull into the bone marrow, where all blood cells are made from hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:24848643

  6. Mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone induces apoptosis through enhancing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Li, Nianyu; Ragheb, Kathy; Lawler, Gretchen; Sturgis, Jennie; Rajwa, Bartek; Melendez, J Andres; Robinson, J Paul

    2003-03-01

    Inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I by rotenone had been found to induce cell death in a variety of cells. However, the mechanism is still elusive. Because reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in apoptosis and inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I by rotenone was thought to be able to elevate mitochondrial ROS production, we investigated the relationship between rotenone-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Rotenone was able to induce mitochondrial complex I substrate-supported mitochondrial ROS production both in isolated mitochondria from HL-60 cells as well as in cultured cells. Rotenone-induced apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, cytochrome c release, and caspase 3 activity. A quantitative correlation between rotenone-induced apoptosis and rotenone-induced mitochondrial ROS production was identified. Rotenone-induced apoptosis was inhibited by treatment with antioxidants (glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, and vitamin C). The role of rotenone-induced mitochondrial ROS in apoptosis was also confirmed by the finding that HT1080 cells overexpressing magnesium superoxide dismutase were more resistant to rotenone-induced apoptosis than control cells. These results suggest that rotenone is able to induce apoptosis via enhancing the amount of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. PMID:12496265

  7. Shell-anchor-core structures for enhanced stability and catalytic oxygen reduction activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Caballero, Gustavo E.; Hirunsit, Pussana; Balbuena, Perla B.

    2010-10-01

    Density functional theory is used to evaluate activity and stability properties of shell-anchor-core structures. The structures consist of a Pt surface monolayer and a composite core having an anchor bilayer where C atoms in the interstitial sites lock 3d metals in their locations, thus avoiding their surface segregation and posterior dissolution. The modified subsurface geometry induces less strain on the top surface, thus exerting a favorable effect on the surface catalytic activity where the adsorption strength of the oxygenated species becomes more moderate: weaker than on pure Pt(111) but stronger than on a Pt monolayer having a 3d metal subsurface. Here we analyze the effect of changing the nature of the 3d metal in the subsurface anchor bilayer, and we also test the use of a Pd monolayer instead of Pt on the surface. It is found that a subsurface constituted by two layers with an approximate composition of M2C (M=Fe, Ni, and Co) provides a barrier for the migration of subsurface core metal atoms to the surface. Consequently, an enhanced resistance against dissolution in parallel to improved oxygen reduction activity is expected, as given by the values of adsorption energies of reaction intermediates, delayed onset of water oxidation, and/or low coverage of oxygenated species at surface oxidation potentials.

  8. Two-photon antenna-core oxygen probe with enhanced performance.

    PubMed

    Roussakis, Emmanuel; Spencer, Joel A; Lin, Charles P; Vinogradov, Sergei A

    2014-06-17

    Recent development of two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) of oxygen enabled first noninvasive high-resolution measurements of tissue oxygenation in vivo in 3D, providing valuable physiological information. The so far developed two-photon-enhanced phosphorescent probes comprise antenna-core constructs, in which two-photon absorbing chromophores (antenna) capture and channel excitation energy to a phosphorescent core (metalloporphyrin) via intramolecular excitation energy transfer (EET). These probes allowed demonstration of the methods' potential; however, they suffer from a number of limitations, such as partial loss of emissivity to competing triplet state deactivation pathways (e.g., electron transfer) and suboptimal sensitivity to oxygen, thereby limiting spatial and temporal resolution of the method. Here we present a new probe, PtTCHP-C307, designed to overcome these limitations. The key improvements include significant increase in the phosphorescence quantum yield, higher efficiency of the antenna-core energy transfer, minimized quenching of the phosphorescence by electron transfer and increased signal dynamic range. For the same excitation flux, the new probe is able to produce up to 6-fold higher signal output than previously reported molecules. Performance of PtTCHP-C307 was demonstrated in vivo in pO2 measurements through the intact mouse skull into the bone marrow, where all blood cells are made from hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:24848643

  9. Research Combustion Lab Facility Capabilities and Throughput Enhanced by New Test Stands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The original test stand location has a small copper rocket engine mounted on the stand. The new stand, located about 4 feet to the left, has a long pulse detonation combustion engine mounted on it. To the rear of the two stands can be seen a bulkhead with feed line outlets that can be switched at common valves behind the bulkhead to supply either stand. A gauge panel is visible through a doorway in the bulkhead at which various purge pressures are set. A connection panel for instrumentation wiring can be seen above the stands.

  10. Tuning the surface oxygen concentration of {111} surrounded ceria nanocrystals for enhanced photocatalytic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Adnan; Chu, Dewei; Kaneti, Yusuf Valentino; Li, Sean

    2015-12-01

    For oxide semiconductors, the morphology, particle size and oxygen vacancies are usually considered as key influential parameters for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants/dyes. It is widely accepted that cation doping not only modifies their phase and microstructures but also introduces variations in oxygen vacancy concentration. Herein, we report the fabrication of sub-10 nm sized pure and indium doped CeO2 nanocrystals (NCs) via a facile, green hydrothermal method for the investigation of photocatalytic activities. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were employed to examine the crystal phase and morphology of the as-prepared nanocrystals. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques were implemented to investigate the presence and variations in oxygen vacancy concentration in un-doped and indium doped CeO2 nanocrystals. The photocatalytic activity results revealed that 10 at% doping is the optimal indium doping level to demonstrate superior dye removal efficiency (~40%) over un-doped and doped CeO2 NCs. Moreover, the 10% In-doped CeO2 nanocrystals expressed excellent cycling stability and superior photocatalytic performance toward other dye pollutants. Finally, on the basis of our findings, a possible photocatalytic mechanism in which indium doping can generate more surface oxygen vacancies in the ceria lattice which delay the electron-hole recombination rates, thus increasing the lifetime of electron-hole separation for enhanced photocatalytic performances was proposed.For oxide semiconductors, the morphology, particle size and oxygen vacancies are usually considered as key influential parameters for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants/dyes. It is widely accepted that cation doping not only modifies their phase and microstructures but also introduces variations in oxygen vacancy concentration. Herein, we report the fabrication of sub-10 nm sized pure and indium doped CeO2 nanocrystals (NCs) via a facile, green hydrothermal method for the investigation of photocatalytic activities. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were employed to examine the crystal phase and morphology of the as-prepared nanocrystals. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques were implemented to investigate the presence and variations in oxygen vacancy concentration in un-doped and indium doped CeO2 nanocrystals. The photocatalytic activity results revealed that 10 at% doping is the optimal indium doping level to demonstrate superior dye removal efficiency (~40%) over un-doped and doped CeO2 NCs. Moreover, the 10% In-doped CeO2 nanocrystals expressed excellent cycling stability and superior photocatalytic performance toward other dye pollutants. Finally, on the basis of our findings, a possible photocatalytic mechanism in which indium doping can generate more surface oxygen vacancies in the ceria lattice which delay the electron-hole recombination rates, thus increasing the lifetime of electron-hole separation for enhanced photocatalytic performances was proposed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06588g

  11. Improvement of islet engrafts by enhanced angiogenesis and microparticle-mediated oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, Leila; Hojjati-Emami, Shahriar; Bonakdar, Shahin; Tahamtani, Yaser; Hajizadeh-Saffar, Ensiyeh; Noori-Keshtkar, Marjan; Najar-Asl, Mostafa; Ashtiani, Mohammad Kazemi; Baharvand, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    A major hindrance in islet transplantation as a feasible therapeutic approach for patients with type 1 diabetes is the insufficient oxygenation of the grafts, which results in cell death in portions of the implant. Here we address this limitation through the application of oxygen-generating microparticles (MP) and a fibrin-conjugated heparin/VEGF collagen scaffold to support cell survival by using a β cell line and pancreatic rat islets. MP are composed of a polyvinylpyrrolidone/hydrogen peroxide (PVP/H2O2) core and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) shell, along with immobilized catalase on the shell. The presence of MP is sufficient to reduce hypoxia-induced cell dysfunction and death for both cell types, resulting in localization of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) into the cytoplasm and enhanced metabolic function. After co-transplantation of MP and a reduced islet mass (250 islet equivalents) within an angiogenic scaffold in the omental pouch of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nude mice, we have observed significantly promoted graft function as evidenced by improved blood glucose levels, body weight, glucose tolerance, serum C-peptide, and graft revascularization. These results suggest that the developed platform has great potential to enhance the efficacy for implants in cases where the cell dosage is critical for efficacy, such as islet transplantation and ischemic tissues. PMID:26970510

  12. Hydrogen sulfide can inhibit and enhance oxygenic photosynthesis in a cyanobacterium from sulfidic springs.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Judith M; Haas, Sebastian; Yilmaz, Pelin; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-09-01

    We used microsensors to investigate the combinatory effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and light on oxygenic photosynthesis in biofilms formed by a cyanobacterium from sulfidic springs. We found that photosynthesis was both positively and negatively affected by H2 S: (i) H2 S accelerated the recovery of photosynthesis after prolonged exposure to darkness and anoxia. We suggest that this is possibly due to regulatory effects of H2 S on photosystem I components and/or on the Calvin cycle. (ii) H2 S concentrations of up to 210??M temporarily enhanced the photosynthetic rates at low irradiance. Modelling showed that this enhancement is plausibly based on changes in the light-harvesting efficiency. (iii) Above a certain light-dependent concentration threshold H2 S also acted as an inhibitor. Intriguingly, this inhibition was not instant but occurred only after a specific time interval that decreased with increasing light intensity. That photosynthesis is most sensitive to inhibition at high light intensities suggests that H2 S inactivates an intermediate of the oxygen evolving complex that accumulates with increasing light intensity. We discuss the implications of these three effects of H2 S in the context of cyanobacterial photosynthesis under conditions with diurnally fluctuating light and H2 S concentrations, such as those occurring in microbial mats and biofilms. PMID:25630511

  13. Oxygen stabilization induced enhancement in superconducting characteristics of high-Tc oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M. K.; Chen, J. T.; Huang, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to enhance the electrical and mechanical properties of the high temperature superconducting oxides, high T(sub c) composites were prepared composed of the 123 compounds and AgO. The presence of extra oxygen due to the decomposition of AgO at high temperature is found to stabilize the superconducting 123 phase. Ag is found to serve as clean flux for grain growth and precipitates as pinning center. Consequently, almost two orders of magnitude enhancement in critical current densities were also observed in these composites. In addition, these composites also show much improvement in workability and shape formation. On the other hand, proper oxygen treatment of Y5Ba6Cu11Oy was found to possibly stabilize superconducting phase with T(sub c) near 250 K. I-V, ac susceptibility, and electrical resistivity measurements indicate the existence of this ultra high T(sub c) phase in this compound. Detailed structure, microstructure, electrical, magnetic and thermal studies of the superconducting composites and the ultra high T(sub c) compound are presented and discussed.

  14. Palladium–platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T.; Luo, Ming; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2015-01-01

    Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can be attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. These results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability. PMID:26133469

  15. A hybrid DNA-templated gold nanocluster for enhanced enzymatic reduction of oxygen

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chakraborty, Saumen; Babanova, Sofia; Rocha, Reginaldo C.; Desireddy, Anil; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Boncella, Amy E.; Atanassov, Plamen; Martinez, Jennifer S.

    2015-08-19

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a new DNA-templated gold nanocluster (AuNC) of ~1 nm in diameter and possessing ~7 Au atoms. When integrated with bilirubin oxidase (BOD) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), the AuNC acts as an enhancer of electron transfer (ET) and lowers the overpotential of electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by ~15 mV as compared to the enzyme alone. In addition, the presence of AuNC causes significant enhancements in the electrocatalytic current densities at the electrode. Control experiments show that such enhancement of ORR by the AuNC is specific to nanoclusters and not to plasmonicmore » gold particles. Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) measurements confirm 4e– reduction of O2 to H2O with minimal production of H2O2, suggesting that the presence of AuNC does not perturb the mechanism of ORR catalyzed by the enzyme. This unique role of the AuNC as enhancer of ET at the enzyme-electrode interface makes it a potential candidate for the development of cathodes in enzymatic fuel cells, which often suffer from poor electronic communication between the electrode surface and the enzyme active site. In conclusion, the AuNC displays phosphorescence with large Stokes shift and microsecond lifetime.« less

  16. A hybrid DNA-templated gold nanocluster for enhanced enzymatic reduction of oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Saumen; Babanova, Sofia; Rocha, Reginaldo C.; Desireddy, Anil; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Boncella, Amy E.; Atanassov, Plamen; Martinez, Jennifer S.

    2015-08-19

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a new DNA-templated gold nanocluster (AuNC) of ~1 nm in diameter and possessing ~7 Au atoms. When integrated with bilirubin oxidase (BOD) and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), the AuNC acts as an enhancer of electron transfer (ET) and lowers the overpotential of electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by ~15 mV as compared to the enzyme alone. In addition, the presence of AuNC causes significant enhancements in the electrocatalytic current densities at the electrode. Control experiments show that such enhancement of ORR by the AuNC is specific to nanoclusters and not to plasmonic gold particles. Rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) measurements confirm 4e– reduction of O2 to H2O with minimal production of H2O2, suggesting that the presence of AuNC does not perturb the mechanism of ORR catalyzed by the enzyme. This unique role of the AuNC as enhancer of ET at the enzyme-electrode interface makes it a potential candidate for the development of cathodes in enzymatic fuel cells, which often suffer from poor electronic communication between the electrode surface and the enzyme active site. In conclusion, the AuNC displays phosphorescence with large Stokes shift and microsecond lifetime.

  17. Enhancing stability of octahedral PtNi nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction by halide treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Juhyuk; Lee, Youhan; Kim, Jihan; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-03-01

    Because a reduction in the amount of Pt catalysts is essential for the commercialization of fuel cells, various approaches have been tested to maximize the mass activity of Pt-based catalysts. Among these, the most successful results so far were obtained using shaped PtNi alloy nanoparticles, preferably with PtNi(111) facets. However, these nanoparticles typically suffer from much lower activity after the durability tests due to the leaching out of the surface Ni during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), which leads to the disappearance of the activity-enhancing effect caused by electronic structure modification. Here, we showed that halide treatment of the octahedral PtNi nanoparticles could significantly enhance their durability. Halides are adsorbed on surface Ni more strongly than on surface Pt, and the surface halides are found to preserve the surface Ni that induces the ORR activity enhancement. Especially, Br can preserve the surface Ni effectively. Durability testing by repeating cyclic voltammetry 10,000 times in the 0.6-1.1 V range showed that the mass activity decreased by 52.6% for the as-prepared PtNi octahedral nanoparticles, whereas the mass activity decreased by only 15.0% for the Br-treated PtNi nanoparticles. The simple treatment significantly enhanced the long-term stability of the highly active PtNi alloy nano-octahedra.

  18. Noble metal-comparable SERS enhancement from semiconducting metal oxides by making oxygen vacancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Shan; Yuan, Yinyin; Chen, Zhigang; Hou, Junyu; Yang, Mei; Su, Yanli; Zhang, Yongyi; Li, Liang; Li, Qingwen; Geng, Fengxia; Zhao, Zhigang

    2015-07-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) represents a very powerful tool for the identification of molecular species, but unfortunately it has been essentially restricted to noble metal supports (Au, Ag and Cu). While the application of semiconductor materials as SERS substrate would enormously widen the range of uses for this technique, the detection sensitivity has been much inferior and the achievable SERS enhancement was rather limited, thereby greatly limiting the practical applications. Here we report the employment of non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide nanostructure, sea urchin-like W18O49 nanowire, as the substrate material, to magnify the substrate-analyte molecule interaction, leading to significant magnifications in Raman spectroscopic signature. The enrichment of surface oxygen vacancy could bring additional enhancements. The detection limit concentration was as low as 10-7 M and the maximum enhancement factor was 3.4 105, in the rank of the highest sensitivity, to our best knowledge, among semiconducting materials, even comparable to noble metals without `hot spots'.

  19. Noble metal-comparable SERS enhancement from semiconducting metal oxides by making oxygen vacancies

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Shan; Yuan, Yinyin; Chen, Zhigang; Hou, Junyu; Yang, Mei; Su, Yanli; Zhang, Yongyi; Li, Liang; Li, Qingwen; Geng, Fengxia; Zhao, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) represents a very powerful tool for the identification of molecular species, but unfortunately it has been essentially restricted to noble metal supports (Au, Ag and Cu). While the application of semiconductor materials as SERS substrate would enormously widen the range of uses for this technique, the detection sensitivity has been much inferior and the achievable SERS enhancement was rather limited, thereby greatly limiting the practical applications. Here we report the employment of non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide nanostructure, sea urchin-like W18O49 nanowire, as the substrate material, to magnify the substrate–analyte molecule interaction, leading to significant magnifications in Raman spectroscopic signature. The enrichment of surface oxygen vacancy could bring additional enhancements. The detection limit concentration was as low as 10−7 M and the maximum enhancement factor was 3.4 × 105, in the rank of the highest sensitivity, to our best knowledge, among semiconducting materials, even comparable to noble metals without ‘hot spots'. PMID:26183467

  20. Oxygen gas concentration-detecting apparatus and air-fuel ratio-controlling apparatus using same in internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Uchikawa, A.; Anbe, S.; Suwa, T.; Kawashima, M.; Yamada, T.

    1988-09-27

    An oxygen concentration-detecting apparatus is described comprising a ceramic substrate for generating an electromotive force between a first surface contacted with a reference gas and a second surface contacted with a gas to be detected according to the ratio of the concentration of oxygen gas O/sub 2/ between the two gases, a pair of electrode members formed at parts of the first and second surfaces, respectively, of the ceramic substrate, to take out the electromotive force as a detection signal, an oxidation catalyst layer arranged to cover the outer surface of the ceramic substrate and promote oxidation reaction of unburnt components, and a reduction catalyst layer arranged to cover an outer surface of the ceramic substrate and promote mainly reduction reaction of nitrogen oxides NO/sub x/.

  1. Final report on the project entitled: Highly Preheated Combustion Air System with/without Oxygen Enrichment for Metal Processing Furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Arvind Atreya

    2007-02-16

    This work develops and demonstrates a laboratory-scale high temperature natural gas furnace that can operate with/without oxygen enrichment to significantly improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. The laboratory-scale is 5ft in diameter & 8ft tall. This furnace was constructed and tested. This report demonstrates the efficiency and pollutant prevention capabilities of this test furnace. The project also developed optical detection technology to control the furnace output.

  2. Effects of oxygen functional groups on the enhancement of the hydrogen spillover of Pd-doped activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tsui-Yun; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Tseng, Hui-Ping; Chen, Chien-Hung; Yu, Ming-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    The hydrogen storage performance of Pd-doped oxidized activated carbon (Pd/AC-ox) with various oxygen contents or functional groups was investigated. The surface chemistry of the Pd/AC-ox sample was modified by treatment with hydrogen gas. Temperature-programmed desorption was performed to characterize the oxygen functional groups in each sample. In this study, low- and high-pressure hydrogen adsorption isotherm experiments were conducted using a static volumetric measurement at room temperature (RT) and pressures of up to 8 MPa. The results showed that increasing the oxygen content and functional groups on the surface of the Pd/AC-ox significantly improved the reversible RT hydrogen storage capacity due to the spillover effect. The hydrogen spillover enhancement factors at 0.12 MPa were greater than 100% for all samples. The hydrogen uptake of Pd/AC-ox1 at RT and 8 MPa with an oxygen content of 8.94 wt.% was 0.37 wt.%, which was 48% greater than that of Pd-free AC-ox (0.25 wt.%). In addition, the hydrogen uptake of Pd/AC-ox3 with lower oxygen contents demonstrates that the hydrogen spillover enhancement gradually disappears when the pressure is increased to more than 2 MPa (i.e., a transition from spillover to physisorption). The surface diffusion, or reversible adsorption, of the spiltover H atoms, which is enhanced by oxygen functional groups, was affected by a threshold amount of oxygen groups (such as hydroxyl groups). PMID:25490569

  3. Enhanced proliferation and dopaminergic differentiation of ventral mesencephalic precursor cells by synergistic effect of FGF2 and reduced oxygen tension

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Pia; Department of Neurosurgery, University of Bern, CH-3010 Bern ; Gramsbergen, Jan-Bert; Zimmer, Jens; Widmer, Hans R.; Meyer, Morten

    2011-07-15

    Effective numerical expansion of dopaminergic precursors might overcome the limited availability of transplantable cells in replacement strategies for Parkinson's disease. Here we investigated the effect of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and FGF8 on expansion and dopaminergic differentiation of rat embryonic ventral mesencephalic neuroblasts cultured at high (20%) and low (3%) oxygen tension. More cells incorporated bromodeoxyuridine in cultures expanded at low as compared to high oxygen tension, and after 6 days of differentiation there were significantly more neuronal cells in low than in high oxygen cultures. Low oxygen during FGF2-mediated expansion resulted also in a significant increase in tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) dopaminergic neurons as compared to high oxygen tension, but no corresponding effect was observed for dopamine release into the culture medium. However, switching FGF2-expanded cultures from low to high oxygen tension during the last two days of differentiation significantly enhanced dopamine release and intracellular dopamine levels as compared to all other treatment groups. In addition, the short-term exposure to high oxygen enhanced in situ assessed TH enzyme activity, which may explain the elevated dopamine levels. Our findings demonstrate that modulation of oxygen tension is a recognizable factor for in vitro expansion and dopaminergic differentiation of rat embryonic midbrain precursor cells.

  4. Distance-Dependent Plasmon-Enhanced Singlet Oxygen Production and Emission for Bacterial Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Planas, Oriol; Macia, Nicolas; Agut, Montserrat; Nonell, Santi; Heyne, Belinda

    2016-03-01

    Herein, we synthesized a series of 10 core-shell silver-silica nanoparticles with a photosensitizer, Rose Bengal, tethered to their surface. Each nanoparticle possesses an identical silver core of about 67 nm, but presents a different silica shell thickness ranging from 5 to 100 nm. These hybrid plasmonic nanoparticles thus afford a plasmonic nanostructure platform with a source of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) at a well-defined distance from the metallic core. Via time-resolved and steady state spectroscopic techniques, we demonstrate the silver core exerts a dual role of enhancing both the production of (1)O2, through enhanced absorption of light, and its radiative decay, which in turn boosts (1)O2 phosphorescence emission to a greater extent. Furthermore, we show both the production and emission of (1)O2 in vitro to be dependent on proximity to the plasmonic nanostructure. Our results clearly exhibit three distinct regimes as the plasmonic nanostructure moves apart from the (1)O2 source, with a greater enhancement for silica shell thicknesses ranging between 10 and 20 nm. Moreover, these hybrid plasmonic nanoparticles can be delivered to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria boosting both photoantibacterial activity and detection limit of (1)O2 in cells. PMID:26867005

  5. Oxygen Reduction Kinetics Enhancement on a 2 Heterostructured Oxide Surface for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Crumlin, Ethan; Mutoro, Eva; Ahn, Sung Jin; Jose la O', Gerardo; Leonard, Donovan N; Borisevich, Albina Y; Biegalski, Michael D; Christen, Hans M; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Heterostructured interfaces of oxides, which can exhibit transport and reactivity characteristics remarkably different from those of bulk oxides, are interesting systems to explore in search of highly active cathodes for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we show that the ORR of {approx}85 nm thick La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSC{sub 113}) films prepared by pulsed laser deposition on (001)-oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates is dramatically enhanced ({approx} 3-4 orders of magnitude above bulk LSC{sub 113}) by surface decorations of (La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}){sub 2}CoO{sub 4{+-}{delta}} (LSC{sub 214}) with coverage in the range from {approx}0.1 to {approx}15 nm. Their surface and atomic structures were characterized by atomic force, scanning electron, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, and the ORR kinetics were determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Although the mechanism for ORR enhancement is not yet fully understood, our results to date show that the observed ORR enhancement can be attributed to highly active interfacial LSC{sub 113}/LSC{sub 214} regions, which were shown to be atomically sharp.

  6. Promoted combustion of nine structural metals in high-pressure gaseous oxygen - A comparison of ranking methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Theodore A.; Rucker, Michelle A.; Beeson, Harold D.

    1989-01-01

    The 316, 321, 440C, and 17-4 PH stainless steels, as well as Inconel 600, Inconel 718, Waspaloy, Monel 400, and Al 2219, have been evaluated for relative nonflammability in a high-pressure oxygen environment with a view to the comparative advantages of four different flammability-ranking methods. The effects of changes in test pressure, sample diameter, promoter type, and sample configuration on ranking method results are evaluated; ranking methods employing velocity as the primary ranking criterion are limited by diameter effects, while those which use extinguishing pressure are nonselective for metals with similar flammabilities.

  7. Metal Combustion In High Pressure Oxygen Atmosphere: Detailed Observation Of Burning Region Behavior By Using High Speed Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kenji; Sato, Yoshiko; Tsuno, Takao; Nakamura, Yoshio; Hirano, Toshisuke; Sato, Jun'ichi

    1983-03-01

    Detailed process of upward fire spread along a mild steel cylinder in high pressure oxygen has been studied by using high speed photography. Fire spread experiments were conducted in a cylindrical, high pressure oxygen chamber of a capacity of about 2.5x107 mm3. The movement of a molten mass attached to the bottom end of a burning steel cylinder and that of a molten mass droplet detached from the bottom end were recorded by a 16 mm or 35 mm high speed cinecamera and analyzed. By analyzing the oscillatory behavior of the molten mass droplet, its main component was inferred to be iron oxide. The local spread rate fluctuation was observed during a period of the overall cyclic behavior. Based on the location of the observed high luminosity region and surface flow of the molten mass, convection was inferred to be a dominant mode of heat transfer at the molten-solid boundary and the fluctuation of the local spread rate was supposed to be attributable to the nonuniformity of the convective heat transfer at the molten-solid boundary.

  8. Gravity-Driven Multiple Collision-Enhanced Catalytic Soot Combustion over a Space-Open Array Catalyst Consisting of Ultrathin Ceria Nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chunmei; Zhang, Yuxia; Liu, Dongsheng; Meng, Ming

    2015-08-12

    More than 122 times higher contact efficiency between soot and catalysts is achieved over the as-prepared CeO(2) nanobelt array catalysts as compared with the powder nanoparticle catalyst. A novel gravity-driven multiple collision-enhanced soot combustion mechanism is proposed for the first time. PMID:25914179

  9. Lipopolysaccharide infusion enhances dynamic cerebral autoregulation without affecting cerebral oxygen vasoreactivity in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sepsis may be associated with disturbances in cerebral oxygen transport and cerebral haemodynamic function, thus rendering the brain particularly susceptible to hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of isocapnic hypoxia and hyperoxia on dynamic cerebral autoregulation in a human-experimental model of the systemic inflammatory response during the early stages of sepsis. Methods A total of ten healthy volunteers were exposed to acute isocapnic inspiratory hyperoxia (FIO2 = 40%) and hypoxia (FIO2 = 12%) before and after a 4-hour lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion (2 ng kg-1). Middle cerebral artery blood follow velocity was assessed using transcranial Doppler ultrasound, and dynamic autoregulation was evaluated by transfer function analysis. Results Transfer function analysis revealed an increase in the phase difference between mean arterial blood pressure and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in the low frequency range (0.07–0.20 Hz) after LPS (P<0.01). In contrast, there were no effects of either isocapnic hyperoxia or hypoxia on dynamic autoregulation, and the cerebral oxygen vasoreactivity to both hyperoxia and hypoxia was unaffected by LPS. Conclusions The observed increase in phase suggests that dynamic cerebral autoregulation is enhanced after LPS infusion and resistant to any effects of acute hypoxia; this may protect the brain from ischaemia and/or blood–brain barrier damage during the early stages of sepsis. PMID:24131656

  10. Shock-tube measurements of excited oxygen atoms using cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nations, Marcel; Wang, Shengkai; Goldenstein, Christopher S; Sun, Kai; Davidson, David F; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K

    2015-10-10

    We report the use of cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS) using two distributed feedback diode lasers near 777.2 and 844.6nm for sensitive, time-resolved, in situ measurements of excited-state populations of atomic oxygen in a shock tube. Here, a 1% O2/Ar mixture was shock-heated to 5400-8000K behind reflected shock waves. The combined use of a low-finesse cavity, fast wavelength scanning of the lasers, and an off-axis alignment enabled measurements with 10?s time response and low cavity noise. The CEAS absorption gain factors of 104 and 142 for the P35?S520 (777.2nm) and P0,1,23?S310 (844.6nm) atomic oxygen transitions, respectively, significantly improved the detection sensitivity over conventional single-pass measurements. This work demonstrates the potential of using CEAS to improve shock-tube studies of nonequilibrium electronic-excitation processes at high temperatures. PMID:26479817

  11. Antioxidant Activity of Oxygen Evolving Enhancer Protein 1 Purified from Capsosiphon fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Young; Choi, Youn Hee; Lee, Jung Im; Kim, In-Hye; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the antioxidant activity of a protein purified from Capsosiphon fulvescens. The purification steps included sodium acetate (pH 6) extraction and diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, reversed phase Shodex C4P-50 column chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the molecular weight of the purified protein was 33 kDa. The N-terminus and partial peptide amino acid sequence of this protein was identical to the sequence of oxygen evolving enhancer (OEE) 1 protein. The antioxidant activity of the OEE 1 was determined in vitro using a scavenging test with 4 types of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). OEE 1 had higher H2 O2 scavenging activity, which proved to be the result of enzymatic antioxidants rather than nonenzymatic antioxidants. In addition, OEE 1 showed less H2 O2 -mediated ROS formation in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that OEE 1 purified from C. fulvescens is an excellent antioxidant. PMID:25944160

  12. Enhancing Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction on Nitrogen-Doped Graphene by Active Sites Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Leiyu; Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Zujing; Luo, Jingyang; Li, Mu; Wang, Dongbo; Chen, Yinguang

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of nitrogen active sites and relatively low nitrogen content result in unsatisfying eletrocatalytic activity and durability of nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here we report a novel approach to substantially enhance electrocatalytic oxygen reduction on NG electrode by the implantation of nitrogen active sites with mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (mpg-C3N4). Electrochemical characterization revealed that in neutral electrolyte the resulting NG (I-NG) exhibited super electrocatalytic activity (completely 100% of four-electron ORR pathway) and durability (nearly no activity change after 100000 potential cyclings). When I-NG was used as cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), power density and its drop percentage were also much better than the NG and Pt/C ones, demonstrating that the current I-NG was a perfect alternative to Pt/C and offered a new potential for constructing high-performance and less expensive cathode which is crucial for large-scale application of MFC technology. PMID:24264379

  13. Enhanced removal of carbon dioxide and alleviation of dissolved oxygen accumulation in photobioreactor with bubble tank.

    PubMed

    Chai, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xin

    2012-07-01

    Reduction of carbon loss from the effluent is one of the most important aspects of photobioreactors design. In this study, a novel gas sparger of bubble tank was adopted in a photobioreactor to enhance carbon dioxide (CO(2)) mass transfer rate as well as alleviate dissolved oxygen (DO) accumulation. The results showed that low DO level in the culture can be obtained due to the turbulent hydrodynamic condition provided by the bubble tank. The effects of CO(2) concentration, flow rate of influent, and light intensity on CO(2) removal efficiency were investigated. The maximum CO(2) removal efficiency was 94% at flow rate of 30 mL min(-1), light intensity of 179 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and CO(2) concentration of 10%, implying that the novel gas sparger is a promising alternative for CO(2) removal from CO(2)-enriched air by cultivating microalgae in the photobioreactor. PMID:22531167

  14. Enhanced oxygen reduction activity and solid oxide fuel cell performance with a nanoparticles-loaded cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Liu, Li; Zhao, Zhe; Tu, Baofeng; Ou, Dingrong; Cui, Daan; Wei, Xuming; Chen, Xiaobo; Cheng, Mojie

    2015-03-11

    Reluctant oxygen-reduction-reaction (ORR) activity has been a long-standing challenge limiting cell performance for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in both centralized and distributed power applications. We report here that this challenge has been tackled with coloading of (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSM) and Y2O3 stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanoparticles within a porous YSZ framework. This design dramatically improves ORR activity, enhances fuel cell output (200-300% power improvement), and enables superior stability (no observed degradation within 500 h of operation) from 600 to 800 C. The improved performance is attributed to the intimate contacts between nanoparticulate YSZ and LSM particles in the three-phase boundaries in the cathode. PMID:25686380

  15. Oxygen-enhanced models for globular cluster stars. III - Horizontal-branch sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorman, Ben

    1992-01-01

    A large grid of horizontal-branch (HB) evolutionary sequences which have been calculated with core expansion and semiconvection and with enhanced oxygen composition are presented and described. Tracks for 10 different metallicities are computed; they range from (Fe/H) = -0.47 to -2.26 and comprise a total of 115 sequences. The evolution is traced from the zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) to the lower AGB at a point where log L/solar luminosity = 2.25. All of the sequences are illustrated on both the theoretical H-R diagram and on the B, V color-magnitude diagram. A complete set of tables for the ZAHB models and a representative sample of tabulations of the track parameters are provided. The phenomena which control HB evolution morphology, and existing certainties in theoretical HB models are discussed.

  16. Catalytic Activity Enhancement for Oxygen Reduction on Epitaxial Perovskite Thin Films for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    La O', Gerardo Jose; Ahn, Sung Jin; Crumlin, Ethan; Orikasa, Yuki; Biegalski, Michael D; Christen, Hans M; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2010-01-01

    The active ingredient: La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSC) epitaxial thin films are prepared on (001)-oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single crystals with a gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) buffer layer. The LSC epitaxial films exhibit better oxygen reduction kinetics than bulk LSC. The enhanced activity is attributed in part to higher oxygen nonstoichiometry.

  17. Atomic Ordering Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity of Nanoalloys for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Loukrakpam, Rameshwori; Shan, Shiyao; Petkov, Valeri; Yang, Lefu; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2013-10-01

    For oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) over alloy electrocatalysts, the understanding of how the atomic arrangement of the metal species in the nanocatalysts is responsible for the catalytic enhancement is challenging for achieving better design and tailoring of nanoalloy catalysts. This paper reports results of an investigation of the atomic structures and the electrocatalytic activities of ternary and binary nanoalloys, aiming at revealing a fundamental insight into the unique atomic-scale structure?electrocatalytic activity relationship. PtIrCo catalyst and its binary counterparts (PtCo and PtIr) are chosen as a model system for this study. The effect of thermochemical treatment temperature on the atomic-scale structure of the catalysts was examined as a useful probe to the structure?activity correlation. The structural characterization of the binary and ternary nanoalloy catalysts was performed by combining surface sensitive techniques such as XPS and 3D atomic ordering sensitive techniques such as high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD) coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis (HE-XRD/PDFs) and computer simulations. The results show that the thermal treatment temperature tunes the nanoalloys atomic and chemical ordering in a different way depending on the chemical composition, leading to differences in the nanoalloys mass and specific activities. A unique structural tunability of the atomic ordering in a platinum?iridium?cobalt nanoalloy has been revealed for enhancing greatly the electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction, which has significant implication for rational design and nanoengineering of advanced catalysts for electrochemical energy conversion and storage.

  18. IGF-I enhances cellular senescence via the reactive oxygen species-p53 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Handayaningsih, Anastasia-Evi; Takahashi, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Suda, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular senescence plays an important role in tumorigenesis and aging process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in primary confluent cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These results may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging. -- Abstract: Cellular senescence is characterized by growth arrest, enlarged and flattened cell morphology, the expression of senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal), and by activation of tumor suppressor networks. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a critical role in cellular growth, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of aging. In the present study, we show that IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in mouse, rat, and human primary cells in the confluent state. IGF-I induced expression of a DNA damage marker, {gamma}H2AX, the increased levels of p53 and p21 proteins, and activated SA-{beta}-gal. In the confluent state, an altered downstream signaling of IGF-I receptor was observed. Treatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcystein (NAC) significantly suppressed induction of these markers, indicating that ROS are involved in the induction of cellular senescence by IGF-I. In p53-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the IGF-I-induced augmentation of SA-{beta}-gal and p21 was inhibited, demonstrating that p53 is required for cellular senescence induced by IGF-I. Thus, these data reveal a novel pathway whereby IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner and may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging.

  19. Supersonic Inlet with Pylons Set and Star-Shaped Forebody for Mixing, Combustion and Thrust Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, M.; Gonor, A. L.; Khaikine, V. A.; Blankson, I. M.

    2003-01-01

    Two new approaches are discussed in this paper for application in the Scramjet inlet of an air-breathing propulsion system: 1) In the first approach, the pylon set is installed in the rectangular inlet near the cowl front edge. For a quasi-axisymmetric inlet, a similar set is installed along the Star-shaped forebody axis. This set contains 3 - 4 airfoil-shaped strips or cross-sectional rings depending on the type of inlet. The inlets: rectangular, axisymmetric or star-shaped, are located at different distances from the forebody. Fuel injection takes place through these pylons, which provides for uniform mixing downstream. The locations, sizes and angles of these pylons are very important for efficient application. Optimal values of geometrical parameters were determined from multi-parametric NSE-based numerical simulations of the laminar and turbulent external/internal flows. These simulations have shown significant benefits for mixing, combustion and thrust of the proposed approach by comparison with traditional well-known designs. Experimental tests will be conducted soon at the NASA LaRC and Institute of Mechanics at Moscow State University. Preliminary estimates are very promising.

  20. Intrinsic relationship between enhanced oxygen reduction reaction activity and nanoscale work function of doped carbons.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Jae Yeong; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jae Hyung; Goddeti, Kalyan C; Park, Jeong Young; Joo, Sang Hoon

    2014-06-25

    Nanostructured carbon materials doped with a variety of heteroatoms have shown promising electrocatalytic activity in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, understanding of the working principles that underpin the superior ORR activity observed with doped nanocarbons is still limited to predictions based on theoretical calculations. Herein, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the enhanced ORR activity in doped nanocarbons can be correlated with the variation in their nanoscale work function. A series of doped ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) were prepared using N, S, and O as dopants; the triple-doped, N,S,O-OMC displayed superior ORR activity and four-electron selectivity compared to the dual-doped (N,O-OMC and S,O-OMC) and the monodoped (O-OMC) OMCs. Significantly, the work functions of these heteroatom-doped OMCs, measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy, display a strong correlation with the activity and reaction kinetics for the ORR. This unprecedented experimental insight can be used to provide an explanation for the enhanced ORR activity of heteroatom-doped carbon materials. PMID:24911055

  1. Fosfomycin enhances phagocyte-mediated killing of Staphylococcus aureus by extracellular traps and reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Fengge; Tang, Xudong; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Yang; Wang, Chao; Shi, Xiaochen; An, Yanan; Zhang, Qiaoli; Liu, Mingyuan; Liu, Bo; Yu, Lu

    2016-01-01

    The successful treatment of bacterial infections is the achievement of a synergy between the host’s immune defences and antibiotics. Here, we examined whether fosfomycin (FOM) could improve the bactericidal effect of phagocytes, and investigated the potential mechanisms. FOM enhanced the phagocytosis and extra- or intracellular killing of S. aureus by phagocytes. And FOM enhanced the extracellular killing of S. aureus in macrophage (MФ) and in neutrophils mediated by extracellular traps (ETs). ET production was related to NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, FOM increased the intracellular killing of S. aureus in phagocytes, which was mediated by ROS through the oxidative burst process. Our results also showed that FOM alone induced S. aureus producing hydroxyl radicals in order to kill the bacterial cells in vitro. In a mouse peritonitis model, FOM treatment increased the bactericidal extra- and intracellular activity in vivo, and FOM strengthened ROS and ET production from peritoneal lavage fluid ex vivo. An IVIS imaging system assay further verified the observed in vivo bactericidal effect of the FOM treatment. This work may provide a deeper understanding of the role of the host’s immune defences and antibiotic interactions in microbial infections. PMID:26778774

  2. Fosfomycin enhances phagocyte-mediated killing of Staphylococcus aureus by extracellular traps and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fengge; Tang, Xudong; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Yang; Wang, Chao; Shi, Xiaochen; An, Yanan; Zhang, Qiaoli; Liu, Mingyuan; Liu, Bo; Yu, Lu

    2016-01-01

    The successful treatment of bacterial infections is the achievement of a synergy between the host's immune defences and antibiotics. Here, we examined whether fosfomycin (FOM) could improve the bactericidal effect of phagocytes, and investigated the potential mechanisms. FOM enhanced the phagocytosis and extra- or intracellular killing of S. aureus by phagocytes. And FOM enhanced the extracellular killing of S. aureus in macrophage (M?) and in neutrophils mediated by extracellular traps (ETs). ET production was related to NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, FOM increased the intracellular killing of S. aureus in phagocytes, which was mediated by ROS through the oxidative burst process. Our results also showed that FOM alone induced S. aureus producing hydroxyl radicals in order to kill the bacterial cells in vitro. In a mouse peritonitis model, FOM treatment increased the bactericidal extra- and intracellular activity in vivo, and FOM strengthened ROS and ET production from peritoneal lavage fluid ex vivo. An IVIS imaging system assay further verified the observed in vivo bactericidal effect of the FOM treatment. This work may provide a deeper understanding of the role of the host's immune defences and antibiotic interactions in microbial infections. PMID:26778774

  3. Enhancement Effect of Noble Metals on Manganese Oxide for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Linsey C; Hersbach, Thomas J P; Nordlund, Dennis; Jaramillo, Thomas F

    2015-10-15

    Developing improved catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is key to the advancement of a number of renewable energy technologies, including solar fuels production and metal air batteries. In this study, we employ electrochemical methods and synchrotron techniques to systematically investigate interactions between metal oxides and noble metals that lead to enhanced OER catalysis for water oxidation. In particular, we synthesize porous MnOx films together with nanoparticles of Au, Pd, Pt, or Ag and observe significant improvement in activity for the combined catalysts. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that increased activity correlates with increased Mn oxidation states to 4+ under OER conditions compared to bare MnOx, which exhibits minimal OER current and remains in a 3+ oxidation state. Thickness studies of bare MnOx films and of MnOx films deposited on Au nanoparticles reveal trends suggesting that the enhancement in activity arises from interfacial sites between Au and MnOx. PMID:26722794

  4. BODIPY-doped silica nanoparticles with reduced dye leakage and enhanced singlet oxygen generation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuyuan; Hong, Xuehua; Zong, Shenfei; Tang, Changquan; Cui, Yiping; Zheng, Qingdong

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising modality for cancer treatment. The essential element in PDT is the photosensitizer, which can be excited by light of a specific wavelength to generate cytotoxic oxygen species (ROS) capable of killing tumor cells. The effectiveness of PDT is limited in part by the low yield of ROS from existing photosensitizers and the unwanted side effects induced by the photosensitizers toward normal cells. Thus the design of nanoplatforms with enhanced PDT is highly desirable but remains challenging. Here, we developed a heavy atom (I) containing dipyrromethene boron difluoride (BODIPY) dye with a silylated functional group, which can be covalently incorporated into a silica matrix to form dye-doped nanoparticles. The incorporated heavy atoms can enhance the generation efficiency of ROS. Meanwhile, the covalently dye-encapsulated nanoparticles can significantly reduce dye leakage and subsequently reduce unwanted side effects. The nanoparticles were successfully taken up by various tumor cells and showed salient phototoxicity against these cells upon light irradiation, demonstrating promising applications in PDT. Moreover, the incorporated iodine atom can be replaced by a radiolabeled iodine atom (e.g., I-124, I-125). The resulting nanoparticles will be good contrast agents for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with their PDT functionality retained. PMID:26211417

  5. Enhancement of critical current through oxygen irradiation in optimized 2G superconducting coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihlstrom, Karen; Leroux, M.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W.-K.; Koshelev, A. E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Rupich, M. W.; Fleshler, S.; Malozemoff, A. P.; Kayani, A.; CES Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate the strong enhancement of the critical current density, Jc, of commercial coated conductors (CC) in high magnetic fields using 3 MeV oxygen irradiation. The rapid suppression of Jc of coated conductors in magnetic fields remains a barrier for application of CCs in motors, generators, transformers, solenoids, and MRI systems. Using TRIM simulations, we determined that 3-MeV O-ions produce an essentially uniform defect distribution in bare CC at a rate that is ~ 2500 faster than that achieved with proton irradiation. Irradiating with 3 MeV O-ions to a dose of 1x1013 O-ions/cm2 generates a near doubling of the critical current at low temperatures: at 5K, 5T, we enhanced the critical current from 6.4 MA/cm2 to 12.2 MA/cm2. This dose can be achieved in a couple of seconds, thus this irradiation technique could be incorporated into a viable reel-to-reel production process. This work supported by the Center for Emergent Superconductivity, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. D.O.E., Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (K.K, M.L.,A.K) and by the D.O.E, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 (U.W., W.K.).

  6. IGF-I enhances cellular senescence via the reactive oxygen species-p53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Handayaningsih, Anastasia-Evi; Takahashi, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Suda, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2012-08-24

    Cellular senescence is characterized by growth arrest, enlarged and flattened cell morphology, the expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal), and by activation of tumor suppressor networks. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a critical role in cellular growth, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of aging. In the present study, we show that IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in mouse, rat, and human primary cells in the confluent state. IGF-I induced expression of a DNA damage marker, γH2AX, the increased levels of p53 and p21 proteins, and activated SA-β-gal. In the confluent state, an altered downstream signaling of IGF-I receptor was observed. Treatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcystein (NAC) significantly suppressed induction of these markers, indicating that ROS are involved in the induction of cellular senescence by IGF-I. In p53-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the IGF-I-induced augmentation of SA-β-gal and p21 was inhibited, demonstrating that p53 is required for cellular senescence induced by IGF-I. Thus, these data reveal a novel pathway whereby IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner and may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging. PMID:22877754

  7. Warm Oxygen Enhancements in the Inner Magnetosphere and Their Relation to Geomagnetic Activity, Plasmasphere, and Ring Current.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, J. M.; Skoug, R. M.; Gkioulidou, M.; Bonnell, J. W.; Larsen, B.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.

    2014-12-01

    Ionospheric oxygen plays an important role in the dynamics of Earth's magnetosphere. During geomagnetic storms, oxygen transported into the tail can experience significant energization and become a major contributor to the storm-time ring current. At very low energies, a dense cold oxygen torus straddles the outer plasmasphere, frequently with O+/H+ ratios approaching unity. With the Radiation Belt Storm Probes we now also observe a third oxygen population in this region. In this paper we discuss the nature of "warm" (10's eV to few keV, i.e., between plasmasphere and ring current ion energies) oxygen density enhancements over the course of the Van Allen Probes mission. We find that the composition of this warm thermal plasma is very dynamic throughout the inner magnetosphere. The warm oxygen density is highly responsive to changes in geomagnetic activity, varying by more than two orders of magnitude between quiet times and moderate storms. This variation at times is a greater than the variation of the corresponding proton density. The O+/H+ warm plasma density ration will frequently exceed unity, usually during the recovery phase of storms. The region of enhanced warm oxygen density reaches from the plasmasphere boundary out to at least geosynchronous orbit (the largest L-shells covered by the Van Allen Probes). It can be observed at all local times. Barring other geomagnetic activity, warm oxygen density enhancements disappear typically within 5 days of their first detection, which is consistent with drift times through the inner magnetosphere along open drift paths. We are putting these characteristics in context of the composition, location, and evolution of the plasmasphere and the ring current.

  8. The application of profluorescent nitroxides to detect reactive oxygen species derived from combustion-generated particulate matter: Cigarette smoke - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miljevic, B.; Fairfull-Smith, K. E.; Bottle, S. E.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2010-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related free radicals are considered to be key factors underpinning the various adverse health effects associated with exposure to ambient particulate matter. Therefore, measurement of ROS is a crucial factor for assessing the potential toxicity of particles. In this work, a novel profluorescent nitroxide, BPEAnit, was investigated as a probe for detecting particle-derived ROS. BPEAnit has a very low fluorescence emission due to inherent quenching by the nitroxide group, but upon radical trapping or redox activity, a strong fluorescence is observed. BPEAnit was tested for detection of ROS present in mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke. In the case of mainstream cigarette smoke, there was a linear increase in fluorescence intensity with an increasing number of cigarette puffs, equivalent to an average of 101 nmol ROS per cigarette based on the number of moles of the probe reacted. Sidestream cigarette smoke sampled from an environmental chamber exposed BPEAnit to much lower concentrations of particles, but still resulted in a clearly detectible increase in fluorescence intensity with sampling time. It was calculated that the amount of ROS was equivalent to 50 2 nmol per mg of particulate matter; however, this value decreased with ageing of the particles in the chamber. Overall, BPEAnit was shown to provide a sensitive response related to the oxidative capacity of the particulate matter. These findings present a good basis for employing the new BPEAnit probe for the investigation of particle-related ROS generated from cigarette smoke as well as from other combustion sources.

  9. Effect of hydrogen sulfide on chemical looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas over bentonite-supported metal-oxide oxygen carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, H.J.; Simonyi, T.; Poston, J.; Siriwardane, R.

    2009-09-15

    The effect of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) on the chemical looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas with bentonite-supported metal oxides - such as iron oxide, nickel oxide, manganese oxide, and copper oxide - was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). During the reaction with synthesis gas containing H{sub 2}S, metal-oxide oxygen carriers were first reduced by carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and then interacted with H{sub 2}S to form metal sulfide, which resulted in a weight gain during the reduction/sulfidation step. The reduced/sulfurized compounds could be regenerated to form sulfur dioxide and oxides during the oxidation reaction with air. The reduction/oxidation capacities of iron oxide and nickel oxide were not affected by the presence of H{sub 2}S, but both manganese oxide and copper oxide showed decreased reduction/oxidation capacities. However, the rates of reduction and oxidation decreased in the presence of H{sub 2}S for all four metal oxides.

  10. An analysis of combustion studies in shock expansion tunnels and reflected shock tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jachimowski, Casimir J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of initial nonequilibrium dissociated air constituents on the combustion of hydrogen in high-speed flows for a simulated Mach 17 flight condition was investigated by analyzing the results of comparative combustion experiments performed in a reflected shock tunnel test gas and in a shock expansion tunnel test gas. The results were analyzed and interpreted with a one-dimensional quasi-three-stream combustor code that includes finite rate combustion chemistry. The results of this study indicate that the combustion process is kinetically controlled in the experiments in both tunnels and the presence of the nonequilibrium partially dissociated oxygen in the reflected shock tunnel enhances the combustion. Methods of compensating for the effect of dissociated oxygen are discussed.

  11. Combustion of solid waste in a pulse incinerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Tie

    This study investigated the effects of pulsations on the combustion of simulated solid waste at high Reynolds numbers in an incinerator fed with cold or preheated combustion air. Corrugated cardboard and charcoal were chosen as waste surrogates. Combustion times and emissions of CO2, CO and NOx were measured while the samples were burned under different experimental conditions. Pulsations significantly reduced flaming combustion times in tests with and without preheated. Most of this enhancement resulted from increased heat transfer rate due to a closer attachment of the gas flame to the solid sample. Pulsations also reduced smoldering combustion time. This was caused by faster transport of oxygen to and combustion products from the sample surface. Furthermore, the smoldering combustion rate increased with increasing Sound Pressure Levels. While this effect was the strongest in laminar flows, pulsations doubled combustion rates even in a highly turbulent flow where Re = 47,000. Higher combustion rates at elevated Reynolds numbers in steady tests were caused by larger turbulent velocity fluctuations. Combustion rates were further enhanced by the addition of acoustic velocity fluctuations, which dominated the process if they were much larger than the turbulent velocity fluctuations. Below this limit, acoustic modes with velocities normal to the main flow enhanced the combustion process more significantly than those parallel to the flow. Most of this enhancement by pulsations resulted from increased species transport due to faster removal of ash layers on the burning surface by acoustic shear. Acoustic streaming was not responsible for the observed, enhanced combustion rates. Instantaneous pollutant emissions were much higher with pulsations than without. However, pulsations did not affect total amount of carbon converted into gaseous products from the sample but favored more complete combustion, i.e., less total CO emission. This was caused by a larger fraction of the sample being burned by gas flame with pulsations. Total NOx emissions, on the other hand, were not affected by pulsations during smoldering but increased during flaming combustion. The later was caused by higher thermal NO x emission with pulsations.

  12. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K.

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  13. BUFFER ADDITIVES FOR LIME/LIMESTONE SLURRY SCRUBBING: SULFITE OXIDATION WITH ENHANCED OXYGEN ABSORPTION CATALYZED BY TRANSITION METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of sulfite oxidation, involving the measurement of the rate of enhanced oxygen absorption across an unbroken interface into solution containing sulfite (2-100 mM) and catalyst (0.01-100 mM) at pH 4-6 and 50 C. Fe, Mn, Co, Cu and Cr ions were po...

  14. Enhanced sunlight photocatalytic activity of Ag3PO4 decorated novel combustion synthesis derived TiO2 nanobelts for dye and bacterial degradation.

    PubMed

    Eswar, Neerugatti KrishnaRao; Ramamurthy, Praveen Chandrashekarapura; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-07-01

    This study demonstrates the synthesis of TiO2 nanobelts using solution combustion derived TiO2 with enhanced photocatalytic activity for dye degradation and bacterial inactivation. Hydrothermal treatment of combustion synthesized TiO2 resulted in unique partially etched TiO2 nanobelts and Ag3PO4 was decorated using the co-precipitation method. The catalyst particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, BET surface area analysis, diffuse reflectance and electron microscopy. The photocatalytic properties of the composites of Ag3PO4 with pristine combustion synthesized TiO2 and commercial TiO2 under sunlight were compared. Therefore the studies conducted proved that the novel Ag3PO4/unique combustion synthesis derived TiO2 nanobelt composites exhibited extended light absorption, better charge transfer mechanism and higher generation of hydroxyl and hole radicals. These properties resulted in enhanced photodegradation of dyes and bacteria when compared to the commercial TiO2 nanocomposite. These findings have important implications in designing new photocatalysts for water purification. PMID:26056065

  15. Enhancement in sensitivity and detection of luminescent quenching based oxygen sensing by gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Maurice C.-K.; Roche, Philip J. R.; Yao, Lei; Kirk, Andrew G.; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P.

    2010-06-01

    The field of plasmonics has shown a great promise in the enhancement of luminescence detection. Here, a simple method to enhance oxygen detection by quenching of Ru[(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-anthroline)3]2+ (or Ru[dpp]2+) in a sol-gel matrix by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) is presented. In the experiments, AuNP (10 +/- 1.5 nm diameter) were added to a sol that was prepared by hydrolysis of trimethoxysilane, octyltrimethoxysilane and ethanol in the presence of Ru[dpp]2+ luminophore. The resulting sol of the mixture was spincoated on glass and allowed to age in the dark for one week to form the sol-gel film. A control sample was also prepared using the procedure, except that AuNP was not added to the sol. The resulting AuNP embedded sol-gel shows 8.3 times improvement in the baseline (0% O2) intensity (I0) over the control. Moreover, there is a dramatic improvement in the sensitivity from 0.0011 per % O2 in the control to 0.059 per % O2 with AuNP, for O2 level below 15%. Signal to noise ratio also improved, thus leading to a 100-fold improvement in the detection limit. Using phaseluminometry, it was determined that there is a reduction in the luminescence lifetime when AuNP is added to the sol-gel matrix. This reduction in the lifetime can be explained by the near-field interaction between the luminophores and the AuNP.

  16. Dissolved carbonic anhydrase for enhancing post-combustion carbon dioxide hydration in aqueous ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, James R.; Heck, Robert W.; Zwoster, Andy

    2011-04-01

    Aqueous ammonia solvents that capture CO2 as ionic complexes of carbonates with ammonium have recently been advanced as alternatives to amine-based solvents due to their lower energy requirements for thermal regeneration. In ammonia based solvents, the hydration of CO2 to form bicarbonate may become a rate-limiting step as the CO2 loading increases and the resulting pH level of the solvent decreases. Variants of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase can accelerate the reversible hydration of CO2 to yield bicarbonate by more than 10(6)-fold. The possible benefit of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) addition to solutions of aqueous ammonia to enhance CO2 hydration was investigated in semi-batch reactions within continuously stirred tank reactors or in a bubble column gas-liquid contactor. Adding 154 mg/liter of BCA to 2 M aqueous ammonia provided a 34.1% overall increase in the rate of CO2 hydration (as indicated by the production of [H+]) as the pH declined from 9.6 to 8.6 during sparging with a 15% CO2, 85% N-2 gas at a flow rate of 3 lpm. The benefits of adding BCA to enhance CO2 hydration were only discernable below similar to pH 9. The implications of the apparent pH limitations on the utility of BCA are discussed in the context of absorber unit operation design. Possible embodiments of carbonic anhydrase as either an immobilized catalyst or as a dissolved, recirculating catalyst in potential plant scale aqueous ammonia systems are considered as well. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Enhancement in Figure of Merit ( ZT) by Annealing of BiTe Nanostructures Synthesized by Microwave-Assisted Flash Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Harjeet; Sharma, Lalit; Singh, Simrjit; Sivaiah, Bathula; Reddy, G. B.; Senguttuvan, T. D.

    2014-06-01

    Uniform polycrystalline bismuth telluride (BiTe) nanowires of diameter 100 nm to 150 nm and hexagonal nanoplates with thickness of 50 nm to 100 nm have been successfully synthesized by the microwave-assisted flash combustion technique. The formation of BiTe nanostructures depends on the type of fuel and the oxidant-to-fuel ratio, which in turn affect the reaction time and reaction temperature. Spark plasma sintering has been employed for compaction and sintering of both as-synthesized as well as annealed BiTe powders. Increasing the sintering temperature while using faster sintering cycles reduced the porosity, resulting in high densification while preserving the nanostructures. The dimensionless figure of merit ( ZT) was evaluated from the Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity values over the range from 300 K to 600 K. The effect of annealing on the enhancement of ZT is discussed. These evaluations suggest that the rarely studied BiTe is a potential candidate for thermoelectric applications at low temperatures.

  18. TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION SUMMARY: THE AMERICAN COMBUSTION PYRETRON THERMAL DESTRUCTION SYSTEM AT THE U.S. EPA'S COMBUSTION FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The American Combustion Pyretron Thermal Destruction System at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Research Facility. Under the auspices of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation, or SITE, program, a critical assessment was made of the American Combustion Pyretron oxygen enha...

  19. Enhancing pyridinic nitrogen level in graphene to promote electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiaguang; Wang, Lan; Song, Ranran; Yanga, Shubin

    2016-02-01

    We develop an efficient approach to fabricate nitrogen-doped graphene with tunable pyridinic nitrogen levels (from 1.1 to 1.8 at.%), abundant in-plane holes and high surface areas (623 m(2) g(-1)) via a hydrothermal treatment of graphene oxide with hydrogen peroxide and subsequent annealing under ammonia gas. It is found that the chemical etching is beneficial to the formation of pyridinic nitrogen in graphene during the nitrogen-doping process, which is crucial to enhancing the electrocatalytic properties of graphene for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Hence, the optimized NG exhibits good electrocatalytic activity, more positive onset potential than Pt-C (-0.08 V versus -0.09 V), good durability, and high selectivity when it is employed as a metal-free catalyst for ORR. This approach may uncover a mechanism in escalation of pyridinic N atoms doped on the graphene basal edge and provide an efficient platform for the synthesis of a series of heteroatom-doped graphene with tunable heteroatom content for broad applications. PMID:26752043

  20. Platinum-Based Nanowire Networks with Enhanced Oxygen-Reduction Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galinski, Henning; Ryll, Thomas; Lin, Yang; Scherrer, Barbara; Evans, Anna; Gauckler, Ludwig J.; Dbeli, Max

    2014-11-01

    Pt-Al and Pt-Y-Al thin-film electrodes on yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolytes were prepared by dealloying of cosputtered Pt-Al or Pt-Y-Al films. The selective dissolution of Al from the Pt-alloy compound causes the formation of a highly porous nanowire network with a mean branch thickness below 25 nm and a pore intercept length below 35 nm. The oxygen-reduction capability of the resulting electrodes is analyzed in a micro-solid-oxide fuel-cell setup at elevated temperatures (598-873 K). Here, we demonstrate that these nanoporous thin films excel "state-of-the-art" fuel-cell electrodes in terms of catalytic activity and thermal stability. The nanoporous Pt electrodes exhibit exchange-current densities that are up to 13 times higher than conventional Pt electrodes, measured at 648 K. It is shown that the enhanced intrinsic electrocatalytic activity of these Pt electrodes is achieved by the addition of yttrium as a ternary constituent, which allows for an engineering of the material's band structure.

  1. Enhancing pyridinic nitrogen level in graphene to promote electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiaguang; Wang, Lan; Song, Ranran; Yanga, Shubin

    2016-02-01

    We develop an efficient approach to fabricate nitrogen-doped graphene with tunable pyridinic nitrogen levels (from 1.1 to 1.8 at.%), abundant in-plane holes and high surface areas (623 m2 g‑1) via a hydrothermal treatment of graphene oxide with hydrogen peroxide and subsequent annealing under ammonia gas. It is found that the chemical etching is beneficial to the formation of pyridinic nitrogen in graphene during the nitrogen-doping process, which is crucial to enhancing the electrocatalytic properties of graphene for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Hence, the optimized NG exhibits good electrocatalytic activity, more positive onset potential than Pt–C (‑0.08 V versus ‑0.09 V), good durability, and high selectivity when it is employed as a metal-free catalyst for ORR. This approach may uncover a mechanism in escalation of pyridinic N atoms doped on the graphene basal edge and provide an efficient platform for the synthesis of a series of heteroatom-doped graphene with tunable heteroatom content for broad applications.

  2. Co-Doping of Activated Graphene for Synergistically Enhanced Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mahbub; Haque, Enamul; Minett, Andrew I; Gomes, Vincent G

    2015-12-01

    Doping of graphene has emerged as a key strategy to improve the electrocatalytic performance of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Activated graphene co-doped with iodine and nitrogen atoms (NIG) was developed in this work using a facile scalable approach. The onset potential, current density, and four-electron reduction pathway of the newly developed catalyst were significantly improved. The charge-transfer resistance of co-doped NIG was found to be much lower than nitrogen-doped graphene (NG); furthermore, the stability of NIG and its resistance to methanol crossover were also improved. The synergistically enhanced ORR performance of NIG was found to be a result of a high strain and size advantage of the larger iodine atom clusters (compared to nitrogen), which facilitate the simultaneous enrichment of anode electrons and O2 and H2 O molecule transport at catalytic sites, inducing four-electron transfer in a single step. These results are promising for application in alkaline fuel cells. PMID:26564337

  3. Enhanced oxygen reduction performance by novel pyridine substituent groups of iron (II) phthalocyanine with graphene composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Lili; Lv, Guojun; He, Xingquan

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel iron (II) tetrapyridyloxyphthalocyanine decorated graphene (FeTPPc/Gr) is synthesized through a simple solvothermal method. The catalytic performance of the fabricated FeTPPc/Gr for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is accessed by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and i-t chronoamperometry methods. The FeTPPc/Gr composite catalyst for the ORR displays an enhanced electrocatalytic activity compared with other FePc/Gr catalysts. More importantly, the proposed FeTPPc/Gr catalyst towards the ORR outperforms the commercial Pt/C catalyst in terms of higher diffusion-limiting current, more positive onset potential and half-wave potential, better stability and tolerance to methanol crossover. The improved ORR performance is attributed to the activity of peripheral pyridine substituents in the FePc, which facilitate O2 absorption and increase the additional active sites. Based on our experimental results, designing novel metal-N4 macrocycles and incorporating them into graphene or graphene derivatives, with both optimal activity and durability for the ORR, may hold great promise for application in alkaline direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs).

  4. Segregated Pt on Pd nanotubes for enhanced oxygen reduction activity in alkaline electrolyte.

    PubMed

    St John, Samuel; Atkinson, Robert W; Dyck, Ondrej; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Zawodzinski, Thomas A; Papandrew, Alexander B

    2015-12-01

    Nanoscaled Pt domains were integrated with Pd nanotubes via vapor deposition to yield a highly active electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. The surface-area-normalized ORR activity of these bi-metallic Pt-on-Pd nanotubes (PtPdNTs) was nearly 6 the corresponding carbon-supported Pt nanoparticle (Pt/C) activity at 0.9 V vs. RHE (1.5 vs. 0.24 mA cmmetal(-2), respectively). Furthermore, the high specific activity of the PtPdNTs was achieved without sacrificing mass-normalized activity, which is more than twice that of Pt/C (0.333 A mgPtPdNT(-1)vs. 0.141 A mgPt/C(-1)) and also greater than that of Pd/C (0.221 A mgPd/C(-1)). We attribute the enhancements in specific and mass activity to modifications of the segregated Pt electronic structure and to nanoscale porosity, respectively. PMID:26553367

  5. A recessive Arabidopsis mutant that grows photoautotrophically under salt stress shows enhanced active oxygen detoxification.

    PubMed Central

    Tsugane, K; Kobayashi, K; Niwa, Y; Ohba, Y; Wada, K; Kobayashi, H

    1999-01-01

    Mutagenized Arabidopsis seedlings (ecotype Columbia) were screened for the ability to grow photoautotrophically on solid medium containing 200 mM NaCl. A novel mutant line, designated pst1 (for photoautotrophic salt tolerance1), was obtained. There were no significant differences between pst1 and wild-type plants with regard to their ability to induce proline as an osmoregulatory solute. In addition, the content of monovalent cations in pst1 plants grown with or without salt stress was equal to that in the wild type. We observed that light, even at moderate intensities, increased the effects of salt stress on wild-type plants. The pst1 seedlings were nearly 10 times more tolerant to methyl viologen than were wild-type seedlings. We also found that the activities of the active oxygen scavengers superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were enhanced significantly in pst1 plants. The pst1 plants also were tolerant to other stresses, such as high light intensity and toxic monovalent cations. The recessive nature of the pst1 mutation indicates that the potential for salt-stress tolerance is blocked in wild-type Arabidopsis. PMID:10402422

  6. Oxygen-plasma-modified biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds for enhanced compatibility of cardiovascular implants

    PubMed Central

    Pappa, Anna Maria; Krol, Silke; Kassavetis, Spyros; Konstantinou, Dimitris; Pitsalidis, Charalampos; Tzounis, Lazaros; Pliatsikas, Nikos; Logothetidis, Stergios

    2015-01-01

    Summary Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds have been extensively used in several biomedical applications for tissue engineering due to their morphological resemblance to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Especially, there is a need for the cardiovascular implants to exhibit a nanostructured surface that mimics the native endothelium in order to promote endothelialization and to reduce the complications of thrombosis and implant failure. Thus, we herein fabricated poly-?-caprolactone (PCL) electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds, to serve as coatings for cardiovascular implants and guide tissue regeneration. Oxygen plasma treatment was applied in order to modify the surface chemistry of the scaffold and its effect on cell attachment and growth was evaluated. The conditions of the surface modification were properly adjusted in order to define those conditions of the treatment that result in surfaces favorable for cell growth, while maintaining morphological integrity and mechanical behavior. Goniometry (contact angle measurements), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were used to evaluate the morphological and chemical changes induced by the plasma treatment. Moreover, depth-sensing nanoindentation was performed to study the resistance of the plasma-treated scaffolds to plastic deformation. Lastly, the cell studies indicated that all scaffolds were cytocompatible, with the plasma-treated ones expressing a more pronounced cell viability and adhesion. All the above findings demonstrate the great potential of these biomimetic tissue-engineering constructs as efficient coatings for enhanced compatibility of cardiovascular implants. PMID:25671169

  7. Excavated Fe-N-C sites for enhanced electrocatalytic activity in the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Beomgyun; Shin, Dongyoon; Jeon, Hongrae; Ocon, Joey D; Mun, Bongjin Simon; Baik, Jaeyoon; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2014-05-01

    Platinum (Pt) is the best electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in hydrogen fuel cells, but it is an extremely expensive resource. The successful development of a cost-effective non-Pt ORR electrocatalyst will be a breakthrough for the commercialization of hydrogen-air fuel cells. Ball milling has been used to incorporate metal and nitrogen precursors into micropores of carbon more effectively and in the direct nitrogen-doping of carbon under highly pressurized nitrogen gas in the process of the preparation of non-noble ORR catalysts. In this study, we first utilize ball milling to excavate the ORR active sites embedded in Fe-modified N-doped carbon nanofibers (Fe-N-CNFs) by pulverization. The facile ball-milling process resulted in a significant enhancement in the ORR activity and the selectivity of the Fe-N-CNFs owing to the higher exposure of the metal-based catalytically active sites. The degree of excavation of the Fe-based active sites in the Fe-N-CNFs for the ORR was investigated with cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and pore-size distribution analysis. We believe that this simple approach is useful to improve alternative ORR electrocatalysts up to the level necessary for practical applications. PMID:24700786

  8. Prospects for Enhancing Carbon Sequestration and Reclamation of Degraded Lands with Fossil-fuel Combustion By-products.

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, A V.; Mccarthy, John F.; Amonette, James E.; Fisher, L S.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Daniels, William L.

    2004-03-01

    Concern for the potential global change consequences of increasing atmospheric CO2 has prompted interest in the development of mechanisms to reduce or stabilize atmospheric CO2 .During the next several decades, a program focused on terrestrial sequestration processes could make a significant contribution to abating CO2 increases.The reclamation of degraded lands, such as mine-spoil sites, highway rights-of-way, and poorly managed lands, represents an opportunity to couple C sequestration with the use of fossil-fuel and energy by-products and other waste material, such as biosolids and organic wastes from human and animal sewage treatment facilities, to improve soil quality. Degraded lands are often characterized by acidic pH, low levels of key nutrients, poor soil structure, and limited moisture-retention capacity.Much is known about the methods to improve these soils, but the cost of implementation is often a limiting factor.However, the additional financial and environmental benefit s of C sequestration may change the economics of land reclamation activities.The addition of energy-related by-products can address the adverse conditions of these degraded lands through a variety of mechanisms, such as enhancing plant growth and capturing of organic C in long-lived soil C pools.This review examines the use of fossil-fuel combustion by-products and organic amendments to enhance C sequestration and identifies the key gaps in information that still must be addressed before these methods can be implemented on an environmentally meaningful scale.

  9. Oxygen Vacancy-Induced Structural, Optical, and Enhanced Supercapacitive Performance of Zinc Oxide Anchored Graphitic Carbon Nanofiber Hybrid Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Dillip, Gowra Raghupathy; Banerjee, Arghya Narayan; Anitha, Veettikkunnu Chandran; Deva Prasad Raju, Borelli; Joo, Sang Woo; Min, Bong Ki

    2016-02-24

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) anchored to carbon nanofiber (CNF) hybrids were synthesized using a facile coprecipitation method. This report demonstrates an effective strategy to intrinsically improve the conductivity and supercapacitive performance of the hybrids by inducing oxygen vacancies. Oxygen deficiency-related defect analyses were performed qualitatively as well as quantitatively using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. All of the analyses clearly indicate an increase in oxygen deficiencies in the hybrids with an increase in the vacuum-annealing temperature. The nonstoichiometric oxygen vacancy is mainly induced via the migration of the lattice oxygen into interstitial sites at elevated temperature (300 °C), followed by diffusion into the gaseous phase with further increase in the annealing temperature (600 °C) in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere. This induction of oxygen vacancy is corroborated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, which depicts the oxygen-vacancy-induced bandgap narrowing of the ZnO NPs within the hybrids. At a current density of 3 A g(-1), the hybrid electrode exhibited higher energy density (119.85 Wh kg(-1)) and power density (19.225 kW kg(-1)) compared to a control ZnO electrode (48.01 Wh kg(-1) and 17.687 kW kg(-1)). The enhanced supercapacitive performance is mainly ascribed to the good interfacial contact between CNF and ZnO, high oxygen deficiency, and fewer defects in the hybrid. Our results are expected to provide new insights into improving the electrochemical properties of various composites/hybrids. PMID:26836110

  10. Characterization study and five-cycle tests in a fixed-bed reactor of titania-supported nickel oxide as oxygen carriers for the chemical-looping combustion of methane.

    PubMed

    Corbella, Beatriz M; de Diego, Luis F; García-Labiano, Francisco; Adánez, Juan; Palaciost, José M

    2005-08-01

    Recent investigations have shown that in the combustion of carbonaceous compounds CO2 and NOx emissions to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by using a two stage chemical-looping process. In this process, the reduction stage is undertaken in a first reactor in which the framework oxygen of a reducible inorganic oxide is used, instead of the usual atmospheric oxygen, for the combustion of a carbonaceous compound, for instance, methane. The outlet gas from this reactor is mostly composed of CO2 and steam as reaction products and further separation of these two components can be carried out easily by simple condensation of steam. Then, the oxygen carrier found in a reduced state is transported to a second reactor in which carrier regeneration with air takes place at relatively low temperatures, consequently preventing the formation of thermal NOx. Afterward, the regenerated carrier is carried to the first reactor to reinitiate a new cycle and so on for a number of repetitive cycles, while the carrier is able to withstand the severe chemical and thermal stresses involved in every cycle. In this paper, the performance of titania-supported nickel oxides has been investigated in a fixed-bed reactor as oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion of methane. Samples with different nickel oxide contents were prepared by successive incipient wet impregnations, and their performance as oxygen carriers was investigated at 900 degrees C and atmospheric pressure in five-cycle fixed-bed reactor tests using pure methane and pure air for the respective reduction and regeneration stages. The evolution of the outlet gas composition in each stage was followed by gas chromatography, and the involved chemical, structural, and textural changes of the carrier in the reactor bed were studied by using different characterization techniques. From the study, it is deduced that the reactivity of these nickel-based oxygen carriers is in the two involved stages and almost independent of the nickel loading. However, in the reduction stage, carbon deposition, from the thermal decomposition of methane, and CO emissions, mainly derived from the partial reduction of titania as support acting as an additional oxygen source, may impose some constraints to the efficiency of the overall chemical-looping combustion process in CO2 capture. PMID:16124317

  11. Enhancement of activity of RuSex electrocatalyst by modification with nanostructured iridium towards more efficient reduction of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembinska, Beata; Kiliszek, Malgorzata; Elzanowska, Hanna; Pisarek, Marcin; Kulesza, Pawel J.

    2013-12-01

    Electrocatalytic activity of carbon (Vulcan XC-72) supported selenium-modified ruthenium, RuSex/C, nanoparticles for reduction of oxygen was enhanced through intentional decoration with iridium nanostructures (dimensions, 2-3 nm). The catalytic materials were characterized in oxygenated 0.5 mol dm-3 H2SO4 using cyclic and rotating ring disk voltammetric techniques as well as using transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with X-ray dispersive analyzer. Experiments utilizing gas diffusion electrode aimed at mimicking conditions existing in the low-temperature fuel cell. Upon application of our composite catalytic system, the reduction of oxygen proceeded at more positive potentials, and higher current densities were observed when compared to the behavior of the simple iridium-free system (RuSex/C) investigated under the analogous conditions. The enhancement effect was more pronounced than that one would expect from simple superposition of voltammetric responses for the oxygen reduction at RuSex/C and iridium nanostructures studied separately. Nanostructured iridium acted here as an example of a powerful catalyst for the reduction of H2O2 (rather than O2) and, when combined with such a moderate catalyst as ruthenium-selenium (for O2 reduction), it produced an integrated system of increased electrocatalytic activity in the oxygen reduction process. The proposed system retained its activity in the presence of methanol that could appear in a cathode compartment of alcohol fuel cell.

  12. Surface modification layer deposition on flexible substrates by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition using tetramethylsilane oxygen gas mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-Yang; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Liu, Day-Shan

    2008-11-01

    Silicon-containing thin films were synthesized from a tetramethylsilane (TMS)-oxygen gas mixture by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition to modify the surface properties of a flexible plastic substrate. The surface wettability was strongly correlated with the presence of hydrocarbon- and hydroxyl-related bonds in the films. The presence of inorganic Si-O-Si networks in the deposited film, originating from an additional oxygen reactant in the glow discharge, significantly increased plastic substrate hardness. Surface uniformity of the inorganic SiOx film varied with mechanical hardness. All such properties were degraded by increased oxygen ion bombardment during the deposition. Additionally, the atomic ratios of O to Si in the deposited films increased at a rate proportional to the oxygen reactant in the gas mixture and brought about a reduction in the optical refractive index. The hard coatings prepared using the TMS-oxygen gas mixture effectively reduced the permeability of the plastic substrate to water vapour. A low water vapour transmission rate was achieved using the film with a high packing density under adequate oxygen ion bombardment.

  13. Functional Lung MRI in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Comparison of T1 Mapping, Oxygen-Enhanced T1 Mapping and Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Jobst, Bertram J.; Triphan, Simon M. F.; Sedlaczek, Oliver; Anjorin, Angela; Kauczor, Hans Ulrich; Biederer, Jrgen; Ley-Zaporozhan, Julia; Ley, Sebastian; Wielptz, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Monitoring of regional lung function in interventional COPD trials requires alternative endpoints beyond global parameters such as FEV1. T1 relaxation times of the lung might allow to draw conclusions on tissue composition, blood volume and oxygen fraction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential value of lung Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with native and oxygen-enhanced T1 mapping for the assessment of COPD patients in comparison with contrast enhanced perfusion MRI. Materials and Methods 20 COPD patients (GOLD I-IV) underwent a coronal 2-dimensional inversion recovery snapshot flash sequence (8 slices/lung) at room air and during inhalation of pure oxygen, as well as dynamic contrast-enhanced first-pass perfusion imaging. Regional distribution of T1 at room air (T1), oxygen-induced T1 shortening (?T1) and peak enhancement were rated by 2 chest radiologists in consensus using a semi-quantitative 3-point scale in a zone-based approach. Results Abnormal T1 and ?T1 were highly prevalent in the patient cohort. T1 and ?T1 correlated positively with perfusion abnormalities (r = 0.81 and r = 0.80; p&0.001), and with each other (r = 0.80; p<0.001). In GOLD stages I and II ?T1 was normal in 16/29 lung zones with mildly abnormal perfusion (15/16 with abnormal T1). The extent of T1 (r = 0.45; p<0.05), ?T1 (r = 0.52; p<0.05) and perfusion abnormalities (r = 0.52; p<0.05) showed a moderate correlation with GOLD stage. Conclusion Native and oxygen-enhanced T1 mapping correlated with lung perfusion deficits and severity of COPD. Under the assumption that T1 at room air correlates with the regional pulmonary blood pool and that oxygen-enhanced T1 reflects lung ventilation, both techniques in combination are principally suitable to characterize ventilation-perfusion imbalance. This appears valuable for the assessment of regional lung characteristics in COPD trials without administration of i.v. contrast. PMID:25822195

  14. Low oxygen levels as a trigger for enhancement of respiratory metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Rintala, Eija; Toivari, Mervi; Pitkänen, Juha-Pekka; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Ruohonen, Laura; Penttilä, Merja

    2009-01-01

    Background The industrially important yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to grow both in the presence and absence of oxygen. However, the regulation of its metabolism in conditions of intermediate oxygen availability is not well characterised. We assessed the effect of oxygen provision on the transcriptome and proteome of S. cerevisiae in glucose-limited chemostat cultivations in anaerobic and aerobic conditions, and with three intermediate (0.5, 1.0 and 2.8% oxygen) levels of oxygen in the feed gas. Results The main differences in the transcriptome were observed in the comparison of fully aerobic, intermediate oxygen and anaerobic conditions, while the transcriptome was generally unchanged in conditions receiving different intermediate levels (0.5, 1.0 or 2.8% O2) of oxygen in the feed gas. Comparison of the transcriptome and proteome data suggested post-transcriptional regulation was important, especially in 0.5% oxygen. In the conditions of intermediate oxygen, the genes encoding enzymes of the respiratory pathway were more highly expressed than in either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. A similar trend was also seen in the proteome and in enzyme activities of the TCA cycle. Further, genes encoding proteins of the mitochondrial translation machinery were present at higher levels in all oxygen-limited and anaerobic conditions, compared to fully aerobic conditions. Conclusion Global upregulation of genes encoding components of the respiratory pathway under conditions of intermediate oxygen suggested a regulatory mechanism to control these genes as a response to the need of more efficient energy production. Further, cells grown in three different intermediate oxygen levels were highly similar at the level of transcription, while they differed at the proteome level, suggesting post-transcriptional mechanisms leading to distinct physiological modes of respiro-fermentative metabolism. PMID:19804647

  15. Droplet Combustion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayagam, Vedha

    1998-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion provides a major portion of the world's energy supply. In most practical combustion devices, liquid burns after being separated into a droplet spray. Essential to the design of efficient combustion systems is a knowledge of droplet combustion behavior. The microgravity environment aboard spacecraft provides an opportunity to investigate the complex interactions between the physical and chemical combustion processes involved in droplet combustion without the complications of natural buoyancy. Launched on STS-83 and STS-94 (April 4 and July 1, 1997), the Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) investigated the fundamentals of droplet combustion under a range of pressures (0.25 to 1 atm), oxygen mole fractions (<0.5), and droplet sizes (1.5 to 5 mm). Principal DCE flight hardware features were a chamber to supply selected test environments, the use of crew-inserted bottles, and a vent system to remove unwanted gaseous combustion products. The internal apparatus contained the droplet deployment and ignition mechanisms to burn single, freely deployed droplets in microgravity. Diagnostics systems included a 35-mm high-speed motion picture camera (see the following sequence of photos) with a backlight to photograph burning droplets and a camcorder to monitor experiment operations. Additional diagnostics included an ultraviolet-light-sensitive CCD (charge couple discharge) camera to obtain flame radiation from hydroxyl radicals (see the final figure) and a 35-mm SLR (single-lens-reflex) camera to obtain color still photographs of the flames.

  16. Central enhancement of the nitrogen-to-oxygen abundance ratio in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florido, E.; Zurita, A.; Pérez, I.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Coelho, P. R. T.; Gadotti, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Bar-induced gas inflows towards galaxy centres are recognised as a key agent for the secular evolution of galaxies. One immediate consequence of this inflow is the accumulation of gas in the centre of galaxies where it can form stars and alter the chemical and physical properties. Aims: Our aim is to study whether the properties of the ionised gas in the central parts of barred galaxies are altered by the presence of a bar and whether the change in central properties is related to bar and/or parent galaxy properties. Methods: We use a sample of nearby face-on disc galaxies with available SDSS spectra, morphological decomposition, and information on the stellar population of their bulges, to measure the internal Balmer extinction from the Hα to Hβ line ratio, star formation rate, and relevant line ratios to diagnose chemical abundances and gas density. Results: The distributions of all the parameters analysed (internal Balmer extinction at Hβ (c(Hβ)), star formation rate per unit area, electron density, [N ii]λ6583/Hα emission-line ratio, ionisation parameter, and nitrogen-to-oxygen (N/O) abundance ratio) are different for barred and unbarred galaxies, except for the R23 metallicity tracer and the oxygen abundance obtained from photoionisation models. The median values of the distributions of these parameters point towards (marginally) larger dust content, star formation rate per unit area, electron density, and ionisation parameter in the centres of barred galaxies than in their unbarred counterparts. The most remarkable difference between barred and unbarred galaxies appears in the [N ii]λ6583/Hα line ratio that is, on average, ~25% higher in barred galaxies, due to an increased N/O abundance ratio in the centres of these galaxies compared to the unbarred ones. We analyse these differences as a function of galaxy morphological type (as traced by bulge-to-disc light ratios and bulge mass), total stellar mass, and bulge Sérsic index. We observe an enhancement of the differences between central gas properties in barred and unbarred galaxies in later-type galaxies or galaxies with less massive bulges. However, the bar seems to have a lower impact on the central gas properties for galaxies with bulges above ~1010 M⊙ or total mass M⋆ ≳ 1010.8 M⊙. Conclusions: We find observational evidence that the presence of a galactic bar affects the properties of the ionised gas in the central parts of disc galaxies (radii ≲0.6-2.1 kpc). The most striking effect is an enhancement in the N/O abundance ratio. This can be interpreted qualitatively in terms of our current knowledge of bar formation and evolution, and of chemical evolution models, as being the result of a different star formation history in the centres of barred galaxies caused by the gas inflow induced by the bar. Our results lend support to the scenario in which less massive and more massive bulges have different origins or evolutionary processes, with the gaseous phase of the former currently having a closer relation to the bars. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgExtinction-corrected line fluxes are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http:// http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/584/A88

  17. Surface cleaning for enhanced adhesion to packaging surfaces: Effect of oxygen and ammonia plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Gaddam, Sneha; Dong, Bin; Driver, Marcus; Kelber, Jeffry; Kazi, Haseeb

    2015-03-15

    The effects of direct plasma chemistries on carbon removal from silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) and oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) surfaces have been studied by in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ex-situ contact angle measurements. The data indicate that O{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} capacitively coupled plasmas are effective at removing adventitious carbon from silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}) and Si oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) surfaces. O{sub 2} plasma treatment results in the formation of a silica overlayer. In contrast, the exposure to NH{sub 3} plasma results in negligible additional oxidation of the SiN{sub x} or SiO{sub x}N{sub y} surface. Ex-situ contact angle measurements show that SiN{sub x} and SiO{sub x}N{sub y} surfaces exposed to oxygen plasma are initially more hydrophilic than surfaces exposed to NH{sub 3} plasma, indicating that the O{sub 2} plasma-induced SiO{sub 2} overlayer is highly reactive toward ambient. At longer ambient exposures (≳10 h), however, surfaces treated by either O{sub 2} or NH{sub 3} plasma exhibit similar steady state contact angles, correlated with rapid uptake of adventitious carbon, as determined by XPS. Surface passivation by exposure to molecular hydrogen prior to ambient exposure significantly retards the increase in contact angle upon exposure to ambient. The results suggest a practical route to enhancing the time available for effective bonding to surfaces in microelectronics packaging applications.

  18. Enhanced Singlet Oxygen Production by Photodynamic Therapy and a Novel Method for Its Intracellular Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Gustavo Horacio; Aviles, Kevin; Acuña, Ricardo Cruz; Roque, Gustavo; Nieto, Felipe Rodríguez; Sanchez, Francisco; Tarditi, Adrián; Rivera, Luis; Mansilla, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The generation of singlet oxygen (SO) in the presence of specific photosensitizers (PSs) or semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and its application in photodynamic therapy (PDT) is of great interest to develop cancer therapies with no need of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. This work was focused on the identification of the main factors leading to the enhancement of SO production using Rose Bengal (RB), and Methylene Blue (MB) as PS species in organic and aqueous mediums. Subsequently, the capacity of zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc sulfide (ZnS), and ZnO/ZnS core-shell QDs as well as manganese (Mn+2) doped ZnO and ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) as potential PS was also investigated. Many variable parameters such as type of quencher, PSs, NPs, as well as its different concentrations, light source, excitation wavelength, reaction time, distance from light source, and nature of solvent were used. The degradation kinetics of the quenchers generated by SO species and the corresponding quantum yields were determined by monitoring the photo-oxidation of the chemical quencher and measuring its disappearance by fluorometry and spectrophotometry in the presence of NPs. Small intracellular changes of SO induced by these metal Zn (zinc) NPs and PDT could execute and accelerate deadly programs in these leukemic cells, providing in this way an innovative modality of treatment. In order to perform further more specific in vitro cytotoxic studies on B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells exposed to Zn NPs and PDT, we needed first to measure and ascertain those possible intracellular SO variations generated by this type of treatment; for this purpose, we have also developed and tested a novel method first described by us. PMID:25490599

  19. Curcumin enhances the cytogenotoxic effect of etoposide in leukemia cells through induction of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Papież, Monika A; Krzyściak, Wirginia; Szade, Krzysztof; Bukowska-Straková, Karolina; Kozakowska, Magdalena; Hajduk, Karolina; Bystrowska, Beata; Dulak, Jozef; Jozkowicz, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin may exert a more selective cytotoxic effect in tumor cells with elevated levels of free radicals. Here, we investigated whether curcumin can modulate etoposide action in myeloid leukemia cells and in normal cells of hematopoietic origin. HL-60 cell line, normal myeloid progenitor cluster of differentiation (CD)-34+ cells, and granulocytes were incubated for 4 or 24 hours at different concentrations of curcumin and/or etoposide. Brown Norway rats with acute myeloid leukemia (BNML) were used to prove the influence of curcumin on etoposide action in vivo. Rats were treated with curcumin for 23 days and etoposide was administered for the final 3 days of the experiment. Curcumin synergistically potentiated the cytotoxic effect of etoposide, and it intensified apoptosis and phosphorylation of the histone H2AX induced by this cytostatic drug in leukemic HL-60 cells. In contrast, curcumin did not significantly modify etoposide-induced cytotoxicity and H2AX phosphorylation in normal CD34+ cells and granulocytes. Curcumin modified the cytotoxic action of etoposide in HL-60 cells through intensification of free radical production because preincubation with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) significantly reduced the cytotoxic effect of curcumin itself and a combination of two compounds. In contrast, NAC did not decrease the cytotoxic effect of etoposide. Thus, oxidative stress plays a greater role in the cytotoxic effect of curcumin than that of etoposide in HL-60 cells. In vitro results were confirmed in a BNML model. Pretreatment with curcumin enhanced the antileukemic activity of etoposide in BNML rats (1.57-fold tumor reduction versus etoposide alone; P<0.05) and induced apoptosis of BNML cells more efficiently than etoposide alone (1.54-fold change versus etoposide alone; P<0.05), but this treatment protected nonleukemic B-cells from apoptosis. Thus, curcumin can increase the antileukemic effect of etoposide through reactive oxygen species in sensitive myeloid leukemia cells, and it is harmless to normal human cells. PMID:26893544

  20. Enhanced singlet oxygen production by photodynamic therapy and a novel method for its intracellular measurement.

    PubMed

    Pena Luengas, Sandra L; Marin, Gustavo Horacio; Aviles, Kevin; Cruz Acua, Ricardo; Roque, Gustavo; Rodrguez Nieto, Felipe; Sanchez, Francisco; Tarditi, Adrin; Rivera, Luis; Mansilla, Eduardo

    2014-12-01

    The generation of singlet oxygen (SO) in the presence of specific photosensitizers (PSs) or semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and its application in photodynamic therapy (PDT) is of great interest to develop cancer therapies with no need of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. This work was focused on the identification of the main factors leading to the enhancement of SO production using Rose Bengal (RB), and Methylene Blue (MB) as PS species in organic and aqueous mediums. Subsequently, the capacity of zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc sulfide (ZnS), and ZnO/ZnS core-shell QDs as well as manganese (Mn(+2)) doped ZnO and ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) as potential PS was also investigated. Many variable parameters such as type of quencher, PSs, NPs, as well as its different concentrations, light source, excitation wavelength, reaction time, distance from light source, and nature of solvent were used. The degradation kinetics of the quenchers generated by SO species and the corresponding quantum yields were determined by monitoring the photo-oxidation of the chemical quencher and measuring its disappearance by fluorometry and spectrophotometry in the presence of NPs. Small intracellular changes of SO induced by these metal Zn (zinc) NPs and PDT could execute and accelerate deadly programs in these leukemic cells, providing in this way an innovative modality of treatment. In order to perform further more specific in vitro cytotoxic studies on B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells exposed to Zn NPs and PDT, we needed first to measure and ascertain those possible intracellular SO variations generated by this type of treatment; for this purpose, we have also developed and tested a novel method first described by us. PMID:25490599

  1. Plasma-assisted combustion: Systematic decoupling of the kinetic enhancement mechanisms of ignition, flame propagation, and flame stabilization by long-lifetime species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ombrello, Timothy M.

    The advancement of propulsion devices and combustion systems has created ever increasingly more restrictive reactive environments that push the limits of combustion technology. Precise combustion control for higher efficiencies, reduced emissions, and limited residence times to react can exceed what is possible with traditional combustion chemistry, and therefore require new and creative solutions. The application of plasma to combustion systems offers a promising solution, with significant enhancement having been shown by many researchers. Nevertheless, there remain many unknowns with respect to the key species and mechanisms of enhancement. Detailed systematic experimental and numerical investigations were performed to identify the kinetic mechanisms of combustion enhancement by long-lifetime species generated by non-equilibrium plasma discharges. Two burner systems were adopted and integrated with plasma discharge devices to establish unique combustion platforms to study ignition, flame propagation, and flame stabilization phenomena. A counterflow diffusion flame burner was adopted for the investigation of the effects of plasma on flame stabilization. A newly developed non-equilibrium magnetic gliding arc plasma discharge was integrated with a counterflow diffusion flame burner and was found to significantly extend the limits of flame stabilization when activating air. Laser diagnostic methods of planar Rayleigh scattering and OH planar laser-induced fluorescence were applied and comparison to numerical simulations showed that the extension of the extinction limits was predominately through thermal effects due to rapid recombination of radicals. To elucidate the kinetic effects of plasma, the counterflow burner was augmented for ignition experiments. The application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and comparison to numerical simulations showed significant kinetic ignition enhancement by plasma-produced NOx when activating air. The results established the existence of new ignition regimes for NO x addition that were strongly dependent upon the strain rates (residence times) in the system. The addition of small concentrations of fuel to the air upstream of the plasma produced fuel fragments and partially oxidized products that inhibited ignition. The dominating effects of plasma-produced NOx significantly mitigated the inhibitive effects of these species on chain-branching reaction pathways. To further decouple the plasma-flame interaction, the two long-lifetime plasma species of O3 and O2(a1Delta g) were produced, isolated, measured, and transported to a lifted flame burner to investigate their effect on flame propagation speed. The effects of O3 at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressure were found to be significant because of the decomposition of O3 releasing O to rapidly react with the fuel and extract chemical heat early in the pre-heat zone of the flame. The effect of O2(a1Delta g) was isolated by the addition of NO to the plasma afterglow to eliminate O3 and O catalytically. The O2(a1Delta g) was isolated, measured quantitatively using high sensitivity off-axis integrated cavity output absorption spectroscopy, and observed to enhance flame speed. The comparison of experimental and numerical simulation results showed that the current enhancement mechanism including O2(a 1Deltag) could not accurately explain the increase in flame speed observed. Furthermore, a novel filter system was developed to minimize the concentration of all plasma-produced species other than O3 and O2(a1Deltag) through gas phase and wall surface quenching. Lastly, a new simplified and well-defined plasma-combustion system was developed to provide a platform to study the plasma-flame interaction. In addition, a flow visualization technique was proposed by using plasma activation and NO seeding which could be applied to a system where particle seeding of the flow is prohibitive.

  2. Hydrogen and oxygen plasma enhancement in the Cu electrodeposition and consolidation processes on BDD electrode applied to nitrate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, A. B.; Santos, L. C. D.; Matsushima, J. T.; Baldan, M. R.; Ferreira, N. G.

    2011-09-01

    Copper nanoparticle electrodeposition and consolidation processes were studied on boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode submitted to hydrogen and oxygen plasma treatments. The modified BDD films were applied as electrodes for nitrate electroreduction. The results showed that both treatments have a strong influence on the copper deposition and dissolution processes. For BDD treated with hydrogen plasma the copper electrodeposit was homogeneous with high particle density. This behavior was attributed to the BDD surface hydrogenation that improved its conductivity. On the other hand, the treatment with oxygen plasma was important for the copper nanoparticle consolidation on BDD surface, confirmed by the result's reproducibility for nitrate reduction. This performance may be associated with the formation of oxygen groups that can act as anchor points for Cu-clusters, enhancing the interfacial adhesion between diamond and the metal coating. The best electrochemical nitrate reduction response was obtained in acid media, where occurred the separation of the nitrate reduction process and the water reduction reaction.

  3. Enhancement of singlet oxygen production based on FRET between Coumarin tri-compound and CdSe/ZnS QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Hong Dinh; Lee, Jee Won; Rhee, Jong Il

    2014-08-01

    The compatibility between coumarin-derived dendrimer (CdD)-captured silica particles (SiCdDs) and watersoluble CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in the FRET process improved the excited state of QDs in the reaction of singlet oxygen production under LED irradiation. Sol-gel GA was successfully used to improve the binding between SiCdDs and QDs. Singlet oxygen production using QDs coated with SiCdDs through sol-gel GA was enhanced by about 80 % compared to that achieved using QDs only. The single oxygen produced by the QDs, the QDs/GA-SiCdDs complexes and the SiCdDs/GA-QDs complexes in this study could be used in the treatment of HeLa cells.

  4. Responses to Oxygen Deprivation and Potential for Enhanced Flooding Tolerance in Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although plants release oxygen as a byproduct during the process of photosynthesis, they are obligatory aerobes requiring the gas for their survival, growth and productivity. Oxygen limitation, the predominant stress in flooded plants, dramatically affects the gene expression, development and produc...

  5. Enhanced intrinsic bioremediation of hydrocarbons with oxygen release compound (ORC{reg_sign})

    SciTech Connect

    Koenigsberg, S.; Johnson, J.; Odencrantz, J.; Norris, R.

    1996-12-01

    ORC{reg_sign} is a unique formulation of magnesium peroxide that releases oxygen at a slow and controlled rate when hydrated. The compound is insoluble and simply releases oxygen while being converted to ordinary magnesium hydroxide which is also insoluble. The rate control feature is a function of the synthesis of the molecular matrix and not achieved by a coating process. ORC is packaged in exchangeable filter socks and is contacted with contaminated groundwater via an array of wells or trenches. A linear array of filter socks generates an oxygenated zone, that can last four months to a year as a function of contaminant flux, and supports the remediating microbial consortia. The objective of this oxygen barrier is plume cut-off, however, any significant reduction of contaminant mass mediated by the oxygen barrier will serve to pull the control point back towards the source; this may play an important role in the implementation of risk reduction strategies. The results presented here support the use of oxygen barrier systems to help manage plume migration and for the control of point source contamination. The most extensively studied oxygen barrier to date, installed at a BTEX contaminated site in Belen, NM, produced a readily observable oxygen barrier and demonstrated an acceptable level of contaminant control during the course of the experiment.

  6. Tripropellant combustion process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmiec, T. D.; Carroll, R. G.

    1988-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants in large rocket booster engines has the potential to enhance the system stability. Programs being conducted to evaluate the effects of hydrogen on the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants at supercritical pressures are described. Combustion instability has been a problem during the development of large hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. At the higher combustion chamber pressures expected for the next generation of booster engines, the effect of unstable combustion could be even more destructive. The tripropellant engine cycle takes advantage of the superior cooling characteristics of hydrogen to cool the combustion chamber and a small amount of the hydrogen coolant can be used in the combustion process to enhance the system stability. Three aspects of work that will be accomplished to evaluate tripropellant combustion are described. The first is laboratory demonstration of the benefits through the evaluation of drop size, ignition delay and burning rate. The second is analytical modeling of the combustion process using the empirical relationship determined in the laboratory. The third is a subscale demonstration in which the system stability will be evaluated. The approach for each aspect is described and the analytical models that will be used are presented.

  7. Hydrogen-Enhanced Lunar Oxygen Extraction and Storage Using Only Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, rodney; King, Darren

    2013-01-01

    The innovation consists of a thermodynamic system for extracting in situ oxygen vapor from lunar regolith using a solar photovoltaic power source in a reactor, a method for thermally insulating the reactor, a method for protecting the reactor internal components from oxidation by the extracted oxygen, a method for removing unwanted chemical species produced in the reactor from the oxygen vapor, a method for passively storing the oxygen, and a method for releasing high-purity oxygen from storage for lunar use. Lunar oxygen exists in various types of minerals, mostly silicates. The energy required to extract the oxygen from the minerals is 30 to 60 MJ/kg O. Using simple heating, the extraction rate depends on temperature. The minimum temperature is approximately 2,500 K, which is at the upper end of available oven temperatures. The oxygen is released from storage in a purified state, as needed, especially if for human consumption. This method extracts oxygen from regolith by treating the problem as a closed batch cycle system. The innovation works equally well in Earth or Lunar gravity fields, at low partial pressure of oxygen, and makes use of in situ regolith for system insulation. The innovation extracts oxygen from lunar regolith using a method similar to vacuum pyrolysis, but with hydrogen cover gas added stoichiometrically to react with the oxygen as it is produced by radiatively heating regolith to 2,500 K. The hydrogen flows over and through the heating element (HE), protecting it from released oxygen. The H2 O2 heat of reaction is regeneratively recovered to assist the heating process. Lunar regolith is loaded into a large-diameter, low-height pancake reactor powered by photovoltaic cells. The reactor lid contains a 2,500 K HE that radiates downward onto the regolith to heat it and extract oxygen, and is shielded above by a multi-layer tungsten radiation shield. Hydrogen cover gas percolates through the perforated tungsten shielding and HE, preventing oxidation of the shielding and HE, and reacting with the oxygen to form water vapor. The water vapor is filtered through solid regolith to remove unwanted extraction byproducts, and then condensed to a liquid state and stored at 300 to 325 K. Conversion to usable oxygen is achieved by pumping liquid water into a high-pressure electrolyzer, storing the gaseous oxygen at high pressure for use, and diverting the hydrogen back to the reactor or to storage. The results from this design effort show that this oxygen-generating concept can be developed in an efficient system with low specific mass. Advantages include use of regolith as an oxygen source, filter, and thermal insulator. The system can be tested in Earth gravity and can be expected to operate similarly in lunar gravity. The system is scalable, either by increasing the power level and output of a standard module, or by employing multiple modules.

  8. Ascorbic acid enhanced activation of oxygen by ferrous iron: A case of aerobic degradation of rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaojing; Shen, Wenjuan; Huang, Xiaopeng; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2016-05-01

    Molecular oxygen activation by ferrous ions (Fe(II)) in aqueous solution could generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) with high oxidation potential via reaction between Fe(II) and oxygen molecules (Fe(II)/air), however, ROS yielded in the Fe(II)/air process is insufficient for removal of organic pollutants due to the irreversible ferric ions (Fe(III)) accumulation. In this study, we demonstrate that ascorbic acid (AA) could enhance ROS generation via oxygen activation by ferrous irons (AA/Fe(II)/air) and thus improve the degradation of rhodamine (RhB) significantly. It was found that the first-order aerobic degradation rate of RhB in the AA/Fe(II)/air process in the presence of ascorbic acid is more than 4 times that of the Fe(II)/Air system without adding ascorbic acid. The presence of ascorbic acid could relieve the accumulation of Fe(III) by reductive accelerating the Fe(III)/Fe(II) cycles, as well as lower the redox potential of Fe(III)/Fe(II) through chelating effect, leading to enhanced ROS generation for promoting RhB degradation. This study not only sheds light on the effect of ascorbic acid on aerobic Fe(II) oxidation, but also provides a green method for effective remediation of organic pollutants. PMID:26808244

  9. Enhanced preservation of organic matter in sediments deposited within the oxygen minimum zone in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Weijden, Cornelis H.; Reichart, Gert Jan; Visser, Hendrik Jan

    1999-05-01

    The presence of a strongly developed oxygen minimum zone (OMZ; [O 2]<2 ?M) in the northeastern Arabian Sea affords the opportunity to investigate whether oxygen deficiency in bottom waters enhances the preservation of organic matter in the underlying sediments. We explored if the observed patterns of organic matter accumulation could be explained by differences in productivity, sedimentation rate, water depth, and mineral texture. The differences in the burial rates of organic matter in sediments deposited within or below the OMZ could not be explained on the basis of these factors. All collected evidence points to a coupling of low oxygen concentrations and enhanced organic matter preservation. Under more oxygenated conditions bioturbation as well as the presence of labile manganese and iron oxides are probably important factors for a more efficient microbially mediated degradation of organic matter. Pore water profiles of dissolved Mn 2+ and Fe 2+ show that reduction of manganese and iron oxides plays a minor role in sediments lying within the OMZ and a larger role in sediments lying below the OMZ.

  10. UNDERGROUNG PLACEMENT OF COAL PROCESSING WASTE AND COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS BASED PASTE BACKFILL FOR ENHANCED MINING ECONOMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Y.P. Chugh; D. Biswas; D. Deb

    2002-06-01

    This project has successfully demonstrated that the extraction ratio in a room-and-pillar panel at an Illinois mine can be increased from the current value of approximately 56% to about 64%, with backfilling done from the surface upon completion of all mining activities. This was achieved without significant ground control problems due to the increased extraction ratio. The mined-out areas were backfilled from the surface with gob, coal combustion by-products (CCBs), and fine coal processing waste (FCPW)-based paste backfill containing 65%-70% solids to minimize short-term and long-term surface deformations risk. This concept has the potential to increase mine productivity, reduce mining costs, manage large volumes of CCBs beneficially, and improve the miner's health, safety, and environment. Two injection holes were drilled over the demonstration panel to inject the paste backfill. Backfilling was started on August 11, 1999 through the first borehole. About 9,293 tons of paste backfill were injected through this borehole with a maximum flow distance of 300-ft underground. On September 27, 2000, backfilling operation was resumed through the second borehole with a mixture of F ash and FBC ash. A high-speed auger mixer (new technology) was used to mix solids with water. About 6,000 tons of paste backfill were injected underground through this hole. Underground backfilling using the ''Groutnet'' flow model was simulated. Studies indicate that grout flow over 300-foot distance is possible. Approximately 13,000 tons of grout may be pumped through a single hole. The effect of backfilling on the stability of the mine workings was analyzed using SIUPANEL.3D computer program and further verified using finite element analysis techniques. Stiffness of the backfill mix is most critical for enhancing the stability of mine workings. Mine openings do not have to be completely backfilled to enhance their stability. Backfill height of about 50% of the seam height is adequate to minimize surface deformations. Freeman United Coal Company performed engineering economic evaluation studies for commercialization. They found that the costs for underground management at the Crown III mine would be slightly higher than surface management at this time. The developed technologies have commercial potential but each site must be analyzed on its merit. The Company maintains significant interest in commercializing the technology.

  11. LOX/Hydrocarbon Combustion Instability Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. J.; Dodson, H. C.; Claflin, S. E.

    1989-01-01

    The LOX/Hydrocarbon Combustion Instability Investigation Program was structured to determine if the use of light hydrocarbon combustion fuels with liquid oxygen (LOX) produces combustion performance and stability behavior similar to the LOX/hydrogen propellant combination. In particular methane was investigated to determine if that fuel can be rated for combustion instability using the same techniques as previously used for LOX/hydrogen. These techniques included fuel temperature ramping and stability bomb tests. The hot fire program probed the combustion behavior of methane from ambient to subambient temperatures. Very interesting results were obtained from this program that have potential importance to future LOX/methane development programs. A very thorough and carefully reasoned documentation of the experimental data obtained is contained. The hot fire test logic and the associated tests are discussed. Subscale performance and stability rating testing was accomplished using 40,000 lb. thrust class hardware. Stability rating tests used both bombs and fuel temperature ramping techniques. The test program was successful in generating data for the evaluation of the methane stability characteristics relative to hydrogen and to anchor stability models. Data correlations, performance analysis, stability analyses, and key stability margin enhancement parameters are discussed.

  12. Tailoring the surface-oxygen defects of a tin dioxide support towards an enhanced electrocatalytic performance of platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Maidhily; Tanabe, Toyokazu; Ramesh, Gubbala V; Kodiyath, Rajesh; Ueda, Shigenori; Sakuma, Yoshiki; Homma, Yusaku; Dakshanamoorthy, Arivuoli; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Abe, Hideki

    2016-02-17

    Tin-dioxide nanofacets (SnO2 NFs) are crystal-engineered so that oxygen defects on the maximal {113} surface are long-range ordered to give rise to a non-occupied defect band (DB) in the bandgap. SnO2 NFs-supported platinum-nanoparticles exhibit an enhanced ethanol-electrooxidation activity due to the promoted charge-transport via the DB at the metal-semiconductor interface. PMID:26352924

  13. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of N-nitrosodimethylamine on TiO2 nanotube based on the role of singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyan; Li, Qilin; Zhang, Man; Long, Mingce; Kong, Lulu; Zhou, Qixing; Shao, Huaiqi; Hu, Wanli; Wei, Tingting

    2015-02-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) photocatalytic degradation performance and mechanism were investigated on the TiO2 nanotube prepared from anatase TiO2 nanopowder in terms of the production of reactive oxygen species including hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen and superoxide radical. Significantly higher NDMA degradation efficiency was obtained on anatase TiO2 nanotube rather than anatase TiO2 nanopowder. The tubular morphology may be responsible for almost 100% NDMA removal on TiO2 nanotube, presumably due to its confinement effect leading to NDMA molecules within the nanotube being attacked by reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen, and initiating reaction inside the nanotube. In particular, the ability of the nanotubular structure of TiO2 nanotube to promote a singlet oxygen oxidation pathway contributes much to the enhanced NDMA degradation efficiency and favors the formation of dimethylamine and NO3(-). Such function originating from nanotube morphology could bring new insights for the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants. PMID:25290358

  14. Gene and enhancer trap transposable elements reveal oxygen deprivation-regulated genes and their complex patterns of expression in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Baxter-Burrell, Airica; Chang, Ruth; Springer, Patricia; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    2003-01-01

    Transposon tagging with modified maize Ds-GUS constructs was used to isolate genes induced by oxygen deprivation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Seedlings of 800 gene-trap (DsG) and 600 enhancer-trap (DsE) lines were grown on vertically positioned plates for 1 week, oxygen deprived for up to 24 h and stained for GUS activity. Oxygen deprivation induced intricate patterns of gene expression in seedlings of 65 lines. The insertion site and phenotypes of 15 lines were examined. Surprisingly, none of the insertions were into genes that encode known anaerobic polypeptides. Insertions were identified within or adjacent to genes encoding proteins of regulatory, enzymatic, mitochondrial protein import and unknown function, as well as adjacent to genes encoding a putative receptor-like kinase and putative sensor-histidine kinase. Four lines had significantly lower ADH activity after 24 h of oxygen deprivation and three of these showed reduced stress tolerance. Two lines with wild-type levels of ADH were low-oxygen intolerant. Paradoxically, several lines had significantly higher ADH activity after 12 h of oxygen deprivation but reduced stress tolerance. Caffeine treatment, which increased ADH specific activity in wild-type seedlings under aerobic conditions, was sufficient to increase GUS staining in seven of the 15 lines, providing evidence that these genes may be regulated by cytosolic calcium levels. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the Ds-GUS tagging system in the identification of genes that are regulated in response to oxygen deprivation and a calcium second messenger. PMID:12509334

  15. Oxygen vacancy enhanced photocatalytic activity of pervoskite SrTiO(3).

    PubMed

    Tan, Huaqiao; Zhao, Zhao; Zhu, Wan-Bin; Coker, Eric N; Li, Binsong; Zheng, Min; Yu, Weixing; Fan, Hongyou; Sun, Zaicheng

    2014-11-12

    A facile and general method has been developed to fabricate oxygen vacancies on perovskite SrTiO3 (STO) nanocrystals through a controllable solid-state reaction of NaBH4 and SrTiO3 nanocrystals. STO samples with tunable color, oxygen vacancy concentration on nanocrystal surface have been synthesized. TEM results reveal that these STO samples have a crystalline core/amorphous shell structure (SrTiO3@SrTiO3-x). XPS and EPR results disclose that the oxygen vacancy concentration increases with the increase of reaction time and temperature. The concentration of oxygen vacancies calculated from TGA data, could reach 5.07% (atom) in this study. UV-vis spectra and photocatalytic results indicate that oxygen vacancies on STO surface play an important role in influencing the light absorption and photocatalytic performance. However, an excess amount of oxygen vacancies leads to a decrease of photocatalytic performance. The optimal photocatalytic activity for H2 production under UV-vis irradiation is up to 2.2 mmol h(-1) g(-1), which is about 2.3 times than the original SrTiO3, corresponding to 3.28% (atom) of oxygen vacancy concentration. PMID:25311356

  16. Enhancement of the electron spin resonance of single-walled carbon nanotubes by oxygen removal.

    PubMed

    Rice, William D; Weber, Ralph T; Leonard, Ashley D; Tour, James M; Nikolaev, Pavel; Arepalli, Sivaram; Berka, Vladimir; Tsai, Ah-Lim; Kono, Junichiro

    2012-03-27

    We have observed a nearly 4-fold increase in the electron spin resonance (ESR) signal from an ensemble of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) due to oxygen desorption. By performing temperature-dependent ESR spectroscopy both before and after thermal annealing, we found that the ESR in SWCNTs can be reversibly altered via the molecular oxygen content in the samples. Independent of the presence of adsorbed oxygen, a Curie law (spin susceptibility ? 1/T) is seen from ~4 to 300 K, indicating that the probed spins are finite-level species. For both the pre-annealed and post-annealed sample conditions, the ESR line width decreased as the temperature was increased, a phenomenon we identify as motional narrowing. From the temperature dependence of the line width, we extracted an estimate of the intertube hopping energy; for both sample conditions, we found this hopping energy to be ~1.2 meV. Since the spin hopping energy changes only slightly when oxygen is desorbed, we conclude that only the spin susceptibility, not spin transport, is affected by the presence of physisorbed molecular oxygen in SWCNT ensembles. Surprisingly, no line width change is observed when the amount of oxygen in the SWCNT sample is altered, contrary to other carbonaceous systems and certain 1D conducting polymers. We hypothesize that physisorbed molecular oxygen acts as an acceptor (p-type), compensating the donor-like (n-type) defects that are responsible for the ESR signal in bulk SWCNTs. PMID:22324937

  17. Self-enhanced catalytic activities of functionalized graphene sheets in the combustion of nitromethane: molecular dynamic simulations by molecular reactive force field.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoyang; Wen, Yushi; Xue, Xianggui

    2014-08-13

    Functionalized graphene sheet (FGS) is a promising additive that enhances fuel/propellant combustion, and the determination of its mechanism has attracted much interest. In the present study, a series of molecular dynamic simulations based on a reactive force field (ReaxFF) are performed to explore the catalytic activity (CA) of FGS in the thermal decay of nitromethane (NM, CH3NO2). FGSs and pristine graphene sheets (GSs) are oxidized in hot NM liquid to increase their functionalities and subsequently show self-enhanced CAs during the decay. The CAs result from the interatomic exchanges between the functional groups on the sheets and the NM liquid, i.e., mainly between H and O atoms. CA is dependent on the density of NM, functionalities of sheets, and temperature. The GSs and FGSs that originally exhibit different functionalities tend to possess similar functionalities and consequently similar CAs as temperature increases. Other carbon materials and their oxides can accelerate combustion of other fuels/propellants similar to NM, provided that they can be dispersed and their key reaction steps in combustion are similar to NM. PMID:25055727

  18. Enhanced spin-orbit torques by oxygen incorporation in tungsten films.

    PubMed

    Demasius, Kai-Uwe; Phung, Timothy; Zhang, Weifeng; Hughes, Brian P; Yang, See-Hun; Kellock, Andrew; Han, Wei; Pushp, Aakash; Parkin, Stuart S P

    2016-01-01

    The origin of spin-orbit torques, which are generated by the conversion of charge-to-spin currents in non-magnetic materials, is of considerable debate. One of the most interesting materials is tungsten, for which large spin-orbit torques have been found in thin films that are stabilized in the A15 (?-phase) structure. Here we report large spin Hall angles of up to approximately -0.5 by incorporating oxygen into tungsten. While the incorporation of oxygen into the tungsten films leads to significant changes in their microstructure and electrical resistivity, the large spin Hall angles measured are found to be remarkably insensitive to the oxygen-doping level (12-44%). The invariance of the spin Hall angle for higher oxygen concentrations with the bulk properties of the films suggests that the spin-orbit torques in this system may originate dominantly from the interface rather than from the interior of the films. PMID:26912203

  19. Enhanced oxygen diffusivity in interfaces of nanocrystalline ZrO2?Y2O3

    PubMed Central

    Knner, Gregor; Reimann, Klaus; Rwer, Ralf; Sdervall, Ulf; Schaefer, Hans-Eckhardt

    2003-01-01

    First measurements of oxygen grain boundary diffusion coefficients in nanocrystalline yttria-doped ZrO2 (n-ZrO2?6.9 mol % Y2O3) are presented. The 18O diffusion profiles measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy are much deeper in the nanocrystalline specimens than in single crystals. An oxygen diffusivity, DB, in the grain boundaries can be deduced, which is ?3 orders of magnitude higher than in single crystals. From the present data the temperature variation of the oxygen grain boundary diffusivity, DB = 2.0 10?5 exp (?0.91 eV/kBT) m2/s, and the oxygen surface exchange coefficient, k = 1.4 10?2 exp (?1.13 eV/kBT) m/s, are derived. PMID:12655074

  20. Enhanced electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction based on patterning of platinum surfaces with cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Strmcnik, D.; Escudero, M.; Kodama, K.; Stamenkovic, V. R.; Cuesta, A.; Markovic, N. M.

    2010-10-01

    The slow rate of the oxygen reduction reaction in the phosphoric acid fuel cell is the main factor limiting its wide application. Here, we present an approach that can be used for the rational design of cathode catalysts with potential use in phosphoric acid fuel cells, or in any environments containing strongly adsorbing tetrahedral anions. This approach is based on molecular patterning of platinum surfaces with cyanide adsorbates that can efficiently block the sites for adsorption of spectator anions while the oxygen reduction reaction proceeds unhindered. We also demonstrate that, depending on the supporting electrolyte anions and cations, on the same CN-covered Pt(111) surface, the oxygen reduction reaction activities can range from a 25-fold increase to a 50-fold decrease. This behaviour is discussed in the light of the role of covalent and non-covalent interactions in controlling the ensemble of platinum active sites required for high turn over rates of the oxygen reduction reaction.

  1. Enhanced electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction based on pattering of platinum surfaces with cyanide.

    SciTech Connect

    Strmcnik, D.; Escudero-Escribano, M.; Kodama, K.; Stamenkovic, V. R.; Cuesta, A.; Markovic, N. M.; Materials Science Division; Inst. de Quimica Fisica; Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.

    2010-08-15

    The slow rate of the oxygen reduction reaction in the phosphoric acid fuel cell is the main factor limiting its wide application. Here, we present an approach that can be used for the rational design of cathode catalysts with potential use in phosphoric acid fuel cells, or in any environments containing strongly adsorbing tetrahedral anions. This approach is based on molecular patterning of platinum surfaces with cyanide adsorbates that can efficiently block the sites for adsorption of spectator anions while the oxygen reduction reaction proceeds unhindered. We also demonstrate that, depending on the supporting electrolyte anions and cations, on the same CN-covered Pt(111) surface, the oxygen reduction reaction activities can range from a 25-fold increase to a 50-fold decrease. This behaviour is discussed in the light of the role of covalent and non-covalent interactions in controlling the ensemble of platinum active sites required for high turn over rates of the oxygen reduction reaction.

  2. ENHANCED BIOREMEDIATION UTILIZING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AS A SUPPLEMENTAL SOURCE OF OXYGEN: A LABORATORY AND FIELD STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory and field scale studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of using hydrogen peroxide as a supplemental source of oxygen for bioremediation of an aviation gasoline fuel spill. Field samples of aviation gasoline contaminated aquifer material were artificially...

  3. Enhanced spin-orbit torques by oxygen incorporation in tungsten films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demasius, Kai-Uwe; Phung, Timothy; Zhang, Weifeng; Hughes, Brian P.; Yang, See-Hun; Kellock, Andrew; Han, Wei; Pushp, Aakash; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2016-02-01

    The origin of spin-orbit torques, which are generated by the conversion of charge-to-spin currents in non-magnetic materials, is of considerable debate. One of the most interesting materials is tungsten, for which large spin-orbit torques have been found in thin films that are stabilized in the A15 (β-phase) structure. Here we report large spin Hall angles of up to approximately -0.5 by incorporating oxygen into tungsten. While the incorporation of oxygen into the tungsten films leads to significant changes in their microstructure and electrical resistivity, the large spin Hall angles measured are found to be remarkably insensitive to the oxygen-doping level (12-44%). The invariance of the spin Hall angle for higher oxygen concentrations with the bulk properties of the films suggests that the spin-orbit torques in this system may originate dominantly from the interface rather than from the interior of the films.

  4. Coal Combustion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. )

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  5. Fuel properties to enable lifted-flame combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Eric

    2015-03-15

    The Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion project responded directly to solicitation DE-FOA-0000239 AOI 1A, Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced Combustion Regimes. This subtopic was intended to encompass clean and highly-efficient, liquid-fueled combustion engines to achieve extremely low engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) as a target and similar efficiency as state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engines. The intent of this project was to identify how fuel properties can be used to achieve controllable Leaner Lifted Flame Combustion (LLFC) with low NOx and PM emissions. Specifically, this project was expected to identify and test key fuel properties to enable LLFC and their compatibility with current fuel systems and to enhance combustion models to capture the effect of fuel properties on advanced combustion. Successful demonstration of LLFC may reduce the need for after treatment devices, thereby reducing costs and improving thermal efficiency. The project team consisted of key technical personnel from Ford Motor Company (FMC), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL). Each partner had key roles in achieving project objectives. FMC investigated fuel properties relating to LLFC and sooting tendency. Together, FMC and UW developed and integrated 3D combustion models to capture fuel property combustion effects. FMC used these modeling results to develop a combustion system and define fuel properties to support a single-cylinder demonstration of fuel-enabled LLFC. UW investigated modeling the flame characteristics and emissions behavior of different fuels, including those with different cetane number and oxygen content. SNL led spray combustion experiments to quantify the effect of key fuel properties on combustion characteristics critical for LLFC, as well as single cylinder optical engine experiments to improve fundamental understanding of flame lift-off, generate model validation data, and demonstrate LLFC concurrent with FMC efforts. Additionally, LLNL was added to the project during the second year to develop a detailed kinetic mechanism for a key oxygenate to support CFD modeling. Successful completion of this project allowed the team to enhance fundamental understanding of LLFC, improve the state of current combustion models and increase understanding of desired fuel properties. This knowledge also improves our knowledge of how cost effective and environmentally friendly renewable fuels can assist in helping meet future emission and greenhouse gas regulations.

  6. Combustion Processes in the Aerospace Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggett, Clayton

    1969-01-01

    The aerospace environment introduces new and enhanced fire hazards because the special atmosphere employed may increase the frequency and intensity of fires, because the confinement associated with aerospace systems adversely affects the dynamics of fire development and control, and because the hostile external environments limit fire control and rescue operations. Oxygen enriched atmospheres contribute to the fire hazard in aerospace systems by extending the list of combustible fuels, increasing the probability of ignition, and increasing the rates of fire spread and energy release. A system for classifying atmospheres according to the degree of fire hazard, based on the heat capacity of the atmosphere per mole of oxygen, is suggested. A brief exploration of the dynamics of chamber fires shows that such fires will exhibit an exponential growth rate and may grow to dangerous size in a very short time. Relatively small quantities of fuel and oxygen can produce a catastrophic fire in a closed chamber.

  7. Nutrients and oxygen alter reservoir biochemical characters and enhance oil recovery during biostimulation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peike; Li, Guoqiang; Dai, Xuecheng; Dai, Liubing; Wang, Hongbo; Zhao, Lingxia; Chen, Yuehua; Ma, Ting

    2013-11-01

    Biostimulation of petroleum reservoir to improve oil recovery has been conducted in a large number of oilfields. However, the roles and linkages of organic nutrients, inorganic salts and oxygen content during biostimulation have not been effectively elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the relationships between carbon source, nitrogen source, phosphorus source, oxygen content, and microbial stimulation, oil emulsification, and oil degradation. The organic nutrients (molasses) accelerated microbial growth, and promoted oil emulsification under aerobic conditions. The added molasses also promoted metabolites production (CO2, CH4 and acetic acid) and microbial anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation under anaerobic conditions. (NH4)2HPO4 improved gases production by neutralizing the acidic production and molasses. NaNO3 could also improve gases production by inhibiting sulfate-reducing bacteria to adjust pH value. Oxygen supply was necessary for oil emulsification, but bountiful supply of oxygen aggravated oil degradation, leading the entire ranges of alkanes and some aromatic hydrocarbons were degraded. Core-flooding experiments showed an oil displacement efficiency of 13.81 % in test with air package injected, 8.56 % without air package injection, and 4.77 % in control test with air package injection and 3.61 % without air package injection. The results suggest that the combined effect of organic nutrients, inorganic salts and oxygen content determines microbial growth, while production of metabolites, oil emulsification and biodegradation alter the reservoir biochemical characters and influence oil recovery during stimulation. PMID:23700126

  8. Using fluorochemical as oxygen carrier to enhance the growth of marine microalga Nannochloropsis oculata.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Yeh, Yu-Ling; Lin, Keng-Hsien; Hsu, Yu-Chih

    2013-08-01

    The commercial value of marine Nannochloropsis oculata has been recognized due to its high content of eicosapentaenoic acid (>50% w/w). To make it as a profitable bioresource, one of the most desirable goals is to develop a quality-controlled, cost-effective, and large-scale photobioreactor for N. oculata growth. Generally, closed culture system can offer many advantages over open system such as small space requirement, controllable process and low risk of contamination. However, oxygen accumulation is often a detrimental factor for enclosed microalgal culture that has seriously hampered the development of microalga-related industries. In this study, we proposed to use fluorochemical as oxygen carrier to overcome the challenge where four liquid fluorochemicals namely perfluorooctyl bromide, perfluorodecalin, methoxynonafluorobutane, and ethoxynonafluorobutane were investigated separately. Our results showed that the microalgal proliferation with different fluorinated liquids was similar and comparable to the culture without a fluorochemical. When cultured in the photobioreactor with 60% oxygen atmosphere, the N. oculata can grow up in all the fluorochemical photobioreactors, but completely inhibited in the chamber without a fluorochemical. Moreover, the perfluorooctyl bromide system exhibited the most robust efficacy of oxygen removal in the culture media (perfluorooctyl bromide > perfluorodecalin > methoxynonafluorobutane > ethoxynonafluorobutane), and yielded a >3-fold increase of biomass production after 5 days. In summary, the developed fluorochemical photobioreactors offer a feasible means for N. oculata growth in closed and large-scale setting without effect of oxygen inhibition. PMID:23178985

  9. Ultrathin Spinel-Structured Nanosheets Rich in Oxygen Deficiencies for Enhanced Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jian; Zhang, Xiaodong; Fan, Bo; Zhang, Jiajia; Zhou, Min; Yang, Wenlong; Hu, Xin; Wang, Hui; Pan, Bicai; Xie, Yi

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical water splitting is a clean technology for H2 fuels, but greatly hindered by the slow kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Herein, a series of spinel-structured nanosheets with oxygen deficiencies and ultrathin thicknesses were designed to increase the reactivity and the number of active sites of the catalysts, which were then taken as an excellent platform for promoting the water oxidation process. Theoretical investigations showed that the oxygen vacancies confined in the ultrathin nanosheet could lower the adsorption energy of H2O, leading to increased OER efficiency. As expected, the NiCo2O4 ultrathin nanosheets rich in oxygen vacancies exhibited a large current density of 285 mA cm(-2) at 0.8 V and a small overpotential of 0.32 V, both of which are superior to the corresponding values of bulk samples or samples with few oxygen deficiencies and even higher than those of most reported non-precious-metal catalysts. This work should provide a new pathway for the design of advanced OER catalysts. PMID:25951435

  10. Self-Monitoring Artificial Red Cells with Sufficient Oxygen Supply for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhenyu; Zheng, Mingbin; Zhao, Pengfei; Chen, Ze; Siu, Fungming; Gong, Ping; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been increasingly applied in clinical cancer treatments. However, native hypoxic tumoural microenvironment and lacking oxygen supply are the major barriers hindering photodynamic reactions. To solve this problem, we have developed biomimetic artificial red cells by loading complexes of oxygen-carrier (hemoglobin) and photosensitizer (indocyanine green) for boosted photodynamic strategy. Such nanosystem provides a coupling structure with stable self-oxygen supply and acting as an ideal fluorescent/photoacoustic imaging probe, dynamically monitoring the nanoparticle biodistribution and the treatment of PDT. Upon exposure to near-infrared laser, the remote-triggered photosensitizer generates massive cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) with sufficient oxygen supply. Importantly, hemoglobin is simultaneously oxidized into the more active and resident ferryl-hemoglobin leading to persistent cytotoxicity. ROS and ferryl-hemoglobin synergistically trigger the oxidative damage of xenograft tumour resulting in complete suppression. The artificial red cells with self-monitoring and boosted photodynamic efficacy could serve as a versatile theranostic platform. PMID:26987618

  11. Self-Monitoring Artificial Red Cells with Sufficient Oxygen Supply for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhenyu; Zheng, Mingbin; Zhao, Pengfei; Chen, Ze; Siu, Fungming; Gong, Ping; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been increasingly applied in clinical cancer treatments. However, native hypoxic tumoural microenvironment and lacking oxygen supply are the major barriers hindering photodynamic reactions. To solve this problem, we have developed biomimetic artificial red cells by loading complexes of oxygen-carrier (hemoglobin) and photosensitizer (indocyanine green) for boosted photodynamic strategy. Such nanosystem provides a coupling structure with stable self-oxygen supply and acting as an ideal fluorescent/photoacoustic imaging probe, dynamically monitoring the nanoparticle biodistribution and the treatment of PDT. Upon exposure to near-infrared laser, the remote-triggered photosensitizer generates massive cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) with sufficient oxygen supply. Importantly, hemoglobin is simultaneously oxidized into the more active and resident ferryl-hemoglobin leading to persistent cytotoxicity. ROS and ferryl-hemoglobin synergistically trigger the oxidative damage of xenograft tumour resulting in complete suppression. The artificial red cells with self-monitoring and boosted photodynamic efficacy could serve as a versatile theranostic platform. PMID:26987618

  12. CD73 and AMPD3 deficiency enhance metabolic performance via erythrocyte ATP that decreases hemoglobin oxygen affinity.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, William G; Berka, Vladimir; Tsai, Ah-Lim; Zhao, Zhaoyang; Lee, Cheng Chi

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocytes are the key target in 5'-AMP induced hypometabolism. To understand how regulation of endogenous erythrocyte AMP levels modulates systemic metabolism, we generated mice deficient in both CD73 and AMPD3, the key catabolic enzymes for extracellular and intra-erythrocyte AMP, respectively. Under physiological conditions, these mice displayed enhanced capacity for physical activity accompanied by significantly higher food and oxygen consumption, compared to wild type mice. Erythrocytes from Ampd3(-/-) mice exhibited higher half-saturation pressure of oxygen (p50) and about 3-fold higher levels of ATP and ADP, while they maintained normal 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG), methemoglobin levels and intracellular pH. The affinity of mammalian hemoglobin for oxygen is thought to be regulated primarily by 2,3-BPG levels and pH (the Bohr effect). However, our results show that increased endogenous levels of ATP and ADP, but not AMP, directly increase the p50 value of hemoglobin. Additionally, the rise in erythrocyte p50 directly correlates with an enhanced capability of systemic metabolism. PMID:26249166

  13. CD73 and AMPD3 deficiency enhance metabolic performance via erythrocyte ATP that decreases hemoglobin oxygen affinity

    PubMed Central

    OBrien III, William G.; Berka, Vladimir; Tsai, Ah-Lim; Zhao, Zhaoyang; Lee, Cheng Chi

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocytes are the key target in 5?-AMP induced hypometabolism. To understand how regulation of endogenous erythrocyte AMP levels modulates systemic metabolism, we generated mice deficient in both CD73 and AMPD3, the key catabolic enzymes for extracellular and intra-erythrocyte AMP, respectively. Under physiological conditions, these mice displayed enhanced capacity for physical activity accompanied by significantly higher food and oxygen consumption, compared to wild type mice. Erythrocytes from Ampd3?/? mice exhibited higher half-saturation pressure of oxygen (p50) and about 3-fold higher levels of ATP and ADP, while they maintained normal 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG), methemoglobin levels and intracellular pH. The affinity of mammalian hemoglobin for oxygen is thought to be regulated primarily by 2,3-BPG levels and pH (the Bohr effect). However, our results show that increased endogenous levels of ATP and ADP, but not AMP, directly increase the p50 value of hemoglobin. Additionally, the rise in erythrocyte p50 directly correlates with an enhanced capability of systemic metabolism. PMID:26249166

  14. Does oxygen enhance the radiation-induced inactivation of penicillinase. Progress report, December 1, 1979-November 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Samuni, A.; Kalkstein, A.; Czapski, G.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation-induced inactivation of penicillinase in dilute aqueous solutions buffered with phosphate was studied, by examining enzyme radiosensitivity in the presence of various gases (He, O/sub 2/, H/sub 2/, N/sub 2/O, N/sub 2/O + O/sub 2/). The introduction of either N/sub 2/O or O/sub 2/ was found to reduce the radiodamage. On the other hand H/sub 2/ or N/sub 2/O + O/sub 2/ gas-mixture enhanced the radiosensitivity. In the presence of formate and oxygen, no enzyme inactivation was detected. The results indicated that the specific damaging efficiency of H atoms is almost four-fold higher than that of OH radical; therefore in phosphate buffer, where more than half of the free radicals are H atoms, it is the H radicals that are responsible for the majority of the damage. The superoxide radicals appeared to be completely inactive and did not contribute toward enzyme inactivation. Oxygen was shown to affect the radiosensitivity in two ways. On one side, it protected by converting e/sup -//sub aq/ and H radicals into harmless O/sub 2//sup -/ radicals. On the other side it increased the inactivation by enhancing the damage brought about by OH radicals (OER = 2.8). In the present case the oxygen effect of protection exceeded that of sensitization, thus giving rise to a moderate overall protection effect.

  15. Optimization of perfluoro nano-scale emulsions: the importance of particle size for enhanced oxygen transfer in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Fraker, Christopher A; Mendez, Armando J; Inverardi, Luca; Ricordi, Camillo; Stabler, Cherie L

    2012-10-01

    Nano-scale emulsification has long been utilized by the food and cosmetics industry to maximize material delivery through increased surface area to volume ratios. More recently, these methods have been employed in the area of biomedical research to enhance and control the delivery of desired agents, as in perfluorocarbon emulsions for oxygen delivery. In this work, we evaluate critical factors for the optimization of PFC emulsions for use in cell-based applications. Cytotoxicity screening revealed minimal cytotoxicity of components, with the exception of one perfluorocarbon utilized for emulsion manufacture, perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB), and specific w% limitations of PEG-based surfactants utilized. We optimized the manufacture of stable nano-scale emulsions via evaluation of: component materials, emulsification time and pressure, and resulting particle size and temporal stability. The initial emulsion size was greatly dependent upon the emulsion surfactant tested, with pluronics providing the smallest size. Temporal stability of the nano-scale emulsions was directly related to the perfluorocarbon utilized, with perfluorotributylamine, FC-43, providing a highly stable emulsion, while perfluorodecalin, PFD, coalesced over time. The oxygen mass transfer, or diffusive permeability, of the resulting emulsions was also characterized. Our studies found particle size to be the critical factor affecting oxygen mass transfer, as increased micelle size resulted in reduced oxygen diffusion. Overall, this work demonstrates the importance of accurate characterization of emulsification parameters in order to generate stable, reproducible emulsions with the desired bio-delivery properties. PMID:22652356

  16. Oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation treatment to enhance data retention of tungsten nanocrystal nonvolatile memory

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jer-Chyi Chang, Wei-Cheng; Lai, Chao-Sung; Chang, Li-Chun; Ai, Chi-Fong; Tsai, Wen-Fa

    2014-03-15

    Data retention characteristics of tungsten nanocrystal (W-NC) memory devices using an oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) treatment are investigated. With an increase of oxygen PIII bias voltage and treatment time, the capacitance–voltage hysteresis memory window is increased but the data retention characteristics become degraded. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that this poor data retention is a result of plasma damage on the tunneling oxide layer, which can be prevented by lowering the bias voltage to 7 kV. In addition, by using the elevated temperature retention measurement technique, the effective charge trapping level of the WO{sub 3} film surrounding the W-NCs can be extracted. This measurement reveals that a higher oxygen PIII bias voltage and treatment time induces more shallow traps within the WO{sub 3} film, degrading the retention behavior of the W-NC memory.

  17. Creatine supplementation enhances corticomotor excitability and cognitive performance during oxygen deprivation.

    PubMed

    Turner, Clare E; Byblow, Winston D; Gant, Nicholas

    2015-01-28

    Impairment or interruption of oxygen supply compromises brain function and plays a role in neurological and neurodegenerative conditions. Creatine is a naturally occurring compound involved in the buffering, transport, and regulation of cellular energy, with the potential to replenish cellular adenosine triphosphate without oxygen. Creatine is also neuroprotective in vitro against anoxic/hypoxic damage. Dietary creatine supplementation has been associated with improved symptoms in neurological disorders defined by impaired neural energy provision. Here we investigate, for the first time in humans, the utility of creatine as a dietary supplement to protect against energetic insult. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of oral creatine supplementation on the neurophysiological and neuropsychological function of healthy young adults during acute oxygen deprivation. Fifteen healthy adults were supplemented with creatine and placebo treatments for 7 d, which increased brain creatine on average by 9.2%. A hypoxic gas mixture (10% oxygen) was administered for 90 min, causing global oxygen deficit and impairing a range of neuropsychological processes. Hypoxia-induced decrements in cognitive performance, specifically attentional capacity, were restored when participants were creatine supplemented, and corticomotor excitability increased. A neuromodulatory effect of creatine via increased energy availability is presumed to be a contributing factor of the restoration, perhaps by supporting the maintenance of appropriate neuronal membrane potentials. Dietary creatine monohydrate supplementation augments neural creatine, increases corticomotor excitability, and prevents the decline in attention that occurs during severe oxygen deficit. This is the first demonstration of creatine's utility as a neuroprotective supplement when cellular energy provision is compromised. PMID:25632150

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY-ENRICHED COAL COMBUSTION RESIDUES FROM ELECTRIC UTILITIES USING ENHANCED SORBENTS FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leaching of mercury and other constituents of potential concern during land disposal or beneficial use of coal combustion residues (CCRs) is the environmental impact pathway evaluated in this report. The specific objectives of the research was to: (1) evaluate mercury, arsenic an...

  19. Reduced No.sub.x combustion method

    DOEpatents

    Delano, Mark A. (Briarcliff Manor, NY)

    1991-01-01

    A combustion method enabling reduced NO.sub.x formation wherein fuel and oxidant are separately injected into a combustion zone in a defined velocity relation, combustion gases are aspirated into the oxidant stream prior to intermixture with the fuel, and the fuel is maintained free from contact with oxygen until the intermixture.

  20. Ames Hybrid Combustion Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Greg; Karabeyoglu, Mustafa A.; Cantwell, Brian; Hunt, Rusty; DeZilwa, Shane; Shoffstall, Mike; Soderman, Paul T.; Bencze, Daniel P. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The report summarizes the design, fabrication, safety features, environmental impact, and operation of the Ames Hybrid-Fuel Combustion Facility (HCF). The facility is used in conducting research into the scalability and combustion processes of advanced paraffin-based hybrid fuels for the purpose of assessing their applicability to practical rocket systems. The facility was designed to deliver gaseous oxygen at rates between 0.5 and 16.0 kg/sec to a combustion chamber operating at pressures ranging from 300 to 900. The required run times were of the order of 10 to 20 sec. The facility proved to be robust and reliable and has been used to generate a database of regression-rate measurements of paraffin at oxygen mass flux levels comparable to those of moderate-sized hybrid rocket motors.

  1. Enhancement on the Hypocrellin B Singlet Oxygen Generation Quantum Yield in the Presence of Rare Earth Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toffoli, Daniel Jos; Gomes, Larcio; Junior, Nilson Dias Vieira; Courrol, Lilia Coronato

    2008-04-01

    This paper shows a study of the optical properties of the photosensitizer hypocrellin B and its complexes formed with the rare earth ions lanthanum, europium and terbium, in ethanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions, with the purpose of verify its potentiality for use in Photodynamic Therapy. Indeed, lanthanide ions are able to modify hypocrellin B energy levels and radiative decay probabilities. Lifetime and infrared emission measurements were employed in order to reveal the capacity of the complexes at generating singlet oxygen. Hypocrellin B complex with lanthanum in ethanol showed the best results regarding ideal photosensitizers, since it displaced hypocrellin B absorption peak at 584 nm to 614 nm, as well as enhanced singlet oxygen generation from 0.47 to 0.62 (reference: methylene blue, ?? = 0,52).

  2. Field-scale investigation of enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in the vadose zone combining soil venting as an oxygen source with moisture and nutrient addition. Appendices. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    This document contains appendices regarding a reprint on a field scale investigation of enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in the vadose zone combining soil venting as a oxygen source with moisture and nutrient addition.

  3. Enhanced spin–orbit torques by oxygen incorporation in tungsten films

    PubMed Central

    Demasius, Kai-Uwe; Phung, Timothy; Zhang, Weifeng; Hughes, Brian P.; Yang, See-Hun; Kellock, Andrew; Han, Wei; Pushp, Aakash; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2016-01-01

    The origin of spin–orbit torques, which are generated by the conversion of charge-to-spin currents in non-magnetic materials, is of considerable debate. One of the most interesting materials is tungsten, for which large spin–orbit torques have been found in thin films that are stabilized in the A15 (β-phase) structure. Here we report large spin Hall angles of up to approximately –0.5 by incorporating oxygen into tungsten. While the incorporation of oxygen into the tungsten films leads to significant changes in their microstructure and electrical resistivity, the large spin Hall angles measured are found to be remarkably insensitive to the oxygen-doping level (12–44%). The invariance of the spin Hall angle for higher oxygen concentrations with the bulk properties of the films suggests that the spin–orbit torques in this system may originate dominantly from the interface rather than from the interior of the films. PMID:26912203

  4. Super-linear enhancement of the electric oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, David L.; Woodard, Brian S.; Benavides, Gabriel F.; Zimmerman, Joseph W.; Palla, Andrew D.; Verdeyen, Joseph T.; Solomon, Wayne C.

    2012-01-01

    Continuing experiments with Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (EOIL) technology have significantly increased laser power output by increasing the product of gain and gain-length, g0L. Increasing the system size by a factor of 3 resulted in a 5-fold increase in laser output on the 1315-nm transition of atomic iodine. The peak output power observed was 538 W.

  5. Enhanced muscular oxygen extraction in athletes exaggerates hypoxemia during exercise in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Van Thienen, Ruud; Hespel, Peter

    2016-02-01

    High rate of muscular oxygen utilization facilitates the development of hypoxemia during exercise at altitude. Because endurance training stimulates oxygen extraction capacity, we investigated whether endurance athletes are at higher risk to developing hypoxemia and thereby acute mountain sickness symptoms during exercise at simulated high altitude. Elite athletes (ATL; n = 8) and fit controls (CON; n = 7) cycled for 20 min at 100 W (EX100W), as well as performed an incremental maximal oxygen consumption test (EXMAX) in normobaric hypoxia (0.107 inspired O2 fraction) or normoxia (0.209 inspired O2 fraction). Cardiorespiratory responses, arterial Po2 (PaO2), and oxygenation status in m. vastus lateralis [tissue oxygenation index (TOIM)] and frontal cortex (TOIC) by near-infrared spectroscopy, were measured. Muscle O2 uptake rate was estimated from change in oxyhemoglobin concentration during a 10-min arterial occlusion in m. gastrocnemius. Maximal oxygen consumption in normoxia was 70 2 mlmin(-1)kg(-1) in ATL vs. 43 2 mlmin(-1)kg(-1) in CON, and in hypoxia decreased more in ATL (-41%) than in CON (-25%, P < 0.05). Both in normoxia at PaO2 of ?95 Torr, and in hypoxia at PaO2 of ?35 Torr, muscle O2 uptake was twofold higher in ATL than in CON (0.12 vs. 0.06 mlmin(-1)100 g(-1); P < 0.05). During EX100W in hypoxia, PaO2 dropped to lower (P < 0.05) values in ATL (27.6 0.7 Torr) than in CON (33.5 1.0 Torr). During EXMAX, but not during EX100W, TOIM was ?15% lower in ATL than in CON (P < 0.05). TOIC was similar between the groups at any time. This study shows that maintenance of high muscular oxygen extraction rate at very low circulating PaO2 stimulates the development of hypoxemia during submaximal exercise in hypoxia in endurance-trained individuals. This effect may predispose to premature development of acute mountain sickness symptoms during exercise at altitude. PMID:26607244

  6. Phase Transformations of Cobalt Oxides in CoxOy-ZnO Multipod Nanostructures via Combustion from Thermopower Waves.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Yeol; Hwang, Hayoung; Choi, Wonjoon

    2015-09-01

    The study of combustion at the interfaces of materials and chemical fuels has led to developments in diverse fields such as materials chemistry and energy conversion. Recently, it has been suggested that thermopower waves can utilize chemical-thermal-electrical-energy conversion in hybrid structures comprising nanomaterials and combustible fuels to produce enhanced combustion waves with concomitant voltage generation. In this study, this is the first time that the direct phase transformation of Co-doped ZnO via instant combustion waves and its applications to thermopower waves is presented. It is demonstrated that the chemical combustion waves at the surfaces of Co3O4-ZnO multipod nanostructures (deep brown in color) enable direct phase transformations to newly formed CoO-ZnO(1-x) nanoparticles (olive green in color). The oxygen molecules are released from Co3O4-ZnO to CoO-ZnO(1-x) under high-temperature conditions in the reaction front regime in combustion, whereas the CoO-ZnO multipod nanoparticles do not undergo any transformations and thus do not experience any color change. This oxygen-release mechanism is applicable to thermopower waves, enhances the self-propagating combustion velocity, and forms lattice defects that interrupt the charge-carrier movements inside the nanostructures. The chemical transformation and corresponding energy transport observed in this study can contribute to diverse potential applications, including direct-combustion synthesis and energy conversion. PMID:26136292

  7. Barium carbonate nanoparticle to enhance oxygen reduction activity of strontium doped lanthanum ferrite for solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Tao; Chen, Fanglin; Xia, Changrong

    2015-03-01

    BaCO3 nanoparticles are demonstrated as outstanding catalysts for high-temperature oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the La0.8Sr0.2FeO3-? (LSF) cathode for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based on ytrria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes. Thermal gravitational and X-ray diffraction measurements show that BaCO3 is stable and chemically compatible with LSF under the fabrication and operation conditions of intermediate-temperature SOFCs. The BaCO3 nanoparticles can greatly reduce the interfacial polarization resistance; from 2.96 to 0.84 ? cm2 at 700 C when 12.9wt% BaCO3 is infiltrated to the porous LSF electrode on the YSZ electrolyte. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that there is about one order of magnitude decrease in the low-frequency resistance, indicating that BaCO3 nanoparticles can greatly enhance the surface steps for ORR. Electrical conductivity relaxation investigation indicates about one order of magnitude increase in the chemical oxygen surface exchange coefficient when BaCO3 is applied, directly demonstrating significant increase in the kinetics for ORR. In addition, LSF cathodes with infiltrated BaCO3 nanoparticles have shown excellent stability and substantially enhanced cell performance as demonstrated with single cells, suggesting BaCO3 nanoparticles are very effective in enhancing ORR on LSF.

  8. Enhanced Adhesion of Campylobacter jejuni to Abiotic Surfaces Is Mediated by Membrane Proteins in Oxygen-Enriched Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sulaeman, Sheiam; Hernould, Mathieu; Schaumann, Annick; Coquet, Laurent; Bolla, Jean-Michel; D, Emmanuelle; Tresse, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for the major foodborne bacterial enteritis in humans. In contradiction with its fastidious growth requirements, this microaerobic pathogen can survive in aerobic food environments, suggesting that it must employ a variety of protection mechanisms to resist oxidative stress. For the first time, C. jejuni 81176 inner and outer membrane subproteomes were analyzed separately using two-dimensional protein electrophoresis (2-DE) of oxygen-acclimated cells and microaerobically grown cells. LC-MS/MS analyses successfully identified 42 and 25 spots which exhibited a significantly altered abundance in the IMP-enriched fraction and in the OMP-enriched fraction, respectively, in response to oxidative conditions. These spots corresponded to 38 membrane proteins that could be grouped into different functional classes: (i) transporters, (ii) chaperones, (iii) fatty acid metabolism, (iv) adhesion/virulence and (v) other metabolisms. Some of these proteins were up-regulated at the transcriptional level in oxygen-acclimated cells as confirmed by qRT-PCR. Downstream analyses revealed that adhesion of C. jejuni to inert surfaces and swarming motility were enhanced in oxygen-acclimated cells or paraquat-stressed cells, which could be explained by the higher abundance of membrane proteins involved in adhesion and biofilm formation. The virulence factor CadF, over-expressed in the outer membrane of oxygen-acclimated cells, contributes to the complex process of C. jejuni adhesion to inert surfaces as revealed by a reduction in the capability of C. jejuni 81176 ?CadF cells compared to the isogenic strain. Taken together, these data demonstrate that oxygen-enriched conditions promote the over-expression of membrane proteins involved in both the biofilm initiation and virulence of C. jejuni. PMID:23029510

  9. A review of the compatibility of structural materials with oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, A. F.; Hust, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    Consideration of the problem of ignition and combustion of structural materials, particularly metals, which may come in contact with oxygen during its production, transport, and use. Following a review of the historical development of compatibility problems and research, a detailed account is given of compatibility testing methods aimed at detecting probable ignition sources, such as mechanical impact, electric sparks or flashes, heat, sound waves, abrasion, and surface fractures. A summary is presented of the ignition and combustion research reported in the literature, dwelling particularly on papers concerning oxygen-related accidents and the compatibility of metals with high-pressure oxygen. The relative oxygen compatibility of a number of common materials is discussed, including that of nickel and copper alloys, stainless steels, aluminum alloys, and titanium alloys. Finally, an effort is made to pinpoint research areas which would enhance understanding of the compatibility of bulk materials.

  10. Enhancing the performance of catalytic AuPt nanoparticles in nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Meihua; Chen, Dongyun; Xu, Chaohe; Zhan, Yi; Lee, Jim Yang

    2015-07-01

    The deposition of catalytic AuPt (1 : 1) nanoparticles (NPs) into hollow mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon microspheres (HMCMS) was found to significantly improve the effectiveness of the catalysis of oxygen reactions in nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries (LOBs); surpassing the performance of unsupported AuPt NPs or HMCMS in discharge and charge overpotentials (lower), specific capacity and rate performance (higher), and cycle life (longer). Specifically at a typical current density of 100 mA g-1, a LOB with the AuPt/HMCMS cathode catalyst could provide discharge and charge capacities of 6028 and 6000 mA h g-1 respectively and a charge-discharge voltage gap of only 1.27 V. The discharge capacity decreased by 5% when the current density was doubled, and by 23% when the current density was quintupled. The AuPt/HMCMS LOB could be cycled 75 times for a depth of discharge (DOD) of 1000 mA h g-1 without exceeding the charge cut-off voltage of 4.4 V. These measurements indicate that the HMCMS is an outstanding catalyst support to use for increasing the effectiveness of oxygen electrocatalysts in the LOBs.The deposition of catalytic AuPt (1 : 1) nanoparticles (NPs) into hollow mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon microspheres (HMCMS) was found to significantly improve the effectiveness of the catalysis of oxygen reactions in nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries (LOBs); surpassing the performance of unsupported AuPt NPs or HMCMS in discharge and charge overpotentials (lower), specific capacity and rate performance (higher), and cycle life (longer). Specifically at a typical current density of 100 mA g-1, a LOB with the AuPt/HMCMS cathode catalyst could provide discharge and charge capacities of 6028 and 6000 mA h g-1 respectively and a charge-discharge voltage gap of only 1.27 V. The discharge capacity decreased by 5% when the current density was doubled, and by 23% when the current density was quintupled. The AuPt/HMCMS LOB could be cycled 75 times for a depth of discharge (DOD) of 1000 mA h g-1 without exceeding the charge cut-off voltage of 4.4 V. These measurements indicate that the HMCMS is an outstanding catalyst support to use for increasing the effectiveness of oxygen electrocatalysts in the LOBs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM, BET, XRD and XPS of the AuPt/HMCMS composite. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03061g

  11. Effects of Pin-up Oxygen on [60]Fullerene for Enhanced Antioxidant Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubayashi, Kenji; Goto, Tadashi; Togaya, Kyoko; Kokubo, Ken; Oshima, Takumi

    2008-07-01

    The introduction of pin-up oxygen on C60, such as in the oxidized fullerenes C60O and C60On, induced noticeable increase in the antioxidant activity as compared to pristine C60. The water-soluble inclusion complexes of fullerenes C60O and C60On reacted with linoleic acid peroxyl radical 1.7 and 2.4 times faster, respectively.

  12. Biotic enhancement of weathering, atmospheric oxygen and carbon dioxide in the Neoproterozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, A.; Lenton, T.

    2003-04-01

    The Neoproterozoic (1000-544Ma BP) was a time of severe glaciations and a major transition from microscopic to macroscopic life forms. Here we develop the hypothesis that a rise in atmospheric oxygen in the Neoproterozoic was driven by the biological colonization of the land surface. If early forms of photosynthetic land life selectively weathered continental rock in order to extract nutrients, this would have led to an increase in the flux of biologically available phosphorus to the ocean. We show that recent models for coupled biogeochemical cycles, despite differences in the feedback mechanisms represented, predict this would lead to a rise in atmospheric oxygen concentration, consistent with biological and geochemical evidence. A rise in oxygen may in turn have provided a necessary condition for the evolution of animals with hard skeletons seen in the Cambrian explosion. Increased weathering of silicate rocks would also have caused a decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide, which could have been a causal factor in the Neoproterozoic glaciations.

  13. Enhancing the performance of catalytic AuPt nanoparticles in nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meihua; Chen, Dongyun; Xu, Chaohe; Zhan, Yi; Lee, Jim Yang

    2015-08-14

    The deposition of catalytic AuPt (1?:?1) nanoparticles (NPs) into hollow mesoporous nitrogen-doped carbon microspheres (HMCMS) was found to significantly improve the effectiveness of the catalysis of oxygen reactions in nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries (LOBs); surpassing the performance of unsupported AuPt NPs or HMCMS in discharge and charge overpotentials (lower), specific capacity and rate performance (higher), and cycle life (longer). Specifically at a typical current density of 100 mA g(-1), a LOB with the AuPt/HMCMS cathode catalyst could provide discharge and charge capacities of 6028 and 6000 mA h g(-1) respectively and a charge-discharge voltage gap of only 1.27 V. The discharge capacity decreased by 5% when the current density was doubled, and by 23% when the current density was quintupled. The AuPt/HMCMS LOB could be cycled 75 times for a depth of discharge (DOD) of 1000 mA h g(-1) without exceeding the charge cut-off voltage of 4.4 V. These measurements indicate that the HMCMS is an outstanding catalyst support to use for increasing the effectiveness of oxygen electrocatalysts in the LOBs. PMID:26165186

  14. Enhanced myocardial protection during ischemic arrest. Oxygenation of a crystalloid cardioplegic solution.

    PubMed

    Bodenhamer, R M; DeBoer, L W; Geffin, G A; O'Keefe, D D; Fallon, J T; Aretz, T H; Haas, G S; Daggett, W M

    1983-05-01

    To determine if, during elective cardiac arrest, the myocardial protection afforded by a cold (4 degrees C) crystalloid potassium cardioplegic solution could be improved by oxygenation of the solution, we placed 16 dogs on cardiopulmonary bypass and subjected their hearts to 4 hours of cold cardioplegic arrest. Group 1 hearts (n = 8) received aerated crystalloid solution perfused through the aortic root every 20 minutes. Group 2 hearts (n = 8) were treated identically except that the crystalloid cardioplegic solution was fully oxygenated. Left ventricular function curves (ejecting heart) were generated before arrest (control) and after 45 minutes of reperfusion. A cardiac output of 1,000 ml/min could be attained in only two hearts of Group 1 after reperfusion, whereas all but one heart of Group 2 had excellent functional preservation. Mean postreperfusion adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels in Group 1 and Group 2 hearts were 62% and 89% of control, respectively (p less than 0.01). Myocardial water content had increased significantly (p less than 0.002) after reperfusion in Group 1, but not in Group 2. During cardioplegic solution infusion, myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) was 1.42 +/- 0.15 ml O2/min/100 gm LV for Group 1 and 6.91 +/- 1.27 ml O2/min/100 gm LV for Group 2 (p less than 0.001). Oxygen consumed per minute of arrest was 0.027 +/- 0.003 ml O2/min/100 gm LV for Group 1 and 0.128 +/- 0.015 ml O2/min/100 gm LV for Group 2 (p less than 0.001). Postreperfusion ultrastructural evaluation of two of the Group 1 hearts revealed severe ischemic damage in contrast to the normal ultrastructural appearance of two of the Group 2 hearts. With careful attention given to maintenance of myocardial hypothermia and cardioplegic delivery methods, the myocardial protection afforded by an oxygenated crystalloid cardioplegic solution exceeds that provided by the aerated control and compares favorably with other methods of myocardial protection during ischemic arrest. PMID:6843158

  15. 3-D CFD Simulation and Validation of Oxygen-Rich Hydrocarbon Combustion in a Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injector using a Flamelet-Based Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Brian; Kenny, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Injector design is a critical part of the development of a rocket Thrust Chamber Assembly (TCA). Proper detailed injector design can maximize propulsion efficiency while minimizing the potential for failures in the combustion chamber. Traditional design and analysis methods for hydrocarbon-fuel injector elements are based heavily on empirical data and models developed from heritage hardware tests. Using this limited set of data produces challenges when trying to design a new propulsion system where the operating conditions may greatly differ from heritage applications. Time-accurate, Three-Dimensional (3-D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of combusting flows inside of injectors has long been a goal of the fluid analysis group at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the larger CFD modeling community. CFD simulation can provide insight into the design and function of an injector that cannot be obtained easily through testing or empirical comparisons to existing hardware. However, the traditional finite-rate chemistry modeling approach utilized to simulate combusting flows for complex fuels, such as Rocket Propellant-2 (RP-2), is prohibitively expensive and time consuming even with a large amount of computational resources. MSFC has been working, in partnership with Streamline Numerics, Inc., to develop a computationally efficient, flamelet-based approach for modeling complex combusting flow applications. In this work, a flamelet modeling approach is used to simulate time-accurate, 3-D, combusting flow inside a single Gas Centered Swirl Coaxial (GCSC) injector using the flow solver, Loci-STREAM. CFD simulations were performed for several different injector geometries. Results of the CFD analysis helped guide the design of the injector from an initial concept to a tested prototype. The results of the CFD analysis are compared to data gathered from several hot-fire, single element injector tests performed in the Air Force Research Lab EC-1 test facility located at Edwards Air Force Base.

  16. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Bismuth Precursor by Rapid Phase and Surface Transformation Using Structure-Guided Combustion Waves.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Yeol; Hwang, Hayoung; Kim, Tae Ho; Choi, Wonjoon

    2016-02-10

    The development of an efficient method for manipulating phase and surface transformations would facilitate the improvement of catalytic materials for use in a diverse range of applications. Herein, we present the first instance of a submicrosecond time frame direct phase and surface transformation of Bi(NO3)3 rods to nanoporous ?-Bi2O3 rods via structure-guided combustion waves. Hybrid composites of the prepared Bi(NO3)3H2O rods and organic fuel were fabricated by a facile preparation method. The anisotropic propagation of combustion waves along the interfacial boundaries of Bi(NO3)3H2O rods induced direct phase transformation to ?-Bi2O3 rods in the original structure due to the rapid pyrolysis, while the release of gas molecules enabled the formation of nanoporous structures on the surfaces of rods. The developed ?-Bi2O3 rods showed improved photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of rhodamine B in comparison with Bi(NO3)3H2O rods and ?-Bi2O3 rods due to the more suitable interdistance and the large contact areas of the porous surfaces. This new method of using structure-guided combustion waves for phase and surface transformation may contribute to the development of new catalysts as well as the precise manipulation of diverse micronanostructured materials. PMID:26765959

  17. Enhanced oxygen dissociation in a propagating constricted discharge formed in a self-pulsing atmospheric pressure microplasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrder, Daniel; Burhenn, Sebastian; Kirchheim, Dennis; Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker

    2013-11-01

    We report on the propagation of a constricted discharge feature in a repetitively self-pulsing microplasma jet operated in helium with a 0.075 vol% molecular oxygen admixture in ambient air environment. The constricted discharge is about 1 mm in width and repetitively ignites at the point of smallest electrode distance in a wedge-shaped electrode configuration, propagates through the discharge channel towards the nozzle, extinguishes, and re-ignites at the inlet at frequencies in the kHz range. It co-exists with a homogeneous, volume-dominated low temperature (T ? 300 K) ?-mode glow. Time-resolved measurements of nitrogen molecule C-state and nitrogen molecule ion B-state emission bands reveal an increase of the rotational temperature within the constricted discharge to about 600 K within 50 s. Its propagation velocity was determined by phase-resolved diagnostics to be similar to the gas velocity, in the order of 40 m s-1. Two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy synchronized to the self-pulsing reveals spatial regions of increased oxygen atom densities co-propagating with the constricted discharge feature. The generated oxygen pulse density is about ten times higher than in the co-existing homogeneous ?-mode. Densities reach about 1.5 1016 cm-3 at average temperatures of 450 K at the nozzle. This enhanced dissociation of about 80% is attributed to the continuous interaction of the constricted discharge to the co-propagating gas volume.

  18. Hydrogen/Oxygen Torch Ignitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repas, George A.

    1995-01-01

    Reliable device used to ignite variety of fuels. Used as general-purpose ignitor in other applications, or as hydrogen/oxygen torch. Operation of device straight-forward. Hydrogen and oxygen flow through separate ports into combustion chamber in device, where they ignite by use of surface-gap spark plug. Hot gases flow from this combustion chamber, through injector tube, into larger combustion chamber containing fuel-oxidizer mixture to be ignited.

  19. Structural features and enhanced high-temperature oxygen ion transport in SrFe{sub 1-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}

    SciTech Connect

    Markov, Alexey A.; Shalaeva, Elizaveta V.; Tyutyunnik, Alexander P.; Kuchin, Vasily V.; Patrakeev, Mikhail V.; Leonidov, Ilya A.; Kozhevnikov, Victor L.

    2013-01-15

    Structural features, oxygen non-stoichiometry and transport properties are studied in the oxide series SrFe{sub 1-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where x=0.2, 0.3 and 0.4. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy data evidence formation of the inhomogeneous materials at x=0.3 and 0.4, which include phase constituents with a cubic perovskite and a double perovskite structure types. The composition, the amount and the typical grain size of the phase inhomogeneities are shown to depend both on doping and oxygen content. The increased oxygen-ion conductivity is observed in oxygen depleted materials, which is explained by the increase in the amount of cubic perovskite-like phase and development of interfacial pathways favorable for enhanced oxygen ion transport. - Graphical abstract: The structural studies, oxygen content and conductivity measurements suggest that oxygen depletion from the double perovskite phase constituent of SrFe{sub 1-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} for x>0.2 is accompanied by formation of pathways for fast ion transport. Black-Small-Square Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The double perovskite type regions are shown to exist in SrFe{sub 1-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxygen depletion is accompanied with phase separation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase separation favors formation of pathways for enhanced oxygen ion transport.

  20. Enhanced Shrinkage of Lanthanum Strontium Manganite (La0.90Sr0.10MnO3+?) Resulting from Thermal and Oxygen Partial Pressure Cycling

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Ben; Pederson, Larry R.; Anderson, Harlan U.; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Singh, Prabhakar; Coffey, Greg W.; Thomsen, Ed C.

    2007-10-01

    Exposure of La0.9Sr0.1MnO3+? to repeated oxygen partial pressure cycles (air/10 ppm O2) resulted in enhanced densification rates, similar to behavior shown previously due to thermal cycling. Shrinkage rates in the temperature range 700 to 1000oC were orders of magnitude higher than Makipirtti-Meng model estimations based on stepwise isothermal dilatometry results at high temperature. A maximum in enhanced shrinkage due to oxygen partial pressure cycling occurred at 900oC. Shrinkage was greatest when LSM-10 bars that were first equilibrated in air were exposed to gas flows of lower oxygen fugacity than in the reverse direction. The former creates transient cation and oxygen vacancies well above the equilibrium concentration, resulting in enhanced mobility. These vacancies annihilate as Schottky equilibria is re-established, whereas the latter condition does not lead to excess vacancy concentrations.

  1. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  2. Flow enhances photosynthesis in marine benthic autotrophs by increasing the efflux of oxygen from the organism to the water.

    PubMed

    Mass, Tali; Genin, Amatzia; Shavit, Uri; Grinstein, Mor; Tchernov, Dan

    2010-02-01

    Worldwide, many marine coastal habitats are facing rapid deterioration due in part to human-driven changes in habitat characteristics, including changes in flow patterns, a factor known to greatly affect primary production in corals, algae, and seagrasses. The effect of flow traditionally is attributed to enhanced influx of nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) across the benthic boundary layer from the water to the organism however, here we report that the organism's photosynthetic response to changes in the flow is nearly instantaneous, and that neither nutrients nor DIC limits this rapid response. Using microelectrodes, dual-pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry, particle image velocimetry, and real time mass-spectrometry with the common scleractinian coral Favia veroni, the alga Gracilaria cornea, and the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, we show that this augmented photosynthesis is due to flow-driven enhancement of oxygen efflux from the organism to the water, which increases the affinity of the RuBisCO to CO(2). No augmentation of photosynthesis was found in the absence of flow or when flow occurred, but the ambient concentration of oxygen was artificially elevated. We suggest that water motion should be considered a fundamental factor, equivalent to light and nutrients, in determining photosynthesis rates in marine benthic autotrophs. PMID:20133799

  3. Oxygen stabilization induced enhancement in J(sub c) and T(sub c) of superconducting oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M. K.; Chen, J. T.; Huang, C. Y.

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to enhance the electrical and mechanical properties of the high temperature superconducting oxides, high T(sub c) composites were prepared composed of the 123 compounds and AgO. The presence of extra oxygen due to the decomposition of AgO at high temperature is found to stabilize the superconducting 123 phase. Ag is found to serve as clean flux for grain growth and precipitates as pinning center. Consequently, almost two orders of magnitude enhancement in critical current densities were also observed in these composites. In addition, these composites also show much improvement in workability and shape formation. On the other hand, proper oxygen treatment of Y5Ba6Cu11Oy was found to possibly stabilize superconducting phase with T(sub c) near 250 K. I-V, ac susceptibility, and electrical resistivity measurements indicate the existence of this ultra high T(sub c) phase in this compound. Detailed structure, microstructure, electrical, magnetic and thermal studies of the superconducting composites and the ultra high T(sub c) compound are presented and discussed.

  4. Flow enhances photosynthesis in marine benthic autotrophs by increasing the efflux of oxygen from the organism to the water

    PubMed Central

    Mass, Tali; Genin, Amatzia; Shavit, Uri; Grinstein, Mor; Tchernov, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many marine coastal habitats are facing rapid deterioration due in part to human-driven changes in habitat characteristics, including changes in flow patterns, a factor known to greatly affect primary production in corals, algae, and seagrasses. The effect of flow traditionally is attributed to enhanced influx of nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) across the benthic boundary layer from the water to the organism however, here we report that the organisms photosynthetic response to changes in the flow is nearly instantaneous, and that neither nutrients nor DIC limits this rapid response. Using microelectrodes, dual-pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry, particle image velocimetry, and real time mass-spectrometry with the common scleractinian coral Favia veroni, the alga Gracilaria cornea, and the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, we show that this augmented photosynthesis is due to flow-driven enhancement of oxygen efflux from the organism to the water, which increases the affinity of the RuBisCO to CO2. No augmentation of photosynthesis was found in the absence of flow or when flow occurred, but the ambient concentration of oxygen was artificially elevated. We suggest that water motion should be considered a fundamental factor, equivalent to light and nutrients, in determining photosynthesis rates in marine benthic autotrophs. PMID:20133799

  5. Enhanced Cellular Responses and Distinct Gene Profiles in Human Fetoplacental Artery Endothelial Cells under Chronic Low Oxygen1

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Wang, Kai; Li, Yan; Dai, Cai-Feng; Wang, Ping; Kendziorski, Christina; Chen, Dong-Bao; Zheng, Jing

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fetoplacental endothelial cells are exposed to oxygen levels ranging from 2% to 8% in vivo. However, little is known regarding endothelial function within this range of oxygen because most laboratories use ambient air (21% O2) as a standard culture condition (SCN). We asked whether human umbilical artery endothelial cells (HUAECs) that were steadily exposed to the physiological chronic normoxia (PCN, 3% O2) for ∼20–25 days differed in their proliferative and migratory responses to FGF2 and VEGFA as well as in their global gene expression compared with those in the SCN. We observed that PCN enhanced FGF2- and VEGFA-stimulated cell proliferation and migration. In oxygen reversal experiments (i.e., when PCN cells were exposed to SCN for 24 h and vice versa), we found that preexposure to 21% O2 decreased the migratory ability, but not the proliferative ability, of the PCN-HUAECs in response to FGF2 and VEGFA. These PCN-enhanced cellular responses were associated with increased protein levels of HIF1A and NOS3, but not FGFR1, VEGFR1, and VEGFR2. Microarray analysis demonstrated that PCN up-regulated 74 genes and down-regulated 86, 14 of which were directly regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors as evaluated using in silico analysis. Gene function analysis further indicated that the PCN-regulated genes were highly related to cell proliferation and migration, consistent with the results from our functional assays. Given that PCN significantly alters cellular responses to FGF2 and VEGFA as well as transcription in HUAECs, it is likely that we may need to reexamine the current cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling fetoplacental endothelial functions, which were largely derived from endothelial models established under ambient O2. PMID:24152727

  6. Binary and ternary doping of nitrogen, boron, and phosphorus into carbon for enhancing electrochemical oxygen reduction activity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang Hyuck; Park, Sung Hyeon; Woo, Seong Ihl

    2012-08-28

    N-doped carbon, a promising alternative to Pt catalyst for oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) in acidic media, is modified in order to increase its catalytic activity through the additional doping of B and P at the carbon growth step. This additional doping alters the electrical, physical, and morphological properties of the carbon. The B-doping reinforces the sp(2)-structure of graphite and increases the portion of pyridinic-N sites in the carbon lattice, whereas P-doping enhances the charge delocalization of the carbon atoms and produces carbon structures with many edge sites. These electrical and physical alternations of the N-doped carbon are more favorable for the reduction of the oxygen on the carbon surface. Compared with N-doped carbon, B,N-doped or P,N-doped carbon shows 1.2 or 2.1 times higher ORR activity at 0.6 V (vs RHE) in acidic media. The most active catalyst in the reaction is the ternary-doped carbon (B,P,N-doped carbon), which records -6.0 mA/mg of mass activity at 0.6 V (vs RHE), and it is 2.3 times higher than that of the N-doped carbon. These results imply that the binary or ternary doping of B and P with N into carbon induces remarkable performance enhancements, and the charge delocalization of the carbon atoms or number of edge sites of the carbon is a significant factor in deciding the oxygen reduction activity in carbon-based catalysts. PMID:22769428

  7. Accelerating aerobic DRO biodegradation in stream bank sediments through oxygen enhancements: Laboratory results and field pilot demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Sturman, P.J.; Cunningham, A.B.; Wemple, C.

    1997-12-31

    A novel technique has been developed for accomplishing in situ, aerobic bioremediation of low-temperature, low-permeability, high-organic carbon containing stream bank sediments impacted with diesel range petroleum hydrocarbons. Laboratory microcosms tests have demonstrated efficient removal of diesel range organics (DRO) when sediments are amended with oxygen-releasing and solubilizing compounds. This technique was conceived, designed and tested to provide a superior alternative to destructive and costly intrusive remediation for a fragile, pristine, riparian environment. Laboratory microcosm tests using sediments from a DRO impacted mountain stream were amended with surfactant (alcohol ethoxylate 810-4.5), a magnesium peroxide containing mixture (Oxygen Release Compound{reg_sign}, Regenesis, Inc.), hydrogen peroxide, and ethanol to determine the effects of these oxygen-enhancing and solubilizing amendments on biodegradation extent and DRO bioavailability. Laboratory test results and subsequent field toxicity testing using aquatic biota indicated the MgO, mixture to be most suitable for field use at this site. While laboratory microcosm tests showed significant reductions to both DRO and the water surface sheen associated with trapped hydrocarbons, biodegradation endpoints in the range of 500-1000 mg/kg were observed. These non-zero biotreatment endpoints suggest that biodegradation in situ is limited by DRO bioavailability. Because contaminant transport to groundwater and adjacent surface waters is very slow, exposure risk is minimal. Based on successful laboratory testing, a field pilot test was initiated in September 1996 wherein slurried Oxygen Release Compound{reg_sign} (ORC) was pressure-injected into shallow, DRO impacted stream bank sediments.

  8. Structurally ordered FePt nanoparticles and their enhanced catalysis for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Youngmin; Sun, Shouheng

    2010-04-14

    We report the structure-controlled synthesis of FePt/MgO NPs and their catalysis for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in 0.5 M H(2)SO(4) solution. The synthesis yields fcc-FePt/MgO and fct-FePt/MgO NPs with the MgO coating being readily removed for catalytic studies. The fct-FePt NPs show higher activity and durability than the fcc-FePt in the ORR condition. The results indicate that the fully ordered fct-FePt could serve as a practical Pt-based catalyst for fuel cell applications. PMID:20297818

  9. Enhanced SUMOylation and SENP-1 protein levels following oxygen and glucose deprivation in neurones

    PubMed Central

    Cimarosti, Helena; Ashikaga, Emi; Jaafari, Nadia; Dearden, Laura; Rubin, Philip; Wilkinson, Kevin A; Henley, Jeremy M

    2012-01-01

    Here, we show that oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) causes increased small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-1 and SUMO-2/3 conjugation to substrate proteins in cultured hippocampal neurones. Surprisingly, the SUMO protease SENP-1, which removes SUMO from conjugated proteins, was also increased by OGD, suggesting that the neuronal response to OGD involves a complex interplay between SUMOylation and deSUMOylation. Importantly, decreasing global SUMOylation in cultured hippocampal neurones by overexpression of the catalytic domain of SENP-1 increased neuronal vulnerability to OGD-induced cell death. Taken together, these results suggest a neuroprotective role for neuronal SUMOylation after OGD. PMID:21989481

  10. Discharge-driven electric oxygen-iodine laser superlinear enhancement via increasing g0L.

    PubMed

    Benavides, G F; Zimmerman, J W; Woodard, B S; Day, M T; King, D M; Carroll, D L; Palla, A D; Verdeyen, J T; Solomon, W C

    2012-05-01

    The authors report the development of an electric oxygen-iodine laser with higher output using a larger product of gain and gain length, g0L. A factor of 4.4 increase in laser power output on the 1315 nm atomic iodine transition was achieved with a factor of 3 increase in gain length. I(2P1/2) is pumped using energy transferred from O2(a1?) produced by flowing a gas mixture of O2-He-NO through three coaxial geometry radio-frequency discharges. Continuous wave (CW) average total laser power of 481 W was extracted with g0L=0.042. PMID:22555687

  11. Engineering the oxygen sensing regulation results in an enhanced recombinant human hemoglobin production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Martínez, José L; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Efficient production of appropriate oxygen carriers for transfusions (blood substitutes or artificial blood) has been pursued for many decades, and to date several strategies have been used, from synthetic polymers to cell-free hemoglobin carriers. The recent advances in the field of metabolic engineering also allowed the generation of different genetically modified organisms for the production of recombinant human hemoglobin. Several studies have showed very promising results using the bacterium Escherichia coli as a production platform, reporting hemoglobin titers above 5% of the total cell protein content. However, there are still certain limitations regarding the protein stability and functionality of the recombinant hemoglobin produced in bacterial systems. In order to overcome these limitations, yeast systems have been proposed as the eukaryal alternative. We recently reported the generation of a set of plasmids to produce functional human hemoglobin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with final titers of active hemoglobin exceeding 4% of the total cell protein. In this study, we propose a strategy for further engineering S. cerevisiae by altering the oxygen sensing pathway by deleting the transcription factor HAP1, which resulted in an increase of the final recombinant active hemoglobin titer exceeding 7% of the total cellular protein. PMID:25082441

  12. Transgenic tobacco expressing a foreign calmodulin gene shows an enhanced production of active oxygen species.

    PubMed Central

    Harding, S A; Oh, S H; Roberts, D M

    1997-01-01

    A strategy for elucidating specific molecular targets of calcium and calmodulin in plant defense responses has been developed. We have used a dominant-acting calmodulin mutant (VU-3, Lys to Arg115) to investigate the oxidative burst and nicotinamide co-enzyme fluxes after various stimuli (cellulase, harpin, incompatible bacteria, osmotic and mechanical) that elicit plant defense responses in transgenic tobacco cell cultures. VU-3 calmodulin differs from endogenous plant calmodulin in that it cannot be methylated post-translationally, and as a result it hyperactivates calmodulin-dependent NAD kinase. Cells expressing VU-3 calmodulin exhibited a stronger active oxygen burst that occurred more rapidly than in normal control cells challenged with the same stimuli. Increases in NADPH level were also greater in VU-3 cells and coincided both in timing and magnitude with development of the active oxygen species (AOS) burst. These data show that calmodulin is a target of calcium fluxes in response to elicitor or environmental stress, and provide the first evidence that plant NAD kinase may be a downstream target which potentiates AOS production by altering NAD(H)/NADP(H) homeostasis. PMID:9135130

  13. Reduction of blood oxygen levels enhances postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in Burmese python (Python bivittatus).

    PubMed

    Slay, Christopher E; Enok, Sanne; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias

    2014-05-15

    Physiological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by reversible enlargement of cardiomyocytes and changes in chamber architecture, which increase stroke volume and via augmented convective oxygen transport. Cardiac hypertrophy is known to occur in response to repeated elevations of O2 demand and/or reduced O2 supply in several species of vertebrate ectotherms, including postprandial Burmese pythons (Python bivittatus). Recent data suggest postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in P. bivittatus is a facultative rather than obligatory response to digestion, though the triggers of this response are unknown. Here, we hypothesized that an O2 supply-demand mismatch stimulates postprandial cardiac enlargement in Burmese pythons. To test this hypothesis, we rendered animals anemic prior to feeding, essentially halving blood oxygen content during the postprandial period. Fed anemic animals had heart rates 126% higher than those of fasted controls, which, coupled with a 71% increase in mean arterial pressure, suggests fed anemic animals were experiencing significantly elevated cardiac work. We found significant cardiac hypertrophy in fed anemic animals, which exhibited ventricles 39% larger than those of fasted controls and 28% larger than in fed controls. These findings support our hypothesis that those animals with a greater magnitude of O2 supply-demand mismatch exhibit the largest hearts. The 'low O2 signal' stimulating postprandial cardiac hypertrophy is likely mediated by elevated ventricular wall stress associated with postprandial hemodynamics. PMID:24311803

  14. Evidence for enhanced phosphorus regeneration from marine sediments overlain by oxygen depleted waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ingall, E.; Jahnki, R.

    1994-06-01

    Phosphorus regeneration and burial fluxes determined from in situ benthic flux chamber and solid phase measurements at sites on the Californian continental margin, Peruvian continental slope, North Carolina continental slope, and from the Santa Monica basin, California are reported. Comparison of these sites indicates that O{sub 2}-depleted bottomwaters enhance P regeneration from sediments, diminishing overall phosphorus burial efficiency. Based on these observations, a positive feedback, linking ocean anoxia, enhanced benthic phosphorus regeneration, and marine productivity is proposed. On shorter timescales, these results also suggest that O{sub 2} depletion in coastal regions caused by eutrophication may enhance P regeneration from sediments, thereby providing additional P necessary for increased biological productivity. 42 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Enhancing nitrogen use efficiency of cereal crops by optimizing temperature, moisture, balanced nutrients, and oxygen bioavailability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancement of nutrient use efficiency is imperative for increasing economic returns and reduction of environmental pollution caused by fertilization in crop production systems. In this paper, we have demonstrated at a given soil temperature and nitrogen (N) rate, N loss via ammonia (NH3) emission f...

  16. Covalent grafting of carbon nanotubes with a biomimetic heme model compound to enhance oxygen reduction reactions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ping-Jie; Yu, Guo-Qiang; Naruta, Yoshinori; Liu, Jin-Gang

    2014-06-23

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is one of the most important reactions in both life processes and energy conversion systems. The replacement of noble-metal Pt-based ORR electrocatalysts by nonprecious-metal catalysts is crucial for the large-scale commercialization of automotive fuel cells. Inspired by the mechanisms of dioxygen activation by metalloenzymes, herein we report a structurally well-defined, bio-inspired ORR catalyst that consists of a biomimetic model compound-an axial imidazole-coordinated porphyrin-covalently attached to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Without pyrolysis, this bio-inspired electrocatalyst demonstrates superior ORR activity and stability compared to those of the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst in both acidic and alkaline solutions, thus making it a promising alternative as an ORR electrocatalyst for application in fuel-cell technology. PMID:24842193

  17. Enhanced oxygen evolution activity of IrO2 and RuO2 (100) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Stoerzinger, Kelsey; Qiao, Liang; Biegalski, Michael D; Christen, Hans M; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The activities of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on IrO2 and RuO2 catalysts are among the highest known to date. However, the intrinsic OER activities of surfaces with defined crystallographic orientations are not well established experimentally. Here we report that the (100) surface of IrO2 and RuO2 is more active than the (110) surface that has been traditionally explored by density functional theory studies. The relation between the OER activity and density of coordinatively undersaturated metal sites exposed on each rutile crystallographic facet is discussed. The surface-orientation dependent activities can guide the design of high-surface-area catalysts with increased activity for electrolyzers, metal-air batteries, and photoelectrochemical water splitting applications.

  18. Enhanced electrocatalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles supported on functionalized graphene for methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junhong; Wang, Li; Mu, Xue; Cao, Yali

    2015-11-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is modified with 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride (methyl viologen, i.e. MV) by a ?-? interaction, and further used as support for immobilization of Pt nanoparticles to prepare a Pt/MV-RGO catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to characterize the morphology and microstructure of the prepared catalyst. Electrocatalytic performance of the as-prepared Pt/MV-RGO hybrid is investigated by cyclic voltammetry, linear scan voltammetry, COads stripping voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The Pt/MV-RGO hybrid exhibits much higher catalytic activities than Pt/RGO toward both methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction, suggesting that Pt/MV-RGO hybrid could be a promising electrocatalyst for high-performance direct methanol fuel cells applications. PMID:26164241

  19. Laboratory investigations of stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratio data enhance monitoring of CO2 underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Johannes A. C.; Myrttinen, Anssi; Becker, Veith; Nowak, Martin; Mayer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Stable carbon and oxygen isotope data play an important role in monitoring CO2 in the subsurface, for instance during carbon capture and storage (CCS). This includes monitoring of supercritical and gaseous CO2 movement and reactions under reservoir conditions and detection of potential CO2 leakage scenarios. However, in many cases isotope data from field campaigns are either limited due to complex sample retrieval or require verification under controlled boundary conditions. Moreover, experimentally verified isotope fractionation factors are also accurately known only for temperatures and pressures lower than commonly found in CO2 reservoirs (Myrttinen et al., 2012). For this reason, several experimental series were conducted in order to investigate effects of elevated pressures, temperatures and salinities on stable carbon and oxygen isotope changes of CO2 and water. These tests were conducted with a heateable pressure device and with glass or metal gas containers in which CO2 reacted with fluids for time periods of hours to several weeks. The obtained results revealed systematic differences in 13C/12C-distributions between CO2 and the most important dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) species under reservoir conditions (CO2(aq), H2CO3 and HCO3-). Since direct measurements of the pH, even immediately after sampling, were unreliable due to rapid CO2 de-gassing, one of the key results of this work is that carbon isotope fractionation data between DIC and CO2 may serve to reconstruct in situ pH values. pH values reconstructed with this approach ranged between 5.5 and 7.4 for experiments with 60 bars and up to 120 C and were on average 1.4 pH units lower than those measured with standard pH electrodes directly after sampling. In addition, pressure and temperature experiments with H2O and CO2 revealed that differences between the oxygen isotope ratios of both phases depended on temperature, water-gas ratios as well as salt contents of the solutions involved. Such systematic knowledge of the extent of oxygen isotope fractionation between H2O and CO2 can help to reconstruct equilibration times, fluid-CO2 ratios as well as temperature and salinity conditions. Isotope results from systematic laboratory studies and the information they provide for assessing in situ reservoir conditions can be transferred to field applications concerning integrity of CO2 reservoirs. They can also apply to natural systems and other industrial uses that involve monitoring of gases in the subsurface under similar pressure and temperature conditions. Reference: Myrttinen, A., Becker, V., Barth, J.A.C., 2012. A review of methods used for equilibrium isotope fractionation investigations between dissolved inorganic carbon and CO2. Earth-Science Reviews, 115(3): 192-199.

  20. Labor Contractions Enhance Oxygenation and Behavioral Activity of Newborn Rat Pups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, N. A.; Baer, L. A.; Ronca, A. E.; Balton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Labor contractions help instigate behavioral responses at birth (viz., breathing and suckling) that are vital for the newborn's adaptation to the extrauterine world (Ronca et al., 1996). In the present study, we analyzed the role of labor contractions in postpartum oxygenation and behavioral activity of newborn rat pups. Newborns were observed following either vaginal (V) or cesarean delivery. For cesarean delivery, day 21 pregnant dams' were administered a spinal transaction to eliminate lower body sensation, a laparotomy was performed and the uterus was maintained in a heated (37.5 C) bath. Four rat fetuses in one of the dams' paired uterine horn were compressed (C) to Simulate labor contractions (20 sec/min for 10 min) while four fetuses in the opposite horn were not compressed (NC). Fetuses were surgically removed from the uterus, stroked with a soft brush to mimic postnatal licking by the dam, the umbilical cord occluded. Pups were exposed to room temperature (22 C) for one hr, then nest temperature (33 C) for one hr. PO2, CO2, and O2, saturation were determined at 0, 30, 60, or 120 min post delivery using a blood gas analyzer. V and C delivered neonates showed comparable rates of PO2, CO2 and O2 saturation whereas NC neonates showed depressed levels at all time points (p<0.05). Respiratory rates of V, C and NC neonates increased significantly (p<0.05) over the first two postpartum hrs and did not differ across groups. Postpartum behavioral activity was significantly greater in V and C conditions and positively correlated with postnatal oxygenation. These findings provide further evidence for importance of labor contractions in early postpartum adaptation.

  1. Toward a Full Simulation of the Basic Oxygen Furnace: Deformation of the Bath Free Surface and Coupled Transfer Processes Associated with the Post-Combustion in the Gas Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doh, Y.; Chapelle, P.; Jardy, A.; Djambazov, G.; Pericleous, K.; Ghazal, G.; Gardin, P.

    2013-06-01

    The present article treats different phenomena taking place in a steelmaking converter through the development of two separate models. The first model describes the cavity produced at the free surface of the metal bath by the high-speed impinging oxygen jet. The model is based on a zonal approach, where gas compressibility effects are taken into account only in the high velocity jet region, while elsewhere the gas is treated as incompressible. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is employed to follow the deformation of the bath free surface. Calculations are presented for two- and three-phase systems and compared against experimental data obtained in a cold model experiment presented in the literature. The influence on the size and shape of the cavity of various parameters and models (including the jet inlet boundary conditions, the VOF advection scheme, and the turbulence model) is studied. Next, the model is used to simulate the interaction of a supersonic oxygen jet with the surface of a liquid steel bath in a pilot-scale converter. The second model concentrates on fluid flow, heat transfer, and the post-combustion reaction in the gas phase above the metal bath. The model uses the simple chemical reaction scheme approach to describe the transport of the chemical species and takes into account the consumption of oxygen by the bath and thermal radiative transfer. The model predictions are in reasonable agreement with measurements collected in a laboratory experiment and in a pilot-scale furnace.

  2. Emission assessment from full-scale co-combustion tests of binder- enhanced dRDF pellets and high sulfur coal at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsson, O.O.; Livengood, C.D. ); Daugherty, K.E. )

    1990-06-04

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and University of North Texas (UNT) research teams collected over 800 emissions and ash samples during the combustion of over 650 tons of binder enhanced densified refuse-drived fuel (b-dRDF) pellets with high sulfur coal in a spreader-stoker boiler at ANL. This full-scale test burn was conducted to validate predictions from laboratory and pilot scale test results that indicated substantial reductions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} in the flue gas, and the reduction of heavy metals and organics in the ash residue, when combusting the b-dRDF pellets with coal. Effects of varying fuel composition on performance of the boiler's spray-dryer/fabric filter emissions control system was also evaluated. This paper describes the b-dRDF pellet/coal cofiring tests, the emission and ash samples that were taken, the analyses that were conducted on these samples, and the final test results. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Enhancement of oxygen vacancies and solar photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide by incorporation of nonmetal

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, Ashokrao B.; Patil, Kashinath R.; Pardeshi, Satish K.

    2011-12-15

    B-doped ZnO and N-doped ZnO powders have been synthesized by mechanochemical method and characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. X-ray diffraction data suggests the hexagonal wurtzite structure for modified ZnO crystallites and the incorporation of nonmetal expands the lattice constants of ZnO. The room temperature PL spectra suggest more number of oxygen vacancies exist in nonmetal-doped ZnO than that of undoped zinc oxide. XPS analysis shows the substitution of some of the O atoms of ZnO by nonmetal atoms. Solar photocatalytic activity of B-doped ZnO, N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO was compared by means of oxidative photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of Bisphenol A (BPA). B-doped ZnO showed better solar PCD efficiency as compare to N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO. The PCD of BPA follows first order reaction kinetics. The detail mechanism of PCD of Bisphenol A was proposed with the identification of intermediates such as hydroquinone, benzene-1,2,4-triol and 4-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl) phenol. - Graphical Abstract: B-doped ZnO and N-doped ZnO synthesized by mechanochemical method were characterized by various techniques. Solar photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol-A is in the order of B-ZnO>N-ZnO>ZnO. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer B-doped ZnO and N-doped ZnO powders have been synthesized by mechanochemical method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL spectra suggest oxygen vacancies are in order of B-doped ZnO>N-doped ZnO>ZnO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solar PCD efficiency is in order of B-doped ZnO>N-doped ZnO>ZnO for Bisphenol A.

  4. A pilot test of passive oxygen release for enhancement of in situ bioremediation of BTEX-contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, S.W.; Byerley, B.T.; Smyth, D.J.A.; Mackay, D.M.

    1997-09-01

    A pilot-scale field demonstration of the use of Oxygen Release Compound{trademark} (ORC) was conducted at the site of a former gasoline service station. ORC was installed into a barrier consisting of a tight pattern of treatment wells located relatively near the apparent source of hydrocarbon contamination. The purpose of the barrier was to enhance in situ biodegradation of BTEX in ground water by the passive release of oxygen from the unpumped treatment wells placed across the migration path of the plume. Detailed monitoring was carried out using fencelines of multilevel monitoring wells located up- and downgradient of the barrier. Total BTEX concentrations influent to the barrier were found to be highly variable in space and time. Total influent BTEX concentrations averaged on a cross section transverse to flow were less variable over time, ranging from 10 to 16 mg/L. Significant decreases in BTEX mass flux through the zone impacted by the treatment wells were observed. For the entire portion of the plume impacted by the treatment wells, estimated BTEX treatment efficiency was approximately 70% on Day 51 of the test and declined thereafter.

  5. Structurally ordered intermetallic platinum-cobalt core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced activity and stability as oxygen reduction electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deli; Xin, Huolin L; Hovden, Robert; Wang, Hongsen; Yu, Yingchao; Muller, David A; DiSalvo, Francis J; Abrua, Hctor D

    2013-01-01

    To enhance and optimize nanocatalyst performance and durability for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel-cell applications, we look beyond Pt-metal disordered alloys and describe a new class of Pt-Co nanocatalysts composed of ordered Pt(3)Co intermetallic cores with a 2-3 atomic-layer-thick platinum shell. These nanocatalysts exhibited over 200% increase in mass activity and over 300% increase in specific activity when compared with the disordered Pt(3)Co alloy nanoparticles as well as Pt/C. So far, this mass activity for the oxygen reduction reaction is the highest among the Pt-Co systems reported in the literature under similar testing conditions. Stability tests showed a minimal loss of activity after 5,000 potential cycles and the ordered core-shell structure was maintained virtually intact, as established by atomic-scale elemental mapping. The high activity and stability are attributed to the Pt-rich shell and the stable intermetallic Pt(3)Co core arrangement. These ordered nanoparticles provide a new direction for catalyst performance optimization for next-generation fuel cells. PMID:23104154

  6. Ultraviolet radiation has no effect on respiratory oxygen consumption or enhanced post-illumination respiration in three species of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Heraud, Philip; Beardall, John

    2002-11-01

    A 30-min exposure to UV-B radiation (1.1 Wm(-2), unweighted) from a xenon arc lamp caused pronounced inhibition (33-78%) of net photosynthetic oxygen production in three species of microalgae, Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, Dunaliella tertiolecta Butcher and Wolozynskia sp., however, no statistical differences (t-test, alpha=0.05) in dark-respiration rates were found between the control group and the UV-treated group, for any of the species tested. These results indicate: (i) that the respiratory processes responsible for oxygen consumption do not sustain any appreciable impairment registered in the first half-hour after ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure; and (ii) any change in respiration that may occur in response to increased repair demands is not detected in this period. Dark-respiration rates were observed to be significantly higher in all species tested (17-29%; t-test, alpha=0.05) following illumination with photosynthetically active radiation, compared to dark-respiration before illumination. This increase, interpreted as enhanced post-illumination respiration (EPIR), was observed in all three species. The magnitude of this increase was not affected by prior exposure to UVR. PMID:12468205

  7. Droplet Combustion Experiment movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (1.1 MB, 12-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available)A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300164.html.

  8. Droplet Combustion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 mission (STS-83, April 4-8 1997; the shortened mission was reflown as MSL-1R on STS-94). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (199KB JPEG, 1311 x 1477 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300165.html.

  9. Droplet Combustion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) was designed to investigate the fundamental combustion aspects of single, isolated droplets under different pressures and ambient oxygen concentrations for a range of droplet sizes varying between 2 and 5 mm. The DCE principal investigator was Forman Williams, University of California, San Diego. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations plarned for the International Space Station. (120KB JPEG, 655 x 736 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300167.html.

  10. Selective electrodesorption based atomic layer deposition (SEBALD) modifications of silver surfaces for enhancing oxygen reduction reaction activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innocenti, M.; Zangari, G.; Zafferoni, C.; Bencist, I.; Becucci, L.; Lavacchi, A.; Di Benedetto, F.; Bellandi, S.; Vizza, F.; Foresti, M. L.

    2013-11-01

    The increasing attention addressed toward the synergic effect of various metals on the catalysis of one of the most important electrocatalytic reaction, such as the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR), led us to study the effect of monolayers of Fe and of mixed Fe and Co on Ag(111), whose catalytic activity is already known and well characterized. Fe and Co/Fe clusters were obtained by the Selective Electrodesorption Based Atomic Layer Deposition (SEBALD) method, which is a novel electrochemical route to deposit metal clusters on a foreign substrate recently proposed by our group. SEBALD of Fe or Co/Fe resulted in an enhanced catalytic activity; Co/Fe in particular was demonstrated to assemble in small clusters, providing access of the electrolyte to Ag and enabling a bimetallic catalytic effect.

  11. FePt nanoparticles assembled on graphene as enhanced catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaojun; Sun, Shouheng

    2012-02-01

    Seven-nanometer FePt nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and assembled on graphene (G) by a solution-phase self-assembly method. These G/FePt NPs were a more active and durable catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in 0.1 M HClO(4) than the same NPs or commercial Pt NPs deposited on conventional carbon support. The G/FePt NPs annealed at 100 C for 1 h under Ar + 5% H(2) exhibited specific ORR activities of 1.6 mA/cm(2) at 0.512 V and 0.616 mA/cm(2) at 0.557 V (vs Ag/AgCl). As a comparison, the commercial Pt NPs (2-3 nm) had specific activities of 0.271 and 0.07 mA/cm(2) at the same potentials. The G/FePt NPs were also much more stable in the ORR condition and showed nearly no activity change after 10?000 potential sweeps. The work demonstrates that G is indeed a promising support to improve NP activity and durability for practical catalytic applications. PMID:22279956

  12. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as radiosensitizer via enhanced reactive oxygen species formation

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Stefanie; Sommer, Anja; Distel, Luitpold V.R.; Neuhuber, Winfried; Kryschi, Carola

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasmall citrate-coated SPIONs with {gamma}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} structure were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPIONs uptaken by MCF-7 cells increase the ROS production for about 240%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SPION induced ROS production is due to released iron ions and catalytically active surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Released iron ions and SPION surfaces initiate the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray irradiation of internalized SPIONs leads to an increase of catalytically active surfaces. -- Abstract: Internalization of citrate-coated and uncoated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells was verified by transmission electron microscopy imaging. Cytotoxicity studies employing metabolic and trypan blue assays manifested their excellent biocompatibility. The production of reactive oxygen species in iron oxide nanoparticle loaded MCF-7 cells was explained to originate from both, the release of iron ions and their catalytically active surfaces. Both initiate the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. Additional oxidative stress caused by X-ray irradiation of MCF-7 cells was attributed to the increase of catalytically active iron oxide nanoparticle surfaces.

  13. Electron transport chain inhibitors induce microglia activation through enhancing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Ye, Junli; Jiang, Zhongxin; Chen, Xuehong; Liu, Mengyang; Li, Jing; Liu, Na

    2016-01-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are believed to be mediators of excessive microglial activation, yet the resources and mechanism are not fully understood. Here we stimulated murine microglial BV-2 cells and primary microglial cells with different inhibitors of electron transport chain (ETC), rotenone, thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA), antimycin A, and NaN3 to induce mitochondrial ROS production and we observed the role of mitochondrial ROS in microglial activation. Our results showed that ETC inhibitors resulted in significant changes in cell viability, microglial morphology, cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial ROS production in a dose-dependent manner in both primary cultural microglia and BV-2 cell lines. Moreover, ETC inhibitors, especially rotenone and antimycin A stimulated secretion of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) by microglia with marked activation of mitogen-activated proteinkinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which could be blocked by specific inhibitors of MAPK and NF-κB and mitochondrial antioxidants, Mito-TEMPO. Taken together, our results demonstrated that inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain in microglia led to production of mitochondrial ROS and therefore may activate MAPK/NF-кB dependent inflammatory cytokines release in microglia, which indicated that mitochondrial-derived ROS were contributed to microglial activation. PMID:26511505

  14. Enhancement of oxygen vacancies and solar photocatalytic activity of zinc oxide by incorporation of nonmetal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Ashokrao B.; Patil, Kashinath R.; Pardeshi, Satish K.

    2011-12-01

    B-doped ZnO and N-doped ZnO powders have been synthesized by mechanochemical method and characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. X-ray diffraction data suggests the hexagonal wurtzite structure for modified ZnO crystallites and the incorporation of nonmetal expands the lattice constants of ZnO. The room temperature PL spectra suggest more number of oxygen vacancies exist in nonmetal-doped ZnO than that of undoped zinc oxide. XPS analysis shows the substitution of some of the O atoms of ZnO by nonmetal atoms. Solar photocatalytic activity of B-doped ZnO, N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO was compared by means of oxidative photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of Bisphenol A (BPA). B-doped ZnO showed better solar PCD efficiency as compare to N-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO. The PCD of BPA follows first order reaction kinetics. The detail mechanism of PCD of Bisphenol A was proposed with the identification of intermediates such as hydroquinone, benzene-1,2,4-triol and 4-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl) phenol.

  15. Electrochemical deposition of silver on manganese dioxide coated reduced graphene oxide for enhanced oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyungmi; Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; Jeon, Seungwon

    2015-08-01

    We have prepared a reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-supported silver (Ag) and manganese dioxide (MnO2) deposited porous-like catalyst (denoted as rGO/MnO2/Ag) through a facile electrochemical deposition route and have been used as a cathode catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline fuel cells. The physical properties of rGO/MnO2/Ag have been investigated via several instrumental methods. This material exhibits a polycrystalline structure characterized by Ag/MnO2 microsphere formation as a result of Ostwald ripening. The X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data reveal that the MnO2 and Ag have been slightly alloyed and Mn presents with the dioxide form on rGO. The electrochemical properties of the electrocatalyst have been studied via several voltammetric methods. The results demonstrated that the rGO/MnO2/Ag has an excellent catalytic activity for ORR in alkaline media compared to the other tested electrodes. Particularly, it shows 1.2 times higher current density and better electron transfer rate at 0.3 V per O2 than that of 20 wt% Pt/C. The other kinetic analysis reveals that the O2 has reduced directly to H2O through a nearly four-electron pathway with better anodic fuel tolerance and duration performance than that of 20% Pt/C.

  16. 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene functionalized graphene with palladium nanoparticles for enhanced electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Ju Eun; Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; Jeon, Seungwon

    2015-05-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) functionalized graphene with palladium nanoparticles (denoted as Pd/PEDOT/rGO) has been synthesized for electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline solution. The structural features of catalyst are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The TEM images suggest a well dispersed PdNPs onto PEDOT/rGO film. The ORR activity of Pd/PEDOT/rGO has been investigated via cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE) and rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) techniques in 0.1 M KOH aqueous solution. Comparative CV analysis suggests a general approach of intermolecular charge-transfer in between graphene sheet and PdNPs via PEDOT which leads to the better PdNPs dispersion and subsequently superior ORR kinetics. The results from ORR measurements show that Pd/PEDOT/rGO has remarkable electrocatalytic activity and stability compared to Pd/rGO and state-of-the-art Pt/C. The Koutecky-Levich and Tafel analysis suggest that the proposed main path in the ORR mechanism has direct four-electron transfer process with faster transfer kinetic rate on the Pd/PEDOT/rGO.

  17. Preoperative mannitol infusion improves perioperative cerebral oxygen saturation and enhances postoperative recovery after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Wesam F.; Mowafi, Hany A.; Al-Metwalli, Roshdi R.; Al-Ghamdi, Abdulmohsin A.; Al-Gameel, Haytham Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To test the effect of preoperative mannitol infusion on perioperative decreased cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: Forty patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in this study conducted at Dammam Hospital of the University, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from December 2013 to June 2014. Patients received either 0.5 g/kg of 20% intravenous mannitol infusion over 10 minutes before induction of anesthesia (group M), or an equal volume of normal saline instead (group C). Primary outcome variable was rSO2. Other variables included extubation time, clinical assessment of consciousness recovery using the Modified Observers Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale (OAA/S), and the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) for cognitive evaluation. Results: Anesthesia induction increased rSO2 in both groups. Pneumoperitoneum decreased rSO2 in group C, but not in group M. This drop in rSO2 in the group C reached its maximum 30 minutes after extubation, and was significantly less than the preinduction value. Time to extubation in group M was significantly shorter compared to group C (p=0.007). The OAAS in group M at 10 min after extubation was significantly higher compared to group C. No differences were found between the 2 groups in cognitive function as measured by MMSE score. Conclusion: Preoperative mannitol infusion maintains perioperative rSO2 during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and shortens extubation time with earlier resurgence of OAAS. PMID:26446331

  18. Enhancement of tumor invasion depends on transdifferentiation of skin fibroblasts mediated by reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Cat, Bahar; Stuhlmann, Dominik; Steinbrenner, Holger; Alili, Lirija; Holtkötter, Olaf; Sies, Helmut; Brenneisen, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Myofibroblasts, pivotal for tumor progression, populate the microecosystem of reactive stroma. Using an in vitro tumor-stroma model of skin carcinogenesis, we report here that tumor-cell-derived transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) initiates reactive oxygen species-dependent expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, a biomarker for myofibroblastic cells belonging to a group of late-responsive genes. Moreover, protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in lipid hydroperoxide-triggered molecular events underlying transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts (mesenchymal-mesenchymal transition, MMT). In contrast to fibroblasts, myofibroblasts secrete large amounts of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), resulting in a significant increase in the invasive capacity of tumor cells. The thiol N-acetyl-L-cysteine, the micronutrient selenite as well as selenoprotein P and the lipid peroxidation inhibitors alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene significantly lower both the number of TGFbeta1-initiated myofibroblasts and the secretion of HGF, VEGF and IL-6, correlating with a diminished invasive capacity of tumor cells. This novel concept of stromal therapy, namely the protection of stromal cells against the dominating influence of tumor cells in tumor-stroma interaction by antioxidants and micronutrients, may form the basis for prevention of MMT in strategies for chemoprevention of tumor invasion. PMID:16757516

  19. Enhanced nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands: effects of dissolved oxygen and step-feeding.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengmin; Lu, Lun; Zheng, Xiang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Liang, Shuang; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Xiuwen

    2014-10-01

    Four horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCWs), named HSFCW1 (three-stage, without step-feeding), HSFCW2 (three-stage, with step-feeding), HSFCW3 (five-stage, without step-feeding) and HSFCW4 (five-stage, with step-feeding) were designed to investigate the effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) and step-feeding on nitrogen removal. High removal of 90.9% COD, 99.1% ammonium nitrogen and 88.1% total nitrogen (TN) were obtained simultaneously in HSFCW4 compared with HSFCW1-3. The excellent TN removal of HSFCW4 was due to artificial aeration provided sufficient DO for nitrification and the favorable anoxic environment created for denitrification. Step-feeding was a crucial factor because it provided sufficient carbon source (high COD: nitrate ratio of 14.3) for the denitrification process. Microbial activities and microbial abundance in HSFCW4 was found to be influenced by DO distribution and step-feeding, and thus improve TN removal. These results suggest that artificial aeration combined with step-feeding could achieve high nitrogen removal in HSFCWs. PMID:25069093

  20. Enhancement of electric oxygen-iodine laser performance using larger mode volume resonators.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Brian S; Benavides, Gabriel F; Zimmerman, Joseph W; Carroll, David L; Palla, Andrew D; Day, Michael T; Verdeyen, Joseph T; Solomon, Wayne C

    2010-05-15

    Herein the authors report on the demonstration of an 87% enhancement in cw laser power on the 1315 nm transition of atomic iodine via a 100% increase in the resonator mode volume. O(2)(a1Delta) is produced by a single rf-excited electric discharge sustained in an O(2)-He-NO gas mixture flowing through a rectangular geometry, and I(P2(1/2)) is then pumped using energy transferred from O(2)(a1Delta). A total laser output power of 102.5 W was obtained using a Z-pass resonator configuration. PMID:20479825

  1. Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Oxygen Evolution Reaction Ability of Iron-Derived Hematite Photoanode with Titanium Modification.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weitao; Huang, Yongchao; Long, Bei; Li, Haibo; Tong, Yexiang; Ji, Hongbing

    2015-12-21

    A facile fabrication route towards a titanium-modified hematite photoanode has been developed, and the photoelectrochemical properties of this anode have been evaluated. Compared to pristine hematite, the activity of the modified photoanode in this work delivered almost twofold higher photocurrent under Air Mass 1.5G illumination. Further research revealed that the enhanced performance of the hematite photoanode with a titanium-modified surface resulted from the dominant impact of heterojunction formation and suppressed surface recombination, supplemented by a slightly improved light-harnessing ability. PMID:26558337

  2. Green synthesis of silver nanoclusters supported on carbon nanodots: enhanced photoluminescence and high catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Minmin; Chen, Wei

    2013-11-01

    Metal nanoclusters exhibit unusual optical and catalytic properties due to their unique electronic structures. Here, surfactant-free silver nanoclusters supported on carbon nanodots were synthesized through a facile and green approach with only glucose and AgNO3 as precursors and without any other protecting ligands and reducing agents. The hybrid nanoclusters exhibited enhanced blue fluorescence compared to the carbon nanodots. More importantly, the ``surface-clean'' silver nanoclusters have remarkable electrocatalytic performance towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with the most efficient four-electron transfer process. Moreover, compared with commercial Pt/C catalyst, the Pt-free hybrid clusters showed comparable catalytic performance for ORR but much higher tolerance to methanol crossover. Such silver nanoclusters will provide broad applications in fluorescence-related areas and in fuel cells as an efficient Pt-free catalyst with low cost and high catalytic performance.Metal nanoclusters exhibit unusual optical and catalytic properties due to their unique electronic structures. Here, surfactant-free silver nanoclusters supported on carbon nanodots were synthesized through a facile and green approach with only glucose and AgNO3 as precursors and without any other protecting ligands and reducing agents. The hybrid nanoclusters exhibited enhanced blue fluorescence compared to the carbon nanodots. More importantly, the ``surface-clean'' silver nanoclusters have remarkable electrocatalytic performance towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with the most efficient four-electron transfer process. Moreover, compared with commercial Pt/C catalyst, the Pt-free hybrid clusters showed comparable catalytic performance for ORR but much higher tolerance to methanol crossover. Such silver nanoclusters will provide broad applications in fluorescence-related areas and in fuel cells as an efficient Pt-free catalyst with low cost and high catalytic performance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: UV-Vis absorption spectra, XPS, additional fluorescence, CV and RDE data of the samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04054b

  3. Time- and energy-efficient solution combustion synthesis of binary metal tungstate nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Abegayl; Janáky, Csaba; Samu, Gergely F; Huda, Muhammad N; Sarker, Pranab; Liu, J Ping; van Nguyen, Vuong; Wang, Evelyn H; Schug, Kevin A; Rajeshwar, Krishnan

    2015-05-22

    In the search for stable and efficient photocatalysts beyond TiO2 , the tungsten-based oxide semiconductors silver tungstate (Ag2 WO4 ), copper tungstate (CuWO4 ), and zinc tungstate (ZnWO4 ) were prepared using solution combustion synthesis (SCS). The tungsten precursor's influence on the product was of particular relevance to this study, and the most significant effects are highlighted. Each sample's photocatalytic activity towards methyl orange degradation was studied and benchmarked against their respective commercial oxide sample obtained by solid-state ceramic synthesis. Based on the results herein, we conclude that SCS is a time- and energy-efficient method to synthesize crystalline binary tungstate nanomaterials even without additional excessive heat treatment. As many of these photocatalysts possess excellent photocatalytic activity, the discussed synthetic strategy may open sustainable materials chemistry avenues to solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. PMID:26018624

  4. Investigation of chemical looping combustion by solid fuels. 2. redox reaction kinetics and product characterization with coal, biomass, and solid waste as solid fuels and CuO as an oxygen carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Cao; Bianca Casenas; Wei-Ping Pan

    2006-10-15

    This paper is the second in a series of two on the investigation of the chemical looping combustion (CLC) of solid fuels. The first paper put forward the concept of the CLC of solid fuels using a circulating fluidized bed as a reactor and Cu-CuO as the oxygen carrier, which was based on an analysis of oxygen transfer capability, reaction enthalpy, and chemical equilibrium. In this second paper, we report the results of the evaluation of the reduction of CuO reduced by solid fuels such as coal and some other 'opportunity' solid fuels. Tests on the reduction of CuO by the selected solid fuels were conducted using simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, which simulates a microreactor. An attached mass spectrometer (MS) was used for the characterization of evolved gaseous products. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for the characterization of the solid residues. Results strongly supported the feasibility of CuO reduction by selected solid fuels. CuO can be fully converted into Cu in a reduction process, either in a direct path by solid fuels, which was verified by MS analysis under a N{sub 2} atmosphere, or in an indirect path by pyrolysis and gasification products of solid fuels in the reducer. No Cu{sub 2}O exists in reducing atmospheres, which was characterized by an XRD analysis and mass balance calculations. No carbon deposit was found on the surface of the reduced Cu, which was characterized by SEM analysis. CuO reduction by solid fuels can start at temperatures as low as approximately 500 C. Tests indicated that the solid fuels with higher reactivity (higher volatile matter) would be desirable for the development of the chemical looping combustion process of solid fuels, such as sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal and solid waste and biomass. 4 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Thermal Model of the Promoted Combustion Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Peter D.

    1996-01-01

    Flammability of metals in high pressure, pure oxygen environments, such as rocket engine turbopumps, is commonly evaluated using the Promoted Combustion Test (PCT). The PCT emphasizes the ability of an ignited material to sustain combustion, as opposed to evaluating the sample's propensity to ignite in the first place. A common arrangement is a rod of the sample material hanging in a chamber in which a high pressure, pure oxygen environment is maintained. An igniter of some energetically combusting material is fixed to