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Sample records for oxygen transfer coefficient

  1. Hydrodynamic characteristics and overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient of a new multi-environment bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Behzadian, Farnaz; Yerushalmi, Laleh; Alimahmoodi, Mahmood; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2013-08-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics and the overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient of a new multi-environment bioreactor which is an integrated part of a wastewater treatment system, called BioCAST, were studied. This bioreactor contains several zones with different environmental conditions including aerobic, microaerophilic and anoxic, designed to increase the contaminant removal capacity of the treatment system. The multi-environment bioreactor is designed based on the concept of airlift reactors where liquid is circulated through the zones with different environmental conditions. The presence of openings between the aerobic zone and the adjacent oxygen-depleted microaerophilic zone changes the hydrodynamic properties of this bioreactor compared to the conventional airlift designs. The impact of operating and process parameters, notably the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and superficial gas velocity (U(G)), on the hydrodynamics and mass transfer characteristics of the system was examined. The results showed that liquid circulation velocity (V(L)), gas holdup (ε) and overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a(L)) increase with the increase of superficial gas velocity (U(G)), while the mean circulation time (t(c)) decreases with the increase of superficial gas velocity. The mean circulation time between the aerobic zone (riser) and microaerophilic zone (downcomer) is a stronger function of the superficial gas velocity for the smaller openings (1/2 in.) between the two zones, while for the larger opening (1 in.) the mean circulation time is almost independent of U(G) for U(G) ≥ 0.023 m/s. The smaller openings between the two zones provide higher mass transfer coefficient and better zone generation which will contribute to improved performance of the system during treatment operations. PMID:23142846

  2. Effects of oxygen transfer coefficient on dihydroxyacetone production from crude glycerol

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiao-juan; Jin, Kui-qi; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Gang; Liu, Yu-Peng

    2016-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the kinetics of dihydroxyacetone production by Gluconobacter frateurii CGMCC 5397 under different oxygen volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) conditions in submerged bioreactors using biodiesel-derived crude glycerol as the carbon source. kLa is a key fermentation parameter for the production of dihydroxyacetone. Cultivations were conducted in baffled- and unbaffled-flask cultures (the kLa values were 24.32 h−1 and 52.05 h−1, respectively) and fed-batch cultures (the kLa values were held at 18.21 h−1, 46.03 h−1, and 82.14 h−1) to achieve high dihydroxyacetone concentration and productivity. The results showed that a high kLa could dramatically increase dihydroxyacetone concentrations and productivities. The baffled-flask culture (with a kLa of 52.05 h−1) favored glycerol utilization and dihydroxyacetone production, and a dihydroxyacetone concentration as high as 131.16 g/L was achieved. When the kLa was set to 82.14 h−1 in the fed-batch culture, the dihydroxyacetone concentration, productivity and yield were 175.44 g/L, 7.96 g/L/h and 0.89 g/g, respectively, all of which were significantly higher than those in previous studies and will benefit dihydroxyacetone industrial production. PMID:26887235

  3. Determination of Local Experimental Heat-Transfer Coefficients on Combustion Side of an Ammonia-Oxygen Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Ehlers, Robert C.

    1961-01-01

    Local experimental heat-transfer coefficients were measured in the chamber and throat of a 2400-pound-thrust ammonia-oxygen rocket engine with a nominal chamber pressure of 600 pounds per square inch absolute. Three injector configurations were used. The rocket engine was run over a range of oxidant-fuel ratio and chamber pressure. The injector that achieved the best performance also produced the highest rates of heat flux at design conditions. The heat-transfer data from the best-performing injector agreed well with the simplified equation developed by Bartz at the throat region. A large spread of data was observed for the chamber. This spread was attributed generally to the variations of combustion processes. The spread was least evident, however, with the best-performing injector.

  4. Overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient in an aerated bench-top stirred fermenter in aqueous dispersions of sodium alginate.

    PubMed

    Parente, Eugenio; Piraino, Paolo; Fidaleo, Marcello; Moresi, Mauro

    2004-10-01

    The dynamic gassing-out method was used to assess the effect of stirrer speed, air flow rate and alginate concentration on the overall volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (K(L)a) in a bench-top stirred fermenter equipped with two Rushton-type turbines. As the alginate concentration in the medium was increased from 0 to 2% (w/v), the liquid film time constant (tau(F)) increased from approx. 30 to 300% of the electrode time constant (tau(E)), clearly showing that the liquid-probe diffusion film affected the oxygen-electrode response. By accounting for delayed probe response, liquid film time constant and gas residence time, the corrected values of K(L)a were empirically correlated with the above independent variables as converted into gassed power input and aeration number per unit liquid volume and the effective liquid/water shear viscosity ratio. Despite an average error of 19%, such a correlation might be useful to adjust the oxygen transfer in bench-top stirred reactors during viscous aerobic fermentations. PMID:15015940

  5. Effects of soot absorption coefficient-Planck function correlation on radiative heat transfer in oxygen-enriched propane turbulent diffusion flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consalvi, J. L.; Nmira, F.

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this article is to quantify the influence of the soot absorption coefficient-Planck function correlation on radiative loss and flame structure in an oxygen-enhanced propane turbulent diffusion flame. Calculations were run with and without accounting for this correlation by using a standard k-ε model and the steady laminar flamelet model (SLF) coupled to a joint Probability Density Function (PDF) of mixture fraction, enthalpy defect, scalar dissipation rate, and soot quantities. The PDF transport equation is solved by using a Stochastic Eulerian Field (SEF) method. The modeling of soot production is carried out by using a flamelet-based semi-empirical acetylene/benzene soot model. Radiative heat transfer is modeled by using a wide band correlated-k model and turbulent radiation interactions (TRI) are accounted for by using the Optically-Thin Fluctuation Approximation (OTFA). Predicted soot volume fraction, radiant wall heat flux distribution and radiant fraction are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Model results show that soot absorption coefficient and Planck function are negatively correlated in the region of intense soot emission. Neglecting this correlation is found to increase significantly the radiative loss leading to a substantial impact on flame structure in terms of mean and rms values of temperature. In addition mean and rms values of soot volume fraction are found to be less sensitive to the correlation than temperature since soot formation occurs mainly in a region where its influence is low.

  6. Improvement of oxygen transfer coefficient during Penicillium canescens culture. Influence of turbine design, agitation speed, and air flow rate on xylanase production.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, A; Strodiot, L; Thonart, P

    1998-01-01

    To improve xylanase productivity from Penicillium canescens 10-10c culture, an optimization of oxygen supply is required. Because the strain is sensitive to shear forces, leading to lower xylanase productivity as to morphological alteration, vigorous mixing is not desired. The influence of turbine design, agitation speed, and air flow rate on K1a (global mass transfer coefficient, h(-1)) and enzyme production is discussed. K1a values increased with agitation speed and air flow rate, whatever the impeller, in our assay conditions. Agitation had more influence on K1a values than air flow, when a disk-mounted blade's impeller (DT) is used; an opposite result was obtained with a hub-mounted pitched blade's impeller (PBT). Xylanase production appeared as a function of specific power (W/m3), and an optimum was found in 20 and 100 L STRs fitted with DT impellers. On the other hand, the use of a hub-mounted pitched blade impeller (PBT8), instead of a disk-mounted blade impeller (DT4), reduced the lag time of hemicellulase production and increased xylanase productivity 1.3-fold. PMID:18576019

  7. Oxygen atom loss coefficient of carbon nanowalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozetic, Miran; Vesel, Alenka; Stoica, Silviu Daniel; Vizireanu, Sorin; Dinescu, Gheorghe; Zaplotnik, Rok

    2015-04-01

    Extremely high values of atomic oxygen loss coefficient on carbon nanowall (CNW) surface are reported. CNW layers consisting of interconnected individual nanostructures with average length of 1.1 μm, average thickness of 66 nm and surface density of 3 CNW/μm2 were prepared by plasma jet enhanced chemical-vapor deposition using C2H2/H2/Ar gas mixtures. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectrometry (RS) as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface loss coefficient was measured at room temperature in a flowing afterglow at different densities of oxygen atoms supplied from inductively coupled radiofrequency O2 plasma. The RF generator operated at 13.56 MHz and different nominal powers up to 900 W corresponding to different O-atom density in the afterglow up to 1.3 × 1021 m-3. CNW and several different samples of known coefficients for heterogeneous surface recombination of neutral oxygen atoms have been placed separately in the afterglow chamber and the O-atom density in their vicinity was measured with calibrated catalytic probes. Comparison of measured results allowed for determination of the loss coefficient for CNWs and the obtained value of 0.59 ± 0.03 makes this material an extremely effective sink for O-atoms.

  8. Oxygen transfer in a pressurized airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Campani, Gilson; Ribeiro, Marcelo Perencin Arruda; Horta, Antônio Carlos Luperni; Giordano, Roberto Campos; Badino, Alberto Colli; Zangirolami, Teresa Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Airlift bioreactors (ALBs) offer advantages over conventional systems, such as simplicity of construction, reduced risk of contamination, and efficient gas-liquid dispersion with low power consumption. ALBs are usually operated under atmospheric pressure. However, in bioprocesses with high oxygen demand, such as high cell density cultures, oxygen limitation may occur even when operating with high superficial gas velocity and air enriched with oxygen. One way of overcoming this drawback is to pressurize the reactor. In this configuration, it is important to assess the influence of bioreactor internal pressure on the gas hold-up, volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a), and volumetric oxygen transfer rate (OTR). Experiments were carried out in a concentric-tube airlift bioreactor with a 5 dm(3) working volume, equipped with a system for automatic monitoring and control of the pressure, temperature, and inlet gas flow rate. The results showed that, in disagreement with previous published results for bubble column and external loop airlift reactors, overpressure did not significantly affect k(L)a within the studied ranges of pressure (0.1-0.4 MPa) and superficial gas velocity in the riser (0.032-0.065 m s(-1)). Nevertheless, a positive effect on OTR was observed: it increased up to 5.4 times, surpassing by 2.3 times the oxygen transfer in a 4 dm(3) stirred tank reactor operated under standard cultivation conditions. These results contribute to the development of non-conventional reactors, especially pneumatic bioreactors operated using novel strategies for oxygen control. PMID:25903476

  9. Radionuclide transfer to animal products: revised recommended transfer coefficient values.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Fesenko, S

    2009-03-01

    A compilation has been undertaken of data which can be used to derive animal product transfer coefficients for radionuclides, including an extensive review of Russian language information. The resultant database has been used to provide recommended transfer coefficient values for a range of radionuclides to (i) cow, sheep and goat milk, (ii) meat (muscle) of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry and (iii) eggs. The values are used in a new IAEA handbook on transfer parameters which replaces that referred to as 'TRS 364'. The paper outlines the approaches and procedures used to identify and collate data, and assumptions used. There are notable differences between the TRS 364 'expected' values and the recommended values in the revised Handbook from the new database. Of the recommended values, three milk values are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values (Cr, Pu (cow) Pu (sheep)) and one milk value is lower (Ni (cow)). For meat, four values (Am, Cd, Sb (beef) I (pork)) are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values and eight values are at least an order of magnitude lower (Ru, Pu (beef), Ru, Sr, Zn (sheep), Ru, Sr (pork), Mn (poultry)). Many data gaps remain. PMID:19200625

  10. Measuring Furnace/Sample Heat-Transfer Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosch, William R.; Fripp, Archibald L., Jr.; Debnam, William J., Jr.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    1993-01-01

    Complicated, inexact calculations now unnecessary. Device called HTX used to simulate and measure transfer of heat between directional-solidification crystal-growth furnace and ampoule containing sample of crystalline to be grown. Yields measurement data used to calculate heat-transfer coefficients directly, without need for assumptions or prior knowledge of physical properties of furnace, furnace gas, or specimen. Determines not only total heat-transfer coefficients but also coefficients of transfer of heat in different modes.

  11. Analysis of a heat transfer device for measuring film coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medrow, R. A.; Johnson, R. L.; Loomis, W. R.; Wedeven, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A heat transfer device consisting of a heated rotating cylinder in a bath was analyzed for its effectiveness to determine heat transfer coefficient of fluids. A time dependent analysis shows that the performance is insensitive to the value of heat transfer coefficient with the given rig configuration.

  12. Heat transfer coefficients for drying in pulsating flows

    SciTech Connect

    Fraenkel, S.L.

    1998-05-01

    Pulsating flows generated by a Rijke type combustor are studied for drying of grains and food particles. It is assumed that the velocity fluctuations are the main factor in the enhancement of the drying process. The heat transfer coefficients for drying in vibrating beds are utilized to estimate the heat transfer coefficients of fixed beds in pulsating and permeating flows and are compared to the steady flow heat transfer coefficients obtained for solid porous bodies, after perturbing the main flow. The cases considered are compared to the convective heat transfer coefficients employed in non-pulsating drying.

  13. Calculation of the mass transfer coefficient for the combustion of a carbon particle

    SciTech Connect

    Scala, Fabrizio

    2010-01-15

    In this paper we address the calculation of the mass transfer coefficient around a burning carbon particle in an atmosphere of O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, and H{sub 2}O. The complete set of Stefan-Maxwell equations is analytically solved under the assumption of no homogeneous reaction in the boundary layer. An expression linking the oxygen concentration and the oxygen flux at the particle surface (as a function of the bulk gas composition) is derived which can be used to calculate the mass transfer coefficient. A very simple approximate explicit expression is also given for the mass transfer coefficient, that is shown to be valid in the low oxygen flux limit or when the primary combustion product is CO{sub 2}. The results are given in terms of a correction factor to the equimolar counter-diffusion mass transfer coefficient, which is typically available in the literature for specific geometries and/or fluid-dynamic conditions. The significance of the correction factor and the accuracy of the different available expressions is illustrated for several cases of practical interest. Results show that under typical combustion conditions the use of the equimolar counter-diffusion mass transfer coefficient can lead to errors up to 10%. Larger errors are possible in oxygen-enriched conditions, while the error is generally low in oxy-combustion. (author)

  14. Viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of gaseous and liquid oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, H. J. M.; Mccarty, R. D.; Sengers, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    Equations and tables are presented for the viscosity and thermal conductivity coefficients of gaseous and liquid oxygen at temperatures between 80 K and 400 K for pressures up to 200 atm. and at temperatures between 80 K and 2000 K for the dilute gas. A description of the anomalous behavior of the thermal conductivity in the critical region is included. The tabulated coefficients are reliable to within about 15% except for a region in the immediate vicinity of the critical point. Some possibilities for future improvements of this reliability are discussed.

  15. Measurement of heat transfer coefficients by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, David H; Gore, John C

    2008-11-01

    We demonstrate an experimental method for the measurement of heat transfer coefficient for a fluid system by magnetic resonance imaging. In this method, the temporal variation of thermally induced nuclear shielding is monitored and the average heat transfer coefficient is measured as a function of fluid velocity. We examine the cases of natural convection and forced convection at fluid velocity up to 0.8 m s(-1). These cases correspond to low dimensionless Biot (Bi) number where the heat transfer is limited by thermal convection. We demonstrate the NMR method for two simple geometries, a cylinder and a sphere, to experimentally determine the heat transfer coefficient (h) in two NMR imaging and spectroscopy systems through measuring three NMR parameters, the chemical shift, magnetization and spin self diffusion coefficient. PMID:18524523

  16. Wind heat transfer coefficient in solar collectors in outdoor conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Suresh; Mullick, S.C.

    2010-06-15

    Knowledge of wind heat transfer coefficient, h{sub w}, is required for estimation of upward losses from the outer surface of flat plate solar collectors/solar cookers. In present study, an attempt has been made to estimate the wind induced convective heat transfer coefficient by employing unglazed test plate (of size about 0.9 m square) in outdoor conditions. Experiments, for measurement of h{sub w}, have been conducted on rooftop of a building in the Institute campus in summer season for 2 years. The estimated wind heat transfer coefficient has been correlated against wind speed by linear regression and power regression. Experimental values of wind heat transfer coefficient estimated in present work have been compared with studies of other researchers after normalizing for plate length. (author)

  17. Laser Measurement Of Convective-Heat-Transfer Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. Robert; Hingst, Warren R.; Chriss, Randall M.; Seablom, Kirk D.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Coefficient of convective transfer of heat at spot on surface of wind-tunnel model computed from measurements acquired by developmental laser-induced-heat-flux technique. Enables non-intrusive measurements of convective-heat-transfer coefficients at many points across surfaces of models in complicated, three-dimensional, high-speed flows. Measurement spot scanned across surface of model. Apparatus includes argon-ion laser, attenuator/beam splitter electronic shutter infrared camera, and subsystem.

  18. Effect of impeller geometry on gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients in filamentous suspensions.

    PubMed

    Dronawat, S N; Svihla, C K; Hanley, T R

    1997-01-01

    Volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficients were measured in suspensions of cellulose fibers with concentrations ranging from 0 to 20 g/L. The mass transfer coefficients were measured using the dynamic method. Results are presented for three different combinations of impellers at a variety of gassing rates and agitation speeds. Rheological properties of the cellulose fibers were also measured using the impeller viscometer method. Tests were conducted in a 20 L stirred-tank fermentor and in 65 L tank with a height to diameter ratio of 3:1. Power consumption was measured in both vessels. At low agitation rates, two Rushton turbines gave 20% better performance than the Rushton and hydrofoil combination and 40% better performance than the Rushton and propeller combination for oxygen transfer. At higher agitation rates, the Rushton and hydrofoil combination gave 14 and 25% better performance for oxygen transfer than two Rushton turbines and the Rushton and hydrofoil combination, respectively. PMID:18576095

  19. Overall Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficient of Water Vapor Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Mori, Hideo; Godo, Masazumi; Miura, Kunio; Watanabe, Yutaka; Ishizawa, Toshihiko; Takatsuka, Takeshi

    A fundamental investigation was performed to develop a compact and simple desiccant ventilation unit which is one of the main components of a novel energy saving air-conditioning system. Water vapor in the air is adsorbed and/or desorbed to be controlled the humidity of supply air through a unit of an adsorbent rotor. A numerical simulation helps to understand the phenomena of heat and mass transfer in the rotor block. Overall transfer coefficients were estimated by performing both experiment and calculation. It was examined that the transient overall equivalent heat and mass transfer coefficient was not constant. It seems that both film fluid and diffusion resistance govern the coefficients in the block, and the influence of air flow on the time averaged coefficients is estimated by a considering the laminar forced convection from a flat plate. There is little difference of the coefficient between adsorption and desorption process. The correlation and fitting parameters are presented for prediction of the overall heat and mass transfer coefficients. The estimation accuracy was improved.

  20. Measurement of airfoil heat transfer coefficients on a turbine stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dring, Robert P.; Blair, Michael F.; Joslyn, H. David

    1986-10-01

    The Primary basis for heat transfer analysis of turbine airfoils is experimental data obtained in linear cascades. These data were very valuable in identifying the major heat transfer and fluid flow features of a turbine airfoil. The first program objective is to obtain a detailed set of heat transfer coefficients along the midspan of a stator and a rotor in a rotating turbine stage. The data are to be compared to some standard analysis of blade boundary layer heat transfer which is in use today. A second program objective is to obtain a detailed set of heat transfer coefficients along the midspan of a stator located in the wake of an upstream turbine stage.

  1. Overall Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficient of Water Vapor Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Mori, Hideo; Godo, Masazumi; Miura, Kunio; Watanabe, Yutaka; Ishizawa, Toshihiko; Takatsuka, Takeshi

    A fundamental investigation was performed to develop a compact and simple desiccant ventilation unit which is one of the main components of a novel energy saving air-conditioning system. Water vapor in the air is adsorbed and/or desorbed to be controlled the humidity of supply air through a unit of an adsorbent packed bed. A numerical simulation helps to understand the phenomena of heat and mass transfer in the bed. Overall transfer coefficients of them as properties for the simulation were estimated by performing both experiment and calculation. It was clarified that the transient overall equivalent heat and mass transfer does not strongly depend on the air flow rate through the packed bed, the averaged equivalent mass transfer is governed by surface and pore diffusion in a particle of adsorbent at low flow rate. Moreover, the coefficient during the adsorption process is slightly larger than desorption. An equation of the overall mass transfer coefficient is derived. It shows five times as large as the value estimated by experiment. Therefore, the correlation and fitting parameters are presented for prediction of the overall heat and mass transfer coefficients. The estimation accuracy was improved.

  2. Heat transfer coefficient in serpentine coolant passage for CCDTL

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, P.; Wood, R.; Sigler, F.; Shapiro, A.; Rendon, A.

    1998-12-31

    A series of heat transfer experiments were conducted to refine the cooling passage design in the drift tubes of a coupled cavity drift tube linac (CCDTL). The experimental data were then compared to numerical models to derive relationships between heat transfer rates, Reynold`s number, and Prandtl number, over a range of flow rates. Data reduction consisted of axisymmetric finite element modeling where the heat transfer coefficients were modified to match the experimental data. Unfortunately, the derived relationship is valid only for this specific geometry of the test drift tube. Fortunately, the heat transfer rates were much better (approximately 2.5 times) than expected.

  3. Determination of the heat transfer coefficients in transient heat conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nho Hào, Dinh; Thanh, Phan Xuan; Lesnic, D.

    2013-09-01

    The determination of the space- or time-dependent heat transfer coefficient which links the boundary temperature to the heat flux through a third-kind Robin boundary condition in transient heat conduction is investigated. The reconstruction uses average surface temperature measurements. In both cases of the space- or time-dependent unknown heat transfer coefficient the inverse problems are nonlinear and ill posed. Least-squares penalized variational formulations are proposed and new formulae for the gradients are derived. Numerical results obtained using the nonlinear conjugate gradient method combined with a boundary element direct solver are presented and discussed.

  4. Fermentation and oxygen transfer in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlop, Eric H.

    1989-01-01

    The need for high rate oxygen transfer in microgravity for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) environment offers a number of difficulties and challenges. The use of a phase separated bioreactor appears to provide a way of overcoming these problems resulting in a system capable of providing high cell densities with rapid fermentation rates. Some of the key design elements are discussed.

  5. Dissociation and Mass Transfer Coefficients for Ammonia Volatilization Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process-based models are being used to predict ammonia emissions from manure sources, but their accuracy has not been fully evaluated for cattle manure. Laboratory trials were conducted to measure the dissociation and mass transfer coefficients for ammonia volatilization from media of buffered ammon...

  6. Design code verification of external heat transfer coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soechting, F. O.; Sharma, O. P.

    1988-07-01

    A comparative study is conducted for measured and predicted heat-transfer coefficients of air-cooled turbine blade airfoils. A modified version of the STAN-5 boundary layer code was used to obtain analytical predictions of the heat transfer levels for the cascade test conditions. A two-dimensional cascade test was conducted at engine-level Mach number and Reynolds number distributions in order to obtain baseline data that can be used with engine data in order to quantify the effects of environmental conditions on heat transfer levels and distributions.

  7. CFD Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. This study uses first-principles based CFD methodology to compute heat transfer from the tank wall to the cryogenic fluids and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between the tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between the tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that the commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over-predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.

  8. Determination of the heat transfer coefficients in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, L.V.

    1994-06-01

    The process of transpiration cooling is considered. Methods are suggested for estimating the volumetric coefficient of heat transfer with the use of a two-temperature model and the surface heat transfer coefficient at entry into a porous wall. The development of new technology under conditions of increasing heat loads puts the search for effective methods of heat transfer enhancement in the forefront of theoretical investigations. One of the promising trends in the solution of this problem is the use of porous materials (PM) in the elements of power units. For thermal protection against convective or radiative heat fluxes, the method of transpiration cooling is successfully used. The mechanism operative in the thermal protection involves the injection of a coolant through a porous medium to produce a screen over the contour of a body in a flow for removing heat energy from the skeleton of the porous material.

  9. Measurement of airfoil heat transfer coefficients on a turbine stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dring, Robert P.; Blair, Michael F.; Joslyn, H. David

    1987-10-01

    A combined experimental and analytical program was conducted to examine the impact of a number of variables on the midspan heat transfer coefficients of the three airfoil rows in a one and one-half stage large scale turbine model. Variables included stator/rotor axial spacing, Reynolds number, turbine inlet turbulence, flow coefficient, relevant stator 1/stator 2 circumferential position, and rotation. Heat transfer data were acquired on the suction and pressure surfaces of the three airfoils. High density data were also acquired in the leading edge stagnation regions. Extensive documentation of the steady and unsteady aerodynamics was acquired. Finally, heat transfer data were compared with both a steady and an unsteady boundary layer analysis.

  10. Study of acetic acid production by immobilized acetobacter cells: oxygen transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Ghommidh, C.; Navarro, J.M.; Durand, G.

    1982-03-01

    The immobilization of living Acetobacter cells by adsorption onto a large-surface-area ceramic support was studied in a pulsed flow reactor. The high oxygen transfer capability of the reactor enabled acetic acid production rates up to 10.4 g/L/h to be achieved. Using a simple mathematical model incorporating both internal and external mass transfer coefficients, it was shown that oxygen transfer in the microbial film controls the reactor productivity. (Refs. 10).

  11. Heat transfer coefficients for staggered arrays of short pin fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Short pin fins are often used to increase that heat transfer to the coolant in the trailing edge of a turbine blade. Due primarily to limits of casting technology, it is not possible to manufacture pins of optimum length for heat transfer purposes in the trailing edge region. In many cases the pins are so short that they actually decrease the total heat transfer surface area compared to a plain wall. A heat transfer data base for these short pins is not available in the literature. Heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for several staggered arrays of short pin fins. The measured Nusselt numbers when plotted versus Reynolds numbers were found to fall on a single curve for all surfaces tested. The heat transfer coefficients for the short pin fins (length to diameter ratios of 1/2 and 2) were found to be about a factor of two lower than data from the literature for longer pin arrays (length to diameter ratios of about 8).

  12. Heat transfer coefficients for staggered arrays of short pin fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Short pin fins are often used to increase the heat transfer to the coolant in the trailing edge of a turbine blade. Due primarily to limits of casting technology, it is not possible to manufacture pins of optimum length for heat transfer purposes in the trailing edge region. In many cases the pins are so short that they actually decrease the total heat transfer surface area compared to a plain wall. A heat transfer data base for these short pins is not available in the literature. Heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for several staggered arrays of short pin fins. The measured Nusselt numbers when plotted versus Reynolds numbers were found to fall on a single curve for all surfaces tested. The heat transfer coefficients for the short pin fins (length to diameter ratios of 1/2 and 2) were found to be about a factor of two lower than data from the literature for longer pin arrays (length to diameter ratios of about 8).

  13. Calculation of Mass Transfer Coefficients in a Crystal Growth Chamber through Heat Transfer Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J H; Hand, L A

    2005-04-21

    The growth rate of a crystal in a supersaturated solution is limited by both reaction kinetics and the local concentration of solute. If the local mass transfer coefficient is too low, concentration of solute at the crystal-solution interface will drop below saturation, leading to a defect in the growing crystal. Here, mass transfer coefficients are calculated for a rotating crystal growing in a supersaturated solution of potassium diphosphate (KDP) in water. Since mass transfer is difficult to measure directly, the heat transfer coefficient of a scale model crystal in water is measured using temperature-sensitive paint (TSP). To the authors' knowledge this is the first use of TSP to measure temperatures in water. The corresponding mass transfer coefficient is then calculated using the Chilton- Colburn analogy. Measurements were made for three crystal sizes at two running conditions each. Running conditions include periodic reversals of rotation direction. Heat transfer coefficients were found to vary significantly both across the crystal faces and over the course of a rotation cycle, but not from one face to another. Mean heat transfer coefficients increased with both crystal size and rotation rate. Computed mass transfer coefficients were broadly in line with expectations from the full-scale crystal growth experiments. Additional experiments show that continuous rotation of the crystal results in about a 30% lower heat transfer compared to rotation with periodic reversals. The continuous rotation case also shows a periodic variation in heat transfer coefficient of about 15%, with a period about 1/20th of the rotation rate.

  14. Hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer in a packed bed split-cylinder airlift reactor containing dilute alcoholic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavarz Moraveji, Mostafa; Ebrahimi Fakhari, Mona; Mohsenzadeh, Elmira; Davarnejad, Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the influences of alcohols on the hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer characteristics in an airlift reactor equipped with packing were investigated. The hydrodynamic parameters and mass transfer coefficient in 1 % (v/v) aqueous solutions of four aliphatic alcohols were tested. It was concluded that alcohols addition increased gas holdup and gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient. The packing installation increased mass transfer coefficient, gas holdup and liquid circulation velocity, as well.

  15. Convection heat transfer coefficients at convective drying of porous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Szentgyoergyi, S.; Toemoesy, L.; Molnar, O.

    2000-07-01

    Measurements proved that the convective heat transfer coefficient (h) has a larger value h{sub wet} at the constant drying rate period and after that it falls down to a minimum one: h{sub dry} in the equilibrium dried state. Measurements showed also that the heat of vaporization in the last phase of the falling drying rate period is far greater than it was in the constant drying rate period. The first measurements were made on a gypsum plate. Afterwards the authors carried out measurement research with fine glass powder and cement-perlite plate and determined h{sub wet} and h{sub dry} heat transfer coefficients as a function of Reynolds number. All of these measurements confirmed the conclusion that h{sub wet} is far greater than h{sub dry}.

  16. BIOLOGICALLY ENHANCED OXYGEN TRANSFER IN THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS (JOURNAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biologically enhanced oxgyen transfer has been a hypothesis to explain observed oxygen transfer rates in activated sludge systems that were well above that predicted from aerator clean-water testing. The enhanced oxygen transfer rates were based on tests using BOD bottle oxygen ...

  17. Mass transfer coefficients developed from the air gasification of wood pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Botts, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    A convertible updraft/downdraft, fixed-bed gasifier was used in the gasification of 3/8-inch diameter wood pellets. The test data was used to develop mass transfer coefficients and describe the gasification process for each gasifier configuration. The results show that the production of the principal combustion gases, i.e., hydrogen (H{sub c}), carbon monozide (CO), and methane (CH{sub 4}), varies directly as to their mass transfer coefficient: H{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4} = k h{sub DA}. Factoring the Reynolds (Re{sub d}) and Schmidt (Sc) numbers with the influence of the noncombustible gases, i.e., nitrogen (N{sub 2}), oxygen (O{sub 2}), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), is used to define the mass transfer coefficients. The general form describing this joint variation is: H{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4} = kx (the effect of the noncombustible gases) x Re x Sc where Re = Reynolds number and Sc = Schmidt number. The developments of these mass transfer coefficients are shown for updraft and downdraft gasification.

  18. MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR A NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID AND WATER WITH AND WITHOUT ANTI-FOAM AGENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.

    2009-09-09

    Mass transfer rates were measured in a large scale system, which consisted of an 8.4 meter tall by 0.76 meter diameter column containing one of three fluids: water with an anti-foam agent, water without an anti-foam agent, and AZ101 simulant, which simulated a non-Newtonian nuclear waste. The testing contributed to the evaluation of large scale mass transfer of hydrogen in nuclear waste tanks. Due to its radioactivity, the waste was chemically simulated, and due to flammability concerns oxygen was used in lieu of hydrogen. Different liquids were used to better understand the mass transfer processes, where each of the fluids was saturated with oxygen, and the oxygen was then removed from solution as air bubbled up, or sparged, through the solution from the bottom of the column. Air sparging was supplied by a single tube which was co-axial to the column, the decrease in oxygen concentration was recorded, and oxygen measurements were then used to determine the mass transfer coefficients to describe the rate of oxygen transfer from solution. Superficial, average, sparging velocities of 2, 5, and 10 mm/second were applied to each of the liquids at three different column fill levels, and mass transfer coefficient test results are presented here for combinations of superficial velocities and fluid levels.

  19. Rapid assessment of oxygen transfer impact for Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Käß, Friedrich; Prasad, Arjun; Tillack, Jana; Moch, Matthias; Giese, Heiner; Büchs, Jochen; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Oldiges, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Oxygen supply is crucial in industrial application of microbial systems, such as Corynebacterium glutamicum, but oxygen transfer is often neglected in early strain characterizations, typically done under aerobic conditions. In this work, a new procedure for oxygen transfer screening is presented, assessing the impact of maximum oxygen transfer conditions (OTRmax) within microtiter plate-based cultivation for enhanced throughput. Oxygen-dependent growth and productivity were characterized for C. glutamicum ATCC13032 and C. glutamicum DM1933 (lysine producer). Biomass and lysine product yield are affected at OTRmax below 14 mmol L(-1) h(-1) in a standardized batch process, but not by further increase of OTRmax above this threshold value indicating a reasonable tradeoff between power input and oxygen transfer capacity OTRmax. The described oxygen transfer screening allows comparative determination of metabolic robustness against oxygen transfer limitation and serves identification of potential problems or opportunities later created during scale-up. PMID:24981020

  20. Heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids in minichannel heat sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utomo, Adi T.; Zavareh, Ashkan I. T.; Poth, Heiko; Wahab, Mohd; Boonie, Mohammad; Robbins, Phillip T.; Pacek, Andrzej W.

    2012-09-01

    Convective heat transfer in a heat sink consisting of rectangular minichannels and cooled with alumina and titania nanofluids has been investigated experimentally and numerically. Numerical simulations were carried out in a three dimensional domain employing homogeneous mixture model with effective thermo-physical properties of nanofluids. The predictions of base temperature profiles of the heat sink cooled with both water and nanofluids agree well with the experimental data. Experimental and numerical results show that the investigated nanofluids neither exhibits unusual enhancement of heat transfer coefficient nor decreases the heat sink base temperature. Although both nanofluids showed marginal thermal conductivity enhancements, the presence of solid nanoparticles lowers the specific heat capacity of nanofluids offseting the advantage of thermal conductivity enhancement. For all investigated flow rates, the Nusselt number of both nanofluids overlaps with that of water indicating that both nanofluids behave like single-phase fluids.

  1. Oxygen Transfer Characteristics of Miniaturized Bioreactor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Timothy V; Szita, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction in 2001 miniaturized bioreactor systems have made great advances in function and performance. In this article the dissolved oxygen (DO) transfer performance of submilliliter microbioreactors, and 1–10 mL minibioreactors was examined. Microbioreactors have reached kLa values of 460 h-1, and are offering instrumentation and some functionality comparable to production systems, but at high throughput screening volumes. Minibioreactors, aside from one 1,440 h-1 kLa system, have not offered as high rates of DO transfer, but have demonstrated superior integration with automated fluid handling systems. Microbioreactors have been typically limited to studies with E. coli, while minibioreactors have offered greater versatility in this regard. Further, mathematical relationships confirming the applicability of kLa measurements across all scales have been derived, and alternatives to fluorescence lifetime DO sensors have been evaluated. Finally, the influence on reactor performance of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), and the possibility of its real-time measurement have been explored. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1005–1019. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23280578

  2. Ratios of transfer coefficients for radiocesium transport in ruminants

    SciTech Connect

    Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Karamanis, D.

    1995-09-01

    A corollary of the multiple-compartment model for the transport of trace elements through animals was tested for cows, goats, and sheep. According to this corollary, for a given body {open_quotes}compartment{close_quotes} k of the animal (soft tissue, lung, liver, etc.), the ratio a(k)=f(k)/f(blood) of the transfer coefficients f, should exhibit similar values for physiologically similar animals. In order to verify this prediction, two experiments were performed at the Agricultural Research Station of Ioannina and at the facilities of Ria Pripyat in Pripyat, Ukranine. Eight animals in the first experiment and eighteen in the second were housed in individual pens and were artificially contaminated with a constant daily dose of radiocesium until equilibrium was reached. the animals were then sacrificed and transfer coefficients f(k) to twelve body {open_quotes}compartments{close_quotes} k were measured. These data were used to calculate the ratios a(k). The results were in accordance with predictions of the model and average values of a(k) were extracted for ruminants. It is concluded that these values may be employed for the prediction of animal contamination in any body compartment through the measurement of blood samples. 7 refs., 8 tabs.

  3. Optimization of 2,3-butanediol production by Klebsiella oxytoca through oxygen transfer rate control

    SciTech Connect

    Beronio, P.B. Jr. . Amoco Research Center); Tsao, G.T. . Lab. of Renewable Resources Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    Production of 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella oxytoca is influenced by the degree of oxygen limitation. During batch culture studies, two phases of growth are observed: energy-coupled growth, during which cell growth and oxygen supply are coupled; and, energy-uncoupled growth, which arises when the degree of oxygen limitation reaches a critical value. Optimal 2,3-butanediol productivity occurs during the energy-coupled growth phase. In this article, a control system which maintains the batch culture at a constant level of oxygen limitation in the energy-coupled growth regime has been designed. Control, which involves feedback control on the oxygen transfer coefficient, is achieved by continually increasing the partial pressure of oxygen in the feed gas, which in turn continually increases the oxygen transfer rate. Control has resulted in a balanced state of growth, a repression of ethanol formation, and an increase in 2,3-butanediol productivity of 18%.

  4. Proton Transfer Rate Coefficient Measurements of Selected Volatile Organic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, G.; Popović, S.; Vušković, L.

    2002-05-01

    We have developed an apparatus based on the selected ion flow tube (SIFT)footnote D. Smith and N.G. Adams, Ads. At. Mol. Phys. 24, 1 (1987). that allows the study of proton transfer between various positive ions and volatile organic molecules. Reactions in the flow tube occur at pressures of approximately 300 mTorr, eliminating the requirement of thermal beam production. The proton donor molecule H_3O^+ has been produced using several types of electrical discharges in water vapor, such as a capacitively coupled RF discharge and a DC hollow cathode discharge. Presently we are developing an Asmussen-type microwave cavity discharge using the components of a standard microwave oven that has the advantages of simple design and operation, as well as low cost. We will be presenting the results of the microwave cavity ion source to produce H_3O^+, and compare it to the other studied sources. In addition, we will be presenting a preliminary measurement of the proton transfer rate coefficient in the reaction of H_3O^+ with acetone and methanol.

  5. Nanoparticulate-catalyzed oxygen transfer processes

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Andrew T.; Breitkopf, Richard C.

    2009-12-01

    Nanoparticulates of oxygen transfer materials that are oxides of rare earth metals, combinations of rare earth metals, and combinations of transition metals and rare earth metals are used as catalysts in a variety of processes. Unexpectedly large thermal efficiencies are achieved relative to micron sized particulates. Processes that use these catalysts are exemplified in a multistage reactor. The exemplified reactor cracks C6 to C20 hydrocarbons, desulfurizes the hydrocarbon stream and reforms the hydrocarbons in the stream to produce hydrogen. In a first reactor stage the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate mixed rare earth metal oxide to crack larger hydrocarbon molecules. In a second stage, the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate material that desulfurizes the hydrocarbon. In a third stage, the hydrocarbon and steam are passed through a heated, mixed transition metal/rare earth metal oxide to reform the lower hydrocarbons and thereby produce hydrogen. Stages can be alone or combined. Parallel reactors can provide continuous reactant flow. Each of the processes can be carried out individually.

  6. Experimentally Determined Heat Transfer Coefficients for Spacesuit Liquid Cooled Garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant; Watts, Carly; Rhodes, Richard; Anchondo, Ian; Westheimer, David; Campbell, Colin; Vonau, Walt; Vogel, Matt; Conger, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop (HITL) Portable Life Support System 2.0 (PLSS 2.0) test has been conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center in the PLSS Development Laboratory from October 27, 2014 to December 19, 2014. These closed-loop tests of the PLSS 2.0 system integrated with human subjects in the Mark III Suit at 3.7 psi to 4.3 psi above ambient pressure performing treadmill exercise at various metabolic rates from standing rest to 3000 BTU/hr (880 W). The bulk of the PLSS 2.0 was at ambient pressure but effluent water vapor from the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and the Auxiliary Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), and effluent carbon dioxide from the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) were ported to vacuum to test performance of these components in flight-like conditions. One of the objectives of this test was to determine the heat transfer coefficient (UA) of the Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The UA, an important factor for modeling the heat rejection of an LCG, was determined in a variety of conditions by varying inlet water temperature, flowrate, and metabolic rate. Three LCG configurations were tested: the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) LCG, the Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) LCG, and the OSS auxiliary LCG. Other factors influencing accurate UA determination, such as overall heat balance, LCG fit, and the skin temperature measurement, will also be discussed.

  7. Determination of heat transfer coefficients during solidification of a casting in a jet crystallizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borukhov, V. T.; Zayats, G. M.; Stetsenko, V. Yu.; Konovalov, R. V.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of determining heat transfer coefficients in thermal processes described by nonlinear initial boundary-value problems for heat conduction equations in a cylindrical coordinate system is considered subject to axial symmetry. An algorithm is suggested and program means are created for identifying heat transfer coefficients. A computational experiment on determining heat transfer coefficients for the AK12 alloy is carried out, and recommendations for selecting numerical calculation parameters have been developed.

  8. External Heat Transfer Coefficient Measurements on a Surrogate Indirect Inertial Confinement Fusion Target

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin; Havstad, Mark; LeBlanc, Mary; Golosker, Ilya; Chang, Allan; Rosso, Paul

    2015-09-15

    External heat transfer coefficients were measured around a surrogate Indirect inertial confinement fusion (ICF) based on the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) design target to validate thermal models of the LIFE target during flight through a fusion chamber. Results indicate that heat transfer coefficients for this target 25-50 W/m2∙K are consistent with theoretically derived heat transfer coefficients and valid for use in calculation of target heating during flight through a fusion chamber.

  9. External Heat Transfer Coefficient Measurements on a Surrogate Indirect Inertial Confinement Fusion Target

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Miles, Robin; Havstad, Mark; LeBlanc, Mary; Golosker, Ilya; Chang, Allan; Rosso, Paul

    2015-09-15

    External heat transfer coefficients were measured around a surrogate Indirect inertial confinement fusion (ICF) based on the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) design target to validate thermal models of the LIFE target during flight through a fusion chamber. Results indicate that heat transfer coefficients for this target 25-50 W/m2∙K are consistent with theoretically derived heat transfer coefficients and valid for use in calculation of target heating during flight through a fusion chamber.

  10. Design of experiments for measuring heat-transfer coefficients with a lumped-parameter calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical investigation was conducted to determine optimum experimental conditions for using a lumped-parameter calorimeter to measure heat-transfer coefficients and heating rates. A mathematical model of the transient temperature response of the calorimeter was used with the measured temperature response to predict the heat-transfer coefficient and the rate of heating. A sensitivity analysis was used to determine the optimum transient experiment for simultaneously measuring the heat addition during heating and the convective heat-transfer coefficient during heating and cooling of a lumped-parameter calorimeter. Optimum experiments were also designed for measuring the convective heat-transfer coefficient during both heating and cooling and cooling only.

  11. Theoretical examination of effective oxygen diffusion coefficient and electrical conductivity of polymer electrolyte fuel cell porous components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Gen; Yokoyama, Kouji; Ooyama, Junpei; Terao, Takeshi; Tokunaga, Tomomi; Kubo, Norio; Kawase, Motoaki

    2016-09-01

    The reduction of oxygen transfer resistance through porous components consisting of a gas diffusion layer (GDL), microporous layer (MPL), and catalyst layer (CL) is very important to reduce the cost and improve the performance of a PEFC system. This study involves a systematic examination of the relationship between the oxygen transfer resistance of the actual porous components and their three-dimensional structure by direct measurement with FIB-SEM and X-ray CT. Numerical simulations were carried out to model the properties of oxygen transport. Moreover, based on the model structure and theoretical equations, an approach to the design of new structures is proposed. In the case of the GDL, the binder was found to obstruct gas diffusion with a negative effect on performance. The relative diffusion coefficient of the MPL is almost equal to that of the model structure of particle packing. However, that of CL is an order of magnitude less than those of the other two components. Furthermore, an equation expressing the relative diffusion coefficient of each component can be obtained with the function of porosity. The electrical conductivity of MPL, which is lower than that of the carbon black packing, is considered to depend on the contact resistance.

  12. Condensation heat transfer coefficient with noncondensible gases for heat transfer in thermal hydraulic codes

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Hassan, Y.A.

    1995-09-01

    Condensation in the presence of noncondensible gases plays an important role in the nuclear industry. The RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code was used to study the ability of the code to predict this phenomenon. Two separate effects experiments were simulated using this code. These were the Massachusetts Institute of Technology`s (MIT) Pressurizer Experiment, the MIT Single Tube Experiment. A new iterative approach to calculate the interface temperature and the degraded heat transfer coefficient was developed and implemented in the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code. This model employs the heat transfer simultaneously. This model was found to perform much better than the reduction factor approach. The calculations using the new model were found to be in much better agreement with the experimental values.

  13. Effect of polymer additives on hydrodynamics and oxygen transfer in a bubble column bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Y

    1993-01-01

    The influence of polymer additives (polyethylene oxide and polyacrylamide) on the hydrodynamics and oxygen transfer in a bubble column bioreactor was examined. The addition of small amounts of these polymers has been known to cause significant drag reduction in turbulent flow circumstances. The gas hold-up was slightly decreased and the liquid-phase mixing was somewhat enhanced due to the addition of the polymers. The addition of polymer additives brought about a reduction of the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient by about 40%. In dilute polymer solutions, large bubbles formed by bubble coalescence moved with high rise velocities in the presence of many small bubbles and the bubble size distributions were less uniform compared with those in water. The complicated changes in bubble hydrodynamic characteristics were examined to give possible explanations for oxygen transfer reduction. PMID:7763940

  14. Transfer having a coupling coefficient higher than its active material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesieutre, George A. (Inventor); Davis, Christopher L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A coupling coefficient is a measure of the effectiveness with which a shape-changing material (or a device employing such a material) converts the energy in an imposed signal to useful mechanical energy. Device coupling coefficients are properties of the device and, although related to the material coupling coefficients, are generally different from them. This invention describes a class of devices wherein the apparent coupling coefficient can, in principle, approach 1.0, corresponding to perfect electromechanical energy conversion. The key feature of this class of devices is the use of destabilizing mechanical pre-loads to counter inherent stiffness. The approach is illustrated for piezoelectric and thermoelectrically actuated devices. The invention provides a way to simultaneously increase both displacement and force, distinguishing it from alternatives such as motion amplification, and allows transducer designers to achieve substantial performance gains for actuator and sensor devices.

  15. Investigation of two-phase heat transfer coefficients of argon-freon cryogenic mixed refrigerants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seungwhan; Lee, Cheonkyu; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2014-11-01

    Mixed refrigerant Joule Thomson refrigerators are widely used in various kinds of cryogenic systems these days. Although heat transfer coefficient estimation for a multi-phase and multi-component fluid in the cryogenic temperature range is necessarily required in the heat exchanger design of mixed refrigerant Joule Thomson refrigerators, it has been rarely discussed so far. In this paper, condensation and evaporation heat transfer coefficients of argon-freon mixed refrigerant are measured in a microchannel heat exchanger. A Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) with 340 μm hydraulic diameter has been developed as a compact microchannel heat exchanger and utilized in the experiment. Several two-phase heat transfer coefficient correlations are examined to discuss the experimental measurement results. The result of this paper shows that cryogenic two-phase mixed refrigerant heat transfer coefficients can be estimated by conventional two-phase heat transfer coefficient correlations.

  16. An experimental approach to determine the heat transfer coefficient in directional solidification furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banan, Mohsen; Gray, Ross T.; Wilcox, William R.

    1992-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficient between a molten charge and its surroundings in a Bridgman furnace was experimentally determined using in-situ temperature measurement. The ampoule containing an isothermal melt was suddenly moved from a higher temperature zone to a lower temperature zone. The temperature-time history was used in a lumped-capacity cooling model to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient between the charge and the furnace. The experimentally determined heat transfer coefficient was of the same order of magnitude as the theoretical value estimated by standard heat transfer calculations.

  17. A novel approach to determine the heat transfer coefficient in directional solidification furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banan, Mohsen; Gray, Ross T.; Wilcox, William R.

    1990-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficient between a molten charge and its surroundings in a Bridgman furnace was determined using an approach utilizing in-situ temperature measurement. The ampoule containing an isothermal melt was suddenly moved from a higher temperature zone to a lower temperature zone. The temperature-time history was used in a lumped-capacity cooling model to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient between the charge and the furnace. The experimentally determined heat transfer coefficient was of the same order of magnitude as the value estimated by standard heat transfer calculations.

  18. The heat transfer coefficients of the heating surface of 300 MWe CFB boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haibo; Zhang, Man; Lu, Qinggang; Sun, Yunkai

    2012-08-01

    A study of the heat transfer about the heating surface of three commercial 300 MWe CFB boilers was conducted in this work. The heat transfer coefficients of the platen heating surface, the external heat exchanger (EHE) and cyclone separator were calculated according to the relative operation data at different boiler loads. Moreover, the heat transfer coefficient of the waterwall was calculated by heat balance of the hot circuit of the CFB boiler. With the boiler capacity increasing, the heat transfer coefficients of these heating surface increases, and the heat transfer coefficient of the water wall is higher than that of the platen heating surface. The heat transfer coefficient of the EHE is the highest in high boiler load, the heat transfer coefficient of the cyclone separator is the lowest. Because the fired coal is different from the design coal in No.1 boiler, the ash content of the fired coal is much lower than that of the design coal. The heat transfer coefficients which calculated with the operation data are lower than the previous design value and that is the reason why the bed temperature is rather high during the boiler operation in No.1 boiler.

  19. OVERALL MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM SMALL WATER POOLS UNDER SIMULATED INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small chamber tests were conducted to experimentally determine the overall mass transfer coefficient for pollutant emissions from still water under simulated indoor-residential or occupational-environmental conditions. Fourteen tests were conducted in small environmental chambers...

  20. Support nanostructure boosts oxygen transfer to catalytically active platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Vayssilov, Georgi N; Lykhach, Yaroslava; Migani, Annapaola; Staudt, Thorsten; Petrova, Galina P; Tsud, Nataliya; Skála, Tomáš; Bruix, Albert; Illas, Francesc; Prince, Kevin C; Matolín, Vladimír; Neyman, Konstantin M; Libuda, Jörg

    2011-04-01

    Interactions of metal particles with oxide supports can radically enhance the performance of supported catalysts. At the microscopic level, the details of such metal-oxide interactions usually remain obscure. This study identifies two types of oxidative metal-oxide interaction on well-defined models of technologically important Pt-ceria catalysts: (1) electron transfer from the Pt nanoparticle to the support, and (2) oxygen transfer from ceria to Pt. The electron transfer is favourable on ceria supports, irrespective of their morphology. Remarkably, the oxygen transfer is shown to require the presence of nanostructured ceria in close contact with Pt and, thus, is inherently a nanoscale effect. Our findings enable us to detail the formation mechanism of the catalytically indispensable Pt-O species on ceria and to elucidate the extraordinary structure-activity dependence of ceria-based catalysts in general. PMID:21423188

  1. Support nanostructure boosts oxygen transfer to catalytically active platinum nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vayssilov, Georgi N.; Lykhach, Yaroslava; Migani, Annapaola; Staudt, Thorsten; Petrova, Galina P.; Tsud, Nataliya; Skála, Tomáš; Bruix, Albert; Illas, Francesc; Prince, Kevin C.; MatolíN, VladimíR.; Neyman, Konstantin M.; Libuda, Jörg

    2011-04-01

    Interactions of metal particles with oxide supports can radically enhance the performance of supported catalysts. At the microscopic level, the details of such metal-oxide interactions usually remain obscure. This study identifies two types of oxidative metal-oxide interaction on well-defined models of technologically important Pt-ceria catalysts: (1) electron transfer from the Pt nanoparticle to the support, and (2) oxygen transfer from ceria to Pt. The electron transfer is favourable on ceria supports, irrespective of their morphology. Remarkably, the oxygen transfer is shown to require the presence of nanostructured ceria in close contact with Pt and, thus, is inherently a nanoscale effect. Our findings enable us to detail the formation mechanism of the catalytically indispensable Pt-O species on ceria and to elucidate the extraordinary structure-activity dependence of ceria-based catalysts in general.

  2. Charge transfer induced activity of graphene for oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Anli; Xia, Weijun; Zhang, Lipeng; Dou, Shuo; Xia, Zhenhai; Wang, Shuangyin

    2016-05-01

    Tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), with its strong electron-accepting ability, was used to dope graphene as a metal-free electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The charge transfer process was observed from graphene to TCNE by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman characterizations. Our density functional theory calculations found that the charge transfer behavior led to an enhancement of the electrocatalytic activity for the ORR.

  3. 70. DETAIL OF OXYGEN TRANSFER PRESSURE GAUGE IN UPPER LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. DETAIL OF OXYGEN TRANSFER PRESSURE GAUGE IN UPPER LEFT CORNER OF SKID ON RIGHT IN CA-133-1-C-69 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. A new interpretation of internal heat transfer coefficients of porous media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dybbs, A.; Kar, K.; Groeneweg, M.; Ling, J. X.; Naraghi, M.

    1984-01-01

    The results of laser anemometer and flow visualization based fluid mechanics studies of porous media are used to obtain heat transfer coefficients for porous materials. Average pore flow Re ranging from 0.16-700 were examined. Darcy, inertial steady laminar, unsteady laminar and turbulent flow regimes were detected. A passage length model was devised to derive the heat transfer coefficient. Sample data from flows through porous metals composed of powders and fibers validated the passage length for Darcy and inertial flow regimes. Unsteady laminar and turbulent flow coefficients require the identification of new parameters.

  5. Study on heat transfer coefficients during cooling of PET bottles for food beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liga, Antonio; Montesanto, Salvatore; Mannella, Gianluca A.; La Carrubba, Vincenzo; Brucato, Valerio; Cammalleri, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The heat transfer properties of different cooling systems dealing with Poly-Ethylene-Terephthalate (PET) bottles were investigated. The heat transfer coefficient (Ug) was measured in various fluid dynamic conditions. Cooling media were either air or water. It was shown that heat transfer coefficients are strongly affected by fluid dynamics conditions, and range from 10 W/m2 K to nearly 400 W/m2 K. PET bottle thickness effect on Ug was shown to become relevant under faster fluid dynamics regimes.

  6. Study on heat transfer coefficients during cooling of PET bottles for food beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liga, Antonio; Montesanto, Salvatore; Mannella, Gianluca A.; La Carrubba, Vincenzo; Brucato, Valerio; Cammalleri, Marco

    2015-08-01

    The heat transfer properties of different cooling systems dealing with Poly-Ethylene-Terephthalate (PET) bottles were investigated. The heat transfer coefficient (Ug) was measured in various fluid dynamic conditions. Cooling media were either air or water. It was shown that heat transfer coefficients are strongly affected by fluid dynamics conditions, and range from 10 W/m2 K to nearly 400 W/m2 K. PET bottle thickness effect on Ug was shown to become relevant under faster fluid dynamics regimes.

  7. Measurement of local connective heat transfer coefficients of four ice accretion shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. E.; Armilli, R. V.; Keshock, E. G.

    1984-01-01

    In the analytical study of ice accretions that form on aerodynamic surfaces (airfoils, engine inlets, etc.) it is often necessary to be able to calculate convective heat transfer rates. In order to do this, local convective heat transfer coefficients for the ice accretion shapes must be known. In the past, coefficients obtained for circular cylinders were used as an approximation to the actual coefficients since no better information existed. The purpose of this experimental study was to provide local convective heat transfer coefficients for four shapes that represent ice accretions. The shapes were tested with smooth and rough surfaces. The experimental method chosen was the thin-skin heat rate technique. Using this method local Nusselt numbers were determined for the ice shapes. In general it was found that the convective heat transfer was higher in regions where the model's surfaces were convex and lower in regions where the model's surfaces were concave. The effect of roughness was to increase the heat transfer in the high heat transfer regions by approximately 100% while little change was apparent in the low heat transfer regions.

  8. Lewis Acid Coupled Electron Transfer of Metal-Oxygen Intermediates.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Ohkubo, Kei; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo

    2015-12-01

    Redox-inactive metal ions and Brønsted acids that function as Lewis acids play pivotal roles in modulating the redox reactivity of metal-oxygen intermediates, such as metal-oxo and metal-peroxo complexes. The mechanisms of the oxidative CH bond cleavage of toluene derivatives, sulfoxidation of thioanisole derivatives, and epoxidation of styrene derivatives by mononuclear nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complexes in the presence of triflic acid (HOTf) and Sc(OTf)3 have been unified as rate-determining electron transfer coupled with binding of Lewis acids (HOTf and Sc(OTf)3 ) by iron(III)-oxo complexes. All logarithms of the observed second-order rate constants of Lewis acid-promoted oxidative CH bond cleavage, sulfoxidation, and epoxidation reactions of iron(IV)-oxo complexes exhibit remarkably unified correlations with the driving forces of proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) and metal ion-coupled electron transfer (MCET) in light of the Marcus theory of electron transfer when the differences in the formation constants of precursor complexes were taken into account. The binding of HOTf and Sc(OTf)3 to the metal-oxo moiety has been confirmed for Mn(IV) -oxo complexes. The enhancement of the electron-transfer reactivity of metal-oxo complexes by binding of Lewis acids increases with increasing the Lewis acidity of redox-inactive metal ions. Metal ions can also bind to mononuclear nonheme iron(III)-peroxo complexes, resulting in acceleration of the electron-transfer reduction but deceleration of the electron-transfer oxidation. Such a control on the reactivity of metal-oxygen intermediates by binding of Lewis acids provides valuable insight into the role of Ca(2+) in the oxidation of water to dioxygen by the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II. PMID:26404482

  9. Instrument for stable high temperature Seebeck coefficient and resistivity measurements under controlled oxygen partial pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Sharma, Peter Anand

    2015-04-28

    The transport properties of ceramic materials strongly depend on oxygen activity, which is tuned by changing the partial oxygen pressure (pO2) prior to and during measurement. Within, we describe an instrument for highly stable measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity at temperatures up to 1300 K with controlled oxygen partial pressure. An all platinum construction is used to avoid potential materials instabilities that can cause measurement drift. Two independent heaters are employed to establish a small temperature gradient for Seebeck measurements, while keeping the average temperature constant and avoiding errors associated with pO2-induced drifts in thermocouple readings. Oxygen equilibrium is monitored using both an O2 sensor and the transient behavior of the resistance as a proxy. A pO2 range of 10-25–100 atm can be established with appropriate gas mixtures. Seebeck measurements were calibrated against a high purity platinum wire, Pt/Pt–Rh thermocouple wire, and a Bi2Te3 Seebeck coefficient Standard Reference Material. To demonstrate the utility of this instrument for oxide materials we present measurements as a function of pO2 on a 1 % Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystal, and show systematic changes in properties consistent with oxygen vacancy defect chemistry. Thus, an approximately 11% increase in power factor over a pO2 range of 10-19–10-8 atm at 973 K for the donor-doped single crystals is observed.

  10. Instrument for stable high temperature Seebeck coefficient and resistivity measurements under controlled oxygen partial pressure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Sharma, Peter Anand

    2015-04-28

    The transport properties of ceramic materials strongly depend on oxygen activity, which is tuned by changing the partial oxygen pressure (pO2) prior to and during measurement. Within, we describe an instrument for highly stable measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity at temperatures up to 1300 K with controlled oxygen partial pressure. An all platinum construction is used to avoid potential materials instabilities that can cause measurement drift. Two independent heaters are employed to establish a small temperature gradient for Seebeck measurements, while keeping the average temperature constant and avoiding errors associated with pO2-induced drifts in thermocouple readings. Oxygen equilibriummore » is monitored using both an O2 sensor and the transient behavior of the resistance as a proxy. A pO2 range of 10-25–100 atm can be established with appropriate gas mixtures. Seebeck measurements were calibrated against a high purity platinum wire, Pt/Pt–Rh thermocouple wire, and a Bi2Te3 Seebeck coefficient Standard Reference Material. To demonstrate the utility of this instrument for oxide materials we present measurements as a function of pO2 on a 1 % Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystal, and show systematic changes in properties consistent with oxygen vacancy defect chemistry. Thus, an approximately 11% increase in power factor over a pO2 range of 10-19–10-8 atm at 973 K for the donor-doped single crystals is observed.« less

  11. Electrocatalysis of anodic and cathodic oxygen-transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wels, B.R.

    1990-09-21

    The electrocatalysis of oxygen-transfer reactions is discussed in two parts. In Part I, the reduction of iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is examined as an example of cathodic oxygen transfer. On oxide-covered Pt electrodes (PtO), a large cathodic current is observed in the presence of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to coincide with the reduction of PtO. The total cathodic charge exceeds the amount required for reduction of PtO and IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to produce an adsorbed product. An electrocatalytic link between reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and reduction of PtO is indicated. In addition, on oxide-free Pt electrodes, the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} is determined to be sensitive to surface treatment. The electrocatalytic oxidation of CN{sup {minus}} is presented as an example of anodic oxygen transfer in Part II. The voltametric response of CN{sup {minus}} is virtually nonexistent at PbO{sub 2} electrodes. The response is significantly improved by doping PbO{sub 2} with Cu. Cyanide is also oxidized effectively at CuO-film electrodes. Copper is concluded to serve as an adsorption site for CN{sup {minus}}. It is proposed that an oxygen tunneling mechanism comparable to electron tunneling does not occur at the electrode-solution interface. The adsorption of CN{sup {minus}} is therefore considered to be a necessary prerequisite for oxygen transfer. 201 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Ab initio calculation of oxygen self-diffusion coefficient in uranium dioxide UO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorado, Boris; Garcia, Philippe; Torrent, Marc

    Uranium dioxide UO2 is the most widely used nuclear fuel worldwide and its atomic transport properties are relevant to practically all engineering aspects of the material. Although transport properties have already been studied in UO2 by means of first-principles calculations, the ab initio determination of self-diffusion coefficients has up to now remained unreachable because the relevant computational tools were neither available or adapted. The present work reports our results related to the ab initio calculation of the oxygen self-diffusion coefficient in UO2. We first determine the Gibbs free energies of formation of oxygen charged defects by calculating both the electronic and vibrational (hence entropic) contributions. Then, we use the transition state theory in order to compute the effective jump frequency of the defects, which in turn provides us with the value of the pre-exponential factor. The results are compared to self-diffusion data obtained experimentally with a careful monitoring of the relevant thermodynamic conditions (oxygen partial pressure, temperature, impurity content).

  13. Development of a biomimetic microfluidic oxygen transfer device.

    PubMed

    Gimbel, A A; Flores, E; Koo, A; García-Cardeña, G; Borenstein, J T

    2016-08-16

    Blood oxygenators provide crucial life support for patients suffering from respiratory failure, but their use is severely limited by the complex nature of the blood circuit and by complications including bleeding and clotting. We have fabricated and tested a multilayer microfluidic blood oxygenation prototype designed to have a lower blood prime volume and improved blood circulation relative to current hollow fiber cartridge oxygenators. Here we address processes for scaling the device toward clinically relevant oxygen transfer rates while maintaining a low prime volume of blood in the device, which is required for clinical applications in cardiopulmonary support and ultimately for chronic use. Approaches for scaling the device toward clinically relevant gas transfer rates, both by expanding the active surface area of the network of blood microchannels in a planar layer and by increasing the number of microfluidic layers stacked together in a three-dimensional device are addressed. In addition to reducing prime volume and enhancing gas transfer efficiency, the geometric properties of the microchannel networks are designed to increase device safety by providing a biomimetic and physiologically realistic flow path for the blood. Safety and hemocompatibility are also influenced by blood-surface interactions within the device. In order to further enhance device safety and hemocompatibility, we have demonstrated successful coating of the blood flow pathways with human endothelial cells, in order to confer the ability of the endothelium to inhibit coagulation and thrombus formation. Blood testing results provide confirmation of fibrin clot formation in non-endothelialized devices, while negligible clot formation was documented in cell-coated devices. Gas transfer testing demonstrates that the endothelial lining does not reduce the transfer efficiency relative to acellular devices. This process of scaling the microfluidic architecture and utilizing autologous cells to

  14. Calculation of heat transfer coefficients at the ingot surface during DC casting

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwana, K.; Viswanathan, S.; Clark, John A, III; Sabau, A.; Hassan, M.; Saito, K.; Das, S.

    2005-02-01

    Surface heat transfer coefficients representing the various regimes of water cooling during the Direct Chill (DC) casting of aluminum 3004 alloy ingots have been calculated using the inverse heat transfer technique. ProCAST, a commercial casting simulation package, which includes heat transfer, fluid flow, solidification, and inverse heat transfer, was used for this effort. Thermocouple data from an experimental casting run, and temperature-dependent thermophysical properties of the alloy were used in the calculation. The use of a structured vs. unstructured mesh was evaluated. The calculated effective heat transfer coefficient, which is a function of temperature and time, covers three water cooling regimes, i.e., convection, nucleate boiling, and film boiling, and the change of water flow rate with time.

  15. Coolant-side heat-transfer rates for a hydrogen-oxygen rocket and a new technique for data correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schacht, R. L.; Quentmeyer, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the coolant-side, heat transfer coefficients for a liquid cooled, hydrogen-oxygen rocket thrust chamber. Heat transfer rates were determined from measurements of local hot gas wall temperature, local coolant temperature, and local coolant pressure. A correlation incorporating an integration technique for the transport properties needed near the pseudocritical temperature of liquid hydrogen gives a satisfactory prediction of hot gas wall temperatures.

  16. Controlling energy transfer in ytterbium complexes: oxygen dependent lanthanide luminescence and singlet oxygen formation.

    PubMed

    Watkis, Andrew; Hueting, Rebekka; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Tropiano, Manuel; Faulkner, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Pyrene-appended ytterbium complexes have been prepared using Ugi reactions to vary the chromophore-lanthanide separation. Formation of the ytterbium(iii) excited state is sensitised via both the singlet and triplet excited states of the chromophore. Energy transfer from the latter is relatively slow, and gives rise to oxygen-dependent luminescence. PMID:26346499

  17. Oxygen diffusion coefficient and solubility in a new proton exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, A.T.; White, R.E.

    2000-03-01

    The electrochemical monitoring technique is used to measure the solubility and the diffusion coefficient of oxygen in a new proton exchange membrane that is being developed by Cape Cod Research, Inc., Using the method of least squares, the data were fit to an analytical solution of Fick's second law to determine D and c{sub 0}. Values of 0.40 x 10{sup {minus}6}cm{sup 2}/s and 4.98 x 10{sup {minus}6} mol/cm{sup 3} were obtained for the diffusion coefficient and solubility, respectively, of the Cape Cod membrane. These values are significantly less than those of Nafion 117 tested under identical conditions.

  18. Global rate coefficients for ionization and recombination of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon

    SciTech Connect

    Annaloro, Julien; Morel, Vincent; Bultel, Arnaud; Omaly, Pierre

    2012-07-15

    The flow field modeling of planetary entry plasmas, laser-induced plasmas, inductively coupled plasmas, arcjets, etc., requires to use Navier-Stokes codes. The kinetic mechanisms implemented in these codes involve global (effective) rate coefficients. These rate coefficients result from the excited states coupling during a quasi-steady state. In order to obtain these global rate coefficients over a wide electron temperature (T{sub e}) range for ionization and recombination of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, the behavior of their excited states is investigated using a zero-dimensional (time-dependent) code. The population number densities of these electronic states are considered as independent species. Their relaxation is studied within the range 3000 K{<=}T{sub e}{<=}20 000 K and leads to the determination of the ionization (k{sub i}) and recombination (k{sub r}) global rate coefficients. Comparisons with existing data are performed. Finally, the ratio k{sub i}/k{sub r} is compared with the Saha equilibrium constant. This ratio increases more rapidly than the equilibrium constant for T{sub e}>15 000 K.

  19. Measurement of impingement heat transfer coefficient on a HIPS liner sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, X.

    1999-07-01

    A test facility was built to measure the impingement convective heat transfer coefficient for a high impact polystyrene (HIPS) liner sheet which was heated by an array of air slot nozzles. A HIPS liner sheet having a thickness of 6 mm is a typical material used for inside shells of refrigerators. The nozzle geometry was optimally designed. The pressure drops through the nozzles, the velocities at the exits of nozzles, temperatures on the sheet surface and in the sheet center were measured. The impingement heat transfer coefficient on the sheet was determined using the measured sheet temperature history in conjunction with an inverse analysis which was based on a one-dimensional transient heat conduction model. The effect of air flow rate ranging from 8 to 32 m/s on the heat transfer coefficient is discussed.

  20. Inverse coefficient problems for one-dimensional heat transfer with a preservation of medium temperature condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oralsyn, Gulaym

    2016-08-01

    We study an inverse coefficient problem for a model equation for one-dimensional heat transfer with a preservation of medium temperature. It is needed (together with finding its solution) to find time dependent unknown coefficient of the equation. So, for this inverse problem, existence of an unique generalized solution is proved. The main difficulty of the considered problems is that the eigenfunction system of the corresponding boundary value problems does not have the basis property.

  1. CFD simulation of simultaneous monotonic cooling and surface heat transfer coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihálka, Peter; Matiašovský, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The monotonic heating regime method for determination of thermal diffusivity is based on the analysis of an unsteady-state (stabilised) thermal process characterised by an independence of the space-time temperature distribution on initial conditions. At the first kind of the monotonic regime a sample of simple geometry is heated / cooled at constant ambient temperature. The determination of thermal diffusivity requires the determination rate of a temperature change and simultaneous determination of the first eigenvalue. According to a characteristic equation the first eigenvalue is a function of the Biot number defined by a surface heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity of an analysed material. Knowing the surface heat transfer coefficient and the first eigenvalue the thermal conductivity can be determined. The surface heat transport coefficient during the monotonic regime can be determined by the continuous measurement of long-wave radiation heat flow and the photoelectric measurement of the air refractive index gradient in a boundary layer. CFD simulation of the cooling process was carried out to analyse local convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients more in detail. Influence of ambient air flow was analysed. The obtained eigenvalues and corresponding surface heat transfer coefficient values enable to determine thermal conductivity of the analysed specimen together with its thermal diffusivity during a monotonic heating regime.

  2. The Effect of Baffles on the Temperature Distribution and Heat-transfer Coefficients of Finned Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Rollin, Vern G

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the effect of baffles on the temperature distribution and the heat-transfer coefficient of finned cylinders. The tests were conducted in a 30-inch wind tunnel on electrically heated cylinders with fins of 0.25 and 0.31 inch pitch. The results of these tests showed that the use of integral baffles gave a reduction of 31.9 percent in the rear wall temperatures and an increase of 54.2 percent in the heat transfer coefficient as compared with a cylinder without baffles.

  3. Heat/Mass Transfer Coefficients of an Absorber in Absorption Refrigeration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Isamu; Hihara, Eiji

    This paper presents a new method to calculate heat and mass transfer coefficients applicable to the vertical tube or plate type absorber of absorption refrigeration system. Conventional method for calculating the coefficients using logarithmic mean temperature/ concentration differences is criticized for its lacking in the theoretical rationality and usually giving untrue values except some limited situations such that temperature of the solution can be assumed to change linearly along the heat transfer surface. The newly introduced method, which is intended to overcome this difficulty, is verified by numerical simulation and is accompanied by an example applied to the experimental results.

  4. Measuring the heat-transfer coefficient of nanofluid based on copper oxide in a cylindrical channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzei, D. V.; Minakov, A. V.; Rudyak, V. Ya.; Dekterev, A. A.

    2014-03-01

    The heat-transfer coefficient of nanofluid during its flow in a cylindrical channel is studied experimentally. The studied nanofluid was prepared based on distilled water and CuO nanoparticles. Nanoparticle concentration varied in the range from 0.25 to 2% in the volume. The nanofluid was stabilized using a xanthane gum biopolymer the mass concentration of which did not exceed 0.03%. Considerable intensification of heat transfer was found. The nanofluid appeared to be Newtonian when particle concentrations exceeded 0.25%. Estimates for rheological parameters of the nanofluid and thermal conductivity coefficient have been obtained.

  5. Effect of the heating surface enhancement on the heat transfer coefficient for a vertical minichannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piasecka, Magdalena; Strąk, Kinga

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the paper is to estimate effect of the heating surface enhancement on FC-72 flow boiling heat transfer for a vertical minichannel 1.7 mm deep, 24 mm wide and 360 mm long. Two types of enhanced heating surfaces were used: one with minicavities distributed unevenly, and the other with capillary metal fibrous structure. It was to measure temperature field on the plain side of the heating surface by means of the infrared thermography and to observe the two-phase flow patterns on the enhanced foil side. The paper analyses mainly the impact of the microstructured heating surface on the heat transfer coefficient. The results are presented as heat transfer coefficient dependences on the distance along the minichannel length. The data obtained using two types of enhanced heating surfaces in experiments was compared with the data when smooth foil as the heating surface was used. The highest local values of heat transfer coefficient were obtained using enhanced foil with minicavities - in comparison to other cases. Local values of heat transfer coefficient received for capillary fibrous structure were the lowest, even compared with data obtained for smooth foil. Probably this porous structure caused local flow disturbances.

  6. Convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients for individual human body segments.

    PubMed

    de Dear, R J; Arens, E; Hui, Z; Oguro, M

    1997-05-01

    Human thermal physiological and comfort models will soon be able to simulate both transient and spatial inhomogeneities in the thermal environment. With this increasing detail comes the need for anatomically specific convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients for the human body. The present study used an articulated thermal manikin with 16 body segments (head, chest, back, upper arms, forearms, hands, pelvis, upper legs, lower legs, feet) to generate radiative heat transfer coefficients as well as natural- and forced-mode convective coefficients. The tests were conducted across a range of wind speeds from still air to 5.0 m/s, representing atmospheric conditions typical of both indoors and outdoors. Both standing and seated postures were investigated, as were eight different wind azimuth angles. The radiative heat transfer coefficient measured for the whole-body was 4.5 W/m2 per K for both the seated and standing cases, closely matching the generally accepted whole-body value of 4.7 W/m2 per K. Similarly, the whole-body natural convection coefficient for the manikin fell within the mid-range of previously published values at 3.4 and 3.3 W/m2 per K when standing and seated respectively. In the forced convective regime, heat transfer coefficients were higher for hands, feet and peripheral limbs compared to the central torso region. Wind direction had little effect on convective heat transfers from individual body segments. A general-purpose forced convection equation suitable for application to both seated and standing postures indoors was hc = 10.3v0.6 for the whole-body. Similar equations were generated for individual body segments in both seated and standing postures. PMID:9195861

  7. Correlation between mass transfer coefficient kLa and relevant operating parameters in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors on a bench-to-pilot scale

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Among disposable bioreactor systems, cylindrical orbitally shaken bioreactors show important advantages. They provide a well-defined hydrodynamic flow combined with excellent mixing and oxygen transfer for mammalian and plant cell cultivations. Since there is no known universal correlation between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for oxygen kLa and relevant operating parameters in such bioreactor systems, the aim of this current study is to experimentally determine a universal kLa correlation. Results A Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was used to measure kLa values in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors and Buckingham’s π-Theorem was applied to define a dimensionless equation for kLa. In this way, a scale- and volume-independent kLa correlation was developed and validated in bioreactors with volumes from 2 L to 200 L. The final correlation was used to calculate cultivation parameters at different scales to allow a sufficient oxygen supply of tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures. Conclusion The resulting equation can be universally applied to calculate the mass transfer coefficient for any of seven relevant cultivation parameters such as the reactor diameter, the shaking frequency, the filling volume, the viscosity, the oxygen diffusion coefficient, the gravitational acceleration or the shaking diameter within an accuracy range of +/− 30%. To our knowledge, this is the first kLa correlation that has been defined and validated for the cited bioreactor system on a bench-to-pilot scale. PMID:24289110

  8. Development of particulate matter transfer coefficients using a three-dimensional air quality model

    SciTech Connect

    Seigneur, C.; Tonne, C.; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Pai, P.; Levin, L.

    1999-07-01

    Air quality model simulations constitute an effective approach to develop source-receptor relationships (so-called transfer coefficients in the risk analysis framework) because a significant fraction of particulate matter (particularly PM{sub 2.5}) is secondary and, therefore, depends on the atmospheric chemistry of the airshed. These source-receptor relationships can be made specific to source regions and major pollutants. In this study, the authors have used a comprehensive three-dimensional air quality model for PM (SAQM-AERO) to generate episodic transfer coefficients for several source regions in the Los Angeles basin (i.e., surface coastal region, elevated coastal region, central basin, and downwind region). Transfer coefficients were developed by conducting PM air quality simulations with reduced emissions of one of the four precursors (i.e., primary PM, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and VOC) from each source region. The authors have also compared the transfer coefficients generated from explicit modeling with those based on expert judgment, which were obtained by integrating information from the development of the baseline simulation and across-the-board emission reduction simulations.

  9. Impact of overall and particle surface heat transfer coefficients on thermal process optimization in rotary retorts.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R; Abakarov, A; Almonacid, S; Teixeira, A

    2008-10-01

    This study attempts to examine the significance of recent research that has focused on efforts to estimate values for global and surface heat transfer coefficients under forced convection heating induced by end-over-end rotation in retorting of canned peas in brine. The study confirms the accuracy of regression analysis used to predict values for heat transfer coefficients as a function of rotating speed and headspace, and uses them to predict values over a range of process conditions, which make up the search domain for process optimization. These coefficients were used in a convective heat transfer model to establish a range of lethality-equivalent retort temperature-time processes for various conditions of retort temperature, rotating speed, and headspace. Then, they were coupled with quality factor kinetics to predict the final volume average and surface quality retention resulting from each process and to find the optimal thermal process conditions for canned fresh green peas. Results showed that maximum quality retention (surface and volume average retention) was achieved with the shortest possible process time (made possible with highest retort temperature), and reached the similar level in all cases with small difference between surface and volume average quality retention. The highest heat transfer coefficients (associated with maximum rotating speed and headspace) showed a 10% reduction in process time over that required with minimum rotating speed and headspace. The study concludes with a discussion of the significance of these findings and degree to which they were expected. PMID:19019110

  10. Measurements of pressure drop, heat transfer coefficient and critical energy of a bundle conductor

    SciTech Connect

    Junghans, D.

    1981-09-01

    Friction factor, saturation temperature, heat transfer coefficient and critical energy of an eight strand bundle conductor were measured in the test facility SULTAN at SIN in Switzerland. The measured values of the critical energy are in good agreement with those calculated by the computer code LONSA. 10 refs.

  11. The ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Benyi; Lu, Yigang

    2008-10-01

    Based on several hypotheses about the process of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, the onflow around the solute granule is figured out by the Navier-Stocks equation. In combination with the Higbie’s solute infiltration model, the link between the mass-transfer coefficient and the velocity of flow is found. The mass-transfer coefficient with the ultrasonical effect is compared with that without the ultrasonical effect, and then a new parameter named the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient is brought forward, which describes the mathematical model of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction process enhanced by ultrasonic. The model gives out the relationships among the ultrasonical power, the ultrasonical frequency, the radius of solute granule and the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient. The results calculated by this model fit well with the experimental data, including the extraction of Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Oil (CLSO) and Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Ester (CLSE) from coix seeds and the extraction of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) from the alga by means of the ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (USFE) and the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE) respectively. This proves the rationality of the ultrasonic-enhanced factor model. The model provides a theoretical basis for the application of ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical fluid extraction technique.

  12. Empirical correlation of volumetric mass transfer coefficient for a rectangular internal-loop airlift bioreactor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An empirical correlation of volumetric mass transfer coefficient was developed for a pilot scale internal-loop rectangular airlift bioreactor that was designed for biotechnology. The empirical correlation combines classic turbulence theory, Kolmogorov’s isotropic turbulence theory with Higbie’s pen...

  13. Heat transfer coefficients in two-dimensional Yukawa systems (numerical simulations)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrustalyov, Yu. V.; Vaulina, O. S.

    2013-05-01

    New data on heat transfer in two-dimensional Yukawa systems have been obtained. The results of a numerical study of the thermal conductivity for equilibrium systems with parameters close to the conditions of laboratory experiments in dusty plasma are presented. The Green-Kubo relations are used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients. The influence of dissipation (internal friction) on the heat transfer processes in nonideal systems is studied. New approximations are proposed for the thermal conductivity and diffusivity for nonideal dissipative systems. The results obtained are compared with the existing experimental and numerical data.

  14. Experimental determination of correlations for mean heat transfer coefficients in plate fin and tube heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taler, Dawid

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a numerical method for determining heat transfer coefficients in cross-flow heat exchangers with extended heat exchange surfaces. Coefficients in the correlations defining heat transfer on the liquid- and air-side were determined using a nonlinear regression method. Correlation coefficients were determined from the condition that the sum of squared liquid and air temperature differences at the heat exchanger outlet, obtained by measurements and those calculated, achieved minimum. Minimum of the sum of the squares was found using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. The uncertainty in estimated parameters was determined using the error propagation rule by Gauss. The outlet temperature of the liquid and air leaving the heat exchanger was calculated using the analytical model of the heat exchanger.

  15. Oxygen mass transfer and hydrodynamic behaviour in wastewater: determination of local impact of surfactants by visualization techniques.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Mélanie; Dietrich, Nicolas; Grace, John R; Hébrard, Gilles

    2014-07-01

    Powerful techniques, based on the Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique, are deployed to locally visualize and quantify the impact of surfactants in wastewaters on hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer. Bubble diameter, aspect ratio, rise velocity, contamination angle, as well as flux, flux density, liquid side mass transfer and diffusion coefficients of transferred oxygen are determined based on these techniques applied in the wake of rising bubbles of diameter 1 mm and through planar gas/liquid interfaces. The initial experiments were performed in demineralized water containing small amounts of surfactant. Different concentrations of surfactant were added to finally reach the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC). Bubbles have classically been found to be more spherical with a reduced rise velocity in the presence of surfactants up to the CMC. Above the CMC, these hydrodynamic characteristics were found to be almost constant, although the oxygen mass transfer decreased due to the presence of surfactants. Experimental results were markedly lower than predicted by the well-known Frössling equation with rigid surfaces. This is believed to be caused by a barrier of surfactants hindering the oxygen mass transfer at the interface. Similar hindrance of oxygen mass transfer applies to waters from sewage plants (filtered raw water and treated water), making accurate design of aeration tanks difficult. PMID:24747142

  16. Structure and energy transfer in photosystems of oxygenic photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nathan; Junge, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is the principal converter of sunlight into chemical energy on Earth. Cyanobacteria and plants provide the oxygen, food, fuel, fibers, and platform chemicals for life on Earth. The conversion of solar energy into chemical energy is catalyzed by two multisubunit membrane protein complexes, photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII). Light is absorbed by the pigment cofactors, and excitation energy is transferred among the antennae pigments and converted into chemical energy at very high efficiency. Oxygenic photosynthesis has existed for more than three billion years, during which its molecular machinery was perfected to minimize wasteful reactions. Light excitation transfer and singlet trapping won over fluorescence, radiation-less decay, and triplet formation. Photosynthetic reaction centers operate in organisms ranging from bacteria to higher plants. They are all evolutionarily linked. The crystal structure determination of photosynthetic protein complexes sheds light on the various partial reactions and explains how they are protected against wasteful pathways and why their function is robust. This review discusses the efficiency of photosynthetic solar energy conversion. PMID:25747397

  17. The effect of microbubbles on gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient and degradation rate of COD in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kangning; Chi, Yong; Wang, Fei; Yan, Jianhua; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2016-01-01

    A commonly used aeration device at present has the disadvantages of low mass transfer rate because the generated bubbles are several millimeters in diameter which are much bigger than microbubbles. Therefore, the effect of a microbubble on gas-liquid mass transfer and wastewater treatment process was investigated. To evaluate the effect of each bubble type, the volumetric mass transfer coefficients for microbubbles and conventional bubbles were determined. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient was 0.02905 s(-1) and 0.02191 s(-1) at a gas flow rate of 0.67 L min(-1) in tap water for microbubbles and conventional bubbles, respectively. The degradation rate of simulated municipal wastewater was also investigated, using aerobic activated sludge and ozone. Compared with the conventional bubble generator, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 2.04, 5.9, 3.26 times higher than those of the conventional bubble contactor at the same initial COD concentration of COD 200 mg L(-1), 400 mg L(-1), and 600 mg L(-1), while aerobic activated sludge was used. For the ozonation process, the rate of COD removal using microbubble generator was 2.38, 2.51, 2.89 times of those of the conventional bubble generator. Based on the results, the effect of initial COD concentration on the specific COD degradation rate were discussed in different systems. Thus, the results revealed that microbubbles could enhance mass transfer in wastewater treatment and be an effective method to improve the degradation of wastewater. PMID:27120652

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from: inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. The work presented under this task uses the first-principles based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique to compute heat transfer from tank wall to the cryogenic fluids, and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.

  19. Calculations of the time-averaged local heat transfer coefficients in circulating fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, T.H.; Qian, R.Z.; Ai, Y.F.

    1999-04-01

    The great potential to burn a wide variety of fuels and the reduced emission of pollutant gases mainly SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} have inspired the investigators to conduct research at a brisk pace all around the world on circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. An accurate understanding of heat transfer to bed walls is required for proper design of CFB boilers. To develop an optimum economic design of the boiler, it is also necessary to know how the heat transfer coefficient depends on different design and operating parameters. It is impossible to do the experiments under all operating conditions. Thus, the mathematical model prediction is a valuable method instead. Based on the cluster renewal theory of heat transfer in circulating fluidized beds, a mathematical model for predicting the time-averaged local bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficients is developed. The effects of the axial distribution of the bed density on the time-average local heat transfer coefficients are taken into account via dividing the bed into a series of sections along its height. The assumptions are made about the formation and falling process of clusters on the wall. The model predictions are in an acceptable agreement with the published data.

  20. Improved voltage transfer coefficients for nonconductive materials in radiofrequency glow discharge optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Therese, L; Ghalem, Z; Guillot, P; Belenguer, P

    2006-09-01

    In radiofrequency glow discharge emission spectrometry (RF-GDOES), the excitation voltage used to create the plasma is applied to the back or front end of the sample to be analyzed. In this paper we focus on back-applied voltage systems (a configuration that represents about half of the instruments available on the market), and on applied voltage problems (the power coupling efficiency and materials analysis are beyond the scope of this study). In the RF-GDOES of nonconductive samples, a voltage drop develops inside the material. The voltage transfer coefficient is defined as the ratio between the peak voltage in front of the sample (facing the plasma) and the peak voltage applied to the back of the sample. In this work, we show that it is possible to increase the voltage transfer coefficient by increasing the capacitance of the sample. The capacitance of a given nonconductive material depends on its surface, its thickness and its permittivity. Increasing the voltage transfer coefficient permits higher power deposition in the plasma. This study is based on an electrical equivalent circuit for the discharge device, which takes into account the sample and reactor capacitances as well as the voltage probes used for the measurements. This circuit, when modeled by a commercial electrical circuit simulator, gives the voltage transfer coefficient as a function of the sample capacitance. Different approaches to increasing the sample capacitance and their influence on the voltage transfer coefficient are presented and related to the 750.4 nm argon line intensity, which is correlated to the electron density. PMID:16724217

  1. Heat transfer coefficients in bubbly and slug flows under microgravity conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rezkallah, K.S.; Rite, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    Experimental local heat transfer data were collected onboard NASA`s KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft for two-phase, air-water flow in vertical, upward, co-current flow through a 9.53 mm circular tube. It was found that in the bubbly and slug flow regimes (surface tension dominated regimes), reduced gravity has a tendency to lower the heat transfer coefficient by up to 50% at the lowest gas qualities. As the gas quality is increased (transition to annular flow), the difference between the 1-g and {micro}-g heat transfer coefficients is much less significant. Empirical correlations were developed in terms of the pertinent dimensionless groups; namely the superficial liquid Reynolds number, the Froude number, the Graetz number and the Morton number. The correlations predicted the experimental data within 10--25%, depending on the flow regime and the superficial gas Weber number.

  2. Techniques for obtaining detailed heat transfer coefficient measurements within gas turbine blade and vane cooling passages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, R. J.; Jones, T. V.; Dunnne, S. T.

    1983-03-01

    Techniques developed jointly by Rolls-Royce Bristol and Oxford University for determining detailed heat transfer distributions inside turbine blade and vane cooling passages are reviewed. Use is made of a low temperature phase change paint to map the heat flux distributions within models of the cooling passages; the paints change from an opaque coating to a clear liquid at a well-defined melting point. In this way the surface temperature history of a model subjected to transient convective heating is recorded. The heat transfer coefficient distribution is deduced from this history using a transient conduction analysis within the model. Results are presented on detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions within a variety of cooling passages; and data obtained from a comprehensive study of a typical engine multipass cooling geometry are examined.

  3. Theoretical prediction of the influence coefficients on damped simple flexible rotors using the transfer matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Oh-Sung; Kim, Paul Y.

    1994-02-01

    The influence coefficients for undamped flexible rotors are analytically derived and then compared and discussed for various damping coefficients. The concept of the transfer matrix method is partially adapted in the formulation. Single-disk and single cylinder rotor models are used for one- and two-plane balancing models, respectively. The gyroscopic effect of the disk or cylinder, which has been included in the formulation, is proved important through a simplified example rotor model. Taking the gyroscopic effect into account when calculating the influence coefficient is especially important near the resonant and antiresonant frequencies of the rotor. The simplified model also shows that an increase in damping reduces the sharpness of magnitude curve of influence coefficients and smoothens the change of phase at around the resonant and antiresonant frequencies.

  4. Oxygen transfer rate and sophorose lipid production by Candida bombicola.

    PubMed

    Guilmanov, Vladimir; Ballistreri, Alberto; Impallomeni, Giuseppe; Gross, Richard A

    2002-03-01

    Sophorose lipids (SLs) have applications as surfactants and are produced at high levels by several yeasts. We developed a fed-batch shake-flask method for the production of SLs by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214. Optimal aeration, expressed in terms of oxygen transfer rate, was between 50 and 80 mM O(2)/L h(-1) and resulted in maximum values for both volumetric product formation (1-1.5 g/L h(-1)) and SL yield (350 g/L). The lowest aeration levels resulted in the enrichment in saturated fatty acid SLs at the expense of unsaturated fatty acid SLs. PMID:11788948

  5. Determination of the heat transfer coefficient from IRT measurement data using the Trefftz method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewska, Beata; Strąk, Kinga; Piasecka, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the method of heat transfer coefficient determination for boiling research during FC-72 flow in the minichannels, each 1.7 mm deep, 24 mm wide and 360 mm long. The heating element was the thin foil, enhanced on the side which comes into contact with fluid in the minichannels. Local values of the heat transfer coefficient were calculated from the Robin boundary condition. The foil temperature distribution and the derivative of the foil temperature were obtained by solving the two-dimensional inverse heat conduction problem, due to measurements obtained by IRT. Calculations was carried out by the method based on the approximation of the solution of the problem using a linear combination of Trefftz functions. The basic property of this functions is they satisfy the governing equation. Unknown coefficients of linear combination of Trefftz functions are calculated from the minimization of the functional that expresses the mean square error of the approximate solution on the boundary. The results presented as IR thermographs, two-phase flow structure images and the heat transfer coefficient as a function of the distance from the channel inlet, were analyzed.

  6. Determination of drying kinetics and convective heat transfer coefficients of ginger slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpinar, Ebru Kavak; Toraman, Seda

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, the effects of some parametric values on convective heat transfer coefficients and the thin layer drying process of ginger slices were investigated. Drying was done in the laboratory by using cyclone type convective dryer. The drying air temperature was varied as 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and the air velocity is 0.8, 1.5 and 3 m/s. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to the twelve mathematical models and performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R 2), reduced Chi-square (χ 2) and root mean square error between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy were calculated using an infinite series solution of Fick's diffusion equation. The average effective moisture diffusivity values and activation energy values varied from 2.807 × 10-10 to 6.977 × 10-10 m2/s and 19.313-22.722 kJ/mol over the drying air temperature and velocity range, respectively. Experimental data was used to evaluate the values of constants in Nusselt number expression by using linear regression analysis and consequently, convective heat transfer coefficients were determined in forced convection mode. Convective heat transfer coefficient of ginger slices showed changes in ranges 0.33-2.11 W/m2 °C.

  7. Prediction of Heat Transfer Coefficient for Refrigerant With Oil Contained in Horizontal Evaporator Tuvbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi; Yoshida, Suguru

    A method which is generally applicable to predict the axially local (circumferentially averaged) heat transfer coefficient for refrigerant with oil contained flowing in horizontal evaporator tubes was developed by modifying a prediction method for pure refrigerants. The dimensionless correlation for an annular flow regime takes account of the influence of oil on an improvement or a reduction in the heat transfer, in addition to the change of the properties due to the addition of oil. For a separated flow regime, the correlations of the average heat transfer coefficients in the top part and the bottom part and their boundary angle were developed by modifying each correlation for pure refrigerants. The circumferentially averaged heat transfer coefficient for the separated flow regime can be obtained by using the solution of the steady heat conduction equation in the tube wall, to which the values calculated from the above correlations are applied as the boundary conditions at the inside surface of the tube. Which flow regime, annular or separated, prevails can be determined by the correlation of the boundary angle. The present prediction method was confirmed to be applicable to various kinds of refrigerant-oil mixture.

  8. Integration Of Heat Transfer Coefficient In Glass Forming Modeling With Special Interface Element

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, P.; Gregoire, S.; Lochegnies, D.; Cesar de Sa, J.

    2007-05-17

    Numerical modeling of the glass forming processes requires the accurate knowledge of the heat exchange between the glass and the forming tools. A laboratory testing is developed to determine the evolution of the heat transfer coefficient in different glass/mould contact conditions (contact pressure, temperature, lubrication...). In this paper, trials are performed to determine heat transfer coefficient evolutions in experimental conditions close to the industrial blow-and-blow process conditions. In parallel of this work, a special interface element is implemented in a commercial Finite Element code in order to deal with heat transfer between glass and mould for non-meshing meshes and evolutive contact. This special interface element, implemented by using user subroutines, permits to introduce the previous heat transfer coefficient evolutions in the numerical modelings at the glass/mould interface in function of the local temperatures, contact pressures, contact time and kind of lubrication. The blow-and-blow forming simulation of a perfume bottle is finally performed to assess the special interface element performance.

  9. Integration Of Heat Transfer Coefficient In Glass Forming Modeling With Special Interface Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, P.; César de Sá, J.; Grégoire, S.; Lochegnies, D.

    2007-05-01

    Numerical modeling of the glass forming processes requires the accurate knowledge of the heat exchange between the glass and the forming tools. A laboratory testing is developed to determine the evolution of the heat transfer coefficient in different glass/mould contact conditions (contact pressure, temperature, lubrication…). In this paper, trials are performed to determine heat transfer coefficient evolutions in experimental conditions close to the industrial blow-and-blow process conditions. In parallel of this work, a special interface element is implemented in a commercial Finite Element code in order to deal with heat transfer between glass and mould for non-meshing meshes and evolutive contact. This special interface element, implemented by using user subroutines, permits to introduce the previous heat transfer coefficient evolutions in the numerical modelings at the glass/mould interface in function of the local temperatures, contact pressures, contact time and kind of lubrication. The blow-and-blow forming simulation of a perfume bottle is finally performed to assess the special interface element performance.

  10. Heat transfer coefficient measurements on the pressure surface of a transonic airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodzwa, Paul M.; Eaton, John K.

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents steady-state recovery temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the pressure surface of a modern, highly cambered transonic airfoil. These measurements were collected with a peak Mach number of 1.5 and a maximum turbulence intensity of 30%. We used a single passage model to simulate the idealized two-dimensional flow path between rotor blades in a modern transonic turbine. This set up offered a simpler construction than a linear cascade, yet produced an equivalent flow condition. We performed validated high accuracy (±0.2°C) surface temperature measurements using wide-band thermochromic liquid crystals allowing separate measurements of the previously listed parameters with the same heat transfer surface. We achieved maximum heat transfer coefficient uncertainties that were equivalent to similar investigations (±10%). Two key observations are the heat transfer coefficient along the aft portion of the airfoil is sensitive to the surface heat flux and is highly insensitive to the level of freestream turbulence. Possible explanations for these observations are discussed.

  11. Calculation of muon transfer from muonic hydrogen to atomic oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Dupays, Arnaud; Lepetit, Bruno; Beswick, J. Alberto; Rizzo, Carlo; Bakalov, Dimitar

    2003-06-01

    The muon-transfer probabilities between muonic hydrogen and an oxygen atom are calculated in a constrained geometry one-dimensional model for collision energies between 10{sup -6} and 10{sup 3} eV. For relative translational energies below 10{sup -1} eV, for which the de Broglie wavelength (>1 Aa) is much larger than the characteristic distance of the potential interaction ({approx}0.1 Aa), the problem corresponds to an ultracold collision. The close-coupling time-independent quantum equations are written in terms of hyperspherical coordinates and a diabatic-by-sectors basis set. The muon-transfer probabilities are qualitatively interpreted in terms of a model involving two Landau-Zener crossings together with the threshold energy dependence. Based on this analysis, a simple procedure to estimate the energy dependence of the muon-transfer rate in three dimensions is proposed. These estimated rates are discussed in the light of previous model calculations and available experimental data for this process. It is concluded that the high transfer rates at epithermal energies inferred from experiments are unlikely to be correct.

  12. Measurement and prediction of the oxygen diffusion coefficient in partly saturated media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aachib, M.; Mbonimpa, M.; Aubertin, M.; Bussiere, B.

    2004-05-01

    Molecular diffusion is an important mechanism for gas transport in various natural and man-made systems. This is particularly the case with soil covers installed on acid generating mine tailings, where oxygen availability has to be controlled. One of the most important roles of such covers is to limit gas flux, which depends on the effective diffusion coefficient De of the cover materials. This paper presents an experimental procedure and results from oxygen diffusion tests performed on different types of materials, at various degrees of saturation. The determination of De in the laboratory from the test data is based on solutions to Fick's laws. The ensuing values of De are compared to values calculated from available models that relate De to basic material properties, including porosity and degree of saturation. Statistical indicators are used to evaluate the accuracy of selected models, individually and on a comparative basis. It is shown that modified versions of the Millington-Quirk and Millington-Shearer models provide De values close to the measured data. A semi-empirical expression, ensuing from these models and measurements, is proposed as a simple means of estimating De.

  13. Dimethylsulfide gas transfer coefficients from algal blooms in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, T. G.; De Bruyn, W.; Marandino, C. A.; Miller, S. D.; Law, C. S.; Smith, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2015-02-01

    Air-sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) fluxes and bulk air-sea gradients were measured over the Southern Ocean in February-March 2012 during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) study. The cruise encountered three distinct phytoplankton bloom regions, consisting of two blooms with moderate DMS levels, and a high biomass, dinoflagellate-dominated bloom with high seawater DMS levels (> 15 nM). Gas transfer coefficients were considerably scattered at wind speeds above 5 m s-1. Bin averaging the data resulted in a linear relationship between wind speed and mean gas transfer velocity consistent with that previously observed. However, the wind-speed-binned gas transfer data distribution at all wind speeds is positively skewed. The flux and seawater DMS distributions were also positively skewed, which suggests that eddy covariance-derived gas transfer velocities are consistently influenced by additional, log-normal noise. A flux footprint analysis was conducted during a transect into the prevailing wind and through elevated DMS levels in the dinoflagellate bloom. Accounting for the temporal/spatial separation between flux and seawater concentration significantly reduces the scatter in computed transfer velocity. The SOAP gas transfer velocity data show no obvious modification of the gas transfer-wind speed relationship by biological activity or waves. This study highlights the challenges associated with eddy covariance gas transfer measurements in biologically active and heterogeneous bloom environments.

  14. Electrochemical proton-coupled electron transfer of an osmium aquo complex: theoretical analysis of asymmetric tafel plots and transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, Michelle K; Soudackov, Alexander V; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2010-02-01

    Electrochemical proton-coupled electron transfer of an osmium aquo complex attached to a self-assembled monolayer on a gold electrode is studied with a recently developed theoretical formulation. The calculated hydrogen/deuterium kinetic isotope effect for the standard rate constant, the cathodic transfer coefficient at zero overpotential, and the Tafel plot are in excellent agreement with experimental data. The input quantities to the heterogeneous rate constant expressions were calculated with density functional theory in conjunction with dielectric continuum models, and no parameters were fit to experimental data. The theoretical calculations indicate that the asymmetry of the Tafel plot and the deviation of the transfer coefficient at zero overpotential from the standard value of one-half arise from the change in the equilibrium proton donor-acceptor distance upon electron transfer. The direction of the asymmetry and deviation from one-half is determined by the sign of this distance change, and the magnitude of these effects is determined by the magnitude of this distance change, as well as the reorganization energy and the distance dependence of the overlap between the initial and final proton vibrational wave functions. This theory provides experimentally testable predictions for the impact of specific system properties on the qualitative behavior of the Tafel plots. PMID:20067257

  15. Single-phase ambient and cryogenic temperature heat transfer coefficients in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, S.; Bradley, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    Micro-scaling cryogenic refrigerators, in particular the Joule-Thomson (JT) variety require very good information about heat transfer characteristics of the refrigerants flowing in the microchannels for optimal design and performance. The extremely low Reynolds flow is present in a micro JT cryocooler, the heat transfer characteristics at these conditions require investigation. There are numerous studies regarding heat transfer coefficient measurements of liquid flow in microchannels at/near ambient temperature and high Reynolds flow (Re>2000), that agree well with the conventional correlations. However, results from previous studies of gaseous flow in microchannels at low Reynolds flow (Re<1000) disagree with conventional theory. Moreover, the studies performed at cryogenic temperatures are quite limited in number. In this paper, the single-phase heat transfer coefficients and friction factors for nitrogen are measured at ambient and cryogenic temperatures. The hydraulic diameters for this study are 60, 110 and 180 μm for circular microchannels. The Reynolds numbers varied from a very low value of 10 to 3000. The measured friction factors are comparable to those in macro-scale tubes. The experimental results of the heat transfer indicate that Nusselt numbers derived from measurements are significantly affected by axial conduction at low Reynolds flow (Re<500). The Nusselt numbers at high Reynolds flow (Re>1000) follow conventional theory. The detailed experiment, procedure, and measured results are presented in this paper and discussed regarding deviation from ideal theory at low Reynolds flow.

  16. Measurement of convectional heat transfer coefficients in a primary containment vessel with outer pool

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Toru; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Hatamiya, Shigeo

    1990-01-01

    New concepts with passive safety systems that use no active compounds, such as pumps, have been recently developed for next-generation nuclear power plants. In these concepts, several ideas and their combination of passive components were adopted for emergency core cooling and residual heat removal systems. For the residual heat removal system, utilization of natural circulation heat transfer in water pools was proposed as a passive containment cooling system (PCCS), which removes decay heat from the primary containment vessel (PCV) during loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). This system consists of a suppression pool (S/P) and an outer pool (O/P), which are set adjacently inside and outside of the steel PCV wall. The core decay heat during LOCA is released through a break as steam and is led into the S/P. The injected steam condenses there, resulting a pool temperature rise. The adsorbed heat in the S/P is transferred to the O/P by convection in both pools and thermal conduction through the steel PCV wall. The heat transferred to the O/P is finally released to the atmosphere by vaporization of the O/P water. Estimation of the convectional heat transfer coefficients in both pools is necessary to predict the heat removal capability in this system precisely. The heat transfer coefficients measured in this study are useful for the design of the next-generation nuclear reactor as the fundamental thermal-hydraulic data in the primary containment vessel with the outer pool.

  17. Comparison of calculated and measured heat transfer coefficients for transonic and supersonic boundary-layer flows

    SciTech Connect

    Huerst, C.; Schulz, A.; Wittig, S.

    1995-04-01

    The present study compares measured and computed heat transfer coefficients for high-speed boundary layer nozzle flows under engine Reynolds number conditions (U{sub {infinity}} = 230 {divided_by} 880 m/s, Re* = 0.37 {divided_by} 1.07 {times} 10{sup 6}). Experimental data have been obtained by heat transfer measurements in a two-dimensional, nonsymmetric, convergent-divergent nozzle. The nozzle wall is convectively cooled using water passages. The coolant heat transfer data and nozzle surface temperatures are used as boundary conditions for a three-dimensional finite-element code, which is employed to calculate the temperature distribution inside the nozzle wall. Heat transfer coefficients along the hot gas nozzle wall are derived from the temperature gradients normal to the surface. The results are compared with numerical heat transfer predictions using the low-Reynolds-number {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model by Lam and Bremhorst. Influence of compressibility in the transport equations for the turbulence properties is taken into account by using the local averaged density. The results confirm that this simplification leads to good results for transonic and low supersonic flows.

  18. Study of the average heat transfer coefficient at different distances between wind tunnel models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnyrya, A.; Korobkov, S.; Mokshin, D.; Koshin, A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents investigations of physical and climatic factors with regard to design and process variables having effect on heat transfer in the building model system at different distances between them in the airflow direction. The aim of this work is to improve energy efficiency of exterior walls of buildings. A method of physical simulation was used in experiments. Experimental results on the average values of the heat transfer coefficient in the building model system are presented herein. A series of experiments was carried out on a specific aerodynamic test bench including a subsonic wind tunnel, heat models and devices for giving thermal boundary conditions, transducers, and the record system equipment. The paper contains diagrams of the average heat transfer distribution at fixed Reynolds number and the airflow angle of attack; the average values of the heat transfer coefficient for each face and wind tunnel models as a whole at maximum, medium, and large distances between them. Intensification of the average heat transfer was observed on the downstream model faces depending on the distance between models.

  19. Survey of literature on convective heat transfer coefficients and recovery factors for high atmosphere thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, S.

    1973-01-01

    Heat transfer phenomena of rarefied gas flows is discussed based on a literature survey of analytical and experimental rarefied gas dynamics. Subsonic flows are emphasized for the purposes of meteorological thermometry in the high atmosphere. The heat transfer coefficients for three basic geometries are given in the regimes of free molecular flow, transition flow, slip flow, and continuum flow. Different types of heat phenomena, and the analysis of theoretical and experimental data are presented. The uncertainties calculated from the interpolation rule compared with the available experimental data are discussed. The recovery factor for each geometry in subsonic rarefied flows is also given.

  20. Determination of heat transfer coefficient for an interaction of sub-cooled gas and metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi Sidek, Mohd; Syahidan Kamarudin, Muhammad

    2016-02-01

    Heat transfer coefficient (HTC) for a hot metal surface and their surrounding is one of the need be defined parameter in hot forming process. This study has been conducted to determine the HTC for an interaction between sub-cooled gas sprayed on a hot metal surface. Both experiments and finite element have been adopted in this work. Initially, the designated experiment was conducted to obtain temperature history of spray cooling process. Then, an inverse method was adopted to calculate the HTC value before we validate in a finite element simulation model. The result shows that the heat transfer coefficient for interaction of subcooled gas and hot metal surface is 1000 W/m2K.

  1. Analytical Solutions of Heat-Conduction Problems with Time-Varying Heat-Transfer Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudinov, V. A.; Eremin, A. V.; Stefanyuk, E. V.

    2015-05-01

    The problem on heat conduction of an infinite plate with a heat-transfer coefficient changing linearly with time for third-kind boundary conditions was solved analytically based on determination of the front of a temperature disturbance in this plate and introduction of additional boundary conditions. On the basis of the solution obtained, graphs of the distribution of isotherms in the indicated plate and the velocities of their movement along a spatial variable in it were constructed. As a result of the solution of the inverse problem on the heat conduction of the infinite plate with the use of the results of numerical calculation of the change in its temperature at any point on the indicated spatial coordinate, the Predvoditelev number was identified with an accuracy of 2%, which made it possible to determine the time dependence of the heat-transfer coefficient of the plate.

  2. Experimental Technique and Assessment for Measuring the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient from Natural Ice Accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masiulaniec, K. Cyril; Vanfossen, G. James, Jr.; Dewitt, Kenneth J.; Dukhan, Nihad

    1995-01-01

    A technique was developed to cast frozen ice shapes that had been grown on a metal surface. This technique was applied to a series of ice shapes that were grown in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel on flat plates. Nine flat plates, 18 inches square, were obtained from which aluminum castings were made that gave good ice shape characterizations. Test strips taken from these plates were outfitted with heat flux gages, such that when placed in a dry wind tunnel, can be used to experimentally map out the convective heat transfer coefficient in the direction of flow from the roughened surfaces. The effects on the heat transfer coefficient for both parallel and accelerating flow will be studied. The smooth plate model verification baseline data as well as one ice roughened test case are presented.

  3. Negative ion clusters in oxygen: collision cross sections and transport coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Urquijo, J.; Bekstein, A.; Ducasse, O.; Ruíz-Vargas, G.; Yousfi, M.; Benhenni, M.

    2009-12-01

    Using a pulsed Townsend experiment, we have observed the formation of two negative ion species in oxygen over the pressure range 100-600 torr, and the density-normalised electric field strength, E/N, from 2 to 14 Td. The peculiar shape of these transients has led us to propose a scheme of three-body ion-molecule reactions leading to the formation of O4 - and O6 -, which is substantiated by a curve fitting procedure. The resulting mobility data of these two ionic species have been used to calculate their respective momentum transfer collision cross sections, together with the dissociation cross sections that are needed to extend the range of calculation of mobility and diffusion (transverse and longitudinal) to 1000 Td. These calculations were based on an optimised Monte Carlo algorithm, using collision cross sections obtained from a JWKB approximation (Jeffreys-Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin) or taken from literature.

  4. Determining the nominal power transfer coefficient for passive surface acoustic wave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshenko, A. N.; Palamarchuk, A. A.; Semenko, A. I.

    1982-05-01

    A method for calculating the nominal power transfer coefficient of passive SAW devices operating in a linear mode is described. Relations of practical importance are obtained, making it possible, on the basis of known characteristics of acousto-electric transducers and acoustic lines, to determine the losses incurred by devices when they are connected to radioelectronic equipment. The relations also permit an assessment of the uniformity of the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the devices.

  5. Investigation of Oxygen Transfer Enhancement in Thermally Driven Cavities By Lattice Boltzmann Simulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huidan; Zhang, Jinsuo; Li, Ning

    2006-03-01

    We investigate the enhancement of mass transfer in 2D thermally driven cavities using lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) method. The computational technique integrates three coupled LBEs for solving velocity, temperature, and concentration fields simultaneously. Simulation is performed for oxygen transfer in lead/lead-bismuth eutectic with variations of temperature boundary, Schmidt number, and field aspect ratio to investigate the effects on enhancement of oxygen transfer. Interested characteristics include oxygen concentration, Sherwood number, and velocity profiles, etc. Our results clearly indicate that oxygen transfer is dominated by convection while diffusion also plays a role on it. Comparative studies demonstrate that side heating and top cooling device is more efficient to transfer oxygen than side heating and cooling device and oxygen transfers more rapidly in square cavity than in rectangular cavity. This work establishes a reliable thermal LBE model for thermally driven heat and mass transfer.

  6. Adiabatic Effectiveness and Heat Transfer Coefficient on a Film-Cooled Rotating Blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Vijay K.

    1997-01-01

    three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code has been used to compute the adiabatic effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient on a rotating film-cooled turbine blade. The blade chosen is the United Technologies Research Center(UTRC) rotor with five film-cooling rows containing 83 holes, including three rows on the shower head with 49 holes, covering about 86% of the blade span. The mainstream is akin to that under real engine conditions with stagnation temperature 1900 K and stagnation pressure 3 MPa. The blade speed is taken to be 5200 rpm. The adiabatic effectiveness is higher for a rotating blade as compared to that for a stationary blade. Also, the direction of coolant injection from the shower-head holes considerably affects the effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient values on both the pressure and suction surfaces. In all cases the heat transfer coefficient and adiabatic effectiveness are highly three-dimensional in the vicinity of holes but tend to become two-dimensional far downstream.

  7. Local pressure measurements and heat transfer coefficients of flow boiling in a rectangular microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmanto, M.

    2016-01-01

    Experiments to investigate local pressure distribution and local heat transfer coefficients during flow boiling of water in a microchannel were performed. The hydraulic diameter of the channel was 0.635 mm. The nominal mass fluxes used were varied from 200 to 700 kg/m2 s and heat fluxes ranging from 171 to 685 kW/m2 were applied. An inlet fluid temperature of 98 °C and pressure of 125 kPa were maintained at the microchannel entrance. There were six pressure tappings inserted into the channel to measure the local pressures and six thermocouple inserted into the channel block with equally distances to measure the wall local temperatures. The local pressure measurements during flow boiling show a non linear line connecting each local pressure, especially at higher heat fluxes or pressure drops. The non linear local pressure influences the value of the estimated local heat transfer coefficient. The effects of mass flux and heat flux on local heat transfer coefficient are also discussed.

  8. Determination of forced convective heat transfer coefficients for subsonic flows over heated asymmetric NANA 4412 airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dag, Yusuf

    Forced convection over traditional surfaces such as flat plate, cylinder and sphere have been well researched and documented. Data on forced convection over airfoil surfaces, however, remain very scanty in literature. High altitude vehicles that employ airfoils as lifting surfaces often suffer leading edge ice accretions which have tremendous negative consequences on the lifting capabilities and stability of the vehicle. One of the ways of mitigating the effect of ice accretion involves judicious leading edge convective cooling technique which in turn depends on the accuracy of convective heat transfer coefficient used in the analysis. In this study empirical investigation of convective heat transfer measurements on asymmetric airfoil is presented at different angle of attacks ranging from 0° to 20° under subsonic flow regime. The top and bottom surface temperatures are measured at given points using Senflex hot film sensors (Tao System Inc.) and used to determine heat transfer characteristics of the airfoils. The model surfaces are subjected to constant heat fluxes using KP Kapton flexible heating pads. The monitored temperature data are then utilized to determine the heat convection coefficients modelled empirically as the Nusselt Number on the surface of the airfoil. The experimental work is conducted in an open circuit-Eiffel type wind tunnel, powered by a 37 kW electrical motor that is able to generate subsonic air velocities up to around 41 m/s in the 24 square-inch test section. The heat transfer experiments have been carried out under constant heat flux supply to the asymmetric airfoil. The convective heat transfer coefficients are determined from measured surface temperature and free stream temperature and investigated in the form of Nusselt number. The variation of Nusselt number is shown with Reynolds number at various angles of attacks. It is concluded that Nusselt number increases with increasing Reynolds number and increase in angle of attack from 0

  9. In-situ determination of field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients: Performance, simulation and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobile, Michael; Widdowson, Mark; Stewart, Lloyd; Nyman, Jennifer; Deeb, Rula; Kavanaugh, Michael; Mercer, James; Gallagher, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Better estimates of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mass, its persistence into the future, and the potential impact of source reduction are critical needs for determining the optimal path to clean up sites impacted by NAPLs. One impediment to constraining time estimates of source depletion is the uncertainty in the rate of mass transfer between NAPLs and groundwater. In this study, an innovative field test is demonstrated for the purpose of quantifying field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients (klN) within a source zone of a fuel-contaminated site. Initial evaluation of the test concept using a numerical model revealed that the aqueous phase concentration response to the injection of clean groundwater within a source zone was a function of NAPL mass transfer. Under rate limited conditions, NAPL dissolution together with the injection flow rate and the radial distance to monitoring points directly controlled time of travel. Concentration responses observed in the field test were consistent with the hypothetical model results allowing field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients to be quantified. Site models for groundwater flow and solute transport were systematically calibrated and utilized for data analysis. Results show klN for benzene varied from 0.022 to 0.60 d- 1. Variability in results was attributed to a highly heterogeneous horizon consisting of layered media of varying physical properties.

  10. In-situ determination of field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients: Performance, simulation and analysis.

    PubMed

    Mobile, Michael; Widdowson, Mark; Stewart, Lloyd; Nyman, Jennifer; Deeb, Rula; Kavanaugh, Michael; Mercer, James; Gallagher, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Better estimates of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mass, its persistence into the future, and the potential impact of source reduction are critical needs for determining the optimal path to clean up sites impacted by NAPLs. One impediment to constraining time estimates of source depletion is the uncertainty in the rate of mass transfer between NAPLs and groundwater. In this study, an innovative field test is demonstrated for the purpose of quantifying field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients (kl(N)) within a source zone of a fuel-contaminated site. Initial evaluation of the test concept using a numerical model revealed that the aqueous phase concentration response to the injection of clean groundwater within a source zone was a function of NAPL mass transfer. Under rate limited conditions, NAPL dissolution together with the injection flow rate and the radial distance to monitoring points directly controlled time of travel. Concentration responses observed in the field test were consistent with the hypothetical model results allowing field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients to be quantified. Site models for groundwater flow and solute transport were systematically calibrated and utilized for data analysis. Results show kl(N) for benzene varied from 0.022 to 0.60d(-1). Variability in results was attributed to a highly heterogeneous horizon consisting of layered media of varying physical properties. PMID:26855386

  11. Mass transfer coefficient in ginger oil extraction by microwave hydrotropic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, Dwi; Ikhsan, Diyono; Yulianto, Mohamad Endy; Dwisukma, Mandy Ayulia

    2015-12-01

    This research aims to obtain mass transfer coefficient data on the extraction of ginger oil using microwave hydrotropic solvent as an alternative to increase zingiberene. The innovation of this study is extraction with microwave heater and hydrotropic solvent,which able to shift the phase equilibrium, and the increasing rate of the extraction process and to improve the content of ginger oil zingiberene. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Separation Techniques at Chemical Engineering Department of Diponegoro University. The research activities carried out in two stages, namely experimental and modeling work. Preparation of the model postulated, then lowered to obtain equations that were tested and validated using data obtained from experimental. Measurement of experimental data was performed using microwave power (300 W), extraction temperature of 90 ° C and the independent variable, i.e.: type of hydrotropic, the volume of solvent and concentration in order, to obtain zingiberen levels as a function of time. Measured data was used as a tool to validate the postulation, in order to obtain validation of models and empirical equations. The results showed that the mass transfer coefficient (Kla) on zingiberene mass transfer models ginger oil extraction at various hydrotropic solution attained more 14 ± 2 Kla value than its reported on the extraction with electric heating. The larger value of Kla, the faster rate of mass transfer on the extraction process. To obtain the same yields, the microwave-assisted extraction required one twelfth time shorter.

  12. A parameterization of eddy transfer coefficients for two-level seasonal statistical dynamical zonally averaged models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neeman, Binyamin U.; Ohring, George; Joseph, Joachim H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines a parameterization of a quasi-geostrophic eddy transport that takes into account the time variation of eddy transfer coefficients according to Green's (1970) theory. It was found that, in the original eddy transfer relationship of Green, connecting the integral of the northward eddy entropy flux through midlatitudes with the second power of the difference in 500-mb entropy across the region of baroclinic activity, a value of 4 for the exponent is obtained when the temperature gradients at 500 mb are used. When the gradients at 1000 mb are used, an exponent of 1.5 is obtained. The differences in the powers in the eddy transfer relation were explored in a two-level zonally averaged model. It was found that an appropriate choice of power may be of special importance if the model is devised to simulate the seasonal climate cycle or to test astronomical changes inducing different seasonalities.

  13. Comparison of experimental methods for determination of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient in fermentation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobajas, M.; García-Calvo, E.

    Mass transfer in bioreactors has been examined. In the present work, dynamic methods are used for the determination of KLa values for water, model media and a fermentation broth (Candida utilis) in an airlift reactor. The conventional dynamic method is applied at the end of the microbial process in order to avoid an alteration in the metabolism of the microorganisms. New dynamic methods are used to determine KLa in an airlift reactor during the microbial growth of Candida utilis on glucose. One of the methods is based on the continuous measurement of carbon dioxide production while the other method is based on the relationship between the oxygen transfer and biomass growth rates. These methods of determining KLa does not interfere with the microorganisms action. A theoretical mass transfer model has been used for KLa estimation for the systems described above. Some differences between calculated and measured values are found for fermentation processes due to the model is developed for two-phase air-water systems. Nevertheless, the average deviation between the predicted values and those obtained from the relationship between oxygen transfer and biomass production rates are lower than 25% in any case.

  14. Gas hold-up and oxygen mass transfer in three pneumatic bioreactors operating with sugarcane bagasse suspensions.

    PubMed

    Esperança, M N; Cunha, F M; Cerri, M O; Zangirolami, T C; Farinas, C S; Badino, A C

    2014-05-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a low-cost and abundant by-product generated by the bioethanol industry, and is a potential substrate for cellulolytic enzyme production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of air flow rate (QAIR), solids loading (%S), sugarcane bagasse type, and particle size on the gas hold-up (εG) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) in three different pneumatic bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Concentric tube airlift (CTA), split-cylinder airlift (SCA), and bubble column (BC) bioreactor types were tested. QAIR and %S affected oxygen mass transfer positively and negatively, respectively, while sugarcane bagasse type and particle size (within the range studied) did not influence kLa. Using large particles of untreated sugarcane bagasse, the loop-type bioreactors (CTA and SCA) exhibited higher mass transfer, compared to the BC reactor. At higher %S, SCA presented a higher kLa value (0.0448 s−1) than CTA, and the best operational conditions in terms of oxygen mass transfer were achieved for %S < 10.0 g L−1 and QAIR > 27.0 L min−1. These results demonstrated that pneumatic bioreactors can provide elevated oxygen transfer in the presence of vegetal biomass, making them an excellent option for use in three-phase systems for cellulolytic enzyme production by filamentous fungi. PMID:24078146

  15. Revisiting direct electron transfer in nanostructured carbon laccase oxygen cathodes.

    PubMed

    Adam, Catherine; Scodeller, Pablo; Grattieri, Matteo; Villalba, Matías; Calvo, Ernesto J

    2016-06-01

    The biocatalytic electroreduction of oxygen has been studied on large surface area graphite and Vulcan® carbon electrodes with adsorbed Trametes trogii laccase. The electrokinetics of the O2 reduction reaction (ORR) was studied at different electrode potentials, O2 partial pressures and concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Even though the overpotential at 0.25 mA·cm(-2) for the ORR at T1Cu of the adsorbed laccase on carbon is 0.8 V lower than for Pt of similar geometric area, the rate of the reaction and thus the operative current density is limited by the enzyme reaction rate at the T2/T3 cluster site for the adsorbed enzyme. The transition potential for the rate determining step from the direct electron transfer (DET) to the enzyme reaction shifts to higher potentials at higher oxygen partial pressure. Hydrogen peroxide produced by the ORR on bare carbon support participates in an inhibition mechanism, with uncompetitive predominance at high H2O2 concentration, non-competitive contribution can be detected at low inhibitor concentration. PMID:26883057

  16. The Seebeck Coefficient in Oxygen Enriched La2NiO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bach, Paul; Leboran, Victor; Rivadulla, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Oxide-based devices show promise for themoelectric applications due to their chemical stability and straightforward fabrication. The La2NiO4+δ system has been predicted to show an increased thermopower coupled with an increased electrical conductivity around δ = 0 . 05 [Pardo et al. PRB 86, 165114 (2012)] that could lead to a large thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT). We investigate the suitability of lanthanum nickelate as a candidate material for high-ZT devices through a systematic study of oxygenated thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. We report the electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and structural morphology of La2NiO4 grown in a range of oxidizing atmospheres and discuss their implications for controlled engineering of thermoelectric properties. We have explored the possibility of gate-tuning these systems in order to fabricate single-oxide based devices. This work was supported by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (Spain), grant MAT2010-16157, and the European Research Council, grant ERC-2010-StG 259082 2D THERMS.

  17. Mass transfer in SCW extraction molecular diffusion and mass transfer coefficients of ketones and alkenes in sub- and supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Goemans, M.G.E.; Gloyna, E.F.

    1996-10-01

    The potential of sub- and supercritical water as extraction solvents has been demonstrated for the (reactive) extraction of coals, used car tires, organic species from residual aqueous solutions, and class selective extraction of organic pollutants with different polarities from solids. In addition, the potential of extraction of coal with supercritical aqueous solutions has been studied. However, physical transport in water at elevated temperature and pressures- and their impact on heterogenous reactions and (reactive) extraction -are not adequately understood. This situation is largely due to the limited data that is available for diffusion in high temperature, high pressure water mixture. Only the molecular diffusion of Iodine ions and hydroquinone in near-critical subcritical water and the self diffusion of coefficient of compressed supercritical water have been reported. In this paper, we present molecular diffusion coefficients of benzophenone, acetone, naphthalene, and anthracene in water at infinite dilution. Pressures ranged from 250 to 500 bar at temperatures ranging from 50{degrees}C to 500{degrees}C resulting in water densities ranging from 1000 to 150 kg/m{sup 3}. Diffusion coefficients were determined by the Taylor-Aris dispersion technique. The effects of increased diffusion on the mass transfer coefficients for emulsions and packed beds were quantified. Molecular division coefficients were 10 to 20 times faster in supercritical water than in water at ambient conditions. Experimental results were correlated with hydrodynamic and kinetic theory. This study and results to be published elsewhere show that diffusion-limited conditions are much more likely to be encountered in supercritical water than is commonly acknowledged.

  18. COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY METHOD FOR PREDICTING VAPOR PRESSURES AND ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS OF POLAR ORGANIC OXYGENATES IN PM2.5

    EPA Science Inventory

    Parameterizations of interactions of polar multifunctional organic oxygenates in PM2.5 must be included in aerosol chemistry models for evaluating control strategies for reducing ambient concentrations of PM2.5 compounds. Vapor pressures and activity coefficients of these compo...

  19. Detailed heat transfer coefficient measurements and thermal analysis at engine conditions of a pedestal with fillet radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Ireland, P. T.; Jones, T. V.

    1995-04-01

    The heat transfer coefficient over the surface of a pedestal with fillet radii has been measured using thermochromic liquid crystals and the transient heat transfer method. The tests were performed at engine representative Reynolds numbers for a geometry typical of those used in turbine blade cooling systems. The heat conduction process that occurs in the engine was subsequently modeled numerically with a finite element discretization of the solid pedestal. The measured heat transfer coefficients were used to derive the exact boundary conditions applicable to the engine. The temperature field within the pedestal, calculated using the correct heat transfer coefficient distribution, is compared to that calculated using an area-averaged heat transfer coefficient. Metal temperature differences of 90 K are predicted across the blade wall.

  20. Transient technique for measuring heat transfer coefficients on stator airfoils in a jet engine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, H. J.; Proctor, M. P.

    A transient technique was used to measure heat transfer coefficients on stator airfoils in a high-temperature annular cascade at real engine conditions. The transient response of thin film thermocouples on the airfoil surface to step changes in the gas stream temperature was used to determine these coefficients. In addition, gardon gages and paired thermocouples were also utilized to measure heat flux on the airfoil pressure surface at steady state conditions. The tests were conducted at exit gas stream Reynolds numbers of one-half to 1.9 million based on true chord. The results from the transient technique show good comparison with the steady-state results in both trend and magnitude. In addition, comparison is made with the STAN5 boundary layer code and shows good comparison with the trends. However, the magnitude of the experimental data is consistently higher than the analysis.

  1. Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients Dan Wendt, Greg Mines Idaho National Laboratory The use of mixed working fluids in binary power plants can provide significant increases in plant performance, provided the heat exchangers are designed to take advantage of these fluids non-isothermal phase changes. In the 1980's testing was conducted at DOE's Heat Cycle Research Facility (HCRF) where mixtures of different compositions were vaporized at supercritical pressures and then condensed. This testing had focused on using the data collected to verify that Heat Transfer Research Incorporated (HTRI) codes were suitable for the design of heat exchangers that could be used with mixtures. The HCRF data includes mixture compositions varying from 0% to 40% isopentane and condenser tube orientations of 15{sup o}, 60{sup o}, and 90{sup o} from horizontal. Testing was performed over a range of working fluid and cooling fluid conditions. Though the condenser used in this testing was water cooled, the working fluid condensation occurred on the tube-side of the heat exchanger. This tube-side condensation is analogous to that in an air-cooled condenser. Tube-side condensing heat transfer coefficient information gleaned from the HCRF testing is used in this study to assess the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs for use with mixtures. Results of an air-cooled binary plant process model performed with Aspen Plus indicate that that the optimal mixture composition (producing the maximum net power for the scenario considered) is within the range of compositions for which data exist. The HCRF data is used to assess the impact of composition, tube orientation, and process parameters on the condensing heat transfer coefficients. The sensitivity of the condensing coefficients to these factors is evaluated and the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs with mixtures is assessed. This paper summarizes the evaluation of the HCRF

  2. Surface heat transfer coefficient, heat efficiency, and temperature of pulsed solid-state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, K.; Weber, H.

    1988-08-01

    The temperature of solid-state lasers is a critical parameter. Efficiency and output power are strongly influenced by it. The two parameters which determine the temperature are the heat generation efficiency (HGE) and the surface heat transfer coefficient (SHTC) of the laser rod. These parameters allow the scaling of the rod temperature up to high pumping powers. Moreover, from the temperature inside the rod, the temperature gradients and the mechanical stress can be evaluated. Using transient temperature measurements, the SHTC and the HGE were determined for air- and water-cooled Nd:YAG and alexandrite lasers. The SHTC can be confirmed by theoretical considerations.

  3. Evaluation of oxygen mass transfer in Aspergillus niger fermentation using data reconciliation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nilesh; Thibault, Jules

    2004-01-01

    Fermentation experiments using Aspergillus niger result in a very viscous broth due to the growth of filamentous microorganism. For viscous fermentation processes, it is difficult to estimate with confidence the volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (K(L)a), which can be used for scale-up or design of bioreactors. In the present study, four methods based on dynamic and stationary approaches were used to measure K(L)a throughout the fermentation. Data reconciliation was used to obtain a more reliable and consistent K(L)a. The K(L)a value obtained by a data reconciliation technique was found to be more reliable since it takes into consideration both the reliability of all measured variables and the accuracy of all mass balance equations. PMID:14763848

  4. Solution of boundary heat transfer coefficients between hot stamping die and cooling water based on FEM and optimization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huiping; He, Lianfang; Zhang, Chunzhi; Cui, Hongzhi

    2016-04-01

    The thermal physical parameters have significant effects on the calculation accuracy of physical fields, and the boundary heat transfer coefficient between the die and water is one of the most important thermal physical parameters in the hot stamping. In order to attain the boundary heat transfer coefficient, the testing devices and test procedures are designed according to the characteristic of heat transfer in the hot stamping die. A method of estimating the temperature-dependent boundary heat transfer coefficient is presented, and an inverse heat conduction software is developed based on finite element method, advance-retreat method and golden section method. The software is used to calculate the boundary heat transfer coefficient according to the temperatures measured by NiCr-NiSi thermocouples in the experiment. The research results show that, the convergence of the method given in the paper is well, the surface temperature of sample has a significant effect on the boundary heat transfer coefficient between the die and water. The boundary heat transfer coefficient increases as the surface temperature of sample reduces, and the variation is nonlinear.

  5. Oxygen-reducing biocathodes operating with passive oxygen transfer in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xue; Tokash, Justin C; Zhang, Fang; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-02-19

    Oxygen-reducing biocathodes previously developed for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have required energy-intensive aeration of the catholyte. To avoid the need for aeration, the ability of biocathodes to function with passive oxygen transfer was examined here using air cathode MFCs. Two-chamber, air cathode MFCs with biocathodes produced a maximum power density of 554 ± 0 mW/m(2), which was comparable to that obtained with a Pt cathode (576 ± 16 mW/m(2)), and 38 times higher than that produced without a catalyst (14 ± 3 mW/m(2)). The maximum current density with biocathodes in this air-cathode MFC was 1.0 A/m(2), compared to 0.49 A/m(2) originally produced in a two-chamber MFC with an aqueous cathode (with cathode chamber aeration). Single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs with the same biocathodes initially produced higher voltages than those with Pt cathodes, but after several cycles the catalytic activity of the biocathodes was lost. This change in cathode performance resulted from direct exposure of the cathodes to solutions containing high concentrations of organic matter in the single-chamber configuration. Biocathode performance was not impaired in two-chamber designs where the cathode was kept separated from the anode solution. These results demonstrate that direct-air biocathodes can work very well, but only under conditions that minimize heterotrophic growth of microorganisms on the cathodes. PMID:23360098

  6. Transfer coefficient of 137Cs from feed to cow milk in tropical region Kaiga, India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, R M; James, J P; Dileep, B N; Mulla, R M; Reji, T K; Ravi, P M; Hegde, A G; Sarkar, P K

    2012-04-01

    In the transport model for the prediction of the concentration of (137)Cs in milk, the transfer coefficient from feed to milk, F(m), is an important parameter. Site-specific transfer coefficient from feed to cow's milk, for (137)Cs in the Kaiga environment, a nuclear power station site in India, determined over a period of 10 y is presented in this paper. The value is determined from (137)Cs concentration in milk and grass samples of the Kaiga region and the result ranged from 6.43E-03 to 1.09E-02 d l(-1) with a geometric mean value of 8.0E-03 d l(-1). The result is compared with that for (40)K, determined concurrently at the same region and ranged from 3.06E-03 to 3.48E-03 d l(-1) with a geometric mean value of 3.26E-03 d l(-1). This parameter is quite useful in decision-making for implementing countermeasures during a large area contamination with (137)Cs in tropical areas like Kaiga. PMID:21685495

  7. Utility of Assimilating Surface Radiometric Temperature Observations for Evaporative Fraction and Heat Transfer Coefficient Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, Wade T.; Kustas, William P.

    2005-04-01

    Recent advances in land data assimilation have yielded variational smoother techniques designed to solve the surface energy balance based on remote observations of surface radiometric temperature. These approaches have a number of potential advantages over existing diagnostic models, including the ability to make energy flux predictions between observation times and reduced requirements for ancillary parameter estimation. Here, the performance of a recently developed variational smoother approach is examined in detail over a range of vegetative and hydrological conditions in the southern U.S.A. during the middle part of the growing season. Smoother results are compared with flux tower observations and energy balance predictions obtained from the two-source energy balance model (TSM). The variational approach demonstrates promise for flux retrievals at dry and lightly vegetated sites. However, results suggest that the simultaneous retrieval of both evaporative fraction and turbulent transfer coefficients by the variational approach will be difficult for wet and/or heavily vegetated land surfaces. Additional land surface information (e.g. leaf area index ( L AI) or the rough specification of evaporative fraction bounds) will be required to ensure robust predictions under such conditions. The single-source nature of the variational approach also hampers the physical interpretation of turbulent transfer coefficient retrievals. Intercomparisons between energy flux predictions from the variational approach and the purely diagnostic TSM demonstrate that the relative accuracy of each approach is contingent on surface conditions and the accuracy with which L AI values required by the TSM can be estimated.

  8. Calculating Hot Spring/Atmospheric Coupling Using the Coefficient of Convective Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, C.; Price, A. N.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Larson, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    We calculated the correlation between discharge temperature and wind speed for multiple hydrothermal springs, both in the Alvord Basin of southeast Oregon and our primary field location in Yellowstone National Park, using spring temperatures, wind speeds, and air temperatures logged at three minute intervals for multiple days. We find that some hydrothermal springs exhibit strong coupling with wind speed and/or air temperatures. The three springs described in this work display this strong coupling, with correlations between wind speed and spring temperature as high as 70 percent; as a result, we can use the changes in spring temperature as a proxy for changes in the coefficient of convective heat transfer (h) between the springs and the atmosphere. The coefficient of convective heat transfer is a complex parameter to measure, but is a necessary input to many heat and mass flux analyses. The results of this study provide a way to estimate h for springs with strong atmospheric coupling, which is a critical component of a total energy balance for hydrothermal discharge areas.

  9. Dissolved oxygen transfer to sediments by sweep and eject motions in aquatic environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, B.L.; Hondzo, Miki

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations were quantified near the sediment-water interface to evaluate DO transfer to sediments in a laboratory recirculating flume and open channel under varying fluid-flow conditions. DO concentration fluctuations were observed within the diffusive sublayer, as defined by the time-averaged DO concentration gradient near the sediment-water interface. Evaluation of the DO concentration fluctuations along with detailed fluid-flow characterizations were used to quantify quasi-periodic sweep and eject motions (bursting events) near the sediments. Bursting events dominated the Reynolds shear stresses responsible for momentum and mass fluctuations near the sediment bed. Two independent methods for detecting bursting events using DO concentration and velocity data produced consistent results. The average time between bursting events was scaled with wall variables and was incorporated into a similarity model to describe the dimensionless mass transfer coefficient (Sherwood number, Sh) in terms of the Reynolds number, Re, and Schmidt number, Sc, which described transport in the flow. The scaling of bursting events was employed with the similarity model to quantify DO transfer to sediments and results showed a high degree of agreement with experimental data. ?? 2008, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  10. Turbulent transfer coefficient and roughness length in a high-altitude lake, Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaoguo; Lyu, Shihua; Zhao, Lin; Wen, Lijuan; Ao, Yinhuan; Wang, Shaoying

    2016-05-01

    A persistent unstable atmospheric boundary layer was observed over Lake Ngoring, caused by higher temperature on the water surface compared with the overlying air. Against this background, the eddy covariance flux data collected from Lake Ngoring were used to analyse the variation of transfer coefficients and roughness lengths for momentum, heat and moisture. Results are discussed and compared with parameterization schemes in a lake model. The drag coefficient and momentum roughness length rapidly decreased with increasing wind velocity, reached a minimum value in the moderate wind velocity and then increased slowly as wind velocity increased further. Under weak wind conditions, the surface tension or small scale capillary wave becomes more important and increases the surface roughness. The scalar roughness length ratio was much larger than unity under weak wind conditions, and it decreased to values near unity as wind velocity exceeded 4.0 m s-1. The lake model could not reproduce well the variation of drag coefficient, or momentum roughness length, versus wind velocity in Lake Ngoring, but it did simulate well the sensible heat and latent heat fluxes, as a result of complementary opposite errors.

  11. Electrocatalysis of anodic oxygen-transfer reactions: Evolution of ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, J.; Johnson, D.C. ); Lowery, S.N.; Carey, J.J. . Kodak Research Labs.)

    1994-10-01

    Current efficiencies are compared for the generation of O[sub 3] simultaneously with O[sub 2] during anodic discharge of H[sub 2]O at pure and iron(III)-doped [beta]-lead dioxide film electrodes in phosphate buffer (pH 7.5, 10 C) containing 2.5 mM KF. Also examined is the effect of applied current density. A current efficiency of 14.6% was obtained for the Fe(III)-doped PbO[sub 2] film electrode deposited on a internally cooled (10 C) tubular titanium substrate at a current density of 200 mA cm[sup [minus]2] as compared to only 6.1% at the undoped PbO[sub 2] electrode under the same conditions. This result is tentatively explained on the basis of a mechanism involving the transfer of oxygen from hydroxyl radicals adsorbed on Pb(IV) sites adjacent to Fe(III) sites to O[sub 2] adsorbed at the Fe(III) sites in the surface of the Fe(III)-doped PbO[sub 2] electrodes.

  12. Local convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor of CuO/water nanofluid in a microchannel heat sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabi, A. R.; Zarrinabadi, S.; Peyghambarzadeh, S. M.; Hashemabadi, S. H.; Salimi, M.

    2016-06-01

    Forced convective heat transfer in a microchannel heat sink (MCHS) using CuO/water nanofluids with 0.1 and 0.2 vol% as coolant was investigated. The experiments were focused on the heat transfer enhancement in the channel entrance region at Re < 1800. Hydraulic performance of the MCHS was also estimated by measuring friction factor and pressure drop. Results showed that higher convective heat transfer coefficient was obtained at the microchannel entrance. Maximum enhancement of the average heat transfer coefficient compared with deionized water was about 40 % for 0.2 vol% nanofluid at Re = 1150. Enhancement of the convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid decreased with further increasing of Reynolds number.

  13. Thermocouple error correction for measuring the flame temperature with determination of emissivity and heat transfer coefficient.

    PubMed

    Hindasageri, V; Vedula, R P; Prabhu, S V

    2013-02-01

    Temperature measurement by thermocouples is prone to errors due to conduction and radiation losses and therefore has to be corrected for precise measurement. The temperature dependent emissivity of the thermocouple wires is measured by the use of thermal infrared camera. The measured emissivities are found to be 20%-40% lower than the theoretical values predicted from theory of electromagnetism. A transient technique is employed for finding the heat transfer coefficients for the lead wire and the bead of the thermocouple. This method does not require the data of thermal properties and velocity of the burnt gases. The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present method have an average deviation of 20% from the available heat transfer correlations in literature for non-reacting convective flow over cylinders and spheres. The parametric study of thermocouple error using the numerical code confirmed the existence of a minimum wire length beyond which the conduction loss is a constant minimal. Temperature of premixed methane-air flames stabilised on 16 mm diameter tube burner is measured by three B-type thermocouples of wire diameters: 0.15 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.60 mm. The measurements are made at three distances from the burner tip (thermocouple tip to burner tip/burner diameter = 2, 4, and 6) at an equivalence ratio of 1 for the tube Reynolds number varying from 1000 to 2200. These measured flame temperatures are corrected by the present numerical procedure, the multi-element method, and the extrapolation method. The flame temperatures estimated by the two-element method and extrapolation method deviate from numerical results within 2.5% and 4%, respectively. PMID:23464237

  14. Thermocouple error correction for measuring the flame temperature with determination of emissivity and heat transfer coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindasageri, V.; Vedula, R. P.; Prabhu, S. V.

    2013-02-01

    Temperature measurement by thermocouples is prone to errors due to conduction and radiation losses and therefore has to be corrected for precise measurement. The temperature dependent emissivity of the thermocouple wires is measured by the use of thermal infrared camera. The measured emissivities are found to be 20%-40% lower than the theoretical values predicted from theory of electromagnetism. A transient technique is employed for finding the heat transfer coefficients for the lead wire and the bead of the thermocouple. This method does not require the data of thermal properties and velocity of the burnt gases. The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present method have an average deviation of 20% from the available heat transfer correlations in literature for non-reacting convective flow over cylinders and spheres. The parametric study of thermocouple error using the numerical code confirmed the existence of a minimum wire length beyond which the conduction loss is a constant minimal. Temperature of premixed methane-air flames stabilised on 16 mm diameter tube burner is measured by three B-type thermocouples of wire diameters: 0.15 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.60 mm. The measurements are made at three distances from the burner tip (thermocouple tip to burner tip/burner diameter = 2, 4, and 6) at an equivalence ratio of 1 for the tube Reynolds number varying from 1000 to 2200. These measured flame temperatures are corrected by the present numerical procedure, the multi-element method, and the extrapolation method. The flame temperatures estimated by the two-element method and extrapolation method deviate from numerical results within 2.5% and 4%, respectively.

  15. Characterization of rock matrix block size distribution, dispersivity, and mass transfer coefficients in fractured porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi Haddad, Amin

    characterize the slope of the linear function for different rock geometries. The final part of the study is the development of a lumped mass transfer coefficient between fractures and rock matrix blocks with different geometries. The obtained lumped mass transfer coefficient confirms that the scale of study, dispersivity, and the rate of injection of the fluid into the wellbore are important variables in solute transport in fractured rocks.

  16. Heat transfer coefficient for flow boiling in an annular mini gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hożejowska, Sylwia; Musiał, Tomasz; Piasecka, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the concept of mathematical models of heat transfer in flow boiling in an annular mini gap between the metal pipe with enhanced exterior surface and the external glass pipe. The one- and two-dimensional mathematical models were proposed to describe stationary heat transfer in the gap. A set of experimental data governed both the form of energy equations in cylindrical coordinates and the boundary conditions. The models were formulated to minimize the number of experimentally determined constants. Known temperature distributions in the enhanced surface and in the fluid helped to determine, from the Robin condition, the local heat transfer coefficients at the enhanced surface - fluid contact. The Trefftz method was used to find two-dimensional temperature distributions for the thermal conductive filler layer, enhanced surface and flowing fluid. The method of temperature calculation depended on whether the area of single-phase convection ended with boiling incipience in the gap or the two-phase flow region prevailed, with either fully developed bubbly flow or bubbly-slug flow. In the two-phase flow, the fluid temperature was calculated by Trefftz method. Trefftz functions for the Laplace equation and for the energy equation were used in the calculations.

  17. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport.

    PubMed

    Leung, Juliana Y; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  18. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Juliana Y.; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  19. Analytical determination of local surface heat-transfer coefficients for cooled turbine blades from measured metal temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W Byron; Esgar, Jack B

    1950-01-01

    Analytical methods are presented for the determination of local values of outside and inside heat-transfer coefficients and effective gas temperatures by use of turbine-blade-temperature measurements. The methods are derived for a number of configurations that can be applied to typical cooled-turbine-blade shapes as well as to other types of heat-transfer apparatus.

  20. Determination of heat transfer coefficients at metal/chill interface in the casting solidification process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Li, Luoxing

    2013-08-01

    The present work focuses on the determination of interfacial heat transfer coefficients (IHTCs) between the casting and metal chill during casting solidification. The proposed method is established based on the least-squares technique and sequential function specification method and can be applied to calculate heat fluxes and IHTCs for other alloys. The accuracy and stability of the method has been investigated by using a typical profile of heat fluxes simulating the practical conditions of casting solidification. In the test process, the effects of various calculation parameters in the inverse algorithm are also analyzed. Moreover, numerically calculated and experimental results are compared by applying the determined IHTCs into the forward heat conduction model with the same boundary conditions. The results show that the numerically calculated temperatures are in good agreement with those measured experimentally. This confirms that the proposed method is a feasible and effective tool for determination of the casting-mold IHTCs.

  1. Buoyancy flux, turbulence, and the gas transfer coefficient in a stratified lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIntyre, Sally; Jonsson, Anders; Jansson, Mats; Aberg, Jan; Turney, Damon E.; Miller, Scott D.

    2010-12-01

    Gas fluxes from lakes and other stratified water bodies, computed using conservative values of the gas transfer coefficient k600, have been shown to be a significant component of the carbon cycle. We present a mechanistic analysis of the dominant physical processes modifying k600 in a stratified lake and resulting new models of k600 whose use will enable improved computation of carbon fluxes. Using eddy covariance results, we demonstrate that i) higher values of k600 occur during low to moderate winds with surface cooling than with surface heating; ii) under overnight low wind conditions k600 depends on buoyancy flux β rather than wind speed; iii) the meteorological conditions at the time of measurement and the inertia within the lake determine k600; and iv) eddy covariance estimates of k600 compare well with predictions of k600 using a surface renewal model based on wind speed and β.

  2. Non-Fourier Thermoelastic Analysis of an Annular Fin with Variable Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Haw-Long; Chang, Win-Jin; Chen, Wen-Lih; Yang, Yu-Ching

    2012-06-01

    This paper numerically investigates the hyperbolic thermoelastic problem of an annular fin. The ambient convection heat transfer coefficient of the fin is assumed to be spatially varying. The major difficulty in dealing with such problems is the suppression of numerical oscillations in the vicinity of a jump discontinuity. An efficient numerical scheme involving hybrid application of Laplace transform and control volume method in conjunction with hyperbolic shape functions is used to solve the linear hyperbolic heat conduction equation. The transformed nodal temperatures are inverted to the physical quantities by using numerical inversion of the Laplace transform. Then the stress distributions in the annular fin are calculated subsequently. The results in the illustrated examples show that the application of hyperbolic shape functions can successfully suppress the numerical oscillations in the vicinity of jump discontinuities.

  3. Determination of the metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient of high pressure die cast B390 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yongyou; Guo, Zhipeng; Xiong, Shoumei

    2012-07-01

    High-pressure die cast B390 alloy was prepared on a 350 ton cold chamber die casting machine. The metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient of the alloy was investigated. Considering the filling process, a "finger"-shaped casting was designed for the experiments. This casting consisted of five plates with different thicknesses (0.05 inch or 1.27 mm to 0.25 inch or 6.35 mm) as well as individual ingates and overflows. Experiments under various operation conditions were conducted, and temperatures were measured at various specific locations inside the die. Based on the results, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient and heat flux were determined by solving the inverse heat transfer problem. The influence of the mold-filling sequence, sensor locations, as well as processing parameters including the casting pressure, die temperature, and fast/slow shot speeds on the heat transfer coefficient were discussed.

  4. Determination of the Heat Transfer Coefficient at the Metal-Mold Interface During Centrifugal Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacca, Santiago; Martorano, Marcelo A.; Heringer, Romulo; Boccalini, Mário

    2015-05-01

    The heat transfer coefficient at the metal-mold interface ( h MM) has been determined for the first time during the centrifugal casting of a Fe-C alloy tube using the inverse solution method. To apply this method, a centrifugal casting experiment was carried out to measure cooling curves within the tube wall under a mold rotation speed of 900 rpm, imposing a centrifugal force 106 times as large as the gravity force (106 G). As part of the solution method, a comprehensive heat transfer model of the centrifugal casting was also developed and coupled to an optimization algorithm. Finally, the evolution of h MM with time that gives the minimum squared error between measured and calculated cooling curves was obtained. The determined h MM is approximately 870 W m-2 K-1 immediately after melt pouring, decreasing to about 50 W m-2 K-1 when the average temperature of the tube is ~973 K (700 °C), after the end of solidification. Despite the existence of a centrifugal force that could enhance the metal-mold contact, these values are lower than those generally reported for static molds with or without an insulating coating at the mold inner surface. The implemented model shows that the heat loss by radiation is dominant over that by convection at the tube inner surface, causing the formation of a solidification front that meets another front coming from the outer surface of the tube.

  5. Local Mass Transfer Coefficient for Idealized 2D Urban Street Canyon Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Ka Kit; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2011-09-01

    Human activities in urban areas is one of the major sources of anthropogenic releases in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The mechanism of urban morphology for the heat and mass transfer in built environment is thus an attractive topic in the research community. In this paper, a series of laboratory measurements is conducted to elucidate the mass transfer from hypothetical urban roughness constructed by idealized 2D street canyons. The experiments are carried out in the wind tunnel in the University of Hong Kong. The urban ABL structure inside the wind tunnel is controlled by placing small cubic Styrofoam blocks upstream of the test section. The street canyons are fabricated by movable rectangular acrylic blocks so that different building height to street width (aspect) ratios are examined. The height of building blocks is kept minimum to make sure that the urban ABL over the street canyons is high enough for fully developed turbulent flows. The prevailing wind is normal to the street axis, demonstrating the scenario of least pollutant removal from the street canyons to the urban ABL. The sample street canyon is covered by soaked filter papers to represent uniform mass concentrations on the building facades and ground surface. The wet bulb temperature of the filter papers is continuously monitored to ensure saturated conditions. Their weight before and after an experiment is used to measure the amount of water evaporated. Preliminary results illustrate the local mass transfer coefficient distribution for aspect ratios 1/4, 1/2, 1, and 2, which are comparable with those available in literuatre.

  6. Determination of air side heat transfer coefficient in a mini-channel heat exchanger using Wilson Plot method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoo, K. K.; Chin, W. M.; Heikal, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the air side heat transfer coefficient of an aluminium mini-channel heat exchanger was investigated for single-phase flow in the mini-channel, with water in the tubes and air on the outside. Research methods included hydraulic tests on a single mini-channel tube, Wilson Plot experiments and experiment validation. Results obtained from the hydraulic test showed that turbulent flow occurred in the tube at a Reynolds number of 830. Wilson Plot experiments were conducted to determine air side heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger. The tube side Reynolds number was maintained above 1000 to ensure turbulent flow and tube side heat transfer coefficient was calculated using Gnielinski equation for turbulent flow. The air side heat transfer coefficients obtained from the Wilson Plot experiments were in good agreement with known correlations. The outcome of this study is to use the air side heat transfer coefficient to calculate the performance of refrigerant condensers for different tube pass ratios and flow pass configurations.

  7. Revised model coefficients for vibrational relaxation in a nitrogen-oxygen gas mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehre, R. M.; Wheatley, V.; Boyce, R. R.

    2012-11-01

    A numerical investigation of thermal non-equilibrium flows requires species specific relaxation rates, which are often calculated using the Landau-Teller model. This model requires the determination of collision specific relaxation times, which can be computed using Millikan and White's empirical formula. The coefficients used in this formula for each specific collision pair form a set of coefficients, which are assessed here. The focus of the investigation lies on their performance in hypersonic low-temperature (300-2,500 K) flows that occur at shock-tunnel nozzle exits or in supersonic combustion ramjets (scramjets) before combustion. Two experimental validation cases are chosen; a shock-tunnel nozzle and a sharp cone in hypersonic cross-flow experiment. A comparison of the experimentally measured vibrational temperatures at the nozzle exit against numerical data shows large discrepancies for two commonly used coefficient sets. A revised set of coefficients is proposed that greatly improves the agreement between the numerical and experimental results. Furthermore, the numerically generated shock shape over the sharp cone using the revised set of coefficients correlates well with the experimental measurements.

  8. Improved oxygen mass transfer modeling for diffused or subsurface aeration systems

    SciTech Connect

    McWhirter, J.R.; Hutter, J.C. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1988-01-01

    The mass transfer analysis of the oxygen transfer performance of diffused air or subsurface mechanical aeration systems has progressed very little over the past twenty years. The ASCE Standard Method for determination of the oxygen mass transfer performance as applied to a diffused or subsurface aeration systems is based on a greatly over-simplified mass transfer model. Although the ASCE Standard can be used to empirically evaluate point performance conditions, it is not suitable for prediction of the performance of diffused aeration systems under changing operating or environmental conditions. A new oxygen mass transfer model has been developed which is a fundamentally more rigorous description of the actual mass transfer process in diffused aeration systems. This model can be confidently used to predict aerator performance under changing operation and environmental conditions and is easily adapted to numerical solution on a computer for routing aeration system performance evaluation as well as process design. The model is presented in this book.

  9. Oxygen transfer in marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G; Johnson, Melvin H; Matheny, Terry A; Forbes, Dean; Reddy, Gudigopuram B

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen transfer efficiencies of various components of the marsh-pond-marsh (M-P-M) and marsh-floating bed-marsh (M-FB-M) wetlands treating swine wastewater were determined by performing oxygen mass balance around the wetlands. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) and total nitrogen (TN) loading and escaping rates from each wetland were used to calculate carbonaceous and nitrogenous oxygen demands. Ammonia emissions were measured using a wind tunnel. Oxygen transfer efficiencies of the aerated ponds were estimated by conducting the ASCE standard oxygen transfer test in a tank using the same aeration device. Covering pond water surface with the floating bed slightly decreased oxygen transfer efficiency. The diffused membrane aeration (26.7 kg O2 ha-1 d-1) of M-P-M was surprisingly not as effective as plant aeration in the marsh (38.9 to 42.0 kg O2 ha-1 d-1). This unusually low oxygen transfer efficiency of the diffused aeration was attributed to its low submergence depth of 0.8 m compared to typical depth of 4.5 m. The wetlands consisting entirely of marsh removed similar amounts of C and N without investing additional equipment and energy costs of aerating ponds in the middle of wetlands. PMID:20390880

  10. Orbit transfer rocket engine technology program: Oxygen materials compatibility testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenman, Leonard

    1989-01-01

    Particle impact and frictional heating tests of metals in high pressure oxygen, are conducted in support of the design of an advanced rocket engine oxygen turbopump. Materials having a wide range of thermodynamic properties including heat of combustion and thermal diffusivity were compared in their resistance to ignition and sustained burning. Copper, nickel and their alloys were found superior to iron based and stainless steel alloys. Some materials became more difficult to ignite as oxygen pressure was increased from 7 to 21 MPa (1000 to 3000 psia).

  11. Correlation formulas for the frost thickness and heat transfer coefficient on a cylinder in humid air cross flow

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.; Sherif, S.A.; Wong, K.V.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports on results of an experimental investigation where the emphasis was placed on obtaining empirical correlations for the frost thickness-time history and the heat transfer coefficient-time history for a cylinder in humid air cross flow. The facility employed for the investigation consisted of a low velocity wind tunnel comprised of a rectangular test section, a transition section and a honeycomb placed at the tunnel entrance. An external refrigerator was used to cool an antifreeze solution having a mixture of 90% methanol and 10% ethylene glycol. Measured parameters included, among other things, the heat transfer coefficient as well as the frost thickness.

  12. Analysis of heat transfer coefficient for variable spatial orientation of a minichannel with an enhanced surface at incipience of boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piasecka, Magdalena; Maciejewska, Beata

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents flow boiling heat transfer of FC-72 in 1 mm depth, 40 mm width minichannel where a foil with evenly distributed recesses on one side acts as a heating surface. The minichannel is set at various angles, i.e. 0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 degrees inclinations in relation to the horizontal plane. The plain side of the foil is observed to determine the surface temperature by liquid crystal thermography. Two heat transfer models: one- and two-dimensional are proposed to calculate local heat transfer coefficients. In the two-dimensional approach the inverse problem in the heating wall is solved by the semi-analytical method based on Trefftz functions in subareas, abbreviated to the nodeless Trefftz method. Local values of heat transfer coefficient on the surface between the heating foil and boiling liquid were calculated on the basis of the third-kind boundary condition. The influence of minichannel orientation on heat transfer coefficient at boiling incipience region values were analyzed. The same tendencies in the results were observed for the two applied methods. The one-dimensional approach seems to be less sensitive to measurement errors. The polynomial smoothing of the results applied in the two-dimensional method can affect the rounding values of coefficient.

  13. Oxygen Transfer in a Fluctuating Capillary Fringe: Impact of Porous Medium Heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberer, C.; Rolle, M.; Cirpka, O. A.; Grathwohl, P.

    2013-12-01

    Mass transfer of oxygen from the atmosphere, across the capillary fringe, to anoxic groundwater is of primary importance for many biogeochemical processes affecting groundwater quality. The controlling mechanisms for oxygen transfer across the capillary fringe are the diffusive/dispersive transport as well as mass exchange between entrapped air and groundwater. In addition, the presence of physical heterogeneity in the porous medium may strongly affect the oxygen fluxes. We performed quasi two-dimensional flow-through experiments at the laboratory bench-scale to study the effect of a coarse-material inclusion, located in proximity of the water table, on flow and oxygen transfer in the capillary fringe. Flow and transport were monitored under both steady-state and transient flow conditions, the latter obtained by fluctuating the water table. We visually inspected the complex flow field using a dye tracer solution, measured vertical oxygen profiles across the capillary fringe at high spatial resolution, and determined oxygen fluxes in the effluent of the flow-through chamber. Our results show that the coarse-material inclusion significantly affected oxygen transfer during the different phases of the experiments. At steady state, the oxygen flux across the unsaturated/saturated interface was considerably enhanced due to flow focusing in the fully water-saturated coarse lens. During drainage, the capillary barrier effect prevented water to drain from the fine material overlying the coarse lens. The entrapped oxygen-rich aqueous phase contributed to the total amount of oxygen supplied to the system when the water table was raised back to its initial level. In case of imbibition, also pronounced entrapment of air occurred in the coarse lens, causing oxygen to partition between the aqueous and gaseous phases. Thus, we found that oxygen transfer across the capillary fringe was significantly enhanced by the coarse-material inclusion due to flow focusing, the capillary

  14. Experimentally Determined Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients for Spacesuit Liquid Cooled Garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant; Rhodes, Richard; Anchondo, Ian; Westheimer, David; Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matt; Vonaue, Walt; Conger, Bruce; Stein, James

    2015-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop (HITL) Portable Life Support System 2.0 (PLSS 2.0) test has been conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center in the PLSS Development Laboratory from October 27, 2014 to December 19, 2014. These closed-loop tests of the PLSS 2.0 system integrated with human subjects in the Mark III Suit at 3.7 psi to 4.3 psi above ambient pressure performing treadmill exercise at various metabolic rates from standing rest to 3000 BTU/hr (880 W). The bulk of the PLSS 2.0 was at ambient pressure but effluent water vapor from the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and the Auxiliary Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), and effluent carbon dioxide from the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) were ported to vacuum to test performance of these components in flight-like conditions. One of the objectives of this test was to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient (UA) of the Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The UA, an important factor for modeling the heat rejection of an LCG, was determined in a variety of conditions by varying inlet water temperature, flow rate, and metabolic rate. Three LCG configurations were tested: the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) LCG, the Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) LCG, and the OSS auxiliary LCG. Other factors influencing accurate UA determination, such as overall heat balance, LCG fit, and the skin temperature measurement, will also be discussed.

  15. Transfer coefficient of 226Ra from vegetation to meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, on U mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutier, N.R.; Clulow, F.V.; Lim, T.P.; Dave, N.K.

    1986-06-01

    The 226Ra level in vegetation growing on U mine tailings in Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada, was 211 + 22 mBq g-1 (dry weight) compared to less than 7 mBq g-1 (dry weight) in material from a control site. Skeletons of meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) established on the tailings had concentrations of 226Ra of 6083 +/- 673 mBq per animal in winter; 7163 +/- 1077 mBq per animal in spring; 1506 +/- 625 mBq per animal in summer; and 703 +/- 59 mBq per animal in fall, compared to less than 7 mBq per animal in controls. The /sup 226/Ra transfer coefficient from vegetation to voles (defined as total millibecquerels of /sup 226/Ra in adult vole per total millibecquerels of 226Ra consumed by the vole in its lifetime) was calculated as 4.6 +/- 2.9 X 10(-2) in summer and 2.8 +/- 0.6 X 10(-2) in fall.

  16. Liquid films on shake flask walls explain increasing maximum oxygen transfer capacities with elevating viscosity.

    PubMed

    Giese, Heiner; Azizan, Amizon; Kümmel, Anne; Liao, Anping; Peter, Cyril P; Fonseca, João A; Hermann, Robert; Duarte, Tiago M; Büchs, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    In biotechnological screening and production, oxygen supply is a crucial parameter. Even though oxygen transfer is well documented for viscous cultivations in stirred tanks, little is known about the gas/liquid oxygen transfer in shake flask cultures that become increasingly viscous during cultivation. Especially the oxygen transfer into the liquid film, adhering on the shake flask wall, has not yet been described for such cultivations. In this study, the oxygen transfer of chemical and microbial model experiments was measured and the suitability of the widely applied film theory of Higbie was studied. With numerical simulations of Fick's law of diffusion, it was demonstrated that Higbie's film theory does not apply for cultivations which occur at viscosities up to 10 mPa s. For the first time, it was experimentally shown that the maximum oxygen transfer capacity OTRmax increases in shake flasks when viscosity is increased from 1 to 10 mPa s, leading to an improved oxygen supply for microorganisms. Additionally, the OTRmax does not significantly undermatch the OTRmax at waterlike viscosities, even at elevated viscosities of up to 80 mPa s. In this range, a shake flask is a somehow self-regulating system with respect to oxygen supply. This is in contrary to stirred tanks, where the oxygen supply is steadily reduced to only 5% at 80 mPa s. Since, the liquid film formation at shake flask walls inherently promotes the oxygen supply at moderate and at elevated viscosities, these results have significant implications for scale-up. PMID:23904288

  17. Orbital transfer vehicle oxygen turbopump technology. Volume 3: Hot oxygen testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urke, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    This report covers the work done in preparation for a liquid oxygen rocket engine turbopump test utilizing high pressure hot oxygen gas for the turbine drive. The turbopump (TPA) is designed to operate with 400 F oxygen turbine drive gas. The goal of this test program was to demonstrate the successful operation of the TPA under simulated engine conditions including the hot oxygen turbine drive. This testing follows a highly successful series of tests pumping liquid oxygen with gaseous nitrogen as the turbine drive gas. That testing included starting of the TPA with no assist to the hydrostatic bearing. The bearing start entailed a rubbing start until the pump generated enough pressure to support the bearing. The articulating, self-centering hydrostatic bearing exhibited no bearing load or stability problems. The TPA was refurbished for the hot gas drive tests and facility work was begun, but unfortunately funding cuts prohibited the actual testing.

  18. Improvement of foam breaking and oxygen-transfer performance in a stirred-tank fermenter.

    PubMed

    Takesono, Satoshi; Onodera, Masayuki; Toda, Kiyoshi; Yoshida, Masanori; Yamagiwa, Kazuaki; Ohkawa, Akira

    2006-03-01

    This study examined a stirred-tank fermenter (STF) containing low-viscosity foaming liquids with an agitation impeller and foam-breaking impeller mounted on the same shaft. Results showed that the performance of the foam-breaking impeller can be improved by changing a conventional six-blade turbine impeller into a rod impeller as the agitation impeller. The volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient, kLa, in the mechanical foam-control method (MFM) using a six-blade vaned disk as the foam-breaking impeller in the STF with the rod impeller was approximately five times greater than that of the chemical foam-control method (CFM) adding an anti-foaming agent in the STF with the six-blade turbine impeller. Application of the present method to the cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae K-7 demonstrated that the cultivation time up to the maximum cell concentration was remarkably shorter than that achieved using a conventional CFM. PMID:16208498

  19. Determination of lateral-stability derivatives and transfer-function coefficients from frequency-response data for lateral motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donegan, James J; Robinson, Samuel W , Jr; Gates, Ordway, B , jr

    1955-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the lateral-stability derivatives, transfer-function coefficients, and the modes for lateral motion from frequency-response data for a rigid aircraft. The method is based on the application of the vector technique to the equations of lateral motion, so that the three equations of lateral motion can be separated into six equations. The method of least squares is then applied to the data for each of these equations to yield the coefficients of the equations of lateral motion from which the lateral-stability derivatives and lateral transfer-function coefficients are computed. Two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the use of the method.

  20. Development of a laser-induced heat flux technique for measurement of convective heat transfer coefficients in a supersonic flowfield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porro, A. Robert; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Hingst, Warren R.; Chriss, Randall M.; Seablom, Kirk D.

    1991-01-01

    A technique is developed to measure the local convective heat transfer coefficient on a model surface in a supersonic flow field. The technique uses a laser to apply a discrete local heat flux at the model test surface, and an infrared camera system determines the local temperature distribution due to heating. From this temperature distribution and an analysis of the heating process, a local convective heat transfer coefficient is determined. The technique was used to measure the load surface convective heat transfer coefficient distribution on a flat plate at nominal Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0. The flat plate boundary layer initially was laminar and became transitional in the measurement region. The experimental results agreed reasonably well with theoretical predictions of convective heat transfer of flat plate laminar boundary layers. The results indicate that this non-intrusive optical measurement technique has the potential to obtain high quality surface convective heat transfer measurements in high speed flowfields.

  1. Evaluation of interfacial mass transfer coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure in carbon dioxide/normal alkane systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkhou, Fatemeh; Keshavarz, Peyman; Ayatollahi, Shahab; Jahromi, Iman Raoofi; Zolghadr, Ali

    2014-09-01

    CO2 gas injection is known as one of the most popular enhanced oil recovery techniques for light and medium oil reservoirs, therefore providing an acceptable mass transfer mechanism for CO2-oil systems seems necessary. In this study, interfacial mass transfer coefficient has been evaluated for CO2-normal heptane and CO2-normal hexadecane systems using equilibrium and dynamic interfacial tension data, which have been measured using the pendant drop method. Interface mass transfer coefficient has been calculated as a function of temperature and pressure in the range of 313-393 K and 1.7-8.6 MPa, respectively. The results showed that the interfacial resistance is a parameter that can control the mass transfer process for some CO2-normal alkane systems, and cannot be neglected. Additionally, it was found that interface mass transfer coefficient increased with pressure. However, the variation of this parameter with temperature did not show a clear trend and it was strongly dependent on the variation of diffusivity and solubility of CO2 in the liquid phase.

  2. Evaluation of interfacial mass transfer coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure in carbon dioxide/normal alkane systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkhou, Fatemeh; Keshavarz, Peyman; Ayatollahi, Shahab; Jahromi, Iman Raoofi; Zolghadr, Ali

    2015-04-01

    CO2 gas injection is known as one of the most popular enhanced oil recovery techniques for light and medium oil reservoirs, therefore providing an acceptable mass transfer mechanism for CO2-oil systems seems necessary. In this study, interfacial mass transfer coefficient has been evaluated for CO2-normal heptane and CO2-normal hexadecane systems using equilibrium and dynamic interfacial tension data, which have been measured using the pendant drop method. Interface mass transfer coefficient has been calculated as a function of temperature and pressure in the range of 313-393 K and 1.7-8.6 MPa, respectively. The results showed that the interfacial resistance is a parameter that can control the mass transfer process for some CO2-normal alkane systems, and cannot be neglected. Additionally, it was found that interface mass transfer coefficient increased with pressure. However, the variation of this parameter with temperature did not show a clear trend and it was strongly dependent on the variation of diffusivity and solubility of CO2 in the liquid phase.

  3. Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Ujwal, P; Yashodhara, I; Rao, Chetan; Sudeep Kumara, K; Dileep, B N; Ravi, P M

    2013-10-01

    Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of (137)Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the (137)Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10(-1) and 1.8 × 10(-1) for (137)Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of (137)Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10(-2) d L(-1) and 4.6 × 10(-2) d L(-1), respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10(-2) d L(-1) for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10(-3) d L(-1) for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of (137)Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for (137)Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content ((40)K and stable K) in

  4. Data Qualification Report For DTN: MO0012RIB00065.002, Parameter Values For Transfer Coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Tung

    2001-01-09

    A data-qualification evaluation was conducted on Reference Information Base (RIB) data set MOO0 12RIB00065.002, ''Parameter Values for Transfer Coefficients''. The corroborating data method was used to evaluate the data. This method was selected because it closely matches the literature-review method followed to select parameter values. Five criteria were considered when the corroborating method was used: adequacy of the corroborative literature, sufficiency of value-selection criteria, implementation of the selection criteria, documentation of the process, and whether the analysis was conducted in accordance with applicable quality assurance (QA) procedures. Three criteria were used when a literature review was not conducted: appropriate logic used to select parameters, documentation of the process, and whether the analysis was conducted in accordance with applicable QA procedures. The RIB data item, the associated Analysis and Model Report (AMR), the corroborative literature, and the results of an audit revision O/ICN 0 of the AMR were examined. All calculations and the selection process for all values were repeated and confirmed. The qualification team concluded: (1) A sufficient quantity of corroborative literature was reviewed and no additional literature was identified that should have been considered. (2) The selection criteria were sufficient and resulted in valid parameter values. (3) The process was well defined, adequately documented in the AMR, and correctly followed. (4) The analysis was developed in accordance with applicable QA procedures. No negative findings were documented that resulted in questions about the quality of the data. The qualification team therefore recommends that the qualification status of RIB data set MO0012RIB00065.002 be changed to qualified.

  5. Investigation of the contact charge transfer absorption of organic solvents with oxygen for use in oxygen determination.

    PubMed

    Choi, M F; Hawkins, P

    1995-07-01

    The contact charge transfer (CCT) absorption spectra of dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), ethanol, methanol, water, benzene (Bz), N,N'-diethylaniline (DEA), N,N'-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMT) and N,N'-diethyl-p-toluidine with molecular oxygen have been investigated. These solvents form strong ultraviolet/visible CCT absorption spectra with intensities that are related to the partial pressure of the applied oxygen. DMSO, DMF, DMA, Bz, DEA and DMT are shown to form 1:1 molecular contact complexes with molecular oxygen. A simple oxygen sensing system is described using CCT absorption spectroscopy of DMT at a wavelength of 400 nm, with a gas flow rate of 60 cm(3) min(-1) through the solvent in a cuvette with a pathlength of 1 cm. Inexpensive plastic fibres are used to relay the light from a xenon lamp source to the cuvette and back to a photo-detector. The response of the sensing system to changes in oxygen concentration is reversible, non-linear and in good agreement with the Beer-Lambert law. The most sensitive response region is from 0 to 20% O(2) with a change in signal level of about 35%. The solvent used shows no deterioration in performance over a long period and can be used to determine gaseous oxygen concentrations from 0 to 100%. It does not respond to carbon dioxide. PMID:18966322

  6. A novel (ex situ) method to quantify oxygen diffusion coefficient of polymer fuel cells backing and catalyst layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baricci, Andrea; Casalegno, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Limiting current density of oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte fuel cells is determined by several mass transport resistances that lower the concentration of oxygen on the catalyst active site. Among them, diffusion across porous media plays a significant role. Despite the extensive experimental activity documented in PEMFC literature, only few efforts have been dedicated to the measurement of the effective transport properties in porous layers. In the present work, a methodology for ex situ measurement of the effective diffusion coefficient and Knudsen radius of porous layers for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (gas diffusion layer, micro porous layer and catalyst layer) is described and applied to high temperature polymer fuel cells State of Art materials. Regression of the measured quantities by means of a quasi 2D physical model is performed to quantify the Knudsen effect, which is reported to account, respectively, for 30% and 50% of the mass transport resistance in micro porous layer and catalyst layer. On the other side, the model reveals that pressure gradient consequent to permeation in porous layers of high temperature polymer fuel cells has a negligible effect on oxygen concentration in relevant operating conditions.

  7. Determination of the heat transfer coefficient at the metal-sand mold interface of lost foam casting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Tan, Wenfang; Hu, Hao

    2016-06-01

    For modeling solidification process of casting accurately, a reliable heat transfer boundary condition data is required. In this paper, an inverse conduction model was established to determine the heat flux and heat transfer coefficient at the metal-sand mold interface for cylindrical casting in the lost foam process. The numerically calculated temperature was compared with analytic solution and simulation solution obtained by commercial software ProCAST to investigate the accuracy of heat conduction model. The instantaneous cast and sand mold temperatures were measured experimentally and these values were used to determine the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC). The IHTC values during lost foam casting were shown to vary from 20 to 800 W m-2 K-1. Additionally, the characteristics of the time-varying IHTC have also been discussed in this study.

  8. Experimental determination of convective heat transfer coefficients in the separated flow region of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitesides, R. Harold; Majumdar, Alok K.; Jenkins, Susan L.; Bacchus, David L.

    1990-01-01

    A series of cold flow heat transfer tests was conducted with a 7.5-percent scale model of the Space Shuttle Rocket Motor (SRM) to measure the heat transfer coefficients in the separated flow region around the nose of the submerged nozzle. Modifications were made to an existing 7.5 percent scale model of the internal geometry of the aft end of the SRM, including the gimballed nozzle in order to accomplish the measurements. The model nozzle nose was fitted with a stainless steel shell with numerous thermocouples welded to the backside of the thin wall. A transient 'thin skin' experimental technique was used to measure the local heat transfer coefficients. The effects of Reynolds number, nozzle gimbal angle, and model location were correlated with a Stanton number versus Reynolds number correlation which may be used to determine the convective heating rates for the full scale Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor nozzle.

  9. Determination of the external mass transfer coefficient and influence of mixing intensity in moving bed biofilm reactors for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Bruno L; Pérez, Julio; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Secchi, Argimiro R; Dezotti, Márcia; Biscaia, Evaristo C

    2015-09-01

    In moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR), the removal of pollutants from wastewater is due to the substrate consumption by bacteria attached on suspended carriers. As a biofilm process, the substrates are transported from the bulk phase to the biofilm passing through a mass transfer resistance layer. This study proposes a methodology to determine the external mass transfer coefficient and identify the influence of the mixing intensity on the conversion process in-situ in MBBR systems. The method allows the determination of the external mass transfer coefficient in the reactor, which is a major advantage when compared to the previous methods that require mimicking hydrodynamics of the reactor in a flow chamber or in a separate vessel. The proposed methodology was evaluated in an aerobic lab-scale system operating with COD removal and nitrification. The impact of the mixing intensity on the conversion rates for ammonium and COD was tested individually. When comparing the effect of mixing intensity on the removal rates of COD and ammonium, a higher apparent external mass transfer resistance was found for ammonium. For the used aeration intensities, the external mass transfer coefficient for ammonium oxidation was ranging from 0.68 to 13.50 m d(-1) and for COD removal 2.9 to 22.4 m d(-1). The lower coefficient range for ammonium oxidation is likely related to the location of nitrifiers deeper in the biofilm. The measurement of external mass transfer rates in MBBR will help in better design and evaluation of MBBR system-based technologies. PMID:25996756

  10. Orbital transfer vehicle oxygen turbopump technology. Volume 2: Nitrogen and ambient oxygen testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brannam, R. J.; Buckmann, P. S.; Chen, B. H.; Church, S. J.; Sabiers, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    The testing of a rocket engine oxygen turbopump using high pressure ambient temperature nitrogen and oxygen as the turbine drive gas in separate test series is discussed. The pumped fluid was liquid nitrogen or liquid oxygen. The turbopump (TPA) is designed to operate with 400 F oxygen turbine drive gas which will be demonstrated in a subsequent test series. Following bearing tests, the TPA was finish machined (impeller blading and inlet/outlet ports). Testing started on 15 February 1989 and was successfully concluded on 21 March 1989. Testing started using nitrogen to reduce the ignition hazard during initial TPA checkout. The Hydrostatic Bearing System requires a Bearing Pressurization System. Initial testing used a separate bearing supply to prevent a rubbing start. Two test series were successfully completed with the bearing assist supplied only by the pump second stage output which entailed a rubbing start until pump pressure builds up. The final test series used ambient oxygen drive and no external bearing assist. Total operating time was 2268 seconds. There were 14 starts without bearing assist and operating speeds up to 80,000 rpm were logged. Teardown examination showed some smearing of silverplated bearing surfaces but no exposure of the underlying monel material. There was no evidence of melting or oxidation due to the oxygen exposure. The articulating, self-centering hydrostatic bearing exhibited no bearing load or stability problems. The only anomaly was higher than predicted flow losses which were attributed to a faulty ring seal. The TPA will be refurbished prior to the 400 F oxygen test series but its condition is acceptable, as is, for continued operating. This was a highly successful test program.

  11. Micro-scale Modeling of Flow and Oxygen Transfer in Hollow Fiber Membrane Bundle

    PubMed Central

    Taskin, M. Ertan; Fraser, Katharine H.; Zhang, Tao; Griffith, Bartley P.; Wu, Zhongjun J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a modeling approach to solve the flow and oxygen transfer when the blood passes through the hollow-fiber membrane bundle. For this purpose, a “two-region” modeling approach was developed regarding the hollow fiber and blood regions. The oxygen transfer in these regions was defined with separate diffusion processes. Two dimensional single and multi-fiber geometries were created and flow solutions were obtained for a non-Newtonian fluid. The convection-diffusion-reaction equation was solved to produce the oxygen partial pressure distributions. As a benefit of coupling the interstitial flow field into the oxygen transfer through the hollow-fiber membrane bundle, the membrane resistance was taken into consideration. Thus, varying oxygen partial pressures were observed on the outer fiber surface, which is contrary to the common simplifying assumptions of negligible membrane resistance and uniform oxygen content on the fiber surface (Traditional approach). It was illustrated that, the current approach can be utilized to predict the mass transfer efficiencies without overestimating as compared to the predictions obtained with the traditional approach. Utilization of the current approach was found to be beneficial for the geometries with lower packing density which allows significant PO2 variations on the fiber surfaces. For the geometries with dense packings, the above simplifying assumptions could be applicable. The model predictions were validated with the experimental measurements taken from a benchmark device. PMID:20802783

  12. Iron deficiency leads to inhibition of oxygen transfer and enhanced formation of virulence factors in cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Jin; Sabra, Wael; Zeng, An-Ping

    2003-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was recently found to exhibit two remarkable physiological responses to oxidative stress: (1) a strong reduction in the efficiency of oxygen transfer from the gas phase into the liquid phase, thus causing oxygen limitation in the culture and (2) formation of a clear polysaccharide capsule on the cell surface. In this work, it has been shown that the iron concentration in the culture plays a crucial role in evoking these phenomena. The physiological responses of two P. aeruginosa PAO1 isolates (NCCB 2452 and ATCC 15692) were examined in growth media with varied iron concentrations. In a computer-controlled bioreactor cultivation system for controlled dissolved oxygen tension (pO2), a strong correlation between the exhaustion of iron and the onset of oxygen limitation was observed. The oxygen transfer rate of the culture, characterized by the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient, kLa, significantly decreased under iron-limited conditions. The formation of alginate and capsule was more strongly affected by iron concentration than by oxygen concentration. The reduction of the oxygen transfer rate and the subsequent oxygen limitation triggered by iron deficiency may represent a new and efficient way for P. aeruginosa PAO1 to adapt to growth conditions of iron limitation. Furthermore, the secretion of proteins into the culture medium was strongly enhanced by iron limitation. The formation of the virulence factor elastase and the iron chelators pyoverdine and pyochelin also significantly increased under iron-limited conditions. These results have implications for lung infection of cystic fibrosis patients by P. aeruginosa in view of the prevalence of iron limitation at the site of infection and the respiratory failure leading to death. PMID:12949186

  13. An experimental determination of the H2S overall mass transfer coefficient from quiescent surfaces at wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Jane Meri; Kreim, Virginie; Guillot, Jean-Michel; Reis, Neyval Costa; de Sá, Leandro Melo; Horan, Nigel John

    2012-12-01

    This study has investigated overall mass transfer coefficients of hydrogen sulphide from quiescent liquid surfaces under simulated laboratory conditions. Wind flow (friction velocity) has been correlated with the overall mass transfer coefficient (KL) of hydrogen sulphide in the liquid phase using a wind tunnel study. The experimental values for this coefficient have been compared with predicted KL values obtained from three different emission models that are widely used to determine volatilization rates from the quiescent surfaces of wastewater treatment unit processes. Friction velocity (in a range of 0.11 and 0.27 m s-1) was found to have a negligible influence on the overall mass transfer coefficients for hydrogen sulphide but by contrast two of the models predicted a stronger influence of friction velocity and overestimate the KL values by up to a factor of 12.5, thus risking unnecessary expenditure on odour control measures. However, at low wind speeds or friction velocities, when more odour complaints might be expected due to poor atmospheric dispersion, a better agreement of emission rates with experimental data was found for all the models.

  14. Pulsed feeding during fed-batch Aspergillus oryzae fermentation leads to improved oxygen mass transfer.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Swapnil; Wenger, Kevin S; Marten, Mark R

    2003-01-01

    Productivity in many fungal fermentations is detrimentally affected by high broth viscosity and consequent reduced oxygen mass transfer capacity. The goal here was to determine whether pulsed feeding of limiting carbon in a fungal fermentation could lead to reduced viscosity and improved oxygen mass transfer. As a model, an industrially relevant recombinant strain of Aspergillus oryzae was grown in carbon-limited, fed-batch mode. Maltodextrin was used as a carbon source and was added either continuously or in 1.5-min pulses, 3.5 min apart. In both feeding modes the same total amount of carbon was added, and carbon feed rate was at sufficiently low levels to ensure cultures were always carbon-limited. Compared to continuous feeding, pulsed addition of substrate led to smaller fungal elements, which resulted in a significant reduction in broth viscosity. This in turn led to higher dissolved oxygen concentrations and increased oxygen uptake rates during pulsed feeding. PMID:12790687

  15. Response coefficient analysis of a fed-batch bioreactor to dissolved oxygen perturbation in complementary cultures during PHB production

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Pratap R

    2008-01-01

    Background Although the production of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) has many biological, energetic and environmental advantages over chemically synthesized polymers, synthetic polymers continue to be produced industrially since the productivities of fermentation processes fr PHB are not yet economically competitive. Improvement of a PHB fermentation requires good understanding and optimization under the realistic conditions of large bioreactors. Laboratory-scale studies have shown that co-cultures of Ralstonia eutropha and Lactobacillus delbrueckii generate better fermentation efficiencies than R. eutropha alone. In large bioreactors, incomplete dispersioin and perturbations in the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, both of which affect the fermentation, have to be considered. This study analyzes the effect of DO fluctuations on bioreactor performance for both ideal and optimally dispersed broths. Results Response coefficient analysis was employed to obtain quantitative information on the effect of DO perturbations on different variables. Three values of the Peclet number (Pe) cheracterized three levels of dispersion: Pe = 0.01 for nearly complete dispersion, Pe = 20 for optimum dispersion and Pe = 60 for insufficient dispersion. The response coefficients (RCs) of the pairs of bacterial concentrations and the main substrates, glucose and ammonium chloride, showed contrasting variations with time. Lactate, a critical intermediate, and PHB had similar RC profiles but those of lactate were one to two orders of magnitude larger than other RCs. Significantly, the optimum Pe also resulted in the largest RCs, suggesting a balance between productivity and reactor stability. Conclusion Since R. eutropha requires oxygen for its growth whereas L. delbrueckii does not, fluctuations in the DO concentartion have a strong influence on the fermentation. Apart from this, the mechanism of PHB biosynthesis indicates that control of lactate is a critical determinant of fermentation

  16. Experiment on nucleate pool boiling in microgravity by using transparent heating surface - Analysis of surface heat transfer coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, C.; Kawanami, O.; Asada, Y.; Wada, Y.; Nagayasu, T.; Shinmoto, Y.; Ohta, H.; Kabov, O.; Queeckers, P.; Chikov, S.; Straub, J.

    2011-12-01

    Investigation of mechanisms in nucleate boiling under microgravity conditions is essential for the development of the cooling systems handling a large amount of waste heat. A transparent heating surface with multiple arrays of 88 thin film temperature sensors and mini-heaters was developed for the clarification of boiling heat transfer mechanisms in microgravity. To investigate gravity effects on the microlayer behaviors and corresponding local heat transfer coefficients, images of liquid-vapor behaviors underneath attached bubbles and local heat transfer data were simultaneously obtained in microgravity pool boiling. The present paper reports the analysis of the data measured during the ESA parabolic flight campaign. It was found that the liquid-vapor behaviors were strongly affected by the direction and the level of residual gravity. Various patterns of liquid-vapor behaviours and corresponding enhancement or deterioration of the heat transfer are observed.

  17. Critical regions of heat transfer during the nucleate boiling of oxygen under conditions of reduced gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichenko, Iu. A.; Gladchenko, G. M.; Rusanov, K. V.

    1984-11-01

    Heat transfer during the nucleate boiling of liquid oxygen under conditions of simulated microgravity is investigated experimentally over a wide range of pressures (600-70,000 Pa) and relative accelerations (0.01-1). The objective of the study is to verify some of the existing models for the critical region of heat transfer. Formulas are obtained yielding different acceleration dependences of the critical density of the heat flux for high and low pressures, which is consistent with experimental data on oxygen boiling.

  18. Infrared image filtering applied to the restoration of the convective heat transfer coefficient distribution in coiled tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzoli, F.; Cattani, L.; Pagliarini, G.; Rainieri, S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents and assesses an inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) solution procedure which was developed to determine the local convective heat transfer coefficient along the circumferential coordinate at the inner wall of a coiled pipe by applying the filtering technique approach to infrared temperature maps acquired on the outer tube's wall. The data-processing procedure filters out the unwanted noise from the raw temperature data to enable the direct calculation of its Laplacian which is embedded in the formulation of the inverse heat conduction problem. The presented technique is experimentally verified using data that were acquired in the laminar flow regime that is frequently found in coiled-tube heat-exchanger applications. The estimated convective heat transfer coefficient distributions are substantially consistent with the available numerical results in the scientific literature.

  19. Application of deterministic chaos theory to local instantaneous temperature, pressure, and heat transfer coefficients in a gas fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Karamavruc, A.I.; Clark, N.N.

    1996-09-01

    A stainless steel heat transfer tube, carrying a hot water flow, was placed in a cold bubbling fluidized bed. The tube was instrumented in the circumferential direction with five fast-responding surface thermocouples and a vertical pressure differential sensor. The local temperature and pressure data were measured simultaneously at a frequency of 120 Hz. Additionally, the local instantaneous heat transfer coefficient was evaluated by solving the transient two-dimensional heat conduction equation across the tube wall numerically. The mutual information function (MIF) has been applied to the signals to observe the relationship between points separated in time. MIF was also used to provide the most appropriate time delay constant {tau} to reconstruct an m-dimensional phase portrait of the one-dimensional time series. The distinct variation of MIF around the tube indicates the variations of solid-surface contact in the circumferential direction. The correlation coefficient was evaluated to calculate the correlation exponent {nu}, which is closely related to the fractal dimension. The correlation exponent is a measure of the strange attractor. The minimum embedding dimension as well as the degrees of freedom of the system were evaluated via the correlation coefficient. Kolmogorov entropies of the signals were approximated by using the correlation coefficient. Kolmogorov entropy considers the inherent multi-dimensional nature of chaotic data. A positive estimation of Kolmogorov entropy is an indication of the chaotic nature of the signal. The Kolmogorov entropies of the temperature data around the tube were found to be between 10 bits/s and 24 bits/s. A comparison between the signals has shown that the local instantaneous heat transfer coefficient exhibits a higher degree of chaos than the local temperature and pressure signals.

  20. Experiment 2028: Flowing Temperature Logs and Evaluation of Wellbore Heat Transfer Coefficients with the Nitrogen Blankets – Revision I

    SciTech Connect

    Zyvoloski, George A.; Dash, Zora V.; Murphy, Hugh D.

    1983-06-20

    The accurate assessment of temperatures in the casing and liner is critical to the safety of EE-3 during the upcoming fracturing experiment. The purpose of this experiment is to obtain heat transfer coefficients for the nitrogen filled annulus as well as the water filled annulus below the nitrogen water interface. In addition the flowing temperature logs that were not obtained during Experiment 2026 because of an obstruction; will now be obtained in this experiment.

  1. Turbulent Transfer Coefficients and Calculation of Air Temperature inside Tall Grass Canopies in Land Atmosphere Schemes for Environmental Modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailovic, D. T.; Alapaty, K.; Lalic, B.; Arsenic, I.; Rajkovic, B.; Malinovic, S.

    2004-10-01

    A method for estimating profiles of turbulent transfer coefficients inside a vegetation canopy and their use in calculating the air temperature inside tall grass canopies in land surface schemes for environmental modeling is presented. The proposed method, based on K theory, is assessed using data measured in a maize canopy. The air temperature inside the canopy is determined diagnostically by a method based on detailed consideration of 1) calculations of turbulent fluxes, 2) the shape of the wind and turbulent transfer coefficient profiles, and 3) calculation of the aerodynamic resistances inside tall grass canopies. An expression for calculating the turbulent transfer coefficient inside sparse tall grass canopies is also suggested, including modification of the corresponding equation for the wind profile inside the canopy. The proposed calculations of K-theory parameters are tested using the Land Air Parameterization Scheme (LAPS). Model outputs of air temperature inside the canopy for 8 17 July 2002 are compared with micrometeorological measurements inside a sunflower field at the Rimski Sancevi experimental site (Serbia). To demonstrate how changes in the specification of canopy density affect the simulation of air temperature inside tall grass canopies and, thus, alter the growth of PBL height, numerical experiments are performed with LAPS coupled with a one-dimensional PBL model over a sunflower field. To examine how the turbulent transfer coefficient inside tall grass canopies over a large domain represents the influence of the underlying surface on the air layer above, sensitivity tests are performed using a coupled system consisting of the NCEP Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model and LAPS.


  2. Energy transfer enhancement by oxygen perturbation of spin-forbidden electronic transitions in aromatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monguzzi, A.; Tubino, R.; Salamone, M. M.; Meinardi, F.

    2010-09-01

    Triplet-triplet energy transfer in multicomponent organic systems is usually entirely ascribed to a Dexter-type mechanism involving only short-range donor/acceptor interactions. We demonstrate that the presence of molecular oxygen introduces a perturbation to the electronic structure of one of the involved moieties which can induce a large increase in the spin-forbidden transition oscillator strength so that the otherwise negligible Förster contribution dominates the overall energy transfer rate.

  3. Numerical investigation of the convective heat transfer coefficient with longitudinal pitch variation in a staggered tube bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfandi, Ashraf; Yoon, Juhyeon; Abusaleem, Khalifeh; Albati, Mohammad; Khafaji, Salih

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effect on a shell-side heat transfer coefficient is investigated using the CFD code FLUENT with a variation in longitudinal pitch to diameter ratio, SL, in the range of 1.15 to 2.6 with a fixed transverse pitch to diameter ratio. For the benchmark purposes with the available empirical correlation, typical thermal-hydraulic conditions for the Zukauskas correlation are assumed. Many sensitivity calculations for different mesh sizes and turbulent models are performed to check the accuracy of the numerical solution. A realizable κ- ɛ turbulence model was found to be in good agreement with results of the Zukauskas correlation among the other turbulence models, at least for the staggered tube bank. It was found that the average heat transfer coefficient of a crossflow over a staggered tube bank calculated using FLUENT is in good agreement with the Zukauskas correlation-calculated heat transfer coefficient in the range of 1.15 - 2.6. For a staggered tube bank, using the Zukauskas correlation seems to be valid down to SL = 1.15.

  4. A Study of the Heat Transfer Coefficient of a Mini Channel Evaporator with R-134a as Refrigerant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollera, E. B.; Villanueva, E. P.

    2015-09-01

    The present study is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient of the minichannel copper blocks used as evaporator with R-134a as the refrigerant. Experiments were conducted using three evaporator specimens of different channel hydraulic diameters (1.0mm, 2.0mm, 3.0mm). The total length for each channel is 640 mm. The dimension of each is 100mm.x50mm.x20mm. and the outside surfaces were machined to have fins. They were connected to a standard vapour compression refrigeration system. During each run of the experiment, the copper block evaporator was placed inside a small wind tunnel where controlled flow of air from a forced draft fan was introduced for the cooling process. The experimental set-up used data acquisition software and computer-aided simulation software was used to simulate the pressure drop and temperature profiles of the evaporator during the experimental run. The results were then compared with the Shah correlation. The Shah correlation over predicted and under predicted the values as compared with the experimental results for all of the three diameters and high variation for Dh=1.0mm. This indicates that the Shah correlation at small diameters is not the appropriate equation for predicting the heat transfer coefficient. The trend of the heat transfer coefficient is increasing as the size of the diameter increases.

  5. In vitro calibration of a system for measurement of in vivo convective heat transfer coefficient in animals

    PubMed Central

    Tangwongsan, Chanchana; Chachati, Louay; Webster, John G; Farrell, Patrick V

    2006-01-01

    Background We need a sensor to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient during ablation of the heart or liver. Methods We built a minimally invasive instrument to measure the in vivo convective heat transfer coefficient, h in animals, using a Wheatstone-bridge circuit, similar to a hot-wire anemometer circuit. One arm is connected to a steerable catheter sensor whose tip is a 1.9 mm × 3.2 mm thin film resistive temperature detector (RTD) sensor. We used a circulation system to simulate different flow rates at 39°C for in vitro experiments using distilled water, tap water and saline. We heated the sensor approximately 5°C above the fluid temperature. We measured the power consumed by the sensor and the resistance of the sensor during the experiments and analyzed these data to determine the value of the convective heat transfer coefficient at various flow rates. Results From 0 to 5 L/min, experimental values of h in W/(m2·K) were for distilled water 5100 to 13000, for tap water 5500 to 12300, and for saline 5400 to 13600. Theoretical values were 1900 to 10700. Conclusion We believe this system is the smallest, most accurate method of minimally invasive measurement of in vivo h in animals and provides the least disturbance of flow. PMID:17067386

  6. Henry's law constant and overall mass transfer coefficient for formaldehyde emission from small water pools under simulated indoor environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Guo, Zhishi; Roache, Nancy F; Mocka, Corey A; Allen, Matt R; Mason, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    The Henry's law constant (HLC) and the overall mass transfer coefficient are both important parameters for modeling formaldehyde emissions from aqueous solutions. In this work, the apparent HLCs for formaldehyde aqueous solutions were determined in the concentration range from 0.01% to 1% (w/w) and at different temperatures (23, 40, and 55 °C) by a static headspace extraction method. The aqueous solutions tested included formaldehyde in water, formaldehyde-water with nonionic surfactant Tergitol NP-9, and formaldehyde-water with anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate. Overall, the measured HLCs ranged from 8.33 × 10(-6) to 1.12 × 10(-4) (gas-concentration/aqueous-concentration, dimensionless). Fourteen small-chamber tests were conducted with formaldehyde solutions in small pools. By applying the measured HLCs, the formaldehyde overall liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients (KOLs) were determined to be in the range of 8.12 × 10(-5) to 2.30 × 10(-4) m/h, and the overall gas-phase mass transfer coefficients were between 2.84 and 13.4 m/h. The influences of the formaldehyde concentration, temperature, agitation rate, and surfactant on HLC and KOL were investigated. This study provides useful data to support source modeling for indoor formaldehyde originating from the use of household products that contain formaldehyde-releasing biocides. PMID:25564098

  7. Analysis of the heat transfer at the tool-workpiece interface in machining: determination of heat generation and heat transfer coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddag, B.; Atlati, S.; Nouari, M.; Zenasni, M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the modelling and identification of the heat exchange at the tool-workpiece interface in machining. A thermomechanical modelling has been established including heat balance equations of the tool-workpiece interface which take into account the heat generated by friction and the heat transfer by conduction due to the thermal contact resistance. The interface heat balance equations involve two coefficients: heat generation coefficient (HGC) of the frictional heat and heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of the heat conduction (inverse of the thermal contact resistance coefficient). Using experimental average heat flux in the tool, estimated for several cutting speeds, an identification procedure of the HGC-HTC couple, involved in the established thermomechanical FE-based modelling of the cutting process, has been proposed, which gives the numerical heat flux equal the measured one for each cutting speed. Using identified values of the HGC-HTC couple, evolution laws are proposed for the HGC as function of cutting speed, and then as function of sliding velocity at the tool-workpiece interface. Such laws can be implemented for instance in a Finite Element code for machining simulations.

  8. Effects of fin pattern on the air-side heat transfer coefficient in plate finned-tube heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Beecher, D.T.; Fagan, T.J.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of air velocity, heat exchanger geometry, and fin patternation on air-side heat transfer in plate finned tube heat exchangers were investigated experimentally using a single-fin passage model. The geometric parameters considered included tube diameter, transverse tube spacing, longitudinal tube spacing, number of tube rows, and fin spacing. The effects of fin pattern depth and number of fin patterns per longitudinal tube row were investigated for a pattern consisting of corrugations of triangular cross-section transverse to the direction of airflow. The heat transfer data were correlated in terms of the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient (Nusselt number) based on the arithmetic mean temperature difference, Nu/sub a/, and the Graetz number, Gz, a dimensionless measure of the level of flow development.

  9. Effects of fin pattern on the air side heat transfer coefficient in plate finned tube heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Beecher, D.T.; Fagan, T.J.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of air velocity, heat exchanger geometry and fin pattern on air side heat transfer in plate finned tube heat exchangers were investigated experimentally using a single fin passage model. The geometric parameters considered included tube diameter, transverse tube spacing, longitudinal tube spacing, number of tube rows and fin spacing. The effects of fin pattern depth and number of fin patterns per longitudinal tube row were investigated for a pattern consisting of corrugations of triangular cross section transverse to the direction of air flow. The heat transfer data were correlated in terms of the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient (Nussult number) based on the arithmetic mean temperature difference Nu/sub a/ and the Graetz number Gz, a dimensionless measure of the level of flow development.

  10. Oxygen mass transfer in a stirred tank bioreactor using different impeller configurations for environmental purposes.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ali; Golbabaei, Farideh; Mehrnia, Momammad Reza; Neghab, Masoud; Mohammad, Kazem; Nikpey, Ahmad; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a miniature stirred tank bioreactor was designed for treatment of waste gas containing benzene, toluene and xylene. Oxygen mass transfer characteristics for various twin and single-impeller systems were investigated for 6 configurations in a vessel with 10 cm of inner diameter and working volume of 1.77L. Three types of impellers, namely, Rushton turbine, Pitched 4blades and Pitched 2blades impellers with downward pumping have been used. Deionized water was used as a liquid phase. With respect to other independent variables such as agitation speed, aeration rate, type of sparger, number of impellers, the relative performance of these impellers was assessed by comparing the values of (KLa) as a key parameter. Based on the experimental data, empirical correlations as a function of the operational conditions have been proposed, to study the oxygen transfer rates from air bubbles generated in the bioreactor. It was shown that twin Rushton turbine configuration demonstrates superior performance (23% to 77% enhancement in KLa) compared with other impeller compositions and that sparger type has negligible effect on oxygen mass transfer rate. Agitation speeds of 400 to 800 rpm were the most efficient speeds for oxygen mass transfer in the stirred bioreactor. PMID:23369581

  11. OXYGEN TRANSFER EFFICIENCY SURVEYS AT THE JONES ISLAND TREATMENT PLANTS - 1985-1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ceramic plate diffusers were among the earliest forms of fine pore diffusers used for oxygen transfer in activated sludge treatment. hey have been successfully used for over 60 years in the Jones Island West Plant of the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District and, since initial...

  12. OXYGEN TRANSFER EFFICIENCY SURVEYS AT THE SOUTH SHORE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT - 1985-1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ceramic plate diffusers were among the earliest forms of fine pore diffusers used for oxygen transfer in activated sludge treatment. hey have been successfully used for over 60 years in the Jones Island West Plant of the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District and, since initial...

  13. Oxygen mass transfer in a stirred tank bioreactor using different impeller configurations for environmental purposes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a miniature stirred tank bioreactor was designed for treatment of waste gas containing benzene, toluene and xylene. Oxygen mass transfer characteristics for various twin and single-impeller systems were investigated for 6 configurations in a vessel with 10 cm of inner diameter and working volume of 1.77L. Three types of impellers, namely, Rushton turbine, Pitched 4blades and Pitched 2blades impellers with downward pumping have been used. Deionized water was used as a liquid phase. With respect to other independent variables such as agitation speed, aeration rate, type of sparger, number of impellers, the relative performance of these impellers was assessed by comparing the values of (KLa) as a key parameter. Based on the experimental data, empirical correlations as a function of the operational conditions have been proposed, to study the oxygen transfer rates from air bubbles generated in the bioreactor. It was shown that twin Rushton turbine configuration demonstrates superior performance (23% to 77% enhancement in KLa) compared with other impeller compositions and that sparger type has negligible effect on oxygen mass transfer rate. Agitation speeds of 400 to 800 rpm were the most efficient speeds for oxygen mass transfer in the stirred bioreactor. PMID:23369581

  14. OXYGEN TRANSFER EFFICIENCY SURVEYS AT THE JONES ISLAND TREATMENT PLANTS - 1985-1988

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ceramic plate diffusers were among the earliest forms of fine pore diffusers used for oxygen transfer in activated sludge treatment. They have been successfully used for over 60 years in the Jones Island West Plant of the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District and, since initia...

  15. OXYGEN TRANSFER EFFICIENCY SURVEYS AT THE SOUTH SHORE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT - 1985-1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ceramic plate diffusers were among the earliest forms of fine pore diffusers used for oxygen transfer in activated sludge treatment. They have been successfully used for over 60 years in the Jones Island West Plant of the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District and, since initi...

  16. Two Experiments for Estimating Free Convection and Radiation Heat Transfer Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economides, Michael J.; Maloney, J. O.

    1978-01-01

    This article describes two simple undergraduate heat transfer experiments which may reinforce a student's understanding of free convection and radiation. Apparatus, experimental procedure, typical results, and discussion are included. (Author/BB)

  17. Nonthermal radiative transfer of oxygen 98.9 nm ultraviolet emission: Solving an old mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, B.; Gérard, J.-C.; Shematovich, V. I.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Chakrabarti, S.; Gladstone, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    Sounding rocket measurements conducted in 1988 under high solar activity conditions revealed that the intensity of thermospheric OI emissions at 98.9 nm presents an anomalous vertical profile, showing exospheric intensities much higher than expected from radiative transfer model results, which included the known sources of excited oxygen. All attempts based on modeling of the photochemical processes and radiative transfer were unable to account for the higher than predicted brightnesses. More recently, the SOHO-Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation instrument measured the UV solar flux at high-spectral resolution, revealing the importance of a significant additional source of oxygen emission at 98.9 nm that had not been accounted for before. In this study, we simulate the radiative transfer of the OI-98.9 nm multiplet, including the photochemical sources of excited oxygen, the resonant scattering of solar photons, and the effects of nonthermal atoms, i.e., a population of fast-moving oxygen atoms in excess of the Maxwellian distribution. Including resonance scattering of the 98.9 nm solar multiplet, we find good agreement with the previous sounding rocket observation. The inclusion of a nonthermal oxygen population with a consistent increase of the total density produces a larger intensity at high altitude that apparently better accounts for the observation, but such a correction cannot be demonstrated given the uncertainties of the observations. A good agreement between model and sounding rocket observation is also found with the triplet at 130.4 nm. We further investigate the radiative transfer of the OI-98.9 nm multiplet and the oxygen emissions at 130.4 and 135.6 nm using observations from the STP78-1 satellite. We find a less satisfying agreement between the model and the STP78-1 data that can be accounted for by scaling the modeled intensity within a range acceptable given the uncertainties on the STP78-1 absolute calibration.

  18. Determination of thermal accommodation coefficients from heat transfer measurements between parallel plates.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Rader, Daniel John; Torczynski, John Robert; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2010-10-01

    Thermal accommodation coefficients have been derived for a variety of gas-surface combinations using an experimental apparatus developed to measure the pressure dependence of the conductive heat flux between parallel plates at unequal temperature separated by a gas-filled gap. The heat flux is inferred from temperature-difference measurements across the plates in a configuration where the plate temperatures are set with two carefully controlled thermal baths. Temperature-controlled shrouds provide for environmental isolation of the opposing test plates. Since the measured temperature differences in these experiments are very small (typically 0.3 C or less over the entire pressure range), high-precision thermistors are used to acquire the requisite temperature data. High-precision components have also been utilized on the other control and measurement subsystems in this apparatus, including system pressure, gas flow rate, plate alignment, and plate positions. The apparatus also includes the capability for in situ plasma cleaning of the installed test plates. Measured heat-flux results are used in a formula based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code calculations to determine the thermal accommodation coefficients. Thermal accommodation coefficients have been determined for three different gases (argon, nitrogen, helium) in contact with various surfaces. Materials include metals and alloys such as aluminum, gold, platinum, and 304 stainless steel. A number of materials important to fabrication of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) devices have also been examined. For most surfaces, coefficient values are near 0.95, 0.85, and 0.45 for argon, nitrogen, and helium, respectively. Only slight differences in accommodation as a function of surface roughness have been seen. Surface contamination appears to have a more significant effect: argon plasma treatment has been observed to reduce thermal accommodation by as much as 0.10 for helium. Mixtures of argon and

  19. Transverse heat transfer coefficient in the dual channel ITER TF CICCs. Part III: Direct method of assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska, Monika; Malinowski, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    The data resulting from the thermal-hydraulic test of the ITER TF CICC are used to determine the flow partition and the overall effective heat transfer coefficient (hBC) between bundle and central channel in a direct way, i.e. by analysis of the heat transfer between both flow channels, based on the mass and energy balance equations and the readings of thermometers located inside the cable. In cases without a local heat source in the considered cable segment the obtained hBC values were consistent with those obtained in earlier studies by analysis of experimental data using indirect methods. It was also observed that the transverse heat transfer was strongly enhanced in a cable segment heated from outside. This phenomenon results from the mass transfer from the bundle region to the central channel. The experimental hBC data obtained for the case without a heat source in the considered segment were also compared with those calculated using various heat transfer correlations.

  20. A technique for measuring the heat transfer coefficient inside a Bridgman furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosch, W.; Jesser, W.; Debnam, W.; Fripp, A.; Woodell, G.; Pendergrass, T. K.

    1993-01-01

    Knowledge of the amount of heat that is conducted, advected and radiated between an ampoule and the furnace is important for understanding vertical Bridgman crystal growth. This heat transfer depends on the temperature, emissivities and geometries of both the furnace and ampoule, as well as the choice of ambient gas inside the furnace. This paper presents a method which directly measures this heat transfer without the need to know any physical properties of the furnace, the ampoule, or the gaseous environment. Data are given for one specific furnace in which this method was used.

  1. Effect of porous structure of catalyst layer on effective oxygen diffusion coefficient in polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Gen; Kawase, Motoaki

    2016-09-01

    It is important to reduce the oxygen diffusion resistance through PEFC porous electrode, because it is the key to reduce the PEFC cost. However, the gas diffusion coefficient of CL is lower than MPL in spite of framework consisted of same carbon blacks. In this study, in order to understand the reasons of the lower gas diffusion performance of CL, the relationship between a carbon black agglomerate structure and ionomer adhesion condition is evaluated by a numerical analysis with an actual reconstructed structure and a simulated structure. As a result, the gas diffusion property of CL strongly depends on the ionomer adhesion shape. In the case of adhesion shape with the same curvature of ionomer interface, each pore can not be connected enough. So the pore tortuosity increases. Moreover, in the case of existence of inefficient large pores formed by carbon black agglomerate and ununiformly coated ionomer, the gas diffusion performance decrease rapidly. As the measurement values in actual CL are almost equal to that with model structure with inefficient large pores. These characteristics can be confirmed by actual cross-section image obtained by FIB-SEM.

  2. Experimental investigation of heat transfer performance coefficient in tube bundle of shell and tube heat exchanger in two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaś, Marcin; Zając, Daniel; Ulbrich, Roman

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the results of studies in two phase gasliquid flow around tube bundle in the model of shell tube heat exchanger. Experimental investigations of heat transfer coefficient on the tubes surface were performed with the aid of electrochemical technique. Chilton-Colburn analogy between heat and mass transfer was used. Twelve nickel cathodes were mounted on the outside surface of one of the tubes. Measurement of limiting currents in the cathodic reduction of ferricyanide ions on nickel electrodes in aqueous solution of equimolar quantities of K3Fe(CN)6 and K4Fe(CN)6 in the presence of NaOH basic solution were applied to determine the mass transfer coefficient. Controlled diffusion from ions at the electrode was observed and limiting current plateau was measured. Measurements were performed with data acquisition equipment controlled by software created for this experiment. Mass transfer coefficient was calculated on the basis of the limiting current measurements. Results of mass transfer experiments (mass transfer coefficient) were recalculated to heat transfer coefficient. During the experiments, simultaneously conducted was the the investigation of two-phase flow structures around tubes with the use of digital particle image velocimetry. Average velocity fields around tubes were created with the use of a number of flow images and compared with the results of heat transfer coefficient calculations.

  3. Measurement of Charge Transfer Rate Coefficient Between Ground-State N(2+) Ion and He at Electron-Volt Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Z.; Kwong, Victor H. S.

    1997-01-01

    The charge transfer rate coefficient for the reaction N(2+)(2p(sup 2)P(sup 0)) + He yields products is measured by recording the time dependence of the N(2+) ions stored in an ion trap. A cylindrical radio-frequency ion trap was used to store N(2+) ions produced by laser ablation of a solid titanium nitride target. The decay of the ion signals was analyzed by single exponential least-squares fits to the data. The measured rate coefficient is 8.67(0.76) x 10(exp -11)sq cm/s. The N(2+) ions were at a mean energy of 2.7 eV while He gas was at room temperature, corresponding to an equivalent temperature of 3.9 x 10(exp 3) K. The measured value is in good agreement with a recent calculation.

  4. Differentiation of the functional in an optimization problem for diffusion and convective transfer coefficients of elliptic imperfect contact interface problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manapova, Aigul

    2016-08-01

    We consider optimal control problems for second order elliptic equations with non-self-adjoint operators-convection-diffusion problems. Control processes are described by semi-linear convection-diffusion equation with discontinuous data and solutions (states) subject to the boundary interface conditions of imperfect type (i.e., problems with a jump of the coefficients and the solution on the interface; the jump of the solution is proportional to the normal component of the flux). Controls are involved in the coefficients of diffusion and convective transfer. We prove differentiability and Lipshitz continuity of the cost functional, depending on a state of the system and a control. The calculation of the gradients uses the numerical solutions of direct problems for the state and adjoint problems.

  5. Oxygen transfer as a tool for fine-tuning recombinant protein production by Pichia pastoris under glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter.

    PubMed

    Güneş, Hande; Çalık, Pınar

    2016-07-01

    Effects of oxygen transfer on recombinant protein production by Pichia pastoris under glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter were investigated. Recombinant glucose isomerase was chosen as the model protein. Two groups of oxygen transfer strategies were applied, one of which was based on constant oxygen transfer rate where aeration rate was Q O/V = 3 and 10 vvm, and agitation rate was N = 900 min(-1); while the other one was based on constant dissolved oxygen concentrations, C DO = 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 % in the fermentation broth, by using predetermined exponential glucose feeding with μ o = 0.15 h(-1). The highest cell concentration was obtained as 44 g L(-1) at t = 9 h of the glucose fed-batch phase at C DO = 20 % operation while the highest volumetric and specific enzyme activities were obtained as 4440 U L(-1) and 126 U g(-1) cell, respectively at C DO = 15 % operation. Investigation of specific enzyme activities revealed that keeping C DO at 15 % was more advantageous with an expense of relatively higher by-product formation and lower specific cell growth rate. For this strategy, the highest oxygen transfer coefficient and oxygen uptake rate were K L a = 0.045 s(-1) and OUR = 8.91 mmol m(-3) s(-1), respectively. PMID:27003824

  6. Analysis of transient heat flow to thick-walled plates and cylinders. [to determine gas heat transfer coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    A methodology is described for the analysis of a transient temperature measurement made in a flat or curved plate subjected to convective heat transfer, such that the surface heat flux, the hot-gas temperture, and the gas heat transfer coefficient can be determined. It is shown that if the transient temperature measurement is made at a particular point located nearly midway in the thickness of the plate there is an important simplification in the data analysis process, in that the factor relating the surface heat flux to the measured rate of rise of temperature becomes invariant for a Fourier Number above 0.60 and for all values of the Biot Number. Parameters are derived, tabulated, and plotted which enable straightforward determination of the surface heat flux, the hot-gas temperature, of the plate, the rate of rise of temperature, the plate thickness and curvature, and the mean thermal properties of the plate material at the test temperature.

  7. Oxygen exchange at gas/oxide interfaces: how the apparent activation energy of the surface exchange coefficient depends on the kinetic regime.

    PubMed

    Fielitz, Peter; Borchardt, Günter

    2016-08-10

    In the dedicated literature the oxygen surface exchange coefficient KO and the equilibrium oxygen exchange rate [Fraktur R] are considered to be directly proportional to each other regardless of the experimental circumstances. Recent experimental observations, however, contradict the consequences of this assumption. Most surprising is the finding that the apparent activation energy of KO depends dramatically on the kinetic regime in which it has been determined, i.e. surface exchange controlled vs. mixed or diffusion controlled. This work demonstrates how the diffusion boundary condition at the gas/solid interface inevitably entails a correlation between the oxygen surface exchange coefficient KO and the oxygen self-diffusion coefficient DO in the bulk ("on top" of the correlation between KO and [Fraktur R] for the pure surface exchange regime). The model can thus quantitatively explain the range of apparent activation energies measured in the different regimes: in the surface exchange regime the apparent activation energy only contains the contribution of the equilibrium exchange rate, whereas in the mixed or in the diffusion controlled regime the contribution of the oxygen self-diffusivity has also to be taken into account, which may yield significantly higher apparent activation energies and simultaneously quantifies the correlation KO ∝ DO(1/2) observed for a large number of oxides in the mixed or diffusion controlled regime, respectively. PMID:27460608

  8. The effect of the liquid-solid system properties on the interline heat transfer coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wayner, P. C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical procedure to determine the heat transfer characteristics of the interline region of an evaporating meniscus using the macroscopic optical and thermophysical properties of the system is outlined. The analysis is based on the premise that the interline transport processes are controlled by the London-van der Waals forces between condensed phases (solid and liquid). The procedure is used to compare the relative size of the interline heat sink of various systems using a constant heat flux model. This solution demonstrates the importance of the interline heat flow number which is evaluated for various systems. The heat transfer characteristics of the decane-steel system are numerically compared with those of the carbon tetrachloride-quartz system.

  9. Heat and mass transfer of submerged helium injection in liquid oxygen vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Youngsuk; Cho, Namkyung; Baek, Seungwhan; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2014-11-01

    The submerged helium injection process results in the heat and mass transfer between the helium bubble and the cryogenic liquid. The objective of this paper is to analyze the dynamics of the heat and mass transfer process. It is observed that during the helium injection process the dynamics of mass transfer is dominant and the transient heat transfer is negligible. The helium bubble shape and rising patterns are observed with a visualization device that helps to discern the dominant process between heat transfer and mass transfer. The clustering patterns such as coalescence of helium bubbles are observed with the visualization device. The visualization results indicate that, it is very difficult to determine the representative size of bubbles due to the irregular shape of the helium bubbles. The shape and size of the helium bubbles are important parameters for evaluating the overall mass transfer coefficient (kGA) which is the essential parameter for calculating the evaporation rate of the bulk liquid into the helium bubbles. In this paper, the simplified lumped model is considered to fairly approximate the evaporation rate of the cryogenic liquid into the bubbles and the cooling rate of helium injection. The empirical correlation for the average concentration (C‾A) of evaporated cryogenic liquid into the helium bubbles is presented and the overall mass transfer coefficients (kGA) are calculated as the result of the lumped model. The proposed model and empirical correlations are compared with the experimental results, and the comparison result shows good agreement with differences that are less than ±0.4 K.

  10. Triplet-triplet energy transfer and protection mechanisms against singlet oxygen in photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihara, Shigeharu

    individual BChl pigments within that photosynthetic antenna complex are accessed via their triplet state dynamics. It is found that the currently used exciton model of FMO needs to be revised. It is also shown that triplet excited states can be readily transferred between the molecules. It is proposed that the triplet energy transfer between the BChl molecules can also serve as a protection mechanism. Finally, it is inferred that at least one of the BChl molecules within the FMO has a triplet state energy that is lower than that of singlet oxygen. This effectively prevents the formation of singlet oxygen and protects the complex from oxidative damage. The energy of BChl is apparently lowered by the specific protein environment, as in solution its energy is measured to be somewhat higher than the energy of singlet oxygen. Finally, the results of the triplet energy transfer within the cytochrome b6f complex are presented. This part of the work is not conclusive, and some of the problems encountered in experiments are described, as well as a new method of sample degassing developed for this type of study is presented.

  11. Effects of Carbon dioxide on the Rheological behavior and oxygen transfer in submerged penicillin fermentations.

    PubMed

    Ju, L K; Ho, C S; Shanahan, J F

    1991-12-01

    Fermentations of Penicillium chrysogenum have been made with different CO(2) contents in the influent gas streams. The rheological behavior of the culture broth was found to be significantly changed by exposure to high levels of CO(2). This is attributed to the wide variation in the morphology of P. chrysogenum, from normal mycelia with long hyphae to roughly spherical pellets when subjected to high levels of CO(2). A correlation has been developed relating volumetric O(2) transfer coefficients, k(L)a, with the effective O(2) diffusion coefficients, D(e), and the apparent viscosities, micro(app), based on the results obtained in this study. The use of CO(2) as a potent means for altering the rheological properties of culture broths and consequently improving the O(2) transfer capabilities in penicillin fermentations was clearly demonstrated. PMID:18600719

  12. Performance and heat transfer characteristics of a carbon monoxide/oxygen rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1993-01-01

    The combustion and heat transfer characteristics of a carbon monoxide and oxygen rocket engine were evaluated. The test hardware consisted of a calorimeter combustion chamber with a heat sink nozzle and an eighteen element concentric tube injector. Experimental results are given at chamber pressures of 1070 and 3070 kPa, and over a mixture ratio range of 0.3 to 1.0. Experimental C efficiency was between 95 and 96.5 percent. Heat transfer results are discussed both as a function of mixture ratio and axial distance in the chamber. They are also compared to a Nusselt number correlation for fully developed turbulent flow.

  13. Pressure-induced absorption coefficients for radiative transfer calculations in Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courtin, Regis

    1988-01-01

    The semiempirical theory of Birnbaum and Cohen (1976) is used to calculate the FIR pressure-induced absorption (PIA) spectra of N2, CH4, N2 + Ar, N2 + CH4, and N2 + H2 under conditions like those in the Titan troposphere. The results are presented graphically and compared with published data from laboratory measurements of PIA in the same gases and mixtures (Dagg et al., 1986; Dore et al., 1986). Good agreement is obtained, with only a slight underestimation of PIA at 300-400/cm in the case of CH4. The absorption coefficients are presented in tables, and it is suggested that the present findings are of value for evaluating the effects of tropospheric clouds on the Titan FIR spectrum and studying the greenhouse effect near the Titan surface.

  14. Determination of coefficients for the universal laws of friction and heat transfer for CFTL calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.

    1980-08-01

    The friction factor and Stanton number for flow past a roughened surface are determined by the parameters A and R(h/sup +/) of the universal law of friction and A/sub H/ and G(h/sup +/) of the universal law of heat transfer. The methods to be used for determination of these parameters for the particular roughness to be used in the Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL) are presented. Examples are given concerning the application of these methods to both transitional and fully rough flow using experimental results taken from the literature.

  15. Experimental verification of heat transfer coefficient for nucleate boiling at sub-atmospheric pressure and small heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajaczkowski, Bartosz; Halon, Tomasz; Krolicki, Zbigniew

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we study the influence of sub-atmospheric pressure on nucleate boiling. Sixteen correlations for pool boiling available in literature are gathered and evaluated. Analysis is performed in the pressure range 1-10 kPa and for heat flux densities 10-45 kW/m2. Superheats are set between 6.2 and 28.7 K. The results of calculations were compared with experimental values for the same parameters. The experiments were conducted using isolated glass cylinder and water boiling above the copper plate. Results show that low pressure adjust the character of boiling curve—the curve flattened and the natural convection region of boiling is shifted towards higher wall temperature superheats due to the influence of low pressure on the bubble creation and process of its departure. In result, 8 of 16 analyzed correlations were determined as completely invalid in subatmospheric conditions and the remaining set of equations was compared to experimental results. Experimentally obtained values of heat transfer coefficients are between 1 and 2 kW/m2K. With mean absolute deviation (MAD) we have found that the most accurate approximation of heat transfer coefficient is obtained using Mostinski reduced pressure correlation (0.13-0.35 MAD) and Labuntsov correlation (0.12-0.89 MAD).

  16. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of Automatic Transmission Fluid Jets with Implications for Electric Machine Thermal Management: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bennion, Kevin; Moreno, Gilberto

    2015-09-29

    Thermal management for electric machines (motors/ generators) is important as the automotive industry continues to transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. Cooling of the electric machine(s) in some electric vehicle traction drive applications is accomplished by impinging automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets onto the machine's copper windings. In this study, we provide the results of experiments characterizing the thermal performance of ATF jets on surfaces representative of windings, using Ford's Mercon LV ATF. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients. Fluid temperatures were varied from 50 degrees C to 90 degrees C to encompass potential operating temperatures within an automotive transaxle environment. The jet nozzle velocities were varied from 0.5 to 10 m/s. The experimental ATF heat transfer coefficient results provided in this report are a useful resource for understanding factors that influence the performance of ATF-based cooling systems for electric machines.

  17. Remote noncontacting measurements of heat transfer coefficients for detection of boundary layer transition in wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, D. Michele; Winfree, William P.; Carraway, Debra L.; Heyman, Joseph S.

    1987-01-01

    An infrared measurement system is used that consists of a laser heating source, an infrared camera for data acquisition, and a video recorder for data storage. A laser beam is scanned over an airfoil, heating its surface to a few degrees above ambient. An infrared camera then measures the temperature of the airfoil over a two-dimensional field, and these temperatures are stored as a function of time on a video recorder. The resulting temperature pictures are digitized and an iterative approximation algorithm is used to extract the heat transfer coefficient. The resulting values are normalized to the natural convection condition. The technique has been applied in low-speed wind tunnel tests and compared to well-established hot-film measurements which were made simultaneously to confirm the flow conditions. Heat transfer coefficients were determined using a linear scanning pattern, to indicate the position of natural and of artificially induced transition on an airfoil, at various wind speeds. The technique is shown to be sensitive to transition at low Mach numbers. The advantages of the technique are discussed.

  18. Transfer coefficients of selected radionuclides to animal products. I. Comparison of milk and meat from dairy cows and goats

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.E.; Ward, G.M.; Ennis, M.E. Jr.; Boamah, K.N.

    1988-02-01

    The diet-milk transfer coefficient, Fm (Bq L-1 output in milk divided by Bq d-1 intake to the animal) was studied for eight radionuclides that previously had been given little attention. The Fm values for cows and goats, respectively, were: 2.3 x 10(-5) and 1.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 99m/Tc, 1.4 x 10(-4) and 8.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 95m/Tc, 1.1 x 10(-2) for /sup 99/Tc (goats only); 1.7 x 10(-3) and 9 x 10(-3) for /sup 99/Mo; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.4 x 10(-3) for /sup 123m/Te; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.6 x 10(-3) for /sup 133/Ba; 5.5 x 10(-7) and 5.5 x 10(-6) for /sup 95/Zr; and 4.1 x 10(-7) and 6.4 x 10(-6) for /sup 95/Nb. The goat/cow transfer coefficient ratios for milk were approximately 10, but the goat/cow ratios for meat varied by three orders of magnitude.

  19. Using eddy covariance to estimate air–sea gas transfer velocity for oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Andreas; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik

    2016-07-01

    Air-sea gas transfer velocity for O2 is calculated using directly measured fluxes with the eddy covariance technique. It is a direct method and is frequently used to determine fluxes of heat, humidity, and CO2, but has not previously been used to estimate transfer velocities for O2, using atmospheric eddy covariance data. The measured O2 fluxes are upward directed, in agreement with the measured air-sea gradient of the O2 concentration, and opposite to the direction of the simultaneously measured CO2 fluxes. The transfer velocities estimated from measurements are compared with prominent wind speed parameterizations of the transfer velocity for CO2 and O2, previously established from various measurement techniques. Our result indicates stronger wind speed dependence for the transfer velocity of O2 compared to CO2 starting at intermediate wind speeds. This stronger wind speed dependence appears to coincide with the onset of whitecap formation in the flux footprint and the strong curvature of a cubic wind-dependent function for the transfer velocity provides the best fit to the data. Additional data using the measured O2 flux and an indirect method (based on the Photosynthetic Quotient) to estimate oxygen concentration in water, support the stronger wind dependence for the transfer velocity of O2 compared to CO2.

  20. Measurements of absorbed heat flux and water-side heat transfer coefficient in water wall tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taler, Jan; Taler, Dawid; Kowal, Andrzej

    2011-04-01

    The tubular type instrument (flux tube) was developed to identify boundary conditions in water wall tubes of steam boilers. The meter is constructed from a short length of eccentric tube containing four thermocouples on the fire side below the inner and outer surfaces of the tube. The fifth thermocouple is located at the rear of the tube on the casing side of the water-wall tube. The boundary conditions on the outer and inner surfaces of the water flux-tube are determined based on temperature measurements at the interior locations. Four K-type sheathed thermocouples of 1 mm in diameter, are inserted into holes, which are parallel to the tube axis. The non-linear least squares problem is solved numerically using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. The heat transfer conditions in adjacent boiler tubes have no impact on the temperature distribution in the flux tubes.

  1. Instantaneous heat transfer coefficient based upon two-dimensional analyses of Stirling space engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibrahim, Mounir; Kannapareddy, Mohan; Tew, Roy C.; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Twelve different cases of multidimensional models of Stirling engine components for space applications have been numerically investigated for oscillating, incompressible laminar flow with heat transfer. The cases studied covered wide ranges of Valensi number (from 44 to 700), Re(max) number (from 8250 to 60,000), and relative amplitude of fluid motion of 0.686 and 1.32. The Nusselt numbers obtained from the present study indicate a very complex shape with respect to time and axial location in the channel. The results indicate that three parameters can be used to define the local Nusselt number variation, namely: time average, amplitude, and phase angle. These parameters could be correlated respectively using: Re(max), Va and Re(max), and the relative amplitude of fluid motion.

  2. Drag and Bulk Transfer Coefficients Over Water Surfaces in Light Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhongwang; Miyano, Aiko; Sugita, Michiaki

    2016-04-01

    The drag coefficient (CD) , experimentally determined from observed wind speed and surface stress, has been reported to increase in the low wind-speed range (< 3 m s^{-1} ) as wind speed becomes smaller. However, until now, the exact causes for its occurrence have not been determined. Here, possible causes for increased CD values in near-calm conditions are examined using high quality datasets selected from three-year continuous measurements obtained from the centre of Lake Kasumigaura, the second largest lake in Japan. Based on our analysis, suggested causes including (i) measurement errors, (ii) lake currents, (iii) capillary waves, (iv) the possibility of a measurement height within the interfacial/transition sublayer, and (v) a possible mismatch in the representative time scale used for mean and covariance averaging, are not considered major factors. The use of vector-averaged, instead of scalar-averaged, wind speeds and the presence of waves only partially explain the increase in CD under light winds. A small increase in turbulent kinetic energy due to buoyant production at low wind speeds is identified as the likely major cause for this increase in CD in the unstable atmosphere dominant over inland water surfaces.

  3. Drag and Bulk Transfer Coefficients Over Water Surfaces in Light Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhongwang; Miyano, Aiko; Sugita, Michiaki

    2016-08-01

    The drag coefficient (CD), experimentally determined from observed wind speed and surface stress, has been reported to increase in the low wind-speed range (<3 m s^{-1}) as wind speed becomes smaller. However, until now, the exact causes for its occurrence have not been determined. Here, possible causes for increased CD values in near-calm conditions are examined using high quality datasets selected from three-year continuous measurements obtained from the centre of Lake Kasumigaura, the second largest lake in Japan. Based on our analysis, suggested causes including (i) measurement errors, (ii) lake currents, (iii) capillary waves, (iv) the possibility of a measurement height within the interfacial/transition sublayer, and (v) a possible mismatch in the representative time scale used for mean and covariance averaging, are not considered major factors. The use of vector-averaged, instead of scalar-averaged, wind speeds and the presence of waves only partially explain the increase in CD under light winds. A small increase in turbulent kinetic energy due to buoyant production at low wind speeds is identified as the likely major cause for this increase in CD in the unstable atmosphere dominant over inland water surfaces.

  4. Isolation, Characterization of an Intermediate in an Oxygen Atom-Transfer Reaction, and the Determination of the Bond Dissociation Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Nemykin, Victor N.; Laskin, Julia; Basu, Partha

    2004-07-19

    Redox reactions coupled with the formal loss or gain of an oxygen atom are ubiquitous in chemical processes. Such reactions proceed through the reduction of the donor center (XO) and the oxidation of the acceptor (Y) molecule. Among many examples of the metal centered oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactivity, those involving molybdenum complexes have been widely investigated due to their involvement in mononuclear molybdenum enzymes. The heat of reaction of the overall atom transfer process can be expressed as a difference between the bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of the oxygen-donor(X) and oxygen-acceptor(Y) bond, i.e., H=DX=o-DY=O.

  5. Full surface local heat transfer coefficient measurements in a model of an integrally cast impingement cooling geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, D.R.H.; Wang, Z.; Ireland, P.T.; Kohler, S.T.

    1998-01-01

    Cast impingement cooling geometries offer the gas turbine designer higher structural integrity and improved convective cooling when compared to traditional impingement cooling systems, which rely on plate inserts. In this paper, it is shown that the surface that forms the jets contributes significantly to the total cooling. Local heat transfer coefficient distributions have been measured in a model of an engine wall cooling geometry using the transient heat transfer technique. The method employs temperature-sensitive liquid crystals to measure the surface temperature of large-scale perspex models during transient experiments. Full distributions of local Nusselt number on both surfaces of the impingement plate, and on the impingement target plate, are presented at engine representative Reynolds numbers. The relative effects of the impingement plate thermal boundary condition and the coolant supply temperature on the target plate heat transfer have been determined by maintaining an isothermal boundary condition at the impingement plate during the transient tests. The results are discussed in terms of the interpreted flow field.

  6. Theoretical and experimental study of the rule for heat transfer coefficient in hot stamping of high strength steels

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Xianhong; Hao, Xin; Yang, Kun; Zhong, Yaoyao

    2013-12-16

    Heat transfer is a crucial aspect for hot stamping process, the fully austenitized boron steel blank with temperature about 900°C is transferred to the tool, then formed rapidly and quenched in the cooled tool. The desired fully martensitic transformation will happen only if the cooling rate exceeds a critical value approximately 27 K/s. During such process, the heat transfer coefficient (abbreviated as HTC) between the tool and blank plays a decisive role for the variation of the blank temperature. In this work, a theoretical formula based on the joint-roughness model is presented to describe the law of HTC, which relies on the roughness, hardness, and other material parameters of the tool and blank. Moreover, a non-contact temperature measuring system based on the infrared thermal camera is built to catch the temperature change course, and then the HTC value is derived through the inverse analysis. Based on the theoretical and experimental results, the change rule of HTC especially its dependence on the process pressure will be discussed in detail.

  7. Application of the gas tracer method for measuring oxygen transfer rates in subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Tyroller, Lina; Rousseau, Diederik P L; Santa, Santa; García, Joan

    2010-07-01

    The oxygen transfer rate (OTR) has a significant impact on the design, optimal operation and modelling of constructed wetlands treating wastewater. Oxygen consumption is very fast in wetlands and the OTR cannot be determined using an oxygen mass balance. This problem is circumvented in this study by applying the gas tracer method. Experiments were conducted in an unplanted gravel bed (dimensions L x W x d 125 x 50 x 35 cm filled with a 30-cm layer of 10-11-mm gravel) and a planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSFCW) (L x W x d 110 x 70 x 38 cm filled with a 30-cm layer of 3.5-mm gravel with Phragmites australis). Tap water saturated with propane as gas tracer (pure or commercial cooking gas, depending on the test) was used. The mass transfer ratio between oxygen and commercial propane gas was quite constant and averaged R = 1.03, which is slightly lower than the value of R = 1.39 that is usually reported for pure propane. The OTR ranged from 0.31 to 5.04 g O(2) m(-2) d(-1) in the unplanted gravel bed and from 0.3 to 3.2 g O(2) m(-2) d(-1) in the HSSFCW, depending on the hydraulic retention time (HRT). The results of this study suggest that the OTR in HSSFCW is very low for the oxygen demand of standard wastewater and the OTR calculations based on mass balances and theoretical stoichiometric considerations overestimate OTR values by a factor that ranges from 10 to 100. The gas tracer method is a promising tool for determining OTR in constructed wetlands, with commercial gas proving to be a viable low-cost alternative for determining OTR. PMID:20542312

  8. Transient liquid-crystal technique used to produce high-resolution convective heat-transfer-coefficient maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippensteele, Steven A.; Poinsatte, Philip E.

    1993-08-01

    In this transient technique the preheated isothermal model wall simulates the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction problem. By knowing the temperature of the air flowing through the model, the initial temperature of the model wall, and the surface cooling rate measured at any location with time (using the fast-response liquid-crystal patterns recorded on video tape), the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated for the color isothermal pattern produced. Although the test was run transiently, the heat transfer coefficients are for the steady-state case. The upstream thermal boundary condition was considered to be isothermal. This transient liquid-crystal heat-transfer technique was used in a transient air tunnel in which a square-inlet, 3-to-1 exit transition duct was placed. The duct was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. The resulting isothermal contours on the duct surfaces were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. The duct surfaces were uniformly heated using two heating systems: the first was an automatic temperature-controlled heater blanket completely surrounding the test duct like an oven, and the second was an internal hot-air loop through the inside of the test duct. The hot-air loop path was confined inside the test duct by insulated heat dams located at the inlet and exit ends of the test duct. A recirculating fan moved hot air into the duct inlet, through the duct, out of the duct exit, through the oven, and back to the duct inlet. The temperature nonuniformity of the test duct model wall was held very small. Test results are reported for two inlet Reynolds numbers of 200,000 and 1,150,000 (based on the square-inlet hydraulic diameter) and two free-stream turbulence

  9. Transient liquid-crystal technique used to produce high-resolution convective heat-transfer-coefficient maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, Steven A.; Poinsatte, Philip E.

    1993-01-01

    In this transient technique the preheated isothermal model wall simulates the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction problem. By knowing the temperature of the air flowing through the model, the initial temperature of the model wall, and the surface cooling rate measured at any location with time (using the fast-response liquid-crystal patterns recorded on video tape), the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated for the color isothermal pattern produced. Although the test was run transiently, the heat transfer coefficients are for the steady-state case. The upstream thermal boundary condition was considered to be isothermal. This transient liquid-crystal heat-transfer technique was used in a transient air tunnel in which a square-inlet, 3-to-1 exit transition duct was placed. The duct was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. The resulting isothermal contours on the duct surfaces were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. The duct surfaces were uniformly heated using two heating systems: the first was an automatic temperature-controlled heater blanket completely surrounding the test duct like an oven, and the second was an internal hot-air loop through the inside of the test duct. The hot-air loop path was confined inside the test duct by insulated heat dams located at the inlet and exit ends of the test duct. A recirculating fan moved hot air into the duct inlet, through the duct, out of the duct exit, through the oven, and back to the duct inlet. The temperature nonuniformity of the test duct model wall was held very small. Test results are reported for two inlet Reynolds numbers of 200,000 and 1,150,000 (based on the square-inlet hydraulic diameter) and two free-stream turbulence

  10. Comparison of interfacial heat transfer coefficient estimated by two different techniques during solidification of cylindrical aluminum alloy casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaraman, R.; Velraj, R.

    2008-07-01

    The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) is necessary for accurate simulation of the casting process. In this study, a cylindrical geometry is selected for the determination of the IHTC between aluminum alloy casting and the surrounding sand mold. The mold surface heat flux and temperature are estimated by two inverse heat conduction techniques, namely Beck’s algorithm and control volume technique. The instantaneous cast and mold temperatures are measured experimentally and these values are used in the theoretical investigations. In the control volume technique, partial differential heat conduction equation is reduced to ordinary differential equations in time, which are then solved sequentially. In Beck’s method, solution algorithm is developed under the function specification method to solve the inverse heat conduction equations. The IHTC was determined from the surface heat flux and the mold surface temperature by both the techniques and the results are compared.

  11. Wind-chill-equivalent temperatures: regarding the impact due to the variability of the environmental convective heat transfer coefficient.

    PubMed

    Shitzer, Avraham

    2006-03-01

    The wind-chill index (WCI), developed in Antarctica in the 1940s and recently updated by the weather services in the USA and Canada, expresses the enhancement of heat loss in cold climates from exposed body parts, e.g., face, due to wind. The index provides a simple and practical means for assessing the thermal effects of wind on humans outdoors. It is also used for indicating weather conditions that may pose adverse risks of freezing at subfreezing environmental temperatures. Values of the WCI depend on a number of parameters, i.e, temperatures, physical properties of the air, wind speed, etc., and on insolation and evaporation. This paper focuses on the effects of various empirical correlations used in the literature for calculating the convective heat transfer coefficients between humans and their environment. Insolation and evaporation are not included in the presentation. Large differences in calculated values among these correlations are demonstrated and quantified. Steady-state wind-chill-equivalent temperatures (WCETs) are estimated by a simple, one-dimensional heat-conducting hollow-cylindrical model using these empirical correlations. Partial comparison of these values with the published "new" WCETs is presented. The variability of the estimated WCETs, due to different correlations employed to calculate them, is clearly demonstrated. The results of this study clearly suggest the need for establishing a "gold standard" for estimating convective heat exchange between exposed body elements and the cold and windy environment. This should be done prior to the introduction and adoption of further modifications to WCETs and indices. Correlations to estimate the convective heat transfer coefficients between exposed body parts of humans in windy and cold environments influence the WCETs and need to be standardized. PMID:16397760

  12. Wind-chill-equivalent temperatures: regarding the impact due to the variability of the environmental convective heat transfer coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitzer, Avraham

    2006-03-01

    The wind-chill index (WCI), developed in Antarctica in the 1940s and recently updated by the weather services in the USA and Canada, expresses the enhancement of heat loss in cold climates from exposed body parts, e.g., face, due to wind. The index provides a simple and practical means for assessing the thermal effects of wind on humans outdoors. It is also used for indicating weather conditions that may pose adverse risks of freezing at subfreezing environmental temperatures. Values of the WCI depend on a number of parameters, i.e, temperatures, physical properties of the air, wind speed, etc., and on insolation and evaporation. This paper focuses on the effects of various empirical correlations used in the literature for calculating the convective heat transfer coefficients between humans and their environment. Insolation and evaporation are not included in the presentation. Large differences in calculated values among these correlations are demonstrated and quantified. Steady-state wind-chill-equivalent temperatures (WCETs) are estimated by a simple, one-dimensional heat-conducting hollow-cylindrical model using these empirical correlations. Partial comparison of these values with the published “new” WCETs is presented. The variability of the estimated WCETs, due to different correlations employed to calculate them, is clearly demonstrated. The results of this study clearly suggest the need for establishing a “gold standard” for estimating convective heat exchange between exposed body elements and the cold and windy environment. This should be done prior to the introduction and adoption of further modifications to WCETs and indices. Correlations to estimate the convective heat transfer coefficients between exposed body parts of humans in windy and cold environments influence the WCETs and need to be standardized.

  13. On the coefficients of small eddy and surface divergence models for the air-water gas transfer velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Binbin; Liao, Qian; Fillingham, Joseph H.; Bootsma, Harvey A.

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies suggested that under low to moderate wind conditions without bubble entraining wave breaking, the air-water gas transfer velocity k+ can be mechanistically parameterized by the near-surface turbulence, following the small eddy model (SEM). Field measurements have supported this model in a variety of environmental forcing systems. Alternatively, surface divergence model (SDM) has also been shown to predict the gas transfer velocity across the air-water interface in laboratory settings. However, the empirically determined model coefficients (α in SEM and c1 in SDM) scattered over a wide range. Here we present the first field measurement of the near-surface turbulence with a novel floating PIV system on Lake Michigan, which allows us to evaluate the SEM and SDM in situ in the natural environment. k+ was derived from the CO2 flux that was measured simultaneously with a floating gas chamber. Measured results indicate that α and c1 are not universal constants. Regression analysis showed that α˜log>(ɛ>) while the near-surface turbulence dissipation rate ɛ is approximately greater than 10-6 m2 s-3 according to data measured for this study as well as from other published results measured in similar environments or in laboratory settings. It also showed that α scales linearly with the turbulent Reynolds number. Similarly, coefficient c1 in the SDM was found to linearly scale with the Reynolds number. These findings suggest that larger eddies are also important parameters, and the dissipation rate in the SEM or the surface divergence β' in the SDM alone may not be adequate to determine k+ completely.

  14. Turbulence at the Air-Water Interface in Lakes of Different Sizes: Consequences for Gas Transfer Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIntyre, S.; Crowe, A. T.; Amaral, J. H.; Arneborg, L.; Bastviken, D.; Forsberg, B. R.; Melack, J. M.; Tota, J.; Tedford, E. W.; Karlsson, J.; Podgrajsek, E.; Andersson, A.; Rutgersson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Similarity scaling predicts that wind induced shear will be the dominant source of turbulence near the air-water interface in lakes with low to moderate wind forcing. Turbulence is expected to be enhanced with wave activity; results are conflicting on the effects of heating and cooling. We measured turbulence with an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) and / or a temperature-gradient microstructure profiler and obtained correlative time series measurements of meteorology and water column temperature in a 800 m2 arctic pond, a 1 ha boreal lake, and a large tropical reservoir. Turbulence measurements with both instruments corroborated those calculated from similarity scaling in the boreal lake. Within the arctic pond, dissipation rates obtained with the ADV were in agreement with those from similarity scaling when winds exceeded ~1.5 m/s with a greater frequency of measurable dissipation rates when surface waves were present. Dissipation rates in the tropical reservoir reached and often exceeded 10-6 m2 s-3 in the upper meter under light winds and decreased by an order of magnitude with cooling or rainfall. Under cooling, dissipation rates were at least an order of magnitude higher in the uppermost 25 cm bin than in the water column below. Gas transfer coefficients calculated from concurrent measurements of greenhouse gas fluxes with floating chambers and the surface renewal model using the estimates of turbulence were in agreement. These results support the predictions of Monin-Obuhov similarity scaling in that shear dominates turbulence production near the air-water interface under heating and cooling, illustrate spatial variability in turbulence production in small water bodies due to the intermittency of wind interacting with the water's surface, are in agreement with prior oceanic observations that shear and associated turbulence can be intensified in shallow mixing layers under heating with light winds, and illustrate the utility of similarity scaling for

  15. The effect of aeration conditions, characterized by the volumetric mass transfer coefficient K(L)a, on the fermentation kinetics of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki.

    PubMed

    Mounsef, Jihane Rahbani; Salameh, Dominique; Louka, Nicolas; Brandam, Cedric; Lteif, Roger

    2015-09-20

    The aeration is a key factor for Bacillus thuringiensis growth, sporulation and δ-endotoxins production. The objective of our work was to study the effect of aeration on the fermentation kinetics of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Btk), cultivated in a cereal milling byproduct (CMB) mono-component medium, in order to improve the δ-endotoxins productivity. Aeration conditions were systematically characterized by the volumetric mass transfer coefficient KLa. In the 6% CMB culture medium, different values of the maximal specific oxygen uptake rate were obtained at different values of KLa. For KLa of 7.2 h(-1), the growth was inhibited and the sporulation was defective. There was a linear increase of the average specific growth rate and faster sporulation and liberation of spores and δ-endotoxins crystals when KLa was increased between 13.3 h(-1) and 65.5 h(-1). Similar kinetic was observed in cultures performed at KLa equal to 65.5 h(-1) and 106.2 h(-1). The highest toxins productivity of 96.1 mg L(-1) (h)-1 was obtained in the 9% CMB culture medium for KLa of 102 h(-1). It was possible to track the evolution of the bacterial cells between vegetative growth, sporulation and liberation of mature spores by following the variation of the CO2 percent in the effluent gas. PMID:26091772

  16. Electric transport coefficients in highly epitaxial LaBaCo2O5 + δ films with "p-to-n" transition induced by oxygen deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibo, J.; Zhang, Q. Y.; Wang, Y. Q.; Hu, H. C.; Li, X. N.; Pan, L. J.

    2016-08-01

    Electric transport coefficients such as carrier type, density, and mobility are the important physical parameters in designing functional devices. In this work, we report the study on the electric transport coefficients of the highly epitaxial LaBaCo2O5 + δ (LBCO) films, which were discussed as a function of electric conductivity for the first time and compared with the results calculated by the theory for mixed conduction. The mobility in the LBCO films was determined to be ˜0.85 and ˜40 cm2/V s for holes and electrons, respectively, and the density of p-type carriers strongly depends on the oxygen deficiency. Solid evidence is presented to demonstrate that the oxygen deficiency cannot make LBCO materials changed from p- to n-type. The n-type conduction observed in experiment is a counterfeit phenomenon caused by the deficiency in Hall measurement, rather than a realistic transition induced by oxygen deficiency. In addition, the temperature-dependent conductivity was discussed using the differential coefficients, which might be useful in the study of the samples with magnetic transition.

  17. Measurement of enhanced heat transfer coefficient with perforated twisted tape inserts during condensation of R-245fa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatua, A. K.; Kumar, P.; Singh, H. N.; Kumar, R.

    2016-04-01

    The experimental conductive heat transfer results for flow through inserted perforated twisted tapes in a horizontal tube during condensation of pure R-245fa vapor. The test section consisting of two separate coaxial double pipes assembled in series, acted like a counter flow heat exchanger, where the refrigerant condensed inside the inner tube by rejecting heat to the cooling water flowing inside the outer tube in reversed direction. Data for three perforated twisted tapes having constant twist ratio of 7.1 mm and pitch of perforation as 12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 mm, inserted one by one in full length of test condenser by varying refrigerant mass flux from 100 to 200 kg/m2 s in steps of 50 kg/m2 s for the range of vapor quality from 0.1 to 0.9, were collected together with flow and without insert (plain tube). It has been found that the perforated twisted tape insert having pitch of perforation equal to in order of 12.5 mm gives the highest value of average heat transfer coefficient and is of the order of 37.5 % more than that of the plain one and the correlation predicts the experimental data within an error band of ±15 %.

  18. A validated CFD model to predict O₂ and CO₂ transfer within hollow fiber membrane oxygenators.

    PubMed

    Hormes, Marcus; Borchardt, Ralf; Mager, Ilona; Rode, Thomas Schmitz; Behr, Marek; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2011-03-01

    Hollow fiber oxygenators provide gas exchange to and from the blood during heart surgery or lung recovery. Minimal fiber surface area and optimal gas exchange rate may be achieved by optimization of hollow fiber shape and orientation (1). In this study, a modified CFD model is developed and validated with a specially developed micro membrane oxygenator (MicroMox). The MicroMox was designed in such a way that fiber arrangement and bundle geometry are highly reproducible and potential flow channeling is avoided, which is important for the validation. Its small size (V(Fluid)=0.04 mL) allows the simulation of the entire bundle of 120 fibers. A non-Newtonian blood model was used as simulation fluid. Physical solubility and chemical bond of O₂ and CO₂ in blood was represented by the numerical model. Constant oxygen partial pressure at the pores of the fibers and a steady state flow field was used to calculate the mass transport. In order to resolve the entire MicroMox fiber bundle, the mass transport was simulated for symmetric geometry sections in flow direction. In vitro validation was achieved by measurements of the gas transfer rates of the MicroMox. All measurements were performed according to DIN EN 12022 (2) using porcine blood. The numerical simulation of the mass transfer showed good agreement with the experimental data for different mass flows and constant inlet partial pressures. Good agreement could be achieved for two different fiber configurations. Thus, it was possible to establish a validated model for the prediction of gas exchange in hollow fiber oxygenators. PMID:21462147

  19. Preparation of a silanone through oxygen atom transfer to a stable cyclic silylene.

    PubMed

    Linden, Michael M; Reisenauer, Hans Peter; Gerbig, Dennis; Karni, Miriam; Schäfer, Annemarie; Müller, Thomas; Apeloig, Yitzhak; Schreiner, Peter R

    2015-10-12

    We report the evaporation of a stable cyclic silylene and its oxidation (with ozone or N2 O) through oxygen atom transfer to form the corresponding silanone under matrix isolation conditions. As uncomplexed silanones are rare owing to their very high reactivity, this method provides an alternative route to these sought-after molecules. The silanone, as well as a novel bicyclic silane with a bridgehead silicon atom derived from an intramolecular silylene CH bond insertion, were characterized by comparison of high-resolution infrared spectra with density functional theory (DFT) computations at the M06-2X/cc-pVDZ level of theory. PMID:26315924

  20. Synergistic oxygen atom transfer by ruthenium complexes with non-redox metal ions.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhanao; Zheng, Wenrui; Chen, Zhuqi; Tang, Zhiming; Mo, Wanling; Yin, Guochuan

    2016-07-28

    Non-redox metal ions can affect the reactivity of active redox metal ions in versatile biological and heterogeneous oxidation processes; however, the intrinsic roles of these non-redox ions still remain elusive. This work demonstrates the first example of the use of non-redox metal ions as Lewis acids to sharply improve the catalytic oxygen atom transfer efficiency of a ruthenium complex bearing the classic 2,2'-bipyridine ligand. In the absence of Lewis acid, the oxidation of ruthenium(ii) complex by PhI(OAc)2 generates the Ru(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]O species, which is very sluggish for olefin epoxidation. When Ru(bpy)2Cl2 was tested as a catalyst alone, only 21.2% of cyclooctene was converted, and the yield of 1,2-epoxycyclooctane was only 6.7%. As evidenced by electronic absorption spectra and EPR studies, both the oxidation of Ru(ii) by PhI(OAc)2 and the reduction of Ru(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]O by olefin are kinetically slow. However, adding non-redox metal ions such as Al(iii) can sharply improve the oxygen transfer efficiency of the catalyst to 100% conversion with 89.9% yield of epoxide under identical conditions. Through various spectroscopic characterizations, an adduct of Ru(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]O with Al(iii), Ru(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]O/Al(iii), was proposed to serve as the active species for epoxidation, which in turn generated a Ru(iii)-O-Ru(iii) dimer as the reduced form. In particular, both the oxygen transfer from Ru(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]O/Al(iii) to olefin and the oxidation of Ru(iii)-O-Ru(iii) back to the active Ru(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]O/Al(iii) species in the catalytic cycle can be remarkably accelerated by adding a non-redox metal, such as Al(iii). These results have important implications for the role played by non-redox metal ions in catalytic oxidation at redox metal centers as well as for the understanding of the redox mechanism of ruthenium catalysts in the oxygen atom

  1. Cu(ii)-catalyzed enantioselective oxygen atom transfer from oxaziridine to oxindole derivatives with chiral phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Naganawa, Yuki; Aoyama, Tomotaka; Nishiyama, Hisao

    2015-12-21

    In the presence of a Cu(ii) complex of axially chiral, N,N,O-tridentate phenanthroline ligand (S)-2, asymmetric oxygen atom transfer of oxindole derivatives (3) using Davis' oxaziridine (4) occurred to give the corresponding 3-aryl-3-hydroxy-2-oxindole derivatives (1) with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 96% ee). The X-ray crystallographic analysis of the isolated Cu(ii) complex disclosed its N,N,O-tridentate coordination, which is critical to realize effective catalytic activity. PMID:26456035

  2. Development of an inverse heat conduction model and its application to determination of heat transfer coefficient during casting solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Reilly, Carl; Li, Luoxing; Cockcroft, Steve; Yao, Lu

    2014-07-01

    The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) is required for the accurate simulation of heat transfer in castings especially for near net-shape processes. The large number of factors influencing heat transfer renders quantification by theoretical means a challenge. Likewise experimental methods applied directly to temperature data collected from castings are also a challenge to interpret because of the transient nature of many casting processes. Inverse methods offer a solution and have been applied successfully to predict the IHTC in many cases. However, most inverse approaches thus far focus on use of in-mold temperature data, which may be a challenge to obtain in cases where the molds are water-cooled. Methods based on temperature data from the casting have the potential to be used however; the latent heat released during the solidification of the molten metal complicates the associated IHTC calculations. Furthermore, there are limits on the maximum distance the thermocouples can be placed from the interface under analysis. An inverse conduction based method have been developed, verified and applied successfully to temperature data collected from within an aluminum casting in proximity to the mold. A modified specific heat method was used to account for latent heat evolution in which the rate of change of fraction solid with temperature was held constant. An analysis conducted with the inverse model suggests that the thermocouples must be placed no more than 2 mm from the interface. The IHTC values calculated for an aluminum alloy casting were shown to vary from 1,200 to 6,200 Wm-2 K-1. Additionally, the characteristics of the time-varying IHTC have also been discussed.

  3. Syngas fermentation to biofuel: evaluation of carbon monoxide mass transfer coefficient (kLa) in different reactor configurations.

    PubMed

    Munasinghe, Pradeep Chaminda; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass such as agri-residues, agri-processing by-products, and energy crops do not compete with food and feed, and is considered to be the ideal renewable feedstocks for biofuel production. Gasification of biomass produces synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily consisting of CO and H(2). The produced syngas can be converted to ethanol by anaerobic microbial catalysts especially acetogenic bacteria such as various clostridia species.One of the major drawbacks associated with syngas fermentation is the mass transfer limitation of these sparingly soluble gases in the aqueous phase. One way of addressing this issue is the improvement in reactor design to achieve a higher volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a). In this study, different reactor configurations such as a column diffuser, a 20-μm bulb diffuser, gas sparger, gas sparger with mechanical mixing, air-lift reactor combined with a 20-μm bulb diffuser, air-lift reactor combined with a single gas entry point, and a submerged composite hollow fiber membrane (CHFM) module were employed to examine the k(L) a values. The k(L) a values reported in this study ranged from 0.4 to 91.08 h(-1). The highest k(L) a of 91.08 h(-1) was obtained in the air-lift reactor combined with a 20-μm bulb diffuser, whereas the reactor with the CHFM showed the lowest k(L) a of 0.4 h(-1). By considering both the k(L) a value and the statistical significance of each configuration, the air-lift reactor combined with a 20-μm bulb diffuser was found to be the ideal reactor configuration for carbon monoxide mass transfer in an aqueous phase. PMID:20677226

  4. Effects of Cross-Sectional Shape, Solidity, and Distribution of Heat-Transfer Coefficient on the Torsional Stiffness of Thin Wings Subjected to Aerodynamic Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, Robert G.

    1959-01-01

    A study has been made of the effects of varying the shape, solidity, and heat-transfer coefficient of thin wings with regard to their influence on the torsional-stiffness reduction induced by aerodynamic heating. The variations in airfoil shape include blunting, flattening, and combined blunting and flattening of a solid wing of symmetrical double-wedge cross section. Hollow double-wedge wings of constant skin thickness with and without internal webs also are considered. The effects of heat-transfer coefficients appropriate for laminar and turbulent flow are investigated in addition to a step transition along the chord from a lower to a higher constant value of heat-transfer coefficient. From the results given it is concluded that the flattening of a solid double wedge decreases the reduction in torsional stiffness while slight degrees of blunting increase the loss. The influence of chordwise variations in heat-transfer coefficient due to turbulent and laminar boundary-layer flow on the torsional stiffness of solid wings is negligible. The effect of a step transition in heat-transfer coefficient along the chord of a solid wing can, however, become appreciable. The torsional-stiffness reduction of multiweb and hollow double-wedge wings is substantially less than that calculated for a solid wing subjected to the same heating conditions.

  5. Effect of mass transfer on the oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by platinum dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dumitrescu, Ioana; Crooks, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report on the effect of the mass transfer rate (kt) on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyzed by Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) comprised of 147 and 55 atoms (Pt147 and Pt55). The experiments were carried out using a dual-electrode microelectrochemical device, which enables the study of the ORR under high kt conditions with simultaneous detection of H2O2. At low kt (0.02 to 0.12 cm s-1) the effective number of electrons involved in ORR, neff, is 3.7 for Pt147 and 3.4 for Pt55. As kt is increased, the mass-transfer-limited current for the ORR becomes significantly lower than the value predicted by the Levich equation for a 4-electron process regardless of catalyst size. However, the percentage of H2O2 detected remains constant, such that neff barely changes over the entire kt range explored (0.02 cm s-1). This suggests that mass transfer does not affect neff, which has implications for the mechanism of the ORR on Pt nanoparticles. Interestingly, there is a significant difference in neff for the two sizes of Pt DENs (neff = 3.7 and 3.5 for Pt147 and Pt55, respectively) that cannot be assigned to mass transfer effects and that we therefore attribute to a particle size effect. PMID:22665772

  6. Primary electron transfer processes in photosynthetic reaction centers from oxygenic organisms.

    PubMed

    Mamedov, Mahir; Govindjee; Nadtochenko, Victor; Semenov, Alexey

    2015-08-01

    This minireview is written in honor of Vladimir A. Shuvalov, a pioneer in the area of primary photochemistry of both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosyntheses (See a News Report: Allakhverdiev et al. 2014). In the present paper, we describe the current state of the formation of the primary and secondary ion-radical pairs within photosystems (PS) II and I in oxygenic organisms. Spectral-kinetic studies of primary events in PS II and PS I, upon excitation by ~20 fs laser pulses, are now available and reviewed here; for PS II, excitation was centered at 710 nm, and for PS I, it was at 720 nm. In PS I, conditions were chosen to maximally increase the relative contribution of the direct excitation of the reaction center (RC) in order to separate the kinetics of the primary steps of charge separation in the RC from that of the excitation energy transfer in the antenna. Our results suggest that the sequence of the primary electron transfer reactions is P680 → ChlD1 → PheD1 → QA (PS II) and P700 → A 0A/A 0B → A 1A/A 1B (PS I). However, alternate routes of charge separation in PS II, under different excitation conditions, are not ruled out. PMID:25648636

  7. Nitrogen-doped graphene prepared by a transfer doping approach for the oxygen reduction reaction application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zaiyong; Zheng, Ruiping; Peng, Hongliang; Liang, Huagen; Liao, Shijun

    2014-01-01

    Well defined nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) is prepared by a transfer doping approach, in which the graphene oxide (GO) is deoxidized and nitrogen doped by the vaporized polyaniline, and the GO is prepared by a thermal expansion method from graphite oxide. The content of doped nitrogen in the doped graphene is high up to 6.25 at% by the results of elements analysis, and oxygen content is lowered to 5.17 at%. As a non-precious metal cathode electrocatalyst, the NG catalyst exhibits excellent activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction, as well as excellent tolerance toward methanol. In 0.1 M KOH solution, its onset potential, half-wave potential and limiting current density for the oxygen reduction reaction reach 0.98 V (vs. RHE), 0.87 V (vs. RHE) and 5.38 mA cm-2, respectively, which are comparable to those of commercial 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst. The well defined graphene structure of the catalyst is revealed clearly by HRTEM and Raman spectra. It is suggested that the nitrogen-doping and large surface area of the NG sheets give the main contribution to the high ORR catalytic activity.

  8. The baffled microtiter plate: increased oxygen transfer and improved online monitoring in small scale fermentations.

    PubMed

    Funke, Matthias; Diederichs, Sylvia; Kensy, Frank; Müller, Carsten; Büchs, Jochen

    2009-08-15

    Most experiments in screening and process development are performed in shaken bioreactors. Today, microtiter plates are the preferred vessels for small-scale microbial cultivations in high throughput, even though they have never been optimized for this purpose. To interpret the experimental results correctly and to obtain a base for a meaningful scale-up, sufficient oxygen supply to the culture liquid is crucial. For shaken bioreactors this problem can generally be addressed by the introduction of baffles. Therefore, the focus of this study is to investigate how baffling and the well geometry affect the maximum oxygen transfer capacity (OTR(max)) in microtiter plates. On a 48-well plate scale, 30 different cross-section geometries of a well were studied. It could be shown that the introduction of baffles into the common circular cylinder of a microtiter plate well doubles the maximum oxygen transfer capacity, resulting in values above 100 mmol/L/h (k(L)a > 600 1/h). To also guarantee a high volume for microbial cultivation, it is important to maximize the filling volume, applicable during orbital shaking. Additionally, the liquid height at the well bottom was examined, which is a decisive parameter for online-monitoring systems such as the BioLector. This technology performs fiber-optical measurements through the well bottom, therefore requires a constant liquid height at all shaking frequencies. Ultimately, a six-petal flower-shaped well geometry was shown to be the optimal solution taking into account all aforementioned criteria. With its favorable culture conditions and the possibility for unrestricted online monitoring, this novel microtiter plate is an efficient tool to gain meaningful results for interpreting and scaling-up experiments in clone screening and bioprocess development. PMID:19449392

  9. Evaluation of viewing-angle effect on determination of local heat transfer coefficients on a curved surface using transient and heated-coating liquid-crystal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T. L.

    This paper presents the effect of viewing-angle variations on the accuracy of transient and heated-coating liquid-crystal methods for determining the local heat transfer coefficients on a curved surface. A developed liquid-crystal calibration technique using a true-color image processing system has been used to alleviate the effect of viewing angle on oblique/curved surfaces. The accuracy of heat transfer coefficients improved significantly with careful correction of the viewing-angle effect on the surface geometry. It is crucial to ensure the implementation of the suggested calibration technique to be used in wideband thermochromic liquid-crystal applications on the non-orthogonal surface.

  10. Measurement of Heat Flux and Heat Transfer Coefficient Due to Spray Application for the Die Casting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2007-01-01

    Lubricant spray application experiments were conducted for the die casting process. The heat flux was measured in situ using a differential thermopile sensor for three application techniques. First, the lubricant was applied under a constant flowrate while the nozzle was held in the same position. Second, the lubricant was applied in a pulsed, static manner, in which the nozzle was held over the same surface while it was turned on and off several times. Third, the lubricant was applied in a sweeping manner, in which the nozzle was moved along the die surface while it was held open. The experiments were conducted at several die temperatures and at sweep speeds of 20, 23, and 68 cm/s. The heat flux data, which were obtained with a sensor that was located in the centre of the test plate, were presented and discussed. The sensor can be used to evaluate lubricants, monitor the consistency of die lubrication process, and obtain useful process data, such as surface temperature, heat flux, and heat transfer coefficients. The heat removed from the die surface during lubricant application is necessary for (a) designing the cooling channels in the die, i.e. their size and placement, and (b) performing accurate numerical simulations of the die casting process.

  11. Measurement of Momentum Transfer Coefficients for H2, N2, CO, and CO2 Incident Upon Spacecraft Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Steven R.; Hoffbauer, Mark A.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of momentum transfer coefficients were made for gas-surface interactions between the Space Shuttle reaction control jet plume gases and the solar panel array materials to be used on the International Space Station. Actual conditions were simulated using a supersonic nozzle source to produce beams of the gases with approximately the same average velocities as the gases have in the Shuttle plumes. Samples of the actual solar panel materials were mounted on a torsion balance that was used to measure the force exerted on the surfaces by the molecular beams. Measurements were made with H2, N2, CO, and CO2 incident upon the solar array material, Kapton, SiO2-coated Kapton, and Z93-coated Al. The measurements showed that molecules scatter from the surfaces more specularly as the angle of incidence increases and that the scattering behavior has a strong dependence upon both the incident gas and velocity. These results show that for some technical surfaces the simple assumption of diffuse scattering with complete thermal accommodation is entirely inadequate. It is clear that additional measurements are required to produce models that more accurately describe the gas-surface interactions encountered in rarefied flow regimes.

  12. Measurements of momentum transfer coefficients for H2, N2, CO and CO2 incident upon spacecraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, S. R.; Hoffbauer, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of momentum transfer coefficients were made for gas-surface interactions between the Space Shuttle reaction control jet plume gases and the solar panel array materials to be used on the International Space Station. Actual conditions were simulated using a supersonic nozzle source to produce beams of the gases with approximately the same average velocities as the gases have in the Shuttle plumes. Samples of the actual solar panel materials were mounted on a torsion balance that was used to measure the force exerted on the surfaces by the molecular beams. Measurements were made with H2, N2, CO, and CO2 incident upon the solar array material, Kapton, SiO2-coated Kapton, and Z93-coated Al. The measurements showed that molecules scatter from the surfaces more specularly as the angle of incidence increases and that scattering behavior has a strong dependence upon both the incident gas and velocity. These results show that for some technical surfaces the simple assumption of diffuse scattering with complete thermal accommodation is entirely inadequate. It is clear that additional measurements are required to produce models that more accurately describe the gas-surface interactions encountered in rarefied flow regimes.

  13. Mass transfer coefficients for volatilization of polychlorinated biphenyls from the Hudson River, New York measured using micrometeorological approaches.

    PubMed

    Sandy, Andy L; Guo, Jia; Miskewitz, Robert J; McGillis, Wade R; Rodenburg, Lisa A

    2013-02-01

    Air-water exchange is an important process controlling the fate of many organic chemicals in the environment. Modeling this process is hampered by the lack of direct observations. Thus, the purpose of this work was to derive direct measurements of the mass transfer coefficients for air-water exchange (v(aw)) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that may be used to check the validity of values derived from tracer gas experiments. v(aw) values for PCBs were determined using previously published turbulent fluxes divided by the corresponding dissolved phase concentrations. The median v(aw) values for each homolog decreased with increasing molecular weight and ranged from 0.29 for hexachlorobiphenyls to 2.2 m d(-1) for monochlorobiphenyls with a propagated uncertainty of about 70%, lower than in previous studies. Due to relatively low wind speeds and possible sorption of PCBs to colloids, these numbers may be biased low. These field measurements of v(aw) differ by as much as a factor of 23 from predictions based on the widely-used Whitman two-film model. Therefore a new formulation for the calculation of v(aw) based on field measurements is needed. This study demonstrates that micrometeorological approaches are a viable option for the measurement of v(aw) for hydrophobic organics such as PCBs and should be used to generate enough field data on the air-water exchange of hydrophobic organics to allow the development of new predictive models. PMID:23040647

  14. Electrocatalysis of anodic oxygen-transfer reactions at modified lead dioxide electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, Yun-Lin.

    1990-09-21

    The electrocatalytic activities were compared for pure and chloride-doped beta-PbO{sub 2} (Cl-PbO{sub 2}) films on gold and platinum substrates. Rate constants were increased significantly for oxidations of Mn{sup 2+}, toluene, benzyl alcohol, dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and benzaldehyde in acidic media by the incorporation of Cl{sup {minus}} into the oxide films. These reactions are concluded to occur by the electrocatalytic transfer of oxygen from H{sub 2}O to the reaction products. Results of x-ray diffraction studies indicate the Cl-PbO{sub 2} film continues to have the slightly distorted rutile structure of pure beta-PbO{sub 2}. The observed electrocatalytic phenomena are concluded to be the beneficial consequence of surface defects generated when Cl{sup {minus}} serves for charge compensation within the surface matrix and, thereby, increases the number of surface sites capable of adsorbing hydroxyl radicals which are transferred in the electrocatalytic O-transfer reactions. 91 refs., 44 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Solvent-dependent singlet oxygen lifetimes: temperature effects implicate tunneling and charge-transfer interactions.

    PubMed

    Bregnhøj, Mikkel; Westberg, Michael; Jensen, Frank; Ogilby, Peter R

    2016-08-17

    The effect of solvent on the lifetime of singlet oxygen, O2(a(1)Δg), particularly the pronounced H/D solvent isotope effect, has drawn the attention of chemists for almost 50 years. The currently accepted model for this phenomenon is built on a foundation in which the electronic excitation energy of O2(a(1)Δg) is transferred to vibrational modes in a solvent molecule, with oxygen returning to its ground electronic state, O2(X(3)Σg(-)). This model of electronic-to-vibrational (e-to-v) energy transfer specifically focusses on the solvent as a "sink" for the excitation energy of O2(a(1)Δg). On the basis of temperature-dependent changes in the solvent-mediated O2(a(1)Δg) lifetime, we demonstrate that this energy-sink-based model has limitations and needs to be re-formulated. We now show that the effect of solvent on the O2(a(1)Δg) lifetime is more reasonably interpreted by considering an activation barrier that reflects the extent to which a solvent molecule perturbs the forbidden O2(a(1)Δg) → O2(X(3)Σg(-)) transition. For a given solvent molecule, this barrier reflects contributions from (a) the oxygen-solvent charge transfer state that mediates nonradiative coupling between the O2(a(1)Δg) and O2(X(3)Σg(-)) states, and (b) vibrations of specific bonds in the solvent molecule. The latter establishes connectivity to the desirable features of the energy-sink-based model. Moreover, temperature-dependent H/D solvent isotope effects imply that tunneling through this barrier plays a role in the mechanism for O2(a(1)Δg) deactivation, even at room temperature. Although we focus on a long-standing problem involving O2(a(1)Δg), our results and interpretation touch fundamental issues of interest to chemists at large. PMID:27484979

  16. Effect of mass transfer on the oxygen reduction reaction catalyzed by platinum dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dumitrescu, Ioana; Crooks, Richard M

    2012-07-17

    Here we report on the effect of the mass transfer rate (k(t)) on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyzed by Pt dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) comprised of 147 and 55 atoms (Pt(147) and Pt(55)). The experiments were carried out using a dual-electrode microelectrochemical device, which enables the study of the ORR under high k(t) conditions with simultaneous detection of H(2)O(2). At low k(t) (0.02 to 0.12 cm s(-1)) the effective number of electrons involved in ORR, n(eff), is 3.7 for Pt(147) and 3.4 for Pt(55). As k(t) is increased, the mass-transfer-limited current for the ORR becomes significantly lower than the value predicted by the Levich equation for a 4-electron process regardless of catalyst size. However, the percentage of H(2)O(2) detected remains constant, such that n(eff) barely changes over the entire k(t) range explored (0.02 cm s(-1)). This suggests that mass transfer does not affect n(eff), which has implications for the mechanism of the ORR on Pt nanoparticles. Interestingly, there is a significant difference in n(eff) for the two sizes of Pt DENs (n(eff) = 3.7 and 3.5 for Pt(147) and Pt(55), respectively) that cannot be assigned to mass transfer effects and that we therefore attribute to a particle size effect. PMID:22665772

  17. Metallized Gelled Propellants: Oxygen/RP-1/Aluminum Rocket Engine Calorimeter Heat Transfer Measurements and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1997-01-01

    A set of analyses was conducted to determine the heat transfer characteristics of metallized gelled liquid propellants in a rocket engine. The analyses used the data from experiments conducted with a small 30- to 40-lbf thrust engine composed of a modular injector, igniter, chamber and nozzle. The fuels used were traditional liquid RP-1 and gelled RP-1 with 0-wt %, 5-wt%, and 55-wt% loadings of aluminum with silicon dioxide gellant, and gaseous oxygen as the oxidizer. Heat transfer was computed based on measurements using calorimeter rocket chamber and nozzle hardware with a total of 31 cooling channels. A gelled fuel coating formed in the 0-, 5- and 55-wt% engines, and the coating was composed of unburned gelled fuel and partially combusted RP-1. The coating caused a large decrease in calorimeter engine heat flux in the last half of the chamber for the 0- and 5-wt% RP-1/Al. This heat flux reduction effect was analyzed by comparing engine runs and the changes in the heat flux during a run as well as from run to run. Heat transfer and time-dependent heat flux analyses and interpretations are provided. The 5- and 55-wt% RP-1/Al fueled engines had the highest chamber heat fluxes, with the 5-wt% fuel having the highest throat flux. This result is counter to the predicted result, where the 55 wt% fuel has the highest combustion and throat temperature, and therefore implies that it would deliver the highest throat heat flux. The 5-wt% RP-1/Al produced the most influence on the engine heat transfer and the heat flux reduction was caused by the formation of a gelled propellant layer in the chamber and nozzle.

  18. A stability-dependent parametrization of transfer coefficients for momentum and heat over polar sea ice to be used in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüpkes, Christof; Gryanik, Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between sea ice and atmosphere depends strongly on the near-surface transfer coefficients for momentum and heat. A parametrization of these coefficients is developed on the basis of an existing parametrization of drag coefficients for neutral stratification that accounts for form drag caused by the edges of ice floes and melt ponds. This scheme is extended to better account for the dependence of surface wind on limiting cases of high and low ice concentration and to include near-surface stability effects over open water and ice on form drag. The stability correction is formulated on the basis of stability functions from Monin-Obukhov similarity theory and also using the Louis concept with stability functions depending on the bulk Richardson numbers. Furthermore, a parametrization is proposed that includes the effect of edge-related turbulence also on heat transfer coefficients. The parametrizations are available in different levels of complexity. The lowest level only needs sea ice concentration and surface temperature as input, while the more complex level needs additional sea ice characteristics. An important property of our parametrization is that form drag caused by ice edges depends on the stability over both ice and water which is in contrast to the skin drag over ice. Results of the parametrization show that stability has a large impact on form drag and, thereby, determines the value of sea ice concentration for which the transfer coefficients reach their maxima. Depending on the stratification, these maxima can occur anywhere between ice concentrations of 20 and 80%.

  19. Use of a liquid-crystal, heater-element composite for quantitative, high-resolution heat transfer coefficients on a turbine airfoil, including turbulence and surface roughness effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, Steven A.; Russell, Louis M.; Torres, Felix J.

    1987-01-01

    Local heat transfer coefficients were measured along the midchord of a three-times-size turbine vane airfoil in a static cascade operated at roon temperature over a range of Reynolds numbers. The test surface consisted of a composite of commercially available materials: a Mylar sheet with a layer of cholestric liquid crystals, which change color with temperature, and a heater made of a polyester sheet coated with vapor-deposited gold, which produces uniform heat flux. After the initial selection and calibration of the composite sheet, accurate, quantitative, and continuous heat transfer coefficients were mapped over the airfoil surface. Tests were conducted at two free-stream turbulence intensities: 0.6 percent, which is typical of wind tunnels; and 10 percent, which is typical of real engine conditions. In addition to a smooth airfoil, the effects of local leading-edge sand roughness were also examined for a value greater than the critical roughness. The local heat transfer coefficients are presented for both free-stream turbulence intensities for inlet Reynolds numbers from 1.20 to 5.55 x 10 to the 5th power. Comparisons are also made with analytical values of heat transfer coefficients obtained from the STAN5 boundary layer code.

  20. Henry’s Law Constant and Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient for Formaldehyde Emission from Small Water Pools under Simulated Indoor Environmental Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Henry’s law constant (HLC) and the overall mass transfer coefficient are both important parameters for modeling formaldehyde emissions from aqueous solutions. In this work, the apparent HLCs for aqueous formaldehyde solutions were determined in the concentration range from 0....

  1. Measurement and modelling of forced convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of Al2O3- and SiO2-water nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julia, J. E.; Hernández, L.; Martínez-Cuenca, R.; Hibiki, T.; Mondragón, R.; Segarra, C.; Jarque, J. C.

    2012-11-01

    Forced convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of SiO2- and Al2O3-water nanofluids were characterized. The experimental facility was composed of thermal-hydraulic loop with a tank with an immersed heater, a centrifugal pump, a bypass with a globe valve, an electromagnetic flow-meter, a 18 kW in-line pre-heater, a test section with band heaters, a differential pressure transducer and a heat exchanger. The test section consists of a 1000 mm long aluminium pipe with an inner diameter of 31.2 mm. Eighteen band heaters were placed all along the test section in order to provide a uniform heat flux. Heat transfer coefficient was calculated measuring fluid temperature using immersed thermocouples (Pt100) placed at both ends of the test section and surface thermocouples in 10 axial locations along the test section (Pt1000). The measurements have been performed for different nanoparticles (Al2O3 and SiO2 with primary size of 11 nm and 12 nm, respectively), volume concentrations (1% v., 5% v.), and flow rates (3 103Re<105). Maximum heat transfer coefficient enhancement (300%) and pressure drop penalty (1000%) is obtained with 5% v. SiO2 nanofluid. Existing correlations can predict, at least in a first approximation, the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of nanofluids if thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat were properly modelled.

  2. New ruthenium nitrosyl pincer complexes bearing an O2 ligand. Mono-oxygen transfer.

    PubMed

    Fogler, Eran; Efremenko, Irena; Gargir, Moti; Leitus, Gregory; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Martin, Jan M L; Milstein, David

    2015-03-01

    We report on Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) nitrosyl pincer complexes that can return to their original Ru(0) state by reaction with mono-oxygen scavengers. Potential intermediates were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and a mechanism is proposed, revealing a new type of metal-ligand cooperation consisting of activation of the O2 moiety by both the metal center and the NO ligand. Reaction of the Ru(0) nitrosyl complex 1 with O2 quantitatively yielded the crystallographically characterized Ru((II)) (μ(2)-O2) nitrosyl complex 2. Reaction of 2 with the mono-oxygen scavengers phosphines or CO gave the Ru(0) complex 1 and phosphine oxides, or the carbonyl complex 3 (1 trapped by CO) and CO2, respectively. Reaction of 2 with 1 equiv of phosphine at room temperature or -40 °C resulted in immediate formation of half an equivalent of 1 and 1 equiv of phosphine oxide, while half an equivalent of 2 remained unchanged. Overnight reaction at room temperature of 2 with excess CO (≥3 equiv) resulted in 3 and CO2 gas as the only products. Reaction of 1 with 1 equiv of mono-oxygen source (dioxirane) at -78 °C yielded the Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) complex 2. Similarly, reaction of the Ru(0) dearomatized complex 4 with O2 led to the crystallographicaly characterized Ru((II))(μ(2)-O2) complex 5. Further reaction of 5 with mono-oxygen scavengers (phosphines or CO) led to the Ru(0) complex 4 and phosphine oxides or complex 6 (4 trapped by CO) and CO2. When instead only 1 equiv of 5 was reacted with 1 equiv of phosphine at room temperature, immediate formation of half an equivalent of 4 and 1 equiv of phosphine oxide took place, while half an equivalent of 5 remained unchanged. When 5 reacted with an excess of CO (≥3 equiv), complex 6 and CO2 gas were the only products obtained. DFT studies indicate a new mode of metal-ligand cooperation involving the nitrosyl ligand in the oxygen transfer process. PMID:25695626

  3. A tale of two solutes: Dual-domain flow and the role of the mass transfer coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, M. V.; Bishop, J. M.; Cey, E. E.; Bentley, L. R.

    2011-12-01

    ' histories were different because of the difference in their distribution at the beginning of the experiment. Dual-permeability water flow and solute transport has been modeled using the HYDRUS software package. The numerical model was calibrated to both the observed salt and tracer concentrations, and, consequently, the distinct behavior of the two solutes. The numerical modeling results indicate that salt and tracer transport are sensitive to the mass transfer coefficient between matrix and macropore domains and, consequently, proper selection of the coefficient value is key to the accurate prediction of transport in dual permeability media.

  4. Exceedingly Fast Oxygen Atom Transfer to Olefins via a Catalytically Competent Nonheme Iron Species.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Plana, Joan; Aguinaco, Almudena; Belda, Raquel; García-España, Enrique; Basallote, Manuel G; Company, Anna; Costas, Miquel

    2016-05-17

    The reaction of [Fe(CF3 SO3 )2 (PyNMe3 )] with excess peracetic acid at -40 °C leads to the accumulation of a metastable compound that exists as a pair of electromeric species, [Fe(III) (OOAc)(PyNMe3 )](2+) and [Fe(V) (O)(OAc)(PyNMe3 )](2+) , in fast equilibrium. Stopped-flow UV/Vis analysis confirmed that oxygen atom transfer (OAT) from these electromeric species to olefinic substrates is exceedingly fast, forming epoxides with stereoretention. The impact of the electronic and steric properties of the substrate on the reaction rate could be elucidated, and the relative reactivities determined for the catalytic oxidations could be reproduced by kinetic studies. The observed fast reaction rates and high selectivities demonstrate that this metastable compound is a truly competent OAT intermediate of relevance for nonheme iron catalyzed epoxidations. PMID:27071372

  5. Baicalin inhibits the fenton reaction by enhancing electron transfer from Fe (2+) to dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Nishizaki, Daisuke; Iwahashi, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Sho-saiko-to is an herbal medicine that is known to have diverse pharmacological activities and has been used for the treatment of various infectious diseases. Here, we examined the effects of baicalin, a compound isolated from Sho-saiko-to, and the effects of the iron chelator quinolinic acid on the Fenton reaction. The control reaction mixture contained 0.1 M 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), 0.2 mM H 2 O 2, 0.2 mM FeSO 4( NH 4)2 SO 4, and 40 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Upon the addition of 0.6 mM baicalin or quinolinic acid to the control reaction mixture, the ESR peak heights of DMPO/OH radical adducts were measured as 32% ± 1% (baicalin) and 166% ± 27% (quinolinic acid) of that of the control mixture. In order to clarify why baicalin and quinolinic acid exerted opposite effects on the formation of hydroxyl radicals, we measured oxygen consumption in the presence of either compound. Upon the addition of 0.6 mM baicalin (or quinolinic acid) to the control reaction mixture without DMPO and H 2 O 2, the relative oxygen consumption rates were found to be 449% ± 40% (baicalin) and 18% ± 9% (quinolinic acid) of that of the control mixture without DMPO and H 2 O 2, indicating that baicalin facilitated the transfer of electrons from Fe (2+) to dissolved oxygen. Thus, the great majority of Fe (2+) turned into Fe (3+), and the formation of hydroxyl radicals was subsequently inhibited in this reaction. PMID:25640849

  6. Influence of oxygen transfer on Pseudomonas putida effects on growth rate and biodesulfurization capacity.

    PubMed

    Escobar, S; Rodriguez, A; Gomez, E; Alcon, A; Santos, V E; Garcia-Ochoa, Felix

    2016-04-01

    The growth rate and desulfurization capacity accumulated by the cells during the growth of Pseudomonas putida KTH2 under different oxygen transfer conditions in a stirred and sparged tank bioreactor have been studied. Hydrodynamic conditions were changed using different agitation conditions. During the culture, several magnitudes associated to growth, such as the specific growth rate, the dissolved oxygen concentration and the carbon source consumption have been measured. Experimental results indicate that cultures are influenced by the fluid dynamic conditions into the bioreactor. An increase in the stirrer speed from 400 to 700 rpm has a positive influence on the cell growth rate. Nevertheless, the increase of agitation from 700 to 2000 rpm hardly has any influence on the growth rate. The effect of fluid dynamics on the cells development of the biodesulfurization (BDS) capacity of the cells during growth is different. The activities of the intracellular enzymes involved in the 4S pathway change with dissolved oxygen concentration. The enzyme activities have been evaluated in cells at several growth time and different hydrodynamic conditions. An increase of the agitation from 100 to 300 rpm has a positive influence on the development of the overall BDS capacity of the cells during growth. This capacity shows a decrease for higher stirrer speeds and the activity of the enzymes monooxygenases DszC and DszA decreases dramatically. The highest value of the activity of DszB enzyme was obtained with cells cultured at 100 rpm, while this activity decreases when the stirrer speed was increased higher than this value. PMID:26762940

  7. Experimental determination of trace element partition coefficients between spinel and silicate melt: the influence of chemical composition and oxygen fugacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijbrans, C. H.; Klemme, S.; Berndt, J.; Vollmer, C.

    2015-04-01

    We present new experimentally determined trace element partition coefficients between spinel and silicate melt. The experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure and at temperatures between 1220 and 1450 °C. To study the effect of redox conditions on trace element partitioning, we performed experiments under different redox conditions, with fO2 ranging from log -12 to log -0.7. The effect of different spinel compositions is also investigated. Our results show that spinel of all compositions readily incorporates the transition metals Ni, Co and Ga and the corresponding partition coefficients are >1. D Ni,Co,Ga are not significantly affected by changing melt composition, crystal composition or redox conditions. However, the multivalent trace elements V and Mo show a strong effect of redox conditions on their partitioning behavior with D V and D Mo highest at very reducing conditions and considerably lower at more oxidizing conditions. Partition coefficients for the high field strength elements Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta and the elements Sc and Lu strongly depend on crystal composition, with D Ti and D Sc >1 for very Fe3+- or Cr-rich (and Al-poor) spinels, but one to two orders of magnitude lower in systems with Al-rich spinels. We present some examples on how our data may be used to reconstruct redox conditions of spinel formation. We also present some results on the partitioning of Pt and Rh between spinel and melt. D Rh depends strongly on redox conditions, while D Pt is not significantly affected.

  8. Turbulent bulk transfer coefficients and ozone deposition velocity in the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research into Transport and Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairall, C. W.; Bariteau, L.; Grachev, A. A.; Hill, R. J.; Wolfe, D. E.; Brewer, W. A.; Tucker, S. C.; Hare, J. E.; Angevine, W. M.

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we examine observations of shallow, stable boundary layers in the cool waters of the Gulf of Maine between Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and Nova Scotia, obtained in the 2004 New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS-04), which was part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research into Transport and Transformation (ICARTT). The observations described herein were made from the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. The ship was instrumented for measurements of meteorological, gas-phase and aerosol atmospheric chemistry variables. Meteorological instrumentation included a Doppler lidar, a radar wind profiler, rawinsonde equipment, and a surface flux package. In this study, we focus on direct comparisons of the NEAQS-04 flux observations with the COARE bulk flux algorithm to investigate possible coastal influences on air-sea interactions. We found significant suppression of the transfer coefficients for momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat; the suppression was correlated with lighter winds, more stable surface layers, S-SE wind direction, and lower boundary layer heights. Analysis of the details shows the suppression is not a measurement, stability correction, or surface wave effect. The correlation with boundary layer height is consistent with an interpretation that our measurements at 18-m height do not realize the full surface flux in shallow boundary layers. We also find that a bulk Richardson number threshold of 0.1 gives a better estimate of boundary layer height than 0.25 or 0.5. Mean ozone deposition velocity is estimated as 0.44 mm s-1, corresponding to a boundary removal timescale of about 1 day.

  9. Charge transfer reaction of multi-charged oxygen ions with O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzscheiter, H. M.; Church, D. A.

    1981-10-01

    The reaction rates for charge transfer from O2 to doubly and triply charged oxygen atoms are measured in a demonstration of the measurement capabilities of a system at ultrahigh vacuum with low-energy magnetically confined ions. Ions were produced by electron impact ionization of gas within a Penning-type ion trap, with selective removal of unwanted ionization states by radio-frequency resonant excitation. Ion number mass-to-charge ratio spectra obtained at partial pressures of O2 from 9.9 x 10 to the -9th to 1.5 x 10 to the -7th torr yield rate constants of 1.0 x 10 to the -9th cu cm/sec and 2.5 x 10 to the -9th cu cm/sec for the O(2+) and O(3+) reactions, respectively. Measurements made at a 30% increase of the effective axial well depth of the trap demonstrate that the rate constant is essentially energy independent in the energy range studies, implying that the O(2+) cross section for charge transfer has an inverse velocity dependence of the Langevin type, despite a reaction rate lower than the Langevin valve.

  10. An assessment of oxygen transfer efficiency in a gas permeable hollow fibre membrane biological reactor.

    PubMed

    Soreanu, G; Lishman, L; Dunlop, S; Behmann, H; Seto, P

    2010-01-01

    The clean water oxygen transfer efficiency (OTE) of a full scale non-porous hollow fibre gas permeable (GP) membrane (surface area of 500 m(2)) was evaluated at inlet air pressures of 1.2, 1.4, and 1.8 atm using two established testing methods. To form a basis of comparison with traditional aeration technologies, additional testing was done with conventional aerators (fine bubble and coarse bubble diffusers) replacing the GP membrane. OTE can be established based on the re-aeration of deoxygenated water or by monitoring the catalytic oxidation of a sodium sulphite (Na(2)SO(3)) solution. In this study, OTE values determined by sulphite oxidation (SOTE(S)) were consistently higher than those established during re-aeration (SOTE(R)) suggesting that the chemical reaction was enhancing the mass transfer. The chemical reaction was sufficiently fast in the case of the GP membrane, that the gas phase limited the mass transfer. The GP membrane operating at 1.2 atm had a SOTE(S) of 70.6% and a SOTER of 52.2%. SOTE(R) for the coarse bubble and fine bubble diffusers were 3.8% and 23.6%, respectively. This is comparable to the manufacturer's values, corrected for depth of 3.4% and 18.3%, respectively. Particularly, the derived OTE values were used to evaluate differences in energy consumption for a conventional treatment plant achieving carbon removal and nitrification. This analysis highlights the potential energy efficiency of GP membranes, which could be considered for the design of the membrane modules. PMID:20220238

  11. Determination of time-of-travel, dispersion characteristics, and oxygen reaeration coefficients during low streamflows--Lower Tacony/Frankford Creek, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Gyves, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Time-of-travel, dispersion characteristics, and oxygen reaeration coefficients were determined by use of dye and gas tracing for a 2-mile reach of Tacony/Frankford Creek in Philadelphia, southeastern Pennsylvania. The reach frequently has concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO) below the water-quality standard of 4 milligrams per liter during warm months. Several large combined sewer overflows (CSOs), including one of the largest in Philadelphia (former Wingohocking Creek), discharge to the study reach in this urbanized watershed, affecting water quality and the timing and magnitude of storm peaks. In addition, a dam that commonly results in backwater conditions and reduced natural reaeration is present a few hundred feet from the end of the study reach. Time-of-travel and reaeration data were collected under base-flow conditions in August and September 2009 for three sub-reaches from Roosevelt Boulevard (U.S. Route 1) to Castor Avenue. Determination of traveltimes to the centroid of the dye cloud were needed for calculation of the reaeration coefficients. Results of the dye study in Tacony/Frankford Creek indicate that traveltimes were affected by the presence of man-made structures, such as the large scour hole and pool developed at the outfall of the T14 CSO and the dam, both of which reduce stream velocities. Mean stream velocities during the dye-tracer tests ranged from a maximum of 0.44 to 0.04 foot per second through a large pool. The dispersion efficiency of the stream was determined from relations between normalized unit concentrations to time to peak for use in water-quality modeling. Oxygen reaeration coefficients determined by a constant rate-injection method using propane as the tracer gas were as low as 0.04 unit per hour in a long pool affected by backwater conditions behind a dam. The highest reaeration coefficient was 2.29 units per hour for a steep-gradient reach with multiple winding channels through gravel deposits, just downstream of a large

  12. Surface chemistry and interfacial charge-transfer mechanisms in photoinduced oxygen exchange at O2-TiO2 interfaces.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Juan Felipe; Peral, José; Salvador, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    Experimental results obtained over the last three decades on photoinduced oxygen isotopic exchange (POIE) of TiO₂ oxygen atoms with those of adsorbed water molecules and gaseous O₂ are analyzed in the light of recent information from the literature on the interaction of water and O₂ species with the TiO₂ surface (obtained by application of surface spectroscopy techniques in combination with high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy). The analysis emphasizes the singular role that bridging oxygen ions and bridging oxygen vacancies play in TiO₂ surface chemistry and interfacial electron transfer at the gas phase-TiO₂ interface in the absence and presence of water. The observed competition between POIE and the photo-oxidation (PO) of organic compounds is analyzed in terms of the recently developed direct-indirect (D-I) kinetic model for heterogeneous photocatalysis (D. Monllor-Satoca et al., Catal. Today, 2007, 129, 247, and references therein). PMID:21442702

  13. Full scale evaluation of diffuser ageing with clean water oxygen transfer tests.

    PubMed

    Krampe, J

    2011-01-01

    Aeration is a crucial part of the biological wastewater treatment in activated sludge systems and the main energy user of WWTPs. Approximately 50 to 60% of the total energy consumption of a WWTP can be attributed to the aeration system. The performance of the aeration system, and in the case of fine bubble diffused aeration the diffuser performance, has a significant impact on the overall plant efficiency. This paper seeks to isolate the changes of the diffuser performance over time by eliminating all other influencing parameters like sludge retention time, surfactants and reactor layout. To achieve this, different diffusers have been installed and tested in parallel treatment trains in two WWTPs. The diffusers have been performance tested in clean water tests under new conditions and after one year of operation. A set of material property tests describing the diffuser membrane quality was also performed. The results showed a significant drop in the performance of the EPDM diffuser in the first year which resulted in similar oxygen transfer efficiency around 16 g/m3/m for all tested systems. Even though the tested silicone diffusers did not show a drop in performance they had a low efficiency in the initial tests. The material properties indicate that the EPDM performance loss is partly due to the washout of additives. PMID:22097050

  14. A Synthetic Oxygen Atom Transfer Photocycle from a Diruthenium Oxyanion Complex.

    PubMed

    Corcos, Amanda R; Pap, József S; Yang, Tzuhsiung; Berry, John F

    2016-08-10

    Three new diruthenium oxyanion complexes have been prepared, crystallographically characterized, and screened for their potential to photochemically unmask a reactive Ru-Ru═O intermediate. The most promising candidate, Ru2(chp)4ONO2 (4, chp = 6-chloro-2-hydroxypyridinate), displays a set of signals centered around m/z = 733 amu in its MALDI-TOF mass spectrum, consistent with the formation of the [Ru2(chp)4O](+) ([6](+)) ion. These signals shift to 735 amu in 4*, which contains an (18)O-labeled nitrate. EPR spectroscopy and headspace GC-MS analysis indicate that NO2(•) is released upon photolysis of 4, also consistent with the formation of 6. Photolysis of 4 in CH2Cl2 at room temperature in the presence of excess PPh3 yields OPPh3 in 173% yield; control experiments implicate 6, NO2(•), and free NO3(-) as the active oxidants. Notably, Ru2(chp)4Cl (3) is recovered after photolysis. Since 3 is the direct precursor to 4, the results described herein constitute the first example of a synthetic cycle for oxygen atom transfer that makes use of light to generate a putative metal oxo intermediate. PMID:27406958

  15. Metallized Gelled Propellants: Oxygen/RP-1/Aluminum Rocket Heat Transfer and Combustion Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan; Zakany, James S.

    1996-01-01

    A series of rocket engine heat transfer experiments using metallized gelled liquid propellants was conducted. These experiments used a small 20- to 40-lb/f thrust engine composed of a modular injector, igniter, chamber and nozzle. The fuels used were traditional liquid RP-1 and gelled RP-1 with 0-, 5-, and 55-percentage by weight loadings of aluminum particles. Gaseous oxygen was used as the oxidizer. Three different injectors were used during the testing: one for the baseline O(2)/RP-1 tests and two for the gelled and metallized gelled fuel firings. Heat transfer measurements were made with a rocket engine calorimeter chamber and nozzle with a total of 31 cooling channels. Each chamber used a water flow to carry heat away from the chamber and the attached thermocouples and flow meters allowed heat flux estimates at each of the 31 stations. The rocket engine Cstar efficiency for the RP-1 fuel was in the 65-69 percent range, while the gelled 0 percent by weight RP-1 and the 5-percent by weight RP-1 exhibited a Cstar efficiency range of 60 to 62% and 65 to 67%, respectively. The 55-percent by weight RP-1 fuel delivered a 42-47% Cstar efficiency. Comparisons of the heat flux and temperature profiles of the RP-1 and the metallized gelled RP-1/A1 fuels show that the peak nozzle heat fluxes with the metallized gelled O2/RP-1/A1 propellants are substantially higher than the baseline O2/RP-1: up to double the flux for the 55 percent by weight RP-1/A1 over the RP-1 fuel. Analyses showed that the heat transfer to the wall was significantly different for the RP-1/A1 at 55-percent by weight versus the RP-1 fuel. Also, a gellant and an aluminum combustion delay was inferred in the 0 percent and 5-percent by weight RP-1/A1 cases from the decrease in heat flux in the first part of the chamber. A large decrease in heat flux in the last half of the chamber was caused by fuel deposition in the chamber and nozzle. The engine combustion occurred well downstream of the injector face

  16. Mass transfer coefficients for carbon dioxide and oxygen for a polygeyser biofilter using airlift in an aquaculture reuse system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is a rapidly growing industry, accounting for over one-third of all direct fisheries consumption. In recirculating aquaculture systems the primary technology being used is energy intensive because water must be moved continuously through the culture and treatment units to remove wastes ...

  17. ASRDI oxygen technology survey. Volume 3: Heat transfer and fluid dynamics. Abstracts of selected technical reports and publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, A. F. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    Selected information is presented from an assemblage of reports and publications on heat transfer and fluid dynamics with direct applicability to oxygen systems. For each document cited, an abstract has been prepared together with key words and a listing of most important references found in the document. Additionally, an author index, a subject index, and a key word index have been provided to simplify the retrieval of specific information from this work. In each subject area - e.g., boiling heat transfer - the individual citations are listed alphabetically by first author, with review papers dually noted under the appropriate subject category and under review papers. Of the documents reviewed and evaluated for inclusion in this publication, coverage of existing information directly concerned with oxygen was given primary emphasis. However, work not specifically oxygen-designated but considered applicable to oxygen by the reviewer e.g., a two-phase friction factor correlation derived from nitrogen experiments is occasionally given where no actual oxygen data exist, as an aid to the reader. Approximately 130 abstracts are listed.

  18. Experimental investigation of the unusual behavior of local heat transfer coefficient in the transition region of a circular tube with a bell-mouth entrance

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, L.M.; Ghajar, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    The local heat transfer characteristics for ethylene glycol water mixtures flowing in a horizontal circular straight tube with a bell-mouth inlet have been determined experimentally over a flow Reynolds number range of 1,500 to 27,000. A wall-boundary heating condition of uniform heat flux was imposed. The variation of local heat transfer coefficient with length in the transition and turbulent flow regimes is very unusual. For the bell-mouth inlet, the boundary layer along the tube wall is at first laminar and then changes through a transition region to the turbulent condition causing a dip in the Nu-x/D curve. The length of the dip in the transition region is much longer than that in the turbulent region. For the experiments the length of the dip in the transition region varied from x/D = 100 to 175 in comparison to an x/D < 25 for the turbulent region. The presence of the dip in the transition region causes a significant influence on both the local and the average heat transfer coefficients. This is particularly important for heat transfer calculations in short tubes with a bell-mouth inlet.

  19. Oxygen transfer rates in shaken culture vessels from Fernbach flasks to microtiter plates.

    PubMed

    Running, Jeffrey A; Bansal, Karan

    2016-08-01

    By a sulfite oxidation method, oxygen transfer rates (OTRs) were determined in 11 types of culture vessels from 2.8-L Fernbach (FB) flasks to 96-, 48-, and 24-well square deepwell microtiter plates (MTPs). OTRs ranged from 140 mM/h in 250-mL Ultrayield™ flasks shaken at 300 rpm with a 50 mm diameter shaker throw to 5 mM/h in unbaffled FBs shaken at 200 rpm with a 25 mm throw. Baffles in FBs increased OTRs 6-12-fold under various shaking conditions, and up to five-fold in 250-mL flasks, depending on the type of baffles. Corner-baffling was superior to bottom-baffling in glass, 250-mL flasks. In MTPs, OTRs increased with increasing well size and decreasing fill volume. At 50 mm throw and 300 rpm, 24-well MTPs had OTRs comparable to corner-baffled, 250-mL flasks (∼100 mM/h). The OTRs in unbaffled flasks were relatively insensitive to shaking conditions, increasing less than two-fold between the most modest and the most vigorous conditions. There was no consistency across vessels as to whether the alternate incubation conditions of 70 mm throw and 250 rpm produced higher OTRs than the 50 mm throw and 300 rpm regimen. No increase in OTR was seen in any MTP when the cover hole diameter was increased beyond 4.5 mm. OTRs decreased as viscosity increased, falling smoothly in unbaffled flasks and 24-well MTPs, but 48-well and 96-well MTPs showed precipitous OTR drops as viscosity increased. Matching the OTRs of screening vessels to the oxygen uptake rates of microbial cultures can greatly reduce the number of false positive strains that are forwarded from microbial screens. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1729-1735. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26806816

  20. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  1. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2016-01-19

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production process is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the steam reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5

  2. Overall heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in a typical tubular exchanger employing alumina nano-fluid as the tube side hot fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabeel, A. E.; Abdelgaied, Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    Nano-fluids are used to improve the heat transfer rates in heat exchangers, especially; the shell-and-tube heat exchanger that is considered one of the most important types of heat exchangers. In the present study, an experimental loop is constructed to study the thermal characteristics of the shell-and-tube heat exchanger; at different concentrations of Al2O3 nonmetallic particles (0.0, 2, 4, and 6 %). This material concentrations is by volume concentrations in pure water as a base fluid. The effects of nano-fluid concentrations on the performance of shell and tube heat exchanger have been conducted based on the overall heat transfer coefficient, the friction factor, the pressure drop in tube side, and the entropy generation rate. The experimental results show that; the highest heat transfer coefficient is obtained at a nano-fluid concentration of 4 % of the shell side. In shell side the maximum percentage increase in the overall heat transfer coefficient has reached 29.8 % for a nano-fluid concentration of 4 %, relative to the case of the base fluid (water) at the same tube side Reynolds number. However; in the tube side the maximum relative increase in pressure drop has recorded the values of 12, 28 and 48 % for a nano-material concentration of 2, 4 and 6 %, respectively, relative to the case without nano-fluid, at an approximate value of 56,000 for Reynolds number. The entropy generation reduces with increasing the nonmetallic particle volume fraction of the same flow rates. For increase the nonmetallic particle volume fraction from 0.0 to 6 % the rate of entropy generation decrease by 10 %.

  3. Measurements of heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in rib-roughened channels simulating leading-edge cavities of a modern turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Taslim, M.E.; Li, T.; Spring, S.D.

    1997-07-01

    Leading edge cooling cavities in modern gas turbine blades play an important role in maintaining the leading edge temperature at levels consistent with air foil design life. These cavities often have a complex cross-sectional shape to be compatible with the external contour of the blade at the leading edge. A survey of many existing geometries shows that, for analytical as well as experimental analyses, such cavities can be simplified in shape by a four-sided polygon with one curved side similar to the leading edge curvature, a rectangle with one semicircular side (often the smaller side) or a trapezoid, the smaller base of which is replaced by a semicircle. Furthermore, to enhance the heat transfer coefficient in these cavities, they are mostly roughened on three sides with ribs of different geometries. Experimental data on friction factors and heat transfer coefficients in such cavities are rare if not nonexistent. A liquid crystal technique was used in this experimental investigation to measure heat transfer coefficients in six test sections representing the leading-edge cooling cavities. Both straight and tapered ribs were configured on the two opposite sidewalls in a staggered arrangement with angles of attack to the mainstream flow, {alpha}, of 60 and 90 deg. The ribs on the curved surface were of constant cross section with an angle of attack 90 deg to the flow. Heat transfer measurements were performed on the straight sidewalls, as well as on the round surface adjacent to the blade leading edge. Effects such as rib angle of attack to the mainstream flow and constant versus tapered rib cross-sectional areas were also investigated. Nusselt numbers, friction factors, and thermal performances are reported for nine rib geometries in six test sections.

  4. Assessment of external heat transfer coefficient during oocyte vitrification in liquid and slush nitrogen using numerical simulations to determine cooling rates.

    PubMed

    Santos, M V; Sansinena, M; Zaritzky, N; Chirife, J

    2012-01-01

    In oocyte vitrification, plunging directly into liquid nitrogen favor film boiling and strong nitrogen vaporization. A survey of literature values of heat transfer coefficients (h) for film boiling of small metal objects with different geometries plunged in liquid nitrogen revealed values between 125 to 1000 W per per square m per K. These h values were used in a numerical simulation of cooling rates of two oocyte vitrification devices (open-pulled straw and Cryotop), plunged in liquid and slush nitrogen conditions. Heat conduction equation with convective boundary condition was considered a linear mathematical problem and was solved using the finite element method applying the variational formulation. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to simulate the cooling process of the systems. Predicted cooling rates for OPS and Cryotop when cooled at -196 degree C (liquid nitrogen) or -207 degree C (average for slush nitrogen) for heat transfer coefficients estimated to be representative of film boiling, indicated lowering the cooling temperature produces only a maximum 10 percent increase in cooling rates; confirming the main benefit of plunging in slush over liquid nitrogen does not arise from their temperature difference. Numerical simulations also demonstrated that a hypothetical four-fold increase in the cooling rate of vitrification devices when plunging in slush nitrogen would be explained by an increase in heat transfer coefficient. This improvement in heat transfer (i.e., high cooling rates) in slush nitrogen is attributed to less or null film boiling when a sample is placed in slush (mixture of liquid and solid nitrogen) because it first melts the solid nitrogen before causing the liquid to boil and form a film. PMID:22434120

  5. Overall heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in a typical tubular exchanger employing alumina nano-fluid as the tube side hot fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabeel, A. E.; Abdelgaied, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Nano-fluids are used to improve the heat transfer rates in heat exchangers, especially; the shell-and-tube heat exchanger that is considered one of the most important types of heat exchangers. In the present study, an experimental loop is constructed to study the thermal characteristics of the shell-and-tube heat exchanger; at different concentrations of Al2O3 nonmetallic particles (0.0, 2, 4, and 6 %). This material concentrations is by volume concentrations in pure water as a base fluid. The effects of nano-fluid concentrations on the performance of shell and tube heat exchanger have been conducted based on the overall heat transfer coefficient, the friction factor, the pressure drop in tube side, and the entropy generation rate. The experimental results show that; the highest heat transfer coefficient is obtained at a nano-fluid concentration of 4 % of the shell side. In shell side the maximum percentage increase in the overall heat transfer coefficient has reached 29.8 % for a nano-fluid concentration of 4 %, relative to the case of the base fluid (water) at the same tube side Reynolds number. However; in the tube side the maximum relative increase in pressure drop has recorded the values of 12, 28 and 48 % for a nano-material concentration of 2, 4 and 6 %, respectively, relative to the case without nano-fluid, at an approximate value of 56,000 for Reynolds number. The entropy generation reduces with increasing the nonmetallic particle volume fraction of the same flow rates. For increase the nonmetallic particle volume fraction from 0.0 to 6 % the rate of entropy generation decrease by 10 %.

  6. One- or Two-Electron Transfer? The Ambiguous Nature of the Discharge Products in Sodium-Oxygen Batteries.

    PubMed

    Bender, Conrad L; Schröder, Daniel; Pinedo, Ricardo; Adelhelm, Philipp; Janek, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Rechargeable lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen cells have been considered as challenging concepts for next-generation batteries, both scientifically and technologically. Whereas in the case of non-aqueous Li/O2 batteries, the occurring cell reaction has been unequivocally determined (Li2 O2 formation), the situation is much less clear in the case of non-aqueous Na/O2 cells. Two discharge products, with almost equal free enthalpies of formation but different numbers of transferred electrons and completely different kinetics, appear to compete, namely NaO2 and Na2 O2 . Cells forming either the superoxide or the peroxide have been reported, but it is unclear how the cell reaction can be influenced for selective one- or two-electron transfer to occur. In this Minireview, we summarize available data, discuss important control parameters, and offer perspectives for further research. Water and proton sources appear to play major roles. PMID:26970321

  7. Monitoring the variations of the oxygen transfer rate in a full scale membrane bioreactor using daily mass balances.

    PubMed

    Racault, Y; Stricker, A-E; Husson, A; Gillot, S

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen transfer in biological wastewater treatment processes with high sludge concentration, such as membrane bioreactor (MBR), is an important issue. The variation of alpha-factor versus mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration was investigated in a full scale MBR plant under process conditions, using mass balances. Exhaustive data from the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) and from additional online sensors (COD, DO, MLSS) were used to calculate the daily oxygen consumption (OC) using a non-steady state mass balance for COD and total N on a 24-h basis. To close the oxygen balance, OC has to match the total oxygen transfer rate (OTRtot) of the system, which is provided by fine bubble (FB) diffusers in the aeration tank and coarse bubbles (CB) in separate membrane tanks. First assessing OTR(CB) then closing the balance OC = OTRtot allowed to calculate OTR(FB) and to fit an exponential relationship between OTR(FB) and MLSS. A comparison of the alpha-factor obtained by this balance method and by direct measurements with the off-gas method on the same plant is presented and discussed. PMID:22049761

  8. Orbital transfer vehicle oxygen turbopump technology. Volume 1: Design, fabrication, and hydrostatic bearing testing. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Buckmann, P.S.; Hayden, W.R.; Lorenc, S.A.; Sabiers, R.L.; Shimp, N.R.

    1990-12-01

    The design, fabrication, and initial testing of a rocket engine turbopump (TPA) for the delivery of high pressure liquid oxygen using hot oxygen for the turbine drive fluid are described. This TPA is basic to the dual expander engine which uses both oxygen and hydrogen as working fluids. Separate tasks addressed the key issue of materials for this TPA. All materials selections emphasized compatibility with hot oxygen. The OX TPA design uses a two-stage centrifugal pump driven by a single-stage axial turbine on a common shaft. The design includes ports for three shaft displacement/speed sensors, various temperature measurements, and accelerometers.

  9. Orbital transfer vehicle oxygen turbopump technology. Volume 1: Design, fabrication, and hydrostatic bearing testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckmann, P. S.; Hayden, W. R.; Lorenc, S. A.; Sabiers, R. L.; Shimp, N. R.

    1990-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and initial testing of a rocket engine turbopump (TPA) for the delivery of high pressure liquid oxygen using hot oxygen for the turbine drive fluid are described. This TPA is basic to the dual expander engine which uses both oxygen and hydrogen as working fluids. Separate tasks addressed the key issue of materials for this TPA. All materials selections emphasized compatibility with hot oxygen. The OX TPA design uses a two-stage centrifugal pump driven by a single-stage axial turbine on a common shaft. The design includes ports for three shaft displacement/speed sensors, various temperature measurements, and accelerometers.

  10. Strategies to overcome oxygen transfer limitations during hairy root cultivation of Azadiracta indica for enhanced azadirachtin production.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, Ashok Kumar

    2012-07-01

    The vast untapped potential of hairy root cultures as a stable source of biologically active chemicals has focused the attention of scientific community toward its commercial exploitation. However, the major bottleneck remains its successful scale-up. Due to branching, the roots form an interlocked matrix that exhibits resistance to oxygen transfer. Thus, present work was undertaken to develop cultivation strategies like optimization of inlet gas composition (in terms of % (v/v) O(2) in air), air-flow rate and addition of oxygen vectors in the medium, to curb the oxygen transfer limitations during hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica for in vitro azadirachtin (a biopesticide) production. It was found that increasing the oxygen fraction in the inlet air (in the range, 20-100% (v/v) O(2) in air) increased the azadirachtin productivity by approximately threefold, to a maximum of 4.42 mg/L per day (at 100% (v/v) O(2) in air) with respect to 1.68 mg/L per day in control (air with no oxygen supplementation). Similarly, increasing the air-flow rate (in the range, 0.3-2 vvm) also increased the azadirachtin productivity to a maximum of 1.84 mg/L per day at 0.8 vvm of air-flow rate. On the contrary, addition of oxygen vectors (in the range, 1-4% (v/v); hydrogen peroxide, toluene, Tween 80, kerosene, silicone oil, and n-hexadecane), decreased the azadirachtin productivity with respect to control (1.76 mg/L per day). PMID:22246729

  11. Detailed measurements of local heat transfer coefficient in the entrance to normal and inclined film cooling holes

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, D.R.H.; Byerley, A.R.; Ireland, P.T.; Wang, Z.; Jones, T.V.; Kohler, S.T.

    1996-04-01

    The local heat transfer inside the entrance to large-scale models of film cooling holes has been measured using the transient heat transfer technique. The method employs temperature-sensitive liquid crystals to measure the surface temperature of large-scale perspex models. Full distributions of local Nusselt number were calculated based on the cooling passage centerline gas temperature ahead of the cooling hole. The circumferentially averaged Nusselt number was also calculated based on the local mixed bulk driving gas temperature to aid interpretation of the results, and to broaden the potential application of the data. Data are presented for a single film cooling hole inclined at 90 and 150 deg to the coolant duct wall. Both holes exhibited entry length heat transfer levels that were significantly lower than those predicted by entry length data in the presence of crossflow. The reasons for the comparative reduction are discussed in terms of the interpreted flow field.

  12. A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING DISTRIBUTIONS OF MASS TRANSFER RATE COEFFICIENTS WITH APPLICATION TO PURGING AND BATCH EXPERIMENTS. (R825825)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass transfer between aquifer material and groundwater is often modeled as first-order rate-limited sorption or diffusive exchange between mobile zones and immobile zones with idealized geometries. Recent improvements in experimental techniques and advances in our understanding o...

  13. Measurement of local convective heat transfer coefficients from a smooth and roughened NACA-0012 airfoil: Flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, James E.; Vanfossen, G. James; Poinsatte, Phillip E.; Dewitt, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    Wind tunnels typically have higher free stream turbulence levels than are found in flight. Turbulence intensity was measured to be 0.5 percent in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) with the cloud making sprays off and around 2 percent with cloud making equipment on. Turbulence intensity for flight conditions was found to be too low to make meaningful measurements for smooth air. This difference between free stream and wing tunnel conditions has raised questions as to the validity of results obtained in the IRT. One objective of these tests was to determine the effect of free stream turbulence on convective heat transfer for the NASA Lewis LEWICE ice growth prediction code. These tests provide in-flight heat transfer data for a NASA-0012 airfoil with a 533 cm chord. Future tests will measure heat transfer data from the same airfoil in the Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Roughness was obtained by the attachment of small, 2 mm diameter hemispheres of uniform size to the airfoil in three different patterns. Heat transfer measurements were recorded in flight on the NASA Lewis Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Measurements were taken for the smooth and roughened surfaces at various aircraft speeds and angles of attack up to four degrees. Results are presented as Frossling number versus position on the airfoil for various roughnesses and angles of attack.

  14. Measurement of local convective heat transfer coefficients from a smooth and roughened NACA-0012 airfoil - Flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Fossen, G. James; De Witt, Kenneth J.; Newton, James E.; Poinsatte, Phillip E.

    1988-01-01

    Wind tunnels typically have higher free stream turbulence levels than are found in flight. Turbulence intensity was measured to be 0.5 percent in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) with the cloud making sprays off and around 2 percent with cloud making equipment on. Turbulence intensity for flight conditions was found to be too low to make meaningful measurements for smooth air. This difference between free stream and wind tunnel conditions has raised questions as to the validity of results obtained in the IRT. One objective of these tests was to determine the effect of free stream turbulence on convective heat transfer for the NASA Lewis LEWICE ice growth prediction code. These tests provide in-flight heat transfer data for a NASA-0012 airfoil with a 533 cm chord. Future tests will measure heat transfer data from the same airfoil in the Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Roughness was obtained by the attachment of small, 2 mm diameter hemispheres of uniform size to the airfoil in three different patterns. Heat transfer measurements were recorded in flight on the NASA Lewis Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Measurements were taken for the smooth and roughened surfaces at various aircraft speeds and angles of attack up to four degrees. Results are presented as Frossling number versus position on the airfoil for various roughnesses and angles of attack.

  15. Ferryl Protonation in Oxoiron(IV) Porphyrins and Its Role in Oxygen Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Boaz, Nicholas C.; Bell, Seth R.

    2015-01-01

    Ferryl porphyrins, P−FeIV=O, are central reactive intermediates in the catalytic cycles of numerous heme proteins and a variety of model systems. There has been considerable interest in elucidating factors, such as terminal oxo basicity, that may control ferryl reactivity. Here, the sulfonated, water-soluble ferryl porphyrin complexes tetramesitylporphyrin, oxoFeIVTMPS (FeTMPS-II), its 2,6-dichlorophenyl analogue, oxoFeIVTDClPS (FeTDClPS-II), and two other analogues are shown to be protonated under turnover conditions to produce the corresponding bis-aqua-iron(III) porphyrin cation radicals. The results reveal a novel internal electromeric equilibrium, P−FeIV=O ⇆ P+−FeIII(OH2)2. Reversible pKa values in the range of 4–6.3 have been measured for this process by pH-jump, UV–vis spectroscopy. Ferryl protonation has important ramifications for C–H bond cleavage reactions mediated by oxoiron(IV) porphyrin cation radicals in protic media. Both solvent O–H and substrate C–H deuterium kinetic isotope effects are observed for these reactions, indicating that hydrocarbon oxidation by these oxoiron(IV) porphyrin cation radicals occurs via a solvent proton-coupled hydrogen atom transfer from the substrate that has not been previously described. The effective FeO–H bond dissociation energies for FeTMPS-II and FeTDClPS-II were estimated from similar kinetic reactivities of the corresponding oxoFeIVTMPS+ and oxoFeIVTDClPS+ species to be ~92–94 kcal/mol. Similar values were calculated from the two-proton P+−FeIII(OH2)2 pKaobs and the porphyrin oxidation potentials, despite a 230 mV range for the iron porphyrins examined. Thus, the iron porphyrin with the lower ring oxidation potential has a compensating higher basicity of the ferryl oxygen. The solvent-derived proton adds significantly to the driving force for C–H bond scission. PMID:25651467

  16. Transfer coefficients for L-valine and the rate of incorporation of L-(1-/sup 14/C) valine into proteins in normal adult rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Kirikae, M.; Diksic, M.; Yamamoto, Y.L.

    1988-08-01

    An autoradiographic method for the measurement of the rate of valine incorporation into brain proteins is described. The transfer coefficients for valine into and out of the brain and the rate of valine incorporation into normal rat brain proteins are given. The valine incorporation and the transfer constants of valine between different biological compartments are provided for 14 gray matter and 2 white matter structures of an adult rat brain. The rate of valine incorporation varies between 0.52 +/- 0.19 nmol/g/min in white matter and 1.94 +/- 0.47 in inferior colliculus (gray matter). Generally, the rate of valine incorporation is about three to four times higher in the gray matter than in the white matter structures.

  17. Transverse heat transfer coefficient in the dual channel ITER TF CICCs Part II. Analysis of transient temperature responses observed during a heat slug propagation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska, Monika; Herzog, Robert; Malinowski, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    A heat slug propagation experiment in the final design dual channel ITER TF CICC was performed in the SULTAN test facility at EPFL-CRPP in Villigen PSI. We analyzed the data resulting from this experiment to determine the equivalent transverse heat transfer coefficient hBC between the bundle and the central channel of this cable. In the data analysis we used methods based on the analytical solutions of a problem of transient heat transfer in a dual-channel cable, similar to Renard et al. (2006) and Bottura et al. (2006). The observed experimental and other limits related to these methods are identified and possible modifications proposed. One result from our analysis is that the hBC values obtained with different methods differ by up to a factor of 2. We have also observed that the uncertainties of hBC in both methods considered are much larger than those reported earlier.

  18. Development of Novel Electrode Materials for the Electrocatalysis of Oxygen-Transfer and Hydrogen-Transfer Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Brett Kimball Simpson

    2002-08-27

    Throughout this thesis, the fundamental aspects involved in the electrocatalysis of anodic O-transfer reactions and cathodic H-transfer reactions have been studied. The investigation into anodic O-transfer reactions at undoped and Fe(III)[doped MnO{sub 2} films] revealed that MnO{sub 2} film electrodes prepared by a cycling voltammetry deposition show improved response for DMSO oxidation at the film electrodes vs. the Au substrate. Doping of the MnO{sub 2} films with Fe(III) further enhanced electrode activity. Reasons for this increase are believed to involve the adsorption of DMSO by the Fe(III) sites. The investigation into anodic O-transfer reactions at undoped and Fe(III)-doped RuO{sub 2} films showed that the Fe(III)-doped RuO{sub 2}-film electrodes are applicable for anodic detection of sulfur compounds. The Fe(III) sites in the Fe-RuO{sub 2} films are speculated to act as adsorption sites for the sulfur species while the Ru(IV) sites function for anodic discharge of H{sub 2}O to generate the adsorbed OH species. The investigation into cathodic H-transfer reactions, specifically nitrate reduction, at various pure metals and their alloys demonstrated that the incorporation of metals into alloy materials can create a material that exhibits bifunctional properties for the various steps involved in the overall nitrate reduction reaction. The Sb{sub 10}Sn{sub 20}Ti{sub 70}, Cu{sub 63}Ni{sub 37} and Cu{sub 25}Ni{sub 75} alloy electrodes exhibited improved activity for nitrate reduction as compared to their pure component metals. The Cu{sub 63}Ni{sub 37} alloy displayed the highest activity for nitrate reduction. The final investigation was a detailed study of the electrocatalytic activity of cathodic H-transfer reactions (nitrate reduction) at various compositions of Cu-Ni alloy electrodes. Voltammetric response for NO{sub 3}{sup -} at the Cu-Ni alloy electrode is superior to the response at the pure Cu and Ni electrodes. This is explained on the basis of the

  19. Direct generation of oxygen-stabilized radicals by H• transfer from transition metal hydrides.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jonathan L; Hartung, John; Han, Arthur; Norton, Jack R

    2015-01-28

    Transition-metal hydrides generate α-alkoxy radicals by H• transfer to enol ethers. We have measured the rate constant for transfer from CpCr(CO)3H to n-butyl vinyl ether and have examined the chemistry of radicals generated by such transfers. Radicals from appropriate substrates undergo 5-exo cyclization, with higher diastereoselectivity than the analogous all-carbon radicals. From such radicals it is straightforward to make substituted tetrahydrofurans. PMID:25569214

  20. Transfer kinetics and coefficients of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs from forage contaminated by Chernobyl fallout to milk of cows

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbri, S.; Sogni, R.; Lusardi, E.

    1994-04-01

    A experiment was conducted to study kinetics, transfer coefficients, and biological half-lives of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs from feed to milk. A cow was fed a diet containing alfalfa hay contaminated by Chernobyl fallout for 14.5 wk. The time-dependent activity in milk was approximated by a two-compartment model with fast biological half-lives of 2, 0.9, and 1 d and slow biological half-lives of 36.9, 8.7, and 12.4 d for {sup 90}Sr, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs respectively. The transfer coefficients determined in the experiment were 0.0008 d L{sup -1} for {sup 90}Sr, 0.0029 d L{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs, and 0.0031 d L{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs. The biological elimination phases of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were described by a two-compartment model while a one-compartment model was proposed for {sup 90}Sr. 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Senstitivity analysis of horizontal heat and vapor transfer coefficients for a cloud-topped marine boundary layer during cold-air outbreaks. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Y. V.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of external parameters on the surface heat and vapor fluxes into the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) during cold-air outbreaks are investigated using the numerical model of Stage and Businger (1981a). These fluxes are nondimensionalized using the horizontal heat (g1) and vapor (g2) transfer coefficient method first suggested by Chou and Atlas (1982) and further formulated by Stage (1983a). In order to simplify the problem, the boundary layer is assumed to be well mixed and horizontally homogeneous, and to have linear shoreline soundings of equivalent potential temperature and mixing ratio. Modifications of initial surface flux estimates, time step limitation, and termination conditions are made to the MABL model to obtain accurate computations. The dependence of g1 and g2 in the cloud topped boundary layer on the external parameters (wind speed, divergence, sea surface temperature, radiative sky temperature, cloud top radiation cooling, and initial shoreline soundings of temperature, and mixing ratio) is studied by a sensitivity analysis, which shows that the uncertainties of horizontal transfer coefficients caused by changes in the parameters are reasonably small.

  2. Exponential Sum Absorption Coefficients of Phosphine from 2750 to 3550/cm for Application to Radiative Transfer Analyses on Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temma, T.; Baines, K. H.; Butler, R. A. H.; Brown, L. R.; Sagui, L.; Kleiner, I.

    2006-01-01

    PH3 exponential sum k coefficients were computed between 2750 and 3550/cm (2.82-3.64 (microns), in view of future application to radiative transfer analyses of Jupiter and Saturn in a phosphine absorption band near 3 microns. The temperature and pressure of this data set cover the ranges from 80 to 350 K and from 10 (exp -3)to 10(exp 1) bars, respectively. Transmission uncertainty incurred by the use of the k coefficients is smaller than a few percent as long as the radiation is confined above an altitude of a few bars in the giant planets. In spectral regions of weak absorption at high pressures close to 10 bars, contributions from far wings of strong absorption lines must be carefully taken into account. Our data set helps map the three-dimensional distribution of PH3 on the giant planets, revealing their global atmospheric dynamics extending down to the deep interior. The complete k coefficient data set of this work is available at the Web site of the NASA Planetary Data System Atmospheres Node.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Average Heat-Transfer and Friction Coefficients for Air Flowing in Circular Tubes Having Square-Thread-Type Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, E. W.

    1952-01-01

    An investigation of forced-convection heat transfer and associated pressure drops was conducted with air flowing through electrically heated Inconel tubes having various degrees of square-thread-type roughness, an inside diameter of 1/2 inch, and a length of 24 inches. were obtained for tubes having conventional roughness ratios (height of thread/radius of tube) of 0 (smooth tube), 0.016, 0.025, and 0.037 over ranges of bulk Reynolds numbers up to 350,000, average inside-tube-wall temperatures up to 1950deg R, and heat-flux densities up to 115,000 Btu per hour per square foot. Data The experimental data showed that both heat transfer and friction increased with increase in surface roughness, becoming more pronounced with increase in Reynolds number; for a given roughness, both heat transfer and friction were also influenced by the tube wall-to-bulk temperature ratio. Good correlation of the heat-transfer data for all the tubes investigated was obtained by use of a modification of the conventional Nusselt correlation parameters wherein the mass velocity in the Reynolds number was replaced by the product of air density evaluated at the average film temperature and the so-called friction velocity; in addition, the physical properties of air were evaluated at the average film temperature. The isothermal friction data for the rough tubes, when plotted in the conventional manner, resulted in curves similar to those obtained by other investigators; that is, the curve for a given roughness breaks away from the Blasius line (representing turbulent flow in smooth tubes) at some value of Reynolds number, which decreases with increase in surface roughness, and then becomes a horizontal line (friction coefficient independent of Reynolds number). A comparison of the friction data for the rough tubes used herein indicated that the conventional roughness ratio is not an adequate measure of relative roughness for tubes having a square-thread-type element. The present data, as well

  4. The Role of Oxygen Transfer in Sintering of Low Alloy Steel Powder Compacts: A Review of the "Internal Getter" Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierl-Mayer, Christian; de Oro Calderon, Raquel; Danninger, Herbert

    2016-03-01

    The chemical aspects of sintering have to be considered, in particular the role of oxygen. For sintered alloy steels used for highly stressed components, traditional alloy elements have been Cu, Ni and Mo, which in their oxygen affinity are very similar to the base constituent iron. Advanced alloying systems however contain Cr, Mn and/or Si. In the present study it is shown that one of the principal aspects of sintering to be considered is oxygen transfer from the base iron oxides to the alloy elements, which then form oxides that are more difficult to reduce. This process, defined as "internal gettering", occurs both in mixed powder compacts and in prealloyed materials, although through different mechanisms. The effect can at least be alleviated by presintering in H2 in the 400°C range, part of the oxygen being removed as H2O before internal gettering becomes kinetically effective. However, in industrial practice, this collides with delubricaton. Furthermore for both alloy variants high temperature sintering is advantageous because it enhances reduction of the more stable oxides, thus eliminating the effects of internal gettering.

  5. Unsteady Oxygen Transfer in Space-Filling Models of the Pulmonary Acinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofemeier, Philipp; Shachar-Berman, Lihi; Filoche, Marcel; Sznitman, Josue

    2014-11-01

    Diffusional screening in the pulmonary acinus is a well-known physical phenomenon that results from the depletion of fresh oxygen in proximal acinar generations diffusing through the alveolar wall membranes and effectively creating a gradient in the oxygen partial pressure along the acinar airways. Until present, most studies have focused on steady-state oxygen diffusion in generic sub-acinar structures and discarded convective oxygen transport due to low Peclet numbers in this region. Such studies, however, fall typically short in capturing the complex morphology of acinar airways as well as the oscillatory nature of convecive acinar breathing. Here, we revisit this problem and solve the convective-diffusive transport equations in breathing 3D acinar structures, underlining the significance of convective flows in proximal acinar generations as well as recirculating alveolar flow patterns. In particular, to assess diffusional screening, we monitor time-dependent efficiencies of the acinus under cyclic breathing motion. Our study emphasizes the necessity of capturing both a dynamically breathing and anatomically-realistic model of the sub-acinus to characterize unsteady oxygen transport across the acinar walls.

  6. Thermal expansion of UO2+x nuclear fuel rods from a model coupling heat transfer and oxygen diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Mihaila, Bogden; Zubelewicz, Aleksander; Stan, Marius; Ramirez, Juan

    2008-01-01

    We study the thermal expansion of UO{sub 2+x} nuclear fuel rod in the context of a model coupling heat transfer and oxygen diffusion discussed previously by J.C. Ramirez, M. Stan and P. Cristea [J. Nucl. Mat. 359 (2006) 174]. We report results of simulations performed for steady-state and time-dependent regimes in one-dimensional configurations. A variety of initial- and boundary-value scenarios are considered. We use material properties obtained from previously published correlations or from analysis of previously published data. All simulations were performed using the commercial code COMSOL Multiphysics{sup TM} and are readily extendable to include multidimensional effects.

  7. Proposal for new best estimates for the soil solid-liquid distribution coefficient and soil-to-plant transfer of nickel.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Van Hees, May; Olyslaegers, Geert; Vidal, Miquel

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compile data, based on an extensive literature survey, for the soil solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K(d)) and soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) for nickel. The K(d) best estimates were calculated for soils grouped according to texture and organic matter content (sand, loam, clay and organic) and soil cofactors affecting soil-nickel interaction, such as pH, organic matter, and clay content. Variability in K(d) was better explained by pH than by soil texture. Nickel TF estimates were presented for major crop groups (cereals, leafy vegetables, non-leafy vegetables, root crops, tubers, fruits, herbs, pastures/grasses and fodder), and also for plant compartments within crop groups. Transfer factors were also calculated per soil group, as defined by their texture and organic matter content. Furthermore an evaluation of transfer factor dependency on specific soil characteristics was performed following regression analysis. The derived estimates were compared with parameter estimates currently in use. PMID:19223096

  8. A method for mapping regional oxygen and CO2 transfer in the lung.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Troels; Winkler, Tilo; Kelly, Vanessa Jane; Osorio-Valencia, Juan Sebastian; Greenblatt, Elliot Eliyahu; Harris, Robert Scott; Venegas, Jose Gabriel

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to visualizing regional lung function, through quantitative three-dimensional maps of O2 and CO2 transfer rates. These maps describe the contribution of anatomical regions to overall gas exchange and demonstrate how transfer rates of the two gas species' differ regionally. An algorithm for generating such maps is presented, and for illustration, regional gas transfer maps were generated using values of ventilation and perfusion imaged by PET/CT for a healthy subject and an asthmatic patient after bronchoprovocation. In a sensitivity analysis, compartment values of gas transfer showed minor sensitivity to imaging noise in the ventilation and perfusion data, and moderate sensitivity to estimation errors in global lung input values, chiefly global alveolar ventilation, followed by cardiac output and arterial-venous O2 content difference. Gas transfer maps offer an intuitive display of physiologically relevant lung function at a regional level, the potential for an improved understanding of pulmonary gas exchange in health and disease, and potentially a presurgical evaluation tool. PMID:26563454

  9. The prediction of nozzle performance and heat transfer in hydrogen/oxygen rocket engines with transpiration cooling, film cooling, and high area ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacynski, Kenneth J.; Hoffman, Joe D.

    1993-11-01

    An advanced engineering computational model has been developed to aid in the analysis and design of hydrogen/oxygen chemical rocket engines. The complete multi-species, chemically reacting and diffusing Navier-Stokes equations are modelled, finite difference approach that is tailored to be conservative in an axisymmetric coordinate system for both the inviscid and viscous terms. Demonstration cases are presented for a 1030:1 area ratio nozzle, a 25 lbf film cooled nozzle, and transpiration cooled plug-and-spool rocket engine. The results indicate that the thrust coefficient predictions of the 1030:1 nozzle and the film cooled nozzle are within 0.2 to 0.5 percent, respectively, of experimental measurements when all of the chemical reaction and diffusion terms are considered. Further, the model's predictions agree very well with the heat transfer measurements made in all of the nozzle test cases. The Soret thermal diffusion term is demonstrated to have a significant effect on the predicted mass fraction of hydrogen along the wall of the nozzle in both the laminar flow 1030:1 nozzle and the turbulent plug-and-spool rocket engine analysis cases performed. Further, the Soret term was shown to represent a significant fraction of the diffusion fluxes occurring in the transpiration cooled rocket engine.

  10. The prediction of nozzle performance and heat transfer in hydrogen/oxygen rocket engines with transpiration cooling, film cooling, and high area ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacynski, Kenneth J.; Hoffman, Joe D.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced engineering computational model has been developed to aid in the analysis and design of hydrogen/oxygen chemical rocket engines. The complete multi-species, chemically reacting and diffusing Navier-Stokes equations are modelled, finite difference approach that is tailored to be conservative in an axisymmetric coordinate system for both the inviscid and viscous terms. Demonstration cases are presented for a 1030:1 area ratio nozzle, a 25 lbf film cooled nozzle, and transpiration cooled plug-and-spool rocket engine. The results indicate that the thrust coefficient predictions of the 1030:1 nozzle and the film cooled nozzle are within 0.2 to 0.5 percent, respectively, of experimental measurements when all of the chemical reaction and diffusion terms are considered. Further, the model's predictions agree very well with the heat transfer measurements made in all of the nozzle test cases. The Soret thermal diffusion term is demonstrated to have a significant effect on the predicted mass fraction of hydrogen along the wall of the nozzle in both the laminar flow 1030:1 nozzle and the turbulent plug-and-spool rocket engine analysis cases performed. Further, the Soret term was shown to represent a significant fraction of the diffusion fluxes occurring in the transpiration cooled rocket engine.

  11. Charge transfer coefficients for the O+/2D/ + N2 and O+/2D/ + O2 excited ion reactions at thermal energy. [from ionospheric observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnsen, R.; Biondi, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the reactions of metastable O(+) ions and O2 using drift tube-mass spectrometer techniques is presented. It was shown that ordinary charge transfer is the dominant reaction branch in both cases; it occurs with large rate coefficients, k(N2) = (8 + or - 2) x 10 to the -10th cu cm/s and k(O2) = (7 + or - 2) x 10 to the -10th cu cm/s, at an effective ion temperature of about 550 K. The reaction He(+) + O2 is used as a source of metastable O(+) ions, and evidence is presented that the O(+) ions so produced are in the 2D state rather than the 2P state. The results are compared with previous measurements, and inferences drawn from ionospheric observations.

  12. Near-field krypton-85 measurements in stable meteorological conditions around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant: estimation of atmospheric transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Connan, O; Solier, L; Hébert, D; Maro, D; Lamotte, M; Voiseux, C; Laguionie, P; Cazimajou, O; Le Cavelier, S; Godinot, C; Morillon, M; Thomas, L; Percot, S

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the near-field dispersion of (85)Kr around the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague (AREVA NC La Hague - France) under stable meteorological conditions. Twenty-two (85)Kr night-time experimental campaigns were carried out at distances of up to 4 km from the release source. Although the operational Gaussian models predict for these meteorological conditions a distance to plume touchdown of several kilometers, we almost systematically observed a marked ground signal at distances of 0.5-4 km. The calculated atmospheric transfer coefficients (ATC) show values (1) higher than those observed under neutral conditions, (2) much higher than those proposed by the operational models, and (3) higher than those used in the impact assessments. PMID:25078471

  13. A method of computing the transient temperature of thick walls from arbitrary variation of adiabatic-wall temperature and heat-transfer coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, P R

    1958-01-01

    A method of calculating the temperature of thick walls has been developed in which the time series and the response to a unit triangle variation of surface temperature concepts are used, together with essentially standard formulas for transient temperature and heat flow into thick walls. The method can be used without knowledge of the mathematical tools of its development. The method is particularly suitable for determining the wall temperature in one-dimensional thermal problems in aeronautics where there is a continuous variation of the heat-transfer coefficient and adiabatic-wall temperature. The method also offers a convenient means for solving the inverse problem of determining the heat-flow history when temperature history is known.

  14. Transverse heat transfer coefficient in the dual channel ITER TF CICCs. Part I: Analysis of steady state temperature profiles resulting from annular heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowska, Monika; Herzog, Robert

    2011-10-01

    Two ITER TF dual channel Cable-in-Conduit Conductors (CICCs) have been tested in the SULTAN test facility. The samples were heated either by foil heaters mounted on the outside of the conductor jacket or by induced AC losses. The steady-state temperature response of several thermometers installed on the jacket surface as well as inside the cable were analyzed using the two-channel analytical model proposed by Renard et al. to obtain the equivalent transverse heat transfer coefficient between the bundle and central channel as a function of the mass flow rate. In addition, on the basis of the measured pressure drop and helium flow velocities, the friction factors for helium flow in the bundle and in the central channel were determined. The obtained results may serve as a reference for these cables.

  15. Design and Testing of an Automated System using Thermochromatic Liquid Crystals to Determine Local Heat Transfer Coefficients for an Impinging Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Benjamin

    1995-01-01

    Using thermochromatic liquid crystal to measure surface temperature, an automated transient method with time-varying free-stream temperature is developed to determine local heat transfer coefficients. By allowing the free-stream temperature to vary with time, the need for complicated mechanical components to achieve a step temperature change is eliminated, and by using the thermochromatic liquid crystals as temperature indicators, the labor intensive task of installing many thermocouples is omitted. Bias associated with human perception of the transition of the thermochromatic liquid crystal is eliminated by using a high speed digital camera and a computer. The method is validated by comparisons with results obtained by the steady-state method for a circular Jet impinging on a flat plate. Several factors affecting the accuracy of the method are evaluated.

  16. Multiple electron transfer systems in oxygen reducing biocathodes revealed by different conditions of aeration/agitation.

    PubMed

    Rimboud, Mickaël; Bergel, Alain; Erable, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Oxygen reducing biocathodes were formed at -0.2V/SCE (+0.04V/SHE) from compost leachate. Depending on whether aeration was implemented or not, two different redox systems responsible for the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction were evidenced. System I was observed at low potential (-0.03V/SHE) on cyclic voltammetries (CVs). It appeared during the early formation of the biocathode (few hours) and resisted the hydrodynamic conditions induced by the aeration. System II was observed at higher potential on CV (+0.46V/SHE); it required a longer lag time (up to 10days) and quiescent conditions to produce an electrochemical signal. The hydrodynamic effects produced by the forced aeration led to its extinction. From their different behaviors and examples in the literature, system I was identified as being a membrane-bound cytochrome-related molecule, while system II was identified as a soluble redox mediator excreted by the biofilm. This study highlighted the importance of controlling the local hydrodynamics to design efficient oxygen reducing biocathodes able to operate at high potential. PMID:27035588

  17. Cobalt substitution supports an inner-sphere electron transfer mechanism for oxygen reduction in pea seedling amine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Mills, Stephen A; Brown, Doreen E; Dang, Kaitlyn; Sommer, Dayn; Bitsimis, Alexandra; Nguyen, Jennifer; Dooley, David M

    2012-04-01

    Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) are a large family of proteins that use molecular oxygen to oxidize amines to aldehydes with the concomitant production of hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. CAOs utilize two cofactors for this reaction: topaquinone (TPQ) and a Cu(II) ion. Two mechanisms for oxygen reduction have been proposed for these enzymes. In one mechanism (involving inner-sphere electron transfer to O(2)), Cu(II) is reduced by TPQ, forming Cu(I), to which O(2) binds, forming a copper-superoxide complex. In an alternative mechanism (involving outer-sphere electron transfer to O(2)), O(2) is directly reduced by TPQ, without reduction of Cu(II). Substitution of Cu(II) with Co(II) has been used to distinguish between the two mechanisms in several CAOs. Because it is unlikely that Co(II) could be reduced to Co(I) in this environment, an inner-sphere mechanism, as described above, is prevented. We adapted metal replacement methods used for other CAOs to the amine oxidase from pea seedlings (PSAO). Cobalt-substituted PSAO (CoPSAO) displayed nominal catalytic activity: k(cat) is 4.7% of the native k(cat), and K(M) (O(2)) for CoPSAO is substantially (22-fold) higher. The greatly reduced turnover number for CoPSAO suggests that PSAO uses the inner-sphere mechanism, as has been predicted from (18)O isotope effect studies (Mukherjee et al. in J Am Chem Soc 130:9459-9473, 2008), and is catalytically compromised when constrained to operate via outer-sphere electron transfer to O(2). This study, together with previous work, provides strong evidence that CAOs use both proposed mechanisms, but each homolog may prefer one mechanism over the other. PMID:22258083

  18. Effect of Process Parameters, Casting Thickness, and Alloys on the Interfacial Heat-Transfer Coefficient in the High-Pressure Die-Casting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhi-Peng; Xiong, Shou-Mei; Liu, Bai-Cheng; Li, Mei; Allison, John

    2008-12-01

    The heat transfer at the metal-die interface is believed to have great influence on the solidification process and cast structure of the high-pressure die-casting (HPDC) process. The present article focused on the effects of process parameters, casting thickness, and alloys on the metal-die interfacial heat-transfer coefficient (IHTC) in the HPDC process. Experiment was carried out on a cold-chamber die-casting machine with two casting alloys AM50 and ADC12. A special casting, namely, “step-shape” casting, was used and cast against a H13 steel die. The IHTC was determined using an inverse approach based on the temperature measurements inside the die. Results show that the IHTC is different at different steps and changes as the solidification of the casting proceeds. Process parameters only influence the IHTC in its peak value, and for both AM50 and ADC12 alloys, a greater fast shot velocity leads to a greater IHTC peak value at steps 1 and 2. The initial die surface temperature has a more prominent influence on the IHTC peak values at the thicker steps, especially step 5. Results also show that a closer contact between the casting and die could be achieved when the casting alloy is ADC12 instead of AM50, which consequently leads to a higher IHTC.

  19. A biocompatible cobaltporphyrin-based complex micelle constructed via supramolecular assembly for oxygen transfer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liangliang; Qu, Rui; Shi, Hejin; Huang, Fan; An, Yingli; Shi, Linqi

    2016-05-26

    Herein, a complex micelle as an oxygen nano-carrier is constructed through the hierarchical assembly of the diblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-lysine) (PEG-b-PLys), tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphinato cobalt(ii) (Co(ii)TPPS), a heptapeptide (Cys-His-His-His-His-His-His) and heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin (TM-β-CD). Co(ii)TPPS was encapsulated into the cavities of TM-β-CDs driven by the host-guest interaction so that the irreversible formation of a μ-oxo-dimer of Co(ii)TPPS can be effectively prevented. The imidazole groups of the heptapeptide were selected as good axial ligands coordinating to the centric cobalt of Co(ii)TPPS, which subtly constituted the five-coordinated precursor serving as an active functional centre for oxygen binding. The sixth position of Co(ii)TPPS can bind oxygen. Furthermore, the host-guest inclusion (TM-β-CD/Co(ii)TPPS) was loaded into the hydrophobic core of the complex micelle and tightly fixed with PLys chains. The hydrophilic PEG blocks stretched in the aqueous solution constitute the shells which stabilize the structure of the complex micelle as well as impart the complex micelle sufficient blood circulation time. Moreover, the complex micelle exhibited excellent biocompatibility and cellular uptake. Therefore, the rationally designed amphiphilic structure can work as promising artificial O2 carriers in vivo. Potentially, the complex micelle can be expected to change the anaerobic microenvironment and find applications in the repair of the cells damaged by cellular hypoxia. PMID:27009911

  20. Oxidation of Aryl Diphenylmethyl Sulfides Promoted by a Nonheme Iron(IV)-Oxo Complex: Evidence for an Electron Transfer-Oxygen Transfer Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Alessia; De Carlo Chimienti, Rosemilia; Del Giacco, Tiziana; Di Stefano, Stefano; Lanzalunga, Osvaldo; Lapi, Andrea; Mazzonna, Marco; Olivo, Giorgio; Salamone, Michela

    2016-03-18

    The oxidation of a series of aryl diphenylmethyl sulfides (4-X-C6H4SCH(C6H5)2, where X = OCH3 (1), X = CH3 (2), X = H (3), and X = CF3 (4)) promoted by the nonheme iron(IV)-oxo complex [(N4Py)Fe(IV)═O](2+) occurs by an electron transfer-oxygen transfer (ET-OT) mechanism as supported by the observation of products (diphenylmethanol, benzophenone, and diaryl disulfides) deriving from α-C-S and α-C-H fragmentation of radical cations 1(+•)-4(+•), formed besides the S-oxidation products (aryl diphenylmethyl sulfoxides). The fragmentation/S-oxidation product ratios regularly increase through a decrease in the electron-donating power of the aryl substituents, that is, by increasing the fragmentation rate constants of the radical cations as indicated by a laser flash photolysis (LFP) study of the photochemical oxidation of 1-4 carried out in the presence of N-methoxyphenanthridinium hexafluorophosphate (MeOP(+)PF6(-)). PMID:26886491

  1. Atmospheric Chemistry of Six Methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers Used as Heat Transfer Fluid Replacement Compounds: Measured OH Radical Reaction Rate Coefficients, Atmospheric Lifetimes, and Global Warming Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jubb, A. M.; Gierczak, T.; Baasandorj, M.; Waterland, R. L.; Burkholder, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Mixtures of methyl-perfluoroheptene-ethers (C7F13OCH3, MPHEs) are currently in use as a replacement for perfluorinated alkane (PFC) and polyether mixtures (both persistent greenhouse gases with atmospheric lifetimes >1000 years) used as heat transfer fluids. Currently, the atmospheric fate of the MPHE isomers are not well characterized, however, reaction with the OH radical is expected to be a dominant tropospheric loss process for these compounds. In order to assess the atmospheric lifetimes and environmental implications of MPHE use, rate coefficients for MPHE isomers' reaction with OH radicals are desired. In the work presented here, rate coefficients, k, for the gas-phase reaction of the OH radical with six MPHEs commonly used in commercial mixtures (isomers and stereoisomers) and their deuterated analogs (d3-MPHE) were determined at 296 K using a relative rate method with combined gas-chromatography/IR spectroscopy detection. A range of OH rate coefficient values was observed, up to a factor of 20× different, between the MPHE isomers with the (E)-stereoisomers exhibiting the greatest reactivity. The measured OH reaction rate coefficients for the d3-MPHE isomers were lower than the observed MPHE values although a large range of k values between isomers was still observed. The reduction in reactivity with deuteration signifies that the MPHE + OH reaction proceeds via both addition to the olefinic C=C bond and H-abstraction from the methyl ester group. OH addition to the C=C bond was determined to be the primary reaction channel. Atmospheric lifetimes with respect to the OH reaction for the six MPHE isomers were found to be in the range of days to months. The short lifetimes indicate that MPHE use will primarily impact tropospheric local and regional air quality. A MPHE atmospheric degradation mechanism will be presented. As part of this work, radiative efficiencies and global warming potentials (GWPs) for the MPHE isomers were estimated based on measured

  2. 3D discrete angiogenesis dynamic model and stochastic simulation for the assessment of blood perfusion coefficient and impact on heat transfer between nanoparticles and malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Yifat, Jonathan; Gannot, Israel

    2015-03-01

    Early detection of malignant tumors plays a crucial role in the survivability chances of the patient. Therefore, new and innovative tumor detection methods are constantly searched for. Tumor-specific magnetic-core nano-particles can be used with an alternating magnetic field to detect and treat tumors by hyperthermia. For the analysis of the method effectiveness, the bio-heat transfer between the nanoparticles and the tissue must be carefully studied. Heat diffusion in biological tissue is usually analyzed using the Pennes Bio-Heat Equation, where blood perfusion plays an important role. Malignant tumors are known to initiate an angiogenesis process, where endothelial cell migration from neighboring vasculature eventually leads to the formation of a thick blood capillary network around them. This process allows the tumor to receive its extensive nutrition demands and evolve into a more progressive and potentially fatal tumor. In order to assess the effect of angiogenesis on the bio-heat transfer problem, we have developed a discrete stochastic 3D model & simulation of tumor-induced angiogenesis. The model elaborates other angiogenesis models by providing high resolution 3D stochastic simulation, capturing of fine angiogenesis morphological features, effects of dynamic sprout thickness functions, and stochastic parent vessel generator. We show that the angiogenesis realizations produced are well suited for numerical bio-heat transfer analysis. Statistical study on the angiogenesis characteristics was derived using Monte Carlo simulations. According to the statistical analysis, we provide analytical expression for the blood perfusion coefficient in the Pennes equation, as a function of several parameters. This updated form of the Pennes equation could be used for numerical and analytical analyses of the proposed detection and treatment method. PMID:24462603

  3. ETON 1 - A data base pertinent to the study of energy transfer in the oxygen nightglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, R. G. H.; Murtagh, D. P.; McDade, I. C.; Dickinson, P. H. G.; Thomas, L.

    1986-09-01

    A comprehensive group of experiments, assembled and flown on a series of Petrel rockets in March 1982 for the primary purpose of investigating the extent to which energy transfer is important in the excitation of the oxgen nightglow, is briefly described. Aspects of the data reduction methods are summarised and the bulk of the processed data is presented in profile and tabular form as a base for modelling and analyses in papers to follow and in evidence of the quality and success of this memorable international collaborative campaign.

  4. Effect of trehalose on oxygen evolution and electron transfer in photosystem 2 complexes.

    PubMed

    Mamedov, M D; Petrova, I O; Yanykin, D V; Zaspa, A A; Semenov, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    The pigment-protein complex of photosystem 2 (PS 2) catalyzes the light-driven oxidation of water molecule and the reduction of plastoquinone. In this work, we studied the effect of the disaccharide trehalose, which is unique in its physicochemical properties, on isolated PS 2 complex. It was found that trehalose significantly stimulated the steady-state rate of oxygen evolution. The study of single flash-induced fluorescence decay kinetics demonstrated that trehalose did not affect the rate of QA(-) oxidation, although it led to an increase in the relative fractions of PS 2 reaction centers capable of QA(-) oxidation. Trehalose also prevented PS 2 complexes from being inactivated on prolonged storage. We propose that in the presence of trehalose, which affects the extent of hydration, the protein can preferentially exist in a more optimal conformation for effective functioning. PMID:25754040

  5. Low-pressure airlift fermenter for single cell protein production. I. Design and oxygen transfer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.Y.; Kondis, E.F.; Srinivasan, S.

    1987-03-01

    The energy consumption of a fermenter constitutes a major part of the operating expense of a single cell protein process. A low-pressure airlift fermenter was designed to reduce this cost. In this new design, the fermenter broth is kept below 120 cm in depth, and air alone is employed to fulfil the need of supplying oxygen, and cooling and agitating the broth. The use of low-pressure air from air blowers instead of air compressors lowers the capital cost of air delivery and reduces the energy consumption in the fermenter section to below 1 kWh/kg protein, a saving of over 70% as compared to a conventional stirred tank fermenter. It also eliminates the investment of mechanical agitators, heat exchangers, and air compressors. Sulfite oxidation studies confirmed the design concepts. 30 references.

  6. Mechanism of inhibition and decoupling of oxygen evolution from electron transfer in photosystem II by fluoride, ammonia and acetate.

    PubMed

    Lovyagina, E R; Semin, B K

    2016-05-01

    Ca(2+) extraction from oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) is accompanied by decoupling of oxygen evolution/electron transfer processes [Semin et al. Photosynth. Res. 98 (2008) 235] and appearance of a broad EPR signal at g=2 (split "S3" signal) what can imply the relationship between these effects. Split signal have been observed not only in Ca-depleted PSII but also in PSII membranes treated by fluoride anions, sodium acetate, and NH4Cl. Here we investigated the question: can such compounds induce the decoupling effect during treatment of PSII like Ca(2+) extraction does? We found that F(-), sodium acetate, and NH4Cl inhibit O2 evolution in PSII membranes more effectively than the reduction of artificial electron acceptor 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, i.e. the action of these compounds is accompanied by decoupling of these processes in OEC. Similarity of effects observed after Ca(2+) extraction and F(-), CH3COO(-) or NH4Cl treatments suggests that these compounds can inactivate function of Ca(2+). Such inactivation could originate from disturbance of the network of functionally active hydrogen bonds around OEC formed with participation of Ca(2+). This inhibition effect is observed in the region of low concentration of inhibitors. Increasing of inhibitor concentration is accompanied by appearance of other sites of inhibition. PMID:26971280

  7. Xanthohumol induces generation of reactive oxygen species and triggers apoptosis through inhibition of mitochondrial electron transfer chain complex I.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Chu, Wei; Wei, Peng; Liu, Ying; Wei, Taotao

    2015-12-01

    Xanthohumol is a prenylflavonoid extracted from hops (Humulus lupulus). It possesses anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo, and offers therapeutic benefits for treatment of metabolic syndromes. However, the precise mechanisms underlying its pharmacological effects remain to be elucidated, together with its cellular target. Here, we provide evidence that xanthohumol directly interacts with the mitochondrial electron transfer chain complex I (NADH dehydrogenase), inhibits the oxidative phosphorylation, triggers the production of reactive oxygen species, and induces apoptosis. In addition, we show that as a result of the inhibition of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, xanthohumol exposure causes a rapid decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Furthermore, we showed that xanthohumol up-regulates the glycolytic capacity in cells, and thus compensates cellular ATP generation. Dissection of the multiple steps of aerobic respiration by extracellular flux assays revealed that xanthohumol specifically inhibits the activity of mitochondrial complex I, but had little effect on that of complex II, III and IV. Inhibition of complex I by xanthohumol caused the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which are responsible for the induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. We also found that isoxanthohumol, the structural isomer of xanthohumol, is inactive to cells, suggesting that the reactive 2-hydroxyl group of xanthohumol is crucial for its targeting to the mitochondrial complex I. Together, the remodeling of cell metabolism revealed here has therapeutic potential for the use of xanthohumol. PMID:26453927

  8. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer During the S-State Transitions of the Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Amin, Muhamed; Vogt, Leslie; Szejgis, Witold; Vassiliev, Serguei; Brudvig, Gary W; Bruce, Doug; Gunner, M R

    2015-06-18

    The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) is a unique Mn4O5Ca cluster that catalyzes water oxidation via four photoactivated electron transfer steps. As the protein influence on the redox and protonation chemistry of the OEC remains an open question, we present a classical valence model of the OEC that allows the redox state of each Mn and the protonation state of bridging μ-oxos and terminal waters to remain in equilibrium with the PSII protein throughout the redox cycle. We find that the last bridging oxygen loses its proton during the transition from S0 to S1. Two possible S2 states are found depending on the OEC geometry: S2 has Mn4(IV) with a proton lost from a terminal water (W1) trapped by the nearby D1-D61 if O5 is closer to Mn4, or Mn1(IV), with partial deprotonation of D1-H337 and D1-E329 if O5 is closer to Mn1. In S3, the OEC is Mn4(IV) with W2 deprotonated. The estimated OEC Em's range from +0.7 to +1.3 V, enabling oxidation by P680(+), the primary electron donor in PSII. In chloride-depleted PSII, the proton release increases during the S1 to S2 transition, leaving the OEC unable to properly advance through the water-splitting cycle. PMID:25575266

  9. Light-independent reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation through electron transfer from carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes in water.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsin-Se; Wu, Renren; Jafvert, Chad T

    2014-10-01

    Promising developments in application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have raised concern regarding potential biological and environmental effects upon their inevitable release to the environment. Although some CNTs have been reported to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under light, limited information exists on ROS generation by these materials in the dark. In this study, generation of ROS was examined, initiated by electron transfer from biological electron donors through carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (C-SWCNT) to molecular oxygen in water in the dark. In the presence of C-SWCNT, the oxidation of NADH (β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form) and DTTre (DL-dithiothreitol, reduced form) was confirmed by light absorbance shifts (340 nm to 260 nm during oxidation of NADH to NAD(+), and increased light absorbance at 280 nm during oxidation of DTTre). Production of superoxide anion (O2(•-)) was detected by its selective reaction with a tetrazolium salt (NBT(2+)), forming a formazan product that is visible at 530 nm. A modified acid-quenched N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) assay was used to measure the accumulation of H2O2 in C-SWCNT suspensions containing O2 and NADH. In the same suspensions (i.e., containing C-SWCNT, NADH, and O2), pBR322 DNA plasmid was cleaved, although •OH was not detected when using •OH scavenging molecular probes. These results indicate that the oxidation of electron donors by C-SWCNT can be a light-independent source of ROS in water, and that electron shuttling through CNTs to molecular oxygen may be a potential mechanism for DNA damage by this specific CNT and potentially other carbon-based nanomaterials. PMID:25171301

  10. Potential technology transfers of research on low-temperature carbon monoxide-oxygen recombination catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poziomek, Edward J.

    1990-01-01

    Results from research on catalytic recombination of CO-O2 for stable closed-cycle operation of CO2 lasers hold much promise for a variety of technology transfer. Expansion of CO2 laser remote sensing applications toward chemical detection and pollution monitoring would certainly be expected. However, the catalysts themselves may be especially effective in low-temperature oxidation of a number of chemicals in addition to CO. It is therefore of interest to compare the CO-O2 catalysts with chemical systems designed for chemical sensing, air purification and process catalysis. Success in understanding the catalytic mechanisms of the recombination of CO-O2 could help to shed light on how catalyst systems operate. New directions in low-temperature oxidation catalysts, coatings for chemical sensors and sorbents for air purification could well emerge.

  11. Testing models of fatty acid transfer and lipid synthesis in spinach leaf using in vivo oxygen-18 labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, M.; Ohlrogge, J.

    1999-12-01

    Oxygen-18 labeling has been applied to the study of plant lipid biosynthesis for the first time. [{sup 13}C{sub 2}{sup 18}O{sub 2}]Acetate was incubated with spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves and the {sup 18}O content in fatty acid methyl esters isolated from different lipid classes measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acids isolated from lipids synthesized within the plastid, such as monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, show an {sup 18}O content consistent with the exogenous acetate undergoing a single activation step and with the direct utilization of acyl-acyl carrier protein by the acyl transferases of the chloroplast. In contrast, fatty acids isolated from lipids assembled in the cytosol, such as phosphatidylcholine, show a 50% reduction in the {sup 18}O content. This is indicative of export of the fatty acyl groups from the plastid via a free carboxylate anion, and is consistent with the acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase:acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase mediated export mechanism. If this were not the case and the acyl group was transferred directly from acyl-acyl carrier protein to an acyl acceptor on the cytosolic side, there would be either complete retention of {sup 18}O or, less likely, complete loss of {sup 18}O, but not a 50% loss of {sup 18}O. Thus, existing models for fatty acid transfer from the plastid and for spatially separate synthesis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic lipids have both been confirmed.

  12. Paddy-field contamination with 134Cs and 137Cs due to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and soil-to-rice transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2013-02-01

    The transfer coefficient (TF) from soil to rice plants of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the form of radioactive deposition from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 was investigated in three rice paddy fields in Minami-Soma City. Rice crops were planted in the following May and harvested at the end of September. Soil cores of 30-cm depth were sampled from rice-planted paddy fields to measure (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity at 5-cm intervals. (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity was also measured in rice ears (rice with chaff), straws and roots. The rice ears were subdivided into chaff, brown rice, polished rice and rice bran, and the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity concentration of each plant part was measured to calculate the respective TF from the soil. The TF of roots was highest at 0.48 ± 0.10 in the field where the (40)K concentration in the soil core was relatively low, in comparison with TF values of 0.31 and 0.38 in other fields. Similar trends could be found for the TF of whole rice plants, excluding roots. The TF of rice ears was relatively low at 0.019-0.026. The TF of chaff, rice bran, brown rice and polished rice was estimated to be 0.049, 0.10-0.16, 0.013-0.017 and 0.005-0.013, respectively. PMID:23103577

  13. Measurements of momentum transfer coefficients for H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO and CO{sub 2} incident upon spacecraft surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, S.R.; Hoffbauer, M.A.

    1997-07-16

    Measurements of momentum transfer coefficients were made for gas-surface interactions between the Space Shuttle reaction control jet plume gases and the solar panel array materials to be used on the International Space Station. Actual conditions were simulated using a supersonic nozzle source to produce beams of the gases with approximately the same average velocities as the gases have in the Shuttle plumes. Samples of the actual solar panel materials were mounted on a torsion balance that was used to measure the force exerted on the surfaces by the molecular beams. Measurements were made with H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} incident upon the solar array material, Kapton, SiO{sub 2}-coated Kapton, and Z93-coated Al. The measurements showed that molecules scatter from the surfaces more specularly as the angle of incidence increases and that scattering behavior has a strong dependence upon both the incident gas and velocity. These results show that for some technical surfaces the simple assumption of diffuse scattering with complete thermal accommodation is entirely inadequate. It is clear that additional measurements are required to produce models that more accurately describe the gas-surface interactions encountered in rarefied flow regimes.

  14. Polarization Transfer Coefficient Measurements in the Deuteron Breakup Reaction HYDROGEN-1(POLARIZED Deuteron, Polarized Proton)x at 2.1 GEV.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Naipor Eric

    The polarization of the protons emerging at 0 ^circ from the inclusive deuteron breakup reaction ^1H(vec d,vec p)X was measured using a deuteron beam with kinetic energy of 2.1 GeV. The momentum of the protons was selected by the magnetic spectrometer SPES4 and the polarization was measured with the polarimeter POMME. This experiment was performed at eight different proton momenta. When those momenta are Lorentz transformed to the deuteron rest frame, they corresponded to values from 0.00 to 0.34 GeV/c. The result of the measurements is expressed in terms of polarization transfer coefficient which is defined as the ratio of the measured proton polarization P_{p} to the deuteron beam vector polarization P _{Z}:kappa_{o} = P_{p}/P_{Z}. The values of kappa_{o} decreased from 0.995 to -0.320 across the proton momentum range of this experiment. The trend of kappa_{o} is in general agreement with the expected behavior arising from the D state in the deuteron wave function. The impulse approximation predicts quite well the general shape of kappa_{o}. Multiple scattering and relativistic effect based on different models of reaction mechanism are discussed.

  15. Application of computer models to the determination of heat transfer coefficients of UCON{reg_sign} Quenchants solutions in heat treating operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Sarmiento, G.; Mues, E.; Bunte, C.

    1996-12-31

    The computational system INC-PHATRAN, previously developed by the first author for the numerical simulation of a wide variety of heat treating operations, has been successfully applied to quenching of steel bars in a quench-tank installation with a tilt-up type integral quenching manipulator. Excellent agreements between calculated temperatures at the bar surface and the corresponding values measured by contact thermocouples after the end of immersion has been obtained. The quench-tank installation belongs to ACINDAR S.A., a high-quality specialty steel manufacturer in Argentina, and use UCON Quenchants HT, a type of nonflammable aqueous solution of a liquid organic polymer and a corrosion inhibitor, made by Union Carbide Co. The numerical model solves the inverse heat conduction equation coupled with the equations governing the phase transformations in arbitrary steel specimens in heat treating operations. The spacial and time variation of the temperature and of the volume fractions of austenite transformed to ferrite, perlite and martensite are predicted by the model. If the evolution of temperature at some points within the material or at the surface of the specimens are measured with thermocouples, the System INC-PHATRAN obtains numerically the time-varying heat transfer coefficients, solving the corresponding inverse heat conduction problem. Because the model predicts the spatial distribution of the fractions of ferrite, perlite and martensite remaining after the quenching, knowledge of the hardness and of other physical properties of the material may be obtained if correlations between those phases and the properties are available.

  16. Predicting diffusive alveolar oxygen transfer from carbon monoxide-diffusing capacity in exercising foxhounds.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Connie C W; Wagner, Peter D; Dane, D Merrill; Wagner, Harrieth E; Johnson, Robert L

    2008-11-01

    Although lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL(CO)) is a widely used test of diffusive O2 transfer, few studies have directly related DL(CO) to O2-diffusing capacity (DL(O2)); none has used the components of Dl(CO), i.e., conductance of alveolar membrane and capillary blood, to predict DL(O2) from rest to exercise. To understand the relationship between DL(CO) and DL(O2) at matched levels of cardiac output, we analyzed cumulative data from rest to heavy exercise in 43 adult dogs, with normal lungs or reduced lung capacity following lung resection, that were studied by two techniques. 1) A rebreathing (RB) technique was used to measure Dl(CO) and pulmonary blood flow at two O2 tensions, independent of O2 exchange. DL(CO) was partitioned into CO-diffusing capacity of alveolar membrane and pulmonary capillary blood volume using the Roughton-Forster equation and converted into an equivalent DL(O2), [DL(O2)(RB)]. 2) A multiple inert-gas elimination technique (MIGET) was used to measure ventilation-perfusion distributions, O2 and CO2 exchange under hypoxia, to derive DL(O2) [DL(O2)(MIGET)] by the Lilienthal-Riley technique and Bohr integration. For direct comparisons, DL(O2)(RB) was interpolated to the cardiac output measured by the Fick principle corresponding to DL(O2)(MIGET). The DL(O2)-to-DL(CO) ratio averaged 1.61. Correlation between DL(O2)(RB) and DL(O2)(MIGET) was similar in normal and post-resection groups. Overall, DL(O2)(MIGET) = 0.975 DL(O2)(RB); mean difference between the two techniques was under 5% for both animal groups. We conclude that, despite various uncertainties inherent in these two disparate methods, the Roughton-Forster equation adequately predicts diffusive O2 transfer from rest to heavy exercise in canines with normal, as well as reduced, lung capacities. PMID:18719238

  17. Predicting diffusive alveolar oxygen transfer from carbon monoxide-diffusing capacity in exercising foxhounds

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Connie C. W.; Wagner, Peter D.; Dane, D. Merrill; Wagner, Harrieth E.; Johnson, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Although lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DlCO) is a widely used test of diffusive O2 transfer, few studies have directly related DlCO to O2-diffusing capacity (DlO2); none has used the components of DlCO, i.e., conductance of alveolar membrane and capillary blood, to predict DlO2 from rest to exercise. To understand the relationship between DlCO and DlO2 at matched levels of cardiac output, we analyzed cumulative data from rest to heavy exercise in 43 adult dogs, with normal lungs or reduced lung capacity following lung resection, that were studied by two techniques. 1) A rebreathing (RB) technique was used to measure DlCO and pulmonary blood flow at two O2 tensions, independent of O2 exchange. DlCO was partitioned into CO-diffusing capacity of alveolar membrane and pulmonary capillary blood volume using the Roughton-Forster equation and converted into an equivalent DlO2, [DlO2(RB)]. 2) A multiple inert-gas elimination technique (MIGET) was used to measure ventilation-perfusion distributions, O2 and CO2 exchange under hypoxia, to derive DlO2 [DlO2(MIGET)] by the Lilienthal-Riley technique and Bohr integration. For direct comparisons, DlO2(RB) was interpolated to the cardiac output measured by the Fick principle corresponding to DlO2(MIGET). The DlO2-to-DlCO ratio averaged 1.61. Correlation between DlO2(RB) and DlO2(MIGET) was similar in normal and post-resection groups. Overall, DlO2(MIGET) = 0.975 DlO2(RB); mean difference between the two techniques was under 5% for both animal groups. We conclude that, despite various uncertainties inherent in these two disparate methods, the Roughton-Forster equation adequately predicts diffusive O2 transfer from rest to heavy exercise in canines with normal, as well as reduced, lung capacities. PMID:18719238

  18. Effect of oxygen transfer rate on the composition of the pectolytic enzyme complex of Aspergillus niger

    SciTech Connect

    Zetelaki-Horvath, K.; Vas, K.

    1981-01-01

    Optimal agitation and aeration conditions (assuring O/sub 2/ transfer rates (OTR) of 12-179 mmol/L-h) were determined for pectin lyase (PL) synthesis of an Aspergillus niger strain. Components of the pectolytic enzyme complex were also investigated in order to determine whether their O/sub 2/ demand is identical with or different from that of pectin lyase. Should the latter be the case, a possibility would be given to produce enzyme complexes of different agitation and aeration conditions. The mycelium yield of Aspergillus niger was maximum at an OTR of 100 mmol/L-h. The yields of the various pectolytic enzymes reached maximum at different OTRs. PL production was highest (0.555 mumol/min-mL) at an OTR of 60 mmol/L-h. Endopolygalacturonase (PG) production has a maximum at OTR 49 mmol/L-h, with a 2nd peak at 100-135 mmol O2/L-h. Pectin esterase (PE) synthesis showed a maximum at an OTR of 12-14 mmol/L-h, while both apple juice clarifying and macerating activities gave 2 maximum at 14 and 60 mmol/L-h due to the optima of PE and endo-PG. Macerating activity showed a high value at OTR optimal for PL production as well.

  19. Effect of internal pressure and gas/liquid interface area on the CO mass transfer coefficient using hollow fibre membranes as a high mass transfer gas diffusing system for microbial syngas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Muhammad; Park, Shinyoung; Jeong, Yeseul; Lee, Eun Yeol; Lee, Jinwon; Chang, In Seop

    2014-10-01

    This study proposed a submerged hollow fibre membrane bioreactor (HFMBR) system capable of achieving high carbon monoxide (CO) mass transfer for applications in microbial synthesis gas conversion systems. Hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane fibres were used to fabricate a membrane module, which was used for pressurising CO in water phase. Pressure through the hollow fibre lumen (P) and membrane surface area per unit working volume of the liquid (A(S)/V(L)) were used as controllable parameters to determine gas-liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) values. We found a k(L)a of 135.72 h(-1) when P was 93.76 kPa and AS/VL was fixed at 27.5m(-1). A higher k(L)a of 155.16 h(-1) was achieved by increasing AS/VL to 62.5m(-1) at a lower P of 37.23 kPa. Practicality of HFMBR to support microbial growth and organic product formation was assessed by CO/CO2 fermentation using Eubacterium limosum KIST612. PMID:25105269

  20. Use of a liquid-crystal and heater-element composite for quantitative, high-resolution heat-transfer coefficients on a turbine airfoil including turbulence and surface-roughness effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, S. A.; Russell, L. M.; Torres, F. J.

    1987-01-01

    Local heat transfer coefficients were measured along the midchord of a three-times-size turbine vane airfoil in a static cascade operated at room temperature over a range of Reynolds numbers. The test surface consisted of a composite of commercially available materials: a Mylar sheet with a layer of cholestric liquid crystals, which change color with temperature, and a heater made of a polyester sheet coated with vapor-deposited gold, which produces uniform heat flux. After the initial selection and calibration of the composite sheet, accurate, quantitative, and continuous heat transfer coefficients were mapped over the airfoil surface. Tests were conducted at two free-stream turbulence intensities: 0.6 percent, which is typical of wind tunnels; and 10 percent, which is typical of real engine conditions. In addition to a smooth airfoil, the effects of local leading-edge sand roughness were also examined for a value greater than the critical roughness. The local heat transfer coefficients are presented for both free-stream turbulence intensities for inlet Reynolds numbers from 1.20 to 5.55 x 10 to the 5th power. Comparisons are also made with analytical values of heat transfer coefficients obtained from the STAN5 boundary layer code.

  1. Multiple redox-active chlorophylls in the secondary electron-transfer pathways of oxygen-evolving photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Tracewell, Cara A; Brudvig, Gary W

    2008-11-01

    Photosystem II (PS II) is unique among photosynthetic reaction centers in having secondary electron donors that compete with the primary electron donors for reduction of P680(+). We have characterized the photooxidation and dark decay of the redox-active accessory chlorophylls (Chl) and beta-carotenes (Car) in oxygen-evolving PS II core complexes by near-IR absorbance and EPR spectroscopies at cryogenic temperatures. In contrast to previous results for Mn-depleted PS II, multiple near-IR absorption bands are resolved in the light-minus-dark difference spectra of oxygen-evolving PS II core complexes including two fast-decaying bands at 793 and 814 nm and three slow-decaying bands at 810, 825, and 840 nm. We assign these bands to chlorophyll cation radicals (Chl(+)). The fast-decaying bands observed after illumination at 20 K could be generated again by reilluminating the sample. Quantization by EPR gives a yield of 0.85 radicals per PS II, and the yield of oxidized cytochrome b 559 by optical difference spectroscopy is 0.15 per PS II. Potential locations of Chl(+) and Car(+) species, and the pathways of secondary electron transfer based on the rates of their formation and decay, are discussed. This is the first evidence that Chls in the light-harvesting proteins CP43 and CP47 are oxidized by P680(+) and may have a role in Chl fluorescence quenching. We also suggest that a possible role for negatively charged lipids (phosphatidyldiacylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol identified in the PS II structure) could be to decrease the redox potential of specific Chl and Car cofactors. These results provide new insight into the alternate electron-donation pathways to P680(+). PMID:18850718

  2. Singlet molecular oxygen ( sup 1. Delta. sub g O sub 2 ) formation upon irradiation of an oxygen ( sup 3. Sigma. sub g sup minus O sub 2 )-organic molecule charge-transfer absorption band

    SciTech Connect

    Scurlock, R.D.; Ogilby, P.R. )

    1989-07-13

    Singlet molecular oxygen ({sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}O{sub 2}) phosphorescence ({sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup {minus}}O{sub 2} {l arrow} {sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}O{sub 2}: 1270 nm) has been observed in a time-resolved experiment subsequent to pulsed UV laser irradiation of the oxygen ({sup 3}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup {minus}}O{sub 2})-organic molecule charge-transfer bands of liquid aromatic hydrocarbons (mesitylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, toluene, benzene), ethers (tetrahydrofuran, 1,4-dioxane, glyme, diglyme, triglyme), alcohols (methanol, propanol), and aliphatic hydrocarbons (cyclohexane, cyclooctane, decahydronaphthalene). Although {sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}O{sub 2} could originate from a variety of different processes in these oxygenated solvent systems, we have used the results of several independent experiments to indicate that an oxygen-solvent charge-transfer (CT) state is the {sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}O{sub 2} precursor. Other transient species have also been observed in time-resolved absorption experiments subsequent to pulsed UV irradiation of the oxygen-solvent CT bands. Some of these molecular transients, or species derived from these intermediates, may be responsible for an observed increase in the rate of {sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}O{sub 2} decay under certain conditions.

  3. Impaired alveolar-arterial oxygen transfer is associated with reduced milk yield in primiparous post-partum dairy heifers at moderate altitude.

    PubMed

    Neary, Joseph M; Garry, Franklyn B

    2014-11-01

    Domestic cattle have limited cardiopulmonary reserve for their body size and oxygen requirements. Therefore, it is plausible that impaired alveolar-arterial gas exchange may be detrimental to energetically expensive traits such as milk production which, like all aerobic processes, requires oxygen. The degree of alveolar-arterial oxygen transfer impairment can be determined by estimating the alveolar-arterial oxygen (A-a O2) pressure gradient from arterial blood-gas tensions. The degree of oxygen transfer impairment is proportional to the A-a O2 pressure gradient: the higher the A-a O2 pressure gradient the less oxygen is transferred to the blood for a given ventilation rate. In this study two cohorts of Holstein-Friesian heifers were followed on one northern Colorado dairy farm. Arterial blood-gas analyses were performed up to 9 d post-calving. Heifers were grouped into quartiles based on A-a O2 pressure gradient so that relative comparisons could be made. Heifers in the lowest (Q1) and highest (Q4) quartile had the least and greatest impairment of alveolar-arterial oxygen transfer, respectively. We hypothesised that milk yield over 60 d would be greatest for heifers in Q1 and would decrease with quartile increments. Hyperventilation, as indicated by hypocapnia, was notable. Despite hypoxia, haematocrit was low. Alveolar-arterial O2 pressure gradient was associated with milk production (P=0·03) when controlling for cohort, treatment for disease and calving difficulty score. Heifers in Q1 produced 1992 kg (95% CI=1858, 2127 kg) of milk when controlling for all other variables. Relative to heifers in Q1, heifers in Q2, Q3 and Q4 produced 130 kg (95% CI=313, -52 kg; P=0·45), 285 kg (95% CI=474, 96 kg; P=0·004) and 169 kg (95% CI=395, -57 kg; P=0.14) less milk, respectively. In conclusion, efficacy of alveolar-arterial oxygen transfer was associated with milk yield in dairy heifers on one farm at moderate altitude. PMID:25229981

  4. Ceria–Zirconia Particles Wrapped in a 2D Carbon Envelope: Improved Low-Temperature Oxygen Transfer and Oxidation Activity

    PubMed Central

    Aneggi, Eleonora; Rico-Perez, Veronica; de Leitenburg, Carla; Maschio, Stefano; Soler, Lluís; Llorca, Jordi; Trovarelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Engineering the interface between different components of heterogeneous catalysts at nanometer level can radically alter their performances. This is particularly true for ceria-based catalysts where the interactions are critical for obtaining materials with enhanced properties. Here we show that mechanical contact achieved by high-energy milling of CeO2–ZrO2 powders and carbon soot results in the formation of a core of oxide particles wrapped in a thin carbon envelope. This 2D nanoscale carbon arrangement greatly increases the number and quality of contact points between the oxide and carbon. Consequently, the temperatures of activation and transfer of the oxygen in ceria are shifted to exceptionally low temperatures and the soot combustion rate is boosted. The study confirms the importance of the redox behavior of ceria-zirconia particles in the mechanism of soot oxidation and shows that the organization of contact points at the nanoscale can significantly modify the reactivity resulting in unexpected properties and functionalities. PMID:26448053

  5. The roles of polycarboxylates in Cr(VI)/sulfite reaction system: Involvement of reactive oxygen species and intramolecular electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Wang, Xianli; Liu, Yukun; Wang, Zhaohui; Zheng, Jingtang; Wu, Mingbo

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effects of polycarboxylates on both Cr(VI) reduction and S(IV) consumption in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system was investigated in acidic solution. Under aerobic condition, the productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), i.e., SO4(-) and OH, have been confirmed in S(IV) reducing Cr(VI) process by using electron spin resonance and fluorescence spectrum techniques, leading to the excess consumption of S(IV). However, when polycarboxylates (oxalic, citric, malic and tartaric acid) were present in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system, the affinity of polycarboxylates to CrSO6(2-) can greatly promote the reduction of Cr(VI) via expanding the coordination of Cr(VI) species from tetrahedron to hexahedron. Besides, as alternatives to S(IV), these polycarboxylates can also act as electron donors for Cr(VI) reduction via intramolecular electron transfer reaction, which is dependent on the energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital of these polycarboxylates. Notably, the variant electron donating capacity of these polycarboxylates resulted in different yield of ROS and therefore the oxidation efficiencies of other pollutants, e.g., rhodamine B and As(III). Generally, this study does not only shed light on the mechanism of S(IV) reducing Cr(VI) process mediated by polycarboxylates, but also provides an escalated, cost-effective and green strategy for the remediation of Cr(VI) using sulfite as a reductant. PMID:26610099

  6. Electrostatic effects on proton coupled electron transfer in oxomanganese complexes inspired by the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Amin, Muhamed; Vogt, Leslie; Vassiliev, Serguei; Rivalta, Ivan; Sultan, Mohammad M; Bruce, Doug; Brudvig, Gary W; Batista, Victor S; Gunner, M R

    2013-05-23

    The influence of electrostatic interactions on the free energy of proton coupled electron transfer in biomimetic oxomanganese complexes inspired by the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) are investigated. The reported study introduces an enhanced multiconformer continuum electrostatics (MCCE) model, parametrized at the density functional theory (DFT) level with a classical valence model for the oxomanganese core. The calculated pKa's and oxidation midpoint potentials (E(m)'s) match experimental values for eight complexes, indicating that purely electrostatic contributions account for most of the observed couplings between deprotonation and oxidation state transitions. We focus on pKa's of terminal water ligands in [Mn(II/III)(H2O)6](2+/3+) (1), [Mn(III)(P)(H2O)2](3-) (2, P = 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2,6-dichloro-3-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinato), [Mn2(IV,IV)(μ-O)2(terpy)2(H2O)2](4+) (3, terpy = 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine), and [Mn3(IV,IV,IV)(μ-O)4(phen)4(H2O)2](4+) (4, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) and the pKa's of μ-oxo bridges and Mn E(m)'s in [Mn2(μ-O)2(bpy)4] (5, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl), [Mn2(μ-O)2(salpn)2] (6, salpn = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine), [Mn2(μ-O)2(3,5-di(Cl)-salpn)2] (7), and [Mn2(μ-O)2(3,5-di(NO2)-salpn)2] (8). The analysis of complexes 6-8 highlights the strong coupling between electron and proton transfers, with any Mn oxidation lowering the pKa of an oxo bridge by 10.5 ± 0.9 pH units. The model also accounts for changes in the E(m)'s by ligand substituents, such as found in complexes 6-8, due to the electron withdrawing Cl (7) and NO2 (8). The reported study provides the foundation for analysis of electrostatic effects in other oxomanganese complexes and metalloenzymes, where proton coupled electron transfer plays a fundamental role in redox-leveling mechanisms. PMID:23570540

  7. Teaching the fundamentals of electron transfer reactions in mitochondria and the production and detection of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Mailloux, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria fulfill a number of biological functions which inherently depend on ATP and O2−•/H2O2 production. Both ATP and O2−•/H2O2 are generated by electron transfer reactions. ATP is the product of oxidative phosphorylation whereas O2−• is generated by singlet electron reduction of di-oxygen (O2). O2−• is then rapidly dismutated by superoxide dismutase (SOD) producing H2O2. O2−•/H2O2 were once viewed as unfortunately by-products of aerobic respiration. This characterization is fitting considering over production of O2−•/H2O2 by mitochondria is associated with range of pathological conditions and aging. However, O2−•/H2O2 are only dangerous in large quantities. If produced in a controlled fashion and maintained at a low concentration, cells can benefit greatly from the redox properties of O2−•/H2O2. Indeed, low rates of O2−•/H2O2 production are required for intrinsic mitochondrial signaling (e.g. modulation of mitochondrial processes) and communication with the rest of the cell. O2−•/H2O2 levels are kept in check by anti-oxidant defense systems that sequester O2−•/H2O2 with extreme efficiency. Given the importance of O2−•/H2O2 in cellular function, it is imperative to consider how mitochondria produce O2−•/H2O2 and how O2−•/H2O2 genesis is regulated in conjunction with fluctuations in nutritional and redox states. Here, I discuss the fundamentals of electron transfer reactions in mitochondria and emerging knowledge on the 11 potential sources of mitochondrial O2−•/H2O2 in tandem with their significance in contributing to overall O2−•/H2O2 emission in health and disease. The potential for classifying these different sites in isopotential groups, which is essentially defined by the redox properties of electron donator involved in O2−•/H2O2 production, as originally suggested by Brand and colleagues is also surveyed in detail. In addition, redox signaling mechanisms that control O2−•/H2O2

  8. Redox-inactive metal ions promoted the catalytic reactivity of non-heme manganese complexes towards oxygen atom transfer.

    PubMed

    Choe, Cholho; Yang, Ling; Lv, Zhanao; Mo, Wanling; Chen, Zhuqi; Li, Guangxin; Yin, Guochuan

    2015-05-21

    Redox-inactive metal ions can modulate the reactivity of redox-active metal ions in a variety of biological and chemical oxidations. Many synthetic models have been developed to help address the elusive roles of these redox-inactive metal ions. Using a non-heme manganese(II) complex as the model, the influence of redox-inactive metal ions as a Lewis acid on its catalytic efficiency in oxygen atom transfer was investigated. In the absence of redox-inactive metal ions, the manganese(II) catalyst is very sluggish, for example, in cyclooctene epoxidation, providing only 9.9% conversion with 4.1% yield of epoxide. However, addition of 2 equiv. of Al(3+) to the manganese(II) catalyst sharply improves the epoxidation, providing up to 97.8% conversion with 91.4% yield of epoxide. EPR studies of the manganese(II) catalyst in the presence of an oxidant reveal a 16-line hyperfine structure centered at g = 2.0, clearly indicating the formation of a mixed valent di-μ-oxo-bridged diamond core, Mn(III)-(μ-O)2-Mn(IV). The presence of a Lewis acid like Al(3+) causes the dissociation of this diamond Mn(III)-(μ-O)2-Mn(IV) core to form monomeric manganese(iv) species which is responsible for improved epoxidation efficiency. This promotional effect has also been observed in other manganese complexes bearing various non-heme ligands. The findings presented here have provided a promising strategy to explore the catalytic reactivity of some di-μ-oxo-bridged complexes by adding non-redox metal ions to in situ dissociate those dimeric cores and may also provide clues to understand the mechanism of methane monooxygenase which has a similar diiron diamond core as the intermediate. PMID:25904197

  9. Synthesis, Electrochemistry, Geometric and Electronic Structure of Oxo-Molybdenum Compounds Involved in an Oxygen Atom Transferring System

    PubMed Central

    Sengar, Raghvendra S.; Nemykin, Victor N.; Basu, Partha

    2008-01-01

    The oxygen atom transfer reactivity of Tp*MoO2(SPh) (1) (where Tp* = hydrotris-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)borate) with trimethyl phosphine (PMe3) has been investigated. The reaction proceed through a diamagnetic phosphoryl intermediate complex, Tp*MoO(SPh)(OPMe3) (2), which has been isolated and characterized by IR, NMR, UV-visible spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The molecular structure of 2 has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The complex crystallizes in monoclinic (P21/n) space group, a = 19.81 (1) Å, b = 11.1 (4) Å, c = 18.416 (5) Å, β= 121.2 (3)°, V = 3463.8(25) Å3 with Z = 4. In acetonitrile, complex 2 exchanges its phosphoryl ligand with a solvent molecule resulting in Tp*MoO(SPh)(MeCN) (3), which has been isolated and also characterized spectroscopically and by X-ray crystallography. Compound 3 crystallizes in triclinic (P-1) space group, a = 10.159 (6) Å, b = 18.563 (5) Å, c = 7.986 (3) Å, α = 96.22(3)°, β = 121.2 (3)°, γ = 84.64(3)°, V = 1452.4(11) Å3 with Z = 2. The electronic structures of the complexes have been investigated by density functional theory and the redox chemistry has been investigated by cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry. In acetonitrile, complex 2 spontaneously transforms to complex, 3 at a rate of 5.6 × 10−4 s−1. PMID:18187198

  10. The NO+O{sub 3} reaction: A triple oxygen isotope perspective on the reaction dynamics and atmospheric implications for the transfer of the ozone isotope anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Savarino, J.; Morin, S.; Baroni, M.; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Doussin, J.-F.

    2008-05-21

    Atmospheric nitrate shows a large oxygen isotope anomaly ({delta} {sup 17}O), characterized by an excess enrichment of {sup 17}O over {sup 18}O, similar to the ozone molecule. Modeling and observations assign this specific isotopic composition mainly to the photochemical steady state that exists in the atmosphere between ozone and nitrate precursors, namely, the nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}=NO+NO{sub 2}). However, this transfer is poorly quantified and is built on unverified assumptions about which oxygen atoms of ozone are transferred to NO{sub x}, greatly weakening any interpretation of the nitrate oxygen isotopic composition in terms of chemical reaction pathways and the oxidation state of the atmosphere. With the aim to improve our understanding and quantify how nitrate inherits this unusual isotopic composition, we have carried out a triple isotope study of the reaction NO+O{sub 3}. Using ozone intramolecular isotope distributions available in the literature, we have found that the central atom of the ozone is abstracted by NO with a probability of (8{+-}5)%({+-}2{sigma}) at room temperature. This result is at least qualitatively supported by dynamical reaction experiments, the non-Arrhenius behavior of the kinetic rate of this reaction, and the kinetic isotope fractionation factor. Finally, we have established the transfer function of the isotope anomaly of O{sub 3} to NO{sub 2}, which is described by the linear relationship {delta} {sup 17}O(NO{sub 2})=Ax{delta} {sup 17}O(O{sub 3})+B, with A=1.18{+-}0.07({+-}1{sigma}) and B=(6.6{+-}1.5) per mille ({+-}1{sigma}). Such a relationship can be easily incorporated into models dealing with the propagation of the ozone isotope anomaly among oxygen-bearing species in the atmosphere and should help to better interpret the oxygen isotope anomaly of atmospheric nitrate in terms of its formation reaction pathways.

  11. The NO +O3 reaction: A triple oxygen isotope perspective on the reaction dynamics and atmospheric implications for the transfer of the ozone isotope anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savarino, J.; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Morin, S.; Baroni, M.; Doussin, J.-F.

    2008-05-01

    Atmospheric nitrate shows a large oxygen isotope anomaly (ΔO17), characterized by an excess enrichment of O17 over O18, similar to the ozone molecule. Modeling and observations assign this specific isotopic composition mainly to the photochemical steady state that exists in the atmosphere between ozone and nitrate precursors, namely, the nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO+NO2). However, this transfer is poorly quantified and is built on unverified assumptions about which oxygen atoms of ozone are transferred to NOx, greatly weakening any interpretation of the nitrate oxygen isotopic composition in terms of chemical reaction pathways and the oxidation state of the atmosphere. With the aim to improve our understanding and quantify how nitrate inherits this unusual isotopic composition, we have carried out a triple isotope study of the reaction NO +O3. Using ozone intramolecular isotope distributions available in the literature, we have found that the central atom of the ozone is abstracted by NO with a probability of (8±5)%(±2σ) at room temperature. This result is at least qualitatively supported by dynamical reaction experiments, the non-Arrhenius behavior of the kinetic rate of this reaction, and the kinetic isotope fractionation factor. Finally, we have established the transfer function of the isotope anomaly of O3 to NO2, which is described by the linear relationship ΔO17(NO2)=A ×ΔO17(O3)+B, with A =1.18±0.07(±1σ) and B =(6.6±1.5)‰(±1σ). Such a relationship can be easily incorporated into models dealing with the propagation of the ozone isotope anomaly among oxygen-bearing species in the atmosphere and should help to better interpret the oxygen isotope anomaly of atmospheric nitrate in terms of its formation reaction pathways.

  12. The Determination of Soil-plant Transfer Coefficients of Cesium-137 and Other Elements by γ-Ray Measurement and PIXE Analysis, for use in the Remediation of Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Fujita, A.; Toyama, S.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Takyu, S.; Matsuyama, T.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Ito, S.; Kasahara, K.

    Edible wild plants growing in the area around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant remain contaminated. It is important to identify plants with low levels of contamination for the restoration of agriculture in the area. We collected specimens of 10 wild plant species growing in Iitate village which is one of the most highly contaminated areas and also sampled the soil beneath each plant. We measured the specific activity of 137Cs and the concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Rb and Sr in these samples using a germanium detector and PIXE analysis, respectively. We compared the soil-plant transfer coefficient of 137Cs with those of each element and determined their correlation with 137Cs. It was found that a low Sr transfer coefficient could be used to determine the plants with a low 137Cs transfer coefficient. We suggest that PIXE analysis is a useful analysis technique for agricultural remediation projects in highly contaminated areas around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

  13. Heat transfer, diffusion, and evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nusselt, Wilhelm

    1954-01-01

    Although it has long been known that the differential equations of the heat-transfer and diffusion processes are identical, application to technical problems has only recently been made. In 1916 it was shown that the speed of oxidation of the carbon in iron ore depends upon the speed with which the oxygen of the combustion air diffuses through the core of gas surrounding the carbon surface. The identity previously referred to was then used to calculate the amount of oxygen diffusing to the carbon surface on the basis of the heat transfer between the gas stream and the carbon surface. Then in 1921, H. Thoma reversed that procedure; he used diffusion experiments to determine heat-transfer coefficients. Recently Lohrisch has extended this work by experiment. A technically very important application of the identity of heat transfer and diffusion is that of the cooling tower, since in this case both processes occur simultaneously.

  14. Oxidation of phenyl and hydride ligands of bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)hafnium derivatives by nitrous oxide via selective oxygen atom transfer reactions: insights from quantum chemistry calculations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hujun; Liu, Chengcheng; Yuan, Ying; Zhou, Tao; Fan, Ting; Lei, Qunfang; Fang, Wenjun

    2016-01-21

    The mechanisms for the oxidation of phenyl and hydride ligands of bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)hafnium derivatives (Cp* = η(5)-C5Me5) by nitrous oxide via selective oxygen atom transfer reactions have been systematically studied by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. On the basis of the calculations, we investigated the original mechanism proposed by Hillhouse and co-workers for the activation of N2O. The calculations showed that the complex with an initial O-coordination of N2O to the coordinatively unsaturated Hf center is not a local minimum. Then we proposed a new reaction mechanism to investigate how N2O is activated and why N2O selectively oxidize phenyl and hydride ligands of . Frontier molecular orbital theory analysis indicates that N2O is activated by nucleophilic attack by the phenyl or hydride ligand. Present calculations provide new insights into the activation of N2O involving the direct oxygen atom transfer from nitrous oxide to metal-ligand bonds instead of the generally observed oxygen abstraction reaction to generate metal-oxo species. PMID:26660046

  15. Influence of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding rate on pAOX1 induction in a Pichia pastoris Mut+ strain in bioreactor with limited oxygen transfer rate.

    PubMed

    Carly, F; Niu, H; Delvigne, F; Fickers, P

    2016-04-01

    High Pichia pastoris biomass density could be obtained using high co-feeding rate of methanol and sorbitol in a fed-batch or continuous culture, while further higher feeding rate finally leads to oxygen limitation in bioreactor. In the literature, there is lack of report about AOX1 promoter regulation with regard to dissolved oxygen level (DO). Therefore, in this work, chemostat cultures were performed to investigate the cell growth, metabolism and regulation of the AOX1 promoter (pAOX1) regarding co-feeding rate of optimized methanol/sorbitol mixture (methanol fraction 0.60 C-mol/C-mol) using a P. pastoris Mut+/pAOX1-lacZ strain. The oxygen transfer rates (OTR) in bioreactor were kept in the range of typical values of large bioreactor, i.e., 4-8 g/(L h) if DO equals 30 % saturation or 5-10 g/(L h) if DO nears zero. For DO >0, an increase of the carbon fed led to an increase of pAOX1 induction. By contrast, when dissolved oxygen was completely depleted, methanol accumulated, causing a 30 % decrease of pAOX1 induction. However, this decrease is more likely to be lined to methanol accumulation than to low level of dissolved oxygen (<4 % DO). Methanol/sorbitol co-feeding allowed cells to adapt to oxygen transient limitations that often occur at industrial scale with reduced effect on pAOX1 induction. The optimal feeding rate tested here was 6.6 mmol C (DCW h)(-1) at an OTR of 8.28 g O2(L h)(-1) with over fivefold pAOX1 induction (probably directly associated with target protein productivity) compared with previous work. PMID:26790417

  16. Diffusive transfer of oxygen from seamount basaltic crust into overlying sediments: An example from the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewes, K.; Mogollón, J. M.; Picard, A.; Rühlemann, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Kuhn, T.; Ziebis, W.; Kasten, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) in the Pacific Ocean is characterized by organic carbon-starved sediments and meter-scale oxygen penetration into the sediment. Furthermore, numerous seamounts occur throughout its deep-sea plain, which may serve as conduits for low-temperature hydrothermal seawater circulation through the oceanic crust. Recent studies in deep-sea environments of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans have suggested and presented evidence of dissolved constituent exchange between the seawater flowing in the basaltic crust and the pore water of the overlying sediments. Through high-resolution pore-water oxygen and nutrient measurements, we examined fluxes and geochemical interactions between the seamount basaltic basement and pore waters of the overlying sediments at three sites located on a radial transect from the foot of Teddy Bare, a small seamount in the CCFZ. At three sites, located 1000, 700 and 400 m away from the foot of the seamount, we found that oxygen concentrations initially decrease with sediment depth but start to increase at depths of 3 and 7 m toward the basaltic basement. Nitrate (NO3-) concentrations mirror the oxygen concentration profiles, as they increase with sediment depth but decrease towards the basement. These profiles suggest an upward diffusion of oxygen from seawater circulating within the seamount crust into the overlying basal sediments and a downward diffusion of NO32- from sediment pore water into the basaltic crust. At one site, we determined that the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the bottom water and of the deep sediment near the basaltic crust are similar, further supporting diffusive exchange between basaltic crust fluids and sediment pore water. Transport-reaction modeling performed at two of the study sites revealed that (1) the diffusive flux of oxygen from the basaltic basement outpaces the oxygen consumption through organic matter oxidation and nitrification in the basal sediments and (2) the nutrient exchange

  17. Regioselective carbon-oxygen bond cleavage reactions of aromatic ethers and esters with potassium metal/18-crown-6/THF as the electron-transfer reagent

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, R.H.; Dupon, J.W.

    1988-10-28

    The facile carbon-oxygen bond cleavage reactions of a variety of aromatic ethers and esters were studied with an electron-transfer reagent that consisted of potassium metal and 18-crown-6 in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The relative rates of carbon-oxygen bond cleavage, with these aromatic ethers and esters under electron-transfer conditions, was studied in competition with the standard, diphenyl ether. The order of relative reactivities was as follows: phenyl 2-hydroxybenzoate (10) (>2.0); phenyl 2-methoxybenzoate (11) (>2.0); phenyl 4-methoxybenzoate (12) (>2.0); 2-methoxyphenyl benzoate (13) (>2.0); 4-methoxyphenyl benzoate (14) (>2.0); 4-hydroxyphenyl benzoate (15) (1.6); benzyl benzoate (9) (1.3); 4-methoxyphenyl phenyl ether (5) (1.15); phenyl benzoate (8) (1.04); diphenyl ether (1) (1.0); dibenzyl ether (2) (0.98); 2-methoxyphenyl phenyl ether (6) (0.97); benzyl phenyl ether (3) (0.96); phenethyl phenyl ether (7) (0.77); and 4-hydroxyphenyl phenyl ether (4) (<0.1). From these relative rates, it is clear that electron-donating groups increase the relative rates of C-O bond cleavage in aromatic esters. Conversely, a methoxyl group has no apparent effect on the relative rates of aromatic ether C-O bond cleavage, while a hydroxyl group dramatically decreases the rate. Proton donors, tert-butyl alcohol and hydroquinone, decreased the rate of diphenyl ether cleavage. The regioselectivity for C-O bond cleavage of esters 8-15, i.e., carbonyl-oxygen versus carboxyl-carbon cleavage, showed selective carbonyl-oxygen bond cleavage.

  18. Home Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... important advantage of liquid oxygen is you can transfer some of the liquid oxygen into a smaller, ... from gas stoves, candles, lighted fireplaces, or other heat sources. Don't use any flammable products like ...

  19. The Unique Gas-Phase Chemistry of the [AuO](+) /CH4 Couple: Selective Oxygen-Atom Transfer to, Rather than Hydrogen-Atom Abstraction from, Methane.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shaodong; Li, Jilai; Schlangen, Maria; Schwarz, Helmut

    2016-08-26

    The thermal reaction of [AuO](+) with methane has been explored using FT-ICR mass spectrometry complemented by high-level quantum chemical calculations. In contrast to the previously studied congener [CuO](+) , and to [AgO](+) , [AuO](+) reacts with CH4 exclusively via oxygen-atom transfer to form CH3 OH, and a novel mechanistic scenario for this selective oxidation process has been revealed. Also, the origin of the inertness of the [AgO](+) /CH4 couple has been addressed computationally. PMID:27390885

  20. Study of methods for applying and enhancing transfer film coatings of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTEE) to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Oxygen Turbo Pump (HPOTP) bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannel, J. W.; Dufrane, K. F.; Zugaro, F. F.

    1981-01-01

    Machines were constructed and evaluated for burnishing polytetrafluoroethylene on balls for use in the high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP). The most positive performance was obtained with single-ball burnishing, but one technique for burnishing three balls simultaneously holds promise. Evaluations of the coatings in a HPOTP bearing of earlier design (employed smaller diameter balls) showed very little life enhancement before high torque and ball and race wear initiated. Other coating techniques, such as molybdenum disulfide combined with PTFE transfer films, hold promise for providing the more durable quantities of solid lubricant needed for the bearings.

  1. Oxygen transfer from an intramolecularly coordinated diaryltellurium oxide to acetonitrile. Formation and combined AIM and ELI-D analysis of a novel diaryltellurium acetimidate.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Ole; Bolsinger, Jens; Finke, Pamela; Hesse, Malte; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Duthie, Andrew; Grabowsky, Simon; Luger, Peter; Mebs, Stefan; Beckmann, Jens

    2014-08-01

    The reaction of the intramolecularly coordinated diaryltellurium(IV) oxide (8-Me2NC10H6)2TeO with acetonitrile proceeds with oxygen transfer and gives rise to the formation of the novel zwitterionic diaryltelluronium(IV) acetimidate (8-Me2NC10H6)2TeNC(O)CH3 (1) in 57% yield. Hydrolysis of 1 with hydrochloric acid affords acetamide and the previously known diarylhydroxytelluronium(IV) chloride [(8-Me2NC10H6)2Te(OH)]Cl. PMID:25026100

  2. Low effective activation energies for oxygen release from metal oxides: evidence for mass-transfer limits at high heating rates.

    PubMed

    Jian, Guoqiang; Zhou, Lei; Piekiel, Nicholas W; Zachariah, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    Oxygen release from metal oxides at high temperatures is relevant to many thermally activated chemical processes, including chemical-looping combustion, solar thermochemical cycles and energetic thermite reactions. In this study, we evaluated the thermal decomposition of nanosized metal oxides under rapid heating (~10(5) K s(-1)) with time-resolved mass spectrometry. We found that the effective activation-energy values that were obtained using the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa isoconversional method are much lower than the values found at low heating rates, indicating that oxygen transport might be rate-determining at a high heating rate. PMID:24619858

  3. A study of boiling heat transfer as applied to the cooling of ball bearings in the high pressure oxygen turbopump of the space shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Will

    1986-01-01

    Two sets of ball bearings support the main shaft within the High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). In operation, these bearings are cooled and lubricated with high pressure liquid oxygen (LOX) flowing axially through the bearing assembly. Currently, modifications in the assembly design are being contemplated in order to enhance the lifetime of the bearings and to allow the HPOTP to operate under larger loads. An understanding of the fluid dynamics and heat transfer characteristics of the flowing LOX is necessary for the implementation of these design changes. The proposed computational model of the LOX fluid dynamics, in addition to dealing with a turbulent flow in a complex geometry, must address the complication associated with boiling and two-phase flow. The feasibility of and possible methods for modeling boiling heat transfer are considered. The theory of boiling as pertains to this particular problem is reviewed. Recommendations are given for experiments which would be necessary to establish validity for correlations needed to model boiling.

  4. Modelling the impact of blood flow on the temperature distribution in the human eye and the orbit: fixed heat transfer coefficients versus the Pennes bioheat model versus discrete blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flyckt, V. M. M.; Raaymakers, B. W.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.

    2006-10-01

    Prediction of the temperature distribution in the eye depends on how the impact of the blood flow is taken into account. Three methods will be compared: a simplified eye anatomy that applies a single heat transfer coefficient to describe all heat transport mechanisms between the sclera and the body core, a detailed eye anatomy in which the blood flow is accounted for either by the bioheat approach, or by including the discrete vasculature in the eye and the orbit. The comparison is done both for rabbit and human anatomies, normo-thermally and when exposed to homogeneous power densities. The first simplified model predicts much higher temperatures than the latter two. It was shown that the eye is very hard to heat when taking physiological perfusion correctly into account. It was concluded that the heat transfer coefficient describing the heat transport from the sclera to the body core reported in the literature for the first simplified model is too low. The bioheat approach is appropriate for a first-order approximation of the temperature distribution in the eye when exposed to a homogeneous power density, but the discrete vasculature down to 0.2 mm in diameter needs to be taken into account when the heterogeneity of the temperature distribution at a mm scale is of interest.

  5. In situ study of mass transfer in aqueous solutions under high pressures via Raman spectroscopy: A new method for the determination of diffusion coefficients of methane in water near hydrate formation conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, W.J.; Chou, I.-Ming; Burruss, R.C.; Yang, M.Z.

    2006-01-01

    A new method was developed for in situ study of the diffusive transfer of methane in aqueous solution under high pressures near hydrate formation conditions within an optical capillary cell. Time-dependent Raman spectra of the solution at several different spots along the one-dimensional diffusion path were collected and thus the varying composition profile of the solution was monitored. Diffusion coefficients were estimated by the least squares method based on the variations in methane concentration data in space and time in the cell. The measured diffusion coefficients of methane in water at the liquid (L)-vapor (V) stable region and L-V metastable region are close to previously reported values determined at lower pressure and similar temperature. This in situ monitoring method was demonstrated to be suitable for the study of mass transfer in aqueous solution under high pressure and at various temperature conditions and will be applied to the study of nucleation and dissolution kinetics of methane hydrate in a hydrate-water system where the interaction of methane and water would be more complicated than that presented here for the L-V metastable condition. ?? 2006 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

  6. Modeling of Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer in Low-Temperature Oxygen-Fuel Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Y. G.; Shen, C. H.; Jia, L. B.; Mostaghimi, J.

    2014-01-01

    The low-temperature oxygen-fuel (LTOF) spray is a modification of high velocity oxygen fuel spray. In this process, the high-temperature gas is accelerated to supersonic speed through a Laval nozzle followed by a straight barrel. By injecting room temperature gas into the mixing chamber, the temperature of the gas can be controlled in a range of about 1000-2500 K, so that some oxygen and temperature-sensitive materials, such as titanium and copper, can avoid oxidation or decomposition during the spraying process. The purpose of this paper is to establish a 2-D mathematical model to simulate the supersonic gas dynamics and particles behavior in LTOF process. The temperature and velocity of the flow fields, and the trajectory and heating of in-flight particles are predicted for different operating parameters. The model is validated by experimental data in the literature. Effects of the mixing gas flow rates, particle sizes, and injection conditions on this process were investigated as well.

  7. High-resolution heat-transfer-coefficient maps applicable to compound-curve surfaces using liquid crystals in a transient wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Terry V.; Hippensteele, Steven A.

    1988-08-01

    Tests were performed in a transient heat transfer tunnel in which the model under test was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn over the model. The resulting movement of isothermal contours on the model is revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record is obtained of a temperature and time data pair for all points on the model during a single test. Experiments on a duct model are reported in which the model was preheated using a hot air stream. A manner in which initial model temperature nonuniformities could be taken into account was investigated. The duct model was also tested with a steady-state measurement technique and results were compared with the transient measurements, but recognizing that differences existed between the upstream thermal boundary conditions. The steady-state and transient measurements were shown to be consistent with predicted values. The main advantage of this transient heat transfer technique using liquid crystals is that since the test model need not be actively heated, high-resolution measurements on surfaces with complex shapes may be obtained.

  8. High-resolution heat-transfer-coefficient maps applicable to compound-curve surfaces using liquid crystals in a transient wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T. V.; Hippensteele, S. A.

    Tests were performed in a transient heat transfer tunnel in which the model under test was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn over the model. The resulting movement of isothermal contours on the model is revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record is obtained of a temperature and time data pair for all points on the model during a single test. Experiments on a duct model are reported in which the model was preheated using a hot air stream. A manner in which initial model temperature nonuniformities could be taken into account was investigated. The duct model was also tested with a steady-state measurement technique and results were compared with the transient measurements, but recognizing that differences existed between the upstream thermal boundary conditions. The steady-state and transient measurements were shown to be consistent with predicted values. The main advantage of this transient heat transfer technique using liquid crystals is that since the test model need not be actively heated, high-resolution measurements on surfaces with complex shapes may be obtained.

  9. High-resolution heat-transfer-coefficient maps applicable to compound-curve surfaces using liquid crystals in a transient wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. V.; Hippensteele, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    Tests were performed in a transient heat transfer tunnel in which the model under test was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn over the model. The resulting movement of isothermal contours on the model is revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record is obtained of a temperature and time data pair for all points on the model during a single test. Experiments on a duct model are reported in which the model was preheated using a hot air stream. A manner in which initial model temperature nonuniformities could be taken into account was investigated. The duct model was also tested with a steady-state measurement technique and results were compared with the transient measurements, but recognizing that differences existed between the upstream thermal boundary conditions. The steady-state and transient measurements were shown to be consistent with predicted values. The main advantage of this transient heat transfer technique using liquid crystals is that since the test model need not be actively heated, high-resolution measurements on surfaces with complex shapes may be obtained.

  10. High-resolution heat-transfer-coefficient maps applicable to compound-curve surfaces using liquid crystals in a transient wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Terry V.; Hippensteele, Steven A.

    1988-01-01

    Tests were performed in a transient heat transfer tunnel in which the model under test was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn over the model. The resulting movement of isothermal contours on the model is revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record is obtained of a temperature and time data pair for all points on the model during a single test. Experiments on a duct model are reported in which the model was preheated using a hot air stream. A manner in which initial model temperature nonuniformities could be taken into account was investigated. The duct model was also tested with a steady-state measurement technique and results were compared with the transient measurements, but recognizing that differences existed between the upstream thermal boundary conditions. The steady-state and transient measurements were shown to be consistent with predicted values. The main advantage of this transient heat transfer technique using liquid crystals is that since the test model need not be actively heated, high-resolution measurements on surfaces with complex shapes may be obtained.

  11. Calculator program set up for film coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Gracey, J.O.; Teter, D.L.

    1982-11-15

    Describes a mechanized computation scheme for the film coefficients used in heat transfer calculations designed for the Texas Instruments TI-59 programmable calculator. Presents tables showing application conditions (small diagram included) and the corresponding heat transfer equations for 10 heat flow situations; symbols used; user instructions, a complete film coefficient program; and storage assignments. Example problem and corresponding printout are given.

  12. Measurements of average heat-transfer and friction coefficients for subsonic flow of air in smooth tubes at high surface and fluid temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humble, Leroy V; Lowdermilk, Warren H; Desmon, Leland G

    1951-01-01

    An investigation of forced-convection heat transfer and associated pressure drops was conducted with air flowing through smooth tubes for an over-all range of surface temperature from 535 degrees to 3050 degrees r, inlet-air temperature from 535 degrees to 1500 degrees r, Reynolds number up to 500,000, exit Mach number up to 1, heat flux up to 150,000 btu per hour per square foot, length-diameter ratio from 30 to 120, and three entrance configurations. Most of the data are for heat addition to the air; a few results are included for cooling of the air. The over-all range of surface-to-air temperature ratio was from 0.46 to 3.5.

  13. A New Global Potential Energy Surface for the Hydroperoxyl Radical, HO2: Reaction Coefficients for H + O2 and Vibrational Splittings for H Atom Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dateo, Christopher E.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A new analytic global potential energy surface describing the hydroperoxyl radical system H((sup 2)S) + O2(X (sup 3)Sigma((sup -)(sub g))) (reversible reaction) HO2 ((X-tilde) (sup 2)A'') (reversible reaction) O((sup 3)P) + O H (X (sup 2)Pi) has been fitted using the ab initio complete active space SCF (self-consistent-field)/externally contracted configuration interaction (CASSCF/CCI) energy calculations of Walch and Duchovic. Results of quasiclassical trajectory studies to determine the rate coefficients of the forward and reverse reactions at combustion temperatures will be presented. In addition, vibrational energy levels were calculated using the quantum DVR-DGB (discrete variable representation-distributed Gaussian basis) method and the splitting due to H atom migration is investigated. The material of the proposed presentation was reviewed and the technical content will not reveal any information not already in the public domain and will not give any foreign industry or government a competitive advantage.

  14. Rovibrational energy transfer in the He-C3 collision: rigid bender treatment of the bending-rotation interaction and rate coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoecklin, Thierry; Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Halvick, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    C3 is a molecular chain which has been observed in interstellar clouds and in comets. It is also a very floppy molecule for which the vibrational bending transitions are in the same energy range as the rotational transitions. In this paper, we apply our recently developed quantum scattering method for treating atom rigid bender inelastic collisions at the Close Coupling level to the collision of C3 by helium. This method allows us to compute the rovibrational transitions induced by collisions. The purely rotational transitions have been also calculated, using the rigid monomer approximation. The accuracy of this last approximation in the case of a system with a significant vibrational-rotational coupling is discussed. The first evaluation of the cross-sections associated with the rovibrational transitions between levels belonging to different vibrational bending levels is also presented. We observe that the propensity rule for the rovibrational transitions is a competition between the smallest Δj and the smallest transition energy. As a consequence, cross-sections and rate coefficients of vibrationally inelastic transitions can be several orders of magnitude larger than for purely rotational transitions.

  15. Replacement of tyrosine D with phenylalanine affects the normal proton transfer pathways for the reduction of P680+ in oxygen-evolving photosystem II particles from Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Jeans, C; Schilstra, M J; Ray, N; Husain, S; Minagawa, J; Nugent, J H A; Klug, D R

    2002-12-31

    We have probed the electrostatics of P680(+) reduction in oxygenic photosynthesis using histidine-tagged and histidine-tagged Y(D)-less Photosystem II cores. We make two main observations: (i) that His-tagged Chlamydomonas cores show kinetics which are essentially identical to those of Photosystem II enriched thylakoid membranes from spinach; (ii) that the microsecond kinetics, previously shown to be proton/hydrogen transfer limited [Schilstra et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 3974-3981], are significantly different in Y(D)-less Chlamydomonas particles when compared with both the His-tagged Chlamydomonas particles and the spinach membranes. The oscillatory nature of the kinetics in both Chlamydomonas samples is normal, indicating that S-state cycling is unaffected by either the histidine-tagging or the replacement of tyrosine D with phenylalanine. We propose that the effects on the proton-coupled electron transfers of P680(+) reduction in the absence of Y(D) are likely to be due to pK shifts of residues in a hydrogen-bonded network of amino acids in the vicinity of Y(Z). Tyrosine D is 35 A from Y(Z) and yet has a significant influence on proton-coupled electron transfer events in the vicinity of Y(Z). This finding emphasizes the delicacy of the proton balance that Photosystem II has to achieve during the water splitting process. PMID:12501204

  16. Successful 2,000-Kilometer International Transfer of an Infant Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Severe Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kilian; Dunne, Ben; Festa, Marino; La Hei, Erik; Karpelowsky, Jonathan; Dando, Hayden; Orr, Yishay

    2016-08-01

    There is minimal reported experience with long-range retrieval of pediatric patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. We report the case of a 10-month old boy with necrotizing staphylococcal pneumonia complicated by a bronchopleural fistula, who was successfully retrieved and transported while receiving ECMO to our unit in Sydney, Australia, from a referring hospital 2,000 kilometers away in the Pacific Islands. He was successfully weaned from ECMO to receive single-lung ventilation after 13 days, and he underwent surgical repair of his bronchopleural fistula through a thoracotomy 3 days after decannulation. He has made a full recovery. PMID:27449448

  17. Charge Transfer in Collisions of Lithium Ions with Beryllium through Oxygen Ions at Energies Below 32 keV/amu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, S.; Shirai, T.; Shimakura, N.

    The charge transfer cross sections of Li+ (1s2) ions in collisions with B5+ , C6+, N5+ (1s2), and O6+ (1s2) ions, and of Li2+ (1s) ions with Be+ (1s22s) ions are calculated in the collision energy range of 0.02-32 keV/amu by using a semi-classical close-coupling method with molecular-state expansion.

  18. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H.; Chung, Brandon W.; Raistrick, Ian D.; Brosha, Eric L.

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  19. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  20. Modeling oxygen dissolution and biological uptake during pulse oxygen additions in oenological fermentations.

    PubMed

    Saa, Pedro A; Moenne, M Isabel; Pérez-Correa, J Ricardo; Agosin, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    Discrete oxygen additions during oenological fermentations can have beneficial effects both on yeast performance and on the resulting wine quality. However, the amount and time of the additions must be carefully chosen to avoid detrimental effects. So far, most oxygen additions are carried out empirically, since the oxygen dynamics in the fermenting must are not completely understood. To efficiently manage oxygen dosage, we developed a mass balance model of the kinetics of oxygen dissolution and biological uptake during wine fermentation on a laboratory scale. Model calibration was carried out employing a novel dynamic desorption-absorption cycle based on two optical sensors able to generate enough experimental data for the precise determination of oxygen uptake and volumetric mass transfer coefficients. A useful system for estimating the oxygen solubility in defined medium and musts was also developed and incorporated into the mass balance model. Results indicated that several factors, such as the fermentation phase, wine composition, mixing and carbon dioxide concentration, must be considered when performing oxygen addition during oenological fermentations. The present model will help develop better oxygen addition policies in wine fermentations on an industrial scale. PMID:22349928

  1. Evaluation of Gene Expression and Alginate Production in Response to Oxygen Transfer in Continuous Culture of Azotobacter vinelandii

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Barrera, Alvaro; Martínez, Fabiola; Guevara Pezoa, Felipe; Acevedo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Alginates are polysaccharides used as food additives and encapsulation agents in biotechnology, and their functional properties depend on its molecular weight. In this study, different steady-states in continuous cultures of A. vinelandii were established to determine the effect of the dilution rate (D) and the agitation rate on alginate production and expression of genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. Both, the agitation and dilution rates, determined the partitioning of the carbon utilization from sucrose into alginate and CO2 under oxygen-limiting conditions. A low D (0.07 h−1) and 500 rpm resulted in the highest carbon utilization into alginate (25%). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the transcription level of six genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. In chemostat cultures at 0.07 h−1, the gene expression was affected by changes in the agitation rate. By increasing the agitation rate from 400 to 600 rpm, the algE7 gene expression decreased tenfold, whereas alyA1, algL and alyA2 gene expression increased between 1.5 and 2.8 times under similar conditions evaluated. Chemostat at 0.07 h−1 showed a highest alginate molecular weight (580 kDa) at 500 rpm whereas similar molecular weights (480 kDa) were obtained at 400 and 600 rpm. The highest molecular weight was not explained by changes in the expression of alg8 and alg44 (genes involved in alginate polymerization). Nonetheless, a different expression pattern observed for lyases could explain the highest alginate molecular weight obtained. Overall, the results suggest that the control of alginate molecular weight in A. vinelandii cells growing in continuous mode is determined by a balance between the gene expression of intracellular and extracellular lyases in response to oxygen availability. These findings better our understanding of the biosynthesis of bacterial alginate and help us progress toward obtain tailor

  2. Evaluation of gene expression and alginate production in response to oxygen transfer in continuous culture of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Barrera, Alvaro; Martínez, Fabiola; Pezoa, Felipe Guevara; Acevedo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Alginates are polysaccharides used as food additives and encapsulation agents in biotechnology, and their functional properties depend on its molecular weight. In this study, different steady-states in continuous cultures of A. vinelandii were established to determine the effect of the dilution rate (D) and the agitation rate on alginate production and expression of genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. Both, the agitation and dilution rates, determined the partitioning of the carbon utilization from sucrose into alginate and CO2 under oxygen-limiting conditions. A low D (0.07 h(-1)) and 500 rpm resulted in the highest carbon utilization into alginate (25%). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the transcription level of six genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. In chemostat cultures at 0.07 h(-1), the gene expression was affected by changes in the agitation rate. By increasing the agitation rate from 400 to 600 rpm, the algE7 gene expression decreased tenfold, whereas alyA1, algL and alyA2 gene expression increased between 1.5 and 2.8 times under similar conditions evaluated. Chemostat at 0.07 h(-1) showed a highest alginate molecular weight (580 kDa) at 500 rpm whereas similar molecular weights (480 kDa) were obtained at 400 and 600 rpm. The highest molecular weight was not explained by changes in the expression of alg8 and alg44 (genes involved in alginate polymerization). Nonetheless, a different expression pattern observed for lyases could explain the highest alginate molecular weight obtained. Overall, the results suggest that the control of alginate molecular weight in A. vinelandii cells growing in continuous mode is determined by a balance between the gene expression of intracellular and extracellular lyases in response to oxygen availability. These findings better our understanding of the biosynthesis of bacterial alginate and help us progress toward obtain tailor

  3. Photoinduced electron transfer double fragmentation. An oxygen-mediated radical chain process in the cofragmentation of aminopinacol donors with organic halides

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Farahat, M.S.; Gan, H.; Whitten, D.G.; Farid, S. |

    1995-06-14

    We reprot an investigation in which excited states of amino pinacols 1-3 are reacted with the halides CCl{sub 4}, benzyl bromide, and p-cyanobenzyl bromide. Interesting results from this study include the finding that low-to-moderate quantum efficiencies for reaction are observed when the reactions are carried out under degassed conditions, indicating that the halide radical anions must survive long enough within the initial ion pair formed in the quenching step to undergo considerable return electron transfer. More strikingly we find that for certain pinacol-halide combinations reaction in aerared solutions leads to much higher efficiencies, which can be attributed to a chain reaction involving oxygen capture of a primary radical product. 25 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. High-yield production of biologically active recombinant protein in shake flask culture by combination of enzyme-based glucose delivery and increased oxygen transfer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the combined use of an enzyme-based glucose release system (EnBase®) and high-aeration shake flask (Ultra Yield Flask™). The benefit of this combination is demonstrated by over 100-fold improvement in the active yield of recombinant alcohol dehydrogenase expressed in E. coli. Compared to Terrific Broth and ZYM-5052 autoinduction medium, the EnBase system improved yield mainly through increased productivity per cell. Four-fold increase in oxygen transfer by the Ultra Yield Flask contributed to higher cell density with EnBase but not with the other tested media, and consequently the product yield per ml of EnBase culture was further improved. PMID:22152005

  5. Enhancement of Oxygen Mass Transfer and Gas Holdup Using Palm Oil in Stirred Tank Bioreactors with Xanthan Solutions as Simulated Viscous Fermentation Broths

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Sauid, Suhaila; Huey Ling, Tan; Veluri, Murthy V. P. S.

    2013-01-01

    Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) is an important parameter in bioreactors handling viscous fermentations such as xanthan gum production, as it affects the reactor performance and productivity. Published literatures showed that adding an organic phase such as hydrocarbons or vegetable oil could increase the kLa. The present study opted for palm oil as the organic phase as it is plentiful in Malaysia. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of viscosity, gas holdup, and kLa on the xanthan solution with different palm oil fractions by varying the agitation rate and aeration rate in a 5 L bench-top bioreactor fitted with twin Rushton turbines. Results showed that 10% (v/v) of palm oil raised the kLa of xanthan solution by 1.5 to 3 folds with the highest kLa value of 84.44 h−1. It was also found that palm oil increased the gas holdup and viscosity of the xanthan solution. The kLa values obtained as a function of power input, superficial gas velocity, and palm oil fraction were validated by two different empirical equations. Similarly, the gas holdup obtained as a function of power input and superficial gas velocity was validated by another empirical equation. All correlations were found to fit well with higher determination coefficients. PMID:24350269

  6. Enhancement of oxygen mass transfer and gas holdup using palm oil in stirred tank bioreactors with xanthan solutions as simulated viscous fermentation broths.

    PubMed

    Mohd Sauid, Suhaila; Krishnan, Jagannathan; Huey Ling, Tan; Veluri, Murthy V P S

    2013-01-01

    Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) is an important parameter in bioreactors handling viscous fermentations such as xanthan gum production, as it affects the reactor performance and productivity. Published literatures showed that adding an organic phase such as hydrocarbons or vegetable oil could increase the kLa. The present study opted for palm oil as the organic phase as it is plentiful in Malaysia. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of viscosity, gas holdup, and kLa on the xanthan solution with different palm oil fractions by varying the agitation rate and aeration rate in a 5 L bench-top bioreactor fitted with twin Rushton turbines. Results showed that 10% (v/v) of palm oil raised the kLa of xanthan solution by 1.5 to 3 folds with the highest kLa value of 84.44 h(-1). It was also found that palm oil increased the gas holdup and viscosity of the xanthan solution. The kLa values obtained as a function of power input, superficial gas velocity, and palm oil fraction were validated by two different empirical equations. Similarly, the gas holdup obtained as a function of power input and superficial gas velocity was validated by another empirical equation. All correlations were found to fit well with higher determination coefficients. PMID:24350269

  7. Characterization of a unique [FeS] cluster in the electron transfer chain of the oxygen tolerant [NiFe] hydrogenase from Aquifex aeolicus

    PubMed Central

    Pandelia, Maria-Eirini; Nitschke, Wolfgang; Infossi, Pascale; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Bill, Eckhard; Lubitz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Iron-sulfur clusters are versatile electron transfer cofactors, ubiquitous in metalloenzymes such as hydrogenases. In the oxygen-tolerant Hydrogenase I from Aquifex aeolicus such electron “wires” form a relay to a diheme cytb, an integral part of a respiration pathway for the reduction of O2 to water. Amino acid sequence comparison with oxygen-sensitive hydrogenases showed conserved binding motifs for three iron-sulfur clusters, the nature and properties of which were unknown so far. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra exhibited complex signals that disclose interesting features and spin-coupling patterns; by redox titrations three iron-sulfur clusters were identified in their usual redox states, a [3Fe4S] and two [4Fe4S], but also a unique high-potential (HP) state was found. On the basis of 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy we attribute this HP form to a superoxidized state of the [4Fe4S] center proximal to the [NiFe] site. The unique environment of this cluster, characterized by a surplus cysteine coordination, is able to tune the redox potentials and make it compliant with the [4Fe4S]3+ state. It is actually the first example of a biological [4Fe4S] center that physiologically switches between 3+, 2+, and 1+ oxidation states within a very small potential range. We suggest that the (1 + /2+) redox couple serves the classical electron transfer reaction, whereas the superoxidation step is associated with a redox switch against oxidative stress. PMID:21444783

  8. Quenching of electron transfer reactions through coadsorption: A study of oxygen photodesorption from TiO2(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Greg A.; Shen, Mingmin; Henderson, Michael A.

    2016-10-01

    Using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and photon-stimulated desorption (PSD), we show that coadsorbates of varying binding energies on the rutile TiO2(110) surface exert a commensurate inhibiting influence on the hole-mediated photodesorption of adsorbed O2. A variety of coadsorbates (Ar, Kr, Xe, N2, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, acetone, methanol or water) were shown to quench O2 photoactivity, with the extent correlating with the coadsorbate's gas phase basicity, which in turn determines the strength of the coadsorbate-Ti4 + bond. Coadsorbed rare gases inhibited the photodesorption of O2 by ~ 10-25%, whereas strongly bound species (water, methanol, and acetone) nearly completely inhibited O2 PSD. We suggest that coadsorption of these molecules inhibit the arrival probability of holes to the surface. Band-bending effects, which vary with the extent of charge transfer between the coadsorbate and the TiO2(110) surface, are not expected to be significant in the cases of the rare gases and physisorbed species. These results indicate that neutral coadsorbates can exert a significant influence on charge transfer events by altering the interfacial dipole in the vicinity of the target molecule.

  9. Quenching of electron transfer reactions through coadsorption: A study of oxygen photodesorption from TiO2(110)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Petrik, Nikolay G.; Kimmel, Greg A.; Shen, Mingmin; Henderson, Michael A.

    2016-01-11

    Using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and photon-stimulated desorption (PSD), we show that coadsorbates of varying binding energies on the rutile TiO2(110) surface exert a commensurate inhibiting influence on the hole-mediated photodesorption of adsorbed O2. A variety of coadsorbates (Ar, Kr, Xe, N2, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, acetone, methanol or water) were shown to quench O2 photoactivity, with the extent correlating with the coadsorbate's gas phase basicity, which in turn determines the strength of the coadsorbate–Ti4+ bond. Coadsorbed rare gases inhibited the photodesorption of O2 by ~ 10–25%, whereas strongly bound species (water, methanol, and acetone) nearly completely inhibited O2 PSD.more » We suggest that coadsorption of these molecules inhibit the arrival probability of holes to the surface. Band-bending effects, which vary with the extent of charge transfer between the coadsorbate and the TiO2(110) surface, are not expected to be significant in the cases of the rare gases and physisorbed species. Furthermore, these results indicate that neutral coadsorbates can exert a significant influence on charge transfer events by altering the interfacial dipole in the vicinity of the target molecule.« less

  10. The Molybdenum Active Site of Formate Dehydrogenase Is Capable of Catalyzing C-H Bond Cleavage and Oxygen Atom Transfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Tobias; Schrapers, Peer; Utesch, Tillmann; Nimtz, Manfred; Rippers, Yvonne; Dau, Holger; Mroginski, Maria Andrea; Haumann, Michael; Leimkühler, Silke

    2016-04-26

    Formate dehydrogenases (FDHs) are capable of performing the reversible oxidation of formate and are enzymes of great interest for fuel cell applications and for the production of reduced carbon compounds as energy sources from CO2. Metal-containing FDHs in general contain a highly conserved active site, comprising a molybdenum (or tungsten) center coordinated by two molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide molecules, a sulfido and a (seleno-)cysteine ligand, in addition to a histidine and arginine residue in the second coordination sphere. So far, the role of these amino acids in catalysis has not been studied in detail, because of the lack of suitable expression systems and the lability or oxygen sensitivity of the enzymes. Here, the roles of these active site residues is revealed using the Mo-containing FDH from Rhodobacter capsulatus. Our results show that the cysteine ligand at the Mo ion is displaced by the formate substrate during the reaction, the arginine has a direct role in substrate binding and stabilization, and the histidine elevates the pKa of the active site cysteine. We further found that in addition to reversible formate oxidation, the enzyme is further capable of reducing nitrate to nitrite. We propose a mechanistic scheme that combines both functionalities and provides important insights into the distinct mechanisms of C-H bond cleavage and oxygen atom transfer catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase. PMID:27054466

  11. Covalent versus Charge Transfer Modification of Graphene/Carbon-Nanotubes with Vitamin B1: Co/N/S-C Catalyst toward Excellent Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Vij, Varun; Tiwari, Jitendra N; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-06-29

    High-performance nonprecious cathodic catalysts for oxygen reduction are highly demanded for low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Here, we report a noble-meta- free, nitrogen and sulfur codoped graphene(G)/carbon-nanotube(CNT) material decorated with Co nanoparticles (NPs), which serve as catalytic sites for excellent oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in basic and acidic media. Out of the cathodic catalysts synthesized by either covalent (cov) or charge transfer (CT) modification of graphen oxide (GO) with thiamine (Th: Vitamin B1), ThG/CNT/Co-cov shows more promising ORR properties than ThG/CNT/Co-CT. Catalyst ThG/CNT/Co-cov exhibits onset/halfwave potentials of 0.95/0.86 V in 0.1 M KOH and 0.92/0.83 V in 0.1 M HClO4, which are comparable to those of commercial catalyst Pt/C (0.95/0.86 V). As compared to Pt/C, our catalyst shows higher current densities of 6.72 mA cm(-2) in basic medium and 7.08 mA cm(-2) in acidic medium at 0.55 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE)). It also exhibits better catalytic stability and methanol tolerance. High catalytic efficiency and stability of ThG/CNT/Co-cov show a promising prospect of materialization of PEMFCs for clean energy production. PMID:27255326

  12. The Prediction of Nozzle Performance and Heat Transfer in Hydrogen/Oxygen Rocket Engines with Transpiration Cooling, Film Cooling, and High Area Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacynski, Kenneth J.; Hoffman, Joe D.

    1994-01-01

    An advanced engineering computational model has been developed to aid in the analysis of chemical rocket engines. The complete multispecies, chemically reacting and diffusing Navier-Stokes equations are modelled, including the Soret thermal diffusion and Dufour energy transfer terms. Demonstration cases are presented for a 1030:1 area ratio nozzle, a 25 lbf film-cooled nozzle, and a transpiration-cooled plug-and-spool rocket engine. The results indicate that the thrust coefficient predictions of the 1030:1 nozzle and the film-cooled nozzle are within 0.2 to 0.5 percent, respectively, of experimental measurements. Further, the model's predictions agree very well with the heat transfer measurements made in all of the nozzle test cases. It is demonstrated that thermal diffusion has a significant effect on the predicted mass fraction of hydrogen along the wall of the nozzle and was shown to represent a significant fraction of the diffusion fluxes occurring in the transpiration-cooled rocket engine.

  13. Metallized Gelled Propellants: Heat Transfer of a Rocket Engine Fueled by Oxygen/RP-1/Aluminum Was Measured by a Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1998-01-01

    A set of analyses was conducted to determine the heat transfer characteristics of metallized gelled liquid propellants in a rocket engine. These analyses used data from experiments conducted with a small 30- to 40-lbf thrust engine composed of a modular injector, igniter, chamber, and nozzle. The fuels used were traditional liquid RP-1 and gelled RP-1 with 0-, 5-, and 55-wt % loadings of aluminum (Al) with gaseous oxygen as the oxidizer. Heat transfer measurements were made with a calorimeter chamber and nozzle setup that had a total of 31 cooling channels. A gelled fuel coating, composed of unburned gelled fuel and partially combusted RP-1, formed in the 0-, 5- and 55-wt % engines. For the 0- and 5-wt % RP-1/Al, the coating caused a large decrease in calorimeter engine heat flux in the last half of the chamber. This heat flux reduction was analyzed by comparing engine firings and the changes in the heat flux during a firing at NASA Lewis Research Center's Rocket Laboratories. This work is part of an ongoing series of analyses of metallized gelled propellants.

  14. Direct hybrid glucose-oxygen enzymatic fuel cell based on tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane charge transfer complex as anodic mediator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Ivan; Vidaković-Koch, Tanja; Sundmacher, Kai

    TTF-TCNQ has been used for the first time as a mediator in a direct glucose fuel cell operating on gas-phase oxygen. It has been shown that TTF-TCNQ forms highly irregular porous structure, which emphasizes the importance of optimization of mass transport and kinetic resistance in the catalyst layer. Kinetics resistance can be optimized by variation of the mediator and/or enzyme loading, while mass transport resistance mainly by the variation of other structural parameters such as electrode thickness. The optimized anode reached limiting current densities of nearly 400 μA cm -2 in presence of 5 mM glucose under rotation. The enzymatic fuel cell exhibited unexpectedly high OCV values (up to 0.99 V), which were tentatively ascribed to different pH conditions at the anode and the cathode. OCV was influenced by glucose crossover and was decreasing with an increase of glucose concentration or flow rate. Although the performance of the fuel cell is limited by the enzymatic anode, the long-term stability of the fuel cell is mainly influenced by the Pt cathode, while the enzymatic anode has higher stability. The fuel cell delivered power densities up to 120 μW cm -2 in presence of 5 mM glucose, depending on the glucose flow rate.

  15. Apparatus for measurement of coefficient of friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slifka, A. J.; Siegwarth, J. D.; Sparks, L. L.; Chaudhuri, Dilip K.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus designed to measure the coefficient of friction in certain controlled atmospheres is described. The coefficient of friction observed during high-load tests was nearly constant, with an average value of 0.56. This value is in general agreement with that found in the literature and also with the initial friction coefficient value of 0.67 measured during self-mated friction of 440C steel in an oxygen environment.

  16. Effect of an Oxygen-Tolerant Bifurcating Butyryl Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase/Electron-Transferring Flavoprotein Complex from Clostridium difficile on Butyrate Production in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Aboulnaga, El-Hussiny; Pinkenburg, Olaf; Schiffels, Johannes; El-Refai, Ahmed; Buckel, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The butyrogenic genes from Clostridium difficile DSM 1296T have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzymes acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) C-acetyltransferase, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, crotonase, phosphate butyryltransferase, and butyrate kinase and the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase complex composed of the dehydrogenase and two electron-transferring flavoprotein subunits were individually produced in E. coli and kinetically characterized in vitro. While most of these enzymes were measured using well-established test systems, novel methods to determine butyrate kinase and butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activities with respect to physiological function were developed. Subsequently, the individual genes were combined to form a single plasmid-encoded operon in a plasmid vector, which was successfully used to confer butyrate-forming capability to the host. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that C. difficile possesses a bifurcating butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase which catalyzes the NADH-dependent reduction of ferredoxin coupled to the reduction of crotonyl-CoA also by NADH. Since the reoxidation of ferredoxin by a membrane-bound ferredoxin:NAD+-oxidoreductase enables electron transport phosphorylation, additional ATP is formed. The butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from C. difficile is oxygen stable and apparently uses oxygen as a co-oxidant of NADH in the presence of air. These properties suggest that this enzyme complex might be well suited to provide butyryl-CoA for solventogenesis in recombinant strains. The central role of bifurcating butyryl-CoA dehydrogenases and membrane-bound ferredoxin:NAD oxidoreductases (Rhodobacter nitrogen fixation [RNF]), which affect the energy yield of butyrate fermentation in the clostridial metabolism, is discussed. PMID:23772070

  17. Continuous wavelet-transform analysis of photoacoustic signal waveform to determine optical absorption coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirasawa, T.; Ishihara, M.; Tsujita, K.; Hirota, K.; Irisawa, K.; Kitagaki, M.; Fujita, M.; Kikuchi, M.

    2012-02-01

    In photo-acoustic (PA) imaging, valuable medical applications based on optical absorption spectrum such as contrast agent imaging and blood oxygen saturation measurement have been investigated. In these applications, there is an essential requirement to determine optical absorption coefficients accurately. In present, PA signal intensities have been commonly used to determine optical absorption coefficients. This method achieves practical accuracy by combining with radiative transfer analysis. However, time consumption of radiative transfer analysis and effects of signal generation efficiencies were problems of this method. In this research, we propose a new method to determine optical absorption coefficients using continuous wavelet transform (CWT). We used CWT to estimate instantaneous frequencies of PA signals which reflects optical absorption distribution. We validated the effectiveness of CWT in determination of optical absorption coefficients through an experiment. In the experiment, planar shaped samples were illuminated to generate PA signal. The PA signal was measured by our fabricated PA probe in which an optical fiber and a ring shaped P(VDFTrFE) ultrasound sensor were coaxially aligned. Optical properties of samples were adjusted by changing the concentration of dye solution. Tunable Ti:Sapphire laser (690 - 1000 nm) was used as illumination source. As a result, we confirmed strong correlation between optical absorption coefficients of samples and the instantaneous frequency of PA signal obtained by CWT. Advantages of this method were less interference of light transfer and signal generation efficiency.

  18. Photoexcitation of Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers at 250 nm: evidence for excitation transfer from oxygen deficiency centers to Yb{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, C. G.; Keister, K. E.; Dragic, P. D.; Eden, J. G.; Croteau, A.

    2010-10-15

    Emission spectra in the {approx}240-1100 nm wavelength region as well as the temporally resolved decay of Yb{sup 3+} and point defect spontaneous emission have been recorded when aluminosilicate optical fibers doped with Yb are irradiated with {approx}160 fs laser pulses having a central wavelength of {approx}250 nm (({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}=5 eV). Photoexcitation of the fibers in this region of the deep ultraviolet (UV) provides access simultaneously to the Type II Si oxygen deficiency center (ODC), the non-bridging oxygen hole center (NBOHC: an oxygen-excess defect), and the Ge ODC. Emission from all of these defects in the ultraviolet and/or visible is observed, as is intense fluorescence at 976 nm from Yb{sup 3+}. Absorption measurements conducted in the {approx}230-265 nm region with a sequence of UV light-emitting diodes reveal a continuum peaking at {approx}248 nm and having a spectral width of {approx}18 nm (FWHM), confirming that the 250 nm laser pump is photoexciting predominantly the ODC. The temporal histories of the optically active defect and rare earth ion emission waveforms, in combination with time-integrated spectra, suggest that the Si ODC(II) triplet state directly excites Yb{sup 3+} as well as at least one other intrinsic defect in the silica network. Prolonged exposure of the Yb-doped fibers to 250 nm radiation yields increased Yb{sup 3+}, NBOHC, and Si ODC(II) singlet emission which is accompanied by a decline in Si ODC(II) triplet fluorescence, thus reinforcing the conclusion--drawn on the basis of luminescence decay constants--that the triplet state of Si ODC(II) is the immediate precursor to the NBOHC and is partially responsible for Yb ion emission at 976 nm. This conclusion is consistent with the observation that exposure of fiber to 5 eV radiation slightly suppresses ODC absorption in the {approx}240-255 nm region while simultaneously introducing an absorption continuum extending from 260 nm to below 235 nm (({Dirac_h}/2{pi

  19. Water-Soluble Iron(IV)-Oxo Complexes Supported by Pentapyridine Ligands: Axial Ligand Effects on Hydrogen Atom and Oxygen Atom Transfer Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Chantarojsiri, Teera; Sun, Yujie; Long, Jeffrey R; Chang, Christopher J

    2015-06-15

    We report the photochemical generation and study of a family of water-soluble iron(IV)-oxo complexes supported by pentapyridine PY5Me2-X ligands (PY5Me2 = 2,6-bis(1,1-bis(2-pyridyl)ethyl)pyridine; X = CF3, H, Me, or NMe2), in which the oxidative reactivity of these ferryl species correlates with the electronic properties of the axial pyridine ligand. Synthesis of a systematic series of [Fe(II)(L)(PY5Me2-X)](2+) complexes, where L = CH3CN or H2O, and characterizations by several methods, including X-ray crystallography, cyclic voltammetry, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, show that increasing the electron-donating ability of the axial pyridine ligand tracks with less positive Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potentials and quadrupole splitting parameters. The Fe(II) precursors are readily oxidized to their Fe(IV)-oxo counterparts using either chemical outer-sphere oxidants such as CAN (ceric ammonium nitrate) or flash-quench photochemical oxidation with [Ru(bpy)3](2+) as a photosensitizer and K2S2O8 as a quencher. The Fe(IV)-oxo complexes are capable of oxidizing the C-H bonds of alkane (4-ethylbenzenesulfonate) and alcohol (benzyl alcohol) substrates via hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and an olefin (4-styrenesulfonate) substrate by oxygen atom transfer (OAT). The [Fe(IV)(O)(PY5Me2-X)](2+) derivatives with electron-poor axial ligands show faster rates of HAT and OAT compared to their counterparts supported by electron-rich axial donors, but the magnitudes of these differences are relatively modest. PMID:26039655

  20. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…

  1. Atomic Oxygen Textured Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hunt, Jason D.; Drobotij, Erin; Cales, Michael R.; Cantrell, Gidget

    1995-01-01

    Atomic oxygen can be used to microscopically alter the surface morphology of polymeric materials in space or in ground laboratory facilities. For polymeric materials whose sole oxidation products are volatile species, directed atomic oxygen reactions produce surfaces of microscopic cones. However, isotropic atomic oxygen exposure results in polymer surfaces covered with lower aspect ratio sharp-edged craters. Isotropic atomic oxygen plasma exposure of polymers typically causes a significant decrease in water contact angle as well as altered coefficient of static friction. Such surface alterations may be of benefit for industrial and biomedical applications. The results of atomic oxygen plasma exposure of thirty-three (33) different polymers are presented, including typical morphology changes, effects on water contact angle, and coefficient of static friction.

  2. Electron transfer characterization of iron and cobalt porphyrins and copper complexes, and of their metal-carbon and metal-oxygen bond energies

    SciTech Connect

    Qui, Aimin

    1992-12-31

    The electron-transfer and oxidation-reduction chemistry for the alkyl-iron and alkyl-cobalt porphyrins [(Por)M-R] and copper complexes has been investigated on the basis of cyclic voltammetric and controlled-potential-electrolysis measurements. Half-wave potentials for the oxidation and the reduction of (Por)M-R are directly influenced by the nature of the electron-donating or electron-withdrawing groups on the porphyrin ring and the structure of the alkyl groups. The redox potentials for a series of copper complexes are affected by the electron donating ability and the chelate effect of the ligands. Hydrolysis of the copper(II) cations (Cu{sup II}L{sub n}{sup 2+}) occurs in water. The reactivity of copper(I) complexes with dioxygen is directly related to the oxidation potential of the complexes in the solvent. The combination of Cu{sup I}(bpy)2{sup +} and tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide induces O{sub 2} activation to oxygenate methylenic carbon to ketones. Mechanistic schemes have been developed on the basis of electrochemical and spectrophotometric characteristics and reaction-product profiles for copper(II)-bis(bipyridine) [Cu{sup II}(bpy)2{sup 2+}]/base-induced activation of O{sub 2} to dehydrogenate primary alcohols to aldehydes. The free energies of bond formation (-{Delta}G{sub BF}) for the (Por)M-R and copper-ligand (oxygen or nitrogen) bonds have been determined from the redox potentials of the corresponding electrode reactions. The values of -{Delta}G{sub BF} are 14-35 kcal mol{sup {minus}1} for iron porphyrins and 20-38 kcal mol{sup {minus}1} for cobalt porphyrins which depend on the structures of the porphyrins and the alkyl groups. Apparent bond energies are 18-51 kcal mol{sup {minus}1} for the Cu{sup II}-L bonds are 46-78 kcal mol{sup {minus}1} for the Cu{sup I}-L bonds. The free energies of bond formation for the L{sub n}Cu{sup I}-OO bonds are 7-16 kcal mol{sup {minus}1}.

  3. Unifying mechanism for addiction and toxicity of abused drugs with application to dopamine and glutamate mediators: electron transfer and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Kovacic, Peter

    2005-01-01

    There are many unknown aspects concerning the mode of action of abused drugs. Recently, a unifying theme for toxicity and addiction was reported based on electron transfer (ET), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and oxidative stress (OS). The main drugs involved are nicotine, cocaine, alcohol, phencyclidine, ecstasy, amphetamines, morphine-heroin, tetrahydrocannabinol, and therapeutic drugs (benzodiazepines, phenytoin, phenobarbital, aspirin, and acetaminophen). A major source of ROS is ET functionalities, of which the main ones found in abused drug metabolites are quinones and imines (or iminiums). Minor types are the nitroxide metabolite from cocaine, and alpha-dicarbonyl from alcohol. The theoretical approach enjoys support from reports on formation of ET metabolites, generation of ROS, protection by antioxidants (AOs), electrochemical studies, and cell signaling. Dopamine (DA) mediation of drug abuse has been the focus of much attention during the past decades. Recently, a similar role for glutamate (Glu) has come under study. Superficially, from a mechanistic vantage point, these findings might be regarded as in conflict with the ET-ROS-OS scheme. Many investigators believe that each drug or mediator operates by its own distinct mechanism. The present report provides evidence that a commonality in mode of action exists for both abused drugs and the DA-Glu operators. In the case of DA, oxidative metabolism yields o-quinones and semiquinones which can redox cycle with oxygen to provide various ROS. Electrochemical studies support the possibility of ET transformations by these quinones in the biological domain. In relation to cell signaling, DA is involved in formation of cAMP followed by a cascade of other events. A similar scenario exists in the case of Glu, in which an iminocarboxylic acid metabolite is hypothesized to play an ET role. The various phenomena are rationalized within the context of ET-ROS-OS, as was done earlier for abused drugs. Thus, a common mode

  4. Calibrating transition-metal energy levels and oxygen bands in first-principles calculations: Accurate prediction of redox potentials and charge transfer in lithium transition-metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Dong-Hwa; Urban, Alexander; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-09-01

    Transition-metal (TM) oxides play an increasingly important role in technology today, including applications such as catalysis, solar energy harvesting, and energy storage. In many of these applications, the details of their electronic structure near the Fermi level are critically important for their properties. We propose a first-principles-based computational methodology for the accurate prediction of oxygen charge transfer in TM oxides and lithium TM (Li-TM) oxides. To obtain accurate electronic structures, the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) hybrid functional is adopted, and the amount of exact Hartree-Fock exchange (mixing parameter) is adjusted to reproduce reference band gaps. We show that the HSE06 functional with optimal mixing parameter yields not only improved electronic densities of states, but also better energetics (Li-intercalation voltages) for LiCo O2 and LiNi O2 as compared to the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), Hubbard U corrected GGA (GGA +U ), and standard HSE06. We find that the optimal mixing parameters for TM oxides are system specific and correlate with the covalency (ionicity) of the TM species. The strong covalent (ionic) nature of TM-O bonding leads to lower (higher) optimal mixing parameters. We find that optimized HSE06 functionals predict stronger hybridization of the Co 3 d and O 2 p orbitals as compared to GGA, resulting in a greater contribution from oxygen states to charge compensation upon delithiation in LiCo O2 . We also find that the band gaps of Li-TM oxides increase linearly with the mixing parameter, enabling the straightforward determination of optimal mixing parameters based on GGA (α =0.0 ) and HSE06 (α =0.25 ) calculations. Our results also show that G0W0@GGA +U band gaps of TM oxides (M O ,M =Mn ,Co ,Ni ) and LiCo O2 agree well with experimental references, suggesting that G0W0 calculations can be used as a reference for the calibration of the mixing parameter in cases when no experimental band gap has been

  5. Nonheme Fe(IV) Oxo Complexes of Two New Pentadentate Ligands and Their Hydrogen-Atom and Oxygen-Atom Transfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Mainak; Nimir, Hassan; Demeshko, Serhiy; Bhat, Satish S; Malinkin, Sergey O; Haukka, Matti; Lloret-Fillol, Julio; Lisensky, George C; Meyer, Franc; Shteinman, Albert A; Browne, Wesley R; Hrovat, David A; Richmond, Michael G; Costas, Miquel; Nordlander, Ebbe

    2015-08-01

    Two new pentadentate {N5} donor ligands based on the N4Py (N4Py = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine) framework have been synthesized, viz. [N-(1-methyl-2-benzimidazolyl)methyl-N-(2-pyridyl)methyl-N-(bis-2-pyridyl methyl)amine] (L(1)) and [N-bis(1-methyl-2-benzimidazolyl)methyl-N-(bis-2-pyridylmethyl)amine] (L(2)), where one or two pyridyl arms of N4Py have been replaced by corresponding (N-methyl)benzimidazolyl-containing arms. The complexes [Fe(II)(CH3CN)(L)](2+) (L = L(1) (1); L(2) (2)) were synthesized, and reaction of these ferrous complexes with iodosylbenzene led to the formation of the ferryl complexes [Fe(IV)(O)(L)](2+) (L = L(1) (3); L(2) (4)), which were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectrometry, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Complexes 3 and 4 are relatively stable with half-lives at room temperature of 40 h (L = L(1)) and 2.5 h (L = L(2)). The redox potentials of 1 and 2, as well as the visible spectra of 3 and 4, indicate that the ligand field weakens as ligand pyridyl substituents are progressively substituted by (N-methyl)benzimidazolyl moieties. The reactivities of 3 and 4 in hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) and oxygen-atom transfer (OAT) reactions show that both complexes exhibit enhanced reactivities when compared to the analogous N4Py complex ([Fe(IV)(O)(N4Py)](2+)), and that the normalized HAT rates increase by approximately 1 order of magnitude for each replacement of a pyridyl moiety; i.e., [Fe(IV)(O)(L(2))](2+) exhibits the highest rates. The second-order HAT rate constants can be directly related to the substrate C-H bond dissociation energies. Computational modeling of the HAT reactions indicates that the reaction proceeds via a high spin transition state. PMID:26198840

  6. Electrostatic Effects on Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in Oxomanganese Complexes Inspired by the Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Muhamed; Vogt, Leslie; Vassiliev, Serguei; Rivalta, Ivan; Sultan, Mohammad M.; Bruce, Doug; Brudvig, Gary W.; Batista, Victor S.; Gunner, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of electrostatic interactions on the free energy of proton-coupled-electron-transfer (PCET) in biomimetic oxomanganese complexes inspired by the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII), are investigated. The reported study introduces an enhanced Multi-Conformer Continuum Electrostatics (MCCE) model, parameterized at the density functional theory (DFT) level with a classical valence model for the oxomanganese core. The calculated pKas and oxidation midpoint potentials (Ems) match experimental values for eight complexes indicating that purely electrostatic contributions account for most of the observed couplings between deprotonation and oxidation state transitions. We focus on pKas of terminal water ligands in [Mn(II/III)(H2O)6]2+/3+ (1), [Mn(III)(P)(H2O)2]3- (2, P = 5,10,15,20- tetrakis (2,6-dichloro-3-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrinato), [Mn(IV,IV)2(μ-O)2(terpy)2(H2O)2]4+ (3, terpy = 2,2’:6’,2”-terpyridine) and [Mn3(IV,IV,IV)(μ-O)4(phen)4(H2O)2]4+ (4, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) and the pKas of μ-oxo bridges and Mn Ems in [Mn2(μ-O)2(bpy)4]2+ (5, bpy = 2,2’-bipyridyl), [Mn2(μ-O)2(salpn)2] (6, salpn= N,N′-bis(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine), [Mn2(μ-O)2(3,5-di(Cl)-salpn)2] (7) and [Mn2(μ-O)2(3,5-di(NO2)-salpn)2] (8) which are most relevant to PCET mechanisms. The analysis of complexes 6-8 highlights the strong coupling between electron and proton transfers, with any Mn oxidation lowering the pKa of an oxo bridge by 10.5±0.9 pH units. The model also accounts for changes in the Ems due to ligand substituents, such as those in complexes 6-8, due to the electron withdrawing Cl (7) and NO2 (8). The reported study provides the foundation for analysis of electrostatic effects in other oxomanganese complexes and metalloenzymes, where PCET plays a fundamental role in redox-leveling mechanisms. PMID:23570540

  7. Oxidorhenium(V) Complexes with Tetradentate Iminophenolate Ligands: Influence of Ligand Flexibility on the Coordination Motif and Oxygen-Atom-Transfer Activity.

    PubMed

    Zwettler, Niklas; Schachner, Jörg A; Belaj, Ferdinand; Mösch-Zanetti, Nadia C

    2016-06-20

    The synthesis of oxidorhenium(V) complexes 1-3 coordinated by tetradentate iminophenolate ligands H2L1-H2L3 bearing backbones of different rigidity (alkyl, cycloalkyl, and phenyl bridges) allows for the formation of distinct geometric isomers, including a symmetric trans-oxidochlorido coordination motif in complex 3. The complex employing a cycloalkyl-bridged ligand (2) of intermediate rigidity exhibits an interesting solvent- and temperature-dependent equilibrium between a symmetric (trans) isomer and an asymmetric (cis) isomer in solution. The occurrence of a symmetric isomer for 2 and 3 is confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Chlorido abstraction from 2 with AgOTf yields the corresponding cationic complex 2a, which does not exhibit an isomeric equilibrium in solution but adopts the isomeric form predominant for 2 in a given solvent. All complexes were, furthermore, employed in three benchmark oxygen-atom-transfer (OAT) reactions, namely, the reduction of perchlorate, the epoxidation of cyclooctene, and OAT from dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to triphenylphosphane (PPh3), to assess the influence of the isomeric structure on the reactivity in these reactions. In perchlorate reduction, a clear structural influence was observed, where the trans arrangement in 3 led to the complete absence of activity. In the epoxidation reaction, all complexes led to comparable epoxide yields, albeit higher catalytic activity but lower overall stability of the catalysts with a trans arrangement was observed. In OAT from DMSO to PPh3, also a clear structural dependence was observed, where the trans complex 3 led to full phosphane conversion with an excess of oxidant, while the cis compound 1 was completely inactive. PMID:27251591

  8. Oxygen-Atom Transfer Reactivity of Axially Ligated Mn(V)–Oxo Complexes: Evidence for Enhanced Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Addition of anionic donors to the manganese(V)–oxo corrolazine complex MnV(O)(TBP8Cz) has a dramatic influence on oxygen-atom transfer (OAT) reactivity with thioether substrates. The six-coordinate anionic [MnV(O)(TBP8Cz)(X)]− complexes (X = F–, N3–, OCN–) exhibit a ∼5 cm–1 downshift of the Mn–O vibrational mode relative to the parent MnV(O)(TBP8Cz) complex as seen by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Product analysis shows that the oxidation of thioether substrates gives sulfoxide product, consistent with single OAT. A wide range of OAT reactivity is seen for the different axial ligands, with the following trend determined from a comparison of their second-order rate constants for sulfoxidation: five-coordinate ≈ thiocyanate ≈ nitrate < cyanate < azide < fluoride ≪ cyanide. This trend correlates with DFT calculations on the binding of the axial donors to the parent MnV(O)(TBP8Cz) complex. A Hammett study was performed with p-X-C6H4SCH3 derivatives and [MnV(O)(TBP8Cz)(X)]− (X = CN– or F–) as the oxidant, and unusual “V-shaped” Hammett plots were obtained. These results are rationalized based upon a change in mechanism that hinges on the ability of the [MnV(O)(TBP8Cz)(X)]− complexes to function as either an electrophilic or weak nucleophilic oxidant depending upon the nature of the para-X substituents. For comparison, the one-electron-oxidized cationic MnV(O)(TBP8Cz•+) complex yielded a linear Hammett relationship for all substrates (ρ = −1.40), consistent with a straightforward electrophilic mechanism. This study provides new, fundamental insights regarding the influence of axial donors on high-valent MnV(O) porphyrinoid complexes. PMID:25238495

  9. Solution transfer syn-S 2: an inferred means of deriving fault fill in the lake Moondarra area, Mt. Isa, Queensland, Australia, based on oxygen isotope results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsor, C. N.

    Many of the faults within the Lake Moondarra area cropout as wide zones which are filled with massive or fibrous milky quartz. Additionally, a variety of rock fragments from the surrounding metasediments are present in the fault zones. The second regional slaty cleavage, S2, is locally observed through the quartz and country rock fragments within some of the zones, indicating that these fault fills originated pre- or early syn- S2. The absence of the first regional slaty cleavage, S1, suggests that the fault fills developed post or late syn- S1. Evidence supporting an early syn- S2 timing for the development of these fills is provided by the results of oxygen isotope analysis carried out on quartz specimens collected from the faults and also by the nature of the quartz. Specimens of quartz taken from the various fault zones have δ18O values between 12.4 and 14.5‰. This suggests that metamorphic water isotopically equilibrated with connate formation water was the aqueous fluid which transported the silica. δ18O values for the silica in the quartz-rich, sometimes dolomitic, metasediments of the Mount Isa and Haslingden Groups within the Lake Moondarra area are similar to the quartz within the fault fills. The lack of any metamorphic event between the first and second deformation, together with the sometimes fibrous nature of the fault-filling material with fibres parallel to the mineral elongation in S2 (i.e. L22), suggests that the quartz in the faults was derived syntectonically at grain to grain contacts in the metasediments within the Lake Moondarra area, early in the development of S2. The quartz is believed to have moved by the process of solution transfer to the faults as they underwent dilation during D2. Subsequently the quartz was precipitated as a result of a chemical potential gradient.

  10. Oxygen atom transfer between rhenium, sulfur, and phosphorus. Characterization and reactivity of Re(O)Cl/sub 3/(Me/sub 2/S)(OPPh/sub 3/) and Re(O)Cl/sub 3/(CNCMe/sub 3/)/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, J.C.; Stenkamp, R.E.; Tulip, T.H.; Mayer, J.M.

    1987-07-15

    Re(O)Cl/sub 3/(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/ (I) reacts with Me/sub 2/SO to form OPPh/sub 3/ and Re(O)Cl/sub 3/(Me/sub 2/S)(OPPh/sub 3/) (II), not Re(O)Cl/sub 3/(Me/sub 2/SO)(PPh/sub 3/) as had been previously reported. Compounds I and II are catalysts for oxygen atom transfer from Me/sub 2/SO to PPh/sub 3/. The mechanism of these oxygen atom transfer reactions has been studied with oxygen-18 labeling experiments. The rhenium oxo group does not appear to be involved; rather, the rhenium center acts as a Lewis acid activator for a Me/sub 2/SO ligand. The rhenium oxo group does, however, exchange oxygen atoms with Me/sub 2/S/sup 18/O, probably by a similar mechanism. Compound II is an excellent starting material for compounds of the form Re(O)Cl/sub 3/L/sub 2/, with L = isonitriles, phosphines, bipyridine, etc. The compounds Re(O)Cl/sub 3/-(CNR)/sub 2/ (R = CMe/sub 3/ (IV), CHMe/sub 2/, C/sub 6/H/sub 11/) are rare examples of high-valent isonitrile complexes. Data from an X-ray crystal structure of IV are reported. 36 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Coefficients for Interrater Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zegers, Frits E.

    1991-01-01

    The degree of agreement between two raters rating several objects for a single characteristic can be expressed through an association coefficient, such as the Pearson product-moment correlation. How to select an appropriate association coefficient, and the desirable properties and uses of a class of such coefficients--the Euclidean…

  12. Nitrogen transfers and air-sea N2O fluxes in the upwelling off Namibia within the oxygen minimum zone: a 3-D model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutknecht, E.; Dadou, I.; Le Vu, B.; Cambon, G.; Sudre, J.; Garçon, V.; Machu, E.; Rixen, T.; Kock, A.; Flohr, A.; Paulmier, A.; Lavik, G.

    2011-04-01

    As regions of high primary production and being often associated to Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs), Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) represent key regions for the oceanic nitrogen (N) cycle. Indeed, by exporting the Organic Matter (OM) and nutrients produced in the coastal region to the open ocean, EBUS can play an important role in sustaining primary production in subtropical gyres. Losses of fixed inorganic N, through denitrification and anammox processes and through nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to the atmosphere, take place in oxygen depleted environments such as EBUS, and alleviate the role of these regions as a source of N. In the present study, we developed a 3-D coupled physical/biogeochemical (ROMS/BioBUS) model for investigating the full N budget in the Namibian sub-system of the Benguela Upwelling System (BUS). The different state variables of a climatological experiment have been compared to different data sets (satellite and in situ observations) and show that the model is able to represent this biogeochemical oceanic region. The N transfer is investigated in the Namibian upwelling system using this coupled model, especially in the Walvis Bay area between 22° S and 24° S where the OMZ is well developed (O2 < 0.5 ml O2 l-1). The upwelling process advects 24.2 × 1010 mol N yr-1 of nitrate enriched waters over the first 100 m over the slope and over the continental shelf. The meridional advection by the alongshore Benguela current brings also nutrient-rich waters with 21.1 × 1010 mol N yr-1. 10.5 × 1010 mol N yr-1 of OM are exported outside of the continental shelf (between 0 and 100-m depth). 32.4% and 18.1% of this OM are exported by advection in the form of Dissolved and Particulate Organic Matters (DOM and POM), respectively, however vertical sinking of POM represents the main contributor (49.5%) to OM export outside of the first 100-m depth of the water column on the continental shelf. The continental slope also represents a net N export

  13. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  14. Oxygen Sag and Stream Purification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry; Herwig, Roy

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality related to oxygen sag and stream purification, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) self-purification models; (2) oxygen demand; and (3) reaeration and oxygen transfer. A list of 60 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Dicobalt-μ-oxo polyoxometalate compound, [(α(2)-P2W17O61Co)2O](14-): a potent species for water oxidation, C-H bond activation, and oxygen transfer.

    PubMed

    Barats-Damatov, Delina; Shimon, Linda J W; Weiner, Lev; Schreiber, Roy E; Jiménez-Lozano, Pablo; Poblet, Josep M; de Graaf, Coen; Neumann, Ronny

    2014-02-01

    High-valent oxo compounds of transition metals are often implicated as active species in oxygenation of hydrocarbons through carbon-hydrogen bond activation or oxygen transfer and also in water oxidation. Recently, several examples of cobalt-catalyzed water oxidation have been reported, and cobalt(IV) species have been suggested as active intermediates. A reactive species, formally a dicobalt(IV)-μ-oxo polyoxometalate compound [(α2-P2W17O61Co)2O](14-), [(POMCo)2O], has now been isolated and characterized by the oxidation of a monomeric [α2-P2W17O61Co(II)(H2O)](8-), [POMCo(II)H2O], with ozone in water. The crystal structure shows a nearly linear Co-O-Co moiety with a Co-O bond length of ∼1.77 Å. In aqueous solution [(POMCo)2O] was identified by (31)P NMR, Raman, and UV-vis spectroscopy. Reactivity studies showed that [(POMCo)2O]2O] is an active compound for the oxidation of H2O to O2, direct oxygen transfer to water-soluble sulfoxides and phosphines, indirect epoxidation of alkenes via a Mn porphyrin, and the selective oxidation of alcohols by carbon-hydrogen bond activation. The latter appears to occur via a hydrogen atom transfer mechanism. Density functional and CASSCF calculations strongly indicate that the electronic structure of [(POMCo)2O]2O] is best defined as a compound having two cobalt(III) atoms with two oxidized oxygen atoms. PMID:24437566

  16. Molecular Diffusion Coefficients: Experimental Determination and Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fate, Gwendolyn; Lynn, David G.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are laboratory methods which allow the demonstration and determination of the diffusion coefficients of compounds ranging in size from water to small proteins. Included are the procedures involving the use of a spectrometer, UV cell, triterated agar, and oxygen diffusion. Results including quantification are described. (CW)

  17. Transverse vertical dispersion coefficients in the capillary fringe determined by a high resolution non-invasive method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberer, C. M.; Grathwohl, P.

    2009-12-01

    Mass transfer from the unsaturated to the saturated zone across the capillary fringe is a common mechanism for groundwater contamination by volatile compounds (McCarthy and Johnson 1993) but also for oxygen supply. Oxygen plays an important role for microbial processes in groundwater - either by influencing the redox conditions directly or by replenishing electron acceptors needed for microbial growth and respiration. Hydrodynamic transverse dispersion was found to be essential for the mass transfer of vapor phase compounds across the capillary fringe (Klenk and Grathwohl 2002). Thus the objective of this work was to determine transverse vertical dispersion coefficients in this transition zone and a non-invasive method was developed to measure oxygen gradients across the saturated/unsaturated interface at grain scale resolution. Bench-scale 2D-flow through experiments have been conducted and different horizontal flow velocities, grain sizes, water table fluctuation amplitudes and frequencies have been applied. Vertical oxygen concentration profiles across the capillary fringe were subsequently measured at distinct positions in flow direction and evaluated with regard to mass transfer of oxygen from the unsaturated to the saturated zone. To the authors knowledge this is the first time where the fibre optical sensor technique to measure oxygen concentrations is applied to this transition zone. Transverse dispersion coefficients were calculated for steady state flow conditions. Under transient conditions, i.e. having changed the position of the water table, the measured concentration profiles are different with regard to the process of imbibition or drainage. Whereas drainage does not produce a significant change in concentration profiles compared to the stationary case, increasing water tables result in entrapment of air bubbles, and thus also a flatter gradient in oxygen concentrations. The gradual dissolution of entrapped oxygen into the bypassing oxygen

  18. Numerical simulation of mass transfer in the liquid phase of the bubble layer of a thermal deaerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptev, A. G.; Misbakhov, R. Sh.; Lapteva, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    On the basis of one-dimensional diffusion model of the flow structure and boundary layer theory, a method for calculating the mass transfer of dissolved oxygen in the liquid phase of the bubble layer of a thermal deaerator is developed. Mass transfer with the bulk source of mass has been considered, wherein the basic parameter is mass-transfer coefficient. A model of pseudo laminar boundary layer on the bubble surface is proposed, and the possibility of calculating of mass-transfer coefficient from bubbles in the mass source of diffusion model is shown, taking into account the gas content and external turbulence. A comparison of the calculation results of mass-transfer coefficient is given from the bubbles with known experimental data. It is shown that taking into account gas content results in an increase of the mass-transfer coefficient by 2-4 times. Expressions for calculations of gas content, dynamic speed, and inverse stirring coefficient in the liquid phase of the bubble layer are presented. In the special case, transition from the diffusion model of the flow structure to cell model is made, and comparison of the calculation results on the concentration of oxygen in water at the output of DSA-300 bubbling thermal deaerator with experimental data is performed. The developed mathematical model and calculation algorithm can be used in the design, diagnosis, and modernization of thermal deaerators.

  19. Monolithic solid electrolyte oxygen pump

    DOEpatents

    Fee, Darrell C.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Easler, Timothy E.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1989-01-01

    A multi-layer oxygen pump having a one-piece, monolithic ceramic structure affords high oxygen production per unit weight and volume and is thus particularly adapted for use as a portable oxygen supply. The oxygen pump is comprised of a large number of small cells on the order of 1-2 millimeters in diameter which form the walls of the pump and which are comprised of thin, i.e., 25-50 micrometers, ceramic layers of cell components. The cell components include an air electrode, an oxygen electrode, an electrolyte and interconnection materials. The cell walls form the passages for input air and for exhausting the oxygen which is transferred from a relatively dilute gaseous mixture to a higher concentration by applying a DC voltage across the electrodes so as to ionize the oxygen at the air electrode, whereupon the ionized oxygen travels through the electrolyte and is converted to oxygen gas at the oxygen electrode.

  20. Experimental study of dissolved oxygen transport by regular waves through a perforated breakwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zegao; Yu, Ning; Liang, Bingchen; Zeng, Jixiong; Xie, Shaohua

    2016-02-01

    The perforated breakwater is an environmentally friendly coastal structure, and dissolved oxygen concentration levels are an important index to denote water quality. In this paper, oxygen transport experiments with regular waves through a vertical perforated breakwater were conducted. The oxygen scavenger method was used to reduce the dissolved oxygen concentration of inner water body with the chemicals Na2SO3 and CoCl2. The dissolved oxygen concentration and wave parameters of 36 experimental scenarios were measured with different perforated arrangements and wave conditions. It was found that the oxygen transfer coefficient through wave surface, K1 a 1, is much lower than the oxygen transport coefficient through the perforated breakwater, K2 a 2. If the effect of K1 a 1 is not considered, the dissolved oxygen concentration computation for inner water body will not be greatly affected. Considering the effect of a permeable area ratio a, relative location parameter of perforations δ and wave period T, the aforementioned data of 30 experimental scenarios, the dimensional analysis and the least squares method were used to derive an equation of K2 a 2 (K2 a 2=0.0042 a 0.5 δ 0.2 T -1). It was validated with 6 other experimental scenarios data, which indicates an approximate agreement. Therefore, this equation can be used to compute the DO concentration caused by the water transport through perforated breakwater.

  1. Experimental Studies of Liquefaction and Densification of Liquid Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Jonathan Koert

    2010-01-01

    The propellant combination that offers optimum performance is very reactive with a low average molecular weight of the resulting combustion products. Propellant combinations such as oxygen and hydrogen meet the above criteria, however, the propellants in gaseous form require large propellant tanks due to the low density of gas. Thus, rocketry employs cryogenic refrigeration to provide a more dense propellant stored as a liquid. In addition to propellant liquefaction, cryogenic refrigeration can also conserve propellant and provide propellant subcooling and propellant densification. Previous studies analyzed vapor conditioning of a cryogenic propellant, with the vapor conditioning by either a heat exchanger position in the vapor or by using the vapor in a refrigeration cycle as the working fluid. This study analyzes the effects of refrigeration heat exchanger located in the liquid of the common propellant oxidizer, liquid oxygen. This study predicted and determined the mass condensation rate and heat transfer coefficient for liquid oxygen.

  2. Oxygen limitation is a pitfall during screening for industrial strains.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Hartmut F; Anderlei, Tibor; Büchs, Jochen; Binder, Michael

    2006-10-01

    Oxygen supply is a key parameter in aerobic fermentation processes like the industrial production of amino acids. Although the oxygen transfer rate (OTR; or the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient k(L)a) is routinely analyzed by engineers during stirred tank fermentations, it is often not taken into account by biologists conducting screening experiments in shake flasks. To show the importance of knowing how to avoid oxygen transfer limitations during primary screenings, Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 (wild-type strain) and DSM 12866 (lysine-producing strain) were cultivated in shake flasks with different culture liquid volumes and under different shaking conditions. With the Respiration Activity Monitoring System, the OTR was determined quasi-continuously. Optical density as well as concentrations of lysine and byproducts (lactate, acetate, succinate) were determined off-line and correlated with the OTR signal. From the results, design criteria for improved screening in shaken bioreactors that help to avoid selection of suboptimal strains during early process development steps can be derived. Finally, the suitability of DSM 12866 as a strain for industrial processes with a high space-time yield is discussed. PMID:16575561

  3. Diffusive Transfer of Oxygen From Seamount Basaltic Crust Into Overlying Sediments: an Example From the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, Equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasten, S.; Mewes, K.; Mogollón, J.; Picard, A.; Rühlemann, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Kuhn, T.; Ziebis, W.

    2015-12-01

    Within the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) located in the equatorial Pacific Ocean numerous seamounts, with diameters ranging from 3 to 30 km and varying heights above the surrounding seafloor of up to 2500 m, occur throughout the deep-sea plain. There is evidence that these may serve as conduits for low-temperature hydrothermal circulation of seawater through the oceanic crust. During RV SONNE cruise SO205 in April/May 2010 and BIONOD cruise with RV ĹATALANTE in spring 2012 we took piston and gravity cores for geochemical analyses, as well as for high-resolution pore-water oxygen and nutrient measurements. Specifically, we took cores along a transect at three sites, located 400, 700 and 1000 m away from the foot of a 240 m high seamount, called 'Teddy Bare'. At all 3 sites oxygen penetrates the entire sediment column of the organic carbon-poor sediment. More importantly, oxygen concentrations initially decrease with sediment depth but increase again at depths of 3 m and 7 m above the basaltic basement, suggesting an upward diffusion of oxygen from seawater circulating within the seamount crust into the overlying basal sediments. This is the first time this has been shown for the deep subsurface in the Pacific Ocean. Mirroring the oxygen concentrations nitrate concentrations accumulate with sediment depth but decrease towards the basement. Transport-reaction modeling revealed that (1) the diffusive flux of oxygen from the basaltic basement exceeds the oxygen consumption through organic matter oxidation and nitrification in the basal sediments and (2) the nutrient exchange between the sediment and the underlying basaltic crust occurs at orders-of-magnitude lower rates than between the sediment surface and the overlying bottom water. We furthermore show that the upward diffusion of oxygen from the basaltic basement affects the preservation of organic compounds within the oxic sediment column at all 3 sites. Our investigations indicate that an upward

  4. Quenching fundamentals: Heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, D.S.; Totten, G.E.; Webster, G.M.

    1996-12-31

    Quenching is essentially a heat transfer problem. It is necessary to quench parts fast enough that adequate mechanical and corrosion properties are achieved, but not so fast that detrimental distortion and residual stresses are formed. In addition, non-uniform heat transfer across the surface of a part will produce thermal gradients which will also create distortion or residual stresses. In this paper, the role of agitation will be discussed in terms of the heat transfer coefficient. A brief review of the published heat transfer literature will be discussed in terms of the fluid flow on heat transfer coefficient, with implications on quenching.

  5. Outgassing of oxygen from polycarbonate.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sung In; Monson, L; Extrand, C W

    2009-07-01

    A manometric permeation apparatus was used to study the "outgassing" or desorption of oxygen from polycarbonate (PC). A PC film was placed in the apparatus. Both sides were exposed to oxygen until the film was saturated. To simulate inert gas purging of a closed container or "microenvironment", oxygen was pumped from one side of the apparatus to reduce the concentration on that side to nearly zero. Oxygen concentrations on the freshly purged side rose quickly at first but then slowed. Eventually, a steady state was established and oxygen concentrations increased linearly with time. Mass-transport coefficients (permeation, diffusion, and solubility coefficients) were also estimated and then used to successfully predict the postpurge rise of the oxygen concentration. PMID:20355958

  6. Internal photopumping of Nd3+ (2H9/2, 4F5/2) states in yttrium aluminum garnet by excitation transfer from oxygen deficiency centers and Fe3+ continuum emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, J. D.; Spinka, T. M.; Senin, A. A.; Eden, J. G.

    2011-07-01

    Photoexcitation of Nd3+ (2H9/2, 4F5/2) states by the broad (˜70 nm FWHM), near-infrared continuum provided by Fe3+ has been observed at 300 K in bulk yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) crystals doped with trace concentrations (<50 ppm) of Fe, Cr, and Eu. Irradiation of YAG at 248 nm with a KrF laser, which excites the oxygen deficiency center (ODC) in YAG having peak absorption at ˜240 nm, culminates in ODC→Fe3+ excitation transfer and subsequent Fe3+ emission. This internal optical pumping mechanism for rare earth ions is unencumbered by the requirement for donor-acceptor proximity that constrains conventional Förster-Dexter excitation transfer in co-doped crystals.

  7. Acute use of oxygen therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pilcher, Janine; Beasley, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Summary A major change is needed in the entrenched culture of routinely administering high-concentration oxygen to acutely ill patients regardless of need. Oxygen is a drug that should be prescribed for specific indications. There should be a documented target range for oxygen saturation, and regular monitoring of the patient’s response. There are risks from unrelieved hypoxaemia due to insufficient oxygen therapy, and from provoked hyperoxaemia due to excessive oxygen therapy. Oxygen therapy should therefore be titrated so that the saturation is within a range that avoids these risks. If oxygen requirements are increasing, the clinician should review the patient and consider transfer to a higher level of care. If oxygen requirements are decreasing, consider reducing or discontinuing oxygen therapy. PMID:26648631

  8. Mixing and mass transfer considerations in highly viscous fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, M.A.; Flatt, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Highly viscous microbial fermentations pose difficult scale-up challenges for the industrial biochemical engineer. Incomplete bulk mixing and poor oxygen mass transfer often limit fermentor titers and productivities. Lower heat transfer coefficients coupled with higher rates of heat generation through viscous dissipation further confound operational difficulties. Practical approaches to alleviating these factors will be discussed using examples from viscoelastic gellan, welan, and xanthan gum fermentations. In addition, a summary of the effects of power input, aeration, media manipulation, and genetic modifications will be discussed.

  9. Diffusion coefficients of several aqueous alkanolamine solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Snijder, E.D.; Riele, M.J.M. te; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-07-01

    In absorption processes of acid gases (H[sub 2]S, CO[sub 2], COS) in alkanolamine solutions, diffusion coefficients are used for the calculation of the mass transfer rate. The Taylor dispersion technique was applied for the determination of diffusion coefficients of various systems. Experiments with the system KCl in water showed that the experimental setup provides accurate data. For the alkanolamines monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and di-2-propanolamine (DIPA), correlations for the diffusion coefficient as a function of temperature at different concentrations are given. A single relation for every amine has been derived which correlates the diffusion coefficients as a function of temperature and concentration. The temperature was varied between 298 and 348 K, and the concentration between 0 and 4000-5000 mol/m[sup 3]. Furthermore, a modified Stokes-Einstein relation is presented for the prediction of the diffusion coefficients in the alkanolamines in relation to the viscosity of the solvent and the diffusion coefficient at infinite dilution. The diffusion coefficients at low concentrations are compared with some available relations for the estimation of diffusion coefficients at infinite dilution, and it appears that the agreement is fairly good.

  10. Coefficients of Effective Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions, a validity Coefficient of Effective Length (CEL) can produce highly misleading results. A modified coefficent is suggested for use when empirical studies indicate that underlying assumptions have been violated. (Author/BW)

  11. Drag coefficients for spheres in free molecular flow in O at satellite velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boring, J. W.; Humphris, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The drag coefficients for the Echo 1 and Explorer 24 spherical surfaces in an O environment were experimentally determined over an energy range of 4 to 200 eV. The experiment was performed by generating a beam of atomic oxygen ions of the proper energy, neutralizing a portion of the beam, and then allowing only the neutral O particles to strike a very sensitive torsion balance. The momentum transferred to the surface was determined from the deflection of the torsion balance. At the lower energies, the more intense ion beam had to be used instead of the neutral beam. The drag coefficients are found to be slightly greater than 2 at energies corresponding to satellite velocities.

  12. Theoretical and observational determinations of the ionization coefficient of meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, William

    1997-07-01

    We examine the problem of the determination of the ionization coefficient beta from both the theoretical and observational points of view. In the past, theoretical evaluations of beta in terms of the relevant scattering cross-sections have used the Massey-Sida formula, which we show to give results which are plainly incorrect. We derive an integral equation for beta and compare the results of its application to copper and iron with laboratory simulations. Agreement for the variation of the ionization coefficient with velocity is good. The ionization coefficient has been determined observationally by Verniani & Hawkins from a comparison of radar and visual observations, employing the luminous efficiency tau also obtained observationally by Verniani. However, this determination of tau would appear to be invalidated by fragmentation. There is good evidence that the radiation of cometary meteors is dominated by that of iron in the visual range, and we have accordingly re-analysed the data of Verniani & Hawkins using the luminous efficiency of iron obtained in simulation experiments. However, it is not possible to choose an iron concentration which gives agreement between the determination of the ionization coefficient by this means and its determination from the theoretical equation in terms of either scattering coefficients or simulation methods. The observational ionization coefficients are much lower than predicted by the present theory and we provisionally explain this as a consequence of transfer of charge from the meteoric ion to a molecule of the air. It is now possible for the meteoric atom to be re-ionized, but it is also possible at sufficiently high initial line densities for significant dissociative recombination of the electrons and nitrogen or oxygen to take place. This recombination will not take place in meteor trains simulated in an ionization chamber. We thus conclude that the present theory is limited to faint radio meteors at lower velocities (v<~35

  13. The mechanism by which oxygen and cytochrome c increase the rate of electron transfer from cytochrome a to cytochrome a3 of cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Bickar, D; Turrens, J F; Lehninger, A L

    1986-11-01

    When cytochrome c oxidase is isolated from mitochondria, the purified enzyme requires both cytochrome c and O2 to achieve its maximum rate of internal electron transfer from cytochrome a to cytochrome a3. When reductants other than cytochrome c are used, the rate of internal electron transfer is very slow. In this paper we offer an explanation for the slow reduction of cytochrome a3 when reductants other than cytochrome c are used and for the apparent allosteric effects of cytochrome c and O2. Our model is based on the conventional understanding of cytochrome oxidase mechanism (i.e. electron transfer from cytochrome a/CuA to cytochrome a3/CuB), but assumes a relatively rapid two-electron transfer between cytochrome a/CuA and cytochrome a3/CuB and a thermodynamic equilibrium in the "resting" enzyme (the enzyme as isolated) which favors reduced cytochrome a and oxidized cytochrome a3. Using the kinetic constants that are known for this reaction, we find that the activating effects of O2 and cytochrome c on the rate of electron transfer from cytochrome a to cytochrome a3 conform to the predictions of the model and so provide no evidence of any allosteric effects or control of cytochrome c oxidase by O2 or cytochrome c. PMID:3021740

  14. Performance Testing of Molten Regolith Electrolysis with Transfer of Molten Material for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent; Sadoway, Donald; Tripathy, Prabhat; Standish, Evan; Sirk, Aislinn; Melendez, Orlando; Stefanescu, Doru

    2010-01-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated the production of oxygen by electrolysis of molten regolith simulants at temperatures near 1600 C. Using an inert anode and suitable cathode, direct electrolysis (no supporting electrolyte) of the molten silicate is carried out, resulting in the production of molten metallic products at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Initial direct measurements of current efficiency have confirmed that the process offer potential advantages of high oxygen production rates in a smaller footprint facility landed on the moon, with a minimum of consumables brought from Earth. We now report the results of a scale-up effort toward the goal of achieving production rates equivalent to 1 metric ton O2/year, a benchmark established for the support of a lunar base. We previously reported on the electrochemical behavior of the molten electrolyte as dependent on anode material, sweep rate and electrolyte composition in batches of 20-200g and at currents of less than 0.5 A. In this paper, we present the results of experiments performed at currents up to 10 Amperes) and in larger volumes of regolith simulant (500 g - 1 kg) for longer durations of electrolysis. The technical development of critical design components is described, including: inert anodes capable of passing continuous currents of several Amperes, container materials selection, direct gas analysis capability to determine the gas components co-evolving with oxygen. To allow a continuous process, a system has been designed and tested to enable the withdrawal of cathodically-reduced molten metals and spent molten oxide electrolyte. The performance of the withdrawal system is presented and critiqued. The design of the electrolytic cell and the configuration of the furnace were supported by modeling the thermal environment of the system in an effort to realize a balance between external heating and internal joule heating. We will discuss the impact these simulations and experimental findings have

  15. Catalytic transfer hydrogenation for stabilization of bio-oil oxygenates: reduction of p-cresol and furfural over bimetallic Ni-Cu catalysts using isopropanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transfer hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of model bio-oil compounds (p-cresol and furfural) and bio-oils derived from biomass via traditional pyrolysis and tail-gas reactive pyrolysis (TGRP) were conducted. Mild batch reaction conditions were employed, using isopropanol as a hydrogen donor over...

  16. Synergistic Effect of Dual Electron-Cocatalysts for Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity: rGO as Electron-Transfer Mediator and Fe(III) as Oxygen-Reduction Active Site

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Huogen; Tian, Jing; Chen, Feng; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xuefei

    2015-01-01

    For a high-performance cocatalyst-modified photocatalyst, an effective interfacial separation of photogenerated electron from its corresponding holes and its following reduction reaction at the active sites are highly required. However, it is difficult for a single-component cocatalyst to simultaneously realize the crucial functions. In this study, an effective interfacial transfer of photogenerated electrons and its following rapid oxygen-reduction can be easily realized in a dual electron-cocatalyst modified Fe(III)/rGO-TiO2 photocatalyst, where the rGO nanosheets function as an electron-transfer mediator for the effective transfer of photogenerated electrons from the TiO2 surface while the Fe(III) cocatalyst serves as an electron-reduction active site to promote the following interfacial oxygen reduction. In this case, the rGO nanosheets were firstly loaded on the TiO2 nanoparticle surface by a hydrothermal method and then the Fe(III) cocatalyst was further modified on the rGO nanosheets by an impregnation method to prepare the Fe(III)/rGO-TiO2 photocatalyst. It was found that the dual electron-cocatalyst modified Fe(III)/rGO-TiO2 photocatalyst showed an obviously higher photocatalytic performance than the naked TiO2 and single-cocatalyst modified photocatalysts (such as Fe(III)/TiO2 and rGO-TiO2) owing to the synergistic effect of rGO and Fe(III) bi-cocatalysts. The present work can provide some new insights for the smart design of high-efficiency photocatalytic materials. PMID:26272870

  17. Measuring Seebeck Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus and method with various features to minimize typical sources of errors is described. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement errors which may impact accurate measurement are identified and reduced. Applying the identified principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus and method employing a uniaxial, four-point geometry is described to operate from room temperature up to 1300K. These techniques for non-destructive Seebeck coefficient measurements are simple to operate, and are suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.

  18. Modeling the signal transfer of sea water δ18O to the δ18O of atmospheric oxygen using a diagnostic box model for the terrestrial and marine biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuenberger, Markus C.

    1997-11-01

    We make use of a simple diagnostic box model to determine the sensitivities of the influencing parameters for the isotopic signal transfer of seawater oxygen to atmospheric oxygen. We calculate the δ18O of atmospheric oxygen from prescribed oxygen fluxes of the living and dead biomes on land and in the ocean, respectively. The model is driven by an assumed (experiment 1) or measured (experiments 2 and 3) temporal seawater δ18O signal and a land biomass estimation. In experiment 1, we calculated the required changes of several model parameters in order to study fast variations of δ18O of atmospheric oxygen as seen in the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) ice at depths assigned to the Eemian time period. Our calculations support evidence of stratigraphic problems at these depths in the GRIP ice core. In experiment 2, we adjusted the model output, which was driven by the benthic seawater δ18O record from V19-30, to the measured Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 δ18O record of atmospheric oxygen for the last 110,000 years, by varying the model parameter. Single and multi-parameter matchings were performed. The results for single-parameter runs exceed the uncertainty ranges for most of the parameters, while multiparameter variations are well within these ranges. The model calculations are most sensitive to the land respiration factor. Our results support the findings of Van de Water et al. [1994] that the fractionations associated with biomes activities were most probably lower during cold periods, which could point to a combination of fractionations with different temperature dependencies. The model results indicate periods of higher marine biological activity during the ice age than today. Temporal variations of the model parameters show a double peak around 10000 and 8000 years ago, which could be associated with meltwater pulses, as shown in experiment 3. However, they are hardly the well-known Fairbanks [Fairbanks et al., 1992] pulses since these occur 3000 to

  19. Oxygen atom transfer from {mu}-Oxo-bis[1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octakis(trifluoromethyl)ph-thalocya ninato]diiron(III) : evidence for an Fe(IV)=O intermediate.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M. J.; Rathke, J. W.; Chemical Engineering

    1998-01-01

    The dimeric [(FPc)Fe]2({mu}-O) (1) (FPc is the dianion of 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octakis(trifluoromethyl)phthalocyanine) has been shown to transfer its -oxo atom quantitatively to trimethylphosphine and triphenylphosphine. In the case of triphenylphosphine a base such as 1-methylimidazole (MeIm) or pyridine (py) is needed to induce the oxygen atom transfer. The reaction of 1 with MeIm at -40 C and below gives [(MeIm)(FPc)Fe]2({mu}-O) (4), which disproportionates to give (MeIm)2(FPc)Fe (5) and (FPc)Fe=O (6) at higher temperatures. The oxo atom of 6 has been shown to transfer to triphenylphosphine. Similarly, 6 is generated by the disproportionation of 1 with py. It has also been generated by the oxidation of 1 with t-butyl hydroperoxide. [(FPc)Fe]2({mu}-O) catalyzes the oxidation of hydrocarbons by iodosylbenzene. With stilbenes, styrenes, cyclohexenes and butenes as substrates, both epoxidations and alkyl C-H bond oxidations have been observed. The epoxidation of cis-stilbene leads to a mixture of cis- and trans-stilbene oxides, indicating that epoxidation of cis-stilbene, and possibly other olefins as well, proceeds through a non-concerted mechanism.

  20. Energy Transfer in Rare Earth Ion Clusters and Fluorescence from Rare Earth Doped LANTHANUM(1.85)STRONTIUM(0.15)COPPER -OXYGEN(4) Superconductors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissue, Brian Max

    1988-12-01

    Laser spectroscopy of rare earth ions in solids was used to study mechanisms of non-resonant energy transfer within rare earth clusters, and to detect insulating, impurity phases in rare earth doped La_{1.85 }Sr_{0.15}CuO _4 superconductors. The mechanisms of phonon-assisted, non-resonant energy transfer were studied in well-defined dimer sites in Er^{3+ }:SrF_2 and Pr ^{3+}:CaF_2. Application of a magnetic field to Er^{3+} :SrF_2 greatly increased the energy transfer rate. The magnetic field dependence in Er^{3+}:SrF _2 indicates that the mechanism of non-resonant energy transfer is a two-phonon, resonant process (Orbach process). Application of a magnetic field to Pr ^{3+}:CaF_2 had no effect on the energy transfer rate because no significant Zeeman splittings occurred. The temperature dependence of the energy transfer rate in Pr^{3+ }:CaF_2 showed the mechanism to be a one-phonon-assisted process at low temperatures and predominantly an Orbach process above 10 K. In the second part of this thesis, laser spectroscopy of a Eu ^{3+} probe ion is developed to detect impurity phases in La_{1.85 }Sr_{0.15}CuO _4 superconductors. Two impurity phases were found in polycrystalline La_ {1.85}Sr_{0.15} CuO_4: unreacted La _2O_3 starting material, and a La-silicate phase, which formed from contamination during sintering. The spectroscopic technique was found to be more than 100 times more sensitive than powder x -ray diffraction to detect minor impurity phases. In preparing the superconductors, several studies were made on the effect of Pr^{3+}, Eu ^{3+}, Bi^{3+ }, and fluorine dopants on the superconducting properties of La_{1.85}Sr _{0.15}CuO_4 and La_2Cuo_4 . Pr^{3+}, Eu ^{3+}, Bi^ {3+}, and F_2 doping all decreased the superconductivity in La_ {1.85}Sr^{0.15} CuO_4. Treating semi-conducting La_2CuO_4 in F_2 gas converted it to a superconductor with an onset T_{rm c} of 30-35 K.

  1. Bounding the Bogoliubov coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

    2008-11-15

    While over the last century or more considerable effort has been put into the problem of finding approximate solutions for wave equations in general, and quantum mechanical problems in particular, it appears that as yet relatively little work seems to have been put into the complementary problem of establishing rigourous bounds on the exact solutions. We have in mind either bounds on parametric amplification and the related quantum phenomenon of particle production (as encoded in the Bogoliubov coefficients), or bounds on transmission and reflection coefficients. Modifying and streamlining an approach developed by one of the present authors [M. Visser, Phys. Rev. A 59 (1999) 427-438, (arXiv:quant-ph/9901030)], we investigate this question by developing a formal but exact solution for the appropriate second-order linear ODE in terms of a time-ordered exponential of 2x2 matrices, then relating the Bogoliubov coefficients to certain invariants of this matrix. By bounding the matrix in an appropriate manner, we can thereby bound the Bogoliubov coefficients.

  2. Gas transfer velocities for quantifying methane, oxygen and other gas fluxes through the air-water interface of wetlands with emergent vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindexter, C.; Variano, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Empirical models for the gas transfer velocity, k, in the ocean, lakes and rivers are fairly well established, but there are few data to predict k for wetlands. We have conducted experiments in a simulated emergent marsh in the laboratory to explore the relationship between k, wind shear and thermal convection. Now we identify the implications of these results for gas transfer in actual wetlands by (1) quantifying the range of wind conditions in emergent vegetation canopies and the range of thermal convection intensities in wetland water columns, and (2) describing the non-linear interaction of these two stirring forces over their relevant ranges in wetlands. We measured mean wind speeds and wind speed variance within the shearless region of a Schoenoplectus-Typha marsh canopy in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Northern California, USA). The mean wind speed within this region, , is significantly smaller than wind above the canopy. Based on our laboratory experiments, for calm or even average wind conditions in this emergent marsh k600 is only on the order 0.1 cm hr-1 (for neutrally or stably stratified water columns). We parameterize unstable thermal stratification and the resulting thermal convection using the heat flux through the air-water interface, q. We analyzed a water temperature record for the Schoenoplectus-Typha marsh to obtain a long-term heat flux record. We used these heat flux data along with short-term heat flux data from other wetlands in the literature to identify the range of the gas transfer velocity associated with thermal convection in wetlands. The typical range of heat fluxes through water columns shaded by closed emergent canopies (-200 W m-2 to +200 W m-2) yields k600 values of 0.5 - 2.5 cm hr-1 according to the model we developed in the laboratory. Thus for calm or average wind conditions, the gas transfer velocity associated with thermal convection is significantly larger than the gas transfer velocity associated with wind

  3. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 85-95% pure oxygen. The concentrator runs on electricity or a battery. A concentrator for home usually ... systems deliver 100% oxygen, and do not require electricity. A small canister can be filled from the ...

  4. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, William H.

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  5. Calculation of Thermal Conductivity Coefficients for Magnetized Neutron Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushikhina, M. V.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.

    2015-01-01

    The coefficients that determine the electron heat transfer and diffusion in the crust of neutron stars are calculated on the basis of a solution of the Boltzmann equation with allowance for degeneracy.

  6. Reactive Oxygen Species and Cellular Oxygen Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Timothy P; Pan, Yi; Simon, M. Celeste

    2008-01-01

    Many organisms activate adaptive transcriptional programs to help them cope with decreased oxygen levels, or hypoxia, in their environment. These responses are triggered by various oxygen sensing systems in bacteria, yeast and metazoans. In metazoans, the hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) mediate the adaptive transcriptional response to hypoxia by upregulating genes involved in maintaining bioenergetic homeostasis. The HIFs in turn are regulated by HIF-specific prolyl hydroxlase activity, which is sensitive to cellular oxygen levels and other factors such as tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Establishing a role for ROS in cellular oxygen sensing has been challenging since ROS are intrinsically unstable and difficult to measure. However, recent advances in fluorescence energy transfer resonance (FRET)-based methods for measuring ROS are alleviating some of the previous difficulties associated with dyes and luminescent chemicals. In addition, new genetic models have demonstrated that functional mitochondrial electron transport and associated ROS production during hypoxia are required for HIF stabilization in mammalian cells. Current efforts are directed at how ROS mediate prolyl hydroxylase activity and hypoxic HIF stabilization. Progress in understanding this process has been enhanced by the development of the FRET-based ROS probe, an vivo prolyl hydroxylase reporter and various genetic models harboring mutations in components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. PMID:17893032

  7. Electron transfer reactions on Cs/MoS2(0002) with chlorine, oxygen, and water: High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ken T.; Hess, James S.; Klier, Kamil

    1999-07-01

    Supra-valence electron transfer from surface Cs-doped MoS2(0002) to electron acceptor adsorbates was investigated by high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HRXPS) in the valence band region and above the valence band maximum (VBM). Deposition of a sub-monolayer amount of Cs onto the basal plane of MoS2 introduced a new electron density of states at ca. 1.25 eV above VBM. Angle-resolved HRXPS and theoretical analysis located this electron density in the MoS2 layer. Upon the reaction with Cl2, this Cs-induced photoelectron almost completely disappeared and the Cs 3d and Cl 2p core levels indicated the formation of a surface Cs-chloride species. The Cs-covered MoS2(0002) surface also reacted with O2 to form surface peroxides and superoxides, as evidenced by two distinct binding energies of the O 1s core level peaks. However, the reaction with water proved to be more difficult: Exposure of the Cs-covered MoS2(0002) surface to H2O at 10-5 Torr did not result in electron transfer reaction, but the Cs/MoS2(0002) surface exposed to H2O at 1 Torr showed a substantial decrease in the density of states above VBM as well as formation of a surface-hydroxide, indicated by the O 1s core level position. Theoretical calculations using a full-potential linearized augmented plane wave density functional theory (FLAPW-DFT) confirm the conclusion based on experimental intensity anisotropy of the new peak: the Cs 6s electron transfers into the MoS2 substrate, forming the Cs/MoS2 electron donor-acceptor complex with Csδ+. In addition, all phenomena observed during the adsorption of electron donor-acceptor molecules are quantitatively accounted by the theory.

  8. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  9. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS Painlevé Integrability of Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations with both Space- and Time-Dependent Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyoung, Ho Han; H. J., Shin

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the Painlevé integrability of nonautonomous nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations with both space- and time-dependent dispersion, nonlinearity, and external potentials. The Painlevé analysis is carried out without using the Kruskal's simplification, which results in more generalized form of inhomogeneous equations. The obtained equations are shown to be reducible to the standard NLS equation by using a point transformation. We also construct the corresponding Lax pair and carry out its Kundu-type reduction to the standard Lax pair. Special cases of equations from choosing limited form of coefficients coincide with the equations from the previous Painlevé analyses and/or become unknown new equations.

  10. Bubble rise velocities and drag coefficients in non-Newtonian polysaccharide solutions.

    PubMed

    Margaritis, A; te Bokkel, D W; Karamanev, D G

    1999-08-01

    Microbially produced polysaccharides have properties which are extremely useful in different applications. Polysaccharide producing fermentations start with liquid broths having Newtonian rheology and end as highly viscous non-Newtonian solutions. Since aerobic microorganisms are used to produce these polysaccharides, it is of great importance to know the mass transfer rate of oxygen from a rising air bubble to the liquid phase, where the microorganisms need the oxygen to grow. One of the most important parameters determining the oxygen transfer rate is the terminal rise velocity of air bubble. The dynamics of the rise of air bubbles in the aqueous solutions of different, mostly microbially produced polysaccharides was studied in this work. Solutions with a wide variety of polysaccharide concentrations and rheological properties were studied. The bubble sizes varied between 0.01 mm3 and 10 cm3. The terminal rise velocities as a function of air bubble volume were studied for 21 different polysaccharide solutions with different rheological properties. It was found that the terminal velocities reached a plateau at higher bubble volumes, and the value of the plateau was nearly constant, between 23 and 27 cm/s, for all solutions studied. The data were analyzed to produce the functional relationship between the drag coefficient and Reynolds number (drag curves). It was found out that all the experimental data obtained from 21 polysaccharide solutions (431 experimental points), can be represented by a new single drag curve. At low values of Reynolds numbers, below 1.0, this curve could be described by the modofoed Hadamard-Rybczynski model, while at Re > 60 the drag coefficient was a constant, equal to 0.95. The latter finding is similar to that observed for bubble rise in Newtonian liquids which was explained on the basis of the "solid bubble" approach. PMID:10397862

  11. Oxidized/reduced graphene nanoribbons facilitate charge transfer to the Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64- redox couple and towards oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, Fábio; Maia, Gilberto

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the synthesis of graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) from multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and the behavior of thin films of MWCNTs, GONRs, and GNRs on a glassy carbon surface in the presence of two redox probes (Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64- and O2) employing cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and hydrodynamic voltammetry (HV) as a simple procedure for characterizing these films. The feasibility of using these electrochemical techniques for this purpose opens up the possibility of applying them to biosensors and electrocatalysts using surface-supported MWCNT, GONR, and GNR materials. GNR1 resembles an internodal segment of bamboo cut lengthwise, with a shallow troughing at its center, while GNR2 resembles stacked ribbons, each ~16 nm wide, with points of structural damage and points of four-ribbon connection measuring 60 nm or wider, sufficiently catalytic for the oxygen reduction reaction to occur, unlike the other modified electrodes investigated in acidic, 0.1 M KH2PO4 (pH 7.0), and 0.1 M KOH solutions (HV results). Transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis were employed to characterize the MWCNTs, GONRs, and GNRs.This study investigated the synthesis of graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) from multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and the behavior of thin films of MWCNTs, GONRs, and GNRs on a glassy carbon surface in the presence of two redox probes (Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64- and O2) employing cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and hydrodynamic voltammetry (HV) as a simple procedure for characterizing these films. The feasibility of using these electrochemical techniques for this purpose opens up the possibility of applying them to biosensors and electrocatalysts using surface-supported MWCNT, GONR, and GNR materials. GNR1 resembles an internodal segment of bamboo cut lengthwise, with a shallow troughing at its

  12. Modelling mass transfer and agitator performance in multiturbine fermentors.

    PubMed

    Bader, F G

    1987-07-01

    A methodology for mathematically analyzing agitator performance and mass transfer in large multiturbine production fermentors is presented. The application of this approach provides a method for determining axial dissolved oxygen profiles under conditions of known mass transfer rates as a function of agitation-aeration characteristics. A stagewise approach is used which divides the fermentor into a series of mixing cells. This allows for each turbine and mixing cell to be individually optimized. The model also permits the determination of the mass transfer coefficient for each turbine based upon limited dissolved oxygen data. The primary limitation of this approach rests in the limited data and correlations available for multiturbine systems. The structure of the modelling approach can serve as a basis for testing single turbine correlations and adapting them to multiturbine systems. The step-by-step details of the mathematical analysis are presented and interpreted. A series of computer simulations demonstrate the effect of typical fermentor operating variables on the axial dissolved oxygen profile. Further simulations demonstrate the effect of modifying agitator blade numbers on the dissolved oxygen profile and agitator power requirement. PMID:18576581

  13. 41 CFR 50-204.67 - Oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Oxygen. 50-204.67 Section..., Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.67 Oxygen. The in-plant transfer, handling, storage, and utilization of oxygen as a liquid or a compressed gas shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas...

  14. 41 CFR 50-204.67 - Oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Oxygen. 50-204.67 Section..., Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.67 Oxygen. The in-plant transfer, handling, storage, and utilization of oxygen as a liquid or a compressed gas shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas...

  15. 41 CFR 50-204.67 - Oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen. 50-204.67..., Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.67 Oxygen. The in-plant transfer, handling, storage, and utilization of oxygen as a liquid or a compressed gas shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas...

  16. 41 CFR 50-204.67 - Oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen. 50-204.67..., Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.67 Oxygen. The in-plant transfer, handling, storage, and utilization of oxygen as a liquid or a compressed gas shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas...

  17. 41 CFR 50-204.67 - Oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Oxygen. 50-204.67 Section..., Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.67 Oxygen. The in-plant transfer, handling, storage, and utilization of oxygen as a liquid or a compressed gas shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas...

  18. Catalytic recombination of nitrogen and oxygen on iron-cobalt-chromia spinel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    The energy-transfer catalytic recombination coefficient for nitrogen and oxygen recombination on iron-cobalt-chromia spinel is inferred from stagnation-point heat flux measurements in dissociated arc-jet flow. This material was coated on several Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection tiles. The resulting coefficients are correlated with an Arrhenius model for convenience, and these expressions may be used to account for catalytic recombination in predictions of the heat flux on the spinel-coated tiles flown on several Space Shuttle Orbiter flights. The results are compared with those inferred by Rakich, Stewart, and Lanfranco from an Orbiter flight and arc-jet experiments. Good agreement is obtained for oxygen recombination, but agreement for nitrogen is poor.

  19. Oxygen gradients in the microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Pittman, R N

    2011-07-01

    Early in the last century August Krogh embarked on a series of seminal studies to understand the connection between tissue metabolism and mechanisms by which the cardiovascular system supplied oxygen to meet those needs. Krogh recognized that oxygen was supplied from blood to the tissues by passive diffusion and that the most likely site for oxygen exchange was the capillary network. Studies of tissue oxygen consumption and diffusion coefficient, coupled with anatomical studies of capillarity in various tissues, led him to formulate a model of oxygen diffusion from a single capillary. Fifty years after the publication of this work, new methods were developed which allowed the direct measurement of oxygen in and around microvessels. These direct measurements have confirmed the predictions by Krogh and have led to extensions of his ideas resulting in our current understanding of oxygenation within the microcirculation. Developments during the last 40 years are reviewed, including studies of oxygen gradients in arterioles, capillaries, venules, microvessel wall and surrounding tissue. These measurements were made possible by the development and use of new methods to investigate oxygen in the microcirculation, so mention is made of oxygen microelectrodes, microspectrophotometry of haemoglobin and phosphorescence quenching microscopy. Our understanding of oxygen transport from the perspective of the microcirculation has gone from a consideration of oxygen gradients in capillaries and tissue to the realization that oxygen has the ability to diffuse from any microvessel to another location under the conditions that there exists a large enough PO(2) gradient and that the permeability for oxygen along the intervening pathway is sufficient. PMID:21281453

  20. Appreciating Oxygen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Hilton M.

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic flora and microfauna utilize light from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. While these carbohydrates and their derivative hydrocarbons are generally considered to be fuels, it is the thermodynamically energetic oxygen molecule that traps, stores, and provides almost all of the energy that…

  1. Oxygen safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Watch out for splattering grease. It can catch fire. Keep children with oxygen away from the stove top and oven. Cooking ... under the bed. Keep liquids that may catch fire away from your oxygen. This includes cleaning products that contain oil, grease, ...

  2. Averaging Internal Consistency Reliability Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.; Charter, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Seven approaches to averaging reliability coefficients are presented. Each approach starts with a unique definition of the concept of "average," and no approach is more correct than the others. Six of the approaches are applicable to internal consistency coefficients. The seventh approach is specific to alternate-forms coefficients. Although the…

  3. Oxygen therapy and intraocular oxygenation.

    PubMed Central

    Jampol, L M

    1987-01-01

    When delivered to the corneal surface of rabbits or monkeys, 100% oxygen can significantly increase the pO2 in the aqueous humor. Under hyperbaric conditions (two atmospheres), an observed rise in the aqueous pO2 in rabbits breathing room air can be increased further by exposing the rabbit cornea to 100% oxygen. The high oxygen levels under hyperbaric conditions are mediated by intravascular and transcorneal delivery of oxygen. The increase in the pO2 levels in the aqueous can prevent sickling of intracameral human erythrocytes containing sickle hemoglobin. Thus, oxygen therapy transcorneally or systemically could potentially be used to treat a sickle cell hyphema. The exposure of rabbit eyes to 100% oxygen at the corneal surface is followed by autoregulation (constriction) of the iris vasculature. We could demonstrate no constriction in the eyes of two normal human volunteers or of four patients with chronic stable rubeosis iridis. Preretinal vitreous pO2 levels can be significantly raised by exposing monkeys to hyperbaric 100% oxygen. This procedure may be of value in treating acute, reversible ischemic inner retinal diseases. Transcorneal or vascular delivery of oxygen to the eye under normobaric or hyperbaric conditions may be effective in treating ischemic diseases of the anterior segment, such as anterior segment necrosis or rubeosis iridis, or ischemic inner retinal diseases. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 5 C FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 6 PMID:3447339

  4. New method to determine the mass transfer resistance of sterile closures for shaken bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Anderlei, Tibor; Mrotzek, Christian; Bartsch, Stefan; Amoabediny, Ghassem; Peter, Cyril P; Büchs, Jochen

    2007-12-01

    In this paper a novel and easily applied method to measure the mass transfer resistance of the sterile closures (e.g. cotton plug) of shaken bioreactors is introduced. This method requires no investment in special equipment (e.g. an oxygen sensor) and can be performed with the materials usually available in typical laboratories. The method is based on the model of Henzler et al. (1986), which mechanistically describes mass transfer through the sterile closure of a shaken bioreactor based on diffusion coupled with Stefan convection. The concentration dependency of the multi-component diffusion coefficients is taken into account. The water loss from two equivalent shaken bioreactors equipped with sterile closures during several days of shaking is measured. One flask contains distilled water, the other a saturated salt solution. From the water evaporation rate in each of the two flasks, the new model presented calculates the relative humidity in the environment, the average diffusion coefficient of oxygen in the sterile closure (D(O2)), and the diffusion coefficient of carbon dioxide (D(CO2)) . The diffusion coefficient of carbon dioxide (D(CO2)) only depends on the density and material properties of the sterile closure and not on the gas concentrations and is, therefore, an ideal parameter for the characterization of the mass transfer resistance. This new method is validated experimentally by comparing the diffusion coefficient of oxygen (D(O2)) to a measurement by the classic dynamic method; and by comparing the calculated relative humidity in the environment to a humidity sensor measurement. PMID:17497734

  5. Measurements and Analysis of Oxygen Bubble Distributions in LiCl-KCl Molten Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan W. Bezzant; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael F. Simpson

    2013-03-01

    Transparent system experimental studies have been performed to provide measurement and analysis of oxygen bubble distributions and mass transfer coefficients at different sparging rates ranging from 0.05 to 0.20 L/min in LiCl-KCl molten salt at 500 degrees C using a high-speed digital camera and an oxygen sensor. The results reveal that bubble sizes and rise velocities increased with an increase in oxygen sparging rate. The bubbles observed were ellipsoidal in shape, and an equivalent diameter based on the ellipsoid volume was calculated. The average equivalent bubble diameters at 500 degrees C and these oxygen sparging rates range from 2.63 to 4.07 mm. Results show that the bubble equivalent diameters at each respective sparging rate are normally distributed. A Fanning friction factor correlation was produced to predict a bubble’s rise velocity based on its equivalent diameter. The oxygen mass transfer coefficients for four sparging rates were calculated using the oxygenation model. These calculated values were within the order of magnitude of 10-2 cm/sec and followed a decreasing trend corresponding to an increasing bubble size and sparging rate. The diffusivities were calculated based on two different types of mechanisms, one based on physics of the bubbles and the other on systematic properties. The results reveal that diffusivity values calculated from bubble physics are 1.65 to 8.40 x 10-5 cm2/sec, which are within the range suggested by literature for gases in liquids of a similar viscosity.

  6. Drag Coefficient of Hexadecane Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, Yoshinobu; Hishida, Makoto; Kajimoto, Sadaaki; Tanaka, Gaku

    This paper deals with the drag coefficient of solidified hexadecane particles and their free rising velocity in liquid. The drag coefficient was experimentally investigated in Reynolds number range of about 40-300. The present experimental results are summarized in the following; (1) the drag coefficient of solidified hexadecane particles formed in liquid coolant by direct contact cooling is higher than that of a smooth surface sphere, this high drag coefficient seems to be attributed to the non-smooth surface of the solidified hexadecane particles, (2) experimental correlation for the drag coefficient of the solidified hexadecane particles was proposed, (3 ) the measured rising velocity of the solidified hexadecane particle agrees well with the calculated one, (4) the drag coefficients of hexadecane particles that were made by pouring hexadecane liquid into a solid hollow sphere agreed well with the drag coefficient of smooth surface sphere.

  7. Wastewater treatment with zero dissolved oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Hirl, P.J.

    1998-07-01

    Many wastewater treatment plants operate their biological reactors inefficiently because the aeration is not adjusted so that the oxygen supply rate equals the microbial oxygen demand in real times. Tapered aeration systems vary aeration based on the oxygen demand profile but these systems are static. Dynamic oxygen control systems have been successful but do not operate at low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The purpose of the research described is to develop a control system and reactor operating strategies to dynamically change the aeration rate to match the oxygen uptake rate while maintaining the dissolve oxygen concentration less than 0.5 mg/L. Though, low dissolved oxygen operation can reduce the rate of carbon degradation and/or promote filamentous bulking, it also maximizes the oxygen transfer rate and can promote simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. Development and testing of a control system and operating strategies at the bench scale is in progress.

  8. Intraphagosomal oxygen in stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    James, P E; Grinberg, O Y; Michaels, G; Swartz, H M

    1995-05-01

    A new electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based method was developed to obtain selective information on pO2 in a specific intracellular compartment (phagosomes). This method did not require the use of a broadening agent thereby eliminating one of the potential sources of experimental error with EPR oximetry. An oxygen-sensitive probe (4-(Trimethylammonium) 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-d17-1-oxyl iodide (d-Cat1)) which has a net positive charge, was incorporated selectively into the phagosomes of macrophages stimulated with zymosan. Extracellular oxygen was measured by addition of a neutral nitroxide (4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-d16-1-oxyl (15N PDT)) to this same sample. Measurements based on EPR linewidths showed the average intraphagosomal oxygen concentration to be 11.2 +/- 3.4 microM lower than that measured from the extracellular compartment when the sample was perfused with air, and this was increased on stimulation of mitochondrial consumption or by increasing the oxygen concentration in the extracellular compartment. These experiments provide what we believe to be the first reported measurements of the oxygen concentration in a specific intracellular location (intraphagosomal) and its comparison with the oxygen concentration in the extracellular space. The observed gradient cannot be explained in terms of known coefficients of diffusion, and these results are consistent with previous reports that a gradient in oxygen concentration can occur between the average intracellular and extracellular concentration of oxygen. PMID:7706368

  9. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojanov, Borislav; Petrova, Guergana

    2009-09-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives.

  10. Coefficient Alpha: A Reliability Coefficient for the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.

    2011-01-01

    Coefficient alpha is almost universally applied to assess reliability of scales in psychology. We argue that researchers should consider alternatives to coefficient alpha. Our preference is for structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of reliability because they are informative and allow for an empirical evaluation of the assumptions…

  11. Alumina Solubility and Diffusion Coefficient of the Dissolved Alumina Species in Low-Temperature Fluoride Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazer, E. J.; Thonstad, J.

    2010-06-01

    The solubility of alumina was measured by rotating an alumina cylinder (~500 rpm) in a high-purity melt for ~3 to 6 hours, crushing and sampling the frozen melt, and determining the oxygen content in a Leco analyzer. The alumina solubilities determined were as follows: (1) 3.2 ± 0.3 wt pct in NaF-AlF3 eutectic at 1023 K (750 °C); (2) 3.0 ± 0.3 wt pct in NaF-AlF3-CaF2 (5 wt pct) at 1023 K (750 °C); and (3) 5.2 ± 0.5 wt pct in a KF-AlF3 eutectic at 1003 K (730 °C). The alumina solubility in the KF-AlF3 eutectic was 2 wt pct more than in the sodium analogue, offering the possibility of operating a low-temperature aluminum smelting cell without the need for an alumina slurry. The diffusion coefficient of the dissolved alumina species was determined in the NaF-AlF3 eutectic at 1023 K (750 °C) using the rotating disc method and applying the Levich equation. Through a limited range of rotation rates, the system seemed to be mass-transfer controlled, and the diffusion coefficient was estimated to be in the range 1.8 to 2.2 × 10-6 cm2 s-1. This value is about five times lower than the values encountered at traditional aluminum smelting temperatures (~1233 K (960 °C)) and would result in relatively low mass transfer coefficients.

  12. Hyperthermal atomic oxygen generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, Govind S.; Wu, Dongchuan

    1990-01-01

    Characterization of the transport properties of oxygen through silver was continued. Specifically, experiments measuring the transport through Ag(111), Ag(110), Ag(100) single crystals and through Ag0.05 Zr alloy were completed. In addition, experiments using glow discharge excitation of oxygen to assist in the transport were completed. It was found that the permeability through the different orientations of single crystal Ag was the same, but significant differences existed in the diffusivity. The experimental ratio of diffusivities, however, was in reasonable agreement with theoretical estimates. Since the solubilities of orientations must be the same, this suggests some problems with the assumption K = DS. The glow discharge experiments show that there is a substantial increase in transport (factor of six) when the upstream pressure is dissociated to some fraction of atoms (which have a much higher sticking coefficient). These results indicate that there is a significant surface limitation because of dissociative adsorption of the molecules. Experiments with the Ag0.05 Zr alloy and its high-grain boundary and defect density show a permeability of greater than a factor of two over ordinary polycrystalline Ag, but it is unclear as to whether this is because of enhanced transport through these defects or whether the Zr and defects on the surface increased the sticking coefficient and therefore the transport.

  13. Natural oxygenation of Champagne wine during ageing on lees: A metabolomics picture of hormesis.

    PubMed

    Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Witting, Michael; Moritz, Franco; Gil, Ryan B; Goffette, Delphine; Valade, Michel; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Gougeon, Régis D

    2016-07-15

    The oxygenation of Champagne wine after 4 and 6 years of aging on lees in bottle was investigated by FTICR-MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Three levels of permeability were considered for the stoppers, ranging from 0.2 to 1.8 mg/L/year of oxygen transfer rate. Our results confirmed a good repeatability of ultra-high resolution FTICR-MS, both in terms of m/z and coefficient of variation of peak intensities among biological replicates. Vintages appeared to be the most discriminated features, and metabolite annotations suggested that the oldest wines (2006) were characterized by a higher sensitivity towards oxygenation. Within each vintage, the oxygenation mechanisms appeared to be different for low and high ingresses of oxygen, in agreement with the hormesis character of wine oxygenation. In the particular case of single variety wines and for a given level of stopper permeability, our results also showed that variety discrimination could be easily achieved among wines. PMID:26948607

  14. Gas-liquid mass transfer in filamentous slurries in airlift bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chisti, M.Y.; Moo-Young, M. )

    1988-01-01

    Biotechnology production processes are often critically dependent on oxygen transfer in gas-liquid-solid multiphase systems. Some of these biofluid slurries are composed of fibrous or filamentous, mycelial, solids suspended in a water-like medium. Examples are the broths of Aspergilli, Penicillia, Neurospora and Streptomyces, all of which are of commercial importance. This paper reports of the gas-liquid mass transfer behaviour of aqueous slurries of cellulose fibre solids (1-3 wt./vol. % solids in 0.15 kmol m/sup -3/ NaCl) which simulate the filamentous fermentation broths of interest. Fundamental investigations into the relationship between the mass transfer coefficient (k/sub L/) and bubble diameter (d/sub B/) are undertaken. The observations can be usefully employed for scale-up of bioreactors for gas-liquid mass transfer as demonstrated in the paper.

  15. Systemic oxygen delivery by peritoneal perfusion of oxygen microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Feshitan, Jameel A; Legband, Nathan D; Borden, Mark A; Terry, Benjamin S

    2014-03-01

    Severe hypoxemia refractory to pulmonary mechanical ventilation remains life-threatening in critically ill patients. Peritoneal ventilation has long been desired for extrapulmonary oxygenation owing to easy access of the peritoneal cavity for catheterization and the relative safety compared to an extracorporeal circuit. Unfortunately, prior attempts involving direct oxygen ventilation or aqueous perfusates of fluorocarbons or hemoglobin carriers have failed, leading many researchers to abandon the method. We attribute these prior failures to limited mass transfer of oxygen to the peritoneum and have designed an oxygen formulation that overcomes this limitation. Using phospholipid-coated oxygen microbubbles (OMBs), we demonstrate 100% survival for rats experiencing acute lung trauma to at least 2 h. In contrast, all untreated rats and rats treated with peritoneal oxygenated saline died within 30 min. For rats treated with OMBs, hemoglobin saturation and heart rate were at normal levels over the 2-h timeframe. Peritoneal oxygenation with OMBs was therefore shown to be safe and effective, and the method requires less equipment and technical expertise than initiating and maintaining an extracorporeal circuit. Further translation of peritoneal oxygenation with OMBs may provide therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome arising from trauma, sepsis, pneumonia, aspiration, burns and other pulmonary diseases. PMID:24439406

  16. Multicomponent mass transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.; Krishna, R.

    1993-01-01

    This is an important book on multicomponent mass transfer, meant for readers already acquainted with the theory of mass transfer and the fundamentals of transport phenomena. Part 1, entitled Molecular Diffusion, contains the following chapters: Preliminary Concepts; The Maxwell-Stefan Relations; Fick's Law; Estimation of Diffusion Coefficients; Solution of multicomponent Diffusion Problems: The Linearized Theory; and Solution of Multicomponent Diffusion Problems: Effective Diffusivity Methods. Part 2, entitled Interphase Transfer, contains the following chapters: Mass-Transfer Coefficients; Film Theory; Unsteady-State Mass-Transfer Models; Mass Transfer in Turbulent Flow; and Simultaneous Mass and Energy Transfer. Part 3, entitled Design, contains the following chapters: Multicomponent Distillation: Mass-Transfer Models; Multicomponent Distillation: Efficiency Models; Multicomponent Distillation: A Nonequilibrium Stage Model; and Condensation of Vapor Mixtures. Appendices are provided on matrix algebra, equation-solving and estimation of a thermodynamic derivative matrix. A computer diskette is provided with the book; the examples in Chapters 1--13 are solvable using this diskette and the commercial package Mathcad which the user must obtain. A separate software package, Chemsep, is needed for some of the exercises in Chapter 14.

  17. Improving microalgal growth with reduced diameters of aeration bubbles and enhanced mass transfer of solution in an oscillating flow field.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zongbo; Cheng, Jun; Lin, Richen; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-07-01

    A novel oscillating gas aerator combined with an oscillating baffle was proposed to generate smaller aeration bubbles and enhance solution mass transfer, which can improve microalgal growth in a raceway pond. A high-speed photography system (HSP) was used to measure bubble diameter and generation time, and online precise dissolved oxygen probes and pH probes were used to measure mass-transfer coefficient and mixing time. Bubble diameter and generation time decreased with decreased aeration gas rate, decreased orifice diameter, and increased water velocity in the oscillating gas aerator. The optimized oscillating gas aerator decreased bubble diameter and generation time by 25% and 58%, respectively, compared with a horizontal tubular gas aerator. Using an oscillating gas aerator and an oscillating baffle in a raceway pond increased the solution mass-transfer coefficient by 15% and decreased mixing time by 32%; consequently, microalgal biomass yield increased by 19%. PMID:27035474

  18. RADIONUCLIDE RISK COEFFICIENT UNCERTAINTY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has published excess cancer risk coefficients for the US population in Federal Guidance Report 13 (FGR 13). FGR 13 gives separate risk coefficients for food ingestion, water ingestion, inhalation, and external exposure for each of over 800 radionuclides. Some information on...

  19. Standardized Discriminant Coefficients: A Rejoinder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Ralph O.; Cozad, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Although comments of D.J. Nordlund and R. Nagel are welcomed, their arguments are not sufficient to accept the recommendation of using total variance estimates to standardize canonical discriminant function coefficients. If standardized coefficients are used to help interpret a discriminant analysis, pooled within-group variance estimates should…

  20. Measurement of the Convective Heat-Transfer Coefficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Rosaria; Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Fiordilino, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    We propose an experiment for investigating how objects cool down toward the thermal equilibrium with their surroundings. We describe the time dependence of the temperature difference of the cooling objects and the environment with an exponential decay function. By measuring the thermal constant t, we determine the convective heat-transfer…