Science.gov

Sample records for oxygen sensing properties

  1. Fabrication of Eu(III) complex doped nanofibrous membranes and their oxygen-sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Songzhu, Lin; Xiangting, Dong; Jinxian, Wang; Guixia, Liu; Wenshen, Yu; Ruokun, Jia

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis, characterization, and photophysical properties of Eu(TTA) 3ECIP, where TTA = 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate, and ECIP = 1-ethyl-2-(N-ethyl-carbazole-yl-4-)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline. Its elementary application for oxygen-sensing application is also investigated by doping it into a polymer matrix of polystyrene (PS). Experimental data suggest that the 2.5 wt% doped Eu(TTA) 3ECIP/PS nanofibrous membrane exhibits a high sensitivity of 3.4 towards oxygen with a good linear relationship of R2 = 0.9962. In addition, the 2.5 wt% doped Eu(TTA) 3ECIP/PS nanofibrous membrane owns a quick response of 8 s towards oxygen, along with its excellent atmosphere insensitivity and photobleaching resistance. All these results suggest that both Eu(TTA) 3ECIP and Eu(TTA) 3ECIP/PS system are promising candidates for oxygen-sensing optical sensors.

  2. Synthesis, characterization, photophysical and oxygen-sensing properties of a novel europium(III) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Nan; Xie, Jing; Zhang, Dawei

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis, characterization, crystal structure, and photophysical properties of a novel Eu 3+ complex of Eu(DBM) 3IPD, where DBM = 1,3-diphenyl-propane-1,3-dione and IPD = 4-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthrolin-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylaniline. Its elementary application for oxygen-sensing application is also investigated by doping it into a silica matrix of MCM-41. Experimental data suggest that the 20 mg/g doped Eu(DBM) 3IPD/MCM-41 system exhibits a high sensitivity of 3.6 towards molecular oxygen with a good linear relationship of R2 = 0.9987. In addition, the 20 mg/g doped Eu(DBM) 3IPD/MCM-41 system owns a quick response of 8 s towards oxygen, along with its excellent atmosphere insensitivity and photobleaching resistance. All these results suggest that both Eu(DBM) 3IPD and Eu(DBM) 3IPD/MCM-41 systems are promising candidates for oxygen-sensing optical sensors.

  3. A phosphorescent copper(I) complex: Synthesis, characterization, photophysical property, and oxygen-sensing behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Caihong; Tao, Guoquan; Xu, Xinhua; Feng, Xiaoqing; Luo, Rongcheng

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis, crystal structure, photophysical properties, and electronic nature of a phosphorescent Cu(I) complex of [Cu(Phen-Np)(POP)]BF 4, where Phen-Np and POP stand for 2-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline and bis(2-(diphenylphosphanyl)phenyl) ether, respectively. [Cu(Phen-Np)(POP)]BF 4 renders a yellow phosphorescence peaking at 545 nm, with a long excited state lifetime of 4.69 μs. Density functional calculation reveals that the emission comes from a triplet metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer excited state. We electrospun composite nanofibers of [Cu(Phen-Np)(POP)]BF 4 and polystyrene (PS), hoping to explore the possibility of using the composite nanofibers as an oxygen sensing material. The finally obtained samples with average diameter of ˜300 nm exhibit a maximum sensitivity of 7.2 towards molecular oxygen with short response time of 7 s due to the large surface-area-to-volume ratio of nanofibrous membranes. No photobleaching is detected in these samples.

  4. Preparation, characterization and oxygen sensing properties of luminescent carbon dots assembled mesoporous silica microspheres.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Haoran; Zhou, Xiaohua; Liu, Yingliang; Lei, Bingfu

    2016-09-15

    In this paper, our effort was focused on preparation and oxygen sensing of luminescence carbon dots (CDs) assembled hollow mesoporous silica microspheres (HMSMs) and mesoporous silica microspheres (MSMs). MSMs doped with CDs showed shorter response time and recovery time comparing with HMSMs doped with CDs. This feature can be attributed to ordered channel structure of mesoporous carrier which can promote the gas diffusion effectively. While HMSMs doped with CDs shows a higher oxygen quenching response and the degree of quenching reach 80.35%. The response time was determined to be about 7s and the emission intensities of the samples were effectively reduced as the concentration of oxygen increased. These results indicate that the system we have developed can be used for oxygen detection in wide concentration range and is especially accurate for very low oxygen concentrations. The obtained CDs grafted hollow mesoporous silica microspheres (HMSMs) and mesoporous silica microspheres (MSMs) samples appears to be a promising sensing material for environmental detection application and would also find applications in catalyst, electrode, or related fields. PMID:27309945

  5. Exceptional Oxygen Sensing Properties of New Blue Light-Excitable Highly Luminescent Europium(III) and Gadolinium(III) Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Borisov, Sergey M.; Fischer, Roland; Saf, Robert; Klimant, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    New europium(III) and gadolinium(III) complexes bearing 8-hydroxyphenalenone antenna combine efficient absorption in the blue part of the spectrum and strong emission in polymers at room temperature. The Eu(III) complexes show characteristic red luminescence whereas the Gd(III) dyes are strongly phosphorescent. The luminescence quantum yields are about 20% for the Eu(III) complexes and 50% for the Gd(III) dyes. In contrast to most state-of-the-art Eu(III) complexes the new dyes are quenched very efficiently by molecular oxygen. The luminescence decay times of the Gd(III) complexes exceed 1 ms which ensures exceptional sensitivity even in polymers of moderate oxygen permeability. These sensors are particularly suitable for trace oxygen sensing and may be good substitutes for Pd(II) porphyrins. The photophysical and sensing properties can be tuned by varying the nature of the fourth ligand. The narrow-band emission of the Eu(III) allows efficient elimination of the background light and autofluorescence and is also very attractive for use e.g. in multi-analyte sensors. The highly photostable indicators incorporated in nanoparticles are promising for imaging applications. Due to the straightforward preparation and low cost of starting materials the new dyes represent a promising alternative to the state-of-the-art oxygen indicators particularly for such applications as e.g. food packaging. PMID:27158252

  6. Oxygen Sensing Difluoroboron Dinaphthoylmethane Polylactide

    PubMed Central

    DeRosa, Christopher A.; Samonina-Kosicka, Jelena; Fan, Ziyi; Hendargo, Hansford C.; Weitzel, Douglas H.; Palmer, Gregory M.; Fraser, Cassandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Dual emissive luminescence properties of solid-state difluoroboron β-diketonate-poly(lactic acid) (BF2bdk-PLA) materials have been utilized as biological oxygen sensors. Dyes with red-shifted absorption and emission are important for multiplexing and in vivo imaging, thus hydroxyl-functionalized dinaphthoylmethane initiators and dye-PLA conjugates BF2dnm(X)PLA (X = H, Br, I) with extended conjugation were synthesized. The luminescent materials show red-shifted absorbance (~435 nm) and fluorescence tunability by molecular weight. Fluorescence colors range from yellow (~530 nm) in 10 – 12 kDa polymers to green (~490 nm) in 20 – 30 kDa polymers. Room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) and thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) are present under a nitrogen atmosphere. For the iodine-substituted derivative, BF2dnm(I)PLA, clearly distinguishable fluorescence (green) and phosphorescence (orange) peaks are present, making it ideal for ratiometric oxygen-sensing and imaging. Bromide and hydrogen analogues with weaker relative phosphorescence intensities and longer phosphorescence lifetimes can be used as highly sensitive, concentration independent, lifetime-based oxygen sensors or for gated emission detection. BF2dnm(I)PLA nanoparticles were taken up by T41 mouse mammary cells and successfully demonstrated differences in vitro ratiometric measurement of oxygen. PMID:26056421

  7. Reactive Oxygen Species and Cellular Oxygen Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Timothy P; Pan, Yi; Simon, M. Celeste

    2008-01-01

    Many organisms activate adaptive transcriptional programs to help them cope with decreased oxygen levels, or hypoxia, in their environment. These responses are triggered by various oxygen sensing systems in bacteria, yeast and metazoans. In metazoans, the hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) mediate the adaptive transcriptional response to hypoxia by upregulating genes involved in maintaining bioenergetic homeostasis. The HIFs in turn are regulated by HIF-specific prolyl hydroxlase activity, which is sensitive to cellular oxygen levels and other factors such as tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Establishing a role for ROS in cellular oxygen sensing has been challenging since ROS are intrinsically unstable and difficult to measure. However, recent advances in fluorescence energy transfer resonance (FRET)-based methods for measuring ROS are alleviating some of the previous difficulties associated with dyes and luminescent chemicals. In addition, new genetic models have demonstrated that functional mitochondrial electron transport and associated ROS production during hypoxia are required for HIF stabilization in mammalian cells. Current efforts are directed at how ROS mediate prolyl hydroxylase activity and hypoxic HIF stabilization. Progress in understanding this process has been enhanced by the development of the FRET-based ROS probe, an vivo prolyl hydroxylase reporter and various genetic models harboring mutations in components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. PMID:17893032

  8. Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Fan (Inventor); Pearton, Stephen John (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) capable of performing as a CO.sub.2 or O.sub.2 sensor is disclosed, hi one implementation, a polymer solar cell can be connected to the HEMT for use in an infrared detection system. In a second implementation, a selective recognition layer can be provided on a gate region of the HEMT. For carbon dioxide sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, PEI/starch. For oxygen sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, indium zinc oxide (IZO). In one application, the HEMTs can be used for the detection of carbon dioxide and oxygen in exhaled breath or blood.

  9. Biosupercapacitors for powering oxygen sensing devices.

    PubMed

    Kizling, Michal; Draminska, Sylwia; Stolarczyk, Krzysztof; Tammela, Petter; Wang, Zhaohui; Nyholm, Leif; Bilewicz, Renata

    2015-12-01

    A biofuel cell comprising electrodes based on supercapacitive materials - carbon nanotubes and nanocellulose/polypyrrole composite was utilized to power an oxygen biosensor. Laccase Trametes versicolor, immobilized on naphthylated multi walled carbon nanotubes, and fructose dehydrogenase, adsorbed on a porous polypyrrole matrix, were used as the cathode and anode bioelectrocatalysts, respectively. The nanomaterials employed as the supports for the enzymes increased the surface area of the electrodes and provide direct contact with the active sites of the enzymes. The anode modified with the conducting polymer layer exhibited significant pseudocapacitive properties providing superior performance also in the high energy mode, e.g., when switching on/off the powered device. Three air-fructose biofuel cells connected in a series converted chemical energy into electrical giving 2 mW power and open circuit potential of 2V. The biofuel cell system was tested under various externally applied resistances and used as a powering unit for a laboratory designed two-electrode minipotentiostat and a laccase based sensor for oxygen sensing. Best results in terms of long time measurement of oxygen levels were obtained in the pulse mode -45 s for measurement and 15 min for self-recharging of the powering unit. PMID:25960258

  10. A miniature inexpensive, oxygen sensing element

    SciTech Connect

    Arenz, R.W.

    1991-10-07

    An exhaustive study was conducted to determine the feasibility of Nernst-type oxygen sensors based on ceramics containing Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The basic sensor design consisted of a ceramic sensing module sealed into a metal tube. The module accommodated an internal heater and thermocouple. Thermal-expansion-matched metals, adhesives, and seals were researched and developed, consistent with sequential firings during sensor assembly. Significant effort was devoted to heater design/testing and to materials' compatibility with Pt electrodes. A systematic approach was taken to develop all sensor components which led to several design modifications. Prototype sensors were constructed and exhaustively tested. It is concluded that development of Nerst-type oxygen sensors based on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} will require much further effort and application of specialized technologies. However, during the course of this 3-year program much progress was reported in the literature on amperometric-type oxygen sensors, and a minor effort was devoted here to this type of sensor based on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These studies were made on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ceramic samples in a multilayer-capacitor-type geometry and amperometric-type oxygen sensing was demonstrated at very low temperatures ({approximately} 160{degree}C). A central advantage here is that these types of sensors can be mass-produced very inexpensively ({approximately} 20--50 cents per unit). Research is needed, however, to develop an optimum diffusion-limiting barrier coating. In summary, the original goals of this program were not achieved due to unforeseen problems with Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based Nernst sensors. However, a miniature amperometric sensor base on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} was demonstrated in this program, and it is now seen that this latter sensor is far superior to the originally proposed Nernst sensor. 6 refs., 24 figs.

  11. Evolution and physiology of neural oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Costa, Kauê M; Accorsi-Mendonça, Daniela; Moraes, Davi J A; Machado, Benedito H

    2014-01-01

    Major evolutionary trends in animal physiology have been heavily influenced by atmospheric O2 levels. Amongst other important factors, the increase in atmospheric O2 which occurred in the Pre-Cambrian and the development of aerobic respiration beckoned the evolution of animal organ systems that were dedicated to the absorption and transportation of O2, e.g., the respiratory and cardiovascular systems of vertebrates. Global variations of O2 levels in post-Cambrian periods have also been correlated with evolutionary changes in animal physiology, especially cardiorespiratory function. Oxygen transportation systems are, in our view, ultimately controlled by the brain related mechanisms, which senses changes in O2 availability and regulates autonomic and respiratory responses that ensure the survival of the organism in the face of hypoxic challenges. In vertebrates, the major sensorial system for oxygen sensing and responding to hypoxia is the peripheral chemoreflex neuronal pathways, which includes the oxygen chemosensitive glomus cells and several brainstem regions involved in the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system and respiratory control. In this review we discuss the concept that regulating O2 homeostasis was one of the primordial roles of the nervous system. We also review the physiology of the peripheral chemoreflex, focusing on the integrative repercussions of chemoreflex activation and the evolutionary importance of this system, which is essential for the survival of complex organisms such as vertebrates. The contribution of hypoxia and peripheral chemoreflex for the development of diseases associated to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems is also discussed in an evolutionary context. PMID:25161625

  12. Evolution and physiology of neural oxygen sensing

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Kauê M.; Accorsi-Mendonça, Daniela; Moraes, Davi J. A.; Machado, Benedito H.

    2014-01-01

    Major evolutionary trends in animal physiology have been heavily influenced by atmospheric O2 levels. Amongst other important factors, the increase in atmospheric O2 which occurred in the Pre-Cambrian and the development of aerobic respiration beckoned the evolution of animal organ systems that were dedicated to the absorption and transportation of O2, e.g., the respiratory and cardiovascular systems of vertebrates. Global variations of O2 levels in post-Cambrian periods have also been correlated with evolutionary changes in animal physiology, especially cardiorespiratory function. Oxygen transportation systems are, in our view, ultimately controlled by the brain related mechanisms, which senses changes in O2 availability and regulates autonomic and respiratory responses that ensure the survival of the organism in the face of hypoxic challenges. In vertebrates, the major sensorial system for oxygen sensing and responding to hypoxia is the peripheral chemoreflex neuronal pathways, which includes the oxygen chemosensitive glomus cells and several brainstem regions involved in the autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system and respiratory control. In this review we discuss the concept that regulating O2 homeostasis was one of the primordial roles of the nervous system. We also review the physiology of the peripheral chemoreflex, focusing on the integrative repercussions of chemoreflex activation and the evolutionary importance of this system, which is essential for the survival of complex organisms such as vertebrates. The contribution of hypoxia and peripheral chemoreflex for the development of diseases associated to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems is also discussed in an evolutionary context. PMID:25161625

  13. Effect of annealing in a various oxygen atmosphere on structural, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of MoxOy thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfaoui, A.; Ouni, B.; Touihri, S.; Mhamdi, A.; Labidi, A.; Manoubi, T.

    2015-07-01

    Molybdenum oxide thin films were thermally evaporated on a glass substrate and monitored by an annealing process in a variable oxygen atmosphere. The effects of post annealing condition on the microstructural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscope, spectroscopic ellipsometry and impedance spectroscopy. As-deposited amorphous films crystallized into tetragonal metastable phase of Mo5O14 on annealing at 500 °C in vacuum and air. This structure transformed to stable orthorhombic of MoO3 with annealing in oxygen environment. The optical parameters such as the refractive index, extinction coefficient, optical band gap energy and the Urbach energy were calculated from Cauchy formalism. Ellipsometric measurements reveal that the samples present optical gap located between 3.24 and 3.90 eV when the atmosphere becomes rich on oxygen. The variation of the conductivity in terms of the temperature shows an electrical behavior with oxygen environment. Finally, it has been found that MoO3 thin films had high sensitivity to ethanol, which made them as a good candidate for the ethanol sensor.

  14. Ratiometric oxygen sensing using lanthanide luminescent emitting interfaces.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Joshua; Tropiano, Manuel; Beer, Paul D; Faulkner, Stephen; Davis, Jason J

    2015-11-14

    Herein we describe the first example of a ratiometric lanthanide luminescent oxygen sensing interface. Immobilisation of terbium and europium cyclen complexes on glass substrates was achieved by a novel aryl nitrene photografting approach. The resulting interfaces demonstrated a ratiometric oxygen response between 0 and 0.2 atm partial oxygen pressure. PMID:26376829

  15. Enhanced optical oxygen sensing using a newly synthesized ruthenium complex together with oxygen carriers.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Kadriye; Kocak, Suleyman; Sabih Ozer, M; Aycan, Sule; Cetinkaya, Bekir

    2003-11-12

    In this article, an emission based, simple and fast method is proposed for the determination of gaseous oxygen. A newly synthesized fluorophore, dichloro-{2,6-bis[1-(4-dimethylamino-phenylimino) ethyl]pyridine}ruthenium(II) has been used for oxygen sensing together with oxygen carrier perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in silicon matrix. It should be noted that the solubility of oxygen in fluorocarbons is about three to ten times large as that observed in the parent hydrocarbons or in water, respectively. Employed PFCs are chemically and biochemically inert, have high dissolution capacities for oxygen, and, once doped into sensing film, considerably enhance the response of sensing agent. PMID:18969220

  16. Oxygen sensing strategies in mammals and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Taabazuing, Cornelius Y; Hangasky, John A; Knapp, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The ability to sense and adapt to changes in pO2 is crucial for basic metabolism in most organisms, leading to elaborate pathways for sensing hypoxia (low pO2). This review focuses on the mechanisms utilized by mammals and bacteria to sense hypoxia. While responses to acute hypoxia in mammalian tissues lead to altered vascular tension, the molecular mechanism of signal transduction is not well understood. In contrast, chronic hypoxia evokes cellular responses that lead to transcriptional changes mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), which is directly controlled by post-translational hydroxylation of HIF by the non-heme Fe(II)/αKG-dependent enzymes FIH and PHD2. Research on PHD2 and FIH is focused on developing inhibitors and understanding the links between HIF binding and the O2 reaction in these enzymes. Sulfur speciation is a putative mechanism for acute O2-sensing, with special focus on the role of H2S. This sulfur-centered model is discussed, as are some of the directions for further refinement of this model. In contrast to mammals, bacterial O2-sensing relies on protein cofactors that either bind O2 or oxidatively decompose. The sensing modality for bacterial O2-sensors is either via altered DNA binding affinity of the sensory protein, or else due to the actions of a two-component signaling cascade. Emerging data suggests that proteins containing a hemerythrin-domain, such as FBXL5, may serve to connect iron sensing to O2-sensing in both bacteria and humans. As specific molecular machinery becomes identified, these hypoxia sensing pathways present therapeutic targets for diseases including ischemia, cancer, or bacterial infection. PMID:24468676

  17. Oxygen Sensing Strategies in Mammals and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Taabazuing, Cornelius Y.; Hangasky, John A.; Knapp, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to sense and adapt to changes in pO2 is crucial for basic metabolism in most organisms, leading to elaborate pathways for sensing hypoxia (low pO2). This review focuses on the mechanisms utilized by mammals and bacteria to sense hypoxia. While responses to acute hypoxia in mammalian tissues lead to altered vascular tension, the molecular mechanism of signal transduction is not well understood. In contrast, chronic hypoxia evokes cellular responses that lead to transcriptional changes mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), which is directly controlled by post-translational hydroxylation of HIF by the non-heme Fe(II)/αKG-dependent enzymes FIH and PHD2. Research on PHD2 and FIH is focused on developing inhibitors and understanding the links between HIF binding and the O2 reaction in these enzymes. Sulfur speciation is a putative mechanism for acute O2-sensing, with special focus on the role of H2S. This sulfur-centered model is discussed, as are some of the directions for further refinement of this model. In contrast to mammals, bacterial O2-sensing relies on protein cofactors that either bind O2 or oxidatively decompose. The sensing modality for bacterial O2-sensors is either via altered DNA binding affinity of the sensory protein, or else due to the actions of a two-component signaling cascade. Emerging data suggests that proteins containing a hemerythrin-domain, such as FBXL5, may serve to connect iron sensing to O2-sensing in both bacteria and humans. As specific molecular machinery becomes identified, these hypoxia sensing pathways present therapeutic targets for diseases including ischemia, cancer, or bacterial infection. PMID:24468676

  18. Nano-Enriched and Autonomous Sensing Framework for Dissolved Oxygen.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Nader; Azab, Mohammed; Kandas, Ishac; Meehan, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a nano-enhanced wireless sensing framework for dissolved oxygen (DO). The system integrates a nanosensor that employs cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles to monitor the concentration of DO in aqueous media via optical fluorescence quenching. We propose a comprehensive sensing framework with the nanosensor equipped with a digital interface where the sensor output is digitized and dispatched wirelessly to a trustworthy data collection and analysis framework for consolidation and information extraction. The proposed system collects and processes the sensor readings to provide clear indications about the current or the anticipated dissolved oxygen levels in the aqueous media. PMID:26287211

  19. Quality assessment of packaged foods by optical oxygen sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; O'Mahony, Fiach C.; Kerry, Joe P.; Ogurtsov, Vladimir I.

    2005-11-01

    A phase-fluorometric oxygen sensor system has been developed, which allows non-destructive measurement of residual oxygen levels in sealed containers such as packaged foods. It operates with disposable solid-state sensors incorporated in each pack, and a portable detector which interrogates with the sensors through a (semi)transparent packaging material. The system has been optimized for packaging applications and validated in small and medium scale trials with different types of food, including MAP hams, cheese, convenience foods, smoked fish, bakery. It has demonstrated high efficiency in monitoring package integrity, oxygen profiles in packs, performance of packaging process and many other research and quality control tasks, allowing control of 100% of packs. The low-cost batch-calibrated sensors have demonstrated reliability, safety, stability including direct contact with food, high efficiency in the low oxygen range. Another system, which also employs the fluorescence-based oxygen sensing approach, provides rapid assessment of microbial contamination (total viable counts) in complex samples such as food homogenates, industrial waste, environmental samples, etc. It uses soluble oxygen-sensitive probes, standard microtitter plates and fluorescence measurements on conventional plate reader to monitor growth of aerobic bacteria in small test samples (e.g. food homogenates) via their oxygen respiration. The assay provides high sample through put, miniaturization, speed, and can serve as alternative to the established methods such as agar plate colony counts and turbidimetry.

  20. Highly sensitive humidity sensing properties of carbon quantum dots films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Ming, Hai; Liu, Ruihua; Han, Xiao; Kang, Zhenhui; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Yonglai

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► A humidity sensing device was fabricated based on carbon quantum dots (CQDs) films. ► The conductivity of the CQDs films shows a linear and rapid response to atmosphere humidity. ► The humidity sensing property was due to the hydrogen bonds between the functional groups on CQDs. -- Abstract: We reported the fabrication of a humidity sensing device based on carbon quantum dots (CQDs) film. The conductivity of the CQDs film has a linear and rapid response to relative humidity, providing the opportunity for the fabrication of humidity sensing devices. The mechanism of our humidity sensor was proposed to be the formation of hydrogen bonds between carbon quantum dots and water molecules in the humidity environment, which significantly promote the electrons migration. In a control experiment, this hypothesis was confirmed by comparing the humidity sensitivity of candle soot (i.e. carbon nanoparticles) with and without oxygen containing groups on the surfaces.

  1. On a magnetic-luminescent nanocomposite for oxygen sensing application: Construction, characterization and sensing performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tieyu; Dai, Henry; Peng, Xing

    2015-11-01

    This paper was devoted to the construction of a magnetic-luminescence nanocomposite for oxygen sensing application, where superparamagnetic Fe3O4 and silica molecular sieve MCM-41 were chosen as the inner core and the outer shell, respectively. A Ru(II) complex was grafted into MCM-41 shell through a coupling ligand N1-(5H-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dipyridin-5-ylidene)benzene-1,4-diamine (denoted as Dafo-Ph-NH2). The final composite was analyzed by electron microscope images, XRD, IR spectra, thermogravimetry and N2 adsorption/desorption. Oxygen sensing performance of this composite was evaluated. Sensitivity of 5.8 (the ratio of emission intensity in pure N2 to that in pure O2) and response time of 16s were obtained with good photostability. PMID:26099825

  2. Oxygen-sensing under the influence of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Berchner-Pfannschmidt, Utta; Tug, Suzan; Kirsch, Michael; Fandrey, Joachim

    2010-03-01

    The transcription factor complex Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) controls the expression of most genes involved in adaptation to hypoxic conditions. Oxygen-dependency is maintained by prolyl- and asparagyl-4-hydroxylases (PHDs/FIH-1) belonging to the superfamily of iron(II) and 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases. Hydroxylation of the HIF-1alpha subunit by PHDs and FIH-1 leads to its degradation and inactivation. By hydroxylating HIF-1alpha in an oxygen-dependent manner PHDs and FIH-1 function as oxygen-sensing enzymes of HIF signalling. Besides molecular oxygen nitric oxide (NO), a mediator of the inflammatory response, can regulate HIF-1alpha accumulation, HIF-1 activity and HIF-1 dependent target gene expression. Recent studies addressing regulation of HIF-1 by NO revealed a complex and paradoxical picture. Acute exposure of cells to high doses of NO increased HIF-1alpha levels irrespective of the residing oxygen concentration whereas prolonged exposure to NO or low doses of this radical reduced HIF-1alpha accumulation even under hypoxic conditions. Several mechanisms were found to contribute to this paradoxical role of NO in regulating HIF-1. More recent studies support the view that NO regulates HIF-1 by modulating the activity of the oxygen-sensor enzymes PHDs and FIH-1. NO dependent HIF-1alpha accumulation under normoxia was due to direct inhibition of PHDs and FIH-1 most likely by competitive binding of NO to the ferrous iron in the catalytically active center of the enzymes. In contrast, reduced HIF-1alpha accumulation by NO under hypoxia was mainly due to enhanced HIF-1alpha degradation by induction of PHD activity. Three major mechanisms are discussed to be involved in enhancing the PHD activity despite the lack of oxygen: (1) NO mediated induction of a HIF-1 dependent feedback loop leading to newly expressed PHD2 and enhanced nuclear localization, (2) O2-redistribution towards PHDs after inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by NO, (3

  3. Reversed oxygen sensing using colloidal quantum wells towards highly emissive photoresponsive varnishes.

    PubMed

    Lorenzon, Monica; Christodoulou, Sotirios; Vaccaro, Gianfranco; Pedrini, Jacopo; Meinardi, Francesco; Moreels, Iwan; Brovelli, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal quantum wells combine the advantages of size-tunable electronic properties with vast reactive surfaces that could allow one to realize highly emissive luminescent-sensing varnishes capable of detecting chemical agents through their reversible emission response, with great potential impact on life sciences, environmental monitoring, defence and aerospace engineering. Here we combine spectroelectrochemical measurements and spectroscopic studies in a controlled atmosphere to demonstrate the 'reversed oxygen-sensing' capability of CdSe colloidal quantum wells, that is, the exposure to oxygen reversibly increases their luminescence efficiency. Spectroelectrochemical experiments allow us to directly relate the sensing response to the occupancy of surface states. Magneto-optical measurements demonstrate that, under vacuum, heterostructured CdSe/CdS colloidal quantum wells stabilize in their negative trion state. The high starting emission efficiency provides a possible means to enhance the oxygen sensitivity by partially de-passivating the particle surfaces, thereby enhancing the density of unsaturated sites with a minimal cost in term of luminescence losses. PMID:25910499

  4. The thermodynamic properties of organic oxygen compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirico, R. D.; Steele, W. V.; Hossenlopp, A.; Nguyen, A.; Archer, D. G.; Strube, M. M.

    1988-01-01

    The principles of group additivity are used to compare a series of cyclic hydrocarbons with the corresponding oxygen-containing analogs. The strengths and limitations of the group-additivity method are demonstrated and recommendations are made for measurements essential to the improvement of the accuracy of the predicted properties. The ideal-gas enthalpies of formation and ideal-gas entropies (which are used in combination to calculate Gibbs energies) are considered.

  5. Reversed oxygen sensing using colloidal quantum wells towards highly emissive photoresponsive varnishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzon, Monica; Christodoulou, Sotirios; Vaccaro, Gianfranco; Pedrini, Jacopo; Meinardi, Francesco; Moreels, Iwan; Brovelli, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    Colloidal quantum wells combine the advantages of size-tunable electronic properties with vast reactive surfaces that could allow one to realize highly emissive luminescent-sensing varnishes capable of detecting chemical agents through their reversible emission response, with great potential impact on life sciences, environmental monitoring, defence and aerospace engineering. Here we combine spectroelectrochemical measurements and spectroscopic studies in a controlled atmosphere to demonstrate the ‘reversed oxygen-sensing’ capability of CdSe colloidal quantum wells, that is, the exposure to oxygen reversibly increases their luminescence efficiency. Spectroelectrochemical experiments allow us to directly relate the sensing response to the occupancy of surface states. Magneto-optical measurements demonstrate that, under vacuum, heterostructured CdSe/CdS colloidal quantum wells stabilize in their negative trion state. The high starting emission efficiency provides a possible means to enhance the oxygen sensitivity by partially de-passivating the particle surfaces, thereby enhancing the density of unsaturated sites with a minimal cost in term of luminescence losses.

  6. Reversed oxygen sensing using colloidal quantum wells towards highly emissive photoresponsive varnishes

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzon, Monica; Christodoulou, Sotirios; Vaccaro, Gianfranco; Pedrini, Jacopo; Meinardi, Francesco; Moreels, Iwan; Brovelli, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal quantum wells combine the advantages of size-tunable electronic properties with vast reactive surfaces that could allow one to realize highly emissive luminescent-sensing varnishes capable of detecting chemical agents through their reversible emission response, with great potential impact on life sciences, environmental monitoring, defence and aerospace engineering. Here we combine spectroelectrochemical measurements and spectroscopic studies in a controlled atmosphere to demonstrate the ‘reversed oxygen-sensing’ capability of CdSe colloidal quantum wells, that is, the exposure to oxygen reversibly increases their luminescence efficiency. Spectroelectrochemical experiments allow us to directly relate the sensing response to the occupancy of surface states. Magneto-optical measurements demonstrate that, under vacuum, heterostructured CdSe/CdS colloidal quantum wells stabilize in their negative trion state. The high starting emission efficiency provides a possible means to enhance the oxygen sensitivity by partially de-passivating the particle surfaces, thereby enhancing the density of unsaturated sites with a minimal cost in term of luminescence losses. PMID:25910499

  7. Restricted isometry properties and nonconvex compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartrand, Rick; Staneva, Valentina

    2008-06-01

    The recently emerged field known as compressive sensing has produced powerful results showing the ability to recover sparse signals from surprisingly few linear measurements, using ell1 minimization. In previous work, numerical experiments showed that ellp minimization with 0 < p < 1 recovers sparse signals from fewer linear measurements than does ell1 minimization. It was also shown that a weaker restricted isometry property is sufficient to guarantee perfect recovery in the ellp case. In this work, we generalize this result to an ellp variant of the restricted isometry property, and then determine how many random, Gaussian measurements are sufficient for the condition to hold with high probability. The resulting sufficient condition is met by fewer measurements for smaller p. This adds to the theoretical justification for the methods already being applied to replacing high-dose CT scans with a small number of x-rays and reducing MRI scanning time. The potential benefits extend to any application of compressive sensing.

  8. Symmetry properties in polarimetric remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.; Li, F. K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the relations among polarimetric backscattering coefficients from the viewpoint of symmetry groups. Symmetry of geophysical media encountered in remote sensing due to reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetry groups is considered for both reciprocal and nonreciprocal cases. On the basis of the invariance under symmetry transformations in the linear polarization basis, the scattering coefficients are related by a set of equations which restrict the number of independent parameters in the polarimetric covariance matrix. The properties derived under these transformations are general and apply to all scattering mechanisms in a given symmetrical configuration. The scattering coefficients calculated from theoretical models for layer random media and rough surfaces are shown to obey the derived symmetry relations. Use of symmetry properties in remote sensing of structural and environmental responses of scattering media is discussed. As a practical application, the results from this paper provide new methods for the external calibration of polarimetric radars without the deployment of man-made calibration targets.

  9. Development of oxygen sensing in the gills of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Jonz, Michael G; Nurse, Colin A

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies have described the morphology, innervation and O(2)-chemoreceptive properties of neuroepithelial cells (NECs) of the zebrafish gill filaments. The present work describes the ontogenesis of these cells, and the formation of functional O(2)-sensing pathways in developing zebrafish. Confocal immunofluorescence was performed on whole-mount gill preparations using antibodies against serotonin (5-HT) and a zebrafish-derived neuronal marker (zn-12) to identify the appearance and innervation of gill NECs during larval stages. NECs were first expressed in gill filament primordia of larvae at 5 days postfertilization (d.p.f.) and were fully innervated by 7 d.p.f. In vivo ventilation frequency analysis revealed that a behavioural response to hypoxia (11.2+/-2.8 min(-1)) developed in embryos as early as 2 d.p.f., and a significant increase (P<0.05) in the ventilatory response to hypoxia (200.8+/-23.0 min(-1)) coincided with innervation of NECs of the filaments. In addition, exogenous application of quinidine, a blocker of O(2)-sensitive background K(+) channels in NECs, induced hyperventilation in adults in a dose-dependent manner and revealed the development of a quinidine-sensitive ventilatory response in 7 d.p.f. larvae. This study shows that NEC innervation in the gill filaments may account for the development of a functional O(2)-sensing pathway and the hyperventilatory response to hypoxia in zebrafish larvae. At earlier stages, however, O(2)-sensing must occur through another pathway. The possibility that a new type of 5-HT-positive NEC of the gill arches may account for this earlier hypoxic response is discussed. PMID:15802677

  10. Oxygen Sensing Neurons and Neuropeptides Regulate Survival after Anoxia in Developing C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Flibotte, John J.; Jablonski, Angela M.; Kalb, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic brain injury remains a major source of neurodevelopmental impairment for both term and preterm infants. The perinatal period is a time of rapid transition in oxygen environments and developmental resetting of oxygen sensing. The relationship between neural oxygen sensing ability and hypoxic injury has not been studied. The oxygen sensing circuitry in the model organism C. elegans is well understood. We leveraged this information to investigate the effects of impairments in oxygen sensing on survival after anoxia. There was a significant survival advantage in developing worms specifically unable to sense oxygen shifts below their preferred physiologic range via genetic ablation of BAG neurons, which appear important for conferring sensitivity to anoxia. Oxygen sensing that is mediated through guanylate cyclases (gcy-31, 33, 35) is unlikely to be involved in conferring this sensitivity. Additionally, animals unable to process or elaborate neuropeptides displayed a survival advantage after anoxia. Based on these data, we hypothesized that elaboration of neuropeptides by BAG neurons sensitized animals to anoxia, but further experiments indicate that this is unlikely to be true. Instead, it seems that neuropeptides and signaling from oxygen sensing neurons operate through independent mechanisms, each conferring sensitivity to anoxia in wild type animals. PMID:24967811

  11. Remote sensing application for property tax evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Sadhana

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a study for linking remotely sensed data with property tax related issues. First, it discusses the key attributes required for property taxation and evaluates the capabilities of remote sensing technology to measure these attributes accurately at parcel level. Next, it presents a detailed case study of six representative wards of different characteristics in Dehradun, India, that illustrates how measurements of several of these attributes supported by field survey can be combined to address the issues related to property taxation. Information derived for various factors quantifies the property taxation contributed by an average dwelling unit of the different income groups. Results show that the property tax calculated in different wards varies between 55% for the high-income group, 32% for the middle-income group, 12% for the low-income group and 1% for squatter units. The study concludes that higher spatial resolution satellite data and integrates social survey helps to assess the socio-economic status of the population for tax contribution purposes.

  12. Click-assembled, oxygen sensing nanoconjugates for depth-resolved, near-infrared imaging in a 3D cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Alexander J.; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Klein, Oliver J.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is an important factor that contributes to the development of drug-resistant cancer, yet few non-perturbative tools exist for studying oxygen in tissue. While progress has been made in the development of chemical probes for optical oxygen mapping, penetration into poorly perfused or avascular tumor regions remains problematic. Here we report a Click-Assembled Oxygen Sensing (CAOS) nanoconjugate and demonstrate its properties in an in vitro 3D spheroid cancer model. Our synthesis relies on sequential click-based ligation of poly(amidoamine)-like subunits for rapid assembly. Using near-infrared confocal phosphorescence microscopy, we demonstrate the ability of CAOS nanoconjugates to penetrate hundreds of microns into spheroids within hours and show their sensitivity to oxygen changes throughout the nodule. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates a modular approach that is readily extensible to a wide variety of oxygen and cellular sensors for depth-resolved imaging in tissue and tissue models. PMID:24590700

  13. Oxygen scrubbing and sensing in plant growth chambers using solid oxide electrolyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; MacElroy, Robert D.

    1997-01-01

    The maintenance of optimal levels of oxygen in the gaseous environment of a plant growth chamber during light and dark periods is an essential criterion for the correct growth of plants. The use of solid oxide electrolyzers to control the oxygen levels by removing the excess gaseous oxygen during periods of illumination and full-scale photosynthesis is described. A part of the oxygen removed can be stored and supplied back to the plants during dark periods. The excess oxygen can be used by the crew. The electrolizer can be additionally used in its open circuit mode, to sense the oxygen concentrations in the plant chamber. The solid oxide electrolysis process is described.

  14. High sensitivity and accuracy dissolved oxygen (DO) detection by using PtOEP/poly(MMA-co-TFEMA) sensing film.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Honglin; Wang, Ying; Tian, Yanqing; Zhao, Jiupeng; Li, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Fluorinated acrylate polymer has received great interest in recent years due to its extraordinary characteristics such as high oxygen permeability, good stability, low surface energy and refractive index. In this work, platinum octaethylporphyrin/poly(methylmethacrylate-co-trifluoroethyl methacrylate) (PtOEP/poly(MMA-co-TFEMA)) oxygen sensing film was prepared by the immobilizing of PtOEP in a poly(MMA-co-TFEMA) matrix and the technological readiness of optical properties was established based on the principle of luminescence quenching. It was found that the oxygen-sensing performance could be improved by optimizing the monomer ratio (MMA/TFEMA=1:1), tributylphosphate(TBP, 0.05mL) and PtOEP (5μg) content. Under this condition, the maximum quenching ratio I0/I100 of the oxygen sensing film is obtained to be about 8.16, Stern-Volmer equation is I0/I=1.003+2.663[O2] (R(2)=0.999), exhibiting a linear relationship, good photo-stability, high sensitivity and accuracy. Finally, the synthesized PtOEP/poly(MMA-co-TFEMA) sensing film was used for DO detection in different water samples. PMID:27450122

  15. A plastic optical fiber sensor for the dual sensing of temperature and oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Yu-Lung; Chu, Chen-Shane

    2008-04-01

    This study presents a low-cost plastic optical fiber sensor for the dual sensing of temperature and oxygen. The sensor features a commercially available epoxy glue coated on the side-polished fiber surface for temperature sensing and a fluorinated xerogel doped with platinum tetrakis pentrafluoropheny porphine (PtTFPP) coated on the fiber end for oxygen sensing. The temperature and oxygen indicators are both excited using a UV LED light source with a wavelength of 380 nm. The luminescence emission spectra of the two indicators are well resolved and exhibit no cross-talk effects. Overall, the results indicate that the dual sensor presented in this study provides an ideal solution for the non-contact, simultaneous sensing of temperature and oxygen in general biological and medical applications.

  16. Oxygen-sensing by arterial chemoreceptors: Mechanisms and medical translation.

    PubMed

    López-Barneo, José; Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Fernández-Agüera, M Carmen; Macías, David; Pardal, Ricardo; Gao, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Acute O2 sensing is necessary for the activation of cardiorespiratory reflexes (hyperventilation and sympathetic activation), which permit the survival of individuals under hypoxic environments (e.g. high altitude) or medical conditions presenting with reduced capacity for gas exchange between the lung alveoli and the blood. Changes in blood O2 tension are detected by the arterial chemoreceptors, in particular the carotid body (CB), which act in concert with the adrenal medulla (AM) to facilitate rapid adaptations to hypoxia. The field of arterial chemoreception has undergone a considerable expansion in recent years, with many of the fundamental observations made at the molecular and cellular levels serving to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of numerous medical disorders, and even to propose advances in the treatment strategies. In this review, after a short historical preface, we describe the current model of chemosensory transduction based on the modulation of membrane K(+) channels by O2 in specialized chemoreceptor cells. Recent progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation of ion channels by O2 tension, which involves mitochondrial complex I, is also discussed. The discovery in the last few years of a specific population of neural crest-derived stem cells in the CB explains the reversible growth of this organ, an intriguing and unusual property of this type of neuronal tissue that contributes to acclimatization under chronic hypoxia. The essential homeostatic role of the CB-AM axis is clearly evident in newly generated mouse models that reach adulthood, albeit with CB and AM atrophy. These animals exhibit a marked intolerance to even mild hypoxia. CB inhibition or over-activation can have important medical consequences. Respiratory depression by general anesthetics or by opioid use is a common clinical condition that frequently causes death in susceptible individuals. An exaggerated sympathetic outflow due to over

  17. Chemical sensing properties of Takifugu TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Oda, Mai; Ninomiya, Kazuya; Kurogi, Mako; Saitoh, Osamu

    2015-10-21

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is one of the main sensors for noxious stimuli in animals. Recent studies on the cloning and characterization of TRPA1 channels from several organisms showed the functional diversity of TRPA1 in sensing chemicals and temperature. Nociceptive receptors have been suggested to play important roles in adaptation to the environment by and survival strategies of animals; therefore, the sensitivity of various vertebrate TRPA1s needs to be examined in more detail. Here, we focused on fish TRPA1s and investigated the chemical sensing properties of pufferfish (Takifugu) TRPA1 (pfTRPA1). We determined how mammalian TRPA1 ligands activated pfTRPA1 using a Ca-imaging technique. The results obtained indicated that the sensitivity of pfTRPA1 to known TRPA1 ligands was lower than that of mammalian TRPA1s, except for the response ability to allyl isothiocyanate. We also investigated the effects of tannic acid, a type of polyphenol, by measuring ionic currents in Xenopus oocytes in a two-electrode voltage clamp. Although mouse TRPA1 was inhibited by tannic acid, pfTRPA1 channels were enhanced by the treatment with tannic acid. Taken together, these results suggest that pfTRPA1 is not a simple sensor with a lower sensitivity to chemical stimulation, but is actually a specialized sensor with unique properties. PMID:26351757

  18. Distributed Fiber Optical Sensing of Oxygen with Optical Time Domain Reflectometry

    PubMed Central

    Eich, Susanne; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd

    2013-01-01

    In many biological and environmental applications spatially resolved sensing of molecular oxygen is desirable. A powerful tool for distributed measurements is optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) which is often used in the field of telecommunications. We combine this technique with a novel optical oxygen sensor dye, triangular-[4] phenylene (TP), immobilized in a polymer matrix. The TP luminescence decay time is 86 ns. The short decay time of the sensor dye is suitable to achieve a spatial resolution of some meters. In this paper we present the development and characterization of a reflectometer in the UV range of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as optical oxygen sensing with different fiber arrangements. PMID:23727953

  19. A rhenium complex doped in a silica molecular sieve for molecular oxygen sensing: Construction and characterization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaozhou; Li, Yanxiao

    2016-01-15

    This paper reported a diamine ligand and its Re(I) complex for potential application in oxygen sensing. The novelty of this diamine ligand localized at its increased conjugation chain which had a typical electron-withdrawing group of 1,3,4-oxadiazole. Electronic distribution of excited electrons and their lifetime were supposed to be increased, favoring oxygen sensing collision. This hypothesis was confirmed by single crystal analysis, theoretical calculation and photophysical measurement. It was found that this Re(I) complex had a long-lived emission peaking at 545 nm, favoring sensing application. By doping this complex into a silica matrix MCM-41, oxygen sensing performance and mechanism of the resulting composites were discussed in detail. Non-linear Stern-Volmer working curves were observed with maximum sensitivity of 5.54 and short response time of ~6 s. PMID:26478986

  20. A rhenium complex doped in a silica molecular sieve for molecular oxygen sensing: Construction and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaozhou; Li, Yanxiao

    2016-01-01

    This paper reported a diamine ligand and its Re(I) complex for potential application in oxygen sensing. The novelty of this diamine ligand localized at its increased conjugation chain which had a typical electron-withdrawing group of 1,3,4-oxadiazole. Electronic distribution of excited electrons and their lifetime were supposed to be increased, favoring oxygen sensing collision. This hypothesis was confirmed by single crystal analysis, theoretical calculation and photophysical measurement. It was found that this Re(I) complex had a long-lived emission peaking at 545 nm, favoring sensing application. By doping this complex into a silica matrix MCM-41, oxygen sensing performance and mechanism of the resulting composites were discussed in detail. Non-linear Stern-Volmer working curves were observed with maximum sensitivity of 5.54 and short response time of ~ 6 s.

  1. A Pyrene@Micelle Sensor for Fluorescent Oxygen Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yan-xia; Peng, Hong-shang; Ping, Jian-tao; Wang, Xiao-hui; You, Fang-tian

    2015-01-01

    For most fluorescent oxygen sensors developed today, their fabrication process is either time-consuming or needs specialized knowledge. In this work, a robust fluorescent oxygen sensor is facilely constructed by dissolving pyrene molecules into CTAB aqueous solution. The as-prepared pyrene@micelle sensors have submicron-sized diameter, and the concentration of utilized pyrene can be reduced as low as 0.8 mM but still can exhibit dominant excimer emission. The excimer fluorescence is sensitive to dissolved oxygen in both intensity and lifetime, and the respective Stern-Volmer plot follows a nonlinear behavior justified by a two-site model. Because of the merits of large Stokes shift (~140 nm), easy fabrication, and robustness, the pyrene@micelle sensors are very attractive for practical determination of oxygen. PMID:26539471

  2. Luminescent sensing and imaging of oxygen: fierce competition to the Clark electrode.

    PubMed

    Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2015-08-01

    Luminescence-based sensing schemes for oxygen have experienced a fast growth and are in the process of replacing the Clark electrode in many fields. Unlike electrodes, sensing is not limited to point measurements via fiber optic microsensors, but includes additional features such as planar sensing, imaging, and intracellular assays using nanosized sensor particles. In this essay, I review and discuss the essentials of (i) common solid-state sensor approaches based on the use of luminescent indicator dyes and host polymers; (ii) fiber optic and planar sensing schemes; (iii) nanoparticle-based intracellular sensing; and (iv) common spectroscopies. Optical sensors are also capable of multiple simultaneous sensing (such as O2 and temperature). Sensors for O2 are produced nowadays in large quantities in industry. Fields of application include sensing of O2 in plant and animal physiology, in clinical chemistry, in marine sciences, in the chemical industry and in process biotechnology. PMID:26113255

  3. Luminescent sensing and imaging of oxygen: Fierce competition to the Clark electrode

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Luminescence‐based sensing schemes for oxygen have experienced a fast growth and are in the process of replacing the Clark electrode in many fields. Unlike electrodes, sensing is not limited to point measurements via fiber optic microsensors, but includes additional features such as planar sensing, imaging, and intracellular assays using nanosized sensor particles. In this essay, I review and discuss the essentials of (i) common solid‐state sensor approaches based on the use of luminescent indicator dyes and host polymers; (ii) fiber optic and planar sensing schemes; (iii) nanoparticle‐based intracellular sensing; and (iv) common spectroscopies. Optical sensors are also capable of multiple simultaneous sensing (such as O2 and temperature). Sensors for O2 are produced nowadays in large quantities in industry. Fields of application include sensing of O2 in plant and animal physiology, in clinical chemistry, in marine sciences, in the chemical industry and in process biotechnology. PMID:26113255

  4. Microwave remote sensing of snowpack properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Topic concerning remote sensing capabilities for providing reliable snow cover data and measurement of snow water equivalents are discussed. Specific remote sensing technqiues discussed include those in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  5. Glucose sensing molecules having selected fluorescent properties

    DOEpatents

    Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Lane, Stephen M.; Darrow, Christopher B.; Cary, Douglas R.; Tran, Joe Anh

    2004-01-27

    An analyte sensing fluorescent molecule that employs intramolecular electron transfer is designed to exhibit selected fluorescent properties in the presence of analytes such as saccharides. The selected fluorescent properties include excitation wavelength, emission wavelength, fluorescence lifetime, quantum yield, photostability, solubility, and temperature or pH sensitivity. The compound comprises an aryl or a substituted phenyl boronic acid that acts as a substrate recognition component, a fluorescence switch component, and a fluorophore. The fluorophore and switch component are selected such that the value of the free energy for electron transfer is less than about 3.0 kcal mol.sup.-1. Fluorescent compounds are described that are excited at wavelengths greater than 400 nm and emit at wavelengths greater than 450 nm, which is advantageous for optical transmission through skin. The fluorophore is typically selected from transition metal-ligand complexes and thiazine, oxazine, oxazone, or oxazine-one as well as anthracene compounds. The fluorescent compound can be immobilized in a glucose permeable biocompatible polymer matrix that is implantable below the skin.

  6. Mechanisms of sensing and adaptive responses to low oxygen conditions in mammals and yeasts.

    PubMed

    Trendeleva, T A; Aliverdieva, D A; Zvyagilskaya, R A

    2014-08-01

    Oxygen is required for effective production of ATP and plays a key role in the maintenance of life for all organisms, excepting strict anaerobes. The ability of aerobic organisms to sense and respond to changes in oxygen level is a basic requirement for their survival. Eukaryotes have developed adaptive mechanisms to sense and respond to decreased oxygen concentrations (hypoxia) through adjustment of oxygen homeostasis by upregulating hypoxic and downregulating aerobic nuclear genes. This review summarizes recent data on mechanisms of cells sensing and responding to changes in oxygen availability in mammals and in yeasts. In the first part of the review, prominence is given to functional regulation and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), HIF-mediated regulation of electron transport flux and repression of lipogenesis, as well as to hypoxia-induced mitochondrial permeability transition (pore) opening, cell death, and autophagy. In the second part of the review emphasis is placed on oxygen sensing in nonpathogenic yeasts by heme, unsaturated fatty acids, and sterols, as well as on responses to hypoxia in fungal pathogens. PMID:25365485

  7. Synthesis, characterization and theoretical analysis on a oxygen-sensing phosphorescent copper(I) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis, crystal structure, photophysical properties, and electronic nature of a phosphorescent Cu(I) complex of [Cu(Phen-Ph)(PPh 3) 2]BF 4, where Phen-Ph and PPh 3 stand for 2-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline and triphenylphosphine, respectively. [Cu(Phen-Ph)(PPh 3) 2]BF 4 renders a yellow phosphorescence peaking at 553 nm, with a long excited state lifetime of 13.2 μs under N 2 atmosphere. Density functional calculation reveals that the emission comes from a triplet metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer excited state. We electrospun composite nanofibers of [Cu(Phen-Ph)(PPh 3) 2]BF 4 and polystyrene (PS), hoping to explore the possibility of using the composite nanofibers as an oxygen sensing material. The finally obtained samples with average diameter of ˜400 nm exhibit a maximum sensitivity of 6.52 towards molecular oxygen with short response time of 15 s due to the large surface-area-to-volume ratio of nanofibrous membranes. No photobleaching is detected in these samples.

  8. Morphology impact on oxygen sensing ability of Ru(dpp)3Cl2 containing biocompatible polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Susan Y; Harrison, Benjamin S

    2015-08-01

    Especially for tissue engineering applications, the diffusion of oxygen is a critical factor affecting spatial distribution and migration of cells. The cellular oxygen demand also fluctuates depending on tissue type and growth phase. Sensors that determine dissolved oxygen levels under biological conditions provide critical metabolic information about the growing cells as well as the state of the tissue culture within the tissue scaffold. This work focused on the effect of the scaffold morphology on the oxygen sensing response time. It was found that electrospun scaffolds had a faster oxygen-sensing response time than their bulk film counterparts. Tris-(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium (II) dichloride doped electrospun fiber mats of polycaprolactone (PCL) were found to be the most responsive to the presence of oxygen, followed by polyethylene (PEO) glycol mats. Systems containing poly vinyl alcohol were found to be the least responsive. This would suggest that, out of all the polymers tested, PCL and PEO are the most suitable biomaterials for oxygen-sensing applications. PMID:26042716

  9. Molybdenum chloride incorporated sol-gel materials for oxygen sensing above room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, D. J., III

    Maximizing the efficiency of the combustion process requires the ability to sense oxygen levels over a broad range of concentrations with fast response times under rapidly varying conditions of pressure and temperature to maintain the correct fuel/oxygen ratio in real-time. Quenching of the luminescence from organometallic compounds by oxygen has been used to develop a number of fiber-based sensors. A major drawback of these organometallic indicators for combustion applications is that the chromophores degrade with time, have a limited operational temperature range, typically room temperature +/-25°C, and lack long-term reliability. This work investigates luminescent molybdenum clusters based on Mo6Cl12 were as replacements for organometallic indicators. A study of the high temperature stability of Mo6Cl 12 in air revealed irreversible changes in the optical absorption spectrum at T >250°C and a loss of the red luminescence characteristic of the pristine clusters. Thermal aging experiments run in air and under nitrogen point to oxidation of the clusters as the cause of the change in optical properties. X-ray powder diffraction measurements on samples annealed at 300°C under controlled conditions are consistent with oxidation of Mo6Cl 12 to form MoO3. Optical and thermal aging experiments show that K2Mo6Cl14•1H2O, the alkali metal salt of Mo6Cl12, has higher thermal stability and remains luminescent after long-term aging in air at 280°C. Methods were developed for depositing K2Mo6Cl14•1H 2O-incorporated sol--gel films on planar and optical fiber substrates by dip coating and spray coating. The mechanical properties of the films depended on the film thickness; thin films were stable, but cracks often formed in the thicker films needed for sensors. This problem was addressed using two strategies: altering the components of the sol--gel solutions used to embed the clusters and by devising a composite approach to sensing layers where a slurry of fully cured sol

  10. Spatiotemporal Oxygen Sensing Using Dual Emissive Boron Dye–Polylactide Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenation in tissue scaffolds continues to be a limiting factor in regenerative medicine despite efforts to induce neovascularization or to use oxygen-generating materials. Unfortunately, many established methods to measure oxygen concentration, such as using electrodes, require mechanical disturbance of the tissue structure. To address the need for scaffold-based oxygen concentration monitoring, a single-component, self-referenced oxygen sensor was made into nanofibers. Electrospinning process parameters were tuned to produce a biomaterial scaffold with specific morphological features. The ratio of an oxygen sensitive phosphorescence signal to an oxygen insensitive fluorescence signal was calculated at each image pixel to determine an oxygenation value. A single component boron dye–polymer conjugate was chosen for additional investigation due to improved resistance to degradation in aqueous media compared to a boron dye polymer blend. Standardization curves show that in fully supplemented media, the fibers are responsive to dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 15 ppm. Spatial (millimeters) and temporal (minutes) ratiometric gradients were observed in vitro radiating outward from the center of a dense adherent cell grouping on scaffolds. Sensor activation in ischemia and cell transplant models in vivo show oxygenation decreases on the scale of minutes. The nanofiber construct offers a robust approach to biomaterial scaffold oxygen sensing. PMID:25426706

  11. Oxygen Sensing for Industrial Safety — Evolution and New Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The requirement for the detection of oxygen in industrial safety applications has historically been met by electrochemical technologies based on the consumption of metal anodes. Products using this approach have been technically and commercially successful for more than three decades. However, a combination of new requirements is driving the development of alternative approaches offering fresh opportunities and challenges. This paper reviews some key aspects in the evolution of consumable anode products and highlights recent developments in alternative technologies aimed at meeting current and anticipated future needs in this important application. PMID:24681673

  12. "Oxygen Sensing" by Na,K-ATPase: These Miraculous Thiols.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Anna; Petrushanko, Irina Y; Hernansanz-Agustín, Pablo; Martínez-Ruiz, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Control over the Na,K-ATPase function plays a central role in adaptation of the organisms to hypoxic and anoxic conditions. As the enzyme itself does not possess O2 binding sites its "oxygen-sensitivity" is mediated by a variety of redox-sensitive modifications including S-glutathionylation, S-nitrosylation, and redox-sensitive phosphorylation. This is an overview of the current knowledge on the plethora of molecular mechanisms tuning the activity of the ATP-consuming Na,K-ATPase to the cellular metabolic activity. Recent findings suggest that oxygen-derived free radicals and H2O2, NO, and oxidized glutathione are the signaling messengers that make the Na,K-ATPase "oxygen-sensitive." This very ancient signaling pathway targeting thiols of all three subunits of the Na,K-ATPase as well as redox-sensitive kinases sustains the enzyme activity at the "optimal" level avoiding terminal ATP depletion and maintaining the transmembrane ion gradients in cells of anoxia-tolerant species. We acknowledge the complexity of the underlying processes as we characterize the sources of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production in hypoxic cells, and identify their targets, the reactive thiol groups which, upon modification, impact the enzyme activity. Structured accordingly, this review presents a summary on (i) the sources of free radical production in hypoxic cells, (ii) localization of regulatory thiols within the Na,K-ATPase and the role reversible thiol modifications play in responses of the enzyme to a variety of stimuli (hypoxia, receptors' activation) (iii) redox-sensitive regulatory phosphorylation, and (iv) the role of fine modulation of the Na,K-ATPase function in survival success under hypoxic conditions. The co-authors attempted to cover all the contradictions and standing hypotheses in the field and propose the possible future developments in this dynamic area of research, the importance of which is hard to overestimate. Better understanding of the processes

  13. Role Of Hif2α Oxygen Sensing Pathway In Bronchial Epithelial Club Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Capelli, Mar; Marsboom, Glenn; Li, Qilong Oscar Yang; Tello, Daniel; Rodriguez, Florinda Melendez; Alonso, Tamara; Sanchez-Madrid, Francisco; García-Rio, Francisco; Ancochea, Julio; Aragonés, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen-sensing pathways executed by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) induce a cellular adaptive program when oxygen supply becomes limited. However, the role of the HIF oxygen-sensing pathway in the airway response to hypoxic stress in adulthood remains poorly understood. Here we found that in vivo exposure to hypoxia led to a profound increase in bronchial epithelial cell proliferation mainly confined to Club (Clara) cells. Interestingly, this response was executed by hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2α), which controls the expression of FoxM1, a recognized proliferative factor of Club cells. Furthermore, HIF2α induced the expression of the resistin-like molecules α and β (RELMα and β), previously considered bronchial epithelial growth factors. Importantly, despite the central role of HIF2α, this proliferative response was not initiated by in vivo Vhl gene inactivation or pharmacological inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase oxygen sensors, indicating the molecular complexity of this response and the possible participation of other oxygen-sensing pathways. Club cells are principally involved in protection and maintenance of bronchial epithelium. Thus, our findings identify a novel molecular link between HIF2α and Club cell biology that can be regarded as a new HIF2α-dependent mechanism involved in bronchial epithelium adaptation to oxygen fluctuations. PMID:27150457

  14. Remote sensing of atmospheric oxygen from a sounding rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Cotton, D. M.; Lampton, M.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Link, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a rocket experiment to investigate mechanisms governing the interactions between two of the fundamental components of the solar-terrestrial system: the solar ionizing radiation and the earth's upper atmosphere. The aim is to characterize the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emissions resulting from these interactions in terms of physical parameters so that EUV remote sensing can be gainfully employed as a quantitative diagnostic of the terrestrial atmosphere and plasma environment. The payload consists of a high-resolution (about 0.5 A) spectrometer to measure the EUV emissions (980-1360 A) of the earth's dayglow, a moderate resolution (about 15 A) EUV spectrometer (250-1450 A) to measure the solar irradiation responsible for the photoelectron production, and a hydrogen Lyman Alpha photometer to monitor the solar irradiance and geocoronal emissions.

  15. Erythrocytes Are Oxygen-Sensing Regulators of the Cerebral Microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Helen Shinru; Kang, Hongyi; Rasheed, Izad-Yar Daniel; Zhou, Sitong; Lou, Nanhong; Gershteyn, Anna; McConnell, Evan Daniel; Wang, Yixuan; Richardson, Kristopher Emil; Palmer, Andre Francis; Xu, Chris; Wan, Jiandi; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2016-08-17

    Energy production in the brain depends almost exclusively on oxidative metabolism. Neurons have small energy reserves and require a continuous supply of oxygen (O2). It is therefore not surprising that one of the hallmarks of normal brain function is the tight coupling between cerebral blood flow and neuronal activity. Since capillaries are embedded in the O2-consuming neuropil, we have here examined whether activity-dependent dips in O2 tension drive capillary hyperemia. In vivo analyses showed that transient dips in tissue O2 tension elicit capillary hyperemia. Ex vivo experiments revealed that red blood cells (RBCs) themselves act as O2 sensors that autonomously regulate their own deformability and thereby flow velocity through capillaries in response to physiological decreases in O2 tension. This observation has broad implications for understanding how local changes in blood flow are coupled to synaptic transmission. PMID:27499087

  16. Oxygen-Sensing Methods in Biomedicine from the Macroscale to the Microscale.

    PubMed

    Roussakis, Emmanuel; Li, Zongxi; Nichols, Alexander J; Evans, Conor L

    2015-07-13

    Oxygen monitoring has been a topic of exhaustive study given its central role in the biochemistry of life. The ability to quantify the physiological distribution and real-time dynamics of oxygen from sub-cellular to macroscopic levels is required to fully understand the mechanisms associated with both normal physiology and disease states. This Review will present the most significant recent advances in the development of oxygen-sensing materials and techniques, including polarographic, nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance, and optical approaches, that can be applied specifically for the real-time monitoring of oxygen dynamics in cellular and tissue environments. As some of the most exciting recent advances in synthetic methods and biomedical applications have been in the field of optical oxygen sensors, a major focus will be on the development of these toolkits. PMID:26084034

  17. Thickness Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Sanghavi, Rahul P.; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Jiang, Weilin; Varga, Tamas; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Engelhard, Mark H.; Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Kayani, Asghar N.; Prasad, Shalini

    2011-01-01

    High temperature oxygen sensors are widely used for exhaust gas monitoring in automobiles. This particular study explores the use of thin film single crystalline samaria doped ceria as the oxygen sensing material. Desired signal to noise ratio can be achieved in a material system with high conductivity. From previous studies it is established that 6 atomic percent samarium doping is the optimum concentration for thin film samaria doped ceria to achieve high ionic conductivity. In this study, the conductivity of the 6 atomic percent samaria doped ceria thin film is measured as a function of the sensing film thickness. Hysteresis and dynamic response of this sensing platform is tested for a range of oxygen pressures from 0.001 Torr to 100 Torr for temperatures above 673 K. An attempt has been made to understand the physics behind the thickness dependent conductivity behavior of this sensing platform by developing a hypothetical operating model and through COMSOL simulations. This study can be used to identify the parameters required to construct a fast, reliable and compact high temperature oxygen sensor.

  18. Correlative NAD(P)H-FLIM and oxygen sensing-PLIM for metabolic mapping.

    PubMed

    Kalinina, Sviatlana; Breymayer, Jasmin; Schäfer, Patrick; Calzia, Enrico; Shcheslavskiy, Vladislav; Becker, Wolfgang; Rück, Angelika

    2016-08-01

    Cellular responses to oxygen tension have been studied extensively. Oxygen tension can be determined by considering the phosphorescence lifetime of a phosphorescence sensor. The simultaneous usage of FLIM of coenzymes as NAD(P)H and FAD(+) and PLIM of oxygen sensors could provide information about correlation of metabolic pathways and oxygen tension. We investigated correlative NAD(P)H-FLIM and oxygen sensing-PLIM for simultaneously analyzing cell metabolism and oxygen tension. Cell metabolism and pO2 were observed under different hypoxic conditions in squamous carcinoma cell cultures and in complex ex vivo systems. Increased hypoxia induced an increase of the phosphorescence lifetime of Ru(BPY)3 and in most cases a decrease in the lifetime of NAD(P)H which is in agreement to the expected decrease of the protein-bound NAD(P)H during hypoxia. Oxygen was modulated directly in the mitochondrial membrane. Blocking of complex III and accumulation of oxygen could be observed by both the decrease of the phosphorescence lifetime of Ru(BPY)3 and a reduction of the lifetime of NAD(P)H which was a clear indication of acute changes in the redox state of the cells. For the first time simultaneous FLIM/PLIM has been shown to be able to visualize intracellular oxygen tension together with a change from oxidative to glycolytic phenotype. PMID:26990032

  19. Cellular Oxygen and Nutrient Sensing in Microgravity Using Time-Resolved Fluorescence Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szmacinski, Henryk

    2003-01-01

    Oxygen and nutrient sensing is fundamental to the understanding of cell growth and metabolism. This requires identification of optical probes and suitable detection technology without complex calibration procedures. Under this project Microcosm developed an experimental technique that allows for simultaneous imaging of intra- and inter-cellular events. The technique consists of frequency-domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM), a set of identified oxygen and pH probes, and methods for fabrication of microsensors. Specifications for electronic and optical components of FLIM instrumentation are provided. Hardware and software were developed for data acquisition and analysis. Principles, procedures, and representative images are demonstrated. Suitable lifetime sensitive oxygen, pH, and glucose probes for intra- and extra-cellular measurements of analyte concentrations have been identified and tested. Lifetime sensing and imaging have been performed using PBS buffer, culture media, and yeast cells as a model systems. Spectral specifications, calibration curves, and probes availability are also provided in the report.

  20. Effect of oxygenates blending with gasoline to improve fuel properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babazadeh Shayan, Soheil; Seyedpour, Seyed Morteza; Ommi, Fathollah

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of oxygenate additives into gasoline for the improvement of physicochemical properties of blends. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Methanol, Tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and Tertiary amyl alcohol (TAA) blend into unleaded gasoline with various blended rates of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. Physicochemical properties of blends are analyzed by the standard American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods. Methanol, TBA, and TAA increase density of the mixtures, but MTBE decreases density. The addition of oxygenates lead to a distortion of the base gasoline's distillation curves. The Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of gasoline is found to increase with the addition of the oxygenated compounds. All oxygenates improve both motor and research octane numbers. Among these four additives, TBA shows the best fuel properties.

  1. Structural properties and gas sensing behavior of sol-gel grown nanostructured zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajyaguru, Bhargav; Gadani, Keval; Rathod, K. N.; Solanki, Sapana; Kansara, S. B.; Pandya, D. D.; Shah, N. A.; Solanki, P. S.

    2016-05-01

    In this communication, we report the results of the studies on structural properties and gas sensing behavior of nanostructured ZnO grown using acetone precursor based modified sol-gel technique. Final product of ZnO was sintered at different temperatures to vary the crystallite size while their structural properties have been studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement performed at room temperature. XRD results suggest the single phasic nature of all the samples and crystallite size increases from 11.53 to 20.96nm with increase in sintering temperature. Gas sensing behavior has been studied for acetone gas which indicates that lower sintered samples are more capable to sense the acetone gas and related mechanism has been discussed in the light of crystallite size, crystal boundary density, defect mechanism and possible chemical reaction between gas traces and various oxygen species.

  2. A mechanism of oxygen sensing in yeast. Multiple oxygen-responsive steps in the heme biosynthetic pathway affect Hap1 activity.

    PubMed

    Hon, Thomas; Dodd, Athena; Dirmeier, Reinhard; Gorman, Nadia; Sinclair, Peter R; Zhang, Li; Poyton, Robert O

    2003-12-12

    Heme plays central roles in oxygen sensing and utilization in many living organisms. In yeast, heme mediates the effect of oxygen on the expression of many genes involved in using or detoxifying oxygen. However, a direct link between intracellular heme level and oxygen concentration has not been vigorously established. In this report, we have examined the relationships among oxygen levels, heme levels, Hap1 activity, and HAP1 expression. We found that Hap1 activity is controlled in vivo by heme and not by its precursors and that heme activates Hap1 even in anoxic cells. We also found that Hap1 activity exhibits the same oxygen dose-response curves as Hap1-dependent aerobic genes and that these dose-response curves have a sharp break at approximately 1 microM O2. The results show that the intracellular signaling heme level, reflected as Hap1 activity, is closely correlated with oxygen concentration. Furthermore, we found that bypass of all heme synthetic steps but ferrochelatase by deuteroporphyrin IX does not circumvent the need for oxygen in Hap1 full activation by heme, suggesting that the last step of heme synthesis, catalyzed by ferrochelatase, is also subjected to oxygen control. Our results show that multiple heme synthetic steps can sense oxygen concentration and provide significant insights into the mechanism of oxygen sensing in yeast. PMID:14512429

  3. Two–Photon Oxygen Sensing with Quantum Dot–Porphyrin Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Christopher M.; Karnas, Elizabeth; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Supramolecular assemblies of a quantum dot (QD) associated to palladium(II) porphyrins have been developed to detect oxygen (pO2) in organic solvents. Palladium porphyrins are sensitive in the 0–160 torr range, making them ideal phosphors for in vivo biological oxygen quantification. Porphyrins with meso pyridyl substituents bind to the surface of the QD to produce self–assembled nanosensors. Appreciable overlap between QD emission and porphyrin absorption features results in efficient Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) for signal transduction in these sensors. The QD serves as a photon antenna, enhancing porphyrin emission under both one– and two–photon excitation, demonstrating that QD–palladium porphyrin conjugates may be used for oxygen sensing over physiological oxygen ranges. PMID:23978247

  4. Remote Sensing of Dissolved Oxygen and Nitrogen in Water using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Young, R.; Ganoe, R.

    2013-12-01

    The health of an estuarine ecosystem is largely driven by the abundance of dissolved oxygen and nitrogen available for maintenance of plant and animal life. An investigation was conducted to quantify the concentration of dissolved molecular oxygen and nitrogen in water by means of Raman spectroscopy. This technique is proposed for the remote sensing of dissolved oxygen in the Chesapeake Bay, which will be utilized by aircraft in order to survey large areas in real-time. A proof of principle experiment has demonstrated the ability to remotely detect dissolved oxygen and nitrogen in pure water (also Chesapeake Bay water) using a 355nm Nd:YAG laser and a simple monochromater to detect the shifted Raman oxygen and nitrogen backscattered signals at 376.2 and 387.5 nm respectively. The theoretical basis for the research, components of the experimental system, and key findings are presented. A 1.3-m water cell had an attached vertical column to house a Troll 9500 dissolved oxygen in-situ monitor (In-Situ Inc Troll 9500). The Raman oxygen signal could be calibrated with this devise. While Raman backscattered water signals are low a potential aircraft remote system was designed and will be presented.

  5. Knitted Strain Sensors: Impact of Design Parameters on Sensing Properties

    PubMed Central

    Atalay, Ozgur; Kennon, William Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the sensing properties exhibited by textile-based knitted strain sensors. Knitted sensors were manufactured using flat-bed knitting technology, and electro-mechanical tests were subsequently performed on the specimens using a tensile testing machine to apply strain whilst the sensor was incorporated into a Wheatstone bridge arrangement to allow electrical monitoring. The sensing fabrics were manufactured from silver-plated nylon and elastomeric yarns. The component yarns offered similar diameters, bending characteristics and surface friction, but their production parameters differed in respect of the required yarn input tension, the number of conductive courses in the sensing structure and the elastomeric yarn extension characteristics. Experimental results showed that these manufacturing controls significantly affected the sensing properties of the knitted structures such that the gauge factor values, the working range and the linearity of the sensors varied according to the knitted structure. These results confirm that production parameters play a fundamental role in determining the physical behavior and the sensing properties of knitted sensors. It is thus possible to manipulate the sensing properties of knitted sensors and the sensor response may be engineered by varying the production parameters applied to specific designs. PMID:24608010

  6. Vanadium oxide based materials: Synthesis, characterization and gas sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayesh, Samar I.

    In recent years, the demand for gas sensors based on safety and process control requirements has been expanding. The reason for such demand sterns from environmental and safety concerns since the toxic gases released from automobile exhausts and chemical plants can directly or indirectly pollute our environment and affect our health. Among the chemicals studied, nitrogen oxide (NOx) gases are among the most dangerous air pollutants. Transition metal oxide clusters (or polyoxometalates) provide an exciting opportunity for the design and synthesis of a new generation of materials for efficient NOx sensing. Polyoxometalates are an important and fast emerging class of compounds that exhibit many remarkable properties. Chapter 1 provides introduction and background of chemical sensors. It describes the need for gas sensors and the current status of research in the area of NOx gas sensors in particular. A description of polyoxmetalates and their relevance as potential novel gas sensor materials is also given. Chapter 2 describes the synthesis and characterization by FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, manganometric titration, bond valence sum calculation, temperature dependent magnetic properties studies, electron paramagnetic resonance, and complete single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of newly prepared vanadium oxide based-systems that have been discovered during the course of this work. First, the system containing arrays of decavanadates networked by extensive hydrogen bonding with cyclic nitrogen bases are described. This is followed by the mixed-valence vanadium oxide cluster, [VV 13VIV3O42(Cl)]-7, containing a hitherto unknown vanadium oxide framework structure. Finally the synthesis of 3D-framework materials is described. These compounds have highly symmetrical closely related three-dimensional framework structures consisting vanadium oxide shells {V18O42(XO4)} linked via heterometallic atoms {M' = Cd, Zn} into three

  7. Microwave-assisted synthesis of SnO2 nanorods for oxygen gas sensing at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Ameer; Habib, Sami S; Salah, Numan A; Ahmed, Faheem

    2013-01-01

    High-quality single-crystalline SnO2 nanorods were synthesized using a microwave-assisted solution method. The nanorods were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible and Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), and electrical resistance measurements. The XRD pattern indicated the formation of single-phase SnO2 nanorods with rutile structure. FE-SEM and TEM images revealed tetragonal nanorods of about 450–500 nm in length and 60–80 nm in diameter. The nanorods showed a higher BET surface area of 288 m2/g, much higher than that of previously reported work. The Raman scattering spectra indicated a typical rutile phase of the SnO2. The absorption spectrum showed an absorption peak centered at 340 nm, and the band-gap value was found to be 3.64 eV. The gas-sensing properties of the SnO2 nanorods for oxygen gas with different concentrations were measured at room temperature. It was found that the value of resistance increased with the increase in oxygen gas concentration in the test chamber. The SnO2 nanorods exhibited high sensitivity and rapid response-recovery characteristics to oxygen gas, and could detect oxygen concentration as low as 1, 3, 5, and 10 ppm. PMID:24143091

  8. High-sensitivity extended-gate field-effect transistors as pH sensors with oxygen-modified reduced graphene oxide films coated on different reverse-pyramid silicon structures as sensing heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Ren; Chang, Shih-hsueh; Chang, Chia-Tsung; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Chiu, Yu-Kai; Yang, Po-Yu; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2016-04-01

    A high-performance extended-gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) as pH sensor with its microstructured sensing head composed of an oxygen-modified reduced graphene oxide film (RGOF) on a reverse-pyramid (RP) Si structure was developed to achieve a high sensitivity of 57.5 mV/pH with an excellent linearity of 0.9929 in a wide pH sensing range of 1-13. These features were ascribed to the large amount of sensing sites and large sensing area. In contrast, the planar Si substrate with the oxygen-plasma-treated RGOF (OPT-RGOF) at the optimal bias power showed a sensitivity of 52.9 mV/pH compared with 45.0 mV/pH for that without plasma treatment. It reveals that oxygen plasma can produce oxygen-containing groups as sensing sites, enhancing proton sensing characteristics. However, oxygen plasma treatment at high bias powers would cause damage to the RGOFs, resulting in poor conducting and sensing properties. On the other hand, the use of the RP structures could increase the effective sensing area and further promote the sensing performance.

  9. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2005-07-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor is being developed that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Two critical materials issues are the cluster's ability to withstand high temperatures when immobilized in a porous the sol-gel support, and whether after heating to high temperatures, the sol-gel matrix maintains a high and constant permeability to oxygen to support rapid quenching of luminescence. We used a composite materials approach to prepare stable sensing layers on optical fibers. We dispersed 60 w/w% of a pre-cured sol-gel composite containing the potassium salt of molybdenum clusters (K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}) into a sol-gel binder solution, and established the conditions necessary for deposition of sol-gel films on optical fibers and planar substrates. The fiber sensor has an output signal of 5 nW when pumped with an inexpensive commercial 365 nm ultraviolet light emitting diode (LED). Quenching of the sensor signal by oxygen was observed up to a gas temperature of 175 C with no degradation of the oxygen permeability of the composite after high temperature cycling. On planar substrates the cluster containing composite responds within <1 second to a gas exchange from nitrogen to oxygen, indicating the feasibility of real-time oxygen detection.

  10. A paradigm shift in oxygen sensing with a twist in the tale!

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Ken D

    2016-09-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is pivotal to metabolic homoeostasis in eukaryotes, serving as a critical energy sensor. Increased AMPK activity during oxygen deprivation (hypoxia) protects against potentially catastrophic deficits in ATP supply. Although the nervous system circuitry for elaboration of the complex cardiorespiratory response to hypoxia has been understood in some detail for many decades, there is continued and considerable interest in the molecular machinery underpinning the mechanism(s) of oxygen sensing. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Evans et al. [(2016) Biochem. J.] review their recent work, which points to a pivotal role for AMPK in the transduction of cellular hypoxic stress to integrated ventilatory behaviour, critical in the defence of whole-body oxygen homoeostasis. Of great surprise, there is profound blunting of the hyperventilatory response to hypoxic stress in AMPK deficient mice, with resultant dysregulated breathing arising in spite of normal peripheral oxygen sensing and appropriate sensory input to the brain! Their pointedly provocative review challenges current dogma, and in doing so raises intriguing questions that probe fundamental aspects of our understanding of the mammalian ventilatory response to hypoxic stress. The engaging review by Evans et al. [(2016) Biochem. J.] is an interesting read that is sure to encourage colourful debate. PMID:27574024

  11. Facet effects of palladium nanocrystals for oxygen reduction in ionic liquids and for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongan; Chi, Xiaowei; Zou, Shouzhong; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2016-03-01

    Palladium nanocrystals enclosed by {100} and {110} crystal facets, were successfully synthesized through an aqueous one-pot synthesis method. A new thermal annealing approach was developed for fabricating these palladium nanocrystals as a working electrode on a gas permeable membrane to study the facet effects of the oxygen reduction process in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Bmpy][NTf2]). Results were compared with the same processes at a conventional platinum electrode. Our study shows that the structural difference between the two facets of Pd nanocrystals has little effect on the oxygen reduction process but significantly affects the oxidation process of the superoxide. It is found that the Pd{110}/IL interface can better stabilize superoxide radicals revealed by a more positive oxidation potential compared to that of Pd{100}. In addition, the analytical characteristic of utilizing both palladium nanocrystals as electrodes for oxygen sensing is comparable with a polycrystal platinum oxygen sensor, in which Pd{110} presents the best sensitivity and lowest detection limit. Our results demonstrate the facet-dependence of oxygen reduction in an ionic liquid medium and provide the fundamental information needed to guide the applications of palladium nanocrystals in electrochemical gas sensor and fuel cell research.Palladium nanocrystals enclosed by {100} and {110} crystal facets, were successfully synthesized through an aqueous one-pot synthesis method. A new thermal annealing approach was developed for fabricating these palladium nanocrystals as a working electrode on a gas permeable membrane to study the facet effects of the oxygen reduction process in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Bmpy][NTf2]). Results were compared with the same processes at a conventional platinum electrode. Our study shows that the structural difference between the two facets of Pd

  12. Remote Sensing of Dissolved Oxygen and Nitrogen in Water Using Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganoe, Rene; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2013-01-01

    The health of an estuarine ecosystem is largely driven by the abundance of dissolved oxygen and nitrogen available for maintenance of plant and animal life. An investigation was conducted to quantify the concentration of dissolved molecular oxygen and nitrogen in water by means of Raman spectroscopy. This technique is proposed for the remote sensing of dissolved oxygen in the Chesapeake Bay, which will be utilized by aircraft in order to survey large areas in real-time. A proof of principle system has been developed and the specifications are being honed to maximize efficiency for the final application. The theoretical criteria of the research, components of the experimental system, and key findings are presented in this report

  13. Saccharide sensing molecules having enhanced fluorescent properties

    DOEpatents

    Satcher Jr., Joe H.; Lane, Stephen M.; Darrow, Christopher B.; Cary, Douglas R.; Tran, Joe Anh

    2004-01-06

    The present invention provides formulae for fluorescent compounds that have a number of properties which make them uniquely suited for use in sensors of analytes such as saccharides. The advantageous fluorescent properties include favorable excitation wavelengths, emission wavelengths, fluorescence lifetimes, and photostability. Additional advantageous properties include enhanced aqueous solubility, as well as temperature and pH sensitivity. The compound comprises an aryl or a substituted phenyl botonic acid that acts as a substrate recognition component, a fluorescence switch component, and a fluorophore. Fluorescent compounds are described that are excited at wavelengths greater than 400 nm and emit at wavelengths greater than 450 nm, which is advantageous for optical transmission through skin. The fluorophore is typically selected from transition metal-ligand complexes and thiazine, oxazine, oxazone, or oxazine-one as well as anthracene compounds. The fluorescent compound can be immobilized in a glucose permeable biocompatible polymer matrix that is implantable below the skin.

  14. Regulation of carotid body oxygen sensing by hypoxia-inducible factors.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R; Semenza, Gregg L

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen (O2) sensing by the carotid body and its chemosensory reflex is critical for homeostatic regulation of breathing and blood pressure. Carotid body responses to hypoxia are not uniform but instead exhibit remarkable inter-individual variations. The molecular mechanisms underlying variations in carotid body O2 sensing are not known. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and HIF-2 mediate transcriptional responses to hypoxia. This article reviews the emerging evidence that proper expression of the HIF-α isoforms is a key molecular determinant for carotid body O2 sensing. HIF-1α deficiency leads to a blunted carotid body hypoxic response, which is due to increased abundance of HIF-2α, elevated anti-oxidant enzyme activity, and a reduced intracellular redox state. Conversely, HIF-2α deficiency results in augmented carotid body sensitivity to hypoxia, which is due to increased abundance of HIF-1α, elevated pro-oxidant enzyme activity, and an oxidized intracellular redox state. Double heterozygous mice with equally reduced HIF-1α and HIF-2α showed no abnormality in redox state or carotid body O2 sensing. Thus, mutual antagonism between HIF-α isoforms determines the redox state and thereby establishes the set point for hypoxic sensing by the carotid body. PMID:26265380

  15. Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Zen, Andrea; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-07-07

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N{sup 3} − N{sup 4}, where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  16. Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo.

    PubMed

    Zen, Andrea; Trout, Bernhardt L; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-07-01

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N(3) - N(4), where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles. PMID:25005287

  17. Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zen, Andrea; Trout, Bernhardt L.; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-07-01

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N3 - N4, where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  18. Remote sensing of aerosol properties during CARES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassianov, Evgueni; Barnard, James; Pekour, Mikhail; Flynn, Connor; Ferrare, Richard; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John; Jobson, Bertram T.

    2011-11-01

    One month of MFRSR data collected at two sites in the central California (USA) region during the CARES campaign are processed and the MFRSR-derived AODs at 500 nm wavelength are compared with available AODs provided by AERONET measurements. We find that the MFRSR and AERONET AODs are small (~0.05) and comparable. A reasonable quantitative agreement between column aerosol size distributions (up to 2 μm) from the MFRSR and AERONET retrievals is illustrated as well. Analysis of the retrieved (MFRSR and AERONET) and in situ measured aerosol size distributions suggests that the contribution of the coarse mode to aerosol optical properties is substantial for several days. The results of a radiative closure experiment performed for the two sites and one-month period show a favorable agreement between the calculated and measured broadband downwelling irradiances (bias does not exceed about 3 Wm-2), and thus imply that the MFRSR-derived aerosol optical properties are reasonable.

  19. Remote Sensing of Aerosol Properties during CARES

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ferrare, R.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hair, John; Jobson, Bertram Thomas

    2011-10-01

    One month of MFRSR data collected at two sites in the central California (USA) region during the CARES campaign are processed and the MFRSR-derived AODs at 500 nm wavelength are compared with available AODs provided by AERONET measurements. We find that the MFRSR and AERONET AODs are small ({approx}0.05) and comparable. A reasonable quantitative agreement between column aerosol size distributions (up to 2 um) from the MFRSR and AERONET retrievals is illustrated as well. Analysis of the retrieved (MFRSR and AERONET) and in situ measured aerosol size distributions suggests that the contribution of the coarse mode to aerosol optical properties is substantial for several days. The results of a radiative closure experiment performed for the two sites and one-month period show a favorable agreement between the calculated and measured broadband downwelling irradiances (bias does not exceed about 3 Wm-2), and thus imply that the MFRSR-derived aerosol optical properties are reasonable.

  20. A New Crosslinkable Oxygen Sensor Covalently Bonded into Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-CO-Polyacrylamide Thin Film for Dissolved Oxygen Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yanqing; Shumway, Bradley R.; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2010-01-01

    A new oxygen sensor, compound 2, was synthesized through a chemical modification of a popularly used oxygen sensor of platinum(II)-5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)-porphyrin (PtTFPP). The new sensor compound 2 possesses four crosslinkable methacrylate functional moieties, enabling it to be polymerized and crosslinked with other monomers for polymer sensing film (also called membrane) preparation. Using this characteristic, compound 2 was covalently bonded to hydrophilic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-co-polyacrylamide (referred to as PHEMA to simplify) and hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) films. To better understand the advantages and disadvantages of chemical crosslinking approaches and the influence of polymer matrices on sensing performance, PtTFPP was physically incorporated into the same PHEMA and PS matrices to compare. Response to dissolved oxygen (DO), leaching of the sensor molecules from their matrices, photostability of the sensors, and response time to DO changes were studied. It was concluded that the chemical crosslinking of the sensor compound 2 in polymer matrices: (i) alleviated the leaching problem of sensor molecules which usually occurred in the physically doped sensing systems and (ii) significantly improved sensors’ photostability. The PHEMA matrix was demonstrated to be more suitable for oxygen sensing than PS, because for the same sensor molecule, the oxygen sensitivity in PHEMA film was higher than that in PS and response time to DO change in the PHEMA film was faster than that in PS. It was the first time oxygen sensing films were successfully prepared using biocompatible hydrophilic PHEMA as a matrix, which does not allow leaching of the sensor molecules from the polymer matrix, has a faster response to DO changes than that of PS, and does not present cytotoxicity to human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549). It is expected that the new sensor compound 2 and its similar compounds with chemically crosslinking

  1. The human carotid body transcriptome with focus on oxygen sensing and inflammation – a comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mkrtchian, Souren; Kåhlin, Jessica; Ebberyd, Anette; Gonzalez, Constancio; Sanchez, Diego; Balbir, Alexander; Kostuk, Eric W; Shirahata, Machiko; Fagerlund, Malin Jonsson; Eriksson, Lars I

    2012-01-01

    The carotid body (CB) is the key oxygen sensing organ. While the expression of CB specific genes is relatively well studied in animals, corresponding data for the human CB are missing. In this study we used five surgically removed human CBs to characterize the CB transcriptome with microarray and PCR analyses, and compared the results with mice data. In silico approaches demonstrated a unique gene expression profile of the human and mouse CB transcriptomes and an unexpected upregulation of both human and mouse CB genes involved in the inflammatory response compared to brain and adrenal gland data. Human CBs express most of the genes previously proposed to be involved in oxygen sensing and signalling based on animal studies, including NOX2, AMPK, CSE and oxygen sensitive K+ channels. In the TASK subfamily of K+ channels, TASK-1 is expressed in human CBs, while TASK-3 and TASK-5 are absent, although we demonstrated both TASK-1 and TASK-3 in one of the mouse reference strains. Maxi-K was expressed exclusively as the spliced variant ZERO in the human CB. In summary, the human CB transcriptome shares important features with the mouse CB, but also differs significantly in the expression of a number of CB chemosensory genes. This study provides key information for future functional investigations on the human carotid body. PMID:22615433

  2. Chlorine sensing properties of zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Pankaj; Jaiswal, Neeraj K.; Tripathi, Gagan Kant

    2014-05-01

    The density functional theory based first-principles calculations have been employed to explore the chlorine sensing properties of zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons (ZBNNR). The sensing was investigated by calculating electronic structures and current-voltage (I-V) behavior. Three different possibilities were considered for the chlorine adsorption on ZBNNR and the findings were compared with bare ribbons. It is revealed that presence of chlorine has a profound effect on the electronic and transport properties of ZBNNR. Bare ZBNNR are half-metallic in nature whereas chlorine adsorption turns them semiconducting irrespective of adsorption site. Further, the negative differential resistance has been observed in bare ribbons which disappear upon the chlorine adsorption. Enhanced sensing capability is predicted when chlorine is attached at the N edge or at both the edges of the ZBNNR.

  3. Oxygen nonstoichiometry and transport properties of strontium substituted lanthanum ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Sogaard, Martin Vang Hendriksen, Peter; Mogensen, Mogens

    2007-04-15

    This study presents an investigation of the properties of (La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}){sub 0.99}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF40) covering thermomechanical properties, oxygen nonstoichiometry and electronic and ionic conductivity. Finally, oxygen permeation experiments have been carried out and the oxygen flux has been determined as a function of temperature and driving force. The electrical conductivity was measured using a 4 probe method. It is shown that the electrical conductivity is a function of the charge carrier concentration only. The electron hole mobility is found to decrease with increasing charge carrier concentration in agreement with recent literature. Values of the chemical diffusion coefficient, D{sub Chem}, and the surface exchange coefficient, k{sub Ex}, have been determined using electrical conductivity relaxation. At 800 deg. CD{sub Chem} is determined to be 6.2x10{sup -6}cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} with an activation energy of 137kJmol{sup -1}. The surface exchange coefficient is found to decrease with decreasing oxygen partial pressure. Oxygen permeation experiments were carried out. The flux through a membrane placed between air and wet hydrogen/nitrogen was J{sub O{sub 2}}{approx}1.8x10{sup -6}molcm{sup -2}s{sup -1} (corresponding to an equivalent electrical current density of 670mAcm{sup -2}). The oxygen permeation measurements are successfully interpreted based on the oxygen nonstoichiometry data and the determined transport parameters.

  4. Study the gas sensing properties of boron nitride nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Feng, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We synthesized boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) on silicon substrate. • We analyzed gas sensing properties of BNNSs-based gas-sensor device. • CH{sub 4} gas is used to measure gas-sensing properties of the device. • Quick response and recovery time of the device is recorded. • BNNSs showed excellent sensitivity to the working gas. - Abstract: In the present communication, we report on the synthesis of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) and study of their gas sensing properties. BNNSs are synthesized by irradiating pyrolytic hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) target using CO{sub 2} laser pulses. High resolution transmission electron microscopic measurements (HRTEM) revealed 2-dientional honeycomb crystal lattice structure of BNNSs. HRTEM, electron diffraction, XRD and Raman scattering measurements clearly identified h-BN. Gas sensing properties of synthesized BNNSs were analyzed with prototype gas sensor using methane as working gas. A systematic response curve of the sensor is recorded in each cycle of gas “in” and “out”; suggesting excellent sensitivity and high performance of BNNSs-based gas-sensor.

  5. Water-soluble phosphorescent ruthenium complex with a fluorescent coumarin unit for ratiometric sensing of oxygen levels in living cells.

    PubMed

    Hara, Daiki; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Son, Aoi; Nishimoto, Sei-Ichi; Tanabe, Kazuhito

    2015-04-15

    Dual emission was applied to a molecular probe for the ratiometric sensing of oxygen concentration in a living system. We prepared ruthenium complexes possessing a coumarin unit (Ru-Cou), in which the (3)MLCT phosphorescence of the ruthenium complex was efficiently quenched by molecular oxygen, whereas the coumarin unit emitted constant fluorescence independent of the oxygen concentration. The oxygen status could be determined precisely from the ratio of phosphorescence to fluorescence. We achieved the molecular imaging of cellular oxygen levels using Ru-Cou possessing an alkyl chain, which provided appropriate lipophilicity to increase cellular uptake. PMID:25848851

  6. Metal Oxide Nanostructures and Their Gas Sensing Properties: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bo; Meng, Fan-Li; Liu, Jin-Yun; Jin, Zhen; Kong, Ling-Tao; Liu, Jin-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Metal oxide gas sensors are predominant solid-state gas detecting devices for domestic, commercial and industrial applications, which have many advantages such as low cost, easy production, and compact size. However, the performance of such sensors is significantly influenced by the morphology and structure of sensing materials, resulting in a great obstacle for gas sensors based on bulk materials or dense films to achieve highly-sensitive properties. Lots of metal oxide nanostructures have been developed to improve the gas sensing properties such as sensitivity, selectivity, response speed, and so on. Here, we provide a brief overview of metal oxide nanostructures and their gas sensing properties from the aspects of particle size, morphology and doping. When the particle size of metal oxide is close to or less than double thickness of the space-charge layer, the sensitivity of the sensor will increase remarkably, which would be called “small size effect”, yet small size of metal oxide nanoparticles will be compactly sintered together during the film coating process which is disadvantage for gas diffusion in them. In view of those reasons, nanostructures with many kinds of shapes such as porous nanotubes, porous nanospheres and so on have been investigated, that not only possessed large surface area and relatively mass reactive sites, but also formed relatively loose film structures which is an advantage for gas diffusion. Besides, doping is also an effective method to decrease particle size and improve gas sensing properties. Therefore, the gas sensing properties of metal oxide nanostructures assembled by nanoparticles are reviewed in this article. The effect of doping is also summarized and finally the perspectives of metal oxide gas sensor are given. PMID:22736968

  7. Metal oxide nanostructures and their gas sensing properties: a review.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bo; Meng, Fan-Li; Liu, Jin-Yun; Jin, Zhen; Kong, Ling-Tao; Liu, Jin-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Metal oxide gas sensors are predominant solid-state gas detecting devices for domestic, commercial and industrial applications, which have many advantages such as low cost, easy production, and compact size. However, the performance of such sensors is significantly influenced by the morphology and structure of sensing materials, resulting in a great obstacle for gas sensors based on bulk materials or dense films to achieve highly-sensitive properties. Lots of metal oxide nanostructures have been developed to improve the gas sensing properties such as sensitivity, selectivity, response speed, and so on. Here, we provide a brief overview of metal oxide nanostructures and their gas sensing properties from the aspects of particle size, morphology and doping. When the particle size of metal oxide is close to or less than double thickness of the space-charge layer, the sensitivity of the sensor will increase remarkably, which would be called "small size effect", yet small size of metal oxide nanoparticles will be compactly sintered together during the film coating process which is disadvantage for gas diffusion in them. In view of those reasons, nanostructures with many kinds of shapes such as porous nanotubes, porous nanospheres and so on have been investigated, that not only possessed large surface area and relatively mass reactive sites, but also formed relatively loose film structures which is an advantage for gas diffusion. Besides, doping is also an effective method to decrease particle size and improve gas sensing properties. Therefore, the gas sensing properties of metal oxide nanostructures assembled by nanoparticles are reviewed in this article. The effect of doping is also summarized and finally the perspectives of metal oxide gas sensor are given. PMID:22736968

  8. Fiber-Based Laser Transmitter for Oxygen A-Band Spectroscopy and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephen, Mark A.; Abshire, James B.

    2010-01-01

    A fiber-based laser transmitter has been designed for active remote-sensing spectroscopy. The transmitter uses a master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration with a distributed feedback diode-laser master oscillator and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The output from the MOPA is frequency-doubled with a periodically poled nonlinear crystal. The utility of this single-frequency, wavelength-tunable, power-scalable laser has been demonstrated in a spectroscopic measurement of the diatomic oxygen A-band.

  9. Diversity of Magneto-Aerotactic Behaviors and Oxygen Sensing Mechanisms in Cultured Magnetotactic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lefèvre, Christopher T.; Bennet, Mathieu; Landau, Livnat; Vach, Peter; Pignol, David; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Frankel, Richard B.; Klumpp, Stefan; Faivre, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms living in gradient environments affect large-scale processes, including the cycling of elements such as carbon, nitrogen or sulfur, the rates and fate of primary production, and the generation of climatically active gases. Aerotaxis is a common adaptation in organisms living in the oxygen gradients of stratified environments. Magnetotactic bacteria are such gradient-inhabiting organisms that have a specific type of aerotaxis that allows them to compete at the oxic-anoxic interface. They biomineralize magnetosomes, intracellular membrane-coated magnetic nanoparticles, that comprise a permanent magnetic dipole that causes the cells to align along magnetic field lines. The magnetic alignment enables them to efficiently migrate toward an optimal oxygen concentration in microaerobic niches. This phenomenon is known as magneto-aerotaxis. Magneto-aerotaxis has only been characterized in a limited number of available cultured strains. In this work, we characterize the magneto-aerotactic behavior of 12 magnetotactic bacteria with various morphologies, phylogenies, physiologies, and flagellar apparatus. We report six different magneto-aerotactic behaviors that can be described as a combination of three distinct mechanisms, including the reported (di-)polar, axial, and a previously undescribed mechanism we named unipolar. We implement a model suggesting that the three magneto-aerotactic mechanisms are related to distinct oxygen sensing mechanisms that regulate the direction of cells’ motility in an oxygen gradient. PMID:25028894

  10. Investigation of sensing properties of microstructured polymer optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, J.; Steffen, M.; Schukar, M.; Krebber, K.

    2010-04-01

    We investigated sensing properties of single mode poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) microstructured polymer optical fibres (MPOF) with mechanically imprinted long period gratings (LPG). After preparation of the MPOF end-faces the samples were elongated with silica fibres. These samples were used to measure the influence of strain to the LPG wavelength which showed the viscoelastic nature of PMMA. We also measured the influence of temperature and humidity. The results show that MPOF LPGs are well suited for strain sensing. One MPOF LPG was stitched to a textile. Using this textile we measured a simulated respiratory motion.

  11. Humidity sensing property of polyaniline - cromium oxide nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajjan, K. C.; Faisal, Muhammad; Vijaya Kumari, S. C.; Ravikiran, Y. T.; Khasim, Syed

    2013-06-01

    New type of conducting polyamine-cromium oxide (PANI-Cr2O3) nanocomposites have been synthesized by in situ deposition technique by placing fine grade powder of cromium Oxide during in situ polymerization of aniline. The composites formed were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The SEM image confirmed uniform distribution of Cr2O3 particles in the PAni matrix. The humidity sensing mechanism of the PAni-Cr2O3 composites was studied and change in resistance with relative humidity(RH) ranging from 20% to 95% were recorded. It was found that Cr2O3 after making composite with PANI, exhibits good humidity sensing property.

  12. Oxygen sensing in neuroendocrine cells and other cell types: pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Zachary; Millhorn, David E

    2003-01-01

    A steady supply of oxygen is an absolute requirement for mammalian cells to maintain normal cellular functions. To answer the challenge that oxygen deprivation represents, mammals have evolved specialized cell types that can sense changes in oxygen tension and alter gene expression to enhance oxygen delivery to hypoxic areas. These oxygensensing cells are rare and difficult to study in vivo. As a result, pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells have become a vital in vitro model system for deciphering the molecular events that confer the hypoxia-resistant and oxygen-sensing phenotypes. Research over the last few years has revealed that the hypoxia response in PC12 cells involves the interactions of several signal transduction pathways (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinases, Akt, SAPKs, and MAPKs) and transcription factors (HIFs, CREB, and c-fos/junB). This review summarizes the current understanding of the role these signal transduction pathways and transcription factors play in determining the hypoxic response. PMID:14739486

  13. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D. J. Osborn; Po Zhang

    2006-09-30

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications has been developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. We report on a fiber optic technique for detection of gas phase oxygen up to 100 C based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the luminescence from molybdenum chloride clusters, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}. The inorganic sensing film is a composite of sol-gel particles embedded in a thin, oxygen permeable sol-gel binder. The particles are comprised of thermally stable, luminescent K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14} clusters dispersed in a fully equilibrated sol-gel matrix. From 40 to 100 C, the fiber sensor switches {approx}6x in intensity in response to alternating pulses of <0.001% O2 and 21% O{sub 2} between two well defined levels with a response time of 10 s. The sensor signal is a few nW for an input pump power of 250 {micro}W. The normalized sensor signal is linear with molar oxygen concentration and fits the theoretical Stern-Volmer relationship. Although the sensitivity decreases with temperature, sensitivity at 100 C is 160 [O{sub 2}]{sup -1}. These parameters are well suited for in-situ, real-time monitoring of oxygen for industrial process control applications.

  14. Relationship between the microscopic and macroscopic world in optical oxygen sensing: a luminescence lifetime microscopy study.

    PubMed

    López-Gejo, Juan; Haigh, David; Orellana, Guillermo

    2010-02-01

    An investigation based on confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) of silica-loaded silicone films doped with a molecular oxygen-sensitive ruthenium(II) polyazaheterocyclic complex is presented. The effect of the silica type (hydrophilic/hydrophobic), particle size and amount of silica filler on the luminescence decay of the immobilized indicator dye has thoroughly been studied. A higher amount of hydrophilic silica leads to both a higher solubility of molecular oxygen into the silicone film and to higher levels of the metal indicator dye. Thus, incorporation of 10% (by wt) pyrogenic silica into silicone shortens the mean luminescence lifetime from 1.4 to 0.9 micros. However, an excess of filler may lead to overloading of the dye into the film producing new phenomena such as triplet-triplet annihilation and excitation energy homotransfer, as observed from their influence on the emission lifetime of the metal complex. Those phenomena do not take place when trimethylated silica (hydrophobic filler) is used. In this case, no increase on the oxygen or dye concentration is observed after addition of the filler and no significant reduction of the luminescence lifetime is measured. Both the addition of silica and the possible precipitation of dye crystals lead to the appearance of microdomains where the molecular probe exhibits widely different excited state lifetimes. For the first time, such microdomains within the oxygen sensing layer are visualized and analyzed by means of FLIM, showing the potential of this technique and the usefulness of our conclusions to the future design and development of novel luminescent oxygen sensor films for environmental and process analysis. PMID:20099927

  15. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn; Po Zhang

    2006-06-30

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Our approach towards immobilizing the potassium salt of the molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the far end of an optical fiber is to embed the cluster in a thermally cured sol-gel matrix particle. This particle-in-binder approach affords fibers with greatly improved mechanical properties, as compared to previous approaches. The sensor was characterized in 2-21% gas phase oxygen at 40, 70 and 100 C. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  16. Enhanced gas sensing performance of Li-doped ZnO nanoparticle film by the synergistic effect of oxygen interstitials and oxygen vacancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianwei; Xie, Changsheng; Yang, Li; Zhang, Shunping; Zhang, Guozhu; Cai, Ziming

    2015-03-01

    Li doped ZnO (Zn1-xLixO) nanoparticles with different content were synthesized. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated that the ratio of oxygen to zinc for ZnO increased with increasing of Li content from x = 0 to 0.2, which had been attributed to the introduction of oxygen interstitial by Li dopant. The sensing performance and the temperature-dependent conductivity were investigated. It is observed that Li doped ZnO showed higher sensitivity and selectivity compared to the undoped ZnO. The 0.1 Li doped ZnO performed the maximum responses of 71.5 and 40.2 for 100 ppm methanol and formaldehyde, respectively, at 350 °C. The research showed that the oxygen vacancies served as active sites which supported the oxygen adsorption and reaction, oxygen interstitials served as active sites to oxidize the reducing gases and produce electrons. The enhanced sensing performance of Li doped ZnO was attributed to the synergistic effect of oxygen interstitials and oxygen vacancies.

  17. Gas Sensing Properties of ZnO-SnO2 Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weigen; Li, Qianzhu; Xu, Lingna; Zeng, Wen

    2015-02-01

    One-dimensional (1D) semiconductor metal oxide nanostructures have attracted increasing attention in electrochemistry, optics, magnetic, and gas sensing fields for the good properties. N-type low dimensional semiconducting oxides such as SnO2 and ZnO have been known for the detection of inflammable or toxic gases. In this paper, we fabricated the ZnO-SnO2 and SnO2 nanoparticles by hydrothermal synthesis. Microstructure characterization was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface morphologies for both the pristine and doped samples were observed using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Then we made thin film gas sensor to study the gas sensing properties of ZnO-SnO2 and SnO2 gas sensor to H2 and CO. A systematic comparison study reveals an enhanced gas sensing performance for the sensor made of SnO2 and ZnO toward H2 and CO over that of the commonly applied undecorated SnO2 nanoparticles. The improved gas sensing properties are attributed to the size of grains and pronounced electron transfer between the compound nanostructures and the absorbed oxygen species as well as to the heterojunctions of the ZnO nanoparticles to the SnO2 nanoparticles, which provide additional reaction rooms. The results represent an advance of compound nanostructures in further enhancing the functionality of gas sensors, and this facile method could be applicable to many sensing materials, offering a new avenue and direction to detect gases of interest based on composite tin oxide nanoparticles. PMID:26353640

  18. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2006-05-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Previously we described a particle-in-binder approach to immobilizing the potassium salt of the molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the tips of optical fibers. Compared to previous methods, the particle-in-binder approach affords fibers with greatly improved mechanical properties. The response of the sensor to oxygen at 40, 70 and 100 C was measured in 2-21% gas phase oxygen. The normalized sensor signal is linear with molar oxygen concentration and fits the theoretical Stern-Volmer relationship. Although the sensitivity decreases with temperature, at 100 C the sensitivity is 160 [O{sub 2}]{sup -1}. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  19. Study on a phosphorescent copper(I) complex and its oxygen-sensing performances upon polystyrene and MCM-41 matrixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-yong; Xiao, Han-ning; Xu, Yi-ming; Zhang, Ming-jun

    In this paper, we synthesize a new ligand of 1-ethyl-2-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (Phen-Np-Et) and its corresponding Cu(I) complex of [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]BF4, where POP is bis(2-(diphenylphosphanyl)phenyl) ether. The single-crystal structure, electronic nature and photophysical property of [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]BF4 are discussed in detail. It is found that the yellow emission from [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]BF4 owns a long excited state lifetime of 287 μs under pure N2 atmosphere. Theoretical calculation on [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]+ suggests that the emission comes from a triplet metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer excited state. Then, [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]BF4 are doped into two matrixes of polystyrene and MCM-41 to investigate the oxygen-sensing performance. Finally, sensitivity maxima of 9.6 and 3.6 are achieved by the composite nanofibers of [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]BF4/polystyrene and the [Cu(Phen-Np-Et)(POP)]BF4/MCM-41, respectively. Both samples are highly sensitive toward molecular oxygen, owing to the large surface-area-to-volume ratios of nanofibrous membranes and MCM-41 matrix.

  20. Polymer-Oxygen Compatibility Testing: Effect of Oxygen Aging on Ignition and Combustion Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Haas, Jon P.; Wilson, D. Bruce; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The oxygen compatibility of six polymers used in oxygen service was evaluated after exposure for 48 hours to oxygen pressures ranging from 350 to 6200 kPa (50 to 900 psia), and temperatures ranging from 50 to 250 C (122 to 302 F). Three elastomers were tested: CR rubber (C873-70), FKM fluorocarbon rubber (Viton A), and MPQ silicone rubber (MIL-ZZ-765, Class 2); and three thermoplastics were tested: polyhexamethylene adipamide (Zytel 42), polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon TFE), and polychlorotrifluoroethylene (Neoflon CTFE M400H). Post-aging changes in mass, dimensions, tensile strength, elongation at break, and durometer hardness were determined. Also, the compression set was determined for the three elastomers. Results show that the properties under investigation were more sensitive to oxygen pressure at low to moderate temperatures, and more sensitive to temperature at low to moderate oxygen pressures. Inspection of the results also suggested that both chain scissioning and cross-linking processes were operative, consistent with heterogeneous oxidation. Attempts are underway to verify conclusively the occurrence of heterogeneous oxidation using a simple modulus profiling technique. Finally, the effect of aging at 620 kpa (90 psia) and 121 C (250 F) on ignition and combustion resistance was determined. As expected, aged polymers were less ignitable and combustible (had higher AlTs and lower heats of combustion). Special attention was given to Neoflon CTFE. More specifically, the effect of process history (compression versus extrusion molding) and percent crystallinity (quick- versus slow-quenched) on the AIT, heat of combustion, and impact sensitivity of Neoflon CTFE was investigated. Results show the AIT, heat of combustion, and impact sensitivity to be essentially independent of Neoflon CTFE process history and structure.

  1. Hematite nanoplates: Controllable synthesis, gas sensing, photocatalytic and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Hao, Hongying; Sun, Dandan; Xu, Yanyan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Guoying; Sun, Yaqiu; Gao, Dongzhao

    2016-01-15

    Uniform hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoplates exposing {001} plane as basal planes have been prepared by a facile solvothermal method under the assistance of sodium acetate. The morphological evolution of the nanoplates was studied by adjusting the reaction parameters including the solvent and the amount of sodium acetate. The results indicated that both the adequate nucleation/growth rate and selective adsorption of alcohol molecules and acetate anions contribute to the formation of the plate-like morphology. In addition, the size of the nanoplates can be adjusted from ca. 180nm to 740nm by changing the reaction parameters. Three nanoplate samples with different size were selected to investigate the gas sensing performance, photocatalytic and magnetic properties. As gas sensing materials, all the α-Fe2O3 nanoplates exhibited high gas sensitivity and stability toward n-butanol. When applied as photocatalyst, the α-Fe2O3 nanoplates show high photodegradation efficiency towards RhB. Both the gas sensing performance and the photocatalytic property of the products exhibit obvious size-dependent effect. Magnetic measurements reveal that the plate-like α-Fe2O3 particles possess good room temperature magnetic properties. PMID:26476200

  2. Exfoliated black phosphorus gas sensing properties at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donarelli, M.; Ottaviano, L.; Giancaterini, L.; Fioravanti, G.; Perrozzi, F.; Cantalini, C.

    2016-06-01

    Room temperature gas sensing properties of chemically exfoliated black phosphorus (BP) to oxidizing (NO2, CO2) and reducing (NH3, H2, CO) gases in a dry air carrier have been reported. To study the gas sensing properties of BP, chemically exfoliated BP flakes have been drop casted on Si3N4 substrates provided with Pt comb-type interdigitated electrodes in N2 atmosphere. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations show respectively the occurrence of a mixed structure, composed of BP coarse aggregates dispersed on BP exfoliated few layer flakes bridging the electrodes, and a clear 2p doublet belonging to BP, which excludes the occurrence of surface oxidation. Room temperature electrical tests in dry air show a p-type response of multilayer BP with measured detection limits of 20 ppb and 10 ppm to NO2 and NH3 respectively. No response to CO and CO2 has been detected, while a slight but steady sensitivity to H2 has been recorded. The reported results confirm, on an experimental basis, what was previously theoretically predicted, demonstrating the promising sensing properties of exfoliated BP.

  3. Oxygen transport properties estimation by DSMC-CT simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Domenico; Frezzotti, Aldo; Ghiroldi, Gian Pietro

    2014-12-09

    Coupling DSMC simulations with classical trajectories calculations is emerging as a powerful tool to improve predictive capabilities of computational rarefied gas dynamics. The considerable increase of computational effort outlined in the early application of the method (Koura,1997) can be compensated by running simulations on massively parallel computers. In particular, GPU acceleration has been found quite effective in reducing computing time (Ferrigni,2012; Norman et al.,2013) of DSMC-CT simulations. The aim of the present work is to study rarefied Oxygen flows by modeling binary collisions through an accurate potential energy surface, obtained by molecular beams scattering (Aquilanti, et al.,1999). The accuracy of the method is assessed by calculating molecular Oxygen shear viscosity and heat conductivity following three different DSMC-CT simulation methods. In the first one, transport properties are obtained from DSMC-CT simulations of spontaneous fluctuation of an equilibrium state (Bruno et al, Phys. Fluids, 23, 093104, 2011). In the second method, the collision trajectory calculation is incorporated in a Monte Carlo integration procedure to evaluate the Taxman’s expressions for the transport properties of polyatomic gases (Taxman,1959). In the third, non-equilibrium zero and one-dimensional rarefied gas dynamic simulations are adopted and the transport properties are computed from the non-equilibrium fluxes of momentum and energy. The three methods provide close values of the transport properties, their estimated statistical error not exceeding 3%. The experimental values are slightly underestimated, the percentage deviation being, again, few percent.

  4. Optical Properties of Volcanic Ash: Improving Remote Sensing Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelley, P.; Colarco, P. R.; Aquila, V.; Krotkov, N. A.; Bleacher, J. E.; Garry, W. B.; Young, K. E.; Lima, A. R.; Martins, J. V.; Carn, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Many times each year explosive volcanic eruptions loft ash into the atmosphere. Global travel and trade rely on aircraft vulnerable to encounters with airborne ash. Volcanic ash advisory centers (VAACs) rely on dispersion forecasts and satellite data to issue timely warnings. To improve ash forecasts model developers and satellite data providers need realistic information about volcanic ash microphysical and optical properties. In anticipation of future large eruptions we can study smaller events to improve our remote sensing and modeling skills so when the next Pinatubo 1991 or larger eruption occurs, ash can confidently be tracked in a quantitative way. At distances >100km from their sources, drifting ash plumes, often above meteorological clouds, are not easily detected from conventional remote sensing platforms, save deriving their quantitative characteristics, such as mass density. Quantitative interpretation of these observations depends on a priori knowledge of the spectral optical properties of the ash in UV (>0.3μm) and TIR wavelengths (>10μm). Incorrect assumptions about the optical properties result in large errors in inferred column mass loading and size distribution, which misguide operational ash forecasts. Similarly, simulating ash properties in global climate models also requires some knowledge of optical properties to improve aerosol speciation. Recent research has identified a wide range in volcanic ash optical properties among samples collected from the ground after different eruptions. The database of samples investigated remains relatively small, and measurements of optical properties at the relevant particle sizes and spectral channels are far from complete. Generalizing optical properties remains elusive, as does establishing relationships between ash composition and optical properties, which are essential for satellite retrievals. We are building a library of volcanic ash optical and microphysical properties. In this presentation we show

  5. Optical properties of volcanic ash: improving remote sensing observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelley, Patrick; Colarco, Peter; Aquila, Valentina; Krotkov, Nickolay; Bleacher, Jake; Garry, Brent; Young, Kelsey; Rocha Lima, Adriana; Martins, Vanderlei; Carn, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Many times each year explosive volcanic eruptions loft ash into the atmosphere. Global travel and trade rely on aircraft vulnerable to encounters with airborne ash. Volcanic ash advisory centers (VAACs) rely on dispersion forecasts and satellite data to issue timely warnings. To improve ash forecasts model developers and satellite data providers need realistic information about volcanic ash microphysical and optical properties. In anticipation of future large eruptions we can study smaller events to improve our remote sensing and modeling skills so when the next Pinatubo 1991 or larger eruption occurs, ash can confidently be tracked in a quantitative way. At distances >100km from their sources, drifting ash plumes, often above meteorological clouds, are not easily detected from conventional remote sensing platforms, save deriving their quantitative characteristics, such as mass density. Quantitative interpretation of these observations depends on a priori knowledge of the spectral optical properties of the ash in UV (>0.3μm) and TIR wavelengths (>10μm). Incorrect assumptions about the optical properties result in large errors in inferred column mass loading and size distribution, which misguide operational ash forecasts. Similarly, simulating ash properties in global climate models also requires some knowledge of optical properties to improve aerosol speciation.

  6. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Storz, Jay F; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki; Hoffmann, Federico G; Wang, Tobias; Fago, Angela; Malte, Hans; Overgaard, Johannes; Weber, Roy E

    2015-11-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer-dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying α- and β-type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platura (Elapidae). We analyzed allosteric properties of snake Hbs in terms of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model and Adair four-step thermodynamic model. Hbs from each of the three species exhibited high intrinsic O2 affinities, low cooperativities, small Bohr factors in the absence of phosphates, and high sensitivities to ATP. Oxygenation properties of the snake Hbs could be explained entirely by allosteric transitions in the quaternary structure of intact tetramers, suggesting that ligation-dependent dissociation of Hb tetramers into αβ-dimers is not a universal feature of snake Hbs. Surprisingly, the major Hb isoform of the South American rattlesnake is homologous to the minor HbD of other amniotes and, contrary to the pattern of Hb isoform differentiation in birds and turtles, exhibits a lower O2 affinity than the HbA isoform. PMID:26354849

  7. Oxygenation properties of hemoglobin from the turtle Geochelone carbonaria.

    PubMed

    Torsoni, M A; Ogo, S H

    1995-01-01

    The oxygen-binding properties of hemoglobin (Hb) from the adult terrestrial turtle Geochelone carbonaria are described. Turtle hemoglobins have a low intrinsic oxygen affinity and a low sensitivity to an endogenous cofactor (ATP) usually present at high concentrations in the reptile erythrocytes. The amplitude of the Bohr effect for O2 binding was virtually the same in the absence and presence of saturating ATP concentrations (delta logP50/delta pH, about -0.60) and increased in the total hemolysate (-0.83). The large Bohr effect found in G. carbonaria Hb may be important for O2 delivery to the tissue. The degree of cooperativity displayed by Hb for O2 binding ranged between 1.5 and 2.0 in stripped solution and total hemolysate. These observations suggest that stability of the low affinity conformation, which needs to be confirmed by additional experiments. PMID:8728839

  8. Luminescent Nafion membranes dyed with ruthenium(II) complexes as sensing materials for dissolved oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Fresnadillo, D.; Orellana, G.; Marazuela, M.D.; Moreno-Bondi, M.C.

    1999-09-14

    The absorption spectroscopy, photophysics, and dioxygen quenching of [RuL{sub 3}]{sup 2+} luminescent probes, where L stands for 2,2{prime}-bipyridine, 1,10-phenanthroline, 5-octadecanamide-1,10-phenanthroline, and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dip), electrostatically loaded onto Nafion ionomer membrane have been investigated in air and in organic solvents and water, with the aim of developing rugged materials for optical sensing of molecular oxygen. The significant differences in size and hydrophobicity of the Ru(II) dyes have been used to probe their location within the perfluorinated ionomer pore network, as well as to gain insight into the oxygen accessibility to its microcrystalline and interfacial domains. While the absorption maximums of the probes (444--458nm) remain relative unchanged, their emission wavelengths (578--622 nm) are extremely sensitive to the degree of Nafion swelling by the solvent. This feature has been characterized by measuring the density (1.19--2.04 g cm{sup {minus}3}) of the solvent-saturated ionomer and the mass and volume fractions of solvents (0.0--0.7) uptake by the original acidic Nafion and Li{sup +}-, Na{sup +}-, or K{sup +}-exchanged films. The excited-state lifetimes of the [RuL{sub 3}]{sup 2+} complexes (0.03--4.9{micro}s) reflect important variations of the microenvironment around the luminescent probes, which are rationalized in terms of their location and oxygen accessibility when loaded onto the polysulfonated material. Emission quenching rate constants of 1.7 {+-} 0.3 M{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1} have been measured for the [Ru(dip){sub 3}]{sup 2+}-dyed films dipped in methanol; their oxygen sensitivity turns out to be independent of the Ru(II) loading and counterion of Nafion. Highly oxygen-sensitive luminescent membranes, suitable for continuous monitoring in organic solvents, water, or gas phase, have been prepared by immobilization of [Ru(dip){sub 3}]{sup 2+} indicator in 178-{micro}m thick Nafion, with response

  9. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO2 nanotube array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.; Bhattacharyya, P.

    2014-08-01

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO2 nanotubes, having diameters of 50-70 nm and lengths of 200-250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH4F and ethylene glycol with selective H2O content. The structural evolution of TiO2 nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO2 nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO2 nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  10. Method of multispectral sensing hydrophysical properties of a stratified ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Zhurenkov, A.G.; Yakovlev, V.A.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this work is to solve the problem of the ocean hydrophysical and ecological parameters evaluation from the multispectral optical sensing data. The presented procedure enables the time characteristics of the vertical and horizontal stratifications of the sea water ecological parameters everywhere over the region under investigation with the resolution defined by parameters of the devices in use to reconstruct. This procedure makes use of both the sea surface optical remote sensing data measured everywhere over the region and the vertical stratification of the sea water optical properties received in a limited number of points on that region. Also the correction algorithm is elaborated. It allows the contribution of the radiation reflected by both the atmosphere and the sea surface to reduce.

  11. Excellent acetone sensing properties of porous ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang-Bai; Liu, Xing-Yi; Wang, Sheng-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Porous ZnO was obtained by hydrothermal method. The results of scanning electron microscope revealed the porous structure in the as-prepared materials. The acetone sensing test results of porous ZnO show that porous ZnO possesses excellent acetone gas sensing properties. The response is 35.5 at the optimum operating temperature of 320 °C to 100 ppm acetone. The response and recovery times to 50 ppm acetone are 2 s and 8 s, respectively. The lowest detecting limit to acetone is 0.25 ppm, and the response value is 3.8. Moreover, the sensors also exhibit excellent selectivity and long-time stability to acetone. Projected supported by the Project of Challenge Cup for College Students, China (Grant No. 450060497053).

  12. Oxygen Sensing by Arterial Chemoreceptors Depends on Mitochondrial Complex I Signaling.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Agüera, M Carmen; Gao, Lin; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Pintado, C Oscar; Arias-Mayenco, Ignacio; García-Flores, Paula; García-Pergañeda, Antonio; Pascual, Alberto; Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia; López-Barneo, José

    2015-11-01

    O2 sensing is essential for mammalian homeostasis. Peripheral chemoreceptors such as the carotid body (CB) contain cells with O2-sensitive K(+) channels, which are inhibited by hypoxia to trigger fast adaptive cardiorespiratory reflexes. How variations of O2 tension (PO2) are detected and the mechanisms whereby these changes are conveyed to membrane ion channels have remained elusive. We have studied acute O2 sensing in conditional knockout mice lacking mitochondrial complex I (MCI) genes. We inactivated Ndufs2, which encodes a protein that participates in ubiquinone binding. Ndufs2-null mice lose the hyperventilatory response to hypoxia, although they respond to hypercapnia. Ndufs2-deficient CB cells have normal functions and ATP content but are insensitive to changes in PO2. Our data suggest that chemoreceptor cells have a specialized succinate-dependent metabolism that induces an MCI state during hypoxia, characterized by the production of reactive oxygen species and accumulation of reduced pyridine nucleotides, which signal neighboring K(+) channels. PMID:26437605

  13. A green-emitting Cu complex for oxygen-sensing purpose: synthesis, characterization and photophysical features.

    PubMed

    Hui, Han; Wei, Li; Zhentao, Liu; Xiangen, Han

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, a green-emitting Cu(I) complex [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4 was synthesized and fully characterized, where BT-Et=4-(1-ethyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)thiazole, POP=bis(2-(diphenylphosphanyl)phenyl) ether, respectively. An ethyl group was connected onto the diamine ligand to breach π-π attraction within solid [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4, favoring O2 molecule attack and sensitivity improvement. Its molecular identity was confirmed by single crystal analysis and theoretical calculation. [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4 emitted long-lived green emission peaking at 521nm upon photoexcitation which was vulnerable towards O2 molecule, making itself a potential oxygen sensing material. [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4 was then doped into a silica supporting matrix MCM-41. The resulting composite samples showed sensing behavior towards O2 molecule, with short response time of 10s and sensitivity of 5.56. PMID:25706596

  14. A green-emitting Cu complex for oxygen-sensing purpose: Synthesis, characterization and photophysical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Han; Wei, Li; Zhentao, Liu; Xiangen, Han

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, a green-emitting Cu(I) complex [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4 was synthesized and fully characterized, where BT-Et = 4-(1-ethyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)thiazole, POP = bis(2-(diphenylphosphanyl)phenyl) ether, respectively. An ethyl group was connected onto the diamine ligand to breach π-π attraction within solid [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4, favoring O2 molecule attack and sensitivity improvement. Its molecular identity was confirmed by single crystal analysis and theoretical calculation. [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4 emitted long-lived green emission peaking at 521 nm upon photoexcitation which was vulnerable towards O2 molecule, making itself a potential oxygen sensing material. [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4 was then doped into a silica supporting matrix MCM-41. The resulting composite samples showed sensing behavior towards O2 molecule, with short response time of 10 s and sensitivity of 5.56.

  15. Early non-destructive biofouling detection and spatial distribution: Application of oxygen sensing optodes.

    PubMed

    Farhat, N M; Staal, M; Siddiqui, A; Borisov, S M; Bucs, Sz S; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2015-10-15

    Biofouling is a serious problem in reverse osmosis/nanofiltration (RO/NF) applications, reducing membrane performance. Early detection of biofouling plays an essential role in an adequate anti-biofouling strategy. Presently, fouling of membrane filtration systems is mainly determined by measuring changes in pressure drop, which is not exclusively linked to biofouling. Non-destructive imaging of oxygen concentrations (i) is specific for biological activity of biofilms and (ii) may enable earlier detection of biofilm accumulation than pressure drop. The objective of this study was to test whether transparent luminescent planar O2 optodes, in combination with a simple imaging system, can be used for early non-destructive biofouling detection. This biofouling detection is done by mapping the two-dimensional distribution of O2 concentrations and O2 decrease rates inside a membrane fouling simulator (MFS). Results show that at an early stage, biofouling development was detected by the oxygen sensing optodes while no significant increase in pressure drop was yet observed. Additionally, optodes could detect spatial heterogeneities in biofouling distribution at a micro scale. Biofilm development started mainly at the feed spacer crossings. The spatial and quantitative information on biological activity will lead to better understanding of the biofouling processes, contributing to the development of more effective biofouling control strategies. PMID:26117369

  16. Mechanisms of oxygen sensing: a key to therapy of pulmonary hypertension and patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Weir, E K; Obreztchikova, M; Vargese, A; Cabrera, J A; Peterson, D A; Hong, Z

    2008-01-01

    Specialized tissues that sense acute changes in the local oxygen tension include type 1 cells of the carotid body, neuroepithelial bodies in the lungs, and smooth muscle cells of the resistance pulmonary arteries and the ductus arteriosus (DA). Hypoxia inhibits outward potassium current in carotid body type 1 cells, leading to depolarization and calcium entry through L-type calcium channels. Increased intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca++]i) leads to exocytosis of neurotransmitters, thus stimulating the carotid sinus nerve and respiration. The same K+ channel inhibition occurs with hypoxia in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), causing contraction and providing part of the mechanism of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). In the SMCs of the DA, the mechanism works in reverse. It is the shift from hypoxia to normoxia that inhibits K+ channels and causes normoxic ductal contraction. In both PA and DA, the contraction is augmented by release of Ca++ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, entry of Ca++ through store-operated channels (SOC) and by Ca++ sensitization. The same three ‘executive' mechanisms are partly responsible for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). While vasoconstrictor mediators constrict both PA and DA and vasodilators dilate both vessels, only redox changes mimic oxygen by having directly opposite effects on the K+ channels, membrane potential, [Ca++]i and tone in the PA and DA. There are several different hypotheses as to how redox might alter tone, which remain to be resolved. However, understanding the mechanism will facilitate drug development for pulmonary hypertension and patent DA. PMID:18641675

  17. EDTA-Decorated Nanostructured ZnO/CdS Thin Films for Oxygen Gas Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunraja, L.; Thirumoorthy, P.; Karthik, A.; Rajendran, V.; Edwinpaul, L.

    2016-08-01

    ZnO/CdS and ZnO/CdS-EDTA nanostructured thin films were prepared on a glass substrate using spin-coating and used for oxygen gas sensor applications. The structural properties of both ZnO/CdS and ZnO/CdS-EDTA nanostructured composites were comparatively characterized. The nanostructure thin film was found in a hexagonal structure with an average crystallite size reduced from 77 nm to 29 nm due to the influence of the EDTA. The optical absorption, photo luminescence, functional groups and surface morphology of the nanostructured thin films were comprehensively investigated. Oxygen was suitably tailored to verify the sensor response over a concentration range of 10-50 ppm at room temperature. Thus, the sensor studies reveal that the performance, response, and recovery time were enhanced in ZnO/CdS-EDTA nanostructured thin film compared with ZnO/CdS.

  18. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D. J. Osborn; Po Zhang

    2006-09-30

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Our approach towards immobilizing the potassium salt of the molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the far end of an optical fiber is to embed the cluster in a thermally cured sol-gel matrix particle. Due to the improved mechanical properties of this approach high temperature sensor measurements were performed up to 100 C. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  19. Oxygenation, EMG and position sense during computer mouse work. Impact of active versus passive pauses.

    PubMed

    Crenshaw, A G; Djupsjöbacka, M; Svedmark, A

    2006-05-01

    We investigated the effects of active versus passive pauses implemented during computer mouse work on muscle oxygenation and EMG of the forearm extensor carpi radialis muscle, and on wrist position sense. Fifteen healthy female subjects (age: 19-24 years) performed a 60-min mouse-operated computer task, divided into three 20 min periods, on two occasions separated by 3-6 days. On one occasion a passive pause (subjects resting) was implemented at the end of each 20-min period, and on another occasion an active pause (subjects performed a number of high intensity extensions of the forearm) was implemented. Also at the end of each 20-min period, test contractions were conducted and subjective ratings of fatigue and stress were obtained. Another parameter of interest was total haemoglobin calculated as the summation of oxy-and deoxy-haemoglobin, since it reflects blood volume changes. The most interesting findings were an overall increasing trend in total haemoglobin throughout the mouse work (P<0.001), and that this trend was greater for the active pause as compared to the passive pause (P<0.01). These data were accompanied by an overall increase in oxygen saturation (P<0.001), with a tendency, albeit not significant, toward a higher increase for the active pause (P=0.13). EMG amplitude and median frequency tended to decrease (P=0.08 and 0.05, respectively) during the mouse work but was not different between pause types. Borg ratings of forearm fatigue showed an overall increase during the activity (P<0.001), but the perceptions of stress did not change. Position sense did not change due to the mouse work for either pause type. While increasing trends were found for both pause types, the present study lends support to the hypothesis of an enhancement in oxygenation and blood volume for computer mouse work implemented with active pauses. However, a presumption of an association between this enhancement and attenuated fatigue during the mouse work was not supported

  20. Investigation of gas sensing properties of InN nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Madapu, Kishore K. E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in; Prasad, A. K.; Tyagi, A. K.; Dhara, S. E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in

    2015-06-24

    InN nanoparticles were grown by chemical vapor deposition technique using In{sub 2}O{sub 3} as precursor material. Raman spectroscopic studies show the presence of the wurtzite phase of as-grown InN. Size of the nanoparticles were in range from quantum dot (<8 nm) to larger sized particles (100 nm). We studied the gas sensing properties of InN nanoparticles with CH{sub 4} gas. Sensors substrates were fabricated with interdigitated Au electrodes. InN nanoparticles show high response towards CH{sub 4} with minimum detectable concentration of 50 ppm at 200 °C.

  1. Investigation of gas sensing properties of InN nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madapu, Kishore K.; Prasad, A. K.; Tyagi, A. K.; Dhara, S.

    2015-06-01

    InN nanoparticles were grown by chemical vapor deposition technique using In2O3 as precursor material. Raman spectroscopic studies show the presence of the wurtzite phase of as-grown InN. Size of the nanoparticles were in range from quantum dot (<8 nm) to larger sized particles (100 nm). We studied the gas sensing properties of InN nanoparticles with CH4 gas. Sensors substrates were fabricated with interdigitated Au electrodes. InN nanoparticles show high response towards CH4 with minimum detectable concentration of 50 ppm at 200 °C.

  2. The role of oxygen in hydrogen sensing by a platinum-gate silicon carbide gas sensor: An ultrahigh vacuum study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahng, Yung Ho; Lu, Wei; Tobin, R. G.; Loloee, Reza; Ghosh, Ruby N.

    2009-03-01

    We report several experiments under ultrahigh vacuum conditions that elucidate the role of oxygen in the functioning of silicon carbide field-effect gas sensors with nonporous platinum gates. The devices studied are shown to be sensitive both to hydrogen and to propene. All of the results are consistent with oxygen acting through its surface reactions with hydrogen. Three specific aspects are highlighted: the need, under some conditions, for oxygen to reset the device to a fully hydrogen-depleted state; competition between hydrogen oxidation and hydrogen diffusion to metal/oxide interface sites, leading to steplike behavior as a function of the oxygen:hydrogen ratio (λ-sensing); and the removal of sulfur contamination by oxygen.

  3. Mapping of Soil Properties Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Goodwell, A. E.; Greenberg, J. A.; Kumar, P.; Darmody, R. G.; Garvey, J. E.; Jacobson, R. B.; Beretta, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents a novel framework for the quantification of surface soil properties over very large areas and at a very high spatial resolution using high resolution imaging spectroscopy from airborne sensors. The Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected by NASA immediately after the massive 2011 Mississippi floods at the Birds Point New Madrid (BPNM) floodway was used for quantitative prediction of soil surface textural properties such as percentages of sand, silt and clay and a suit of other chemical properties such as Mg, Al, Ca, K, Cu, P, Mn, Soil Organic Matter, S, B, Fe and Zn. The visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared region of the AVIRIS reflectance spectrum was used together with an automatic variable selection lasso algorithm to yield empirical models for the prediction of various soil properties using a set of field soil sample data which were analyzed in the laboratory for calibration of the models. The linear modeling framework was made rigorous by using an ensemble of bootstrapping techniques for selecting the set of predictors and determining the final model coefficients. The modeling results not only revealed the feasibility of quantifying the different properties using this approach but also showed that some of these properties can be predicted with high accuracy. The prediction models were further used for a pixel by pixel quantification of the soil properties resulting in maps showing the spatial extents over large areas of each of the properties in the entire BPNM floodway. The fine spatial resolution of 7.6m of these maps also revealed many interesting spatial patterns and correlations with the underlying topography immediately disturbed by a massive flooding event. This study employs hyperspectral remote sensing for the quantification of soil properties using AVIRIS data and examines the signatures of disasters such as floods on landscapes which has not been explored previously and paves the way for

  4. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D. J. Osborn

    2003-09-30

    Spectroscopy of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} immobilized in a sol-gel matrix and heated to 200 C has been performed. Oxygen quenching of the luminescence was observed. Aging Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} to temperatures above 250 C converts the canary yellow Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} to a non-luminescent gray solid. Preliminary experiments point to oxidation of the clusters as the likely cause of thermally induced changes in the physical and optical properties of the clusters.

  5. Changes in Polymeric Tether Properties Due to Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Watts, Edward W.

    2003-01-01

    The Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta II unmanned expendable booster. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta II second stage and collects current fiom the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma to facilitate de-orbit of the spent stage. The conductive tether is attached to a 10-km non-conductive tether, which is then attached to an endmass containing several scientific instruments. Atomic oxygen (AO) erodes most organic materials. As the orbit of the Delta II second stage decas, the AO flux (atoms/sq cm sec) increases. A nominal AO fluence of 1 x l0(exp 21) atoms/sq cm was agreed upon by the investigators as an adequate level for evaluating the performance of the tether materials. A test series was performed to determine the effect of atomic oxygen (AO) on the mechanical integrity and possible strength loss of ProSEDS tether materials. The tether materials in this study were Dyneema, an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene material used as the non-conducting portion of the ProSEDS tether, and the Kevlar core strength fiber used in the conductive tether. Samples of Dyneema and Kevlar were exposed to various levels of atomic oxygen up to 1.07 x 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm in the Marshall Space Flight Center Atomic Oxygen Beam Facility (AOBF). Changes in mass were noted after AO exposure. The tethers were then tensile-tested until failure. AO affected both the Dyneema and Kevlar tether material strength. Dyneema exposed to 1.07 x 10(exp 21) atoms/sq cm of atomic oxygen failed due to normal handling when removed fiom the AOBF and was not tensile-tested. Another test series was performed to determine the effect of AO on the electrical properties of the ProSEDS conductive tether. The conductive tether consists of seven individually coated strands of 28 AWG 1350

  6. Improving the ethanol gas-sensing properties of porous ZnO microspheres by Co doping

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Qi Wang, Tao

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Co-doped porous ZnO microspheres were synthesized. • 3 mol% Co-doped ZnO sensor showed the highest response to ethanol. • 3 mol% Co-doped ZnO sensor exhibited fast recovery property. • 3 mol% Co-doped ZnO sensor exhibited good selectivity and long-term stability. - Abstract: Porous Co-doped ZnO microspheres were prepared by a simple hydrothermal method combined with post-annealing. Co species existed as a form of divalent state in the sample and substituted Zn{sup 2+} sites in ZnO crystal lattice, which was affirmed by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The gas-sensing measurements demonstrated that the 3 mol% Co-doped ZnO sample showed the highest response value to 100 ppm ethanol at 350 °C, which were 5 folds higher than that of the pure ZnO sample. In addition, the 3 mol% Co-doped ZnO sensor exhibited fast recovery property, good quantitative determination, good selectivity and long-term stability. The superior sensing properties were contributed to high specific surface area combined with the large amount of oxygen vacancies originating from Co doping.

  7. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2006-01-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Previously we described a particle-in-binder approach to immobilizing the potassium salt of a molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, at the tips of optical fibers. Compared to previous methods, the particle-in-binder approach affords fibers with greatly improved mechanical properties. We have extensively characterized two fiber sensors at high temperature. We obtain quenching ratios between pure nitrogen and 21% oxygen as high as 3.9 x at 70 C. For the first sensor at 60 C we obtained a {+-} 1% variation in the quenching ratio over 6 cycles of measurement, and monitored the device performance over 23 days. We were able to operate the second sensor continuously for 14 hours at 70 C, and the sensor quenching ratio was stable to 5% over that time period. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  8. Luminescent sensing of dissolved oxygen based on Ru(II) complex embedded in sol-gel matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Yubing; Tao, Wei; Hu, Yanli; Mao, Yimei; Zhao, Hui

    2015-11-01

    In biological cells and tissues environment, real-time monitoring and controlling dissolved oxygen (DO) provides critical information for studying cellular metabolism process, health status and pathological features. This paper developed an optical DO sensor based on fluorescence quenching principle, prepared tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10- phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) dichloride complex sol-gel sensing film, and studied its sensing performance. The principle of this sensor is that dissolved oxygen has quenching effect towards the fluorescence emitted by ruthenium complex. So the fluorescence intensity is reduced due to the existence of DO. The measurement limit of DO was 10- 100%, the response time was 20s, and the resolution was 0.02. Compared to traditional dissolved oxygen electrode probe, this luminescent fiber had many advantages, such as smaller size, shorter response time and higher stability.

  9. Click-assembled, oxygen-sensing nanoconjugates for depth-resolved, near-infrared imaging in a 3D cancer model.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Alexander J; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Klein, Oliver J; Evans, Conor L

    2014-04-01

    Hypoxia is an important contributing factor to the development of drug-resistant cancer, yet few nonperturbative tools exist for studying oxygenation in tissues. While progress has been made in the development of chemical probes for optical oxygen mapping, penetration of such molecules into poorly perfused or avascular tumor regions remains problematic. A click-assembled oxygen-sensing (CAOS) nanoconjugate is reported and its properties demonstrated in an in vitro 3D spheroid cancer model. The synthesis relies on the sequential click-based ligation of poly(amidoamine)-like subunits for rapid assembly. Near-infrared confocal phosphorescence microscopy was used to demonstrate the ability of the CAOS nanoconjugates to penetrate hundreds of micrometers into spheroids within hours and to show their sensitivity to oxygen changes throughout the nodule. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates a modular approach that is readily extensible to a wide variety of oxygen and cellular sensors for depth-resolved imaging in tissue and tissue models. PMID:24590700

  10. Heteronuclear Ir(III)-Ln(III) Luminescent Complexes: Small-Molecule Probes for Dual Modal Imaging and Oxygen Sensing.

    PubMed

    Jana, Atanu; Crowston, Bethany J; Shewring, Jonathan R; McKenzie, Luke K; Bryant, Helen E; Botchway, Stanley W; Ward, Andrew D; Amoroso, Angelo J; Baggaley, Elizabeth; Ward, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Luminescent, mixed metal d-f complexes have the potential to be used for dual (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and luminescence) in vivo imaging. Here, we present dinuclear and trinuclear d-f complexes, comprising a rigid framework linking a luminescent Ir center to one (Ir·Ln) or two (Ir·Ln2) lanthanide metal centers (where Ln = Eu(III) and Gd(III), respectively). A range of physical, spectroscopic, and imaging-based properties including relaxivity arising from the Gd(III) units and the occurrence of Ir(III) → Eu(III) photoinduced energy-transfer are presented. The rigidity imposed by the ligand facilitates high relaxivities for the Gd(III) complexes, while the luminescence from the Ir(III) and Eu(III) centers provide luminescence imaging capabilities. Dinuclear (Ir·Ln) complexes performed best in cellular studies, exhibiting good solubility in aqueous solutions, low toxicity after 4 and 18 h, respectively, and punctate lysosomal staining. We also demonstrate the first example of oxygen sensing in fixed cells using the dyad Ir·Gd, via two-photon phosphorescence lifetime imaging (PLIM). PMID:27219675

  11. Generic Properties of Curvature Sensing through Vision and Touch

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Generic properties of curvature representations formed on the basis of vision and touch were examined as a function of mathematical properties of curved objects. Virtual representations of the curves were shown on a computer screen for visual scaling by sighted observers (experiment 1). Their physical counterparts were placed in the two hands of blindfolded and congenitally blind observers for tactile scaling. The psychophysical data show that curvature representations in congenitally blind individuals, who never had any visual experience, and in sighted observers, who rely on vision most of the time, are statistically linked to the same mathematical properties of the curves. The perceived magnitude of object curvature, sensed through either vision or touch, is related by a mathematical power law, with similar exponents for the two sensory modalities, to the aspect ratio of the curves, a scale invariant geometric property. This finding supports biologically motivated models of sensory integration suggesting a universal power law for the adaptive brain control and balance of motor responses to environmental stimuli from any sensory modality. PMID:24454538

  12. Oxygen sensing by the carotid body: mechanisms and role in adaptation to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    López-Barneo, José; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gao, Lin; Fernández-Agüera, M Carmen; Pardal, Ricardo; Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia

    2016-04-15

    Oxygen (O2) is fundamental for cell and whole-body homeostasis. Our understanding of the adaptive processes that take place in response to a lack of O2(hypoxia) has progressed significantly in recent years. The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor that mediates the acute cardiorespiratory reflexes (hyperventilation and sympathetic activation) triggered by hypoxia. The CB is composed of clusters of cells (glomeruli) in close contact with blood vessels and nerve fibers. Glomus cells, the O2-sensitive elements in the CB, are neuron-like cells that contain O2-sensitive K(+)channels, which are inhibited by hypoxia. This leads to cell depolarization, Ca(2+)entry, and the release of transmitters to activate sensory fibers terminating at the respiratory center. The mechanism whereby O2modulates K(+)channels has remained elusive, although several appealing hypotheses have been postulated. Recent data suggest that mitochondria complex I signaling to membrane K(+)channels plays a fundamental role in acute O2sensing. CB activation during exposure to low Po2is also necessary for acclimatization to chronic hypoxia. CB growth during sustained hypoxia depends on the activation of a resident population of stem cells, which are also activated by transmitters released from the O2-sensitive glomus cells. These advances should foster further studies on the role of CB dysfunction in the pathogenesis of highly prevalent human diseases. PMID:26764048

  13. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotube array

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2014-08-25

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, having diameters of 50–70 nm and lengths of 200–250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH{sub 4}F and ethylene glycol with selective H{sub 2}O content. The structural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  14. Cellular Oxygen Sensing: Crystal Structure of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase (PHD2)

    SciTech Connect

    McDonough,M.; Li, V.; Flashman, E.; Chowdhury, R.; Mohr, C.; Lienard, B.; Zondlo, J.; Oldham, N.; Clifton, I.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    Cellular and physiological responses to changes in dioxygen levels in metazoans are mediated via the posttranslational oxidation of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF). Hydroxylation of conserved prolyl residues in the HIF-{alpha} subunit, catalyzed by HIF prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs), signals for its proteasomal degradation. The requirement of the PHDs for dioxygen links changes in dioxygen levels with the transcriptional regulation of the gene array that enables the cellular response to chronic hypoxia; the PHDs thus act as an oxygen-sensing component of the HIF system, and their inhibition mimics the hypoxic response. We describe crystal structures of the catalytic domain of human PHD2, an important prolyl-4-hydroxylase in the human hypoxic response in normal cells, in complex with Fe(II) and an inhibitor to 1.7 Angstroms resolution. PHD2 crystallizes as a homotrimer and contains a double-stranded {beta}-helix core fold common to the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependant dioxygenase family, the residues of which are well conserved in the three human PHD enzymes (PHD 1-3). The structure provides insights into the hypoxic response, helps to rationalize a clinically observed mutation leading to familial erythrocytosis, and will aid in the design of PHD selective inhibitors for the treatment of anemia and ischemic disease.

  15. Oxygen Sensing by T Cells Establishes an Immunologically Tolerant Metastatic Niche.

    PubMed

    Clever, David; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Constantinides, Michael G; Askenase, Michael H; Sukumar, Madhusudhanan; Klebanoff, Christopher A; Eil, Robert L; Hickman, Heather D; Yu, Zhiya; Pan, Jenny H; Palmer, Douglas C; Phan, Anthony T; Goulding, John; Gattinoni, Luca; Goldrath, Ananda W; Belkaid, Yasmine; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2016-08-25

    Cancer cells must evade immune responses at distant sites to establish metastases. The lung is a frequent site for metastasis. We hypothesized that lung-specific immunoregulatory mechanisms create an immunologically permissive environment for tumor colonization. We found that T-cell-intrinsic expression of the oxygen-sensing prolyl-hydroxylase (PHD) proteins is required to maintain local tolerance against innocuous antigens in the lung but powerfully licenses colonization by circulating tumor cells. PHD proteins limit pulmonary type helper (Th)-1 responses, promote CD4(+)-regulatory T (Treg) cell induction, and restrain CD8(+) T cell effector function. Tumor colonization is accompanied by PHD-protein-dependent induction of pulmonary Treg cells and suppression of IFN-γ-dependent tumor clearance. T-cell-intrinsic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of PHD proteins limits tumor colonization of the lung and improves the efficacy of adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy. Collectively, PHD proteins function in T cells to coordinate distinct immunoregulatory programs within the lung that are permissive to cancer metastasis. PAPERCLIP. PMID:27565342

  16. Quantum Dots in an Amphiphilic Polyethyleneimine Derivative Platform for Cellular Labeling, Targeting, Gene Delivery, and Ratiometric Oxygen Sensing.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonhyuck; Lee, Junhwa; Kwag, Jungheon; Baek, Yeonggyeong; Kim, Bumju; Yoon, Calvin Jinse; Bok, Seoyeon; Cho, So-Hye; Kim, Ki Hean; Ahn, G-One; Kim, Sungjee

    2015-06-23

    Amphiphilic polyethyleneimine derivatives (amPEIs) were synthesized and used to encapsulate dozens of quantum dots (QDs). The QD-amPEI composite was ∼100 nm in hydrodynamic diameter and had the slightly positive outer surface that suited well for cellular internalization. The QD-amPEI showed very efficient QD cellular labeling with the labeled cell fluorescence intensity more than 10 times higher than conventional techniques such as Lipofectamine-assisted QD delivery. QD-amPEI was optimal for maximal intracellular QD delivery by the large QD payload and the rapid endocytosis kinetics. QD-amPEI platform technology was demonstrated for gene delivery, cell-specific labeling, and ratiometric oxygen sensing. Our QD-amPEI platform has two partitions: positive outer surface and hydrophobic inside pocket. The outer positive surface was further exploited for gene delivery and targeting. Co-delivery of QDs and GFP silencing RNAs was successfully demonstrated by assembling siRNAs to the outer surfaces, which showed the transfection efficiency an order of magnitude higher than conventional gene transfections. Hyaluronic acids were tethered onto the QD-amPEI for cell-specific targeted labeling which showed the specific-to-nonspecific signal ratio over 100. The inside hydrophobic compartment was further applied for cohosting oxygen sensing phosphorescence Ru dyes along with QDs. The QD-Ru-amPEI oxygen probe showed accurate and reversible oxygen sensing capability by the ratiometric photoluminescence signals, which was successfully applied to cellular and spheroid models. PMID:26057729

  17. Oxygen-sensing mechanisms and the regulation of redox-responsive transcription factors in development and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, John J

    2002-01-01

    How do organisms sense the amount of oxygen in the environment and respond appropriately when the level of oxygen decreases? Oxygen sensing and the molecular stratagems underlying the process have been the focus of an endless number of investigations trying to find an answer to the question: "What is the identity of the oxygen sensor?" Dynamic changes in pO2 constitute a potential signaling mechanism for the regulation of the expression and activation of reduction-oxidation (redox)-sensitive and oxygen-responsive transcription factors, apoptosis-signaling molecules and inflammatory cytokines. The transition from placental to lung-based respiration causes a relatively hyperoxic shift or oxidative stress, which the perinatal, developing lung experiences during birth. This variation in ΔpO2, in particular, differentially regulates the compartmentalization and functioning of the transcription factors hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In addition, oxygen-evoked regulation of HIF-1α and NF-κB is closely coupled with the intracellular redox state, such that modulating redox equilibrium affects their responsiveness at the molecular level (expression/transactivation). The differential regulation of HIF-1α and NF-κB in vitro is paralleled by oxygen-sensitive and redox-dependent pathways governing the regulation of these factors during the transition from placental to lung-based respiration ex utero. The birth transition period in vivo and ex utero also regulates apoptosis signaling pathways in a redox-dependent manner, consistent with NF-κB being transcriptionally regulated in order to play an anti-apoptotic function. An association is established between oxidative stress conditions and the augmentation of an inflammatory state in pathophysiology, regulated by the oxygen- and redox-sensitive pleiotropic cytokines. PMID:12537605

  18. Gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline diamond at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Kulha, Pavel; Laposa, Alexandr; Hruska, Karel; Demo, Pavel; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study describes an integrated NH3 sensor based on a hydrogenated nanocrystalline diamond (NCD)-sensitive layer coated on an interdigitated electrode structure. The gas sensing properties of the sensor structure were examined using a reducing gas (NH3) at room temperature and were found to be dependent on the electrode arrangement. A pronounced response of the sensor, which was comprised of dense electrode arrays (of 50 µm separation distance), was observed. The sensor functionality was explained by the surface transfer doping effect. Moreover, the three-dimensional model of the current density distribution of the hydrogenated NCD describes the transient flow of electrons between interdigitated electrodes and the hydrogenated NCD surface, that is, the formation of a closed current loop. PMID:25551062

  19. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III

    2003-07-01

    Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12}, a cluster compound whose luminescence depends on the ambient concentration of oxygen, is the basis for a real-time oxygen sensor for combustion applications. Previously, the properties of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} have largely been studied at room temperature; these studies have now been extended to 200 C. Optical microscopy shows that Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} undergoes a steady change in color as it is heated from room temperature to 200 C, changing from canary yellow to crimson and then back to canary yellow. Concurrent thermal gravimetric analyses show a small weight loss for Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} that is consistent with loss of water or HCl from the clusters. These changes are reversible. Absorption and fluorescence emission spectroscopy of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} heated to 200 C for two hours shows no change in the photophysical parameters compared to the control sample that was not heat cycled.

  20. Synthesis, processing and characterization of calcia-stabilized zirconia solid electrolytes for oxygen sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Minghua . E-mail: mzhou@nrcan.gc.ca; Ahmad, Aftab

    2006-04-13

    Precursor powders of calcia-stabilized zirconia (CSZ) solid electrolytes have been synthesized by a sol-gel method. The phase evolution of the precursor powders after thermal treatments at different temperatures were analysized by X-ray diffraction technique. Disc-shaped sensor elements were fabricated via uniaxial pressing of the calcined powders and subsequently sintered at 1650 deg. C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the microstructure of the sintered pellets. Platinum electrodes were applied to the sintered elements to produce potentiometric/electrochemical gas sensors. The electrical response of the gas sensors to oxygen and the complex impedance of the sensors in air were measured at various temperatures. Impedance analyses indicate that the sensor cell with 15 mol% CaO has much lower resistance (the sum of bulk and grain-boundary resistance) than the sensor cell with 22 mol% CaO. This is also reflected by the EMF responses of both sensor cells to various oxygen concentrations in the testing gas. The EMF deviation from the theoretical value of the CSZ sensor cell with 22 mol% CaO was larger than that of the CSZ sensor cell with 15 mol% CaO. The corrrelations between material compositions, microstructures of the sintered pellets and the electrical properties of the sensors are discussed.

  1. Oxygen-Sensing Reporter Strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens for Monitoring the Distribution of Low-Oxygen Habitats in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Højberg, Ole; Schnider, Ursula; Winteler, Harald V.; Sørensen, Jan; Haas, Dieter

    1999-01-01

    The root-colonizing bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 was used to construct an oxygen-responsive biosensor. An anaerobically inducible promoter of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which depends on the FNR (fumarate and nitrate reductase regulation)-like transcriptional regulator ANR (anaerobic regulation of arginine deiminase and nitrate reductase pathways), was fused to the structural lacZ gene of Escherichia coli. By inserting the reporter fusion into the chromosomal attTn7 site of P. fluorescens CHA0 by using a mini-Tn7 transposon, the reporter strain, CHA900, was obtained. Grown in glutamate-yeast extract medium in an oxystat at defined oxygen levels, the biosensor CHA900 responded to a decrease in oxygen concentration from 210 × 102 Pa to 2 × 102 Pa of O2 by a nearly 100-fold increase in β-galactosidase activity. Half-maximal induction of the reporter occurred at about 5 × 102 Pa. This dose response closely resembles that found for E. coli promoters which are activated by the FNR protein. In a carbon-free buffer or in bulk soil, the biosensor CHA900 still responded to a decrease in oxygen concentration, although here induction was about 10 times lower and the low oxygen response was gradually lost within 3 days. Introduced into a barley-soil microcosm, the biosensor could report decreasing oxygen concentrations in the rhizosphere for a 6-day period. When the water content in the microcosm was raised from 60% to 85% of field capacity, expression of the reporter gene was elevated about twofold above a basal level after 2 days of incubation, suggesting that a water content of 85% caused mild anoxia. Increased compaction of the soil was shown to have a faster and more dramatic effect on the expression of the oxygen reporter than soil water content alone, indicating that factors other than the water-filled pore space influenced the oxygen status of the soil. These experiments illustrate the utility of the biosensor for detecting low oxygen concentrations in the

  2. UHV Studies of Oxygen's Role in Hydrogen Sensing with a Platinum-Gate Silicon Carbide Field-Effect Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Roger; Kahng, Yung Ho; Loloee, Reza; Ghosh, Ruby

    2008-03-01

    Silicon carbide-based field-effect devices with catalytic metal gates are promising as robust high-temperature gas sensors in harsh environments. We report ultrahigh vacuum studies of the gate surface chemistry of prototype Pt-SiO2-SiC sensors. Oxygen plays a crucial role in the device's hydrogen-sensing behavior. Adsorbed oxygen can remove hydrogen by reacting to form water, which rapidly desorbs. In an oxygen-rich environment this reaction competes with the diffusion of adsorbed hydrogen to the interface bonding sites that give rise to the sensor signal. This competition reduces the sensor signal by decreasing the occupation of interface sites. The same reaction, however, is essential to the reversibility of the sensor, as oxygen is needed to fully deplete the sensor of hydrogen. Exposure to H2S suppresses the sensor's response to alternating hydrogen and oxygen pulses, apparently by interfering with oxygen adsorption. Continued oxygen exposure, however, restores functionality by effectively removing the sulfur.

  3. Synthesis and enhanced NO2 gas sensing properties of ZnO nanorods/TiO2 nanoparticles heterojunction composites.

    PubMed

    Zou, C W; Wang, J; Xie, W

    2016-09-15

    ZnO nanorods/TiO2 nanoparticles composites were synthesized and the effects of TiO2 concentrations on the NO2 sensing properties were studied in detail. The as-prepared composites were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, PL, I-V and gas sensing measurements. The gas sensing results demonstrated that all the sensors based on ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposites exhibited much higher response than that of sensors based on pure ZnO nanorods. At the optimum operating temperature of 180°C, the response values of the sensors based on ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposites decorated with TiO2 concentrations of 0, 3, 5, 8 and 10wt% were 50, 140, 310, 350 and 258, respectively. The PL and I-V results indicated that the increased charge transfer between the ZnO nanorods mediated by TiO2 nanoparticles enhanced the conductivity of the ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposites. The gas sensing mechanism was also carefully analyzed. The attachment of TiO2 nanoparticles onto ZnO nanorods induced more active sites for the adsorption of oxygen molecules (O(2)) and O(2) which can be more easily adsorbed on the surface of ZnO nanorods. Furthermore, the conduction channel of ZnO/TiO2 was much narrower as a result of the formation of heterojunction which may further contribute to the enhanced NO2 sensing properties. PMID:27280536

  4. A power law fit to oxygen absorption at 60 GHz and its application to remote sensing of atmospheric temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poon, R. K. L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents an empirical study of the oxygen spectrum near 60 GHz with reference to its applicability to the remote sensing of the tropospheric and lower stratospheric temperature. It is demonstrated that the absorption coefficient of oxygen at 60 GHz can be fitted to the power law form with a relative rms error of about 8%. The power law form, when used in conjunction with the weighting function, permits the definition of some basic quantities in the passive remote sensing of the atmospheric temperature. It is shown how the power law form has been utilized in processing data from the Nimbus 5 microwave spectrometer experiment. The algorithm presented can be applied to spectrometer experiments at infrared frequencies.

  5. The effects of low earth orbit atomic oxygen on the properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooshangi, Zhila; Hossein Feghhi, Seyed Amir; Saeedzadeh, Rezgar

    2016-02-01

    Polymers are widely used in space systems as the structural materials. The low earth orbit (LEO) space environment includes hazards such as atomic oxygen. Exposure of polymeric materials to atomic oxygen results in destructive effects on the chemical, electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties as well as surface degradation. In the present work, the effects of atomic oxygen on the mechanical, thermal, and optical properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene film have been investigated. The atomic oxygen density was calculated by SPENVIS tool. After the atomic oxygen exposure by using radio-frequency (RF) plasma source, the appearance of the samples changed, and the mass of the samples reduced because of outgassing. The results of thermal analysis showed that atomic oxygen flux does not affect thermal degradation of samples regarding TGA diagrams. By increasing the atomic oxygen flux, the amount of absorbance increased showing that atomic oxygen had damaged the surface of Polytetrafluoroethylene, and it had oxidized the surface of the polymer.

  6. F-box and Leucine-rich Repeat Protein 5 (FBXL5): sensing intracellular iron and oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Julio C.; Bruick, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Though essential for many vital biological processes, excess iron results in the formation of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, iron metabolism must be tightly regulated. F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 5 (FBXL5), an E3 ubiquitin ligase subunit, regulates cellular and systemic iron homeostasis by facilitating iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) degradation. FBXL5 possesses an N-terminal hemerythrin (Hr)-like domain that mediates its own differential stability by switching between two different conformations to communicate cellular iron availability. In addition, the FBXL5-Hr domain also senses O2 availability, albeit by a distinct mechanism. Mice lacking FBXL5 fail to sense intracellular iron levels and die in utero due to iron overload and exposure to damaging levels of oxidative stress. By closely monitoring intracellular levels of iron and oxygen, FBLX5 prevents the formation of conditions that favor ROS formation. These findings suggest that FBXL5 is essential for the maintenance of iron homeostasis and is a key sensor of bioavailable iron. Here, we describe the iron and oxygen sensing mechanisms of the FBXL5 Hr-like domain and its role in mediating ROS biology. PMID:24508277

  7. F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 5 (FBXL5): sensing intracellular iron and oxygen.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Julio C; Bruick, Richard K

    2014-04-01

    Though essential for many vital biological processes, excess iron results in the formation of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, iron metabolism must be tightly regulated. F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 5 (FBXL5), an E3 ubiquitin ligase subunit, regulates cellular and systemic iron homeostasis by facilitating iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) degradation. FBXL5 possesses an N-terminal hemerythrin (Hr)-like domain that mediates its own differential stability by switching between two different conformations to communicate cellular iron availability. In addition, the FBXL5-Hr domain also senses O2 availability, albeit by a distinct mechanism. Mice lacking FBXL5 fail to sense intracellular iron levels and die in utero due to iron overload and exposure to damaging levels of oxidative stress. By closely monitoring intracellular levels of iron and oxygen, FBLX5 prevents the formation of conditions that favor ROS formation. These findings suggest that FBXL5 is essential for the maintenance of iron homeostasis and is a key sensor of bioavailable iron. Here, we describe the iron and oxygen sensing mechanisms of the FBXL5 Hr-like domain and its role in mediating ROS biology. PMID:24508277

  8. TiO2 Nanotubes: Recent Advances in Synthesis and Gas Sensing Properties

    PubMed Central

    Galstyan, Vardan; Comini, Elisabetta; Faglia, Guido; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis—particularly by electrochemical anodization-, growth mechanism and chemical sensing properties of pure, doped and mixed titania tubular arrays are reviewed. The first part deals on how anodization parameters affect the size, shape and morphology of titania nanotubes. In the second part fabrication of sensing devices based on titania nanotubes is presented, together with their most notable gas sensing performances. Doping largely improves conductivity and enhances gas sensing performances of TiO2 nanotubes. PMID:24184919

  9. DNMT3a epigenetic program regulates the HIF-2α oxygen-sensing pathway and the cellular response to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lachance, Gabriel; Uniacke, James; Audas, Timothy E.; Holterman, Chet E.; Franovic, Aleksandra; Payette, Josianne; Lee, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of gene expression by DNA methylation plays a central role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Here we present evidence implicating the DNA methylation program in the regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) oxygen-sensing machinery and hypoxic cell metabolism. We show that DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a) methylates and silences the HIF-2α gene (EPAS1) in differentiated cells. Epigenetic silencing of EPAS1 prevents activation of the HIF-2α gene program associated with hypoxic cell growth, thereby limiting the proliferative capacity of adult cells under low oxygen tension. Naturally occurring defects in DNMT3a, observed in primary tumors and malignant cells, cause the unscheduled activation of EPAS1 in early dysplastic foci. This enables incipient cancer cells to exploit the HIF-2α pathway in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment necessary for the formation of cellular masses larger than the oxygen diffusion limit. Reintroduction of DNMT3a in DNMT3a-defective cells restores EPAS1 epigenetic silencing, prevents hypoxic cell growth, and suppresses tumorigenesis. These data support a tumor-suppressive role for DNMT3a as an epigenetic regulator of the HIF-2α oxygen-sensing pathway and the cellular response to hypoxia. PMID:24817692

  10. Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing fluorophore films for chemical imaging and defined spatial structure.

    PubMed

    Grate, Jay W; Kelly, Ryan T; Suter, Jonathan; Anheier, Norm C

    2012-11-21

    Pore network microfluidic models were fabricated by a silicon-on-glass technique that provides the precision advantage of dry etched silicon while creating a structure that is transparent across all microfluidic channels and pores, and can be imaged from either side. A silicon layer is bonded to an underlying borosilicate glass substrate and thinned to the desired height of the microfluidic channels and pores. The silicon is then patterned and through-etched by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), with the underlying glass serving as an etch stop. After bonding on a transparent glass cover plate, one obtains a micromodel in oxygen impermeable materials with water-wet surfaces where the microfluidic channels are transparent and structural elements such as the pillars creating the pore network are opaque. The advantageous features of this approach in a chemical imaging application are demonstrated by incorporating a Pt porphyrin fluorophore in a PDMS film serving as the oxygen-sensing layer and a bonding surface, or in a polystyrene film coated with a PDMS layer for bonding. The sensing of a dissolved oxygen gradient was demonstrated using fluorescence lifetime imaging, and it is shown that different matrix polymers lead to optimal use in different ranges of oxygen concentration. Imaging with the opaque pillars in between the observation direction and the continuous fluorophore film yields images that retain defined spatial structure in the sensor image. PMID:22995983

  11. Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing fluorophore films for chemical imaging and defined spatial structure

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Anheier, Norman C.

    2012-11-21

    Pore network microfluidic models were fabricated by a silicon-on-glass technique that provides the precision advantage of dry etched silicon while creating a structure that is transparent across all microfluidic channels and pores, and can be imaged from either side. A silicon layer is bonded to an underlying borosilicate glass substrate and thinned to the desired height of the microfluidic channels and pores. The silicon is then patterned and through-etched by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), with the underlying glass serving as an etch stop. After bonding on a transparent glass cover plate, one obtains a micromodel in oxygen impermeable materials with water wet surfaces where the microfluidic channels are transparent and structural elements such as the pillars creating the pore network are opaque. The micromodel can be imaged from either side. The advantageous features of this approach in a chemical imaging application are demonstrated by incorporating a Pt porphyrin fluorophore in a PDMS film serving as the oxygen sensing layer and a bonding surface, or in a polystyrene film coated with a PDMS layer for bonding. The sensing of a dissolved oxygen gradient was demonstrated using fluorescence lifetime imaging, and it is shown that different matrix polymers lead to optimal use in different ranges dissolved oxygen concentration. Imaging with the opaque pillars in between the observation direction and the continuous fluorophore film yields images that retain spatial information in the sensor image.

  12. Solubility and thermodynamic properties of oxygen in solid molybdenum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S. C.; Seigle, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    A formula is obtained for the solubility of oxygen in solid Mo, determined in the range from 1400 to 1900 C by equilibrating rods of zone-refined Mo with mixtures of Mo and MoO2 powders. Using the known value of the free energy of formation of MoO2, a formula is obtained for the chemical potential of oxygen in the dilute solid solution. The heat of solution of oxygen in solid Mo and the excess entropy for the interstitial solid solution are also determined, assuming that the oxygen atoms reside in the octahedral interstices of bcc Mo.

  13. Effect of high-pressure oxygen on the mechanical properties of alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzberg, F. R.; Shepic, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Unnotched and notched tensile properties of stressed and unstressed specimens of wrought 316 stainless steel, Incology 903, Monel K-500, and cast specimens of Inconel 718 were examined. Environmental tests were performed in atmospheric pressure air, high pressure nitrogen, and high pressure oxygen. Results show that oxygen did not alter the tensile properties of any of the alloys studied.

  14. Grain and Seed Moisture and Density Measurement through Sensing of Dielectric Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of moisture measurement in grain and seed is discussed, and a brief history of the development of moisture sensing instruments, based on sensing of dielectric properties of these materials, is presented. Data are presented graphically on the permittivities or dielectric properties of...

  15. Unconventional ratiometric-enhanced optical sensing of oxygen by mixed-phase TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettieri, S.; Pallotti, D. K.; Gesuele, F.; Maddalena, P.

    2016-07-01

    We show that mixed-phase titanium dioxide (TiO2) can be effectively employed as an unconventional, inorganic, dual-emitting, and ratiometric optical sensor of O2. Simultaneous availability of rutile and anatase TiO2 photoluminescence (PL) and their peculiar "anti-correlated" PL responses to O2 allow using their ratio as a measurement parameter associated with the O2 concentration, leading to an experimental responsivity being by construction larger than the one obtainable for single-phase PL detection. A proof of this concept is given, showing a two-fold enhancement of the optical responsivity provided by the ratiometric approach. Besides the peculiar ratiometric-enhanced responsivity, other characteristics of mixed phase TiO2 can be envisaged as favorable for O2 optical probing, namely (a) low production costs, (b) absence of heterogeneous components, and (c) self-supporting properties. These characteristics encourage experimenting with its use for applications requiring high indicator quantities at a competitive price, possibly also tackling the need to develop supporting matrixes that carry the luminescent probes and avoiding issues related to the use of different components for ratiometric sensing.

  16. Characteristics of the mechanical milling on the room temperature ferromagnetism and sensing properties of TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolokang, A. S.; Cummings, F. R.; Dhonge, B. P.; Abdallah, H. M. I.; Moyo, T.; Swart, H. C.; Arendse, C. J.; Muller, T. F. G.; Motaung, D. E.

    2015-03-01

    We report on the correlation between defect-related emissions, the magnetization and sensing of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by milling method. Surface morphology analyses showed that the size of the TiO2 NPs decreases with milling time. Raman and XRD studies demonstrated that the structural properties of the TiO2 transform to orthorhombic structure upon milling. Magnetization improved with an increase of a defect-related band originating from oxygen vacancies (VO), which can be ascribed to a decrease in the size of the NPs due to the milling time. Moreover, the longer-milled TiO2 exhibited enhanced gas-sensing properties to humidity in terms of sensor response, with about 12 s response time at room temperature. A combination of photoluminescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and sensing analyses demonstrated that a direct relation exists between the magnetization, sensing and the relative occupancy of the VO present on the surface of TiO2 NPs.

  17. Satellite remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties over Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogacheva, Larisa; Kolmonen, Pekka; Saponaro, Giulia; Virtanen, Timo; Rodriguez, Edith; Sundström, Anu-Maija; Atlaskina, Ksenia; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing provides the spatial distribution of aerosol and cloud properties over a wide area. In our studies large data sets are used for statistical studies on aerosol and cloud interaction in an area over Fennoscandia, the Baltic Sea and adjacent regions over the European mainland. This area spans several regimes with different influences on aerosol cloud interaction such as a the transition from relative clean air over Fennoscandia to more anthropogenically polluted air further south, and the influence maritime air over the Baltic and oceanic air advected from the North Atlantic. Anthropogenic pollution occurs in several parts of the study area, and in particular near densely populated areas and megacities, but also in industrialized areas and areas with dense traffic. The aerosol in such areas is quite different from that produced over the boreal forest and has different effects on air quality and climate. Studies have been made on the effects of aerosols on air quality and on the radiation balance in China. The aim of the study is to study the effect of these different regimes on aerosol-cloud interaction using a large aerosol and cloud data set retrieved with the (Advanced) Along Track Scanning Radiometer (A)ATSR Dual View algorithm (ADV) further developed at Finnish Meteorological Institute and aerosol and cloud data provided by MODIS. Retrieval algorithms for aerosol and clouds have been developed for the (A)ATSR, consisting of a series of instruments of which we use the second and third one: ATSR-2 which flew on the ERS-2 satellite (1995-2003) and AATSR which flew on the ENVISAT satellite (2002-2012) (both from the European Space Agency, ESA). The ADV algorithm provides aerosol data on a global scale with a default resolution of 10x10km2 (L2) and an aggregate product on 1x1 degree (L3). Optional, a 1x1 km2 retrieval products is available over smaller areas for specific studies. Since for the retrieval of AOD no prior knowledge is needed on

  18. Examining the Reinforcing Properties of Making Sense: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alisha M.; Dougher, Michael J.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Guinther, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy asserts that in clinical problems such as rumination and depression, making sense continues despite accompanying aversive consequences, because sense-making is reinforcing, particularly when it leads to experiential avoidance. The following series of experiments aimed to provide preliminary empirical evidence for…

  19. Influence of oxygen impurity on electronic properties of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ram Sevak

    2015-11-15

    Influence of oxygen impurity on electronic properties of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes (CNTs and BNNTs) is systematically studied using first principle calculations based on density functional theory. Energy band structures and density of states of optimized zigzag (5, 0), armchair (3, 3), and chiral (4, 2) structures of CNT and BNNT are calculated. Oxygen doping in zigzag CNT exhibits a reduction in metallicity with opening of band gap in near-infrared region while metallicity is enhanced in armchair and chiral CNTs. Unlike oxygen-doped CNTs, energy bands are drastically modulated in oxygen-doped zigzag and armchair BNNTs, showing the nanotubes to have metallic behaviour. Furthermore, oxygen impurity in chiral BNNT induces narrowing of band gap, indicating a gradual modification of electronic band structure. This study underscores the understanding of different electronic properties induced in CNTs and BNNTs under oxygen doping, and has potential in fabrication of various nanoelectronic devices.

  20. Gas sensing in microplates with optodes: influence of oxygen exchange between sample, air, and plate material.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sarina; Weiss, Svenja; Heinzle, Elmar; John, Gernot T; Krause, Christian; Klimant, Ingo

    2005-05-01

    Microplates with integrated optical oxygen sensors are a new tool to study metabolic rates and enzyme activities. Precise measurements are possible only if oxygen exchange between the sample and the environment is known. In this study we quantify gas exchange in plastic microplates. Dissolved oxygen was detected using either an oxygen-sensitive film fixed at the bottom of each well or a needle-type sensor. The diffusion of oxygen into wells sealed with different foils, paraffin oil, and paraffin wax, respectively, was quantified. Although foil covers showed the lowest oxygen permeability, they include an inevitable gas phase between sample and sealing and are difficult to manage. The use of oil was found to be critical due to the extensive shaking caused by movement of the plates during measurements in microplate readers. Thus, paraffin wax was the choice material because it avoids convection of the sample and is easy to handle. Furthermore, without shaking, significant gradients in pO2 levels within a single well of a polystyrene microplate covered with paraffin oil were detected with the needle-type sensor. Higher pO2 levels were obtained near the surface of the sample as well as near the wall of the well. A significant diffusion of oxygen through the plastic plate material was found using plates based on polystyrene. Thus, the location of a sensor element within the well has an effect on the measured pO2 level. Using a sensor film fixed on the bottom of a well or using a dissolved pO2-sensitive indicator results in pO2 offset and in apparently lower respiration rates or enzyme activities. Oxygen diffusion through a polystyrene microplate was simulated for measurements without convection--that is, for samples without oxygen diffusion through the cover and for unshaken measurements using permeable sealings. This mathematical model allows for calculation of the correct kinetic parameters. PMID:15772950

  1. The regulation of pulmonary inflammation by the hypoxia-inducible factor-hydroxylase oxygen-sensing pathway.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Moira K B; Walmsley, Sarah R

    2014-12-01

    Although the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-hydroxylase oxygen-sensing pathway has been extensively reviewed in the context of cellular responses to hypoxia and cancer biology, its importance in regulating innate immune biology is less well described. In this review, we focus on the role of the HIF-hydroxylase pathway in regulating myeloid cell responses and its relevance to inflammatory lung disease. The more specific roles of individual HIF/ prolyl hydroxylase pathway members in vivo are discussed in the context of lineage-specific rodent models of inflammation, with final reference made to the therapeutic challenges of targeting the HIF/hydroxylase pathway in immune cells. PMID:25525731

  2. Dissolved oxygen sensing using an optical fibre long period grating coated with hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, M.; James, S. W.; Tatam, R. P.

    2015-09-01

    A method for the preparation of a sensor consisting of an optical fibre long period grating coated with human hemoglobin is described. The utility of this sensor in detecting dissolved oxygen in phosphate buffered saline solution, by the conversion of the coated hemoglobin from deoxyhemoglobin to oxyhemoglobin, is described. The sensor shows good repeatability with a %CV of less than 1% for oxygenated and deoxygenated states and no drift or hysteresis with repeated cycling.

  3. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2005-04-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. One of the critical materials issues is to demonstrate that the luminescent cluster immobilized in the sol-gel porous support can withstand high temperature. At the same time the sol-gel matrix must have a high permeability to oxygen. Using a potassium salt of the molybdenum clusters, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, we have established the conditions necessary for deposition of optical quality sol-gel films. From spectroscopic measurements of the film we have shown that the cluster luminescence is stable following heat cycling of 54 hours at 200 C. Quenching of a factor of 1.5X between pure nitrogen and 21% oxygen was observed from in-situ measurements of films heated directly at 200 C. An automated system for characterizing fiber optic oxygen sensors up to 220 C with a temporal resolution better than 10 s is under construction. We estimate a signal of 6 x 10{sup 8} photons/s after complete quenching in 21% oxygen. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  4. A Century of Grain and Seed Moisture Sensing through Electrical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of moisture measurement in grain and seed is discussed, and a brief history of the development of electrical moisture sensing instruments, based on sensing electrical properties of these materials, is presented. Data are presented graphically on the permittivities or dielectric prope...

  5. A brief history of grain and seed moisture sensing through dielectric properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of moisture measurement in grain and seed is discussed, and a brief history of the development of electrical moisture sensing instruments, based on sensing electrical properties of these materials, is presented. Data are presented graphically on the permittivities or dielectric prope...

  6. Room temperature hydrogen sensing properties of multiple-networked Nb2O5-nanorod sensors decorated with Pd nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangbo; Park, Sunghoon; Kim, Soohyun; Hyun, Soong Keun; Lee, Chongmu

    2014-11-01

    Nb2O5 nanosensors showing good sensing performances toward hydrogen and oxygen at high temperatures have been reported several times, but high-performance room-temperature Nb2O5 gas sensors have not been reported to date. Pd-Nb2O5 nanorods were synthesized by using thermal oxidation of a Nb foil, followed by wet chemical coating of Pd under UV illumination. The responses of multiple-networked Pd-Nb2O5 nanorod sensors to 10,000 ppm of hydrogen at room temperature were ˜218% and ˜496%, respectively. Responses obtained in this study were far higher than that to 2,000 ppm of H2 obtained previously at the same temperature by using Pt/Nb2O5 Schottky-diode sensors. These results suggest that multiple-networked 1D nanostructure sensors, which can be fabricated more easily, are superior in H2-gas-sensing properties to Schottky-diode-type nanostructure sensors, which require precise techniques to connect the nanostructures. The origin of the enhanced sensing properties of the Pd-decorated Nb2O5 nanorods toward hydrogen is also discussed.

  7. Transmission properties and molecular sensing application of CGPW.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianfeng; Yang, Jingjing; Deng, Wei; Mao, Fuchun; Huang, Ming

    2015-12-14

    In this paper, a cylindrical graphene plasmon waveguide (CGPW), which consists of two rolled graphene ribbons, a dielectric core and a dielectric interlayer is proposed, and its use for molecular sensing is investigated. First, an analytical model for the surface plasmon modes supported by this graphene geometry is presented and verified by finite element method simulations. Furthermore, we demonstrate a large tunability of the modes behavior by varying the Fermi level of the graphene, the coupling distance between the two sheets and the radius of the cylinder. Finally, a molecular sensing scheme based on the CGPW is proposed. Broadband spectroscopy of ethanol and toluene thin layers is realized by recording the changes in spectral intensity of the propagating mode. Due to the broadband localization capability of graphene plasmon mode which leads to a strong light-matter interaction in the midinfrared and terahertz regime, the proposed sensing scheme may provide an effective way for detecting nanometric-size molecules. PMID:26699019

  8. Amphiphilic Fluorinated Polymer Nanoparticle Film Formation and Dissolved Oxygen Sensing Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yu; Zhu, Huie; Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Miyashita, Tokuji; Mitsuishi, Masaya

    2016-04-01

    Fluorinated polymer nanoparticle films were prepared by dissolving amphiphilic fluorinated polymer, poly (N-1H, 1H-pentadecafluorooctylmethacrylamide) (pC7F15MAA) in two miscible solvents (AK-225 and acetic acid). A superhydrophobic and porous film was obtained by dropcasting the solution on substrates. With higher ratios of AK-225 to acetic acid, pC7F15MAA was densified around acetic acid droplets, leading to the formation of pC7F15MAA nanoparticles. The condition of the nanoparticle film preparation was investigated by varying the mixing ratio or total concentration. A highly sensitive dissolved oxygen sensor system was successfully prepared utilizing a smart surface of superhydrophobic and porous pC7F15MAA nanoparticle film. The sensitivity showed I0/I40 = 126 in the range of dissolved oxygen concentration of 0 ~ 40 mg L-1. The oxygen sensitivity was compared with that of previous reports.

  9. Thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of gaseous products resulting from combustion of methane-air-oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Results of calculations to determine thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of combustion product gases are presented. The product gases are those resulting from combustion of methane-air-oxygen and methane-oxygen mixtures. The oxygen content of products resulting from the combustion of methane-air-oxygen mixtures was similiar to that of air; however, the oxygen contained in products of methane-oxygen combustion ranged from 20 percent by volume to zero for stoichiometric combustion. Calculations were made for products of reactant mixtures with fuel percentages, by mass, of 7.5 to 20. Results are presented for specific mixtures for a range of pressures varying from 0.0001 to 1,000 atm and for temperatures ranging from 200 to 3,800 K.

  10. A 2.0 and 4.7 Heterodyne Spectrometer for Lower Thermospheric Wind, Temperature, and Atomic Oxygen Density Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, J.; Wu, D. L.; Mehdi, I.; Schlecht, E.; Demajistre, R.; Talaat, E. R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we will present the concept of a high-sensitivity heterodyne spectrometer operating at Terahertz (THz) frequency for global lower thermospheric neutral wind, temperature and atomic oxygen density measurements from a low earth orbit. These critical measurements are needed to better understand underlying mechanisms of the upper atmospheric composition/dynamics/temperature variability and the role of neutral dynamics on the ionospheric variability. Currently, no reliable satellite remote sensing technique can provide these measurements globally in the critical 100-150 km altitude region with complete local time coverage and desired spatial resolution, precision and accuracy. The instrument, THz Limb Sounder (TLS), to be developed under NASA's Geospace Instrument Development and Enabling Science Program, is aimed to provide, for the first time, global neutral wind/temperature/density profile measurements during day and night, with focus at altitudes of 100-150 km where most of the ion-neutral energy/momentum couplings take place. The TLS concept extends the limb sounding technique employed by Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) for density/temperature/wind measurements by resolving the Doppler line shape of atomic oxygen fine structure emission at 2.0 and 4.7 THz (145 and 63 microns). These two atomic oxygen line emissions are very bright and distributed nearly uniformly globally (at all latitudes including high latitude particle precipitation regions) and temporally (at all local times during both day and night), thus ideal for thermospheric remote sensing. The TLS instrument concept, measurement methodology, and the expected performance will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of electron detachment properties for {{\\text{O}_{2}^{{}}}^{-}} ions in oxygen and oxygen:nitrogen mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, A. A.; Aleksandrov, N. L.

    2015-06-01

    Electron detachment properties of {{\\text{O}2{}}-} ions in pure oxygen and oxygen:nitrogen mixtures have been studied by a Monte Carlo technique for the reduced electric fields up to 350 Td (1 Td = 10-17 V·cm2). Swarm parameters were calculated for unexcited and vibrationally excited \\text{O}{{{}2}-} ions taking into account vibrational transfer and relaxation, charge transfer and electron detachment. The cross sections for vibrational transfer and relaxation in collisions between {{\\text{O}2{}}-} ions and O2 molecules were calculated on the basis of the statistical approach that had been successfully used in our previous work to simulate the effect of vibrational excitation and the effect of electric field on electron detachment. Good agreement between the calculated detachment rate and available measurements in oxygen were obtained over a wide range of reduced electric fields without using adjusted parameters. The method was used to calculate detachment rates in air and in some other oxygen:nitrogen mixtures and to study the effect of gas temperature on electron detachment.

  12. Ultrasonically sprayed ZnO films: optical, electrical and gas sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, O.; Nesheva, D.; Levi, Z.; Miloushev, I.; Tenev, T.; Blaskov, V.; Stambolova, I.

    2012-12-01

    Highly transparent, polycrystalline ZnO thin films were deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The phase and chemical composition of the films were characterized by X-ray analysis (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). According to the XRD analysis the films possess wurtzite structure with preferential (002) orientation. The morphology of the ZnO films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optical transmittance higher than 80% is found in the visible region. The influence of both the substrate and postdeposition annealing temperatures on the dark conductivity and its activation energy were investigated. It has been found that the conductivity increases with increasing of the substrate and annealing temperatures while the activation energy decreases. These effects have been related to an increase of the density of oxygen vacancies. The sensing properties of the samples were tested in the presence of vapours of water, ammonia, ethanol and acetone. It has been revealed that the substrate temperature influences the gas sensitivity. The films deposited at 200°C have shown the highest sensitivity with the best results registered in the presence of ammonia vapours.

  13. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2005-01-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. One of the critical materials issues is to demonstrate that the luminescent cluster immobilized in the sol-gel porous support can withstand high temperature. At the same time the sol-gel matrix must have a high permeability to oxygen. Using a potassium salt of the molybdenum clusters, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, we have established the conditions necessary for deposition of optical quality sol-gel films. From spectroscopic measurements of the film we have shown that the cluster luminescence is stable following heat cycling of 1 hour at 250 C. Quenching of a factor of 4X between pure nitrogen and 21% oxygen was observed for films cured directly at 200 C. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  14. Properties of turbulence in natural gas-oxygen diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect

    Sautet, J.C.; Ditaranto, M. ); Samaniego, J.M.; Charon, O. )

    1999-07-01

    Measurements of turbulent flow field velocities, including first and second order velocity moments and the shear stress are carried out by laser Doppler velocimetry in five different, 25 kW, turbulent natural gas-oxygen diffusion flames. The mean flow behavior is described including the velocity half value radius as well as centerline velocity. Mean radial velocity profiles are fitted by a Gaussian function. According to the initial momentum ratio, different jet dynamic behaviors are pointed out by the description of the fluctuating velocity field.

  15. Human oxygen sensing may have origins in prokaryotic elongation factor Tu prolyl-hydroxylation

    PubMed Central

    Scotti, John S.; Leung, Ivanhoe K. H.; Ge, Wei; Bentley, Michael A.; Paps, Jordi; Kramer, Holger B.; Lee, Joongoo; Aik, WeiShen; Choi, Hwanho; Paulsen, Steinar M.; Bowman, Lesley A. H.; Loik, Nikita D.; Horita, Shoichiro; Ho, Chia-hua; Kershaw, Nadia J.; Tang, Christoph M.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.; Preston, Gail M.; McDonough, Michael A.; Schofield, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The roles of 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases in eukaryotes include collagen stabilization, hypoxia sensing, and translational regulation. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) sensing system is conserved in animals, but not in other organisms. However, bioinformatics imply that 2OG-dependent prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs) homologous to those acting as sensing components for the HIF system in animals occur in prokaryotes. We report cellular, biochemical, and crystallographic analyses revealing that Pseudomonas prolyl-hydroxylase domain containing protein (PPHD) contain a 2OG oxygenase related in structure and function to the animal PHDs. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa PPHD knockout mutant displays impaired growth in the presence of iron chelators and increased production of the virulence factor pyocyanin. We identify elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) as a PPHD substrate, which undergoes prolyl-4-hydroxylation on its switch I loop. A crystal structure of PPHD reveals striking similarity to human PHD2 and a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii prolyl-4-hydroxylase. A crystal structure of PPHD complexed with intact EF-Tu reveals that major conformational changes occur in both PPHD and EF-Tu, including a >20-Å movement of the EF-Tu switch I loop. Comparison of the PPHD structures with those of HIF and collagen PHDs reveals conservation in substrate recognition despite diverse biological roles and origins. The observed changes will be useful in designing new types of 2OG oxygenase inhibitors based on various conformational states, rather than active site iron chelators, which make up most reported 2OG oxygenase inhibitors. Structurally informed phylogenetic analyses suggest that the role of prolyl-hydroxylation in human hypoxia sensing has ancient origins. PMID:25197067

  16. Protein kinase G-regulated production of H2S governs oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Guoxiang; Vasavda, Chirag; Peng, Ying-Jie; Makarenko, Vladislav V; Raghuraman, Gayatri; Nanduri, Jayasri; Gadalla, Moataz M; Semenza, Gregg L; Kumar, Ganesh K; Snyder, Solomon H; Prabhakar, Nanduri R

    2015-04-21

    Reflexes initiated by the carotid body, the principal O2-sensing organ, are critical for maintaining cardiorespiratory homeostasis during hypoxia. O2 sensing by the carotid body requires carbon monoxide (CO) generation by heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) synthesis by cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). We report that O2 stimulated the generation of CO, but not that of H2S, and required two cysteine residues in the heme regulatory motif (Cys(265) and Cys(282)) of HO-2. CO stimulated protein kinase G (PKG)-dependent phosphorylation of Ser(377) of CSE, inhibiting the production of H2S. Hypoxia decreased the inhibition of CSE by reducing CO generation resulting in increased H2S, which stimulated carotid body neural activity. In carotid bodies from mice lacking HO-2, compensatory increased abundance of nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase) mediated O2 sensing through PKG-dependent regulation of H2S by nitric oxide. These results provide a mechanism for how three gases work in concert in the carotid body to regulate breathing. PMID:25900831

  17. Low-cost microarray thin-film electrodes with ionic liquid gel-polymer electrolytes for miniaturised oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junqiao; Silvester, Debbie S

    2016-06-21

    A robust, miniaturised electrochemical gas sensor for oxygen (O2) has been constructed using a commercially available Pt microarray thin-film electrode (MATFE) with a gellified electrolyte containing the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C2mim][NTf2]) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) in a 50 : 50 mass ratio. Diffusion coefficients and solubilities for oxygen in mixtures of PMMA/RTIL at different PMMA doping concentrations (0-50% mass) were derived from potential step chronoamperometry (PSCA) on a Pt microdisk electrode. The MATFE was then used with both the neat RTIL and 50% (by mass) PMMA/RTIL gel, to study the analytical behavior over a wide concentration range (0.1 to 100 vol% O2). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and long-term chronoamperometry (LTCA) techniques were employed and it was determined that the gentler CV technique is better at higher O2 concentrations (above 60 vol%), but LTCA is more reliable and accurate at lower concentrations (especially below 0.5% O2). In particular, there was much less potential shifting (from the unstable Pt quasi-reference electrode) evident in the 50% PMMA/RTIL gel than in the neat RTIL, making this a much more suitable electrolyte for long-term continuous oxygen monitoring. The mass production and low-cost of the electrode array, along with the minimal amounts of RTIL/PMMA required, make this a viable sensing device for oxygen detection on a bulk scale in a wide range of environmental conditions. PMID:26931642

  18. Hydrogen sensing properties of nanostructured Pd/WO3 thin films: role of hydrophobicity during recovery process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, S.; Sanger, A.; Chauhan, S.; Chandra, R.

    2014-09-01

    In the present work the structural, optical and hydrogen sensing properties of Pd-capped tungsten oxide (Pd/WO3) thin films have been investigated. The nanostructured Pd/WO3 thin films have been prepared using DC magnetron sputtering on glass and Si(100) substrates at various oxygen partial pressures. The samples were hydrogenated at 2 bar hydrogen pressure in an operating temperature range 300-423 K. Optical transmittance spectra confirms fully transparent WO3 thin films deposited at oxygen partial pressure of 0.5 Pa while the transmittance drastically decreases to 50% for hydrogenated Pd/WO3 thin films. The influence of surface roughness and hydrophobicity of the Pd/WO3 thin films on the hydrogen sensing performance have been studied. Fast response time (1 sec) and an optimum recovery time (˜8 min) have been observed at a moderate temperature of 323 K for the samples having roughness ˜4.5 nm and contact angle ˜96°. Hydrophobicity of the surface provides short recovery time by opposing the existence of water-vapour on the surface.

  19. Chromatin and oxygen sensing in the context of JmjC histone demethylases

    PubMed Central

    Shmakova, Alena; Batie, Michael; Druker, Jimena; Rocha, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Responding appropriately to changes in oxygen availability is essential for multicellular organism survival. Molecularly, cells have evolved intricate gene expression programmes to handle this stressful condition. Although it is appreciated that gene expression is co-ordinated by changes in transcription and translation in hypoxia, much less is known about how chromatin changes allow for transcription to take place. The missing link between co-ordinating chromatin structure and the hypoxia-induced transcriptional programme could be in the form of a class of dioxygenases called JmjC (Jumonji C) enzymes, the majority of which are histone demethylases. In the present review, we will focus on the function of JmjC histone demethylases, and how these could act as oxygen sensors for chromatin in hypoxia. The current knowledge concerning the role of JmjC histone demethylases in the process of organism development and human disease will also be reviewed. PMID:25145438

  20. Determination of atomic oxygen density and temperature of the thermosphere by remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ramesh D.; Harlow, Harry B.; Riehl, James P.

    1988-06-01

    Measurement of emission from the earth's atmosphere in the far infrared due to transitions between fine structure levels of the ground state (3P) of atomic oxygen at 63 microns, (3P1 to 3P2) and 147 microns (3P0 to 3P1) is proposed. These magnetic-dipole allowed transitions with long radiative lifetimes (about 3.2 h for the 63 micron transition and about 16.3 h for the 147 micron transition) are assumed to be in equilibrium with the local translational temperature. A one-dimensional onion-peel inversion of the limb emissions at 63 and 147 microns from a model atmosphere is shown to yield reasonable results for both the temperature and atomic oxygen density in the 90-250 km altitude range.

  1. THE OXYGEN PERMEATION PROPERTIES OF NANO CRYSTALLINE CEO2 THIN FILMS

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, K.

    2010-09-27

    The measurement of oxygen flux across nanocrystalline CeO{sub 2} cerium oxide thin films at intermediate temperature (650 to 800 C) is presented. Porous ceria support substrates were fabricated by sintering with carbon additions. The final dense film was deposited from an optimized sol-gel solution resulting in a mean grain size of 50 nm which displayed oxygen flux values of up to 0.014 {micro}mol/cm{sup 2}s over the oxygen partial pressure range from air to helium gas used in the measurement at 800 C. The oxygen flux characteristics confirm mixed ionic and electronic conductivity in nanocrystalline ceria films and demonstrate the role of size dependent materials properties as a design parameter in functional membranes for oxygen separation.

  2. Analytical and mechanistic aspects of the room temperature phosphorescence of Erythrosine B adsorbed on solid supports as oxygen sensing phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco-García, Nieves; Pereiro-García, Rosario; Diaz-García, Marta E.

    1995-05-01

    Room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) lifetime measurements and spectra of different concentrations of Erythrosine B immobilized on anion exchangers and non-ionic resins have been employed to unveil mechanistic aspects of the RTP of immobilized Erythrosine B. The existence of a definite number of RTP decaying components in some experimental conditions has been confirmed. The effects of humidified argon and air on RTP lifetimes and the changes in luminescence intensities were used to investigate some of the interactions responsible for the multiple component RTP emission. The experiments performed also proved the suitability of the phases prepared using non-ionic resins, for the quantification of molecular oxygen by RTP-quenching measurements. Moreover, the solid phases with anion-exchanger resins showed good potential for the analytical sensing of humidity.

  3. Designer Hydrogels for Precision Control of Oxygen Tension and Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Blatchley, Michael; Park, Kyung Min; Gerecht, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen levels and mechanical properties provide vital cues to regulate myriad cellular functions and stem cell fate decisions. Here, we present a hybrid hydrogel system in which we can control independently oxygen levels and mechanical properties. We designed, synthesized and analyzed a hybrid hydrogel system comprised of two polymer backbones, gelatin and dextran. Both polymers were crosslinked via a laccase-mediated, oxygen consuming reaction. By specifically controlling the concentration of phenolic molecules available to react in our hydrogel, we could precisely control the time in which the hydrogel remained hypoxic (TH). We were able to achieve a range of TH from the order of minutes to greater than 10 hours. Additionally, by incorporating a secondary crosslinker, transglutaminase, mechanical properties could be adjusted in a user-defined fashion, with dynamic elastic modulus (G′) values ranging from <20 Pa to >1 kPa. Importantly, oxygen levels and substrate mechanical properties could be individually tuned and decoupled in our hybrid hydrogels, while retaining the potential to study possible synergistic effects between the two parameters. By precisely controlling oxygen tension and mechanical properties, we expect that research utilizing the new hybrid hydrogels will enhance our understanding of the complex 3D cellular processes mediated by each parameter individually and may also hold clinical interest as acellular therapies. PMID:26693017

  4. Synthesis, characterization and gas sensing properties of tin oxide nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Meenakshi; Mishra, V. N.; Dwivedi, R.

    2013-06-01

    In the present work, tin oxide nanopowder has been synthesized by solid-state reaction technique. The as-prepared pure and palladium doped (0.5 and 1%) powders have been used for the fabrication of thick film sensors. The influence of particle size of powders and morphology of the thick films has been studied on the sensing performance of thick film sensor. It is observed that the sensors produced from the SnO2 doped with 1% palladium have an excellent ability for the detection of hydrogen gas.

  5. Space Shuttle Orbiter oxygen partial pressure sensing and control system improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frampton, Robert F.; Hoy, Dennis M.; Kelly, Kevin J.; Walleshauser, James J.

    1992-01-01

    A program aimed at developing a new PPO2 oxygen sensor and a replacement amplifier for the Space Shuttle Orbiter is described. Experimental design methodologies used in the test and modeling process made it possible to enhance the effectiveness of the program and to reduce its cost. Significant cost savings are due to the increased lifetime of the basic sensor cell, the maximization of useful sensor life through an increased amplifier gain adjustment capability, the use of streamlined production processes for the manufacture of the assemblies, and the refurbishment capability of the replacement sensor.

  6. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III

    2004-10-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. High temperature measurements of the emission of clusters in sol gel films show that the luminescence intensity from the films follow a 1/T relationship from room temperature to 150 C, and then declines at a slower rate at higher temperatures. The large number of photons available at 230 C is consistent with simple low cost optics for fiber optic probes based on the emission from clusters in sol gel films.

  7. Memristive properties of hexagonal WO3 nanowires induced by oxygen vacancy migration.

    PubMed

    He, Xiongwu; Yin, Yanling; Guo, Jie; Yuan, Huajun; Peng, Yuehua; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Ding; Hai, Kuo; Zhou, Weichang; Tang, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO3) is always oxygen-deficient or non-stoichiometric under atmospheric conditions. Positively charged oxygen vacancies prefer to drift as well as electrons when the electric field is strong enough, which will alter the distribution of oxygen vacancies and then endow WO3 with memristive properties. In Au/WO3 nanowire/Au sandwich structures with two ohmic contacts, the axial distribution of oxygen vacancies and then the electrical transport properties can be more easily modulated by bias voltage. The threshold electric field for oxygen vacancy drifting in single-crystal hexagonal WO3 nanowire is about 106 V/m, one order of magnitude less than that in its granular film. At elevated temperatures, the oxygen vacancy drifts and then the memristive effect can be enhanced remarkably. When the two metallic contacts are asymmetric, the WO3 nanowire devices even demonstrate good rectifying characteristic at elevated temperatures. Based on the drift of oxygen vacancies, nanoelectronic devices such as memristor, rectifier, and two-terminal resistive random access memory can be fabricated on individual WO3 nanowires. PMID:23347429

  8. Memristive properties of hexagonal WO3 nanowires induced by oxygen vacancy migration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO3) is always oxygen-deficient or non-stoichiometric under atmospheric conditions. Positively charged oxygen vacancies prefer to drift as well as electrons when the electric field is strong enough, which will alter the distribution of oxygen vacancies and then endow WO3 with memristive properties. In Au/WO3 nanowire/Au sandwich structures with two ohmic contacts, the axial distribution of oxygen vacancies and then the electrical transport properties can be more easily modulated by bias voltage. The threshold electric field for oxygen vacancy drifting in single-crystal hexagonal WO3 nanowire is about 106 V/m, one order of magnitude less than that in its granular film. At elevated temperatures, the oxygen vacancy drifts and then the memristive effect can be enhanced remarkably. When the two metallic contacts are asymmetric, the WO3 nanowire devices even demonstrate good rectifying characteristic at elevated temperatures. Based on the drift of oxygen vacancies, nanoelectronic devices such as memristor, rectifier, and two-terminal resistive random access memory can be fabricated on individual WO3 nanowires. PMID:23347429

  9. Performance and properties of atomic oxygen protective coatings for polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Lamoreaux, Cynthia

    Such large LEO spacecraft as the Space Station Freedom will encounter high atomic oxygen fluences which entail the use of protective coatings for their polymeric structural materials. Such coatings have demonstrated polymer mass losses due to oxidation that are much smaller than those of unprotected materials. Attention is here given to protective and/or electrically conductive coatings of SiO(x), Ge, and indium-tin oxide which have been exposed to atomic oxygen in order to ascertain mass loss, electrical conductivity, and optical property dependence on atomic oxygen exposure.

  10. Performance and properties of atomic oxygen protective coatings for polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Lamoreaux, Cynthia

    1992-01-01

    Such large LEO spacecraft as the Space Station Freedom will encounter high atomic oxygen fluences which entail the use of protective coatings for their polymeric structural materials. Such coatings have demonstrated polymer mass losses due to oxidation that are much smaller than those of unprotected materials. Attention is here given to protective and/or electrically conductive coatings of SiO(x), Ge, and indium-tin oxide which have been exposed to atomic oxygen in order to ascertain mass loss, electrical conductivity, and optical property dependence on atomic oxygen exposure.

  11. Room temperature NO2-sensing properties of WO3 nanoparticles/porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wenjun; Hu, Ming; Zeng, Peng; Ma, Shuangyun; Li, Mingda

    2014-02-01

    WO3 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method with tungsten hexachloride (WCl6) as precursor and deposited onto porous silicon and alumina substrates by dip-coating. The morphology and crystal structure of samples were investigated by means of field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. It is the experimental results demonstrated by gas sensing tests that WO3 nanoparticles combining with the substrate of porous silicon presented an improved NO2-sensing property at room temperature. Compared to WO3 deposited on alumina working above 100 °C, the WO3 nanoparticles/porous silicon exhibited higher properties upon exposure to sub-ppm concentrations of NO2 gas at room temperature. Additionally, the NO2-sensing performance of WO3 nanoparticles/porous silicon was enhanced markedly, in comparison to pure porous silicon. The mechanism of WO3/porous silicon composite structure on the NO2 sensing was explained in detail.

  12. Properties of cooperatively induced phases in sensing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevier, Stuart A.; Levine, Herbert

    2015-05-01

    A large number of eukaryotic cells are able to directly detect external chemical gradients with great accuracy and the ultimate limit to their sensitivity has been a topic of debate for many years. Previous work has been done to understand many aspects of this process but little attention has been paid to the possibility of emergent sensing states. Here we examine how cooperation between sensors existing in a two-dimensional network, as they do on the cell's surface, can both enhance and fundamentally alter the response of the cell to a spatially varying signal. We show that weakly interacting sensors linearly amplify the cell's response to an external gradient while a network of strongly interacting sensors form a collective nonlinear response with two separate domains of active and inactive sensors forming what have called a "1/2-state." In our analysis we examine the cell's ability to sense the direction of a signal and pay special attention to the substantially different behavior realized in the strongly interacting regime.

  13. Pulsation Properties of Carbon and Oxygen Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.; Huang, D. J.

    2015-07-01

    We have used up to 12 decades of AAVSO visual observations, and the AAVSO VSTAR software package to determine new and/or improved periods of 5 pulsating biperiodic carbon (C-type) red giants, and 12 pulsating biperiodic oxygen (M-type) red giants. We have also determined improved periods for 43 additional C-type red giants, in part to search for more biperiodic C-type stars, and also for 46 M-type red giants. For a small sample of the biperiodic C-type and M-type stars, we have used wavelet analysis to determine the time scales of the cycles of amplitude increase and decrease. The C-type and M-type stars do not differ significantly in their period ratios (first overtone to fundamental). There is a marginal difference in the lengths of their amplitude cycles. The most important result of this study is that, because of the semiregularity of these stars, and the presence of alias, harmonic, and spurious periods, the periods which we and others derive for these stars—especially the smaller-amplitude ones—must be determined and interpreted with great care and caution. For instance: spurious periods of a year can produce an apparent excess of stars, at that period, in the period distribution.

  14. Primary endosymbiosis and the evolution of light and oxygen sensing in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Rockwell, Nathan C.; Lagarias, J. Clark; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2015-01-01

    The origin of the photosynthetic organelle in eukaryotes, the plastid, changed forever the evolutionary trajectory of life on our planet. Plastids are highly specialized compartments derived from a putative single cyanobacterial primary endosymbiosis that occurred in the common ancestor of the supergroup Archaeplastida that comprises the Viridiplantae (green algae and plants), red algae, and glaucophyte algae. These lineages include critical primary producers of freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, progenitors of which provided plastids through secondary endosymbiosis to other algae such as diatoms and dinoflagellates that are critical to marine ecosystems. Despite its broad importance and the success of algal and plant lineages, the phagotrophic origin of the plastid imposed an interesting challenge on the predatory eukaryotic ancestor of the Archaeplastida. By engulfing an oxygenic photosynthetic cell, the host lineage imposed an oxidative stress upon itself in the presence of light. Adaptations to meet this challenge were thus likely to have occurred early on during the transition from a predatory phagotroph to an obligate phototroph (or mixotroph). Modern algae have recently been shown to employ linear tetrapyrroles (bilins) to respond to oxidative stress under high light. Here we explore the early events in plastid evolution and the possible ancient roles of bilins in responding to light and oxygen. PMID:25729749

  15. Hydrazine sensing properties of microwave synthesized graphene/ZnO composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejesh, M.; Nagaraja, H. S.; Udaya Bhat, K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of graphene/ ZnO nanocomposite using microwave method and its application in sensing of hydrazine. The morphological characteristics of the samples are studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The formation of the composite is further confirmed by the X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) shows the presence of carbon indicating the presence of graphene. The hydrazine sensing property of the electrode is studied using cyclic voltammometry (CV) and Chronoamperometry (CA) studeis.

  16. Oxygen sorption and desorption properties of selected lanthanum manganites and lanthanum ferrite manganites.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Skou, Eivind M; Jacobsen, Torben

    2015-06-01

    Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) with a carrier gas was used to study the oxygen sorption and desorption properties of oxidation catalysts and solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode materials (La(0.85) Sr(0.15)0.95 MnO(3+δ) (LSM) and La(0.60) Sr(0.40) Fe(0.80) Mn(0.20) O(3-δ) (LSFM). The powders were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and BET surface adsorption. Sorbed oxygen could be distinguished from oxygen originating from stoichiometry changes. The results indicated that there is one main site for oxygen sorption/desorption. The amount of sorbed oxygen was monitored over time at different temperatures. Furthermore, through data analysis it was shown that the desorption peak associated with oxygen sorption is described well by second-order desorption kinetics. This indicates that oxygen molecules dissociate upon adsorption and that the rate-determining step for the desorption reaction is a recombination of monatomic oxygen. Typical problems with re-adsorption in this kind of TPD setup were revealed to be insignificant by using simulations. Finally, different key parameters of sorption and desorption were determined, such as desorption activation energies, density of sorption sites, and adsorption and desorption reaction order. PMID:25784205

  17. Improved gas sensing and dielectric properties of Fe doped hydroxyapatite thick films: Effect of molar concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mene, Ravindra U.; Mahabole, Megha P.; Mohite, K.C.; Khairnar, Rajendra S.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • We report improved gas sensing and dielectric characteristics of Fe ion exchanged HAp films. • Fe doped HAp film shows maximum gas response at relatively lower temperature. • Response and gas uptake capacity of sensors is improved for appropriate amount of Fe ions in HAp matrix. • Fe-HAp films exhibit remarkable improvement in dielectric properties compared to pure HAp. • Fe doped HAp films show significant improvement in gas sensing as well as in dielectric properties. - Abstract: In the present work Fe doped hydroxyapatite (Fe-HAp) thick films has been successfully utilized to improve the gas sensing as well as its dielectric properties. Initially, HAp nano powder is synthesized by chemical precipitation process and later on Fe ions are doped in HAp by ion exchange process. Structural and morphological modifications are observed by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis. The sensing parameters such as operating temperature, response/recovery time and gas uptake capacity are experimentally determined. The Fe-HAp (0.05 M) film shows improved CO and CO{sub 2} gas sensing capacity at lower operating temperature compared to pure HAp. Moreover, variation of dielectric constant and dielectric loss for pure and Fe-HAp thick films are studied as a function of frequency in the range of 10 Hz–1 MHz. The study reveals that Fe doped HAp thick films improve the sensing and dielectric characteristics as compared to pure HAp.

  18. Synthesis, characterization, optical and sensing property of manganese oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Manigandan, R.; Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Narayanan, V.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.

    2014-01-28

    Manganese oxide nanoparticles were prepared by thermal decomposition of manganese oxalate. Manganese oxalate was synthesized by reacting 1:1 mole ratio of manganese acetate and ammonium oxalate along with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The structural characterization of manganese oxalate and manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by XRD. The XRD spectrum confirms the crystal structure of the manganese oxide and manganese oxalate. In addition, the average grain size, lattice parameter values were also calculated using XRD spectrum. Moreover, the diffraction peaks were broadened due to the smaller size of the particle. The band gap of manganese oxide was calculated from optical absorption, which was carried out by DRS UV-Visible spectroscopy. The morphology of manganese oxide nanoparticles was analyzed by SEM images. The FT-IR analysis confirms the formation of the manganese oxide from manganese oxalate nanoparticles. The electrochemical sensing behavior of manganese oxide nanoparticles were investigated using hydrogen peroxide by cyclic voltammetry.

  19. Sensing properties of assembled Bi2S3 nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunakova, G.; Meija, R.; Bite, I.; Prikulis, J.; Kosmaca, J.; Varghese, J.; Holmes, J. D.; Erts, Donats

    2015-09-01

    Bismuth sulfide (Bi2S3) nanowires were grown in porous aluminium oxide template and a selective chemical etching was applied to transfer the nanowires to a solution. Well aligned nanowire arrays were assembled on pre-patterned silicon substrates employing dielectrophoresis. Electron beam lithography was used to connect aligned individual nanowires to the common macroelectrode. In order to evaluate the conductometric sensing performance of the Bi2S3 nanowires, current-voltage characteristics were measured at different relative humidity (RH) levels (5-80%) / argon medium. The response of the Bi2S3 nanowires depending of RH is found to be considerably different from those reported for other types of nanowire RH sensor devices.

  20. Closure between remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, KePing; Lee, ZhongPing; Carder, Kendall L.

    2006-12-01

    In this study, measurements and models are used to test the closure between remote-sensing reflectance and IOPs. Measurements include those by AC9 (Wetlabs, Inc.) and HS6 (HOBI labs, Inc.), while models include both empirical models (e.g., Voss' beam attenuation coefficient model) and radiative transfer model (e.g., Hydrolight). It is found that, generally, AC9 works better than HS6 in providing scattering and backscattering coefficients. HS6 need more accurate calibration; absorption coefficients by AC9 are consistent with those by Spectrix or Spectrometer. Good linear relationship is found between AC9 measured beam attenuation coefficients (c) and the Voss model; while those measurements by HS6 needs some adjustments before feeding to HYDROLIGHT.

  1. Iodine-mediated etching of gold nanorods for plasmonic sensing of dissolved oxygen and salt iodine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyang; Chen, Zhaopeng; Cheng, Fangbin; Zhang, Yaowen; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-05-10

    Here, we have carefully investigated iodine-mediated etching of gold nanorods (AuNRs) in the presence of iodate and applied this phenomenon to on-site detection of dissolved oxygen (DO). Under given conditions, the quantitative conversion of target analytes DO to iodine leads to the etching of AuNRs along the longitudinal direction with the aid of cetyltrimethylammonium. As a result, the longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance shifts to a short wavelength. The peak-shift can be used for quantitative determination of DO and iodate by a spectrophotometer. The satisfactory results from DO detection in different water samples and iodate detection in table salt indicate the feasibility of the proposed methods. Moreover, the as-prepared colorimetric test paper would make the detection more economical and simpler. PMID:27049138

  2. The Role of Hypoxia-Inducible Factors in Oxygen Sensing by the Carotid Body

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, Nanduri R.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with sleep-disordered breathing is an important cause of hypertension, which results from carotid body-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous system. IH triggers increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the carotid body, which induce increased synthesis and stability of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and calpain-dependent degradation of HIF-2α. HIF-1 activates transcription of the Nox2 gene, encoding NADPH oxidase 2, which generates superoxide. Loss of HIF-2 activity leads to decreased transcription of the Sod2 gene, encoding manganese superoxide dismutase, which converts superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. Thus, IH disrupts the balance between HIF-1-dependent pro-oxidant and HIF-2-dependent anti-oxidant activities, and this loss of redox homeostasis underlies the pathogenesis of autonomic morbidities associated with IH. PMID:23080136

  3. Cirrus Mammatus Properties Derived from an Extended Remote Sensing Dataset.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Likun; Sassen, Kenneth

    2006-02-01

    The first quantitative and statistical evaluation of cirrus mammatus clouds based on wavelet analysis of remote sensing data is made by analyzing the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS) 10-yr high-cloud dataset. First, a case study of cirrus mammata combining a high-resolution lidar system and a W-band Doppler radar is presented, yielding an assessment of the thermodynamic environment and dynamic mechanisms. Then, 25 cirrus mammatus cases selected from the FARS lidar dataset are used to disclose their characteristic environmental conditions, and vertical and length scales. The results show that cirrus mammata occur in the transition zone from moist (cloudy) to dry air layers with weak wind shear, which suggests that cloud-induced thermal structures play a key role in their formation. Their maximum vertical and horizontal length scales vary from 0.3 to 1.1 km and 0.5 to 8.0 km, respectively. It is also found that small-scale structures develop between the large-scale protuberances. The spectral slopes of the lidar-returned power and mean radar Doppler velocity data extracted from the cirrus cloud-base region further indicate the presence of developed three-dimensional, locally isotropic, homogeneous turbulence generated by buoyancy. Finally, comparisons of anvil and cirrus mammata are made. Although both are generated in a similar environment, cirrus mammata generally do not form fallout fronts like their anvil counterparts, and so do not have their smooth and beautiful outlines.


  4. Physical properties of a new synthetic oxygen carrier.

    PubMed

    Moore, R E

    1988-01-01

    PFC emulsions have shown considerable promise for a variety of clinical indications, but their utility has been limited by instability outside the frozen state, extended tissue residence time, and complement activation. A new formulation from Adamantech, INc. based on F-MA and egg yolk phospholipid shows significant improvement in each of these areas. The emulsion can be stored in the non-frozen state, has a tissue half-life of 8-9 days, has excellent rheological properties, and does not activate complement. PMID:3179480

  5. Fiber Optical Micro-detectors for Oxygen Sensing in Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III; Po Zhang

    2005-10-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. Previously we immobilized the potassium salt of a molybdenum cluster, K{sub 2}M{sub 6}Cl{sub 14}, in a sol-gel matrix and showed that the luminescence is stable after 54 hours at 200 C, but the quenching ratios were low and the films delaminated after thermal cycling due to densification of the matrix. Three new approaches to solve decreased quenching over time and delamination of films off fiber tips were investigated. In the first approach K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14} embedded in cured sol-gel particles were incorporated into a TEOS based sol-gel. These gave enhanced quenching (6x), but delaminated. Our second approach was to use a commercial cyanoacrylate glue to immobilize the particles onto the tip of an optical fiber. This gave better adhesion and good quenching initially, but eventually the glue degraded upon heating. Our third approach was to use a 55% OtMOS/ TEOS sol-gel binder. Films based on this new sol-gel binder show high quenching ({approx}6x) and superior mechanical stability even after thermal cycling. Sensor measurements on an optical fiber containing K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 14} embedded in cured sol-gel particles were obtained from 100 to 25 C. The signal intensity in nitrogen was stable at 2.8 {+-} 0.2 nW, and the quenching ratio (ratio of signal in N{sub 2} vs. 21 % O{sub 2}) varied from 4.4 to 6.9X. These are promising results for a high temperature fiber optical oxygen sensor based on molybdenum chloride clusters.

  6. H +, Na +, and K + ion sensing properties of sodium and aluminum coimplanted LPCVD silicon oxynitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Paik-Kyun; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2003-02-01

    Three different silicon oxynitride layers were fabricated by varying NH 3/N 2O flow rate ratios in low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) process. Sodium and aluminum were then coimplanted by implanting sodium ions with the energy of 100 keV and dose of 5×10 16 cm -2 into an aluminum buffer layer on silicon dioxide and three different silicon oxynitride layers. The composition of the as-deposited silicon oxynitride layers was analyzed by sputtered neutral mass spectroscopy (SNMS). Sodium, potassium and pH-sensing properties of the layers were investigated on an electrolyte-isolator-silicon (EIS) structure using high frequency capacitance-voltage (HF-CV) measurements. Differences of pH, sodium and potassium sensing properties between the as-deposited silicon oxynitride layers and the coimplanted silicon oxynitride layers were investigated. The sodium and aluminum coimplanted layers showed better sodium and potassium sensitivity as well as a lower sensitivity towards hydrogen ions. The effect is more pronounced for higher oxygen concentration in the layers. On the other hand the stability of ion response of the layers, in contrast, is better for the higher nitrogen content of the layers.

  7. Properties of Aluminum Deposited by a High-Velocity Oxygen-Fueled Process

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R; Decker, T A; Gansert, R V; Gansert, D; Lee, D

    2001-06-12

    Aluminum coatings deposited by a HVOF process have been demonstrated and relevant coating properties evaluated according to two deposition parameters, the spray distance and the oxygen-to-fuel flow ratio. The coating porosity, surface roughness, and microhardness are measured. The coating properties are fairly insensitive to spray distance, the distance between the nozzle and the workpiece, and fuel ratios, the oxygen-to-fuel flow. Increasing the fuel content does appear to improve the process productivity in terms of surface roughness. Minimization of nozzle loading is discussed.

  8. Effect of Oxygen-affinity Additives on the Superconducting Properties of Magnesium Diboride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J.-J.; Ahn, J.-H.

    We examined the effect of oxygen-affinity additives on the superconducting properties of magnesium diborides. The additives were elemental Y, Sm, Ca, Li compounds (LiH, LiBH4), polyethylene and polyethylene glycol, which have a higher oxygen-affinity than magnesium. The formation of magnesium oxide during in-situ sintering of magnesium diboride was inhibited by the addition of such materials. The critical current density was not improved by the additives of Y, Sm, Ca and lithium compounds in spite of reduced oxide phases. Only the addition of polyethylene and polyethylene glycol resulted in the enhanced superconducting property.

  9. CO-sensing properties of undoped and doped tin oxide thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation.

    PubMed

    Durrani, S M A; Khawaja, E E; Al-Kuhaili, M F

    2005-03-15

    Undoped thin films of tin oxide and those doped with indium oxide and nickel oxides were deposited by electron beam evaporation. The effects of the film thickness and preparation conditions (films prepared with or without the presence of oxygen environment during deposition) on the optical and carbon monoxide sensing properties of the films were studied. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy techniques. All the films were found to be amorphous. It was found that the sensitivity of the films to CO increased with the thickness and the porosity of the films. It was found that their selectivity to CO gas relative to CO(2) and SO(2) gases could be improved upon doping the films with indium (or nickel) oxide. PMID:18969926

  10. Influence of oxygen concentration on mechanical properties of molybdenum powder during sintering.

    PubMed

    Lee, Back-Kyu; Oh, Jung-Min; Shon, In-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Lim, Jae-Won

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the influence of oxygen concentration on the mechanical properties of sintered bodies produced from commercial and low-oxygen molybdenum powder via pulsed-current-activated sintering was determined. The hardness of the sintered bodies increased with the sintering temperature up to 1,500 degrees C and then decreased with further temperature increase. The hardness of the sintered low-oxygen-molybdenum body was slightly higher than the rest of the sintered bodies. This was because the relative density of the sintered low-oxygen-molybdenum body increased more than that of others as the sintering temperature increased. Furthermore, the grain size of the sintered commercial-molybdenum body was larger than that of the sintered low-oxygen-molybdenum body. This was attributed to the positive effect of molybdenum oxide on grain growth during sintering. Thus, it was established that low-oxygen molybdenum powder can suppress grain growth during sintering, resulting in improved mechanical properties of the sintered bodies. PMID:25971004

  11. Haemoglobin polymorphisms affect the oxygen-binding properties in Atlantic cod populations

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Øivind; Wetten, Ola Frang; De Rosa, Maria Cristina; Andre, Carl; Carelli Alinovi, Cristiana; Colafranceschi, Mauro; Brix, Ole; Colosimo, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge in evolutionary biology is to identify the genes underlying adaptation. The oxygen-transporting haemoglobins directly link external conditions with metabolic needs and therefore represent a unique system for studying environmental effects on molecular evolution. We have discovered two haemoglobin polymorphisms in Atlantic cod populations inhabiting varying temperature and oxygen regimes in the North Atlantic. Three-dimensional modelling of the tetrameric haemoglobin structure demonstrated that the two amino acid replacements Met55β1Val and Lys62β1Ala are located at crucial positions of the α1β1 subunit interface and haem pocket, respectively. The replacements are proposed to affect the oxygen-binding properties by modifying the haemoglobin quaternary structure and electrostatic feature. Intriguingly, the same molecular mechanism for facilitating oxygen binding is found in avian species adapted to high altitudes, illustrating convergent evolution in water- and air-breathing vertebrates to reduction in environmental oxygen availability. Cod populations inhabiting the cold Arctic waters and the low-oxygen Baltic Sea seem well adapted to these conditions by possessing the high oxygen affinity Val55–Ala62 haplotype, while the temperature-insensitive Met55–Lys62 haplotype predominates in the southern populations. The distinct distributions of the functionally different haemoglobin variants indicate that the present biogeography of this ecologically and economically important species might be seriously affected by global warming. PMID:19033139

  12. Remote sensing of soil properties in precision agriculture: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The success of precision agriculture depends strongly upon an efficient and accurate method for in-field soil property determination. This information is critical for farmers to calculate the proper amount of inputs for best crop performance and least environment contamination. Grid sampling, as a t...

  13. Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectrc property sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500 MHz at 25oC. Dielectric constants of pure honeys ...

  14. The enhanced formaldehyde-sensing properties of P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film OTFT sensor and further insight into its stability.

    PubMed

    Tai, Huiling; Li, Xian; Jiang, Yadong; Xie, Guangzhong; Du, Xiaosong

    2015-01-01

    A thin-film transistor (TFT) having an organic-inorganic hybrid thin film combines the advantage of TFT sensors and the enhanced sensing performance of hybrid materials. In this work, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles' hybrid thin film was fabricated by a spraying process as the active layer of TFT for the employment of a room temperature operated formaldehyde (HCHO) gas sensor. The effects of ZnO nanoparticles on morphological and compositional features, electronic and HCHO-sensing properties of P3HT-ZnO thin film were systematically investigated. The results showed that P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film sensor exhibited considerable improvement of sensing response (more than two times) and reversibility compared to the pristine P3HT film sensor. An accumulation p-n heterojunction mechanism model was developed to understand the mechanism of enhanced sensing properties by incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterizations were used to investigate the stability of the sensor in-depth, which reveals the performance deterioration was due to the changes of element composition and the chemical state of hybrid thin film surface induced by light and oxygen. Our study demonstrated that P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film TFT sensor is beneficial in the advancement of novel room temperature HCHO sensing technology. PMID:25608214

  15. The Enhanced Formaldehyde-Sensing Properties of P3HT-ZnO Hybrid Thin Film OTFT Sensor and Further Insight into Its Stability

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Huiling; Li, Xian; Jiang, Yadong; Xie, Guangzhong; Du, Xiaosong

    2015-01-01

    A thin-film transistor (TFT) having an organic–inorganic hybrid thin film combines the advantage of TFT sensors and the enhanced sensing performance of hybrid materials. In this work, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles' hybrid thin film was fabricated by a spraying process as the active layer of TFT for the employment of a room temperature operated formaldehyde (HCHO) gas sensor. The effects of ZnO nanoparticles on morphological and compositional features, electronic and HCHO-sensing properties of P3HT-ZnO thin film were systematically investigated. The results showed that P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film sensor exhibited considerable improvement of sensing response (more than two times) and reversibility compared to the pristine P3HT film sensor. An accumulation p-n heterojunction mechanism model was developed to understand the mechanism of enhanced sensing properties by incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterizations were used to investigate the stability of the sensor in-depth, which reveals the performance deterioration was due to the changes of element composition and the chemical state of hybrid thin film surface induced by light and oxygen. Our study demonstrated that P3HT-ZnO hybrid thin film TFT sensor is beneficial in the advancement of novel room temperature HCHO sensing technology. PMID:25608214

  16. Oxygen sensing glucose biosensors based on alginate nano-micro systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Rashmi; Joshi, Abhijeet; Srivastava, Rohit

    2014-04-01

    Clinically glucose monitoring in diabetes management is done by point-measurement. However, an accurate, continuous glucose monitoring, and minimally invasive method is desirable. The research aims at developing fluorescence-mediated glucose detecting biosensors based on near-infrared radiation (NIR) oxygen sensitive dyes. Biosensors based on Glucose oxidase (GOx)-Rudpp loaded alginate microspheres (GRAM) and GOx-Platinum-octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP)-PLAalginate microsphere system (GPAM) were developed using air-driven atomization and characterized using optical microscopy, CLSM, fluorescence spectro-photometry etc. Biosensing studies were performed by exposing standard solutions of glucose. Uniform sized GRAM and GPAM with size 50+/-10μm were formed using atomization. CLSM imaging of biosensors suggests that Rudpp and PtOEP nanoparticles are uniformly distributed in alginate microspheres. The GRAM and GPAM showed a good regression constant of 0.974 and of 0.9648 over a range of 0-10 mM of glucose with a high sensitivity of 3.349%/mM (625 nm) and 2.38%/mM (645 nm) at 10 mM of glucose for GRAM and GPAM biosensor. GRAM and GPAM biosensors show great potential in development of an accurate and minimally invasive glucose biosensor. NIR dye based assays can aid sensitive, minimally-invasive and interference-free detection of glucose in diabetic patients.

  17. Arabidopsis CAP1-mediated ammonium sensing required reactive oxygen species in plant cell growth.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ling; Zhou, Yun; Ma, Xiaonan; Gao, Lijie; Song, Chun-Peng

    2014-06-18

    [Ca (2+)]cyt-associated protein kinase (CAP) gene 1 is a receptor-like kinase that belongs to CrRLK1L (Catharanthus roseus Receptor like kinase) subfamily. CAP1 has been identified as a novel modulator of NH 4(+) in the tonoplast, which regulates root hair growth by maintaining the cytoplasmic Ca (2+) gradients. Different expression pattern of tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP2;3) in the CAP1 knock out mutant and wild type on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium suggested that CAP1 influences transport activity to regulate the compartmentalization of NH 4(+) into vacuole. Lower expression level of Oxidative Signal-Inducible1(OXI1) in the cap1-1 root and the abnormal reactive oxygen species (ROS) gradient in root hair of cap1-1 on MS medium indicated that ROS signaling involve in CAP1-regulated root hair growth. Wild-type-like ROS distribution pattern in the cap1-1 root hair can be reestablished in seedlings grown on NH 4(+) deficient medium, which indicated that CAP1 functions as a sensor for NH 4(+) signaling in maintaining tip-focused ROS gradient in root hairs polar growth. PMID:24940875

  18. Defective Tibetan PHD2 Binding to p23 Links High Altitude Adaption to Altered Oxygen Sensing*

    PubMed Central

    Song, Daisheng; Li, Lin-sheng; Arsenault, Patrick R.; Tan, Qiulin; Bigham, Abigail W.; Heaton-Johnson, Katherine J.; Master, Stephen R.; Lee, Frank S.

    2014-01-01

    The Tibetan population has adapted to the chronic hypoxia of high altitude. Tibetans bear a genetic signature in the prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2/EGLN1) gene, which encodes for the central oxygen sensor of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway. Recent studies have focused attention on two nonsynonymous coding region substitutions, D4E and C127S, both of which are markedly enriched in the Tibetan population. These amino acids reside in a region of PHD2 that harbors a zinc finger, which we have previously discovered binds to a Pro-Xaa-Leu-Glu (PXLE) motif in the HSP90 cochaperone p23, thereby recruiting PHD2 to the HSP90 pathway to facilitate HIF-α hydroxylation. We herein report that the Tibetan PHD2 haplotype (D4E/C127S) strikingly diminishes the interaction of PHD2 with p23, resulting in impaired PHD2 down-regulation of the HIF pathway. The defective binding to p23 depends on both the D4E and C127S substitutions. We also identify a PXLE motif in HSP90 itself that can mediate binding to PHD2 but find that this interaction is maintained with the D4E/C127S PHD2 haplotype. We propose that the Tibetan PHD2 variant is a loss of function (hypomorphic) allele, leading to augmented HIF activation to facilitate adaptation to high altitude. PMID:24711448

  19. Regulation of gene expression and secretory functions in oxygen-sensing pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Conforti, L; Kobayashi, S; Beitner-Johnson, D; Conrad, P W; Freeman, T; Millhorn, D E

    1999-04-01

    The cellular response to hypoxia is complex. Specialized oxygen chemosensitive cells that are excitable respond to reduced O2 by membrane depolarization, altered gene expression, and neurotransmitter secretion. We have used the O2-sensitive pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line to investigate the cellular response to hypoxia. Here, we present evidence that membrane depolarization and increased intracellular free Ca2+ are major regulatory events in these cells. Membrane depolarization is mediated by the inhibition of a slow-inactivating voltage-dependent potassium (K) channel. Evidence from molecular biology and patch-clamp studies indicate that the O2-sensitive K channel is a member of the Kv1 family. We also reviewed findings on the regulation of gene expression in PC12 cells during hypoxia. An increase in intracellular free Ca2+ is required for hypoxia-induced transcription of a number of genes including tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters, and several of the immediate early genes. We also reviewed the role of dopamine (DA) and adenosine (ADO) receptors in regulation of membrane depolarization and gene expression. PMID:10385038

  20. FIBER OPTICAL MICRO-DETECTORS FOR OXYGEN SENSING IN POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Baker; Ruby N. Ghosh; D.J. Osborn III

    2004-04-01

    A reflection mode fiber optic oxygen sensor that can operate at high temperatures for power plant applications is being developed. The sensor is based on the {sup 3}O{sub 2} quenching of the red emission from hexanuclear molybdenum chloride clusters. The luminescence of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} immobilized in a sol-gel matrix was measured as a function of heater temperature up to 200 C, in an inert environment. While the luminescence decreased with temperature, the integrated intensity at 200 C should be sufficient to enable detection of the luminescence in a fiber geometry. Previously we found that aging Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} at temperatures above 250 C converts the canary yellow Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} to a non-luminescent gray solid. Optical and thermal aging experiments show that the alkali metal salts of Mo{sub 6}Cl{sub 12} have higher thermal stabilities and remain luminescent after aging at 280 C.

  1. Tin dioxide nanoparticles: Reverse micellar synthesis and gas sensing properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Jahangeer; Vaidya, Sonalika; Ahmad, Tokeer; Sujatha Devi, P.; Das, Dipankar; Ganguli, Ashok K.

    2008-02-05

    Tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles have been synthesized by reverse micellar route using cetyltrimethyl ammoniumbromide (CTAB) as the surfactant. Monophasic tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) was obtained using NaOH as the precipitation agent at 60 deg. C, however, when liquor NH{sub 3} was used as precipitating agent then crystalline SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles are obtained at 500 deg. C. SnO{sub 2} prepared using NaOH show crystallite size of 4 and 12 nm after heating at 60 and 500 deg. C respectively using X-ray line broadening studies. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies show agglomerated particles of sizes 70 and 150 nm, respectively. The grain size was found to be 6-8 nm after heating the precursor obtained (using liquor NH{sub 3}) at 500 deg. C by X-ray line broadening and the TEM studies. Dynamic light-scattering (DLS) studies show the aggregates of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with uniform size distribution. Moessbauer studies show an increase of s-electron density at the Sn sites compared to bulk SnO{sub 2} and a finite quadrupole splitting indicative of lowering of symmetry around tin atoms. The gas sensing characteristics have also been investigated using n-butane which show high sensitivity and fast recovery time.

  2. Ocean color remote sensing using polarization properties of reflected sunlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frouin, R.; Pouliquen, E.; Breon, F.-M.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the atmosphere and surface on sunlight backscattered to space by the ocean may be substantially reduced by using the unpolarized component of reflectance instead of total reflectance. At 450 nm, a wavelength of interest in ocean color remote sensing, and for typical conditions, 45% of the unpolarized reflectance may originate from the water body instead of 20% of the total reflectance, which represents a gain of a factor 2.2 in useful signal for water composition retrieval. The best viewing geometries are adjacent to the glitter region; they correspond to scattering angles around 100 deg, but they may change slightly depending on the polarization characteristics of the aerosols. As aerosol optical thickness increases, the atmosphere becomes less efficient at polarizing sunlight, and the enhancement of the water body contribution to unpolarized reflectance is reduced. Since the perturbing effects are smaller on unpolarized reflectance, at least for some viewing geometries, they may be more easily corrected, leading to a more accurate water-leaving signal and, therefore, more accurate estimates of phytoplankton pigment concentration.

  3. Discrimination of soil hydraulic properties by combined thermal infrared and microwave remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Oneill, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    Using the De Vries models for thermal conductivity and heat capacity, thermal inertia was determined as a function of soil moisture for 12 classes of soil types ranging from sand to clay. A coupled heat and moisture balance model was used to describe the thermal behavior of the top soil, while microwave remote sensing was used to estimate the soil moisture content of the same top soil. Soil hydraulic parameters are found to be very highly correlated with the combination of soil moisture content and thermal inertia at the same moisture content. Therefore, a remotely sensed estimate of the thermal behavior of the soil from diurnal soil temperature observations and an independent remotely sensed estimate of soil moisture content gives the possibility of estimating soil hydraulic properties by remote sensing.

  4. Remote sensing of optical properties in continuously stratified waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.

    1978-01-01

    The radiative transfer equation is solved by Monte Carlo methods for natural waters in which the optical properties are distributed with depth. It is demonstrated that interpreting the reflectance of a continuously stratified ocean in terms of an equivalent homogeneous ocean yields the average of a particular combination of the water's optical properties over the dimensionless penetration depth. Although in general the dimensionless penetration depth cannot be remotely measured, a method is presented for estimating the actual penetration depth from the remote observations if the medium's absorption coefficient is known, independent of depth, and sufficiently large. The application of this to the remote measurement of the vertical distribution of suspended sediments is discussed in detail.

  5. Blood oxygen binding properties for the burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia.

    PubMed

    Maginniss, L A; Kilgore, D L

    1989-05-01

    Isocapnic O2 equilibrium curves (O2ECs) were generated for whole blood of 4 adult burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) using thin film techniques. At in vivo pHa (7.49 +/- 0.02; mean +/- 1 SEM) and 41 degrees C, the PO2 at half saturation (P50) was 42.3 +/- 0.8 Torr. CO2 and fixed acid (H+) Bohr slopes (delta log P50/delta pH) were -0.46 +/- 0.01 and -0.42 +/- 0.02, respectively, demonstrating a small specific CO2 effect. CO2 and H+ Bohr slopes were saturation-independent between 0.1 and 0.9 S. Hill plots for Athene blood were non-linear; the Hill coefficient (n) increased from 2.6 below 0.4 S to 3.4 above 0.6 S. Owl equilibrium data were accurately described by the equation: S = [(7.7 x 10(6]/(P4 + 44P3 - 108P2 + 3.5 x 10(4)P) + 1]-1. This complex O2EC shape may result from Hb heterogeneity; isoelectric focusing showed 4 isoHbs with a molar ratio of 9:1:1:1. This study revealed no apparent adaptations of Athene blood for hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. We conclude that the observed blood O2 binding properties promote tissue O2 delivery during periods of surface activity. While occupying its burrow, the owl compensates for moderate alterations in inspired gas composition partly through increased ventilation. PMID:2749025

  6. Pyruvate modifies metabolic flux and nutrient sensing during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an immature swine model

    SciTech Connect

    Ledee, Dolena R.; Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Olson, Aaron; Isern, Nancy G.; Robillard Frayne, Isabelle; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2015-07-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides mechanical circulatory support for infants and children with postoperative cardiopulmonary failure. Nutritional support is mandatory during ECMO, although specific actions for substrates on the heart have not been delineated. Prior work shows that enhancing pyruvate oxidation promotes successful weaning from ECMO. Accordingly, we closely examined the role of prolonged systemic pyruvate supplementation in modifying metabolic parameters during the unique conditions of ventricular unloading provided by ECMO. Twelve male mixed breed Yorkshire piglets (age 30-49 days) received systemic infusion of either normal saline (Group C) or pyruvate (Group P) during ECMO for 8 hours. Over the final hour piglets received [2-13C] pyruvate, and [13C6]-L-leucine, as an indicator for oxidation and protein synthesis. A significant increase in lactate and pyruvate concentrations occurred, along with an increase in the absolute concentration of all measured CAC intermediates. Group P showed greater anaplerotic flux through pyruvate carboxylation although pyruvate oxidation relative to citrate synthase flux was similar to Group C. The groups demonstrated similar leucine fractional contributions to acetyl-CoA and fractional protein synthesis rates. Pyruvate also promoted an increase in the phosphorylation state of several nutrient sensitive enzymes, such as AMPK and ACC, and promoted O-GlcNAcylation through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). In conclusion, prolonged pyruvate supplementation during ECMO modified anaplerotic pyruvate flux and elicited changes in important nutrient and energy sensitive pathways, while preserving protein synthesis. Therefore, the observed results support the further study of nutritional supplementation and its downstream effects on cardiac adaptation during ventricular unloading.

  7. Pyruvate modifies metabolic flux and nutrient sensing during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an immature swine model

    PubMed Central

    Ledee, Dolena R.; Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly Priddy, Colleen M.; Olson, Aaron K.; Isern, Nancy; Robillard-Frayne, Isabelle; Des Rosiers, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides mechanical circulatory support for infants and children with postoperative cardiopulmonary failure. Nutritional support is mandatory during ECMO although specific actions for substrates on the heart have not been delineated. Prior work shows that enhancing pyruvate oxidation promotes successful weaning from ECMO. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that prolonged systemic pyruvate supplementation activates pyruvate oxidation in an immature swine model in vivo. Twelve male mixed-breed Yorkshire piglets (age 30–49 days) received systemic infusion of either normal saline (group C) or pyruvate (group P) during the final 6 h of 8 h of ECMO. Over the final hour, piglets received [2-13C] pyruvate, as a reference substrate for oxidation, and [13C6]-l-leucine, as an indicator for amino acid oxidation and protein synthesis. A significant increase in lactate and pyruvate concentrations occurred, along with an increase in the absolute concentration of the citric acid cycle intermediates. An increase in anaplerotic flux through pyruvate carboxylation in group P occurred compared with no change in pyruvate oxidation. Additionally, pyruvate promoted an increase in the phosphorylation state of several nutrient-sensitive enzymes, like AMP-activated protein kinase and acetyl CoA carboxylase, suggesting activation for fatty acid oxidation. Pyruvate also promoted O-GlcNAcylation through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. In conclusion, although prolonged pyruvate supplementation did not alter pyruvate oxidation, it did elicit changes in nutrient- and energy-sensitive pathways. Therefore, the observed results support the further study of pyruvate and its downstream effect on cardiac function. PMID:25910802

  8. Gelation, oxygen permeability and mechanical properties of mammalian and fish gelatin films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the gelation, thermal, mechanical and oxygen permeability properties of different mammalian, warm- and cold-water fish gelatin solutions and films. Mammalian gelatin solutions had the highest gel set temperatures, followed by warm-water fish and then cold-...

  9. Air separation and oxygen storage properties of hexagonal rare-earth manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abughayada, Castro

    This dissertation presents evaluation results of hexagonal Y1-x RxMnO3+delta (R = Er, Y, Dy, Pr, La, Tb and Ho) rare-earth manganites for prospective air separation applications. In these materials, oxygen content is sensitively dependent on the surrounding conditions of temperature and/or oxygen partial pressure, and therefore they exhibit the ability to selectively absorb, store, and release significant amounts of separated oxygen from air. This study presents a full characterization of their thermogravimetric characteristics and air separation capabilities. With the expected potential impact of oxygen content on the physical properties of these materials, the scope of this work is expanded to explore other relevant properties such as magnetic, transport, and dilatometric characteristics. Single-phase polycrystalline samples of these materials were achieved in the hexagonal P63cm phase through solid state reaction at elevated temperatures. Further annealings under reducing conditions were required for samples with large rare-earth cations in order to suppress the competing perovskite structure and form in the anticipated hexagonal phase. Thermogravimetric measurements in oxygen atmospheres demonstrated that samples with the larger R ionic radii show rapid and reversible incorporation of significant amounts of excess oxygen (0.41 > delta > 0) at an unusual low temperature range ~190-325 °C. The reversible oxygen storage characteristics of HoMnO3+delta and related materials shown by the fast incorporation and release of interstitial oxygen at easily accessible elevated temperatures of ~300 °C demonstrate the feasibility and potential for low-cost thermal swing adsorption TSA process for oxygen separation and enrichment from air. Neutron and X-ray powder diffraction measurements confirmed the presence of three line compounds RMnO3+delta, the oxygen stoichiometric P6 3cm (delta = 0 for all R), the intermediate oxygen content superstructure phase R3c (delta ~ 0

  10. Electrical conduction and NO2 gas sensing properties of ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Yasin; Öztürk, Sadullah; Kılınç, Necmettin; Kösemen, Arif; Erkovan, Mustafa; Öztürk, Zafer Ziya

    2014-06-01

    Thermally stimulated current (TSC), photoresponse and gas sensing properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were investigated depending on heating rates, illumination and dark aging times with using sandwich type electrode system. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by hydrothermal process. TSC measurements were performed at different heating rates under constant potential. Photoresponse and gas sensing properties were investigated in dry air ambient at 200 °C. For gas sensing measurements, ZnO nanorods were exposed to NO2 (100 ppb to 1 ppm) in dark and illuminated conditions and the resulting resistance transient was recorded. It was found from dark electrical measurements that the dependence of the dc conductivity on temperature followed Mott's variable range hopping (VRH) model. In addition, response time and recovery times of ZnO nanorods to NO2 gas decreased by exposing to white light.

  11. Gas Sensing Properties of Ge-As-S Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgieva, V.; Yordanov, Tz.; Pamukchieva, V.; Arsova, D.; Gadjanova, V.; Vergov, L.

    2010-01-01

    The sensitivity of thin Ge-As-S films to ammonia was investigated by the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) using 16 MHz AT-cut quartz resonators. Films with appropriate composition are consecutively deposited on each side of the QCM by vacuum thermal evaporation with a rate of 50 Å/s. The previously synthesized Ge-As-S glass was used as source of evaporation. The sorption properties of the as-deposited films as well as irradiated ones were investigated. The films were exposed to a HBO Hg lamp through an IR cut-off filter, for 45 min on each of the QCMs sides. The applied power density of irradiation was 0.12 W/cm2. The sorption properties of Ge-As-S films were investigated in NH3 concentration interval from 10 ppm to 10000 ppm in a specially designed set-up for measurement of QCM mass-loading in dynamic regime. It has been determined that the sorption properties to NH3 are only observed in the irradiated Ge-As-S films. A considerable response to NH3 was detected at concentrations over 250 ppm, where the measured frequency change (ΔF) of QCM is 15 Hz, while at 10000 ppm ΔF reaches value of 173 Hz. Based on the measured frequency-time characteristics (FTCs) of QCM the processes of sorption were studied. The sorption and desorption velocity and absorbed NH3 mass for each of the investigated concentrations were calculated. The obtained results show that thin Ge-As-S films could be used as gas sensor elements for detection of NH3 concentrations higher than 250 ppm.

  12. Preparation and gas sensing property of Ag-supported vanadium oxide nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Wei; Yan, Shilin; Chen, Wen; Yang, Shuang; Zhao, Chunxia; Dai, Ying

    2014-03-01

    A facile microwave irradiation was used to synthesize Ag nanoparticle supported on vanadium oxide nanotubes (VONTs) in this paper. The VONTs on alumina tube installed with Pt electrodes were tested for gas sensing towards C2H5OH, NH3 and C6H5CH3 gases. Detailed studies showed that the sensing capabilities were greatly enhanced in comparison to those of pure nanotubes. It was found that the Ag nanoparticles supported on VONTs sensing films exhibited a high C2H5OH selectivity compared with NH3 and C6H5CH3 gases. When the sensor is exposed to C2H5OH, the ethanol molecules interact with the preadsorbed oxygen ions on the Ag nanoparticles surface. The ethanol oxidation on the Ag nanoparticles leads to the transfer of electrons into the semiconducting VONTs and this is reflected as the change in conductance of sensor. The presence of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of VONTs serves to enhance the C2H5OH oxidation due to a higher oxygen ion-chemisorption on the conductive Ag nanoparticle surfaces.

  13. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Atmosphere and Surface Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) are all hyper-spectral satellite sensors with thousands of spectral channels. Top of atmospheric radiance spectra measured by these sensors contain high information content on atmospheric, cloud, and surface properties. Exploring high information content contained in these high spectral resolution spectra is a challenging task due to computation e ort involved in modeling thousands of spectral channels. Usually, only very small fractions (4{10 percent) of the available channels are included in physical retrieval systems or numerical weather forecast (NWP) satellite data assimilations. We will describe a method of simultaneously retrieving atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface properties using all available spectral channels without sacrificing computational speed. The essence of the method is to convert channel radiance spectra into super-channels by an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) transformation. Because the EOFs are orthogonal to each other, about 100 super-channels are adequate to capture the information content of the radiance spectra. A Principal Component-based Radiative Transfer Model (PCRTM) developed at NASA Langley Research Center is used to calculate both the super-channel magnitudes and derivatives with respect to atmospheric profiles and other properties. There is no need to perform EOF transformations to convert super channels back to spectral space at each iteration step for a one-dimensional variational retrieval or a NWP data assimilation system. The PCRTM forward model is also capable of calculating radiative contributions due to multiple-layer clouds. The multiple scattering effects of the clouds are efficiently parameterized. A physical retrieval algorithm then performs an inversion of atmospheric, cloud, and surface properties in super channel domain directly therefore both reducing the

  14. Remote Sensing of Spectral Aerosol Properties: A Classroom Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Pinker, Rachel T.

    2006-01-01

    Bridging the gap between current research and the classroom is a major challenge to today s instructor, especially in the sciences where progress happens quickly. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland teamed up in designing a graduate class project intended to provide a hands-on introduction to the physical basis for the retrieval of aerosol properties from state-of-the-art MODIS observations. Students learned to recognize spectral signatures of atmospheric aerosols and to perform spectral inversions. They became acquainted with the operational MODIS aerosol retrieval algorithm over oceans, and methods for its evaluation, including comparisons with groundbased AERONET sun-photometer data.

  15. Comparison of the macroscopic properties of field-accelerated electrons in dry air and in pure oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, G.; Bonnet, J.; Pigache, D.

    1980-06-01

    The numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for an ionized gas yields the macroscopic properties of electrons accelerated by an electric field in dry air and in pure oxygen. For the purpose of ozone generation, the stronger the field, the better the efficiency of oxygen dissociation. In air, the oxygen dissociation is found to be much less easy than that at the same amount of pure oxygen.

  16. Historical development of grain moisture measurement and other food quality sensing through electrical properties.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review of the use of electrical properties of agricultural products for sensing moisture content and other qualities shows that their use for rapid measurements of the moisture content in grain and seed has been the most successful application. Discovery of useful correlations between the moistur...

  17. Satellite Calibration and Verification of Remotely Sensed Cloud and Radiation Properties Using ARM UAV Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Charlock, Thomas P.

    1998-01-01

    The work proposed under this agreement was designed to validate and improve remote sensing of cloud and radiation properties in the atmosphere for climate studies with special emphasis on the use of satellites for monitoring these parameters to further the goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program.

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale within the Greek Educational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Koustelios, Athanasios; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios

    2010-01-01

    Many concerns have been raised about the validity of the existing instruments measuring teachers' efficacy. Recently, a new instrument to measure teachers' perceived efficacy has been presented, namely, the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). The purpose of the present study is to examine the psychometric properties of the TSES in the Greek…

  19. Estimating crop biophysical properties from remote sensing data by inverting linked radiative transfer and ecophysiological models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing technology can rapidly provide spatial information on crop growth status, which ideally could be used to invert radiative transfer models or ecophysiological models for estimating a variety of crop biophysical properties. However, the outcome of the model inversion procedure will be ...

  20. Enhanced Gas Sensing Properties of SnO2 Hollow Spheres Decorated with CeO2 Nanoparticles Heterostructure Composite Materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangyang; Dai, Mingjun; Wang, Tianshuang; Sun, Peng; Liang, Xishuang; Lu, Geyu; Shimanoe, Kengo; Yamazoe, Noboru

    2016-03-16

    CeO2 decorated SnO2 hollow spheres were successfully synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal strategy. The morphology and structures of as-obtained CeO2/SnO2 composites were analyzed by various kinds of techniques. The SnO2 hollow spheres with uniform size around 300 nm were self-assembled with SnO2 nanoparticles and were hollow with a diameter of about 100 nm. The CeO2 nanoparticles on the surface of SnO2 hollow spheres could be clearly observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed the existence of Ce(3+) and the increased amount of both chemisorbed oxygen and oxygen vacancy after the CeO2 decorated. Compared with pure SnO2 hollow spheres, such composites revealed excellent enhanced sensing properties to ethanol. When the ethanol concentration was 100 ppm, the sensitivity of the CeO2/SnO2 composites was 37, which was 2.65-times higher than that of the primary SnO2 hollow spheres. The sensing mechanism of the enhanced gas sensing properties was also discussed. PMID:26910311

  1. Remote sensing cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William L.; Ma, Xia L.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Knuteson, R. O.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for estimating cloud radiative properties (spectral emissivity and reflectivity) in the IR is developed based on observations at a spectral resolution of approximately 0.5/cm. The algorithm uses spectral radiance observations and theoretical calculations of the IR spectra for clear and cloudy conditions along with lidar-determined cloud-base and cloud-top pressure. An advantage of the high spectral resolution observations is that the absorption effects of atmospheric gases are minimized by analyzing between gaseous absorption lines. The technique is applicable to both ground-based and aircraft-based platforms and derives the effective particle size and associated cloud water content required to satisfy, theoretically, the observed cloud IR spectra. The algorithm is tested using theoretical simulations and applied to observations made with the University of Wisconsin's ground-based and NASA ER-2 aircraft High-Resolution Infrared Spectrometer instruments.

  2. DEVICE FOR CONTROL OF OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE

    DOEpatents

    Bradner, H.; Gordon, H.S.

    1957-12-24

    A device is described that can sense changes in oxygen partial pressure and cause a corresponding mechanical displacement sufficient to actuate meters, valves and similar devices. A piston and cylinder arrangement contains a charge of crystalline metal chelate pellets which have the peculiar property of responding to variations in the oxygen content of the ambient atmosphere by undergoing a change in dimension. A lever system amplifies the relative displacement of the piston in the cylinder, and actuates the controlled valving device. This partial pressure oxygen sensing device is useful in controlled chemical reactions or in respiratory devices such as the oxygen demand meters for high altitude aircraft.

  3. Photophysical Properties and Singlet Oxygen Generation Efficiencies of Water-Soluble Fullerene Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Stasheuski, Alexander S; Galievsky, Victor A; Stupak, Alexander P; Dzhagarov, Boris M; Choi, Mi Jin; Chung, Bong Hyun; Jeong, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    As various fullerene derivatives have been developed, it is necessary to explore their photophysical properties for potential use in photoelectronics and medicine. Here, we address the photophysical properties of newly synthesized water-soluble fullerene-based nanoparticles and polyhydroxylated fullerene as a representative water-soluble fullerene derivative. They show broad emission band arising from a wide-range of excitation energies. It is attributed to the optical transitions from disorder-induced states, which decay in the nanosecond time range. We determine the kinetic properties of the singlet oxygen (1O2) luminescence generated by the fullerene nanoparticles and polyhydroxylated fullerene to consider the potential as photodynamic agents. Triplet state decay of the nanoparticles was longer than 1O2 lifetime in water. Singlet oxygen quantum yield of a series of the fullerene nanoparticles is comparably higher ranging from 0.15 to 0.2 than that of polyhydroxylated fullerene, which is about 0.06. PMID:24893622

  4. Investigation on the Electrical and Methane Gas-Sensing Properties of ZnO Thin Films Produced by Different Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teimoori, F.; Khojier, K.; Dehnavi, N. Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, the influence of deposition method on the structural, electrical, and methane gas-sensing properties of ZnO thin films is investigated. Sol-gel spin coating, direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering, and e-beam evaporation techniques are employed for production of Zn thin films post-annealed at 500°C with a constant flow of oxygen. Detailed morphological, chemical, and structural investigations are carried out on all samples by field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. DC electrical resistivity of the samples was measured using a four-point probe instrument while a Hall effect instrument was used for the Hall effect measurements. The sensing performance was optimized with respect to the deposition method as well as the operating temperature. Detection limit, reproducibility, and stability of all samples produced using different methods are also identified. An optimum operating temperature of 350°C is obtained. The best sensitivity was attributed to the deposited film by the e-beam evaporation method due to its different surface morphology, which provided a larger ratio of surface-to-bulk area, and a lower carrier concentration, which caused higher electrical resistance. All ZnO thin films deposited by different methods also showed good reproducibility and stability.

  5. Study on fabrication of smart FRP-OFBG composite laminates and their sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanlei; Zhou, Zhi; Ou, Jinping

    2007-01-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) has gained much attention in civil engineering due to its high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios, corrosion resistance and good fatigue resistance. Optical Fiber Bragg Grating (OFBG) is now widely accepted as smart sensor due to its advantages of electric-magnetic resistance, small size, distributed sensing, durability, and so on. Combined the FRP with OFBG, new kind of smart FRP-OFBG composite laminates was developed. Fabrication method of the smart composite laminates was introduced in this paper. The study presented the basic principle of OFBG sensors. Then the strain and temperature sensing properties of the proposed smart FRP-OFBG composite laminates were experimentally studied on material test system and under hot water, respectively. The experimental results indicate the strain sensing properties of the smart FRP-OFBG composite laminates are nearly the same as that of bare OFBG, however, the temperature sensing abilities of the smart FRP-OFBG composite laminates are improved and the sensitivity coefficient is nearly 3.2 times as much as that of bare OFBG. The strain and temperature sensing precisions of the smart FRP-OFBG composite laminates are 1 μ\\Vegr and 0.03 °C, respectively. The smart FRYOFBG composite laminates are very proper for application in civil engineering.

  6. Humidity sensing properties of CNT-OD-VETP nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, M.; Karimov, Kh. S.; Karieva, Z. M.; Mateen, A.

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the blend of orange dye (OD), C 17H 17N 5O 2 (5 wt%), vinyl-ethynyl-trimethyl-piperidole (VETP), C 12H 19NO, (5 wt%) and carbon nanotube (CNT) powder (10 wt%) in a mixture of distilled water (80 wt%) and spirit were drop-casted on glass substrates with pre-deposited surface-type silver electrodes to fabricate CNT-OD-VETP nanocomposite thin films. In the process of thin films deposition, 2 V DC was applied to Ag electrodes. The thicknesses of the CNT-OD-VETP films were in the range of 10-15 μm. The I-V characteristics of the surface-type Ag/CNT-OD-VETP/Ag samples showed rectification behavior. The effect of humidity on the electrical properties of the nanocomposite films was investigated by measurement of the capacitance and dissipation of the samples at two different frequencies of the applied voltage: 120 Hz and 1 kHz. The resistance of the samples was determined from values of dissipation. It was observed that at 120 Hz and 1 kHz, under humidity of up to 90% RH, the capacitance of the cell increased by 7.4×10 3 and 740 times and resistance decreased by 2.3×10 4 and 3.8×10 4 times, accordingly, with respect to 40% RH conditions. The average response and recovery times of the films were obtained by capacitance-time measurements to evaluate the dynamics of the water vapor absorption and desorption processes. The experimental results have been supported by the simulation of the capacitance-humidity relationship. It is assumed that the humidity response of the cell is associated with diffusion of water vapors and doping of the semiconductor nanocomposite by water molecules.

  7. [Biooptical properties of marine phytoplankton as they apply to satellite remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yentsch, Charles S.

    1992-01-01

    This final report covers research performed over a period of 10 years from 1982 to 1992. During this time, Grant #NAGW410 was funded under three titles through a series of Supplements. The original proposal was entitled 'Photoecology, optical properties and remote sensing of warm core rings'; the second and major portion was entitled 'Continuation of studies of biooptical properties of phytoplankton and the study of mesoscale and submesoscale features using fluorescence and colorimetry'; with the final portion named 'Studies of biooptical properties of phytoplankton, with reference to identification of spectral types associated with meso- and submesoscale features in the ocean'. The focus of these projects was to try to expand our knowledge of the biooptical properties of marine phytoplankton as they apply to satellite remote sensing. We used a variety of techniques, new and old, to better measure these optical properties at appropriate scales, in some cases at the level of individual cells. We also exploited the specialized oceanic conditions that occur within certain regions and features of the ocean around the world in order to explain the tremendous variability one sees in a single remote sensing image. This document strives to provide as complete a summary as possible for this large body of work, including the pertinent publications supported by this funding.

  8. A comparison of the ethanol sensing properties of α-iron oxide nanostructures prepared via the sol-gel and electrospinning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardi, S. G.; Mirzaei, A.; Bonavita, A.; Santangelo, S.; Frontera, P.; Pantò, F.; Antonucci, P. L.; Neri, G.

    2016-02-01

    Haematite (α-Fe2O3) nanostructures were synthesized via a Pechini sol-gel method (PSG) and an electrospinning (ES) technique. Their texture and morphology were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were obtained by the PSG method, whereas fibrous structures consisting of interconnected particles were synthesized through the ES technique. The crystallinity of the α-Fe2O3 nanostructures was also studied by means of x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Gas-sensing devices were fabricated by printing the synthesized samples on ceramic substrates provided with interdigitated Pt electrodes. The sensors were tested towards low concentrations of ethanol in air in the temperature range (200-400°C). The results show that the α-Fe2O3 nanostructures exhibit somewhat different gas-sensing properties and, interestingly, their sensing behaviour is strongly temperature-dependent. The availability of active sites for oxygen chemisorption and the diffusion of the analyte gas within the sensing layer structure are hypothesized to be the key factors responsible for the different sensing behaviour observed.

  9. A comparison of the ethanol sensing properties of α-iron oxide nanostructures prepared via the sol-gel and electrospinning techniques.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, S G; Mirzaei, A; Bonavita, A; Santangelo, S; Frontera, P; Pantò, F; Antonucci, P L; Neri, G

    2016-02-19

    Haematite (α-Fe2O3) nanostructures were synthesized via a Pechini sol-gel method (PSG) and an electrospinning (ES) technique. Their texture and morphology were investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were obtained by the PSG method, whereas fibrous structures consisting of interconnected particles were synthesized through the ES technique. The crystallinity of the α-Fe2O3 nanostructures was also studied by means of x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Gas-sensing devices were fabricated by printing the synthesized samples on ceramic substrates provided with interdigitated Pt electrodes. The sensors were tested towards low concentrations of ethanol in air in the temperature range (200-400 °C). The results show that the α-Fe2O3 nanostructures exhibit somewhat different gas-sensing properties and, interestingly, their sensing behaviour is strongly temperature-dependent. The availability of active sites for oxygen chemisorption and the diffusion of the analyte gas within the sensing layer structure are hypothesized to be the key factors responsible for the different sensing behaviour observed. PMID:26811509

  10. Synthesis and oxygen content dependent properties of hexagonal DyMnO{sub 3 + sub delta}.

    SciTech Connect

    Remsen, S.; Dabrowski, B.; Chmaissem, O.; Mais, J.; Szewczyk, A.

    2011-07-01

    Oxygen deficient polycrystalline samples of hexagonal P6{sub 3}cm (space group No.185) DyMnO{sub 3+{delta}} ({delta} < 0) were synthesized in Ar by intentional decomposition of its perovskite phase obtained in air. The relative stability of these phases is in accord with our previous studies of the temperature and oxygen vacancy dependent tolerance factor. Thermogravimetric measurements have shown that hexagonal samples of DyMnO{sub 3+{delta}} (0 {<=} {delta} {<=} 0.4) exhibit unusually large excess oxygen content, which readily incorporates on heating near 300 C in various partial-pressures of oxygen atmospheres. Neutron and synchrotron diffraction data show the presence of two new structural phases at {delta} {approx} 0.25 (Hex{sub 2}) and {delta} {approx} 0.40 (Hex{sub 3}). Rietveld refinements of the Hex{sub 2} phase strongly suggest it is well modeled by the R3 space group (No.146). These phases were observed to transform back to P6{sub 3}cm above {approx}350 C when material becomes stoichiometric in oxygen content ({delta} = 0). Chemical expansion of the crystal lattice corresponding to these large changes of oxygen was found to be 3.48 x 10{sup -2} mol{sup -1}. Thermal expansion of stoichiometric phases were determined to be 11.6 x 10{sup -6} and 2.1 x 10{sup -6} K{sup -1} for the P6{sub 3}cm and Hex{sub 2} phases, respectively. Our measurements also indicate that the oxygen non-stoichiometry of hexagonal RMnO{sub 3+{delta}} materials may have important influence on their multiferroic properties.

  11. Synthesis and oxygen content dependent properties of hexagonal DyMnO[subscript 3+delta

    SciTech Connect

    Remsen, S.; Dabrowski, B.; Chmaissem, O.; Mais, J.; Szewczyk, A.

    2011-10-28

    Oxygen deficient polycrystalline samples of hexagonal P6{sub 3}cm (space group No.185) DyMnO{sub 3+{delta}} ({delta} < 0) were synthesized in Ar by intentional decomposition of its perovskite phase obtained in air. The relative stability of these phases is in accord with our previous studies of the temperature and oxygen vacancy dependent tolerance factor. Thermogravimetric measurements have shown that hexagonal samples of DyMnO{sub 3+{delta}} (0 {le} {delta} {le} 0.4) exhibit unusually large excess oxygen content, which readily incorporates on heating near 300 C in various partial-pressures of oxygen atmospheres. Neutron and synchrotron diffraction data show the presence of two new structural phases at {delta} {approx} 0.25 (Hex{sub 2}) and {delta} {approx} 0.40 (Hex{sub 3}). Rietveld refinements of the Hex{sub 2} phase strongly suggest it is well modeled by the R3 space group (No.146). These phases were observed to transform back to P6{sub 3}cm above {approx} 350 C when material becomes stoichiometric in oxygen content ({delta} = 0). Chemical expansion of the crystal lattice corresponding to these large changes of oxygen was found to be 3.48 x 10{sup -2} mol{sup -1}. Thermal expansion of stoichiometric phases were determined to be 11.6 x 10{sup -6} and 2.1 x 10{sup -6} K{sup -1} for the P6{sub 3}cm and Hex{sub 2} phases, respectively. Our measurements also indicate that the oxygen non-stoichiometry of hexagonal RMnO{sub 3+{delta}} materials may have important influence on their multiferroic properties.

  12. Investigation into the optoelectrical properties of tungsten oxide thin films annealed in an oxygen air

    SciTech Connect

    Arfaoui, A.; Ouni, B. Touihri, S.; Mannoubi, T.

    2014-12-15

    Tungsten oxide (WO{sub x}) thin film have been deposited onto glass substrates using the thermal vacuum evaporation technique, monitored by an annealing process in a variable oxygen atmosphere. Analysis by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy showed the structural changes from orthorhombic to monoclinic which depend on the annealing temperature and the oxygen content. AFM study shows that the increase of oxygen content leads to a decrease of the root-mean-square from 94.64 nm to 2 nm. Ellipsometric measurements have been used to evaluate the optical constants. Further, it is found that when the oxygen content increases, the band gap of the annealed layer varies from 3.01 eV to 3.52 eV by against, the Urbach energy decreases. The AC conductivity plot showed a universal power law according to the Jonscher model. Moreover, at high frequency semiconductor-to-metallic behavior has been observed. Finally, the effect of annealing in oxygen atmosphere on their structural modifications, morphological, optical properties and electrical conductivity are reported.

  13. The physical properties of the blast wave produced by a stoichiometric propane/oxygen explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, M. C.; Dewey, J. M.

    2014-07-01

    The trajectory of the primary shock produced by the explosion of a nominal 18.14 t (20 tn) hemispherical propane/oxygen charge was analysed previously to provide the physical properties immediately behind the shock, but gave no information about the time-resolved properties throughout the blast wave. The present study maps all the physical properties of the wave throughout and beyond the positive durations for a range of distances from about 1.6-18 m scaled to a 1 kg charge at NTP. The physical properties were calculated using a hydro-code to simulate the flow field produced by a spherical piston moving with a specific trajectory. This technique has been used extensively to determine the physical properties of blast waves from a variety of sources for which the piston path was determined by high-speed photography of smoke tracers established close to the charges immediately before detonation. In the case of the propane/oxygen explosion, smoke tracer data were not available to determine the trajectory of the spherical piston. An arbitrary piston path was used and its trajectory iteratively adjusted until it produced a blast wave with a primary shock whose trajectory exactly matched the measured trajectory from the propane/oxygen explosion. Throughout the studied flow field the time histories of hydrostatic pressure, density and particle velocity are well described by fits to the modified Friedlander equation. The properties are presented as functions of scaled radius and are compared with the properties of the blast wave from a 1 kg TNT surface burst explosion, and with other measurements of the same explosion.

  14. The physical properties of the blast wave produced by a stoichiometric propane/oxygen explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, M. C.; Dewey, J. M.

    2014-11-01

    The trajectory of the primary shock produced by the explosion of a nominal 18.14 t (20 tn) hemispherical propane/oxygen charge was analysed previously to provide the physical properties immediately behind the shock, but gave no information about the time-resolved properties throughout the blast wave. The present study maps all the physical properties of the wave throughout and beyond the positive durations for a range of distances from about 1.6-18 m scaled to a 1 kg charge at NTP. The physical properties were calculated using a hydro-code to simulate the flow field produced by a spherical piston moving with a specific trajectory. This technique has been used extensively to determine the physical properties of blast waves from a variety of sources for which the piston path was determined by high-speed photography of smoke tracers established close to the charges immediately before detonation. In the case of the propane/oxygen explosion, smoke tracer data were not available to determine the trajectory of the spherical piston. An arbitrary piston path was used and its trajectory iteratively adjusted until it produced a blast wave with a primary shock whose trajectory exactly matched the measured trajectory from the propane/oxygen explosion. Throughout the studied flow field the time histories of hydrostatic pressure, density and particle velocity are well described by fits to the modified Friedlander equation. The properties are presented as functions of scaled radius and are compared with the properties of the blast wave from a 1 kg TNT surface burst explosion, and with other measurements of the same explosion.

  15. Restructured graphene sheets embedded carbon film by oxygen plasma etching and its tribological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Meiling; Diao, Dongfeng; Yang, Lei; Fan, Xue

    2015-12-01

    An oxygen plasma etching technique was introduced for improving the tribological properties of the graphene sheets embedded carbon (GSEC) film in electron cyclotron resonance plasma processing system. The nanostructural changing in the film caused by oxygen plasma etching was examined by transmission electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, showing that the 3 nm thick top surface layer was restructured with smaller graphene nanocrystallite size as well as higher sp3 bond fraction. The surface roughness, mechanical behavior and tribological properties of the original GSEC and oxygen plasma treated GSEC films were compared. The results indicated that after the oxygen plasma treatment, the average roughness decreased from 20.8 ± 1.1 nm to 1.9 ± 0.1 nm, the hardness increased from 2.3 ± 0.1 GPa to 2.9 ± 0.1 GPa, the nanoscratch depth decreased from 64.5 ± 5.4 nm to 9.9 ± 0.9 nm, and the wear life increased from 930 ± 390 cycles to more than 15,000 frictional cycles. The origin of the improved tribological behavior was ascribed to the 3 nm thick graphene nanocrystallite film. This finding can be expected for wide applications in nanoscale surface engineering.

  16. Water-soluble nanocrystalline cellulose films with highly transparent and oxygen barrier properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shaoling; Zhang, Yapei; Cha, Ruitao; Yang, Jinliang; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-12-01

    By mixing a guar gum (GG) solution with a nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) dispersion using a novel circular casting technology, we manufactured biodegradable films as packaging materials with improved optical and mechanical properties. These films could act as barriers for oxygen and could completely dissolve in water within 5 h. We also compared the effect of nanocomposite films and commercial food packaging materials on the preservation of food.By mixing a guar gum (GG) solution with a nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) dispersion using a novel circular casting technology, we manufactured biodegradable films as packaging materials with improved optical and mechanical properties. These films could act as barriers for oxygen and could completely dissolve in water within 5 h. We also compared the effect of nanocomposite films and commercial food packaging materials on the preservation of food. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07647a

  17. Structural and gas sensing properties of ex-situ oxidized Sn grown by thermal evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amutha, A.; Amirthapandian, S.; Sundaravel, B.; Prasad, A. K.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Thangadurai, P.

    2016-01-01

    SnO2 thin films were obtained by ex-situ oxidation of Sn metal film deposited by thermal evaporation. The oxidation of the Sn film was carried out at 600, 700 and 900 °C for 2 h in a controlled oxygen atmosphere. GIXRD confirmed the tetragonal rutile phase of SnO2 which was further confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The RBS measurements provided the thickness and chemical information of the film. Thickness of the film was in the range of 6-12 nm and the presence of Sn and oxygen in the films are shown. Scanning electron microscopy revealed spherical particles of different sizes for films annealed at different temperatures. The SnO2 thin film oxidized at 900 °C was tested for methane gas sensing. A sensing response of 78.46% for 100 ppm of methane at an operating temperature of 100 °C which is one of lowest reported was obtained.

  18. Water-soluble nanocrystalline cellulose films with highly transparent and oxygen barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaoling; Zhang, Yapei; Cha, Ruitao; Yang, Jinliang; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-01-14

    By mixing a guar gum (GG) solution with a nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) dispersion using a novel circular casting technology, we manufactured biodegradable films as packaging materials with improved optical and mechanical properties. These films could act as barriers for oxygen and could completely dissolve in water within 5 h. We also compared the effect of nanocomposite films and commercial food packaging materials on the preservation of food. PMID:26661341

  19. BOMBER: A tool for estimating water quality and bottom properties from remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Claudia; Candiani, Gabriele; Bresciani, Mariano; Lee, Zhongping; Gagliano, Stefano; Pepe, Monica

    2012-08-01

    BOMBER (Bio-Optical Model Based tool for Estimating water quality and bottom properties from Remote sensing images) is a software package for simultaneous retrieval of the optical properties of water column and bottom from remotely sensed imagery, which makes use of bio-optical models for optically deep and optically shallow waters. Several menus allow the user to choose the model type, to specify the input and output files, and to set all of the variables involved in the model parameterization and inversion. The optimization technique allows the user to retrieve the maps of chlorophyll concentration, suspended particulate matter concentration, coloured dissolved organic matter absorption and, in case of shallow waters, bottom depth and distributions of up to three different types of substrate, defined by the user according to their albedo. The software requires input image data that must be atmospherically corrected to remote sensing reflectance values. For both deep and shallow water models, a map of the relative error involved in the inversion procedure is also given. The tool was originally intended to estimate water quality in lakes; however thanks to its general design, it can be applied to any other aquatic environments (e.g., coastal zones, estuaries, lagoons) for which remote sensing reflectance values are known. BOMBER is fully programmed in IDL (Interactive Data Language) and uses IDL widgets as graphical user interface. It runs as an add-on tool for the ENVI+IDL image processing software and is available on request.

  20. Monochloramine-sensitive amperometric microelectrode: optimization of gold, platinum, and carbon fiber sensing materials for removal of dissolved oxygen interference

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amperometric monochloramine detection using newly fabricated gold, platinum, and carbon-fiber microsensors was investigated to optimize sensor operation and eliminate oxygen interference. Gold and platinum microsensors exhibited no oxygen interference during monochloramine measu...

  1. Influence of oxygen on the crystalline and electrical properties for the tysonite type of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rhandour, A.; Reau, J.M.; Matar, S.; Hagenmuller, P.

    1986-09-01

    Influence of the substitution of oxygen for fluorine on the structural and electrical properties of Ce/sub 1-x/Bi/sub x/O/sub x/F/sub 3-2x/ solid solutions isostructural with ThOF/sub 2/ has been investigated. A structure of ThOF/sub 2/ has been proposed after use of a theoretical simulation method and comparison with that of LaF/sub 3/. Correlations between transport properties and structural data have been established.

  2. Properties of solid polymer electrolyte fluorocarbon film. [used in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The ionic fluorocarbon film used as the solid polymer electrolyte in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells was found to exhibit delamination failures. Polarized light microscopy of as-received film showed a lined region at the center of the film thickness. It is shown that these lines were not caused by incomplete saponification but probably resulted from the film extrusion process. The film lines could be removed by an annealing process. Chemical, physical, and tensile tests showed that annealing improved or sustained the water contents, spectral properties, thermo-oxidative stability, and tensile properties of the film. The resistivity of the film was significantly decreased by the annealing process.

  3. Remote-Sensing Reflectance and Inherent Optical Properties for Optically Deep Waters: A Revisit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Zhong-Ping; Carder, Kendall L.; Du, Ke-Ping

    2001-01-01

    Remote-sensing reflectance (r(rs)) is defined as the ratio of upwelling radiance to downwelling irradiance. Relationships between remote-sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties serve as the basis for ocean-color modeling, as well as for spectral deduction of oceanic constituents through analytical/semi-analytical models of ocean color. A decade ago, a simple and concise formula based on Monte Carlo simulations was developed by relating rrs to a property u, the ratio of backscattering (b(b)) to the sum of absorption (a) and backscattering (u = b(b)/(a+b(b))). This relationship generally ignored the shape differences in phase functions between molecular scattering and particle scattering. In this study, the relationship is updated with separate parameters for molecular and particle scattering, based on the Radiative Transfer Equation through use of Hydrolight numerical solutions. The new approach fits r(rs) better than an earlier traditional formula, for both clear and turbid waters.

  4. Synthesis of nestlike ZnO hierarchically porous structures and analysis of their gas sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinzhen; Liu, Wei; Liu, Jiurong; Wang, Fenglong; Kong, Jing; Qiu, Song; He, Cuizhu; Luan, Liqiang

    2012-02-01

    Nestlike 3D ZnO porous structures with size of 1.0-3.0 μm have been synthesized through annealing the zinc hydroxide carbonate precursor, which was obtained by a one-pot hydrothermal process with the assistance of glycine, Na(2)SO(4), and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). The nestlike 3D ZnO structures are built of 2D nanoflakes with the thickness of ca. 20 nm, which exhibit the nanoporous wormhole-like characteristic. The measured surface area is 36.4 m(2)g(-1) and the pore size is ca. 3-40 nm. The unique nestlike 3D ZnO porous structures provided large contacting surface area for electrons, oxygen and target gas molecules, and abundant channels for gas diffusion and mass transport. Gas sensing tests showed that the nestlike 3D ZnO porous structures exhibit excellent gas sensing performances such as high sensitivity and fast response and recovery speed, suggesting the potential applications as advanced gas sensing materials. PMID:22216881

  5. Room temperature ammonia and VOC sensing properties of CuO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuvaneshwari, S.; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2016-05-01

    Here, we report a NH3 and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) sensing prototype of CuO nanorods with peculiar sensing characteristics at room temperature. High quality polycrystalline nanorods were synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal method. The rods are well oriented with an aspect ratio of 5.71. Luminescence spectrum of CuO nanorods exhibited a strong UV-emission around 415 nm (2.98 eV) which arises from the electron-hole recombination phenomenon. The absence of further deep level emissions establishes the lack of defects such as oxygen vacancies and Cu interstitials. At room temperature, the sensor response was recorded over a range of gas concentrations from 100-600 ppm of ammonia, ethanol and methanol. The sensor response showed power law dependence with the gas concentration. This low temperature sensing can be validated by the lower value of calculated activation energy of 1.65 eV observed from the temperature dependent conductivity measurement.

  6. Spectroscopic properties of oxygen vacancies in LaAlO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicks, Oliver A.; Shluger, Alexander L.; Sushko, Peter V.; Littlewood, Peter B.

    2016-04-01

    Oxygen vacancies in LaAlO3 (LAO) play an important role in the formation of the two-dimensional electron gas observed at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface and affect the performance of MOSFETs using LAO as a gate dielectric. However, their spectroscopic properties are still poorly understood, which hampers their experimental identification. Here we predict the absorption spectra and ESR parameters of oxygen vacancies in LAO using periodic and embedded cluster methods and density functional theory (DFT). The structure, charge distribution, and spectroscopic properties of the neutral (VO0) and charged (VO+ and VO2 +) oxygen vacancies in cubic and rhombohedral LaAlO3 are investigated. The highest intensity optical transitions [calculated using time-dependent DFT (TDDFT)], from the oxygen vacancy states to the conduction-band states have onsets at 3.5 and 4.2 eV for VO0 and 3.6 eV for VO+ in rhombohedral LAO and 3.3 and 4.0 eV for VO0 and 3.4 eV for VO+ in cubic LAO, respectively. Also reported are the isotropic g value (2.004026) and hyperfine coupling constants of VO+, which are compared to the experimental data obtained using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, and accurately predict both the position and the width (3 mT) of its ESR signature. These results may further facilitate the experimental identification of oxygen vacancies in LAO and help to establish their role at the LAO/STO interfaces and in nanodevices using LAO.

  7. Growth conditions effects on the H2 and CO2 gas sensing properties of Indium Tin Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isik, S.; Coban, O.; Shafai, C.; Tuzemen, S.; Gur, E.

    2016-04-01

    Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films are transparent conducting wide bandgap oxide. In this study investigated optical, structural and morphological properties of sputtered ITO thin films using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX) and optical absorption techniques. These measurements revealed that the oxygen gas percentage present in the ITO film deposited by RF magnetron sputter deposition showed systematic variation of its band gap, crystal orientation, growth rate, figure of merit (FOM) and dominant XRD peaks. All the thin films deposited at room temperature (RT). Once characterization of the films carried out, H2 and CO2 resistive gas sensors fabricated by depositing the ITO film on top of aluminium interdigitated contacts/electrode (IDE), that fabricated following lithography and etching processes. These devices showed reasonable sensitivity for pure H2 and CO2 at elevated temperature. A correlation found between the thin film properties of the ITO and its sensing capability for H2 and CO2, which these gases are important in many fields such as automotive, energy, biological and health-related applications.

  8. Facile preparation of size-controlled TiO2 nanoparticles by hot-filament metal oxide deposition method and their gas sensing properties to NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San, Xiaoguang; Xu, Weiwei; Wang, Guosheng; Liang, Bing; Hou, Nannan; Meng, Fanli

    2015-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were prepared by resistive heating Ti filament under an oxygen atmosphere. The obtained nanoparticles were confirmed to be a tetragonal crystal TiO2 and the particle size increased with increasing the oxygen pressure. The NO2 gas sensing properties of the TiO2 nanoparticles were investigated. All the sensors made of TiO2 nanoparticles with different particle sizes exhibited the maximum sensitivities to 1 ppm NO2 at a relative low operating temperature of 150°C. Comparing with the large particle size of TiO2 nanoparticles, the ones with the smallest particle size exhibited the highest sensitivity and the best response and recovery characteristic to various NO2 gas concentrations.

  9. Oxygen sensing in yeast: Evidence for the involvement of the respiratory chain in regulating the transcription of a subset of hypoxic genes

    PubMed Central

    Kwast, Kurt E.; Burke, Patricia V.; Staahl, Brett T.; Poyton, Robert O.

    1999-01-01

    Oxygen availability affects the transcription of a number of genes in nearly all organisms. Although the molecular mechanisms for sensing oxygen are not precisely known, heme is thought to play a pivotal role. Here, we address the possibility that oxygen sensing in yeast, as in mammals, involves a redox-sensitive hemoprotein. We have found that carbon monoxide (CO) completely blocks the anoxia-induced expression of two hypoxic genes, OLE1 and CYC7, partially blocks the induction of a third gene, COX5b, and has no effect on the expression of other hypoxic or aerobic genes. In addition, transition metals (Co and Ni) induce the expression of OLE1 and CYC7 in a concentration-dependent manner under aerobic conditions. These findings suggest that the redox state of an oxygen-binding hemoprotein is involved in controlling the expression of at least two hypoxic yeast genes. By using mutants deficient in each of the two major yeast CO-binding hemoproteins (cytochrome c oxidase and flavohemoglobin), respiratory inhibitors, and cob1 and ρ0 mutants, we have found that the respiratory chain is involved in the anoxic induction of these two genes and that cytochrome c oxidase is likely the hemoprotein “sensor.” Our findings also indicate that there are at least two classes of hypoxic genes in yeast (CO sensitive and CO insensitive) and imply that multiple pathways/mechanisms are involved in modulating the expression of hypoxic yeast genes. PMID:10318903

  10. Electrochemical sensing property of Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, R.; Giribabu, K.; Manigandan, R.; Vijayalakshmi, L.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2013-02-01

    The Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The electrochemical sensing property of pure and Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles were examined using uric acid (UA) as an analyte. The obtained results indicated that the Mn doped Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity towards UA.

  11. Integrating Remote Sensing Data with Socioeconomic Data: Sensitivity, Confidentiality, Privacy, and Intellectual Property Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, R. R.; Adamo, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    The integration of remote sensing data with socioeconomic data presents new opportunities for scientific discovery and analysis that can improve understanding of the environmental sustainability issues that society faces today. Such integrated data products and services can be used to study interdisciplinary issues by investigators representing various disciplines. In addition to the scientific benefits that can be attained by integrating remote sensing data with socioeconomic data, the integration of these data also present challenges that reflect the complex issues that arise when sharing and integrating different types of science data. When integrating one or more datasets that contain sensitive information, data producers need to be aware of the limitations that have been placed upon the data to protect private property, species or other inhabitants that reside on the property, or restricted information about a particular location. Similarly, confidentiality and privacy issues are a concern for data that have been collected about individual humans and families who have volunteered to serve as human research subjects or whose personal information may have been collected without their knowledge. In addition, intellectual property rights that are associated with a particular dataset may prevent integration with other data or pose constraints on the use of the resulting data products or services. These challenges will be described along with approaches that can be applied to address them when planning projects that involve the integration of remote sensing data with socioeconomic data.

  12. Oxygen Sensing via the Ethylene Response Transcription Factor RAP2.12 Affects Plant Metabolism and Performance under Both Normoxia and Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Paul, Melanie Verena; Iyer, Srignanakshi; Amerhauser, Carmen; Lehmann, Martin; van Dongen, Joost T; Geigenberger, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Subgroup-VII-ethylene-response-factor (ERF-VII) transcription factors are involved in the regulation of hypoxic gene expression and regulated by proteasome-mediated proteolysis via the oxygen-dependent branch of the N-end-rule pathway. While research into ERF-VII mainly focused on their role to regulate anoxic gene expression, little is known on the impact of this oxygen-sensing system in regulating plant metabolism and growth. By comparing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants overexpressing N-end-rule-sensitive and insensitive forms of the ERF-VII-factor RAP2.12, we provide evidence that oxygen-dependent RAP2.12 stability regulates central metabolic processes to sustain growth, development, and anoxic resistance of plants. (1) Under normoxia, overexpression of N-end-rule-insensitive Δ13RAP2.12 led to increased activities of fermentative enzymes and increased accumulation of fermentation products, which were accompanied by decreased adenylate energy states and starch levels, and impaired plant growth and development, indicating a role of oxygen-regulated RAP2.12 degradation to prevent aerobic fermentation. (2) In Δ13RAP2.12-overexpressing plants, decreased carbohydrate reserves also led to a decrease in anoxic resistance, which was prevented by external Suc supply. (3) Overexpression of Δ13RAP2.12 led to decreased respiration rates, changes in the levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, and accumulation of a large number of amino acids, including Ala and γ-amino butyric acid, indicating a role of oxygen-regulated RAP2.12 abundance in controlling the flux-modus of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. (4) The increase in amino acids was accompanied by increased levels of immune-regulatory metabolites. These results show that oxygen-sensing, mediating RAP2.12 degradation is indispensable to optimize metabolic performance, plant growth, and development under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. PMID:27372243

  13. Viking landing sites, remote-sensing observations, and physical properties of Martian surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Henry J.; Jakosky, Bruce M.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the relations between the physical properties of the surface materials at Viking landing sites, the physical properties of other Martian surfaces inferred from radar observations from earth and thermal observations from orbit, and the geological processes that formed the materials and shaped the surfaces. The radar and thermal remote-sensing signatures of the landing site surface materials are estimated and compared with the thermal and radar measurements for the entire planet. It is shown that the surface materials at the landing sites are good analogs for the materials in most of the Martian equatorial regions.

  14. Viking landing sites, remote-sensing observations, and physical properties of Martian surface materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, H. J.; Jakosky, B. M.

    1989-09-01

    Consideration is given to the relations between the physical properties of the surface materials at Viking landing sites, the physical properties of other Martian surfaces inferred from radar observations from earth and thermal observations from orbit, and the geological processes that formed the materials and shaped the surfaces. The radar and thermal remote-sensing signatures of the landing site surface materials are estimated and compared with the thermal and radar measurements for the entire planet. It is shown that the surface materials at the landing sites are good analogs for the materials in most of the Martian equatorial regions.

  15. System Properties of Flexible Structures with Self-Sensing Piezoelectric Transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CARABELLI, S.; TONOLI, A.

    2000-08-01

    Active and passive implementations of self-sensing readout networks are studied in terms of system properties such as the poles and the zeros of their transfer functions. The location of the zeros is shown to be dependent on two non-dimensional parameters related to the balancing condition of the readout bridge and to the compensation of its losses, while it is not affected by the active or passive implementation of the readout bridge. In the case of ideal “loss compensation” a graphical procedure is employed to describe the migration of the zeros. Even if the self-sensing arrangement guarantees the colocation of the sensing and actuating functions, the graphical procedure shows the possibility of non-minimum phase zero coupls for balancing conditions close to the so-called “electrical balancing”. The effects of model reduction techniques such as truncation or residualization is then studied, starting from a model of the system in terms of modal coordinates. Truncation is shown to be better suited to determine the “electrical balancing” condition while residualization gives a better approximation of the system zeros. The conditions of electrical balancing and loss compensation are then related to a condition of minimum dependance of the self-sensing bridge output from the driving electrical input. This property can be practically exploited to devise an adaptive readout bridge which can automatically reach the balancing conditions and the loss compensation or to identify the electrical parameters of the piezoelectric transducer. Experimental tests performed on a beam and a plate structures provided with self-sensing piezoelectric transducers are used to validate the analytical models.

  16. Instrumented impact properties of zircaloy-oxygen and zircaloy-hydrogen alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Garde, A.M.; Kassner, T.F.

    1980-04-01

    Instrumented-impact tests were performed on subsize Charpy speciments of Zircaloy-2 and -4 with up to approx. 1.3 wt % oxygen and approx. 2500 wt ppM hydrogen at temperatures between 373 and 823/sup 0/K. Self-consistent criteria for the ductile-to-brittle transition, based upon a total absorbed energy of approx. 1.3 x 10/sup 4/ J/m/sup 2/, a dynamic fracture toughness of approx. 10 MPa.m/sup 1/2/, and a ductility index of approx. 0, were established relative to the temperature and oxygen concentration of the transformed BETA-phase material. The effect of hydrogen concentration and hydride morphology, produced by cooling Zircaloy-2 specimens through the temperature range of the BETA ..-->.. ..cap alpha..' = hydride phase transformation at approx. 0.3 and 3 K/s, on the impact properties was determined at temperatures between 373 and 673 K. On an atom fraction basis, oxygen has a greater effect than hydrogen on the impact properties of Zircaloy at temperatures between approx. 400 and 600 K. 34 figures.

  17. Real-time endoscopic oxygenation imaging using single snapshot of optical properties (SSOP) imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelo, Joseph P.; van de Giessen, Martijn; Gioux, Sylvain

    2016-03-01

    With 50% of all interventional procedures in the US being minimally invasive, there is a need for objective tools to help guide surgeons in this challenging environment. Tissue oxygenation is a useful biomarker of tissue viability and suitable for surgical guidance. Here we present our efforts to perform real-time quantitative optical imaging through a rigid endoscope using Single Snapshot of Optical Properties (SSOP) imaging. In particular, in this work we introduce for the first time 3 dimensionally-corrected dual wavelength optical properties imaging using SSOP through an endoscope, allowing accurate oxygenation maps to be obtained on tissue simulating phantoms and in vivo samples. We compared the results with state-of-the-art wide-field spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI). Overall, results from the novel endoscopic imaging system agreed within 10% in absorption, reduced scattering, and oxygenation. Moreover, we introduce here real-time, video-rate quantitative optical imaging with 3D profile correction through an endoscope. These results demonstrate the potential of endoscopic SSOP as an objective surgical guidance tool for the clinic.

  18. Effect of Oxygen Annealing on the Electrical Properties of PBLZST Anti-ferroelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Jinqiao; Xiong, Xue; Liu, Sisi; Jiang, Shenglin

    2015-11-01

    The effect of oxygen annealing on the electrical properties of (Pb0.97- x Ba x La0.02)(Zr0.6Sn0.32Ti0.08)O3 (PBLZST) anti-ferroelectric (AFE) ceramics has been investigated through measuring its phase structure, electric field-induced polarization and dielectric properties. The oxygen annealing process can significantly improve the stability of the AFE phase and decrease the dielectric constant peaks. The saturation polarization of the PBLZST samples annealed in O2 increases gradually when x < 0.085, but it decreases when x > 0.085. Compared with the conventional sintering method, the hysteresis switch fields of samples annealed in O2 maintains the consistent stability, and the dielectric constant peaks drop drastically and are simultaneously broadened, except at x = 0.095. The Curie temperature decreases greatly after oxygen annealing when x is smaller than 0.08, but increases slightly when x is greater than 0.08. When x = 0.085, the difference of c/a ratios between the samples processed by the two methods reaches a maximum of about 0.00614, and the increment of the saturation polarization is 7 μC/cm2.

  19. Reduced-Gravity Measurements of the Effect of Oxygen on Properties of Zirconium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, J.; Lee, J.; Wunderlich, R.; Fecht, H.-J.; Schneider, S.; SanSoucie, M.; Rogers, J.; Hyers, R.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of oxygen on the thermophysical properties of zirconium is being investigated using MSL-EML (Material Science Laboratory - Electromagnetic Levitator) on ISS (International Space Station) in collaboration with NASA, ESA (European Space Agency), and DLR (German Aerospace Center). Zirconium samples with different oxygen concentrations will be put into multiple melt cycles, during which the density, viscosity, surface tension, heat capacity, and electric conductivity will be measured at various undercooled temperatures. The facility check-up of MSL-EML and the first set of melting experiments have been successfully performed in 2015. The first zirconium sample will be tested near the end of 2015. As part of ground support activities, the thermophysical properties of zirconium and ZrO were measured using a ground-based electrostatic levitator located at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The influence of oxygen on the measured surface tension was evaluated. The results of this research will serve as reference data for those measured in ISS.

  20. Defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies: synthesis, properties and photocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaoyang; Yang, Min-Quan; Fu, Xianzhi; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the synthesis of defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies, and the defect related properties of TiO2 including structural, electronic, optical, dissociative adsorption and reductive properties, which are intimately related to the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. In particular, photocatalytic applications with regard to defective TiO2 are outlined. In addition, we offer some perspectives on the challenge and new direction for future research in this field. We hope that this tutorial minireview would provide some useful contribution to the future design and fabrication of defective semiconductor-based nanomaterials for diverse photocatalytic applications.Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the

  1. Mapping spatio-temporal relationships between soil properties and remote sensing-derived information for Scotland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro; Brewer, Mark; Brown, Iain

    2013-04-01

    Analysis and forecast of the spatial distribution and dynamics of soil are important elements of sustainable land management. Recent studies have noted that the most successful and promising approach to estimating soil properties continuously over time and space should include a combination of remote sensing and modelling. The aim of this paper was to investigate the spatial relationships between soil properties measured or observed at various soil profiles across Scotland and indices derived from remote sensing. Methodology was implemented to exploit fully the high number of covariates in order to identify the band, index or product that best correlates with the soil property of interest. Soil properties were measured or observed across the whole of Scotland following a regular grid at more than 1000 profiles National Soil Inventory of Scotland (NSIS1). Remote sensing data were derived from Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The indices considered were i) Enhanced vegetation Index, ii) Leaf Area Index, iii) Land Surface Temperature and iv) derived drought indices, such as the Normalised Difference Water Index. The models fitted show a fairly good agreement with existing data sets, presenting a consistent spatial pattern across Scotland, mainly following the morphological landscape, such as slope and river valleys and the soil type classification. The remote sensing data proved useful for predicting various soil properties such as AWC and organic matter content. The methodology provides estimates of the spatial uncertainty of the modelled values that could be used in further modelling and in the assessment of consequences of climate-change and trade-offs in land use changes. MODIS data are potentially very helpful for soil mapping in areas where soil data are not available. However a spatial calibration is often needed. This approach can contribute to improving our understanding and modelling of soil processes and function over large

  2. Determination of mechanical properties from depth-sensing indentation data and results of finite element modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaenkova, M. G.; Perlovich, Yu A.; Krymskaya, O. A.; Zhuk, D. I.

    2016-04-01

    3D finite element model of indentation process with Berkovich tip was created. Using this model with different type of test materials, several series of calculations were made. These calculations lead to determination of material behavior features during indentation. Relations between material properties and its behavior during instrumented indentation were used for construction of dimensionless functions required for development the calculation algorithm, suitable to determine mechanical properties of materials by results of the depth-sensing indentation. Results of mechanical properties determination using elaborated algorithm for AISI 1020 steel grade were compared to properties obtained with standard compression tests. These two results differ by less than 10% for yield stress that evidence of a good accuracy of the proposed technique.

  3. The Properties of Oxygen Investigated with Easily Accessible Instrumentation: The "One-Photon-Two-Molecule" Mechanism Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelhelm, Manfred; Aristov, Natasha; Habekost, Achim

    2010-01-01

    The physical properties of oxygen, in particular, the blue color of the liquid phase, the red glow of its chemiluminescence, and its paramagnetism as shown by the entrapment or deflection of liquid oxygen by a magnetic field, can be investigated in a regular school setting with hand-held spectrophotometers and digital cameras. In college-level…

  4. Carbon nanotube composites multi-sensing characteristics based on electrical impedance properties.

    PubMed

    Kang, Inpil; Schulz, Mark J; Choi, Yeon-Sun; Hwang, Sung-Ho

    2009-12-01

    CNT composites demonstrate sensory materials properties such as piezoresistivity, chemical and bio selectivity and they can detect structural deterioration, chemical contamination and bio signal by means of their impedance measurement (resistance and capacitance). In this study, electrical impedance characteristics of CNT composite electrodes are studied to simultaneously detect mechanical and chemical symptoms in engineering applications. We measured variations of electrical resistance and capacitance values of CNT composite electrodes under static load for mechanical sensing behavior and under the change of buffer solution amount for chemical sensing behavior. At the mechanical sensing behavior test, the resistance values changed quite linearly under bending and compression loads while the capacitance value varied within small range with invalid relationship to the loads. At the chemical sensing behavior investigation, the electrode's capacitance showed drastic change while the resistance value only changed within few percent range. The independently changing pattern of electrical impedance parameters according to mechanical strain and chemical effect can provide new opportunities to design a novel multifunctional sensor that can simultaneously monitor mechanical and chemical behaviors of a target system. PMID:19908789

  5. Ultrasound-assisted pullulan/montmorillonite bionanocomposite coating with high oxygen barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Introzzi, Laura; Blomfeldt, Thomas O J; Trabattoni, Silvia; Tavazzi, Silvia; Santo, Nadia; Schiraldi, Alberto; Piergiovanni, Luciano; Farris, Stefano

    2012-07-31

    In this paper, the preparation and characterization of oxygen barrier pullulan sodium montmorillonite (Na(+)-MMT) nanocomposite coatings are presented for the first time. Full exfoliation of platelets during preparation of the coating water dispersions was mediated by ultrasonic treatment, which turned out to be a pivotal factor in the oxygen barrier performance of the final material even at high relative humidity (RH) conditions [oxygen permeability coefficients ~1.43 ± 0.39 and 258.05 ± 13.78 mL·μm·m(-2)·(24 h)(-1)·atm(-1) at 23 °C and 0% RH and 70% RH, respectively]. At the micro- and nanoscale, the reasons are discussed. The final morphology of the coatings revealed that clay lamellae were stacked on top of one another, probably due to the forced confinement of the platelets within the coating thickness after solvent evaporation. This was also confirmed by modeling the experimental oxygen permeability data with the well-known Nielsen and Cussler permeation theoretical models, which suggested a reasonable aspect ratio (α) of ~100. Electron microscopic analyses also disclosed a peculiar cell-like arrangement of the platelets. The stacking of the clay lamellae and the cell-like arrangement create the excellent oxygen barrier properties. Finally, we demonstrated that the slight haze increase in the bionanocomposite coating materials arising from the addition of the clays depends on the clay concentration but not so much on the sonication time, due to the balance of opposite effects after sonication (an increase in the number of scattering centers but a reduction in their size). PMID:22765289

  6. Effect of depletion layer width on electrical properties of semiconductive thin film gas sensor: a numerical study based on the gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianqiao; Lu, Yiting; Cui, Xiao; Jin, Guohua; Zhai, Zhaoxia

    2016-03-01

    The effects of depletion layer width on the semiconductor gas sensors were investigated based on the gradient-distributed oxygen vacancy model, which provided numerical descriptions for the sensor properties. The potential barrier height, sensor resistance, and response to target gases were simulated to reveal their dependences on the depletion layer width. According to the simulation, it was possible to improve the sensor response by enlarging the width of depletion layer without changing the resistance of the gas sensor under the special circumstance. The different performances between resistance and response could provide a bright expectation that the design and fabrication of gas sensing devices could be economized. The simulation results were validated by the experimental performances of SnO2 thin film gas sensors, which were prepared by the sol-gel technique. The dependences of sensor properties on depletion layer width were observed to be in agreement with the simulations.

  7. CO gas sensing properties of In4Sn3O12 and TeO2 composite nanoparticle sensors.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Ali; Park, Sunghoon; Sun, Gun-Joo; Kheel, Hyejoon; Lee, Chongmu

    2016-03-15

    A simple hydrothermal route was used to synthesize In4Sn3O12 nanoparticles and In4Sn3O12-TeO2 composite nanoparticles, with In(C2H3O2)3, SnCl4, and TeCl4 as the starting materials. The structure and morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles were examined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The gas-sensing properties of the pure and composite nanoparticles toward CO gas were examined at different concentrations (5-100ppm) of CO gas at different temperatures (100-300°C). SEM observation revealed that the composite nanoparticles had a uniform shape and size. The sensor based on the In4Sn3O12-TeO2 composite nanoparticles showed stronger response to CO than its pure In4Sn3O12 counterpart. The response of the In4Sn3O12-TeO2 composite-nanoparticle sensor to 100ppm of CO at 200°C was 10.21, whereas the maximum response of the In4Sn3O12 nanoparticle sensor was 2.78 under the same conditions. Furthermore, the response time of the composite sensor was 19.73s under these conditions, which is less than one-third of that of the In4Sn3O12 sensor. The improved sensing performance of the In4Sn3O12-TeO2 nanocomposite sensor is attributed to the enhanced modulation of the potential barrier height at the In4Sn3O12-TeO2 interface, the stronger oxygen adsorption of p-type TeO2, and the formation of preferential adsorption sites. PMID:26651070

  8. On the dependence of structural and sensing properties of sputtered MoO3 thin films on argon gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khojier, K.; Savaloni, H.; Zolghadr, S.

    2014-11-01

    Nitrogen and carbon oxides (CO, NO and NO2), released from combustion facilities and automobiles, are known to be extremely harmful to the human body and also are the main cause of air pollution. Therefore, effective methods to monitor and suppress the carbon and nitrogen oxides have been highly demanded for atmospheric environmental measurements and controls. It is known that molybdenum oxide (MoO3) can be a good semiconductor material for use as a gas sensor in monitoring CO, NO and NO2. In this paper we report the structural characteristics and sensing properties of the sputtered MoO3 thin films as a function of argon gas flow. MoO3 thin films were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique on glass substrates at different argon gas flows in the range of 5-20 sccm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used for studying crystallographic structure. XRD results showed that all of our films were of polycrystalline structure and of α-MoO3 stable orthorhombic phase. Results also showed that crystallite size increases while compressive nano-strain in the structure of the films decreases with increasing the argon gas flow. Atomic force microscope and the field emission scanning electron microscope studies showed granular structures for all samples, which increased in size consistent with the XRD results, with argon gas flow, while the surface roughness of the films also increased with argon gas flow. Chemical composition study showed optimum reaction between oxygen and molybdenum atoms for films produced at 15 sccm flow of argon gas. The electrical response of samples was measured in the vacuum and the CO environments in the temperature range of 150-350 K. All samples showed Ohmic behavior and the electrical resistances of the films measured in the CO environment were lower than those measured in vacuum. This study showed that the sensing ability of MoO3 for CO improves with increasing the argon gas flow.

  9. Are remote-sensing retrieved aerosol radiative properties a suitable proxy for cloud condensation nuclei?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions arguably remain the single greatest uncertainty among anthropogenic perturbations of the climate system. The large uncertainties associated with their representation in global aerosol climate models have emphasised the need for observational studies. In-situ measurements provide a detailed description of aerosol and cloud microphysical properties, providing strong observational constraints on aerosol cloud interactions. However, their spatio-temporal sampling is sparse so that "observational" estimates of global aerosol cloud interactions generally rely on co-located satellite retrievals of aerosol radiative properties and cloud properties. In this study I will critically evaluate the suitability of remote-sensing retrieved aerosol radiative properties, such as aerosol optical depth (AOD), aerosol index (AI) and aerosol fine mode optical depth, as proxy for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). This analysis based on the fully self-consistent calculation of aerosol radiative properties and CCN in the aerosol climate model ECHAM-HAM. Correlating simulated aerosol radiative properties with CCN at a range of supersaturations (sampling different sizes/composition of the aerosol spectrum) highlights limitations in the suitability of AOD and AI as proxy for CCN. These discrepancies arise from a range of factors, including the limited representativeness of column-integrated aerosol radiative properties for surface or cloud-base CCN as well as the effects of humidity growth of aerosols, affecting AOD/AI but not CCN. Simulated correlations show a strong regional variability, with significant implications for "observational" estimates of aerosol cloud interactions from remote-sensing as well as in-situ data.

  10. A survey of natural aggregate properties and characteristics important in remote sensing and airborne geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knepper, D.H., Jr.; Langer, W.H.; Miller, S.

    1995-01-01

    Natural aggregate is vital to the construction industry. Although natural aggregate is a high volume/low value commodity that is abundant, new sources are becoming increasingly difficult to find and develop because of rigid industry specifications, political considerations, development and transportation costs, and environmental concerns. There are two primary sources of natural aggregate: (1) exposed or near-surface bedrock that can be crushed, and (2) deposits of sand and gravel. Remote sensing and airborne geophysics detect surface and near-surface phenomena, and may be useful for detecting and mapping potential aggregate sources; however, before a methodology for applying these techniques can be developed, it is necessary to understand the type, distribution, physical properties, and characteristics of natural aggregate deposits. The distribution of potential aggregate sources is closely tied to local geologic history. Conventional exploration for natural aggregate deposits has been largely a ground-based operation, although aerial photographs and topographic maps have been extensively used to target possible deposits. Today, the exploration process also considers factors such as the availability of the land, space and water supply for processing, political and environmental factors, and distance from the market; exploration and planning cannot be separated. There are many physical properties and characteristics by which to judge aggregate material for specific applications; most of these properties and characteristics pertain only to individual aggregate particles. The application of remote sensing and airborne geophysical measurements to detecting and mapping potential aggregate sources, however, is based on intrinsic bulk physical properties and extrinsic characteristics of the deposits that can be directly measured, mathematically derived from measurement, or interpreted with remote sensing and geophysical data. ?? 1995 Oxford UniversityPress.

  11. Highly distributed multi-point, temperature and pressure compensated, fiber optic oxygen sensors (FOxSense) for aircraft fuel tank environment and safety monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Sun, Sunjian; Esterkin, Yan

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes recent progress towards the development and qualification of a highly distributed, multi-point, all optical pressure and temperature compensated, fiber optic oxygen sensor (FOxSense™) system for closed-loop monitoring and safety of the oxygen ullage environment inside fuel tanks of military and commercial aircraft. The alloptical FOxSense™ system uses a passive, multi-parameter (O2/T&P) fiber optic sensor probe with no electrical connections leading to the sensors install within the fuel tanks of an aircraft. The all optical sensor consists of an integrated multi-parameter fiber optic sensor probe that integrates a fuel insensitive fluorescence based optical oxygen optrode with built-in temperature and pressure optical optrodes for compensation of temperature and pressure variants induced in the fluorescence response of the oxygen optrode. The distributed (O2/T&P) fiber optic sensors installed in the fuel tanks of the aircraft are connected to the FOxSense optoelectronic system via a fiber optic cable conduit reaching to each fuel tank in the aircraft. A multichannel frequency-domain fiber optic sensor read-out (FOxSense™) system is used to interrogate the optical signal of all three sensors in real-time and to display the fuel tank oxygen environment suitable for aircraft status and alarm applications. Preliminary testing of the all optical fiber optic oxygen sensor have demonstrated the ability to monitor the oxygen environment inside a simulated fuel tank in the range of 0% O2 to 40% O2 concentrations, temperatures from (-) 40°C to (+) 60°C, and altitudes from 0-ft to 40,000-ft.

  12. Oxygen permeation, mechanical and structural properties of multilayer diffusion barrier coatings on polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körner, L.; Sonnenfeld, A.; Heuberger, R.; Waller, J. H.; Leterrier, Y.; Månson, J. A. E.; von Rohr, Ph Rudolf

    2010-03-01

    To improve temperature durability for autoclaving of SiOx diffusion barrier coatings on polypropylene, plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (pp-HMDSO) is applied by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition as interlayer material and compared with results obtained with amorphous hydrogenated carbon-nitrogen (a-C : N : H) and a-Si : C : O : N : H interlayers. The influence of the O2/HMDSO ratio on the chemical structure and related mechanical and oxygen barrier properties is investigated by fragmentation tests, dilatometry, oxygen transmission rate, internal stress and mass density measurements as well as Fourier transform infrared and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Carbon-rich, polymer-like coatings with low density, low internal stress and excellent adhesive and cohesive properties are found for pp-HMDSO at the expense of barrier performance. In the SiOx/pp-HMDSO coating a broad transition in chemical composition was observed, explaining improved mechanical properties responsible for good barrier performance after thermal cycling or autoclaving.

  13. Effect of Oxygen on the Structural/Electrical Properties of NIZO Films on Transparent Flexible Substrates.

    PubMed

    Lim, Byung-Wook; Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Jeong, Hyeon-Taek; Ha, Tae-Won; Kim, Eun-Mi; Heo, Gi-Seok; Kim, Young-Baek; Kim, Hyeon-Ju; Lee, Ho-Saeng

    2015-10-01

    Thin film transparent oxides have attracted considerable attention over the last few decades for transparent electronic applications, such as flat panel displays, solar cells, touch-pads, and mobile devices. Metallic doped InZnO (IZO) films have been suggested for the transparent layer exhibiting semiconducting or metallic properties because of its controllable mobility and excellent electrical properties, but they show a degradation of the electrical performance under bending conditions. This study assessed Ni doped IZO (NIZO) films as a flexible transparent electrode on different flexible transparent substrates for flexible electronic applications. Thin NIZO films were deposited on cellulose, PES and glass substrates using a sputtering system with a single NIZO target (In2O3 73.8/ZnO 15.7/NiO 10.5 mol.%) at room temperature. During deposition of the NIZO films, the total flow rate of the carrier gas was maintained using a regulating system. The effects of the oxygen content in the carrier gas on the structural, electrical and optical properties of the thin films deposited on flexible substrates was characterized. The results highlight the feasibility of the transparent NIZO oxide layer on flexible substrates as a flexible electrode with a relatively high sheet resistance, which is strongly related to the crystallographic structure and oxygen content during the film deposition process. PMID:26726363

  14. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Acetylene Sensing Properties of Variety Low Dimensional Zinc Oxide Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weigen; Peng, Shudi; Zeng, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Various morphologies of low dimensional ZnO nanostructures, including spheres, rods, sheets, and wires, were successfully synthesized using a simple and facile hydrothermal method assisted with different surfactants. Zinc acetate dihydrate was chosen as the precursors of ZnO nanostructures. We found that polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), glycine, and ethylene glycol (EG) play critical roles in the morphologies and microstructures of the synthesized nanostructures, and a series of possible growth processes were discussed in detail. Gas sensors were fabricated using screen-printing technology, and their sensing properties towards acetylene gas (C2H2), one of the most important arc discharge characteristic gases dissolved in oil-filled power equipments, were systematically measured. The ZnO nanowires based sensor exhibits excellent C2H2 sensing behaviors than those of ZnO nanosheets, nanorods, and nanospheres, indicating a feasible way to develop high-performance C2H2 gas sensor for practical application. PMID:24672324

  15. Characterization and acetone gas sensing properties of electrospun TiO2 nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Haiqin; Ma, Shuyi; Sun, Aimin; Xu, Xiaoli; Yang, Guijin; Gao, Jiming; Zhang, Zhengmei; Zhu, Haibin

    2015-05-01

    In this work, random network structure of titanium dioxides (TiO2) nanorods was synthesized by calcining electrospun TiO2/PVP hybrid rods. Structural, optical and acetone gas sensing properties of the nanorods were investigated. The TiO2 nanorods are polycrystalline with a mixture of anatase and rutile structures. The diameter of TiO2 nanorods is about 500 nm. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra measurement at room temperature revealed that a broad emission band including the two emission peaks are about at 401 and 467 nm. The sensor shows the high response, good reproducibility and selectivity for acetone (CH3COCH) with a fast response and recovery time at 500 °C. In addition, the acetone sensing mechanism of the TiO2 nanorods sensors is discussed.

  16. Spectroscopic and fiber optic ethanol sensing properties Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, J. L.; Udayabhaskar, R.; Renganathan, B.; Muthu Mariappan, S.; Sastikumar, D.; Karthikeyan, B.

    2014-11-01

    We report the structural, optical and gas sensing properties of prepared pure and Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles through solgel method at moderate temperature. Structural studies are carried out by X-ray diffraction method confirms hexagonal wurtzite structure and doping induced changes in lattice parameters is observed. Optical absorption spectral studies shows red shift in the absorption peak corresponds to band-gap from 3.42 eV to 3.05 eV and broad absorption in the visible range after Gd doping is observed. Scanning electron microscopic studies shows increase in particle size where the particle diameters increase from few nm to micrometers after Gd doping. The clad modified ethanol fiber-optic sensor studies for ethanol sensing exhibits best sensitivity for the 3% Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles and the sensitivity get lowered incase of higher percentage of Gd doped ZnO sample.

  17. Preparation and Gas Sensing Properties of Hollow ZnS Microspheres.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jingkun; Song, Chengwen; Song, Mingyan; Dong, Wei; Li, Chen; Yin, Yanyan

    2016-03-01

    Hollow ZnS microspheres are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. Morphology and structure of the ZnS microspheres are analyzed by SEM, TEM, XRD and N2 sorption technique, Gas sensing properties of the as-prepared ZnS sensor are also systematically investigated. The results show that the ZnS microspheres have well-developed porous and hollow nanostructure. The sensor based on the ZnS microspheres exhibits ultra-fast response (1-2 s) and fast recovery time (7-34 s) towards ethanol at the optimal operating temperature of 160 degrees C. Moreover, the ZnS sensor also demonstrates high selectivity to other gases such as methanol, benzene, dichloromethane and hexane, suggesting that it is a promising candidate for ethanol sensing applications. PMID:27455754

  18. LPG ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing properties of nanostructured polypyrrole thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagul, Sagar B.; Upadhye, Deepak S.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film was synthesized by easy and economic chemical oxidative polymerization technique on glass at room temperature. The prepared thin film of Polypyrrole was characterized by optical absorbance study by UV-visible spectroscopy and electrical study by I-V measurement system. The optical absorbance spectrum of Polypyrrole shows two fundamental peaks in region of 420 and 890 nm, which confirms the formation of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. The I-V graph of nanostructured Polypyrrole represents the Ohmic nature. Furthermore, the thin film of Polypyrrole was investigated by Scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology study. The SEM micrograph represents spherical nanostructured morphology of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. In order to investigate gas sensing properties, 100 ppm of LPG, Ammonia and Nitrogen Dioxide were injected in the gas chamber and magnitude of resistance has been recorded as a function of time in second. It was observed that nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film shows good sensing behavior at room temperature.

  19. Spectroscopic and fiber optic ethanol sensing properties Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Noel, J L; Udayabhaskar, R; Renganathan, B; Muthu Mariappan, S; Sastikumar, D; Karthikeyan, B

    2014-11-11

    We report the structural, optical and gas sensing properties of prepared pure and Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles through solgel method at moderate temperature. Structural studies are carried out by X-ray diffraction method confirms hexagonal wurtzite structure and doping induced changes in lattice parameters is observed. Optical absorption spectral studies shows red shift in the absorption peak corresponds to band-gap from 3.42 eV to 3.05 eV and broad absorption in the visible range after Gd doping is observed. Scanning electron microscopic studies shows increase in particle size where the particle diameters increase from few nm to micrometers after Gd doping. The clad modified ethanol fiber-optic sensor studies for ethanol sensing exhibits best sensitivity for the 3% Gd doped ZnO nanoparticles and the sensitivity get lowered incase of higher percentage of Gd doped ZnO sample. PMID:24892544

  20. Electrical transport properties of individual WS2 nanotubes and their dependence on water and oxygen absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chaoying; Ning, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yang; Xu, Tingting; Guo, Yao; Zak, Alla; Zhang, Zhiyong; Wang, Sheng; Tenne, Reshef; Chen, Qing

    2012-09-01

    The electrical properties of WS2 nanotubes (NTs) were studied through measuring 59 devices. Important electrical parameters, such as the carrier concentration, mobility, and effective barrier height at the contacts, were obtained through fitting experimental non-linear I-V curves using a metal-semiconductor-metal model. The carrier mobility was found to be several orders of magnitude higher than that have been reported previously for WS2 NTs. Water absorption was found to decrease the conductivity and carrier mobility of the NTs, and could be removed when the sample was dried. Oxygen absorption also slightly decreased the conductivity of WS2 NTs.

  1. Examination of two methods of describing the thermodynamic properties of oxygen near the critical point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rees, T. H.; Suttles, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    A computer study was conducted to compare the numerical behavior of two approaches to describing the thermodynamic properties of oxygen near the critical point. Data on the relative differences between values of specific heats at constant pressure (sub p) density, and isotherm and isochor derivatives of the equation of state are presented for selected supercritical pressures at temperatures in the range 100 to 300 K. The results of a more detailed study of the sub p representations afforded by the two methods are also presented.

  2. The impact of negative oxygen ion bombardment on electronic and structural properties of magnetron sputtered ZnO:Al films

    SciTech Connect

    Bikowski, Andre; Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus

    2013-06-17

    In order to study the impact of negative oxygen ion bombardment on the electronic transport properties of ZnO:Al films, a systematic magnetron sputtering study from ceramic targets with excitation frequencies from DC to 27 MHz, accompanied by strongly varying discharge voltages, has been performed. Higher plasma excitation frequencies significantly improve the transport properties of ZnO:Al films. The effect of the bombardment of the films by energetic particles (negative oxygen ions) can be explained by the dynamic equilibrium between the formation of acceptor-like oxygen interstitials compensating the extrinsic donors and the self-annealing of the interstitial defects at higher deposition temperatures.

  3. Remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, and water vapor properties from the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Menzel, W. Paul; Tanre, Didier D.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the status of MODIS-N and its companion instrument MODIS-T (tilt), a tiltable cross-track scanning spectrometer with 32 uniformly spaced channels between 0.410 and 0.875 micron. They review the various methods being developed for the remote sensing of atmospheric properties using MODIS, placing primary emphasis on the principal atmospheric applications of determining the optical, microphysical, and physical properties of clouds and aerosol particles from spectral reflection and thermal emission measurements. In addition to cloud and aerosol properties, MODIS-N will be used for determining the total precipitable water vapor and atmospheric stability. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these atmospheric products are described, together with an example of their application to aircraft and/or satellite measurements.

  4. Effect of oxygen on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-23Nb-0.7Ta-2Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Hui-ping; Xu, Hong-xia; Su, Wen-huang; Ke, Yu-bin; Liu, Zeng-qian; Song, Hong-hai

    2012-12-01

    The influence of oxygen content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti-23Nb-0.7Ta-2Zr (at%) alloy in as-cast and cold-rolled states was investigated systematically in this paper. It is found that the alloy containing oxygen element is only composed of a single β phase, while the alloy without oxygen element consisted of β and α″ phases. Although the grain size becomes larger, the elastic deformation ratio, strength, and hardness of the alloy are all increased with an increase of oxygen content. The as-cast alloy has excellent plastic deformation ability, but the cold-rolled alloy containing oxygen element exhibits brittle characteristics. A conclusion can be drawn that oxygen element can stabilize β phase, inhibit the phase transformation from β to α″, and furthermore help to increase the strength and elastic deformation ability of the alloy.

  5. Highly improved hydration level sensing properties of copper oxide films with sodium and potassium doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Bünyamin; Kaya, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    In this study, un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped nanostructured CuO films were successfully synthesized by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Structural properties of the CuO films were affected from doping. The XRD pattern indicates the formation of polycrystalline CuO films with no secondary phases. Furthermore, doping affected the crystal structure of the samples. The optimum conductivity values for both Na and K were obtained at 4 M% doping concentrations. The comparative hydration level sensing properties of the un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped CuO nanoparticles were also investigated. A significant enhancement in hydration level sensing properties was observed for both 4 M% Na and K-doped CuO films for all concentration levels. Detailed discussions were reported in the study regarding atomic radii, crystalline structure, and conductivity.

  6. Regional Characterization of Soil Properties via a Combination of Methods from Remote Sensing, Geophysics and Geopedology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Uwe; Fries, Elke; Frei, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Soil is one of the most precious resources on Earth. Preserving, using and enriching soils are most complex processes that fundamentally need a sound regional data base. Many countries lack this sort of extensive data or the existing data must be urgently updated when land use recently changed in major patterns. The project "RECHARBO" (Regional Characterization of Soil Properties) aims at the combination of methods from remote sensing, geophysics and geopedology in order to develop a new system to map soils on a regional scale in a quick and efficient manner. First tests will be performed on existing soil monitoring districts, using newly available sensing systems as well as established techniques. Especially hyperspectral and infrared data measured from satellites or airborne platforms shall be combined. Moreover, a systematic correlation between hyperspectral imagery and gamma-ray spectroscopy shall be established. These recordings will be compared and correlated to measurements upon ground and on soil samples to get hold of properties such as soil moisture, soil density, specific resistance plus analytic properties like clay content, anorganic background, organic matter etc. The goal is to generate a system that enables users to map soil patterns on a regional scale using airborne or satellite data and to fix their characteristics with only a limited number of soil samples.

  7. An Airborne A-Band Spectrometer for Remote Sensing Of Aerosol and Cloud Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, Michael; Hostetler, Chris; Poole, Lamont; Holden, Carl; Rault, Didier

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric remote sensing with the O2 A-band has a relatively long history, but most of these studies were attempting to estimate surface pressure or cloud-top pressure. Recent conceptual studies have demonstrated the potential of spaceborne high spectral resolution O2 A-band spectrometers for retrieval of aerosol and cloud optical properties. The physical rationale of this new approach is that information on the scattering properties of the atmosphere is embedded in the detailed line structure of the O2 A-band reflected radiance spectrum. The key to extracting this information is to measure the radiance spectrum at very high spectral resolution. Instrument performance requirement studies indicate that, in addition to high spectral resolution, the successful retrieval of aerosol and cloud properties from A-band radiance spectra will also require high radiometric accuracy, instrument stability, and high signal-to-noise measurements. To experimentally assess the capabilities of this promising new remote sensing application, the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an airborne high spectral resolution A-band spectrometer. The spectrometer uses a plane holographic grating with a folded Littrow geometry to achieve high spectral resolution (0.5 cm-1) and low stray light in a compact package. This instrument will be flown in a series of field campaigns beginning in 2001 to evaluate the overall feasibility of this new technique. Results from these campaigns should be particularly valuable for future spaceborne applications of A-band spectrometers for aerosol and cloud retrievals.

  8. Flickering Analysis of Erythrocyte Mechanical Properties: Dependence on Oxygenation Level, Cell Shape, and Hydration Level

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young-Zoon; Hong, Ha; Brown, Aidan; Kim, Dong Chung; Kang, Dae Joon; Lew, Virgilio L.; Cicuta, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    Erythrocytes (red blood cells) play an essential role in the respiratory functions of vertebrates, carrying oxygen from lungs to tissues and CO2 from tissues to lungs. They are mechanically very soft, enabling circulation through small capillaries. The small thermally induced displacements of the membrane provide an important tool in the investigation of the mechanics of the cell membrane. However, despite numerous studies, uncertainties in the interpretation of the data, and in the values derived for the main parameters of cell mechanics, have rendered past conclusions from the fluctuation approach somewhat controversial. Here we revisit the experimental method and theoretical analysis of fluctuations, to adapt them to the case of cell contour fluctuations, which are readily observable experimentally. This enables direct measurements of membrane tension, of bending modulus, and of the viscosity of the cell cytoplasm. Of the various factors that influence the mechanical properties of the cell, we focus here on: 1), the level of oxygenation, as monitored by Raman spectrometry; 2), cell shape; and 3), the concentration of hemoglobin. The results show that, contrary to previous reports, there is no significant difference in cell tension and bending modulus between oxygenated and deoxygenated states, in line with the softness requirement for optimal circulatory flow in both states. On the other hand, tension and bending moduli of discocyte- and spherocyte-shaped cells differ markedly, in both the oxygenated and deoxygenated states. The tension in spherocytes is much higher, consistent with recent theoretical models that describe the transitions between red blood cell shapes as a function of membrane tension. Cell cytoplasmic viscosity is strongly influenced by the hydration state. The implications of these results to circulatory flow dynamics in physiological and pathological conditions are discussed. PMID:19751665

  9. Oxygen-induced magnetic properties and metallic behavior of a BN sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yungang; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Yang, Ping; Xiao, Hai Yan; Gao, Fei

    2010-11-24

    In this paper, ab initio method has been employed to study the adsorption energies, electronic structures and magnetic properties of a BN sheet functionalized by oxygen (O) atom. The adsorption process is typically exothermic, and some unusual properties can be revealed with different adsorption sites. The energy gap of BN sheet narrows due to the strong hybridization between O and BN electronic states when O locates above a BN bond or a nitrogen atom. Upon the adsorption of O above a B3N3 ring or a boron atom, the electrons of O-adsorbed BN system are polarized, which gives rise to the magnetic moment of 2.0 μB. In this case, Fermi level crosses the valence band, resulting the O-adsorbed BN system to be metallic. Furthermore, potential energy curves analysis shows that the magnetism and matellic of BN system can be modulated by the external temperature and pressure.

  10. Oxygen Deficiency Responsive Gene Expression in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii through a Copper-Sensing Signal Transduction Pathway1

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Jeanette M.; Eriksson, Mats; Moseley, Jeffrey L.; Merchant, Sabeeha

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii activates Cpx1, Cyc6, and Crd1, encoding, respectively, coproporphyrinogen oxidase, cytochrome c6, and a novel di-iron enzyme when transferred to oxygen-deficient growth conditions. This response is physiologically relevant because C. reinhardtii experiences these growth conditions routinely, and furthermore, one of the target genes, Crd1, is functionally required for normal growth under oxygen-depleted conditions. The same genes are activated also in response to copper-deficiency through copper-response elements that function as target sites for a transcriptional activator. The core of the copper-response element, GTAC, is required also for the hypoxic response, as is a trans-acting locus, CRR1. Mercuric ions, which antagonize the copper-deficiency response, also antagonize the oxygen-deficiency response of these target genes. Taken together, these observations suggest that the oxygen- and copper-deficiency responses share signal transduction components. Nevertheless, whereas the copper-response element is sufficient for the nutritional copper response, the oxygen-deficiency response requires, in addition, a second cis-element, indicating that the response to oxygen depletion is not identical to the nutritional copper response. The distinction between the two responses is also supported by comparative analysis of the response of the target genes, Cyc6, Cpx1, and Crd1, to copper versus oxygen deficiency. A Crr1-independent pathway for Hyd1 expression in oxygen-depleted C. reinhardtii demonstrates the existence of multiple oxygen/redox-responsive circuits in this model organism. PMID:11842150

  11. Massive stars on the verge of exploding: the properties of oxygen sequence Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramper, F.; Straal, S. M.; Sanyal, D.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Gräfener, G.; Langer, N.; Vink, J. S.; de Mink, S. E.; Kaper, L.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Oxygen sequence Wolf-Rayet (WO) stars are a very rare stage in the evolution of massive stars. Their spectra show strong emission lines of helium-burning products, in particular highly ionized carbon and oxygen. The properties of WO stars can be used to provide unique constraints on the (post-)helium burning evolution of massive stars, and their remaining lifetimes and the expected properties of their supernovae. Aims: We aim to homogeneously analyze the currently known presumed-single WO stars to obtain the key stellar and outflow properties and to constrain their evolutionary state. Methods: We use the line-blanketed non-local thermal equilibrium atmosphere code cmfgen to model the X-Shooter spectra of the WO stars and to deduce the atmospheric parameters. We calculate dedicated evolutionary models to determine the evolutionary state of the stars. Results: The WO stars have extremely high temperatures that range from 150 kK to 210 kK, and very low surface helium mass fractions that range from 44% down to 14%. Their properties can be reproduced by evolutionary models with helium zero-age main sequence masses of MHe,ini = 15-25 M⊙ that exhibit a fairly strong (a few times 10-5M⊙ yr-1), homogeneous (fc> 0.3) stellar wind. Conclusions: WO stars represent the final evolutionary stage of stars with estimated initial masses of Mini = 40-60 M⊙. They are post core-helium burning and predicted to explode as type Ic supernovae within a few thousand years. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory under program IDs 091.C-0934 and 093.D-0591.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Oxygen transport properties estimation by classical trajectory-direct simulation Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Domenico; Frezzotti, Aldo; Ghiroldi, Gian Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Coupling direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations with classical trajectory calculations is a powerful tool to improve predictive capabilities of computational dilute gas dynamics. The considerable increase in computational effort outlined in early applications of the method can be compensated by running simulations on massively parallel computers. In particular, Graphics Processing Unit acceleration has been found quite effective in reducing computing time of classical trajectory (CT)-DSMC simulations. The aim of the present work is to study dilute molecular oxygen flows by modeling binary collisions, in the rigid rotor approximation, through an accurate Potential Energy Surface (PES), obtained by molecular beams scattering. The PES accuracy is assessed by calculating molecular oxygen transport properties by different equilibrium and non-equilibrium CT-DSMC based simulations that provide close values of the transport properties. Comparisons with available experimental data are presented and discussed in the temperature range 300-900 K, where vibrational degrees of freedom are expected to play a limited (but not always negligible) role.

  13. Oxygen transport properties estimation by classical trajectory–direct simulation Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Domenico; Frezzotti, Aldo Ghiroldi, Gian Pietro

    2015-05-15

    Coupling direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations with classical trajectory calculations is a powerful tool to improve predictive capabilities of computational dilute gas dynamics. The considerable increase in computational effort outlined in early applications of the method can be compensated by running simulations on massively parallel computers. In particular, Graphics Processing Unit acceleration has been found quite effective in reducing computing time of classical trajectory (CT)-DSMC simulations. The aim of the present work is to study dilute molecular oxygen flows by modeling binary collisions, in the rigid rotor approximation, through an accurate Potential Energy Surface (PES), obtained by molecular beams scattering. The PES accuracy is assessed by calculating molecular oxygen transport properties by different equilibrium and non-equilibrium CT-DSMC based simulations that provide close values of the transport properties. Comparisons with available experimental data are presented and discussed in the temperature range 300–900 K, where vibrational degrees of freedom are expected to play a limited (but not always negligible) role.

  14. Influence of Fabricating Process on Gas Sensing Properties of ZnO Nanofiber-Based Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yong; Dong, Liang

    2011-04-01

    ZnO nanofibers are synthesized by an electrospinning method and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two types of gas sensors are fabricated by loading these nanofibers as the sensing materials and their performances are investigated in detail. Compared with the sensors based on traditional ceramic tubes with Au electrodes (traditional sensors), the sensors fabricated by spinning ZnO nanofibers on ceramic planes with Ag-Pd electrodes (plane sensors) exhibit much higher sensing properties. The sensitivity for the plane sensors is about 30 to 100 ppm ethanol at 300°C, while the value is only 13 for the traditional sensors. The response and recovery times are about 2 and 3s for the plane sensors and are 3 and 6s for the traditional sensors, respectively. Lower minimum-detection-limit is also found for the plane sensors. These improvements are explained by considering the morphological damage in the fabricating process for traditional sensors. The results suggest that the plane sensors are more suitable to sensing investigation for higher veracity.

  15. On the radiative properties of ice clouds: Light scattering, remote sensing, and radiation parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Bi, Lei; Liu, Chao; Yi, Bingqi; Baum, Bryan A.

    2015-01-01

    Presented is a review of the radiative properties of ice clouds from three perspectives: light scattering simulations, remote sensing applications, and broadband radiation parameterizations appropriate for numerical models. On the subject of light scattering simulations, several classical computational approaches are reviewed, including the conventional geometric-optics method and its improved forms, the finite-difference time domain technique, the pseudo-spectral time domain technique, the discrete dipole approximation method, and the T-matrix method, with specific applications to the computation of the single-scattering properties of individual ice crystals. The strengths and weaknesses associated with each approach are discussed. With reference to remote sensing, operational retrieval algorithms are reviewed for retrieving cloud optical depth and effective particle size based on solar or thermal infrared (IR) bands. To illustrate the performance of the current solar- and IR-based retrievals, two case studies are presented based on spaceborne observations. The need for a more realistic ice cloud optical model to obtain spectrally consistent retrievals is demonstrated. Furthermore, to complement ice cloud property studies based on passive radiometric measurements, the advantage of incorporating lidar and/or polarimetric measurements is discussed. The performance of ice cloud models based on the use of different ice habits to represent ice particles is illustrated by comparing model results with satellite observations. A summary is provided of a number of parameterization schemes for ice cloud radiative properties that were developed for application to broadband radiative transfer submodels within general circulation models (GCMs). The availability of the single-scattering properties of complex ice habits has led to more accurate radiation parameterizations. In conclusion, the importance of using nonspherical ice particle models in GCM simulations for climate

  16. [The Influence of Oxygen Incorporation on the Microstructure and Band Gap Properties of the nc-Si Films].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhao-yi; Yu, Wei; Liu, Jian--Ping; Liu, Hai-xu; Yin, Chen-chen; Ding, Wen-ge

    2015-04-01

    The authors prepared nc-SiOx: H thin films using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition methods (PECVD) and investigated the influence of oxygen incorporation on the microstructure and band gap properties of the films. The results indicated that with the increase in oxygen mixing ratio (CO2/SiH4), the grain size of the nanocrystal-silicon grain as well as the crystallinity of the film reduced, and the surface tensile stress of the nanocrystal-silicon grain first increased and then decreased. Fourier infrared absorption spectra analysis indicated that, with the increase in oxygen mixing ratio, the intensity of the oxygen rich Si--O bond increased while that of the silicon rich Si--O bond decreased and the structure factor reduced in the meantime accompanied by the improved order degree of thin films. The structure factor increased when the oxygen mixing ratio exceeded 0.08, which shows that the order degree of thin films dropped. In addition, the optical gap increased and the band tail width first increased and then decreased as a result of the incorporation of the oxygen. As a result, the microstructure and band gap properties of the films can be controlled by incorporating oxygen. And the crystallinity and optical gap of the material was high, and the microstructure of the films was improved at the same time when the oxygen mixing ratio was 0. 08, so it can be used as intrinsic layer of the thin-film solar cells. PMID:26197606

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and gas-sensing properties of monodispersed SnO{sub 2} nanocubes

    SciTech Connect

    Runa, A; Bala, Hari E-mail: fuwy56@163.com; Wang, Yan; Chen, Jingkuo; Zhang, Bowen; Li, Huayang; Fu, Wuyou E-mail: fuwy56@163.com; Wang, Xiaodong; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying

    2014-08-04

    Monodispersed single-crystalline SnO{sub 2} nanocubes with exposed a large percentage of high-energy surfaces have been synthesized by a simple solvothermal process at low temperature without any templates and catalysts. The as-prepared samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Many outstanding characters of the final products have been shown, such as uniform particle size, high purity, and monodispersity. In property, superior gas-sensing properties such as high response, rapid response-recovery time, and good selectivity have also been shown to ethanol at an optimal working temperature of as low as 280 °C. It indicates that the as-prepared SnO{sub 2} nanocubes are promising for gas sensors.

  18. Application of symmetry properties to polarimetric remote sensing with JPL AIRSAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Yueh, Simon H.; Kwok, R.; Li, F. K.

    1992-01-01

    Based on symmetry properties, polarimetric remote sensing of geophysical media is studied. From the viewpoint of symmetry groups, media with reflection, rotation, azimuthal, and centrical symmetries are considered. The symmetries impose relations among polarimetric scattering coefficients, which are valid to all scattering mechanisms in the symmetrical configurations. Various orientation distributions of non-spherical scatterers can be identified from the scattering coefficients by a comparison with the symmetry calculations. Experimental observations are then analyzed for many geophysical scenes acquired with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) airborne polarimetric SAR at microwave frequencies over sea ice and vegetation. Polarimetric characteristics of different ice types are compared with symmetry behaviors. The polarimetric response of a tropical rain forest reveals characteristics close to the centrical symmetry properties, which can be used as a distributed target to relatively calibrate polarimetric radars without any deployment of manmade calibration targets.

  19. Evaluation of gas-sensing properties of ZnO nanostructures electrochemically doped with Au nanophases

    PubMed Central

    Penza, Michele; Alvisi, Marco; Di Franco, Cinzia; Palmisano, Francesco; Torsi, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Summary A one-step electrochemical method based on sacrificial anode electrolysis (SAE) was used to deposit stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) directly on the surface of nanostructured ZnO powders, previously synthesized through a sol–gel process. The effect of thermal annealing temperatures (300 and 550 °C) on chemical, morphological, and structural properties of pristine and Au-doped ZnO nancomposites (Au@ZnO) was investigated. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), revealed the successful deposition of nanoscale gold on the surface of spherical and rod-like ZnO nanostructures, obtained after annealing at 300 and 550 °C, respectively. The pristine ZnO and Au@ZnO nanocomposites are proposed as active layer in chemiresistive gas sensors for low-cost processing. Gas-sensing measurements towards NO2 were collected at 300 °C, evaluating not only the Au-doping effect, but also the influence of the different ZnO nanostructures on the gas-sensing properties. PMID:26925349

  20. Application of Multitemporal Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture for the Estimation of Soil Physical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattikalli, N. M.; Engman, E. T.; Jackson, T. J.; Ahuja, L. R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of multitemporal soil moisture derived from microwave remote sensing to estimate soil physical properties. The passive microwave ESTAR instrument was employed during June 10-18, 1992, to obtain brightness temperature (TB) and surface soil moisture data in the Little Washita watershed, Oklahoma. Analyses of spatial and temporal variations of TB and soil moisture during the dry-down period revealed a direct relationship between changes in T and soil moisture and soil physical (viz. texture) and hydraulic (viz. saturated hydraulic conductivity, K(sat)) properties. Statistically significant regression relationships were developed for the ratio of percent sand to percent clay (RSC) and K(sat), in terms of change components of TB and surface soil moisture. Validation of results using field measured values and soil texture map indicated that both RSC and K(sat) can be estimated with reasonable accuracy. These findings have potential applications of microwave remote sensing to obtain quick estimates of the spatial distributions of K(sat), over large areas for input parameterization of hydrologic models.

  1. Excellent ethanol sensing properties based on Er2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang-Bai; He, Ying; Wang, Sheng-Lei

    2015-11-01

    In this work, pure α-Fe2O3 and Er2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes were synthesized by a simple single-capillary electrospinning technology followed by calcination treatment. The morphologies and crystal structures of the as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, respectively. The gas-sensing properties of the as-prepared samples have been researched, and the result shows that the Er2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes exhibit much better sensitivity to ethanol. The response value of Er2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes to 10 ppm ethanol is 21 at the operating temperature 240°, which is 14 times larger than that of pure α-Fe2O3 nanotubes (response value is 1.5). The ethanol sensing properties of α-Fe2O3 nanotubes are remarkably enhanced by doping Er, and the lowest detection limit of Er2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes is 300 ppb, to which the response value is about 2. The response and recovery times are about 4 s and 70 s to 10 ppm ethanol, respectively. In addition, the Er2O3-Fe2O3 nanotubes possess good selectivity and long-term stability. Project supported by Jilin Provincial Science and Technology Department, China (Grant No. 20140204027GX) and the Challenge Cup for College Students, China (Grant No. 450060497053).

  2. Polarimetric remote sensing in oxygen A and B bands: sensitivity study and information content analysis for vertical profile of aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shouguo; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang

    2016-05-01

    Theoretical analysis is conducted to reveal the information content of aerosol vertical profile in space-borne measurements of the backscattered radiance and degree of linear polarization (DOLP) in oxygen (O2) A and B bands. Assuming a quasi-Gaussian shape for aerosol vertical profile characterized by peak height H and half width γ (at half maximum), the Unified Linearized Vector Radiative Transfer Model (UNL-VRTM) is used to simulate the Stokes four-vector elements of upwelling radiation at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and their Jacobians with respect to H and γ. Calculations for different aerosol types and different combinations of H and γ values show that the wide range of gas absorption optical depth in O2 A and B band enables the sensitivity of backscattered DOLP and radiance at TOA to the aerosol layer at different altitudes. Quantitatively, DOLP in O2 A and B bands is found to be more sensitive to H and γ than radiance, especially over the bright surfaces (with large visible reflectance). In many O2 absorption wavelengths, the degree of freedom of signal (DFS) for retrieving H (or γ) generally increases with H (and γ) and can be close to unity in many cases, assuming that the composite uncertainty from surface and aerosol scattering properties as well as measurements is less than 5 %. Further analysis demonstrates that DFS needed for simultaneous retrieval of H and γ can be obtained from a combined use of DOLP measurements at ˜ 10-100 O2 A and B absorption wavelengths (or channels), depending on the specific values of H. The higher the aerosol layer, the fewer number of channels for DOLP measurements in O2 A and B bands are needed for characterizing H and γ. Future hyperspectral measurements of DOLP in O2 A and B bands are needed to continue studying their potential and their combination with radiance and DOLP in atmospheric window channels for retrieving the vertical profiles of aerosols, especially highly scattering aerosols, over land.

  3. Spectral properties of water ice and contaminants. [of importance to remote sensing of ice in solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, P. G.; Clark, R. N.

    1985-01-01

    For remote sensing studies of ices in the solar system, it is important to understand the optical properties of water ice, and mixtures of ice and particulate materials. The present paper has the objective to review the current understanding of the spectral properties of ice, and mixtures of ice and particulates. The review is to provide a basis for the understanding of the remote sensing of ice. It is found that reflectance spectra of ice-soil intimate mixtures are complex, nonlinear functions of the optical and physical properties of the components which comprise the surface.

  4. MOF-templated synthesis of porous Co(3)O(4) concave nanocubes with high specific surface area and their gas sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Lü, Yinyun; Zhan, Wenwen; He, Yue; Wang, Yiting; Kong, Xiangjian; Kuang, Qin; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Zheng, Lansun

    2014-03-26

    Porous metal oxides nanomaterials with controlled morphology have received great attention because of their promising applications in catalysis, energy storage and conversion, gas sensing, etc. In this paper, porous Co3O4 concave nanocubes with extremely high specific surface area (120.9 m(2)·g(-1)) were synthesized simply by calcining Co-based metal-organic framework (Co-MOF, ZIF-67) templates at the optimized temperature (300 °C), and the formation mechanism of such highly porous structures as well as the influence of the calcination temperature are well explained by taking into account thermal behavior and intrinsic structural features of the Co-MOF precursors. The gas-sensing properties of the as-synthesized porous Co3O4 concave nanocubes were systematically tested towards volatile organic compounds including ethanol, acetone, toluene, and benzene. Experimental results reveal that the porous Co3O4 concave nanocubes present the highest sensitivity to ethanol with fast response/recovery time (< 10 s) and a low detection limit (at least 10 ppm). Such outstanding gas sensing performance of the porous Co3O4 concave nanocubes benefits from their high porosity, large specific surface area, and remarkable capabilities of surface-adsorbed oxygen. PMID:24559195

  5. Role of oxygen on the optical properties of borate glass doped with ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Baki, Manal; El-Diasty, Fouad

    2011-10-15

    Lithium tungsten borate glass (0.56-x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.4Li{sub 2}O-xZnO-0.04WO{sub 3} (0{<=}x{<=}0.1 mol%) is prepared by the melt quenching technique for photonic applications. Small relative values of ZnO are used to improve the glass optical dispersion and to probe as well the role of oxygen electronic polarizability on its optical characteristics. The spectroscopic properties of the glass are determined in a wide spectrum range (200-2500 nm) using a Fresnel-based spectrophotometric technique. Based on the Lorentz-Lorenz theory, as ZnO content increases on the expense of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} the glass molar polarizability increased due to an enhanced unshared oxide ion 2p electron density, which increases ionicity of the chemical bonds of glass. The role of oxide ion polarizability is explained in accordance with advanced measures and theories such as optical basicity, O 1s binding energy, the outer most cation binding energy in Yamashita-Kurosawa's interionic interaction parameter and Sun's average single bond strength. FT-IR measurements confirm an increase in bridging oxygen bonds, as a result of replacement of ZnO by B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which increase the UV glass transmission window and transmittance. - Graphical abstract: O1s, Yamashita-Kurosawa's parameter and average single bond strength of charge overlapping between electronic shells are used to explain enhanced oxide ion 2p electron density, which increases refractive index of glasses. Highlights: > New borate glass for photonic application is prepared. > The dispersion property of the glass is effectively controlled using small amounts of ZnO. > ZnO is used to probe the glass structure and investigate the role of oxygen on the obtained optical properties of the glasses. > Modern theories are used to explain enhanced unshared oxide ion 2p electron density, which increases ionicity of chemical bonds of the glass.

  6. Electrical Resistivity-Based Study of Self-Sensing Properties for Shape Memory Alloy-Actuated Artificial Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Jun; Yin, Yue-Hong; Zhu, Jian-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) has great potential to develop light and compact artificial muscle (AM) due to its muscle-like high power-to-weight ratio, flexibility and silent operation properties. In this paper, SMA self-sensing properties are explored and modeled in depth to imitate the integrated muscle-like functions of actuating and self-sensing for SMA-AM based on the investigation of SMA electrical resistivity (ER). Firstly, an ER transformation kinetics model is proposed based on the simulation of SMA differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves. Then a series of thermal-electrical-mechanical experiments are carried out to verify the validity of the ER model, whereby the SMA-AM self-sensing function is well established under different stress conditions. Finally the self-sensing capability is further demonstrated by its application to a novel SMA-AM-actuated active ankle-foot orthosis (AAFO). PMID:24077316

  7. Hybrid Gas Sensing and Transport Properties of Few-Walled CNTs Decorated with Discrete SnO₂ Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Kamalakannan; Shanmugam, Ilango; Kamruddin, Mohammed; Tyagi, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    CVD grown, few walled carbon nanotubes (FWCNTs) were quasi decorated with SnO₂nanoparticles (FWCNTs-SnO₂) and its gas sensing properties were analyzed with ammonia and ethanol. At room temperature FWCNTs-SnO₂show enhanced 'p type' gas sensing response than FWCNTs. Activation of SnO₂at high temperatures led to systematic changes in the sensing behavior towards 'n type' response. Temperature dependent transport behavior was found to be a one dimensional variable range hopping mechanism (1 D-VRH) for the FWCNTs and a 3D-VRH mechanism for the FWCNTs-SnO2. These temperature dependent gas transport and sensing properties elucidate the hybrid nature of the nanocomposite with novel characteristics. This also implies its importance as a potential gas sensor material. PMID:27398589

  8. Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the physical properties of Ag doped NiO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Y. Ashok Kumar; Reddy, A. Sivasankar; Reddy, P. Sreedhara

    2013-06-01

    Ag doped p-type NiO thin films were successfully deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique at different oxygen partial pressures in the range 1 × 10-4 - 9 × 10-4 mbar. The structural and morphological properties of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). All the deposited films were of polycrystalline nature and exhibited cubic structure with preferential growth. The morphological studies revealed that the surface roughness was increased with increasing oxygen partial pressure up to 5 × 10-4 mbar and decreased at higher oxygen partial pressures.

  9. Enhancing the photoelectrochemical properties of titanium dioxide by thermal treatment in oxygen deficient environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Aadesh P.; Kodan, Nisha; Mehta, Bodh R.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of thermal treatment on TiO2 thin films under oxygen deficient environment (5% H2 in Ar) at partial pressure of 2 × 10-2 Torr have been studied for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting application. Thermal treatment in anatase TiO2 thin films exhibits a shift in optical absorption from UV to visible region and activates TiO2 for water splitting application under visible light. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the thermal treated thin films contain oxygen vacancies, which suggests improved charge transport. Optical absorption, X-ray spectroscopy (XPS) and Kelvin probe force microscope (KPFM) studies show reduction in band gap by 0.36 eV, shift in valence band maximum by 0.49 eV towards the Fermi level and work function values by 0.3 eV towards the vacuum level. The pristine TiO2 thin films exhibit very less photoactivity in terms of photocurrent density, whereas thermally treated thin films displayed a markedly enhanced photocurrent density of ∼2.41 mA/cm2 at 0.23 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Higher values of photocurrent density in thermal treated TiO2 films have been explained in terms of change in the optical and electrical properties along with energy band diagram.

  10. Drug-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) rely on cell membrane properties to exert anticancer effects

    PubMed Central

    Molavian, Hamid R.; Goldman, Aaron; Phipps, Colin J.; Kohandel, Mohammad; Wouters, Bradly G.; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological concentrations of small molecule natural products, such as ascorbic acid, have exhibited distinct cell killing outcomes between cancer and normal cells whereby cancer cells undergo apoptosis or necrosis while normal cells are not adversely affected. Here, we develop a mathematical model for ascorbic acid that can be utilized as a tool to understand the dynamics of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced cell death. We determine that not only do endogenous antioxidants such as catalase contribute to ROS-induced cell death, but also cell membrane properties play a critical role in the efficacy of ROS as a cytotoxic mechanism against cancer cells vs. normal cells. Using in vitro assays with breast cancer cells, we have confirmed that cell membrane properties are essential for ROS, in the form of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), to induce cell death. Interestingly, we did not observe any correlation between intracellular H2O2 and cell survival, suggesting that cell death by H2O2 is triggered by interaction with the cell membrane and not necessarily due to intracellular levels of H2O2. These findings provide a putative mechanistic explanation for the efficacy and selectivity of therapies such as ascorbic acid that rely on ROS-induced cell death for their anti-tumor properties. PMID:27278439

  11. Spectroscopic insights on imidazole substituted phthalocyanine photosensitizers: fluorescence properties, triplet state and singlet oxygen generation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian-Fu; Lin, Yong; Guo, Wenfeng; Zhu, Jingzhong

    2014-12-10

    Imidazole substituted metal phthalocyanine (Pc) complexes were synthesized. UV-vis absorption, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence, as well as laser flash photolysis were used to measure the photophysical and photosensitizing properties. All the imidazole-phthalocyanine conjugates show high ΦT (quantum yield of excited triplet formation), high ΦΔ (singlet oxygen formation yield, >0.50) and good fluorescence properties (quantum yield Φf>0.20 and lifetime τf>3.0 ns). Compared to the unsubstituted Pc, both α- and β-imidazole substitutions result in the remarkable decrease in Φf and τf, but the α-substitution is stronger. The imidazole substitution, on the other hand, causes the increase of ΦT, τT, and ΦΔ values. Magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPc) is more susceptible to the substitution than zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc). The mechanism responsible for the result is suggested based on the involvement of intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer. The high ΦΔ and appropriate fluorescence properties make the Pcs good candidate for PDT photosensitizers. PMID:24997445

  12. Spectroscopic insights on imidazole substituted phthalocyanine photosensitizers: Fluorescence properties, triplet state and singlet oxygen generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian-Fu; Lin, Yong; Guo, Wenfeng; Zhu, Jingzhong

    2014-12-01

    Imidazole substituted metal phthalocyanine (Pc) complexes were synthesized. UV-vis absorption, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence, as well as laser flash photolysis were used to measure the photophysical and photosensitizing properties. All the imidazole-phthalocyanine conjugates show high ΦT (quantum yield of excited triplet formation), high ΦΔ (singlet oxygen formation yield, >0.50) and good fluorescence properties (quantum yield Φf > 0.20 and lifetime τf > 3.0 ns). Compared to the unsubstituted Pc, both α- and β-imidazole substitutions result in the remarkable decrease in Φf and τf, but the α-substitution is stronger. The imidazole substitution, on the other hand, causes the increase of ΦT, τT, and ΦΔ values. Magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPc) is more susceptible to the substitution than zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc). The mechanism responsible for the result is suggested based on the involvement of intramolecular photoinduced electron transfer. The high ΦΔ and appropriate fluorescence properties make the Pcs good candidate for PDT photosensitizers.

  13. Graphene functionalization with nitrogen and oxygen: controlled modification of the electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brommer, Peter; Marsden, Alexander; Wilson, Neil; Bell, Gavin; Quigley, David

    2014-03-01

    For many applications it is essential to modify the electronic properties of graphene in a controlled fashion. This can be achieved via oxygen and nitrogen functionalization in ultra-high vacuum, leading to a system in which electronic and structural properties can be systematically studied. Here we present insights from DFT calculations on functionalized graphene systems, such as the low-energy configurations and simulated transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, binding energies and effective band structures (EBS) of the N and O decorated graphene sheets. We directly compare our results with experiments on CVD grown graphene. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES - performed at the Antares beamline of Synchrotron SOLEIL, France) resolves the band structure changes on functionalization, whilst the simulated TEM images provide feedback for the interpretation of low-voltage aberration-corrected TEM measurements. Combined, the computational and experimental results have important implications for the manipulation of electronic properties in graphene by controlled functionalization. We acknowledge funding by the EPSRC through grant number EP/H00341X/1.

  14. Drug-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) rely on cell membrane properties to exert anticancer effects.

    PubMed

    Molavian, Hamid R; Goldman, Aaron; Phipps, Colin J; Kohandel, Mohammad; Wouters, Bradly G; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological concentrations of small molecule natural products, such as ascorbic acid, have exhibited distinct cell killing outcomes between cancer and normal cells whereby cancer cells undergo apoptosis or necrosis while normal cells are not adversely affected. Here, we develop a mathematical model for ascorbic acid that can be utilized as a tool to understand the dynamics of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced cell death. We determine that not only do endogenous antioxidants such as catalase contribute to ROS-induced cell death, but also cell membrane properties play a critical role in the efficacy of ROS as a cytotoxic mechanism against cancer cells vs. normal cells. Using in vitro assays with breast cancer cells, we have confirmed that cell membrane properties are essential for ROS, in the form of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), to induce cell death. Interestingly, we did not observe any correlation between intracellular H2O2 and cell survival, suggesting that cell death by H2O2 is triggered by interaction with the cell membrane and not necessarily due to intracellular levels of H2O2. These findings provide a putative mechanistic explanation for the efficacy and selectivity of therapies such as ascorbic acid that rely on ROS-induced cell death for their anti-tumor properties. PMID:27278439

  15. Assimilation of remotely-sensed optical properties to improve marine biogeochemistry modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciavatta, Stefano; Torres, Ricardo; Martinez-Vicente, Victor; Smyth, Timothy; Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Polimene, Luca; Allen, J. Icarus

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we evaluate whether the assimilation of remotely-sensed optical data into a marine ecosystem model improves the simulation of biogeochemistry in a shelf sea. A localized Ensemble Kalman filter was used to assimilate weekly diffuse light attenuation coefficient data, Kd(443) from SeaWiFs, into an ecosystem model of the western English Channel. The spatial distributions of (unassimilated) surface chlorophyll from satellite, and a multivariate time series of eighteen biogeochemical and optical variables measured in situ at one long-term monitoring site were used to evaluate the system performance for the year 2006. Assimilation reduced the root mean square error and improved the correlation with the assimilated Kd(443) observations, for both the analysis and, to a lesser extent, the forecast estimates, when compared to the reference model simulation. Improvements in the simulation of (unassimilated) ocean colour chlorophyll were less evident, and in some parts of the Channel the simulation of this data deteriorated. The estimation errors for the (unassimilated) in situ data were reduced for most variables with some exceptions, e.g. dissolved nitrogen. Importantly, the assimilation adjusted the balance of ecosystem processes by shifting the simulated food web towards the microbial loop, thus improving the estimation of some properties, e.g. total particulate carbon. Assimilation of Kd(443) outperformed a comparative chlorophyll assimilation experiment, in both the estimation of ocean colour data and in the simulation of independent in situ data. These results are related to relatively low error in Kd(443) data, and because it is a bulk optical property of marine ecosystems. Assimilation of remotely-sensed optical properties is a promising approach to improve the simulation of biogeochemical and optical variables that are relevant for ecosystem functioning and climate change studies.

  16. Cellulose-nanofiber/polygalacturonic acid coatings with high oxygen barrier and targeted release properties.

    PubMed

    Mølgaard, Susanne L; Henriksson, Marielle; Cárdenas, Marité; Svagan, Anna J

    2014-12-19

    A bio-inspired coating consisting of pectin (polygalacturonic acid) and cationic cellulose nanofibers were successfully produced by the layer-by-layer method. The build-up and the morphology of the resulting coatings were studied with spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The coating was able to survive the exposure of a simulated gastric fluid, but was partially degraded upon exposure to pectinase enzyme, which simulate the action of the microbial symbionts present in the human colon. Prior to exposure, the oxygen permeability coefficient of the coating (0.033 ml(STP)mmm(-2)day(-1)atm(-1) at 23°C and 20% RH) was in the same order of magnitude as for ethylene vinyl alcohol films (0.001-0.01 ml(STP)mmm(-2)day(-1)atm(-1)). However, after exposure to the mimicked gastrointestinal (GI) tract conditions, the contribution of coating to the overall barrier properties was not measurable. PMID:25263879

  17. Optical Properties of Oxygen Plasma-Treated Carbon Nanowalls Grown on Glass Substrates.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong Ho; Choi, Won Seok

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we investigated the effect of oxygen (02) plasma treatment on a synthesized carbon nanowall (CNW). A microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system was facilitated to grow CNWs on a glass, using a mixture of CH4 and H2 gases. First, the CNWs were post-plasma-treated for different treatment durations, and then their optical properties were analyzed. In addition, the cross-sectional and planar images of the CNWs were examined via field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) depending on the different post-plasma-treatment durations. Then the structural characteristics were analyzed via Raman spectroscopy, and the changes in the light transmittance depending on the O2 plasma treatment durations were analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The effects of the post-plasma treatments on the synthesized CNWs were evaluated. The results confirmed that O2 gas is effective for plasma etching of CNWs. PMID:27483919

  18. Thermal properties of PrBa 2Cu 4O 8 prepared at ambient oxygen pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H. D.; Lin, C. W.; Lin, J.-Y.; Meen, T. H.; Tsay, H. L.; Huang, J. C.; Sheen, S. R.; Wu, M. K.

    1997-08-01

    Polycrystalline PrBa 2Cu 4O 8 (Pr124) has been prepared at ambient oxygen pressure by nitrite pyrolysis method. Powder x-ray-diffraction patterns show a nearly single R124 phase. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that its thermal stability is distinct from that of Pr123. Specific heat C has been measured from 0.5 to 40 K, and is very similar to that of Pr123. A maximum of C occurs around 17 K which could be due to a magnetic ordering. Entropy difference ΔS has been calculated from ΔC/ T between Pr124 and Y124. The possible origins of ΔS and the related magnetic properties are discussed. Resistivity ϱ( T) of Pr124 shows a nearly metallic behavior similar to what was observed in Pr124 made by the O 2-HIP technique. The metallic ϱ( T) at low temperatures is of interest and will be discussed.

  19. Enhancing dissolved oxygen control using an on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingzhi; Wan, Jinquan; Hu, Kang; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan

    2013-12-01

    An on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system was developed to optimize dissolved oxygen concentration in a bench-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O) process. In order to improve the performance of the control system, a self-adapted fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm and adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were employed. The proposed control system permits the on-line implementation of every operating strategy of the experimental system. A set of experiments involving variable hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent pH (pH), dissolved oxygen in the aerobic reactor (DO), and mixed-liquid return ratio (r) was carried out. Using the proposed system, the amount of COD in the effluent stabilized at the set-point and below. The improvement was achieved with optimum dissolved oxygen concentration because the performance of the treatment process was optimized using operating rules implemented in real time. The system allows various expert operational approaches to be deployed with the goal of minimizing organic substances in the outlet while using the minimum amount of energy. PMID:24052227

  20. Ratiometric Molecular Probes Based on Dual Emission of a Blue Fluorescent Coumarin and a Red Phosphorescent Cationic Iridium(III) Complex for Intracellular Oxygen Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihara, Toshitada; Murayama, Saori; Tobita, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Ratiometric molecular probes RP1 and RP2 consisting of a blue fluorescent coumarin and a red phosphorescent cationic iridium complex connected by a tetra- or octaproline linker, respectively, were designed and synthesized for sensing oxygen levels in living cells. These probes exhibited dual emission with good spectral separation in acetonitrile. The photorelaxation processes, including intramolecular energy transfer, were revealed by emission quantum yield and lifetime measurements. The ratios (RI=(Ip/If)) between the phosphorescence (Ip) and fluorescence (If) intensities showed excellent oxygen responses; the ratio of RI under degassed and aerated conditions (RI0/RI) was 20.3 and 19.6 for RP1 and RP2. The introduction of the cationic Ir (III) complex improved the cellular uptake efficiency compared to that of a neutral analogue with a tetraproline linker. The emission spectra of the ratiometric probes internalized into living HeLa or MCF-7 cells could be obtained using a conventional microplate reader. The complex RP2 with an octaproline linker provided ratios comparable to the ratiometric measurements obtained using a microplate reader: the ratio of the RI value of RP2 under hypoxia (2.5% O2) to that under normoxia (21% O2) was 1.5 and 1.7 for HeLa and MCF-7 cells, respectively. Thus, the intracellular oxygen levels of MCF-7 cells could be imaged by ratiometric emission measurements using the complex RP2. PMID:26066988

  1. Oxygen Nanodistributions in Cobalt-Iron Electrodeposited Thin Films: Some Effects on Magnetic Properties High Resolution Analytical Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhalawaty, Shereen

    Soft magnetic alloys play a significant role for magnetic recording applications and highly sensitivity magnetic field sensors. In order to sustain the magnetic areal density growth, development of new synthesis techniques and materials is necessary. In this work, the effect of oxygen incorporation during electrodeposition of CoFe alloys on magnetic properties, magnetoresistance and structural properties has been studied. Understanding the magnetic properties often required knowledge of oxygen distribution and structural properties of the grown films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was a powerful tool in this study to correlate the oxygen-distribution nanostructure to the magnetic properties of deposited films. Off-axis electron holography in TEM was used to measure magnetic domain wall width in the deposited films. Elemental depth profiles of Fe, Co, O were investigated by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Magnetic properties have been determined by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements. Oxygen content in the CoFe deposited films was controlled by electrolyte composition. Films were deposited on Si 100 substrates and on other substrates such as Cu and Al. However, a good film quality was achieved on Si substrate. Electron energy loss and x-ray spectroscopies showed that the low oxygen films contained intragranular Fe2+ oxide (FeO) particles and that the high oxygen films contained intergranular Fe 3+ (Fe2O3) along grain boundaries. The films with oxide present at the grain boundary had significantly increased coercivity, magnetoresistance and reduced saturation magnetization relative to the lower oxygen content films with intragranular oxide. The differences in magnetic properties between low oxygen and high oxygen concentration films were attributed to stronger mobile domain wall interactions with the grain boundary oxide layers. The very high magnetoresistance values were achieved for magnetic devices with nanocontact

  2. Enhanced ethanol gas sensing properties of SnO₂-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tharsika, T; Haseeb, A S M A; Akbar, Sheikh A; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Hoong, Wong Yew

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive single-step carbon-assisted thermal evaporation method for the growth of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures is described, and the ethanol sensing properties are presented. The structure and phases of the grown nanostructures are investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. XRD analysis indicates that the core-shell nanostructures have good crystallinity. At a lower growth duration of 15 min, only SnO2 nanowires with a rectangular cross-section are observed, while the ZnO shell is observed when the growth time is increased to 30 min. Core-shell hierarchical nanostructures are present for a growth time exceeding 60 min. The growth mechanism for SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanowires and hierarchical nanostructures are also discussed. The sensitivity of the synthesized SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards ethanol sensing is investigated. Results show that the SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures deposited at 90 min exhibit enhanced sensitivity to ethanol. The sensitivity of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards 20 ppm ethanol gas at 400 °C is about ~5-times that of SnO2 nanowires. This improvement in ethanol gas response is attributed to high active sensing sites and the synergistic effect of the encapsulation of SnO2 by ZnO nanostructures. PMID:25116903

  3. Enhanced Ethanol Gas Sensing Properties of SnO2-Core/ZnO-Shell Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Tharsika, T.; Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Akbar, Sheikh A.; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Hoong, Wong Yew

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive single-step carbon-assisted thermal evaporation method for the growth of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures is described, and the ethanol sensing properties are presented. The structure and phases of the grown nanostructures are investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. XRD analysis indicates that the core-shell nanostructures have good crystallinity. At a lower growth duration of 15 min, only SnO2 nanowires with a rectangular cross-section are observed, while the ZnO shell is observed when the growth time is increased to 30 min. Core-shell hierarchical nanostructures are present for a growth time exceeding 60 min. The growth mechanism for SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanowires and hierarchical nanostructures are also discussed. The sensitivity of the synthesized SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards ethanol sensing is investigated. Results show that the SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures deposited at 90 min exhibit enhanced sensitivity to ethanol. The sensitivity of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards 20 ppm ethanol gas at 400 °C is about ∼5-times that of SnO2 nanowires. This improvement in ethanol gas response is attributed to high active sensing sites and the synergistic effect of the encapsulation of SnO2 by ZnO nanostructures. PMID:25116903

  4. Plasmonic Properties of Bimetallic Nanostructures and Their Applications in Hydrogen Sensing and Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ruibin

    Noble metal nanocrystals have attracted great interest from a wide range of research fields because of their intriguing properties endowed by their localized surface plasmon resonances, which are the collective oscillations of free electrons. Under resonant excitation, metal nanostructures exhibit very large scattering and absorption cross sections and large near-field enhancement. These extraordinary properties can be used in different applications, such as plasmonic sensing and imaging, plasmon-controlled optics, photothermal therapy, photocatalysis, solar cells, and so on. Gold and Silver nanocrystals have plasmon resonances in the visible and near-infrared regions. However, gold and silver are not suitable for some applications. For example, they are generally inactive for catalyzing chemical reactions. The integration of plasmonic metals with other metals can offer superior or new physical/chemical properties. In this thesis, I prepared Au/Ag and Au/Pd bimetallic nanostructures and studied their plasmonic properties and applications in hydrogen sensing and photocatalysis. Seeds have a crucial importance in the synthesis of bimetallic nanostructures. I therefore first studied the roles of the crystalline structure and shape of seeds on the overgrowth of bimetallic nanostructures. The overgrowth of silver and palladium on single crystalline Au nanorods, multicrystalline Au nanorods, and nanobipyramids were studied under the same conditions for each metal. The growths of silver and palladium on single crystalline Au nanorods gave cuboidal nanostructures, while rod-shaped nanostructures were obtained from the growths of silver and palladium on multicrystalline Au nanorods and nanobipyramids. Moreover, the growths of silver and palladium on multicrystalline Au nanobipyramids started at the stepped side facets, while the growths started at the twin boundaries on multicrystalline Au nanorods. These results unambiguously indicate that the crystalline structure of

  5. Effect of residual strain on sensing property of FRP-OFBG smart rebar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Chuan; Ou, Jinping

    2007-04-01

    FRP-OFBG smart rebar is the smart structure material, which is the integration of good mechanical property and sensing performance. And FRP-OFBG rebar can be widely used in civil engineering health monitoring. But in the smart rebar application procedure, there is large residual strain exiting in FBG in smart rebar, and multiple-peaked to FBG reflection spectrum, which affect the sensing performance of smart rebar. In this paper, it's theoretically analyzed using FBG to measure the residual strain in FRP after fabrication; In smart rebar pultrusion fabrication processing, the strain and temperature were monitored by two connecting FBGs. It's analyzed FRP fabrication processing through monitoring data; To the multiple-peaked smart rebar, which caused by nonuniform residual strain distributing along FBG length, post thermal treatment was done. The result proved that thermal treatment can improve the spectrum of smart rebar and remove the multiple-peaked phenomenon of smart rebar. But the thermal treatment can't relief the residual strain, and further research about how long will the residual strain recovery at room temperature must be done.

  6. Ultrasonic guided wave sensing properties of PVDF thin film with inter digital electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathod, Vivek T.; Roy Mahapatra, D.

    2014-04-01

    Ultrasonic strain sensing performance of the large area PVDF with Inter Digital Electrodes (IDE) is studied in this work. Procedure to obtain IDE on a beta-phase PVDF is explained. PVDF film with IDE is bonded on a plate structure and is characterized for its directional sensitivity at different frequencies. Guided waves are induced on the IDE-PVDF sensor from different directions by placing a piezoelectric wafer actuator at different angles. Strain induced on the IDE-PVDF sensor by the guided waves in estimated by using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) and a wave propagation model. Using measured voltage response from IDE-PVDF sensor and the strain measurements from LDV the piezoelectric coefficient is estimated in various directions. The variation of ℯ11 e at different angles shows directional sensitivity of the IDE-PVDF sensor to the incident guided waves. The present study provides an effective technique to characterize thin film piezoelectric sensors for ultrasonic strain sensing at very high frequencies of 200 kHz. Often frequency of the guided wave is changed to alter the wavelength to interrogate damages of different sizes in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) applications. The unique property of directional sensitivity combined with frequency tunability makes the IDEPVDF sensor most suitable for SHM of structures.

  7. Synthesis and Gas Sensing Properties of Single La-Doped SnO2 Nanobelts

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuemei; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Yingkai; Chen, Weiwu; Ma, Jiang; Li, Shuanghui; Qin, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    Single crystal SnO2 nanobelts (SnO2 NBs) and La-SnO2 nanobelts (La-SnO2 NBs) were synthesized by thermal evaporation. Both a single SnO2 NB sensor and a single La-SnO2 NB sensor were developed and their sensing properties were investigated. It is found that the single La-SnO2 NB sensor had a high sensitivity of 8.76 to ethanediol at a concentration of 100 ppm at 230 °C, which is the highest sensitivity of a single SnO2 NB to ethanediol among three kinds of volatile organic (VOC) liquids studied, including ethanediol, ethanol, and acetone. The La-SnO2 NBs sensor also exhibits a high sensitivity, good selectivity and long-term stability with prompt response time to ethanediol. The mechanism behind the enhanced sensing performance of La-doped SnO2 nanobelts is discussed. PMID:26087374

  8. Distributed Compressive Sensing of Hyperspectral Images Using Low Rank and Structure Similarity Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bingchao; Xu, Ke; Wan, Jianwei; Liu, Xu

    2015-11-01

    An efficient method and system for distributed compressive sensing of hyperspectral images is presented, which exploit the low rank and structure similarity property of hyperspectral imagery. In this paper, by integrating the respective characteristics of DSC and CS, a distributed compressive sensing framework is proposed to simultaneously capture and compress hyperspectral images. At the encoder, every band image is measured independently, where almost all computation burdens can be shifted to the decoder, resulting in a very low-complexity encoder. It is simple to operate and easy to hardware implementation. At the decoder, each band image is reconstructed by the method of total variation norm minimize. During each band reconstruction, the low rand structure of band images and spectrum structure similarity are used to give birth to the new regularizers. With combining the new regularizers and other regularizer, we can sufficiently exploit the spatial correlation, spectral correlation and spectral structural redundancy in hyperspectral imagery. A numerical optimization algorithm is also proposed to solve the reconstruction model by augmented Lagrangian multiplier method. Experimental results show that this method can effectively improve the reconstruction quality of hyperspectral images.

  9. Synthesis and Gas Sensing Properties of Single La-Doped SnO₂ Nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuemei; Zhang, Heng; Liu, Yingkai; Chen, Weiwu; Ma, Jiang; Li, Shuanghui; Qin, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    Single crystal SnO2 nanobelts (SnO2 NBs) and La-SnO2 nanobelts (La-SnO2 NBs) were synthesized by thermal evaporation. Both a single SnO2 NB sensor and a single La-SnO2 NB sensor were developed and their sensing properties were investigated. It is found that the single La-SnO2 NB sensor had a high sensitivity of 8.76 to ethanediol at a concentration of 100 ppm at 230 °C, which is the highest sensitivity of a single SnO2 NB to ethanediol among three kinds of volatile organic (VOC) liquids studied, including ethanediol, ethanol, and acetone. The La-SnO2 NBs sensor also exhibits a high sensitivity, good selectivity and long-term stability with prompt response time to ethanediol. The mechanism behind the enhanced sensing performance of La-doped SnO2 nanobelts is discussed. PMID:26087374

  10. Structural, optical and sensing properties of pure and Cu-doped SnO2 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Johari, Anima; Johari, Anoopshi; Bhatnagar, M C; Sharma, Manish

    2014-07-01

    In present work, pure and copper (Cu) doped SnO2 nanowires have been synthesized by thermal evaporation process at ambient pressure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated the growth of wire-like pure and Cu-doped SnO2 nanostructures with their length of about 50 microm and 80 microm whereas transverse dimension of about 50-80 nm and 20-50 nm, respectively. The HRTEM and SAED pattern reveals the growth of single crystalline Cu-doped SnO2 nanowire. The EDX confirms that Cu has been doped in the SnO2 nanowires and atomic fraction of Cu in nanowires is about 2.5 at% when concentration of CuO in starting source powder is 50 wt%. X-ray diffraction showed that Cu gets incorporated into the SnO2 lattice and also confirms their tetragonal rutile structure. For comparative study of gas sensing properties of pure and Cu-doped SnO2 nanowire, isolated single nanowire based sensors have been fabricated for detection of ethanol gas. The doping of Cu was found to enhance the ethanol sensitivity of SnO2 nanowire based sensors and the sensor response improves with increase in ethanol concentration. This sensing behaviour offers a suitable application of the Cu-doped SnO2 nanowire sensor for detection of ethanol gas. PMID:24758018

  11. Porous Nd-doped In2O3 nanotubes with excellent formaldehyde sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuesong; Zhang, Jinbao; He, Yue; Wang, Lianyuan; Liu, Li; Wang, Han; Guo, Xuexin; Lian, Hongwei

    2016-08-01

    Pure and Nd-doped porous In2O3 nanotubes have been successfully synthesized by single-capillary electrospinning method. The SEM images displays the novel structure of Nd-doped In2O3 which has pores distributed on the surface of nanotubes. The subsequent test results demonstrate that Nd-doped porous In2O3 nanotubes possess excellent gas-sensing properties to formaldehyde. The response of Nd-doped porous In2O3 nanotubes to 100 ppm formaldehyde is 44.6 at the optimum operating temperature of 240 °C, which is 3.6 times larger than that of pure porous In2O3 nanotubes (12.5), and the response and recovery times to 100 ppm formaldehyde are 15 and 50 s, respectively.

  12. Four new lanthanide-organic frameworks: selective luminescent sensing and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yan; Wang, Lu; Yang, Guo-Ping; Wu, Yunlong; Bai, Nannan; Zhang, Wenyan; Wang, Yao-Yu

    2016-08-01

    Four new isostructural lanthanide-organic frameworks, [Ln(L)(H2O)2]·H2O·CH3CN (1-Ln) (Ln = Eu, Tb, Dy, and Gd), have been successfully synthesized via solvothermal reactions with a semi-rigid V-shaped multicarboxylate ligand 2-(2',4'-dicarboxylphenoxy) benzoic acid (H3L) and Ln(NO3)3·6H2O. 1-Ln shows 2D layer-by-layer frameworks with interlayer channels decorated by carboxylate groups. 1-Eu exhibits excellent luminescence properties, and therefore, is chosen as a probe for sensing different metal ions and anions. Consequently, 1-Eu displays high selectivity and sensitivity for Fe(3+) and Cr(6+) ions, simultaneously, through the luminescence quenching effect, and thus, should be an excellent candidate for probing these pollutant metal ions. In addition, antiferromagnetic exchange interactions also exist between the Dy(3+) ions in 1-Dy. PMID:27464998

  13. Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon- Natural Food Sources with Anti-Quorum Sensing Properties

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Li Ying; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants have anti-QS ability. Interestingly, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from P. betle showed the most potent anti-QS activity as judged by the bioassays. Since there is a variety of plants that serve as food sources in Malaysia that have yet to be tested for anti-QS activity, future work should focus on identification of these plants and isolation of the anti-QS compounds. PMID:23519352

  14. Synthesis, magnetic and ethanol gas sensing properties of semiconducting magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Al-Hazmi, Faten; Al-Tuwirqi, R. M.; Alnowaiser, F.; Al-Hartomy, Omar A.; El-Tantawy, Farid; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2013-05-01

    The superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with an average size of 7 nm were synthesized using a rapid and facile microwave hydrothermal technique. The structure of the magnetite nanoparticles was characterized by X-ray diffraction (X-ray), field effect scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The prepared Fe3O4 was shown to have a cubic phase of pure magnetite. Magnetization hysteresis loop shows that the synthesized magnetite exhibits no hysteretic features with a superparamagnetic behavior. The ethanol gas sensing properties of the synthesized magnetite were investigated, and it was found that the responsibility time is less than 10 s with good reproducibility for ethanol sensor. Accordingly, it is evaluated that the magnetite nanoparticles can be effectively used as a solid state ethanol sensor in industrial commercial product applications.

  15. Martian lavas: Three complementary remote sensing techniques to derive flow properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes-Gautier, R.; Bruno, B. C.; Taylor, G. J.; Rowland, S.; Kilburn, C. R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Several remote sensing techniques have been developed to determine various properties of lava flows. We are currently focusing on three such techniques to interpret Martian lava flows on Alba Patera, which are based on measurements of distal flow lobe widths which can be used to infer silica content; convolution of flow margins which can distinguish between pahoehoe and a'a types of basaltic flows; final flow field dimensions which can be combined with ground slope to derive effusion duration and average effusion rate. These methods are extremely complementary and together provide a more significant and complete understanding of extra-terrestrial lava flows. However, each of these techniques have specific and distinct data requirements.

  16. Sensing Properties of a Fabry-Perot Dielectric Structure and Dimer Nanoparticles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Polemi, A.; Shuford, K. L.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the use of a Fabry-Perot dielectric structure combined with differently shaped nanoparticles for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering. In particular, we show how an ideal two-layer Fabry-Perot configuration enhances the local surface field of silver nanoparticles positioned on the surface of the structure. We develop the concept using disc dimers and then extend the discussion to bowtie nanoparticles. The structure is excited by a single emitter, which couples to the nanoparticles through the dielectric layers, producing a wide aperture field that can be used to excite multiple dimers. We show how an array of nanoparticles can be properly arrangedmore » in order to increase the total scattering signal generated from the structure. The layered geometry produces robust field properties in between nanoparticles, making the overall sensing characteristics less sensitive to the interparticle seperation distance and incident polarization.« less

  17. Growth and toxic gas sensing properties of poly(urethaneimide) thin films.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Ismail Ben; Sarry, Frederic; Nysten, Bernard; Alexieva, Gergana; Strashilov, Vesselin; Kolev, Iliyan; Alem, Halima

    2016-06-01

    In this work we present a study on the growth and the gas sensing properties of poly(urethane imide) thin films. We first deeply characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) the nanostructuration of the poly(urethane imide) holding different amine groups. We further studied the interaction between highly toxic gases such as hexamethyleneimine (HMI) and pyridine and the polymer by using an unconventional method based on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) measurement. We showed for the first time that weak interactions, i.e. hydrogen bonding between the gas molecules and the polymer film allow the diffusion of the gas molecule deep in the polymeric film and the recovery of the film once the gas molecules leave the sensor. This first work paves a new way for the design of a completely recoverable sensor able to detect highly toxic gases for environmental concern. PMID:27130101

  18. Highly sensitive and selective electrochemical dopamine sensing properties of multilayer graphene nanobelts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthick Kannan, Padmanathan; Moshkalev, Stanislav A.; Sekhar Rout, Chandra

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we report the electrochemical sensing property of multi-layer graphene nanobelts (GNBs) towards dopamine (DA). GNBs are synthesized from natural graphite and characterized by using techniques like field-emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. An electrochemical sensor based on GNBs is developed for the detection of DA. From the cyclic voltammetry and amperometry studies, it is found that GNBs possess excellent electrocatalytic activity towards DA molecules. The developed DA sensor showed a sensitivity value of 0.95 μA μM-1 cm-2 with a linear range of 2 μM to 0.2 mM. The interference data exhibited that GNB is highly selective to DA even in the presence of common interfering species like ascorbic acid, uric acid, glucose and lactic acid.

  19. Effect of Mn doping on the microstructures and sensing properties of ZnO nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yuzhen; Ma, Shuyi; Li, Xiangbing; Wang, Caiyun; Li, Faming; Yang, Xiaohong; Zhu, Jing; Ma, Lin

    2014-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanofibers doped with manganese (Mn) are synthesized by electrospinning followed by calcinations at 580 °C for 150 min. The structure, morphology and element-composition are investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that the diameters of Mn-doped ZnO nanofibers are from 60 nm to 90 nm corresponding to the amount of Mn from 0 wt% to 2.0 wt%, respectively. XPS spectrum indicates that Mn2+ ions exist in divalent state. The gas sensing properties are significantly affected by the Mn-doped ZnO nanofibers and the operation temperature. The sensors exhibit excellent sensitivity, practical selectivity and stability to acetone with a fast response and recovery time at 340 °C.

  20. NH3 sensing properties polyaniline: TiO2 nanorods heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, U. V.; Ramgir, Niranjan S.; Debnath, A. K.; Karmakar, N.; Aswal, D. K.; Kothari, D. C.; Gupta, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    NH3 sensing properties of polyaniline: TiO2 nanorods heterostructures have been investigated. TiO2 nanorods were synthesized using hydrothermal method. Thin layer of polyanilene was deposited by in-situ oxidative polymerization of aniline over TiO2 nanorods film. The heterostructure film exhibited an enhanced sensor response towards NH3 at room temperature. For example, heterostructure films exhibited a sensor response of 610% towards 100 ppm of NH3 with a response and recovery times of 40 and 60 s, respectively. This response and response kinetics is better than pure PANI films that exhibited a response of 210% with a response and recovery time of 21 and 160 s, respectively.

  1. Remote Sensing of Cloud, Aerosol, and Water Vapor Properties from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, W. Paul; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Tanre, Didier; Gao, Bo-Cai

    2001-01-01

    MODIS is an earth-viewing cross-track scanning spectroradiometer launched on the Terra satellite in December 1999. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 kilometers, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 micrometers with spatial resolutions of 250 meters (2 bands), 500 meters (5 bands) and 1000 meters (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes. In this presentation we review the comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms that have been developed for the remote sensing of atmospheric properties using MODIS data, placing primary emphasis on the principal atmospheric applications of (i) developing a cloud mask for distinguishing clear sky from clouds, (ii) retrieving global cloud radiative and microphysical properties, including cloud top pressure and temperature, effective emissivity, cloud optical thickness, thermodynamic phase, and effective radius, (iii) monitoring tropospheric aerosol optical thickness over the land and ocean and aerosol size distribution over the ocean, (iv) determining atmospheric profiles of moisture and temperature, and (v) estimating column water amount. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these atmospheric products will be described, together with an example of their application using MODIS observations. All products are archived into two categories: pixel-level retrievals (referred to as Level-2 products) and global gridded products at a latitude and longitude resolution of 1 degree (Level-3 products). An overview of the MODIS atmosphere algorithms and products, status, validation activities, and early level-2 and -3 results will be presented.

  2. UV and humidity sensing properties of ZnO nanorods prepared by the arc discharge method.

    PubMed

    Fang, F; Futter, J; Markwitz, A; Kennedy, J

    2009-06-17

    The UV and humidity sensing properties of ZnO nanorods prepared by arc discharge have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy were carried out to analyze the morphology and optical properties of the as-synthesized ZnO nanorods. Proton induced x-ray emission was used to probe the impurities in the ZnO nanorods. A large quantity of high purity ZnO nanorod structures were obtained with lengths of 0.5-1 microm. The diameters of the as-synthesized ZnO nanorods were found to be between 40 and 400 nm. The nanorods interlace with each other, forming 3D networks which make them suitable for sensing application. The addition of a polymeric film-forming agent (BASF LUVISKOL VA 64) improved the conductivity, as it facilitates the construction of conducting networks. Ultrasonication helped to separate the ZnO nanorods and disperse them evenly through the polymeric agent. Improved photoconductivity was measured for a ZnO nanorod sensor annealed in air at 200 degrees C for 30 min. The ZnO nanorod sensors showed a UV-sensitive photoconduction, where the photocurrent increased by nearly four orders of magnitude from 2.7 x 10(-10) to 1.0 x 10(-6) A at 18 V under 340 nm UV illumination. High humidity sensitivity and good stability were also measured. The resistance of the ZnO nanorod sensor decreased almost linearly with increasing relative humidity (RH). The resistance of the ZnO nanorods changed by approximately five orders of magnitude from 4.35 x 10(11) Omega in dry air (7% RH) to about 4.95 x 10(6) Omega in 95% RH air. It is experimentally demonstrated that ZnO nanorods obtained by the arc discharge method show excellent performance and promise for applications in both UV and humidity sensors. PMID:19468159

  3. Room temperature ammonia vapor sensing properties of transparent single walled carbon nanotube thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobin, L. R.; Manivannan, S.

    2014-10-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) networks are identified as potential substitute and surpass the conventional indium doped tin oxide (ITO) in transparent conducting electrodes, thin-film transistors, solar cells, and chemical sensors. Among them, CNT based gas sensors gained more interest because of its need in environmental monitoring, industrial control, and detection of gases in warfare or for averting security threats. The unique properties of CNT networks such as high surface area, low density, high thermal conductivity and chemical sensitivity making them as a potential candidate for gas sensing applications. Commercial unsorted single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) were purified by thermal oxidation and acid treatment processes and dispersed in organic solvent N-methyl pyrolidone using sonication process in the absence of polymer or surfactant. Optically transparent SWCNT networks are realized on glass substrate by coating the dispersed SWCNT with the help of dynamic spray coating process at 200ºC. The SWCNT random network was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Gas sensing property of transparent film towards ammonia vapor is studied at room temperature by measuring the resistance change with respect to the concentration in the range 0-1000 ppm. The sensor response is increased logarithmically in the concentration range 0 to 1000 ppm with the detection limit 0.007 ppm. The random networks are able to detect ammonia vapor selectively because of the high electron donating nature of ammonia molecule to the SWCNT. The sensor is reversible and selective to ammonia vapor with response time 70 seconds and recovery time 423 seconds for 62.5 ppm with 90% optical transparency at 550 nm.

  4. Surrounding Sensitive Electronic Properties of Bi2Te3 Nanoplates—Potential Sensing Applications of Topological Insulators

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Xie, Wuyuan; Li, Han; Wang, Yanrong; Cai, Daoping; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Yuan; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2014-01-01

    Significant efforts have been paid to exploring the fundamental properties of topological insulators (TIs) in recent years. However, the investigation of TIs as functional materials for practical device applications is still quite limited. In this work, electronic sensors based on Bi2Te3 nanoplates were fabricated and the sensing performance was investigated. On exposure to different surrounding environments, significant changes in the conducting properties were observed by direct electrical measurements. These results suggest that nanostructured TIs hold great potential for sensing applications. PMID:24717774

  5. Remote sensing of cloud-top pressure using reflected solar radiation in the oxygen A-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M.-L. C.

    1985-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed for using the reflection of solar radiation in the oxygen A-band to determine cloud-top altitude. Because of multiple scattering and molecular absorption inside the cloud, the reflection of clouds is substantially modified in comparison with a mirror cloud, which is assumed to have a 100 percent reflection. To infer true cloud-top altitude, therefore, it is necessary to accurately estimate the amount of 'photon penetration'. Theoretical calculations indicate that the amount of photon penetration depends on the altitude, the scaled volume scattering coefficient, and the scaled optical thickness of the cloud. Algorithms using the reflection in the oxygen A-band to determine the cloud-top pressure have been applied to an aircraft field experiment in conjunction with CCOPE, 1981. Results of this study are very encouraging, especially for extended clouds.

  6. Influence of alloying elements Nb, Zr, Sn, and oxygen on structural stability and elastic properties of the Ti2448 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, J. H.; Song, Y.; Li, W.; Yang, R.; Vitos, L.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of how alloying elements and oxygen influence the stability and elastic properties of binary Ti-X (X = Nb, Zr, or Sn) and Ti2448 (Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn in wt.%) alloys are studied via first principles calculations. In addition to the fully disordered solid solution phase, we consider 44 quasirandom configurations to search for the possible distributions of the alloying elements in Ti2448. Our results show that all alloying elements considered here are good β-stabilizers for Ti, and the formation energies are greatly affected by their distributions. The site preference of oxygen and its concentration dependence in binary Ti alloys and in Ti2448 are also investigated. Oxygen prefers to occupy the octahedral site regardless of the concentrations of the alloys and strongly interacts with Ti and Nb in Ti-Nb. The elastic properties of Ti2448 alloy and the influence of oxygen on the elastic parameters are evaluated. The calculated polycrystalline Young's modulus of the Ti2448 alloy is very close to that of the human bone (10-40 GPa). We find that oxygen has a weak effect on the elastic moduli of Ti2448. The electronic structures are analyzed to reveal how the alloying elements and oxygen influence the stability of binary Ti-X and Ti2448 alloys.

  7. Novel nanostructured oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boardman, Alan James

    New government regulations and industry requirements for medical oxygen sensors require the development of alternate materials and process optimization of primary sensor components. Current oxygen sensors are not compliant with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive. This work focused on two areas. First, was finding suitable readily available materials for the sensor anodes. Second was optimizing the processing of the sensor cathode membrane for reduced delamination. Oxygen sensors were made using tin (Sn) and bismuth (Bi) electrodes, potassium hydroxide (KOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) electrolytes with platinum (Pt) and gold (Au) reference electrodes. Bi electrodes were fabricated by casting and pressing processes. Electrochemical characterization of the Sn and Bi electrodes was performed by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and sensing characterization per BSEN ISO 21647:2009 at various oxygen percentages, 0%, 20.9% and 100% oxygen levels with an automated test apparatus. The Sn anode with both electrolyte solutions showed good oxygen sensing properties and performance in a sensor. This system shows promise for replacement of Pb electrodes as required by the RoHS Directive. The Bi anode with Au cathode in both KOH and CH3COOH electrolytes showed acceptable performance and oxygen sensing properties. The Bi anodes fabricated by separate manufacturing methods demonstrated effectiveness for use in medical oxygen sensors. Gold thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on Flouroethylene Polymer (FEP) films. The FEP substrate temperature ranged from -77°C to 50°C. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and 4-point resistivity characterized the effects of substrate temperature to Au thin film particle size. XRD peak broadening and resistivity measurements showed a strong correlation of particle size to FEP substrate temperature. Particle size at 50°C was 594A and the -77°C particle size was 2.4 x 103A. Substrate

  8. Flotation properties of some oxygen-containing compounds of the acyclic series

    SciTech Connect

    Shreider, E.M.; Para, S.F.; Galanov, M.E.; Trachik, T.L.; Lagutina, L.V.

    1981-01-01

    In the monatomic alcohols series, maximum flotation activity is reached at 6 to 8 carbon atoms in the radical. It was decided to investigate the reagent properties of some other substances containing hydroxyl radicals which have not previously been considered. Oxygen-containing compounds in the acyclic series were examined, including alcohols: I - ethanol, ethylene-glycol, glycerol, pentaerythrytol, D-mannitol; II - dulcitol, D-sorbitol, D-mannitol, xylitol; glycols - monoethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, triethyleneglycol, polyethyleneglycol; and ethanolamines - ethanolamine, triethanolamine. The flotation properties of the reagents were determined in a Mekhanobr laboratory flotation machine with a chamber volume of 1.5 liter and an impeller speed of 1800 rpm. The materials tested were the <1 mm size fractions from run-of-plant charge and slurry from the radial thickeners. The samples were first dried and averaged. The pulp density was 200 g/l. The reagent conditions were kept constant throughout (50% of the total added at the start of a test, 25% after 2 min and 25% after 4 min from the start). The reagent additions were 1.0 to 1.4 kg/ton. All of these compounds had a very weak flotation activity.

  9. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and silver additions on microstructure and related properties of YBCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Joo, J.; Guttschow, R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1992-02-01

    Microstructure has a great influence on the mechanical and superconducting properties of YBCO. Mechanical properties of YBCO can be improved by both modifying the monolithic microstructure and developing composites of YBCO with silver (Ag). When monolithic YBCO was sintered to high densities ({approx} 91%) at a relatively low temperature ({approx} 910{degrees}C) by controlling oxygen partial pressure during sintering, the result was a small-grain microstructure (average grain size {approx} 5 {mu}m) and hence a high strength of 191 {plus minus} 7 MPa. Addition of Ag as a second phase further improved the strength of YBCO. Composites of YBCO with 10 to 15 vol % Ag has a strength of 225 {plus minus} 6 MPa and a fracture toughness of 3.3 {plus minus} 0.2 MPa{radical}m. These improvements are believed to be due to compressive stresses in the YBCO matrix as a result of thermal mismatch between the YBCO and Ag phases. Furthermore, the Ag particles may provide increased resistance to crack propagation by pinning the crack. On the other hand, addition of Ag as a dopant to substitute for Cu sites in YBCO has a profound but nonmonotonic effect on grain microstructure and the resulting critical current density.

  10. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and silver additions on microstructure and related properties of YBCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Joo, J.; Guttschow, R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1992-02-01

    Microstructure has a great influence on the mechanical and superconducting properties of YBCO. Mechanical properties of YBCO can be improved by both modifying the monolithic microstructure and developing composites of YBCO with silver (Ag). When monolithic YBCO was sintered to high densities ({approx} 91%) at a relatively low temperature ({approx} 910{degrees}C) by controlling oxygen partial pressure during sintering, the result was a small-grain microstructure (average grain size {approx} 5 {mu}m) and hence a high strength of 191 {plus_minus} 7 MPa. Addition of Ag as a second phase further improved the strength of YBCO. Composites of YBCO with 10 to 15 vol % Ag has a strength of 225 {plus_minus} 6 MPa and a fracture toughness of 3.3 {plus_minus} 0.2 MPa{radical}m. These improvements are believed to be due to compressive stresses in the YBCO matrix as a result of thermal mismatch between the YBCO and Ag phases. Furthermore, the Ag particles may provide increased resistance to crack propagation by pinning the crack. On the other hand, addition of Ag as a dopant to substitute for Cu sites in YBCO has a profound but nonmonotonic effect on grain microstructure and the resulting critical current density.

  11. Effect of oxygen concentration on the magnetic properties of La2CoMnO6 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H. Z.; Gupta, A.; Zhang, Jiandi; Varela, M.; Pennycook, S. J.

    2007-11-01

    The dependence of the magnetic properties on oxygen concentration in epitaxial La2CoMnO6 thin films deposited on (100)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates has been investigated by varying the oxygen background pressure during growth using pulsed laser deposition. Two distinct ferromagnetic (FM) phases are revealed, and the relative fraction varies with the oxygen concentration. The existence of oxygen vacancies induces the local vibronic Mn3+-O -Co3+ superexchange interactions in direct competition with the static FM Mn4+-O-Co2+ interactions. This results in the appearance of a new low temperature FM phase and suppression of the high-temperature FM phase, creating two distinct magnetic phase transitions.

  12. Effect of CSA Concentration on the Ammonia Sensing Properties of CSA-Doped PA6/PANI Composite Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Zengyuan; Fu, Jiapeng; Lv, Pengfei; Huang, Fenglin; Wei, Qufu

    2014-01-01

    Camphor sulfonic acid (CSA)-doped polyamide 6/polyaniline (PA6/PANI) composite nanofibers were fabricated using in situ polymerization of aniline under different CSA concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 M) with electrospun PA6 nanofibers as templates. The structural, morphological and ammonia sensing properties of the prepared composite nanofibers were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), four-point probe techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a home-made gas sensing test system. All the results indicated that the CSA concentration had a great influence on the sensing properties of CSA-doped PA6/PANI composite nanofibers. The composite nanofibers doped with 0.02 M CSA showed the best ammonia sensing properties, with a significant sensitivity toward ammonia (NH3) at room temperature, superior to that of the composite nanofibers doped with 0.04–0.10 mol/L CSA. It was found that for high concentrations of CSA, the number of PANI–H+ reacted with NH3 would not make up a high proportion of all PANI–H+ within certain limits. As a result, within a certain range even though higher CSA-doped PA6/PANI nanofibers had better conductivity, their ammonia sensing performance would degrade. PMID:25401687

  13. Effect of CSA concentration on the ammonia sensing properties of CSA-doped PA6/PANI composite nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zengyuan; Fu, Jiapeng; Lv, Pengfei; Huang, Fenglin; Wei, Qufu

    2014-01-01

    Camphor sulfonic acid (CSA)-doped polyamide 6/polyaniline (PA6/PANI) composite nanofibers were fabricated using in situ polymerization of aniline under different CSA concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 M) with electrospun PA6 nanofibers as templates. The structural, morphological and ammonia sensing properties of the prepared composite nanofibers were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), four-point probe techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a home-made gas sensing test system. All the results indicated that the CSA concentration had a great influence on the sensing properties of CSA-doped PA6/PANI composite nanofibers. The composite nanofibers doped with 0.02 M CSA showed the best ammonia sensing properties, with a significant sensitivity toward ammonia (NH3) at room temperature, superior to that of the composite nanofibers doped with 0.04-0.10 mol/L CSA. It was found that for high concentrations of CSA, the number of PANI-H+ reacted with NH3 would not make up a high proportion of all PANI-H+ within certain limits. As a result, within a certain range even though higher CSA-doped PA6/PANI nanofibers had better conductivity, their ammonia sensing performance would degrade. PMID:25401687

  14. Terahertz Remote Sensing of Ice Clouds - Sensitivity on Ice Dielectric Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendrok, J.; Baron, P.; Kasai, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Initiated by current developments in terahertz sensor technology the application of instruments operating in the spectral region between 0.1 - 30 THz is considered for a number of remote sensing issues. Accounting for more than 50 percent of the outgoing longwave radiation and with the major component of cirrus radiative forcing in the far-infrared, satellite measurements in this spectral region will significantly support the determination of the radiation budget of the Earth. Furthermore, spanning the whole range of particle sizes found in tropospheric ice clouds, the Terahertz region bears the potential to complement existing methods and improve our knowlegde and understanding of those clouds. Both, determination of the Earth's radiation budget as well as retrieving ice cloud properties require appropriately accurate calculations of radiative transfer. Hence, a good knowledge of the input parameters to the radiative transfer models is needed. In particular, this includes spectrally dependent properties of the molecular as well as particulate atmospheric matter, i.e., spectroscopic parameters of the molecular absorption lines and continua as well as the dielectric properties of aerosol and cloud particle material. Due to the lack of Terahertz light source and receiver technology in the past, measurements of these parameters have been sparse and the knowledge about them is rather poor. In preparation to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring tropospheric ice clouds using passive Terahertz observations, we study the modeling uncertainties due to the unconfident knowledge of the complex refractive index of ice. We give an overview of the consistency and discrepancies, respectively, of the existing measurements and models for ice refractive index in the Terahertz region. Using calculations of particle optical properties according to Mie theory as well as the radiative transfer models Moliere and SARTre, we estimate the deviations in particle optical properties and

  15. Gas sensing in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, M A; Hallem, E A

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all animals are capable of sensing changes in environmental oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, which can signal the presence of food, pathogens, conspecifics, predators, or hosts. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model system for the study of gas sensing. C. elegans detects changes in O2 and CO2 levels and integrates information about ambient gas levels with other internal and external cues to generate context-appropriate behavioral responses. Due to its small nervous system and amenability to genetic and genomic analyses, the functional properties of its gas-sensing microcircuits can be dissected with single-cell resolution, and signaling molecules and natural genetic variations that modulate gas responses can be identified. Here, we discuss the neural basis of gas sensing in C. elegans, and highlight changes in gas-evoked behaviors in the context of other sensory cues and natural genetic variations. We also discuss gas sensing in other free-living nematodes and parasitic nematodes, focusing on how gas-sensing behavior has evolved to mediate species-specific behavioral requirements. PMID:24906953

  16. Role of Dynamin Related Protein 1 (Drp1)-Mediated Mitochondrial Fission in Oxygen-Sensing and Constriction of the Ductus Arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Zhigang; Kutty, Shelby; Toth, Peter T.; Marsboom, Glenn; Hammel, James M; Chamberlain, Carolyn; Ryan, John J.; Zhang, Hannah J.; Sharp, Willard W; Morrow, Erik; Trivedi, Kalyani; Weir, E. Kenneth; Archer, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA) is essential for the transition from fetal to neonatal patterns of circulation. Initial PO2-dependent vasoconstriction causes functional DA closure within minutes. Within days a fibrogenic, proliferative mechanism causes anatomical closure. Though modulated by endothelial-derived vasodilators and constrictors, O2-sensing is intrinsic to ductal smooth muscle cells (DASMC) and oxygen-induced DA constriction persists in the absence of endothelium, endothelin and cyclooxygenase mediators. O2 increases mitochondrial-derived H2O2 (mitoROS), which constricts DASMC by raising intracellular calcium and activating rho kinase. However, the mechanism by which oxygen changes mitochondrial function is unknown. Objective: Determine whether mitochondrial fission is crucial for O2-induced DA constriction and closure. Methods and Results: Using DA harvested from 30 term infants during correction of congenital heart disease, as well as DA from term rabbits, we demonstrate that mitochondrial fission is crucial for O2-induced constriction and closure. O2 rapidly (<5 minutes) causes mitochondrial fission by a cyclin-dependent kinase-mediated phosphorylation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) at serine 616. Fission triggers a metabolic shift in the DASMC that activates pyruvate dehydrogenase and increases mitochondrial H2O2 production. Subsequently fission increases complex I activity. Mitochondrial-targeted catalase overexpression eliminates PO2-induced increases in mitoROS and cytosolic calcium. The small-molecule Drp1 inhibitor, Mdivi-1, and siDRP1 yield concordant results, inhibiting O2-induced constriction (without altering the response to phenylephrine or KCl) and preventing O2-induced increases in oxidative metabolism, cytosolic calcium and DASMC proliferation. Prolonged Drp1 inhibition reduces DA closure in a tissue culture model. Conclusions: Mitochondrial fission is an obligatory, early step in mammalian O2-sensing and offers a

  17. Microstructure, mechanical and optical properties of TiAlON coatings sputter-deposited with varying oxygen partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schalk, Nina; Thierry Simonet Fotso, J. F.; Holec, David; Fian, Alexander; Jakopic, Georg; Terziyska, Velislava L.; Daniel, Rostislav; Mitterer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Due to their excellent mechanical and optical properties as well as chemical stability, the synthesis of transition metal oxynitride thin films has attracted growing interest in the last years. Within this work, the evolution of the structure and properties of TiAlON coatings over a wide compositional range, from the nitride to the oxide side, was investigated. The coatings were grown on Si substrates in a laboratory-scale unbalanced magnetron dc sputtering system from powder metallurgical TiAl targets with an Al/Ti atomic ratio of 60/40, using a constant level of nitrogen with rising oxygen partial pressure. Coating composition and microstructure were investigated by energy- and wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the mechanical and optical properties were evaluated using nanoindentation and spectroscopic ellipsometry, respectively. Oxygen concentrations of up to 49 at.% within the films could be obtained, at the expense of the nitrogen content. The oxygen-free coating exhibited a single-phase fcc-Ti1-x Al x N structure. With increasing oxygen content the structure remained fcc-Ti1-x Al x N based, but additional fractions of amorphous oxides were formed. The structural evolution was corroborated by ab initio calculations. Decreasing coating hardness could be observed with increasing oxygen concentration. The refraction index and extinction coefficient were lower for coatings with higher oxygen content, but the behavior of the optical properties remained Ti1-x Al x N-like over the investigated spectral range.

  18. Nitrogen dioxide sensing properties of sprayed tungsten oxide thin film sensor: Effect of film thickness.

    PubMed

    Ganbavle, V V; Mohite, S V; Agawane, G L; Kim, J H; Rajpure, K Y

    2015-08-01

    We report a study on effect of film thickness on NO2 sensing properties of sprayed WO3 thin films. WO3 thin films varying in thicknesses are deposited onto the glass substrates by simple spray pyrolysis technique by varying the volume of spray solution.Thin film gas sensors are characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL) techniques to study their physical properties. Film having thickness 745nm has shown highest gas response of 97% with 12 and 412s response and recovery times, respectively towards 100ppm NO2 concentration. Gas response of 20% is observed towards 10ppm NO2 at 200°C operating temperature. Sensitivity of the optimal sensor is 0.83%/ppm when operating at 200°C with 10ppm lower detection limit. The response of the sensor is reproducible and WO3 films are highly selective towards NO2 in presence of mist of various interfering gases viz. H2S, NH3, LPG, CO and SO2. PMID:25898119

  19. Study of sensing properties and contrastive analysis of metal coating optical fiber grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Ning; Shi, Bin; Sui, Qingmei; Guan, Congsheng; Wei, Guangqing; Li, Shuhua

    2014-02-01

    Optical fiber grating (FBG) has been widely used in the measurement of parameters such as temperature and strain. However, FBG is too slim to broken, whose outside protective layer tends to shedding easily, and it is also hard to change the temperature and strain sensitivity. In order to overcome the above disadvantages and to further expand the application range of FBG, this paper improves the technology of fiber grating metal film plating process firstly. It adopts a compositive method including chemical plating and electroplating to gild FBG, copper FBG and galvanize FBG, which all get good metal coating. Then, the temperature and strain sensing properties of metalized FBG is studied in detail. Multiple metal coating FBGs were put in high-low temperature test-box together, and then the test-box worked continuously at the temperature range of 0°C~95°C. After several experiments, it concludes that metal plating enhances the temperature sensitivity of fiber grating, and the one with galvanization has the highest temperature sensitivity of 0.0235. At last, FBGs with various cladding were pasted on carbon fiber cantilever beam respectively and the pressure on the top of the cantilever increased gradually. The experimental results show that wavelength of fiber grating shift toward the long wavelength with the increase of the pressure, and the one with galvanization has the maximum strain sensitivity which has minimal impact on fiber properties.

  20. Optical remote sensing and the retrieval of terrestrial vegetation bio-geophysical properties - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrelst, Jochem; Camps-Valls, Gustau; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Rivera, Juan Pablo; Veroustraete, Frank; Clevers, Jan G. P. W.; Moreno, José

    2015-10-01

    Forthcoming superspectral satellite missions dedicated to land monitoring, as well as planned imaging spectrometers, will unleash an unprecedented data stream. The processing requirements for such large data streams involve processing techniques enabling the spatio-temporally explicit quantification of vegetation properties. Typically retrieval must be accurate, robust and fast. Hence, there is a strict requirement to identify next-generation bio-geophysical variable retrieval algorithms which can be molded into an operational processing chain. This paper offers a review of state-of-the-art retrieval methods for quantitative terrestrial bio-geophysical variable extraction using optical remote sensing imagery. We can categorize these methods into (1) parametric regression, (2) non-parametric regression, (3) physically-based and (4) hybrid methods. Hybrid methods combine generic capabilities of physically-based methods with flexible and computationally efficient methods, typically non-parametric regression methods. A review of the theoretical basis of all these methods is given first and followed by published applications. This paper focusses on: (1) retrievability of bio-geophysical variables, (2) ability to generate multiple outputs, (3) possibilities for model transparency description, (4) mapping speed, and (5) possibilities for uncertainty retrieval. Finally, the prospects of implementing these methods into future processing chains for operational retrieval of vegetation properties are presented and discussed.

  1. Multifunctional Benzothiadiazole-Based Small Molecules Displaying Solvatochromism and Sensing Properties toward Nitroarenes, Anions, and Cations**

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, María; Espinosa, Arturo; Tárraga, Alberto; Molina, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Aryl or heteroaryl 5-substituted imidazo-benzothiadiazole derivatives were synthesized and shown to display remarkable solvatofluorochromism and selectively sense mercury(II) cations, acetate anions, and nitroaromatic derivatives, with discrimination between p-nitrophenol and picric acid. These novel sensors are of importance these days, as the detection of explosives is a high priority in issues of national security and environmental protection. To determine the ion binding properties of the sensors, their absorption and fluorescence emission spectra upon binding different cations and anions were compared. Significant shifts in the spectra were only observed for mercury(II) and acetate. The binding of these two ions was further studied using 1H NMR. The binding properties of different nitroaromatic compounds were also determined, and the results showed the importance of the presence of a phenol group in the guest molecule. Specifically, the two sensors were shown to discriminate between p-nitrophenol and picric acid. Finally, the mechanism of fluorescence quenching upon addition of nitrophenols was determined by computational methods. PMID:25558442

  2. Remote Sensing of Cloud, Aerosol, and Land Properties from MODIS: Applications to the East Asia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Moody, Eric G.

    2002-01-01

    MODIS is an earth-viewing cross-track scanning spectroradiometer launched on the Terra satellite in December 1999 and the Aqua satellite in May 2002. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes. In this paper we will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, and surface properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on (i) the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, (ii) cloud optical properties, especially cloud optical thickness and effective radius of water drops and ice crystals, (iii) aerosol optical thickness and size characteristics both over land and ocean, and (iv) ecosystem classification and surface spectral reflectance. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these products will be described, together with an example of their application using MODIS observations to the east Asian region. All products are archived into two categories: pixel-level retrievals (referred to as Level-2 products) and global gridded products at a latitude and longitude resolution of 1 min (Level-3 products).

  3. Remote sensing of atomic oxygen - Some observational difficulties in the use of the forbidden O I 1173-A and O I 1641-A transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdman, P. W.; Zipf, E. C.

    1987-01-01

    Recent sounding rocket and satellite studies suggest that simultaneous measurements of the O I 989-A and 1304-A resonance lines and of the forbidden 1172.6-A and 1641.3-A transitions would form the basis of a useful remote sensing technique for measuring the O I density and optical opacity of a planetary or stellar atmosphere. Because the 1172.6-A and 1641.3-A emissions are weak lines and are emitted in a wavelength region rich in spectral features, it is important to determine whether typical flight instruments can make measurements with sufficient spectral purity so that the remote sensing observations will yield accurate results. A detailed, high-resolution study of the far UV emission features in the regions surrounding the atomic oxygen transitions at 1172.6 and 1641.3 A was made. These spectra, which were excited by electron impact on O2 and N2, are presented in an attempt to display some potential sources of interference in aeronomical measurements of these O I lines. Both atomic and molecular emissions are found, and the spectral resolution necessary to make unambiguous measurements is discussed.

  4. Cellular oxygen sensing: Importins and exportins are mediators of intracellular localisation of prolyl-4-hydroxylases PHD1 and PHD2

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhoff, Amrei; Pientka, Friederike Katharina; Moeckel, Sylvia; Kettelhake, Antje; Hartmann, Enno; Koehler, Matthias; Depping, Reinhard

    2009-10-02

    Hypoxia-inducible factors are crucial in the regulatory process of oxygen homeostasis of vertebrate cells. Inhibition of prolyl hydroxylation of HIF-{alpha} subunits by prolyl-hydroxylases (PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3) leads to transcription of a greater number of hypoxia responsive genes. We have investigated the subcellular distribution and the molecular mechanisms regulating the intracellular allocation of PHD1 and PHD2. As reported earlier we find PHD1 located exclusively in the nucleus. We demonstrate that nuclear import of PHD1 occurs importin {alpha}/{beta} dependently and relies on a nuclear localisation signal (NLS). By contrast PHD2 is cycling between nucleus and cytoplasm, and nuclear import seems to be independent of 'classical' importin {alpha}/{beta} receptors. Furthermore, we reveal that the exit of PHD2 from the nucleus requires CRM1 and the N-terminal 100 amino acids of the protein. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of the regulation of the oxygen sensor cascade of PHDs in different cellular compartments.

  5. Enhanced CO gas sensing properties of Cu doped SnO2 nanostructures prepared by a facile wet chemical method.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Neha; Pandey, Akhilesh; Satpati, Biswarup; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay; Mohapatra, Satyabrata

    2016-07-28

    We report the synthesis of Cu doped SnO2 nanostructures with enhanced CO gas sensing properties by a facile wet chemical method. The effects of Cu doping on the structural and optical properties of SnO2 nanostructures were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. FESEM studies revealed the presence of nanosheets and nanodisc-like structures in Cu doped SnO2 samples. Gas sensing studies showed that the sensor prepared using 1% Cu doped SnO2 nanostructures exhibits highly enhanced CO gas sensing properties as compared to pure SnO2 nanostructures and shows excellent selectivity for CO with negligible interference from CH4, CO2 and NO2. The possible mechanism for the enhanced CO gas sensing properties of Cu doped SnO2 nanostructures is proposed. PMID:27348255

  6. Retrieval of atmospheric parameters and radiative properties using Far-Infrared remote sensing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Maryam; Milz, Mathias; Martín-Torres, Javier; Palchetti, Luca

    2016-04-01

    The far-infrared (FIR) spectral region, covering wavelengths between 15 μm (667 cm‑1) and about 1 μm (10,000 cm‑1) plays a critical role in the climate system. A good knowledge of the radiation processes in this spectral region is of high interest for observations and understanding of heating and cooling rates, and global energy balance. Even though approximately 50% of terrestrial radiation occurs in the FIR and despite the critical FIR contribution to the Earth's energy balance, this spectral region has been only studied by a few number of instruments. Also the full FIR spectral region has not ever been directly observed from space. High spectral resolution observations in this region can help to enlighten its role for the global energy budget and atmospheric radiation processes. Among others, the reasons for this lack of measurements are: (i) the decreasing intensity of the radiation towards longer wavelengths; and, then (ii) the high sensitivity and cooling of the detectors requirements. These requirements are now overcome and future space missions will have the capability to measure the full FIR and then open fully one-half of the Earth's spectrum, and accordingly improve our ability to model and assess climate processes. The aim of the study is to assess the use of FIR remote sensing instruments for retrievals of atmospheric parameters and radiative properties such as heating and cooling rates. Case studies with simulated spectra, together with ground based measurements in the FIR at Dome C over the Antarctic Plateau at 3,230 m a.s.l. (above sea level) in clear-sky conditions, which been observed almost continuously since 2012, are used to assess the potential of remote sensing instruments in the far-infrared region. Appropriate selection of spectral channels to directly measure the far-infrared spectra as needed for future space missions and recommended.

  7. Synthesis and high sensing properties of a single Pd-doped SnO2 nanoribbon.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiang; Liu, Yingkai; Zhang, Heng; Ai, Peng; Gong, Nailiang; Zhang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Monocrystal SnO2 and Pd-SnO2 nanoribbons have been successfully synthesized by thermal evaporation, and novel ethanol sensors based on a single Pd-SnO2 nanoribbon and a single SnO2 nanoribbon were fabricated. The sensing properties of SnO2 nanoribbon (SnO2 NB) and Pd-doped SnO2 nanoribbon (Pd-SnO2 NB) sensors were investigated. The results indicated that the SnO2 NB showed a high sensitivity to ethanol and the Pd-SnO2 NB has a much higher sensitivity of 4.3 at 1,000 ppm of ethanol at 230°C, which is the highest sensitivity for a SnO2-based NB. Pd-SnO2 NB can detect ethanol in a wide range of concentration (1 ~ 1,000 ppm) with a relatively quick response (recovery) time of 8 s (9 s) at a temperature from 100°C to 300°C. In the meantime, the sensing capabilities of the Pd-SnO2 NB under 1 ppm of ethanol at 230°C will help to promote the sensitivity of a single nanoribbon sensor. Excellent performances of such a sensor make it a promising candidate for a device design toward ever-shrinking dimensions because a single nanoribbon device is easily integrated in the electronic devices. PMID:25278819

  8. Synthesis and high sensing properties of a single Pd-doped SnO2 nanoribbon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Monocrystal SnO2 and Pd-SnO2 nanoribbons have been successfully synthesized by thermal evaporation, and novel ethanol sensors based on a single Pd-SnO2 nanoribbon and a single SnO2 nanoribbon were fabricated. The sensing properties of SnO2 nanoribbon (SnO2 NB) and Pd-doped SnO2 nanoribbon (Pd-SnO2 NB) sensors were investigated. The results indicated that the SnO2 NB showed a high sensitivity to ethanol and the Pd-SnO2 NB has a much higher sensitivity of 4.3 at 1,000 ppm of ethanol at 230°C, which is the highest sensitivity for a SnO2-based NB. Pd-SnO2 NB can detect ethanol in a wide range of concentration (1 ~ 1,000 ppm) with a relatively quick response (recovery) time of 8 s (9 s) at a temperature from 100°C to 300°C. In the meantime, the sensing capabilities of the Pd-SnO2 NB under 1 ppm of ethanol at 230°C will help to promote the sensitivity of a single nanoribbon sensor. Excellent performances of such a sensor make it a promising candidate for a device design toward ever-shrinking dimensions because a single nanoribbon device is easily integrated in the electronic devices. PMID:25278819

  9. Mechanical properties and cytocompatibility of oxygen-modified β-type Ti-Cr alloys for spinal fixation devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huihong; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Cho, Ken; Narita, Kengo; Şen, Mustafa; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, various amounts of oxygen were added to Ti-10Cr (mass%) alloys. It is expected that a large changeable Young's modulus, caused by a deformation-induced ω-phase transformation, can be achieved in Ti-10Cr-O alloys by the appropriate oxygen addition. This "changeable Young's modulus" property can satisfy the otherwise conflicting requirements for use in spinal implant rods: high and low moduli are preferred by surgeons and patients, respectively. The influence of oxygen on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the alloys was examined, as well as the bending springback and cytocompatibility of the optimized alloy. Among the Ti-10Cr-O alloys, Ti-10Cr-0.2O (mass%) alloy shows the largest changeable Young's modulus following cold rolling for a constant reduction ratio. This is the result of two competing factors: increased apparent β-lattice stability and decreased amounts of athermal ω phase, both of which are caused by oxygen addition. The most favorable balance of these factors for the deformation-induced ω-phase transformation occurred at an oxygen concentration of 0.2mass%. Ti-10Cr-0.2O alloy not only exhibits high tensile strength and acceptable elongation, but also possesses a good combination of high bending strength, acceptable bending springback and great cytocompatibility. Therefore, Ti-10Cr-0.2O alloy is a potential material for use in spinal fixture devices. PMID:25449914

  10. Oxygen adsorption and electronic transport properties of Fe-substituted YBaCo{sub 4}O{sub 7} compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Haoshan; He, Qinglin; Cheng, Yongguang; Zhao, Limin

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The conduction mechanism of YBaCo{sub 4}O{sub 7} system was established. • The effect of Fe substitution on the electronic transport was discussed. • The effect of oxygen adsorption/desorption processes on the transport properties was investigated. - Abstract: YBaCo{sub 4−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 7} (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) samples were prepared by the solid-state reaction method and the effect of Fe substitution and oxygen adsorption/desorption on the electronic transport properties was investigated from room temperature to 900 °C. Fe for Co substitution results in a slight decline in the oxygen storage capacity at lower temperature (200–400 °C) and an increase of the phase-decomposition temperature at higher temperature (700–900 °C). Both the hole concentration and mobility are reduced in the Fe-containing compositions. Electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and conduction activation energy increase with the increasing Fe content. A close correlativity between oxygen adsorption and electronic transport behavior was observed in YBaCo{sub 4−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 7} system. Oxygen adsorption decreases the electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficients because of the increase of hole concentration at lower temperature and the phase decomposition at higher temperature.

  11. Tensile properties of V-Cr-Ti alloys after exposure in helium and low-partial-pressure oxygen environments

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K.

    1997-04-01

    A test program is in progress to evaluate the effect of oxygen at low pO{sub 2} on the tensile properties of V-(4-5)wt% Cr-(4-5)wt% Ti alloys. Some of the tensile specimens were precharged with oxygen at low pO{sub 2} at 500{degrees}C and reannealed in vacuum at 500{degrees}C in environments with various pO{sub 2} levels and subsequently tensile tested at room temperature. The preliminary results indicate that both approaches are appropriate for evaluating the effect of oxygen uptake on the tensile properties of the alloys. The data showed that in the relatively short-time tests conducted thus far, the maximum engineering stress slightly increased after oxygen exposure but the uniform and total elongation values exhibited significant decrease after exposure in oxygen-containing environments. The data for a specimen exposed to a helium environment were similar to those obtained in low pO{sub 2} environments.

  12. A magnetic mesoporous nanocomposite modified with a ruthenium complex for site-specific molecular oxygen sensing: Construction and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu-qing, Zhao; Xi, Chen; De-jun, Wan

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we constructed a core-shell structured organic-inorganic hybrid composite, where superparamagnetic ferroferric oxide and silica molecular sieve MCM-41 were used as the inner core and the outer shell, respectively. A Ru(II) complex was covalently grafted into these MCM-41 tunnels. Electron microscopy images, XRD analysis, IR spectra, thermogravimetry and N2 adsorption/desorption analysis were applied to confirm this Ru(II)-functionalized hybrid composite. Emission of this composite decreased with increasing O2 concentrations, which made itself an O2 sensing system. High selectivity (12.2), linear working curve (linearity = 0.99) and short response time (12 s) were obtained from this composite.

  13. Remote sensing of cloud, aerosol and water vapor properties from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is an Earth-viewing sensor being developed as a facility instrument for the Earth Observing System (EOS) to be launched in the late 1990s. MODIS consists of two separate instruments that scan a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, Sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km. Of primary interest for studies of atmospheric physics is the MODIS-N (nadir) instrument which will provide images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 micrometers with spatial resoulutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean and atmosperhic processes. The intent of this lecture is to describe the current status of MODIS-N and its companion instrument MODIS-T (tilt), a tiltable cross-track scanning radiometer with 32 uniformly spaced channels between 0.410 and 0.875 micrometers, and to describe the physical principles behind the development of MODIS for the remote sensing of atmospheric properties. Primary emphasis will be placed on the main atmospheric applications of determining the optical, microphysical and physical properties of clouds and aerosol particles form spectral-reflection and thermal-emission measurements. In addition to cloud and aerosol properties, MODIS-N will be utilized for the determination of the total precipitable water vapor over land and atmospheric stability. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these atmospheric products will be described herein.

  14. Remote sensing and the optical properties of the narrow cylindrical leaves of Juncus roemerianus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W., III; Rangoonwala, A.

    2004-01-01

    To develop a more complete foundation for remote sensing of the marsh grass Juncus roemerianus, we measured the optical properties of its cylindrical leaves at sites of different canopy height, biomass composition and amount, and connectivity to ocean flushing. To measure the leaf optical properties, we adapted a technique used for conifer needles. After establishing the reliability and limits of the adapted technique to the wider J.roemerianus leaves, mean transmittance and reflectance spectra were compared to associated leaf diameters from two dates in 1999 and 2002 and at each site. Transmittance was inversely related to leaf diameter. Mean transmittance and reflectance generated from reoccupation of many field sites in 2002 indicated little or no difference in transmittance between years, a slight reflectance difference in the visible (<2%) and a slightly higher reflectance difference in the near infrared (NIR) (<4%). Site comparison indicated limited ability to separate leaf transmittance but not reflectance by marsh type (e.g., low, medium, high) or biomass. Excluding one outlier, we found leaf transmittances could be adequately represented as 1% ?? 0.2% in the visible and 9% ?? 1% in the NIR and leaf reflectances represented from 14% to 16% in the visible and 71% to 75% in the NIR (the reflectance ranges represent 1999 and 2002 means). Reflectance and transmittance spectra associated with the dead J. roemerianus leaves displayed a spectrally flat increase from the visible to the NIR wavelengths. In total, we documented the atypical optical properties of the cylindrical J. roemerianus leaves and showed that to a first approximation, single means could represent leaf transmittance and visible leaf reflectance across all marsh zones and, after accounting for sample standardization, possibly the NIR reflectance as well.

  15. Using Remote Sensing Platforms to Estimate Near-Surface Soil Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, D. G.; Shaw, J. N.; Rickman, D.; Mask, P. L.; Wersinger, J. M.; Luvall, J.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluation of near-surface soil properties via remote sensing (RS) could facilitate soil survey mapping, erosion prediction, fertilization regimes, and allocation of agrochemicals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between soil spectral signature and near surface soil properties in conventionally managed row crop systems. High resolution RS data were acquired over bare fields in the Coastal Plain, Appalachian Plateau, and Ridge and Valley provinces of Alabama using the Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) multispectral scanner. Soils ranged from sandy Kandiudults to fine textured Rhodudults. Surface soil samples (0-1 cm) were collected from 163 sampling points for soil water content, soil organic carbon (SOC), particle size distribution (PSD), and citrate dithionite extractable iron (Fed) content. Surface roughness, soil water content, and crusting were also measured at sampling. Results showed RS data acquired from lands with less than 4 % surface soil water content best approximated near-surface soil properties at the Coastal Plain site where loamy sand textured surfaces were predominant. Utilizing a combination of band ratios in stepwise regression, Fed (r2 = 0.61), SOC (r2 = 0.36), sand (r2 = 0.52), and clay (r2 = 0.76) were related to RS data at the Coastal Plain site. In contrast, the more clayey Ridge and Valley soils had r-squares of 0.50, 0.36, 0.17, and 0.57. for Fed, SOC, sand and clay, respectively. Use of estimated eEmissivity did not generally improve estimates of near-surface soil attributes.

  16. Effects of oxygen content on the electric and magnetic properties of BiFeO3 compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilin, Song; Jian, Su; Zhang, Na; Fanggao, Chang

    2016-07-01

    Multiferroic BiFeOδ (δ=2.67, 2.95 and 3.02) compound of various oxygen contents (δ) have been prepared by gel sol method. The influence of oxygen contents on the structure, electric and magnetic properties of BiFeO3 compound has been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicate that all the samples of BiFeOδ have the same crystal structure regardless of oxygen content. The SEM micrograph reveals microstructures comprising of grains with various sizes from 200 nm to 1 μm. XPS study confirms the coexistence of Fe3+ and Fe2+ ions in BiFeOδ compound. The M(H) curves exhibit weak ferromagnetic behavior with unsaturated magnetization at room temperature, independent of the oxygen content. The M(T) curves of suggest anti-ferromagnetic behavior with Neel temperature of ~370 °C for BiFeO2.95 and BiFeO3.02 samples and paramagnetic behavior of BiFeO2.67 sample from RT up to 500 °C. The experimental results show that the antiferromagnetic ordering is strongly correlated with the oxygen content and is almost entirely suppressed in BiFeOδ with δ=2.67. The effect of oxygen vacancies is to weaken the magnetic ordering rather than to enhance it as previously suggested in the literature.

  17. Properties of Carbon–Oxygen White Dwarfs From Monte Carlo Stellar Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, C. E.; Farmer, R.; Petermann, I.; Iliadis, C.; Timmes, F. X.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate properties of carbon–oxygen white dwarfs with respect to the composite uncertainties in the reaction rates using the stellar evolution toolkit, Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) and the probability density functions in the reaction rate library STARLIB. These are the first Monte Carlo stellar evolution studies that use complete stellar models. Focusing on 3 {M}ȯ models evolved from the pre main-sequence to the first thermal pulse, we survey the remnant core mass, composition, and structure properties as a function of 26 STARLIB reaction rates covering hydrogen and helium burning using a Principal Component Analysis and Spearman Rank-Order Correlation. Relative to the arithmetic mean value, we find the width of the 95% confidence interval to be {{Δ }}{M}{{1TP}} ≈ 0.019 {M}ȯ for the core mass at the first thermal pulse, Δ{t}{{1TP}} ≈ 12.50 Myr for the age, {{Δ }}{log}({T}{{c}}/{{K}}) ≈ 0.013 for the central temperature, {{Δ }}{log}({ρ }{{c}}/{{g}} {{cm}}-3) ≈ 0.060 for the central density, {{Δ }}{Y}{{e,c}} ≈ 2.6 × 10‑5 for the central electron fraction, {{Δ }}{X}{{c}}{(}22{{Ne}}) ≈ 5.8 × 10‑4, {{Δ }}{X}{{c}}{(}12{{C}}) ≈ 0.392, and {{Δ }}{X}{{c}}{(}16{{O}}) ≈ 0.392. Uncertainties in the experimental 12C(α ,γ {)}16{{O}}, triple-α, and 14N({\\text{}}p,γ {)}15{{O}} reaction rates dominate these variations. We also consider a grid of 1–6 {M}ȯ models evolved from the pre main-sequence to the final white dwarf to probe the sensitivity of the initial–final mass relation to experimental uncertainties in the hydrogen and helium reaction rates.

  18. Control of plasma properties in capacitively coupled oxygen discharges via the electrical asymmetry effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüngel, E.; Zhang, Q.-Z.; Iwashita, S.; Schulze, J.; Hou, L.-J.; Wang, Y.-N.; Czarnetzki, U.

    2011-07-01

    Using a combined experimental, numerical and analytical approach, we investigate the control of plasma properties via the electrical asymmetry effect (EAE) in a capacitively coupled oxygen discharge. In particular, we present the first experimental investigation of the EAE in electronegative discharges. A dual-frequency voltage source of 13.56 MHz and 27.12 MHz is applied to the powered electrode and the discharge symmetry is controlled by adjusting the phase angle θ between the two harmonics. It is found that the bulk position and density profiles of positive ions, negative ions, and electrons have a clear dependence on θ, while the peak densities and the electronegativity stay rather constant, largely due to the fact that the time-averaged power absorption by electrons is almost independent of θ. This indicates that the ion flux towards the powered electrode remains almost constant. Meanwhile, the dc self-bias and, consequently, the sheath widths and potential profile can be effectively tuned by varying θ. This enables a flexible control of the ion bombarding energy at the electrode. Therefore, our work proves the effectiveness of the EAE to realize separate control of ion flux and ion energy in electronegative discharges. At low pressure, the strength of resonance oscillations, which are found in the current of asymmetric discharges, can be controlled with θ.

  19. Formation, Reactivity, and Properties of Nondative Late Transition Metal–Oxygen and–Nitrogen Bonds

    PubMed Central

    FULTON, J. ROBIN; HOLLAND, ANDREW W.; FOX, DANIEL J.; BERGMAN*, ROBERT G.

    2005-01-01

    Complexes containing bonds between heteroatoms such as nitrogen and oxygen and “late” transition metals (i.e., those located on the right side of the transition series) have been implicated as reactive intermediates in numerous important catalytic systems. Despite this, our understanding of such M–X linkages still lags behind that of their M–H and M–C analogues. New synthetic strategies have now made possible the isolation and study of a variety of monomeric late-metal alkoxide, aryloxide, and amide complexes, including parent hydroxide and amide species. The heteroatoms in these materials form surprisingly strong bonds to their metal centers, and their bond energies do not necessarily correlate with the energies of the corresponding H–X bonds. The M–X complexes typically exhibit nucleophilic reactivity, in some cases form strong hydrogen bonds to proton donors, and even deprotonate relatively weak acids. These observations, as well as thermodynamic investigations, suggest that late metal–heteroatom bonds are strongly polarized and possess significant ionic character, properties that play an important role in their interactions with organic compounds. PMID:11790088

  20. Enhancing photoluminescence properties of SiC/SiO2 coaxial nanocables by making oxygen vacancies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenna; Chen, Junhong; Yang, Tao; Chou, Kuo-Chih; Hou, Xinmei

    2016-09-14

    Coaxial nanocables (CNs) with an SiC core and a SiO2 shell were fabricated at a large scale by a simple and low cost method. The thickness of the SiO2 shell could be controlled by etching in 1 M NaOH aqueous solution for different amounts of time. XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, PL and UV-Vis spectra were adopted to investigate the morphology and optical properties of the obtained SiC/SiO2CNs. Blue photoluminescence was observed at room temperature from the coaxial structure. The intensity of the single emission band at 468 nm (2.65 eV) exhibited a strong dependence on the thickness of the SiO2 layer and was significantly enhanced when the outer SiO2 shell had a thickness of 2.8 nm. The enhancement effect was attributed to oxygen vacancies (OV) and this was verified by deliberately enriching the surface OV through hydrogen treatment. PMID:27503431

  1. Transport properties for liquid silicon-oxygen-iron mixtures at Earth's core conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzo, Monica; Davies, Chris; Gubbins, David; Alfè, Dario

    2013-01-01

    We report on the thermal and electrical conductivities of two liquid silicon-oxygen-iron mixtures (Fe0.82Si0.10O0.08 and Fe0.79Si0.08O0.13), representative of the composition of the Earth's outer core at the relevant pressure-temperature conditions, obtained from density functional theory calculations with the Kubo-Greenwood formulation. We find thermal conductivities k=100(160) W m-1 K-1, and electrical conductivities σ=1.1(1.3)×106Ω-1 m-1 at the top (bottom) of the outer core. These values are between two and three times higher than previous estimates, and have important implications for our understanding of the Earth's thermal history and the functioning of the Earth's magnetic field, including rapid cooling rate for the whole core or high level of radiogenic elements in the core. We also show results for a number of structural and dynamic properties of the mixtures, including the partial radial distribution functions, mean square displacements, viscosities, and speeds of sound.

  2. Electrical property studies of oxygen in Czochralski-grown neutron-transmutation-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, J.W.; Fukuoka, N.

    1980-10-01

    Electically active oxygen-related donors can be formed in Czochralski (Cz) Si either during crystal growth or during subsequent heat treatment; conventional n- or p-type dopant carrier concentrations are altered if these oxygen donors are present. Neutron transmutation doping (NTD) has been used to introduce a uniform concentration of /sup 31/P in Si. However, oxygen donors can also be formed in NTD Cz Si during the process of annealing to remove NTD radiation damage. In the present experiments, the carrier concentration of Cz and NTD Cz Si samples was determined as a function of the initial dopant, oxygen, and /sup 31/P concentration before and after isothermal or isochronal annealing. It is shown that low temperature (350 to 500/sup 0/C) heat treatment can introduce a significant oxygen donor concentration in Cz Si and in NTD Cz Si that contains radiation-induced lattice defects. Intermediate temperature (550 to 750/sup 0/C) heat treatment, which is intended to remove oxygen donors or lattice defects, can introduce other oxygen donors; annealing above 750/sup 0/C is required to remove any of these oxygen donors. Extended (20 h) high-temperature (1000 to 1200/sup 0/C) annealing can remove oxygen donors and lattice defects, but a significant concentration of oxygen donors can still be introduced by subsequent low temperature heat treatment. These results suggest that oxygen-related donor formation in NTD Cz Si at temperatures below 750/sup 0/C may serve to mask any annealing study of lattice defects. It is concluded that annealing for 30 min at 750/sup 0/C is sufficient to remove radiation damage in NTD Cz Si when the separate effects of oxygen donor formation are included.

  3. Remote Sensing of Cloud, Aerosol, and Water Vapor Properties from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    MODIS is an earth-viewing cross-track scanning spectroradiometer launched on the Terra satellite in December 1999. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands from 0.415 to 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes. In this presentation I will review the comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms that have been developed for the remote sensing of atmospheric properties using MODIS data, placing primary emphasis on the principal atmospheric applications of: (1) developing a cloud mask for distinguishing clear sky from clouds, (2) retrieving global cloud radiative and microphysical properties, including cloud top pressure and temperature, effective emissivity, cloud optical thickness, thermodynamic phase, and effective radius, (3) monitoring tropospheric aerosol optical thickness over the land and ocean and aerosol size distribution over the ocean, (4) determining atmospheric profiles of moisture and temperature, and (5) estimating column water amount. The physical principles behind the determination of each of these atmospheric products will be described, together with an example of their application using MODIS observations. All products are archived into two categories: pixel-level retrievals (referred to as Level-2 products) and global gridded products at a latitude and longitude resolution of 1 deg (Level-3 products). An overview of the MODIS atmosphere algorithms and products, status, validation activities, and early level-2 and -3 results will be presented. Finally, I will present some highlights from the land and ocean algorithms developed for processing global MODIS observations, including: (1) surface reflectance, (2

  4. Development of Satellite Remote Sensing Techniques for Quantifying Volcanic Ash Cloud Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavolonis, Michael J.

    Novel new approaches to automatically detect and characterize volcanic ash using satellite data are presented. The Spectrally Enhanced Cloud Objects (SECO) ash detection algorithm, combines radiative transfer theory, Bayesian methods, and image processing/computer vision concepts to identify volcanic ash clouds in satellite data with skill that is generally comparable to a human expert, especially with respect to false alarm rate. The SECO method is globally applicable and can be applied to virtually any low earth orbit or geostationary satellite sensor. The new ash detection approach was quantitatively proven to be significantly more skillful than traditional pixel based approaches, including the commonly used "split-window" technique. The performance of the SECO approach is extremely promising and well suited for a variety of new and improved applications. A new approach to retrieve volcanic ash cloud properties from infrared satellite measurements was also developed. The algorithm utilizes an optimal estimation framework to retrieve ash cloud height, mass loading, and effective particle radius. Optimal estimation allows uncertainties in the measurements and forward model to be taken into account and uncertainty estimates for each of the retrieved parameters to be determined. Background atmospheric water vapor, surface temperature, and surface emissivity are explicitly accounted for on a pixel-by-pixel basis, so the algorithm is globally applicable. In addition, the ash cloud retrieval algorithm is unique because it allows the cloud temperature/height to be a free parameter. Volcanic ash clouds are a major aviation hazard. Fine-grained ash from explosive eruptions can be transported long distances (>1000 km) from the source volcano by atmospheric winds, severely disrupting aviation operations. Volcanic ash clouds are complex and the background environment in which they reside can be as well. Thus, sophisticated satellite remote sensing techniques for extracting

  5. Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties in the mid Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzortziou, Maria; Subramaniam, Ajit; Herman, Jay R.; Gallegos, Charles L.; Neale and, Patrick J., Jr.; Harding, Lawrence W.

    2007-03-01

    We used an extensive set of bio-optical data to examine the relationships between inherent optical properties and remotely sensed quantities in an optically complex and biologically productive region of the Chesapeake Bay. Field observations showed that the chlorophyll algorithms used by the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ocean color sensor (i.e. Chlor_a, chlor_MODIS, chlor_a_3 products) do not perform accurately in these Case 2 waters. This is because, at high concentrations of chlorophyll, all MODIS algorithms are based on empirical relationships between chlorophyll concentration and blue:green wavelength remote sensing reflectance ( Rrs) ratios that do not account for the typically strong blue-wavelength absorption by non-covarying, dissolved and non-algal particulate components. We found stronger correlation between chlorophyll concentration and red:green Rrs ratios (i.e. Rrs(677)/ Rrs(554)). Regionally-specific algorithms that are based on the phytoplankton optical properties in the red wavelength region provide a better basis for satellite monitoring of phytoplankton blooms in these Case 2 waters. Our estimates of f/ Q (proportionality factor in the relationship between Rrs and the ratio of water backscattering, bb, and absorption, a, coefficients, bb/( a + bb)) were not considerably different from f/ Q previously estimated for same measurement geometry but Case 1 waters. Variation in surface bb significantly affected Rrs magnitude across the visible spectrum and was most strongly correlated ( R2 = 0.88) with observed variability in Rrs at 670 nm. Surface values of particulate backscattering were strongly correlated with non-algal particulate absorption, anap ( R2 = 0.83). These results, along with the measured backscattering fraction and non-algal particulate absorption spectral slope, indicate that suspended non-algal particles with high inorganic content are the major water constituents regulating bb variability in the studied region

  6. Electrochemical properties of oxygenated cup-stacked carbon nanofiber-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ko, Seongjae; Tatsuma, Tetsu; Sakoda, Akiyoshi; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Komori, Kikuo

    2014-06-28

    Oxygenated cup-stacked carbon nanofibers (CSCNFs), the surface of which provides highly ordered graphene edges and oxygen-containing functional groups, were investigated as electrode materials by using typical redox species in electrochemistry, Fe(2+/3+), [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-), and dopamine. The electron transfer rates for these redox species at oxygenated CSCNF electrodes were higher than those at edge-oriented pyrolytic graphite and glassy carbon electrodes. In addition, the oxygen-containing functional groups also contributed to the electron transfer kinetics at the oxygenated CSCNF surface. The electron transfer rate of Fe(2+/3+) was accelerated and that of [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) was decelerated by the oxygen-containing groups, mainly due to the electrostatic attraction and repulsion, respectively. The electrochemical reaction selectivities at the oxygenated CSCNF surface were tunable by controlling the amount of nanofibers and the oxygen/carbon atomic ratio at the nanofiber surface. Thus, the oxygenated CSCNFs would be useful electrode materials for energy-conversion, biosensing, and other electrochemical devices. PMID:24817367

  7. Effect of low oxygen pressure on structural and magnetic properties of quenched SrFe12O19 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katlakunta, S.; Praveena, K.; Singh, R.

    2013-10-01

    Strontium hexaferrite thin films have been grown on glass substrates at room temperature in oxygen environment by pulsed laser deposition method. The effect of oxygen pressure (po2) on the structural and magnetic properties has been investigated. The as-deposited films were found to be amorphous in nature. The crystallization of these films was achieved by annealing at a temperature of 850 °C in air. The thickness of the film increased with po2. The film grown at po2 = 0.455 Pa had a clear hexagonal structure. The values of coercivity for the films were found to increase with po2.

  8. Enhancement of electrical property by oxygen doping to copper phthalocyanine in inverted top emitting organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Kihyon; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2009-11-23

    We reported the evidence of oxygen doping to copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) by O{sub 2}-plasma treatment to inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (ITOLEDs). In situ synchrotron-radiation photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that a new Cu-O bond appeared and the energy difference between the highest-occupied molecular orbital and E{sub F} is lowered by 0.15 eV after plasma treatment. The oxygen ions chemically interacted with Cu atoms and transferred charges to the CuPc. Thus the hole injection barrier was lowered, enhancing the electroluminescent property of ITOLEDs.

  9. Frequency-Stabilized Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide to Support Atmospheric Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, David Alexander

    Recent remote-sensing satellite missions have aimed to measure global greenhouse gas concentrations with precisions as demanding as 0.25%. These high-resolution measurements should allow for the quantification of carbon sources and sinks, thus, allowing for a considerable reduction in present carbon cycle uncertainties. To achieve these unprecedented measurement goals will require the most precise body of spectroscopic reference data (i.e., laboratory measurements) ever assembled. In order to aid these missions, we have measured ultraprecise spectroscopic parameters for the (30012)←(00001) CO2 band at 1.57 microm and the O2 A-band at 0.76 microm. These near-infrared transitions are utilized in recent greenhouse gas monitoring missions, with the A-band being employed to derive pressure and temperature profiles. In these investigations we have employed frequency-stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy (FS-CRDS), a novel ultrasensitive spectroscopic technique. In the O2 A-band we have measured magnetic dipole line parameters for 16O 2 as well as each of the rare isotopologues and have produced calculated, HITRAN-style line lists. Due to the clear presence of collisional narrowing in the spectra, we have utilized the Galatry line profile in these studies and have reported narrowing parameters under self- and air-broadened conditions. We anticipate that the use of these spectral parameters will greatly reduce the uncertainties of atmospheric remote-sensing retrievals. In addition, the spectral fidelity of FS-CRDS allowed us to observe and quantify unresolved hyperfine structure for the 17O-containing isotopologues. Furthermore, the high sensitivity of FS-CRDS enabled measurements of ultraweak (S˜10 -30 cm molec.-1) electric quadrupole transitions in the A-band, many of which had not previously been observed. Recently we have begun a series of studies of the near-infrared CO2 transitions. Measurements at low pressures (<40 kPa) have revealed the simultaneous presence

  10. Gas sensing properties of magnesium doped SnO{sub 2} thin films in relation to AC conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Deepa, S.; Skariah, Benoy Thomas, Boben; Joseph, Anisha

    2014-01-28

    Conducting magnesium doped (0 to 1.5 wt %) tin oxide thin films prepared by Spray Pyrolysis technique achieved detection of 1000 ppm of LPG. The films deposited at 304 °C exhibit an enhanced response at an operating temperature of 350 °C. The microstructural properties are studied by means of X-ray diffraction. AC conductivity measurements are carried out using precision LCR meter to analyze the parameters that affect the variation in sensing. The results are correlated with compositional parameters and the subsequent modification in the charge transport mechanism facilitating an enhanced LPG sensing action.

  11. Remote-sensing based technique to account for sub-grid scale variability of land surface properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosson, William L.; Laymon, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    A method has been presented for the representation of sub-grid scale variability of surface properties within a land surface processes model. The method uses remotely-sensed data to directly or indirectly estimate probability density functions (PDF's) or key surface variables. Application of this technique in a coupled land surface-atmosphere model requires only grid-scale values of the variables of interest, obtained from low-resolution satellite imagery or surface/remote sensing data assimilation. The PDF's of each controlling surface property are superimposed on the respective grid-scale values to simulate sub-grid scale heterogeneity. Sensitivity studies will be carried out to ascertain the relative importance of the heterogeneity of several variables, and the degree to which non-linear property-process interactions impact large-scale fluxes.

  12. In situ precipitation preparation of ZnO hollow spheres and their photocatalysis and gas-sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiaohua; Tian, Minggang; Liu, Yingying; Wu, Xiangyang; Song, Haojie

    2015-06-01

    ZnO hollow spheres were synthesized by in situ precipitation method in the presence of surfactant polyvinylpyrrolidone combined with subsequent calcination. The prepared ZnO was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that the prepared ZnO hollow spheres were well crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase. The formation mechanism of ZnO hollow spheres was discussed. Furthermore, the gas-sensing properties for detection of organic gas and photocatalytic activities for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) of the prepared ZnO hollow spheres were investigated. The results indicated that the prepared ZnO hollow spheres exhibited superior photocatalysis properties on decomposition of RhB and high gas-sensing properties for detection of acetone gas.

  13. Remote Sensing Reflectance and Inherent Optical Properties in the Mid-mesohaline Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzortziou, Maria; Subramaniam, Ajit; Herman, Jay R.; Gallegos, Charles L.; Neal, Patrick J.; Harding, Lawrence W., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    We used an extensive set of bio-optical data and radiative transfer (RT) model simulations of radiation fields to investigate relationships between inherent optical properties and remotely sensed quantities in the optically complex, mid-mesohaline Chesapeake Bay waters. Field observations showed that the chlorophyll algorithms used by the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ocean color sensor (i.e. Chlor_a, chlor_MODIS, chlor_a_3 products) do not perform accurately in these Case 2 waters. This is because, when applied to waters with high concentrations of chlorophyll, all MODIS algorithms are based on empirical relationships between chlorophyll concentration and blue-green wavelength remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) ratios that do not account for the typically strong blue-wavelength absorption by non-covarying, dissolved and non-algal particulate components. Stronger correlation was observed between chlorophyll concentration and Rrs ratios in the red (i.e. Rrs(677)/Rrs(554)) where dissolved and non-algal particulate absorption become exponentially smaller. Regionally-specific algorithms that are based on the phytoplankton optical properties in the red wavelength region provide a better basis for satellite monitoring of phytoplankton blooms in these Case 2 waters. Good optical closure was obtained between independently measured Rrs spectra and the optical properties of backscattering, b(sub b), and absorption, a, over the wide range of in-water conditions observed in the Chesapeake Bay. Observed variability in the quantity f/Q (proportionality factor in the relationship between Rrs and the water inherent optical properties ratio b(sub b)/(a+b(sub b)) was consistent with RT model calculations for the specific measurement geometry and water bio-optical characteristics. Data and model results showed that f/Q values in these Case 2 coastal waters are not considerably different from those estimated in previous studies for Case 1 waters. Variation in

  14. Effect of oxygen plasma on the properties of tantalum oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Kalygina, V. M. Zarubin, A. N.; Novikov, V. A.; Petrova, Yu. S.; Skakunov, M. S.; Tolbanov, O. P.; Tyazhev, A. V.; Yaskevich, T. M.

    2010-09-15

    The effect of oxygen plasma on the leakage current, permittivity, and the dielectric loss tangent of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin layers (300-400 nm) is studied. It is suggested to treat tantalum oxide films in oxygen plasma to control their electrical and dielectric characteristics.

  15. Effects of oxygen incorporation in GeSbTe films on electrical properties and thermal stability

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Moon Hyung; Park, Seung Jong; Lim, Dong Hyeok; Park, Sung Jin; Cho, Mann-Ho; Cho, Seong Jin; Cho, Yoon Ho; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2010-03-01

    Oxygen incorporated Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST) films were prepared by an ion beam sputtering deposition method. I-V curves of the oxygen incorporated GST active layer showed that the threshold voltage (V{sub th}) varied, depending on the level of incorporated oxygen. In the case of a GST film with an elevated oxygen content of 30.8%, the GST layer melted at 9.02 V due to the instability conferred by the high oxygen content. The formation of Ge-deficient hexagonal phases such as GeSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} appear to be responsible for the V{sub th} variation. Impedance analyses indicated that the resistance in GST films with oxygen contents of 16.7% and 21.7% had different origins. Thermal desorption spectroscopy data indicate that moisture and hydrocarbons were more readily desorbed at higher oxygen content because the oxygen incorporated GST films are more hydrophilic than undoped GST films.

  16. Photoinduced green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with highly effective antibacterial and hydrogen peroxide sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Gundampati, Ravi Kumar; Singh, Devendra K; Bano, Daraksha; Jagannadham, Medicherla V; Hasan, Syed Hadi

    2016-09-01

    In this study, an eco-friendly and sustainable green route was employed for the synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta (AEE) as both reducing as well as a stabilizing agent. The synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy which produced a prominent SPR band at λmax 425nm after 25min of sunlight exposure. The AgNPs thus synthesized were optimized using one factor at a time approach, and these optimized conditions were 25min of sunlight exposure time, 5.0% (v/v) of AEE inoculum dose and 3.0mM of AgNO3 concentration. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) analysis confirmed the presence of spherical AgNPs with average size 15.5nm. The crystallinity was determined by X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) pattern. Chemical and elemental compositions were determined by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) respectively. The Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images with average roughness 1.15nm represented the lateral and 3D topological characteristic of AgNPs. The AgNPs thus synthesized showed effective antibacterial activity against gram negative and gram positive bacteria as well as hydrogen peroxide sensing property with a minimum detection limit of 10(-7)M. PMID:27424098

  17. Enhanced NO2 Gas Sensing Properties of WO3-Coated Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Sensors.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyunsung; Park, Sunghoon; Park, Suyoung; Lee, Chongmu

    2015-07-01

    WO3-coated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were fabricated by sputter-deposition of WO3 on MWCNT paste. The outer diameters of WO3-coated MWCNTs ranged from 20 to 40 nm and the lengths ranged up to a few tens of micrometers. The low-magnification TEM image of a typical WO3-coated CNT showed a CNT with an inner diameter of ~20 nm and a tube wall thickness of ~7 nm and WO3 shells with a thickness up to 10 nm at both edges of the tube. The WO3 shells were very nonuniform in thickness not only along the axis of the nanotube but also from one nanotube to the other. The sensing properties of multiple networked WO3-coated CNT sensors toward NO2 gas were examined. The WO3-coated MWCNT sensors showed responses of 120-221% over an NO2 concentration range of 1 to 5 ppm at room temperature. The responses were 1-2 fold higher than those of the pristine MWCNT sensor over the same NO2 concentration range. The origin of the enhancement of the MWCNTs in the response to NO2 by coating them with WO3 is discussed. PMID:26373127

  18. Gas sensing properties of nanostructured MoO3 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, H. M.; Torres, J.; Rodríguez-García, M. E.; López Carreño, L. D.

    2012-08-01

    Thin films of molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) were deposited on common glass using the chemical spray pyrolysis technique. A (NH4)6Mo7O244H20 solution 0.1 M was used as the precursor one. The influence of substrate temperature on the crystallographic structure, surface morphology and electrical behavior of MoO3 thin films was studied. MoO3 can exist in two crystalline forms, the thermodynamically stable orthorhombic α-MoO3 and the metastable monoclinic β-MoO3 phase. XRD-spectra showed a growth of α-MoO3 phase percentage as substrate temperature increases from 420 K up to 670 K. Films deposited in the 500-600 K range have a clearly porous surface structure of nanometer order as can be seen in SEM images. Changes up to six magnitude orders were observed in MoO3 thin films electrical resistance when films temperature varied from 100 K up to 500 K. The sensing property of these MoO3 films was also studied. The sensitivity was investigated in the temperature range 160 and 360 K for H2O and CO gases, respectively. Both of them are of reducing nature. In all studied cases sensitivity decreases slowly as film temperature is raised. At room temperature the sensitivity changes from 12 up to 75% depending on substrate temperature. The sensitivity for CO gas was found to be lower than that of H2O.

  19. Effect of HCl doping on optoelectrical and LPG sensing properties of nanostructured polyaniline thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhye, Deepak S.; Huse, Nanasaheb P.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructure Polyaniline thin films doped with 0.5 M, 0.7 M, and 1 M of HCL were synthesized by simple and inexpensive chemical oxidative polymerization technique at room temperature. All prepared thin films of Polyaniline were characterized by optical absorbance study by UV-visible spectroscopy. The absorbance spectrum of Polyaniline shows three fundamental peaks at 356, 419 and 820 nm with increase in absorption intensity. The electrical study shows magnitude of resistance of HCL doped Polyaniline is dependent on doping level. Furthermore, the thin film of Polyaniline was investigated by Scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology study. The SEM micrograph represents irregular granular morphology. In order to investigate LPG sensing properties, I-V characteristics of the Polyaniline films doped with 0.5 M, 0.7 M, and 1 M of HCL were recorded at room temperature in presence of air and 100 ppm of LPG. The observed values of sensitivity found to be 7.21%, 9.85% and 17.46 % for 0.5 M, 0.75 M, and 1.0 M of HCL doped Polyaniline thin films respectively

  20. Remote Sensing of Mycorrhizae? Detection of Mycorrhizal Association from Canopy Spectral Properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. B.; Sweeney, S.; Brzostek, E. R.; Evans, T. P.; Bourg, N. A.; Phillips, R.

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all tree species form symbiotic relationships with one of two types of mycorrzhae—arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. AM- and ECM-dominated forests often have distinct nutrient economies, and there is strong interest in mapping or detecting mycorrhizae over large areas. We explored remotely sensed tree canopy spectral properties to "detect" underlying mycorrhizal association across a gradient of AM- and ECM-dominated forest plots. We used a combination of principal components analysis and statistical mining of reflectance and band differencing across moderate/high-resolution Landsat data in conjunction with phenological signals from stitched seasonal time series and topographic features. This approach was trained and validated against measurements of tree species and mycorrhizal association across more than 60,000 trees throughout the central and eastern US. Using this approach, we were able to predict 81% of the variation in mycorrhizal association (p<0.001). Differences in phenological characteristics between AM- and ECM-associated trees drove the relatively high prediction skill.

  1. Thickness and UV irradiation effects on the gas sensing properties of Te thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Manouchehrian, M.; Larijani, M.M.; Elahi, S.M.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Tellurium thin films were prepared by thermal evaporation technique. • Tellurium thin films showed excellent gas-sensing properties to H{sub 2}S at room temperature. • Tellurium showed a remarkably enhanced response to H{sub 2}S gas under UV irradiation. • The reason of the enhanced response by UV irradiation was discussed. - Abstract: In this research, tellurium thin films were investigated for use as hydrogen sulfide gas sensors. To this end, a tellurium thin film has been deposited on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates by thermal evaporation, and the influence of thickness on the sensitivity of the tellurium thin film for measuring H{sub 2}S gas is studied. XRD patterns indicate that as the thickness increases, the crystallization improves. Observing the images obtained by SEM, it is seen that the grain size increases as the thickness increases. Studying the effect of thickness on H{sub 2}S gas measurement, it became obvious that as the thickness increases, the sensitivity decreases and the response and recovery times increase. To improve the response and recovery times of the tellurium thin film for measuring H{sub 2}S gas, the influence of UV radiation while measuring H{sub 2}S gas was also investigated. The results indicate that the response and recovery times strongly decrease using UV radiation.

  2. Advancement in polarimetric glucose sensing: simulation and measurement of birefringence properties of cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Bilal H.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2011-03-01

    Clinical guidelines dictate that frequent blood glucose monitoring in diabetic patients is critical towards proper management of the disease. Although, several different types of glucose monitors are now commercially available, most of these devices are invasive, thereby adversely affecting patient compliance. To this end, optical polarimetric glucose sensing through the eye has been proposed as a potential noninvasive means to aid in the control of diabetes. Arguably, the most critical and limiting factor towards successful application of such a technique is the time varying corneal birefringence due to eye motion artifact. We present a spatially variant uniaxial eye model to serve as a tool towards better understanding of the cornea's birefringence properties. The simulations show that index-unmatched coupling of light is spatially limited to a smaller range when compared to the index-matched situation. Polarimetric measurements on rabbits' eyes indicate relative agreement between the modeled and experimental values of corneal birefringence. In addition, the observed rotation in the plane of polarized light for multiple wavelengths demonstrates the potential for using a dual-wavelength polarimetric approach to overcome the noise due to timevarying corneal birefringence. These results will ultimately aid us in the development of an appropriate eye coupling mechanism for in vivo polarimetric glucose measurements.

  3. Unique chloride-sensing properties of WNK4 permit the distal nephron to modulate potassium homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Terker, Andrew S.; Zhang, Chong; Erspamer, Kayla J.; Gamba, Gerardo; Yang, Chao-Ling; Ellison, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary potassium deficiency activates thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransport along the distal nephron. This may explain, in part, the hypertension and cardiovascular mortality observed in individuals who consume a low potassium diet. Recent data suggest plasma potassium affects the distal nephron directly by influencing intracellular chloride, an inhibitor of the With no lysine kinase (WNK)-Ste20p-related proline-and alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) pathway. Since previous studies used extreme dietary manipulations, we sought to determine if the relationship between potassium and NCC is physiologically relevant and clarify the mechanisms involved. We report that modest changes in both dietary and plasma potassium affect the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, in vivo. Kinase assay studies showed that chloride inhibits WNK4 kinase activity at lower concentrations than it inhibits activity of WNK1 or WNK3. Also, chloride inhibited WNK4 within the range of distal cell chloride. Mutation of a previously identified WNK chloride-binding motif converted WNK4 effects on SPAK from inhibitory to stimulatory in mammalian cells. Disruption of this motif in WNKs 1, 3 and 4 had different effects on NCC, consistent with the three WNKs having different chloride sensitivities. Thus, potassium effects on NCC are graded within the physiological range, which explains how unique chloride-sensing properties of WNK4 enable kinase mediating effects of potassium on NCC in vivo. PMID:26422504

  4. In situ growth of copper nanocrystals from carbonaceous microspheres with electrochemical glucose sensing properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Xiaoliang; Yan, Zhengguang Han, Xiaodong

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: In situ growth of copper nanoparticles from hydrothermal copper-containing carbonaceous microspheres was induced by annealing or electron beam irradiation. Obtained micro-nano carbon/copper composite microspheres show electrochemical glucose sensing properties. - Highlights: • We synthesized carbonaceous microspheres containing non-nanoparicle copper species through a hydrothermal route. • By annealing or electron beam irradiation, copper nanoparticles would form from the carbonaceous microspheres in situ. • By controlling the annealing temperature, particle size of copper could be controlled in the range of 50–500 nm. • The annealed carbon/copper hierarchical composite microspheres were used to fabricate an electrochemical glucose sensor. - Abstract: In situ growth of copper nanocrystals from carbon/copper microspheres was observed in a well-controlled annealing or an electron beam irradiation process. Carbonaceous microspheres containing copper species with a smooth appearance were yielded by a hydrothermal synthesis using copper nitrate and ascorbic acid as reactants. When annealing the carbonaceous microspheres under inert atmosphere, copper nanoparticles were formed on carbon microspheres and the copper particle sizes can be increased to a range of 50–500 nm by altering the heating temperature. Similarly, in situ formation of copper nanocrystals from these carbonaceous microspheres was observed on the hydrothermal product carbonaceous microspheres with electron beam irradiation in a vacuum transmission electron microscopy chamber. The carbon/copper composite microspheres obtained through annealing were used to modify a glassy carbon electrode and tested as an electrochemical glucose sensor.

  5. Structural, optical and ethanol sensing properties of Cu-doped SnO{sub 2} nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Johari, Anima Sharma, Manish; Johari, Anoopshi; Bhatnagar, M. C.

    2014-04-24

    In present work, one-dimensional nanostructure of Cu-doped Tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) was synthesized by using thermal evaporation method in a tubular furnace under Nitrogen (N{sub 2}) ambience. The growth was carried out at atmospheric pressure. SEM and TEM images reveal the growth of wire-like nanostructures of Cu-doped SnO{sub 2} on Si substrate. The XRD analysis confirms that the synthesized SnO{sub 2} nanowires have tetragonal rutile structure with polycrystalline nature and X-ray diffraction pattern also showed that Cu gets incorporated into the SnO{sub 2} lattice. EDX spectra confirm the doping of Cu into SnO{sub 2} nanowires and atomic fraction of Cu in nanowires is ∼ 0.5 at%. The Vapor Liquid Solid (VLS) growth mechanism for Cu-doped SnO{sub 2} nanowires was also confirmed by EDX spectra. The optical properties of as grown Cu-doped SnO{sub 2} nanowires were studied by using UV-vis spectra which concludes the band gap of about 3.7 eV. As synthesized single Cu-doped SnO{sub 2} nanowire based gas sensor exhibit relatively good performance to ethanol gas. This sensing behaviour offers a suitable application of the Cu-doped SnO{sub 2} nanowire sensor for detection of ethanol gas.

  6. Optical properties of silver/gold nanostructures fabricated by shadowing growth and their sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Junxue; Zhao, Yiping

    2010-08-01

    Various Ag and Au nanostructured films such as Ag nanoparticle (NP) films, Au NP films, and Au NP/TiO2/Au NP sandwich structures are fabricated by oblique angle deposition (OAD) and glancing angle deposition (GLAD) methods. Their optical absorbance properties and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) have been studied systematically for samples prepared at different deposition conditions. Under the same deposition conditions, the Ag or Au NP substrates produced by GLAD method are more uniform and reproducible. The LSPR wavelength of Ag or Au NP substrates can be easily tuned by changing the film thickness, the deposition angle, and the coating of dielectric layer. The ability of the nanoparticle films as a chemical and biological biosensor has been explored by sensing the biomolecule NeutrAvidin and the bacterium Salmonella. Those NP films are very sensitive to chemical detection but are insensitive for bacteria detection. Based on Mie theory and effective medium theory, this is due to the small contact area between the nanoparticle and the bacteria, and the short range interaction of the local electric field. Our results demonstrate that shadowing based growth is a very versatile fabrication technique to produce reproducible and finetuned LSPR substrates.

  7. Investigation on strain sensing properties of carbon-based nanocomposites for structural aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberti, Patrizia; Spinelli, Giovanni; Tucci, Vincenzo; Guadagno, Liberata; Vertuccio, Luigi; Russo, Salvatore

    2016-05-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties of a thermosetting epoxy resin particularly indicated for the realization of structural aeronautic components and reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, at 0.3 wt%) are investigated for specimens subjected to cycles and different levels of applied strain (i.e. ɛ) loaded both in axial tension and flexural mode. It is found that the piezoresistive behavior of the resulting nanocomposite evaluated in terms of variation of the electrical resistance is strongly affected by the applied mechanical stress mainly due to the high sensibility and consequent rearrangement of the electrical percolating network formed by MWCNTs in the composite at rest or even under a small strain. In fact, the variations in electrical resistance that occur during the mechanical stress are correlated to the deformation exhibited by the nanocomposites. In particular, the overall response of electrical resistance of the composite is characterized by a linear increase with the strain at least in the region of elastic deformation of the material in which the gauge factor (i.e. G.F.) of the sensor is usually evaluated. Therefore, the present study aims at investigating the possible use of the nanotechnology for application of embedded sensor systems in composite structures thus having capability of self-sensing and of responding to the surrounding environmental changes, which are some fundamental requirements especially for structural aircraft monitoring applications.

  8. Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture for Estimation of Soil Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattikalli, Nandish M.; Engman, Edwin T.; Jackson, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    Surface soil moisture dynamics was derived using microwave remote sensing, and employed to estimate soil physical and hydraulic properties. The L-band ESTAR radiometer was employed in an airborne campaign over the Little Washita watershed, Oklahoma during June 10-18, 1992. Brightness temperature (TB) data were employed in a soil moisture inversion algorithm which corrected for vegetation and soil effects. Analyses of spatial TB and soil moisture dynamics during the dry-down period revealed a direct relationship between changes in TB, soil moisture and soil texture. Extensive regression analyses were carried out which yielded statistically significant quantitative relationships between ratio of percent sand to percent clay (RSC, a term derived to quantify soil texture) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) in terms of change components of TB and surface soil moisture. Validation of results indicated that both RSC and Ksat can be estimated with reasonable accuracy. These findings have potential applications for deriving spatial distributions of RSC and Ksat over large areas.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and humidity sensing properties of Cu-Sr-Al mixed metal oxide composites

    SciTech Connect

    Vijaya, J. Judith Kennedy, L. John; Sekaran, G.; Nagaraja, K.S.

    2008-02-05

    Copper-strontium-aluminum mixed metal oxide composites prepared by sol-gel technique was investigated for humidity sensing properties. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K was employed, respectively, to identify the structural phases, surface morphology, vibrational stretching frequencies and BET surface area of the composites. The composites were prepared with the mole ratios of Cu:Sr as (0.0:1.0, 0.2:0.8, 0.4:06, 0.6:0.4, 0.8:0.2 and 1.0:0.0) keeping the aluminium mole ratio as constant and were labeled as CuSA1, CuSA2, CuSA3, CuSA4, CuSA5 and CuSA6, respectively. The samples sintered at 900 deg. C for 5 h, were subjected to dc resistance measurements as a function of relative humidity (RH) in the range 5-98% and the results revealed that the sensitivity factor of CuSA5 possessed the highest humidity sensitivity of 42,000 while the pure composite copper aluminate (CuSA1) and strontium aluminate (CuSA6) possessed comparatively low sensitivities 10,000 and 20,000, respectively. The response and recovery characteristics of the composites CuSA1, CuSA5 and CuSA6 were studied.

  10. Electrical and gas sensing properties of self-aligned copper-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sonawane, Yogesh S.; Kanade, K.G.; Kale, B.B. Aiyer, R.C.

    2008-10-02

    Electrical and gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline ZnO:Cu, having Cu X wt% (X = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) in ZnO, in the form of pellet were investigated. Copper chloride and zinc acetate were used as precursors along with oxalic acid as a precipitating reagent in methanol. Material characterization was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and inductive coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). FE-SEM showed the self-aligned Cu-doped ZnO nano-clusters with particles in the range of 40-45 nm. The doping of 0.5% of copper changes the electrical conductivity by an order of magnitude whereas the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) reduces with increase in copper wt% in ZnO. The material has shown an excellent sensitivity for the H{sub 2}, LPG and CO gases with limited temperature selectivity through the optimized operating temperature of 130, 190 and 220 deg. C for H{sub 2}, LPG and CO gases, respectively at 625 ppm gas concentration. The %SF was observed to be 1460 for H{sub 2} at 1% Cu doping whereas the 0.5% Cu doping offered %SF of 950 and 520 for CO and LPG, respectively. The response and recovery time was found to be 6 to 8 s and 16 s, respectively.

  11. Estimation of actual evapotranspiration through model coupling and data assimilation with remotely sensed land surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G.

    2009-05-01

    We report on preliminary results from the coupling of two models and satellite observations to track evapotranspiration (ET) dynamics in Northern Great Plains of the USA. The approach takes advantage of high- quality microclimate and irradiance/radiance measurements in a data assimilation scheme to estimate actual ET through a stepwise simulation of foliage dynamics, corrected by remotely sensed land surface properties. We used a recently developed VegET model that uses water balance principles and phenological constraints (Senay 2008) coupled with an event driven phenology model (EDPM) to simulate canopy dynamics unfolding in response to changing environmental conditions and disturbance events. We used NDVI derived from MODIS Collection 5 Nadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance (NBAR; MCD43B4V5) to amend the outputs of the EDPM using one-dimensional Kalman filtering to achieve a better representation of changing canopy conditions. The model was trained on level 1 flux tower data from cropland sites at Mead, Nebraska and refined using similar records from Bondville, Illinois. Results from the test runs demonstrated the ability of EDPM to drive the phenological constrains of VegET with reasonable accuracy (RMSE 0.03-0.10 at Nebraska sites). Filtered and unfiltered results from the coupled model were compared with actual evapotranspiration recorded on flux towers and with tower NDVI (Wittich and Kraft 2008). Depending on vegetation type and location, Pearson correlation coefficients between model estimates and observed values ranged between 0.8 and 0.9.

  12. Unique chloride-sensing properties of WNK4 permit the distal nephron to modulate potassium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Terker, Andrew S; Zhang, Chong; Erspamer, Kayla J; Gamba, Gerardo; Yang, Chao-Ling; Ellison, David H

    2016-01-01

    Dietary potassium deficiency activates thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransport along the distal nephron. This may explain, in part, the hypertension and cardiovascular mortality observed in individuals who consume a low-potassium diet. Recent data suggest that plasma potassium affects the distal nephron directly by influencing intracellular chloride, an inhibitor of the with-no-lysine kinase (WNK)-Ste20p-related proline- and alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) pathway. As previous studies used extreme dietary manipulations, we sought to determine whether the relationship between potassium and NaCl cotransporter (NCC) is physiologically relevant and clarify the mechanisms involved. We report that modest changes in both dietary and plasma potassium affect NCC in vivo. Kinase assay studies showed that chloride inhibits WNK4 kinase activity at lower concentrations than it inhibits activity of WNK1 or WNK3. Also, chloride inhibited WNK4 within the range of distal cell chloride concentration. Mutation of a previously identified WNK chloride-binding motif converted WNK4 effects on SPAK from inhibitory to stimulatory in mammalian cells. Disruption of this motif in WNKs 1, 3, and 4 had different effects on NCC, consistent with the three WNKs having different chloride sensitivities. Thus, potassium effects on NCC are graded within the physiological range, which explains how unique chloride-sensing properties of WNK4 enable it to mediate effects of potassium on NCC in vivo. PMID:26422504

  13. Oxygen self-diffusion in ThO2 under pressure: Connecting point defect parameters with bulk properties

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cooper, Michael William D.; Fitzpatrick, M. E.; Tsoukalas, L. H.; Chroneos, A.

    2016-06-06

    ThO2 is a candidate material for use in nuclear fuel applications and as such it is important to investigate its materials properties over a range of temperatures and pressures. In the present study molecular dynamics calculations are used to calculate elastic and expansivity data. These are used in the framework of a thermodynamic model, the cBΩ model, to calculate the oxygen self-diffusion coefficient in ThO2 over a range of pressures (–10–10 GPa) and temperatures (300–1900 K). As a result, increasing the hydrostatic pressure leads to a significant reduction in oxygen self-diffusion. Conversely, negative hydrostatic pressure significantly enhances oxygen self-diffusion.

  14. Structural and electrical properties of pure and Cu doped NiO films deposited at various oxygen partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Y. Ashok Kumar; Reddy, A. Mallikarjuna; Reddy, A. Sivasankar; Reddy, P. Sreedhara

    2013-02-01

    Pure and Cu doped NiO thin films were successfully deposited by dc reactive magnetron sputtering technique at various oxygen partial pressures in the range 9 × 10-5 to 6 × 10-4 mbar. It was observed that oxygen partial pressure influence the structural and electrical properties. All the deposited films were polycrystalline and exhibited cubic structure with preferential growth along (220) plane for NiO films and (111) and (220) planes for Cu doped NiO films. All the deposited films exhibited p-type conductivity. The electrical resistivity decreased from 62.24 to 9.94 Ω cm and the mobility and carrier concentration were increased with oxygen partial pressure.

  15. Oxygen self-diffusion in ThO2 under pressure: connecting point defect parameters with bulk properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, M. W. D.; Fitzpatrick, M. E.; Tsoukalas, L. H.; Chroneos, A.

    2016-06-01

    ThO2 is a candidate material for use in nuclear fuel applications and as such it is important to investigate its materials properties over a range of temperatures and pressures. In the present study molecular dynamics calculations are used to calculate elastic and expansivity data. These are used in the framework of a thermodynamic model, the cBΩ model, to calculate the oxygen self-diffusion coefficient in ThO2 over a range of pressures (‑10–10 GPa) and temperatures (300–1900 K). Increasing the hydrostatic pressure leads to a significant reduction in oxygen self-diffusion. Conversely, negative hydrostatic pressure significantly enhances oxygen self-diffusion.

  16. Oxygen-Induced Degradation in C60-Based Organic Solar Cells: Relation Between Film Properties and Device Performance.

    PubMed

    Bastos, João P; Voroshazi, Eszter; Fron, Eduard; Brammertz, Guy; Vangerven, Tim; Van der Auweraer, Mark; Poortmans, Jef; Cheyns, David

    2016-04-20

    Fullerene-based molecules are the archetypical electron-accepting materials for organic photovoltaic devices. A detailed knowledge of the degradation mechanisms that occur in C60 layers will aid in the development of more stable organic solar cells. Here, the impact of storage in air on the optical and electrical properties of C60 is studied in thin films and in devices. Atmospheric exposure induces oxygen-trap states that are 0.19 eV below the LUMO of the fullerene C60. Moreover, oxygen causes a 4-fold decrease of the exciton lifetime in C60 layers, resulting in a 40% drop of short-circuit current from optimized planar heterojunction solar cells. The presence of oxygen-trap states increases the saturation current of the device, resulting in a 20% loss of open-circuit voltage. Design guidelines are outlined to improve air stability for fullerene-containing devices. PMID:27065475

  17. Improvement of the quasi-continuous-wave lasing properties in organic semiconductor lasers using oxygen as triplet quencher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Zhao, Li; Pitrat, Delphine; Mulatier, Jean-Christophe; Matsushima, Toshinori; Andraud, Chantal; Kim, Ju-Hyung; Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate quasi-continuous-wave lasing in solvent-free liquid organic semiconductor distributed feedback lasers based on a blend containing a liquid 9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole host doped with a blue-emitting heptafluorene derivative. The liquid gain medium is bubbled with either oxygen or nitrogen in order to investigate the role of a triplet quencher such as molecular oxygen on the quasi-continuous-wave lasing properties of organic semiconductor lasers. The oxygenated laser device exhibits a low threshold of 2 μJ cm-2, which is lower than that measured in the nitrogenated device and is independent of the repetition rate in a range between 0.01 and 4 MHz.

  18. Using Remote Sensing Data to Evaluate Surface Soil Properties in Alabama Ultisols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Dana G.; Shaw, Joey N.; Rickman, Doug; Mask, Paul L.; Luvall, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of surface soil properties via remote sensing could facilitate soil survey mapping, erosion prediction and allocation of agrochemicals for precision management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between soil spectral signature and surface soil properties in conventionally managed row crop systems. High-resolution RS data were acquired over bare fields in the Coastal Plain, Appalachian Plateau, and Ridge and Valley provinces of Alabama using the Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor multispectral scanner. Soils ranged from sandy Kandiudults to fine textured Rhodudults. Surface soil samples (0-1 cm) were collected from 163 sampling points for soil organic carbon, particle size distribution, and citrate dithionite extractable iron content. Surface roughness, soil water content, and crusting were also measured during sampling. Two methods of analysis were evaluated: 1) multiple linear regression using common spectral band ratios, and 2) partial least squares regression. Our data show that thermal infrared spectra are highly, linearly related to soil organic carbon, sand and clay content. Soil organic carbon content was the most difficult to quantify in these highly weathered systems, where soil organic carbon was generally less than 1.2%. Estimates of sand and clay content were best using partial least squares regression at the Valley site, explaining 42-59% of the variability. In the Coastal Plain, sandy surfaces prone to crusting limited estimates of sand and clay content via partial least squares and regression with common band ratios. Estimates of iron oxide content were a function of mineralogy and best accomplished using specific band ratios, with regression explaining 36-65% of the variability at the Valley and Coastal Plain sites, respectively.

  19. A Midlatitude Cirrus Cloud Climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing. Part III: Radiative Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, K.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2001-08-01

    In Part III of a series of papers describing the extended time high-cloud observations from the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS) supporting the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment, the visible and infrared radiative properties of cirrus clouds over Salt Lake City, Utah, are examined. Using {approx}860 h of combined ruby (0.694 {micro}m) lidar and midinfrared (9.5-11.5 {micro}m) radiometer data collected between 1992 and 1999 from visually identified cirrus clouds, the visible optical depths {tau} and infrared layer emittance epsilon of the varieties of midlatitude cirrus are characterized. The mean and median values for the cirrus sample are 0.75 {+-} 0.91 and 0.61 for {tau}, and 0.30 {+-} 0.22 and 0.25 for epsilon. Other scattering parameters studied are the visible extinction and infrared absorption coefficients, and their ratio, and the lidar backscatter-to-extinction ratio, which has a mean value of 0.041 sr{sup -1}. Differences among cirrus clouds generated by general synoptic (e.g., jet stream), thunderstorm anvil, and orographic mechanisms are found, reflecting basic cloud microphysical effects. The authors draw parameterizations in terms of midcloud temperature T{sub m} and physical cloud thickness {Delta}z for epsilon and {tau}: both macrophysical variables are needed to adequately address the impact of the adiabatic process on ice cloud content, which modulates radiative transfer as a function of temperature. For the total cirrus dataset, the authors find epsilon = 1 -exp [-8.5 x 10{sup -5} (T{sub m} + 80 C) {Delta}z]. These parameterizations, based on a uniquely comprehensive dataset, hold the potential for improving weather and climate model predictions, and satellite cloud property retrieval methods.

  20. Aging influence on sensing properties of porous silica films sensitized toward ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyszkiewicz, Cuma; Rogoziński, Roman

    2015-12-01

    The sol-gel technology allows preparation of thin silica films ranging in porosity from dense to highly porous. These films can function as a matrix binding molecules of the pH-sensitive dyes and can be utilized as the sensitive films for intensity based planar evanescent wave chemical sensors. Sensitive properties of these dyes decreases in time due to aging processes. We report characterization of weakening of sensing properties of highly porous silica films doped with the bromocresole purple (BCP). In the presence of the gaseous ammonia, the absorption band (AB) of protonated BCP centered at λ=430 nm, is shifted toward λ=591 nm due to deprotonation, resulting in the increase of sensitive films absorption in the range of wavelengths of shifted AB. Two sets of films were investigated. Films from the first one were cyclically exposed to the ammonia and stored isolated from the daylight. Films from the second set weren't exposed to the ammonia and were stored in a staining jar exposed to the daylight. A depth of the AB at λ=430 nm was measured using a spectrophotometer. A sensitivity of the films toward ammonia was measured using LED emitting at center wavelength λ=610 nm. As was shown, the sensitivity of these films exposed to the ammonia diluted in dry air, and isolated from the daylight, decreases in time exponentially. The magnitude of that decrease monotonically depends on the ammonia concentration. It was also shown that the daylight causes quick aging of films not exposed to the ammonia. A depth of the AB centered at λ=430 nm relatively quickly decreased when compared with films isolated from the daylight and exposed to the ammonia.

  1. Remote Sensing of Aerosol Optical and Microphysical Properties using Polarization and Lidar Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Tropospheric aerosols cause a substantial forcing of the terrestrial climate, but the magnitude of this forcing remains largely unknown. This explains the significant interest of the climate community to the prospect of measuring key aerosol properties from space using advanced remote sensing techniques. It has been known for a long time that polarization of the scattered light is much more sensitive to the aerosol microphysics than the scattered intensity. It is, therefore, not surprising that the most recent addition to the New Polar Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) payload is the so-called Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS). The main objective of this instrument is to measure the aerosol and cloud properties with accuracy and coverage sufficient for a reliable estimate of the direct and indirect aerosol forcings of climate. Accordingly, the first part of this lecture course will focus on describing the basic concept of the APS, the physical principles of polarization data analyses, and the results already obtained with an aircraft version of the APS. Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) represent another poorly understood aerosol component of the terrestrial atmosphere which affects the climate by supporting chemical reactions destroying the ozone layer. The high altitude of the PSCs and their predominant occurrence in high latitude and polar regions make it very difficult to study PSCs using conventional in situ techniques. Most of the information that we have about this type of clouds has been gathered using ground-based polarization lidars. The second part of the course will focus on explaining the physical principles of the polarization lidar technique and describing retrievals of PSC particle microphysical characteristics by converting I multispectral lidar measurements of the backscattered intensity and depolarization.

  2. In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care

    PubMed Central

    Ciaffoni, Luca; O’Neill, David P.; Couper, John H.; Ritchie, Grant A. D.; Hancock, Gus; Robbins, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    There are no satisfactory methods for monitoring oxygen consumption in critical care. To address this, we adapted laser absorption spectroscopy to provide measurements of O2, CO2, and water vapor within the airway every 10 ms. The analyzer is integrated within a novel respiratory flow meter that is an order of magnitude more precise than other flow meters. Such precision, coupled with the accurate alignment of gas concentrations with respiratory flow, makes possible the determination of O2 consumption by direct integration over time of the product of O2 concentration and flow. The precision is illustrated by integrating the balance gas (N2 plus Ar) flow and showing that this exchange was near zero. Measured O2 consumption changed by <5% between air and O2 breathing. Clinical capability was illustrated by recording O2 consumption during an aortic aneurysm repair. This device now makes easy, accurate, and noninvasive measurement of O2 consumption for intubated patients in critical care possible. PMID:27532048

  3. The IRP1-HIF-2α axis coordinates iron and oxygen sensing with erythropoiesis and iron absorption.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sheila A; Nizzi, Christopher P; Chang, Yuan-I; Deck, Kathryn M; Schmidt, Paul J; Galy, Bruno; Damnernsawad, Alisa; Broman, Aimee T; Kendziorski, Christina; Hentze, Matthias W; Fleming, Mark D; Zhang, Jing; Eisenstein, Richard S

    2013-02-01

    Red blood cell production is a finely tuned process that requires coordinated oxygen- and iron-dependent regulation of cell differentiation and iron metabolism. Here, we show that translational regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) synthesis by iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) is critical for controlling erythrocyte number. IRP1-null (Irp1(-/-)) mice display a marked transient polycythemia. HIF-2α messenger RNA (mRNA) is derepressed in kidneys of Irp1(-/-) mice but not in kidneys of Irp2(-/-) mice, leading to increased renal erythropoietin (Epo) mRNA and inappropriately elevated serum Epo levels. Expression of the iron transport genes DCytb, Dmt1, and ferroportin, as well as other HIF-2α targets, is enhanced in Irp1(-/-) duodenum. Analysis of mRNA translation state in the liver revealed IRP1-dependent dysregulation of HIF-2α mRNA translation, whereas IRP2 deficiency derepressed translation of all other known 5' iron response element (IRE)-containing mRNAs expressed in the liver. These results uncover separable physiological roles of each IRP and identify IRP1 as a therapeutic target for manipulating HIF-2α action in hematologic, oncologic, and other disorders. PMID:23395174

  4. In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care.

    PubMed

    Ciaffoni, Luca; O'Neill, David P; Couper, John H; Ritchie, Grant A D; Hancock, Gus; Robbins, Peter A

    2016-08-01

    There are no satisfactory methods for monitoring oxygen consumption in critical care. To address this, we adapted laser absorption spectroscopy to provide measurements of O2, CO2, and water vapor within the airway every 10 ms. The analyzer is integrated within a novel respiratory flow meter that is an order of magnitude more precise than other flow meters. Such precision, coupled with the accurate alignment of gas concentrations with respiratory flow, makes possible the determination of O2 consumption by direct integration over time of the product of O2 concentration and flow. The precision is illustrated by integrating the balance gas (N2 plus Ar) flow and showing that this exchange was near zero. Measured O2 consumption changed by <5% between air and O2 breathing. Clinical capability was illustrated by recording O2 consumption during an aortic aneurysm repair. This device now makes easy, accurate, and noninvasive measurement of O2 consumption for intubated patients in critical care possible. PMID:27532048

  5. Down-conversion luminescence and its temperature-sensing properties from Er3+-doped sodium bismuth titanate ferroelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Zheng, Shanshan; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Anlian; Wu, Guangheng; Liu, Jun-ming

    2015-11-01

    Here, we demonstrate outstanding temperature-sensing properties from Na0.5Bi0.49Er0.01TiO3 (NBT:Er) thin films. The perovskite phase for them is stable in the temperature range from 80 to 440 K. Interestingly, the Er doping enhances the ferroelectric polarization and introduces local dipolar, which are positive for temperature sensing. Pumped by a 488-nm laser, the NBT:Er thin films show strong green luminescence with two bands around 525 and 548 nm. The intensity ratio I 525/ I 548 can be used for temperature sensing, and the maximum sensitivity is about 2.3 × 10-3 K-1, higher than that from Er-doped silicon oxide. These suggest NBT:Er thin film is a promising candidate for temperature sensor.

  6. Influences of oxygen incorporation on the structural and optoelectronic properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ruei-Sung; Hung, Ta-Chun

    2016-02-01

    This study used the sol-gel method to prepare Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films containing oxygen and explored the composition, structural, and optoelectronic properties of the films. The non-vacuum process enabled the oxygen content of the Cu2ZnSnS4 films to be 8.89 at% and 10.30 at% for two different annealing conditions. In the crystal structure, oxygen was substituted at the positions of sulfur and appeared in the interstitial sites of the lattice. The compositions of the thin films deviated from the stoichiometric ratio. Both films had kesterite structures with no secondary phase structure. The kesterite CZTS film possessed a composite microstructure of crystallite and crystalline states. The microstructure of the Cu2ZnSnS4 film with higher oxygen content was denser and the average grain size was smaller. Incorporating oxygen atoms into crystalline Cu2ZnSnS4 changed the energy band structure: the direct energy band gaps were, respectively, 2.75 eV and 2.84 eV; the thin films mainly adsorbed photons with wavelengths less than 500 nm; and the absorption coefficients increased from 104 cm-1 to 105 cm-1. The films had a comparatively high absorptive capacity for photons less than 350 nm. Increasing the oxygen content of the film lowered the resistivity. Thus, the oxygen-containing Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film could be a candidate for the p-type absorber layer material required in multi-junction solar cells.

  7. Cage-bell Pt-Pd nanostructures with enhanced catalytic properties and superior methanol tolerance for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Ye, Feng; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Precisely tailoring the structure and fully making use of the components of nanoparticles are effective to enhance their catalytic performance for a given reaction. We herein demonstrate the design of cage-bell structured Pt-Pd nanoparticles, where a Pd shell is deliberately selected to enhance the catalytic property and methanol tolerance of Pt for oxygen reduction reaction. This strategy starts with the synthesis of core-shell Pt@Ag nanoparticles, followed by galvanic replacement reaction between the Ag shell and Pd2+ ions to form core-shell-shell Pt@Ag@Ag-Pd nanoparticles with a Pt core and double shells composed of Ag at inner and alloy Ag-Pd at outer, respectively. Then, the core-shell-shell templates are agitated with saturated NaCl solution to eliminate the Ag component from the double shells, leading to the formation of bimetallic Pt-Pd nanoparticles with a cage-bell structure, defined as a movable Pt core enclosed by a porous Pd shell, which show enhanced catalytic activity for oxygen reduction compared with that of the Pt seeds due to the additional catalysis from Pd shell. In addition, owing to the different diffusion behavior of methanol and oxygen molecules in the porous Pd shell, the Pt-Pd cage-bell nanostructures also exhibit superior methanol tolerant property in catalyzing the oxygen reduction.

  8. Unusual magnetic and transport properties of oxygen deficient Sr2Fe1-xCoxMoO6-d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hong; García-Hernández, Mar; Alonso, Jose Antonio

    2006-10-01

    In the title compounds the oxygen voids have a significant influence over the transport properties, compared with the parent stoichiometric compounds (Sr2FeMoO6 and Sr2CoMoO6) where the oxygen defects have little impact on the crystallographic and magnetic properties. For Sr2FeMoO6-d and Sr2Fe0.95Co0.05MoO6-d, the oxygen voids simply decrease the magnetoresistance (MR) without altering the contours, and for x ⩾0.1 at the expense of the decreased low field MR, the oxygen voids enhance MR at high applied field, which is 6%-8% larger than the parent compounds for 0.2⩽x⩽0.7. Remarkably enough, the antiferromagnetic Sr2Fe0.1Co0.9MoO6-d exhibits record negative magnetoresistance ratio MR =((R(H,T)-R(0,T))/R(0,T))×100% as high as 99%.

  9. Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the microstructural and magnetic properties of Er-doped ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Bin; Liu, Xue-Chao; Li, Fei; Chen, Hong-Ming; Zhou, Ren-Wei; Shi, Er-Wei

    2015-06-01

    Er-doped ZnO thin films have been prepared by using inductively coupled plasma enhanced physical vapor deposition at different O2:Ar gas flow ratio (R = 0:30, 1:30, 1:15, 1:10 and 1:6). The influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structural, optical and magnetic properties was studied. It is found that an appropriate oxygen partial pressure (R=1:10) can produce the best crystalline quality with a maximum grain size. The internal strain, estimated by fitting the X-ray diffraction peaks, varied with oxygen partial pressure during growth. PL measurements show that plenty of defects, especially zinc vacancy, exist in Er-doped ZnO films. All the samples show room-temperature ferromagnetism. Importantly, the saturation magnetization exhibits similar dependency on oxygen partial pressure with the internal strain, which indicates that internal strain has an important effect on the magnetic properties of Er-doped ZnO thin films.

  10. Cage-bell Pt-Pd nanostructures with enhanced catalytic properties and superior methanol tolerance for oxygen reduction reaction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong; Ye, Feng; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Precisely tailoring the structure and fully making use of the components of nanoparticles are effective to enhance their catalytic performance for a given reaction. We herein demonstrate the design of cage-bell structured Pt-Pd nanoparticles, where a Pd shell is deliberately selected to enhance the catalytic property and methanol tolerance of Pt for oxygen reduction reaction. This strategy starts with the synthesis of core-shell Pt@Ag nanoparticles, followed by galvanic replacement reaction between the Ag shell and Pd2+ ions to form core-shell-shell Pt@Ag@Ag-Pd nanoparticles with a Pt core and double shells composed of Ag at inner and alloy Ag-Pd at outer, respectively. Then, the core-shell-shell templates are agitated with saturated NaCl solution to eliminate the Ag component from the double shells, leading to the formation of bimetallic Pt-Pd nanoparticles with a cage-bell structure, defined as a movable Pt core enclosed by a porous Pd shell, which show enhanced catalytic activity for oxygen reduction compared with that of the Pt seeds due to the additional catalysis from Pd shell. In addition, owing to the different diffusion behavior of methanol and oxygen molecules in the porous Pd shell, the Pt-Pd cage-bell nanostructures also exhibit superior methanol tolerant property in catalyzing the oxygen reduction. PMID:27079897

  11. Cage-bell Pt-Pd nanostructures with enhanced catalytic properties and superior methanol tolerance for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Ye, Feng; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Precisely tailoring the structure and fully making use of the components of nanoparticles are effective to enhance their catalytic performance for a given reaction. We herein demonstrate the design of cage-bell structured Pt-Pd nanoparticles, where a Pd shell is deliberately selected to enhance the catalytic property and methanol tolerance of Pt for oxygen reduction reaction. This strategy starts with the synthesis of core-shell Pt@Ag nanoparticles, followed by galvanic replacement reaction between the Ag shell and Pd(2+) ions to form core-shell-shell Pt@Ag@Ag-Pd nanoparticles with a Pt core and double shells composed of Ag at inner and alloy Ag-Pd at outer, respectively. Then, the core-shell-shell templates are agitated with saturated NaCl solution to eliminate the Ag component from the double shells, leading to the formation of bimetallic Pt-Pd nanoparticles with a cage-bell structure, defined as a movable Pt core enclosed by a porous Pd shell, which show enhanced catalytic activity for oxygen reduction compared with that of the Pt seeds due to the additional catalysis from Pd shell. In addition, owing to the different diffusion behavior of methanol and oxygen molecules in the porous Pd shell, the Pt-Pd cage-bell nanostructures also exhibit superior methanol tolerant property in catalyzing the oxygen reduction. PMID:27079897

  12. Benthic oxygen fluxes and sediment properties on the northeastern New Zealand continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, H.; Pilditch, C. A.; Nodder, S. D.; Zeldis, J. R.; Currie, K.

    2007-11-01

    We examined spatial variations in benthic remineralisation (measured as sediment oxygen consumption (SOC)) and sediment properties on the northeastern New Zealand continental shelf and slope to assess the importance of benthic mineralisation in this ecosystem and to provide data for more complete global carbon budgets. SOC measured in dark incubations conducted in early summer ranged from 128 μmol m -2 h -1 at the deepest (360 m) to 1222 μmol m -2 h -1 at the shallowest (4.2 m) site and decreased significantly with water depth ( p<0.001, r2=0.78, SOC=1222.8-456.3×log 10[water depth], n=14 sites). These rates were in the range found on continental shelves elsewhere (64-1750 μmol m -2 h -1, n=30 studies) and had a very similar distribution with water depth. SOC was also measured in light incubations at seven sites (4.2-35 m water depth) to examine the effects of microphytobenthos and accounted for 42-106% of rates measured in the dark. Measurements of near-bed light intensities suggested that microphytobenthos production was not solely regulated by light intensity but evidently influenced by other factors. A two-dimensional PCA ordination of surface sediment properties accounted for 83.3% of the total variance in the data and divided the study area into three clusters that corresponded well to its spatial division into the shallow (<30 m) Firth of Thames, the Hauraki Gulf (30-50 m) and the northern shelf-slope region. In the Firth of Thames sediments were very fine-grained with low CaCO 3 and high total organic matter and pigment content, and low C:N ratios. The northern shelf-slope sediments showed the opposite trends to the Firth of Thames and those in the Hauraki Gulf had mostly intermediate values. Dark SOC was significantly correlated with sediment organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pigments and silt/clay content ( p<0.05, r=0.55-0.85) but a multiple linear regression revealed that water depth was the only significant predictor. Calculations suggest that

  13. Optical Dielectric Properties of Yttrium BARIUM(2) COPPER(3) OXYGEN(6+X) and BARIUM(1-X) Potassium(x) Bismuth OXYGEN(3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotz, Arthur Lewis

    Ellipsometry is a technique that measures the change in polarization state of a beam of light on reflection from a surface. The change in polarization state can be calculated from the dielectric function of the surface and knowledge of the interface (roughness, geometry, surface layers, etc.). We have constructed a rotating analyzer ellipsometer (RAE) and modified it to allow measurement of samples significantly smaller than the extent of the incident beam (sample dimensions of about 0.1mm are possible). In this work, normal state (room temperature) dielectric properties of two high temperature superconducting systems are studied as a function of doping. For the YBa_2Cu_3O _{6+x} system, a sharp peak in the imaginary part of the dielectric function near 4.0eV is examined as a function of oxygen doping. The anisotropy present in this system for higher levels of doping is observed to induce a splitting in this peak that is believed to be associated with the local ordering of oxygen in the chains. For the Ba_{1-x}K _{x}BiO_3 system, the destruction of the insulating gap and the development of a free carrier response is examined as a function of potassium doping. In this work, data from the ellipsometer is used to complement infrared reflectivity data. The result is the ability to study free carrier response over a wide range of energy.

  14. Modeling Snow Aggregates and their Single Scattering Properties: Implications to Snowfall Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowell, H.; Liu, G.

    2012-12-01

    With the advent of satellites, we can now observe areas of the globe that have sparse to no ground data coverage. Both active and passive satellite sensors aboard satellites including CloudSat's Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), Aqua's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement's (GPM) Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) study ice and snow particles. A good retrieval algorithm for these satellite sensors can only be developed when the single scattering properties of the snowflakes are accurately calculated in radiative transfer models. This becomes crucial at frequencies at and above the W-band when aggregate ice crystals become detectable by satellite radiometers. Snowflakes are often modeled as spheres or oblate spheroids to ease the complexity of calculations, despite the fact that they are typically aggregates of crystals. For improved accuracy in satellite remote sensing, it is important to model snowflakes as close to nature as possible. Several recent studies model flakes as pristine crystal types [Liu, 2008], generate aggregate flakes as fractals [Ishimoto, 2008] or via the Monte Carlo method [Maruyama and Fujioshi, 2005]. Modeling snowflakes as pristine crystals, however, has the drawback of not accurately reflecting snowflakes as most tend to be aggregates of different crystal types. Other studies where aggregates are generated tend to overlook size-density relationships of aggregate flakes or other studied statistical parameters such as aspect ratio. In an effort to improve available single-scattering properties of aggregate flakes, we developed a new method of generating flakes. Starting out with a six-bullet rosette crystal of accurate size and density, aggregate flakes are generated with two different bullet rosette crystal sizes of 200 and/or 400 microns in maximum dimension. The flakes similarly follow size-density relationships of aggregate as determined from

  15. Metal nanoparticle-graphene oxide composites: Photophysical properties and sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Sean J.

    Composite nanomaterials allow for attractive properties of multiple functional components to be combined. Fundamental understanding of the interaction between different nanomaterials, their surroundings, and nearby molecular species is pertinent for implementation into devices. Metal nanoparticles have been used for their optical properties in many applications including stained glass, cancer therapy, solar steam generation, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and catalysis. Carbon-based nanomaterials such as graphene and carbon nanotubes show potential for a wide variety of applications including solar energy harvesting, chemical sensors, and electronics. Combining useful and in some cases new properties of composite nanomaterials offers exciting opportunities in fundamental science and device development. In this dissertation, I aim to address understanding photoinduced interaction between porphyrin and silver nanoparticles, inter-sheet interaction between stacked graphene oxide (GO) sheets in thin films, complexation of reduced GO with Raman active target molecule in SERS applications, and efficacy of graphene-metal nanoparticle composites for sensing applications. Molecule-metal nanoparticle composite material made up of photoactive porphyrin and silver nanoparticles was studied using various spectroscopic tools. UV-visible absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic results suggest formation of a charge-transfer complex for porphyrin-silver nanoparticle composite. Ultrafast transient absorption and fluorescence upconversion spectroscopies further corroborate electronic interaction by providing evidence for excited state electron transfer between porphyrin and silver nanoparticles. Understanding electronic interaction between adsorbed photoactive molecules and metal nanoparticles may be of use for applications in photocatalysis or light-energy harvesting. Graphene oxide (GO) thin films have been prepared and studied using transient absorption

  16. Changes of properties of the materials of spacecraft solar arrays under the action of atomic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuvalov, V. A.; Kochubei, G. S.; Priimak, A. I.; Pis'mennyi, N. I.; Tokmak, N. A.

    2007-08-01

    A procedure is developed for physical and chemical modeling and investigation of the weight, geometrical, and thermo-optical characteristics of polymer paneling materials of solar arrays and of the electric power of solar cells under the prolonged action of supersonic fluxes of atomic oxygen in orbit. The behavior of changes in the material characteristics as a function of the integral fluence of atomic oxygen is found. It is established that the electric power of solar cells is virtually invariable within the errors of measurements under irradiation by atomic oxygen flux with a fluence of no higher than 5 · 1021 cm-2.

  17. Nanocasting synthesis of In2O3 with appropriate mesostructured ordering and enhanced gas-sensing property.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohong; Hao, Haoran; Ji, Huiming; Li, Xiaolei; Cai, Shu; Zheng, Chunming

    2014-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous In2O3 gas-sensing materials with controlled mesostructured morphology and high thermal stability have been successfully synthesized via a nanocasting method in conjunction with the container effect. The mesostructured ordering, as well as the particle size, crystallinity and pore size distribution have been proved to vary in a large range by using the XRD, SAXRD, SEM, TEM, and nitrogen physisorption techniques. The control of the mesostructured morphology was carried out by tuning the transportation rate of indium precursor in template channel resulting from the different escape rate of the decomposed byproducts via the varied container opening and shapes. The particular relation between the mesostructured ordering and gas sensing property of mesoporous In2O3 was examined in detail. It was found that the ordered mesoporous In2O3 with appropriate mesostructured morphology exhibited significantly improved ethanol sensitivity, response and selectivity performances in comparison with the other ordered mesoporous In2O3, which benefits from the large surface area with enough sensing active sites, proper pore distribution for sufficient gas diffusion, and appropriate particle size for effective electron depletion. The resulting sensing behaviors lead to a better understanding of designing and using such mesoporous metal oxides for a number of gas-sensing applications. PMID:24308308

  18. Effects of atomic oxygen treatment on structures, morphologies and electrical properties of ZnO:Al films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenwen; Li, Chunzhi; Zhang, Junying; Diao, Xungang

    2010-05-01

    ZnO:Al (ZAO) film has a potential application in providing spacecrafts the protection against atomic oxygen (AO) erosion. To advance the understanding of the AO resisting mechanisms and the relationships between the structures, morphologies and conductive properties of ZAO film, direct current magnetron sputtered ZAO films with different thicknesses were treated with AO in a ground-based simulation facility. The microstructure, surface chemical state, morphologies and electrical properties of pristine films and irradiated ones were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Hall measurement. It is found that AO exposure produces novel, oriented recrystallization of the surface particles. It also increases the content of oxygen ions in fully oxidized stoichiometric surroundings on the surface, resulting in the decrease of the conductivity. As the thickness of ZAO film increases, the crystallinity, conductivity and resistance to AO erosion are all improved.

  19. Influence of texture coefficient on surface morphology and sensing properties of W-doped nanocrystalline tin oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manjeet; Kumar, Akshay; Abhyankar, A C

    2015-02-18

    For the first time, a new facile approach based on simple and inexpensive chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique is used to deposit Tungsten (W) doped nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films. The textural, optical, structural and sensing properties are investigated by GAXRD, UV spectroscopy, FESEM, AFM, and home-built sensing setup. The gas sensing results indicate that, as compared to pure SnO2, 1 wt % W-doping improves sensitivity along with better response (<2 s) and recovery time (<25 s) toward NO2 gas at operating temperatures of ∼225 °C. The optimal composition of 1 wt % W-doped films exhibit lowest crystallite size of the order of ∼8-10 nm with reduced energy band gap and large roughness values of 3.82 eV and 3.01 nm, respectively. Reduction in texture coefficient along highly dense (110) planes with concomitant increase along loosely packed (200) planes is found to have prominent effect on gas sensing properties of W-doped films. PMID:25603393

  20. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on microstructural and optical properties of titanium oxide thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishnan, G.; Bandi, Vengala Rao; Rajeswari, S.M.; Balamurugan, N.; Babu, R. Venkatesh; Song, J.I.

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Microstructural and optical properties are studied systematically. • The optical properties are studied by UV–visible and photoluminescence. • The PL spectra shows two peaks correspond to bandgap of anatase and rutile. • The maximum refractive index of 2.73 is obtained for rutile phase of titania. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films were deposited on silicon (1 0 0) and quartz substrates at various oxygen partial pressures (1 × 10{sup −5} to 3.5 × 10{sup −1} mbar) with a substrate temperature of 973 K by pulsed laser deposition. The microstructural and optical properties were characterized using Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence. The X-ray diffraction studies indicated the formation of mixed phases (anatase and rutile) at higher oxygen partial pressures (3.5 × 10{sup −2} to 3.5 × 10{sup −1} mbar) and strong rutile phase at lower oxygen partial pressures (1 × 10{sup −5} to 3.5 × 10{sup −3} mbar). The atomic force microscopy studies showed the dense and uniform distribution of nanocrystallites. The root mean square surface roughness of the films increased with increasing oxygen partial pressures. The UV–visible studies showed that the bandgap of the films increased from 3.20 eV to 3.60 eV with the increase of oxygen partial pressures. The refractive index was found to decrease from 2.73 to 2.06 (at 550 nm) as the oxygen partial pressure increased from 1.5 × 10{sup −4} mbar to 3.5 × 10{sup −1} mbar. The photoluminescence peaks were fitted to Gaussian function and the bandgap was found to be in the range ∼3.28–3.40 eV for anatase and 2.98–3.13 eV for rutile phases with increasing oxygen partial pressure from 1 × 10{sup −5} to 3.5 × 10{sup −1} mbar.

  1. Microdistribution of oxygen in silicon and its effects on electronic properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Mao, B. Y.; Nauka, K.; Lagowski, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of interstitial oxygen on the electrical characteristics of Czochralski-grown silicon crystals were investigated for the first time on a microscale. It was found that the generation of thermal donors is not a direct function of the oxygen concentration. It was further found that the minority carrier life-time decreases with increasing oxygen concentration, on a microscale in as-grown crystals. It was thus shown, again for the first time, that oxygen in as grown crystals is not electronically inert as generally believed. Preannealing at 1200 C commonly employed in device fabrication, was found to suppress the donor generation at 450 C and to decrease the deep level concentrations.

  2. Oxygen binding properties of backswimmer (Notonectidae, Anisops) haemoglobin, determined in vivo.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Philip G D; Seymour, Roger S

    2011-12-01

    Aquatic backswimmers (Anisops spp.) collect oxygen from the atmosphere in order to breathe underwater, carrying it within a bubble of air on the ventral surface of their body and bound within haemoglobin-filled cells inside their abdomen. These oxygen stores are interconnected via the abdominal spiracles and the tracheal system. Fibre optic oxygen probes were used to measure PO(2) changes within the air bubbles of submerged backswimmers (Anisops deanei) and these measurements were transformed into in vivo haemoglobin-oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs) using a biotonometric approach. The haemoglobin displayed a triphasic, highly sigmoid OEC with a P(50) of 3.90 kPa. Comparisons made with a previous in vitro analysis of Anisops haemoglobin demonstrate that while the apparent cooperativity and oxygen affinity are considerably higher in vivo, both measurements share unusual Hb-O(2) binding characteristics. The affinity and cooperativity of the backswimmers' haemoglobin appears adaptive as it lengthens dives and promotes neutral buoyancy. While there are limitations associated with biotonometry, the in vivo OEC accurately represents the loading and unloading of biologically available oxygen within the backswimmers' haemoglobin cells. Potential errors associated with determining the OEC are small, as evaluated with sensitivity analyses in numerical models. PMID:21945425

  3. Synergistic catalytic properties of bifunctional nanoalloy catalysts in rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ning; Ng, Mei Shan; Shan, Shiyao; Wu, Jinfang; Zhao, Wei; Yin, Jun; Fang, Weiqing; Luo, Jin; Petkov, Valeri; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2016-09-01

    The understanding of factors influencing the performance of catalysts in the air cathode of a rechargeable lithium-oxygen battery, including overpotentials for oxygen reduction/evolution and discharge capacity, is essential for exploration of its ultimate application. This report describes new findings of an investigation of PdCu nanoalloys as cathode catalysts. Alloying Pd with oxophilic base metals such as Cu leads to reduction of the overpotentials and increase of the discharge capacity. The nanoalloy structures depend on the bimetallic composition, with an atomic ratio near 50:50 featuring mixed bcc and fcc structures. The discharge potential exhibits a maximum while the charge potential display a minimum in the range of 20-50% Cu, closer to 25% Cu, both of which correspond to a maximum reduction of the discharge-charge overpotentials. The discharge capacity displays a gradual increase with Cu%. This type of catalytic synergy is believed to be associated with a combination of ensemble and ligand effects. In particular, the activation of oxygen on Pd sites and oxygen oxophilicity at the alloyed Cu sites in the catalyst may have played an important role in effectively activating oxygen and maneuvering surface superoxide/peroxide species. These findings have implications for the design of multifunctional cathode catalysts in rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

  4. Design of Core-Shell Heterostructure Nanofibers with Different Work Function and Their Sensing Properties to Trimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Gao, Xing; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Tong; Lu, Geyu; Barsan, Nicolae

    2016-08-01

    The metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) core-shell heterostructure nanofibers (NFs) have been successfully synthesized via an environmentally friendly coaxial electrospinning approach. To demonstrate the potential applications of the as-prepared samples, sensors based on MOS core-shell heterostructure NFs have been fabricated and their gas sensing properties were investigated. Results show that the sensors exhibit an advanced gas sensing property to trimethylamine (TMA) including the outstanding selectivity and rapid response/recovery processes in comparison with the sensors based on single MOS NFs. These phenomena are closely associated with the electron flow caused by the work function difference between MOS of the core and the shell. The approach proposed in this study may contribute to the realization of more sensitive MOS core-shell heterostructure sensors. PMID:27403999

  5. Comparative analysis of property taxation policies within Greece and Cyprus evaluating the use of GIS, CAMA, and remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimopoulos, Thomas; Labropoulos, Tassos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2014-08-01

    This paper aims to examine how CAMA, GIS and Remote Sensing are integrated to assist property taxation. Real property tax apart from its fiscal dimension is directly linked to geographic location. The value of the land and other immovable features such as buildings and structures is determined from specific parameters. All these immovable assets are visible and have specific geographic location & coordinates, materials, occupied area, land-use & utility, ownership & occupancy status and finally a specific value (ad valorem property taxation system) according to which the property tax is levied to taxpayers. Of high importance in the tax imposing procedure is that the use of CAMA, GIS and Remote Sensing tools is capable of providing effective and efficient collection of this property value determining data. Furthermore, these tools can track changes during a property's lifecycle such parcel subdivision into plots, demolition of a building and development of a new one or track a change in the planning zone. The integration of these systems also supports a full range of business processes on revenue mobilization ranging from billing to taxpayers objections management.

  6. Optical remote sensing of properties and concentrations of atmospheric trace constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladutescu, Daniela Viviana

    The effect of human activities on the global climate may lead to large disturbances of the economic, social and political circumstances in the middle and long term. Understanding the dynamics of the Earth's climate is therefore of high importance and one of the major scientific challenges of our time. The estimation of the contribution of the Earth's climate system components needs observation and continuous monitoring of various atmospheric physical and chemical parameters. Temperature, water vapor and greenhouse gases concentration, aerosol and clouds loads, and atmospheric dynamics are parameters of particular importance in this respect. The quantification of the anthropogenic influence on the dynamics of these above-mentioned parameters is of crucial importance nowadays but still affected by significant uncertainties. In the present context of these huge uncertainties in our understanding of how these different atmospheric compounds contribute to the radiative forcing, a significant part of my research interest is related to the following topics: (1) Development of lidar (Light Detection and Ranging)-based remote sensing techniques for monitoring atmospheric compounds and processes; (2) Aerosols hygroscopic properties and atmospheric modeling; (3) Water vapor mixing ratio and relative humidity estimation in the troposphere; (4) Characterization of the long-range transported aerosols; (5) Ambient gases detection using Fourier Transform Interferometers (FTIR); (6) Design of inexpensive Fabry Perot Interferometer for visible and near infrared for land and ocean surface remote sensing applications. The lidar-based remote sensing measurement techniques for the monitoring of climate change parameters where implemented at the City College of the City University of New York (CCNY/CUNY) LIDAR station and are presented in the second section of the paper. The geographical location of the CCNY lidar station is 40.86N, -73.86W. Among the lidar retrievals one important

  7. Sensing properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes grown in MW plasma torch: electronic and electrochemical behavior, gas sensing, field emission, IR absorption.

    PubMed

    Majzlíková, Petra; Sedláček, Jiří; Prášek, Jan; Pekárek, Jan; Svatoš, Vojtěch; Bannov, Alexander G; Jašek, Ondřej; Synek, Petr; Eliáš, Marek; Zajíčková, Lenka; Hubálek, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    Vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) with an average diameter below 80 nm and a thickness of the uniform VA-MWCNT layer of about 16 µm were grown in microwave plasma torch and tested for selected functional properties. IR absorption important for a construction of bolometers was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Basic electrochemical characterization was performed by cyclic voltammetry. Comparing the obtained results with the standard or MWCNT‑modified screen-printed electrodes, the prepared VA-MWCNT electrodes indicated their high potential for the construction of electrochemical sensors. Resistive CNT gas sensor revealed a good sensitivity to ammonia taking into account room temperature operation. Field emission detected from CNTs was suitable for the pressure sensing application based on the measurement of emission current in the diode structure with bending diaphragm. The advantages of microwave plasma torch growth of CNTs, i.e., fast processing and versatility of the process, can be therefore fully exploited for the integration of surface-bound grown CNTs into various sensing structures. PMID:25629702

  8. Sensing Properties of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Grown in MW Plasma Torch: Electronic and Electrochemical Behavior, Gas Sensing, Field Emission, IR Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Majzlíková, Petra; Sedláček, Jiří; Prášek, Jan; Pekárek, Jan; Svatoš, Vojtěch; Bannov, Alexander G.; Jašek, Ondřej; Synek, Petr; Eliáš, Marek; Zajíčková, Lenka; Hubálek, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    Vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) with an average diameter below 80 nm and a thickness of the uniform VA-MWCNT layer of about 16 μm were grown in microwave plasma torch and tested for selected functional properties. IR absorption important for a construction of bolometers was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Basic electrochemical characterization was performed by cyclic voltammetry. Comparing the obtained results with the standard or MWCNT‐modified screen-printed electrodes, the prepared VA-MWCNT electrodes indicated their high potential for the construction of electrochemical sensors. Resistive CNT gas sensor revealed a good sensitivity to ammonia taking into account room temperature operation. Field emission detected from CNTs was suitable for the pressure sensing application based on the measurement of emission current in the diode structure with bending diaphragm. The advantages of microwave plasma torch growth of CNTs, i.e., fast processing and versatility of the process, can be therefore fully exploited for the integration of surface-bound grown CNTs into various sensing structures. PMID:25629702

  9. Physical properties of hemoglobin-poly(acrylamide) hydrogel-based oxygen carriers: effect of reaction pH.

    PubMed

    Patton, Jaqunda N; Palmer, Andre F

    2006-02-28

    This work examines the physical properties of bovine hemoglobin (BHb) chemically cross-linked to a pH responsive polymer (poly(acrylamide)) with the goal of taking advantage of the polymer's pH sensitivity to generate low-P50 oxygen carriers for application in physiological conditions characterized by deviations from normal pH. BHb-hydrogel-based oxygen carriers encapsulating 10-16 g/dL BHb displayed P50s < 10 mmHg when encapsulated inside of liposomes (i.e. Hb-LGs) and <15 mmHg in the absence of a lipid bilayer (i.e. Hb-NHPs), when synthesized at pHs less than normal physiological pH. The results of this work suggest that synthesis of Hb-LGs/Hb-NHPs under different pH conditions affect the ionization of BHb and the flexibility of the polymer chains to which BHb is chemically cross-linked. The degree of BHb cross-linking to the polymer matrix and the chain flexibility of the polymer influences the oxygen affinity and cooperativity of the oxygen carrier by influencing how easy it is for the Hb molecule to change conformations between the R and T states. The magnitude of the zeta potential of Hb-LGs and Hb-NHPs was shown to be within the range of stored red blood cells and within the range of limited flocculation. Taken together, this work describes the preparation and characterization of oxygen carriers with increased oxygen affinities compared to those of red blood cells. PMID:16489809

  10. Direct voltammetric detection of DNA and pH sensing on epitaxial graphene: an insight into the role of oxygenated defects.

    PubMed

    Lim, Cheng Xiang; Hoh, Hui Ying; Ang, Priscilla Kailian; Loh, Kian Ping

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we carried out detailed electrochemical studies of epitaxial graphene (EG) using inner-sphere and outer-sphere redox mediators. The EG sample was anodized systematically to investigate the effect of edge plane defects on the heterogeneous charge transfer kinetics and capacitive noise. We found that anodized EG, consisting of oxygen-related defects, is a superior biosensing platform for the detection of nucleic acids, uric acids (UA), dopamine (DA), and ascorbic acids (AA). Mixtures of nucleic acids (A, T, C, G) or biomolecules (AA, UA, DA) can be resolved as individual peaks using differential pulse voltammetry. In fact, an anodized EG voltammetric sensor can realize the simultaneous detection of all four DNA bases in double stranded DNA (dsDNA) without a prehydrolysis step, and it can also differentiate single stranded DNA from dsDNA. Our results show that graphene with high edge plane defects, as opposed to pristine graphene, is the choice platform in high resolution electrochemical sensing. PMID:20712323

  11. Phytoglobin: a novel nomenclature for plant globins accepted by the globin community at the 2014 XVIII conference on Oxygen-Binding and Sensing Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hill, Robert; Hargrove, Mark; Arredondo-Peter, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) is a heme-containing protein found in the red blood cells of vertebrates. For many years, the only known Hb-like molecule in plants was leghemoglobin (Lb). The discovery that other Hb-like proteins existed in plants led to the term "nonsymbiotic Hbs (nsHbs)" to differentiate them from the Lbs. While this terminology was adequate in the early stages of research on the protein, the complexity of the research in this area necessitates a change in the definition of these proteins to delineate them from red blood cell Hb. At the 2014 XVIII Conference on Oxygen-Binding and Sensing Proteins, the group devoted to the study of heme-containing proteins, this issue was discussed and a consensus was reached on a proposed name change. We propose Phytoglobin (Phytogb) as a logical, descriptive name to describe a heme-containing (Hb-like) protein found in plants. It will be readily recognized by the research community without a prolonged explanation of the origin of the term. The classification system that has been established can essentially remain unchanged substituting Phytogb in place of nsHb. Here, we present a guide to the new nomenclature, with reference to the existing terminology and a phylogenetic scheme, placing the known Phytogbs in the new nomenclature. PMID:26998237

  12. Phytoglobin: a novel nomenclature for plant globins accepted by the globin community at the 2014 XVIII conference on Oxygen-Binding and Sensing Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert; Hargrove, Mark; Arredondo-Peter, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) is a heme-containing protein found in the red blood cells of vertebrates. For many years, the only known Hb-like molecule in plants was leghemoglobin (Lb). The discovery that other Hb-like proteins existed in plants led to the term “nonsymbiotic Hbs (nsHbs)” to differentiate them from the Lbs. While this terminology was adequate in the early stages of research on the protein, the complexity of the research in this area necessitates a change in the definition of these proteins to delineate them from red blood cell Hb. At the 2014 XVIII Conference on Oxygen-Binding and Sensing Proteins, the group devoted to the study of heme-containing proteins, this issue was discussed and a consensus was reached on a proposed name change. We propose Phytoglobin (Phytogb) as a logical, descriptive name to describe a heme-containing (Hb-like) protein found in plants. It will be readily recognized by the research community without a prolonged explanation of the origin of the term. The classification system that has been established can essentially remain unchanged substituting Phytogb in place of nsHb. Here, we present a guide to the new nomenclature, with reference to the existing terminology and a phylogenetic scheme, placing the known Phytogbs in the new nomenclature. PMID:26998237

  13. The surface properties of fluorinated polyimides exposed to VUV and atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, John S.; George, Graeme A.; Hill, David J. T.; Odonnell, James H.; Pomery, Peter J.; Rasoul, Firas A.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of atomic oxygen flux and VUV radiation alone and in combination on the surface of fluorinated polyimide films was studied using XPS spectroscopy. Exposure of fluorinated polyimides to VUV radiation alone caused no observable damage to the polymer surface, while an atomic oxygen flux resulted in substantial oxidation of the surface. On the other hand, exposure to VUV radiation and atomic oxygen in combination caused extensive oxidation of the polymer surface after only 2 minutes of exposure. The amount of oxidized carbon on the polymer surface indicated that there is aromatic ring opening oxidation. The changes in the O1s/C1s, N1s/C1s, and F1s/C1s ratios suggested that an ablative degradation process is highly favorable. A synergistic effect of VUV radiation in the presence of atomic oxygen is clearly evidenced from the XPS study. The atomic oxygen could be considered as the main factor in the degradation process of fluorinated polyimide films exposed to a low earth orbit environment.

  14. Effect of oxygen on growth and properties of diamond thin film deposited at low surface temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Das, D.; Singh, Raj N.; Barney, I. T.; Jackson, A. G.; Mukhopadhyay, S. M.

    2008-11-15

    Polycrystalline diamond thin films are grown on a p-type Si (100) single crystal substrate at a low surface deposition temperature of 455 deg. C using a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process in an Ar-rich Ar/H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} plasma containing different oxygen levels from 0% to 0.75%. The surface deposition temperatures are measured and monitored by an IR thermometer capable of working in a plasma environment without any interference from the plasma emissions. The lower surface deposition temperature at high microwave power of 1300 W and higher gas pressure of 95 torr is achieved by active cooling of the substrate from the backside using a specially designed cooling stage. An enhanced growth rate from 0.19 to 0.63 {mu}m/h is observed with varying oxygen from 0% to 0.75% in the plasma. Diamond grain size also increased from 0.69 {mu}m for the sample with no oxygen to 1.74 {mu}m for the sample with 0.75% oxygen. The diamond films are characterized using x-ray diffraction, environmental scanning electron microscopy field emission gun, Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The enhanced growth rate is correlated with the enhanced atomic hydrogen to C{sub 2} ratio with increasing oxygen concentration in the plasma, which is measured by an in situ optical emission spectroscopy.

  15. Tuning the magnetic properties of L a0.67S r0.33Co O3-δ films by oxygen pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Yiqian; Liu, Guiju; Feng, Honglei; Yang, Huaiwen; Xue, Xuyan; Sun, Jirong

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, oxygen-deficient L a0.67S r0.33Co O3 (LSCO) thin films are prepared by adjusting the oxygen pressure during the deposition. As oxygen vacancies are introduced into the LSCO films, the out-of-plane lattices are elongated, as revealed by x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Modulated bright and dark stripes observed in the HRTEM images of the oxygen-deficient LSCO films are induced by cation ordering and oxygen vacancy ordering, respectively. Magnetic measurements and first-principles calculations show that the oxygen vacancies depress the magnetism of the LSCO films greatly. We also demonstrate that doping Sr into LaCo O3 and removing oxygen from LSCO have a similar effect on the magnetic properties, which is correlated with a derived formula.

  16. Optical properties and remote sensing of optically diverse waters in Pomeranian Region (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficek, Dariusz

    2015-04-01

    that their remote sensing is complicated and requires further study. It would appear that different algorithms, relationships and models need to be derived for such lakes in order to take into account their specific properties.

  17. Oxygen partial pressure influenced structural and optical properties of DC magnetron sputtered ZrO{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect

    Kondaiah, P.; Madhavi, V.; Uthanna, S.

    2013-02-05

    Thin films of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) were deposited on (100) p-silicon and quartz substrates by sputtering of metallic zirconium target under different oxygen partial pressures in the range 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}-6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}Pa. The effect of oxygen partial pressure on the structural and optical properties of the deposited films was systematically investigated. The deposition rate of the films decreased from 3.3 to 1.83 nm/min with the increase of oxygen partial pressure from 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}-6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}Pa respectively. The X-ray diffraction profiles revealed that the films exhibit (111) refection of zirconium oxide in monoclinic phase. The optical band gap of the films increased from 5.62 to 5.80 eV and refractive index increased from 2.01 to 2.08 with the increase of oxygen partial pressure from 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}-6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}Pa respectively.

  18. Oxygen partial pressure influenced structural and optical properties of DC magnetron sputtered ZrO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondaiah, P.; Madhavi, V.; Uthanna, S.

    2013-02-01

    Thin films of zirconium oxide (ZrO2) were deposited on (100) p-silicon and quartz substrates by sputtering of metallic zirconium target under different oxygen partial pressures in the range 8×10-3-6×10-2Pa. The effect of oxygen partial pressure on the structural and optical properties of the deposited films was systematically investigated. The deposition rate of the films decreased from 3.3 to 1.83 nm/min with the increase of oxygen partial pressure from 8×10-3-6×10-2Pa respectively. The X-ray diffraction profiles revealed that the films exhibit (111) refection of zirconium oxide in monoclinic phase. The optical band gap of the films increased from 5.62 to 5.80 eV and refractive index increased from 2.01 to 2.08 with the increase of oxygen partial pressure from 8×10-3-6×10-2Pa respectively.

  19. Physical properties of silver oxide thin films by pulsed laser deposition: effect of oxygen pressure during growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi Chandra Raju, N.; Jagadeesh Kumar, K.; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2009-07-01

    Silver oxide thin films have potential applications in ultra-high density optical non-volatile memories and in fluorescence imaging. In this paper, the physical properties of silver oxide thin films prepared at room temperature by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique with varying oxygen pressure during growth are reported. The oxygen pressure in the growth chamber is varied between 9 and 50 Pa. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that all the films were polycrystalline. With increasing oxygen pressure in the growth chamber, it is observed that (i) the hexagonal Ag2O transforms to monoclinic AgO, (ii) the grain size in the film increases from 59 to 200 nm, (iii) the surface roughness of the film increases from 9 to 42 nm, (iv) the resistivity of the films increases from 1 to 4 × 104 Ω m, (v) the surface work function of the films increases from 5.47 to 5.61 eV and (vi) the optical band gap of AgO thin films decreases from 1.01 to 0.93 eV. Raman spectroscopy on AgO thin films shows low wave number peaks corresponding to the stretching vibration of Ag-O bonds. This study shows that single phase AgO thin films, a requirement for plasmonic devices, can be prepared at room temperature by the PLD technique with an oxygen pressure of 20 Pa.

  20. Effect of platinum-nanodendrite modification on the glucose-sensing properties of a zinc-oxide-nanorod electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Razak, Khairunisak; Neoh, Soo Huan; Ridhuan, N. S.; Mohamad Nor, Noorhashimah

    2016-09-01

    The properties of ZnO nanorods (ZnONRs) decorated with platinum nanodendrites (PtNDs) were studied. Various sizes of PtNDs were synthesized and spin coated onto ZnONRs, which were grown on indium-titanium-oxide (ITO) substrates through a low-temperature hydrothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were conducted to analyze the morphology and structural properties of the electrodes. The effects of PtND size, glucose concentration, and Nafion amount on glucose-sensing properties were investigated. The glucose-sensing properties of electrodes with immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) were measured using cyclic voltammetry. The bio-electrochemical properties of Nafion/GOx/42 nm PtNDs/ZnONRs/ITO glucose sensor was observed with linear range within 1-18 mM, with a sensitivity value of 5.85 μA/mM and a limit of detection of 1.56 mM. The results of this study indicate that PtNDs/ZnONRs/ITO has potential in glucose sensor applications.

  1. Enhanced optical properties of TiO2 nanoceramic films by oxygen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Lin, Su-Shia; Wu, Ding-Kun

    2010-02-01

    TiO2 nanoceramic films were deposited on glasses by rf magnetron sputtering and corresponded to nanocrystalline anatase. The porosity and surface roughness decreased with the oxygen pressure. The optical transmission of TiO2 nanoceramic films obviously increased with the decrease of film thickness or the increase of oxygen pressure, especially in the visible region. Moiré deflectometry was used to measure the nonlinear refractive indices of TiO2 films deposited in a mixed Ar-O2 atmosphere. The nonlinear refractive index was measured to be of the order of 10(-8) cm2 W(-1) and the change in refractive index was of the order of 10(-5). As the oxygen pressure increased, the transparent TiO2 film exhibited a high linear refractive index, a low stress and a low stress-optical coefficient. PMID:20352762

  2. Role of Oxygen Defects on the Photocatalytic Properties of Mg-Doped Mesoporous Ta3 N5.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yinghao; Wang, Yawei; Chen, Zuofeng; Xu, Xiaoxiang

    2016-06-22

    Tantalum nitride (Ta3 N5 ) highlights an intriguing paradigm for converting solar energy into chemical fuels. However, its photocatalytic properties are strongly governed by various intrinsic/extrinsic defects. In this work, we successfully prepared a series of Mg-doped mesoporous Ta3 N5 using a simple method. The photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties were investigated from the viewpoint of how defects such as accumulation of oxygen and nitrogen vacancies contribute to the catalytic activity. Our findings suggest that Mg doping is accompanied by an accumulation of oxygen species and a simultaneous elimination of nitrogen vacancies in Ta3 N5 . These oxygen species in Ta3 N5 induce delocalized shallow donor states near the conduction band minimum and are responsible for high electron mobility. The superior photocatalytic activity of Mg-doped Ta3 N5 can then be understood by the improved electron-hole separation as well as the lack of nitrogen vacancies, which often serve as charge-recombination centers. PMID:27100134

  3. Oxygen vacancies induced DX center and persistent photoconductivity properties of high quality ZnO nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yong; Madel, Manfred; Feneberg, Martin; Neuschl, Benjamin; Jie, Wanqi; Hao, Yue; Ma, Xiaohua; Thonke, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Ultraviolet sensors based on homoepitaxially grown ZnO nanorods were fabricated using clean room technology. We study the spectral dependence and frequency dependence of the photoresponse of these rods at different temperatures and ambient conditions. Whereas the response for above-bandgap light is fast, we find a slow response to light below band gap and clear signatures of persistent photoconductivity. These findings are explained by switching oxygen vacancies by light from nonconductive to conductive state, whereas the oxygen vacancies undergo a large lattice relaxation. The threshold photon energy for this process is found to be 2.6 eV at room temperature.

  4. Modification of the Surface Properties of Polyimide Films using POSS Deposition and Oxygen Plasma Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Belcher, Marcus A.; Ghose, Sayata; Connell, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Topographically rich surfaces were generated by spray-coating organic solutions of a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, octakis (dimethylsilyloxy) silsesquioxane (POSS), on Kapton HN films and exposing them to radio frequency generated oxygen plasma. Changes in both surface chemistry and topography were observed. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy indicated substantial modification of the POSS-coated polyimide surface topographies as a result of oxygen plasma exposure. Water contact angles varied from 104 deg for unexposed POSS-coated surfaces to approximately 5 deg, for samples exposed for 5 h. Modulation of the dispersive and polar contributions to the surface energy was determined using van Oss Good Chaudhury theory.

  5. Reflectance properties of selected arctic-boreal land cover types: field measurements and their application in remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoniemi, J. I.; Suomalainen, J.; Puttonen, E.; Näränen, J.; Rautiainen, M.

    2008-03-01

    We developed a mobile remote sensing measurement facility for spectral and anisotropic reflectance measurements. We measured reflection properties (BRF) of over 100 samples from most common land cover types in boreal and subarctic regions. This extensive data set serves as a unique reference opportunity for developing interpretation algorithms for remotely sensed materials as well as for modelling climatic effects in the boreal and subarctic zones. Our goniometric measurements show that the reflectances of the most common land cover types in the boreal and subarctic region can differ from each other by a factor of 100. Some types are strong forward scatterers, some backward scatterers, some reflect specularly, some have strong colours, some are bright in visual, some in infrared. We noted that spatial variations in reflectance, even among the same type of vegetation, can be well over 20%, diurnal variations of the same order and seasonal variation often over a factor of 10. This has significant consequences on the interpretation of satellite and airborne images and on the development of radiation regime models in both optical remote sensing and climate change research. We propose that the accuracy of optical remote sensing can be improved by an order of magnitude, if better physical reflectance models can be introduced. Further improvements can be reached by more optimised design of sensors and orbits/flight lines, by the effective combining of several data sources and better processing of atmospheric effects. We conclude that more extensive and systematic laboratory experiments and field measurements are needed, with more modelling effort.

  6. Changing the magnetic and optical properties of (Ga, Fe)N and (Ga, Co)N by alloying with oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Maalam, K.; Salmani, E.; Mounkachi, O.; Hamedoun, M.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-04-01

    Systematic density functional theory studies and model analyses have been used to show that the magnetic properties of (Ga0.94Fe0.06)N and (Ga0.94Co0.06)N can be changed from disorder local moment state to ferromagnetic state by replacing ~2 % of the nitrogen atoms with oxygen atoms. The estimated curie temperatures are much higher than the room temperature which indicates the room temperature ferromagnetism can be realized by oxygen doping. Moreover, the optical absorption spectra obtained by ab initio calculations confirm the ferromagnetic stability based on the charge state of magnetic impurities. (Ga0.94Fe0.06)N0.98O0.02 and (Ga0.94Co0.06)N0.98O0.02 ferromagnetic DMS exhibits half-metallic behavior, which is suitable for spintronics applications.

  7. Cloud and precipitation properties from ground-based remote-sensing instruments in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodetskaya, I. V.; Kneifel, S.; Maahn, M.; Thiery, W.; Schween, J. H.; Mangold, A.; Crewell, S.; Van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2015-02-01

    A new comprehensive cloud-precipitation-meteorological observatory has been established at Princess Elisabeth base, located in the escarpment zone of Dronning Maud Land (DML), East Antarctica. The observatory consists of a set of ground-based remote-sensing instruments (ceilometer, infrared pyrometer and vertically profiling precipitation radar) combined with automatic weather station measurements of near-surface meteorology, radiative fluxes, and snow height. In this paper, the observatory is presented and the potential for studying the evolution of clouds and precipitating systems is illustrated by case studies. It is shown that the synergetic use of the set of instruments allows for distinguishing ice, liquid-containing clouds and precipitating clouds, including some information on their vertical extent. In addition, wind-driven blowing snow events can be distinguished from deeper precipitating systems. Cloud properties largely affect the surface radiative fluxes, with liquid-containing clouds dominating the radiative impact. A statistical analysis of all measurements (in total 14 months mainly during summer-beginning of winter) indicates that these liquid-containing clouds occur during as much as 20% of the cloudy periods. The cloud occurrence shows a strong bimodal distribution with clear-sky conditions 51% of the time and complete overcast conditions 35% of the time. Snowfall occurred during 17% of the cloudy periods with a predominance of light precipitation and only rare events with snowfall >1 mm h-1 water equivalent (w.e.). Three of such intense snowfall events occurred during 2011 contributing to anomalously large annual surface mass balance (SMB). Large accumulation events (>10 mm w.e. day-1) during the radar-measurement period of 26 months were always associated with snowfall, but at the same time other snowfall events did not always lead to accumulation. The multiyear deployment of a precipitation radar in Antarctica allows for assessing the

  8. Inference of effective river properties from remotely sensed observations of water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garambois, Pierre-André; Monnier, Jérôme

    2015-05-01

    The future SWOT mission (Surface Water and Ocean Topography) will provide cartographic measurements of inland water surfaces (elevation, widths and slope) at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. Given synthetic SWOT like data, forward flow models of hierarchical-complexity are revisited and few inverse formulations are derived and assessed for retrieving the river low flow bathymetry, roughness and discharge (A0, K, Q) . The concept of an effective low flow bathymetry A0 (the real one being never observed) and roughness K , hence an effective river dynamics description, is introduced. The few inverse models elaborated for inferring (A0, K, Q) are analyzed in two contexts: (1) only remotely sensed observations of the water surface (surface elevation, width and slope) are available; (2) one additional water depth measurement (or estimate) is available. The inverse models elaborated are independent of data acquisition dynamics; they are assessed on 91 synthetic test cases sampling a wide range of steady-state river flows (the Froude number varying between 0.05 and 0.5 for 1 km reaches) and in the case of a flood on the Garonne River (France) characterized by large spatio-temporal variabilities. It is demonstrated that the most complete shallow-water like model allowing to separate the roughness and bathymetry terms is the so-called low Froude model. In Case (1), the resulting RMSE on infered discharges are on the order of 15% for first guess errors larger than 50%. An important feature of the present inverse methods is the fairly good accuracy of the discharge Q obtained, while the identified roughness coefficient K includes the measurement errors and the misfit of physics between the real flow and the hypothesis on which the inverse models rely; the later neglecting the unobserved temporal variations of the flow and the inertia effects. A compensation phenomena between the indentifiedvalues of K and the unobserved bathymetry A0 is highlighted, while the

  9. A Study on the Optical Properties of Aerosols above the Forest by Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, J.

    2004-12-01

    Aerosol retrieval by remote sensing technique is one of the promising method in understanding the chemical and optical properties, column load, and spatial distribution of aerosols. However, though the current technique in use is quite successful about aerosols over ocean with small water-leaving radiances, quantitative retrieval of aerosols over land mass is not yet satisfactory. We try to develop a new method to make the aerosol retrieval over land more accurate than ever before. A sensitivity analysis of reflectance shows that wrong selection of spectral reflectance model results in quite a large difference in retrieved aerosol characteristics. Therefore, a well¡Csuited surface reflectance model is needed to be created. We conducted aerosol and radiation measurements coupled with in situ forest reflectance measurements in sync with satellite radiance measurements by EOS Terra and Aqua from the top of the atmosphere. The experimental site is located in a forest with an extensive and uniform area covered with deciduous trees commonly existing in Japan. The ground-based measurements include Andersen impactor samplings, radiometric measurements with OPC, a sunphotometer and a telephotometer. Forest reflectance was measured with a spectral radiometer covering visible and near infrared above the forest canopy level from a tower standing in the forest. Reflectance was measured directionally, and was found to show no major bi-directional dependency, assuring us that Lambert reflectance model is sufficient for calculation in this particular type of forest. The sampled spectral reflectances were averaged to be 0.0414 at 0.55 μ m. For satellite aerosol retrieval, visible and near infrared bands in MODIS sensors were employed. MODTRAN code was used in radiative transfer in the aerosol-laden atmosphere. Several different types of aerosol were examined, and a rural aerosol model with similar size distribution and composition to the aerosols, which are estimated from OPC

  10. Optical properties and remote sensing of optically diverse waters in Pomeranian Region (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficek, Dariusz

    2015-04-01

    This work presents the large set of empirical examples of upward and downward spectral irradiance fields, along with their associated coefficients of reflectance and transmittance in the waters in Pomeranian Region. On the one hand, the light field prevailing in a water body is one of the main factors governing life in it, affecting as it does a number of processes of great significance for this ecosystem. On the other, it is an important source of information used, among other things, for the remote assessment of the state of structural characteristics, including the composition and concentration of OACs, and the changes taking place in this environment. In this age of remote sensing, be this from on board a satellite or an aircraft, the light field is a highly topical issue. The 235 optical measurements performed in Pomeranian Region enabled a range of characteristic features of the vertical spectral distributions of the downward and upward irradiance, and irradiance transmittance to be defined. Based on these measurements, spectra of the diffusional coefficient of the downward irradiance attenuation in different types of lacustrine waters were determined. The underwater irradiance fields are governed by absorption and scattering, and these processes, in turn, depend on the type and concentration of OACs contained in the water. Later in this work, I show the influence of these constituents on the spatial and spectral characteristics of underwater light fields in trophically and optically diverse waters; I also analyse the possibilities of utilizing this modified light field to determine the OAC concentration in the waters under study here. The magnitude that is used to monitor the state of the water in natural bodies using remote sensing is the reflectanceR(λ), a function of the reflection of the downward daytime irradiance. Because the spectra of this reflectance differ in shape (the positions and values of their maxima and minima), three types of spectra have

  11. Metal Decoration Effects on the Gas-Sensing Properties of 2D Hybrid-Structures on Flexible Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Byungjin; Yoon, Jongwon; Lim, Sung Kwan; Kim, Ah Ra; Choi, Sun-Young; Kim, Dong-Ho; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Lee, Byoung Hun; Ko, Heung Cho; Hahm, Myung Gwan

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of metal decoration on the gas-sensing properties of a device with two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) flake channels and graphene electrodes. The 2D hybrid-structure device sensitively detected NO2 gas molecules (>1.2 ppm) as well as NH3 (>10 ppm). Metal nanoparticles (NPs) could tune the electronic properties of the 2D graphene/MoS2 device, increasing sensitivity to a specific gas molecule. For instance, palladium NPs accumulate hole carriers of graphene/MoS2, electronically sensitizing NH3 gas molecules. Contrarily, aluminum NPs deplete hole carriers, enhancing NO2 sensitivity. The synergistic combination of metal NPs and 2D hybrid layers could be also applied to a flexible gas sensor. There was no serious degradation in the sensing performance of metal-decorated MoS2 flexible devices before/after 5000 bending cycles. Thus, highly sensitive and endurable gas sensor could be achieved through the metal-decorated 2D hybrid-structure, offering a useful route to wearable electronic sensing platforms. PMID:26404279

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis and humidity sensing properties of size-controlled Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2) nanorods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuyi; Lu, Yi; Yuan, Shuai; Shi, Liyi; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Deng, Wei

    2013-04-15

    Size-controlled ZrO2 nanorods were prepared via a facile hydrothermal treatment approach in the presence of NH4F as mineralizer. The effects of the type and concentration of mineralizers on the particle size and dispersibility of ZrO2 nanorods were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption measurements (BET), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), confirming the essential role of F(-) in tuning the particle size. Humidity sensors based on ZrO2 nanorods with different sizes exhibit different sensitivity depending on their proportion of surface adsorbed oxygen. High sensitivity, linear response, small hysteresis, and rapid response-recovery behavior (5s for adsorption and 38s for desorption) make ZrO2 prepared by our method a good candidate for application in humidity sensor. The complex impedance spectra were used to elucidate its humidity sensing mechanism in detail. PMID:23411357

  13. Optical properties and sensing in plexcitonic nanocavities: from simple molecular linkers to molecular aggregate layers.

    PubMed

    Pérez-González, Olalla; Zabala, Nerea; Aizpurua, Javier

    2014-01-24

    We present a theoretical study of a metal-molecular aggregate hybrid system consisting of a strongly coupled dimer connected by molecules characterized by an excitonic transition. The plasmonic resonances of the metallic dimer interact with the molecular excitations giving rise to coupled plasmon-exciton states, so called plexcitons. We compare the differences in the optical response when the excitonic material is placed only as a linker in the plasmonic gap of the dimer and when the material is distributed as an aggregate layer covering the dimer entirely. We also explore the efficiency of plexcitons for localized surface plamon resonance (LSPR) sensing in both situations. The ordinary shift-based sensing is more efficient for dimers connected through molecular linkers, whereas intensity-based sensing is more effective when the molecular aggregate covers the entire nanostructure. These results can serve to design the chemistry of excitons around metallic nanoparticles. PMID:24346140

  14. Fabrication and investigation of gas sensing properties of Nb-doped TiO2 nanotubular arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galstyan, Vardan; Comini, Elisabetta; Faglia, Guido; Vomiero, Alberto; Borgese, Laura; Bontempi, Elza; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2012-06-01

    Synthesis of Nb-containing titania nanotubular arrays at room temperature by electrochemical anodization is reported. Crystallization of pure and Nb-doped TiO2 nanotubes was carried out by post-growth annealing at 400 °C. The morphology of the tubes obtained was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Crystal structure and composition of tubes were investigated by glancing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF). For the first time gas sensing characteristics of Nb-doped TiO2 nanotubes were investigated and compared to those of undoped nanotubes. The functional properties of nanotubular arrays towards CO, H2, NO2, ethanol and acetone were tested in a wide range of operating temperature. The introduction of Nb largely improves conductivity and enhances gas sensing performances of TiO2 nanotubes.

  15. The Optical Property of Core-Shell Nanosensors and Detection of Atrazine Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaobo; Wu, Tengfei; Zhao, Xinhua; Li, Xingfei; Tan, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Three different nanosensors with core-shell structures were fabricated by molecular self-assembly and evaporation techniques. Such closely packed nanoparticles exhibit fine optical properties which are useful for biochemical sensing. The refractive index sensitivity (RIS) of nanosensors was detected by varying the refractive index of the surrounding medium and the decay length of nanosensors was investigated using a layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte multilayer assembly. The results showed that the thickness of the Au shell plays an important role in determining the RIS and the decay length. A system based on localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) sensing was constructed in our study. The core-shell nanosensors can detect 10 ng/mL atrazine solutions and are suitable for pesticide residue detection. PMID:25057137

  16. The optical property of core-shell nanosensors and detection of atrazine based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaobo; Wu, Tengfei; Zhao, Xinhua; Li, Xingfei; Tan, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Three different nanosensors with core-shell structures were fabricated by molecular self-assembly and evaporation techniques. Such closely packed nanoparticles exhibit fine optical properties which are useful for biochemical sensing. The refractive index sensitivity (RIS) of nanosensors was detected by varying the refractive index of the surrounding medium and the decay length of nanosensors was investigated using a layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte multilayer assembly. The results showed that the thickness of the Au shell plays an important role in determining the RIS and the decay length. A system based on localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) sensing was constructed in our study. The core-shell nanosensors can detect 10 ng/mL atrazine solutions and are suitable for pesticide residue detection. PMID:25057137

  17. Co(II)-doped MOF-5 nano/microcrystals: Solvatochromic behaviour, sensing solvent molecules and gas sorption property

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ji-Min; Liu, Qing; Sun, Wei-Yin

    2014-10-15

    Co(II)-doped MOF-5 nano/microcrystals with controllable morphology and size were successfully obtained by solvothermal method. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), elemental analysis, UV–vis and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The factors influencing the crystal morphology and size were investigated. The gas sorption measurements reveal that highly crystalline particles have large Langmuir surface area. It was found that the Co(II)-doped MOF-5 shows enhanced hydrostability and the sorption profiles of the Co(II)-doped MOF-5 nano/microcrystals are dependent on the morphology and size of the particles. Porous Co(II)-doped MOF-5 is stable upon the removal of guest molecules and exhibits different colour with accommodating different solvent molecule, which means that it can act as solvatochromic sensing materials for recognition of solvent molecules. - Graphical abstract: Co(II)-doped MOF-5 nano/microcrystals with different shapes and sizes were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method, which not only enhance gas sorption properties and structural stability of MOFs towards moisture, but also act as new sensing materials for sensing small molecules. - Highlights: • Co(II)-doped MOF-5 nano/microcrystals with controllable morphology and size were obtained. • Co(II)-doped MOF-5 nano/microcrystals enhance the structural stability towards moisture. • Co(II)-doped MOF-5 can act as new sensing material for sensing small molecules.

  18. Sensing properties of different classes of gases based on the nanowire-electrode junction barrier modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nandan; Yan, Chaoyi; Lee, Pooi See; Comini, Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    The role of contact between semiconducting nanowire and metal electrodes in a single nanowire field effect transistor (NW-FET) is investigated for the sensing of different type of gases. Two different types of In2O3nanowire devices, namely; Schottky contact device (SCD) and Ohmic contact device (OCD) are evaluated. SCD has shown a superior response to the reducing gas (CO) compared to oxidizing gas (NO), while OCD has shown high sensitivity towards oxidizing gas (NO) compared to the reducing gas (CO) under similar working conditions. The sensing mechanism is dominated by the contact resistance at the metal-semiconductor junction in SCD and the change in nanowirechannel conductance dominates in OCD. The Schottky barrier height (SBH) was extracted using low temperature current voltage measurement which provided direct evidence for the notion that the barrier height plays a crucial role in the sensing of different types of gases. The sensing mechanism is illustrated in this work for both devices.The role of contact between semiconducting nanowire and metal electrodes in a single nanowire field effect transistor (NW-FET) is investigated for the sensing of different type of gases. Two different types of In2O3nanowire devices, namely; Schottky contact device (SCD) and Ohmic contact device (OCD) are evaluated. SCD has shown a superior response to the reducing gas (CO) compared to oxidizing gas (NO), while OCD has shown high sensitivity towards oxidizing gas (NO) compared to the reducing gas (CO) under similar working conditions. The sensing mechanism is dominated by the contact resistance at the metal-semiconductor junction in SCD and the change in nanowirechannel conductance dominates in OCD. The Schottky barrier height (SBH) was extracted using low temperature current voltage measurement which provided direct evidence for the notion that the barrier height plays a crucial role in the sensing of different types of gases. The sensing mechanism is illustrated in this work

  19. Mechanotransduction in the Endothelium: Role of Membrane Proteins and Reactive Oxygen Species in Sensing, Transduction, and Transmission of the Signal with Altered Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Aron B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Changes in shear stress associated with alterations in blood flow initiate a signaling cascade that modulates the vascular phenotype. Shear stress is “sensed” by the endothelium via a mechanosensitive complex on the endothelial cell (EC) membrane that has been characterized as a “mechanosome” consisting of caveolae, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), vascular endothelial (VE)–cadherin, and possibly other elements. This shear signal is transduced by cell membrane ion channels and various kinases and results in the activation of NADPH oxidase (type 2) with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent Advances: The signaling cascade associated with stop of shear, as would occur in vivo with various obstructive pathologies, leads to cell proliferation and eventual revascularization. Critical Issues and Future Directions: Although several elements of mechanosensing such as the sensing event, the transduction, transmission, and reception of the mechanosignal are now reasonably well understood, the links among these discrete steps in the pathway are not clear. Thus, identifying the mechanisms for the interaction of the KATP channel, the kinases, and ROS to drive long-term adaptive responses in ECs is necessary. A critical re-examination of the signaling events associated with complex flow patterns (turbulent, oscillatory) under physiological conditions is also essential for the progress in the field. Since these complex shear patterns may be associated with an atherosclerosis susceptible phenotype, a specific challenge will be the pharmacological modulation of the responses to altered signaling events that occur at specific sites of disturbed or obstructed flow. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 899–913. PMID:24328670

  20. Inhibitors of oxygen sensing prolyl hydroxylases regulate nuclear localization of the transcription factors Smad2 and YAP/TAZ involved in CTGF synthesis.

    PubMed

    Preisser, Felix; Giehl, Klaudia; Rehm, Margot; Goppelt-Struebe, Margarete

    2016-08-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of oxygen sensing prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs) has been shown to preserve renal structure and function in various models of kidney disease. Since transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFβ-1) is one of the major mediators of kidney injury, we investigated if inhibition of PHDs with subsequent stabilization of hypoxia inducible transcription factors (HIF) might interfere with TGFβ-1 signaling with special emphasis on its target gene connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Overnight incubation of human renal tubular cells, primary cells and cell lines, with the PDH inhibitor DMOG increased Smad3 expression, but barely affected Smad2. Both Smads were translocated into the nucleus upon activation of the cells with TGFβ-1. Interestingly, Smad3 nuclear localization was enhanced upon pretreatment of the cells with DMOG for several hours, whereas nuclear Smad2 was reduced. This differential localization was independent of Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Reduced nuclear Smad2 correlated with impaired CTGF secretion in DMOG-treated cells and transient downregulation of Smad2 interfered with TGFβ-1-induced CTGF synthesis. Furthermore, YAP was confirmed as indispensable transcription factor involved in CTGF synthesis. Nuclear localization of YAP and TAZ was reduced in DMOG-treated cells. Our data thus provide evidence for DMOG-mediated reduction of CTGF expression by regulating the nuclear localization of the transcription factors Smad2, YAP and TAZ. Prolonged inhibition of PHDs was necessary to achieve alterations in cellular localization suggesting an indirect HIF-mediated effect. This mechanism might be extended to other transcription factors and target genes, and may thus represent a novel mechanism of negative regulation of gene expression by PHD inhibition. PMID:27155083